A TREATISE OF THE Institution, Right Administration, and Receiving of the SACRAMENT OF THE Lords-Supper.

Delivered in XX. SERMONS at St Laurence-Jury, London.

By the late Reverend and Learned Minister of the Gospel Mr Richard Vines sometime Master of Pembroke-Hall in Cambridge.

LONDON, Printed by A. M. for Thomas Ʋnderhill at the Anchor and Bible in Pauls Church-yard, near the little North-door, 1657.

Upon the Sight of Mr VINES His Posthumous TREATISE OF THE SACRAMENT, October 18. 1656.

WHile thou grew'st here, thy fruit made glad
The hearts that sin and death made sad:
Lest we should surset of thy fruit,
Thy life retired to the Root,
Desiring with us first to keep,
A Passeover before thy sleep;
Weary of Earth, thou took'st thine ease,
Passing into the Land of Peace:
The threatned evil we fore-see,
But hope to hide our selves with thee.
Though thou art gone, while we must fight,
Wee'le call it Victory, not Flight.
When God had taken up this VINE,
We thought to taste no more its Wine,
Till in the Land of Salem;s King,
We drink it new, even from the Spring:
But unexpectedly we finde,
Some Clufters which are left behinde:
This Mantle from thy Chariot fell;
We know it by the pleasant smell:
Who know's but from this little seed,
Some more such fruitfull Vines may breed?
The Tree of Death beau's precious fruit,
Though in the Earth it have no root.
Dear Brother, thou art gone before,
And I a wretch wait at the doore:
Sin doth not only keep me thence,
But makes me loth to go from hence:
When Christ hath heal'd me of this sin,
And made me fit; hee'le let me in:
Till then, may I but in a Glass
See what you see with open face;
Sure it will raise my heavy Soul,
And these distrustfull fears controll!
And make me willing to be gone,
As knowing whither, and to Whom!
If Time be Nothing, as some say,
You that were with us yesterday,
Are with us still; or we with you;
Which is the better of the two.
The Soul imbodied in those lines,
Doth make us say, that, This is VINES:
And if our hearts with you could be;
Our Lord would say, that there are we.
But as according to desert,
The Heavens have got thy better part;
And left us but some of the Wine,
Whil'st they have taken up the Vine:
So we look up, and wait, and pray,
And yet still feel we live in Clay.
Here we are keeping sin's account,
While some small sparks do upward mount,
Crying [How long, Holy and True!]
Till we are taken up to you.
Thus also we must follow Love,
To finde our HEAD, and LIFE above.
He that is made by the New-Birth,
A BURGESS of the Church on Earth,
And then by Faith can rise so high,
In Divine LOVE to Live and Die,
Shall be translated to your soil,
Remov'd from sin, and fear, and toil;
And from this HoUse of Worms and Moles,
Unto that Element of Souls.
Where every Branch becomes a Vine;
And where these Clods like Stars will shine:
God is not there known by the Book:
You need not there the Pruning Hook:
There you have Wine without the Press;
And God his Praise without Distress.
There we shall finde our Eyes and Sight,
When we come to our Head and Light.
The Kernel is where you now dwell,
And we here strive about the Shell:
You have the Reconciling Light,
Who are past Faith, and live by sight:
No wonder then if you are One,
When Peace from Earth is almost gone:
We crowd about a little spark,
Learnedly striving in the Dark;
Never so bold as when most Blinde;
Run fastest when the Truth's behinde.
No Heresies with you are sown:
There's not a Truth but all will own:
A mixture we get here by rote;
And Errour keep's the major Vote.
There Pride and Faction cannot enter.
There's no Division in the Center.
The Saints there play not Satans part;
They Use not any Carnal Art,
Their Righteous Brethren to defame;
And by untruths to blot their Name.
There you are Comely, and not Black:
Each One hath All, yet None do lack.
What sin or smart can you befall,
Where SELF's put off, and God is All?
Look up and see, now VINES is gone;
Are not the Stars the more by One?
No: but One fewer, in our sight;
For we have forfeited his Light.
And such a One, as all do miss,
Save those whose pleasure darkness is.
And who can Number Stars above;
When Saints so fast to Heav'n remove?
If but three such in all our times,
Were taken hence by fatal sleep;
Three Nations should consent to weep.
And if an Age this loss repair;
The Church will think it very fair.
They shine in Glory now to God,
Who shin'd and burn'd here to a Clod.
May such a sinfull Worm as I,
Aspire and ascend so high?
That Kingdom's mine in Hope and Right,
Which you possess by Love and sight.
That God, that Christ hath loved me,
Whose Glory blessed VINES doth see:
We were both washed in one stream:
And both enlightened by one beam:
One Garment also did us cloath:
At once One Pulpit held us both;
Much more One Church: for we agreed,
Both in One Method, and One Creed.
One Evil we did both condole,
As animated by One Soul:
Me think's where thou art, I should be;
Although the lowest in degree.
Though thou art gone, and I am here;
Yet is my Passing-Hour neer:
Time is at work both Night and Day,
Even when it seemeth to delay:
My Grave and Coffin are at hand:
My Glass hath but a little Sand:
Now I am writing; and anon
They'se also say of me, He's gone.
Then I shall see the shining face,
Which is the Glory of your place.
But lest in vain I hope and run,
Lord perfect what thou hast begun!
Richard Baxter.


THe Posthumous Works of Learned Writers, like fatherless Children, are exposed to many wrongs and injuries; Yea such hath been the fraud of some Impostors in the Church, that they have taken away the live▪ children of famous men, and put their dead ones in the room; Hence are those spurious and suppositi­tious Books which have wandered up and down with their counterfeit Passes. [Page] That therefore no suspicious thoughts may possess thee concerning this Trea­tise, which is here published under the Name of that Learned and Eminent man Mr Vines, I do upon sure and unQuestionable Evidences give my pub­lick Testimony, that it is his proper and genuine Work, printed by the Copy that was written with his own hand.



  • CHAP. I. OF the Passeover or Paschal Lamb; It's significa­tion, and the Analogy or Resemblance between it, and Christ our Passeover.
  • CHAP. II. Of Errours and Corruptions in the Church; How soon they spring up; When they are a ground of Separation, and when not; That this Ordinance must be sutable to Gods Institutions: And the Communicants must be sutable to this Ordinance.
  • CHAP. III. That the Lord Jesus is the Author of this Sacrament.
  • CHAP. IV. Of the time of this Sacraments Institution, and of Judas betraying Christ.
  • [Page]CHAP. V. Why Christ deferred the instituting of the Supper untill the night in which he was betrayed.
  • CHAP. VI. Of the Outwards or Elements of this Ordinance of the Supper.
  • CHAP. VII. Some Observations upon the precedent Discourses.
  • CHAP. VIII. Of the Real Presence.
  • CHAP. IX. Of the inward things signified or represented in this Supper.
  • CHAP. X. A fonr-fold Exhortation from the premises.
  • CHAP. XI. Of Christs Mandate or Charge for the celebration of this Ordinance in Remembrance of him.
  • CHAP. XII. Of doing this in remembrance of Christ; The Pro­perties of this Memorial.
  • [Page]CHAP. XIII. A Lamentation for the neglect of this Ordinance.
  • CHAP. XIII. How much it concerneth Ministers to Teach, and all to Learn the true meaning of this Ordinance.
  • CHAP. XIV. The great Business that lies upon the Communicant, as oft as he eats this Bread and drinks this Cup, he shews the Lords Death.
  • CHAP. XV. The Lords-Supper is an itterable Ordinance.
  • CHAP. XVI. Of the Continuance of this and other Gospel-Ordi­nances in the Church.
  • CHAP. XVII. Of Worthy and Unworthy Receiving of the Lords-Supper.
  • CHAP. XVIII. The Uses which are to be made of the two last Theses.
  • CHAP. XIX. What must be done where Discipline cannot be exe­cuted for want of Administrators.
  • [Page]CHAP. XX. Whether a Godly man lawfully may, or ought to stand as a Member of, and hold Communion in the Ordinances of God with such a Congregation as is mixt (as they call it) that is, where men visi­bly scandalous in Life and Conversation are ming­led with the Good in the Participation and Use of Divine Ordinances? Or, Whether this Mixture of Heterogeneals do not pollute the Ordinances, and the Communion to the Godly, so as they are concerned to separate from such Communion?
  • CHAP. XXI. Whether the Lords Supper be a Converting Ordi­nance?
  • CHAP. XXII. Of Worthy and Unworthy Receiving, with some Cautions to prevent mis-judging our selves in the Case.
  • CHAP. XXIII. Of Worthy Receiving, &c.
  • CHAP. XXIV. That a Godly man may receive the Sacrament un­worthily.
  • CHAP. XXV. Of the Graces which are to be exercised and set on work in the Use of this Sacrament.
  • CHAP. XXVI. Motives to quicken Endeavors to a fit or worthy Par­ticipation of this Ordinance.
  • [Page]CHAP. XXVII. False and insufficient Qualifications for the Receiving of this Sacrament.
  • CHAP. XXVIII. The Fruit and Benefit of worthy Receiving.
  • CHAP. XXIX. The Sinfulness of Eating and Drinking unworthily.
  • CHAP. XXX. The CaUse of this Sin, Viz▪ Not discerning the Lords Body.
  • CHAP. XXXI. The Aggravations of the Sin of unworthy Recei­ving.
  • CHAP. XXXII. The Danger of this Sinne.
  • CHAP. XXXIII. Of Examination in order to this Sacrament.

The Bookseller to the READER.

THis Treatise was very fairly writ by the Reverend Authour Mr Richard Vines now with God, and perfected for the Press with his own Hand; after which a great part of it was lost, and carried by a stranger that took it up; thirty miles off, which yet (by a good Providence of God) was brought to his own hands again, to his great rejoycing, and I hope the Churches great benefit, which seems to be the de­sign of that unexpected Providence, now that it is made publick. He omitted to divide it into Chapters and Sections (for the pleasure of the Reader) which not­withstanding is now done, together with the Contents of every Chapter, and of most of the Sections, which I thought good to certifie, lest any expressions therein should seem unsuitable to the Authours own Genius, and derogatory to his worth.

A TREATISE OF THE Right Institution, Administration and Receiving of the SACRAMENT OF THE LORDS SUPPER.

CHAPTER I. Of the Passeover or Paschall-Lamb; Its signification, and the Analogy or Resemblance between it and Christ our Passeover.

1 COR. 5. 7, 8.‘For Christ our Passeover is sacrificed for us. Therefore let us keep the Feast, not with old leven, &c.

§. 1 IT is usuall in handling the nature and Use of Sacraments to begin with the notion of a Sacrament in generall, and then to de­scend to particular Sacraments, which we call Baptism and the Lords Supper in their order, But [Page 2] the Field is large and the compasse great, and there­fore I begin where the Lords Supper it self began, and therefore I begin where the Lords Supper it self be­gan, and that is at the Passeover, at the death where­of, and out of the ashes of it, this Sacrament of ours like another Phoenix did arise, for our Lord at his last Passeover called [...] his dying Passeover, did institute and ordain this, which is to live and re­main till he come again, and which Scaliger and o­thers have Observed, the very materials of our Sa­cramental Supper were taken out of the Paschall Sup­per, for that very bread which the Master of the Fa­mily Used of custome (not by any Scripture-com­mand) to blesse and give to the fraternity, saying, Holachma degnania, [...], This is the bread of affliction which the Fathers did eat in Egypt, and that Cup which he blessed and gave to them to drink cal­led the Cup of the hymn, or Cos hallel, becaUse the hymn followed after and closed all; That bread, and that Cup, did Christ according to the rite severally blesse and give, saying, This is my body, This Cup is the New Testament in my bloud, and so he put a new Superscription or signification upon the old metall, and let all blinde and bold Expositors know, that if they expound not many phrases and things in the New Testament out of the old Records of Jewish writings or customes, they shall but fancy and not ex­pound the Text as may be confirmed, saith Scaliger sexcentis argumentis by very many arguments.

In handling of the Sacrament of the Lords Sup­per I shall select such practical and preparative do­ctrine as is necessary for your knowledge that ye may discern the Lords body, and not be guilty of it, [Page 3] and for your practise that you may examine your selves, and not eat and drink unworthily: For if I should lanch out into controversies, there would be no end; There hath been more paper written upon those six syllables, but five in English, This is my body, then would contain a just and large Commentary up­on the whole Bible.

I begin with the Passeover which was the second (for Circumcision was the first) ordinary standing Sacrament of the Jewish Church, beginning at their going forth out of Egypt, and continuing till the Death of Christ, when the Lords Supper did com­mence or begin, and so displaced it; The Passeover, signified what should be the Lords Supper, what is fulfilled in Christ; In the Passeover, were represented the Sufferings and Death of Christ by a Lamb slain rosted with fire; In the Supper, by bread broken, and wine poured forth. The outward symbols or signs dif­fer; But Christ is the same under both; As Circum­cision theirs, baptism ours, are different signs and rites, but the inward Circumcision and Regenera­tion both one; Theirs were both bloudy Sacraments, for the bloud of Christ was to be shed, ours unblou­dy, for the bloud is shed, and our English well tran­slates the word Passeover, the Greek and Latine keep the word Pascha, which gave some occasion to de­rive it from the Greek [...] to suffer a mistake; The word is Pesach, from Pasach, which is to leap or passe over: For when Israel after long servitude in Egypt was on wing to be gone, God commanded them in their several Families to kill Seh a Lamb or kid, to rost it whole, to eat it within doors that night, to sprinkle the side and upper door-posts with the bloud, not [Page 4] the threshold propter reverentiam & significationem, Christs bloud must not be trampled on, and so doing they should be safe from the destroying Angel that rode circuit that night to kill all Egypts first-born, but he past over all the hoUses of Israel sprinkled with bloud, and hence the name Passe-over the Etymon whereof is given by God himself, Exod. 12. 27. We have the kernell in this shell, the marrow of this bone, a Passeover as well as they, but ours is Christ, our Passeover is Christ, saith the Text.

§ 2 We proceed, Our Passeover Christ is or was sacri­ficed for us; Our Passeover Christ was a true Sacri­fice, but whether their Passeover was a Sacrifice or no, it is in Question: The Papists swallow it greedily, ho­ping thereby to prove our Supper to be both a Sa­crifice and a Sacrament as their Passeover (they say) was, but there are others both Lutheran and Calvi­nist, as Gerald. in harmon. Rivet on Exod. 12. that do not yield the Passeover a proper Sacrifice, though it be so called Exo. 12. 27. It is the Sacrifice of the Lords Passeover, for the Greek word [...], and the Hebrew Zabach are sometimes taken generally for mactare, when there is no Sacrifice, and they finde in Egypt at the first Passeover no Priest but the head of the Fami­ly, or [...], no Altar, no offering of the Lamb to God, no expiation, nor is it necessary that it should be a Sacrifice to type a Sacrifice, for the Serpent on the Pole signified Christ crucified, and so the Passe­over as a Sacrament may figure out a Sacrifice, as our Supper is the commemoration of a Sacrifice, but not a Sacrifice; On the other hand Calvin and others, the Jewish Writers and many from them do hold it to be a Sacrifice and a Sacrament, for the Scripture [Page 5] cals it Sacrifice, and this bloud is shed at first by the Pater-familia's that was a Priest (no other being yet consecrated) in after times by the Priests or Levites, and the bloud brought to the Altar, as it was bloud shed to a religious end, a bloud preservative from destroying Angels, and therefore a proper Sacrifice: What shall we say? The difference between a Sa­crifice and a Sacrament. I'le promise you not to puzzle you with controversies and disputes, for I had rather set meat before you which you may eat, then hard bones to gnaw upon; The truth is, a Sacrifice is some­thing offered up to God by men, a Sacrament is of­fered and given to man by God to be eaten or Used in his Name, and so that part of the offering which is offered up to God may be called a Sacrifice, and that part eaten or Used by man a Sacrament, the very body and bloud of Christ was a Sacrifice, no Sacra­ment: The bread and wine as Used are a Sacrament no Sacrifice, The Passeover was the figure of a true Deut. 16. 5. Sacrifice, Christ and we may call it so, becaUse the Scripture doth: It follows [...] Let us keep the Feast, What is that? Ye shall finde that after the Passeover Lamb was eaten the next day began the Feast, Numb. 28. 16, 17. and the Passeover is called Feast, too, Exod. 12. 15. &c. and that continued se­ven daies, kept in great festivity and solemnity, but with unleavened bread, the Apostle alludes hereun­to, Our Passeover is sacrificed, therefore let us hence­forth, &c. We that have received the sprinkling of bloud, and eaten his flesh by faith, live all our daies in a holy rejoycing and thanks▪giving, which is a continuall Feast, and let us cast out the incestuous Corinthians out of our Society, for he is a leven, ver. 6, 7. and let us purge out of our selves, malice, wic­kednesse, [Page 6] &c. For they are leven, ver. 8. that we may be a holy Congregation, and a holy people, and so the argument of the Apostle stands thus, from the example of the Old Passeover, Those for whom Christ the Passeover is sacrificed ought as holy Con­gregations and holy people to be unleavened with sin and wickednesse, and to walk before God in an un­leavened sincerity, but for us Christ the Passeover is sacrificed, therefore let us keep the Feast, &c.

I have explained the words, and now we shall con­sider this Passeover two waies.

1. As a Sacrifice or figure of a Sacrifice, and so it refers to Christ our Passeover, Christ is sacrificed for us.

2. As a Sacrament, and so it relates to us, and shews us our duty upon that Sacrifice, [...] Let us keep the Feast, The Sacrifice is given for us, the Sacrament is given to us: From the first,

Doct. Our Passeo­ver is Christ sacrificed for us. Our Passeover is Christ sacrificed for us, We have a Passeover, but it is Christ sacrificed: And here before I shew the Analogy or resemblance between the Passeover and Christ, we shall note three or four things.

§. 3 1. They in the Old Church of Israel had Christ as well (though not so clear) as we, 1 Cor. 10. 4. The Rock that followed our Fathers in the Wildernesse was Christ, the Passeover was Christ, the personall Types such as Isaac on the Wood, the reall Types as their bloudy Sacrifices were Christ; He was then in his swadling clouts swathed up in shadows and types, and not naked; as now Gal. 3. 1. those Types being anatomized, unbowelled are full of Gospel, full of Christ, the death of Christ pecus prosunt quam [Page 7] fuit, saith Bernard de coena; Christ is the marrow in the bone, the kernell in the shell, yesterday, and to day, and the same for ever, the summe and sweet of all Ordinances, therefore those that say they were filled with temporall promises, but had no spiritu­all, derogate too much from them as that they were Swine filled with husks, and speak a wondrous Pa­radox; that those that had so much faith, Heb. 11. should have no Christ, we give them the right hand of fellowship, and they were the elder brother, yet we have the double portion.

§. 4 2. Mark the form of speech, Christ our Passeover, that is, our Paschall Lamb, which is also called the Passeover, Exod. 12. 31. Kill the Passeover, Now the Passeover properly was the Angels passing over the Israelites hoUses, and not the Lamb, but we must learn to understand Sacramentall phrases, the signe cal­led the thing signified, the figure called the thing fi­gured, The Rock was Christ; Christ our Passeover, that is, paschal Lamb, Circumcision called the Cove­nant, Gen 17. 13. My Covenant shall be in your flesh, this will be allowed in every place but one, and that is this one, This is my body, For the Lutheran stands up for a corporall presence under the Signes, The Pa­pist for a change of the Bread and Wine into Christs body and bloud; No conferences, no disputes, no condescensions will satisfie them, and yet we say ve­ry fairly, the very body of Christ born of the Vir­gin, that died on the Crosse, that sits in heaven, is present in this Sacrament, but not in the Bread or Wine, but to the faithfull Receiver, not in the Ele­ments but to the Communicants, but all this will not serve turn; These two Prepositions Con and [Page 8] Trans have bred more jarres, and cost more bloud since they were born (and there is neither of them in this caUse six hundred years old) then can be well i­magined.

§. 4 3. The Passeover figured Christ, and yet the Jews ordinarily saw not Christ in it; It is plain in their ce­lebration of the Passeover, or their Rituals, they take notice of, and commemorate their Egyptian slavery, and their deliverance, and so they were commanded, but of Christ not a syllable; It entred not into them that a Lamb rosted should figure the Messiah, as they had formed him in their thoughts, and so they held the Passeover as a [...] looking back­ward, but as a Type looking forward, no know­ledge except the faithfull had some glimpse of it, and this is the great fault of men in all Sacraments, they minde not the inwards of a Sacrament, nor look for the kernell, they did so, and we also, not discerning the Lords body, is not that it which makes us guilty of his body and bloud, there is in all Sa­craments res terrena & res coelestis, as Irenaeus. Earth­ly men see the earthly part, they eat, they drink, It feeds not, they eat shells, the inwards within the bone are marrow, Christ; Christ set spirituall food before our bodies, viz. ayery, set corporall before the soul, and you illude both, saith Parisiensis, de Eu­char. sub finem.

§. 5 4. The Passeover is Christ sacrificed, not Christ a Lamb unspotted, but Christ a Lamb rosted with fire, and this tels you that the Passeover and our Supper represent Christ crucified, Christ dying or dead; It is the death of Christ, not his Resurrecti­on, nor ascension, that is here set forth, Ye shew the [Page 9] Lords death till he come, this is the sight which a sinful soul would see, this is the comfortable spectacle, to see the price paying, the ransome laying down, the thing in doing; Hence he draws the hope and com­fort of Redemption, and therefore the bread was broken, and the Cup was full of bloud to represent to the life this life giving Death to Christ; The Papists have cheated the people of the bloud by a trick of concomitancy, telling them that the bread is his body, and his body hath bloud in it, we have a word of Institution of both severally, the life of the representation is the bloud shed, the Passeover is a Lamb slain and rosted, and the bloud on the door­post, and by providence, if the Papists will allow all to eat, then we have expresly for the Cup a Bi­bite ex hoc omnes, Mat. 26. 27. Drink ye all of it; So that it is the Death of Christ here represented, and which is one step further, it is a Sacrifice Death, which works and makes atonement, this was it that all the Sacrifices, that the Passeover did prefigure, a Sacrifice death, that should deliver and make expia­tion; This Cup (saith Christ) is the New Testament in my bloud, which is shed for you and many for remis­sion of sins, a death, and such a kinde of death as in our Sacrament set forth a Sacrifice Death, therefore it's said sacrificed for us.

§. 7 Now let us come to the Analogy or resemblance be­tween the Passeover and Christ sacrificed, wherein I shall The resem­blance between the Passeover and Christ sa­crificed. endeavour to avoid the vanity and curiosity of ma­king similitudes to run of all four, which is incident to men in handling Types, Parables, and similitudes which like a string over-stretched makes a jar and dis­harmony, and shews more fondnes, then soundness.

[Page 10]1. The Paschal must be a male-Lamb without ble­mish, the son of a year taken from the Sheep or Goats, Exo. 12. 5. and this resembles Christ himself and his perfection, there were many blemishes which the superstitious or curious Jews Observed to the number of fifty or seventy, any blemish disabled it, Christ was without all blemish, nothing was except­ed from other men, or his likenesse to them but sin, in all Points tempted like as weare, yet without sin; Heb. 4. 15. He was of masculine perfection, at the perfection of his age, about 33 or 34 years, of Lamb-like humili­ty and meeknesse; which are noted in him as exem­plary graces; He was figured out in the Lamb of the daily Sacrifice, in the Lamb of the Passeover, in A­brahams Ram in stead of Isaac, in the Scape-goat, Lev. 16. 21. and pointed out by John Baptist under this Name, Behold the Lamb of God▪; It's implied, Heb. 9. 28. he shall appear the second time, [...], that in his first coming he was not without, but we must distinguish of sin, ours imputed to him, and so he was made sin for us, so as to bear it in his body, which at his second coming he shall not bear nor be loden with as he was before, and therefore is said to come without sinne both his and ours.

2. This Paschall-Lamb was to be separated from the flock, and set apart for Sacrifice on the tenth day of the moneth, but not killed till the 14. day in the Evening, or according to that vexed phrase between the two Evenings, that is, in the afternoon, when the Sun declined before Sunset, and about the same time of day our Saviour (the true Passeover) was slain, but in a further meaning it shews that Christ [Page 11] was set apart and fore-designed of God to be our Pass­over long before, not in his decree, but his promise, and the predictions of the Prophets which have been since the world began, Luk. 1. 70. but now in the end of the world hath he appear'd to put away sinne by the Sacrifice of himself, Heb. 9. 26. He suffer'd between the two Evenings of the world, which was in his de­clination, when he came that was our Evening, and the latter is to come, the dayes of his appearance are called often the last daies, and though that have ano­ther meaning, shewing the unalterableness of the Go­spel-Ordinances, contrary to those of the Law, yet we may affirm, that it was past the noon of the world, when he came, and the time shall not be so long after unto Sun-set, as before.

3. This paschal Lamb must be killed, the bloud taken into a basin, sprinkled with hysop, shall be on every door, the flesh rosted with fire not eaten raw or boyl'd in water, the head, the legs, the inwards, Exod. 12. 7, 8, 9, 22. and this may set forth unto us the unutterable sufferings of Christ, both in his soul and body, which the Scripture sets out to the life with such an emphasis of words, I mean especially those of his soul, scorched with the sense of Gods extream wrath, which are exprest by words extraordinary, [...], Sweating like drops of bloud, with expression of strong cries and tears; Oh man thou understandest not the sufferings of this Passeo­ver rosted with fire forbidden to be boyl'd in scalding water, for that expresses not the sufferings in extremi­ty, and what is all this for? Even to make Christ more pleasant meat to thee, which if thou feed up­on, and with a bunch of hysop sprinkle this bloud, [Page 12] applying it by faith, eating this rosted flesh, and drinking this bloud poured forth, it will feast thy soul, and secure thee from the wrath of God, which is the next.

4. The destroying Angel seeing this blood on the door posts, passes over the hoUse, goes and kils the Aegyptians first-born, and executes Gods last plague upon them, in the mean time the Israelites were safe within the protection of blood, Exod. 12. 12, 13. and here is the safety of those Israelites; Believers that have applied by faith the blood of Jesus Christ, when God shall let loose his last and final plagues up­on the world, they shall be safe; Hell, and wrath, and condemnation shall not touch them, When I see the blood (saith he) I'le pass over you, Exod. 12. 13, 23. nothing else will save you; God looks at nothing but the blood of Christ upon you; Happy they, that before God ride his circuit of destruction, to make a cry in all Aegypt, are gotten under the Sanctuary of blood, for then the plague shall not be upon you, when I smite the Land of Aegypt, Exod. 12. 13.

5. After the Israelites had been secured from the stroke of that dismall night, then presently they march away, are hired by the Aegyptians to be gone, the four hundred and thirty years were out, and God being punctual in his times, finishes their captivity that hour, and begins to fulfill his promises that he had made to them of bringing them to their promised Land, Exod. 12. 31, 32, 33, &c. 41, 42. and here we see, that when a soul hath long lien in the base bond­age under sinne and the devil, and comes to take hold of Christ, and is sprinkled with his blood, and en­ters Covenant with God in Christ, then is he set free [Page 13] from his bondage, and then he goes out of Aegypt, and then all the promises begin to open upon him, and he sets upon his heavenly journey, and no Pharaoh can hinder him any longer; All the sweet promises of peace, and comfort, and hope, begin to be made good to him, for they are all Yea and Amen in Christ; the Devil, and all his power and instruments cannot hold him, the blood is upon him, from that hour he is a free-man, to own no Lord but God, and yet still he hath a Wilderness to go thorow, but he is miracu­lously carried as Israel was thorow it; but this must not be expected, that they should eat the Passeover and stay in Aegypt still, they must go out of their bondage, that are sprinkled with this blood by the blood of thy Covenant, I have sent out thy prisoners out of the pit wherein is no water, saith he in a like case, Zech. 9. 11. and haply this Type is yet to be fulfilled in the Gospel Churches, whom the Lord will deli­ver out of the hands of their oppressing tyrants, Pope or Turk, not by the Sword but Ordinances of his Covenant, and then if they shall pursue a people un­der blood, as Pharaoh did, there will be a red Sea to swallow them horse and man. And so much for the Passeover, as referring to Christ our Sacrifice, for that it doth so, is plain by this. That which is said of the Paschal Lamb, Exod. 12. 46. is expresly ap­plied to, and fulfilled in Christ, John 19. 36. So much for the Passeover as a Sacrifice, or as the figure of our Sacrifice and theirs, Christ Jesus.

§. 8 Now we proceed to consider it as a Sacrament, not ours, but theirs, nor yet a figure of our Sacrament in Considered as a Sacrament. propriety, though often so called in transitu, and much contended for by Papists, For what Jew could ever [Page 14] have found out our Supper figured in that Passeover? and in what propriety can our Sacrament be the Sa­crament of another? Christ is the res Sacramenti of theirs and ours, there they meet, as the inward Cir­cumcision and Regeneration is the thing of their Cir­cumcision and our Baptism, but that one Sacrament should be the figure of another, is absurd and void of Reason; As two pictures of one man, are both resem­blances of that one man, but one is not the picture of another, and yet becaUse the Passeover hath the com­mon nature of a Sacrament, doth set forth the same Christ as our Supper, and that the Apostle draws an Argument from it, to perswade Gospel-Christians to holiness: Therefore we shall consider what signi­ficancy there is in it, for though the signs be not ours, yet the significancy is

§. 9 First, The Passeover or Paschal Lamb, as killed and rosted, and the blood sprinkled was a Sacrifice, The significa­tion of the Passeover. as eaten by the Israelites and feasted upon, it was a Sacrament, and in after-times, both by Jewish Re­cords, and by Scripture, I conceive it appears, 2 Chro. 35. 11. Ezra 6 20. that the Levites killed the Pas­chals, the Priests sprinkled the bloud on the Altar, and then they took the Lamb to their [...], or Fa­milies, or Chambers in Jerusalem, and there did eat it; so in our Supper there is a Sacrifice slain, and of­fer'd up for atonement, and that is Christ his body and bloud, and then there is an eating and drinking of this Sacrifice in the Sacrament of bread and wine, as in many Sacrifices of the Law, there was first an of­fering up to God, and then a feasting on the remain­der; we have a true Sacrifice, Christ offer'd up to God for us; we have a true Sacrament, as that Sa­crifice [Page 15] is eaten and drunk by us; the oblation belongs to God to propitiate and redeem; the communicati­on belongs to us, to be refresht and nourisht; their eating the Passeover was no Sacrifice, but a Sacra­ment; our eating and drinking bread and wine is no Sacrifice but a Sacrament; their killing and rosting of the Lamb made it eatable; Christ his sacrificing of himself for us, renders him fit nourishment to us; Had he not been a Sacrifice offer'd up for us, what profit had there been in eating and drinking sacra­mentally and spiritually that body and bloud? This consideration is of special remark, you feast upon a sacrifice, you live, you feed upon a sacrifice tolle Sacri­ficium. tolle Sacramentum, the mouth eats the Sacra­ment, the eye of faith discerns the sacrifice, Christ is the sacrifice, the Sacrament no sacrifice, but the commemoration and communication of a sacrifice; and here the Reason must be Observed, why God did institute their Passeover, and our answerable Sacra­ment to consist in meat and drink, eating and drink­ing, and I conceive thus, that it being the most pro­per way to partake of a sacrifice, for how else can it be? Therefore we eat and drink in way of participa­tion of our sacrifice; Hence the phrase, Living upon Heb. 13. 10. the Altar, eating of the Altar; and thus if we carry our eye to the earthly part in the Supper, and to the heavenly part, that is to the Sacrament, and the sa­crifice represented, and feed upon the sacrifice repre­sented, as well as the Sacrament representing, we then discern the Lords body. This is the first [...], de hoc plus intra.

2. Their Passeover was instituted as an Ordinance for ever, for a memorial of their Deliverance in Ae­gypt, [Page 16] and their eduction out of it, a commemoration it was, and to be Observed for ever, that is, in all suc­ceeding generations, whiles their Polity and Religi­on stood, Exod. 12. 14, 24, 42. and therefore we read in Jewish Writers, and there is some foot-step or ori­ginal of it, Exod. 26. 27. What mean you by this ser­vice, that in every company of Passeover-commu­nicants, there was some one that rehearsed and made commemoration, Haggadah shet pesuch, the history Buxtorf. Chal. Lexic. of the Passeover, and so God that would have the sacrifice of Christ for our sinne, that greatest work of his, and our deliverance thereby from worse then Aegypt, or destroying Angel, to be Observed and kept in minde by a lasting trophy or monument, viz▪ our Supper: The Apostle in allusion to their custome, Useth a word [...] 1 Cor. 11. 26. Ye do shew, As often as ye eat this bread and drink this Cup, ye do shew forth the Lords death till he come, or ye do commemo­rate and with affection and thanksgiving set it forth, and as theirs was for ever, till Christs first coming, so ours is for ever, till his second coming; so long as their Church continued they were charged with this Ordinance; so long as the Gospel-Church conti­nues, they are charged with this, and therefore nei­ther of the Doctrine of the Gospel, nor of the Sa­craments shall there be any removal or alteration till Christ come.

3. Their Passeover in Aegypt was eaten in their se­veral Families or societies, A Lamb for a hoUse, ex­cept it were too little, Exod. 12. 3, 4. and in after times when this was repeal'd, Deut. 16. 6, 7. and was confi­ned to the place that God should chUse, and so to Jerusalem, then though the Lamb might be slain in [Page 17] the holy Court, and the bloud sprinkled on the Al­tar, yet they did carry it home to their hired cham­bers, and there did eat in companies, not less then ten in a fraternity, Joseph de bello lib. 7. cap. 17. nor above twenty, but no man alone, Solum epulari non licet, saith Joseph, Christ and his company made one socie­ty; so though Christ be our Sacrifice, once offer'd up upon the cross a sacrifice to God, yet doth our Supper bring him home to us into our Churches, and into our souls. There is an application of him to be made, the bloud sprinkled on our doors, the Paschal brought home to our own hoUse; Take ye, Eat ye, Drink ye; God comes to particulars with us, and the application of the sacrifice is the life of the Sacra­ment; we must eat and drink at home, in our own souls; Christ comes home to us, and yet this Sup­per ought as the Passeover to be eaten in societies, I know no Reason for one alone, there must be a [...], a company, for it is a communion, one makes not a communion; The Apostle 1 Cor. 11. 20. When you come [...] into a meeting, v. 33, 34. when you come together, tarry one for another; hence it hath been an­ciently called [...], a meeting, a Congregation. It's Gods Ordinance (saith a learned man) that the Lords Hildersam Joh. 4 p. 122. Supper be administred in publick Assemblies; How can there be a Communicant without a Communion, sed de hoc infra, not that the wals of a Church do make it a com­munion▪ but a meeting of believers?

4. Their Passeover was eaten with unlevened bread and sowre or bitter herbs, Exod. 12. 8. There are ma­ny circumstances and ceremonies found in the Jewish Authors about the searching out of all leven, yea with candles at noon-day, and an execration of all le­ven, [Page 18] if any should remain unfound, and the bitter herbs were in constant Use, the unlevened bread re­membred them, what haste they went out of Aegypt in, Exod. 12. 34. and the bitter herbs, what affliction and bondage they had suffer'd, and further they saw not; The Apostle interprets leven, malice and wic­kedness; unlevened bread, sincerity and truth, 1 Cor. 5. 8. and so it teaches us, how Christ is to be recei­ved by us, and what manner of persons they must be that apply and receive Jesus Christ; They must re­member their bondage under sinne, not with delight but bitterness, and feel the sowr taste of their former wayes, as sinners contrite and broken; bitter herbs are good sauce for the paschal Lamb; sinne felt sets an edge on the stomack as vinegar; Christ relishes well to such a soul; When thou comest to eat his Sup­per, bring thy own sauce with thee, bitter herbs, and refresh on thy self the memory of thy old wayes and former lusts; that's the sauce, the bread is unleaven­ed bread; you cannot eat the Lamb and leaven toge­gether; a secure hypocrite, a filthy swine not purged from sinne, to think to have Christ and his sinne too, to be pardon'd and not purged, to be saved and not sanctified; Away, and never think to eat this Lamb with leaven'd bread; come with bitter herbs thou maist, contrition for sinne, but come not with and in thy sins, for that's eating with leaven'd bread; therefore search it out, and let thy sinnes be searcht out as with a candle, and let them be execrable to thee, that God may see thy hatred of them, and thy loathing of thy self for them.

5. Their Passeover in Aegypt, was to be eaten with loyns girded in procinctu, shoes on feet, and staff in [Page 19] hand, and ye shall eat in haste, Exod. 12. 11. and therefore standing as ready to be instantly on their march to leave the Land of Aegypt, and go to seek their promised countrey, which signifies to us, that we must receive Christ and his bloud with intention and purpose to leave the dominions of Pharaoh, the Kingdom, service and bondage of sinne, and the De­vil, and from that hour to set forward towards our heavenly countrey; This is that hard Doctrine of the Gospel; This makes men neglect, refUse Jesus Christ, becaUse they cannot part with sinne, they will not resolve to quit their former course, as he that went away sorrowfull, for he had great possessions: So we would fain be saved, but go away sorrowfull, for we have powerfull, pleasing and profitable lusts. And as it may allude to our Supper; Let it teach us to come to the Table of the Lord with staves in our hand, and our loyns girded up, as men resolving to march, and begin a new and holy life, Henceforth not to serve sin, Rom. 6. 6. But of this I spake before.

6. In their Passeover they must rost and eat a whole Lamb, and nothing of it must remain till the morn­ing: If any did remain it must be burnt with fire, Exod. 11. 9, 10. the flesh must be eaten, not a bone broken, Numb. 9. 12. This shews, that Christ is all meat, there is no offal in him, there is variety of nou­rishment for all our Uses, righteousness, and peace, and comfort, and contentment to fill our capacities, relieve temptations, pardon and purge away our sins, but we must not divide, but take him whole, his me­rit and Spirit, his salvation and Soveraignty; Christ our Way, our Truth, our Life; What an unhappy Doctrine is that of the Papists, that takes the bloud [Page 20] from us, and will not let the people drink? It is as if they should not allow our Passeover to be a whole Lamb, and as unhappy they, that do not only rent his coat, but break his bones by depraving the fun­damentals of Gospel-Doctrine, and tearing the Creed, Article from Article, and nothing left, un­till the morning, tels us, That in the morning-light of the Gospel, all those shadows should be abolisht and disclaimed, or as Rivet saith, That Sacraments are not Sacraments, but in their Use, and while they are Used, as the bread and wine after the Use are no Sacraments, as a mear stone is a boundary in it's place, remove it, and it is lapis not limes.

7. No uncircumcised person might eat the Passeo­ver, nor no unclean person that was under an unclean­ness, Exod. 12. 44, 48. Numb. 9. 7. where the instance is of some unclean by the dead, but it extendeth to other uncleanness, leprous or menstruous, &c. Joseph. de bello lib. 7. cap. 17. and yet there was provision made for the unclean, that they might keep the Passe­over in the second moneth, as they did in Hezekiah his Passeover, 2 Chron. 30. 13. but for the uncircum­cised there was no provision, and this sets forth to us two sorts of men that are uncapable of worthy com­ing to the Lords Supper.

1. The uncircumcised that are strangers and for­einers Two sorts un­capable of the Lords Supper. to the Church, and not initiated by the first Sacrament of Baptism, no person of what condition soever that is unbaptized can come to the Supper, for he is not entred and admitted into Church-fellow­ship or Communion by the first Sacrament: He is not one of the hoUse, or of the fraternity, where the Lamb is eaten, and out of the hoUse the Passeover [Page 21] must not be carried; they that are out of the Church have no right to the priviledges of the Church, as they that are no freemen have not the priviledge of the City. It was never known in the old Church, that an uncircumcised person, nor in the Gospel-Church that an unbaptized, did partake of either of the Sup­pers, theirs or ours, for both of them are second Sa­craments, not firsts, the way to the Table hath ever been by the Font or Laver of washing. Of this more hereafter.

2. The domesticks that are of the hoUse, that are Almost one and twenty hundred thou­sand all pure. Joseph. cap. 17. lib. 7. de bello Judaic. circumcised Israelites, yet if they be at the time of the Passeover unclean, they may not eat it, was a case came into Question thus, some were unclean, put the case to Moses, he respited the decision till he had asked of the Lord, and the Lord adjudged it, that he should be put off to the Passeover of the second moneth; and this tels us by way of allusion, that a member of the Church baptized, yea a true believer may be unfit at some particular time to come to the Lords Table, and may eat and drink unworthily; Were not the Corinthians such men, and in such a case, 1 Cor. 11? Were they not punisht for their unworthy coming, and yet doubtless some of them godly, and all professed Christians? But of this more also.

§ 10 8. There were in the first Passeover in Aegypt, Used and commanded by express word, certain rituals or occasionals, which as Jewish Writers and practice shews, were omitted and not Used in after-times. As 1. The eating in dispersed hoUses, afterward in Jerusalem only. 2. The taking up the Lamb four dayes before, which we reade not of afterward. 3. The [Page 22] striking of the door-posts with the bloud. 4. The not going out of the hoUse that night, which in after­times Christ and his Disciples did. 5. The eating it in travelling posture in procinctu, with staves, &c. which we finde our Saviour, and reade that the Jews did in another posture of discumbency, a lying on beds, &c. These or some of these were occasional at the first, and the occasion ceasing, custom had ruled it otherwise without offence; for in our Supper the Lord celebra­ted and instituted it at night, in or at the end of the pas­chal and common supper. 2. In unlevened bread. 3. Late at night. 4. In a gesture of discumbency, a leaning or lying posture, Joh. 3. 13. 5. In a chamber of a private hoUse. 6. Without presence of any wo­man. 7. Consecrating, a blessing the bread and See Evang. for so Used in Passeover. the Cup severally and apart. 8. Singing the hymne at the close of all, as was usual, &c. And these, or many of these were occasional circumstances by Reason of the custom & Rite of the paschal Supper, or the particular exigency at that time; And what then? Do they oblige to a hairs breadth all after-ages? Do they that impose any one of these themselves hold to all of them? Shall we be supercilious and superstiti­ous in Observing all occasional or local customs? Why do we not appear in sackcloth at our Fasts? Where is that osculum pacis? As the Apostle said about the 1 Cor. 11. 16. length of hair, so I say, If any man seem to be con­tentious, we have no such custome, nor the Churches of God. If Christ had celebrated the Supper with his loyns girt, and staff in hand, had we been bound to it, and yet we must not raffle this thred too far, and under colour of an occasionall circumstance, change or mutilate the real substance, as the Papist that takes [Page 23] away the Cup which Christ blest, and breaks not the Bread, as he did, and of a Sacrament makes a Sacrifice; the Matter and Form, the intended Ana­logy between the Sign, and the Thing signified, will guide us in our distinguishing Substance from Acci­dents.

I here make an end, though in this Point, and in this Lamb, which was served in with Legs and Purtenance, I might finde out other lesser Resem­blances, which I shall not; but having shown you, what fresh Marrow lies in the old Bones of this Passeover-Sacrifice, will hereafter set forth our Lords Supper before you.

CHAP. II. Of Errours and Corruptions in the Church; How soon they sprung up; When they are a ground of Sepa­ration, and when not. That this Ordinance must be suitable to Gods Institution: And the Communi­cants must be suitable to this Or­dinance.

1 COR. 11. 83.‘For I have received of the Lord that which also I deliver­ed unto you, &c.

THis Epistle is directed to the Church of God in 1 Cor. 1 2. Grotius in ini­tio hujus Epi­stolae. Heylin Geog. pag. 388. 1 Cor. 1. 5, 7. Corinth, which was sometime a slately City of Greece, much renown'd in ancient Authours, but now is a place of small note, being together with other Cities mentioned in the New Testament, swallowed up by that great Leviathan of the Land, the Turkish Empire. In this City was a famous Christian Church [Page 25] of the highest degree of elevation for parts and gifts, and spiritual endowments, but their beauty was blem­isht with as great blots, schisms, 1 Cor. 1. 11. Denial of the Resurrection of the dead by some of them, 1 Cor. 15. 12. and in this Chapter with a grand abUse of that high and precious Ordinance the Supper of the Lord with ordinary and unwashen hands, polluting it with their own intemperance and drunkenness, not brought from their own homes, or from the Tavern to the Table, but Used at the very Table it self, which that you may understand, you may take notice, that it was an ancient custom, [...], saith Zona­ras in Concil. 6. in Trullo. in the Primitive times, that the rich and wealthier sort of Christians did by a common purse or contributions, furnish out solemn feasts in the very meeting places, or Churches, and there sit down promiscuously the rich and poor, which feasts were called [...], Feasts of Love, or Brotherly-charity, to testifie the intimate affection of Christians among themselves. The Scripture speaks of them, Jude vers. 12. 2 Pet. 2. 13. and the ancient Fathers make often mention of them; The occasion of them might be this; It's plain, that the Heathens at their Sacrifice had their festival entertainments, [...], in their Idols Temple, that the Jews in their Eucharistical Sacrifices feasted before the Lord, God as it were entertaining them to eat and drink with him, and that Christ and his Apostles feasted together at the Paschal Supper before the celebrati­on of the Lords Supper, and so by imitation very obvious, the Christians had taken up a custome of feasting at their religious meetings, at which enter­tainments no Heathens were present, and thereupon [Page 26] they suspected and scandalized the Christians for these feasts, de pabulo crudae & post convivium me­sto Tertul. Apol. c. 7 &c. 39. that they eat and drunk the flesh and bloud of a childe, and that after they had filled themselves with wine and good cheer, they fell to incestuous and pro­miscuous lusts, but the ancient Fathers wipe off these aspersions, &c.

§. 2 The abUse of these feasts the Apostle reproves from the 17. verse of this Chapter, for they fomented their schismes and parties, even at these feasts, one party and their faction sorting themselves together in one corner, another at another, as their humour led them, and so the common love was broken by pri­vate divisions; then followed another abUse, the poor that could send in nothing, had nothing, but were set light by, and suffered to starve, while they were filling themselves, and which was worst of all, they were intemperate at their feasts, eating and drinking excessively, one is hungry, another is drunken, vers. 21. The word may signifie had drank liberally; as it's said of Joseph and his brethren, Gen 43. ult. and as the word is Used, John 2. 10. The Summe is, there was

§. 3 1. Siding and sorting themselves into parties with their messes and dishes of good cheer, each faction by themselves, vers. 18. which is contrary to the na­ture or name of [...], Feasts of Love. One party went to it be­fore another came, v. 21. & 33.

2. Here was a slighting and laying aside the poor Christians that could send in nothing, contrary to the nature of a religious communion, ver. 28, 22.

3. Here was intemperance and excess, ver. 21. con­trary to Christian sobriety.

4. These feasts were made in the Assembly or [Page 27] meeting-place (as we say the Church) as appears ver. 22. Have ye not hoUses? And

§. 4 5. With these juncats and feasts they joyn'd the ce­lebration Beza. in Act. 2. in illis convivis. Grot. in Mat. 26. 25. Casaub. Exere. 16. of the Lords-Supper, Mensis suis pascebant, saith Austin. Epist. 118. and therefore the Apostle tels them, they defaced it, vers. 21. This is not to eat the Lords-Supper, for quod non ritè fit, fieri non dicitur; and he doth therefore set forth the Lords institution of the Supper, vers. 23. that they might see the bare and naked nature of it, one thing is doubtfull, Whe­ther the Lords-Supper was celebrated at the begin­ning or end of these feasts? And the doubt riseth, BecaUse in this Chapter, as is conceived by learned Diodat Estius. Cajetan. in loc. Gerard. in har. p. 461. men, the feast went before; as in Christs last Sup­per, the paschal Lamb was first eaten, and the Cup was taken after Supper, vers. 25. and the unworthy coming to it, mentioned v. 29. and the punishment of this Church for their unworthiness, vers. 30 ar­gues, That their feasting first had unfitted them for the participation of this Ordinance, and yet Chryso­stom and Donaras saith, [...], After the parti­cipation of the Lords Supper the feast was; and that Ʋbi supra. is true, for after-times, for the reproof of the Apo­stle haply had removed the feast unto the last place for good Reasons▪ but the feasts were not quite remo­ved out of the Churches of Greece and Africk, where Tertul. Apol. c. 39. we finde them continuing: Insomuch as the Synod of Laodicea which was about three hundred years af­ter Christ, and before the Nicene Councel, made a Canon, cap. 22. [...], &c. That it is not fit the Agapae should be in Churches or publick places of worship, and so these ancient Feasts grew out by little and little, and now no remainders of them in all Chri­stendom.

I have been the longer upon this, becaUse I think otherwise you would not clearly understand the fore­going verses, that touch upon the abUse, nor the caUse and Reason of the Corinthians coming unworthily to the Lords-Table, and so I have set up a light in the entry, by which you may finde the way into the bet­ter understanding of all that follows in this Chapter, wherein he sets the Lords Supper to rights, which was drowned in a feast; Then he orders the address of the Communicants, which through the afore­said misdemeanours had come to it unworthily, and then exhorts them to make it a Communion and not a Division, as they had done, Tarry one for ano­ther, vers. 33. and to prevent the intemperance of publick Feasts, he bids them, if they must eat be­fore they come to the Lords Supper, Let them eat at home, vers. ult. and so clearly abrogates, not the Feasts, but the order of them, as fore-going the Lords Supper; and here we shall stand a little and make Observation.

§. 5 The Apostle interdicts not all eating or drinking be­fore the Lords Supper, but this feasting, and the abu­ses Obs. growing thence, he doth forbid. Those words, A man may eat before he come to the Lords Table. vers ult. If any man hunger, let him eat at home, that they come not together unto condemnation, teach us, That this Feasting was before the Sacrament, and that a man may eat at home, if occasion be, before he come to the publick Assembly. To put a necessi­ty upon Fasting, is to put Superstition into it; for our Saviour at first celebrated it after Supper, by ne­cessity of the Law of the Passeover, but bindes us not by his example to eat first, nor by any rule to fast before it, therefore it is of free Observation and Use, [Page 29] yet the custom of coming fasting had spread over the Aug. Epist. 118 Per universum orbem mos isto servatur. Chrys. in 1 Cor. 11. 26. universal Church in Austins time, Per universum orbem, mosiste servatur; Chrysostem speaks too high­ly of it, [...], that thou mayest be worthy to receive, for setting it aside as any piece of spiritual preparation, and I know not why it may not stand, Omnes jejuni celebramus, saith that Light of France. Chamier. de Euch. lib. 6 cap 1. §. 13. All the French Churches celebrate the Supper fasting; I hold to the Rule, If any man hunger, &c. either of these is best which puts the body in best tune, to serve (as I may say) the soul in a holy duty.

§. 6 Obs. 2 How soon abUse crept into this Ordinance of the Supper. It was not above twenty or thirty year from the nativity or birth of this Ordinance when this Epi­stle was written, it was nothing so long from the birth or foundation of this Church to this time. The Apostle had sown good corn in this field by his Doctrine. I have delivered unto you the naked insti­tution of Christ, and now it stands in need of weed­ing. The Devil was not asleep in the very Apostles Errour and corruption sprung up in the Church betime. times. He raised up Simon Magus, and after him a fry of Gnosticks, or knowing people, so they would be called, but falsly, saith Irenaeus, to corrupt the Doctrine; and it was betimes that the Devil set his foot in this most excellent Ordinance, and from first to last there have been scarce any times wherein some soil hath not cleaved to this Sacrament, every Age adding or declaring somewhat, till it became a mon­ster, unlike it self in the Romish Masse, which is a Masse of Idolatry and abomination, a very abomina­tion of desolation to this Ordinance, the stamp of Christs institution being so defaced, that he that minted it cannot own his own coyn; for being an [Page 30] outward Ordinance, consisting of outward elements and actions, the fancy of men thinks, this and that dressing would do better, and so by putting on more ornaments, as they call them, they quite spoil the feature of the childe; and if men would be tamper­ing while the Apostles lived, what would they do after? If I should say, that the unhappiest and old­est weeds have grown in this Garden, I should not speak far wide; I may say of it, as Solomon saith of man, Eccles. 7. 29. Loc, this have I found, that God hath made man right, but they have sought out many inventions.

§. 7 Obs. 3 The Apostle doth not command those that were pure from these abUses to separate from their Communi­on with the rest, whom he reproves for their sinne of Of separation, when sinful, and when law­full. coming unworthily. We know not who, or how ma­ny were free, but it may seem the poorest were the purest, as commonly they are; but he that reproves schism doth not command separation; He assayes the cure another way,

1. By setting the Ordinance right according to Christs Institution.

2. By rectifying the Communicants from their unworthy coming, and so gives both a purgation, disallowing their schism, not allowing any separa­tion.

If Babylon become ahabitation of Devils, then come out of her my people, Rev. 18. 2, 4. Yea flee out and de­liver your souls, Jer. 51. 6.

If Christ must be coupled with Belial, the Temple of God with Idols, as it is when Christians partici­pate in Heathenish Sacrifices and Idolatries, then, Come out from among them, and be ye separate, [Page 31] 1 Cor. 6. 16, 17. You have an old and famous exam­ple in them that left all to go to Jerusalem when Jere­boam set up his Calves, and cast out the Priests of the Lord, 2 Chron. 11. 14, 16. For if Bethel turn Betha­ven, the hoUse of God become the hoUse of iniquity, then, Come out of Gilgal, Goe not up to Bethaven Hos. 4. 15.

If any that's called a brother, a Professour of the Christian Religion, be a Fornicatour, or Idolater, or covetous, have no free familiarity with him, with such an one, no not to eat, 1 Cor. 5. 11. Turn away from them, 2 Tim. 3. 5.

If they bring corrupt Doctrine, hoUse them not, sa­lute them not, Epist. a. John 10. for that makes you par­taker in their sinne, vers. 11. If their works be un­fruitfull works of darkness, be not partakers with them, have no fellowship with their workes, Ephes. 5. 7, 11.

These separations are duty, and unto duty, but for a Corinthian to separate from Gods Church and Gods Ordinance, becaUse some come unworthily to the Lords Table is no duty, becaUse there is no com­mand, it is no duty, and therefore we read not this word, Come forth, in any of those Epistles written to the seven Churches, Revel. 2. & 3. against which Christ saith, He hath such and such things; they that lived in the impurer, are not called forth into the purer Churches, but there are promises made to them that keep themselves pure, and duties enjoyned them to­ward the impure part, for we may not make these Churches and Babylon all one, nor make every disease the plague: Shall the sons of God, the Angels, for­sake the Lords presence, becaUse Satan comes also [Page 32] amongst them? Job 1. 6. Must Shem and Japhet leap out of Noahs Ark, becaUse there is a Cham there; Would not our Saviour rather have sent for John Ba­ptist to have baptized him, rather than himself have come from Nazareth to Bethabara, which some com­pute Hildersam in Joh. 4. Lect. 26 p. 122. fourteen Dutch miles, that's of ours fifty six? If that generation of vipers that came also to Johns Ba­ptism, had either polluted the water, or the Ordi­nance unto Christ? Matth. 3. 7, 14. But of this more afterwards.

§. 8 Obs. 4 The abUses reproved were such as depraved the Ordi­nance, and the corruptions such as put themselves forth in the Communicants at the very time of their participation. The Lords Supper, was so intermedled with their festival cheer, as the difference between the Lords body, and their own repast was not truly made. They discerned not the Lords body. Their corruptions which at all times are blame-worthy, as divisions, intemperance, slighting the poor brethren, do now appear most odious and unsuitable, I note hereupon, That sinne never doth us more hurt than in frustrating and disabling the Use and fruit of Ordinances. This is not, saith he, to eat the Lords Supper, vers. 20. You come together not for the better, but for the worse, vers. 17. We are the worse, when we bring such sins as carnalize the heart, and disapten us for spiritual fruition and enjoyment; An outward reverence, as it is an argument of a serious spirit; so it is becoming the Ordinances of the Go­spel; The meeting of the Church is the greatest meet­ing in the world, the irreverent Use of the Lords Sup­per, call'd for a sudden Reformation, Other things, saith the Apostle, will I set in order when I come, vers. ult. but this cannot stay, it's a matter of importance, [Page 33] that the reverence of this Ordinance be preserv'd, bring not hither then the behaviour of a Tavern, or of your meeting at the Hall of your Company, though grave, but the deportment of Christians that come to the best and greatest Table in the world: It's true, I could worship Christ though lying in a manger, but I should not put him in a manger, if I had a better room for him in my Inne; Let all things be done decent­ly, or beautifully, 1 Cor. 14. ult.

§. 9 The words are, For I received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you; A good recommendation of his Doctrine, a good preparative to make way for Cameron. Myrothec. in loc. Horac. lib. 2. Satyr. 8. Aeneid. l. 2. their acceptance of it, I received it from the Lord. The expression is Hebrewish, with whom; the Teach­er is said to give, Prov. 9. 9. The Scholar to receive, and the Latine owns both the words in that sense, That which I have learned, I also have delivered; This very Doctrine he had taught them by word of mouth, but now upon occasion of their swerving from it, he repeats and writes them a copy of it for perpetual memory. Beza is in this place a Hypercri­tick from the word [...] not [...], and will have it thus, Ut à Domino profectum, I received it upon re­port, as from the Lord: It weakens not the credit of the Doctrine, whether the Apostle had it by immedi­ate revelation, as most say, or by report of eye-wit­nesses, or both; He did receive it from the Lord, and from the Lord he hands it to the Church, and there­in, as Estius saith, he is a fourth Evangelist, for John Estius in loc, recites not the institution of the Supper, though he speak upon the borders of it, and so Paul makes the fourth relator.

The Observations hence are,

§. 10 [Page 34]1. The best way to redress and remedy abUses and cor­ruptions crept into this Ordinance, is to reduce it to the Justum regulum adjubet Martyr. Institutio Chri­sti certa regula. Calvin. Lords Institution. This the Apostle here doth, ha­ving opened the nature of the disease, he applies this medicine, For I have received of the Lord, &c. Our Saviour had Used this way upon the Question of Di­vorce, which was grown very abusive, and stood in need of regulation; he tries it by the standard of the first institution, yea though the authority and anti­quity of Moses was pleaded, But, saith Christ, from the beginning it was not so, Mat. 19. 8. Though errour be old, yet truth is first. All corruptions of Ordinan­ces are deviations from their institution, and there­fore the false copy must be corrected by the true ori­ginal, The institution of Christ is the certain Rule; He instituted it for a Communion, therefore O Corin­thians, your divisions and contempt of the poor is unsuitable. He instituted it as a Sacrament of his bo­dy and blood for spiritual repast, therefore your in­temperance and common Use of it at your feasts, is not agreeable to the nature and Use of it, as the standard discovers false weights and measures, and a straight rule, a crooked line, so the institution of our Lord, corruptions. The Popish-masse would not be found in the masse, if it were tried by this Rule; but we must distinguish between Christs institution of this Sacrament, and his celebration of it, though at the same time. The institution shews the nature and Use of it, and abides as a perpetual Rule, He took bread, he blest, he broke, he gave, &c. His celebration of it was by Reason of the Passeover attended by very many occasional circumstances, after Supper, in a private room, in such a gesture, to such a number, in [Page 35] unlevened bread, &c. It's no corruption to vary in these occasional circumstances, except we must al­wayes keep Passeovers too. I show'd you before out of Jewish Writers, That the Passeover of after-times, even that of Christ varied in such particulars from the first Passeover in Egypt, without corruption, and so this Supper in all ages hath varied from the first ce­lebration in such occasionals. He, saith Naz anzen, Naz. Nat. 40. celebrated the Supper, [...], in an upper room, we in our hoUses of prayer; he af­ter, we before Supper; he before his death, we after his Resurrection, and so accordingly all Divines. It is universalis notio, saith Chamier, an universal notion Chamier. de Euchar. l. 8. c. 7. that the circumstances of an individual action be di­stinguisht from those that pertain to the Law thereof, and these may be of good Use for instruction, not of necessary Use for imitation; I say with learned Hooker, Hooker Eccles. Polit. l. 5. p. 366 To do throughout every like circumstance with Christ were to erre more from the purpose he aimed at, then we now do by not following them with so nice strictness; What is superstition but to make that necessary which is indifferent, and that a part of wor­ship which is an accident to it? So Constantine the Emperour defer'd his Baptism, and almost mist it, becaUse he would have been baptized in Jordan, as Christ was. Hold the institution, but be not super­stitious without a command, or hoc facite, in the circumstances that fall out at the time of cele­bration.

§. 11 Obs. 3 This Ordi­nance we re­ceive from the Lord. That the Apostle received from the Lord what he de­livered to the Church. This high and honourable Or­dinance, the Passeover of the Christian Church, we can receive from no higher hand, than the Lord, we [Page 36] may receive from no lower; our faith can be resolved into no lower authority than the Lord. I believe and receive this, and Use it, and expect the fruit, not be­caUse Paul delivers it to me, but becaUse he receives it from the Lord, and so the Apostle leads our faith to the original, the first authority, and higher we need not, we cannot go: It was the dignity of an Apostle to be a receiver from the Lord, or else he could not have had the authority of a deliverer to the Church. See the difference between Christ and Paul in this matter of delivery to the Church, in Matth. 5. 21, 31, 33. Ye have heard it hath been said of old thus and thus, But I say to you; He speaks like the Lord, But I say; when Paul comes to speak, Then, I have received from the Lord, he speaks as an Embassadour, or a servant; No other authority ought to take place in the Church, but of Christ only.

§. 12 The Apostles were of high authority in the Church of Christ, first Apostles, saith the Text, 1 Cor. 12. 28. yet they were but receivers, there was a higher authority which they advance, I have recei­ved from the Lord; See the scale or ladder of faith; we receive our Doctrine from the Scriptures, the Scriptures from the Apostles and others that were in­spired; they from Christ, and Christ as Mediatour sayes, He hath received his mission from God; and here alone our faith stands, and is quietly setled, so in the Commonwealth, you receive a warrant from the Constable, a meaner man then you, he from the Justice, he from the Councel, they from the supream power.

And what need or Reason was there that he should avouch his receiving the Doctrine of this Sacrament [Page 37] from the Lord? Was it for that he wrote to the Co­rinthians, a proud and stomackfull people that had his person in some contempt in comparison of their preachers, who by their tinkling eloquence led them by the ears into captivity, and were partners with, or patrons of them in these abUses? Therefore he brings the name of the Lord to bear down their naughty sto­macks, and the Lords institution to whip these corru­ptions out of the Temple: Or

Rather was it for a closer Reason; He that believes to receive a soul-benefit from an outward Ordinance of eating and drinking bread and wine, had need to see good ground for his believing, for they are incom­mensurate and improper to the soul; the body may more easily be fed with air, than the soul with bread and wine; Therefore he appeals to the Lord, for the benefit is from the authour, the vertue and fruit from the institution; He that by a piece of brass heal'd a mortal sting, can by bread (as I may say) feed the hungry soul; He put clay in my eyes (saith the blinde man) He sent me to the pool of Siloam, and I washt, and do see, Joh. 9. 15.

§. 13 Obs. 3 That the Apostle delivered to the Church what he had received from the Lord also delivered unto you, (Et omnibus Ecc esiis meo ministerio fundatis) and all Morton in loc. P. Martyr. Churches founded by my Ministry; He did receive and deliver, but not institute this Ordinance; He that will institute a Sacrament makes himself a God, saith Peter Martyr, Had he not received he had want­ed authority? Had he not delivered, he had wanted faithfulness and honesty, as a messenger that keeps the God alwayes had officers in his Church. Ring sent to a friend? God hath ever had in his Church such as should be receivers and deliverers, an [Page 38] office of men, taken from among men, and ordained for men in things pertaining to God, as it's defined, Heb. 5. 1. but all are not receivers, as Paul, by imme­diate hand from the Lord; Moses receives the Law, and the pattern in the Mount; he was a receiver and deliverer, the Priests in their generations did receive and deliver, but they were bound to the Law, and to the Testimony: So in the Christian Churches the Apostles receive the Word and Sacraments from the Law, they see the pattern in the Mount, then there are others in their generations that receive and deliver too, but they are bound to the Law and Testimony. Hear the Apostle 2 Tim. 2. 2. The things that thou hast heard of me, commit thou to faithfull men, who shall be able to teach others also: So that here is Paul that re­ceived from the Lord, Timothy from Paul, other faith­full men from Timothy, and others from those faith­full men; There is no government of any Com­monwealth on earth, but they have their Offi­cers to receive Lawes and Commands from the highest, and to convey and deliver them to the people.

§. 14 The Apostle received from the Lord two things, His Commission and his Errand; His Commission to be an Apostle, Rom. 1. 5. From Christ we have re­ceived our Apostleship, and this he may show to the people, as he doth to these Corinthians, 1 Cor. 9. 1. Am I not an Apostle? &c. but he doth not deliver this to them; His errand, and that is the Doctrine of the Gospel, and this he doth both receive and de­liver, I have delivered unto you; so an Embassadour hath a Commission, and that he may show, but de­livers not; and he hath an errand, and that he receives [Page 39] from his Lord, and delivers to them to whom he is sent. There were Prophets in Jeremiah's time that would be deliverers, but they neither received Com­mission, Jer. 14. 14. I sent them not; nor errand, Jer. 23. 16. Their vision was of their own heart; The one of these being wanting made a false prophet. I fear we have many moe deliverers then receivers from the Lord, either they want one of these legs, or both, and yet (which is the wonder they run) having recei­ved neither Commission nor Errand from the Lord.

§. 15 He delivers that to the Church, all that, only that, which first he had recived from the Lord; the arrow flees with strength, that is shot out of such a Bow; He was a faithfull Embassadour or Steward, we have all that, and nothing but that which comes from the Lord; a good depositary that fails not of his trust, the losse of a little of Gods truth, is as the losse of a Diamond out of a Ring: Christ speaks of the least iota's or tittles of the Law, as precious things, and permanent. It was the admirable wit of Homer, to make (in his Poems) Embassadours to speak in the same words, as they received their errand by the same spirit, and the same inspiration that he received this Doctrine from the Lord, he also delivered it to the Church. How pure doth this Ordinance of the Supper come to our hands? What credit ought it to be of with us? You know the Heathens, and so Ma­homet that impostor, that set up or devised the hea­thenish Theology or Worship, they feigned a con­versation with some god or goddess, a spirit, that their votes might be received of the people with awe and credit; for the conscience of man stoops to none but God, from whom we are assured by the A­postle [Page 40] that we have this Ordinance, That I received, I also delivered to you.

§. 16 Obs. 4 That what the Apostle had formerly delivered to the Corinthians by lively voice, now he writes upon the occa­sion of abUses grown in, How easily do corruptions steal Estius in loc. in? How soon do we forget the Law of Ordinances and institutions of Christ? It could not be many years since he had delivered the manner of this Ordinance, What necessity there is of having the Scri­pture written. and now he repeats it in writing: What necessity is there of having the Scripture written? That it may continue and passe pure from generation to generati­on. Men finde it very requisite that their Laws be written and upon record; what inconveniences would follow, if not? While the Church of God consisted of few persons or families, as in Noah and Abraham's time, there was the word of God, but not Scripture. It was handed down from father to sonne by traditi­on, and the frequent appearances of God to them, supplied defects; but afterward God began the ex­ample, and wrote the Decalogue in Tables of stone, the ancientest writing this day in all the world, then Moses also wrote the Scripture, and he is the ancientest writer in the world; if all the Greek Law givers or Poets be compared with him, they are but (heri aut nudius tertius saith Cunaeus and Josephus) as of yesterday, hundreds of years before the Trojan war, yet not so many, as Theoph. ad Autolycum. affirms, The Jews had the Old Which was in Jephaes dayes 900. or 1000. Testament written, though they were so frequently visited by extraordinary Prophets; and the Jewish Masoreth had so industriously mended and numbred all the letters in every word of the Old Testament, that they knew the number, and could as easily misse one as you can misse a pearl off your chain, and here­of [Page 41] we have the benefit, Codicem portat Judaeus unde credat Christianus, The Jew saith Austin, though Aug. in sa. 56 himself an unbeliever is our Library-keeper, and carries the book after us out of which we get our faith: for how often doth our Lord and his Apostles cite those Records; Nor would the Lord let the New Testament be unwritten, which in the wide world, over which the Gospel spreads, would have been mangled and transfigured into a thousand shapes. Re­member sometimes in your prayers to give God thanks for the Gospel written, the Jews never forget the Law in theirs. And yet again, I note it, that ma­ny parts of the New Testament were written on acci­dental occasions, as ill manners occasion good Laws; so Paul writes this Epistle, and this part that I preach upon: So the Epistle to the Galatians, an occasion of false teachers that mingled Moses and Christ, Law and Gospel; and all Writers give this occasion for that lofty and sublime piece, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was, &c. becaUse the hellish Gno­sticks did even then begin to adulterate the simplicity of the Gospel, and to bring Christ unto a lower rank, and therefore he Uses their very words [...] and [...] Grot. in Proleg. ad Johan. which they had in Plato and Pythagoras his School, and applies them to Christ Jesus; we get this excel­lent piece of Scripture which intreats upon the prepa­ration of the Communicant above any, above all other, and we get it by the abUses and corruptions reigning then in Corinth, upon occasion of their sin, the whole Church hath gained a Rule for ever, I had almost said, as it's said in another respect, foelix culpa, happy were these corruptions.

The safest, simplest, certainest Rule by which a Commu­nicant §. 17. Obs. 5. [Page 42] may examine himself, whether he come worthily to this Table, is to do it by the nature, Use and end of the Lords Supper. The Apostle had found great fault with the Corinthians manner of communicating, to prevent By what rule men are to ex­amine whe­ther they come worthily to the Lords Supper. which he gives one short Rule in these words, Let a man examine himself; but he sets down no form of this self-examination; He doth not answer the Question, How? Yea, he delivers the institution of Christ in all points, as that Rule to square the Communicant; For if a man do rightly calculate, he shall finde that here is presented and represented the closest union and communion of the soul with Christ, the most spiri­tual intimacy, the most humbling and passionate pro­spect of a broken Christ, the most refreshing water that runs out of that smitten Rock, the most real ex­hibition and affording of this to me; and indeed the sweetest and neerest entercourse with our Lord, is here set forth, as in no other Ordinance, for the man­ner of it, and then what doth this bespeak? Doth a feast so set forth bespeak a swine? Are Superstition, Ignorance, Prophaneness, fit garments to come in to such a Supper? Are those Christ-killing-sinnes of ours, which caUsed this breaking of him, fit compa­nions for us to bring to the eating of him? That is, as if we should bring to the Lords Table the bloudy knife that killed him; Let a man but Use his Reason with his faith, and ask this broken bread, this pour­ed wine, what they mean, or what they speak, and they will tell him enough, whereby he may examine himself, and this is Chemnitius his Rule for examina­tion, Chem. Exam. de preparatione. whom a great man of this Nation saith, to be the best Scholar of all the Lutherans (Sic inquit Mon­tacut. origenes.)

Uſe. [Page 43]The result of all that hath been said, comes to these two instructions, pertaining either to Minister, or people, or both.

1. That this Ordinance of the Supper be suitable to the Exod. 25. 40. Heb. 8. 5. institution of Christ.

2. That the Communicant be suitable to the Ordinance, and then both things which the Apostle speaks unto here, both sorts of abUses or corruptions, whether in the Ordi­nance, or of the Communicants, are set to rights, and all is right.

§. 18 1. That the Ordinance be suitable to the institution; For see (saith he) that thou make all things according to This Ordi­nance must be administred according to Gods institu­tion. the pattern shew'd thee in the Mount; Moses had no li­berty to vary from the matter or form, or any particu­lar; and have not we an institution, and the pattern of this Ordinance set before us, not in the Mount, but in the upper▪ room, where Christ celebrated the first Supper, and gave forth a hoc facite, This do as oft as ye do it, hoc facite, is as much as, See that ye make or do all things according to the pattern; The Apostles were not now at a Councel-Table with their Lord, to give their vote what manner of Sacrament should be appointed, but as guests to take and eat at present such cheer as the Master set before them, and in after-times to do This, Do this in remembrance of me, and yet our Lord Christ would have his Ordi­nances administred [...] decently. Clemens the an­cientest of Fathers in his Epistle to these Corinthians, hath an excellent saying, [...], We ought to do all those things orderly which our Master hath commanded us to do; For Christ himself was no friend to slovenliness, or loathsome nastiness (as one ob­serves) Hildersam in John 4. out of that Mark 14. 15. He shall shew you an [Page 44] upper room furnished and prepared; but presumption is bold, Superstition adventurous, as if it was called to councel with God, makes no bones of clipping his coyn; and therefore this Sacrament hath been filled with many devices, and long groaned under their in­ventions, which after long possession plead prescripti­on, and come in after-times to be counted parts, which at first were but scabs or wens. The Apostle did not, durst not deliver but what he had received; but they that have lesse power than the Apostle, dare deliver what they received not, and by adding or substracting, do plainly finde fault with Gods own model: Why should the Papist give into the mouth of his Commu­nicant a whole wafer, but that he is afraid to break the bread least some loose crums should fall? Why doth he cheat the people wholly of the Cup, but up­on pretence that a drop of the bloud might be shed or spilt? May we not think that they are too nice, and more scrupulous than Christ, at whose breaking bread there might fall crums, and in the Apostles drinking, drops from the cup? Superstition is foolish, that pre­tends holiness, and corrupts Ordinances, and had ra­ther make than take a Sacrament; We have the Mi­nister in the name and stead of Christ Jesus; if this be denied (as it is by some) I shall at present affirm but this, That the reverend and most ancient Father Ju­stin Martyr in his second Apology to the Roman Em­perour, written about fifty years after the death of John the Apostle, sets out (as I shall shew you) the full manner of their administration of this Sacrament, and therein saith, the [...], or Minister, doth pour forth prayer, and gives thanks over the bread and wine, which (I can give no account of private corners) [Page 45] hath been practised in the Christian Churches, till this very time and year, being 1500 years at least. The Minister takes the bread, and likewise takes the Cup. He gives thanks or blesseth over the Bread and Cup He breaks the Bread, he saith, Take ye, eat ye, drink ye. He pronounces, This bread is the bo­dy of our Lord Jesus Christ. This Cup is the New Testa­ment in his bloud. You do take, you eat, you drink. This the Minister doth; this you do for a remembrance and commemoration of Christ, shewing forth his death; and this is an Ordinance sutable to the institution.

§. 19 2. That the Communicant be sutable to the Ordinance. When the Song is truly set and prickt, the singer must Of worthy communica­ting. keep time and tune, or else all is not right; The Pa­pists have the Ordinance unsuitable to the institution, and we alas have Communicants unsuitable to the Ordinance. That word which follows in this Cha­pter, that dangerous word [...], unworthily; what is it but unsutably, we must measure, and fashion the Communicant by the Ordinance: He must of neces­sity be a Disciple, to such Christ spoke, Take ye, eat ye, &c. not as ye are Apostles, but as Disciples; He must bring with him a Christ receiving, or a Christ applying faith, for Take, Eat, without a hand or mouth of the soul he cannot; He must come with hunger and thirst for strength and refreshment, for he doth come to a Table to eat and drink the staff of bread the cordial cheering wine; This strength and nourishment is by vertue of his union with Christ himself, and communion, therefore he comes to eat the very body, and drink the very bloud of Christ; He comes as a confederate with God, to receive the seal, or as a Legator to receive a Legacy bequeath'd [Page 46] by Will, viz. Christ and remission of sins in Christ, for this Cup is the New Covenant, or New Testa­ment sealed with Christs bloud; He comes as to a festival commemoration, where the founder of the feast is remembred with praise and honour, Do it in remembrance of me; He looks through and beyond the broken bread and wine poured out, to a broken body and the shed bloud of Christ; He looks at another taking, then taking of bread; another eating and drinking than of bread and wine, viz. the taking to himself, and the spiritual and intimate application of Christs body and bloud, For he discerns the Lords bo­dy, and therefore comes as a consecrated person to consecrated elements, to broken bread with a broken heart, full of affections, as the Ordinance is full of mysteries, and here is a Communicant suitable to the Ordinance, and so Paul, who received of the Lord, and delivered unto them the institution of Christ, hath set to rights both the Ordinance, and the Corinthian Com­municant.

CHAP. III. That the Lord Jesus is the Authour of this Sacrament.

1 COR. 11. 23.‘That the Lord Jesus, &c.

I Shall follow the track of the Apostle, who goes before me in the two points I am to entreat upon.

1. The Nature and Use of this Sacrament.

2. The due Preparation of the Communicant.

Of these in order, and with what brevity I can, contenting my self to speak in decimo sexto, what might be spoken in folio, in hope that your proficiency by Mr Anthony Burgess and Mr Love. your former most worthy teachers, may excUse me the labour of so large a volume.

The next words I come unto, do plainly point out unto us.

1. The Author of the institution, The Lord Jesus.

2. The Time of it, The same night in which he was betrayed.

Doct. 1 The Authour of this Sacra­ment. The Authour of this institution is the Lord Jesus. The consent of all the Evangelists that write the History, [Page 48] puts this out of all controversie; Christ was personal­ly present both celebrating and instituting this Ordi­nance; He is res Sacramenti, the thing of the Sacra­ment, and Author Sacramenti, the Authour of the Sacrament, the feast-maker, and the feast; Out of this pierced side (as Austin alludes) there came forth both bloud and water, the two Sacraments of the Church; He took the bread, he blest, he brake it, he gave it, it may well be called the Lords Supper, yea the Lord is the Supper, This is my body, this is my bloud.

§. 1 First, The Lord Jesus is Authour, the Mediatour of the new Covenant, the Testator of the new Testa­ment, appoints the seal of that Covenant, and ratifies that Testament with his bloud; He is the Lord to whom is committed the Soveraignty and Govern­ment of his Church, therefore he makes Officers, Laws and Ordinances. The Lords day, and the Lords Supper are particularly in Scripture called by Rev. 1. 10. 1 Cor. 11. his name, The Lords; The Lords day ex illius resur­rectione festivitatem suam habere coepit, took its festivity Epist. 119. from his Resurrection, as Austin; The Lords Supper is the memorial of his death, so his death and resurre­ction, a Supper, and a day to memorize them.

As he is Lord, so his Laws binde whatsoever they be, though Abraham be commanded to kill his sonne, for the Laws of God have not their obligation from the quality of the Law, but from the authority of the Lord the Law-giver: As he is Jesus a Savi­our, so his Laws are benefits and liberties tending to salvation; as the Laws of your City are freedoms, and your freedoms laws, so you obey them [...]s Laws, enjoy them as freedoms, they are our benefit and our duty; His invitation is to a Supper, it's the invitation of a Lord, it's the Supper of a Saviour.

§. 2 [Page 49]Secondly, There must be institution of a Sacrament. The elements are cyphers, till the institution make them figures. Institution is as necessary to a Sacra­ment, as superscription is to money, for it is created [...], of things that did not appear, Sacra­ments are of that rank of things, Quae nihil sunt sine institutione, saith Chamier, they were bread and wine Chamier. de Euchar. l. 7. c. 10 indeed before, but they were nothing to that relation which Christ put upon them; a seal of a thousand a year is made of a peny-worth of wax; What was a piece of brasse to the healing of a mortal sting? No­thing, till God put an Use upon it, that all that lookt to it being bitten should be healed.

§. 3 Thirdly, There must be a divine institution to make a Sacrament. The Legatee doth not seal the will, but the Testatour, the Granter seals the Deed, not the Grantee; the Delinquent seals not the pardon, but the Keeper of the seal, Sola divina institutio facit Sa­cramentum, Montac. origin. part. 1. pag. 73. saith a learned man; Take that away, and it ceaseth to be a Sacrament; The Supream Power only can coyn money, in other its c [...]pit [...]l. All the whole Church together cannot make a Sacrament, then it should be the Churches Supper, not the Lords, and it is theirs to eat, but not to make, Ejus est signa Synopsis de coena §. 7. gratiae addere, cujus est gratiamtribuere, He may adde the signs of grace, that can give the grace. There is a four-fold word requisite to a Sacrament,

1. A word of institution, which appoints the mat­ter and form.

2. A word of Sanctification or blessing, to set them apart from common Use.

3. A word of Promise of some good to the Com­municant, and so we have here a promise of the [Page 50] Lords body and bloud; The promises of Sacraments, (as is well Observed by the Centuriators) are vestitae Centur. mag. ce [...]t. 1. promissiones, cloathed promises: He that believes shall be saved, is a naked promise: He that eats this bread, &c. shall have Christ as a cloathed promise.

4. A word of Command, as we have the [...] Buckler. Pr [...]t. evidence. in Baptism, so hoc facite here, as a learned man. Let the Word be added to the Element, and you have a Sacrament. Austin.

§. 4 Fourthly, It's the institution that gives the nature and efficacy to a Sacrament. He that mints the money, sets the value and price upon it. A Sacrament is an out­ward and visible signe, but it is not a natural, but a voluntary sign, nor yet a bare signe as the picture of Hercules is a signe of Hercules, and no more; we must not make the Sacraments, [...], empty names, empty figures, empty representations, that resemble and signifie something, and no more; as the Sacra­ment was a crucifix, and the Supper painted resem­blances of meat and drink, this is a hungry feast; he must have his stomack in his eye, that is fed with it, but the Sacraments are signacula, symbola, seals and pledges, or instruments offering, exhibiting and ma­king present to our faith the very benefits which they signifie, the very body and bloud of Christ is not only represented, but presente to a believer, and brought home to his soul, yet they are not natural instruments Montac. orig. part. 1. p. 67. in which the inward grace is contained, as in a vessel, as the Romish Praesentialists and Schoolmen dream, like plaisters which have in themselves a virtue or power to heal a wound, or a medicine to expell poison, but they are moral and voluntary means or instruments serving to the purpose ex destinatione by appointment, [Page 51] as the brazen Serpent to heal the sting. Bernard hath writ upon it, As (saith he) in vestitures, and posses­sions, Bernard▪ de c [...] ­ [...]a. and assurances, do pass by the staff and ring, Annulus non valet qnicquam, haereditas est quam quae­rebam, The ring avails little, I seek the inheritance that is confirmed and convey'd by it; so we say, the Lands, Inheritance, &c. do passe by the great Seal, for so I come to have and hold, and they are mine by it; Thus the Sacrament is a seal of confir­mation and conveyance of the inward grace to the hand or faith of a believing soul; And as really as the estate doth passe by the Seal into your right and possession, not by any inward work or power of the Seal in it self, but by the Use it's of, in sealing and con­veying; so really is Christ, and all his tReasure passed over unto you that receive him by faith, not in respect of any worthiness or vertue in the very outward Sa­crament, but in and by the Use it's of, by Christs ap­pointment to seal, confirm and convey; that excellent place speaks my minde fully, 1 Cor. 10. 16. The Cup of blessing which we bless, Is it not the Communion of the bloud of Christ? The Bread which we break, Is it not the Communion of the body of Christ? He saith not barely representation, as a signe, but communion or participation as a conveying seal; I declare this to you, becaUse some believe too much, and think the outward Sacrament works (I know not how) like a plaister by some vertue contained in them, that is ope­re operato, as they barbarously speak; and others be­lieve-too little, as if they were meer and empty signs and resemblances of Christs body and bloud; as if a woman should receive a ring meerly, becaUse the pi­cture of her beloved is engraven on it, and not as a [Page 52] ring of espousals, really sealing and confirming the contract, and assuring himself hers; sed de hoc infra.

§. 5 The Use which may be hence inferr'd is two­fold.

Use 1 The Lord Jesus is authour, therefore this Supper is not ours that are Ministers, but it is the Lords. Alexan­der Ales. pars 4. quaest. 49. memb. 1. Hales hath an excellent Rule, which I shall make Use of hereafter, it's this, Sacerdos est dispensator non Dominus Sacramentorum Ecclesiae, non dat suum, sed reddit alienum, quod de jure negari non potest, The Mi­nister is the Dispenser or Steward, not the Lord of the Sacraments of the Church. He gives not that which is his, but restores that which is anothers, which de jure cannot be denied to him to whom it's Homil. 83. in Mat. due, and therefore Chrysostom speaks to his fellow Mi­nisters, and cals them [...], Distribu­ters, Dispensers, as you are of the poors bread in the Church, which some Benefactour formerly appoint­ed to be bestowed on them by his Will, and of his Gift, to whom the Lord gives it; We cannot deny, if they be within the Sphere of our office, and to whom the Lord denies we cannot give. A man comes to an Executour, Sir, I come to you for a certain Le­gacy given me by my Fathers will, whereof you are Executour, the gift bequeathed is not yours, and you are but the hand, whereby the Donour was pleased to hand it unto me: True, saith the Executour, there is such a Legacy bequeath'd, but if you look the Will, you shall finde it given with some limitations and pro­viso's: See the words, ver. 28. of this Chapter, [...], and so, there is an And so; But let a man examine him­self, and so let him eat, and so let him drink: It is con­fest [Page 53] on all hands, The Conditions being performed, the claim is good; but if it can be said, You are not a Disciple, and to such only this Legacy was bequeath­ed by Christ, or the Church hath set on you the brand of a Heathen or a Publican, though you was a Disciple, and you have for the present by your sinne forfeited the right you had, untill by your repentance you return again, why then all will say, that an Exe­cutour or Administratour may not act directly contra­ry to the Will, for he is not the Testatour to do what he will, but he is Administratour to Observe, and not to violate the Will.

§. 6 Use 2 The Lord Jesus is authour from him, therefore let the benefit and efficacy of this Ordinance be expected; for it hath & veritatem, & virtutem, both esse and operari, being and working from the authour; As money hath the stamp and the value from the supream power; and here is the difference between natural and moral instruments (we take the word instrument largely pro medio for a mean) that if the Sacraments were natural means or instruments, in which (as the Schoolman doth) the very vertue, or the grace and benefit by them convey'd were contrived, then were the vertue and benefit to be expected from them­selves, and no otherwise from the authour, than as authour of the instrument; as the Candle gives light whether the maker of it be present or no, and the plaister heals by a quality in it self, but a moral instru­ment not so, being empty of any vertue to such an effect, except the authour do work by it, or (ad prae­sentiamejus) at the presence of it; as the Serpent of brasse on the Pole, the Clay and Spittle on the eye, the Lambs bloud on door-posts, had in themselves [Page 54] no power to their several effects, but as they were ap­pointed and Used by God or Christ. It is very hard to believe that there is a true and real exhibition of Christs body and bloud to my faith, as there is of the bread and wine to the mouth of the receiver; sottish and superstitious people, that Use charms or inchanted means for diseases, &c. never ask themselves, How these things work, by any natural vertue in them, or by the devil the authour of them; And so here, there are thousands that have a reverend esteem of these mysteries, yea and a superstitious conceit, thinking that there is some good in them, and ima­gining at least that they shall be better for them, but whether to apply their eye to the very things themselves, or to Christ they know not, nor matter not, but rest in a confUsed imagination, just as they that Use charms. Now for redress of this confUsed notion, I commend that of famous Dr Whitaker, Qua­si De Euchar. pag. 624. in 40. Christos in medio sederet, &c. As if Christ fate a­mongst you, and did the same as in the first Supper, so ought we to think of this Sacrament, and that is to see Christ, to take, and bless, and say to us, This is my body, take and eat; This is my bloud, Drink ye all of it, a very effectual consideration, according to that good old solemn word, Used to be spoken to the people at this Table, Surjum corda, Have your hearts up­ward, to which they answered, Habemus ad Domi­num.

Now as to others that have their eyes so near the book that they see the worse, I mean such as by cu­rious enquiry, and too much niceness, how it's possi­ble that the eating of a piece of bread, and drinking of a sup of wine, should exhibit and convey to the [Page 55] faith of a believer, the very true and real body and bloud of Christ, do dispute themselves into a naked figure and sign, as a painted supper represents a true. I say this, That God imitates men in their assurances or conveyances, as we read of his oath, of his earnest, of his seal; so that as men in passing of estates and in­heritances, do make Deeds, and seal them, and deli­ver them, and then the real estate is not convey'd out by vertue of a bit of wax, but by the Donors sealing that wax, and fastening it to his Deed, and delivering it as his Act and Deed: So God, or the Lord Jesus Christ makes a Covenant of giving Christ and eter­nal life to believers, and appoints Sacraments to be Seals of that Covenant, and delivers this sealed Co­venant to a believer, and thereby really and truly the Lord Jesus Christ; for in hoc sacro, speaking of the Supper, saith Bernard, non solum quaelibet gratia. sed Serm. de caena. 2. ille in quo est, omnis gratia, not only some one certain grace is given, but he in whom is all grace viz. Christ Jesus the Lord. And yet I must not say, that God hath so tied himself, or us, to the sacramental Seals, as that no man can have Christ, or the inheritance without them, for that faith which eats and drinks the flesh and bloud of Christ extra Sacramentum, Joh. 6. 50, 51, 53, 54. doth save, and the Covenant (who­soever believes in Christ shall be saved) passes the estate effectually to a believer, though it be never sealed sa­cramentally, so a Will unsealed and unwritten too, will stand good to many purposes. The Emperour Valentinian earnestly desired Baptism, but before Ambrose could come died; He was sayed, saith Am­brose, voto Baptismi, by the desire of Baptism: No, The desire was good, but it was his faith in Christ [Page 56] that saved him. Crede & manducasti, saith Austin, Be­lieve and thou hast eaten; What then need we care for Sacraments? Yea, the Covenant passes the Estate, the Seal secures and quiets it; God need neither adde to his Promise, Oath or Seal, to binde himself there­by, but to settle us.

CHAP. IV. Of the Time of this Sacraments In­stitution; And of Judas his be­traying Christ.

SO much of the Authour, now to the Time of this The time. Institution, In the same night wherein he was betray­ed; The Lord Jesus was betray'd, he was betray'd in the night, The same night in which he was betrayed, he instituted and celebrated this Supper.

§. 1 First, The Lord Jesus was betrayed. The same word signifies Gods delivering up his Sonne to death, Rom. 8. 32. and Judas his delivering up his Master to the Jews, Luk. 22. 4. and the Jews their delivering of him up to Pilate, Mat. 27. 18. God is not said to betray his Sonne, becaUse according to his purpose, and out of his love to man-kinde, he delivered him to death for their redemption, but both the Jews and Judas are said to have betray'd him, they for envy [Page 57] seeking his bloud, Matth. 27. 18. He for covetousness seeking money, Matth. 26. 15. for it is thought that Judas conceiv'd that Christ would slip out of the mids of them, and go away, as often he had done, and then his Master were safe, and he had his money, for it's said, Matth. 27. 2. that then Judas which had betray'd him, when he saw that Christ was condem­ned, repented himself. It's a good saying, that we should not look on pleasure, as it comes toward us, but as it goes from us. Sinne before it be committed seems to the eye of lust full of profit, pleasure, after commission when the lust is spent, Ammon hates Ta­mar for whom he was sick before.

But the traitor sticks fastest to Judas; he is [...] the betrayer of Christ his Lord and Master, and therefore the brand is set upon him, Judas Iscariot who betrayed him, as on Jeroboam, that made Israel to sinne, and how did he betray him? He brought a band of men to the place where Christ was, and marked him out unto them with a kisse, Matth. 26. 48. This is he, take him, and hold him fast. This Text re­fers not to Gods delivering up of Christ, nor to the Luk. 22. 48. Jews, but to Judas; for it's said, In the night that he was betrayed, and that was by Judas only.

§. 2 Judas being an instrument to bring to passe Gods holy councel and purpose, plunged himself by his sinne into Obs. deep damnation. It was Gods purpose and decree that Christ should die, and he himself deliver'd him up to death, but as God holily and justly doth what Jo­sephs brethren do sinfully, so he delivers up the Lord Jesus by wicked hands, Luk. 22. 22. The Sonne of man goes, viz dies, [...], as it was decreed and determin'd, But woe to that man by whom he is betrayed, [Page 58] it had been good for that man that he had not been born. It is according as it is decreed, yet woe to that man, &c. Acts 2. 23. He was deliver'd by the determinate councel and fore-knowledge of God, but you have slain him by wicked hands; God brings his holy councels, purpo­ses and decrees to passe by most wicked instruments; The giving up his Sonne to death was the most glori­ous work of grace and love that ever was, but effe­cted by most wicked hands. Godly men could not be imployed in such services. An Artificer Useth a crooked tool to do that which he cannot do by a strait one; The secret will of God is no rule of our obedi­ence, Nec omnis revelata, saith Ainsw. not every re­veal'd Medull a lib. cap. 1. §. 23. will neither his instance is of Jeroboam to whom it was reveal'd long before that he should have ten Tribes, 1 King. 11. [...]1. which yet peccavit occupan­do, he sinn'd in assuming, 2 Chron. 3. 5, 6, 7. The re­vealing of an event, which God hath determined, or those actions, whereby that event shall be brought to passe, gives no warrant, for else Hazael, being told 2 King. 8. 12. before, and Judas too, what they should both do, might have been pleaded for justification; After a wonderfull manner, saith Austin, that is against Gods will, which is not besides it. It's against the will of his command, which is our rule, which is not beside the will of his purpose, and yet may be our sin, God is just and gracious in delivering up his Sonne to death, but Judas and the Jews sin horribly in it, there is Rom. 12. 2. That good, and acceptable, and perfect will of God, which the godly are to hold unto, but for the Act. 2. 23. [...], Gods determinate councell Pharaoh and Judas, and Herod, and Pilate, the worst names in the whole world, may be the instruments and damned [Page 59] midwives to bring it to the birth; for (as Mr Bright­man saith in another case) a fair and perfect childe born doth not make any thing the better, the adul­tery in which it was begotten: so the being the work of Gods purpose, nothing warrants the act of any man, or of Judas that betray'd Christ. I must not en­large upon these.

§. 3 Obs. 2 The Lord Jesus was betrayed in the night. Judas marches as Captain of the band of men, and Officers of the Chief-Priests and Pharisees, unto the Garden with Lanterns, Torches, Weapons, Joh. 18. 3. They are cunning to do their work in the night without no­tice, and noise, & tumult; He that about an hour or two ago had been at Passeover with Christ, now betrayes him; He had sold him afore, and now delivers him.

§. 4 Observe here the pattern of a wicked heart made worse by spiritual Ordinances. Whether Judas was present at, and participant of the Lords Supper, that is, whether he received both Sacraments, the Passeo­ver and the Lords Supper, we may haply hereafter consider, but at the Passover he was at that Passover, which Christ saith, he had heartily desired to eat with them, Luk. 22. 15. and with the holiest socie­ty in the world, but he was a Serpent in Paradise all the while.

§. 5 His Character is this: 1. He was purse-bearer and receiver of the contributions that came in, and stew­ard to lay out upon occasion, and becaUse he inverted the publick stock to his private Use, he is called a thief, John [...]2. 6.

2. His Covetousness in time began to flie at great gain; for though he retained to such a Master, and was both a Teacher and Preacher of heavenly Do­ctrine, [Page 60] yet he thrives from a thief to a traitour, and exposed to sale the most precious jewel, Jesus Christ, Luke 22. 3.

3. Of this sinne he went breeding, and came full Matth. 26. 16. of it to the Passeover; This he had premeditated, and with this he was prepossest, and with no better preparation comes to the Sacrament, to which he came not to repent of his sinne, but to cover it: So some men Use Religion, and his successe was accord­ing, for what he was conceived with before, now is quicken'd, After the sop Satan entered into him, Joh. 13. 27.

4. He goes from the Sacrament full of Satan, and within few hours sels that bloud which should have been sprinkled on his door-posts.

§ 6 This is a fearfull example to all that after such a president dare venture upon a Sacrament, to which they come with purpose to go on in those sinnes they bring to it, as he did, whether covetousness, as his was, or luxury, drunkenness, loosness of life, fraud, rapine, ungodly callings, unjust Use of their callings, &c. they think to receive Christ in the Sacrament, and Satan receives them; for you must know, That as Christ is presented in the Sacrament, so Satan is present at it, to enter in after the morsel, being first by the morsel sealed to be his. Sins of purpose and resolution, are the key that opens the door for his en­trance, do not look at Judas his particular sinne of selling his Master, that was not yet, but look at his purpose and resolution to commit the sinne, for that was now even at the Sacrament, that was it that set open the door to the Devil, and such a purpose to continue in your sinnes, will do the like office for [Page 61] Satan in you, as in him, that is, hold the door open. The Devil had put it into Judas heart, Joh. 13. 2. and after the Supper he enter'd into him, vers. 27.

It's true, the best of us bring sinne and corruption in us, and with us to the Lords Table, it's well if it be sour herbs to this Passeover, but it must not be un­leavened bread, sweet sinnes; we may come with sour sinnes, but not with sweet. The Apostles (as Luke relates, Chap. 22. 24.) had some ambition and desire of greatness in them, which even now began to peep up, and our Saviour checks it, and they also freshly come from the Lords Table shewed infirmity, they could not pray with him, they all ranne away from him, after denied him: What alas, so soon af­ter the Sacrament? We learn this excellent lesson, to bewail our corruptions that bubble up in us, even while we are at the Table, and those in us which still appear in us, when we are newly gone from it.

But there is great difference between their sins and Judasses, they thought of some preferment under Christ, and he made a preferment of him; He like a false souldier forsook his colours, and fled to the o­ther side; They were routed and ranne away with in­tent to return again, for [...]: His was an old fire that had long lien in him, and been fed by him: Theirs were some sparklings that sparkled, and soon went out: His was premeditated and pur­posed sin, theirs upon the sudden temptation; They were imperfectly good, he was perfectly evil, as was said of Simon Magus, Act. 8 2 [...]. Thou art in the gall of bitternesse, not, there is some gall of bitternesse in thee.

I have said this, and laid open Judas to affright men, not from the Supper, but unto preparation or self-ex­amination, And so let him come, saith the Text. I will wash mine hands in innocency, and so will I compasse thine Altar, Psal. [...]6. 6. For when or where do ye read such an expression, as vers. 29. He that eats and drinks un­worthily, eats damnation, drinks damnation to himself: It puts me in minde of a comparison of Chrysostoms in his Sermon de proditione Judae. As corporal food, finding [...], a stomack possest with ferment, vitious humours, doth more hurt than good, and incReases the disease, not of it's own nature, but by fault of the stomack: So this Sacrament received by wicked men, aggravates their condemnation, not of it self, but through their unrepented sins.

Obs. 3 The same night in which he was betrayed, the Lord Je­sus did both institute and celebrate this Sacrament. The concurrent testimony of the Evangelists, and of Paul in this Text, asserts it as the first Passeover in Aegypt, was eaten in the night, so was this Supper, and as that was kept in after-times as a memorial of the destroy­ing Angel, his passing over the hoUses of Israel, untill the death of Christ: So this is kept as a memorial of the deliverance of the Church from eternal destructi­on by the death of Christ, untill his second coming.

CHAP. V. Why Christ deferr'd the instituting of this Supper, untill the night in which he was betrayed.

THat Christ could have ordained this Supper be­fore this time there is no doubt, but why he de­ferr'd it to this night in which he was betrayed, [...], Chrysost. in loc. saith Chrysostom, was not without some Reason; and the Lord himself intimates as much, Luke 22. 15. With desire I have desired to eat this Passeover with you, before I suffer: Which Reasons are divers, and may be ordered to two heads:

1. Why he instituted it at the close of the Supper, for after Supper he took the Cup, v. 24.

2. Why he instituted and celebrated it a few hours (if hours) before he was betrayed.

§. 1 First, Being ordained at or at the end of the Passe­over and Supper annexed, which some call coena justa Grotius. or apolytica, the dimissory Supper it must of necessity be at night, for the Passeover was eaten at the begin­ning or fore-part of the night, therefore Christ was necessitate legis adactus, saith Peter Martyr, moved by In locum. necessity of the Law to do it in the night, and after Supper, as substituting it in the place and room of the [Page 64] Passeover (as Paraeus) which he first fulfilled, and then abrogated it, and he abrogated it as one that did not impugn it, for it was an Ordinance of God, and therefore he did not tear it down, as some old hang­ings off the wall, but he did fulfill it by Observing it, and decently laid it in the grave by placing in its room the memorial of an infinitely greater, and more large­ly extending mercy, than the deliverance from Ae­gypt was: So that when he whom that rosted and slain Lamb did type out, was as the true Passeover slain and sacrificed, then it was time the body being present to draw a curtain over the picture, and in stead of that commemoration Used at the Passeover, when they broke the bread, and distributed it, saying, This is the bread of affliction, which our Fathers suffered in Aegypt, to put a new memorial upon it, This is my bo­dy broken for you; This is my bloud shed for you, and as that continued in the Church till the body came which that shadow represented; so shall this continue in the Church, till the person come alive, which is here represented dying, and then an end of this too

2. At the end of the paschal Supper, to shew that Jansen. Harm. p. 105. in this Sacrament there is no bodily repast intended, for they had already supped, but a spiritual refection of the soul. The rosted Lamb might afford the guests a belly-full; so the Religion, and Ordinances, and Promises in the Law were more outward and bodily, but this Sacrament of the Gospel is an after Supper modicum, full of spiritual signification, but not so stuffie for outward matter, that we may prepare, not (as Austin saith) our months, but our faith, and ex­pect to satisfie not the hunger and thirst of the body, [Page 65] as they might, but the hunger and thirst of the soul, which in this little model may finde enough and over­measure: The Temple-service among the Jews was an Heb. 9. 1, 10. Rom. 2. penult. outward Religion, and as their Ordinances were out­ward, so they generally were Jews outwardly; we wonder that they so little saw and tasted the marrow and kernel of them, and stuck in the rinde feeding on the crust of most Ordinances, as if a man should think the cloth would heal the sore, and not the plaister spread upon it; but if we take estimate of them by our selves, we shall finde that most of us should have been as they in that case, for God having ordained for us outward Sacraments, for number few, for Observati­on easie, for signification excellent, as Austin speaks, Epist. 118. we are for the general, but outward in them, & though we be clearlier taught what is within them, yet we are in the Use of them, but outwardly reverent as they, and do not spiritually and inwardly enjoy the kernell of them, which the Apostle took notice of, when he said, Not discerning the Lords body, and so they are seals indeed, but rather seals of a Letter, which shut it up, than seals of a Deed or Covenant conveying the E­state to us.

3. Though it be not a Reason why this Ordinance was appointed after the Passeover-Supper, yet I may Observe it to you in this place, that hence it is called The Lords Supper, from the Author it's called the Lords, and from the Time it's called a Supper, being celebra­ted in the night, and at the close of Supper. Some la­ter Maldonat. in Mat. 26. 26. Estius in 1 Cor. 11. 20. Jesuites do tax the novelty of the name, and affirm, Nullus in Scripturâ locus, &c. No place of Scripture cals it so; for the term in this Chapter refers, say they, to the [...], or Feasts of Love, Used with it, [Page 66] they may say as well, that Lords Table (1 Cor. 10. 21.) refers to them too, which we believe not; it is a spi­ritual feast, that which Matthew cals a dinner, Matth. 22. 4. is called by Luke a Supper, Luk. 14. 16. but we call it the Lords Supper, though it be received in the morning, or any other time of day, with reference to the time of the first institution, as the Passeover in after-times was called the Passeover, not becaUse there was any destroying Angel past over their hoUses every year, but in respect of the first Passeover in Aegypt, and in memory of that, wherein there was a passing over the Israelites hoUses, and a destroying of the Aegyptians first-born. I could name to you many other names, that this Sacrament bears in Scri­pture and ancient Authours, farre more ancient then their Missa, which is but once found in Ambrose, and in none before him, or the Sacrament of the Altar, as they call it, but I insist not now on names. He that will may see them in Casaub. Ex­ercit. 16.

§. 2 Secondly, Why the Lord Jesus ordained it a very little before he was betrayed.

1. He now seals his will, which men Use to do Paraeus in loc. when they are in sight of death. This is the New Te­stament (saith he) in my bloud; when men make their Wils, they bequeath their body to the earth. Christ bequeaths his body and bloud to us; He be­stows his body natural on his body mystical, the Church; The Testatour is Christ, Heb. 9. 16. The Legacy bestowed is himself, and all spiritual bene­fits with him, My body and bloud; The heirs are, all believers, Disciples; The Executours for the out­ward part are those to whom he saith, Hoc facite, [Page 67] do this, execute this my Will; The Witnesses are the Evangelists, and Saint Paul; Here is a perfect sealing then of a Testament, which is of force by the death of the Testatour, and nothing must be added or taken away, for it is a Will sealed and Gal. 3. 15. publisht.

2. To leave it as his ultimum vale, or last me­morial Aug. Epist. 118 of precious relish and esteem; when men are going, then they give memorial gifts unto their friends, then they give their pictures, Keep this for me, Remember me, when you see me not; When men are dying, then they pull their ring off their finger, and leave it with their beloved; Oh what impression have the verba morientis, the word of a dying man! As if a man, saith Chrysostome, should say to children, These were your fathers dy­ing words, This was his last charge, This he spoke and died, and there is nothing that is remembred with more awe, more affection than the last words, the last gift of dying friends.

3. To testifie his dearest love to his Church and people, that when death was in sight, and all the un­speakable sorrows, shame and suffering, were now ready to invade him, when injuries from men were ready to load him, and the justice of God upon sinne to be demonstrated on him, all these did not make him forget his love; His love to his poor people over­top'd all; He loved them to the end, Joh. 13. 2. and exprest it at the last, and when he was in expectation of utmost sorrow, he forgets not his love to his.

4. To fortifie his Disciples against temptations, which were now rushing in upon them, when they should presently see their Lord led away as a prisoner [Page 68] to be arraigned, and themselves scattered and dis­couraged. Peter denying, bloudy enemies insult­ing, then to fortifie their hearts, Let not your hearts be troubled, Joh. 1 [...]. 1. He administers this Sacrament to strengthen the Union and Communion between him and them, and to tie them to him so fast, that the gates of hell might not prevail against them, that their faith might not fail, though it fainted, as was said to Peter, and though they fall, yet they might not utterly be cast down, as the Psalmist saith; They had before eaten the body, which they after saw bro­ken, and drunk the bloud which they after saw shed; The broken body was not theirs that broke it; The bloud shed was not theirs that shed it, but it was theirs that had before eaten it, and drunk it; so God under­props his weak servants before the winde blow, and seasonably antidotes the hearts before the bitter cup, that they may stand fast, though for fear they runaway.

5. That when we iterate this Sacrament our hearts may be prickt with remembrance of this dismal night, Chrysost in loc. [...], saith Chrysostom, that he might exceedingly prick us; for a wounded heart is a good preparative to the receiving of a wounded Saviour, He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities, Isa. 53. 5. Let a man survey this night how his blessed Saviour was for him be­tray'd into the hands of bloudy men; This right he was plunged into most dolefull sorrows; He was a­mazed and loaden with grief, exceeding sorrowfull, in a wofull agony, sweating like drops of bloud, running down to the ground without any comfort from any man; his chief Disciples could not pray with him, all fled and ran away from him, betray'd [Page 69] by one of his own, denied by another, sending forth loud cries and tears; God smit the Shepherd, scatter'd the flock, an Angel from heaven strengthening him, an Angel that had not the benefit of Redemption by him, but not a man for whose Redemption this was: Oh the dark eclypse that now seized on this Sunne of righteousness! Who can express the anguish and do­lour of this night, [...], though he was a very stone, saith Chrysostom, it would melt him, wound him? Therefore I exhort you all, when you come to this Sacrament, bring this night with you, bring this night with you in which he was betray'd: It is a night of Observation to be remembred, as was said of the first Passeover in Aegypt, Exod. 12. 42. so it may be said of the night of this first Supper, read, read a­gain, or get some body to read to you, this History related by Matthew or St Luke, and water your medi­tations with sorrowfull tears, not as he that wept when he read the History of Dido in the Poet, out of an ima­ginary compassion, but as beholding in this glass both your sins, and your redemption. This do in remembrance of him.

CHAP. VI. Of the outwards of this Ordinance of the Supper.

1 COR. 11. 23, 24, 25.‘He took bread, and when he had given thanks, &c.

§. 1 IN the Sacrament of Baptism there is but one out­ward element, water; in this of the Supper two, bread and wine, which though they distinctly signi­fie, the one the body, the other the bloud of Christ, yet becaUse they set forth one nourishment of the bo­dy by bread and drink, of the soul by the body and bloud of Christ, and make but one commemoration of Christ and his death. This do in remembrance of me, vers. 24. Drink it in remembrance of me, vers. 25. For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this Cup, ye do shew forth the Lords death, vers. 26. Therefore as se­veral dishes are but one Supper, so these several signs are the parts of one Sacrament.

To avoid tautology and coincidency, I mean to open the parts distinctly, and yet to take together element with element, rule with rule, action with action, as fitly yoked together joyntly, and so be as [Page 71] soon at the end of the one, as of the other, which course of handling that word in Luke 22. 20. whom of all the Evangelists Paul doth nearliest agree with, and vers. 25. of this Chapter [...], Likewise, or, After the same manner, points me unto, and if there be any word in the three Evangelists that write the History of the institution (whereof one that is Mat­thew was present at the action) that may serve for the beautifying or clearing of any point, as we go along, we shall take it also into the contexture of our Dis­course.

The Method and order is, to handle,
  • 1. The outward Ordinance of this Supper.
  • 2. The inward thing signified or represented.
  • 3. The mandate or command, Do this.
  • 4. The end, For remembrance of me.

§. 2 The outward Ordinance is properly called the Sa­crament; the inward kernel or thing signified, is cal­led Res Sacramenti, the thing of the Sacrament; for the Sacrament is the outward visible sign; and there­fore it is very absurdly said of Bellarmine, and other Lib. [...]. de Euch. cap. 24. Papists, who have lest nothing but accidents, and shadow of bread and wine, that Jesus Christ in the Eucharist is the figure and remembrance of himself, as if one should say, that the King is the picture, or image of himself; for as Dr Whitaker Observes, The De Sacram. pag. 616. body and bloud of Christ is no Sacrament, but the thing it self whereof the Sacrament is taken; As the contract is no ring, but that whereof the ring is a pledge; The Covenant is no Seal, but that whereof the Seal is, though in vulgar speech, when we take the Sacra­ment, and the thing of the Sacrament in complexion, we Use to say, that the Sacrament consists of two [Page 72] parts, Terrena and coelesti, as Irenaeus saith, an earth­ly Iren. l. 4. c. 34. Whitak. de Sacram. 626. and a heavenly, an outward and an inward, a visible and an invisible, Ut duae naturae in Christo.

The Sacrament of the Lords Supper, or the out­ward Ordinance consists.

1. Of materials or elements, bread and wine.

2. Of rituals or actions about those elements, and they are,

1. The Rites Used by Christ, or some other in his name, He took bread, he blessed, &c.

2. The Actions of the Communicants, They take and eat, they take and drink; And so ye have a Sacra­ment consisting of several elements, and sundry out­ward rites and actions, all concurring to the essence or integrity of this Sacrament.

§. 3. Of the Elements Bread and Wine.

§. 3 I begin with the Elements, and they are

1. Two, viz. Bread and Wine: Our Melchise­dech entertains the children of Abraham, as that Melchisedech did Abraham himself, Gen. 18. [...]8. He brought forth to him bread and wine. Christ did not take these two by accident, becaUse he found them then on the Table, but by choice and election for their Use in signifying. The old Church of Israel had a Table-Sacrament, the Passeover, and Christ will have the Gospel-Church to have a Table-Sacrament too, this Supper; but as before Christ their Sacrifices and Sacraments were all bloudy: So when Christ the substance of all Sacrifices and Sacraments hath suf­fer'd, the Sacraments of the Gospel and Sacrifices are unbloudy: Many Divines shew the conveniency [Page 73] of Bread and Wine to be the materials of this Sacra­ment, Vide J nsen. Harm. p. 626. and some with too much fancy, The repre­sentation of his Body broken, and of his Blood shed. The participation of his Body and Blood for soul­strength, and soul-refreshment, could not be better shadowed forth than by the staff of Bread; and chear­full Wine; which as they are the most common▪ so the most necessary and prime materials that are Used at our tables, answering both our appetites of hun­ger and thirst; weakness is strengthened by bread, faintness cherisht by wine, the faint and feeble soul by Christ. Famine and thirst are importunate things, no delights of the eye, no Musick to the ear can satis­fie them. Violent desires towards Christ are not to be excUsed, but praised: For his Flesh is meat indeed, his Blood is drink indeed, Joh. 6. 55.

2. Bread and Wine severally and asunder, to set forth his death, wherein Corpus a sanguine separa­tum fuit, saith Jansenius, his Body and his Blood Harm. 896. was sundred. The Papists, as to their Priests and some Kings or Princes, will allow bread and wine, but as to the common people, bread or wine they say by concomitancy, the blood is in the bread virtually, and so they shut up the wounds of Christ by their dry Mass. But Christ would represent himself here not as a Lamb, but a Lamb sacrificed and slain; and therefore the blood is severed from the body, as the money is not a prisoners ransom, while it lies in the chest, but when it's paid: So the blood of Christ as shed is our ransom. As Israel in the wil­derness had a type of Christ, Manna which they did eat, and the rock also of which they drank, so have we the memorials of his body and blood, that we may eat and drink.

And which is the summe of all that may be said on this point, since the Lord was pleased even under the Gospel to continue that old way of Fellowship and Communion with his Church, by entertaining them at his own Table, upon his own chear in an Ordinance of eating and drinking; as he alwaies al­lowed the Israelites to feast with him upon the re­mainders of the Sacrifices in token of followship: and the very Heathens did by feasting on their Sacrifices testifie their fellowship with their Idols, as is plain, 1 Cor. 10. 18, 19, 20. I see not how more fit materials could be Used then Bread and Wine, which as they best stand with the simplicity of the Gospel, so they are the most common and necessary atten­dants in all feasts, and do both together set forth that full and perfect nourishment which we finde in Christ.

As for that I finde in Cyprian, and from him in Cyp. Epist. 76. Aug. Tract. in Jo. cap. 6. 26. August. and after both, in most Divines, That as one bread is made of many grains, and one cup of wine of many grapes, so the Church is one Body of many Members; whose Communion and Fellow­ship is here professed, testified and signified by their participation of one Bread and of one Cup: The allusion is proper, and not unlike that of the Apostle, 1 Cor. 10. 17. We being many are one bread, and one body, for we are all partakers of that one bread. And this union of members was anciently professed with all dearness of love and affection in the Use of this Ordinance; and they delighted to express their division and separation from all the world, their combination and concorporation among themselves, by all entercourses of love and dearness that could [Page 75] be; their Feasts of Love, their Kiss, mentioned in Scripture and ancient Authours, are hereof great witnesses.

But what shall those places or Countries do that have no bread of corn, no fruit of the vine: I con­fess that though God said in the Passeover, a Lamb Exod. 12. 5. or Kid, yet Christ expresses nothing there of other materials, and therefore in case of extream necessity, where the proper Elements cannot be had, they must either be without the Ordinance, or celebrate in that which is Analogicall, and which passes for bread with them, or wine with them; which it's better (say some) to do, than wholly to be depri­ved; Moulin Buckler pag. 531. Beza Epist. 2. but this Eclipse is not likely to be seen in our Horison, therefore I shall not further discuss it.

§. 4. The Rites or Actions about the Sacrament.

§. 4 So much of the Elements, Bread and Wine.

Now I proceed to the Rites or Actions; and first them of Christs using, in which you are to Use your eye: as in the Word preached God speaks to your ear, so here he speaks to your eye. The Sa­crament is a visible Word, and therefore I hold it requisite that the Communicant be within sight of the Elements and Actions, that he may see the bread and the wine, Taken, Blessed, Broken, Poured forth; and not in corners and holes, whence he hath not the actions under command of his eye. Not that I deny but a blinde man may receive the Sacra­ment, but that all means of spirituall impression must be Used. Behold, saith Moses, the blood of the Cove­nant, Exod. 24. 8.

The first Action of Christ is, He took bread, like­wife after supper, the cup, so Paul, so Luke. He took the bread, he took the cup, so Matthew and Mark: of the two Elements the Bread is first taken both by Christ, and by the Communicant: This order is to be held by the consent of all the four Writers; And of Christs Action, let us Note

1. That Christ took the Bread into his hands, he took the Cup into his hands, Observing the rite and custom then Used, and gave thanks over the Bread, holding it in his hands, and so over the Cup, ha­ving it in his hands: This is the first step towards the separating and setting apart the Elements; he took them in his hand, see there was a solemn rite that the pater familias did Use to take into his hands and bless these principall parts of the meal or feast. The taking of the Lamb was the first action towards the Paschall, Exod. 12. 2, 5, 21.

2. That Christ took and blest the Bread and the Cup severally, one after the other: He took Bread and blest, and pronounced, This is my Body. After­wards he took the Cup and blest, and pronounced, This Cup is the New Testament in my Blood: The E­vangelists Matthew and Mark express it, Luke and Paul likewise confirm it; and if there were no­thing else, the very rule and usage amongst the Jewes to blesse them severally, would prove it to us.

3. But whether there was any intervall of time between his taking and blessing the Bread and the Wine, is a harder knot: Matthew and Mark say, As they were eating, or as they did eat, he took Bread: Luke and Paul say, After they had supped he took the [Page 77] Cup: This seems to plead for some intervall of time, Videtur saith Calvin in 1 Cer. 11. 25. In Mar. 14. 22. Beza. and yet if Matthew and Mark be viewed alone, the Action seems to be continued: What wedge must be Used for this knot? Beza hints that [...] may be variously translated, When they had eaten: but I shall not grant Beza his Interpretation, but hold to our own, and appeal to the rule or custom then re­ceived amongst the Jews, to decide the Controver­sie: for if those words, As they were eating, be all one with those of Paul, After they had supped, then how doth Paul and Luke so frequently and empha­tically apply them to the Cup, which may by that interpretation be said of the Bread also. The rise Gretius in Matth. 26. 26. was, that while they were eating, not the Passeover Lamb (for so all that Christ did was after supper) but the post coenam or after supper, the second course, and toward the end thereof, the Master took bread and blest and brake it, and distributed it with a sig­nification of the bread of affliction in Egypt; then at the very close, and after all eating, the Cup was taken and blest, what intervall of time went be­tween I know not. Non constat, saith Calvin, whe­ther Calvin in 1 Cor. 11. 25. the Action was continued, but I beleeve the Bread was eaten, before the Cup was blest or taken; and Christ that instituted no new Rites, but set a Hugh Brought [...]. new superscription on the old mettall, imitated this custom, and took and blest the Bread while they were yet eating, and took and blest the Cup at the close after all, and so all are agreed: And here let me shew you a Reason why the Churches now are not bound to consecrate and distribute the Bread before they consecrate the Wine, as it was in Christs Supper, becaUse the Rite was so at that time, and [Page 78] the thing being meerly occasionall, is not obliga­tory, but indifferent: We pronounce the words of signification, This is my Body, This Cup is, &c. seve­rally, but we do not distribute the Bread before we bless the Wine; that Christ did occasionally to the Rite.

4. The Bread which Christ took into his hands, was such as was obvious and ordinary, on the Table at that time, [...], saith Matthew, signanter; some Cameron in Mycoth. Matth. 26. peculiar Bread designed and prepared for that Use, doubtless unleavened, according to Law and custom; and yet the Greek Church stiffly holds to leaven'd bread, on opinion that Christ kept his last Passeover on the 13th day of the moneth, one day before the time by Law prefixed for leaven to commence; and of this opinion for the day is a late Learned Writer, in his answer to six Queries, who also holds that Christ and his Disciples at this time did eat no Lamb, but kept only the usuall post coenum or after­supper. As to the time I assent not, and therefore hold the bread unleavened, in which the Roma­nist celebrates the Supper; and Calvin would not contend in so slight a matter, against the same cu­stom Used in Geneva; nor do we make it any mat­ter of moment, but bless such as the Table doth afford, being pure and wholsom, as the Use re­quires.

The Cup which Christ took hath this mark, it [...]. [...]os. Hallel. was a Cup after they had supped; and that was the Cup of the Hallell, or of the Hymn the last Cup, which Used very solemnly to be blest; this mark, after supper, differences it from that Cup, Luke 22. 17. He took the cup and gave thanks, and said, Take [Page 79] this and divide it among your selves: This is not the Cup which Christ took into his Supper, for that comes after, ver. 20. There were divers Cups so­lemnly blest and given round at this Passeover feast, three or four, therefore this which Christ took in, is the very last, after which they eat and drunk no more that time: And the last Cup was even among the Heathens counted solemn and sacred, in honorem Grotius in Matth. 26. 26. [...], in honour of their good Genius, &c.

§. 5. Of Christ his Consecration or Blessing of the Elements.

§ 5 The second Rite or Action Used by Christ, was giving thanks; He took Bread and giving thanks he brake; likewise also the Cup. He took the Bread and blessed, Matth. 26. 16. Mark 14. 22. He took Bread and gave thanks, Luk. 22 19. and St Paul here: Two of them say of the Bread, He blessed: Two of them say of the same Bread, He gave thanks. They all say of the Cup, He gave thanks; and yet in another place, 1 Cor. 10. 6. The Cup of blessing which we bless; what can be more plainly infer'd hence, then that these two words [...], are in this business of one signification and effect, as in Mark 8. 6, 7. He gave thanks and brake the bread or loaves, the fishes he blest. Shall we be so trivially curious as to seek criticisms in a thing so plain. Not only our Divines, but Romanists also consent, he blest the Bread by thanksgiving and prayer over it; He prayd God, he blest God, or he gave God thanks, and thereby blest the Bread and Wine; therefore it is said, The Cup of blessing which we bless, apply the one of these words to God, he gave him thanks, the other to [Page 80] the Bread, as Paraeus and others, all comes to one, the Bread and the Cup were blest by Prayer and In loc. Jansen. Harm. p. 96. Thanksgiving. Thus the Jew in his form blessed his Bread and Cup, by blessing God that created the fruit of the earth, and of the vine, and these two words in Greek expresse but that one in the Hebrew Barak, as Maldonate and Paraeus note, and this bles­sing is that we call Consecration or Sanctification, by which the Elements are set apart to holy Use, and se­gregated from common or prophane; For the further clearing of which,

First, That Christ, whether at miraculous meals, Calvin. in loc. P. Martyr. in locum. Mark 6. 41. or at common sittings down with his Disciples, Luke 24. 30. Matth. 14, 19. alwayes gave thanks and bles­sed the bread. Let his holy example be a command to us. The Jew held his meat prophane, untill he had blest it. He had a form of Religion beyond most of us, therefore the Apostle Useth the word, It's san­ctified; It's sanctified, or made legitimate unto us by the Word that warrants it, and prayer that blesseth it, 1 Tim. 4. 5. For shame either learn of Christ, or of the Jew; mock not God with pulling a hat over your face, but give thanks and blesse.

Secondly, We finde no form of words Used by Christ in this Consecration or Blessing, none of the Evangelists tell us, what words he Used, but they ex­presse the action in the same words of ordinary grace at meals, He gave thanks, he blessed, in what words Estius in loc. it is not reported to us; He prayed (saith Estius) that the Bread and Wine might be turned into his very bo­dy and bloud; So he imagines; But who told him so? No Scripture nor ancient Father. The Jewish form of words is known in their Rituals, Rara bene­dictio [Page 81] (saith Scaliger) without these solemn words, Blessed be thou, O Lord, that hast sanctified us by thy commands, and given us a charge concerning such or such a thing. In Reason Christ did accomode his blessing to the occasion, praising God for his Redem­ption of man-kinde, and for the coming of his King­dom, for his new Testament or Covenant, and a bles­sing upon his Ordinances and people. Ignorantia licita est, saith Scotus, It's a lawfull ignorance not to know Lib. 4. dist. 8. qu. 2. the words of consecration. But as to those operative and conversive words (as they call them) This is my body, wherein the Schoolmen show their learned fopperies, those almighty words, whereby a silly Priest makes his maker; And as Lapide hyperboli­cally See Annot. in 1 Cor. 11. 25. saith, If Christ had not been incarnate, would have incarnated him; They must not be angry, if with Pope Innocent the third, that great Creatour of Transubstantiation, we deny them to be the words of Consecration for three Reasons:

1. BecaUse Christ bad his Disciples, Take and Eat This is my body. Reasons why they are not the words of consecration. before he pronounced those words, This is my Body, and he did not sure bid them, Take and Eat the Bread before it was blessed and consecrated.

2. BecaUse the words of consecration or blessing should in Reason be spoken to God, not to the Disci­ples of the bread, as these are.

3. BecaUse these words, This is my Body are asser­tive, signifying what the bread is, and (as one of themselves saith) should be false and untrue, if they should not signifie what the bread is, before the words be pronounced, not what they shall be afterward. God when he created light, said not, This is light, but Let there be light.*

Thirdly, The form of Consecration or blessing Used by the Churches of Christ is Thanksgiving and Prayer, reciting the words of Institution, as they are here in Paul, or the other Evangelists. We (saith Lib. 6. de Euch. cap. 5. §. 12. Chamier speaking of the French Churches) do reli­giously Observe, to pray to God that these Elements which Christ hath sanctified may be profitable to us unto sal­vation, and we recite to a word the first Institution of this Ordinance out of Saint Paul, viz. in this very Chapter. So the Church of England in their form, so is it directed since, Thanksgiving, Prayer, and the words of Institution recited, as for Exhortations ad populum, then also Used, with which anciently in England, and now, we first begin, together with places of Scripture memorized and in ulatum of the worthy, they are rather to consecrate you, and quic­ken up unto livelinesse your faith and graces. Now we may not take [...], strictly to exclude prayer; For as Chrysostome Observes, it denotes the praising of Exercit. p. 382. P. Martyr. in 1 Cor. 11. 24. God, the giving of thanks, prayer, and the blessing of the Symbols, and therefore we reade in Justin Martyr, in this action, [...], & [...] Epist. 2. Lib. de Trin. 3. cap. 4. [...], and Austin cals it Panem prece mystica celebratum; So Jerome Jansen. Harm. p. 99. ad Evagrium. So others, So generally Christ made choice of, and sanctified these Species, or these kinds, Bread and Wine to be the Materials or Elements of his Supper, and these we blesse by prayer and thanks­giving, reciting his Institution, The Cup of blessing which we blesse, 1 Cor. 10. 16. and this is verbum ad Elementum, or sanctifying by the Word and Prayer, and from this word [...], giving thanks: The Lords Supper hath been anciently called [...], the [Page 83] Eucharist, [...], saith Justin, [...] Apol. [...]. [...]. Origen. cont. Cels. l. 8.

§. 6. That a Presbyter only can consecrate or blesse the Elements to this Use.

§. 5 Fourthly, I told you before, that this Action or Rule is Christs, He gave thanks, or he blessed, and for after-times he commanded his Apostles, hoc facite. This was not then the action of the Communicant, they eat and drink, but they do not consecrate, this is the action of those that Christ authorizeth by a lawfull calling to be Stewards of his Word and Sa­craments. The Pater-familias did blesse the Bread and Cup in and unto his own family or company, be­caUse it was a hoUse, a chamber-supper, but the Temple service of sacrificing was lawfull to none, but to a Priest; and if Christ hath ordained a lawfull calling of Officers and Ministers, called his for the service of his Church under the Gospel, as it appears to us; this act of all others doth properly belong to them to blesse in his Name, for it is [...], publick Office, we finde no Rule or Example in Scripture to the contrary, and if that be a good argument in point of calling, which is delivered Heb. 7. 13, 14. that of the Tribe of Judah no man gave attendance at the Altar, for Moses spoke nothing of that Tribe con­cerning Priesthood, then we may Reasonably argue, That no private man that is not called by God can perform the Office of a publick Minister, for Christ spake nothing of them concerning the Stewardship of his Mysteries. Justin Martyr is clear the [...] did Apol. 2. blesse and consecrate, the Deacons did indeed carry [Page 84] about the bread and wine, and deliver them, but not blesse them, and therefore Jerom speaking of the dif­ference between a Deacon, and a Presbyter, or a Mi­nister, saith, What doth the Deacon swell against the Ministers ad quorum preces corpus Domini confici­tur, by or at whose prayers the body of Christ is made? Whitak. de Euchar. 651. I shall not be tedious in this point, Convenit inter om­nes Pontificios. It's agreed on all hands by the Papists Instit. l. 4. e. 15. §. 20. De Euchar. pag. 656. for the Character sake, and for our Divines. Calvin saith, It's a part of the Ecclesiastical Ministry to di­spense the Sacraments, and if you will, you may see Whitakers de Euchar▪ who acknowledgeth, That the efficacy of the Sacrament depends not on the person or quality of the Minister (though Jerom on 2. Ephan. 3. hath a strange passage to the contrary) yet that it is no Sacrament, except he that celebrates it have authority from Christ Jesus, whom he cals Sacrilegious and Prophane persons that dare attempt it without Com­mission, and makes the difference thus, What if any man shall set a publick Seal, which he hath stolen into his hands, Is it all one as if done by a publick Notary, or allowed Officer? No, surely. I know there is a lit­tle dissertation de coena, that debates the Question, what may be done, ubi Pastores desunt? And I know the Socinians, those Levellers of Divinity, that slight Christ into a meer man, his bloud from a Sacrifice to a Martyrdom, the Sacraments into void and empty figures, and the Ministers into fore men of the Jury, if so much; but stand you in the old wayes in this point.

§. 7. That the change of the Elements is onely of their Use.

§. 7 Fifthly, The change of the Elements of bread and wine by vertue of Christs sanctifying or blessing them, is not any change or alteration of the Ele­ments themselves, but of their Use and office; The change is relative, not inherent, Panis certa conserva­tione, Com. Faust. l. 20. c. 13. Apol. 2. fit mysticus, saith Austin; now the bread is not common bread, saith Justin, [...], &c. The bread when it doth percipere vocationem Dei, saith Irenaeus, then it is not common bread, but the Lib. 4. c. 34. & l. 5 c. 4. Eucharist of the body and bloud of Christ. If the bread should be changed in substance, what argu­ment could the ancient Fathers have found thence to prove against Marcion? that Christ had not a phan­tastical Iren l. 5 c. 4. and aiery body; And how again could they every where allude thus, that the Divine Nature of Christ did not destroy the humane? As the symbo­lical Nature of the Elements destroyes not the sub­stantial and natural being; The water of Baptism is water still; The Rock that was Christ, was a Rock still; The Serpent on the Pole was brasse still; The great Seal that conveys a great Estate is Wax still. The Use, the office, the relation of these sacramental mysteries is high and admirable, and becaUse the spi­ritual signification and Use is so admirable, therefore the Fathers [...], exceeding rhetorically and hyperbolically do speak of them to awaken and quic­ken, and cheer up the spirits of people to look upon and Use them in their symbolical Use, as instruments and exhibitive conveyances of Christ to our faith. [Page 86] Bellarmine triumphs in one word of Cyprian de Coena, Lib. 2. de Euch. cap. 9. Panis non effigie, sed natura mutatus, nullam admittit solutionem, a crack of vanity; That piece is later then Cyprian, but if his, by sinne of first parents, natura humana, humane nature was changed, saith Austin, Aug. de cin. lib. 14. c. 12. and when a man is regenerated, his nature is chang­ed, say we, how, not his flesh, his body, but quality, &c. Naturam expellas furcâ licet, what's that but Vide Forbes Epist. Theol. p. 537. quality or custome, not substance; The holinesse of any thing sanctified to God, infers a change of Use and relation, but not of substance, consecrations of times, persons, places, things, may appropriate them to holy Use and ends, and there is accordingly an esteem or reverence of such things so set apart, but the substance of the things is as it was; for consecra­tion is not a Philosophers-stone, holy things may be spent in their Use, as the Sacrifices of old, the Pas­chal Lamb, the bread and wine in the Supper, but the sanctifying of them to that Use doth not first change them into the thing signified, and so destroy the sign and signification, as the relation is destroyed sublato fundamento; Every Papist is bound to have the faith of miracles; for the miracle of turning stones into bread is nothing so great as this of turning bread into Christs body. Maldonate hath a story, that in his dayes there was a book came forth, De Arte nihil credendi, and that there was but one true saying in it, which was this, He that will be an Atheist, let him first be a Calvinist, and if there had been in that book, He that will believe any thing, let him first be a Papist, there had been another, or rather, one true saying indeed.

§. 8. Of Christs Action of Breaking the Bread.

§. 8 Thirdly, The next Rite or action of Christ, He brake it, and so say all the three Evangelists, and he said, as here it follows, This is my body broken for you, and concerning his bloud both Matthew and Luke say thus, This is my bloud which is shed for you, which (as some say) was in the parallel, the Cup represented correspondent to the breaking of the bread by the Morton in loc. pouring forth of the wine out of some greater vessel into the Cup, and so the bread is broken, the wine is poured out, as the body of Christ was crucifi­ed, and his bloud shed: Upon this Action we shall for memory sake speak of these particu­lars:

1. That from hence the Eucharist or Lords Supper hath been called [...], The breaking of bread, as the phrase, Acts 2. 42, Acts 20. 7. have been inter­preted: So Paul 1 Cor. 10. 16. The bread which we break, Is it not the Communion of the body of Christ? Thus some love to speak in our dayes, calling (I wish it be not out of singularity) this Sacrament, The breaking of bread, which as it is by Synecdoche of the part for the whole, so it was Used by the Hebrews of any common feast or meal, when they did eat to­gether, and is applied to this Sacrament, but at se­cond hand; They began all their solemn meals with blessing, and breaking of bread, and their feasting was called eating of bread, Gen. [...]. 25. a form of Casaub. Exerc. 16 p. [...]. 339. Beza in Act. 2. 42. & 46. speech new and insolent to Greek and Latine ears, who called their feasts by the other element [...], or convivia, drinkings together.

[Page 88]2. Christ at all other meals, where he was Master of the meal and blest, did also break the bread, for he that pray'd the blessing, was by the Jews called Giodw. in An­tiq. Jewish. in the Passeover ex Drusio. Habbotseang, the breaker at his meal-meals, and at other, he blest and brake, but in this Paschal Postcae­nium, or Supper, (to which you must still have your eye) the usual Rite was, That he that blest broke the Grot. in Mat. 26. Scult. de emend. l. 6. p. 536 bread into parts to be distributed to the guests or sit­ters, and the pieces were about the bigness of an Olive, Morton. in loc. Martyr. in loc. Beza. in Act. 2. saith Scaliger. He that brake did eat one, and the rest were communicated; for their bread at this time was not, as learned men say, great and thick loaves, but 42. Steph. Glossa Mat. 26. broad and thin, instar placentae, like your Cakes here in England; If they were thick as ours, then may the knife Leviter scindere non Obscindere, and so be broken.

3. The Churches of God do many of them hold this Ceremony of breaking of the bread, and it ought to be holden. Our Churches, saith Paraeus, do Par. in loc. rightly Observe it: And in all our Churches (saith Chamier) we Use it: And it hath a command, Do this, Chamier. De Euchar. lib. 7. c. 11. Piscat. in loc. Paraeas [...] 1 Cor. 11. contro. 2 sed non integram. saith Piscator. And therefore it is not a diaphorous or indifferent: And there is a Dissertation in Paraeus ful­ly debating the point, in which he doth not say, The Sacrament is null without it; nor doth Beza say so, Epist. 2. Nor yet that it is meerly indifferent and left to choice, but Usefull and requisite, he holds it for good ends and significations, as I shall shew, and he affirms, That it continued in the Church, and was Used for a thousand years after Christ. But the Pa­pists as sacrilegious, they steal away the Cup from the people; So they Use the Bread superstitiously, making their Host into pines nummularios, little round [Page 89] wafers, like our money, and put them whole into the mouths of the Communicants; For, saith the learn­ed Jansenius, The Church (viz. of Rome) doth lau­dably Harm. 895. Observe, that the Eucharist be toucht only by sacred hands (viz. the Priests: As for Christ (saith he) Promore fecit, he followed the Custom or Rite at that time.

4. This Bread was broken, and Wine poured forth: Calvin. in loc. P. Martyr. in locum. Beza in loc.

1. For the more lively representation of the death and grievous sufferings of our Lord; for though a bone of him was not broken, nor his body properly, yet the Apostle cals it broken in regard of those wounds, and pains, and torments, which brought forth a violent death, and all this for us; As the corn is not grinded or baked, nor the bread cut or broken, but for us, that the breaking of his body might break our hearts, and his flowing bloud, shed our tears; for it is the highest representation of death, the bread broken, and wine poured forth, and is Usefully Observed to raise up such affections, as the sight of a dying Christ may work even in a heart of stone, as Chrysostom said before.

2. It was broken for distribution sake; for in He­brew speech, to break bread to the hungry, is to di­stribute it, Lam. 4. 4 and this hath another meaning in it, and sets forth the communion and fellowship of the Church, all partaking of one Christ, and feeding on him, and his death unto eternal life, 1 Cor. 10. 17. We being many are one bread; We are one body, and of one holy fellowship and communion, For we are all partakers of that one bread; for Christ is that com­mon center in whom we meet, and by union with him, we have communion with one another; and [Page 90] thus the signification is lively, one bread broken and divided amongst many Communicants, who are one, is one Christ given wholly to every believer, and all believers one in Christ. This brotherhood was ob­served and noted for their mutual love in those times, when their profession of Christ distinguisht them from all the Heathens about them, and when they were inclosed round by Observing and cruel men that envied and hated them to death; now that heat is diffUsed, and not so concenter'd by the antiperistasis, and so is not so warm; we stand in need of persecution to make us love one another.

§. 9. Of the Manner of Christs giving the Bread and the Wine.

§. 9 Fourthly, The fourth Rite or Action of Christ, He gave it to his Disciples, which in this place you finde not, but in the implication of the word Accipite, Take ye, but all the three Evangelists Matthew, Mark, Luke, expresly say, He gave to the Disciples, He gave to them; for the word Disciple, I leave it a while, and only speak of the Action, He gave, that the Disciples received the bread and wine from Christ into their hands, and not put by him into their mouths, I make no Question, as I shall touch afterward: Nor do I doubt but they received them from his hand, for he blessed and brake, and reached them forth to them, and so the people may be said to receive them from the hand of the Minister that consecrates either me­diately or immediately, which may be the true mean­ing of that speech of Tertullian, Nec de aliorum manu De Corona. quam praesidentium sumimus, nor we take them (saith [Page 91] he) from the hands of others, but of our Presidents or Ministers, but the clear Question will be, Whe­ther Christ did with his own hand give to every par­ticular person into his hand, the bread and the cup? And, Whether there were any words spoken particu­larly to every one in the delivery of them, as for in­stance, Take thou, Eat thou, Drink thou?

For the first, Whether Christ did with his own hand deliver the bread and cup into the hand of every particular Communicant, viz. immediately? We must look still to the rite or custome Used in the Pas­chal Supper; and if we consider that well, we shall see it probable, that the Pater-familias did not rise from his discumbency or posture of lying, to go to every particular person, or that every one came to his hand, for there might be twenty at the Table, and not all within the reach of his hand, nor do we finde that Christ rose up, nor that they rose up to receive them. He said, Take ye, eat ye, Drink all of it; and though he might give the Cup to the next into his hand, yet his speech is general to them all, and so the bread and the cup past in the Postcaenium, or Pas­chal Supper. Maldonate saith, He reacht out the Maldona▪ in Mat. 26. 26. bread sigillatim, but the cup he gave to the next, and he to the next; for, he saith, Luk 21. 17. Take this, and divide it among your selves, wherein though he De emend. l. 6. Martyr. in 1 Cor. 11. 24. be mistaken in the cup, as not being the same with ours, ut supra, yet the rite and manner of di­stribution is very like to be the same in both: So Sca­liger, that the Master first delivered the cup to the se­cond, the second to the next, till it had past through the [...], or Table; and Jansenius saith, That he Jans. Harm. p. 895. gave to each particular his part, Aut patinam tradidit [Page 92] propinquioribus, or gave the plate or dish with broken bread in it to them that sate nearest, and then suc­cessively and in order it passed along: As also, saith he, he delivered the Cup, so that every Commu­nicant had his part from the hand of Christ, either immediatly or mediatly. As for after times, and not long after, that of Justin Martyr is express, that when the Ministers had blessed, the Deacons did car­ry it and deliver it to the severall Communicants, and did either put each part into each persons hand, or as I finde in Clem. Alex and. Strom. lib. 1. [...], the distributers do suffer or permit each person to take his part of the bread. There might be different Rites in severall Churches as to this point, and of no great moment one way or other; but for all the Communicants sitting down at the very Table by companies, and their sitting and receiving the Elements, I finde not in my simple reading in Antiquity, when Communicants grew numerous, and met in one common place to perform Divine Offices: but so did Christ and all other Pas­chall societies, which eat in chambers and hoUses, and as I shewed you before, were not under ten nor above twenty of a company.

Let then the Lords and his Disciples sitting at the same Table in that Rituall posture and manner then in Use be holden as indifferent or appendant to the Paschall custom; for we shall never hit that pattern in all respects, becaUse they sate at the Table while Christ blessed and brake the Bread, which we that have severall Tables full do not, nor can do; and let the Disciples dividing among themselves, or handing both the Bread and Cup from one to ano­ther, [Page 93] be accounted indifferent too, and hardly and not conveniently imitable in our numbers, yea and not certain neither (though very probable to me) for if one, as Peter Martyr holds it so, yet another, as Martyr. in 1 Cor. 11. 24. Paraus in locum, saith, that it's not Obscure out of the History, that when the Lord said, Take ye, Be­nedictum & fractum panem singulis manu porrexisse, he reacht the Bread to every person with his hand.

Let us touch the other Question, Whether there were any words spoken to every one at the deliver­ing into his hands; and here indeed we finde no­thing but Take ye, eat, this is my Body broken for you: Drink ye all of it, this is the Cup of the New Testament; and doubtless the whole Institution needs not to every single person be repeated, having been recited in the Consecration: Yet you know that in the form Used in England, the Minister was appointed to deliver Bread and Wine into the Communicants particular hands, with a prescript form of words, The Body of our Lord, The Blood of our Lord, &c. and Chemnitius Examen. de pra­parat. ad coenam. the best Scholar of all called Lutheran, saith, that the form of applying the words of Institution to every Communicant, mihi maxime probatur, is best of all approved by him: And that in these words the Sa­crament was delivered in the Church of old time, he cals in for witness Ambrose, who hath indeed these lib. 4. de Sac. sub finem. words, the Minister saith Corpus Christi, & tu dicis Amen, The body of Christ, and thou saist Amen: And before this time Novatus distributing the My­steries to every one his part, adjured them into his faction first [...], in stead of saying Amen, Histor. lib. 6. cap. 35. saith EUsebius: which Amen it seems every Commu­nicant [Page 94] said when the Bread was put into his hand, as Justin Martyr saith, when the Minister hath fi­nisht his Consecration-prayer, all the people present Apol. 2. [...] makes acclamation to it saying Amen. I Eccl. Pol. lib. 5. p. 366. conclude with Learned Hooker, that upon the ground that Sacraments are particularly applying Ordinan­ces, and we are dull and heavy-hearted, If [I Baptize thee] offend not, why should [Eat thou] offend any man? I conclude upon the whole matter, that what is most to the reverence of this Ordinance, and serves best to raise up and elevate the peoples hearts, shall be fol­lowed by me.

So much for the opening of the Rites or Actions Used by Christ, or that are to be Used by any Mini­ster that shall in his Name celebrate this Ordinance, He took the Bread, and the Cup, He blessed or gave thanks, He brake, he gave: In which it is to be no­ted, that he did not recede from the then received rite or custom for both the Elements; and the rites are quite through the same which were usually and by custom at that present on foot in their Paschall Solemnities; and which is more, yet this Bread and Cup so blest and given at these Solemnities are not found to stand by any express command of holy Scripture, but were such as their wisdom had by cu­stom made Use of in this service, of that Bread and that Cup the Lord was pleased to make the Seals of his Body and Blood, as Hugh Broughton, our Learned Broughton in Dan. pag. 46. Countryman, Observes.

§. 10. Of the outward Actions pertaining to the Communicants.

§. 10 Now I proceed to the other sort of outward Rites or Actions pertaining to the Communicants, which are these; He said, Take eat; He said, Drink ye all of it, as you may see in St Matthew, who was Myroth. lin Matth. 26. 26. present in the action, and as it is here. Forsan at haec sunt vetus formula, &c. saith Cameron. Haply that this was the old Rite, but in the Jewish Rituals that are now, as it is recited by Cameron in the Hebrew, and by Scaliger in Greek, it is somewhat diverse. Scaliger de Emend. lib. 6. pag. 536. Thus every one that is hungry, let him come and eat, and whoso hath need, let him come and keep the Passeover.

1. Take ye: It is to be understood of taking in the hand, for it's not likely that Christ rose and put the Bread and Wine in every ones mouth, saith Beza Epist. 2. Beza, but as the Cup passed from the nearest to Christ to them more remote; so it's probable (saith the same Author) that the Bread also did. There is a great stirre about the Communicants taking the Elements in his hand, not as though, if other wise, the Sacrament was a nullity, as Beza proves; for a Bezain Epist. 2. man may have no hands to take it with, but for the decency and significancy thereof: The taking in the mouth only being more like that of Bruits, which take their meat with mouth or beak as Chamier saith, than that of men; and there is a whole Chapter spent in reciting Antiquities for this taking in the hand, in Chamier, who saves me the labour to recite any of De Euchar. l 7. cap. ult. them to you, and this is all upon occasion of the [Page 96] Papists, who take the Bread into their mouths, and touch it not with hand, out of a too superstitious ve­neration Beza Epist. 2. of the Elements, as Beza notes: Nor do they of them that search out the footsteps of this cu­stom rise any higher than about five or six hundred years ago.

The signification of it is, the appropriation of Christ to our selves, whom God makes ours by his gift, and we make ours by faith, even as truly as if he were put into our very hand. They that make Paraeus in loe. Taking and Eating divers Rites of divers significati­ons, as many of our excellent Divines do; do tell us that there are divers degrees of faith, that by ta­king Christ we have propriety in him, He is ours: by eating his Body and drinking his Blood we have comfort and refreshment from him; and that he is first ours in claim, before he be ours in comfort; as first take, then eat. In the Use of the brazen Serpent our beleeving was set forth by an act of our eye, Joh. 3. 14. looking up; but here 'tis set forth by an act of our­hand, retension or receiving; the promise of Adop­tion is made to our receiving Christ, Joh. 1. 12 and our faith must be a Christ taking, a Christ-receiving faith: Christ would be ours, else he would not have instituted this Christ-applying Ordinance: He came into the hand of murderers that slew him, that cru­cified and wounded and dying, he might be taken in the hand of thy faith; faith like the hand hath a faculty of working and bringing forth obedience, but like the hand again, it hath a taking and receiving faculty, which is the most excellent, the justifying act of faith, taking Christ.

Take ye, is not a bare permission but a command, [Page 97] it's our duty, as well as our benefit, to receive Christ, and consequently not to receive him, is both sinne and misery.

§. 11. Of Sacramentall Eating and Drinking Christs Body and Blood.

§. 11 2. Eat ye, drink ye all of it: Christ speaks and repeats often Joh. 6. the eating of his flesh, and drink­ing of his blood, at which some of his followers took offence, conceiving him carnally and literally, which he told them were to be understood spiritually, ver. 63. There is a spirituall eating and drinking Christ his flesh and blood by faith only, which is extra-symbolicall or without the Sacrament, for that Do­ctrine was delivered a year or two before this Sacra­ment was instituted; and it is such, as without which ye have no life in you, ver. 53. which may not be said of all that never received this Sacrament; but that spirituall eating and drinking is here symbolized, as that flesh and blood is: For the understanding of which, let us neither be like the carnall Israelite that did eat Manna, and drink of the Rock, but neither saw nor tasted Christ in them; nor on the other side let us be like the Capernaites, Joh. 6. that had a gross apprehension of eating very flesh, and drinking mans blood, but rightly conceive the meaning thus:

1. The first and not the least thing is this, that This is the one and only Ordinance under the Gospel where eating and drinking are Sacred and Religious acts: for in all the world, among all sorts of men, friendship, fellowship, communion, are maintained [Page 98] and shown in feasting together, eating and drinking together; and our God never let his Church be with­out such an Ordinance, wherein he and his people might testifie this fellowship and communion: In the Law there was not only a Lamb rosted, but in all their Shelamim or Peace-offerings, they that brought them had part to feast upon and make good cheer as at all their feasts they rejoyced before the Lord, God bidding them to his own Table to feed upon Sacrifices, for they that eat of the Sacrifices are partakers of the Altar, 1 Cor. 10. 18. & Rev. 3. 20. I will come in and sup with him, and he with me: Thus God entertains his friends, invites them to eat and drink with him upon his own Sacrifices, upon Christ the great Sacrifice: It's Gods own cheer, pro­vided for such Abrahams as are the friends of God: What a favour and condescension of God is this! What honour and dignity is dust and shes graced with, to sit together and feast and have fellowship with God in an Ordinance of eating and drinking the flesh and blood of this Sacrifice Jesus Christ! Nay, and further yet, It was a custom in Covenants making that the Confederates feasted, eat and drank together; therefore Berith the Hebrew word Cove­nant, may come of Barah to eat, and so still, and further it is implied that this is a Covenant solemnity, an eating and drinking of confederates together, God smels a savour of rest in the Sacrifice of Christ, and we eat and drink of that flesh and blood sacrificed unto God, and renew our Covenant with him, and he with us, by mutuall feeling, he to be ours, we his. I am so taken up with this, that if no more be said, I should be satisfied, but there is more.

2. That Christ is full and perfect nourishment of the soul, both meat and drink; Joh. 6. 55. My flesh is meat indeed, my blood is drink indeed, farre beyond Manna, which yet was called Angels food, as the substance is beyond the type: sights may please the eye, sounds or airs the ear, but they are not so ne­cessary as nourishment unto life; life cannot be maintained without nourishment; growing bodies [...], saith Hypocrates: growing Christi­ans stand in need of much nourishment to bring them up to their [...], the stature of a full Christ: de­caying Christians stand in need of nourishment to repair decaies: Every life, be it never so little must be nourisht, so necessary is Christ to every Christian, and still more of Christ, for his meat is Christ, his drink is Christ. As nothing so necessary, so neither so sweet and pleasant, sights are pleasing to the eye, and smels to the sense, but nothing is so close and delightfull as the meat and drink to the sense of ta­sting; Christ is sweet to faith, as meat and drink to hunger: There is no content comparable to the re­ceiving of Christ. He is Manna, the best Bread and Wine, the best drink. The fruition of the joys of heaven is set forth by the pleasure of eating and drinking, Luk. 22. 30. That you may eat and drink at my Table in my Kingdome. It was experimentally said of Galeacius that all the delights of this world are not comparable to an hours enjoyment of Christ Jesus.

2. No act of ours could so well have signified the close and intimate union of Christ with a Beleever: We may see at a distance, and hear and smell, but not taste nor eat nor drink; the meat and drink is [Page 100] concorporated into us, and is made flesh and bone with us, Job. 6. 56. He that eateth my flesh and drink­eth my blood, dwels in me, and I in him: Christ must be present to the faith of a Christian, for we can­not eat and drink that which is absent. This union with Christ is reall, though mysticall, and it is live­ly drawn forth in this Ordinance, under the resem­blance of eating and drinking: We hardly conceive, and hardly beleeve it, but when we see the graft live, we are sure it's knit; and we may be as sure of our union with Christ, by his spirituall sap of Grace which we finde is in us.

4. This command, Take and eat, goes before the pronouncing of the words, This is my Body; Aquinas saith it is a Hysteron Proteron, but I shall not take his word, let's hear him speak that was present, an ear witness, an eye witness Matth. 26. 26, 27. Take eat, This is my Body; Drink ye all of it, For this is my Blood: what stands this For for, if drink ye, did not go be­fore? This Observation is noted by almost all Di­vines from Peter Martyr, and Mr Hooker makes Use of it thus, That Christ is not present in the Elements, but in the worthy receiver: The order of the words shews it, first eat and drink, then it follows, for this is my Body, and this is my Blood: an ingenious ob­servation that cuts the hamstrings of the Popish or corporall presence in or under the outward signes, as if it were a knife set in the Text to cut that intricate knot, that makes such a garboyle in the Text: when you take and eat by faith, then is the Body and Blood of Christ present to you, but not latent and hidden in the Bread or Cup: The union of Christ is not otherwise with the Bread then as the thing signified [Page 101] with the sign, but it is with the Communicant, the Hooker. Eccles. Polit. p. 359. believer really, though spiritually; the sacramental signs do exhibit Christ, but not contain him under them, they contain not the grace which God bestows with or by them.

§. 12. Of Spurious Rites and Gestures.

§. 12 So have I opened to you the outward Elements, the outward Rites or Actions of this Sacrament, whether those of Christ, or of the Communicant, and these are genuine and proper, by which the Sacrament is sutable to the Institution; as for other Rites which time or su­perstition have introduced without example or com­mand they are, adulterine and spurious, especially the adoration of the Eucharist upon opinion of the conver­sion of the bread and wine into the body and bloud of Christ, which whether it be performed at the elevati­on or lifting up of the host by the Priest in the Masse, or at the circumgestation or carrying it up and down in procession in the streets, as is usual in Popish coun­treys, is no better then abominable Idolatry, even by their own confession; For Costerus saith, That the bread-worship was the greatest Idolatry that ever was in the world. If the bread be not turned into the true and natural body of Christ, as (saith a learned man) Dr J. Burgesse Lawf. of kneel­ing, p. 113. upon my soul it is not, and if the perswasion of Christs real presence in the Eucharist, will by no means ex­cUse their adoration from Idolatry, much lesse excusa­ble is any Protestant who is perswaded of the contrary. As for other circumstances of the action, as the time, viz. at night, in the close of the Paschal Supper, the place an upper-room or chamber, Mark 14. 15. The [Page 102] guest; twelve in number, Matth. 26. 20. The gesture which was discubiture or lying on couch-beds fitted to the Table, which the Jews were at the Passeover by custom fixed unto, as appears by the ritual, In other Scaliger. lib. 6. De emend. pag. 534. nights we sit or lie on couches, but in this we lie along. These, I say, are moveables, and not of the freehold of this Ordinance: Nor shall I say any thing of the D. Burgess, ubi supra p. 112. gesture, which as it was Used in England hath been an apple of contention and much written pro and con. The Reformed Churches vary, some sit at, some a­bout the Table, some receive this Sacrament passing by the Table in order, as in a Marah, as in the Re­formed Churches in France, and I condemn them not; and for those Divines of the Reformed Churches that disliked our gesture Used here in England, they did not many of them pronounce it simply unlawfull, but in­convenient, becaUse it was a gesture of adoration, and did not serve to pull the bread worship out of mens mindes, nor was so sutable to this Ordinance, which is a Table Ordinance, nor to set forth that fel­lowship and communion, which is exprest in eating and drinking with our Lord, these were their Reasons, and I do not know that I have any occasion to debate the point, but to leave it determinable by the Church­es of God, as may be most sutable to the Decorum and nature of this Ordinance, for if I should, some of you might haply say, that I made a Funeral-sermon for meeting at Sacrament.

Having laid open the parts of this Supper, let us up­on the whole matter stand still a little and make Ob­servation.

CHAP. VII. Some Observations upon the precedent Discourses.

§. 1 NOte here the simplicity of this high and excellent Ordinance, the feast is drest out in plainness and simplicity, answerable to the simplicity of the Gospel, as the Apostle cals it, 2 Cor. 11. 2. Here is no out­ward pomp or ostentation, no stateliness to take the eye, for as gaudy attire becomes not mourning, so this Sacrament setting forth the passion and sufferings, the death and bloudshed of our Lord had not been sutable to him in his lowest estate and darkest eclipse, if it should have shined in outward lustre. It was Tertullians Observation, Nihil obdurat, &c. nothing Lib. de baptisme so hardens the mindes of men, as the simplicity of the works, and yet the magnificence of the promise, that great and glorious things should be found under so plain a dresse, as a rich diamond in a plain case, to the end that the eye of faith might be more exercised then the eye of the body, and that the spiritual and inward part might be looked after and intended, Is not this the Carpenters sonne? was a great stumbling block: and so may the simplicity of the two Sacraments be to us. The Temple, Utensils and Service were rich and stately; Christ was prefigured in golden Types, [Page 104] But grace and truth came by Jesus Christ, Joh. 1. 17. But we have a better Covenant, and better Promises, Heb. 8. 6. And if that which is done away was glorious, much more that which remains exceeds in glory, 2 Cor. 3. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, &c. but that was an outward, this an inward glory; that was in Moses face, this in the face of Christ; that the carnal Jew might see, this the spiri­tual Christian seeth; We saw his glory, Joh. 1. 14. or rather there the glory was veiled, But we with open face behold the glory of the Lord, 1 Cor. 3. 13, 18. The glo­ry of their Ordinance was a stumbling block to them, for they rested in the cabinet, and looked not for the jewels; The meannesse of our Ordinances are a stumb­ling block to us, for we look not for the tReasure in such earthen vessels. God doth great things by poorest meanes, Jericho's wals fall at the sound of Rams­horns, the fiery sting is healed by a piece of brasse, the sight restored to the blinde by the Use of spittle and clay; The figure in this Sacrament is poor, the thing signified heavenly and rich; the Seal is mean, the inheritance or estate is great, but why were the types so rich, and our memorials so poor? You know Spectacles are for divers sights, they had finer Spe­ctacles, we better eyes; They had lesse spirit stirring in the Ordinances then, than we now; if their Tree had more shadow, we have more fruit.

§. 2 Secondly, Take along with you alwayes the Ana­logy, proportion and similitude between a Sacra­ment, and the thing of a Sacrament, between the signe and the thing signified. It's Austin his Rule, If Epist. 23. & al [...]bi. a Sacrament should not have similitude and resem­blance with that whereof it is a Sacrament, it should not be a Sacrament; and from this similitude or re­semblance [Page 105] it is that the signe is called by the name of the thing signified, as the bread, Christs bo­dy, the wine is called Christs bloud; The Rock was Christ, Circumcision called the Covenant; The Lamb called the Passeover; and in common speech, When we look on a Picture, we say, This is Casar, this is Augustus, this is Hercules; nothing more ordinary. In the Sacrament this si­militude is a similitude of proportionality (saith Bonaventure) consisting of four termes: You are most of you Arithmeticians, and you have a golden Rule, called, The Rule of Three, becaUse three terms being given, the fourth is given▪ and this sets forth to you the Analogy of a Sacrament in four termes; As water in Baptisme washes the body, so the Spirit by his grace, or the bloud of Christ cleanseth the soul; As the bread and wine nourish and refresh the body, so the body and bloud of Christ nourisheth and refresheth the soul: As by the hand we take, and with our mouth we eat and drink the bread and wine, so by faith we receive the body and bloud of Jesus Christ; If you destroy the similitude, you destroy the Sacra­ment, as the Papists do by their Transubstantia­tion, for they destroy the Analogy: Thus the accidents of Bread and Wine, or the Species, doe not nourish the Body (say we;) Nor the very Body and Bloud of Christ doth not passe into bodily nourishment (say they) (for it was horrible to imagine it) therefore there is no re­semblance, the similitude is destroyed, and so the Sacrament.

§. 3 [Page 106]Thirdly, It is a most true, most firm and gold­en Rule, That a Sacrament out of the Use appoin­ted Chami [...]r. de Luchar. l. 7. c. 4. §. 11. & l. 8. c. 3 Forbes. Hist. Theol p. 550. by God, hath not the nature of, nor is any more a Sacrament. It is not a Sacrament extra usum, out of the actual Use. There must not one­ly be Bread and Wine, but Blessing, and Taking, and Eating, and Drinking, or else to us there is no Sacrament; The Bread and Wine upon the Table are no Sacrament, but the eating and drinking of Bread and Wine; As in Baptism, the water is no Sacrament, but the washing with water is. The Pa­pists confesse this of every Sacrament, and of Ba­ptism, but not of the Lords Supper, which for Tran­substantiation-sake, which troubles the whole Scaene, they hold to be a perfect Sacrament by consecration, whether it be received by the Communicant, yea or no, and this is the Doctrine of their Schoolmen, and Aquin. part. 3. Qu. 80. & aliis Scholasticis. all others of their confession; We appeal to the Text, Take, Eat, This is my body; It's so, being taken and eaten, and not otherwise, The remains of Bread and Wine are no Sacrament, it is the Use which gives the Reason and nature of a Sacrament, and when and where the Use is not, the Sacrament is not. It's true in our vulgar speech we call it the Sacrament, as on the Table; as the beast might be called a Sacrifice be­fore it was slain, being destin'd and appointed there­unto 1 Sam. 13. 9 Whitak. de [...] a­cram. p 621, 624, &c. (as Whitaker saith) but it is no Sacrifice till slain and offer'd; nor was the Lamb a Passeover, but as it was eaten and rosted; so a meer stone, is a stone, wheresoever it be, but not a boundary, but in the Use; and an earnest is money, but not an earnest, ex­cept taken upon agreement; Bread and Wine are [Page 107] Elements, but not a Sacrament, till all the Rites and Actions be Observed, which God hath appointed, viz. in the participation and Use, 1 Cor. 10. 16, 17, 18. The Cup of blessing and the bread, are the Communi­on of the body and bloud of Christ, being partaken and received, not else.

There is some kinde of Argument urged against this Rule from the reservation of the Bread espe­cially, and of the Wine, which is read of in Anti­quity, and that was either private reservation, when the Communicant carried home the Bread, and kept it in his chest for his private Use to eat of privately, or else it was by the Ministers to give to lapsed Christi­ans in time of extremity or sicknesse that were debar­red of publick participation: The first is mentioned Cypr. de lapsis. by ancient Authours, and by some commended, as Ambrose de obitu. Satyr. Nazian. Epitaph pro sor. This is excUsed by Jewell against Harding; As in time Forbes Hist. Theol. p. 553. Col. 1. of persecution, when Christians might be deprived of the publick Ordinance, and by others on other grounds. Burgess of knealing.

The other hath one onely example in true An­tiquity, and that is Serapions case, EUseb. Histor. lib. 6. cap. 34. and is excUsed by Chemnitius, as if Chem. de coena. Examen. p. 93. it was to oppose the Novatian opinion, of not re­storing the lapsed, though penitent unto the Com­munion of the Sacrament; Of both these, I see no clear warrant in the Institution of Christ, and there­fore say with Cyprian, Non quod aliquis ante nos, &c. We are not to look what any hath done before us, but what he did and commanded that was before all, even Jesus Christ.

§. 4 [Page 108]Fourthly, It is the peoples right to receive the Cup as well as the Bread, Drink ye all of it, Matth. 26. 27. Moulin Buckler p. 529. They all drank of it, Mark 14. 23. As often as ye eat this bread, and drink of this Cup, saith Paul, 1 Cor. 11. 26. Nothing more plain, and yet whether it be the ambition of the Priests, that would exalt them­selves above the people, or whether it be the fruit of Transubstantiation, or both, this Cup is taken from the people in the Romane Churches, but it was not ta­ken away by publick Decree, till the Council of Con­stance, Anno 1416. since which time there was great petitioning to the Council of Trent, for the Cup, but Chem. Exam. de coena. p. 134, 135. Concil. Trid. Sess. 6. they referr'd it to the Pope, in whose hands it lies, and it seems will lie, till God put another cup into his hand to drink. And so you see that that Council of Con­stance that burnt John Husse and Jerome did let out the bloud of good Christians, and shut up the bloud of Christ from them. I conclude, Let us follow that which is simplest and purest according to Christs In­stitution, and neither superstitiously reserve, nor im­piously mutilate the holy Ordinance.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Real Presence.

NOw I draw on to the Anatomy of the viscera, the entrails and inwards of this Ordinance un­der the outside, whereof if you take off the cover, you shall finde such cheer as never was in any other feast, This is my body (saith Christ) which is broken for you (saith Paul) Which is given for you (saith Mat. 26 26, 27 28 Mark 14. 22, 24. Luk. 22. 20. Luke) This Cup is the New Testament in my bloud (saith Paul) Which is shed for you (saith Luke;) Or as Matthew and Mark, This is my bloud of the New Testament, which is shed for many, for re­mission of sinnes, saith Matthew, which is shed for many, saith Mark, which is shed for you, saith Luke. And all these together are my Text at this time.

§. 1 In this Sacrament, Mirificè lusit Satan, saith an excellent Authour, Satan hath play'd his pranks, and Chamier. de Euchar. l. 6 c. 1. §. 1. tried conclusions upon Divines, how he could infa­tuate aad make them mad, such cart-loads of perple­xities, alterations, absurdities, and wilde fancies have they been possest with in the agitation of this point, and discussion of these very words, which as a Re­verend D. Rainolds Medit. Divine saith truly, are clear and easie to a spi­ritual ear or minde, it is the carnal fancy that perplexes all, and corrupts the Text, which had been clear, if [Page 110] the water had not been muddied with dirty hands: so Nicodemus understands Christ carnally in matter of Joh. 3. Regeneration, and talks of entring again into our mothers womb: So the Disciples of Capernaum un­derstand that excellent Doctrine of Christ, John 6. about eating his flesh, and drinking his bloud; of the very Cannibal eating of mans flesh and bloud: The very antidote he gave them would serve here, John 6. 63. The words that I speak, they are spirit, and they are life, that is, their spiritual meaning is lively, and if we could agree on this, then we should give our Hooker. l. 5. p. 359. selves more to meditate with silence what we have by this Sacrament, and lesse dispute the manner how, for this heavenly food is given for satisfying empty souls, and not exercising our curious and subtil wits; for it often comes to passe, that curious sifting and dispu­ting Hooker. Eccles. Pol. l. 5. p. 364. too boldly chils all warmth of our zeal, and brings soundnesse of belief into great haz­zard.

§. 2 The words have been and are interpreted in divers senses, the most notable I have Observed to be five, I Hooker speak­ing of Anci­ents, lib. 5. pag. 362. say the most notable for there are more.

1. That Christ is present in this Sacrament by his efficacy and power, to realize and exhibit vertue to, and by the Ordinance, Nec ullo modo se absentat di­vina Majestas a Ministeriis. Cyprian. de Caena, and other Ancients.

2. That Christ his very body is present with, or in or under the outward elements, as the Consubstantia­tists, or Lutheran saith.

3. That Christ is really present, but modum nescimus, we know not the manner how, and in this dark some of our learned men spoke of late, to what intent they best knew.

[Page 111]4. That there is a real turning of the substance of Bread and Wine into the very substance of Christs Body and Bloud. Thus the Papists or Transubstan­tiatists.

5. That the Bread and Wine are sacramental­ly Christs Body and Bloud, or the memorials thereof, symbolically representing and exhibit­ing to the faithfull Christians, himself, and so say We.

§. 3 And yet all parties in their difference professe them­selves clear, and that they follow the true, naked and literal sense in their judgement. Chemnitius that lear­ned Examen de Eucbar. p. 65. Col. 1. Luther an professes, That he imbraceth that sense which holds the true and substantial presence of Christ in the Supper, which the words in their proper, and genuine, and usual signification hold forth. The Papist professes, That he hath the very plain letter of the words, and the sense literal; So farre as Lapide, I know not whether with more confidence or impudence saith, That if God ask him at the day of Judgement, why he held so, he will confidently say, Tu docuisti, Thou hast taught me. We are as clear, Vide Lee in Annot. in loc. that we follow the true proper literal sense, and that saith a learned man, Upon my soul, there is no such D. Jo. Burgesse, Kneeling at Sacram [...]nt. p. 113. turning of the Bread into Christs Body, as the Papist affirms.

§. 4. This is my Body.

§. 4 I shall open the words severally, This is my Body, about which there is the greatest heat and quarrel.

In the Rite of the Paschal Supper, when the bread Cameron. Myrothec. in Mat. 26. Scaliger. de Emend lib. 6. pag. 536. was given, there was a solemn signification put upon it, This is the bread of affliction, and our Saviour transferring that bread into his Supper, gave a new signification, This is my body; In the first Rite there was no turning the substance of bread, nor yet in this second. Mouliu Bucklet p. 471.

For our clearer understanding, we must constantly hold these two things:

  • 1. That Christ gave bread.
  • 2. That this bread was his body.

First, Christ gave bread to his Disciples at this Sup­per; for that which he took, which he blest, which he brake, was bread, He took bread, and that he gave, saying, This is my body which is broken for you; for the bread was broken as a signe that his body should be crucified, and bread the Apostle cals it after con­secration, thrice in this Chapter, vers. 26, 27, 28. and 1 Cor. 10. 16. The bread which we break, and ver. 17. We are all partakers of that one bread, and he cals it so, not becaUse it was bread before, for he might so have called it wheat; a man might be called a boy, ripe wine verjuice, but becaUse it is so, except all our senses be put out and extinguisht with the bread.

Secondly, This bread is Christs body; What bo­dy? Even his own natural body, which is given for you, Luk. 22. 19. which is broken for you, as in my Text; What bloud? Even that which is shed for you, Matth. 26. 28. Luke 22. [...]0. But how can this be, it's impossible that bread while it is bread, as we have proved it is, should be Christs body, or wine, while it's wine, should be his bloud? It's very true, that it [Page 113] is impossible, Disparatum de disparato non proprium praedicatur, therefore we must seek for a possible Calvin. in 1 Cor. 11. meaning, and of necessity conclude with Calvin, Sa­cramentalem esse loquutionem, that it is a sacramental form of speech, the signe bears the name of the thing signified, as in vulgar, and in Scripture language, for in Scripture both signs figuratively representing, or sa­cramentally sealing, do bear the name of the things represented or sealed, as Gen. 40. 12. The three branch­es are three dayes, vers. 18. The three baskets are three dayes, Gen. 41. 26. The seven ears of corn are seven years; the seven kine are seven years. Ezek. 37. 11. These dry bones are the whole hoUse of Israel. Dan. 2. 38. Thou, O King, art this head of gold, Dan. 7. 17. The four beasts are four Kings. Gal. 4. 25. This A­gar is mount Sinai. Revel. 17. 9. The seven heads are seven mountains: So in sacramentals, Circumci­sion is called the Covenant, Gen 17. 13. And a to­ken of the Covenant, v. 11. And a seal of the righteousnes of Faith, Rom. 4. 11. The Lamb is called the Passeover, Exod. 12. 21. The Rock was Christ, 1 Cor. 10. 4. and in this Sacrament, This Cup is the New-Testament; What shall we require further, the form of speech is plain, a childe may understand it? And it is without example in all Scripture, that the signe should be, or be changed into the substance of the thing signified; and which is further to be said, The Hebrew Tongue, or the Syriack, in which Christ spake doth not Use in this form of speech any copula of subject and predicate, either is, or signifieth but some­times, and not alwayes a Pronoun, as in these places by me cited in the Old Testament; There is no [is] nor other Verb, but thus the seven ears of corn, they [Page 114] seven years, the four beasts, four Kings, which when Cameron. Myrothec. in Mat. 26. Moulin. Buckler p. 478. they come to be translated into Greek or Latine, then the idiome of the language requires it, and saith [is] The Rock was Christ, and so in the present case, Hoo lach ma, this bread of affliction, that is, This is the bread of affliction.

§. 5. This Cup is the New Testament in my bloud.

§. 5 I proceed to the next part, This Cup is the New Testament in my bloud; or, This is the bloud of the New Testament, where the contenders are a little cooler, and must perforce allow a Trope or figura­tive speech; for the Cup sure is not changed into a Covenant or Testament, nor the bloud of Christ neither, nor the wine; The cup is not put for the bloud of Christ, for then it would be thus, This bloud is the New Testament in my bloud, a pure non sense, that Papists cannot salve without inventi­on of two blouds, but the cup is put for the wine; This wine is the New Testament [...], ratified in my bloud; The wine represents, and by represen­tation is the very bloud of Christ, which confirms and ratifies, Gods Gospel-covenant, or the New Te­stament, bequeathing to believers the Legacy of re­mission of sinnes in Christ, for that Christ gave wine, and not very bloud in the cup, is that which Matthew and Mark say, Matth. 26. 29. Mark 14. 25. I will drink no more of the fruit of the Vine; Peri Haggephen, was the word signantly Used Stegman. disp. 51. p. 593. for wine in the Paschal Rite, The fruit of the vine. That Climax and Gradation of Luther is pleasant, The Cup contains the wine, the wine exhibits the [Page 115] bloud of Christ, the bloud of Christ ratifies and con­firms the New Covenant, the New Covenant promiseth remission of sinnes: Therefore the drinking of this Cup, applies, seals, confirms to believers the promise of re­mission of sinnes; And the allusion is excellent, as Cameron in Mat. 26. 27. the Apostle Observes, Heb. 9. 20. out of Exod. 24. 8. that Moses said, This is the bloud of the Covenant which God hath enjoyned you; for all covenant with man fallen is sealed with bloud, that, under the Law with typical bloud, this, of the Gospel by the very bloud of Christ; For without bloud is no remission, Heb. 9. 22. And of this Covenant-confirming bloud of Christ, this wine is the lively representation or memorial.

The particulars thus cast up, are summ'd up into this total, as the sense and meaning of this Ordi­nance:

§. 6 First, This bread is my body, this wine is my bloud, as representations and memorials of my bo­dy broken, and my bloud shed, figuring and signi­fying my death and suffering for you, but this is not all, for God doth not feed us with empty shows and void figures onely representing, as the footstep in the snow the foot, or the picture of Hercules represents Hercules; This would bring the Sacrament to a Soci­nian emptinesse, as a matter of our duty onely, not as of Gods conferring any benefit upon us; This is more like the Signe of a Shop, than the Seal of a Deed, and would rather serve the eye, than refresh the soul by eating and drinking, as meat and drink. Therefore.

Secondly, This Bread is my Body, This Cup is the Calvin. in 1 Cor. 11. New Testament in my bloud, as Pledges, Seals [Page 116] and instrumental means of exhibition, solemnly Pet. Martyr. ibid. Hooker. Eccles. Polit. p. 359. Paraeus in 1 Cor. 11. conveying, though symbolically to the faith of a beleever, Christ himself, for union and commu­nion, and the benefits of his death, remission of finnes; as the pledge confirms the contract, the Seal passeth or conveyeth the estate, by which we are as truly partakers of Christ Jesus, if we re­ceive by faith, as we are partakers of bread and wine for nourishment; this is a high significati­on and Use, it's full, and rich, and comfortable, and this I prove by that of the Apostle, wherein I rest as a full explication of the phrase in hand, 1 Cor. 10. 16. The Cup of blessing which we blesse, Is it not the Communion of the bloud of Christ? The bread which we break, Is it not the Communion of the body of Christ? Here is Participation, Communion; and he saith, Is it not, Is it not? As a known and received truth amongst Chri­stians, and with this I content my selfe, as cleare and full against all contenders and gain­sayers.

As for the Ancients, I referre you to a whole Parliament of them, called together, and voting down Transubstantiation. Crakanthorpe Defens. cap. 73. against that unhappy man, the Arch-Bishop of Spalato, who had before his last revolt said, Omnes Patres, All the Fathers are against the Real Presence, but he unsaid it again afterward to his Justin. Apol. 2. losse. Justin Martyr cals the bread [...], Bread over which thanks were given. Irenaeus the very same. Tertullian and Origen prove, That Tertul. l. 4. contra Marc. c. 40. Origen. Christ had a true body, against the Phantasticks, becaUse the bread is a figure and signe of a true [Page 117] body. Hierom cals it a representation; and Austin is Greek Fathers call them [...] Dionysius. Basilius. Theodores. totus Calvinianus in the point: There are rhetoricall flourishes, hyperbolies, and high expressions some­times to procure honour to the Ordinance, or quick­en up the Communicants, but in judgement they are with us, Crakantherp Defens. cap. 73. §. 30. [...] lingua [...], Chry. hom. 82. in Matth. sanguinem sugimus Cyp. de caena, and such hyperbolies, &c.

So much be spoken for the explication of the words, which are so ravelled and perplexed by con­trary senses.

CHAP. IX. Of the Inward thing signified or re­presented in this Supper.

I. What is presented to the Beleever.

NOw we shall proceed to open to you what Christ presents unto and sets before the faithfull in this Supper, and what the faithfull do receive in the right Use thereof.

For the first, There is here presented and set be­fore you in this Supper,

1. Christ himself sacrificed for you, with the fruits and benefits of his death, or of the sacrifice of himself.

2. The New Testament or the New Covenant, [Page 118] confirmed and ratified by his Blood, with the con­tents of that Covenant, viz. Remission of sins, and other benefits by consequence flowing from it.

§. 1 1. Here is Christ himself sacrificed for you, with the Fruits and Benefits accruing from his death, presented and set before you: The efficacy of his Hooker Eccl. lib. 5. pag. 360. Body and Blood is not all that is here presented to be received, as is consist by the true Protestant Churches of our Confession, but first and princi­pally Christ himself; as the influence of heaven is in plants, beasts, men, but there is not such a thing only here set forth, but a Divine and mysticall Uni­on with Christ himself; for here is a participation saith the Apostle, of the Body and Blood of Christ, who is exhibited, as really and truly present, not opposing reall to spirituall, but to chimericall or phantasticall, nor intending his presence in the Ele­ments, as contained in them, but to the faith of the receiver, who hath union with him. The very Body and Blood of Christ, that Body which was fastened Peter Martyr in 1 Cor. 11. 24. Calvin in 1 Cor. 11. 24, 25. to the Cross, that Blood which was shed was a Sa­crifice, as offered up to God, is meat and drink, as offered unto us; and therefore our Divines say, that Christ is truly and really, but yet spiritually, given to us, as he was given for us. This is my Body which is broken for you, given for you, saith the Text, and that which was given for you, is given to you: He was given for you in the Sacrifice, he is given to you in the Sacrament, with those blessed fruits and be­nefits that flow from his Death.

§. 2 2. Here is presented to you the New Testament, a Covenant ratified and confirmed in his Blood, with the benefits and priviledges thereof. It is cal­led [Page 119] New, either from the excellency of it, as the word New sometimes signifies, or for the durable­ness and perpetuity of it, as the Apostle explains it, Heb. 8. ult. in opposition to the Old made with Israel, Cameron in Myreth. Matth. 26. which was to determine and vanish away as to the form of dispensation. This Covenant is, That God will be our God, and we shall be his people: That he will forgive our iniquities and remember our sins no more, &c. and the Blood of Christ is the sanction of this Co­venant, for without Blood is no remission; the blood of Christ is the Seal which ratifies the truth and va­lidity of this Covenant: The Wine in this Sacra­ment represents that Blood of Christ, and is not so properly a Seal confirming the Covenant in it self, as conveying the comfort and participation of it un­to us; or if you will, it is a Seal of Remission of sin to us, which is an Article of the Covenant that is sealed by the Blood of Christ, and therefore it is said, This is the blood of the New Testament which is shed for many, for Remission of sins.

§. 3 And so you have here presented to your Faith Christ himself sacrificed for you, the New Cove­nant confirmed by Christs Blood shed for the pardon of sinnes, which are the highest and most glorious things of Gods gift to mankinde, who hath in the dishes of this outward Sacrament set before you such good cheer to feed upon, as all Sacrifices under the Law and Feasts were but the meer shadows of. Take heed of thinking meanly of the furniture of this Ta­ble: God hath no better provision to set before a sinner, than his Sons flesh and blood, and his Co­venant of grace sealed and confirmed: our Socinian likes not this, that word, My Body broken for you, my [Page 120] Blood shed for remission of sinnes, makes him bestirre himself to turn off the Body broken to the bread, and the Blood shed to the wine: and so you see two ex­treams, the Papist turns bread into Christs Body, and wine into Blood; the Socinian on the other hand, that which is spoken of the Body puts off up­on the bread, and that of the Blood upon the wine, that the death of Christ might not be a proper Sacri­fice for us.

§. 4. II. What the faithfull do receive in the right Use of this Ordinance.

§. 4 What the faithfull do receive in the right Use of this Ordinance? and this is easily answered: For as guests at the Table receive the meat and drink set be­fore them, so having seen what God presents to them, we shall easily finde what they receive at this Table, and that is,

1. The faithfull communicant receives Christ him­self, or his Body and Blood: Faith is a receiving of Christ himself, we cannot receive the benefits that come by him without receiving of himself; as in Marriage the consent is, I take thee, not I take thine, and yet this is consequent, upon that, our union with Christ is strengthened and more closed; and this union with Christ is one of those great mysteries, Eph. 5. 32. resembled by man and wise, who are one flesh, though a thousand miles asunder; and as she is under covert, and free from arrest of Law for debt, so a Beleever by his union with Christ is under co­verture, and the curse and condemnation of Gods Law cannot touch him: or as members knit, or [Page 121] branches united to the tree, receive influx of life and spirits from the head and root, so Beleevers united to Christ by his Spirit receive influences and spirit and life from him by vertue of their union, I in them, saith Christ, Joh. 7. 23, 26. The inhabitation of Christ in his people, seems to be exprest by their eating and drinking of his Body and Blood spiritual­ly, and that inhabitation cannot be without a pre­sence of him; such as his inhabitation is, such is his presence, both reall, and yet both spirituall, he dwels in our hearts by faith, Eph. 3. 17.

§. 5 2. The faithfull communicant receives the con­firmation of that Covenant which is his only com­fort. He takes hold of the Covenant by the Seal of it, the Blood of Christ, the severall articles whereof, as that God will be our God, and that in Christ, he will forgive us all our sins, &c. are particularly seal­ed up for our better evidence and peace and security, that we may be inabled to make a personall and par­ticular claim of the benefits and priviledges of it, which are called The unsearchable riches of Christ.

§. 6 And from hence, ver. 12. the receiving of Christ himself, and of the Covenant made in Christ and confirmed in his Blood, doth follow that which is usually said to be the benefit of this Sacrament, the strengthening, refreshing, sustentation of the soul by those graces, comforts, hopes, which flow by con­sequence from Christ or the Covenant, so that what­soever a man may expect for bodily strength or repa­ration from bread and wine, the like he may expect from Christ or the Covenant for his soul; life main­tained, graces quickened, deadness enlivened, reso­lutions enabled, hope erected, faith strengthened, [Page 122] lusts subdued, which follow by consequence upon our union with Christ, and our interest in the Cove­nant, in the sense of which when a Christian walks, he is in a good frame and posture of spirit.

CHAP. X. A four-fold Exhortation from the premises.

FRom what hath been said upon this point, I would possess you with four things.

§. 1 I. That you hold fast and stick to the true sense and right meaning of these words, This is my Body. This is the Blood of the New Testament, which hath been so perplexed and depraved by superstition, and the vanity of humane inventions, especially since the rise of the Schoolmen, whose itch of Disputa­tion hath bred such a scab, that there hath been left no soundness in the place, which hath been tortured with such Convulsions, Distortions and Absurdities, that the sense, which to a chast and simple ear is easie and smooth, hath been raveld into knots in­extricable; and this Text of all other hath suffered in­finite injuries, and been made the stage of impudent fooleries, which have brought and buried out of sight the true meaning of them, and made our Sa­viour that Used to speak vulgarly and easily, to delude the senses, amUse the Reason, nonplus the faith of so­ber [Page 123] Beleevers. And though it be truly said, The sense of Scripture is the Scripture, and that the right understanding of these words, carries you in a right line, to the nature, Use and benefit of this Or inance, yet let me say this more to you as English men, That the true meaning of them hath been conveyed to you by the blood of your own Martyrs, who in Q Mary her daies, were most of them put to the test upon the point of Reall presence of Christ in the Sacrament, and bare witness against it, and I do beleeve that if Po­pery do ever make another attempt upon you, it will play upon you with his battery at this place.

§. 2. Extreams about Christs Reall presence, and the middle way held by the Churches of our Profession.

§. 2 The Churches of our Confession have warily and justly avoided the extreams on both sides.

1. The first extream is that which some did fear in Zuinglius and others at first, and yet is unjustly charged upon us by many, viz. That the Sacra­ments are [...], naked signes, empty figures and shadows, meerly representing the death of Christ, as the Picture of Hercules resembles and represents Hercules, which we disclaim, and leave it to Socini­anizing spirits, and other Levellers of Divinity; for we are taught that Sacramentall signes are more than meer representing signes, being Seals which do con­firm and make over unto us the spirituall benefit which they represent and exhibit, also they are signs which God commands us to Use, and in their right Use he conferres upon us the benefit, as the Seal [Page 124] passes a Right to the Estate promised and conveyed, as the Apostle saith, Rom. 4. 11. He received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of faith, and 1 Cor. 10. 16. The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ; The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? not representation only, but communion or participation also; for the picture of a loaf of bread feeds not the hungry, nor doth the Ivy-bush refresh the weary, and therefore there is not only a repre­sentation of the body of Christ broken, by the break­ing of the bread, but Take and eat and drink, which denotes participation of the body and blood of Christ.

2. The other extream is twofold: 1. That the very body and blood of Christ is, as it were, moul­ded up with the bread and wine, or hidden under them, which is the sense of the Consubstantiatists or Lutheran Churches; and this, though it be too gross an opinion, yet is not liable to so many mon­sters, and incompresensible absurdities as the other, which is, 2. That the bread and wine cease to be, and are evoided, being turned or change, the sub­stance of them into the very substance of the flesh and blood of Christ, which is hidden under the species or outward accidents of bread and wine, a monstrous Paradox, holden stifly by the Transubstantiatists or Papists.

The middle way holden by the Churches of our Confession, is, That the outward Elements do repre­sent as Signes and exhibit as Seales and morall In­struments to the faith of the receiver, the very Body and Blood of Christ sacrificed, as spirituall repast [Page 125] for our souls and spiritually given and taken, but that they continue not as incorporated with them, nor are converted into the very naturall Body of Christ, as locally or corporally, there to be received by the mouth of the receiver.

We hold a difference or change of bread and wine blessed, but it is a change of signification not of sub­stance, a relative change, not reall, a change in re­gard of Use and esteem, not of their naturall sub­stance, as the wax, now a Seal to a Conveyance is wax still, but not a Seal, not of that value till now; all the Rhetoricall flowers Used by the Ancients reach no further, if they do, we cannot keep them company: We hold that the Body and Blood of Christ is really, that is, truly exhibited and present to the faith of the receiver; and we might express the reall presence, as reall is opposed to imaginary or chimericall, were it not for caption and mis-under­standing; none of ours denies the Body of Christ to be really, though spiritually eaten by a Beleever; nay it is immotum axioma, whatsoever is eaten, in that it is Forbes p. 53 [...]. eaten, it must be present; no man can eat a thing that's absent, but the presence with or under the Elements is one thing, and the presence to the soul and faith of a Beleever is another: We know no union of Christs Body with bread and Wine, but with his members, which is reall and mysticall, not reall and corporall; therefore Christ saith, Take eat, before he say, This is my Body, as if it were his Body to their faith, not as in the outward Element.

§. 3. Arguments for the Protestants sense of the words, This is my Body.

§. 3 For attestation of this sense, many Arguments may be mustred up together.

1. Compare one part of this Sacrament with the other: This cup is the New Testament in my Blood, that is by Metonymy, the Seal of the New Testament, but not the New Testament it self: so, This is my Body, that is the Signe and Seal of it, but not it self.

2. Compare the one Sacrament of the Gospel with the other: In Baptism the water is water with­out reall alteration, so here the bread is bread, the wine is wine, not changed into flesh or blood.

3. Compare the Sacraments of the Old Testa­ment with the New: Circumcision is the Covenant becaUse the Sign or Seal of it, the Lamb is the Passeo­ver becaUse the memoriall or sign of it, so the bread is my Body, the wine is my Blood in the same form of speech.

4. The Language in which our Saviour spake, had no other property of expression, there being no word for [signifie] but [is] in stead thereof, as Learn­ed men say; and its certain the Scripture in both Testaments, Hebrew and Greek, Uses the same form in a hundred places, giving the name of the thing signified to the sign, as hath been shown, as the seven ears of corn are seven years. The dry bones are the hoUse of Israel. The seven Candlesticks are seven Churches, &c.

5. The words, This is my Body, are not proper in [Page 127] the Lutheran sense, no more than to say, This Cloak is Peter, becaUse Peter is in it: nor in the Popish sense, except the Body of Christ be there before the words be pronounced, This is my Body, which should ra­ther be thus, Let this be my Body; as God said, Let there be light, not This is light, for it was not light before.

6. The spirituall benefit which is eating and drink­ing Christs Body and Blood by faith, is no less in our sense, than if there were his very flesh, for Christ saith, The flesh profits nothing, Joh. 6. and the Papists hold that the eating of Christs flesh by wicked men profits nothing, except besides the Sacramentall, there be a spirituall feeding upon Christ, which we affirm.

7. The Apostles understood these words as we do, and as the Hebrews had ever understood the same expression for form in the Old Testament, else they would have been amazed and startled at it, and have asked some Question as they were inquifitive enough in lesser matters, but they saw Christ fit at table, and eat and drink first himself, and therefore could not be ignorant of their meaning.

8. The Capernaite Disciples, Joh. 6. having taken offence at those frequent expressions of eating Christs flesh and drinking his blood, understanding them carnally, were answered by Christ himself, The flesh profits nothing, The words that I speak are spirit and life, as if he himself would give the interpre­tation.

9. The Apostle thrice in this Chapter following cals it still bread after consecration, as also in the Chapter foregoing, and surely he that never before [Page 128] did, would not delude the senses of his Disciples in this Ordinance; and himself cals it wine too, Matth. 26. 26. I will not henceforth drink of this fruit of the Vine, which is the Periphrasis usuall among the Jews for wine.

10. The remembrance of Christ, the shewing forth his death till he come, do import the absence of his Body, which the Scripture tels us, ascended into hea­ven and there is contained, in lieu of his corporall absence he sent the Spirit to abide for ever as another Comforter: Memorials and monuments are of things absent.

11. For the Ancient Fathers they prove against the Marcionites, that held the Body of Christ to be meerly phantasticall, That it is substantiall, becaUse the Elements of bread and wine are substantiall, which was no good argument, if only the accidents or shadows of the Elements do remain; and all along downwards they call the outward Elements, sym­bols, Forbes p. 561. types, figures, signes of Christs Body, untill about the year 1215. when subtill and superstitious Disputes grew hot about the presence of Christ in the Sacrament, which occasioned Innocent the third to introduce both name of Transubstantiation and thing, not before openly heard of, and so as a Decree of the Lateran Council, vented it as a point of faith, since which time the Councill of Trent hath confirm­ed Sess 13. ca. 4. the Decree, and the word, as most fit and proper, which are the rotten, yet the best props upon which Transubstantiation doth stand at this day, being upon the first birth of it, as I said even now, op­posed Forbes p. 609 col 1. by the Waldenses, and afterward by Wicliff, and those that followed them, and shall be op­posed [Page 129] by all Orthodox, till that Dagon fall.

§. 4. Why the Error of Transubstantiation is to be re­jected with utmost detestation.

§. 4 II. To reject with utmost detestation the impossi­ble and incomprehensible Errour of Transubstantia­tion, and corporall presence, by which Doctrine a silly Priest doth that which all the Angels cannot do, and that is, Make his Maker, as they call the Host; and people do devour their God, and yet they justifie it by Gods omnipotency, that God is able to effect it, which is no better an argument than the Turks may justifie most of the fooleries of their Alcoran. There are two grounds for the rejection of this abo­mination.

1. The Idolatry and Sacriledge which doth ensue upon it, and that is the adoration and worship of the Host, a piece of bread, and the mutilation or maim­ing of the Sacrament by bread only, and the propi­tiatory Sacrifice of Christ himself in the Mass, who was once only offered up to God upon the Cross, all which are the issue of this Errour.

2. The monsters of contradiction and absurdity to sense and Reason which follow thereupon. It was begotten by feigned miracles and fabulous Legends, and is the mother of blasphemies and inextricable absurdities, which set faith it self on the rack, and which though they would seem easily to blow away, yet by their stragling it appears they strive with that they cannot master. The point of Consubstantia­tion hath brought forth a grand absurdity, main­tained by some Psendo▪ Lutherans, the Ubiquity [Page 130] of Christs Body in all places.

But this of Transubstantiation surpasses all, as I shew thus,

1. Suppose Christ sitting at the table with his Disciples, and eating this bread and drinking this cup first, as the custom at the Paschall Supper was, and as the Papists generally, and the Fathers hold, and we deny not, becaUse the Scripture seems plain for it, [...], Matth. 26. 19. Henceforth I will not drink of the fruit of the Vine; supposing, I say, this, How is it possible or imaginable that he should eat himself? or how can he sit at table, and yet be in the mouths of his Apostles? Was he at the same time in his Apostles mouths or stomacks, while he sate and rose from table, and discoursed those three Chapters of John 15, 16, 17? or while he sweat that Bloody sweat in his Agony in the Garden, &c. a monstrous im­possibility!

2. It's Impossible to make that which was before existent and in being: Can a father beget a son that Chelling. p. 70. is already begotten? Can an Architect build a hoUse that is already built? Can the body of Christ, which is before the conversion of the bread, be made or produced by the turning of bread into it? Can he that was conceived by the holy Ghost born of the Virgin be made by pronouncing of four or five words? If ever delusions were strong, these are, Nam factum facere & factum infectum facere, are equally impossible.

3. They say that the substance of bread and wine is avoided, and that only the accidents remain, so that there is length and nothing long, breadth and nothing broad, thickness and nothing thick, white­ness [Page 131] and nothing white, moisture and nothing moist, sweetness and nothing sweet, that is, a long, broad, thick, white, moist, sweet Nothing. The Priest pours out nothing but lines and colours, when he pours out the wine, for these accidents of bread and wine are not in the bread, becaUse that is avoided and vanisht, and they are not in the Body of Christ, as themselves say, and yet it is plain this bread and wine do nourish the body, and is the body nourish­able by meer accidents? Can there be plainer con­tradictions?

4. Can the same body at the same time have his just dimensions, distance of parts, symmetry, pro­portion, as the Body of Christ hath, and yet not have these, becaUse all parts? yea the whole Body of Christ, say they, are in one and the self same point or crum of bread.

5. Can the Body of Christ which is much great­er be wholly contained in a wafer or piece of bread, in his full dimensions, and that as many times as there are points, crums, drops in the bread or wine?

6. Can the bread be turned into the very Body of Christ, and yet not anything of that bread become anything of Christ, nor the matter nor form nor ac­cidents of bread be made either the matter or form or accidents of Christ?

7. Can the same thing, as Christs true Body, at the same time be wholly above it self, and wholly below it self, within and without it self? can it be moved, and yet be still? be carried from one place to another, and yet not move? be brought from hea­ven to earth, and yet not come out of heaven? who [Page 132] then can assure me that when he hung upon the Cross, he was not walking somewhere else, crucified and not crucified, eaten and not eaten, alive in one, dead in another place, as in case the Apostles ce­lebrated this Supper while Christ was in the grave.

8. What dishonour do these men render the Bo­dy of Christ obnoxious unto, to be eaten by wicked men, by bruit creatures, by mice, by other vermin, to be cast into some unclean place? for so long as the form of bread remains, so long the Body of Christ is there, though it be in the mouth or belly of a moUse, saith Ales and the rest of the Schoolmen, who do one where or other acknowledge the most of these monstrous absurdities, and go about to heal and salve them. I surcease from raking further into this ingratefull sink, whose name Transubstantiati­on is but of yesterday in comparison, and which dis­honours the Body of Christ into a monster, destroies the nature of the Sacrament, and fils the world with dreadfull contentions and broils; and let us but ob­serve, 1. What grievous impositions the Roma­nists lay upon the faith of them that are devoted to her communion. 2. What contradictions and ab­surdities the common people do ignorantly and im­plicitly beleeve. 3. What strong delusions even to believe lies God gives up Learned men unto, that refUse the simplicity of the truth for interests and po­litick ends! 4. What a mercy of God it is to de­liver us from that tyranny, which leaves us no other choice, but to swallow and digest such impossible things, or to be sacrificed in flames; and the Lord forbid the re-entrance of that Religion among us, [Page 133] which in all likelihood will cost us our souls or our lives.

§. 5 III. Having past the most rugged and craggy part of my way, now we shall have a sweeter and smoo­ther way; and the third thing that I commend to you is, To keep fixt your eyes and hearts upon the inward of this Sacrament, which Christ himself doth anatomize and unfold to you, saying, This is my Body, This Cup is the New Testament in my Blood, teaching all Ministers to explain the outward Ordi­nance what it means, and all communicants to set their hearts upon it; for as the Parchment and Wax are little worth, but the Estate conveyed, so the Bread and Wine do but convey by their Use, the Bo­dy and Blood of Christ, and the Covenant of grace and peace confirmed unto us; and as we Use to search and pick out of every corner of the shell that's bro­ken, as of a Wallnut, the kernell that is in it, so we should study the marrow and kernell of this Ordi­nance, to lose the sight and Use of nothing here pre­sented; God loses honour and praise, and we bene­fit and com ort, when we look not to the inwards of an outward Ordinance, especially when Christ him­self and all the great and capitall benefits that accrue by him, are not only represented but confirmed, and to be participated: They that look upon a meer repre­sentation of Christs death in this Ordinance, reduce it to a pretence or shadow, and look for too little, for it's a sealing Ordinance: They that look for his very Body to be eaten, look for too much; we may ex­pect from Gods institutions the grace or benefit which God appoints them to exhibit, and in the way wherein he so appoints: Then have we the benefit of [Page 134] his death, when we have him; and here is offered to Calvin in 1 Cor. 11. you not the benefit only, but the Body in which he suffered; his body was a Sacrifice, here it is spirituall food, we feed upon that Sacrifice as the manner was; the Covenant was confirmed by his Blood, here we feast upon it; the Blood was shed that he might re­concile to God, it's drunk that we may be partakers of that Reconciler, and that reconciliation. He shall confirm the Covenant with mercy, is Daniels phrase, Dan. 9. 29. The memoriall we celebrate, the benefit we participate here, and the great Question, Whether I have remission of sins, whereat we stick, is here an­swered to a doubting soul, that beleeves in desire, not in comfort, as sure as God can devise by outward Ordinance. The Word answers that Question by de­scription of qualification of the person, a Believer: The Spirit answers it by witnessing and sealing it up to our spirits that we are children: The graces of Re­generation do answer it, as fruit doth to the life of the tree, by demonstration: This Sacrament answers it by exhibition and offering Christ to me that I may appropriate him, for the blood was shed for you, saith Christ, Luk. 22. 20. for you that take and eat and drink.

§. 6 IV. The communicant should be one that seeks union and communion with Christ, for he that is not a Jew inwardly, eats but outwardly. Finis non intus, dente non mente, as Austin expresses the inward of Or­dinances are enjoyed by them that inwardly are Chri­stians: the Covenant is sealed to them that come to the terms of that Covenant: those that bring inward graces receive inward benefits: Sed de hoc plura.

CHAP. XI. Of Christs mandate or charge for the celebration of this Ordinance in re­membrance of Him.

1 COR. 11. 24, 25, 26.‘This do in remembrance of me. This do ye, as oft as ye drink it in remembrance of me. For as often, &c.

§. 1 SO much be spoken upon the outward part or Sa­crament of the Lords Supper, the Elements and Rites: He took bread, and giving thanks he brake it, and gave it: Likewise also the cup after Supper. And so much also touching the Kernell and Marrow of the Feast; This is my Body broken for you: This Cup is the New Testament in my blood. And now having past through our thorny and perplexed way, encombred with adversaries, through whom we must fight our way, we are come into a fairer and clearer road, as into a champain, not so much infested with enemies and Disputes: For whether it be that a practicall con­science be easilier satisfied than a subtill wit, or that the devil doth most labour to corrupt our intellectu­als, that so as once he may corrupt our worship and our morals, or whatsoever the Reason be, there are [Page 136] more wranglings and Disputes raised about specula­tive and theoreticall Points, than about matters of practice or morall obedience.

These words contain our Saviour his mandate or charge for the celebration of this Ordinance, toge­ther with the end whereunto it serves: This do in re­membrance of me: This do as oft as ye drink it in re­membrance of me. This do ye, there is the charge: for remembrance of me, there is the end. None of the Evangelists have these words but Luke only, out of whom either our Apostle takes the words, or at least symbolizeth with him, making them or rendring them as part of Christs own words spoken by him­self at the first Institution and Celebration of his Supper; and which you may Observe, the two Ele­ments Bread and Wine taken and received, though they have distinct significations, Christs Body bro­ken and his Blood shed, yet they meet as two lines in this one point, The remembrance of Christ. This do in remembrance of me, is spoken of eating the bread, ver. 24. This drink in remembrance of me, is spoken of the cup, ver. 25. The Use of both the signes makes up but one memoriall of Christ, once dying, once sacri­ficed up to God for us; and I shall take up the words in this one Point,

§. 2 Doct. The Lord Christ hath left it in charge and command­ment, that his Church or people should celebrate this Sup­per for a remembrance of him. Or if you will read the words thus, [...], for my memoriall, or for my commemoration. What impression hath the dying charge or commandment of a Testator upon his chil­dren or executors? Christ builds a monument for himself before he die, plain and simple to the eye, [Page 137] but a lasting monument that must continue till he come again, ver. 26. One of the seven wonders of the Heathen world was Mausolaeum, a Monument or Tomb. The goodliest monument which distin­guishes and beautifies the Christian Church, is this of Christs own erecting, his Memoriall. The second Temple built after the captivity of Babylon, was farre inferiour in outward magnificence and splen­dour to the first, built by Solomon: and the Jews ob­serve five things to be wanting in the second, which were in the first, as the Ark, &c. yet God promi­seth, Hag. 2. 9. The glory of this latter hoUse shall be greater then the former, becaUse Christ the desire of all Nations should come, and fill it with glory, ver. 7. And shall not the presence of Christs Body and Blood in this Sacrament excell in glory, all the typicall glory of Sacrifices and Sacraments of the Law? They were but shadows of him that should come, this the memoriall of him that died and is alive. The particulars comprehended under this Point are these:

§. 3 First, There is a command and charge in the words, Do this, it is more then a Warrant which gives authority, it's a Command that requires duty: It is more than a Command, it is a Charge of a dy­ing Testatour or Saviour, laying an injunction upon his Church to do this. For both Sacraments of the Gospel we have the word of command: The Baptizate, Go and Disciple all Nations, baptizing them, is the word for Baptism: Hoc facite, This do ye in remembrance of me, is the word for the Supper. There must be in a Sacrament, First, An outward Element. Secondly, A word of promise. Thirdly, A [Page 138] word of command to Use it to that end, as none but Whitak. de Sacr. Qu. 6. de numero. the supream power hath authority to stamp or coyn legitimate, and currant money, so none but God can institute and make a Sacrament. The Sacraments are parts of Gods instituted worship, standing by positive appointment of God, The eating and drinking of bread and wine in their natural being or Use, are no more me­morials, symbols and pledges of Christs body and bloud, than the form of a Serpent in brasse of heal­ing those that were bitten with fiery Serpents; no man can authoritatively institute a Sacrament, or prescribe to God any part of his worship, I have received of the Lord, saith the Apostle, that which I delivered al­so unto you, and the Reason is good; He onely can make a Sacrament, who can make good the promise or grace thereby represented and exhibited.

§. 4 Secondly, The charge is to Do this, that is, to ce­lebrate this Supper: Chist limits and confines us to Jans. Harm in Mat 26. this, as God did Moses: See thou do all things ac­cording to the patern shown thee in the Mount; If we vary from the patern there lies a quis requisivit against us, Who hath-required this at your hands? So God checks our inventions and superstition in creating will-worship, by adding or detracting, as we may not coyn, so neither wash, or clip, or embase that which is stamped by the Lord, [...], referrs to that which went before, Eat this blessed and bro­ken Bread, the next words explain it, Do this as oft as ye drink it, principally it relates to the actions of Gerard. Harm. cap. 171. Communicants, Do this, that is, Eat ye, Drink ye, and consequently to the actions of the Dispenser or Minister, Do this, that is, Blesse ye, Break ye, which are antecedent to eating and drinking, and so all the [Page 139] external rites or actions of this Sacrament may come under the command, Do this, but we may not stretch the [...] to accessories and circumstances appen­dant, not to the upper room, nor to the night after Supper, nor to the gesture of discubiture; for nei­ther the injunction of the Passeover did in after times extend to all the circumstances Used at the first Passe­over in Aegypt, as the Hebrews note. The Papist seems to espie here some glimpse of proof of the real Sacrifice of Christ in his Masse, from the word here Used Facite, which in Latine sometimes signifies to sacrifice or offer, and so it doth with an ablative case, which is not here, but the thred is too fine to hold, for if the word signifie so somewhere, it is not con­sequent that therefore here; where the word [...], Do this, plainly limits it to the actions of the Communi­cants, as I have said. The Ordinances of God are most powerfull and proper, when they are themselves pure, plain, naked of all humane disguizes or embel­lishments, and therefore I bespeak all Communi­cants, Ministers and people, not to study how to add more glory or gracefulnesse to this Ordinance, as they suppose, but to rest in, and submit to that which we finde in Christs example, or first original, and suf­fer your selves to be limited to do this, Do this in re­membrance of me.

§. 5. Who are commanded to receive this Sacrament.

§. 5 Thirdly, This charge or command, Do this, is given to the Church, the Saints, Disciples of Christ. It is true, the Apostles only were present at Christs first celebration, He sate down with the twelve, saith the Text, and so the command was directed to them [Page 140] only; But how? Not to the Apostles as Apostles, but as Communicants, as representing the Church Lucas Brug. in Evang. or people of Christ, or to the Apostles as Dispensers of it, and to them as receivers of it; For when Christ said to the Apostles, Go and baptize, Do this in remembrance of me, he intended not that either Sacrament should die with them, but from them con­tinue in succession of all times, therefore Do it in re­membrance of me; they received it in anticipation of his death, but it was to endure as a memorial of it, as the Passeover-Lamb was first eaten in Aegypt, or slain before the destroying Angel passed through the Land, but intended for a memorial for ever in all generations, till Christ came, and there­fore the Apostle here delivers it to the Church of Corinth, the very institution of Christ is deliver'd to this Church, and the Use of it enjoyned to them, and all Churches till he come again, ver. 26.

When I say it is a command given to the Church, or to the Saints, I mean, that it is an inner command­ment, an inner Ordinance, (as there was inner Or­dinances in the Temple) for Church-members and Disciples. The command of hearing the Word is given to all. The commandment of being baptized is to believers, as a Sacrament of their initiation or entrance, or admission. To make a Disciple, and to baptize one, seems to be put for the same, John 4. 1, 2. but this commandment, Do this, lies more in­ner yet, it appertains to them that are Disciples alrea­dy, or Church-members, which was signified in the ancient Christian Churches by the baptistery or font at the Church-door, and by the Table intra Cancellos within the Chancel; so in the Passeover, a [Page 141] stranger was not admitted to the Pasleover, but when he was circumcised, then let him come near and keep it, Exod. 12. 44, 48. Let him come near, saith the Text, for it is an inner Ordinance, and the Commu­nicants must be such at least, whom the Apostle cals [...], 1 Cor. 5. those that are within, for here is that inner fellowship and communion of the Saints and members of Christ exercised and professed. This then is that peculiar and most inward command and priviledge that appertains to an inclosed company, it is a pasture inclosed, not a common; Here Christ holds a more familiar presence and fellowship with his peculiar people, to whom he vouchsafes an inte­riour admission; Shall not we then keep this charge, and Observe this commandment, and enjoy this pri­viledge properly belonging to Disciples? Oh it was this that made Christians of old, when they were for their sinne debarred and excluded, so cry, weep, la­ment their sad case, that they should depart as it were from the presence of their Lord, and stand aloof in the court that had been admitted into the parlour or chamber of presence; and for those that were in the school of catechism, called [...], it was the ut­most end to which they did aspire, and for which they waited a long attendance to be admitted to this communion, and then properly called sideles, this was the highest form.

§. 6. The End of the Institution and Celebration of this Ordinance.

§. 6 Fourthly, The end wherefore this Ordinance was instituted, and is celebrated is for the remembrance of Christ, for it is [...], a memorial of that great, [Page 142] that universal Sacrifice, Christ Jesus; Memorials of dying friends, though plain are precious, and of great account with all men, being kept amongst their [...], or esteemed tReasures, and we may see how little Christ receded from the intent of the Passeover, which was a memorial of the Hebrews deliverance in Aegypt, Exod. 12. 14. and transferr'd to a greater memorial of himself, by whom is wrought a greater and more universal deliverance of the Church; The day of the Jews Sabbath was changed to the first day of the week for celebration of the resurrection of Christ, and so the creating of a new Heaven, and a new earth that day; The paschal rite of the Jew was changed from a memorial of their deliverance from Aegypt into a memorial of the death of Christ, by which we have a greater deliverance; Their Passe­over was to be Observed by them in their generations for ever, Exod. 12. 24. and our Supper is an Ordi­nance to be Observed by the Gospel-churches for ever; Their ever was Christs first coming, our ever is till he come again; It's twice repeated, For remem­brance of me; both the eating of the bread and drink­ing of the wine are but one memorial, which is the [...], or bufinesse of this Ordinance; All Church­es and Christians could not see the Lord dying, for he died but once, and therefore they have a glasse or representation of that death, which as it is alwayes in the efficacy and effect, so it might alwayes live and be fresh in our memory, the commemoration of that Sacrifice which never is, never needs to be repeated, is repeated often in this Sacrament, and this Sacrifice of Christ as it was promised and prefigured in old Types and Sacrifices, so was it performed ence in [Page 143] truth upon the crosse, and is often celebrated in this Sacrament of memory.

This memorial is solemn, this remembrance must be practical.

CHAP. XII. Of doing this in remembrance of Christ; The Properties of this Memorial.

§. 1 IT's a solemn memorial instituted by Christ himself, Great deliverances have solemn commemorations, such was the Passeover, the feast of Purim, the En­caenia or feast of Dedication; Great victories, have their dayes of Thanksgiving; great deliverances, benefits. Benefactours are honoured with solemn memorials; private remembrances which every man may agitate in his own minde are too low expressions of publick, and eminent, and universal benefits, therefore Christ will set up his own monument, and ordain a solemn Ordinance for remembrance of him­self, to be Observed by all that have his memory, and it is one of the great Sea-marks of the Church of Christ, he did not set up anniversaries or festivals for his Nativity, Circumcision, Ascension, &c. which the Churches in after times Observed, but he did set [Page 144] up in grosse this solemn memorial of himself, and that is principally of his death; His death I say, For ye shew the Lords death, ver. 26. And why? BecaUse his death is the expiation of sinne, therein was made the Sacrifice of Atonement; Redemption, Reconci­liation was made thereby, the Covenant confirmed, the love of God to man demonstrated, the justice of God for sinne exemplified, the foundation of our righteousnesse, hope, peace and victory laid, the ful­nesse of merit, the mirrour of mercy, the admirati­on of Angels, the center of all Christianity, and the summe of all Scripture types, Prophecies, Promises, the most admirable of all the works of God that ever were; and indeed all that can be said, and more then can be said was here to be seen, and is here to be re­membred.

Secondly, This remembrance of Christ must be lively and practical; There is a naked, historical, theoretical remembrance, a review of the Species or Ideas formerly imprinted in the minde; So Absolom is remembred in his Pillar, and Lot's wife in her pillar of salt, meerly historically; and there is a practical remembrance, which connotes affections fruitfull effect, and so in common speech to remember is to requite good or evil, and in Scripture phrase, God remembers our sins, our services, when he punishes or rewards, Remember me, O my God, and spare me, Nehem. 13. 22. with infinite the like. Our re­membrance of Christ in this Supper sets awork all that is within us; Our sorrow for sinne, as Peters re­membrance of his words, when the Cock crew, Mark 14. 72. He wept bitterly; our faith to believe in, and receive him, so Psal. 20. 7. We will remember, that [Page 145] is, trust in the Name of our God. It sets on work our thanksgiving, for so great a benefit ingages resolutions, blows up the coals of love, fils with admiration. What would the sight of Christ bleeding on the cress for us, groaning under our sins, have wrought on tender heart? The same, as far as a reflexion can work (which is weaker than the direct Species) should be the temper of our hearts, when we see him and his death persona­ted, and acted in this Sacrament, here we see him dying, paying our ransome▪ Oh the dreadfull example of Gods justice upon sin! Oh the sweetest example of Gods mercy to a sinner, actually acting their several parts in this spectacle of Christ represented to our saith, as yet hanging on the crosse, the Lamb of God is as yet smoking upon the Altar, which takes away the sins of the world, if you seel not your remem­brance of Christ, it's nothing; If you exercise onely wit and invention, it's barren, but the exercise of af­fection is the best commemoration; He that brings sin hither as bitter herbs, shall be sweetly refresht with Christ our Passeover

§. 3. To whom this Remembrance is made.

§. 3 Quest. To whom is this remembrance made?

Ausw. 1. We make it unto, and within our selves, whetting upon our hearts the fruit and benefit we re­ceive from him, and the torments and pains he endu­red for us.

2. We make this remembrance to others, to all the world, by our solemn profession of Christ and his death, as that we stand unto for remission of sins, and acceptation with God. Let the Jew or Infidel [Page 146] laugh at us for trusting to a crucified Saviour and me­morizing him in a piece of bread and cup of wine. It is our joy and triumph, we live, and hope to die in, and if need be for this profession.

3. We make this remembrance to God, we set before him the Sacrifice of his own Sonne, and put him in minde by him to be mercifull to us, we incul­cate the death of Christ to God, and set before him these monuments, we say and pray, Lord remember Mede▪ Diatrib in Mal. 6. c. 1. v. 11. Forbes. Hist. Theol. p. 618. Cal. 2. that Sacrifice which we here remember: If thou remem­ber our sins we will remember thy Christ, pardon us in the name of that Sacrifice, which we commemorate, and make mention of before thee; and this is the rea­son why the Ancients so often called this Ordinance a Sacrifice, which Chrysostom recalling himself, saith, Chrys. in Heb. Homil. 17. pag. Graecat. 856. [...], rather the commemo­ration of a Sacrifice, becaUse they offer'd up their prayers and thanksgiving in the name of Christ the Sacrifice here commemorated, for here is no real sa­crificing of Christ to God, that turns the Table into a crosse, but here is the commemoration of a Sacrifice, and a feasting and feeding thereupon by faith, as men that are in covenant and fellowship with God.

CHAP. XIII. A Lamentation for the neglect of this Ordinance.

NOw to the Use of this point, The Lord hath left it in charge, that his Church do celebrate this Ordinance in remembrance of him. And

§. 1 First, We may bewail that great eclipse which hath befallen this Ordinance here with us of later years, the like to which hath not been seen in Eng­land since it became Protestant, the remembrance and memorial of Christ hath been even forgotten, and the Ordinance of Communion been render'd as the apple of contention and division, a matter of quarrel rather than of Use, the losse that is gained by this intermission or neglect, or disUse or it is very great, for we lose an inestimable benefit by it, the solemn remembrance of Christ with the comforts thence resulting, we lose a duty by it; for Christ said, Do this, and is it not a great losse to lose so sig­nal a note of the Church of Christ, so great a bene­fit, and the visible mischief hath been very great, for hereby separation hath been mightily advanced, the people like sheep wanting fodder at their own crib, have scatter'd themselves to other cribs and pastures, [Page 148] where they might finde sustenance, and several com­munions have been taken up on the same Reason that water being carn'd or stopt from this old channel, findes out or makes other water-courses, and leaves the other channel dry, and the generality of the peo­ple by their too easie patience under so great a famine have given too sad an argument, how easily they would part with all Religion, that have so carelesly suffer'd the losse of so great a part thereof, as this Or­dinance is.

I know that we shall like Josephs brethren be ready to transfer the fault on others, no man will own it, and yet haply we are all guilty, it but in this, that the Apostle said▪ to the Corinthians in another case, 1 Cor. 5. 2. And ye are puffed up, and have not ra­ther mourned; For had not pride and envy, discon­tent and security prevailed over us, we might have mourned and lamented after, or over this losse or eclypse, and thereby have manifested not only a good disposition of heart in feeling the want of Ordinan­ces, but a very good sign that God would restore it, and a good part of preparation in our selves to the due and orderly receiving of it; the childe is either very fullen or sick that cries not for his bread.

§. 2. The Occasions of the Eclypse of this Ordi­nance in our dayes.

§. 2 If we look upon the Reason or occasions of that great eclypse which hath befallen this Ordinance for so long a time, and in so many places of this Land, we might be long upon so unpleasing a subject, but I shall but touch, and so away.

[Page 149]1. As I look upon God without whose hand this could not come to passe. I acknowledge that when he brings a man, or a Church into an incapacity of Sacraments, as Israel in the wildernesse, or as in that case then, that a man was unclean by Reason of a dead, body, or in a journey far off, Numb. 9. 10. and such, like cases now; There is a relaxation of this com­mand for the time, and either necessity or, duty may dispence with our forbearance; And I further say, That God is just in punishing us with this losse or stroke for our abUse and contempt of this holy Or­dinance in former times, by shutting out those that were fit to be admitted, meerly upon a ceremonious inconformity, and compelling in upon penalty, that by this test they might finde out Recusant Papists, such as were contrary to their own rules, sottishly ignorant, notoriously wicked; and therefore I con­ceive this storm may be upon us, and this breach in this Ordinance; for the Lord tels Israel, that when in good intention they sought to bring up the Ark of God, and laid it on a Cart, which should have been carried on the shoulders of the Levites, he made a breach upon them, for that they sought him not af­ter the due order, 1 Chron. 15. 13. For God is severe­ly holy in exacting of us the due order of his Ordi­nances, as we may see in Nadab and Abihu, and in that great rule, Numb. 10. 3. I will be sanctified in them that come nigh me: When we take hold of mis-shapen Ordinances put out of forme by us, we take a knise by the edge, and not the haft, we cut our fingers.

2. As for them of the Separation, whose advan­tage it was, and of some of them the design to have us [Page 150] broken, that they might thrive as the people on the Sea-coast do by the wrack; They (I say) while some were labouring, and all were waiting for to have Gods order stamped by civil Authority, not to give esteem or value to that which is of God, but to make it more currant with us; As the stamp makes not the gold more precious, but more currant in common Use; While I say some were endeavouring this, or haply some of you will say, While men slept the envious man sowed his tares, and took his opportu­nity of that long vacation, as Israel did of Moses his absence in the Mount, and they planted their battery here upon this Sacrament, and cried down pro­miscuous Communions with all their might, laying a good foundation, That onely visible Saints are fit Communicants, which is true as to the Churches Admission; That real Saints only are worthy Com­municants, which is true too, as to the inward grace or benefit, but then, as alwayes in such cases it is the superstructure was hay and stubble; That Saints are only such as are of their making and judging; And, That they that are of their opinion or party, though vicious in life and empty of true grace, are Saints; and thence come the several Communions and divi­sions moulded up together into several bodies, for and by interests, passions and worldly ends, which I speak not of all, for some godly souls might be car­ried away to enjoy this Sacrament in a Communion more pleasing to them, as Aaron was in the businesse of the golden Calf, and others were mightily taken with it, who hardly passing for honest men at home in their own Churches, were presently canonized for Saints, All the Congregation are Saints, every [Page 151] one of them, saith Corah, Numb. 16. 3.

3. When I look upon the standing Ministers, who should dispense the Sacrament, I must plead this for them, that while it is their intention and practise to make the door of this Sacrament no wider, no nar­rower than Christ hath made it, they cannot be con­demned. It may be so wide, as to let in the uncir­cumcised to the Passeover, and bring Greeks into the Temple, as they said of Paul. It may be so narrow, as to shut out fit and worthy Communicants for cir­cumstances, for meer ceremonies, as in former times; There is great difference between Christs real members and guests at this Table, and as I may say the visible Churches members or guests; If he be a visible Professour of faith unshipwrackt, of capacity to discern the Lords body, of life without scandal, he is a guest of the Church, and yet not haply a true member of Christ, but a Jew outwardly in letter, a Simon Magus, a Judas, an hypocrite; We are not Domini, but Dispensatores, Lords of the Sacrament we are not, Stewards we may be, but the Steward cannot invite to his Masters Table, whom the Ma­ster will not have his guest, nor shut out any whom the Master hath invited; The Priests that were par­tial in the Law, did God make base and contempti­ble before the people, Mal. 2. 9. and their partiality was in admitting the blinde, lame and blemisht Sacri­fices of the rich, or of their friends: Such partiality will embase the Ministers of Christ, and the Lord taxes the Prophetesses for like partiality, Ezek. 13. 19. For handfuls of barley, and pieces of bread, they slay the souls that should not die; they save the souls alive that should not live; These are the two extreams, [Page 152] which as applied to our purpose is to shut the door a­gainst them that should come in, and open the door to them that should not enter, which if any do for handfuls of barley &c. for partial respects and carnal ends, their sin is great.

4. If we look on the generality of people in this Land, they are not prepared, and which is worse, they will not be. How many are bruits for their know­ledge, and beasts for their lives? The onely way to bring them and the Sacrament together, is either to stoop the Ordinance to them, and being so set on tilt, I fear it will runne dregs, or to elevate and lift them up to the Ordinance, and that's the only way to be attempted; God grant successe. When the ignorant, superstitious, prophane are weeded out, the Garden will hardly look green; These are they that hold up old corruptions; Religion is nothing with them but an ancient custome, or tradition received from father to son, The high-places were not taken away, for as yet the people had not prepared their heart to the God of their Fathers, 2. Chron. 20. 33. For the fro­wardnesse of those places where security, senslesnesse of spiritual things, opposition, is predominant, this Rule would be laid, That there is no Reason to deny those that are godly the liberty of performance of this duty, or enjoyment of this benefit; Why are they starved, becaUse others will not, or ought not to eat? Did the Church that lived amongst Jews or Heathens alwayes want this Sacrament? They were sometimes disturbed and persecu­ted, when the Civil Magistrate turned the edge of the Axe toward them; but they lost not the Ordinance. Why but we have no rule establisht by [Page 153] Civil Authority, or rather no Government: Nor had the Primitive Church for 300 years, when the vigour of Discipline was strongest; How was their Discipline of force, Per pacta conventu, by consent, whereby all Discipline is valid. He that will be of our body, must submit to the Laws and Rules of that Corporation he is free of, whether to be enfran­chised or disfranchised: What if wicked men break in and abUse our Sacrament? what if Heathens had so done in the Primitive Church? If they eat our bread, it's no Sacrament to them. If extream vio­lence be Used or feared, we have the protection of the Magistrate, or as the first Christians, we have our hoUses to break the Lords bread in.

§. 3. Of removing Obstructions to this Ordinance.

§. 3 Quest. If the command be so high, the memoriall so sweet, the benefit so great, What may be done that there may be no Obstruction between my soul and this duty, this remembrance, this benefit?

Ans. Ile set my self amongst you, and be as the lowest of the people, and this should be my rule, I would abate and submit, and strip my self of all car­nall respects, pride, stomach-envy discontent, scorn, &c. rather than deprive my self of this benefit, or hinder my self from coming to meet my Lord Christ: It should be point of conscience that should hinder me, or nothing. And now on the other side, Ile set my self in place of a Minister or Church-officer, and my rule is this, I will abate and strip my self of all pride, interest, enmity contempt of my neighbour, partiality, base and carnall respects, rather than keep [Page 154] my self from giving it to you, and would bring it to a point of conscience only, that shall forbid me or nothing; when it is at a point of conscience, then both I and you must examine whether our consci­ences be not bound by errour, that which binds you may loosen me, that which binds me may loosen you; if we inform one another, and if errour be found, I will cut the bond and set my self at liberty, to receive or give the Lords Supper: and I am consi­dent that if carnall thoughts, Reasons and respects were cut off on all sides, thousands would be redu­ced that stand off, both from their duty and from their benefit: It was the case of many of precious memory, that liked not the Ceremonies, yet sub­mitted to those inconveniences, rather than lose that benefit which by their submission to them might be gained.

§ 4 Ʋse 2 Let every man consider how he acquits himself of this duty, Do this; and upon what terms he runs the loss of such a benefit, as to keep a memoriall of Christ: It's a kinde of Thanksgiving to Christ, to commemorate his death and sufferings for us. As there is an exhibition of Christ and his grace to a faithfull receiver, so the benefit should draw us to the Use of this Ordinance. As it is a command, a dying command of Christ, Do this in remembrance of me, so the duty or conscience of duty should impell and move us. The two Sacraments of old were both of them backt with cutting off in case of neglect, Gen. 19. 14. Numb. 9. 18. The positive worship of God in Sacraments, is not easily, either misperformed or neglected. You will say, God affrighted his people of old unto his Sacraments, but now we fright you from [Page 155] them: Farre be it from us, we affright you into pre­paration, not from the Sacrament, as Joshua did the people, Josh. 24. 19. Ye cannot serve, the Lord, for he is a holy God, he will not forgive your sinne: it was a quickning speech, not a discouraging: we would not have you runne on the point of this Ordinance. Why, but if it be a command, how can we be de­barred? If Christ say, Do this, who can say, Do not this? I have answered this already. The com­mand here is not an outward commandment, as I may say, but an inward, not given to all the world, but to Christs Disciples, to certain qualified persons, as the command of the Passeover was limited to the circumcised and to the clean, and this also to a man that examines himself, and so let him eat of this bread, &c. It's a duty and a priviledge both, of all outward Ordinances the inmost.

§. 5 Ʋse 3 Christ hath thought it needfull to make provision against our forgetfulness of him, while he is absent from us in the flesh: The forgetfulness of Christ is the loss of all Religion; we are apt to forget his love and his blood: Those that live in known habituall sin, forget Christ, and I make no doubt but the of­ten sight and memory of his death, which is here acted and personated, or drawn forth to the eye, might exceedingly mortifie sin, and melt the heart: Nothing shews sin more distastfull to God, than the death of Christ: every pardon cries aloud to him that is pardoned, Go and sin no more: but he that takes heart to sin becaUse Christ died, seems neither to see his own sinne nor death, in the death of Christ.

§. 6. How our mindes should be exercised in the time of the celebration of this Supper.

§. 6 Ʋse 4 Here we learn how to exercise our mindes and me­ditations in the celebration of this Supper, viz. in the remembrance of Christ, the survey of whom is inriched with excellent fruit of renewing our repen­tance, quickning our faith elevating our affections; and the impression made▪ upon us by this lively spe­ctacle of a dying Saviour, cannot but work as the bloody Robes of Caesar did upon the people, when they were hanged out in sight by Marc. Anthony; and therefore it is suitable to the end of this Sacrament, to be exercising our memories, mindes and affecti­ons in the perusall of Christ Jesus. I know that some Churches Use to sing a Psalm, while the action is per­forming, whom I condemn not, as a means to keep the heart intent, and in spirituall frame or fixedness, but should rather chUse a silent meditation and im­ployment of the minde in the remembrance of Christ, for that's more suitable to the end of this Ordinance, and to Christs example and institution, who according to the custom of the Jews filled the time of action with commemoration, and closed it with a Hymn: and if we may give credit to the Jewish Writers, and others out of them, as Hugo Broughton shews in his Commentaries on Daniel, the Psalms of the Hallel or Hymn sung by the Jews, was the 113, 114, and so onward; and it's very probable that Christ and the Apostles did not here­in vary, for they sung a Hymn at the close, as Matth. 26. 30. which example I need not stand [Page 157] to improve against the Anti-psalmists of this age.

There are severall pertinent meditations that may fully take up the time of the action with great advan­tage and benefit to our souls, as namely,

1. The dreadfulness of Gods justice which with a terrible stroak did smite the great Shepherd for our sins, the least dram of it would have sunk us to all eternity.

2. The cursed nature of sinne that so exasperates the holy God, and makes such a breach between God and the creature, as can never be made up but by the broken body of the Lord of Glory.

3. What it cost to redeem a soul, a mass of gold as big as the whole earth, not valuable with one drop of this blood.

4. What an infinite love broke forth, that God, rather than let our souls be lost, would send his eter­nall Son, and make him sin for us.

5. What a great work it is to reconcile a sinner to his God, all names of men and Angels are no­thing to it, all their sufferings would not pay a penny of this debt, which is not dissolved by any blood but of the Lord of Glory.

6. That God would not only pardon sin, by gi­ving forth a generall pardon, as a King pardons re­bels; but so pardon, as might even melt the hardest heart, and for ever humble, and silence, and satisfie it by the love of God, and the sufficiency of that Sacrifice, whose vertue extends to thousands, and lasts alwaies.

7. That the gratious Covenant of God made with all that beleeeve in Christ, is sealed and ratified with [Page 158] such blood, as there needs no doubt of the validity of the Covenant, though one man bad as many sins on him as all the world.

8. That Gods way of saving man by a Mediatour, the death of a Mediatour, doth oblige man to be the thankfullest creature in the world: Angels that sin'd not, have need of no Mediatour; Angels that sin'd have none; man that sin'd, and therefore needs one, hath one given to him, The man Christ Jesus.

9. That as God gave Christ for you, so he gives him to you, that he that was your Sacrifice offered up to God, might in this Sacrament be offered unto you, as meat and drink, as spirituall repast, that as we live by Christ, so we may live upon him, being entertained as confederates to feast with God upon the Sacrifice offered up unto him. It is a fruitfull field of Meditation, through which ye may walk the time of celebration, and then breathe out your Me­ditations in a Song of praise, as the close and mu­sick of this heavenly Feast: Concerning which Hymn, wherewith the Jews did usually close the coenam apolyticam, or dimissory Supper, calling it the Hallel, from the first word of it Hallelujah, you may consult not only the Jewish Writers, but our Learn­ed men, Cameron Myroth in Matth. 16. 30. Drusius in Matth. 26. 30. Hugo Broughton in Dan. pag. 46. beside Paulus Burgensis, Gerard Harm. Fol. 178. col. 3. who do also point out to us the 113. & 114. Psalms, as that Hymn; for though some others do rather conceive it a new Hymn composed by our Saviour, Grotius in Matth. 26. and the 17 Chapter of St John to be it, we finde no Reason to go with them in that opinion, both be­caUse our Saviour did not easily vary from the Rite [Page 159] or Custom received, nor could the Disciples have sung with him in consort, except we imagine such a praelection of it to them, as is Used by us now a daies, which will not be proved.

CHAP. XIII. How much it concerneth Ministers to Teach, and all to Learn the true meaning of this Ordinance.

1 COR. 11. 26, 27.‘For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the death of the Lord untill he come. Where­fore whosoever doth eat this bread and drink this cup of the Lord, &c.

VVHen this Ordinance of the Supper is suitable to the Institution, and the Communicant is suitable to the Ordinance, then all is right. Of the former I have acquitted my self, by setting forth the nature, Use, end of this Sacrament, according to our Lords Institution, recited by the Evangelists, and by St Paul in this place.

§. 1 Now I am to proceed unto the later, which is to render the Communicant suitable to the Ordinance, of which our Saviour did not in the Institution di­rectly [Page 160] speak, but the Apostle in this place speaks more fully and directly unto, than in any other place is found, the abUses and distempers of the Corinthians leading him most properly to it; and though in Po­pish Churches the grand errour and abUse lies in the unsutableness of their Mass to the Institution, yet in Reformed Churches, who endeavour to imitate the pattern in the Mount, the common sin lies in the un­sutableness of the Communicant to the Ordinance; and so the point of worship stands between us; and the Papists, much alike as it stood between the Sa­maritans and the Jews of old, The Samaritans Used a false worship, Ye worship ye know not what, Joh. 4. 22. The Jews had a true worship, but were carnall, and for the most part formall worshippers. The Feast is prepared, drest, and ordered according to the Institution of Christ: Now the guests are to be surveyed and tried, whether they come worthily or unworthily, by the test or ticket of the Apostles Do­ctrine following to the end of the Chapter; of which I shall say this in generall.

1. That the Apostles Doctrine in this place is properly calculated for the rectifying the abUses and unworthiness of the Corinthians, as ye may see at the 33, 34, verses, but so also most other Scriptures oc­casionally written, are of generall Use, their latitude is greater than their particular direction.

2. That the Apostle spends the most of his Do­ctrine upon eating and drinking unworthily, setting home the sin and danger of it, for, the occasion, viz. the sinne of the Corinthians, required it; and yet doubtless the point of worthiness, should in order of nature be first stated, before unworthiness can [Page 161] be understood, for how should I know sinne, except first I knew a law of duty; how a crooked line, ex­cept I know what is straight: and therefore to attent consideration, the Apostle will be found to begin there, as I shall shew you afterwards.

3. That the Apostle in setting home the sinne and danger of eating and drinking unworthily, speaks thunder and lightning in very pertinent, but yet new and unusuall phrases, which are [...], have no brother in any other part of Scripture, as guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, eating and drinking judge­ment or damnation, &c. full of terrour, and fit for compunction. These of the 26 verse are the words of St Paul, who having recited what Christ did and said at the first celebration and institution of this Sacrament, goes about to set his Corinthian commu­nicants to right, teaching them and us, what is the meaning of this Ordinance, and what the [...], or main business of a communicant is, that so he may eat and drink worthily, viz. To shew forth the Lords death; this he collects from the institution, this he inculcates upon the communicant, as the great busi­ness which he is to do, that he may be suitable to the Ordinance.

The words have no difficulty, but what may best be opened in every point as it comes to hand: The first Point shall be from the connexion or whole words:

§. 2 Doct. People have need to be taught what the meaning of this Ordinance is, and what is the main business of the Communicant▪ The Apostle hath set forth this Sa­crament, and now teaches them what is the meaning or great business intended in it. For as often as, &c. [Page 162] Outward Ordinances consisting of visible matter, as most of the Jewish Ordinances did, and our Sacra­ments do, do ordinarily terminate and bound the eye of the ignorant, that cannot, and of the Christian outwardly, that doth not look within the rinde or shell of them: The time is not lost that's bestowed either by us in the anatomy and opening, or by you in learning and spelling out the minde and meaning of an Ordinance of God. When your children, Exod. 12. 26. shall say unto you, What mean you by this service? ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of the Lords Passeover, &c. And in another instance, When your children shall say, What mean you by these stones? ye shall answer, Josh. 4. 6. The waters of Jordan were cut off, &c. This was the veil that covered the eye of the Jews, they had Sacrifices, Washings, manifold Rites, but were not able to spell and put together, they generally little dreamd of the meaning of them, but were as the A­postle cals them, Jews outwardly and in the letter; for it pleased God in the times of that dispensation, to give his people the kernell, but inclosed in a hard shell; to give them a pillar of fire, but in a cloud; to hide the light in a dark lanthorne, to convey the truth in shadows. Now that the Obscurity is taken off the Ordinances, there remains an ignorance upon our hearts, and many of us know as little the meaning of our Sacraments, as the Jews did of theirs; there is scarce any of our ignorant, superstitious, prophane persons, but they think there is some holiness in this Sacrament, and therefore they put on a posture of some reverence for the time, but the particular Use of it, or the spirituall importance they know not, and therefore rest in the opus operatum, and receive [Page 163] the Sacrament as a medicinall potion naturally work­ing, or worship that which should be made Use of by faith, for the nourishment of the soul.

§. 3 The Use of this point may be for Instruction of both Minister and people.

First, The Minister is hereby taught, That it is not only his duty to give the Sacrament, but also to teach the Sacrament; he gives the outward Elements, he teaches the inward meaning of them; he gives the bone, and shews the marrow that is in it; otherwise you take the Sacrament by rote, and he gives you in­tegram nucem, as Bernard saith, a whose nut, to a child that cannot crack it, and so partakes in that sin and guilt being dumb, which you contract being blinde. Our Saviour when he gave the Bread and the Cup, said also, This is my Body, This Cup is the New Testa­ment in my Blood, and so taught the meaning. St. Paul when he had recited the Institution, shews the mind of it, As oft as ye eat, ye shew the Lords death. And you are to be taught what is Gods meaning, and what is the meaning of your own actions; Gods meaning is to make a representation of Christs death and sufferings, by the breaking of the bread, and to afford you the communion of his Body and Blood, 1 Cor. 10. 16. The meaning of your actions is to make commemoration of Christ, and to shew forth his death: Gods meaning is to dress out Christ in best manner and fittest for a sinner, Christ broken, Christ bleeding; and the meaning of your eating and drinking, is to feed sorrowfully and sweetly upon Christ, so prepared and presented to you, for your repast and comfort. But now, if the same cup taken with such ingredients, would be deadly poy­son, [Page 164] with such a lively Cordiall, would you not ex­pect that the Physician should teach you to make it Cordiall, so the Lords Supper worthily received, is the most soveraign Cordiall: But some again may eat and drink damnation to themselves, Would you not expect that the Minister, if he have either con­science of his duty, or respect to your souls, should teach you to avoid the danger and obtain the benefit? If you do not, yet God looks for it at our hands, Ezek. 44. 23. And they (the Priests) shall teach my peo­ple the difference between the holy and prophane, and caUse men to discern between the unclean and clean; for else you may eat and drink damnation to us, as well as to your selves.

§. 4 Secondly, The people are taught, To know the meaning of the Sacrament, before they take it: That's a terrible expression, ver. 29. He eats and drinks damnation to himself not discerning the Lords Body, that is, not knowing the meaning, the nature, Use and end of the Ordinance, which to understand is a good part of preparation, and without it, there can be no right or true preparation. And therefore all you that intend to be Supper-communicants, at­tend: The first lesson which you must learn, the first Question to be answered is, What is the true meaning of this Ordinance? what is the main bu­siness of it? for it is supposed in those words, Exod. 12. 26. When your children shall say to you, What mean you by this service, (i. Passeover,) that the father should be able to teach his childe, as it is there di­rected, and that the child should, as his first lesson be taught what is meant, To know what the mean­ing of this Ordinance is.

[Page 165]1. It is a proper and excellent antidote or remedy of such abUses and miscarriages as creep in at the door, either of ignorance, superstition, or prophane­ness; and the Apostle signifies so much here, by ap­plying this corrective to those distempers which then reigned in the Church of Corinth, as if he had said, Could you come and eat and drink so rudely, proud­ly, confUsedly, irreverently, unworthily, if ye did consider but what ye ought to do? that is, exercise communion with Christ, keep a commemoration of him, shew forth his death.

2. This will direct all your preparations to the true end, your praiers, meditations, self-examinati­on, will be answerable and suitable to the Ordinance. Here is not the eating of a piece of bread, nor the drinking of a cup of wine in a publique company of sober men and of my betters (which yet is enough to the putting on my better clothes, and framing my self to a grave composure) but here I am to meet my Lord Christ, and to receive him as my Saviour, I am to have the Covenant of mercy sealed to me in his blood; I am to make a thankfull memoriall of Christ, and to profess my embracement and adhe­rence to his death, as my only comfort; therefore be thou awakened, O my faith, my godly sorrow, my spirituall appetite, my thankfulness, that I may go out to Christ, and he come in to me.

3. This takes off all slighting and undervaluing of this Ordinance, which appears to an outward and carnall eye, No better bread or wine than I can have at home, for in this plain case is a rich Jewel, this bread is the body, this wine is the Blood of the Lord of Glory; and therefore I must not value the seal by [Page 166] the worth of the wax, which is not worth a penny, but by the pardon, or the inheritance, which passes, and is conveyed by it.

4. This keeps me from running blindfold into the sin of guiltiness of the Body and Blood of the Lord, and so into condemnation, for as the same Signet or Seal of a Prince, doth to one seal a pardon, to another an execution; so this very Sacrament is to a Beleever a seal of pardon, to another, as it were, the seal of his condemnation.

5. Lastly, The preparation so much spoken of, and the self-examination required by the Apostle, cannot be imagined to referre to the eating of bread and drinking wine, but to the inward thing of the Sacra­ment: it necessarily follows that those inward graces that enable us to have communion with Christ, and make commemoration of him, can never be known or sought, except we know the meaning of this Sa­crament, for it is that which gives the Law and Rule of all our preparations. And so I have shown you the Reasons why we should labour to understand the lan­guage of this Ordinance.

So much of this generall Point, the second Point shall be taken from those words, Ye shew the Lords death, or shew ye, for the word might be construed imparatively, but that the particle [For] would not then so well consist.

CHAP. XIV. The great business that lies upon the Communicant, as oft as he eats this Bread and drinks this Cup, is to shew the Lords Death.

Doct. 2 THis Point cleaves into two parts,

§. 1 First, It is the Lords death which in this Sa­crament is shewn forth: The two standing Sacra­ments of the Jewish Church, Circumcision and the Passeover, did both appear in blood. The two stand­ing Sacraments of the Gospel, do also referre to death, We are buried with him by Baptism, into death, Rom. 6. 4. and in the Supper, we shew the Lords death. As of all deliverances and benefits vouchsafed to Israel of old, God would have the Passeover-delive­rance celebrated by a constant memoriall in all gene­rations; so of all that Christ doth for us, it is his death that must be shewn forth in all generations of the Church, till he come again: and therefore this Ordinance is speculum crucifixi, as Calvin saith; and In 1 Cor. 11. the memoriall, not so much of Christs life or resur­rection, De satisfact. cap. 1. saith Grotius, as of his death. This death hath no second in all the world, for it was the death of the Sonne of God, the death of the Lamb of God.

[Page 168]1. Of the Sonne of God, the Lord of Glory, whose highness and excellency gave price and value to his death. Had he not been man he could not have suffered: Had he not been the Sonne of God, God blessed for ever, he could not have satisfied and conquered.

2. Of the Lamb of God, and therefore his death was a Sacrifice, and that's more than a Martyrdom; for though a Martyr may be said to seal with his blood that truth he dies upon, yet no blood can seal the Covenant but this of Christ, no death can ratifie the Testament but the Testators death: Had the death been the death of the Lord, a most ex­cellent person, and not also the death of a Lamb for Sacrifice, to make attonement, it had wanted one of his properties, but it was both. As it was the death of the Lord of Glory, the Sonne of God, so it gave us the most illustrious testimony and ex­ample of the love of God, as ever was or could be, and that the Scripture often points unto. As it was the death of the Lamb of God, so it was a Sacrifice death, wherein he was made sinne for us, and bore our sinnes in his Body. As it was the Joh. 11. 13. Rom. 5. Gal. 2. 20. death both of the Sonne of God, and the Lamb of God, so it reconciled us sinners unto God, and me­ritoriously redeemed and ransomed us from our bondage to the curse and wrath of God, the only ground and foundation of our hope, peace and comfort.

§. 2 Secondly, It is the business of the Communicant to shew forth this death of the Lord: The Ordi­nance it self is full of death, what other language doth bread broken, and the blood severed from the [Page 169] body, speak but a dying Christ: As the Ordinance, so the Communicant doth by eating and drinking, in fact declare and annunciate his profession of ad­herence to, and embracement of the death of Christ, we solemnly and publiquely avow, both to God and men, that we stick unto, and abide by the death of the Lord, for remission of sinne, and reconcili­ation of our persons to God; and it is a solemn part of Gods positive worship, to shew forth the death of Christ our Lord, not by a meer historicall relation, but a practicall and publique profession of our faith, and acceptance thereof, which though at all times we may remember, yet God would have a solemn Ordinance in his Gospel-Churches, for the commemoration and shewing of it forth, which Ordinance is this of the Supper. I know men are witty to elude Ordinances, and to flatter themselves with private devotions and meditations, but when God hath set up an Ordinance on purpose, for the publique and solemn shewing of the Lords death; let them consider it, that are not only careless of the benefit of it, but fail of their duty, by not present­ing themselves at this solemn shewing of the Lords death: but how can it be expected that they that shew not the life of Christ by a godly conversation, should care to shew forth his death by publique pro­fession; or rather, how can it be construed that they do it out of conscience of duty, and not out of meer superstition, expecting that from the Sacrament, which the Papist expects from his auricular confessi­on, that is, to quit the old score, that he may more freely begin upon a new.

But I may not forget that which is very learnedly [Page 170] Observed, that the Apostle using the word [...], which frequently is Used for publishing and preach­ing Schiud. in loc▪ Haggada. the Gospel, doth allude to the Haggada, as it was called by the Jewish custom at the Passeover, and that was a set and solemn declaration or annun­ciation of the Lords passing over the hoUses sprinkled with blood, of their slavery and hard bondage in Ae­gypt, and their deliverance thence, teaching us, in this our Gospel-Passeover, to shew forth our hard bondage under sinne, and the Lords justice pas­sing over all the souls sprinkled with this blood, and thereby delivering us from our spirituall Ae­gypt.

§. 3 Uſe. The Use of this Point is to call upon all Com­municants, hoc agere, to be intent upon, and taken up with this employment, Shew ye forth the Lords death, this must be your actuall exercise at the time of eating and drinking, the death of Christ must fill your eyes, your ears, your lips, your thoughts: If any of you could see Christ dying, the sight would wholly take you up; and you come as near to see him dying; as an Ordinance can bring you, in a re­presentation: If any where, that Psal. 2. 11. takes place here, Rejoyce with trembling, Tremble, for you see the weight of sinne upon the Lord Christ, and the severity and wrathfull indignation of God against sinne, both those terrours cannot be seen in a clear­er glass, than the death of the Lord: Rejoyce for the love that delivers up Christ is unparallel'd, and the death of the Lord is succedaneous, a Sacrifice death, the Sacrifice bears the sinne, and takes it off you; there is a nunc dimitiis for all you that take Christ in your arms, I would not be thinking of [Page 171] the joys of heaven, the second coming of Christ, absolutely and abstractly considered, but shewing forth his death: As in prayer, good thoughts, if impertinent, are distractions, and to be whipt for vagrants, so here, If my heart present to me the anger and terrible wrath of a just and holy God, I shew the Lords death; If the Law take me by the throat, and say, Pay that thou owest, I shew the Lords death; If conscience ask me what I have to shew for pardon of sin, and peace with God, I shew the Lords death. Who shall lay any thing to the charge of Gods Elect, Its Christ that died.

CHAP. XV. The Lords Supper is an iterable Ordinance.

THe third Point is taken up from the words [...], For as often as ye eat this bread, &c.

Doct. The Sacrament of the Lords Supper is an iterable Ordinance, which is to be repeated: Our Saviour gives a hint of this in those words, This do for a remembrance of me, and the Apostle from him, For as often, &c. The word often, is sometimes opposed to seldom, and sometimes to once, as Heb. 9. 25, 26. Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the High priest entreth into the holy place every year: For then he must have often suffered since the foundation of the world.

The Sacrifice of Christ, or the offering of him up, was but once, Heb. 9. 26. The Sacrament of his bo­dy and bloud is often as a memorial of that Sacrifice, and the comparison Used in that place, is this; As man dies but once, so Christ also: As in the Sacra­ments of the Jews, the first of them Circumcision, was but once, nor indeed could be, but the Passeover often, once every year; and Christ was but once cir­cumcised, but kept the Passeover often: So in the Sacraments of the New Testament, Baptism is but once, Christ was but once baptized, but the Supper often, which though Christ celebrated but once, yet he gave order for the repetition of it, I will not now take up the discussion, why Baptism▪ but once, the Supper often, the Scripture gives us no hint for the repetition of the one, but it doth for the other, and the old saying is plausible, Semel nascimur, saepius pascimur, we are but once born, but we are often nou­risht. God did more punctually and precisely under the Law prescribe the times of their Sacraments, the eighth day for circumcision, such a day of such a moneth yearly for the Passeover, as he also did the times and place, and other circumstances of his wor­ship, for the people were more servile then, and the worship more outward, but under the Gospel cir­cumstances are at more liberty, and spiritualnesse more call'd for, and therefore in this Sacrament for instance, we have nothing, for how often, but we have, for how worthily, as a learned man Observes, and therefore under correction it was not so right, Muscul. de coena. Lib 4. distinct. 13. Qu. 5. that when as Durand saith, The primitive devotion of communicating every day, was grown so cool, that it came to be commanded on the three great fe­stivals, [Page 173] whereof Easter was by Innocent the first made Anno 1200. of the Quorum: (I might instance nearer home) en­joyning all to it at that time; For of this Chrysostom had complained long before that at those times the people either of custome, or by Law crouded in [...], who as well, [...], O the custome, saith he, O the partiality of men. The truth is, I finde, that in times of persecution threat­ning Christians either to arm themselves, or in fear of being scatter'd and dispers'd, took every occasion to celebrate the Supper, and Justin Martyr signifies, that their solemn meetings on the Lords dayes were accompanied with this feast, and that the Question, how often is propounded in Austine and Chrysostom, and Austin perswades and exhorts every Lords-day, Austin. Eccles. Dogm. cap. 53. Chrysost. hom. 13. heb. Gerard. Harm. cap. 171. if the heart be prepared, and Chrysostom saith, that a pure conscience may come as often as it will, but for a wicked man [...], once is too often; and to conclude, if the necessity of our infirmities, the great benefit, the honour of this memorial may be heard to speak, we shall come to this Rule, That frequency beget not a customary formality or fastidious satiety, as Manna did, nor seldomnesse beget forgetfulnesse, or su­perstitiousnesse extraordinarinesse, and under this cau­tion I leave the determination of the times unto the Church.

CHAP. XVI. Of the Continuance of this and o­ther Gospel-Ordinances in the Church.

THe fourth point ariseth from the last words, Un­till he come, and it is this, This Ordinance, and so all Gospel-ordinances are to continue in force in the Churches, untill Christ come, and this point cleaves into two parts.

§. 1 First, The Lord Christ will come again, he is cal­led [...], Heb. 10. 37. He that shall come, he shall appear the second time, Heb. 9. 28. as in the old Church of Israel, there was a glorious Temple, then a captivity that followed; after the captivity a second Temple, and then Christ came; So in Go­spel-Churches, there was first a glorious Virgin pri­mitive Church, then followed a captivity under An­tichrist, and that captivity shall be followed with a second Temple, a Reformed Church, and then Christ shall come again; but as the Church of God waited neer four thousand years from the first pro­mise of Christ made to Adam, to his first coming, so shall the Church of the Gospel wait many years [Page 175] from that promise of Christs second coming, Act. 1. 11. untill it be; The first Christians did not imagine so long Revolution of time, untill Christs second coming, as we have seen sixteen hundred, and how many yet are to runne out we know not; The Apo­stle checks it in the Thessalonians, 2 Thess. 2. 2. who began to think that the day of Christ was at hand, and the Christians in Justins time, who were most of them of the millenary opinion ( [...], saith he) did not think it should be so long ere the thousand years should commence; and in Tertullians time, they Used in their publick prayers to pray pro mora finis, for delay of the end in respect of Anti­christs tyranny, but the Jews are the example of the efficacy of errour, that have overshot already that which is Christs first coming by above sixteen hun­dred years; and are yet gazing; we rest in this, there is a fulnesse of time for Christs first, and so for his second coming, and then he will come, our hope, our comfort, our salvation, do all lie upon it, and there­fore we look for it.

Secondly, This Ordinance of the Supper is to continue till Christ come; the meaning is not, That men shall not deface and dishonour it in some places, but that it shall continue in force, though not in Use: God will not alter or discharge it, and the like, for there is the like Reason may be said of other standing Ordinances of worship. The Jewish Passeover was an Ordinance for ever, but that ever had an end when Christ came; and the Ordinances of that Church, though they might be defaced and destroy­ed for a time, yet were in force till Christs first com­ing, and so the Gospel-Sacraments, Worship, Or­dinances, [Page 176] and (may it please you) Ministry shall be in force, and God grant in Use, for the time of their Ever, and that is Christs second coming. The legal Sa­crifices and Ordinances were (as the Apostle ex­pounds Heb. 12. 27. the Prophet) to be shaken down and removed by the bringing in of a better Covenant, and other Ordinances by Christ Jesus, but the Ordinances of the Gospel cannot be shaken, are never to be remo­ved by any other Ordinance, or any new Church, but onely to cease and expire with the worlds end. The Scripture closes and shuts it self up with this, Come Lord Jesus, Rev. 22. 20.

§. 3 The Use of this Point may be,

1. To confirm us in the Use and esteem of the Or­dinances of Christ, which have no other period then the world, wiser we cannot be than he that thought them necessary, but we may be prouder than we should by thinking our selves in a state of perfection and not infirmity, which Christ hath provided for, by his Or­dinances; of the Sacrament he saith, Till I come; Of the Gospel-Ministry, he saith, I am with you to the worlds end; The devil is foolishly subtil now adayes under a pretence of immediate spirit, crying down Or­dinances, and the Gospel-spirit must put down Go­spel-Ordinances, what Christ set up, the Spirit must demolish, and it is a Spirit indeed, but a perverse one, as you may see by the same argument cast in another mould; The water only refreshes and quenches thirst, therefore cut off all the cocks and pipes, you know my meaning.

§. 4 2. This point may stop the mouth of those dege­nerate Apostates, the shame of Christianity, that mock at the common principles and fundamentals of our [Page 177] faith, saying, Where is the promise of his coming? 2 Pet. 3. 4. They are Infidels in their faith, that they may be Epicures in life; We have not waited half so long for his second coming, as the old believers did for his first; God hath somewhat to do in the world, besides the saving of us; Time is not so long, if it be measured by his span, as by ours, a thousand years are as one day, and then what shall we say to the real Presentialists? who will have Christ to come into every Sacrament, and yet it's said, Till he come, as if he were not personally there, at present? The Scri­pture sayes nothing of Christs corporal invisible pre­sence on earth, takes notice of a first coming and a se­cond, but no more; and yet lastly, What shall we say to those that are called Seekers, and to the Sans-Ordinance men, and the Supra ordinance men, that will be without and are above Ordinances? I say no more then this, Christ is not yet come the second time, and as it was his first coming that set them up: So it is his second only that shall take them down; Let not pride infatuate you, for as it is a miserable case when the best plea or excUse for a man is to say, he was drunk, he was mad; so it is but a sorry ex­cUse for blasphemy, to say, It is his conscience; let the Ordinances of Christ have his own date, viz. till he come.

§. 5 Doct. 5 The fifth point might be taken up from those words, This Bread and this Cup, where we finde it called Bread still after Consecration in confu­tation of Popish Transubstantiation, and both Bread and Cup allowed to the Communicants; a shame to Popish Sacriledge, that hath robb'd the Sacra­ment of one of them; but enough was said of [Page 178] both these before, when I handled the words of In­stitution.

CHAP. XVII. Of worthy and unworthy Receiving of the Lords Supper.

1 COR. 11. 27.‘Wherefore, whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and bloud of the Lord.’

THis verse hath a mark in it's fore-head (the word [...], Wherefore) whereby at first sight it looks like an inference or collection from that which went before, where the Apostle having laid down the In­stitution of this Sacrament in the Use thereof, gathers from thence, That whosoever eats this bread, &c. un­worthily, he shall be guilty of the body and bloud of Christ.

§. 1 The sinne of receiving unworthily is largely insi­sted on in the following part of this Chapter, where the aggravation of this sinne is shown by the special guilt that attends it, and that is a guiltinesse of the Lords body, by the particular caUse of this guilti­nesse, [Page 179] Not discerning the Lords body, by the judge­ment that follows upon it, damnation or punishment, by the way of prevention of the sinne, the guilt and judgement, and that is self-examination, and self­judging, self-examination for the prevention of the sin, self-judging for prevention of the punishment in­flicted by God.

So that for a particular sinne properly incident to the abUse or miscarriage of men in this Ordinance, there is very much said to shew the nature and danger of it, becaUse the distempers reigning amongst the Corinthians, did herein shew themselves, which the Apostle studies to discover and to heal, and we by so ill an occasion gain such a piece of Doctrine as is not so fully delivered on this subject in any other place of Scripture, for the better guidance and steerage to stand off from those rocks which the Corinthians fell foul upon.

§. 2 I must first explain the words [Worthily and un­worthily] He that knows one, knows both; as he that knows a right line, knows a crooked; The right in­terpretation of them is the hinge on which hangs the true understanding of all that is to be said hereafter, and yet they have been cloudily and confUsedly sen­sed by many that expound by fancy, and at random, becaUse they do not first set down the right rule of ex­position, and so are themselves, and leave also their hearers in a mist.

We Use to denominate the Communicant worthy or unworthy, not at all intending any merit or merito­rious condignity, for such a worthinesse is the great­est unworthinesse, but a meetnesse and congruity of the action to the rule of the action, and therefore the [Page 180] Apostle applies worthinesse or unworthinesse to the man­ner of communicating, He that eateth and drinketh unworthily. In all Ordinances, either preaching, prayer, Sacraments, the eye of God is much upon the manner, how they are performed, which I might make my first point, but that I will not shoot my ar­row at so great a compasse.

Worthiness is relative, and refers to the rule of the action, which here is the institution, the Nature, Use and End of this Sacrament: for to eat and drink worthily, is to do it answerably and suitably to the Ordinance, when the Communicant hath, and so exercises such graces, qualifications and deportment, inward and outward, as this Sacrament doth require, bespeak and call for; And the contrary is unworthi­nesse, when the manner of communicating, or the Communicant is not suitable or answerable to the Ordinance, either becaUse he hath not, or exerciseth not the qualifications, that the Sacrament requires in a worthy receiver, or brings a contrary disposition to it, and this interpretation is easie, natural and con­vincing; for the Apostle layes down the institution first, and then infers what receiving unworthily is, as a strait Rule discovers a crooked line by the in­compliance of it to the Rule; and thus the Scripture, which advances not the merit, but the meetnesse of actions and persons, Useth to speak, as Ephes. 4. 1. Walk ( [...],) worthily of your calling, Phil. 1. 2 [...]. ( [...]As becomes the Gospel, Rom. 16. 2. Worthy of Saints, or as it becomes worthy of the Lord, Col. 1. 10. that is, as becomes people that are the Lords, Worthy of God, 1 Thess. 2. 1 [...]. in all which places it is required, that we walk or live an­swerable [Page 181] to such condition, calling or relation, or engagement, and so to eat and drink worthily, is as 'tis meet and answerable, as becomes such an Ordi­nance.

And if any should object, as well they may, Why the Apostle doth not first tell us, what it is, or how we may receive worthily, for the abUse is not known but by the right Use, the privation by the habit, the deviation by the rule, the crooked line by the straight.

I answer, the Apostle insists upon the unworthy receiving, becaUse that was the case before him, but he did not forget himself, as if he had not shown what it is to receive worthily; for though he name not the word, but as implied in the word unworthily, yet he had enough declared the thing by his laying down the Institution of this Sacrament, which is the rule of worthinesse. It being nothing else but the answerablenesse of the Communicant to the Ordi­nance, which every man that once knows the Ordi­nance must also know, if he apply the rule and his a­ction together, and so I am confident you have the meaning of worthily and unworthily.

§. 3 After the explication of the words. Let us form the point of Doctrine.

Doct. This Bread and this Cup of the Lord may be recei­ved worthily, and they may be received unworthily. I mean de facto unworthily. If any doubt of the col­lection of this point the very expression [...], Who­soever shall eat and drink unworthily, implies the one, and plainly expresses the other part of the point. The Communicant may come and eat suitably to the Or­dinance or Institution, and then he receives worthi­ly, [Page 182] and he may come and eat unsuitably to the exi­gence of the Ordinance, and then he receives unwor­thily: So that the point is an undoubted truth, ex­cept any can demonstrate, that no Communicant can eat and drink worthily, and then to what purpose is the Institution, but to bring damnation or judgement on all that partake of it, but I wave the proof. The point is clear in its own light; onely let me acquaint you, that my intention is to weave all I have to say into this one main point. For herein I will shew the qualifications of a worthy, and the defaults of an un­worthy Communicant, then the special guilt that ag­gravates the sinne of unworthy receiving, He shall be guilty of the body, &c. then the particular caUse of unworthinesse assigned, and that is not discerning the Lords body; Then the fearfull danger of this sinne, whereby a man is said to eat and drink judgement to himself, then the way of prevention of this sinne, that we fall not into it, Let a man examine himself. Then the prevention of the judgement in case we fall into the sinne, If we would judge our selves, &c.

§. 4. That the Lords Supper is not common for all, but a bar'd Ordinance to some.

§. 4 Quest. There may arise a Question thus, Worthily and unworthily are words that belong to the manner of communicating, and cannot be applied to any but Com­municants, but is there not a third sort of persons, viz. non-Communicants, such as may not come to this Ta­ble, or eat and drink here? And were it not requisite to know whether there be any, and who be such, as well as to know who comes worthily, who unworthily? This [Page 183] indeed is a Question the more material, becaUse it is in our dayes of great agitation, and therefore I intend to dispatch it first, that I may have to deal onely with Communicants worthy or unworthy. And for an­swer to it, I first make and lay down this general Po­sition.

That as it's said of some Havens, they are barred, Thesis. I. so is this Ordinance of the Lords Supper a barred Or­dinance, a severall not a common field, a recept for a select company, not a common Inne or Ordinary▪ It's a Table in this respect like yours, which is not spread for every one to runne unto, and sit down that will, but for your children, your guests, your friends; or if you think I have spoken too low, It's like the Ta­ble of a common Hall, which is not yet common to all the world, but to such a Corporation or Frater­nity. And it may be said without hyperbole, that there is scarce a Christian Church in the world this day, nor hath been in any Age since Christ, who have not in­closed, made several and impaled this Ordinance of the Supper: And if I could but lead your eye into the Primitive Churches, you would wonder at the for­tifications they made about it, There you should see the Catechumeni that were in the school of Cate­chism, learners of the Doctrine of Christianity, ad­mitted indeed to hear the Sermon, (Tertullian cals them Audientes) but never grumbling at the Ite missa est, Go you are dismist▪ When the Fideles or Com­municants went to this service; And there you should see the Lapsi or Poenitentes, Christians that had fallen into open and manifest scandals, standing a long time upon the four stairs or degrees of publique repent­ance, weeping for admission, and bewailing their [Page 184] sin and suspension from the Lords board, which ri­gour of Discipline, though full of sharpnesse and asperity, yet the reverence of this Ordinance, the Heathens among whom they lived, that watched for their haltings, and the great temptations to Idolatry and Apostasie, by fear of persecutions and continual Alarms, may plead some excUse of that severity: In short, though some have made the gate wider than others, yet all have impaled the Ordinance, and ta­ken it from the common; The Word indeed preach­ed or read lies open to all: the high wayes and hedges may be compell'd in to fill up the place where it sounds, and Baptism may be administred at the en­trance, for imitation and listing of souldiers under Christs colours: but the Lords Supper ever was intra Cancellos, within the mound, for it is the inmost Or­dinance that we have, for Church-members, Dis­ciples, not lying open to the streets, but as an inner room within a room, an Ordinance for fellowship of Saints and Christians, that are past the Font; All have not right to it, and some that have had right, may for the time have forfeited and lost their ca­pacity.

This is my general position, which (as in the se­quel will be clear to you) may be proved by a three­fold evidence:

1. By evidence of fact, the universal sense and consent of all Christian Churches, and thereby it will appear that it is no new Doctrine.

2. By evidence of Scripture, by which it will ap­pear to be no false Doctrine, for it's past all doubt, that the Passeover in the old Church was a barred Or­dinance, shut up from the uncircumcised and the un­clean, [Page 185] and the Supper in the New Testament is so too: In the 28 verse, Let a man examine himself, and so; the word And so, is a limitation and a proviso, and contains in it, otherwise not. When men have traversed the Point to the utmost, this little word [...], and so, as it opens the door to such as are so qualified, so it is a barre, and shuts it against them that are not: And it is Chrysostom his note upon the man that came in without his wedding garment, Matth. 22. 12. that the King said not, [...], but [...], that is, he said not, Why didst thou sit down and eat? but, How camest thou in hi­ther?

3. By evidence of Reason; for those that have no right or no capacity, may not communicate, nor those that having had a right or capacity, have lost it for present by some grievous sinne, and the cen­sure of the Church, which I shall pursue more par­ticularly and distinctly: In the mean time, I thus conclude my generall Position; We have warrant and may call all men, Turks and Jews, unto the Word of the Gospel: The Word cals them all to faith in Christ and repentance: If they enter not in­to Covenant, the seals of the Covenant are not for them: If they do enter Covenant, then the Sacra­ments or Seals follow, for the Covenant doth not follow the Seal, but the Seal the Covenant, I hope to rationall men this appears Reason; to me it appears above contradiction.

So much for the generall Position or Thesis▪ Now I will proceed to confirm it particularly according to the three fold evidence.

§. 5. The evidence of Fact.

§. 5 The first is the evidence of Fact, the universall and concurrent sense and consent of the Ancient Churches of Christ, to the intent it may appear to be no new Doctrine, and so the odium cast upon it, as upon an upstart, or one of the new devices of this age, by such as are too tender to their lusts and sin­full liberties, may be taken off: and though I reve­rence the gray hairs, and despise not the custom of the Churches of God, as St Paul saith, ver. 16. yet I make them not Dictators but Consuls only, and that testimony they give shall be but in matter of Fact, their own practice, which those in our daies that set open too wide a gate to this Ordinance, seem to take very little notice of: And I begin with Justin Mar­tyr, who seems (saith Bellar.) to be the first of De Script. Eccl. those, after the Apostles times, whose writings are come to our hand. He in his second Apology saith, That it's lawfull for no other person to partake of the Eucharist, viz. this Sacrament, but such an one as be­leeves the Doctrines taught in the Gospel to be true, that is baptized for remission of sins, that so lives as Christ hath delivered; where you finde the three requisites of partaking in this Ordinance, are Faith, Baptism, and good Conversation. This is the most ancient Testimony of the custom of the Christian Church in his time, and for that age fully stops the mouth of all contradiction.

For the Ages after this Authour, both those that passed under the Heathen, and under Christian Em­perours, I shall not cloy the Reader with citing the [Page 187] Testimonies of the Ancients by retale, becaUse there Cypr. Passe. Tertullian de Panit. was a form of Discipline or Government, which obtained in all Churches, Greek, African, Roman, which with great consent prohibited access to this Sacrament, unto two sorts principally. 1. Those that were yet in the School of learning the grounds of Christianity. 2. Those that having been reck­oned among the fideles, were for some great sinne put into the School of correction; and these two sorts do answer those so much spoken of now adaies, the ignorant and the scandalous. I say, there was a form of Discipline that took place, as appears by that of Origen in his third Book against Celsus, so much magnified and insisted on by Blondell, and it is this, De Jureplebis, pag. 94. That among the Christians there were appointed cer­tain men to enquire into [...] the lives and conversations of those that came to this Table, that they might prohibit them who had com­mitted finne forbidden from access to this publique Convention: A clear place against them that will have none seQuestred for a time from participation of the Lords Table.

1. The first sort of which were such as having a minde to relinquish Heathenism and Idolatry, yield­ed up themselves to learn the Doctrine and rule of Christianity, and these were called Catechumenoi, or hearers, who were instructed and trained up to learn untill they had attained cum al quo profectu convenien­ti, Aug. de Fide & Operibus. some convenient proficiency to become competon­tes, that is, to give up their names to be baptized, till which they were alwaies dismist, with Ite missa est, when the faithfull went on to the Lords Table, and the Officers thereto pertaining.

[Page 188]2. The second sort were such as having been Communicants, styled Fideles in opposition to the Catechumeni; and Stantes in opposition to the Lapsi, did afterwards lapse or fall into Heathenish Idolatry, by offering to Idols, and these were thurificati, rene­gates, or else they gave money to be excUsed from that abhorred act, professing themselves Christians, but they would buy it out, and these were called Libellatici, or they were traditores, such as in Diocle­sian's Forbes 649, &c. & 646. cruell time delivered up their Bibles to the fire, or they fell into some atrocious and notorious sinne, Heresie, Whoredom, Drunkenness, Murder, &c. and these were seQuestred from the Lords Table, and put to the School of repentance, called [...], by Balsamon, the stairs or degrees of correction, which were four, through which they passed with weeping and sorrow, some longer, some shorter time, till they were reconciled to the Church, and so re-ad­mitted to the Table, Cyp. Epist. 28, 38, 39, 52. Cypr. de Orat. Dominica: Yea and after the date and danger was out of being compel'd to offer to Idols, in the times of Christian Emperours, Chrysostom charges the Ministers under him, that if they knew a man to offer himself to the Table that is a gross and open sinner, they should prohibit him, [...], &c. though he be a Lord Generall, though a great Commander, though he wear a Diadem, as Ambrose forbad and interdicted Theodosius, And if you say (saith he) I dare not do it, then tell me of him, Homil. 83. in Matth. and I for my part, [...], &c. will part with my life, before I will allow him the Lords Board, [...], let us stave off all notorious persons ab­solutely. Was this a copy of his particular zeal, or [Page 189] rather a testimony of the ancient Discipline, the vi­gour of which being drowned in the dead sea of Po­pery, yet even therein the rubbish or skeleton thereof is seen, by the Doctrine of their Schoolmen, and by the Council of Trent, which requires of necessity to a man in mortall sinne, that he that will come to the Concil. Trid. do praparat. ad Euch. cap. 7. can. 11. Mass, must premise Auricular or Sacramentall con­fession and pennance; for they also have their pre­paration to the Sacrament, such as it is: As for the Lutheran Churches they have an exploration of all, what they understand of this Sacrament, and be­fore the Communion, a certain confession of sinne, which Chemnitius cals paenam institutam. And as for Chem. Exa. de praparat. ad Euchar. the Churches of our Confession, you may reade their Confessions and Books of Discipline, and be satisfied: I will instance only The Church of England, English Li­turgy Rubrick before Com­mun. and after Confirmation. by rule whereof no notorious and Obstinate offen­dour might be admitted, nor none that had not their Catechism perfect, which are the two points of ig­norance and scandall. If this rule had been follow­ed, and this Law put in execution, the practice would have been no new thing in England, as even the old rule is now by some accounted. I conclude with that which one argues, as out of the common rule of the Church in Austin's Epistle ad Januarium, Austin Epist. 118. Epist. 118. That if there be such a course or force of sin in any man, he is to be removed from the Lords board, by the authority of the chief, and put into the School of pe­nitence, till he be reconciled to the Church.

And so much be said of the evidence of Fact, as appears in the rules of the Churches, both ancient and later, both corrupter and purer; not that I or that I wish any else to be absolutely swayed by this [Page 190] Authority, for there may be errour in the practice of the Church, yea errour universally received, as in that of giving this Sacrament to infants, upon that ground, Jeh. 6. 53. Except ye eat the flesh, &c. ye have no life in you; and yet it was the practice of the Church so to do, both in Cyprians and Austin's time, but I prove the evidence of Fact by this Argument, otherwise not to be proved at all: and I do not ex­pect that any should condemn so ancient a practice, nor think they do, but rather do conceive that the bottom of the business is the disrellish of that Au­thority by which it is to be done. Bucephalus will be ridden by none but Alexander, and it was the saying of Cardinall Matheo Langi concerning Luther, That the Church of Rome, the Mass, the Court, the lives of Priests and Friers, stood in need to be Reformed, but that a poor rascall Monk (meaning Luther) Heilin. Geog. in Bavaria. should begin all, that he deemed intollerable, and not to be endured.

§. 6. The evidence of Scripture.

§. 6 The second evidence is that of Scripture, which is first in dignity, but I put it second, becaUse it ju­stifies the Fact for the substance thereof; and here it is confest that no Turk, Jew, Infidell, is debarred by Reason of his Nation, for Scythian and Barba­rian, bond and free are all one, We are all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles bond or free, 1 Cor. 12. 13. and have been made to drink into one Spirit: and therefore the word of the Gospel lies open to all Nations and people, without partiti­on wall, such as between the Jews and others of old [Page 191] time; but the barre lies in point of Religion, for if they lie in their Idolatry and Infidelity, though they may come to the Word, yet not to the Table of the Lord.

Who are to be kept from the Sacrament.

1. The Jews that serve the Tabernacle, and stick to the old Service under the Legall shadows, are ex­cepted: We have an Altar, or rather a Sacrifice, Je­sus Christ our sin-offering, whereof they have no right to eat, Heb. 13. 10. that is, no right of Communion with us, or Christ: The place is difficult, but easily cleared by Levit. 6. 30. for as the Priests that served at the Altar, had no right to eat of the flesh of the sin-offering, whose blood was brought into the Sanctuary, but burnt it must be without the Camp, so the Jews that hold to the Legall service, have no right of eating the flesh of Christ, whose blood was brought into the Holy place of heaven (virtually) and his body suffered without the gates of earthly Jerusalem, thereby signifying that they were discom­mended, that hold to the Legall service.

2. Heathens and Infidels are excluded from this Table, becaUse they are extraneous and without, so they are called, 1 Cor. 5. 12. What have I to do to judge, or censure, them that are without; they are without the gates of the Church, not obnoxious to the Go­vernment, nor allowed the priviledges of it; and they that are without the gate, cannot be admitted to the Table, untill they come in and be members of the family.

3. All unbaptized persons are excepted by the order of our Sacraments, whereof Baptism is first for [Page 192] insition and implantation into the Body of Christ, and the Lords Table, for further coalition and growth; this order is confirmed by the Use or busi­ness of the Sacraments, the one being of Regenera­tion, and so first, the other of Communion, and so the second: See 1 Cor. 12. 13. By one spirit are we baptized into one Body, and have been all made to drink into one spirit; first baptized, and then made to drink, which order the Church of Christ hath held from the beginning, as it's said by Justin, [...], Apol. 2. After the new Convert is thus washed, we bring him to our meetings where the Eucharist is.

4. Those that are under a present incapacity of performing such antecedaneous acts of preparation, or which are to be exercised in the act of communi­cating, provided that this incapacity be visible, as I may say, or manifest unto us, as in infants, ideots, stupid ignorants, bruits in the shape of men, who though baptized, yet are not capable of discerning the Lords Body, or of examining themselves, who seem to be excepted, ver. 28. Let a man examine him­self, and so let him eat and drink. And so, I know a mad man may have lucid intervals, and a poor igno­rant soul may be brought to know the letters, and spell the first syllables of Christianity, against either of which I would not shut the door; but if the igno­rant cannot be gotten beyond sottishness and stu­pidity, nor got out of his Obstinacy in blindness, I should be very unwilling to let him runne blinofold down the precipice, or leave the door open for him to fall into condemnation; not that I envy him a benefit, but pity his downfall, which I ought to hinder, or at least not to help forward: and I may [Page 193] say of such an one, as the Apostle of the Law, Rom. 7. 13. Shall that which is good be made death unto him? God forbid: Especially considering that the Apostle having said, Let a man examine himself, and so let him eat, doth in the next words come on again, ver. 29. For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eats and drinks damnation to himself, not discerning the Lords Body.

As for infants, though the Churches of ancient time admitted them after Baptism to partake of the P Martyr in Musculus de caena. Lords Supper, for some hundreds of years, and one or two of our Reforming Divines speak somewhat favourably of it; yet the ground they went upon, Joh. 6. 53. that otherwise they had not salvation, is disclaimed by all, both becaUse that Chapter speaks nothing of Sacramentall or Symbolicall eating the flesh of Christ, and drinking his blood; and also was delivered by Christ a year or two before this Sacrament was born into the world, and becaUse there is so much activity and exercise required in a Communicant, as viz. to remember the Lords death, to shew it forth, to discern the Lords body, to examine ones self, to judge ones self; therefore is that ancient practise Obsolete, and as by tacite consent deserted, and in room thereof we admit now, not by their years, for a man of threescore may be a childe in understand­ing, and a childe in years may be a man, but by their discretion and knowledge in the mystery of Christ: and if the Parents or Pastors care, the blossoming of grace, and pregnancy in the childe, were answe­rable to my desires, I should, as I am, for great rea­sons, be for eatly admissions of them, as namely, that the benefit and refreshing of this Ordinance might [Page 194] curb the over-growth of the sins and lusts of youth, and help forward the growth of their graces to an early maturity.

Those that are professed Christians, baptized-Church-members, whether they live in open pra­ctice, or fall under the guilt of some gross and scan­dalous sinne, are for that time as they be impenitent, to be secluded from, or not admitted unto this Com­munion; and this is an adjudged case in Scripture, 1 Cor 5. where one for terrible incest, notoriously manifest, detested by very Heathens, remained in the Communion of the Church, through neglect of their duty, which the Apostle reproves; and ha­ving shown what power they had of judging such as were within, members of their Church, enjoyns them to purge out the leaven, and to cast out from them­selves that wicked person: and least any perverse gainsayer should restrain this power to this one sin, the Apostle saith, ver. 11. If any that is called a bro­ther be a fornicatour, a covetous, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, or extortioner, the Church hath power to judge them that are within; But what is this to the Sacrament? enough verily, for he that is cast out of the hoUse, is certainly cast out from the houshold table; and the abstention from Commu­nion, so much named in Cyprian, or [...], or seclu­sion Forbes 631. mentioned in the Canons, and whatsoever word is Used for this casting one out of Church-commu­nion, here if any where it operates and works, in for­bidding the Use of the Table, where the [...] of Church society and communion is; as for instance, Divorce though it extend further, yet signifies no­thing at all, is no Divorce, if not a thoro or mensa, [Page 195] from bed or board, so this restention is nothing, it works nothing, (I speak not of a private avoidance of familiarity with wicked persons, which lies on private persons) if not to this seclusion from the Table: I shall not further urge the example of the old Testament, which debarres the uncircumcised and the unclean for the time, from the Passeover: and I deny not that under that worldly Sanctuary, and those carnall Ordinances, as they are called, Heb. 9. 1, 10. Legall uncleanness might debarre, when spirituall and morall did not, as now morall filthiness may, when legall uncleanness is not; for that un­cleanness under the Law, had a spirituall significati­on, and though it was not alwaies sinne, yet it signi­fied morall pollution, as the leaven which was held Hag. 2. 13. execrable and must be cast out, at the Passeover is spiritually applied to another meaning by the Apo­stle, 1 Cor. 5. Purge out the old leaven, ver. 7. for Christ our Passeover is sacrificed for us: the old leaven, that is the wicked and incestuous person (Beza, Slater, alii) out of your society, and malice and wickedness out of your lives, ver. 8. and therefore the Argument which is drawn from the signification of the legall type, is not so contemptible, as a Learned man of M. Humfrey. late would seem to make it, since the Apostle seems to argue from the leaven cast out at the Passeover, as I have hinted.

§. 7. The evidence of Reason.

§ 7 The third evidence is that of Reason▪ which was this, that such as have no right to eat, or have lost for present, right or capacity, should not intrude [Page 196] themselves: I say those that have no right, and they are those, that as the Apostle saith, Eph. 2. 12. are meer strangers to the Covenant; for in Reason the Co­venant must go before the Seal, and not the Seal be­fore the Covenant; and therefore they were Disci­ples to whom Christ said, Take and eat, not aliens or strangers to the Gospel▪ Covenant, whereof it was ordained a Sacrament, infidels or unbeleevers, which answer to the uncircumcised, were debarred the Passeover. Or else they are such as having had both right unto, and Use of this Ordinance, have after­ward lost their capacity for the time, by some gross and enormous crime, which hath brought them un­der seQuestration or deprivation by the censure of the Church; and these answer the unclean under the Law, who having right to the Passeover as Church­members, were yet forbidden the Use, during such uncleanness; for against such is the key turned, and the door shut, untill and unless by their repentance for their sinne, they be restored to their right, and the seQuestration be taken off; for so in the ancient Churches, while the Lapsi lay under pennance, and were in the School of repentance, they could not communicate, the Crier said, [...], as Chrysost. hom▪ 3. in Ephes. and if the same Authour and the same place may be heard, ye shall learn from him the very two sorts which I am speak­ing of; There ought, saith he, to come to this Table, neither any, [...], of them that are not initiated and entred Disciples, [...], nor any of those that are professours and members, but unclean or flagitious, whose sinnes are such, ut judicatur excom­municandus, as it's said in Austin Epist. 118. ad Janua­rium.

Now there is Reason that such as lie in manifest and enormous sinne without repentance, should either forbear, or by the Church be forbidden ac­cess to the terrible mysteries, as Chrysostom often cals [...] them.

1. That they should forbear being made acquain­ted what a fearfull sinne they boldly adventure upon, viz. to be guilty of the Body and Blood of the Lord, the very naming of it being able to strike ter­rour, and what danger they rush themselves into of eating and drinking damnation to themselves, as it were professedly seeking and solemnly setting their hands to their own ruine; for though every sinne have death the wages of it, yet for a man to provoke his own destruction, and solemnly seal it upon him­self, is most fearfull: Who would not tremble to eat such a sop as should be presently followed with Satan, or to eat such forbidden fruit as is sawced with this bitter sawce, Morte morieris, Thou shalt die: for if this bread enter into a man filthy and polluted, Calvin. Iustit. lib. 4. ca. 17. Majore illum ruina praecipitat; and he that hath pur­pose to sinne, gravatur magis, saith Austin, he is De Eccles. Dog­mat. cap. 35. loaden with a greater guilt: He takes poyson, both by Reason of his guiltiness of other sinnes, and of the abUse of the Sacrament, saith Bernard. And therefore let Serm. de caena. 2 men consider what they are like to reap, that either ravish and force, or secretly think themselves well if they can steal the Sacrament▪ for he that is in mortall sinne, sinnes mortally (as Alensis saith) and Pars 4. Q [...]. 46 that becaUse, as the Schoolmen say, Committit fal­sum Aquin. 3. pars▪ Quaest. 8. & Esti [...]. lib. 4. distinct▪ 12. in Sacramento, he commits a falshood in this Sacrament, professing himself to come to and re­ceive Christ, to whom he is an enemy and a stranger; [Page 198] he mocks God solemnly: And therefore as Mr Sel­den De Synodecis p. 254. saith, If Judas that had a deliberate purpose of betraying Christ, had of himself therefore gone forth becaUse he was so unworthy, certum ipsi laudi fuisset, verily it had been a credit and commendati­on to him to have forborn; and indeed there would appear some conscience in such forbearance, where­as there appears nothing but blindness, boldness, pride, custom, &c. in a dangerous intrusion: I can­not encourage men to forbear this Ordinance, nor allow the excUse of those that flatter themselves in such forbearance by their sinne, as I have heard some, they cannot come to the Sacrament, becaUse they are not in charity: Sinne may be an impediment, but it is not an excUse▪ if you be in manifest and flagi­tious sinne ye may not come, but that sinne excUses not, for you ought to finde a third way, that is to repent and lay aside your sinne, that you may come. Let a man examine himself, and so let him eat, saith the Apostle. As in the Marriage feast, Matth. 22. he that came without his wedding garment was cast out, and they that pretending excUses, came not, are said not to be worthy, v. 8. What then is to be done? this third, to have a wedding garment and come too. Instance, a drunken servant that forbears to wait at his Masters table becaUse he is drunk, but yet that is no excUse, for he ought to be sober and wait also: And this answers a captious fallacy or objection which may be made by some.

There is Reason that the Church should forbid o­penly criminous persons from access to the Lords Table.

1. It would be not only contra veritatem, but con­tra [Page 199] charitatem, to make such partakers of the holy Supper: They are the words of Learned Grotius, Grotius de im­perio, p. 229. who cannot be suspected to speak partially in this caUse, but to speak the sense of Antiquity: Against truth, for the seal, saith he, is not to be applied to him, to whom the thing signified, manifestly belongs not: and therefore in the Churches of old it was wont to be proclaimed, [...], Holy things to holy persons: And Chrysostom shews, that one with a loud and ter­rible Homil 17. ad Hebr. voice pronounced, [...], for pearls are not to be cast to swine. Against charity it is to suffer a blinde soul that discerns not the Lords bo­dy, to fall into the pit which we have left open: No mother would suffer her childe to eat that which may be poyson to it, no shepherd would call his sheep into such pastures as will certainly rot them; no friend would put a sword into the hand of a furious man; no Physician would reach water to an Hydro­pick that eagerly thirsts for it. It was charity as well as duty in that Jehojada, 2 Chron. 23. 19. that set porters at the gates of the hoUse of the Lord, that none that was unclean in any thing should enter in. The di­seased or dropick man is angry and frets sore against those that keep water from him, but they are his best friends that do it.

2. The admittance of ignorant, malitious, unclean, scandalous, drunkards, blasphemers, and such ma­nifest works of the flesh, of which it's said, that those that do such things, shall not inherit the Kingdom of God, Gal. 5. 19, 21. will render the Lords Table a common Ordinary, a common lane, a common shore, and fill the Church of God, and the society of Saints, with all prodigious lusts and heresies, as [Page 200] if it were a stie of unclean swine; and what an ulce­rous body would that Church be, where such a common liberty doth reign? when so many spo [...]s should be in your feasts of love, Jude [...]2. so much old leaven, to leaven the lump by their example; when as the Apostle in the case tels us, a little leaven would do it, and therefore purge it out, saith he, purge out 1 Cor. 5. 6. that leaven while it is little: For as when the multi­tude a major part of a Town or City becomes infe­cted, who shall shut them up, Si contagio peccandi multitudinem invaserit, saith Austin, then farewell all censures. And therefore if any shall encourage the Church to keep (as I may so say) open hoUse in this Grotius de im­perio pag. 233. case, doth little less, considering the corruption of men that would account such a liberty a warrant, than if I should counsell you to plant weeds in your Garden, or bring stones into your Vine­yard.

3. This would give occasion and advantage to se­paration, and put into the hands of men an argument to withdraw from such society and communion, and to rend themselves off from the body so corrupted; not that I justifie separation upon such ground, as I intend to shew hereafter; for the people were blame­worthy that abhorred the offerings of the Lord, for the wickedness of Eli his sonnes, 1 Sam. 2. 17. and yet their wickedness was to be abhorred which gave the occasion: Wo be to him by whom the offence cometh. The Matth. 18. 7. mouth that blasphemeth the truth and way of God is wicked, but the sin of him that opens that mouth is also to be condemned. We are told, Ezra 6. 21. that all such as had separated themselves from the filthiness of the Heathen of the Land, came to the Passe­over; [Page 201] and if we separate not from the filthinesse of the Heathen, there are many that will separate from the filthinesse of the Church, and we shall in vain call them back into a hoUse infected with the plague, when once they are broken out.

4. The Church hath little or none other way, as the Church, to keep the holy things from being pro­faned, to correct the sins and lapses of her children, Ezek. 22. 26. to preserve it self from being gangren'd, to defend and wipe off scandals, but this way of privation of priviledges, and calling of the peccant from her Communion, shutting this door against rebellious children, and what should the Church have done all the while the Civil Magistrate gave no assistance, if they had not Used this power of their own, to main­tain themselves free from scandals and heresies, and to keep the credit of their corporation, which otherwise would be the most contemptible corporation in the world, and of no better credit than Algier, or any City of miscreants; for if God have deposited his Word and Ordinances with his Church, and committed them to it, the case is hard, if they might not put to the door against unjust inva­ders of her priviledges; as if one should commit a Vineyard to be kept, and not allow a hedge to be made about it. Now all men know, that almost all the coercion or correction that lies in the Churches hand, is the debarment of priviledges of the Church, that is of the Sacraments; for the Word lies open to all, as the outward Court to all comers; and as for civil punishments, they are neither proper, nor the Churches; the rod belongs to Moses; And whereas it may be said, The Church hath the word of God, [Page 202] and by that they denounce judgement, declare sinne, wound the profane, prohibit the unworthy from this Table; I grant it; and it is a necessary and proper means, but withall, I say, If a City or Common­wealth have Laws proclaimed and expounded, and penalties set forth and declared, but no execution of any restraint or punishment, no power to correct or punish; I need not tell you, how full we should be of thieves and felons for all that.

Thus much be said in confirmation and mainte­nance of my general Position, That the Lords Sup­per is a barred Ordinance, which I have endeavour­ed to make good by evidence of Fact, by evidence of Scripture, and by evidence of Reason, for the satisfa­ction of your scruples (if any be) and the settling of animosities: Much more might have been said and argued upon the point; For if the very Heathens in their idolatrous Sacrifices by their light of Reason, did no lesse, as appears by their [...], in Callimachus. Callimachus, and Procul ô procul este profani, in Vir­gil. Away, away all you that are profane. If both Heathens, and the Church of God had some that did [...], survey the Sacrifices, that they had no blemish that might disable them from being pre­sented to God. If in the Olympick games or maste­ries Chrysost. hom. 17. ad he [...]. the Crier made Proclamation, If any man come out and accUse this Combatant or Antagonist, that he is a thief, a slave, &c. being a dishonour for a Gen­tleman, a Free-man to enter lists with such a fellow. If the old Druids in France had a form of Excommu­nication Caesar. Com­mentaries. out of their Society, and it was accounted a mighty punishment. If the Essens a Sect among the Jews in Christs time, had it in Use to cast out of their [Page 203] Society such as were offensive, as Josephus tels us. If the Synagogues had a form of dissynagoguing of­fences, Grot. de imp. pag. 232. though they abUsed it, as all Church-cen­sures are, when they spare the carrion-Crows, and vex the Doves; I say, if all this, and much more, why then should this be accounted a new and unrea­sonable, either Doctrine or practice? I end this point with a reQuest, That every one of you would ra­ther labour and study to prevent all occasion of using this course, than to remove the old Land­marks.

§. 8. Who may not be denied this Ordinance.

Theſis. II. The second general Position is this, That though this Sacrament be a barred Ordinance, denied to some, yet it cannot be denied to any baptized visible Profes­sour of the Gospel, but upon such grounds, and in such manner and order as God hath appointed or allowed; And this takes off the odium and terrour of the for­mer point; This settles and quiets all mistakes of them, For God is not the Authour of confusion, but of order and peace in all the Churches of the Saints, 1 Cor. 14. 33. Let all things be done in order, ver. 40. And therefore the Apostle, when he had enjoyned Timothy, To rebuke them that sinne before all, that others may fear, 1 Tim. 5. 10. doth in the next words lay a serious charge upon him, To Observe these things without preferring one before another, and to do nothing by partiality. Would you call that a well-govern'd City, a well-order'd hoUse, or rather a Cycleps den, where every one may cast out another, and he him­self, as the Rabbies in the latter end of the Jewish [Page 204] State, ridiculously excommunicated one the other; As promiscuous accesse is not to be allow­ed, so neither promiscuous denial; As one may intrude and usurp the Lords Supper rashly, so he may be as rashly forbidden; As there is an ignorant and scandalous rushing in, so there is an ignorant and scandalous thrusting out; The door may be open'd and shut both, errante clave: If, I say, that a gangren'd leg or arm may and must sometimes be cut off, Doth it follow that for every sore before healing plaisters be Used, we must runne to the Knife or Axe? Or if, I say, a robber or murderer may be put to death, must I therefore have him to the next tree without further trial or judgement? The case is plain, but particularly handled thus.

1. It cannot be denied to a repentant sinner, one that doth renew his purpose of amendment, and after his fall with Peter bewails it bitterly, whatsoever his sins have been, for which he hath been punisht or cen­sured; Repentance doth dissolve the bands, and pull away the barre from the door, repentance prevents the punishment, Ile cast them into great tribulation, except they repent, as it prevents, so it restores a man, as Ezek. 18. 30. Repent, so iniquity shall not be your ruine. This was the Novatian rigour and errour, they would not allow lapsed Christians that had fallen in­to sinne, the benefit of repentance and restoring to the holy Table, but leave them to Gods mercy, for to the peace and communion of the Church, they must not return; But the Orthodox Churches did allow repentance to be medicinal; Yea the very Church-censures were not intended to be mortal, but to be medicinal, viz. that sinne might be de­stroyed, [Page 205] but the soul saved, 1 Cor. 5. 5. and here is a difference between civil sentences of death, and Church-censures. If a man be condemned to die for felony, his repentance doth not acquit or restore him from the sentence of death, but it restores a man to his Church-priviledge that had lost it; it is Tabula post naufragium, like a plank or board after a Ship­wrack which saves from drowning him that gets to it.

Object. Some may object, That this is an obvious and easie Engine to open any door that is shut; for if a man make a verbal profession of his repentance, and say, I repent of my sins, and that is to my self, you know not my heart, I demand my right.

Answ. The Discipline of the Church is not to be exposed to mockery, nor is it a meer external Page­ant; I will know, saith the Apostle, 1 Cor. 4. 20. not the speech of them that are puffed up, but the power, For the Kingdom of God is not in word, but in power; Hypocritical and superficial expressions signifie no­thing, but the powerfull work of grace and regene­ration which changes the heart; and becaUse the Ob­jection may be made by some (ex animo) intending to shew with how easie a word, as Nollem factum, or I repent to blow the door open to himself, therefore I answer it, That though I should rest in a serious pro­fession of faith and repentance, which is not pull'd down again by a wicked life, or scandalous sinne; As Philip rested in it, when the Eunuch answer'd him, I believe that Jesus Christ is the Sonne of God, Act. 8. 37. and so was baptized; yet when a man lies un­der the charge of our censure, for some scandalous sinne the case is otherwise; for as it is in such sinnes as [Page 206] are with damage to another, it is not enough to pro­fesse repentance, but there must be Zacheus his re­pentance, that is, restitution and reparation of inju­ry, if one be able; so in scandalous sinnes, whereby the Church is injured and offended; There was al­wayes in the ancient Churches a certain Discipline (as Chemnitius saith) whereby the repentance of men Depraeparat. p. 95. was explored and tried, whether it were serious, slighty and superficial, Sayings served not the turn, the Church had received a wound, the mouth of the enemy was open'd to blaspheme, and therefore it was her honour to be satisfied in that reparation, which was made by repentance, that God might re­gain his visible honour by the repentance which he had lost by the scandal, and there is ground for it, 2 Cor. [...]. 6, 7, 8. where the incestuous person lies hum­bled and overwhelmed with great sorrow, and there­fore the Apostle writes to the Church to be content to comfort, to forgive him, and to confirm their love towards him. This is no dallying matter, when the fall is scandalous, the repentance must be serious; Peter thrice denies Christ, and Christ asks Peter three times, Lovest thou me?

2. A visible professour of Christian Religion, that stains not his profession with a wicked course of life, or some scandalous act, cannot be debarred his right of Communion with the visible Church in her pri­viledges; Many are in the external Covenant and Kingdom of Christ, who are not truly regenerate, nor lively members of Christ himself; inward grace makes a member of the Church invisible, and the profession makes a visible. The Sacraments are gi­ven to the visible Church, we cannot discern or judge [Page 207] infallibly, who is regenerate, who an hypocrite, a vi­sible Judge is not to go by an invisible rule, You shall know them (saith Christ) by their fruits: He doth not say, You shall know them by their sap; It's one Que­stion, Who is a true member of Christs body, and truly in Christ? It's another Question, Whom we may communicate with? It's one Question, Who comes and eats, and drinks unworthily? So do hy­pocrites: It's another Question, Who may not come at all? and those are visible unbelievers, and scanda­lous persons, usitatissima phrasi (saith Chemnitius) in the most usual phrase of Scripture they are called ho­ly and Saints, who are Saints by calling, Disciples of Christ, separated from infidelity and Heathenism unto the worship of God by their faith of the Gospel▪ It must be evidence of some fact, or disorderly walk­ing which is proved, that must give ground to dis­common or dis-franchize a reputed Member, Who ever heard of witnesses to prove a man unregenerate? Oh but in judgement of charity at least, he must be truly regenerate! I would all the Congregation were holy; That's the best corn-field that hath fewest weeds or tares, but (as I conceive) the Church is to proceed by an infallible Rule, not a judgement of charity; Charity gives a good temperament unto our judgement, and holds the balance mercifully, but God hath set a Rule to judge by, If one that is named a brother be a fornicatour, or Idolater, or a railer, or drunkard, 1 Cor. 5. 11. It is the visible Rule of his own word, who may, and who may not be debarred our fellowship or society; Charity may hold the scales, but the scales are Gods word, which tels us, who are inter▪ Commoners and Covenantors, and [Page 208] Sacramento tenus, Communicants, whether they be truly regenerate or no, for I have no Rule to judge that, and he may have right in foro externo, becaUse he answers to the visible Rule of judging, for he is a brother called; he is, as the Apostle saith, within, and not outwardly scandalous. The Kingdom of hea­ven is likened to ten Virgins, whereof five were fool­ish: The Bridegroom might shut out the foolish, but the wise could not forbid them to attend or trim their Lamps, Mat. 25.

3. No secret sinne that lies in the bosom of the heart, is a sufficient ground of a mans being debarred or prohibited by the Church to come to this Table. It may be a caUse of a mans eating and drinking un­worthily, but of his debarment to come, it cannot be; It may be a caUse of forbearance to come, not of prohibition; and the Reason is, De secretis non judicat Ecclesia, secret sins are without the Churches cogni­zance: Our Saviour tels us, Matth. 5. 28. He that looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her in his heart; but that adultery is not punishable by any, but him that knows the heart. The Schoolmen teach, That if a Priest have mens Durand. l. 4. Dist. 9. Quaest. 5. §. 7. Ales. part. 4. Quaest. 49. num. 1. secret sinnes under seal of Confession, he may not forbid the person in the face of the Congregation, for then he is not Corrector, but Proditor. Christ knew Judas his rottennesse, his theft was acted, his tReason inten­ded, and now in hatching, yet he suffer'd him. I know it's a great Question, Whether Judas received the Lords Supper? But that indeed is not the Questi­on, but this, Whether he was debarred or forbidden by Christ, or no? And there is no foot step of proof for it, I say, that's the Question in this point; and [Page 209] yet to speak a word of the other. It runs currant by general vote of Antiquity, ten for one, That Judas Vide Selden. de Synedriis lib. 1. cap▪ 9. Vasquez. Tom. 3. Disp. 217. did receive the Lords Supper. Hilary is quoted against it, but he also, as Vasquez truly Observes, is against his communicating in the Passeover too; Now we finde he sate down to the Passeover, Matth. 26. 20. and was hinted by Christ at the very Table to be the Traitour, One of you, vers. 21. and there is no men­tion of his deserting the company so early; that word of connexion, Luk. 22. 21. But behold the hand of him that betrayes me, is with me on the Table, speaks very fair for it, that the connexion may be preserved with former words, Those that are against it, as some learned men are, answer the Text by anticipations, Muscul. de [...]na & multi. and give their Reasons, That it's not likely Christ would eat with such an hypocrite, &c. But Reason is no de­monstration in matter of fact, as a learned man saith, The great stresse lies upon one word, Joh. 13. 30. Ju­das taking the sap went out immediately; This sop, say they, was given at the Paschal Supper before the Lords Supper, whatsoever it was, it was an index of the Traitour, and▪ given to distinguish him, there­fore not a common giving it to all, as the common custom was, and wonder it is that the Apostles should interpret Christs words, Do it quickly of buying things for the feast, which is a sign they dream'd of no Ex­communication by those words, nor yet wonder'd that there should be such haste to provide and cater, as that he must rise from the Table, while the Pas­chal Supper was eating, which Paschal Supper and the Lords Supper, was, as it were, all one to them, not distinguisht, but by the signification put upon the bread and wine, just when they were delivered, [Page 210] being indeed the Paschal Rites, and no other, viz. materially, and therefore I see not but [...] here may signifie, as it doth, Matth. 13. 5. [...], The seed in stony places sprung up forthwith, not so soon as sowed, but by Reason of shallownesse of the earth, and heat of the rock, sooner then ordinary seed, and so Judas went out forthwith, not before the end of the Paschal Supper, which was also the end of the Lords Supper, both being at once, and concluded by one hymn, but before the long speech, Vasquez. Tom. 3. Disp. 217. cap. 2. which was continued after Supper by Christ, John 13. & Joh. 14. for he left Christ and the other to­gether in the room, and before that last Sermon was gone about his intended plot, and this as it is the com­mon, so also (as I suppose) the true opinion, which is hinted, as the consent of the Church of England, in the Exhortation before the Communion, where you finde these words, If any of you be a blasphemer Confessio Bel­gica. of God, an hinderer or slanderer of his Word, an adul­terer, or be in malice, or envy, or any other grievous crime, bewail your sinnes, and come not to this holy Table, lest after the taking of that holy Sacrament, the Devil enter into you as he enter'd into Judas, and fill you full of all iniquities, and bring you to destruction both of body and soul

But this example pleads nothing for admission of openly notorious and scandalous sinners; for though Christ knew Judas, yet his sins had not yet scanda­lously broke forth, and therefore he was present, as a secret sinner, of whom there could be no just ac­cusation, nor evident proof, and so no object as yet of any ecclesiastical censure in an ordinary and orderly Tom. pars 3. Qu. 81. way, as Aquinas saith.

4. No private trespasse against a private scandal gi­ven to a Christian brother, is the immediate object of this debarment from publick Communion, for in such cases there is an order, viz. The golden Rule of Christ is to be Observed, Matth. 18. 15. Go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone, if he hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother; if not then, take one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be establisht; If yet he hear not, or neglect, Tell it to the Church; The bu­sinesse here to be done, is not so much to resarciate the damage or injury done to thee, or to make him pay what he owes, that belongs to Westminster-Hall, not the Church, but to gain a brother to repent, that's the work. And here we may complain of a great neglect of this duty of private reproof or admo­nition: Men would have their private offences brought upon the publick stage, at first dash they ex­pect the Church should proceed to do their work at first instance, they forget that, Levit. 19. 17. Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thine heart, thou shalt in any wise rebuke thy neighbour, and not suffer sinne upon him. The Church would have lesse to doe, if this course were held, the matter would be stopt, the offendour gained by this private plaister, which if it do the cure, what need we go to the Chyrurgion: Men have their own private plaisters, and untill the sore rankle, they call not the Chyrurgions to coun­sel: Men are apt to runne to the Church or Minister with private whispers, and what can they do by Gods Word upon private whispers, just nothing, go and do your own duty: Let Christs order be Obser­ved, He will not have a member of the Church made [Page 212] a Publican or Heathen at first dash, there are three neglectings to hear before that be, If he hear not thee, If he hear not two or three, If he hear not the Church, but if he do hear thee, then no end of bringing two or three; If he hear two or three, then no telling of the Church; If he hear the Church, then is he no Heathen or Publican unto thee: How rashly and passionately do many separate from the Church, be­caUse she cannot, doth not cast out her members up­on their private whispers, let them go and seperate also from the Commonwealth, becaUse she doth not banish or put to death upon private information. Do they neglect their own duty to their brother, and will they make the Church a Heathen and a Publican to them, for not doing that which by Christs order they cannot do?

5. The proper, and adequate, and immediate ob­ject of this debarment from the Communion of the Church, is a scandalous person, that holds either a course, or hath committed the act of a scandalous sinne, And what call you that? It may be explain­ed thus:

1. Some atrocious or grievous sinne, of first mag­nitude, If any that is called a brother be a fornicator, idolater, covetous, &c. 1 Cor. 5. There is a list with an Et catera, Gal. 5. 19. where they are called, Works of the flesh, and they that do such shall not inherit the Kingdom of God; As also 1 Cor. 6. 9. Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the Kingdome of God, nor fornicatours, idolaters, adulterers, abUsers of them­selves with mankinde, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, and such were some of you. These the Papists call mortal sins, [Page 213] they bring scandal on the Church, provoke God, blot out our comfort, waste the conscience, &c. but there are quotidian sinnes of daily incursion, com­mon to all godly men, infirmities, which like little flies are not to be knockt down with so great a ham­mer, whose absolute cure can hardly be expected, or performed by such as are subject to the like passi­ons themselves; divorce or banishment are too great, but for such offences as are directly contra­riant to the respective societies of marriage or Com­monwealth.

2. It must be an open and manifest sinne, else it is 1 Cor. 5. 1. not scandalous, [...], It is reported commonly fornication, and such fornication. Chryso­stom saith, he speaks [...], concerning manifest sinnes, when he charges his Ministers to ad­mit no scandalous offendour: Now to render a sinne manifest or notorious, I suppose first it's requisite,

1. That it manifestly be a sinne, and this is quaestio juris, for a thing may be commonly cried down un­der the name of an enormous crime, and yet in­deed be very doubtfull, I instance usury, where the Question is, What it is? Then, Whether this in Question be usury? Then, Whether all usury be sinfull? For there are great names of learn­ing and godlinesse, who upon considerable Reasons do deny it.

2. That it be manifest, that the sinne be com­mitted; for it's one thing to know simply, and another to know judicially, and known it must be, either by evidence of fact, or confession, or con­viction, if it be, and yet appear not, it is as if it [Page 214] were not, De non existentibus & non apparentibus ea­dem ratio, if it come to that passe, that the offen­dour put himself upon conviction, then the pro­cesse must be Secundum allegata & probata, in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word must stand (saith our Saviour upon this point) If I were to judge the fact, which I my self do know, but yet it is not proved, I durst not make a cen­sure, but should rather, Exuere personam judicis, & induere personam testis; And as Jerome saith, Cont Ruffin. lib. 2. A single witnesse is not to be believed, Ne Catoni quidem, No, though he were Cato; You would be loath to lose your horse, your goods, but upon sufficient conviction, and I hope, you think that to lose your right to the Sacrament, is a greater losse. I like well of that of Durand Lib. 4. Dist. [...]. Qu. 5. §. 7. Aug. in 1 Cor. 5. If any be a brother. out of Austine, We cannot prohibite à Commu­nione, any man, but he that either confesses his sinne, or is convict of it before the secular Judgement, or in the face of the Church. You see what a sufficient hedge the Scripture and Reason hath made about the right of a Commu­nicant.

Sixthly, No private person by any private Au­thority, can dispossess a visible member of his right of Communion; As in the Common­wealth Justice is necessary, but private persons doe not bear the Sword. It's unReasonable that a man laying claime to the Ordinance should at any mans private discretion be denied, What inconveniences and mischiefes would this fill the Church of God with? How full of scandals? This would not heal scandals, but make them. [Page 215] Nor can I warrant or encourage any private or single Minister ordinarily to assume the power of jurisdiction, to cast out of the Church, as it once did Diotrephes, 2 Epist. of John vers. 10. and I say ordinarily, becaUse Saint Paul deliver'd to Satan Hymenaeus and Alexander, 1 Tim. 1. 20. For the Pastour is not Dominus, but Dispensator Sacra­mentorum, (as Alensis saith) not the Head of the Sacraments, but the Steward; And it would goe very ill with the best Communicants many times, if the power lay in that hand. He that preaches against them would make no bones to forbid them the Table, and they that least de­ferved it should feel the severity most; but our Saviour his Rule is, Tell the Church; and that Matth. 18. rebuke which was given to the incestuous Corin­thian, was inflicted by many, 2 Cor. 2. 6. It's true, The Minister may alone performe the exe­cutive part, and pronounce the words, as the Crier doth the Proclamation, and peradventure withdraw his hand from reaching forth the Sa­crament to a scandalous person, but that is no act of Jurisdiction, or casting out the scan­dalous person, as I shall (it may be) shew a­non.

Seventhly, The Church it selfe doth not ordi­narily cast out a meritorious sinner without pre­vious Admonition, and hearty seeking of a lost Sheep; for there are few that would cut off an unsound Leg or Arme, before they had tried all wayes; And our Saviour saith, If he neglect to hear the Church, (Matth. 18. 17.) as implying, [Page 216] That the Church deals with him by Exhortati­ons and entreaties, such as may overcome his ob­stinacy, rather then punish it, and had rather heal him than cut him off. And so in the first gene­rall Position, I fortified the Sacrament against un­due Intrusion: And in this second I have forti­fied the Right of the Communicant against unjust invasion.

And having shewed you the truth of this Point in two generall Positions; The first was, That this Ordinance is barred, and lies not open to all that may intrude. The second was, That the right of a visible Church-member is hedged in, and can­not be hand over head invaded, and taken away from him. Now I shall shortly shew you what Use may be made of all this.

CHAP. XVIII. The Ʋses which are to be made of the two last Theses.

§. 1 THat the truth lies between these two. I say, be­tween a forcible Entry, or violent Intrusion un­to this Ordinance, and an unjust invasion of the Communicants right; For both the Ordinance it self, and right of the Communicant are hedged in; As in all Corporations, whosoever will, may not intrude into the freedom, nor yet the rights belong­ing to that freedom be taken away, but in an orderly way. That which God hath made common, we may not inclose or make several, viz. the Gospel or preaching thereof, and that which God hath made several, we may not make common, that is, this Sa­crament; As he cannot allow this Table to any that are not of the hoUse, so neither can we turn out of the hoUse such as have right to come to this Table: Some are displeased that they should not have the same right to the Word, and to the Table; No, for as thou art a sinfull man, thou hast a right, and duty to hear the Gospel, though an Heathen, but not to this Sacrament, till thou be a Christian, and duly qualified professour of Christ: Are you not pleas'd [Page 218] that God gives you a nearer and more inward admit­tance unto Communion and fellowship with Christ, than to Jews and Infidels, and such as are called Christians, but little better than they? Would you not have him make more of his children, than of common servants? While you would raise up a right unto wicked men to Gods inner Ordinance, you do but depresse and lay low the difference and favour, which he vouchsafes to his Covenant people; A King may send a Proclamation of pardon to rebels, while the Sword is in their hand, but he seals it not to them, or invites them to his Table, till they sub­mit and accept conditions.

§. 2 No private grudge, or distance, or animosity of any man in authority can warrant the dispossession of any just right of a Communicant to this Ordinance. I have told you already, We are not Lords of the Sacrament, but Stewards; the Table is the Lords Table, not ours; No servant can upon any private grudge against his fellow-servant forbid him the hoUse or table provided by the Master; No private Citizen can forbid the priviledge and rights of free­dom to his fellow-citizen; This is but the exercising of private revenge by the way of Gods publick Or­dinance, and to prostitute the same to our envy and malice; The King said to his servants, binde him hand and foot, that hath not the wedding-garment, and take him away, Matth. 27. 13. The King said it, Let all the Lords servants take heed of casting out any, but upon the Lords warrant, and upon his command. I should tremble that my self, or any else should make my Office serve my private spleen, neither can any man lose his right upon my suppositi­on [Page 219] or suspicion of scandalous sin, but clear and convi­ctive evidence.

And what I say of private grudge, I would be understood to say of private differences in opinion, speculative or practick, provided they be such as godly men do ordinarily dissent in; or (as the Apo­stle saith) Such things wherein the Kingdom of God consists not, Rom. 14. 17. For vers. 3. Let not him that eateth despise him that eats not. Let not him that eateth not, judge him that eats, and the Reason is gi­ven, vers. 4. He is another mans servant, to his own Master he stands or fals. Such discord need break no musick, we may as soon make all faces alike; as all judgements, and we should not be so proud as to think all are Blackmores besides us. For God hath received him (saith the Apostle, Rom. 14. 3. therefore let us receive him, and let him receive at the Lords board, and yet I would have no man think, that I dare speak in favour of, or invite heresie to the Lords Table; For as there is a great difference between our daily sinnes, and those we call scandalous, or flagrant, and atroci­ous, so there is also between many errours of judgement, and pernicious heresies; And if we compare such heresies with scandalous sinnes of moral life, you shall finde, that heresie is more in­fectious and pestilential, though the other may be as mortal; So the Plague is more to be avoided than the Dropsie: Heresie overthrows the faith of other men more easily, than drunkennesse doth their morals by the example; By scandalous sinnes we open others mouths to blaspheme, by heresie we our selves blaspheme, 1 Tim. 1. 20. And you finde [Page 220] that it is said of heresies, as it is of Adultery, Murder, They that doe such things shall not inherit the Kingdome of God, Gal. 5. 19. And if there be any thing higher, it's said, They bring upon them­selves swift destruction, 2 Pet. 2. 2. and therefore they are as farre removed from this Table, as any other.

§. 4 And what I have said of private grudge, or private differences in judgement; I say, lastly, of private respects or partiality, which neither shuts nor opens the door well; and if I were to allow or disallow Communicants, I would not admit my near relations, Wife, Children, Servants, Kindred, Friends, but upon the same termes I would admit my enemy, his relations, his Wife, Chil­dren; and if I should disallow any of them upon the same terms, I would forbid mine own, else were I a Jam. 2. 4. respecter of persons, and a judge of evil thoughts; Nor would I stretch out my hand to a Parliament­man, and withdraw it from a Scavenger on the same termes; Nor should a godly man, Flagranti in crimine, under the scandall of drunkennesse, or adultery, finde any more welcome than another man under the same sinne, untill repentance made some difference; For still I goe upon the same Rule or principle; The Table is not ours; We make not the Feast; We are not Lords and Ma­sters of the Ordinance, but Stewards, Servitours, Dispensers, that must act ad voluntatem Domini.

§. 5 The third Use of this Point, may be to satisfie our querulous and complaining dispositions, when we see many who are but Jewes outwardly, and they are no Jews; Many that have a forme, but not the power of godlinesse: Many that walke [Page 221] disorderly, as the Apostle saith, 2 Thess. 3. 11. Ma­ny that desire to make a fair shew, and do [...], set a good face on it, Galat. 6. 12. but are rotten at the core, &c. They complaine, Why are they suffer'd? Why are not they cast out▪ Why do they remain spots in our feasts, as Jude saith, &c? And it cannot be denied, we plead not for hypocrites, we are not Advocates and Pa­trons of foolish Virgins, they come unworthily, though they come, and that is bad enough, but why do they come at all? The Answer is, That violence must not be offer'd to that Rule, Order and way, which God hath set down for the pro­hibiting of any visible member from his right. It's fit that thieves and robbers, and cheaters were either reformed or purged out of the Common­wealth, but yet it must be in the course of Law, or else the remedy would be a mischief; That in the mouth of two or three Witnesses▪ (saith Christ, Matth. 18. 16.) every word may be establisht. It is not a thing to be done at randome, as I have shewed; Every sore leg is not presently to be cut off, there may be as sore a one under a silk stoc­king: The Church sinnes, if she neglect her duty; but I must tell you, That you must do your duty first. Have you (in private offences) gone first to your offensive brother, and told him of his fault in private, and then if he be not gain'd, have you born witnesse against him? And hath he been con­vinced of his sinne by due conviction? Or doth he stand out against conviction and admonition? And is he Obstinate, and doth persist in his sinne? One may murder a Felon, he should haply die, [Page 222] but he dies innocently, if he die by a private hand; A man that deserves to be cast out, may be cast out injuriously, viz. a non judice. I con­fesse the Argument is plausible, That the Church, the livelier and purer it is, the better it is, So the Corn-field is best that hath no weeds; The Corn that's clean drest from chaffe and cockle is the pu­rest, but it's rare to finde such a field, or to finde such a floor in the Garner, so it is, but not in the barn-floor. I like holinesse which is of Gods ma­king, not that which is of mans making. The Novatians, or Cathari, the Donatists also pretend­ed both to a holinesse above all the Churches of God in the world, but there is (as Calvin ob­served, none of them left in the world to be seen, whereas the true Churches of Christ continue, and I hope shall continue, though they be like Israel going forth of Aegypt, that had a mixt multitude among them, as the Scripture speaks.

CHAP. XIX. What must be done where Discipline cannot be executed for want of Administrators.

§. 1 HAving said, That the Lords Supper is a barred Ordinance, and yet that the just rights of the Communicant ought not to be invaded. I shall now proceed before I go further; Two or three Questions of moment and importance; The Answer to which will both clear the former Doctrine more fully, and also anticipate such Objections, as may be raised up against it.

Quest. 1. The first Question is this, What is to be done in such case, wherein the former Doctrine is im­practicable, by Reason that the Church or particular society, whereof thou art a member, be not in capacity to exercise such Discipline, for want of such due Ad­ministratours as may bring to execution the aforesaid order of Debarment from, or Admittance to the Lords Table?

Before I answer this great Question, I must tell you that I have caUse to fear least it be said of me, as Cicero said of Cato, His opinion of, and affection to the Commonwealth is excellent good, but he is offensive, [Page 224] Quia loquitur tanquam in Repub. Platonis, non tan­quam in faece Romuli, becaUse he speaks as if he were in Plato his Commonwealth, not as in the dregs of Romulus: So you may say, that I speak as if I was in the Primitive Church, and not in the dregs of cor­ruption, which profanenesse and superstition have brought in upon us; but notwithstanding the Clock that goes false must be reduced by the Sunne-dial, and not that by the Clock that erres; We may justly complain of, and bewail the evil genius of the times and men, that if they can hear novelties every Lords­day from some ambulatory Preachers, and they also can vapour up and down with two or three Sermons calculated to serve any Meridian, do not either look for, or prize a setled condition of Ministry and Sa­craments in the Church, but rather cry, So would we have it, Let every man do that which is right in his own eyes; and we little think that so many breach­es and distractions are amongst us, becaUse we seek not the Lord after the due order. It was an old com­plaint, that the coming in of the world into the Church was the decay of Christianity, while Em­perours were Heathen, and persecutions of the very name Christian, were frequent, the Discipline was vigorous, when men came in to Christianity with no other resolution, than to suffer for it, and made ac­count to save nothing by it, but their souls, the Dis­cipline was able to keep them in compasse, but when Christian Emperours came in, and set the broad gates open to the world, then they throng'd into Christianity for fashion, interest, preferment, as all do now upon custom, example, education, and hence is the decay and corruption of Discipline, Atheists, [Page 225] Epicures, Libertines, every one under form and co­lour of Religion, providing immunity and impunity for their own lusts, which having said, and thereby pointed with my finger to the sore, which I cannot heal, I shall answer to the Question.

§. 2 1. The strait is great, where there is not a just and orderly power to separate or sever the precious from the vile, to deny their bread to children, or to cast the childrens bread to dogs, and there will be found a great deal of self-denial necessary in this case; The affirmative command of giving the Lords bread to his children; and the negative command of not ca­sting pearls before swine, are both to be Observed, and the only expedient that I know is, that both Mi­nister and people do the duty of their place, without usurpation of further power, than they have by Gods warrant, and then all will be as well, not as it might, but as it can, as it was in Hezekiah his Passeover in the second moneth, 2 Chron. 30. Many in the Congrega­tion were not sanctified, vers. 17. Many came out of the Tribes of Israel, which had not cleansed themselves, they did eat the Passeover otherwise than it was writ­ten, vers. 18. Here you see it was not so well as it ought, but it was as well as it could at that time, and therefore Hezekiah pray'd, The good Lord pardon every one that prepares his heart to seek God, though he be not according to the purification of the Sanctua­ry, and the Lord healed the people, vers. 20. And therefore to speak more particularly to the point; I cannot counsel, but bewail the intermission of the Lords Supper in such Churches where there are a number of worthy Communicants, at least visibly, though there be no power of juridical exclusion of [Page 226] the unworthy. The Helvetian or Switzerland Churches claim to be Churches, and have the notes of Word and Sacraments, though this order of Di­scipline be not setled among them, and I am not he that shall blot out their name: There is an expresse command, Do this, and a very great obligation; There is an excellent benefit of this Ordinance, which if it stirre up the thirst of Gods people to de­sire, or rather claim it at the Ministers hand, I see no ground for the refusal: I know the Sacraments of ordinary Use were intermitted in the wildernesse, wholly or mostly, and they were recompensed with extraordinary, 1 Cor. 10. but that arose on another occasion than this I speak of; for alas, How many Churches in England, or if you will, good Christi­ans in them, shall everlastingly be deprived of this high Ordinance, and the benefit of it, shall lie un­der the temptation of separation, shall lose this mark of a Church, and shall in effect be equally debarred of this Communion with Christ, as wicked men are, and that also not for any default of theirs, but for their unhappiness of being planted in a Vineyard that wants a wall or hedge?

§. 3 2. A particular Church having administration of the Word and Sacraments, is not bound alwayes to want a hedge, pale or door unto the Supper of the Lord, in case the Civil Power is not pleased to inter­meddle or interpose in these affairs, but are (as I con­ceive) bound to Use all warrantable means to pre­serve their society from infection and scandal, and the Ordinance from undue invasion, by giving up them­selves to such inspection, as God hath entrusted it with, and themselves have chosen, and by associa­ting [Page 227] themselves with other Churches of God, that the unity may be preserved of the body of Christ, for the Arch is firm by the mutual support of the stones, and their joyning to the top-stone; For the Church is a body or society with which God hath deposited his Ordinances, and given it power to meet and assemble themselves together for perform­ance of them, and it were a wonder that they should not have a power of exercising them in a right manner.

I do not arrogate unto the Church any the least power of outward force or coercion, for that belongs to him that bears the Sword, who if he do not give effect to the censures of the Church, yet they have their effect by the consent of the Church it self, Ex Disciplina confederata, as they say, which is that by which he that consents to be of that body is subject to the Laws and Rules of it, and is cut off, if he prove a rotten member. To give light to this point, How stood the Discipline of Synagogues, from which I am apt to think our Christian Churches took much of their pattern? They had a power to discommon their own members, and it seems to me that their [...], or agreement among themselves was that which gave effect to their censures, Joh 9. 22. And what is the government of Colledges, Corporations and petty Courts in Countrey-villages, where the by-Laws and amerciaments and penalties are by agreement, north warting the municipal Laws of the Commonwealth: He that will enjoy the priviledges and freedoms of such a body, must be subject to the Rules and Laws of that society; and so the Christi­an Churches under Heathen Emperours could do no [Page 228] more but disfranchize their own members from the priviledges of the Church, of which body they had by their own consent come in to be members, and so submitted themselves to them. The Emperours gave not this power to the Church, but God who gave them his great Charter to be a City and Corpo­ration of his own, did eo ipso, give them this power, without which they might be a Cyclops den, or chaos, but not a regular Society; And upon this ground (as I conceive) the Apostle reproves the Corinthians, 1 Cor. 6. & 1 Cor. 5. for not doing those things to prevent scandal, which they were impowred and en­abled to have done as a Church of Christians: And if any man had been of such stomack or disposition in those times, as not to have cared a straw for those Church-censures, so long as the Civil power toucht him not in purse, body, liberty, it was enough to proclaim him fitter for to be a Heathen than a Chri­stian; For it's admirable to consider, as it is most evi­dent, That a Church censure, a Suspension from the Communion of the Church wrought more sor­row, and trouble, and heart-breaking, than the fire and faggot of the persecution: In conclusion and up­on the whole matter, as he said of the Romans, they must redire ad casas, return to their poor shepherd cottages again: So I say, that in case of this necessi­ty, when the Civil power contributes not assistance or furtherance to the Church, she must consider the case of the primitive Churches, and what intrinse­cally belongs to her to do, as a corporation or body of Gods making, with no other power of self preser­vation from scandals of members, but purging them out, nor from injuries of forreiners, but suffering.

§. 4 [Page 229]3. Every particular member of the Church ought to withdraw or refrain from such conversation with a scandalous brother, as may either give occasion of scandal to others, or infection to himself. The Apostle allows civil commerce or entercourse with Heathens and Infidels, if we live among them, and the bonds of natural and civil relations or duties must not be violated on pretence of Christianity, but an arbitrary, familiar and intimate society or fellowship with them that live or act scandalously, doth but soil our selves, harden them, offend sober Christians. It's a caution much inculcate in Scripture, Withdraw from every brother that walks disorderly, 2 Thess. 3. 6. Have no company with them, that they may be asha­med, vers. 14. Turn away from such wicked formalists as have no power of godlinesse, and under the form of it are so wicked, 2 Tim. 3. 5. With a brother that's scandalous, no not to eat, 1 Cor. 5. 9, 12, Them that caUse divisions and scandals mark, and avoid them, Rom. 16. 17. These, and the like expressions some Learned men draw into consequence, to prove that which we know rather the name of, than the nature of the thing, Excommunication: Others understood Grot. do Imp. p. 231. by them Nullum actum privato majorem, no act great­er than private avoidance of company, which is that I now speak of; For in the primitive times, when the Heathens Observed of Christians, how they lo­ved each other, and when the Christians, had in Use certain remarkable testifications of this love, by their feasts of love, and holy kisse, &c. It was a mark or note of reproof and shame to be shunned and avoid­ed by the brethren, for scandalous sinne, and it was medicinal to him that was so avoided, and in that re­gard [Page 230] a duty in conscience and charity to be perform­ed; and I would that all distances created amongst brethren by passion and envy were reduced to this, then we should finde, that though we had not power to separate an offendor from the Church, yet the separating of our selves from him, would work much good, and be in some measure an Excommunicati­on; For it is certain, that a great part of the effect thereof lies in the non Communion or withdraw­ment of the people from him that's scandalous; and as certain, that if we flatter and encourage the sinnes of men by our samiliarity and fellowship, Excom­munication it self would be but a lost Ordinance, and of no effect; For it is my opinion, That if Excom­munication, greater and lesser, as they are called was in full proportion reduced into practice, yet except the people that are members of the Church did make conscience of imparting their fellowship to such as were cut off, it would be little better then a wooden dagger, and rather serve to create passion and fury than humility and shame in them.

§ 5 4. The Ministers duty is by Doctrine to declare the sinne and danger of undue intrusion to the Table of the Lord, which is a ministerial pro­hibition of the unworthy, a comminatory seclusion, though not juridical, a power of the Keyes; And this is openly denied by none who speak out of con­science, and not unReasonable lusts; The Apostle in this Chapter takes this course in terrible expressions, pronouncing and denouncing judgement to the un­worthy, other holy and famous Worthies of the Church in their generations, do rather thunder than speak, Better that a milstone was hang'd about his [Page 231] neck, and he cast into the sea, than that a man with an impure conscience take and eat this morsel, saith Cyprian, or the Authour De Caena, and so Chryso­stome pours out himself in his Homilies and Sermons on this point with great sharpnesse, and accounts this which is done with the voice a seclusion or keeping of men back (Hom. 13. ad Hebraeos) and so it is and Pag. 467. Homil. 83. in Mat. Hom. 86. ad pop. Antioch. Tract. 62. in Jo. Amb. ad Heb. 10. may justly be called, for it is a ministerial prohibition of the unworthy; Chrysostom compares this sinne with theirs that slew Christ; Austin, sinne of Judas; Ambrose, with the sinne of the Jews; Basil makes the Question, Lib. 2. de Bapt. cap. 3. Whether it be [...] without danger to come not purged from filthinesse of flesh and spirit; and answers it by the unclean persons coming to holy things, making that uncleannesse [...], typically to denote moral un­cleannesse, which I rather note for his sake that slights this Argument. And therefore let all Mini­sters be stirred up to Use this prohibition the more, and the rather when other is wanting, in discharge of his duty to God and mens souls, which though it be not better liked than the practical seclusion, yet men are more patient under it, I hope out of conviction of conscience, and not becaUse they may, notwith­standing this, lie still in the croud without that par­ticular mark, which the actual seclusion sets upon them.

§ 6 5. The Minister that dispenses the Sacrament by giving it into the hand of the Communicant, may in this case with more Reason suspend his own act, and withdraw his hand from one that he sees and knows to be a scandalous person, as he might do in cafe a Hookers Pref▪ Turk, Jew or excommunicate person should intrude [Page 232] unto the Table of the Lord, in which case, viz. of Excommunication. Calvin saith, He would die rather than reach forth his hand to give the Sacra­ment to such an one. It's true, you will reply, This may be done in the case of such as are debarred by the Church, but not in the case of a scandalous sin­ner, not yet so judged? For answer to which Obje­ction, I say, That indeed there are men of great re­nown for learning and holinesse, that hold, If a M. Ball. Trial, p. 205. Minister know a man unworthy he must yet receive him, becaUse he cannot manifest it to the Church. If a mans unworthinesse be notorious. and yet not so judg­ed by them that have authority, he must administer the Sacramental Signs to him, not as one worthy or unworthy, but as one as yet undivided from them. And the truth is, the Minister alone, singly as a Mi­nister, hath not by warrant of the Word, the power of Excommunication or Suspension in his hand, as Grotius de im­perio, p. 230. is generally holden; nor will I dispute; but this with holding of his hand from actual giving of the outward Signs, is no act of censure, no Suspension of the person, no casting of him out, but as those that allow it say, An Act of liberty, as a Physicians not giving drink to an hydropick person, or the with­holding his own Sword from a furious man, for the time of his rage, and (as saith the Authors last ci­ted) a Minister may do this by the same right where­by he doth by Doctrine declare such a mans incapacity, or whereby a private Christian withdraws his fellow­ship or society; Nor otherwise can Chrysostom charge to Ministers to hinder the unworthy, which he pres­ses in his 83. Homil. on Matthew, on pain of being guilty of their bloud, be understood; for it must be [Page 233] meant of such scandalous sinners known to them, but not so judged by the Church, they being kept from accesse, or sight of the holy mysteries in his time by the censure of the Church; and I as little doubt of the judgement of many learned men, or of the inten­tion of the Church of England in the Rule given to the Minister before the Communion in the case of some emergent scandal at the present time; nor do I conceive that any learned man would deny this liberty to a Minister, to withhold his hand from some man­killer, drunkard, perjured, &c. that hath been con­victed before the Civil Authority, though no censure of the Church be against or upon him: Nor is that charge given to Timothy very far from proving it, Lay hands suddenly on no man, Be not partakers of other mens sins, 1 Tim. 5. 22. If the Rule of Analogy or proportion may be here allowed, and I believe, that had not the profit of the Courts more swaid then point of conscience, this Suspension of act had not been a crime; For the Schoolmen generally allow the Dhrand. part. 4. Dist. 9 Quaest. 5. aliique. Minister to deny the Sacrament to any that is in mor­tal sin, if it be but notorious by evidence of fact. And so much for this point, which I have spoken the more unto, becaUse it is a Question that may often come to hand, even in our times, and the places in which we live, and only with this intention, that I would have the Sacraments on their wheels, and yet so that their male administration bring not epidemick judgements upon us, as the receiving unworthily did on the Church of Corinth.

CHAP. XX. Whether a Godly man lawfully may, or ought to stand as a Member of, and hold Communion in the Ordinances of God with such a Congregation as is mixt (as they call it) that is, where men visibly Scandalous in Life and Conversa­tion are mingled with the Good in the Participation and Ʋse of Di­vine Ordinances? Or, VVhether this Mixture of Heterogeneals do not pollute the Ordinances, and the Communion to the Godly, so as they are concerned to Separate from such Communion▪.

§. 1 BEfore I make particular Answer to this Question, I must tell you, That all serious and weighty Christians have caUse to lament the levity and incon­stancy [Page 235] of people of our times, and the spirit of Se­paration which so easily puts them upon wing to pra­ctice and plead for separation, as they did for Divorce upon every caUse, Matth. 19. 3. There are many make but a humour of it, being ignorant of the greatnesse of the sinne of renting asunder the Unity and Union of the body of Christ, which Chrysostom aggravates Homil. 11. in Ephes. and recites a saying of a holy man before his time, (he means Cyprian) [...], which might seem a very bold speech, and that is, That the bloud of Martyrdom cannot wash off this stain, which many account an ornament, not a sinne. Among other principles of Separation, this which I have now to speak unto, that we must excommunicate our selves from Gods Ordinances (if men of wicked life be not excommunicate) for fear of pollution by them, is Donatistical, and urged by Parmenian the Vide cap. 21. Epist. ad Par­menianum & alibi. Donatist, and answer'd by Austin many hundred years ago, and now retrimed and revived, being cal­led a new truth, as we commonly call a new fashion, that which lately come up, though about fourty year ago, or in our memory, it was a fashion laid aside and rejected. And the truth is, That the Reason of this Separation seems plausible to easie capacities, such as the Apostle cals Rom. 16. 17. [...], the simple, becaUse it pretends to set up holinesse, both of Ordi­nances and people, but if it be weighed by the stand­ard of Scripture, will be found too light, and the two sorts of complainers directly opposite to one another, will be found erroneous, both them that complain of any hedge at all about the Sacrament, and they that complain and therefore separate, becaUse the hedge is not so sufficient as may keep off every undue intruder.

Let us then by Scripture Rule lay down the An­swer to this Question, and that orderly, and in certain Theses.

§. 2 First, I shall grant, That the very notion and na­ture of the Church denotes a separation; God sepa­rates his Church from Infidels, and them that are ex­traneous and strangers to the Covenant; He separates them to be his inheritance, his peculiar tReasure above Levit. 20 24. 1 King. 8. 53. other people, and they also do and ought to separate themselves from communion with Devils in idola­trous service and worship, Nehem. 9. 2. Come out from among them, and be ye separate, 2 Cor. 6. 17. This is not necessary to be a locall Separation for present. There was a mixt multitude of uncircumcised peo­ple, No just Proselytes (as Mr Selden saith) with Is­raels De Synedriis cap. 2. in the wildernesse after their separation from Ae­gypt, but this separation is moral or foederal, God cals them, propounds the terms of his Covenant, they pro­fessedly submit and accept, Exod. 19. 5, 8. and now they are separate, set apart, sanctified by dedica­tion unto God and his service, and are called no more Heathens, Infidels, but Saints, Gods people, belie­vers, Christians, or the like.

§. 3 Secondly, All that are thus separated by their pro­fessed submission unto, and acceptance of the Co­venant are not true members of Christ, or of his bo­dy. All the people, when God did but generally propound a Covenant to them, professed with open voice their yeeldance, and the Lord acquiesced in it, Exod. 19. 5, 8, 9. and the same people when they heard the particular Laws of that Covenant, profest again they would do them, Exod. 24. 3. and so it became, as we say, Done and done on both sides, and yet he [Page 237] that should affirm all these, though newly baptized to be truly regenerate, were very wide of the truth; for there are many reputative members that are in the visible Society and fellowship of the Church and it's Ordinances, that are but Jews outwardly, and they are, saith the Apostle, no Jews, and yet they are cir­cumcised and eat the Passeover, and communicate in Ordinances, and (if we will not be captious in words) are true members of the visible Society, yet no mem­bers of Christs mystical Body, nor yet can they be dis­possest by us of their right unto Ordinances; for we have no judgement of their spiritual and inward Estates, nor any Command, nor any Rule to dispossesse them, nor any example of God himself, who lets the corn and chaff lie together in area, and separates them locally in horreo, as Austin speaks; and this body howsoever consisting of members he­terogeneall, yet being taken together in grosse or in the lump, hath very sublime and honourable compella­tion, both in the Old Testament, A holy Nation, a Exod. 19. 5, 6, &c. Kingdom of Priests, Gods special tReasure; and in the New, The Kingdom of God, the Kingdom of Hea­ven, Mat. 25. 1. for so the Gospel net, that contains both good and bad, is called; and so the whole knot of wise and foolish Virgins, and yet it's plain, that in this Kingdom there are children that are to be cast out, and scandalous persons for Doctrine, and them that work iniquity for Practice that are to be gathered out at last, Mat. 13. 41.

§. 4 Thirdly, Whereupon we grant, That it's rare and hard to finde a visible Church in any Age or time that was without corruption or mixture of good and bad in it; They that talk of purity of Churches, may [Page 238] more easily finde in the world a body that hath never a frecken or spot, than a Church without corruption, and yet both a body and a Church be beautifull for all that. The Scripture gives us a perfect delineation of the Church, as it ought to be in Rules of faith and holinesse, but yet shews us plainly, that it being Gods pleasure, that the Net should gather both good and bad, and the servants inviting to the marriage did bring in both good and bad; it must needs be conse­quent, that many of those that are called are not cho­sen, That all that are of Israel, are not Israel. Had not this mixture served more to Gods glory, even the glory of his inwardly discriminating grace, it is like­ly it had not been: So that as they say of the He­brew, Greek, Latine, these Languages may be pure in books, but hardly to be found purely spoken by any Nation now in the world, so are the rules of faith and life pure and perfect in the Word, and yet not so perfectly Observed by the visible Church. And if a man suppose that a number or Colony of really holy per­sons might be pickt out of the Churches, and em­body themselves into a Church, Are they sure this would be answerable to their fancy? Did not the Donatists dream so of themselves? And what may one think of their children in time? Doth not the purest seed we sow come up with straw and chaff? If they hold Communion with the visible Church, Is it not all one? If they do not, Is it not worse and more clearly without warrant?

§. 5 The Church may be corrupted many wayes in Doctrine, Ordinances, Worship, and this I account the worst, becaUse it is the corruption of the best, as the corruption of bloud that runnes thorow all the [Page 239] body, the poisoning of Springs and Rivers that run thorow a Nation, is worse than a sore finger in the body, or a ground of thistles in the Nation, and there are degrees of this corruption, the Doctrine in some remote points, hay and stubble upon the foundation, the Worship in some rituals or rites of mens inventi­on or custom. How many Scripture Churches do ye finde thus corrupted, and yet no Separation of Christ from the Jewish Church, nor any command­ed to the godly of Corinth, in the Provinces of Gala­tia, or those of Asia in the Revelation? I must in such case avoid the corruption, hold the Communi­on, Hear them in Moses chair, and yet beware of their leaven; but if corruptions invade the fundamen­tals, the foundation of Doctrine is destroyed, the worship is become idolatrous, the leprosie is gotten into the wals and substance of the hoUse, and which is above all, If the Church impose such Laws of their Communion, as there is necessity of doing or approving things unlawfull, or I am ruin'd and un­done, then must I either break with God or men, and in that case, Come out of Babylon: The Church­es of Protestants so separated from them of Rome; it was a necessary and just Separation, the Lawes of their Communion were ruinous to the soul, if we hold it; to the body and life, if we held it not.

§ 6 In summe then, and in conclusion of this part about Doctrine or Worship, which is but upon the bie to the Question. If a corrupt Church, as Israel was, have their Ordinances according to the patern in the Mount; If it may be said, as Peter to Christ, John 6. 68. when some Disciples separated them­selves, Thou hast the words of eternal life; If as [Page 240] Christ said in matter of Worship, John 4. Salvation is of the Jews, than, as he said, Whether shall we go? Why do we separate? And yet I would not be mistaken by the simplest man, as if I accounted it separation, if a Christian hear a Sermon, or receive the Sacrament in another Congregation; For he that takes a meal at another Table doth not thereby sepa­rate from his own hoUse; or if a Christian at liberty to dispose his dwelling, shall remove and sit down under more fruitfull Ordinances; I account not this secession a Separation, no more than if being sickly, and having not health in the City, he remove his seat into the Countrey for purer air, becaUse in so doing he removes from the City, but renounces not his freedom therein, nor disclaims in like proportion the Communion of the Church.

§. 7. Of Separation.

§. 7 But now to the point of Separation, becaUse there is found, not kept in the Communion of the Church, but not cast out of it, some scandalous for life and conversation, visibly unworthy of the Ordinance of the Supper; For let it be granted, that in Adams fa­mily there be a Cain, in Noahs a Cham, in Christs a Judas; and if Cain go forth, yet Adam doth not, Noah doth not, Christ doth not; Let them be sepa­rated, let not me separate my self; Let the wicked be discommon'd, not the godly, for the godly are in the right, and may stand in it as a man at his own ta­ble in his own hoUse, or in his own ground; If others that ought not do intrude, it's they that must be ex­cluded, for they are trespassers, not he that's owner [Page 241] and in his right. It's very true, say you, but they are not cast out. I answer, There may be sufficient: caUse to cast out Obstinate sinners, and yet not suffici­ent caUse for me to leave the Church. I finde that God accepts of such that sigh and cry for all the abominations that are done in Jerusalem, Ezek. 9. 4. That God commands us, To have no fellowship with the unfruitfull works of darkness, but reprove them ra­ther, Ephes. 5. 11. That he wils us, To withdraw from them that walk disorderly, and commends it, 2 Thess. 3. 6. That he bids his people, Plead with their mo­ther plead, Hos. 2. 2. These are duties for private Christians to performe in this case; but I finde not that they must separate from Communion in Ordinances upon that caUse. For I pray you consider,

1. Haply there is no Rule in the Word, or no proof by sufficient evidence of the fact, or no competent Authority by which such a sinner, as thou instancest in, may be cast out, And shall this be done disorderly? Shall one disorder be rectified by another?

2. Thou for thy part hast no power to cast him out, and every member must not usurp and snatch the power of Excommunication to himself, for then as he usurps the Sacrament, so thou usurpest the Keys, he unworthily, thou unlawfully.

3. It may be the sinne of the Church that such are not cast out, but is that sinne a just caUse of thy Se­paration? I have a few things against thee, thou hast them that hold the Doctrine of Balaam, thou hast them that hold the Doctrine of the Nicolaitans, saith Christ to the Church of Pergamus, Revel. 2. 14, 15. [Page 242] Thou sufferest that woman Jezabel to seduce my servants, and commit fornication, saith he to the Church in Thy­atyra, vers. 20. but upon the rest that are free, I put no other burden, Hold fast till I come, But where is any separation commanded in this case? Not any: And for the Church of Laodicea, whose temper was so loathsom, as her self is threatned to be spued out; from which (saith Mr Brightman) who would not think of flying very quickly, meaning by his parallel the Church of England; yet becaUse Revel. 3. 30. The Lord stands at the door and knocks, is present with, and by his Ordinances to all in this Church, there­fore doth that holy man mightily inveigh against their wicked and blasphemous errour (so he cals it) that fell away from this Church; Will they be ashamed (saith he) to sit down there where they see Christ not to be ashamed? Are they holier and purer then he? Can they deny themselves to be believers in Christ before their separation from us? Came it not by our preaching, &c? Adi locum.

And indeed the Argument is considerable, If God afford his Communion with a Church by his own Ordinances, and his Grace and Spirit; It would be unnaturall and peevish in a childe to forsake his Mother, while his Father ownes her for his Wife.

Fourthly, The presence of wicked men at Gods Ordinances pollutes not them that are neither acces­sary to their sinne, nor indeed to their presence there. If the Ordinances be polluted by the unclean, to themselves it is polluted, not to me, He shall bear his own burden; He eats and drinkes damnation to himself, 1 Cor. 11. 29. I come to the Sacrament, [Page 243] it is my duty and my right, Shall I sinne in separating from Ordinances, becaUse he sinnes in coming to them, and the Church sinnes in not excluding him? The wickednesse of Eli his sonnes made men abhor the offering of the Lord, 1 Sam. 2. 17. but they transgrest in so doing, shall I go forth from the mar­riage-feast having a wedding-garment, becaUse one comes in thither without it? Must not I offer my gift at the Altar, becaUse another comes thither that should first go and be reconciled to his brother? Shall I leap out of Noah's Ark, becaUse a Cham is in it? Shall I separate from Gods children in Communion of Gods Ordinances, when it is not arbitrary, and at my liberty to do so, becaUse I see a sinfull in­truder, and do my private duty by mourning, that such a one may be taken away from among us, 1 Cor. 5. 2. and yet perform my publique duty al­so. And therefore to avow Separation upon this ground, is,

§. 8 1. To maintain a principle destructive to the com­munion of the Church visible, which is a body moul­ded up of Jews outwardly, and Jews inwardly (as I may say) and if one part destroy or pollute the com­munion of the other part, is not all ruin'd? Let a man but conceive in his minde, How this principle pursued would in the time of the Jewish Church have rouled and rooted out all visible Communion in Or­dinances out of the world? And if one incestuous person not cast out at Corinth, had polluted the com­munion of the whole Church, and some one like sin­ner in another had done the like, had not all been pol­luted, and a ground of separation laid through all points of the Compasse, till we had separa­ted [Page 244] through the whole circle.

2. An adventurous and bold assertion, that carries farther than we are aware; for why then did not Ju­das being to Christ a known wicked man, pollute the Communion to our Saviour at the Passeover and Supper? And why did not the wicked Jews pollute Christs Communion in the Ordinances of God in that Church? And how could all the holy servants of God and Prophets in the Old, or the Apostles and Christians in the New escape this pollution, it being well known that there were hypocrites, and such as being vitious under forme of godlinesse, as 2 Tim. 3. 1, 2. which remain'd in Church-commu­nion▪

3. A great mistake, for it grows hence, that as Parmenian said, Si corruptis sociaris, &c. If you be Lib. 3. c. 21. joyn'd or associate with corrupt men, how can ye be clean? And Austin answers, True: If we be joyn'd in so­ciety with them, that is, commit sin with them, or con­sent, or favour them in sin; but if a man do not this, Nullo modo sociatur, he is no way joyned with them, for it's not the local contact or conjunction, but the moral conjunction that defiles, and we are as moral­ly separate and sever'd from them when they are at the Lords Table, as if they were in place distant. It's they that joyn with us in our profession, not we with them in their sins; if their profession be hypocritical, that infects not us, for spiritually infected we are not by contagion but consent; nor do we professe our selves to be of one body with them, any otherwise 1. Cor. 10. 17. than all that communicate with hypocrites do, viz. upon supposition, that they are as they professe mem­bers of the body, which if they be not our professi­on [Page 245] is not false, but theirs is, and yet I confesse, that those are best Churches, where the presumpti­on of godlinesse in the members, is most Reason­able.

§. 9 In summe and for conclusion, we defend the com­munion of the visible Church in Gods Ordinances, but we defend not the sinne of them that professe to know God, but in works deny him. It was a sad complaint of Salvian long ago, Praeter paucissimes, De Guderu. l. 3. &c. Besides some few that serve the Lord in Spirit, quid est omnis caetus Christianorum, Free our Com­munion from this exception by amendment of their lives, and that the godly would, as the School saith, Abuti alieno peccato, make good Use of other mens sins and their own; for even they are mixt persons (as I may say) having flesh and Spirit, as well as our Churches are mixt of good and bad, and that they would stirre up their graces to be the better for other mens sinnes, and perform the duties required of them at such a time, and not give way to thoughts of Se­paration, which puls a good stake out of a rotten hedge, where it did more good by standing, than by removal, For unto the pure all things are pure, but to them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure, Tit. 1. 15. whereby it is plain, that what is impure to them that are defiled, is not made impure to them that are pure, and so I conclude with this recapitulation.

The Separation of the Church from wicked men and infidels, by Gods calling and Covenant with it, is as necessary as the profession of faith and holinesse. The Church her Separation, or casting out of Obsti­nately wicked men from her communion, is defend­ed for the recovery of lapsed members, and the avoid­ance [Page 246] of infection of, and scandal to her self. The se­cession of those good people from the Idolatry erect­ed by Jeroboam to worship at Jerusalem is allowed, 2 Chron. 11. 16. The negative Separation, or the not communicating in the worship of Baal, not so much as by knees or lips of those seven thousand in Israel, is liked of by the Lord, 1 King. 19. 18. The avoidance of private familiarity with scandalous sinners, is often commanded, ut supra. The flying of Gods people out of Babylon, where Idolatry is maintain'd by force and tyranny, is called for and required. The Separa­tion of heretical and vitious members from the Church is branded with a black coal, Jude v. 19. These be they that separate themselves, sensual, having not the Spirit, which above all men they pretend unto. But the Separation of the godly from Gods Ordinances, becaUse of the corrupt lives of some in the Church, is no where by any syllable of Scripture allow'd or coun­tenanc'd, being contrary to the example, and not warranted by command of Christ or his Apostles, and it's a vain pretending to a holinesse above their Rule or their example; All that I would is an order in the Church, I should rejoyce to behold, as saith he, your order, and the stedfastness of your faith, Col. 2. 5. which too many too much slight and undervalue; for as one said, Order in an Army kils no body, yet with­out it the Army is but a rout, neither able to offend or defend; so haply order in the Church converts no body, yet without it I see not how the Church should attain her end, or preserve themselves, in begetting or breeding up souls to God.

CHAP. XXI. Whether the Lords Supper be a con­verting Ordinance?

Quest. 3 §. 1 THe third Question is, Whether the Sacrament of the Lords Supper be a converting Ordinance? There is a conversion of a regenerate man, from some Luk. 22. 32. fall or sinne, as in that saying, When thou art convert­ed strengthen thy brethren, and so a man that's god­ly may be often converted, that is, raised up from la­pses and backslidings. Of this the Question is not; for this is but as the blowing in of the candle, when the flame is gone out, by exciting or wakening the fire that yet glows in the weeck of the candle, which may be done by this Sacrament; But the Question is, Whether God doth offer or exhibit the first grace, for conversion of an unbeliever or unregenerate man; for as Davenant rightly saith, The first faith must be given to an unbeliever, as the first light is that which comes into meer darkness.

This Question is but an upstart among us, which hath risen on occasion of seclusion of some from this Sacrament, and indeed quite overthrows it, if the Sacrament be a converting Ordinance; for upon this ground we may invite the most wicked to the [Page 248] Table, as well as to the Word, namely for conversi­on; and it were a great sin to prohibit any from the appointed means of their conversion.

§. 2 For answer to the Question, I premise,

That, it is the Doctrine of Whitaker, that as the Word is the mean and instrument of grace, so is the Sacrament, in general, the one is applied to the ear, the other to the eye; This is the differ­ence, The Word begins and works grace in the heart (For faith comes by hearing) but the Sacrament is objected to the eye, and doth not begin the work of grace, but nourishes and incReases it, for faith is not begotten by the Sacraments, but only augment­ed. Thus he. The Doctrine of physical operation is exploded by all the orthodox, Sacraments do not work grace, as a plaister cures a sore, that's a blinde conceit of ignorant souls, but God by them, or in their Use imparts grace, as he did healing by the bra­zen Serpent. Now God by Baptism solemnly repre­sents and seals to his people their planting into Christ, We are planted by Baptisme into the likenesse of his death, Rom. 6. 3, 4, 5. And by one Spirit we are all baptized into one body, 1 Cor. 12. 13. and therefore Baptism is called, the Sacrament of our implanting, ingraffing, incorporating into Christ, and so is a Sacrament of initiation, Ye are all children of God by faith in Christ; For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ, Gal. 3. 2 [...]. God was pleased to have his Covenant sealed by Ba­ptism, as to the first grace of that Covenant, as by Circumcision also under the Law, and so we are so­lemnly listed and admitted to be his, and called by his name; But then as to the grace of education of [Page 249] his children up unto maturity and ripenesse by con­firming them, and strengthning and causing them to grow, &c. He hath ordained another Sacrament, which is called the second, becaUse it presupposes the first, as Passeover did Circumcision, and that is the Lords Supper, of which learned Hooker saith, The grace Eccles. pol. l. 5. pag. 536. which we have by it doth not begin, but continue grace or life, no man therefore receives this Sacrament be­fore Baptism, becaUse no dead thing is capable of nou­rishment; That which groweth must of necessity first live: And to this purpose all our learned Divines have given their suffrage; And the Papists, though Concil. Trid. Sess. 13. c. 2. & 7. Can. 5. & 11. Bellarm. de Euch. c. 17. l. 4. Catech-sub fin. Confes. cap. de Sac. c. 29. they differ from us in denying remission of sinnes in this Sacrament, in favour to their Sacrament of pen­nance, yet they hold it to be an Ordinance of nutri­tion, and so do all their Schoolmen; and so doth the Church of England, The strengthning and refreshing of our souls, &c. I need not number Authours or Churches. It is so plain a case, that I wonder they that have stood up in defence of it as a converting Ordinance, have not taken notice of it; There is an Army to a man against them, and the ancient Chri­stian Churches are so clear in it, that they admitted no convert from the Heathen to either Baptism or Supper, till they had testified their faith and repent­ance, nor were they called fideles, till they were ba­ptized and admitted to the Supper, whatsoever knowledge, faith or repentance so ever they showed before.

Let me first clear the state of the Question, and then give you the Reasons.

For the first.

First, I do not deny that a man having some know­ledge [Page 250] of the Gospel, and visibly professing it (for I do not think that any doth imagine that the very pop­ping of the elements into a meer Heathens mouth may convert him) may be truly and really converted at the Sacrament, for who shall lock up the hands of the Spirit, so as the Laver of Regeneration, and the renewing of the holy Ghost? Tit. 3. 5. The work of the Lord, and a mans eating and drinking may not be together; Or do we think that this time and conver­sion are incompossible? No, I think not so: Nor do I Question or doubt that the Word of God adjoyned to the Sacrament, it being accompanied with the Gospel-promises, and the lively painting forth of Christ may not work coversion, for why the word out of a Pulpit, and the word at a Table, or in any other place, should not have this same effect, I see not; You will say, This is the cloathed Use of the Sa­crament, the administration being accompanied with the Word, and so still it is the Word that converts. But what will you say to the naked Use and applicati­on of the signes, that is, the act of distribution, Ta­king, Eating, Drinking, Do these convert or confer the first grace? I answer, I am not curious in deli­vering the very nick of time of mans conversion, I affirm not, that so it is, nor deny that so it may be, The winde blows when and where it listeth. This yet is not the Question; "But whether there be found any declared intention, any institution and appointment of God, that this Ordinance shall convert souls, or hath made it apt for that purpose, so as we may look for such efficacy from it by vertue of Gods instituti­on thereof to this end? For it is a meerly positive Ordinance, and the effect or efficiency must be expe­cted [Page 251] in vertue of the appointment and institution, and I cannot assent, that the institution of the Supper pro­miseth this effect.

Greg. de Valentia, and others of the Schoolmen, De efficacia Euch punct. distinguish between the primary, and per se effects of the Lords Supper, and these that are per accidens, not of institution, among which he instances the conferring of the first grace, and so Vasquez saith, that he doth not hold, That this Sacrament conveys Vasquez. Tom. 3. Disp. 205. the first grace by vertue of institution or appointment to that end, and yet cites Bonaventure, that the first grace may be given here secundum misericordiam of Gods meer mercy, not secundum institutionem ac­cording to the institution of the Ordinance; And this I say in answer to the Question. But doth it fol­low hence, that therefore all may come, be invited, or admitted, becaUse we say that which God can do, not what he hath promised or declared that he will? Prater intentional or accidental effects give no ground to seek them at such a caUse as is not ordained to work them, though haply some have been con­verted at that time. Must a man that seeks a King­dom be sent to seek his fathers Asses, becaUse Saul heard such news at such a time? Must we run a man thorow with a sword to save his life, becaUse one did so once, and let out a secret impostume? BecaUse some Minister hath been converted at his Ordina­tion, Is therefore the laying on of hands instituted for that purpose? BecaUse a man hath been converted at his marriage, where the Sermon and benediction have wrought on him: Is therefore marriage a conver­ting Ordinance? I might adde a great deal more for illustration of this point, if I Questioned your appre­hension.

Secondly, There is difference to be made between the qualifications of a man to his admittance to this Sacrament, and the qualifications of him unto the inward grace, benefit, or effect of it: If one be a baptized person, a knowing professour of the Go­spel, against whom there lies no barre of notorious ignorance or scandal, though it appear not that he is truly regenerate and sincere in grace, yet he hath ad­mittance, he claims upon such a right, as the Church cannot justly disallow, no more than an Israelite circumcised and clean could be debarred the Passeo­ver; but as to the effect and benefit of the Supper to his soul, there is required more than so, even true faith in Christ, and regeneration, that he may exer­cise such graces as the benefits are promised unto, and come to the Seals of the Covenant with the conditi­on of the Covenant; The wise Virgins cannot for­bid the foolish from waiting with them, for they have lamps as well as they, but the Lord shuts the door against them from entring in with him, for their oyl was out. Glory not in this, that the Church ad­mits you to the Table, but labour for the grace to feed upon the dainties set upon it, many have the liberty to Use it, that have not the benefit or ef­fect of that Use; many have a hundred times tasted bread and wine, that never once tasted the body and bloud of Christ.

§.4. Reasons proving the Lords Supper not to be an Ordinance appointed for conversion.

§. 4 The Reasons proving the Lords Supper not to be an Ordinance appointed for conversion.

Reaſ. 1. [Page 253] Tom. 3. Disp. 205. c. 4. The first is that of Vasquez, No effects can be ascri­bed to this Sacrament, which fall not under the signi­fication of it; they cannot, doe not exhibit any grace, but what they signifie or figure out; the sign and the thing signified are not such strangers, as that one thing be signified, and another wrought; The Rock that followed them doth not set forth Christ for meat, nor doth the Manna set forth Christ for spiritual drink, What can be expected in Circumcision, but the cutting off native corruption or concupiscence? What in Ba­ptism of water, but the washing away the sordes or fil­thinesse of our nativity, or fleshly birth? Now the: conversion of a sinner is not signified in this Sacra­ment, or sealed, there is no outward element that sets it forth to us, and why so? BecaUse it is instituted: in bread and wine, eating and drinking, and is it not evident that all this speaks growth, nourishment, comfort, strength, but it speaks not the giving of life? Doth bread and wine give life to one that is dead? Can they congruously signifie the first grace of spiritual life? It's against sense and Reason: but life is preserved and cherisht, and continued by them, and therefore this Sacrament is set forth (saith Du­rand) Durand. lib 4. Dist. 7. qu. 1. under the form of nourishment; If you say, But here is Christ set forth, who is our life as well as our meat, he gives, and he maintains it in us, True, but he is set forth in this Sacrament as the one of these, he doth both, he begins life in us, but in this Ordinance, which is a Supper, his body and bloud are set upon the Table for refection and nourishment of men that take, and eat, and drink, and they are living men: Meat is not set before dead folks, My flesh is meat indeed, my bloud is drink indeed, saith Joh. 6. [Page 254] he, and so is Christ here set forth. As the Use of corporall food is not congruous, but to one that lives corporally: So, &c. Durand. ubi supra.

Reaſ. 2 The second Reason is taken from the institution, and the Schoolmen generally argue thence; for the end, Use, benefit, effect of a Sacrament are undoubt­edly learned by the institution, and the Reason stands thus, This Sacrament by the institution of it appears to presuppose those that reap the sweet and benefit of it to be converts, and in grace, namely to have faith in Christ, and to be living members, and if this be pre­supposed by this Ordinance, then it is not first wrought by it. They must be in Christ, that have benefit by it, for them it is instituted and ordained, not for such as are out of Christ to bring them in, but for such as are in Christ to bring them up in him; To my appre­hension that is clear, 1 Cor. 12. 13. We are by one Spirit baptized into one body, and then, we are all made to drink into one Spirit, and that's it which ye often reade in Divines, That the Baptism of Regene­ration is presupposed to the Supper of Communion, they are children whose bread this is, living mem­bers, and not wooden legs that are capable of this benefit; Unto admittance to the outward Ordinance, Regeneration is not necessary, but unto the inward benefit and effect it is pre-required in some measure, and presupposed. The fatted calf is for the returning Prodigal; They are the friends of God that seed at this Table, Communis mensa symbolum amicitiae, saith Estius, who also Observes that ad cibi sumptionem vi­ta Estius in 4. sen. cap. 12. requiritur in sumente, Life is presupposed to be in him that takes, and eats, and drinks, spiritual life in [Page 255] him that doth it spiritually. It is a communion of Christs body, and that presupposes union; The grass communicates not with the stock, untill it be knit, Why shall we think it strange that God should pro­vide some Ordinances for those that are in grace al­ready, wherein he and his may have communion and fellowship, and his very provission shows for whom he provides? It's absurd to give meat and drink to dead folks, for they are no more nourisht by it (saith Bellarmine) than stones; Christ promiseth Bell. de Euch. cap. 18. lib. 4. to sup with him, and he with me, When? When the door is open'd, the voice heard, and Christ let in first, Revel. 3. 20. And so ye see the grace of Conversion is presupposed to the benefit of this Or­dinance.

Object. If any reply, Here is Christ represented to us in his riches of Grace, his death and Sacrifice, and therefore this Ordinance may as well convert as con­firm, and beget, as bring up.

Answ. The institution must limit the Use of Ordi­nances; This Ordinance of the Supper is a represen­tation of Christ, but quo modo of Christ, dying, not rising or sitting in heaven, so it exhibits Christ, but how? as meat and drink, and the end is not conver­sion, but Communion, so Christ was typified in the brazen Serpent, but how? as lifted up to heal the pierced soul of every one that believeth in him, be­caUse Christ is all in all things, for every Use, yet in such and such an Ordinance, he is of limited Use, and limited by the institution to be received to such an end, or else all Ordinances may be confounded and humbled together.

Reaſ. 3 The third Reason may be to shew, That the Word [Page 256] is the only instrument of God to beget faith, or work Each Sacra­ment repre­sents some re­spect or mode of the Cove­nant, but seals the whole Co­venant. Ames. Medulla. conversion, and there are many expressions of Scri­pture, tending to prove it. But you will say, I doe but beg the Question in affirming it only to be so, and so having said enough already, I will not now stand to prove the exclusive, but only in a word, say, That the Word is the great Charter of Gods Covenant; His Covenant is to make us his, to entertain us as his, and so the Word is a seed of our new birth, and the milk or meat of our spiritual growth. Unto this Co­venant or Indenture hang two seals, the one seals our engraffing and implanting unto Christ, and that is Baptism; the other seals our fellowship with, and building up in Christ, and that is the Lords Supper, the whole Covenant is sealed by both, but respective­ly, the one looking at our first entrance and admissi­on, the other to our progresse and consummation, and both the seals are applied only to them that are in Covenant for their certioration and comfort that they are lifted into the service of Christ, and that they shall be kept in constant pay.

§ 5 I have given two Reasons, the one taken from the signification, the other from the end of the institu­tion of this Sacrament, to prove that it is not ordain­ed for a converting Ordinance, and have shown you, that though a man may be converted at this time, yet that proves not the institution of it to that end no more than if a sick man be to take a medicine, and prayer be made for the prosperous successe of that medicine, and by something suggested to the minde of that man by that prayer, whereby he is converted, therefore the medicine should be called a converting Ordinance, becaUse the institution of an Ordinance [Page 257] leads on the denomination of it, and so have also shown you, that upon this ground mis-laid and mi­staken, we cannot allow of all unconverted mens coming or invitation; The Word is indeed a con­verting Ordinance, and therefore those that believe not, that oppose themselves, that are dead in sinnes, may be admitted and invited to it; If they come not with faith, they may come for faith; If they come unclean, they may yet come to be cleansed; but the Lords Supper is not of that nature. It is a more in­ward Ordinance, and presupposes some foundation laid by the Word, that it may have effect; the con­verting Ordinance must go before the confirming; the qualifications of a receiver are not the same with the necessary qualifications of a hearer; and (which I conceive Divines mean in part by requiring Baptism before the Supper) the grace properly sealed in Ba­ptisme is necessary to the obtainment of that grace which is properly sealed in the Supper; As Christ washt his Disciples feet before he celebrated and ad­ministred this Sacrament. It's true, God hath shew­ed us, that we should not call any man common or unclean, as Act. 10. 28. that is, legally, or unclean by his Nation, as if the distance and partition wall be­tween Jew and Gentile was yet standing, but morally unclean there are still, and we may call them so, or else we must call evil good, and this uncleanness is not proper to the sinners of the Gentiles, but even Jews by nature; Christians (as I may say) by nature are many of them unclean, wherein I would not confirm them, but endeavour to wash them from it.

And there is yet another offer made to prove an uni­versal accesse to this Table, without limitation or re­striction [Page 258] afore-said, and that is this, That the Sacra­ment seals to the veracity of God, the truth of his Co­venant, the Articles thereof are true and firm, and the offer of them by God is serious and in good earnest to induce our faith thereof, and our acceptance; this Or­dinance was appointed as a testification of the truth, and reality, and of the offer of the Promises unto us, and therefore why may not all come, here is no seal to a blank; The seal is to Gods Covenant, not our inhe­rent graces; The Promises are true, the offer reall whe­ther we have faith or no.

Anſw. That the Sacrament seals the reality of Gods Co­venant, and of his offer of, and proposal thereof to us, I allow as proper and good; That the Sacrament seals not my having faith, or the truth of my faith, I allow too; but if this be all the Sacrament seals, then it seals no more to a believer than to any man in the world; no more to a receiver than a spectatour; For whether I believe or no by the relation that the seal hath to the Covenant, it confirms and seals it, even as it is instituted in the Word for that purpose; As the Seal of a Bond, Deed, Conveyance, seals the truth of that Bond to all men, to the Witnesses, to the Jury, who are confirmed, that the Bond is true by the Seal; But there is a further sealing, and that is the Sacrament seals the interest of a believer in Christ, unto or in the Covenant and Promises thereof; As the Seal of the Bond seals the summe to be paid to the Creditour, and the Seal of the Deed seals the propriety and benefit and possession of the State convey'd; I say, to a believer the Sacrament seals this, as to no man else, for those words, Take, Eat, Drink, are part of the sealing Use, or the applying Use, and which puts this out of doubt, [Page 259] it's said, That this bread we break, This Cup we blesse is the Communion of the body and bloud of Christ; And what is that but participation? For as Chemnitius ob­serves, Chem. exam. de Praeparat. ad caenam. The great thorn in a weak believer that dis­quiets him, is this, Christ is indeed full and sweet, the Promises true and precious, but have I any share? Have I any portion in them? Have I any right or in­terest? Now this is that which is sealed to a believer; and of it self though no man believe it, seals (as was said before) the truth and reality of the Promise, and of Gods offer; for I shall not deny that. Now if a man through want of faith be not capable of this ef­fect or Use of the Seal, it is not for meer want of that capacity that he is prohibited the Lords Table, for then all unregenerate men, and all that are not con­verted should be forbidden, which we teach not, but it is for scandalous and enormous sin persisted in with Obstinacy and scorn, it is becaUse he hath not so much as a little beam of light, to know what he doth, or what danger he runs upon.

§. 6 Obj. Nor can it be said, that confirming grace afford­ed in this Sacrament is in substance the same with converting, and that which is confirming to one may be converting to another, and so the Sacra­ment may as well afford one as another, Bell. de Euch. cap. 18. lib. 4. being but still the same grace, for this is a meer fal­lacy, and a strain beyond Reason; Anſw. Let confirm­ing grace be the same with converting, As every degree of heat or fire is the same nature as the first degree, yet this Sacrament affords confirm­ing, and not converting grace, becaUse it presup­poseth faith in the Receiver, whereby a further [Page 260] degree of grace may be bestowed, and without that Faith, doth not impart any grace at all; As the life maintain'd by meat and drink is the same life; Doth it therefore follow that meat and drink may convey life into a dead man, becaUse it maintaines it in a living? No: It's true, the same life in a dead man would make him live, but the life maintain'd in a man by meat and drink is therefore maintain'd, becaUse there is a life in the man that can eat and drink, receive nourishment, by which the meat is made nutri­tive and lively, which otherwise could not be; And so there must be life in the Patient, else the Plaister or Medicine, if applied to a dead man, would not recover or strengthen life: I deny not but if the Sacrament could convey the same grace to a dead man, as it doth to a living, that dead man would live, but that it cannot doe, be­caUse it works by way of nourishment, which the dead receive not.

Quest. If niceties may be heard, we shall have no end; Suppose (saith one) a godly man fall in­to scandalous sinne, and therein lie impenitent, Why doe you not forthwith admit him to the Sacrament, which, you say, may helpe towards his conversion from a fall, though it convert not a man from the state of nature?

Answ. I answer, That this Ordinanee doth excite and quicken grace, by which a Christian may recover his fall; and yet, if I say, such a Plaister is good to heal a sore, it will not follow, that therefore it must forthwith be applied, for [Page 261] there is proud flesh, and a rotten core first to be eaten out with corrosives, and then the Plaister may be Used: So if there be such or such a sinne under which a godly man lies, there is another 1 Cor. 5. Ordinance of God first to be applied, for destru­ction of the flesh, for to bring shame and confu­sion, and that is the casting of him out, the put­ting of him away from the society of the faith­full, and when that corrosive hath wrought, than the Sacrament is to be applied for his strengthning and refreshing.

Having acquit my self of this Digression, I now returne to the Point which I propound­ed and explain'd, before I tooke the turne which I have travail'd, and am now in the ready way againe.

CHAP. XXII. Of Worthy and Ʋnworthy Recei­ving; With some Cautions to prevent mis-judging our selves in the Case.

§. 1 THe Point formerly propounded is, That this Sa­crament may be received worthily, and it may al­so be received unworthily, I mean de facto, worthily and unworthily referre to the manner of communi­cating; The Apostle expresses but the one of them, being led thereunto by the occasion at present, but having precisely laid down the institution of the Sup­per, which regulates the manner of receiving, he said enough to make us know what it is to receive un­worthily, and consequently (for the right line is judge of the crooked) what to receive unworthily; and therefore after he had laid forth the institution, he brings in this 27th verse with [...], Wherefore, or so that, as concluding the manner of receiving from the very nature, Use and end of the Ordinance.

I know worthily and unworthily are opposites, and sometimes competent to the same person at the [Page 263] same time, or in the Use of the same element, either the bread or the Cup. Upon which last words you may ask me, May a man receive the bread worthily, and the Cup unworthily? And I answer, That the reading of this Text dis-junctively, Whosoever shall Estius in loc. eat this bread, and drink this Cup of the Lord un­worthily, which some of the Papists contend for in favour of their dry Masse, hath occasioned the start­ing of that Question, which yet I will not contend about in this place, but leave it to such resolution as may be given by the sequell of our discourse, for I naturally abhorre the crumbling of Scripture into crums, when it is delivered to us, as the bread in this Ordinance is, not by crums, when it is delivered to us, as the bread in this Ordinance is, not by crums, but by the piece. Three things I would have you bear in minde.

1. That these words referre to the manner of com­municating, and consequently to the act, or actual receiving of the Sacrament; and therefore the Text saith, He that eats and drinks unworthily, these ad­verbial expressions denote the mode or manner of the act, and cannot be applied to any man out of the ve­ry act.

2. That yet they connote some aptitude, or inap­titude, some fitnesse or unfitnesse of the person from whence this manner of the action doth proceed, as acts referre to some habit or disposition, whence they arise, and so we call a worthy or unworthy Com­municant, one that hath or wants such qualifica­tions, or such frame of spirit as is apt to bring forth sutable actions, and these qualifications deno­minate the person antecedaneous to the act, as we call a valiant man, before we fight; a worthy Com­municant, though not in the act; we need no place [Page 264] of Scripture to name a Communicant worthy or unworthy, for if it denominate the act worthily, unworthily, then Logick and Reason will suppose an aptitude or disposition of the person whence this act comes.

3. That howsoever in our English Use, and so in the Latine, we mean by worthinesse and unworthi­nesse of some person or action, an extraordinary per­fection or excellency, or an extraordinary poornesse and basenesse, yet here the words must be interpreted relatively, that is, in relation to the Ordinance, and so they import no more then fitly, condecently, an­swerably, becomingly, or contrarily. If the man­ner of eating or drinking be answerable to, and be­coming of the Ordinance, being such as the exigence and nature thereof doth demand or bespeak of us, then we receive it worthily; for as you cannot tell, whether a man act a part well, unlesse you know what part it is, the [...] or decorum whereof must be ob­served; and as a picture may be very curious and lively, and yet very false, if it answer not the proto­type; so that eating or drinking, which is according to the Ordinance or demands thereof is worthily, and that which is not answerable is unworthily; and thus the word is to be interpreted, when we reade of walk­ing-worthy of God, worthy of the Gospel, or as it be­cometh Saints, &c. So that to receive this Sacrament in that holy manner, and to that end with such spirit and affection, as the institution or nature of the Ordi­nance, is to receive worthily, Certa norma est ipsa in­stitutio, Exam de prae­pa. ad Euchar. saith Chemnitius.

I have recommended to you the sense and meaning of the words, and before I go further will infer from [Page 265] them two or three Corollaries, or Cautions requisite to stand in the front of my following Discourse for prevention of mistake of my words.

I would not measure or judge of my eating and Caution 1. drinking worthily or unworthily, by the successe I finde afterwards, but by the manner of my receiving; for these words referre not to the successe or after fruit, but the manner of the present act, as I have shown you. This Rule prevents a great deal of per­plexity and trouble, which Christians create in themselves to their discouragement, falsly conclu­ding that they have not, haply never have received worthily, becaUse they finde not the after-fruit an­swerable to their expectations, they finde not such elevations of spirit, sensible joyes, powerfull con­Quest over their particular lusts and corruptions, not that vigour and incRease of some particular graces, which they in their expectation, have (as it were) li­mited God to bestow upon them by the Use of this Ordinance: I do not take off a Christian from wait­ing on God in the Use of this Ordinance, for those be­nefits and graces which it's properly ordained to im­part: but I deny the conclusion thence inferr'd, therefore I have not received worthily, for it is the spiritual manner of the performance of the act, must be Judge of that, and not the sensible fruit and bene­fit actually enjoyed, for thou mayest, as I may say, wrestle with God, as Jacob did, and yet go away halting, that was no sign of prevailing, yet the Text tels us, by his strength he had power with God, he prevailed; Oh but he went lame away, True, but he wept and made supplication to him, Hos. 12. [...], [...]. The Apostle Paul doth not finde fault with his prayer, be­caUse [Page 266] it prevail'd not at first for removal of the thorn, nor with God neither, but he had his eye open'd to see the Use of that thorn, like a corrosive to eat away the proud flesh growing, and that contented him, the stay of the thorn was answer to his prayer, when he saw the Use of it, and was supported under it, 2 Cor. 12. 8. We look for Gods answer to us in our prayer, or in his Ordinance, as that man that lookt for the Sunne rising towards the East, whereas he that looked West-ward for it on the top of the high Tower or Steeple, saw it first: To see and to have the Use of a sinne or corruption, is a better answer of an Ordinance many times, than to be quit of it; For (as Austin saies) Proud hearts have need of sinnes as proud sores of eating plaisters; And therefore to an­swer this point nearer home, and nearer the case it self. The Apostles that were near Christ at this first Sacrament, within few hours after it betray'd their weaknesse, they fled from him, they hid themselves, and the strongest of them took the greatest fall; Shall we say they communicated unworthily, becaUse the successe was so bad? No, for we must not measure altogether by that Rule, but by the manner of recei­ving; if such graces and affections be then set on work, as the Ordinance doth bespeak; It's well ob­served, that the recording of the sinnes of holy men in Scripture, is as profitable and Usefull to the Church, as the record of their graces or heroical acts; For as we look upon their graces, we are asha­med of our selves, and instructed to imitation, as we look on their sinnes and failings, we are not discou­raged unto desperation, and the Scripture it self di­rects us to some such like Use, Jam. 5. 17. Elias was a [Page 267] man subject to like passions as we are, viz. to like afflictions, and to like fruit trees. It's Gods part of the Covenant to finish our faith and support our gra­ces, to revive our spirits, and subdue our corruptions. It's our part to believe and walk humbly with God, not only in our conversation, but the Use of his or­dinances; Let us minde our own part, and take com­fort in the acting of grace at least, if we have not the desired benefit and fruit of Ordinances to comfort us; For were I to chUse, I had rather exercise grace in my communion with God, than enjoy a sensible ra­pture; I speak it to improve a Christian in his graci­ous actings, though I know withall that at last the fruit will fall into his bosom; for he that goes out weeping, and bears precious seed, shall doubtlesse come again with joy, and bring his sheaves, Psalm 126. 6. And again, Hosea 6. 2. After two dayes he will revive us, in the third (as Christ was raised) he will raise us up, then shall we know, if we follow on to know the Lord; in the mean time before this fruit be ripe, the very running of the sap is a certain signe the Tree lives. And so I have given you a measure or rule of judging, whether you receive wor­thily.

Secondly, Think not that the Sacrament conveyes or contributes any thing to you as a medicinal potion or plaister; Doth the Physick work, and so the plai­ster, by an inherent or inward vertue in it self, not by any vertue in the Phyfician or Chyrurgeon? So ig­norant and superstitious people look on the Sacra­ment, they think it saves them, and does them good, they know not how, and so regard the matter more than the manner of receiving, they mistake Gods [Page 268] manner of working by Sacraments, and therefore regard not their own manner of receiving them, and are so fond, as if they could eat and drink away their sinnes, and had by very receiving this bread and wine quit all old scores, and were fresh to begin upon a new account, as the Papist thinks of his auricular confession.

§. 2 It is a very excellent and profitable knowledge to understand how God conveys grace by the Sacra­ment; I speak not of understanding subtilties, but the plain and open Use of the Ordinance. Now I cannot possibly conceive, how the elementals of bread and wine, can or do any otherwise convey to or afford me any spiritual grace, but as instruments and means by Gods meer positive appointment and ordination, representing, testifying, sealing to me not only Gods reality of promise or Covenant in of­fering Christ, but my interest and propriety in Christ, and the benefits that flow from Union and Communion with Christ; and therefore that revi­ving, refreshing incRease of grace, power of morti­fication of lusts, Come no otherwise to me by the Use of this Ordinance, than as it seals Christ to me, and by sealing Christ or the Covenant to me doth confirm faith, revive the heart, elevate the affecti­ons, strengthen resolutions, fortifie against lusts and temptations; for it is a sure Rule, The nearer appli­cations of Christ to the soul and his benefits in way of taste or assurance, the more quickning grace of all sorts, follows thereupon; As the nearer approach of the Sunne in the Spring, cheers up and revives all things that live, but things stark dead are as dead then, as in deep of winter. Let me convey this to [Page 269] you by a familiar similitude; A man hath an Estate, the Wool, the Wine, the Corn that grows out of that Estate clothes him, refreshes him, feeds him, but the Seal that confirms and assures this Estate to him, doth no otherwise cloath, or refresh, or feed him, than as it confirms that estate to him, out of which all these do rise: And by this you may plainly under­stand how grace is conveyed by this Sacrament, which doth seal up to you, and assure you of Christ, and the Covenant of promises in Christ, out of which all these graces grow and flow: Do ye understand this? Then it follows,

1. That for any man to imagine that the very eat­ing and drinking this bread and this Cup should cure and heal his soul, is as fond as to think the very seal or wax of a Deed should either seed or clothe him, for in that case it's not a seal, but a piece of wax, how infinitely do our common people undervalue this Sa­crament, that make but a piece of holy bread of it, which is an exhibition of the body of Christ, as they that value a seal by the worth of the wax, and not by the Estate thereby confirmed.

2. That it's absolutely necessary to bring to this Sa­crament, that grace which is necessary to the receiving of Christ himself, Quid paras dentem? What does the providing of teeth to eat (saith Austin) What avail is all outward preparation? The thing that is exhibited to us is Christ his body broken, his bloud shed, Christ dying, Christ a Sacrifice offer'd up to God is here commemorated, and is here offer'd, and that inward grace which is necessary to receive and close with Christ, must be brought with you; That grace is found by and from the word, and that grace [Page 270] must be Used here, and exercised. The Covenant requires it, and the Seal is the Seal of the Covenant; You cannot take the Seal and leave the Covenant, you cannot enter Covenant without faith and Repen­tance, you do but expect that the Seal should seal a lie to you, if you expect remission of sinnes to be sealed without your faith in Christ. It's impossible that the Word and Sacrament should be opposite, as that the Covenant and Seal thereof should disagree. As therefore if one would know what a Seal con­veys or confirms, let him reade the Deed, and the Conditions of it, and there it is learn'd, So if you would know what the Sacrament seals to you, hear what the Word saith, Mercy and Grace to a believer in Christ, and to no other, which he that will re­ceive from this fountain, must bring his vessel with him, for qui fide vacuus, foras manducat non intus Chem. Exam. &c. dente non mente, August.

Thirdly, Be not frighted with the sound of this Corollary 3. Word worthily, or worthy Communicant, but la­bour to understand the least and lowest manner of receiving worthily; for we wrong our comforts, when we make that which is the measure of growth to be the measure of truth of grace, and judge of the life of the tree, not by the bud, but by ripe fruit, and here consider,

§. 3 1. That words of high sound, in vulgar and com­mon acceptation, when they come to be undertaken in a Gospel-sense and notion, do shrink into a meer contemptiblenesse with worldly wise men; For as the Gospel Useth some Greek words in a sense un­known to eloquent profane Authours, so it hath a notion of Blessednesse, Perfection, Glory, Wor­thinesse, [Page 271] which relishes not the palate, nor bears any show in the world. If Aristotle describe blessed­nesse, what a deal of humane perfection and accom­plishments of fortune doth he croud into it, for which he is derided by other Sects? But if Christ describe blessednesse in the Gospel, what do you hear of, but poverty of Spirit, purity of heart, meeknesse, mourn­ing, suffering for righteousnesse sake, wherein there is no more shew of blessednesse to a worldly man, than there was in Christ of Majesty to Herod and his men of warre? So perfection in Gospel-phrase is a disclaiming thereof, and sence of our imperfection, Phil. 3. 12. And the Spirit of glory rests upon you that suffer, 1 Pet. 4. 14. And your worthinesse is rather the sense of your unworthinesse: Thus the Gospel construes these high sounding words, and the Reason is, becaUse the Gospel placing our righteousnesse and our happinesse in the having of Christ, and taking every man utterly off his own bottom, doth thereby come to a new reckoning, that is not Used in the whole world, and accounts them full that are most empty, rich that are poor, blessed, that are in their own sense, or outward condition, miserable, pos­sessing all things, that have nothing; and so in this point in hand, according to Luther's paradoxal ex­pression, which our Whitaker approves, is Est optime dispositus, qui est pessime dispositus, He is most worthy that is most unworthy, viz. that is sensible of his un­worthinesse.

2. If this worthinesse of a Communicant should Whitak. de Sacram. p. 658. be imagin'd to signifie any meritorious or proud con­gruities of our vertues, works, righteousnesse, it would be the greatest unworthinesse that could be; [Page 272] What should such proud creatures come to a Sacra­ment or memorial of Christs death, for that being no sinne with them to be expiated by that death? Thou sayest, I am rich, I stand in need of nothing; go anoint thy eyes that thou mayest see, Revel. 5. This Pool of Siloam is for such as have infirmities. Nor doth the Gospel require perfect faith, or perfect re­pentance or grace, for that's against the nature of this Sacrament, which is to last no longer than our im­perfections and infirmities last, that is, untill Christ come. So as there is no better Argument of our im­perfection, than the command of growing in grace, so neither is any a fit patient for this medicine, but the weak and impotent, the doubting and complain­ing soul. The Gospel knows not the name of attain­ers, nor the thing. Not that I have attained, or were already perfect, Phil. 3. 12. This meat and drink is for growing children, which as the old Physician (Hippocrates saith) must be often-nourisht. How long might a man examine himself before he finde this temper in himself, that he wants nothing? there can be no wonder that such a one is above Ordinan­ces, especially this, which though it be one of the highest Ordinances of the Church, yet is accommo­dated to the Use of the lowest believer; The Apo­stles communicated in it before the Spirit was sent down solemnly upon them, they were but ig­norant and raw, when Christ said, Take, Eat, Drink ye all of it.

3. If thou hast the seminals of grace mixt with a masse of corruptions (as gold at first is mixed with much earth) there may be worthinesse, despise not small things; Natural generation, begins in a small [Page 273] thing, a little drop, and so Regeneration. If there be sense of sin, if thirst after Christ, there is something, Thou art discouraged with thy daily lapses, why drink of this wine for thy often infirmities; Thou art over­born with strong lusts, come, and eat, and drink to nourish thy weak graces, keep them alive to fight, though they do not conquer and triumph. Thou canst not say, thou hast faith, but canst thou feel thy want of it, and mourn for it? This smoak comes from some invisible spark: Thou art not (thou sayest) in Covenant, and the Seal belongs not to thee; But art thou willing to be in it, and come into the bond of the Lord? Is it the longing of thy soul to be ingaged in­to the ways of God, and disenthrall'd from the sweet bondage of sin? In a word, Let thy sins and corruptions be strong and violent, thy wants many, thy weaknesse great: Let them be as thou sayest, as thou fearest, yet if there be a groaning sense, a longing desire of reme­dy, affections piercing of, and breathing after Christ; If there be a seed of God in thy heart, which is kept alive in the midst of so much corruption, by no lesse a miracle than if a spark be kept alive in the sea, then surely there is a Gospel-meetnesse in thee to be parta­ker of this Supper; Here is Christ cook'd ready to thy weakest and lowest faith in obvious materials of meat and drink: Let not the pride of any worthinesse bring thee, nor the sense of unworthinesse keep thee back.

CHAP. XXIII. Of Worthy Receiving, &c.

§. 1 I Now proceed to handle this point, That this Bread may be eaten, and this Cup of the Lord may be drunk worthily. It is the highest grace that the eternal God should admit sinfull dust and ashes to be his confederates, that from his Altar he should furnish a Table for them, and feed them with that flesh and bloud which is offer'd up unto himself a Sa­crifice Ephes. 5. 1. for a sweet smelling savour, that he should ac­count them to eat and drink worthily, who account not themselves worthy to eat and drink; Merit and worthinesse have both their due place; merit belongs to the Sacrifice, Christ Jesus, worthinesse to the Communicant who eats and drinks in such manner as becomes the nature, and is answerable to the Use and end of this Ordinance.

I shall come up to the manner of receiving worthi­ly, by certain orderly steps: As

§. 2. Of Preparation to this Sacrament.

§. 2 1. There is a certain peculiar preparation due to the celebration of this Ordinance; for where the [Page 275] manner is so contrary, as worthily and unworthily, and the effect of the Ordinance much depending up­on the manner of receiving it, and the benefit so great, as communion of Christs body, the danger no lesse than of condemnation; Reason will tell us, that there is a preparation requisite, that the fruit may be of the Tree of Life, and not of the Tree of know­ledge of good and evil, Eat and die. It's either too much blindnesse or boldnesse to rush upon this Ordi­nance without preparation. Nature induceth not a new form without preparing the matter. Art as it helps, so it imitates nature, else that which is medici­nal may be mortal; Our Saviour did not only Use, but honour preparations, when he fasted and pray'd in order to his great work; To the Passeover there be­long'd [...], a solemn preparation; the Lamb was taken up on the tenth day, the leaven was enqui­red after and purged out, which if they have now no obligation, yet they have a meaning; and you Use to have Sermons for preparation, which are but prepa­ratives to preparation, they do but light the candle, but you must, as that woman, Luk. 15. 8. Sweep the hoUse, and seek diligently, else Sermon-preparation may (as I fear it often doth) go without soul pre­paration: That word vers. 28. And so let him eat, Gerard. de Sac. Caena. c. 23. tels us plainly, that somewhat must go before. The Papists distinguish of preparation, sufficient and pro­bable, but that which is probable may be insufficient, and so no man be certain that he comes worthily. A fit dispute for such as would have meritorious prepa­rations, so much sanctity as indeed needs no Sacra­ment, which therefore, they say, takes away onely venial sinnes. I would not bring so much to the Sa­crament, [Page 276] as to look for little from it; Those that came to the Passeover, 2 Chron. 30. 18. wanted the Sanctuary purification, yet they prepared their hearts to seek God, The good Lord pardon, saith He­zckiah; Here was a preparation, with a Dominus mi­sereatur, The good Lord pardon. I look for no pre­paration that shall not stand in need of mercy: If I see so much in my self, as makes my self empty, and that emptinesse doth make me a thirst for Christ, then I shall not dispute my preparation, but deny my wor­thinesse, and yet come.

§. 3. Of the outward manner of Receiving.

§. 3 2. These words worthily and unworthily, as I have often said, expresse the manner of our receiving this Sacrament, and that manner is either outward or in­ward; The outward manner is either duly to Observe the outward Rites that are prescribed without muti­lation or addition, whereby the face of the Ordinance is defaced, and looks not like it self; or (which I intend) such decent outward behaviour as is suitable to the holinesse and reverence of the Ordinance; and if I be not deceived, the Apostle in this place taxes the rudenesse and irreverence of the visible carriage, or rather miscarriage of the Corinthians in the hand­ling or celebration thereof, and therefore expostu­lates with them, vers. 22. Have ye not hoUses to eat and drink in? Doth that freedom of behaviour be­come the Congregation, which you Use at your own Tables? Is quaffing and jollity a becoming deport­ment? Is it not scandalous and offensive to Use that liberty here, which is rather fit for an Ordinary, or [Page 277] a Tavern? Let me speak freely to you, we have al­most lost that reverence, devotion, gravity, decen­cy which formerly and anciently adorned the publick Ordinances and Administrations, and our experi­ence may teach us, that while we decline the extream of curiosity, superstition, pomp and starelinesse, we incline to the other of irreverence, profanenesse, loosnesse, sordidnesse; While we talk of worshipping God in Spirit and Truth, we exempt our bodies from adoration, and both forget that our bodies are part of Christs purchase, and the Rule that is infer'd thereupon, Glorifie therefore God in your body and in your spirit, 1 Cor. 6. 20. For doe we not prophane our eyes by wandring, our tongues by talking, our faces by laughing, and the Ordinance of God by all? I would there were not caUse to wish that our publick meetings had more composednesse of out­ward behaviour, but when sometimes, and in some places the Pulpit looks like a stage, and the hoUse of prayer like a play-hoUse; we may justly fear least a Corinthian rudenesse come up to the Lords Table al­so, and think it needfull to reprove such lightnesse, as is offensive to serious devotion or common gravity. The Moralist his Rule to remedy lightnesse of carri­age; is to set Socrates, or some grave man before your eyes for the rudenesse of the Scene was shamed and bridled by the presence of Cato. We have a better rule, set God before you, with whom we have to do, who hath also promised to be in the mids of two or three that are congregated in his name; Consider that the Angels are Spectatours and Guardians of your Assemblies, for that I take to be the plainest sense of that saying of the Apostle, 1 Cor. 11. 10. [Page 278] and that other phrase, vers. 9. of discerning the body of the Lord, doth denote, not onely a knowing that the Lords body is represented by the bread (as it is commonly interpreted) but such a minding of the body of Christ here represented and exhibited to our faith, or may produce a difference of our behaviour and carriage in the Use of this Ordinance from that which we Use in eating of common bread, wherein men otherwise-knowing (as these Corinthians) might fail and be defective. In short, becaUse a loose car­riage is ordinarily an argument of a loose spirit, therefore I have said this to compose the outward be­haviour of Communicants to a sutable comelinesse and decency in the Use of holy Ordinances, Hoc agite is the old word.

§. 4. What is requisite to make a man fit for the Sacrament.

§. 4 3. By having those graces which are to be exerci­sed, and set on work at the Lords Table, a believer shall try and judge of his fitnesse to come unto it. I shall shew you in the next, That the exercise of grace is requisite unto the act of receiving worthily, but it is the having of that grace, whereby a man shall try and judge of his fitnesse to come; For (I suppose) first, that there is some previous disposition or quali­fication, which gives capacity or meetnesse to come to this Table, as the word, Let a man examine him­self, and so let him come, doth clearly prove, and then that this fitnesse or habitual qualification is the having or exciting of those graces which are to be exercised and set a work; As a souldier is accoutred [Page 279] and furnisht with such weapons, as in fight are to be ex­ercised and Used, and therefore a Christian that would try or know his own fitnesse or worthinesse, confiders first what graces are to be set on work in the act of receiving, and then examines whether he have them before-hand or no: Plain sense and Reason shews, that a dead man is not fit to eat and drink, becaUse he cannot exercise any act of life, without which he neither eats nor can be refresht, and therefore we must conclude, that there is an habitual fitnesse required to be in the person that communicates wor­thily.

§. 5. The pitch of fitnesse must not be set too high, nor too low.

§. 5 Now there are some (and they godly souls) that set the pitch of this fitnesse or worthinesse too high, and there are others that are carnal set it too low, and it must be confest there is a latitude in it, it receives magis & minus, as Christians themselves are of di­vers elevations, some are smoaking flax, some are shi­ning lights.

If we set it too high, besides that Infants in grace, and low statured Christians cannot reach it, we doe but discomfort and dishearten our selves, for we take a false measure, and becaUse we finde not that we can cut out to that measure, we are at a losse, and hap­ly if we would follow it home, we might cast out every one of the Apostles from the first Supper, who were certainly very raw Christians, and of as low a form as we are, being after that time upbraided by Christ with their unbelief and hardnesse of heart, [Page 280] Mark 16. 14. And if we should do so, we should cen­sure our Saviour of too much indulgence, who re­proved their sinne, and yet received them to his Ta­ble, Luke 22. 19, 24. I have no warrant to set the mark so high, that the least of Gods children qua­lified, should not reach it; for I confider, that this Sacrament was ordained for the Church, during the estate of imperfection, and for remedy of weaknesse and infirmity, not like the Tree of Life, which man was debarred from, for his sinne in the forbidden fruit; and as Luther said, A childe may receive a Ring as well as a Gyant, and the least Candle points upwards as well as the greatest Torch. Great Masters of Families (as the Prodigal Observed) al­low the meanest of their domestick servants to come to the Tables end, and eat of their bread. Many sinnes, many backslidings, if there be contrition and godly sorrow, serve for bitter herbs to eat the Passeover with; Many wants and weaknesses may be accompanied with vehement desires, hunger and thirst: Low graces may occasion low hearts, when God makes the disease a preparative, why should we refUse the medicine?

If we set the pitch of this fitnesse too low in some empty formes of Religion, or some eminent works, and moral vertues, or some conceited perfe­ctions which feed our pride, we shall take in many that have nothing of Christ in them; Gospel-quali­fications are most sutable to a Gospel Ordinance; We are not prepared for Christ by ostentation of works, but sense of misery; The sense of unwor­thinesse is our worthinesse; A little vessel that is empty, will receive more than a great one that is [Page 281] full; A broken Christ requires a broken heart: To be rich, and full, and righteous in the Gospel-Dictionary, doe signifie Obstructions, and impedi­ments of our happinesse; where the naked are cloath­ed, the hungry are fed, the ungodly are justified, the weary are refresht, the sick are healed, the stung with fiery Serpents are recovered, the returning lost childe is feasted, and they that thirst do buy wine and milk without money and without price; And hence it follows,

That no unregenerate man that lies dead in tre­spasses and sinnes, without a seed, a spark of Go­spel-grace, having no initials of true Repentance and Faith in Christ, can be in capacity to eat and drink the Body and Bloud of Christ worthily, and with effect, for such a one is a stranger to the Covenant, and uncircumcised, and therefore expres­ly debar'd this Passeover, Exod. 12. 43. Where there is no life there can be no reception of nou­rishment. He that is void of the Condition of the Covenant cannot receive the benefit, nor eat the Supper that wants the Wedding-Garment. This is a severe point, and disclaims the greatest part of men from eating and drinking worthily, becaUse they have no ticket of grace renewing or regenerating, they are not Disciples indeed, they are branches in Christ by externall ingraffing, John 15. 2. but have not the life of Christ in them; They that are not in the body of Christ, do not eat his body, saith Austin; They that are not members of him do not spiritually feed on him, Panem Domi­n, they do eat as Judas, not Panem Dominum. Ego hoc axtoma teneo, saith Calvin, that without the Spi­rit [Page 282] Christ is not received in this Sacrament. The Pa­pists go no lesse, Catholici omnes (saith Vasquez) all agree in this, That it's necessary for a worthy Com­municant to be in the state of grace and sanctificati­on, and therefore howsoever any person be furnisht with endowments of nature and education, famous for eminent works and vertues, adorned with civil and fair conversation, yet without something of Christ, some work of the Spirit, some seed of Re­generation, he cannot eat and drink worthily, and with effect; And this Doctrine is the rather requisite to be taught, becaUse men may flatter themselves in that they have past the test, are admitted with appro­bation to this Table, and allowed the liberty thereof, for all this may be, and yet your case no better than Sauls, that would needs be honoured before the people; than Judas's who was not thrust out from the Sacra­ment, than his who was let in by the servants to the feast, but cast out by the King for want of his Wed­ding-garment. You enjoy a priviledge to eat and drink, but what? judgement and condemnation to your selves, Oh consider it, The Lord of this feast will come to view his guests, he will turn out some that the servants let in, he will say, Friend, How ca­mest thou in hither? He answered not, Lord, I was called in, I was admitted in by thy servants, No, He was dumb, he had nothing to plead, he had not a Wedding-garment, For he is not a Jew that is one outwardly, Rom. 2. penult.

§. 6. What is requisite to our Receiving Worthily.

§. 6 The actual exercise of our graces is requisite to our eating and drinking worthily. The instrument must be in tune before-hand, as I shew'd you in the former, but now the strings are stricken, now they make their musick. The activity and imploiment of our faith and affections is now required, and our graces must be on their wheels; now the sails are spread to catch the gale which sweetly breathes from this holy Ordi­nance, for here it's said, Take, Eat, Take and drink; and as the eye, the hand, the mouth are now in actual imploiment, as to the Sacrament, or outward part, so faith which is the eye, hand, mouth of the soul, and all the affections are to be actually imploy'd, as to the inward thing, the body and bloud of Christ; Not the having of an eye, but looking up to the bra­zen Serpent healed the biting. It's not enough to have faith, but we must believe. Now that the Sa­crament is in Use, now must our graces be in Use too. Now that God actually offers and presents Christs body and bloud to my faith; Now let the hand of faith go forth and take Christ in. Awake my faith, and see the atonement of my sins in the broken body of my Saviour! Awake repentance, and hear the strong cries, and see the dolefull agony of him that bears our chastisement! Awake my memory, and call to minde that Aegypt wherein I was, and the bloud of the Passeover which removed the destroying Angel from my soul! Awake all that is within me to blesse and praise the Lord. Oh let this Crosse crucifie my lusts and passions! Let this death stay my reigning [Page 284] sins, as Joshua did the Kings of Canaan! Now let the Altar smoak with the Sacrifice of a loving heart infla­med with holy fire of Gods love to me; Now the wax is warm, Oh let the Seal be stamped fair that I may see the impression alwayes after! Now that God shews forth to methe death of his Sonne for me, let me shew forth that death of Christ to God again, as that which I stick unto, and abide by, for my righte­ousnesse and peace with God. Alas, if my graces be now asleep, they are next a kin to dead; We might have sweet, we might have fruitfull Sacraments had we but lively graces; Graces upon their wing, not lying sullen, and benum'd with cold, therefore blow up your graces, as the Apostle his phrase is, blow the smothering fire, the embers into a flame by pertinent meditation; Be ye lift up ye everlasting doors, that this King of glory may come in; And that I may speak to the comfort of a godly soul, Let grace run forth at what tap it will, so there be but vent, whether at the uppermost of high praises, or at the lower of melting humblings; If the fire flame, rise high, thou hast more comfort; If it smoak, God will not quench-it, and that's some comfort: Some have a finer taste, and re­lish their meat with higher gust and more delight than others, and yet others be nourisht as well, as much as they; So haply some receive Christ with greater delectation, and yet thy soul may be nourisht as well as theirs.

CHAP. XXIV. That a Godly man may receive the Sacrament unworthily.

HAving shown you the qualifications of a worthy Communicant before-hand, and that the actual exercise of grace is requisite at present for receiving worthily, I make this Observation.

§. 1 That a man who is in a state of grace, and so god­ly, may yet receive the Lords Supper unworthily, and without effect, not for want of habitual fitnesse or qua­lification, but for want of the actual exercise of grace at present, or becaUse of some distempers which over­take and surprise him in the act of communicating. This Point it may be at first sight looks strangely, but upon consideration will be found too true; For if we look back to the Passeover, we finde, that an Is­raelite circumcised, and so qualified to eat the Passe­over, yea a true Israelite might be unclean at the pre­sent time, and so uncapable of keeping it; And we have at home in this Text, an example and a proof of this Point. These Corinthians are looked upon as, and supposed to be (and no doubt some of them were) [Page 286] godly and regenerate persons, who yet contracted epidemical judgements upon them, Many sick, weak, &c. and that for a sinne they little thought of, their undue and unfit coming to the Lords Table; they are distinguisht from the world, vers. 32, Of whom its said, [...], vers. 30. For this caUse you are judged of the Lord, and chastened; and hence the word [...], is contended to import only temporal judgement in this place. I confesse this Point is controverted and disputed, and more abroad than at home amongst us. Vasquez seems to me to hold, That it is enough that a man be in a state of grace, and that every godly man receives worthily, or else should sinne mortally; But it is no new Doctrine with us, That a regenerate man may sinne mortally (as they speak) or commit a sinne meritorious of condemnation; We must not lessen regenerate mens sinnes, which in divers respects are the greater, becaUse the person is regenerate; Even they that are babes in Christ, may be-carnal, and walk as men, 1 Cor. 3. 3. And therefore Cajetan on the other side requires actual Devotion, as necessary to the fruit of this Sacrament; and his Argument is, Be­caUse the Sacrament works according to the manner of its signification; And therefore as meat and drink to the end they may nourish, do require that we coo­perate by some act of life, to receive and digest them; so there is necessary some act of inward grace to meet with and receive this spiritual food, that it may nou­rish and refresh us; and I hold the Argument good and firm; Nor do I finde any priviledge of a regene­rate man, that he cannot commit this sinne: He may be under a spiritual Apoplexy or stupidity, as [Page 287] David for a time seems to have been: He may be overgrown with a crust, a coldnesse, a security, and so unfit by disease, though not by death. Chryso­stome saw this truth, when he speaks of some that may not eat, becaUse not initiated, [...], and others, though they be members, yet are [...], unclean. It's true, It is proper to the godly to receive worthily, but it's proper, Soli sed non semper, only they do so, but not they alwayes, and therefore I turn my speech to you, and desire that you be not render'd secure and negligent by this false principle, that a regenerate man cannot receive the Sacrament unworthily, for this is the ready way to fall into that sinne which you ima­gine your selves free from, by taking you off from that self-examination, that trimming of your Lamps, that purging out of the old Leaven, that blow­ing up of your Graces into act, which is so requi­site unto your meeting with your Lord in this Or­dinance.

I know that for the most part those do charge them­selves with this sinne of receiving unworthily, that have least caUse; The worthiest Communicants are to their own eye the worst; They never acted their graces lively at the Sacrament; They never felt the present delights and fatnesse of this Ordinance; They have been alwayes incumbred with doubts, with fears and distempers, and have often gone away with more anguish of spirit than they came, and a world of such complaints there are; and I confesse it is not ordinary that gracious persons do stand in good opinion with themselves, but yet Jacobs going away halting from God, was not an argument that [Page 288] he had not prevail'd; Sick people may be nourisht and strengthen'd with that meat which they cannot taste or relish in their mouth; Grace is more apt to see sinne than it self; for the eye doth not see it self, and the more it grows in light, the more tender in sense: In spirituals it is true: But I shall speak a Para­dox, Those diseases we feel and are sick of, seldome prove mortal, that is, when the affections melt with sorrow, and not the conscience amazed with horrour, though I would not nourish complaints against my self, yet I had rather have the sense of Paul, Rom. 7. wherein he complains of himself, than his confi­dence, when he said, I verily thought I ought to do, &c. and I think a proud confidence both a great­er caUse and signe of unworthy receiving, than humble fear and sense of imperfection, for even this is a grace to be exercised at the Lords Table.

CHAP. XXV. Of the Graces which are to be exer­cised and set on work in the Use of this Sacrament.

§. 1 THe Graces which are to be exercised and set on work in the Use of this Sacrament, are pointed at, and taught us by the Ordinance it self: For when the Apostle bids every man to examine himself, he should leave us in a wildernesse and wide world, for he tels us not of what, but that the Ordinance it self is the Rule of this examination, and doth bespeak those graces which make us fit to come unto it. This is the way that Chemnitius goes, whereby to finde what those graces are which inable us to receive the benefit and effect here to be expected: And to me it seems an excellent way, For hereby the Communi­cant (as I have often said) is made suitable to the Or­dinance, and the examination is kept within its bounds: So that if any should quarrel, and say, You require such things of us, as you have no war­rant for; You lay burdens of your own invention, we appeal to the Ordinance it self, and require nor more, nor lesse than may be deduced from it, and de­monstrate; [Page 288] [...] [Page 289] [...] [Page 290] We know that in all Sacraments there is Analogy or proportion, and so in this, the elements broken bread, and wine pouned forth, or the body and bloud of Christ, the actions of Taking, Eating and Drinking the outward elements, doe denote the acts of a Communicants soul, receiving and feeding upon Christ, and such acts there must be to answer unto the outward actions. So as if you tell me of any sensible object, it's easie to shew what sense it belongs unto, for if it be light or colour, it belongs to the eye, if it be any sound, it belongs to the ear, &c. So this Sacrament being survey'd and studi­ed, it is not hard to finde what graces are to be set on work accordingly: And this Rule, that I may not guesse at randome, I shall follow in the ensu­ing Discourse.

First, It's necessary that the Communicant have knowledge of the Nature, Use, and End of this Sa­crament, and that is demonstrate thus: Here are out­ward elements and actions, which do signifie some other thing, as namely, the body and bloud of Christ, as himself expounds it, offer'd by God un­to, and to be received by the Communicant, and therefore there must be knowledge to discern and un­derstand this mystery that's hidden under a visible out-side, to wit, the Sacrifice of Christs body, which is represented, and the confirmation of the Gospel-Covenant by his bloud; for without this knowledge a man comes blinde-fold, eats and drinks as a bruit, takes the dish for the meat, and is no otherwise refresht than a thirsty man would be by eat­ing and sucking a sign-post, which doth but signifie that there is wine within. It was a childes Question, [Page 291] Exod. 12. 26. What mean you by this service? And I would our ignorant people would so play the childe, for they do but eat the shell, and gnaw the bone of the outward service, becaUse they know not the meaning of it; So the carnall Jew knew not the meaning of the Rites and Types then Used, nor saw both Law and Gospel in their Sacrifices, both which they were full of; I confesse the knowledge of this Sacrament draws with it the knowledge of our lost estate, (as Passeover is not understood without Egypt) in sinne and misery; For where Christ appears blou­dy, there sinne must needs appear deadly, and those fundamentals and grounds of Christianity, which are but the A. B. C. of Religion, must be knowne, but it is not the knowledge of a Scholar, but the knowledge of a Christian, which we plead for, so much as may serve to look into the entrails of this Sa­crament, and may lead on the affections to value, prize, thirst after Jesus Christ, whom if we see not, we cannot desire or love, Visus est prima amor is linea, fight is the first line of love, nor can we believe in him, untill we see, John 6. 40. Whosoever see the Sonne, and believes in him, shall have everlasting life. I should not charge a poor Christian with any great rate of knowledge, for the quality is more to be re­garded than the quantity; If he know both sinne and Christ by taste, as well as by sight, if he have a di­stinguishing and favoury knowledge of the things of the Spirit, and there be, as it is in embers, a great heat, though but little light, then is it good, though not great. I know that Questions demodo in all points of Divinity are hard to answer. It's well if we can answer a Question aere. I may know what sinne is, [Page 292] and yet not tell how it enters, and comes at first into my soul. The Apostles took Christ at this time for their Saviour and Lord, the true Messiah, but how he should execute all the parts of his Office, they did not clearly understand, and yet did at and drink with him at his Table.

§. 3 Secondly, This is not all, but it is first, as light was at the Creation, the first creature, but all the world was not made when light was; He is not wholly fitted that hath knowledge, there must be a Christ-receiving, or a Christ-taking faith, and this is shown thus, God offers the body and bloud of his Sonne, which was shed for the remission of sinne, and saith, Take ye, Eat ye, Drink ye, and that in­ward act, which answers to this outward action, whereby we do receive Christ that is exhibited we call faith; when Christ is tender'd to us in the Word, we believe ex-promisso; when offer'd in the Supper, we believe ex pignore; There we have a promise, here a pawn or pledge: This faith is the taking hand, which goes forth to the offering-hand of God. This taking, eating, drinking, are but faith appropriating and applying Christ: You say, you believe, What believe you? That God offers Christ to your faith; What's a poor man the richer for believing that one offers him a shilling? What's a condemned man the better for believing that a pardon is offer'd to him? This is but a faith of the truth of the offer; But doe ye receive Christ offered? Do you close in with▪ Christ? Do you take him into you? Here is the best Covenant, sealed with the best blood that ever was; You believe this to be a truth, but come not in to this Covenant, that saith doth but serve to your just con­demnation; [Page 293] It is the Christ-receiving, not the truth acknowledging saith that brings salvation to you. If men did but know what saving saith is, we should have either more or fewer believers, more, for they would renounce that superficial thing cahed faith, and buy gold tried in the fire; Fewer, for they would not count themselves to believe by that faith which they have; A woman may believe a man to be rich and honourable, and reall in his suit, yet that belief doth not make a marriage, but actual consent to take him for a husband; For saith gives as well as takes, it gives a man up to Christ, as well as takes Christ to be a Saviour. It is not true faith that blows hot and cold out of the same mouth, and cries Hosanna to Christ a Saviour, but yet I will not have him reigne over me: This Sacrament presents Christ to faith thus, It presents Christ himself, his body and bloud, not the benefits of Christ apart and abstract, but Christ himself. It presents Christ for intimate union with us, as the nourishment is to the bo­dy: It presents him really, as the bread and wine is really taken and received: It presents him crucified and suffering, as if he was now dving and bleed­ing, in whom faith findes reconciliation, remission, justification and redemption, so is it acted and exerci­sed in this Ordinance.

§. 4 Thirdly, The third grace that is freshly revived, and set on work in this Sacrament is Repentance, and that appears thus, Here is represented, Goes Justice against our sinne, in bruising his own Sonne, with fore and dreadfull breaches made upon him, and this Justice is mixt with goodnesse in transferring and laying upon the Sacrifice the delinquencies and [Page 294] sinnes, which had they been charged on us, had sunk us into the bottome of perdition, and who that sees this shall not tremble at the fearfull wrath of God, which Angels and men could not stand before? Who shall not mourn over Christ, whom we have pierced, as it's said of them, Zech. 12. 10? Who can love the knife that slew his friend? I meane the sinne that our Saviour bore in his body on the Tree: This consideration here pre­sented to you, if you follow Christ from the Gar­den to Golgotha, should me thinks affect the soul of a believer.

1. With tender meltings of godly sorrow for sinne.

2. With fresh purpose of amendment of life.

1. With godly sorrow for sinne; To hear the strong cries, and see the streaming bloud of Christ; for can there be a greater demonstration, either of Gods Justice toward sinne, or of his goodnesse to a sinner? They say an adamant will be broken by bloud, but alas the heart of man hath lost inge­nuity, or else the bloud of Christ would make us love sinne as bad as the terrours of Mount Sinai, yea and to love it lesse, and hate it more; Fear may break a man, but goodnesse melts him; The terrours of the Lord may amaze and leave a man as hard still, but godly sorrow makes tender, and chan­ges the disposition of the soul, Revive then the sense of your sinne, even pardon'd sins do revive godly sor­row, and the more, becaUse he tastes goodnesse and grace to him unworthy; the sweet of the Passeover is lost for want of bitter herbs.

[Page 295]2. With fresh purpose of amendment, a need­full grace to be renew'd at this Sacrament; we should eat this Passeover with shoes on our feat, and slaves in our hand, ready to march out of Aegypt; We cannot eat the Passeover and stay in Aegypt still; God confirmes his Covenant, and we must restipulate with God to cast out and execrate the old Leaven: Let's carry wounded sinnes from this Table; Bring wonded hearts, and carry away wounded sinnes: Let's learne to die to sinne, by seeing Christ die for sinne, Mutet vitam qui vult accipere vitam, saith Au­stine, The Covenant of Grace is sealed. Let us seal a Covenant of Obedience; By the merit of Christs death we are purchased to be Gods, not our own; By the power of his Death we are slain, dead to sinne: But here I must break out to meet with our common purposers and resolv­ers, which (if ever in their lives) do now, when they come toward the Lords Table, flatter God and themselves with a new beginning of a new life, from this time they are resolved, that the ear that hath heard them, shall hear them swear no more; The eye that hath seen them, shall see them drunk no more, &c. I would these greene cords would hold, but we finde this righteous­nesse is but a morning dew, their Sampson lusts, when they awake break all these cords, And why? BecaUse these purposes arise from a fit of conscience, not from a principle of life or love, and so they prove but Lucida intervalla, they re­turne to their madnesse againe, when the fit takes them. I would such men would resolve to be [Page 296] ashamed of these resolutions, which so often leave them in the dirt, that selfe confusion may carry them out of their owne strength, which selfe-resolution doth but arme them with, and therefore doth not stand; For he that hath the Falling-sicknesse may resolve to fall no more; but in vaine, untill the disease be pur­ged.

These are the principall, the staple graces to be exercised in this Ordinance, there are o­thers which are included in these, which I but name: As

§. 5 Fourthly, Spiritual appetite of hunger and thirst after Christ, who is here offered, as full nourishment for the soul, under the form of bread and wine. I account gracious desires to be the immediate pro­ducts of regenerated graces, and very comfortable testimonies of life spirituall, 1 Peter 2. 2. but it is called vehement desire, 2 Cor. 7. 11. in differ­ence from the sluggards desires, which are but wishes, and which every man pretneds unto, though it be plaine they are but of Balaam's tem­per, who desired to die the death of the righte­ous, but loved the wages of unrighteousnesse; God helps his people much by giving them good desires, both for that they make prayer warme, and give great comfort in the midst of sad com­plaints, yea they bring us to the Word, and to the Sacrament, where the want which occasions the desire may be supplied; Keep them alive, and they will keep you alive; Sharpen and whet them as men doe indifferent stomacks with vine­gar; Sense of sinne, and desire of grace are ex­cellent [Page 297] preparatives to this Supper.

§. 6 Fifthly, Love to fellow-members of the body of Christ, For we are all partakers of that one bread, 1 Cor. 10. 17. If we eat together all of one loaf, let us love them with whom we have this fellow­ship and Communion. The Love-fea [...]s of the Primitive Church are read of, but alas they are lost; I mean not the feasts, but the Love, and in stead thereof, In joelix lolium, unhappy feuds, quarrels, divisions, rents abound, as if we were not children of one Table. Corinth is come into England, I hear that when you come together in the Church, there are divisions among you, 1 Cor. 11. 18. Ours are wider divisions, we doe not come together in the Church, one Table is pro­phane to another, and yet the Apostle faith, If I have all Faith, If I suffer death, without Chari­ty, I am nothing, it profits me nothing, 1 Cor. 13. 2, 3. It's almost Popery to speake of Cha­rity; By this shall all men know that ye are my Di­sciples, if ye love one another, saith Christ: And this was the old marke, but truely it's almost worne out; Oh let us revive it at this Sacra­ment; where God seales the pardon of our Ta­lents, Let's learne to forgive the pence of our brethren. Of all sinnes, the Apostle interprets the Leaven to be purged out, of malice, 1 Cor. 5. 8. Purge out malice; For Love is the cement of this Fellowship and Communion of mem­bers, which are supposed to have one life, be­caUse nourisht with the same nourishment, that is Christ.

§. 7 [Page 298]Sixthly, The last grace I will speak of, which is here to be exercised, or call it rather a duty, if you please, It's Thankfulnesse, without which the memorial or remembrance of Christs death is but a dry and fruitlesse commemoration. Humility makes thankfull; The Samaritane Leper return'd to give thanks; He was more remote from expecta­tion of cure, and therefore the more thankfull; The sense of our own unworthinesse, and of the great disproportion between Christ and us, may raise up our thanksgiving to a higher flame. The low­est hearts rise highest in gratitude, pride and merit are unthankfull.

And so I have showne you those graces, which being exercised, doe fit us to receive worthily, and set the heart in tune to this Ordinance. The Lord satisfie you with the fatnesse of his hoUse, and make you drink of the river of his pleasures, Psal. 36. 8.

CHAP. XXVI. Motives to quicken Endeavours to a fit or worthy Participation of this Ordinance.

§. 1 Uſe. THat which remains of this Point, is, that I excite and awaken all endeavours to a fit or worthy participation of this Ordinance. The modus orandi, or manner how the Sacrament works, or contributes to spiritual grace, is not of vulgar disquisition. I signified to you last day, that Questions de modo in all parts of Divinity, are usually difficult to unty. All confesse that Sacraments work by institution of God, as the brazen Serpent healed the fiery sting, but that is yet too short; For doth Gods institution elevate the nature of the Sacrament to produce the effect? Then is that effect plainly miraculous, and the faith of miracles should be required; Or doth the institu­tion of God appoint the signification and Obsignation of the Sacrament in such and such an Use of it? This indeed is according to rule of Schools and of our Divines, Modus operandi sequitur modum significan­di, and then it's plain, that there must be somewhat in the Communicant, both to understand their signi­fication, [Page 300] and to receive the Obsignation and sealing by the Use of them, for otherwise they are but [...], empty names, as an Hebrew word to an English ear, and hence it is that, I say, the capacity must be excited and awakened for the fit participation of this Sacra­ment, or else it's nothing to us but bread and wine, and the spiritual benefit is lost.

That you may have alwayes at hand (as a fyle to sharpen your endeavours.) some brief Motives and Reasons to awaken you; I shall briefly recite and offer to you these few.

Motive I.

1. That as your coming worthily may yeeld a great improvement of your spiritual state, so your coming unworthily may adde much to your guilt and con­demnation; The same passage through the red sea was safe to the Israelites by faith, the Egyptians assaying to do the like were all drowned, Heb. 11. 29. Let no man say, Why may not I receive good by the Sacrament, as well as any other, for the Egyptians [...], trying conclusions were drowned; The same Sacra­ment, like the Cloud, is to one the refreshing shadow, to another the consuming fire; The bread as broken, is the Communion of the body of Christ, 1 Cor. 10. 16. and yet, he that eats unworthily, eats condemnation to himself, 1 Cor. 11. That which is Manna to a believ­er, is to a Judas poison, as the Ancients speak, and all this is vitio sumentis, through the sin of the receiver who eats Quails under wrath, Psal. 78. 31. and sits down to Haman's feast, Esth. 7.

Motive II.

2. Though a Christian is not altogether to judge of his receiving worthily by the fruitfull successe and benefit which he findes, but by the exercise of his grace, and by his sacramental disposition, yet the fruit doth not follow, except there be a right Use, and wor­thy participation of the Ordinance. Some are so child­ish, and such spiritual sensualists, that if they have not sensible and sweet joy or comfort, or a present remo­val of their thorn, they conclude they come unwor­thily. It's our fault, that as Israel in the wildernesse, we limit God to give that we desire, or else murmur and think we have nothing: So it is in this Sacrament, and so in our prayers we are passionately desirous of serving even our own lusts, Jam. 4. 3. The after-fruit cannot be the measure of our worthy receiving, but the present gracious frame of spirit, and exercise of our graces: As by fair and beautifull children we can­not judge of lawfull marriage, but by consent decla­red, and ritely given at the present time, and yet the fruit and benefit comes not, but in and by the way of receiving worthily, we judge of our selves to be fit guests by the wedding garment, not the sweet taste of the Supper, and yet we cannot sit down and eat, ex­cept we have the wedding garment. We love a sweet willing disposition in a childe, ready to do what it can, than alwayes to be crying for plums. God highly prizes those that set on work their obediential graces, to Observe the Law of any Ordinance, and perform it: for if we can lust for quails, and yet murmur at the way of the wildernesse, we are too like the carnal [Page 302] Israelites; There is in all spirituall joyes, comforts and raptures, two parts, the one is the fruition of the sweet of them, the other is the serviceable Use of them to oil the wheels, and with more freedome to perform hardest duties of obedience. Now if in this latter respect we improve or seek them, it's farre the better to like in any Christian, for it's Gods part or share, The joy of the Lord is your strength, yet duty is the door by which reward enters, as reaping comes by sowing, They that sow to the Spirit, shall of the Spi­rit reap life everlasting, Gal. 6. 8.

Motive III.

3. There is a sacramental disposition requisite to a Sacramental Communion, and it is a very spiritual disposition, as the Communion is spiritual: This di­sposition is not one single grace, but a complexion or temperament made up of divers ingredients, which are not all distinctly and eminently acted by every man at this present, but some of them, as occasion and ne­cessity may require. I have already shown you them in general, and told you, that they are bespoken by the Sacrament it self, and as it were deduced from it. This Sacrament affords us the communion of Christs death, where his body broken, and bloud shed are set before us; Here we communicate of a dying Christ, in heaven we shall have him as a Tree of life. This is that epulum foederale, or Covenant-feast made for confederates, God is one party, and the faithfull are the other, and both parties of confederates do (sic dicam) partake of the same foederal Sacrifice, Christ Jesus, the bloud of the Sacrifice is offer'd up to God. [Page 303] The same bloud in the Sacrament is offer'd and given to us, as it's said, Exod. 24. 6. Moses took half the blood and sprinkled it on the Altar, and he sprinkled the other on the people, and said, Behold the bloud of the Covenant. If we understood the Ordinance, we should easily agree, that a sacramental disposition is a very spiritual disposition, and requires the very purest addresses that we can make to it, where God himself entertains his people with no other cheer than which satisfies himself, and will have them taste of that which he himself is pleased and delighted with, that is (I say again) Christ Jesus. Now in this so near approach to God, ye have an excellent Rule, as in all other ap­proaches, Levit. 10. 3. I will be sanctified in them that come nigh me, the case was, that two Priests had taken strange or other fire, not Gods fire from his Altar, but other fire, common fire, and so themselves became the Sacrifice, for God will not be slighted. If we bring fire, and it be not his own but ours, we may be consumed by it, but he not pleased. To which end and purpose, that we be not found in this case, and under this wrath, I shall endeavour to shew you that strange fire, or those false and insufficient qualificati­ons which men draw nigh to God in this Sacrament withall, to their own hurt and prejudice.

CHAP. XXVII. False and insufficient Qualificati­ons for the Receiving of this Sa­crament.

§. 1 A Fair carriage of outward life, or a good com­plexion of moral vertues is not a sacramental disposition; but rather shew a plethorick constitution, a self-fulnesse, a self-righteousnesse, which are the greatest Obstructions against Christ that can be: I confesse grace often dwels in a worse hoUse, and in rougher natures and constitutions; but all the starres do not make day. The metal of these vertues is very good, but they want a superscription upon them; there may be nothing of Christ, and he that comes worthily to this Sacrament must have somewhat of Christ in him; or must be in some necessity of him, that he may eat with sour herbs; A man may come with lesse sinne unworthily, I say lesse, than a wor­thy Communicant; For it's not the number or qua­lity of sinne, but the sense of, and repentance for it, that is here considerable; A bottle stopt with gold receives not so much as an empty shell; it's Christ that must be in your eye and thirst, or else your fire is strange fire.

II. A man may be humiliatus, not humilis, humb­led not humble; The Angels that sinn'd were tum­bled down into a lower place without any abatement of their God-opposing pride, man-opposing malice: If God pound thee in a mortar by crosses, pains, mi­series, dreadfull horrours of conscience, yet pride lives, an argument whereof is, thou wilt not adven­ture thy soul on free-grace without something to re­commend thee to it, and he that hath nothing else will have his misery to be his worthinesse, and the murmurings which a broken estate, and broken bo­dy and spirit do belch forth, what are they but fumes and smoke of pride: Cut a Bee in pieces, yet she puts forth her sting; There are many long for humbling breaches, smarting sorrows, and it may be their inten­tion is good, but the bottom is merit and pride most commonly, they would make their humiliations their Christ: Alas, if God should charge but one sin in his full weight on thee, it would break thee as a great stone an egge-shell. Did it not so in Angels? Who would be a Pharaoh, Cain, or Judas? Is not broken iron, broken ice hard still as ever? But true humility is a Leveller, there are (2 Cor. 10. 5.) two things [...], Every high thing, and that is ta­ken away, and [...], every device, and that is brought into captivity, not only to the salvation, but to the obedience of Christ; The metal must be melt­ed as well as broken, and it's enough melted, when it will runne into the mold, and take the impression: Is the will conquer'd and changed to receive Gods Image, Submit to Christ his righteousnesse, and to his Soveraignty, to receive the promises, and take up the yoke of crosses and commandments? Art thou [Page 306] humbled for sinne and hatest it, humbled under thy own righteousnesse, and castest it out? Art thou wil­ling to take Christ a Saviour and a Lord, to have him, and be his, not on terms of thine own▪ but terms of the Covenant? Draw nigh to God, this is not strange fire, for it hath melted thee, and not only tormented thee.

III. Thou findest in thy self a faith, whereby thou assentest to the goodnesse and veracity of God, the truth and all-sufficiency of Christ, the whole tenour of the Covenant, and Doctrine of the Gospel. I say with James Chap. 2. 19. Thou believest that God is one, [...] thou doest well, [...], so believe the devils; They have so great knowledge and con­viction, that they believe more than we do, becaUse they know more, but this faith hath no seat in the will, or at least draws it not to election of the good things believed to be; A man may be called an or­thodox believer, by vertue of this faith, and it is sides recta, not vera, a right faith not a true, sana, but not salvifica, sound faith, but not saving, if thou bring this faith only, thou shalt receive only the outward signe, for it is a seeing eye, but not a receiving hand, and many shallow effects it may have by vertue of the general mercies and promises of God, but the Sacra­ment saith, Take, Eat, and therefore there is besides this a Christ-receiving or a Christ-accepting faith, for not to those that believed by meer conviction, John 2. 23. did Christ impart himself, but to as many as received him, Joh. 1. 12. Weaknesse of faith in our times is properly said of this manner of believing. It's the receiving hand that shakes with the palsie; Few complain of weaknesse of faith historical, nor [Page 307] of the hardnesse of it, becaUse it's not encountred with discouragements, sins, temptations, as saving faith is, becaUse the whole adventure of the soul lies upon it, and God knows when we come to shoot the gulf, and to renounce all false hopes, or true fears, and cast our selves on Christ, we do it with great difficulty, for without Gods attraction it's impossi­ble; and this is the faith which we must be exercised in, and which is confirmed by this Sacrament, and a rare faith it is, even in the believing world; For it gives up man to Christ, as well as receives Christ; And the dis-interessing of self-love, and the interessing of Christ into preheminence and government is very rare and infrequent; For I count that no receiving of Christ, which divides him, and takes so much as self-love would serve it self upon, but brings not every thought into captivity to the obedience of him.

IV. If thou finde in thy affections any appearances or seeming impressions of grace, be not over-credu­lous till the bottom be searched, for there lies abun­dance of self-love, and self-interest, even when there is a good countenance and fore-side; as in the zeal of Jehu, which carried in the fore-head of it, The Lord of hosts, but there was a byas within that wheeled to­wards his own interest, I shall name but four, and that briefly.

§ 2 1. The love of God which is a reflex of his first love to us; As the Sun-beams which come from the wall are the reflex of the beams that first smite upon it, and there may be a love of God upon terms of his beneficence, providence, patience, general good­nesse to mankinde without any love of Christ in sin­cerity, [Page 308] which is upon special and distinguishing grounds, for that love of God which is over-topt by self-love, is not accounted love of God, but rather a lust of serving our selves upon him, which is the last resort of the love of most men to God, but it may be distinguisht thus, If it arise from the sense of that distinguishing love of God to thy soul, whereby he hath drawn thee to Christ out of the pit of common perdition, and that without any worthinesse in thee, or contributions of thine to that inestimable grace, yea notwithstanding that contrariety and opposition to him, wherein thou wast above many others inga­ged, the very thought whereof doth ever inflame the heart unto a mans dying day: If it be a love to God for his holinesse and his sanctification of thee to bear his Image, and to be like him: If it be a love of complacency and friendship, to delight thy self in God, and to affect Union and Communion with him: If it produce a willingnesse to confederate with him, and to be in league, against all interests of the flesh and world: I love my master, I will not go out free, or be at my own freedom.

2. The second affection is desire of grace, and of spiritual things. I conceive there may be a carnal desire of things spiritual, and carnal prayers for spiri­tual gifts, namely to consume them upon our lusts of pride and vain-glory, which is the desire of Simon Magus; a desire to die the death of the righteous, which was the wish of Balaam, a desire of forgive­nesse of sinne to be freed from condemnation by meer self love, a desire of heaven too, to open unto us, for happinesse not holinesse or communion with God, a desire comfort to anguish of conscience, and that [Page 309] rather for ease, than for grace, a desire of grace it self, as a necessary bridge unto, or signe of salvation; Give us of your oyl (say they) for our lamps are out; Many fallacies may be in our desires, and yet I account them, when they are refined from drosse, to be most comfortable signes of spiritual life, for Christ makes thirsting after rightcousnesse the character of a blessed man, Matth. 5. and the Apostle makes them a fruit of repentance, 2 Cor. 7. 11. and a signe of regencration, 1 Pet. 2. 2. if they arise from a taste of the graciousnesse of God, and carry on to the sincere Word for growth in grace, and be spent in endeavours of obedience, and exercise of communi­on with God, equally longing to be Christs, as to have Christ: He that shall deny to a poor soul the comfort of such desires puts out the spark that smokes in the wick of the candle, when the flame is gone out before.

3. The third affection is fear, the fear of the ter­rours of the Lord, and those punishments which ac­cording to his threats wait upon sinne. Estius pro­pounds the case, Whether a man under servile fear may come to the Lords Supper? And answers, No, but with distinction, the fear of wrath may be Used as a bridle to curb the insolency and luxuriency of the flesh, by saying hell and damnation close to it, and so the regenerate, whose flesh is impetuous, may make Use of this fear to restrain the propension of it, but then if this fear be meerly of punishment, so that were it not for that, he would with all his heart give himself over to commit iniquity with greedinesse, then it's plain, that the willingnesse to sinne lives, and this horrour of conscience nothing at all changes the inclination of the will, no more than the whip or [Page 310] chain doth the nature of a Fox or Wolf, and the case is no other than that of a childe that will colly him­self with the cole that's black and dead, but dare not touch the fire▪ cole which burnes his fingers, and there is no comfort in such restraints from sinne, nor have such feares any sparke of grace in them.

4. The fourth affection is sorrow for sinne, which may be worldly and carnal, and no other than Pha­roah his, Take away this plague; or the pangs of a whore that returns to folly; But there is a sorrow according to God, which works repentance unto sal­vation, and brings forth those seven fruits, 2 Cor. 7. 11. which change the frame of the heart, a happy mother of so many good children: These are the pangs of a godly soul, and it is one of the first steps unto, or parts of the Resurrection of a Christian from his fals, and is caUsed not meerly by wrath, but as Peters weeping was by the looks of Christ; The re­proofs, the frowns, the offence of a gracious God, thaws the heart into melting tears, and would do so, though there were no hell; As a meek childe needs no other hoUse of correction than his fathers looks. I am loath to be of that opinion which banishes godly sorrow out of Religion; For if I were so happy as to want new matter and occasion for it, yet sometimes to review old forgiven sins, and the rather, becaUse for­given with fresh bleeding heart, doth excellently keep down swelling of pride, and gives a fresh and new relish to Christ Jesus, so the overflowing stoods do en­rich the adjacent grounds, and make them fresh and greene. And so much concerning these affe­ctions.

[Page 311]V. The fifth Consideration is of purposes of a­mendment, which we named before, among the pre­paratives to this Sacrament, which there are few but have at one time or other, and men do exceedingly befool and flatter themselves in them; For we have known that upon conviction of conscience and shame, for many years together by fits and moods, and for the skinning over some gallings of conscience, men flie to purposes of repentance, and put them on, and binde themselves by vows or other bonds, to doe no more, and yet experience tels us, that Sampson did not easilier break the cords that bound him than these men do break their purposes, and cancell all bonds and re­solutions, and so a sick mans purposes are very often no other than the vows of a Mariner in a storm at sea, who for the time will be or do any thing, but when the danger is blown over, they are as they were. You ask, What such are to do? And the answer is ready, Resolution without mortification is to little purpose, the lust must be mortified that carries the sway and dominion; For as the purposes of a man in his lucid intervals, or of one that hath the Falling sicknesse to fall no more, is to little purpose, without some appli­cation to the disease that still lies within, and will re­turn and break all dams that are made by the streame of it; so are resolutions upon conviction of consci­ence without effectual exercise of mortification by setting upon that root and lust which between whiles doth but sleep, and will awaken again. Let the pati­ent see and search his sinne, and apply the corzy of the Law, and Use those sharp medicines which eat out a rotten core, and follow that sharp work of mortifica­tion, or else all is to little purpose.

[Page 312]VI. The last thing I mention'd was thankfulnesse, a grace proper to the Eucharist, which signifies thank­fulnesse, and is the denomination of this Sacrament, wherein thanksgiving is so eminently required and ex­ercised, and it rises either from the general ground, or from the special; The general is Gods Philan­thropy, which shews it self in a sic dilexit, by giving Christ a Saviour to us, and not to the Angels that sinn'd, and is worthy to fill our hearts and mouths with admiration to all eternity; But the special ground is Gods incorporation of us particularly into Christ by giving that differencing grace, which di­stinguishes not from Devils, but from reprobates and hypocrites, and all that are called, but not chosen, which is a mark of special favour▪ Thanksgiving for this shall be the work of heaven, where we shall bet­ter understand and look upon our former misery, as a fyle to set off and illustrate our glorious redemption, and to this tune ought our hearts to be set here, For in this rejoyce not, that the devils fall before you, but that your names are written in heaven; and we have caUse while we are in this lower orb to be thankfull, for the least mustar-seed of faith and grace, whose work is to set a byas upon the will, to chUse God, and set up his interest above all interests of self or world, and he keeps this spark alive in worst times by no lesse a mi­racle than a spark of fire in the sea, and that he inables this little grace to fight and combate (and that is in Scripture to conquer) against the powerfull fears and oppressions of the world, and the powerfull allure­ments of lust, and ease, and pleasures of sinne, which is a Sunshine that usually puts out our fire more easily than cold and nipping frosts, which rather make it [Page 313] hotter, and this is the meaning of that phrase, He will not quench, &c. till he send forth judgement unto vi­ctory; The smoak ends in victory.

Motive IV.

After this digression, the fourth Motive or Consi­deration follows, exciting endeavour to come to this Sacrament in a sacramental disposition, and that is ta­ken from the benefit or fruit of it to a worthy receiver; for the exercise of grace is well rewarded, and the la­bour and pains bestowed in preparation or trimming of our Lamps, is paid to us in the fruit and benefit of this Ordinance; And therefore, since as Bellarmine acknowledges the Question about the effect is of so near a kin to the preparation unto this Sacrament, I shall briefly touch the point of the fruit and benefit thereof, and that in these two points,

  • 1. That there is a great benefit and fruit of this Or­dinance.
  • 2. What that fruit and benefit is.

CHAP. XXVIII. The fruit and benefit of Worthy Re­ceiving.

§. 1 1. THere is a great benefit of this Sacrament to them that communicate therein preparedly; though all be not agreed, what the benefit is, as may be seen by the Doctrine of the Papists, the Socinians, the Orthodox, yet that there is a benefit, few will deny; and if it be denied, the sensible experience of many godly Christians doth attest it, to which expe­rience the Apostle sometimes appeals, saying, Gal. 3. [...]. This onely would I learn of you; and for others that will not own their experiences, or have them not, Reason may convince them, That as God made no Uselesse creature, so he ordains no fruitlesse insti­tutions, that this Ordinance being instituted for the Use of his select people and confederates, and that at such a time as our Lord Christ had the very powers of darknesse to encounter with, therefore it is an Ordi­nance of some moment, which began at the death, and stands in force until the second coming of Christ, and if nothing else could be said, this is enough. That the guilt and danger of receiving unworthily being so dreadfull, there must in Reason be some proportion [Page 315] of benefit and fruit to the receiving worthily, which Reason may convince any rational man, that there is not only a good, but that good is of very great pro­portion and degree, and that ye shall not come for fruit to a barren fig-tree.

I have Reason to demonstrate both these points:

  • 1. That there is a benefit.
  • 2. What that is.

Reason (I say) to shew that there is a benefit.

§. 2. That there is much benefit by Worthy Receiving.

§. 2 1. Least this Sacrament of so great moment be vi­lified and brought to contempt, as a dry teat or em­pty vessel, they must needs neglect both the Use of this Sacrament, and all preparation thereunto that undervalue it, as fruitlesse and not beneficial; Who will take any pains to go to a dry Well that hath no water in it? It's vain to urge preparations on them that are not perswaded of any benefit in it; And though I will not dispute, Whether the supream Lord may not oblige his creature, man, for probation and trial of his obedience, to a duty whence no other be­nefit should redound, but the very duty of obedience, As if he oblige Abraham by a Law to sacrifice his sonne, yet I conceive that Gods standing Ordinan­ces and Laws, do not only oblige a duty, but intend a benefit, and thereby invite obedience, as it's said, Deut. 10. 13. What doth the Lord require of thee, but to keep his Commandments for thy good? And that therefore there is a benefit of the right Use of this Sa­crament, by which we may lawfully be excited and [Page 316] impell'd to Observe the Ordinance, as we climb the tree for the fruit that is upon it; It's true, an unwor­thy Communicant reaps no other benefit than some­what that is like that which the Apostle cals, the ad­vantage and profit of the Jew, Rom. 3. 1. Rom. 9. 4. viz. Tabulas & sigilla foederis, the Tables and Seals of the Covenant, but the Reason that he receives no inward and spiritual fruit, is not becaUse there is no water in this Well, but becaUse he hath no bucket to draw it forth; For God offers and holds forth Christ and the benefits of the Covenant, his hand is not empty, but our hand is full of sinne and self-righte­ousnesse, that we cannot receive it, for they that will receive must bring a capacity. It's a known truth, He that means to receive a benefit which is convey'd by way of Covenant, must bring the Condition of that Covenant in his hand, as he that comes to a ta­ble brings life and stomack.

I know there are some, and they godly, that fear, or haply will boldly affirm, that they were never sensible of the benefit of this Sacrament; They hear of good fruit, but they have not tasted it, and therefore their edge is dull and flat to the receiving of it. To which I answer this, That if there be an exercise of the gra­ces required in the act of receiving, they may not de­ny the fruit of the Ordinance, becaUse they are not so clearly sensible at the present, for haply they limit God to the present time, or confine their expectations to some particular fruit, as elevation of heart, sensi­ble comfort, clear assurance, or the like, which be­caUse they finde not, they think they have nothing. I have shew'd you before, That God answers the ex­pectations and satisfies the necessity of his people by [Page 317] giving some other grace than we would have, or have our eye upon, as Pauls prayers were answer'd in suf­ficient grace, not the removing of the thorn; We cry for comfortable signs, and God gives o­bediential and serviceable graces; We look for spiritual gifts, he gives humbling grace; We would have conQuest of sinne, God gives power to encounter it; We look for lively grace, and God keeps grace alive; We expect at present, God after­ward gives us it; in bodily nourishment it's not pos­sible for a man to tell what degree of nourishment he received by such a meal, yet he findes that he lives, and is strengthned, and he may be nourisht by that which he doth not relish with delight. As for those that upon pretence of spirit and spirituality have cast off Ordinances, as fruitlesse unto them, I should wish they would consider, whether they be not rather besides their wits, than above Ordinances, seeing Christ himself doth not onely by his institution but example, commend this Sacrament unto us, as a standing Ordinance, for the whole Church untill he come, and so hath commended the Ministry also, till we all come to a full stature, Ephes. 4. 11. I would know how that spirit which hath carried them to the pinacle of the Temple, and hath set them above Or­dinances, or that witnesses to them without graces, can be proved to be the Spirit of Christ, and if they would shew us how they can live without meat and drink too, there would be some hope that they might be starved into their senses and right minds.

§. 3 So much for the first, That there is a fruit and be­nefit by this Ordinance: And now to the second, [Page 318] What that benefit is, and I have Reason to shew what it is.

1. BecaUse superstitious and carnal persons do ex­pect what they have no warrant to expect, perverting the Use of this Sacrament to other intents and ends, than it hath by institution of Christ; The sick man too superstitiously conceives that the opus operatum is a viaticum, that will pay his fare for a present pas­sage into heaven, or that it is like a Popish shrift that blots out all sinne, and wipes off the old score. If in stead of making the right Use we idolize the brazen Serpent, and worship it, what is it but superstition? which to avoid, the only way is to minde the institu­tion, and the end thereof, or else we shall look for that which God never intended to convey by it, as Eve was deceived in the fruit of the Tree she are of.

2. BecaUse commonly men have confUsed thoughts of a benefit, but they know not what; They think it's good for something, but they know not what, and so do as it were take physick meerly upon trust, not knowing what is in it; Hence is that awfulnesse of this Ordinance with all men, they must be holy now at this time, they must not follow their wicked and loose wayes; They are going to the Sacrament, and they go with an ignorant reverence, not knowing what is either the fruit or the danger of it. So much for the first.

§. 4. What the Benefit is.

§. 4 Now to that point, What the effect, as some call it, or the fruit and benefit of this Sacra­ment is?

I answer generally, and then more particu­larly. 1. Generally.

1. The benefit of the Sacrament is of an higher nature than these creatures are able to convey, and therefore they are stampt and made instrumental by an institution of God; It had been both vain and su­perstitious to have expected spiritual benefit by the Use of these elements, had not the word of institution given a new relation to them, which without it they have not. There might a similitude or representation have bin borrowed to signifie the sufferings of Christ, but that would not have made a Sacrament, any more than marriage representing the mystical union of Christ and the Church is therefore a Sacrament; There must be a promise and a command of God ad­ded to the visible creature, whereby the Use of it to such a purpose is warranted and authorized, there­fore we must look higher than the outward elements, or their power; An Axe is more than iron; A Seal is more than wax; Gods institution renders the crea­tures of bread and wine (which as Bellarmine notes, though two elements are but one instrument or seal) Usefull to spiritual effects, not by elevating their na­tures, as the iron or wax being instruments are not elevated to any efficacy, as physical instruments, but by appointing their Use and working by them, there­fore that Question, How can bread and wine, How can water reach or touch the soul is impertinent? for it refers to a natural causation; but moral relation needs no contact, there is a benefit follows upon the right Use of them, which comes not through them tanquam per canalem but from God by the Use of such means, as an estate is convey'd from the donor by a seal of wax.

[Page 310]2. The benefits and blessings promised in the Co­venant of Grace are sealed, and the graces of the Co­venant are improved in a believer by this Ordinance, Christ, Christ crucified, or rather in crucifying, to­gether with such benefits as are immediately sealed in his death, reconciliation, redemption, remission of sinnes, as on Gods part offered to a sinner, are here Obsignate and sealed: And faith in Christ, repentance from dead works, &c. are here exercised, excited, confirmed, renewed, the main fundamental and es­sential benefits and graces which are in most necessary order to salvation, are here in act, not such things as some Christians have, and some have not, But the common necessaries of the Covenant, both on Gods part and ours, without which no Christian can be saved; And therefore I cannot but wonder, that many well-meaning souls should fix their eyes on such benefits or gifts to be given in this Sacrament, as are not [...] to a Christian, but eminencies of some, and not of all; they look for gifts of prayer, of memory, freedom from passions, some Parts or En­dowments, which they see others excell in, and if they gain not these, they gain nothing, they are un­worthy, &c. Alas that you should so mistake, I tell you, Covenant-benefits, Covenant graces, the ra­dicals, the vitals, are they which receive improve­ment here; here is Christ offer'd, and faith is quick­ned; here Christ crucified is exhibited, and here re­pentance is renewed, the main benefits that God can give, the main graces that we can have, such as are essential, without which salvation is not. This I would have Observed for the honour of the Ordinance, and the quickning of addresse to it.

And another thing also, viz. That when you hear us Use the words exhibit, convey, conferre, afford grace or spiritual benefits: You are to understand, that this is not per modem emplastri, seu medicae potionis, not as a natural agent, but per modum sigilli, or Sacra­menti, in a way proper to a Sacrament; As we say, an estate passes by the Seal, that is, is assured or confirm­ed, or as we say the promise or contract passes by a Ring, words which every one understands; and doubt­lesse the benefit and fruit of the Sacrament is afforded in a peculiar way; As the Word, besides begetting grace, doth also incRease and confirm, but not in the same way as the Sacrament doth; as it may be the same bargain that passes by promise, by oath, by earnest, by seal, yet these are several wayes of certioration; so it's the same grace that's nourisht by the Sacra­ment, as by the Word, but the way is divers; That of the Sacrament is by way of sign and seal, that of the Word by way of Promise or Covenant-agree­ment; nay the two Sacraments themselves do differ in their proprieties, Baptism seals the Covenant by way of initiation, and the Lords Supper by way of nutrition or augmentation. God did not make or multiply Ordinances at random without their distinct and peculiar Use, for the exhibiting to us the same Christ, the same graces, the same benefits, as men have several wayes of assurance making, one to another.

§. 5. What is done to a Worthy Receiver by Christ.

§. 5 So much generally. For the particular, we shall consider,

  • 1. What is here done.
  • 2. What is hence received.

For the first, There is here done by Christ two things, and answerably two things by a believer in Christ.

Two things principally are here done by God, or by Christ.

  • 1. Christ crucified is really exhibited to the faith of a believer.
  • 2. The gracious Covenant which God hath made in Christ is sealed to a believer.

1. Christ crucified, together with all those bene­fits More particu­larly. that ensue upon his death, is really exhibited to a believer; for there is not a meer representation, or empty figure, but a real and true exhibition of Christ himself, as broken for our sinnes. The word accipite, Take ye, Eat ye, does evidently confirm it to us; If there were only a resemblance or figurative represen­tation, then See ye, were more properly said, but Take, Eat, this is my body, plainly shews, that Christ himself is here given to a believer. I think we look so much on the representation, that we forget the exhibition, and therefore should labour to con­clude, that Christ himself, as in the state of a re­deeming Saviour is truly and indeed holden forth and presented to our faith, as verily as any benefit can be offer'd and holden forth by one man to another. This body and bloud was really offer'd up to God for us, which is in this Sacrament really offer'd and applied [Page 323] to us by our faith: Answerable to this exhibition of Christ himself, the believer performs an act of Com­munion, 1 Cor. 10. 16. partaking of the body and bloud of Christ in a spiritual sense, for spiritual nou­rishment, incRease and building up; for the new crea­ture is fed and maintain'd by Christ, and by vertue of union with him, we have communion, as the Vine­branches by their union with the Vine, receive sap and nourishment; So as we have not graces without Christ, nor benefits without Christ, but first in or­der of nature we have union as members of him, and then of his fulnesse we receive; For a Christian is like a branch that hath nothing of its own, but what it receives from the root, as it self springs from the root, so the incRease and growth of it is from the root also; He is as the Moon, which, as appears in the Eclypse, hath no light of it self, but incReases and comes to full; as it receives from the Sunne; Let no man think that a believer hath no further Use of Christ after his first believing and receiving of him, for then this Sacrament would not be Usefull, the effect where­of, as Durand saith, is not absolutely necessary to salvation, as if one could not be in a state of salvati­on without it, becaUse it serves for confirmation of one that is already in a saving state; and it's plain, that a great part of Christs Office is exercised in preser­ving and continuing of them in him, who are alrea­dy members of him, and therefore is the finisher as well as authour of our faith, for we live in him, and from him, and our grace is maintain'd by emanations from Christ, as the light by continual emanations from the Sunne, and therefore this Ordinance of Communion of Christ, and the exercise of such acts [Page 324] of communion are of prime Use and benefit, as the branch that shoots from the Tree, grows and lives from that root which gave to it the first being by a contrived influx of sap into it. And this is the first combination of Gods act, and of ours.

2. The second combination is, The gracious Co­venant which God hath made in Christ, is sealed to a believer; The common nature of a Sacrament is to be a seal of Justification or Righteousnesse with God by faith in Christ, Rom. 4. 11. As a seal refers to some Covenant, so the Sacrament refers to Gods Covenant with man, which is this, That God pro­mises to accept into favour, and into his propriety all that do believe in, and receive Christ, and to bestow upon them all the blessings and benefits thereof. God gives Christ in way of Covenant; He covenants with Christ our Lord, that he should give his soul an offering and a Sacrifice for sin, and in so doing should see his seed, Isa. 53. 10. So Arminius in this point is orthodox. Of this Covenant the death or bloud of Christ is the Condition which Christ accepted and per­formed.

The Covenant of God with us is, That all that believe in Christ that died, and receive him for their Lord and Saviour, shall have remission of sins, &c. and of this Covenant the bloud of Christ is the ratification, as the Testators death ratifies the Will or Testament, for it is bloud that doth [...], dedicate the Testa­ment, Heb. 9. 18. and so in the words of this Chapter, This Cup is the New Testament (or Covenant) in my bloud, viz. [...], dedicated thereby, and this bloud we receive in this Sacrament, as the Seal of the gracious Covenant made with us; So that if [Page 325] doubts arise concerning the reality of God, and sure­nesse of this Covenant that speaks so much grace and mercy, we look upon and take hold of this Seale of bloud, and are thereby setled, and therein acquiesce.

Answerable to this act of God, the believer ac­cepts of, and submits to this Covenant and the Con­ditions of it, viz. to believe, and to have God for our God, and thereof makes a solemn profession in this Sacrament, giving up himself to Christ, as Lord and Saviour, restipulating and striking hands with him, to be his, and so bindes himself, and doth as it were seal a counterpart to God again, and not onely so, but comes into a claim of all the riches and lega­cies of the Will or Covenant, becaUse he hath acce­pted and here declares his acceptance of the Cove­nant. The Seal is indeed properly of that which is Gods part of the Covenant to perform and give, and is no more but offer'd, untill we subscribe and set our hands to it, and then it's compleat, and the benefits may be claimed, as the benefit of any conditional promise may be, when the condition is performed; And least you should stumble at that word, I must let you know, That the Will accepting and submit­ting to the conditions, is the performance of the con­ditions required, and so the gracious God that might pro imperio, require duty and allegiance of his crea­ture, condescends to us to enter into a Covenant of Grace with us, and vouchsafes us the honour of com­ing into Covenant with him, that so he might settle and maintain a communion and correspondence be­tween himself and his people, and there might be a mutual bond of engagement each to other, which [Page 326] is solemnly professed, as often as we meet with God in this Sacrament, becaUse we are so apt to disbelieve and waver about his promises, and to halt and de­cline from our obligations to him. And this is the se­cond combination of action, according to that which is to be remembred at every sealing day, (the Sacrament is a sealing day) Deut. 26. 17. Thou hast avouched the Lord this day to be thy God, and to walk in his wayes, &c. And the Lord hath avou­ched thee to be his peculiar people, as he hath pro­mised thee. So much for the first, What is here done.

§. 6. What is here Received by the Worthy Communicant.

§. 6 2. I come to the second, What is here received, and I do not mean to say, what every believer doth sensibly receive, but what God hath appointed by this Sacrament to convey, and what may be received by a believer in the right Use of it, not alwayes to his own sense, but according to the nature of this Or­dinance.

I will not say that which some affirm (but it is A­pocryphal) of the Manna which the Israelites did eat, that it had the taste that every man desired; But this I may say, that as Calvin of himself, When I have Instit. l. 4. c. 17. §. 7. said all, I have said but little, the tongue is over­come, yea the minde is overwhelmed; I say then in one word,

1. Christ is here received, the body and bloud of Christ into intimate Union, as the nourishment of our souls. What is more ours than the meat we eat? [Page 327] What is more nearly joyn'd to us, than that which becomes part of our selves? The Scripture by the language it Useth hath even overcome our apprehen­sions; A man may eat the fruit that hath no interest in the Tree, but here the believing eater grows into the Tree, he that drinks, drinks the fountain, he comes to a closer Union with the conduit-pipe of all grace, the flesh of Jesus Christ; You know the best meat and drink doth you no good, except it be made your own; nor is Christ of worth, except he be ours, he is, as if he were not. Tolle meum, tolle Deum, we must be happy by a Christ within us, Know you not that Christ is in you, except you be Reprobates, 2 Cor. 13. 5. There was a croud toucht Christ, but vertue went out of him to none but one that toucht him by faith; So there is a throng about the Table, but none receive Christ, but those that by faith take and eat his crucified body. If Christ himself be here received, what spiritual grace is there that is not in him.

It is somewhat a grosse conceit to ask, How Christ in heaven, and a believer on earth can be united? For man and wife are one flesh, though a thousand miles asunder; And we know, that as the Apostle saith, Col. 2. 19. there are bands and joynts whereby the Head and every Member, the root and every branch are united, and they in this mystical union are Spirit and faith. He that is joyned to the Lord is one Spi­rit, 1 Cor. 6. 17. And so according to that strange expression, We are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones, Ephes. 5. 30 A phrase which sig­nifies that the humane nature of Christ is the root of this Union, but not to be exagitated by too [Page 328] subtill curiosity, becaUse mysticall.

2. A believer in Christ may here receive remis­sion of sinne, not veniall onely, as Papists teach, but deadly and mortall: Oh, but we may not come with such sinnes! Yes, with repentance and re­morse for them; We may bring our sinnes to the head of our Sacrifice, and put them thereupon by Bellarm. de Euch l. 4 c 18. confession. Bellarmine resolves all the difference between Papists and Protestants about the effect of this Sacrament into this, That the Papists de­ny, the Protestants hold remission of sinne to be given here, and the Papists do it in favour of their Sacrament of Pennance, that one Sacrament may not rob another, but Scripture tels us, Matth. 26. 28. This is my bloud of the New Testament which is shed for many for remission of sinne; Shed for re­mission, that's true, saith Bellarmine, not given in the Sacrament, a meer evasion, for we drink the bloud that was shed, even that which confirmes the New Testament, which promises remission of sinne. The great Argument wherein he triumphs before the victory, is, That a believer hath remis­sion of sinnes before he comes, viz by his faith in Christ, and that's true, Nemo cibum Christi ac­cipit nisi actu sanatus, but in this Sacrament the pardon passes Obsignante sigillo, before a believer is pardon'd by the Covenant; and here that pardon is seal'd, and sealed it cannot be, except it be be­fore, for the pardon of forgiven sinnes is seal'd, as Abraham received the signe of circumcision, the seale of the righteousnesse of faith, which he had before, Rom. 4. 11. And this is needfull for reliefe of our doubts, and fears, and waverings; For this [Page 329] is the great Question of anxiety, which troubles the soul; Are my sinnes pardon'd? Are my sins blotted out? And God hath, saith Chemnitius, instituted this Sacrament for solution of this Question, to the weak faith, Ecce signum, Behold the Seal, believe upon the Word, believe upon the Seal of God. Lu­ther gathers it by a gradation, The Cup is put for the Wine, the Wine signifies the bloud, the bloud is the bloud of the New Testament, Matth. 26. 28. The New Testament containes the gracious pardon of sinne to a believer; And if remission of sinne be an Article of the Covenant, the Seale must reach it▪ Therefore all that have wounded their souls with grievous sinnes be wounded again with sorrow, put off the purpose of sinning, bring re­pentance and faith, touch the hemme of Christ, receive here the pardon of sin, Question not the Seal or truth of it.

3. That I may not divide into further par­ticulars, there is by this Sacrament a commu­nication of a greater proportion of Gospel-Spi­rit, For we have been all made to drinke into one Spirit, 2 Cor. 12. 13. which Spirit plentifully be­stows his severall fruits and graces, for the grow­ing up of a member into Christ the Head in all things, Ephes. 4. 15. from whence we have not onely those Auxilia actualia, actual influences, and aids of delight, comfort, evidence, sweet tastes, powerfull motions and impressions, which Vasquez cals, grace sacramental, and saith, That Gratia Sa­cramentalis non est gratia habitualis, sed auxilia quae­dam actualia, which I conceive is an errour; For [Page 330] though a man have a sweet taste and transient delight in meat or wine, yet there is also a permanent and abiding nourishment proceeding from that he eats or drinks: So here the very habituall graces are nourisht, strengthened, excited: It may be a man at present doth not feele that strength he doth re­ceive, nor is sensible of the intention of his gra­ces: For the same Vasquez saith, Intentionem habi­tuum infusorum sub experimento humano cadere non posse; And it's true at present time; But the growth of grace manifests it selfe in time; We doe not see our selves or others grow, but that we are growne is plaine enough; nor doe we see how much the light incReases by every step of the Sunne rising higher; for our growth is gra­duall, and by imperceptible instances and de­grees, when power of resisting temptations, mor­tifie lusts, which before were too hard for us, doth appear, we may see our growth, as we see our shadowes are shortened, but how much in a minute we see not, and may say, That the gra­ces which this Ordinance requires and excites, are thereby strengthened and enlarged, and there­fore the Rule is good, What Grace thou would­est have strengthened by this Ordinance, that doe thou set on work, and exercise in it, for that is Sowing to the Spirit, as the Apostle cals it; And I make no Question but a believer shall finde the benefit of this Sacrament in his obedience also, for the fuller the Vessell is, the faster it will runne out at the tap: If the habits incRease, the fruit of obedience will be proportionable; We [Page 331] mend a barren Tree at the root, sweeten the sap there, and the Tree is more fruitfull; When Jacob had seen the sweet vision in Bethel, then he lifted up his feet, Genes. 29. 1. it put mettle in­to him.

So much for this Point, the Benefit of this Sacrament, which being dis-Used, as at this time, is a great losse to the improvement of Christi­ans, though they see it not. The Christians in persecuting times, when a storme was coming, then were they most diligent to frequent this Table, to lay in store for a hard Winter, and fortifie their resolutions. And let this Benefit be a Motive to the Use of Preparation, which was the Reason I have handled it in this place, for there is no Promise, no Benefit to one that comes to this Table unworthily.

CHAP. XXIX. The Sinfulness of Eating and Drink­ing Ʋnworthily.

§. 1 I Have said, concerning eating this Bread and drink­ing of this Cup of the Lord worthily. Now I come to the other branch, The eating and drinking unworthily; What that is hath been sufficiently open­ed already. The Antithesis or opposition between worthily and unworthily is such, as if you know the one, you know both, as he that knows what a right line is, knows what is a crooked or oblique; Worthi­ly to eat is in such manner as is answerable and suitable to the nature, end, and Use of the Ordinance, and un­worthily to eat is contrary, that is without a sacra­mental or Supper-disposition, and otherwise then is fit, that these holy mysteries be handled and intreat­ed, as I have before proved.

The Point I shall take up is this,

§. 2 To eat the bread and drink the Cup of the Lord un­worthily, is a sinne of an high Nature, and of conse­quence dangerous. It is a fearfull sinne, and attended with fearfull effect. It is of a high nature, as appears by that peculiar guilt which is contracted, he shall [Page 333] be guilty of the Body and Bloud of the Lord, it is of fearfull consequence, He eats and drinks judgement to himself. Thou seest, saith Chrysostom, [...], In loc. what a terrible word the Apostle speaks, speaks, nay thunders, so as may awake the secure soul into a trembling. The example of Nadab and Abihu, their being made Sacrifices themselves, was enough to give warning to all after them against offering of strange fire, and was the occasion of that excel­lent Rule which God gave at that time to be ob­served in all our near approaches to him, I will be san­ctified of all that come nigh me, Lev. 10. 3.

There are four things to be open'd:

1. The sin it self, viz. Eating and drinking un­worthily.

2. The caUse of the sinne, Not discerning the Lords body.

3. The aggravation of the sinne by the object and peculiar nature of it, viz. A guiltinesse of the body and bloud of Christ.

4. The danger that attends or follows upon it, He eats and drinks judgement to himself.

§. 3 1. The sinne is Eating and drinking unworthily, and it is a peculiar sinne or transgression of the Law of this Ordinance; One may do what the Law requires, and yet sinne grievously, if the manner of doing be vi­cious and corrupt; Men may be content, if the mat­ter by their Law required be done, whether with a good will or an evil, but God is not so, who values the disposition of heart, when the thing in command sometimes is not done; so he hearkned to Hezekiah his prayer for them that prepared their heart to seek God, though not legally purified, 2 Chron. 31. 19. and [Page 334] is highly displeas'd when the command, Do this, is Observed, but it is done unworthily, and therefore they say, he is pleased with benè, not meerly with bonum. The Ordinance it self is the Index or Touch­stone of unworthinesse: Here is Christ offer'd and presented to thee, and thou hast no faith; Christ bro­ken, bleeding for sinne, and thou hast no repentance; Christ for spiritual nourishment, and thou hast no appetite. The Covenant is sealed, and thou art no confederate, strengthening and refreshing grace con­vey'd, and thou art a dead man; Communion of Christs body and bloud, and thou art no member in Union with him: How unsatiable art thou to the Ordinance, and therefore eatest and drinkest un­worthily.

§. 4 This word [unworthily] may he taken two wayes, Privative and Contrary; Taken privatively, it is as much as not worthily, not suitably to the Nature and Use of the Ordinance; Taken contrarily, it is as much as wickedly, so we say, a man deals unworthily that is basely, unjustly, injuriously.

In the first sense,

He that hath no spiritual grace, and therefore can­not exercise it, or he that hath some, but doth not exercise it, may come unworthily, for the words, Take ye, eat ye, do denote, and so require the exercise and acting of our graces, such as have no grace can exercise none, as a dead body without life cannot ex­ercise an act of life, it cannot take and eat. Hear what the Schoolman saith, Statum gratiae, &c. that a state of holinesse and grace is necessary to the worthy re­ceiving of this Sacrament; And I believe the ancient Fathers were of this sense by the order of Baptism, [Page 335] the Sacrament of Regeneration going before the Sup­per an Ordinance of corroboration, and this Rule speaks plainly, no man unregenerate receives this Sa­crament worthily. It's a Doctrine of hard digestion, but hard wedges cleave hard knots, make that the point of your examination.

§. 5 Such as have some grace, and do not exercise it, but are either stupid or presumptuous, they have a wed­ding▪ garment, but do not put it on; Pride and pre­sumption of grace betrayes many a man to fin, and to come to this Table unworthily; These Corinthians were most blown up of any, and they are punisht for eating and drinking unworthily; Let no Christian be secure, as if he could not come unworthily, and so neglect the trimming of his Lamps. The best swim­mers are soonest drown'd; I would not crush the least spark of grace, I mean by having grace, that spark in the flax, and by exercise the very smoak of that spark, Christ would not let them be drown'd, whom he cals [...], o ye of little faith, he exercised his faith that Matth. 8. 26. said, Lord, I believe, help my unbelief.

In the second sense taken contrary, unworthily is

He that comes to this Table with a conscience im­brued in guilt without remorse, or lives in practice and custom of foul sins and lusts, we have such as come out of the adulterous bed, newly stept off the ale­bench; their hands are full of bribes and extortions, their mouths belch out lying, swearing and revenge, they come to the Sacrament in superstition to be shri­ven, to sin again, not in repentance to be forgiven, to go away and sin no more, their prosanenesse dreams of a cure, not of a conQuest, they are willing to leave their sins upon Christs back, only while they go and [Page 336] fetch more; There is a wretched crew of such Com­municants, that make conscience of the Sacrament, and make no conscience of those sins they live in. Ju­das came impudently, and in the purpose of horrible sinne, Parta timeat qui paria audet, saith Novarine, Let them fear the like, that dare do the like; God was not pleased with them, that did eat the same spiritual meat, and drink the same spiritual drink, the Reason is given, they were idolaters, and committers of fornica­tion, and other enormous sinnes, 1 Cor. 10. And who, you will say, can come without sinne? I say, there are remaining sinnes in the regenerate, but not reserved sinnes: If you hold the course and custom of those sinnes, which your conscience cannot but tell you of, you do but adde the sinne of receiving unworthily to the rest of your sinnes, and blow up the fire of Gods wrath the hotter against you; why then (you say) bet­ter stay away then come, to load our selves with more guilt? If you will not come, becaUse you will not repent, and cast off your sinnes, you proclaim your just condemnation, in preferring your sinnes before Christ Jesus. If ye come without true repentance, you eat and drink your own damnation, nothing can lead you out of this labyrinth, but repentance and conversion: Therefore as the Prophet said to some that desired the day of the Lord, To what end is it for you? It's darkness and not light; so shall I say to ma­ny that are forward to rush into the Lords Table with­out fear. To what end is it for you? The bread and wine ye eat and drink is but your own condemnation: Unto the wicked God saith, What hast thou to do to Amos 5 18. take my Covenant in thy mouth, seeing thou hatest instru­ction, and art not reformed, Psal. 50. 16, 17?

CHAP. XXX. The CaUse of this Sinne, viz. Not discerning the Lords Body.

§. 1 2. THe caUse of this sinne of eating unworthily is, not discerning the Lords body, ver. 29. The word [...] signifies to make difference between one thing and another; Act. 15. 9. Heb. 5. 14. and in this place to discern and put a difference between two, and those two things, as the common streame runs, are common bread and wine, and this Bread and Cup of the Lord, which are imploy'd to another Use and end than pro­miscuous and common bread at your own tables, for this is called the Bread of the Lord, the Body of Christ in respect of signification and Use, I finde no fault with this exposition, [...], &c. saith Ju­stin, We receive not this Bread as common bread, nor this Cup as common wine, which hath no other Use than to refresh the body, I say, I finde no fault, but why may not, Not discerning the Lords Body signi­fie thus much? Not minding the body of Christ sig­nified by the Bread, but looking all upon the shell or sign, and not the kernel or inward thing, which should be regarded with greatest intention: Let me not of­fend in the terms of this distinction.

§. 2. What it is not to discerne the Lords Body speculatively.

§. 2 There is a speculative discerning of the Body of Christ, and there is a practical.

The speculative discerning is the notion or know­ledge of the signification of the outward elements.

That the Bread and Wine do represent Christs Bo­dy and Bloud, That the Bread broken represents his Body broken &c. This is an easie piece of knowledge, as easie as to know that a picture or figure do represent such a man, and there is no great measure of know­ledge to construe all parts or rites of the Sacrament in­to a true meaning.

In this sense not to discern the Lords body is directly to inhere and stick in the bread and wine, as bread and wine, and to take the picture for the man: It may be there be some such bruitish ignorants, that discorn not the meat from the dish, nor the marrow from the bone, such as these are, are fit to be excluded, be­caUse where there is no Analogy holden, there can be no Sacrament. The Analogy, I say, between the outward Sacrament, and inward thing, must either be known, or it is to us no Sacrament; For a simili­tude, resemblance, or Analogy, must be between two things at least, and therefore those that in a blinde and bruitish ignorance know nothing, but the outward part do not properly receive a Sacrament, but are like the carnal Jews that knew not the meaning of their Sacrifices, or of those types of Christ which they had; The brazen Serpent was Christ, the Rock they drank of was Christ, but many of them dream'd not [Page 339] of him in the Use of them. I do not believe these Co­rinthians, men of such knowledge, were such bruits, for the Apostle, 1 Cor. 10. 16. speaks to them as wise­men, who knew this, saying, The Bread we break, Is it not the Communion of the body of Christ, &c. Therefore

§. 3. What it is not to discerne the Lords Body practically.

§. 3 The practical discerning of the Lords body is, when the body and bloud of Christ are so minded and intended, as to compose the inward man, and the outward behaviour of the Communicant into such a posture of spirit and carriage, as is suitable to Christs body and bloud there offered and exhibited unto faith, and the not discerning the Lords body, is when the behaviour is so loose and rude, the inward man so discomposed and carnal, as that interpreta­tive, they may be said not to minde, or not to discern the Lords body; So we would say of one whose car­riage is wanton and loose in the presence of his fathers corpse lying in presence in a coffin or beer, you doe not minde, you consider not who lies there, becaUse if he did, another countenance and carriage would beseem him, and so the Corinthians are taxed here for such carriage of theirs, as proclaim'd they had no se­rious thoughts, no sad and fixed minde upon Christ bleeding and broken, for that considera­tion would have bespoken another frame of spi­rit, and forme of behaviour. The result of this ex­plication is,

The Apostle gives us a two-fold caUse of [Page 340] eating and drinking unworthily.

1. If we understand not, know not the Analogy or resemblance of the bread and wine to the body and bloud of Christ, but stick in the rind or shell, and feed only on the husks, as upon common bread and common wine, and resting in that, as knowing not the Use or end, which makes the difference, which renders all bruitish ignorant people unworthy receivers, And how should I make them know the danger that know not thus farre of the Use of this Or­dinance? Willingnesse to be taught would help it, if they were not more willing to runne blindefold into the pit, than proudly unwilling to discover their filli­nesse and ignorance, and if they be unwilling, It's no cruelty but charity to keep a blinde man from running into a pit.

2. If we understand the meaning of the outward elements by rote or notional knowledge, but do not seriously and with a fixed intention consider and look wishly upon Christs body and bloud represented, of­fered, and to be exhibited to our faith, for this will compose our outward behaviour and inward spirit; this bespeaks faith, repentance, affections suitable; this composes us unto reverence and serious behavi­our: Imagine the very Body of the Lord Jesus was presented to your eye, broken, bruised, bleeding for thy sinnes under the stroke of Gods terrible justice, and so offer'd unto thee for thy salvation, Would not thy soul raise up all affections, and muster up all it's forces, to receive him, to open to him, to thirst after him, to admire and praise him? And doth not God in this Ordinance really hold him forth to thee as such, and so to be received? The nature of the feast [Page 341] to which we are invited, teaches us how to dresse our selves; To a funeral we come in mourning, to a mar­riage in a wedding-garment; The very minding of the body of Christ teaches men to come worthily, that is suitably, and the not minding of it with fixed intention is the caUse that we come loosly, carnally, and so unworthily.

CHAP. XXXI. The Aggravations of the Sinne of Ʋnworthy Receiving.

§. 1 3. THe aggravation of unworthy receiving fol­lows, [...], He shall be holden guilty of the body and bloud of the Lord, or God will judge and repute him guilty of the body of Christ unwor­thily received and entreated, or guilty of the unwor­thy handling, or of the contempt and violation of Christs body and blood, the memorial of whose death is prophaned by your irreverence, and this ap­pointed means of your participation of it is underva­lued; What a high sound is there in these words, He shall be guilty of the Body and Bloud of the Lord? and the eclypsis is left open to be filled with some fearfull word, guilty of neglect, of contempt, of profane violation of, and injury to this body, the bo­dy [Page 342] of our Lord. For the right understanding of which phrase,

§. 2. What it is to be guilty of the Body and Bloud of the Lord.

§. 2 1. The Papists, and no lesse the Lutherans, doe hence infer, That the very Body and Bloud of Christ is eaten and drunk by the mouth of the Communicant, which they call Sacramentall eating, and the rea­son is, How else is an unworthy Receiver guilty of his Body? We of our Confession that hold the Cor­poreal Presence of Christ under the Bread impossible, as well as false, do therefore inferre, That that Body which is not corporally there cannot be eaten, and therefore the guiltinesse of Christs Body is not by the oral eating.

2. We expound it thus, Whatsoever irreverence, slightnesse, neglect or contempt is Used by any in the celebration of this Ordinance is reputed and adjudg­ed to redound to the very Body and Bloud of Christ: As it's TReason against the State to embase their coin, to abUse a Picture is dishonour to the person, to hang a man in effigie, or subvert ones Statue (as the Romans Used) are interpreted to the disgrace of the man whose they are; And thus it is here, by Reason of that near relation and analogy which this Bread and Cup have to Christ himself, so the uncircumcised man-childe, Gen. 17. 14. is said to have broken my covenant, and therefore the Fathers reckon an unwor­thy receivers sinne to be like that of Judas, the Jews, the Souldiers, that abUsed and dishonour'd the very Body and Bloud of Christ; and this is a peculiar [Page 343] guilt that attends upon the celebration of this Ordi­nance, wherein Christ condescends to come so near us, by offering his Body and Bloud to us, and this condescention to be neglected and refUsed; Think of this, and measure not the sinne by your own appre­hension of it, but by the account which God makes of it, who accounts all them that come unworthily to vilifie the Body, the sufferings of his Sonne our Lord, and to despise the Seal of that gracious Co­venant, which we make our selves believe we doe not do.

The result from hence is,

§. 3 1. The sins of wicked Christians against Gospel-Ordinances are of highest nature, and incurre greater guilt. It's said of Christians, That after illumination and taste fall away, they crucifie to themselves again the Sonne of God, and put him to open shame, Heb. 6. 6. And they that sin wilfully after the knowledge of the truth, are said to have trodden under foot the Sonne of God, and counted the bloud of the Covenant a common thing, and to have done despight to the Spi­rit of grace, Heb. 10. 19, 26. A meer Heathen is out of capacity of guiltinesse of these high sinnes; He is not guilty of the Body and Bloud of the Lord, which was never offer'd to him in this Sacrament. No ag­gravations of sinne are like to the aggravations of the sins of wicked Christians, their guilt is not of so high complexion that never knew of Christ; either we must be saved, or we cannot be so easily damned, the weight of sins against Christ is heavier than of those that are meerly against the Law of God; We are the earth that drinks in the rain that cometh upon us; If we bear briars and thorns, we are nigh unto cursing, [Page 344] whose end is to be burned, Heb. 6. 7, 8.

2. How many do that, they think least of, and are guilty of that, they once imagine not themselves to be guilty of: but few of a thousand will own this guilti­nesse of the Body and Bloud of Christ, and yet as often as they do or have eaten and drunk at this Table unworthily, so often they have incurred and renew'd this guilt? Do not they say at the last day, When saw we thee an hungry or in prison? Did the Jews think they pierced their true Messiah? There are not many Christians in name and profession such, that can be convinced, that they hate and despise Christ as much as the very Jews that crucified him, which yet may be demonstrate by clear arguments. The Jew honour'd the name of the Messiah, and expected great things of him, and yet hated and rejected him blind­fold; and so we call Christ Saviour and Lord, and besprinkle him with sweet water, but his reign and government over us, we utterly despise and hate, and prefer a sordid lust far before him.

CHAP. XXXII. The Danger of this Sinne.

§. 1 4. THe fourth thing expounded was the danger of this sinne, He eats and drinks judgement to himself; if he be a godly man that eats and drinks un­worthily, or haply also damnation, if he be an hy­pocrite, for the word [...], may respectively extend to both. A strange phrase it is to eat and drink judge­ment, but it is allusive, and per mimesin, as sure as he eats of the Bread and drinks of the Cup unworthily, so sure is judgement to follow thereupon, or to ac­company it, for he eats judgement, but it is to him­self, not to others, except they be partakers in his sinne, which may be divers ways; So as we have rea­son to insert in all our prayers, Lord forgive our nostra aliena, our other mens sins, but without partnership in the sinne we need not fear share in the judgement, He eats it to himself; and therefore that argument of the Donatist, which is rise now a dayes, Si corruptis so­ciaris, &c. If you be joyned with wicked men, how can you be clean? If you pray with them, hear with them, receive the Sacrament with them, was answer'd by Austin, True, saith he, if we be joyned, but that is not in bodily presence locally, but by consent or al­lowance, [Page 346] and so we are no more joyn'd then Christ and the Apostles were joyn'd with Judas at the Passe­over or Supper, who I believe was not defiled by his presence, as neither were those guests that came in to the marriage by the presence of him that had no wed­ding garment; It's true, example may defile by con­tagion and infection, but allowance and consent de­files by accessarinesse unto the sin.

§. 2. The Application.

§. 2 How precious an Ordinance is this Supper, and yet how dangerous? There is life and death set before you It's on one side a refreshing cloud, on the other a flaming fire; so by the same water and way were the Israelites saved, and the Aegypians attempting the like were drown'd: Thus Christ also is a precious stone to believers, a stumbling and a crushing stone to unbelievers, and the Word is a savour of life, and a savour of death; Some mens eyes are open'd by it, and some are shut; The same Ark is to Israel a glory, to the Philistims a scourge; Here is honey in the same rose to the Bee, and poyson to the Spider, and it is according as you eat and drink worthily or unworthi­ly. We reade in Scripture, that when people cried to Christ for cure, usually he put it upon their faith, According to your faith, and, If thou canst believe; and we never reade of any one that cried, that he was put by for want of faith; for if they gave never so little account, Lord, I believe, help my unbelief, it was accepted. The benefit of this Ordinance is ac­cording to your Faith, Repentance, and if you can give but any account of them to God, you may [Page 347] drink Christ out of this Rock, but if you be in sinnes of love and delight, and come in your wickednesse, you take the Sword by the point, not by the haft, and you shall smart for your pre­sumption.

Secondly, The horrible thunder of the Apostle in this place, is not to deterre, but to prepare Com­municants; An humble soul is affrighted with the terrour, and dare not draw nigh this fiery Mount, but it is not spoken to affright from the Sacrament, but to enforce a due preparation; When the destroying Angel rode his circuit, the Israelites lay secure within the line of bloud: This bloud here of­fer'd will protect thee from this condemnation threat­ned, if thou flie to it. But

Thirdly, The ignorant that are without know­ledge, and the scandalous without repentance, who are by the common vote of men excepted against, as unfit Communicants, they may know that this is a dreadfull eating and drinking, which is accompa­nied with such a guiltinesse, and wi [...]h such judge­ment, and yet this fiery Sword will not keep them off, they will be rushing in to this Tree of Life. It is not envy, malice, or partiality, but it is chari­ty to entreat you not to lust so eagerly after those Quails, which while they are in your mouths, the wrath of God is like to fall upon you, both of you have marks enough of condemnation upon you; Desire not to adde more, be sure the King will survey and view his guests, you cannot scape in the croud; What if you be taken from the Table, and cast into utter darknesse? It concernes me to give you warning; If you take the Allarme, and [Page 348] first labour for knowledge, and seeke repent­ance by the means appointed to beget them, and to beget you unto God: Well, If not then, it concernes the Church to shew you mercy in making stay of you from falling into the fire. For,

Fourthly, The eating and drinking of the Lords Bread, and the Lords Cup unworthily, is a sinne dangerous to Common-wealths and Churches, for it brings judgement, Epidemick judgement, so it did upon this Church of Corinth, [...], For this caUse many among you are sick and die: Haply they had some common and mortall sick­nesse or mortality, and knew not the caUse of it. Happy we, if we knew the particular caUse of Gods angry visitations, sinne in the generall we acknowledge, but we owne not our particular sinnes; We have had many, and great, and com­mon calamities, but are fallen from assigning them to the abUse of the Sacrament, and yet we must confesse that what hath been a doore at which judgements have enter'd may be so againe: How­soever, I think, that rationally I may excite pub­lick Authority to restraine or to make provision of restraint for such sinnes as are pernicious to Commonwealths, in bringing forth publick judge­ments, which eat up and consume the people, and such is this sinne, as I have showne: I know no Powers can command or compell faith or sa­ving grace, but it's a sure fallacy to inferre from thence, that he may not restraine sinnes that bring publick judgements, or not bring the people to the means of faith. It's a saying, that a man [Page 349] cannot make his Horse drinke without he will, but yet he may have him to the water. God directed the fourth Commandment to Gover­nours, and Parents, and Masters, and thereby ei­ther supposed they had, or else gave them a Power or Commission to see the Sabbath kept within their Jurisdictions, not I confesse to force the Ger Toshab, or Proselyte of the gate, to un­dertake the whole Religion of the Jew, but one­ly the seven Commandments, as they call them, given to Noah, and not to violate the Sabbath: If he will live among them, he must Observe the Sabbath.

§. 3 Fifthly, You must carefully distinguish be­tweene the ground of a mans receiving unworthi­ly, which is, that he hath no seed of spirituall grace, or comes with reservation of some sinne haply known to none but himself, and God he is not truly within the Covenant, and therefore can­not receive the benefit of the Covenant, but the ground of the Churches Admission is, that he is reputed a member, and hath not forfeited his right by any knowne sinne justly and duly pro­ved against him; For all visible proceedings of the Church, or Civill State, either must be Se­cundum allegate & probata; Secret surmises, or doubtfull presumptions, are no ground of just sentence; though a man doe eat and drink un­worthily, yet he cannot alwayes be debarred, while he stands a visible member, and is not proved or alledged guilty of some sinne that may dismember him. Judas was not cast out from [Page 350] the Supper for a Thief or a Traitour, becaUse that he was so, yet it was not visibly and duly pro­ved against him. Sinne is not scandalous, till it be knowne: If it be knowne to me, I must per­forme the office of a brother before I tell the Church: And if it was knowne to me, that a man was not regenerate, I durst give him the Sacrament, yea I must, untill he be orderly convict of sinne that may debarre him, for the Rule of Gods Word is best Reason, and that Rule establishes an order, If he heare not the Church, let him be to thee a Heathen and a Publican, untill then, and upon my private knowledge, he is not to be a Heathen unto me. But of this enough before.

CHAP. XXXIII. Of Examination in order to this Sa­crament.

1 COR. 11. 28.‘But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that Bread, and drink of this Cup.’

§. 1 HAving shown you, That to a man that eats and drinks worthily, this Ordinance is (as I may say) a Tree of Life, but to the unworthy a Tree of Knowledge of good and evil, drawing upon them a heavy guilt and condemnation. Now I come to that expedient which the holy Ghost affords us, both for the obtainment of the Benefit, and for the avoidance of the Judgement, and that is in these words, But let a man examine himself. In which words we ob­serve two things,

  • First, That Admission and Accesse unto the Lords Table is given with a proviso, in these words, [...].
  • Secondly, That God affords the Use of the Lords [Page 352] Table to a professed Christian upon fore going self-examination.

The first of these [And so] I have been all this while in handling, though not in terms, yet in ef­fect, and have taught you, That no man may come hand over head, at all adventures, for that the Sacra­ment is not a Common without hedge or barre, but a Several, inclosed, as appears by this short word [And so] The celebration of this Ordinance requires some previous preparation, and bespeaks some due and competent qualifications of the Communicant there­in. This medicine that it may have its effect and fruit, requires a preparative; One duty prepares un­to another, Ile wash my hands in innocency (saith the Psalmist) and so will I compasse thine Altar: The unclean under the Law had their Purifications before they drew near to God in his holy Ordinances, for, saith God, I will be sanctified in all that draw nigh to me. I hope you are not onely convinced of this, but well satisfied in it, by what I have delivered to you, and therefore I will not draw the Saw, and say over againe what is already setled.

§. 2. Of Self-Examination.

§. 2 Doct. The Lord affords the free Use of his Table to a pro­fessed Christian upon fore-going Self-examination. This is the proviso of this priviledge; Here is Ad­mission, and Accesse here is free, both invitation and allowance, But let a man examine himself, and so, &c.

1. Let a man [...], that is, [...], Every [Page 353] man, as the Hebrew language sometimes expresses it self? What, every man an examiner? Yea, of him­self, For what man knows the things of a man, but the Spirit of man which is in him? 1 Cor. 2. 11. a partial examiner, you may truly say, but it is at his peril; The Rule whereby he must proceed is impar­tial, man that hath a Reasonable soul hath this power above bruits, which have not that we call consci­ence, that he can make reflexion upon himself, he can accUse, testifie, judge of, and call himself to ac­count; But is every man in the world meant here? The word examine rightly interpreted will answer that Question, in the mean time I think it hath this restraint, every man, or every one of you, and of them that are such as you Corinthians, visible profes­sours of Christ, incorporate by Baptism. Church­members, that have all outward qualifications unto this Sacrament, every such man, Let him examine himself.

2. Let every man examine, [...], as we try metal or gold by the touchstone, or by the fire, so the Greek version of the Septuagint Useth this word, Prov. 17. 3. God tries the hearts, he tries man by tentations, afflictions, as gold by fire; man tries himself, as gold or silver by the Touchstone, the Rule and Standard of this examination is the word of God, called a Canon, as a man that will not trust the fair looks of a piece of money, rubs it on the stone, and thereby discerns it, whether true or spurious; so not trusting the superficial outsides and forme, which flatters us. We must bring our selves to the standard, and thereby judge whether we be drosse or gold.

[Page 354]3. Let every man examine himself, 2 Cor. 13. 5. Examine your selves, prove your own selves. Chryso­stome 1 Cor. 11. 28. takes this word signantly, [...], &c. He doth not bid one (saith he) to examine another, but a man himself to prove and search himself: And Pa­raeus on the place, speaking in opposition unto, and detestation of the Popish Auricular Confession, saith, Non dicit Sacerdotes probent, &c. He saith not, Let the Priests examine and dive into mens consciences, but every man himself, not that we refUse any just trial, but we abhorre their tyranny and superstition. I know men are backward to have their wounds searcht, and very partial and indulgent to themselves, but if conscience be set on work in the duty, this un­popular Tribunal, this [...], as Chrysostome cals it, is the most excellent, for a man is within him­self, others are without him, and he that is within may search the hoUse better than he that stands with­out; Our secret hypocrisies and heart lusts may be discerned by our selves, not by another, and there is no mans heart but stoops most of all, and is laid flat in the dust under self-conviction, self-judgement, Therefore let a man examine himself.

And so I have open'd the words, Let a man exa­mine himself, which if any one cannot do, as infants, stupid ignorants, men besides themselves, or will not do, becaUse he hateth the light which discovers him, or doth not do, becaUse worldly imployments possesse him, or dare not do, least he create trouble and pain to himself, then he hath not performed the provilo, which is, And so let him eat of this Bread, &c.

Quest. There may be in some of your thoughts, as [Page 355] Queſt. there hath been in mine, a Question upon this, and it is thus, What if Judas by reflexion upon himself finde that he is conceived with a tReasonable intention, which he mindes to pursue, and to bring forth? What if any man upon examination of himself finde himself without any spark, and without any desire of grace? What if he be a scorner of all godlinesse, and purposes so to be, a vicious and flagitious slave of sinne, and will not be made free, Shall he come and eat this Bread, becaUse he hath examined himselfe? Shall he plead his priviledge, becaUse he hath examined himself?

Anſw. Solut. If this were so, then Examination, is re­quired for Examination sake, but that is not so; for self-examination is a duty, [...], tending to a further end, and that is our meetnesse and fitnesse to come to this Table, it is to finde a sacramental dispo­sition [...] is that we may finde [...], as a learn­ed man saith, Let us search and try our wayes, and turn again to the Lord, that's the end and effect, Lam. 3. 40. Prove your selves whether ye be in the faith, examine whether Jesus Christ be in you, 2 Cor. 13. 5. So here, Let a man examine himself, that is, Let him prove in himself a disposition of fitnesse and meetnesse, and so let him come, as a man that tries gold at the stone, he will not take it, becaUse he tries it, for he findes it copper, but if it be indeed true gold; So one will not go abroad, becaUse he hath beheld himself in the Looking-glasse, for he may finde deformity and filthinesse, but becaUse he hath corrected all inconcinnity by the glasse, and compo­sed his dresse; And so except we will prevaricate the holy Ghost intends a fitnesse and meetnesse [Page 356] found by this self-examination, and then, and so, Let him come and eat, &c. The garment is not made by taking measure, nor the wedding-garment by meer examination.

For the clearer opening of this point of self-exa­mination, I might thus distinguish, There is a self­examination required of all men, of all Christians, of all Communicants.

That which is required of all men, is, To search and try their wayes in order to conversion or repent­ance, Lam. 3. 40. Let us search and try our selves, and turn unto the Lord, which if diligently done they might know and own their misery, and finde an absolute necessity of conversion, the want of this is the Reason that men lie so fast asleep in security, and pursue their beloved sinnes without check or control, Jer. 8. 6. No man repented him of his wickednesse, saying, What have I done? Every one turned to his course, as the horse rusheth into the battel; And how is that? He mocks at fear, and is not affrighted, He saith among the Trumpets, Ha, ha, Job 39. 19, &c. It would take off their edge and metal; If men did but consider and believe how directly their wayes point toward the eternal damnation of their souls. The Rule of this Examination, or the glasse which makes this reflexion is the severe Law of God which involves all sinners under a curse.

That which is required of all Christians is to prove their own works, whether they be wrought in God, in order to their own comfort, Gal. 6. 4. Let every man prove his own work, and so shall he have rejoy­cing in himself▪ And this is the sweet and immedi­ate reward of all sincere duties, which leave a sweet [Page 357] taste, or savour behinde them, Heb. 11. 5. Enoch be­fore his Translation had this testimony that he pleased God: This is that reward, which God gives his peo­ple before their translation▪ as first-fruits before the harvest, the unspeakable comfort of a sincere duty; Nor only his works, but a Christian is to examine his spiritual estate, 2 Cor. 13. 5. Whether you be in the faith, Know ye not that Christ is in you, we should not only be, but know we are, and this by examining, The Rule of which examination is the Gospel, which gives marks and evidences of it.

That which is required of all Communicants is, to examine their fitnesse and meetnesse, which is their worthinesse to come and eat at the Lords Table, and the Rule of this Examination is the Ordinance it self, or the institution of it, as I have before shew'd, for the graces to be exercised in it, and bespoken by it, are the Rule by which we must examine our selves, whether we have them in us or no, and this self-exa­mination, this particular whereof the Sacrament it self is the Rule, is that I have to insist upon, and therefore I am not bound by the Law of the Text to flie so great a compasse, as to handle the common­place of self-examination in all his latitude, neither will I do it, but onely premise certain generall pra­cticall positions, whereby we may be either mo­ved unto, or directed in the performance of this un­pleasing duty, self-examination, and they are these.

§. 3. Practicall Positions to move us unto, and direct us in the duty of examining our selves at all times.

§. 3 First, The benefit of self-acquaintance is exceed­ing great [...], is one of the old wise sentences, though interpreted by them the proud way, not as Religion teaches the humble way; Of all acquaintan­ces which you can have in this world, this is the near­est acquaintance, and indeed the hardest to get, if we were not unwilling to get acquaintance with our selves, the Scripture need not Use so frequent exhor­tations: How miserable are they which pursue dis­coveries, and amasse knowledge of almost every thing, and yet live and die strangers to themselves? One of the first works which the Word and Spirit works in men, is to give them a light to go down into the dark cellar of their hearts, and make discoveries; then a man begins to be amazed, and tremble at the fight of himself. It's said of the lost sonne, Luke 15. that he came to himself; Self-knowledge is the School-mistress of humility; We are proud, be­caUse we know not our selves; He that knows not himself must needs be proud; He that knows him­self loaths himself; He that knows his sins, sees neces­sity of Christ; He that knows his wants, prayes; He that knows his weaknesse, fears and flies to the Rock; He that brings knowledge of himself to a Sermon, gathers out of the garden those herbs that are medi­cinal to him; He that knows his own temptations, avoids the occasions that Use to ensnare him; He that knows his own experiences, hopes with patience, [Page 359] when he sees no light: It's true, the heart is deceit­full, and who can know it? But we need not taste all the water in the Sea to know it to be brackish, nor taste every crab to know the tree; We know the earth well enough, though we never digg'd to the centre; no man is bound to number all his sinnes or thoughts, God hath taught us, that all a natural mans imaginations are onely evil, continually evil; It's enough to know our selves judgingly, so farre as may occasion us to know Christ savingly, whose riches are unsearchable, and cannot throughly be known, and perfectly.

Secondly, A man may be deceived in his spiritual estate all his life time, for want of self-examination in a due manner, by a right Rule we are full of self­flattery, and of hypocrisie; we disguise and extenu­ate our sinnes, we set a varnish and good aspect on our works and virtues; Before his conversion Paul Rom. 7. thought himself alive, and that he was in the right, afterward he cals it, Confidence in the flesh. After a Phil. 3. man comes into the opinion and profession of Christ, he may be in the case of the Church of Laodicea, Thou sayest I am rich, and knowest not that thou art naked; The Jew outwardly, thinks he is a Jew in­wardly; The foolish Virgins do not see but that they are wise. I know there is a Rule of certain discerning, but if we put not our selves into the scales, we may seem to our selves to be good weight when we are too light. I do not think that all hypocrites are dis­cover'd to themselves, which is the saddest mistake that can be in the world, never to be convinced, till we hear that word, Depart, I know ye not; Not that I think that any sincere heart, that is willing to come [Page 360] unto the light, and cries with the Psalmist, Psal. 139. 23. Search me, O Lord, and try me, doth ever perish in this deceit, for such a one hath Christ, and therefore hath life; and we are not saved, becaUse we know we have him, but becaUse we have him, Some are in Christ, but do not perfectly own it. It's a safe errour, but they that think they believe in him and do not, are not saved becaUse they think they do, but damned becaUse they do not, and this is a dan­gerous errour. The Lord put it into your hearts to ex­amine your selves, and prove your selves, the onely way I know to get out of this flattering mistake.

Thirdly, Men that live in the bosom of the Church, are by nothing more kept out of Christ, than the opi­nion that they have him already. They have a faith which keeps them from faith, and a believing that holds them fast in unbelief. Dr Whitakers approves that saying of Melancthon, That historical faith in­finitely differs from justifying faith, and therefore (which I would have Observed) the Corinthians whom the Apostle exhorts to examine themselves, Whether they were in the faith, whether Christ Jesus was in them, were not Heathen Corinthians, but the Church, professed Christians already, and such as had a faith of profession, and then that Text will prove, that those that have some faith may be in the Apostles sense reprobates, becaUse they are not in the faith. It con­cerns us all, that are professed members of the Church as they were; Can faith save you, saith James, Chap. 2. meaning a superficial, opinionative, inoperative faith? Alas he tels you of believing devils, that by confessi­on of all are damned; Let not this faith keep you from Christ, which doth not close you with him, you [Page 361] may be a graff to the stock with a string, but it will not knit and live, becaUse it is not engraffed in: So you may be reputed Christians and believers by an out­ward profession and agglutination, by that faith you have, but never live spiritually or eternally by it, be­caUse Christ Jesus is not in you; All the terrour of the Lord draws no bloud; All invitations of the Gospel move not, And why? BecaUse you lie under the shell and shelter of this faith and believing, which defeats the operation both of Law and Gospel, till God open your eyes to see thorow it, and bring you to see the need of a Christ accepting faith.

Fourthly, There are but two spiritual estates, and all men while in this world must be in the one or other, not in both at once, and they are usually known by the names of nature and grace, or as Scripture usu­ally, darknesse and light, death or life; This is a com­pendious Rule, and brings this work of self-examina­tion into a narrow room upon this interrogatory, Art thou in the state of unbelief and unregeneration, or translated into the Kingdom of Christ Jesus? Art thou in the narrow, or in the broad way? There is a great latitude, and many varieties and degrees of men in each of these, but from Rahab to Abraham, from O ye of little faith, to O woman, great is thy faith, all are under the line of life, and so from the best flower in natures garden to the sharpest thorn, all under the black line of death; The discovery is the sooner made, becaUse the partition is but into two, goats and sheep, walking in two several wayes, to two several ends: You will say, Unto which of these will ye reckon them that are in transitu, as it were, in the birth, in the passage? I should say, that as we reckon the day­break [Page 362] to the day, and the embryon of a man is rec­kon'd to humane kinde, and the contracted woman is called wife; so though I love not to distinguish of these moments, yet if any day-break of light, any seed of faith or good desires, any little of Christ appear in any, I should reckon them to the happier part the re­generate, for they are smoaking flax, and bruised reeds under the sweet promise of Christ, to be blown up, and to be strengthened, and so would I have them comfortably in their self-examinations to reckon themselves: As likewise all men in the world may compendiously reckon themselves under sinne and wrath, and in state of damnation, upon and by the argument, which is the convictive argument of the holy Ghost, Joh. 16. 9. All men are under sinne that believe not in Christ, Of sin, becaUse they believe not in me, and it reaches all the world: Not believing in Christ proves every man under sin, if not propter infidelitatem, for their unbelief, therefore Thomas and other Schoolmen deny it, as to them, that never heard of Christ, yet ratione infidelitatis by Reason of their not believing, The wrath of God abides upon them, as all confesse, and as the Scripture speaks. These four things may serve as motives to this duty of self exa­mination, and there are two more that rather look like directions therein.

Fifthly, The Rule of this self-examination must be (according to the properties of a Rule) a known and certain inflexible Rule, that is not partial to or against us; for how shall we proceed from examinati­on of our selves to judge our selves, vers. 31. if the processe be not regulated, so as the judgement may be true and certain; therefore the word of God must be [Page 363] that Canon or measure, by which, if we will not be deceived, we must be tried, for that must judge us another day; by a false standard, or a false touchstone, or false rule we discern nothing; and therefore when thou goest about this work, banish all thy own flat­tering Reasons, all other mens foolish and fraudulent comforts and counsels; Let the Word of God sit up­on thee, and stand or fall before that Tribunal; Seest thou not how the Pharisee flatter'd himself, judging himself by his own traditional exercises? The young man flatter'd himself, All this have I done; Paul shows upon what confidences he flatter'd himself, and in­deed every man will be in good estate, if he may judge by his own fancy, flattery or conceit, but false medi­ums beget but fallacies in conclusion, and our souls are betray'd and undone by Lesbian rules, a sincere heart will not stand to that test, knowing that flesh and bloud may speak good to me, as the false Prophets to Ahab, and the word of God speak evil, as Michaiah did unto him; God is not pleased that any man should bear false witnesse against, or for himself; We may neither proudly and partially acquit our selves upon false and flattering perswasions, nor on the other hand deny the least evidence of grace, and of the Spirit in our selves, wherein the godly do often deserve blame by slighting and undervaluing the work of grace in their hearts; There are proud self complaints as well as self flatteries; The Word is the most impartial Judge of our state, or of our actions.

Sixthly, It's necessary to stick upon the work of self-examination, untill we bring it to an issue, and be able to make a judgement upon our own selves, for we are apt to pull off the plaister, when it begins to [Page 364] smart before it hath done its work, and are unwilling to set up all our Reasonings, and bring them to a non plus, and so we never know our selves, never judge our selves; sometimes a man is Sermon-shaken, and his heart begins to tremble, and to Question with it self, and if he would but follow the stroke he might come to finde out his condition, but he lets the iron cool again, and like Felix when he trembled, he dis­misses Paul till another time; This the Apostle shews us in these words, Jam. 1. 24. he goes away from the glasse, and straightway forgets what manner of man he was, and therefore he saith, we must look into the glasse, and continue therein, resolving to be deaf to flesh and bloud, friends, carnal counsels, and by the Rule of the Word to bring the Question to an issue, whether pro or con, for us, or against as.

§. 4. Considerations about examining our selves in order to the Lords Supper.

§. 4 I have laid down these six Rules, which are of good Use, and great service in the examination of our selves at all times, or at any time. Now I come to the particular businesse of the Text, which is self­examination in order to our worthy coming to the Lords Table, for that's the work which lies before us; And for your better instruction, I shall draw down your thoughts in order to the point, by certain consi­derations.

1. The Rule of this self-examination is the very Ordinance according to Christs Institution hereto­fore recited; You see the Apostle doth not particu­larly number or rehearse what the graces, [Page 365] or what the requisites are upon which interro­gatories the examination must be made; He saith not, Let a man examine himself of this, and of that, but Let a man examine himself; The Reason is that which I learn from Chemnitius, That if the Or­dinances Chem. exam. de Euchar. be the Rule by which the examination is to be made, then it will follow, that what such a repre­sentation of Christs death and sufferings, and such a demonstration of Gods offended Justice, as is here made, what such an offer and exhibition of Christ his body and bloud unto us, for communion thereof, doth bespeak and require of us; That frame of spirit, those affections, those graces are requisite unto the Communicant, which what they are hath been alrea­dy deduced from the nature of the Ordinance it self, and by me declared.

2. They being known what they are, it follows that a man examine himself, whether they be in us, for else we cannot come suitably to the Ordinance, nor take and eat the body and bloud offer'd to us, the effect and fruit of self-examination being to know our own selves, 2 Cor. 13. 5. Whether Christ be in us, Whether we be in the faith; To know what graces are required, is no point of self-examination, but whether we be in some measure furnisht with them or no, and by the duty enjoyn'd it is easily inferr'd, That a man may know whether he have those graces, for else all examination was unprofitable and vain, and known they are by reflexion and insight into our selves, as a man knows his thoughts, his own purpo­ses, his meaning, and can tell them to another being asked; so we may know the graces and workings of the Spirit in our hearts, Qui credit fidem suam videt in Austin. de trin. l. 13. c. 1. [Page 366] corde suo, saith Austin, that is, except such a dark­nesse and smoak be within, that they appear not, as sometimes clouds arise and cover the face of the Sun, but that is not for want of an eye, but for want of clearnesse in the object, and then if there be a vapour upon the glasse, it makes no reflexion; And there is great Reason that a man should not only have the gra­ces required, but should by self-examination know that he hath them, becaUse otherwise he might blind­fold, and at all adventures rush upon the Ordinance, and eat and drink damnation to himself.

3. BecaUse a man can only then be said to know he hath the graces required, when he doth discern and distinguish them from all counterfeits or semblan­ces that are like, therefore is self-examination neces­sary; For as gold hath copper, a counterfeit of it self: so have all true graces some thing like themselves, and called by their name, which are not right, but some slighty ore lying nearer day; As there is a faith called which is not faith, a repentance not repentance, a love of God which is not the love of God, a sorrow for sinne which is not godly sorrow, there is meek­nesse, not a grace, but a moral vertue, &c. And therefore examination of our selves is both necessary and difficult, that we take not Leah for Rachel, and so come to the Lords Table to no more purpose than he that goes to the market with a brasse shilling, which he thinks to be good money.

4. Then we have this priviledge, And so let him eat of this bread, &c. When we by examination finde that we have, though but a seed or spawne of those right and genuine graces which are differenced and distinguisht from all semblances and counterfeits [Page 367] which are called by the same name; If every faith confessing Christ were saving; If every nollem factum, I am sorry, were true repentance; If every mans say­ing dolet, it grieves me, were godly sorrow, there are few or none that could be called unworthy, but there is a difference that makes distinction between semblance and truth, which few do finde in them­selves, becaUse they rest in generals and equivocals. I have in a Sermon upon this point formerly given the Characters of true grace, and need not say it over again at this time. Let every man examine the truth of his graces by these Characters, and so make Use of this priviledge, Let him eat &c.

And if I might give you the Iliads in a nut-shell, these are the differences and the characters.

§. 5. The Differences between true Grace, and what is not such.

§. 5 The Difference between Nature and Grace is,

1. Nature begins all his actions from, and refers all unto self, pride, profit, pleasure, glory, com­mon honesty of men to men; Grace hath this Cha­racter, it turns the face of, and sets a by as on the heart, whereby it intends, aims to seek to please, to know God, and therefore discovers that we saw not, that emptinesse of, and enmity to God which is in us; In a word, it sets up Gods interest above self, which nature cannot do.

2. Between knowledge and knowledge. There is a special knowledge of God and of the Word, which is large and beautifull, but the character of true know­ledge is affection, as the light that's joyn'd with heat [Page 368] and assimilation of a man to that he knows, forming 2 Cor. 3. ult. and conforming to the image of God, We are changed into the same image; We shall be like him, for we shall see him, 1 Joh. 3. 1.

3. Between faith and faith. There is a Christ con­fessing, a Christ acknowledging faith, Alii cogitant pij credunt, saith Austin, but the character of true faith is, That it accepts of, and closes with Christ him­self, both as a Lord and Saviour, and that upon Gospel­terms, to deny self, and take up his Cross, and be his, and this faith is inseparable from holinesse, or a godly life, never to be found in a wicked or unregenerate man.

4. Between Repentance and Repentance. There is a Repentance like that of Judas, full of anguish, a tormenting anguish of spirit; But the character of re­pentance unto salvation, is the rise of it from godly sorrow, which feels love, the nature of it is a pur­pose to sinne no more, but to cleave to God, the ef­fect of it is fruit unto holinesse; Conviction, contrition, conversion, make it perfect.

5. Between Love and Love. There is a love of God arising from self-love, so one Publican loves a­nother, as a Benefactour: But the character of true love is, that it rises from sense of his first and saving love to us lost sinners, and carries us on to desire him, to delight in him, to have fellowship, to be in friend­ship with him, and to be like him.

6. Between Desire and Desire. There is a desire of salvation to be out of hell, a desire of grace meerly as a sign and security for heaven to ease our painfull an­guish; But the character of true desire is sanctificati­on as well as salvation, grace, not meerly for a bridge to heaven, but for Union, Communion and Confor­mity with, and unto Christ Jesus.

I will proceed no further, this is a taste of what I before delivered; These are the graces of a Commu­nicant; These are their Differences and Characters; These lead you on to the priviledge granted, And so let him come and eat, &c.

Great Use may be made of this point, and the Use is rather to be made by you than me, for so the Text, Let a man examine himself, but I will point you to it in a word or two.

§. 6.

§. 6 Uſe. You see your duty, and you see the priviledge, So let him eat. Let me exhort you to perform this work carefully, conscionably. I have said enough, to move you, enough to direct you, the benefit is great, the danger great, the means to obtain the benefit to escape the danger is this; If you finde sinne labour to bring repentance; If you need a Saviour, come and take him as freshly bleeding, but bring thirst and faith with you; Have an eye to the Serpent on a pole, rest your souls as the Dove did upon this Ark, a crucified Christ; but do not deceive your souls, by a slight performance; Call your lives and wayes to the bar; Examine, judge your selves; Do not neglect, becaUse no body sees you, there is a God will search out your sinne, and judge also; You have great imployments, make opportunity, you are in suits, one Ordinance of God doth not disable another, you may lawfully pur­sue your right, and yet pursue peace, and keep chari­ty; If you suffer wrong, forgive, it's glorious; If you do wrong, Leave your gift at the Altar, and be reconciled first, that's more glorious; Set apart time, set apart your selves, Commune with your heart in [Page 370] your closet in silence, no man casts up his accounts in a croud or throng, you need no other businesse while you do this; Seek of God by prayer and fasting a self­searching heart, and do it as if ye were to die; make the accounts between God and your souls even, and seQuester your selves to that purpose; for so when you cast up your accounts, you Use to shut up your shops.

2. That Donatistical principle of separation from Congregations or Churches, wherein there is a mix­ture of worthy and unworthy, doth from hence re­ceive some check; for a man is to examine himself concerning his fitnesse, and if he eats unworthily he eats damnation or judgement to himself, and there­fore a private member hath here no call or warrant to examine the fitnesse of others, nor do they that are unworthy eat judgement to him, but to themselves; But of this I have already spoken at large.

§. 7. Of the Ministers or Elderships examining Communicants before Admittance.

§. 7 I know you will ask me, what I say to that exami­nation of men and women, competents or candidates of this Sacrament, which hath been Observed in your Congregations of later time; for the exploration on­ly of their competency of knowledge in order to their Admission to the Lords Table; I professe my hearty sorrow for the rents and discontents which have ensu­ed, not will I stand up to justifie any scandalous pro­cedure, which hath armed any man with argument or indignation, but shall clearly without any fraud or prevarication declare my opinion upon the thing it self.

[Page 371]1. I do not enforce it upon this Text, which doth not intend an Examination meerly by propounding Questions, but a finding out of our spiritual estate, and of that whole fitnesse and meetnesse required of us in order to our accesse to the Lords Table; That in que­stion was an exploration by Question, touching know­ledge, competent or sufficient; This in the Text is required before every Sacrament, that but once in or­der to first Admission, and therefore as I prove it not by this Text, so I must needs say, it is not disproved by it; And therefore they that infer from hence against all Examination by others, must necessarily destroy all catechizing, whether by parents, masters or others, which cannot be; Every man is bound to examine himself, but not bound from examining others that are under his charge, for then he should be bound from his duty, and therefore it holds not negatively, that no man may examine another, and so both parts may let this Text rest.

2. The Church of Christ did never hold her self unconcerned in the admittance of members into her society. In the primitive Churches; when men of years came in unto the Church from Idolatry and Heathenism, they passed a severe test, and were cate­chized a long time before they became competents for Baptism, and at their Baptism had Questions pro­pounded, and by them answer'd, as touching their faith and purpose of life, and having past the test, then it was needlesse at the Supper, except they fell into grosse sin, but that case and ours is different, when all are baptized in infancy, and therefore must be cate­chized and instructed in the fundamentals of Religi­on, and have the test of the Church before they [Page 372] come to the Lords Table, or else never.

3. Therefore in all Gospel Churches, we may find footsteps of this exploration, look into the Romish and Popish way, they have auricular Concession, which is a mixture of tyranny and superstition, but the people must pass this test, which did not they ig­norantly take for an easie way of pardon of sin, they would be sensible of as extream slavery; and it's Pa­raeus his Observation, That this Confession was of old instituted ad hanc probationem, for this trial or probati­on of mens fitness to this Sacrament. The Lutherans have such a way of Examination and Confession too, as Chemnitius confesses; And the Augustan Confes­sion, as Bellarmine notes, is plain for it, Nulli admit­tuntur nisi prius explerati; And so in England it was ordered, That no man should be admitted that had not learnt his Catechism, &c. I do not bring these instan­ces to any end, but to cry down the ignorant opinion of novelty and strangeness; For if we in England had followed our own Rule, it had not been such a stran­ger as it now seems,

4. The intent and end of this Examination in que­stion was, partly that thereby the Church might know her own members, and their due qualifications, partly that there might be a help to prepare, and put into the way such as could not examine themselves; For if the Church should afford her Communion to all at all ad­ventures, to what scandal and contempt should she prostitute her self and the Ordinance, there would be no wisdom in making her Communion like that of a common Inn, where known and unknown are all a­like; Nor would there be charity to suffer blind folks to run into an open pit, and rush on the sword-point; [Page 373] You may Observe how willingly a patient will answer a Physician Questioning him about his bodily estate; And a clyent his counsellour Questioning him about his title or caUse, becaUse both are in order to advise, and help of them that cannot help themselves, and such is this, if it were so well interpreted; but misre­presentation and prejudice judges otherwise, for men look upon it as a dominion over their faith, not a help to their weakness, especially if they see a distance kept, and authority assumed; They look upon it as an ar­raignment, and take themselves to come to a Bar or Tribunal to be examined upon delinquency, which kinde of distances I like not in such a business as tends to society and communion, where poor and rich are all one in Christ Jesus; And if any man through mistake have conceived, That this doth but set up a Tribunal upon him, to dive into his bReast, to extort his secrets like an auricular concession, I blame him not of his backwardness to appear, for so should I, for I abhor both that tyranny, and that superstition, but if no more be but that the Church would know my faith or help my ignorance, I see not but I may conclude with Mr Hooker, a man I know of reverence with you in his fifth book of Ecclesiastical Polity, when in answer to Mr Cartwright upon this point, hath these words, The Examination of Communicants when need requireth for the profitable Use it may have in such cases, we reject not; And so Paraeus, Examen publicum aut privatum non re­spuimus 1 Cor. 11. modo absit, so as tyranny and superstition be kept out.

Give me leave upon those words of Mr Hooker to infer and say,

1. To them that ask for a direct precept or injuncti­on [Page 374] for this in the New Testament: I answer, That 'tis a point of order, not of faith; It's of profitable Use, saith Hooker, not of absolute necessity, for then I must be examin'd too, and it would extend to all the world, as well as us, and yet you exact it not at Ministers hands, nor men of known sufficiency, Therefore it's not of absolute ne­cessity, but of order, I mean not of necessity to worthy re­ceivers.

3. In some cases profitable; and I must tell you we were in a singular and particular case here in England; for you know men and women had been by Law com­pell'd to receive the Sacrament so oft in a year, which compulsion, to discover Recusancy, with the neglect of catechizing, brought in a world of people blinde and unworthy, the Remedy and Reformation of which in­veterate abUse, and the prevention of Separation from our Churches (had no order been appointed) which must have universally followed by the necessi­ty of the thing, and instigation of them that lay on the advantage, were such Reasons as could enforce no lesse; Nor do I know how possibly otherwise the matter could be remedied or radrest, not intended to despise any that had right before, and had been long admitted.

3. The principal thing is, that the end of this Exa­mination be obtained, though the form or manner be not punctual, as namely, That a man have competent knowledge of this Ordinance, and be so known to have, whether by good testimony of others that are able, or by our acquaintance, or by conference, or he is a learned man, a knowing man, a Minister of the Word, which may be justly presumed to have due knowledge, as Paul presumed that Agrippa believed [Page 375] the Prophets. I say in these cases, the end of Exami­nation is attained: Nay, if one should come and de­clare himself by confession of his Christian faith, and purpose of life without any Question propounded or asked, I should not so dote upon Questions and forms of Examination, as not to passe such a one for a know­ing man, becaUse I have attained the end of all Exa­mination, which is, I know, that he hath knowledge competent, not that I would encourage any man to break a wholsom order, or establishment; for the Scri­pture requires, and the Apostle enjoyned to see order in the Church, Col. 2. 5. But that I would principally intend the thing it self above the form, not denying the right which he hath by his knowledge and profes­sion, nor thrusting him upon a separation meerly upon a form, except in one case, that a man intend to break a publick order, and to destroy it by his example; As if a man tear my hedge upon a just occasion, I take no offence, but if he purpose to let all the Swine into my corn, I should oppose him.

4. I could wish that all Examination were bounded and limited to such Questions as are of necessity to this Sacrament; There were printed some few Questions and Answers, as the rule and bounds of it some five or six years since; For I dare not trust the discretion of all men without a gage; And if any man should ask me such a Question as is not necessary, or for a Scholar to know, or to pry into my secrets, I should, though I could answer, crave excUse. I am afraid of, and terribly hate auricular confession, I love no step toward it, and therefore I would not answer upon my own liberty.

5. Though some will say, I can declare my self to [Page 376] my Minister, but not otherwise. I confess the Pastour hath the greatest account to make of his people, and is most concerned: But what if the Church will not trust him with that report, as all Ministers are not to be trusted with it, such is their loosnesse in this point, and too much facility? And were I to chUse, I had ra­ther do it under the eye of witnesses, especially in con­versing with women, who though in one regard, their modesty hinders to speak before others, yet in other regards is matter of occasion to them that are ill mind­ed, which must needs be avoided, providing things honest, not before God but men.

6. Lastly, Let men lay conscience to the point, and set by passion and prejudice, both examiner and exa­mined, and in humility and meeknes deny themselves, to keep up some face of order in these broken times; Let your thirst to this Sacrament carry you thorow a thorn-hedge, and I on the other hand shall stoop low, rather than a thirsty soul should want the Sacrament, or be thrust on the Rock of Separation, and so we shall meet at the end, though differ in the way. It should be a very sorry answer indeed, that I would not make the best of, and (I hope) you would not make the worst of any errour or infirmity in me, I know Order in an Army (as he sayes) kils no body, yet without it they are a Rout, and not an Army.



  • ABUses in Ordinances no ground for separation. 30
  • Actions in the Lords Supper of
    • Christ. 76
    • Communicants. 95
  • BRead must be broken, and why. 88
  • Benefit of worthy receiving 314
  • 1. Generally. 1. It is of higher nature then the E­lements of themselves can convey. 319
  • 2. Blessings of the Cove­nant are sealed, and graces of the Covenant impro­ved. 320
  • 2. Particularly. 1. What God conveys: 1. Christ and his benefits. 322
  • 2. The Covenant sealed. 324
  • 2. What believers receive.
  • 1 The body and bloud of Christ. 326
  • 2. Remission of sin. 327
  • 3. Communication of greater proportion of Gospel­spirit. 329
  • COvetousness caUse of Ju­das TReason. 47
  • Counsel of God fulfilled by wicked instruments. 58
  • Consecration of Elements, by what words. 81
  • Cups divers in the Passeover. 79
  • DIscipline, what to be done where it cannot be duly administred. 223
  • Discerning the Lords body, what it is. 338
  • Danger of unworthy eating. 345
  • ELements, what they signifie 73
  • Must be taken severally. ib.
  • Were severally blest. 77
  • By what words consecrated. 81
  • Ought to be consecrated only by a Presbyter. 83
  • Changed only in their Use 85
  • Whether given by Christ im­mediately to all. 91
  • Inward signification of them. 117
  • [Page]They work not physically. 267
  • Examination of our selves re­quired to right participation of the Lords Supper. 352
  • Examination. 3.
    • 1. Of Men. 356
    • 2. Of Christians. ib.
    • 3. Of Communicants. 357
  • Motives to, and Directions for it. 358
  • Examination by Elders. 370
  • FAsting not necessary before the Lords Supper. 29
  • Fitness for the Lords Supper, wherein it consists. 278
  • May be set too high or too low. 279
  • GRaces to be exercised in Communicants. 289
  • 1. Knowledge of Nature. Ʋse, End of this Ordinance. 290
  • 2. Christ-receiving faith 292
  • 3. Repentance. 293
  • 4. Spiritual appetite after Christ. 296
  • 5. Love to fellow-members. 297
  • 6. Thankefulness. 298
  • Grace that is true how differ­enced from counterfeits. 367
  • Guilty of the body and bloud of Christ, what. 342
  • Ground of worthy receiving, and of the Churches admis­sion different. 343
  • JEwish writings and customs needfull to expound the New Testament. 2
  • Institution best rule for Re­formation. 34
  • Words of it explained. 111
  • Irreverent carriage reproved. 277
  • Judas intended not Christs death. 57
  • KNowledge of the Nature, Ʋse and End of this Or­dinance required in a Com­municant. 290
  • LOrds-Supper, Elements of it taken from Passeover. 2
  • Who capable of worthy re­ceiving. 20
  • Occasional circumstances not obliging. 22
  • Christ the Author of it. 48
  • Why instituted at night. 63
  • After Supper. ib.
  • Little before betraid. 66
  • An Ordinance of Fellowship. 98
  • What it exhibits. 120
  • [Page]An inner Ordinance only for believers. 140
  • The End of it, the remem­brance of Christ. 141
  • Occasions of the neglect of it. 148
  • How Obstructions may be re­moved. 153
  • How our mindes should be exercised in it. 156
  • The great work of it, to shew Christs death. 167
  • An Ordinance to be repeated. 171
  • Must continue till Christ come. 174
  • A barred Ordinance. 182
  • Who ought to be debarred 191
  • Not a converting Ordinance by Institution. 247
  • Yet may occasionally convert 250
  • Love feasts, how abUsed. 30
  • MIxt Communion no ground for separation. 234
  • Motives to endeavours after right participation. 300
  • Motives to self-examination. 358
  • NEcessity of teaching and learning the true mean­ing of the Lords-Supper. 161
  • PApists must have faith of miracles. 86
  • Passeover represented Christs death. 3
    • Why so called. ib.
    • Whether a Sacrifice. 5
  • Christ our Passeover. 6
  • It looked
    • Backward as a re­membrancer. 8
    • Forward as a type. 8
  • How it resembles
    • Christ sacrificed. 9
    • Christ in the Sa­crament. 13
  • Preparation for the Lords Sup­per. 274
  • QUalification for worthy receiving false and in­sufficient. 304
  • Qualifications of remembrance of Christs death. 143
  • REmembrance of Christs death. 143
  • To whom it is made. 145
  • Rites and gestures spurious in Lords-Supper. 101
  • SAcrament and Sacrifice how differ. 5
  • [Page]Sacrament must resemble the thing signified. 104
  • Consists only in the Use. 106
  • Scriptures necessity. 40
  • Separation not grounded on
    • AbUses in Or­dinances. 30
    • Mixt Com­munions. 234
  • Sign taken for thing signified 7
  • Sins of Judas and Disciples how differ'd. 61
  • Sins scandalous, what. 212
  • Sins notorious, what. 213
  • Socinian errour. 120
  • TRansubstantiation, its rise. 128
  • Arguments against it. 130
  • UNworthy receiving a great and dangerous sin 332
  • The caUse of the sin, Not discerning, &c. 337
  • Aggravations of the sin. 341
  • Danger of it. 345
  • Dangerous to Church and State. 348
  • A godly person may receive Unworthily. 285
  • WOrthy and unworthy receiving. 45, 180, 263
  • Worthy receiving not to be measured by success. 265
  • What required to it. 283
  • Benefit of it. 314
  • Who capable of it. 20
  • False qualifications for it. 304


PAg. 3. lin. 27 r to suffer; p 4. l. 18 Gerard. p. 5. l. 2. r. paterfamilias. p. 6. l. 3 prius prosunt. p. 8. r. §. 5 & 6. p 8. l. 28. r. not only hrist. p. 9 l. 7. r. this life-giving death of. p. 22. l. 15. r. and blessing p. 33. l. 14. [...]. Hebrewish; with whom the, &c. p. 37. l. 24. r. the Lord; I have received of the Lora that which also I delivered. p 44. l. 31. r. [...]. p. 5 [...]. l. 13. r. Author, from him therefore. l. 22. r. Schoolman saith) l. 23. r. were contained p. 58. l. 13. r. saith Ames p. 77. l. 16. r. Post-coenium. p. 85. l. 17. r. Marcion, l. 18. 1. body? l. 20. r. humane, l. 22. r. being? p. 93. l. 32. r. [...]. p. 95. l. 12. r. Thus, Eve­ry. p. 143. l. 14. r. Benefits, Benefactors.

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