THE Soveraignes Power, AND THE Subiects Duty: DELIVERED In a SERMON, at CHRIST-CHURCH in Oxford, March 3. 1643.


ROM. 13.2. Whosoever resisteth the Power, resisteth the Ordinance of God.

OXFORD, Printed for W.W. 1644.

Roman. 13. vers. 1.‘Let euery soule bee subiect to the higher powers: for there is no power but of God.’

IN vaine doe Christian Prin­ces beare the Sword, if their subiects conscience may question their power. They which beginne it in the cause of Religion, may as well goe on, and doubt of all. And therefore as Prin­ces are iustly zealous in restraining the outward man, the Priests should bee as forward in informing the conscience. You know the occasion of such a medi­tation, and this hath put mee againe so [Page 2]soone vpon you and a new Text, standing engaged for many, which I must desire you to hearken to, as Gods message, plea­ding for the right of Kings by his Apo­stle, Rom 13. v 1. Let euery soule be subiect to the higher powers, &c.

Wherein are th [...]se two parts: 1. a Pro­position deliuered by way of command, expressing a duty enioyned, Let euery soule b [...] subiect &c. Wherein are three things,

  • 1. Quis, Who it is that is to per­forme it Euery soule.
  • 2. Quid, What it is, Be subiect.
  • 3. Cui, To whom, The higher po­wers.

2. a Reason for confirmation of it, as if this cause were grounded, not onely on bare authority, but inforced by infallible reason, For there is no power but of God.

I shall begin with the persons; and first with those to whom this duty is due; the higher powers, [...]

We haue iust cause to examine this stile, and confine it strictly to us subiect; lest vsurpers taking aduantage of the loose­nesse [Page 3]secretly vndermine the bulwarke, which we hope for, and may heere build vp. For some are ready to thrust in, and shrowd vnder this Title, Bishops and all Spirituall Gouernours: others, who mainely oppose that, labour to make all temporall Gouernours equall sharers; both which are repugnant to the Apostles meaning, and both equally dangerous. Let spirituall power be heere supposed, and (if they be not subiect) yet shall temporall Princes haue no command ouer the Cler­gie. Let all temporall partake in it, and euery inferiour Magistrate shall contest with his King. For, for their safegard (according to them) as well as the Princes, is this precept of the Apostle. Let euery soule be subiect to the higher powers. And heere is no subiection, but command al­lotted them. For powers, say they, extends its selfe to the spirituall power, and higher, in the others sense, lookes onely on the people; and therefore agreeable to infe­riour Magistrates, who in respect of the people are [...], superexcellentes, exceeding [Page 4]all others in ciuill power. For that, which wee render Higher, they translate, superex­cellentes, hoping thereby to escape the ob­scurity and danger of the vulgar transla­tion, which answers our English. That is Bezaes censure on the vulgar Latine, (which saith, Potestatibus sublimioribus sub­dita sit) and redounds to our English; wherein he hath his followers. The dif­ference at first seemes onely verball, but when we heare them from hence suspect a dangerous sence; we are to stand vpon ourguard, and presume of a reall dissen­sion. Giue them leaue to change the word [sublimioribus] into superexcellentibus, and they thinke they haue sufficient war­rant, in stead of absolute Lords and Prin­ces, to put in Bailiffes and Constables. It must bee meant of all Magistrates, that haue power ouer other men, or else it is Periculosa interpretatio. And wherin stands the danger? Because they shall bee denied to deriue their power from God? That would not follow; because others are heresayd to bee of God, they being not [Page 5]named. Put the case they were denyed it, and had their power allotted them onely from Kings, and not immediatly from God, as Kings deriue theirs. Indeede this is that, which is much feared by them, who secretly labour to curbe Kings; as shall ap­peare anon. But is this lesse then the Apo­stle giues them? S. Peter makes a different fountaine of power. Submit your selues to euery ordinance of man for the Lords sake: whether it be to the king as Supreame; or vnto Gouernours, as vnto them, that are sent by him: 1. Pet 2.13, 14. Gouernours, who haue a King, may not thinke they stand at the well-head with him; but haue their power deriued from him. By him are they sent, and from him haue they their authoritie, and yet it is from God too, being a branch of the Kings power, which is immediatly from God. It is not then a dangerous opi­nion, but the safest trueth which they would auoide.

But we must not frame fancies, and then fit the Scripture to them by translation. Indeed should I lay this to their charge, I [Page 6]should wrong them: for whilest they were quarrelling with the word, that was the occasion of daunger, rather then they would erre from the originall, they pla­ced in another alike dangerous. For what aduantage haue they by Superexcellentibus? it is not in the comparatiue degree, as was the other. But hath it not a comparatiue sense? Yes as great, or greater: Such as our English, more excellent, or more eminent doth not reach; which Pareus at length confesseth, saying, Praecipuètamen [...], the Apostle especially aimes at the Supreame power; so the true meaning of the word importes: for it is that, which amongst many is still higher then them all, and ther­fore Supreame, which our latter English Translation obserues in the place before cited out of Saint Peter, 1. Pet. 2.13.Submit your selues to the King, [...] as Supreame. They are then [...], Supreame powers only, to whom this obedience is due; and to all such, whether in Monarchie, Aristocratie, De­mocratie, or other forme of gouernement.

This we haue further warrant for from [Page 7]our Apostles discourse: for that wee may haue yet another Plea against inferiour Magistrates; and shew also at last against the Papists claime, that no Spirituall Power hath place here, these higher powers are such, Rom. 13.4. as to whom the sword of iustice is im­mediatly committed, at the fourth verse. He that is one of these powers, beareth not the sword in vaine: for hee is the Minister of God, a reuenger to execute wrath vpon him that doth euill, and vnto whom Tri­bute belongeth at the sixth verse: for this cause also you pay Tribute. Both which are the infallible markes of Supreame ciuill power, being parts of the Rights of Maie­stie. Yee haue then the persons, to whom subiection is due. Let vs now see, Quis, who it is that is to performe it, whom wee find expressed by Omnis anima, Euery soule.

PART. II. Quis? Euery soule.

THat here the soule is vsed Synechdochicè, the part for the whole man (as often­times in Scripture) I presume needs no con­firmation: [Page 8]But yet there may be some spe­ciall cause, why he nameth the soule, not the body: which Gorran will haue, Quia de­bet esse voluntaria subiectio, as if he were not properly subiect, whose body was fitted to the Superiours command, and the will, which is from the soule, ioynes not with it. And Caietane, vt non solum corpus, to the end that Subiects shuld by the way vnder­stand, that not only their bodie and goods, but ipsa anima, their very soule also should be subiect to their Princes command; and as Omnis homo, euery man, so Totum bominis, or Totus homo, should concurre to make a perfect obedience; for so our Apostle after­ward more plainely: Verse 5. Wherefore, ye must be subiect not onely for wrath, but also for consci­ence sake.

The maine thing wee are to enquire for here, is to know who these are, to whom this command extends it selfe, and whe­ther as in the note, so in the Apostles mea­ning, there is an absolute vniuersalitie; so that no kinde of men, and no man is ex­empted; and it is worth our enquiry, since [Page 9]there are not wanting who would wrest themselues out of this number.

The Anabaptists at first would haue pleaded exemption from Princes, but fin­ding by their wofull experience, that they could neuer prooue it whilest Powers re­mained, haue changed their Proposition, and in stead of putting themselues out of Omnis anima, labour to ruine Potestates, not deeming them fit for Christians. These haue confessed their errour, and saue vs a labour.

But the Clergie of Rome, aiming at the same priuiledge, & managing their purpo­ses more craftily; haue wrested it frō some Princes, which they haue now so successe­fully improued, that against Kings, by vio­lent practise of it, and against all disputers, Suarez def. Cath. fid. lib. 4. cap. 7. by argument they challenge it as their pro­per inheritance; & maintain that the Pope cannot, if he would, submit himselfe to any ciuill Power: But were the sword as able to pleade Kings causes in the field, as Di­uines pens in the Schooles, their Crownes would not so often totter on their heads, [Page 10]nor their liues be exposed to such rebelli­ous out-lawes.

That our Apostle intended this Precept to the Clergie as well as to the Laitie, if the words themselues cannot perswade, heare the Ancients exposition of them. S. Chry­sostome saith, Let euery soule bee subiect, yea, [...] though he be an Apostle, yea, though hee be an Euangelist, or a Prophet, or whosoeuer. Theodoret, Whether hee be Priest Bishop, or Monke; So Theoph. So Oecumenius. And Bernard ad Ar­chiepiscopum Senonensem, vrging this verse of S. Paul expounds it, Siomnis, & vestra, If euery soule be subiect, Bern. Epist. 42. then yours. Quis vos excepit ab vniuersitate? Who hath exemp­ted you from this vniuersalitie? yea, and leaues a brande on all his successours, that shall attempt to perswade any Clerke to such a freedome, Si quis tentat excipere, co­natur decipere.

Were these silent, the circumstances at­tending this Epistle would discouer it. The occasion, it seemes, of this strict com­mand was the heathens iealousie of Chri­stian [Page 11]subiection, and the infection, which the Apostle feared, might haue seised on these new Christians, from that common opinion of the Iewes, who were about this time altogether impatient of any gouerne­ment, but what they then expected from their Messias. For suppressing of the like conceit, and clearing of the Christians, he addes this precept to the Epistle directed to all the Saints at Rome, and therefore the Clergic; yea, Saint Peter too, (if hee were then in Rome,) else had he not satisfied, but encreased the Heathens supicion.

Againe, this may be confirmed by the doctrine and practise of those times. Our Sauiour takes order, Mat. 17.27 that Tribute be paid for himselfe; and Peter giues direction to the Priests spies to giue vnto Caesar the things that were Caesars. Luk. 20.25 Saint Paul appeales to Caesar for iudgement. And if wee looke backeward into the olde Testament, wee may finde the same subiection in Priests and Leuites, and the like power in tempo­rall Superiours. 1. Mac. 4.42. Iudas Maccabaeus appoin­teth the Priest to Sanctifie the Temple, after [Page 12] Antiochus his profaning of it. The like did Iosiah. 2. Chron. 34. Ib. Ca. 24.6. 1. King. 2.26. 1. Chro. 15 11.Ioash reprehendeth Iehoiada the high Priest for neglecting it. Salomon deposeth Abiathar the high Priest for offending a­gainst him. Dauid giues order to the Priests and Leuites for the seruice of God. Aaron is subiect to Moses. But we may spare our labour for these arguments, since some of them are content to acknowledge the force of them, and graunt what wee haue prooued. Est. in rom. 1.1. For so Estius to the practise of the Apostles, Non est consequens, it followes not, if Peter and Paul were then subiect to temporall powers, that therefore Bishops and Priests should be now. Why so? Pla­cuit Principibus Christianis: Because Exemp­tion hath since beene graunted by Christi­an Princes. What? By the Supreme Pow­er of euery dominion? If not, then are they not exempt from all. If so, it is but onely on fauour, and not of due; so that they are still subiect, when any Prince shall claime it: Nay, they are necessarily subiect in the maine point of subiection, (if not in other circumstances) because an absolute [Page 13]freedome is a detraction from supremacy, which no person can dispose.

Wherefore we may conclude, that peo­ple, and Priest, and euery person amongst them is included in omnis anima, and ther­fore must attend the charge that is giuen, Subdita sit, Let it be subiect.

PART III. The Duty: Let it be Subiect.

O [...], as S. Chrysostome. He saith not simply, let it honour the powers, or be obedient, but let it bee subiect; which includes all parts of duty, which a subiect owes vnto his King; for the ac­complishing of which, no outward act of reuerence, or seruice must bee wanting: and though this may satisfie the Kings command; yet doeth not this discharge thee of thy duty, which can neuer bee true, till the heart answer the gesture of the body. Diuine precepts seaze not on the body onely, but the soule. If thou [Page 14]wilt not then withdrawe thy selfe from this subiection, thou must adde these fowre conditions to thy externall obedi­ence. 1 There must be in thee 1. Promptitudo voluntatis interior, a free, voluntary, and cheerefull assent of minde. 2 2. Sincerus a­mor, perfect loue and affection towardes his person. 3 3. Filialis timor, an awfull re­spect of his power ouer thee, and a filiall feare of offending him. 4 4. Fidelitas, a faith­full heart towards him, whereby thou art constant in all bonds of duty to him, and iealous of all iniuries by others intended against him. This is the qualification of the subiection heere mentioned, and when thus qualified, it is not arbitrary, left to thee, to performe when, and where thou pleasest. For Saint Paul proposeth it not by way of aduice, or direction; but imperati­uè, 1. Pet. 2.13 by way of command, hauing, besides his apostolicall authority, the same pre­cept, giuen by other his fellow-Apostles; by Christ himselfe, Matt. 22.21 and the foundation of all commands, the Law, which was giuen by God himselfe; first in generall termes, [Page 15] Honour thy father and thy mother; Exod. 20. and after­ward enlarged, Deut. 17.12 That man that will doe pre­sumptuously, nor hearken vnto the Priest, or vnto the Iudge that man shall die. But doth this command vrge at all times, and on all occasions? What if the Prince be wic­ked, idolatrous? The vices of the man a­bridge not his power, and therefore not the Apostles command. If this might haue beene a sufficient plea against obedi­ence, S. Paul might haue spared this pre­cept, since Nero was the power, to whom these Romans were subiect. Or (to omit all other cases that may be made) what if his command be contrary to religion? yea an army bee raysed for the extirpation of true religion? This is the true touch­stone of subiection; and heere (if euer) may a subiect renounce all obedience to his King. For now is there power against power, man against God, and the subiect of both left to follow either man, or God. This is a wonderfull strait, from which whilest some labour to escape by the ship­wracke of their faith, they turne traitors [Page 16]to God: others by taking the sword in hand, though but to defend, become re­bels to their King: That is their stile.

Whether God be to be obeied rather then man, should need no proofe amongst any that confesse a God: and therefore when a Christian heares the commaund of a Prince pressing him to what God hath ex­presly forbidden, Nature prompts him his answer, I must obey God; and this hath the Apostles practise ratified, who coun­ted this their safe warrant for not yeelding to the High Priests iniunctions, Obedire o­portet Deo magis quam hominibus, we ought to obey God rather then man, August. de ve bis Do­mini, ser. 6. rather in­deed in respect of the danger that attends in the disobeying of either; for, Hi carce­rem (as S. Augustine) Ille gehennam minatur, these threaten imprisonment onely, God hell fire, I hey a temporall, He an eternall death. There is no shifting then of Gods command, without the penaltie of eter­nall death, and therefore he must be obey­ed euen against the King. That's my reso­lution in the first case.

But what if the King presse by violence to draw thee from that obedience, wilt thou maintaine it by violence?

Wee haue indeed the Iesuites instructi­ons for it, yea, Comoz let­ter to Par­ry. and the Popes encourage­ment to it: I spare the quotations because there comes not a Booke of theirs, wherin (if occasion be giuen) they forbeare to ex­presse it, Hospin. Hist. Iesuit. l. 4. c. 1. Anticotton. or compendiously to refer you to some: see Hospin. and Anticotton.

A doctrine of which, when the Society is challenged for, they are ashamed, and labour to cleere themselues against their written testimonies, as appeares in Anti­cotton.

And yet (I can not, but with griefe speak it) we finde euen in some Reformed Bookes the Iesuites penne. Their names deserue to bee branded that broach such positions: weigh those of Pareus. Par. in Rom. 13. dub. 4.

Bishops and Pastors may and ought to resist their vniust Magistrates, Concl. 1 Pareus his false doctrines and wicked po­sitions concer­ning Higher powers. not with the sword but the word of God, reproo­uing their notorious impiety, and iniu­stice, and reducing them to their office, [Page 18]according to the word of God, and the Law, and deliuering them, if stubborne, to Satan.

That Priests should tell Princes their faults, Replic. we grant; but when they can vse discretion, fitting so grand a businesse; when they desire to insinuate into them by their owne teares, not enforce vpon them Gods command. Spirituall force is the mother of all other, but not farther to bee insisted vpon by mee at this time, be­cause our occasion was from what follo­weth.

Subditi non priuati, Concl. 2 sed in Magistratu in­feriori constituti &c. Subiects, such as are inferiour Magistrates, may by armes de­fend themselues lawfully, the Common­weale, and true Religion against the supe­riour Magistrates.

These superior Magistrates are such, Replic. we may presume, in whom the supreme po­wer resides; and then you may see how directly it thwarts the Apostles rule. For those other Magistrate, are subiects.

It is not lawfull for subiects, Concl. 3 which are meerely priuate men, to take armes with­out [Page 19]out a lawfull calling, neither to inuade a tyrant before danger, nor to defend them­selues against them in danger, nor to re­uenge themselues after danger, if they may be defended by the ordinary power.

If then they faile of this condition, Replic. there is a time when they may right themselues: we shall not need to collect it, he addes it in the following conclusion.

If a tyrant presse on his subiects, Concl. 4 as if he were latro and stuprator, and they can not escape by flight, or any other ordinary meanes, it is lawfull for to defend them­selues and theirs, as against a priuate ex­tortioner.

How far short these conclusions come of the Iesuites positions, I referre to your trial by comparing them. And yet is not he the only man that maintaineth thē? Bucha­nan and the fayned Iunius Brutus are infa­mous for this doctrin. I could name others But this may suffice that there is scarce any of them, who are eager for the Presbyte­rie, and are fit instructours in this point for subiects of a free Monarch; and ther­fore [Page 20]no maruell if our eares bee tainted with such doctrine.

That which I conceiue in this case for truth is, that no subiects may vpon any occasion take armes or vse any violence against the supreame power, no not in de­fence of religion.

Whosoeuer resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God, Rom. 13.2 sayth S. Paul, in the 2. verse. Which place may well serue to confirme Princes power ouer their subiects in this case; for this rule was giuen to them, who suffered vnder a Tyrant, and that for reli­gion. It is a vaine and idle exception, which Pareus takes at this. Some argu­ments drawn from the power of Maiesty, saying, such places are bent against priuate men, who vsurpe such power ouer superi­ours; for euery Common-wealth consists but of two sorts in the generall, Prince and People, superiours and subiects: those who partake not of the Supremacy (as in an Oligarchie) are priuate men: if (where the power is deuided) one take the sword against the other, this is as hee is a part of the supreame power.

Other arguments that may bee drawne à parte potestatum, I forbeare, because they haue all their strength from the Apostles reason, and till that be weighed, we cannot auoide their shifts.

If we reflect vpon subiects, we shall find that their hands are tied by precepts, which lay hold on them, as they take on thē to be zealous Christians. Christs, Mat. 5.44. Rom. 12.17. Pray for them that persecute you: and the Apostles, Recom­pence to no man euill for euill; are not such pri­uate vertues, but that they pertaine to euery man; yea, it is the onley badge of their true subiectiō vnto Christ, if for his Names sake they practise them. And therfore Tertullian instead of abetting such zealous reuenge, fights with a prohibition, Tertul. Apol. c. 37. Ad Scap. Absit vt igne hu­mano vindicetur secta diuina; at doleat pati, in­quo probatur: and in the combate gaines the victory, by the persecutors cruelty, & pro­claimeth it, Crudelitas vestra, est gloria nostra.

But since precepts are made so liable to distinctions; and, when capable of seue­rall expositions, each may be maintained; let vs read the exposition of them in the [Page 22]practise of them, that gaue and receiued them. Did our Sauiour or his Apostles euer withstand the rage of the persecuting Iewes? Doe wee reade of any one vp­roare, or resistance made by the Primi­tiue Christians in those barbarous out­rages, practised on them by Hea­then, Idolatrous Tyrants? No, but in stead of alarums for defence, they reioyced, when apprehended, and tri­umph'd in their torments; hauing yet their hearts alwayes as ready to wish and pray for the happie state of their Empe­rours, as their bodies readie to suffer their violence. I might prooue it from age to age, for many hundreds of yeeres after Christ: but that I can but touch, not dis­cusse this question, and leaue it to your owne reading, and further scanning. The force of this argument is confessed by our opposites, who thinke to relieue them­selues by imputing their not resisting to their weakenes, not vnwillingnes to resist. Rash vncharitable Iudges of such holy Saints. Did they proclaime one thing to [Page 23]the world, and belie the thoughts of their hearts? Heare their vnanimous consent in Tertullian; Apud nostram disciplinam occidi ma­gis licet, quam occidere; It is our profession, rather to die then kill. Such precepts, and the rules of obedience kept out al thoughts of rebellion against their Prince; and hence in their name Tertullian contends with his heathen Persecutors for a greater share in Caesar, in whose name they were execu­ted; Noster est magis Caesar; Apol. c. 33. He is rather ours, then your Emperour, being appoin­ted by our God. And where as they pre­tend want of force in Christians, Soc. hist. lib. 3.9. they ob­serue not, that at Iulians death, his whole ar­mie cryed out to Iouianus, We are all Chri­stians. In Dioclesians time, Omnes ferè mor­tales, The whole world almost, leauing their Idolatrous Sacrifices, ioyned them­selues with the Christian Congregations. Tertullian pleads against the same obiecti­on; would wee deale with you as enemies, Apol. 37. Deesset nobis vis numerorum, & copiarum? could we want forces? We Christians haue filled all places of your Empire, your Ci­ties, [Page 24]Ilands, Castles, all but your Temples. Yea goe higher yet, and behold the Church in her cradle, arm'd with force able to op­pose the world, the Apostles power of mi­racles, Christs legions of Angels, ready to b [...]e employed at his command. Or had they failed of these meanes, they thought of as easie a tricke as the Iesuites, to punish their enemies, when Tertullian professeth, that one night, by the helpe of a few tor­ches, might haue afforded them a large re­uenge. Behold now the power of these Primitiue Christians, and yet weltring in their own blood for their Christianitie: With them, to right themselues vpon their persecutors, or to oppose them, is rebelli­on, and malice. Then was it the strongest parts Plea; Laesos vltio diuina defendit (as Cyprian) Diuine refuge protects vs. Tract. con. Demet. pa. 224. But now, Our owne arme shall strengthen vs. It is a glorious plea with flesh and blood, to fight the Lords battell, and to prouide that the true Religion be not rooted out: and (for ought I find) their best argument, for all the rest hang on the disposing of Su­preme [Page 25]Power, (which by the Apostles reason are all vndermined) or on the example of some, whose commission is confessed to be extraordinary, and from God. But let them heare whether we may not take vp Saint Hilaries complaint; Hil. con. Auxent. Misereri licet no­strae aetatis laborem, & praesentium temporum stultas opiniones, quibus patrocinari Deo huma­na creduntur, & ad tuendam Christi Ecclesiam ambitione saeculari laboratur; Wee may iust­ly pitie the vaine labour and foolish con­ceits of these times, wherein mans endea­uours are accounted Gods aid, and Christs Church thought to be maintained by the worlds policie, ambition or greatnesse.

For the Apostles receiue a sharpe checke that would haue fire come downe from heauen, to consume the rude Samaritans; Luke 9.54.55. and the sword that was drawne in Christs defence is commanded to bee put vp into his place, not without the heauie sentence: All that take the sword, shall perish by the sword. Mat. 26.52. Whence Tertullian, Tertul. de Cor. Mil.Gladium nec Dominicae de­fensioni necessarium reddidit. The sword was not lawfull in a priuate mans hands; no, [Page 26]not for Christs sake. The weapons which the true Church vseth in her battels, 2. Cor. 10.4 are spirituall: and the walles of Iericho are not to be battered, but with the Priests trumpets.

Protestants should remember how they withstand the Papists notes of the Church when they require it to be visible, of large extent, and glorious in the eie of the world. And Papists should acknowledge what Bellarmine professeth, Bellarm. de Ecc. lib. 4. c. 6. Durauit hucusque &c. The Church hath lasted to this day in de­spite of her enemies, Iewes, Pagans, Here­tickes; and not so onely but still hath gay­ned by persecution. That is the greatest aduantage, that true Christianity hath when it is persecuted; and then doth shee conquere, when her souldiers are slaine. Was the Protestants cause weakened, ei­ther in France, by their many outragious massacres; or in England, by their frequent fiers; or in the Low Countries, by their great afflictions? If euer they prooue loo­sers, it is when they vniustly fight for pre­seruing it. Should the Papist Princes all [Page 27]muster their forces, Scioppins class. sacr. and wage the holy warre, whose Trumpet hath already soun­ded the alarum, they might perchance for a time eclipse the light of trueth, put it out they neuer can. They may abate the visible number, but will make more true Professours. Tertullians, Sanguis Martyrum est semen Ecclesiae, is a maxime, The bloud of true Martyrs is the Churches seeds-plot, if it be cast into the fire, or spilt by an vn­resisted sword.

I could dwell in the contemplation of this strange husbandry; but that I may be suspected for digressing, and am yet to shew the medium betweene disobeying God, and resisting the King.

It is confessed there must bee no diso­beying of God: That wee may not resist the King is prooued (as the occasion giues leaue) what then remaines? Preces & la­chrymae, sollicite, beseech, earnestly pray for the reuersing of the Decree, Haec sunt mu­nimenta spiritualia, & tela diuina, quae prote­gunt, This is the only shelter and fortresse, whither a Christian may betake himselfe [Page 28]in this tempest. Hester 3.16 Heere was Hesters and the Iewes refuge, when the Decree was gone out from Ahasuerosh for the destroy­ing of the Iewes. Act. 4.2. Hither fled the Apostles, when they were prohibited to preach Christ: Sozim [...]l. l. 2. c. 28 Alexander of Constantinople, when command was giuen for the reestablish­ing of Arius; Russin. l. 2. c. 36. and Ambrose, when hee was eagerly prosecuted by Iustina in the cause of Arianisme. And these are tela too, and diuina, weapons that fight from aboue a­gainst the fury of persecutours; not, as if by thee directed to reuenge (that is not warrantable) but approoued with God by the testimonies of his vengeance. By these was Hamans gallowes (appointed for Mor­decai) fitted for himselfe; by these on the day, when Arius should haue beene resto­red, did he sodainely perish by these was Iustina put to flight and executed. If these preuaile not, know that now is the time wherein God will make triall of thy faith to him, and loyalty to thy king. Both which must appeare in thy readinesse to vndergoe the intended affliction.

There is no defensiue resistance allowed, vnlesse thy defence be such, Lib. 3. (as Liuie only allots to subiects) Scutum, non gladius, the buckler of patience, not the sword, which is as ready to giue, as ward the blow. Hee that in this defence wounds his persecu­tor, is a rebellious murtherer, not a lawfull executioner. Remember that he is still thy Prince, and since thy conscience may not yeeld to his command, shew thy selfe his subiect in yeelding to his punishment. For now thou maye [...]t either die by liuing, or liue by dying: Thou hast Christs war­rant for it; Hee that (in such a case) findeth his life shall loose it, Mat. 10.39and hee that looseth his life shall finde it; loose a temporall, finde an eternall, where he shall for euer raigne in the glory of tri­umphant Martyrs.


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