THE Husbandman, FARMER, and GRASIER'S Compleat Instructor.

CONTAINING, Choice and Approved Rules, and Directions for Breeding, Feeding, Chusing, Buying, Selling, well Ordering and Fatning Bulls, Cows, Calves, Rams, Ews, Lambs, Swine, Goats, Asses, Mules, &c.

How to know the several Diseases Incident to them, by their Signs and Symptoms, with proper Remedies to Cure them; as likewise all Griefs, and Sorrances what-ever.

ALSO, A Treatise of Dogs, and Conies, in their Breeding, Or­dering, and Curing the Distempers they are subject to.

How to Breed, Feed and Fatten Poultry; and Cure their several Diseases.

To which is Added, The Experienced Vermine-killer, in particular Directions, for taking and destroying all sorts of Vermine in Houses, Out-Houses, Fields, Gardens, Graneries, and other places.

By A. S. GENT.

LONDON: Printed for Henry Nelme, at the Leg and Star, over­against the Royal Exchange in Cornhil. 1697.

The [...]us [...]and man Farmer and G [...]s Compleate Instructor.

Jon B [...]ed for Henry Nelme at the leg and star in Cornhill



HAving seriously considered, that a Book of this Nature was wanting to be brought to Perfection, there b [...]ing nothing already extant Valuable, or a [...] least, in a Method Plain and Intelligible; I have, for the Love I bear to my Country, Study'd the Advantage of it, Consulted o­thers, and joyn'd what is approved in them, with my own Experience; and digested it into such a compact Body, that although this Book, to Appearance, seems little, it contains much more than at first Sight can be reasonably imagined, far exceeding what the Title Page sets forth; and indeed, much more Adapted to the Purpose, than all the Books of its kind; which in searching, I am constrained to confess, I found very Scanty and Imperfect; and as to some Cattle, [Page] very useful to the Nation, and herein men­tion'd, there was nothing, at all to any Pur­pose; so that I wondered at former Ages, and even at the present that a Work so ne­cessary, should be no better Improved, which was one main Incitement that induced me to this Ʋndertaking; and to add many things I conceived highly necessary, and not touched o [...] before; and to the Breeding, Choice, Feeding, and Curing all Diseases in Cattle of every kind, useful in th [...] Nation: I have added the same for a [...] D [...] mestick Poultry, with Directions how to fatten them with much Ease, and litle Cost; as also for Coneys, Tame, or Wild; and to preserve these, and even the Fish in the Wa­ter: You are furnished herein with an Ex­perienced Vermine-killer, laying down plain and easie Rules, and Methods, to take, or destroy all offensive Vermine, hurtful either to Man, Beast, Fowl, Fish, or the Fruits of the Earth. Therefore, as the Work is f [...]ll of Variety, so I doubt not but it will as fully satisfie those that Read it, and put my Directions in Practice, as they can expect; which is the wish of your Friend to serve you,

A. S.

THE Husbandman, Farmer and Grasier's COMPLEAT INSTRUCTER, IN Breeding, Feeding, Buying and Sell­ing Cattle, &c.

Proper Seasons for a Heifer or Cow, to take the Bull; and what is to be considered therein, as to a good breed.

SInce England abounds in Cattle, and by the well Ordering and Breeding them, Riches, and Plenty of Provisions, accrue, not only to the industrious Hus­bandman and Dealer in them, but to all sorts of People; it is highly necessary that such Rules and Directions should be lay'd down for their Increase, Im­provement and Preservation, as so useful and profitable a Subject requires; and first, of Kine:

The most proper time for the Heifer to have the com­pany of the Bull, is at Three Years old, in order to a good [Page 2] Breed; for, if younger, it hinders her growth much, in­feebles her, and makes her produce Weaklings, or un­healthy Calves: Nor for these Reasons, on the other hand, is it convenient she should be covered after Twelve Years, especially if the Calf be intended for a Cow or Ox: The best time to let her be with the Bull, is from the Tenth of May, to the Tenth of June; for then by feeding she is lively of body, and will produce her Calf in a warm season.

When you find her inclinable to be covered, (which you may know by the swelling of her Claws, her conti­nual Lowings and running to the Hedges or Banks when she hears her self answered, or sees any Cattle pass by; by her looking up and scewling the Air, as if she smelt the Bull) then put her into good and easie Pasture, turn the Bull to her, and it will not be long e're she kindly receives him. If you design for breed, look well to the Limbs and proportion of your Bull, and chuse, above others, one that's mostly of a red Colour, Sprightly, and not exceeding Five Years; his Body long, and not over thick, his Neck and Horns thick and short, a broad curling Front, his Eyes lively, and of a black shining, his Tail long and bushy, and therest of his parts proportionable to his Body; free from Diseases or Imperfections. Let him be in good case, and not suddenly taken from other Cows: If he refuse to cover her, smoak his Nostrils with the dry'd Herb called [...]arts-Tail, sprinkled in a Chassing-Dish of Coals, which will incline him to lustful desires; as also the Juice of Sea-Onions, given him with new Ale, or sweet Wine.

The Heifer or Cow having kindly received the Bull Twice or Thrice, put her into an inclosed Pasture, where she cannot leap to injure her self, or lose what she re­tains, or oceasion the casting of her Calf, when come to any perfection; see it be free from Bryers, Thorns, or the like, watered with a clear Spring, or running Brook, &c. and give her now and then Water wherein Bran or Wheat [...] been boyled.

How the Cow ought to be ordered in Calving, and after; a [...] also the Calf; and proper times for weaning &c.

When your Cow has Calved, hearten her with half a pint of Malmsy, the yolk of Three Eggs, and a pint of sweet Wort; if there be any difficulty in her Calving, help her with your hand; and let her lying be as easie as may be, bolstered up with Sraw, and take the Calf from her till she gather strength, puting it to a new Milch'd Cow, or feed it by hand, with Milk and Oatmeal; but if you put your Calf to a strange Cow, let it not be with her a whole Night, lest by the scent she discern it not to be her own; and then, being Careless of it, she may happen to overlay it.

Two Months or Ten Weeks expired, wean it and teach it to feed by hand, and do this by puting your Finger in its Mouth, whilst your hand is in the Pail, by which means he will the better take the Milk, supposing it to be his Dams Teat; mix in it some fine sifted Wheat-bran, and be­ing used to this, offer a handful of sweet Hay, or sweet new c [...]t Grass, and so by degrees you will prepare him for Pasture, which he will be strong enough for in a Weeks time, if the Weather be not Wet, Windy or Cold; but if either of these, keep him in the House to a more sea­sonable warmth, and then for a time he must have his fill Morning and Evening of Milk or Whey; and in a little time but once a day, and so by degrees you may take him quite off from it: When you perceive he is addicted to feeding, at Three Months, he may subsist altogether at Grass or Hay, and now and then Bran and Skim-Milk, when i [...] the Evening you house him.

If he in sucking time mumble or draw the Teat pain­fully, look in his Mouth, and under his Tongue you will find white Blisters growing, that restrain the use of the Tongue; cut these away, and anoint the sore well with Honey [...]nd Allom dissoved in Vinegar, do so tili the part is healed, lest the Calf pine away; or, sometimes by, the Gangr [...]ening, it dye. [Page 4] That the growth may not [...]e hindred, see it be not afflicted with Lice; if so, rub him over with Butter and Salt melted, and when it is well soaked, with a hard Wisp of Hay or Straw, and the next day with Urine, wherein Wood-Ashes have been steeped.

Convenient times to Geld or Spay Calves, with proper Directi­ons to do it without endangering Life, &c.

As you intend to bring up, or dispose of your youn [...] Calves, so you must take the order and observations in Gelding or Spaying them; most hold Three Months a pro­per time for this; but if you intend to breed them to be Oxen or Heifers, a great deal longer time may be taken. vix. Six or Twelve Months; and any time before Three Years is not too late, though more dangerous for a Bull Calf; or, for a Cow Calf, the time may be less; and the weather in doing this ought to be moderately warm, neither too hot, nor too cold; and the Spring and Fall in the warm of the Moon is most proper.

In Gelding, having slit the Cod, draw out the Stones with their Sinnews, as far as you can, without over-strain­ing; clap the Sinnews into a cleft Stick, and so seer them off with a hot Iron, anoynt them round with fresh Butter, and sow it up with very fine Silk, taking up no [...]ore th [...] the outward Rim or Edge.

In Spaying a Cow Calf, when you have taken away the Matrix, anoint the Incission with Oyl of Almonds, o [...] sweet Olive Oyl; see that no part of the Guts are disorder­ed, or out of place, and in sowing up, [...]e careful not to tack any of them with your Stiches to the Skin, lest it make them pine away and dye; anoint the place for se­veral days, with either of the said Oyls; and, to keep of Wasps and Flies, brush it over with a little Tar-water.

As for Bull Calves, after Gelding, put them in such Pastures or Places that they cannot leap nor strain them­selves; lest, bleeding a fresh, they endanger their lives; and particularly, if they be of any bigness, keep them from Cow Calves, for being apt to leap, by that means they will much in [...]ure themselves; and rub the Wound over [Page 5] till cured, with the Ashes of the Vine and Lytharge; giving them [...]ut little water after Three days cutting, and in it Fennel-seed boyled; feed them as their Stomacks will bear, (which by this means is much enfeebled) with sweet Grass, Hay or green Boughs. If the Wound swell, anoint it with the Oyl of Rosemary and Hogs-Lard tempered together, and warm, but beware the Calf catch not cold.

How to m [...]nage or order your breed of Cattle in their Stalls, Food, Taming or Breaking.

Having a Breed &c. in this forwardness; the next thing to be considered, is to bring them to gentleness and a good management, for many Reasons or Conveniencies: The Bull Calf, when Gelded, is c [...]lled a Steer; and the Cow Calf, a Heifer; and, to break them, observe your Cow­house, S [...]all, or other Housing conveniency, be adjoyning to some inclosed warm Pasture; make your self [...]amilier with them, (when you house and feed them) with sweet Provinder out of your hand; for encouragement, let the housing be kept clean, to prevent Diseases; and, let their goings out and in, be a [...] set times; make their Stalls yoak­wise, about Seven Foot from the ground; and, if they be­come wanton, head-strong, or push with their Horns, to mischief one another; you must, to break them of so ill a habit, tye them in their Stables, Twenty Four Hours, wit [...]out giving them provender, which Three or Four times used, will make them very tame, for by this means they will be brought to receive their Fodder more gently, and with much Familiarity; then stroak and scratch them gently, spirt some sweet Wine or Wort into their Mouths, which will induce them not only to endure your waiglet leaning hard on their Necks and Backs, but in a little tim [...] to follow you gently; then rub their Mouth with Salt and Water, make up Balls of sweet Butter, and C [...]mmin­seed and oblige them to swallow One or Two as big as an Egg, in a Morning before they goe out to Pasture; let the places where they stand be very Airy in warm Weather, and close in cold, and so they will in a short time be tamed, and thrive the better; some, when they [Page 6] are Restiff or Head strong, yoak them with a tamed O [...] or Steer, and make them draw a light Plough, or son a Weights; but I think I have given the best Directions.

If the Pasture fail, by reason of dry or excessive wet weather, house them, or feed them abroad with sweet and short Hay, fine Pease-Straw, Barly-straw, Chaff-Tear [...], and Clover-Grass, after Grass, or the like; for this manner of feeding in Winter greatly improves them. Lupius and Chaff mingled together is Physical and Nourishing; in the Spring, to purifie the Blood, give them green Sprigs of the Figg-Tree, Ash, Holm, Elme or Oak.

Rules to be observed for preserving your Cattle, and in g [...] plight, with Signs of Sickness &c.

When you have made this kind of Cattle tractable, the next main thing to be observed, is how to keep the [...] healthy; to do this, see their Meat be given them in due season, that no Infectious thing fall into it; keep from their Stalls Hogs, Ducks, Poultry, Pigions, the scent of whose Dung is very offensive to them; and, if scattered in their Provinder, makes them sick, and breeds unwholsome Airs, which cause the Murrain and Scab among them. Comb them down, and rub them well with hard Wisps, as often as your leasure will admit; at least, once in Two Days wash their Claws, and keep them from Gravel and swelling, or from other Defects that may occasion them to break out; Let them Blood, though no urgent Cause re­quire, it Twice a Year, viz. Springs and Fall of the Moon, being in any of the lower Signs; let them, after it, drink the Pickle of Olives, with a Head of Garlick bruised, and purge once a quarter if you see occasion; at least, Twice in the Year, without it, Three days together; the First may be done by giving them Lupius, and Pese mix­ed together; the next with the Grains of Cyprus, beaten and steeped a Night in a quart of Water. The Third, by bruising Nutgalls, and boyling them in a quart of Vinegar, Six is a sufficient number.

If you suspect the health of the Beast, goe to him early in the Morning before he eats or drinks, observe well the [Page 7] top of his Nose, and if there be Pearls like the drops of Dew upon it, he is in health; but, if it be hot, dry, or Scur­sey, some Distemper is beginning to grow upon him.

How to fat your Ox, Steer, Heifer, Cow, &c. the cheapest and and easiest way.

The shortest and cheapest way to fat an Ox, Heiser, &c. Is, Morning and Evening, to give them a sufficient quantity of Meal, Chaff, and Rapes, or Grains, well mingled; and, in their eating, sprinkle them with warm Water, wherein Nettle-Seeds have been boyled: If you perceive they fail in their Stomacks, boyl green Colwort-Leaves in Vinegar, put it down hot with a Drenching Horn, and it will whet and restore their Appetite; give them Wheat-Bran at times, well sifted; and, in Winter, feed at break of day, but in Summer, Sun rising is time enough: Water, in Summer, at Nin [...] in the Morning, and Three in the Afternoon; but in Winter, Once a day, with warm Water and Wheat-Bran; and at some convenient distances, give them sweet Hay, and new cut Grass; and, if you turn them out, now and then, into pasture or Airing, let it be sweet, and by no means rank; and so, in a little time, you will perceive their Flesh will increase abundantly, and be well stored with Tallow, to the advantage of the Buyer.

Instructions for buying of Lean Oxen.

Observe, in this case, the Age of the Beast as near as you ca [...]; for, the younger they prove, the better they will seed, and the sooner grow fat. The next, observe that their Hair be not stairing, but very smooth; and, that they lic [...] themselves; that their Eyes be black, full and shining; that they want none of their Teeth, but are whole mouthed▪ see their Ribs be broad, Hide thick, and Skin not loose, nor slicking to the Ribs or Sides, for then they will not thrive so well; that there is a good Pizzle and Tail, and the hair of neither broken; for, if so, the Beast is a waster, and will never feed well; learn if you can, what Ground t [...]ey fed in, and put them in better if may be; lest, not [Page 8] liking their feeding, they lose their Flesh, rather then improve it: Consider likewise if there be any Sickness a­mong Cattle in the Quarter where you buy them; for, if there be Infectious Diseases, as the Murrain, Longsough, or such like, one Beast will be apt to take the Disease of a­nother; though it may (at the time of your buying) to ap­pearance, be in health: And if any one be sick, seperate him from the rest; that, as little as may be, they may not be en­dangered.

To find whether a Beast be Sound, Healthy, or the contrary.

To be satisfied in this, gripe or pinch him with your hand on the Back or Weathers, behind the fore Shoulder and if sound and healthy, he will stand to it and n [...] shrink, but if the contrary, he will not only shrink, [...] he ready to fall; you may guess at their healt [...] likew [...] by the sprightliness of their Eyes, and the motion of the [...] Ears, for if these be heavy and dull, the Beast is [...] and out of order; also feel of the Claws if they be [...] seem crusty and burning hot, then is he inclinable to Feavers, and Pestilential Diseases: If a Cow, you may know by the Milk changing colour, if a little Vinegar be sprinkled

How to chuse a Beast proper for several occasions, as for the Team, Plough, Butcher &c.

If you chuse an Ox for the Plough or Team, observe he be young and not broken hair'd either at the Tail or Pizle; and, if he be not sociable to Labour, put him between two managed Oxen, and he will soon be tractable.

If an Ox be required for the Butchers use, they then [...]andle him, to feel if the Crop behind the Shoulders, up­on the hinmost Rib, and the Hackle-bone be soft; and a big Nath round and knotty; and, if the God be big and full, these ar [...] sufficient Signs the Beast is well fed, and contains much Tallow in him; and to know his Age ob­serve these Directions viz.

Look in his Mouth, for in the Tenth Month of his First Year, he casts his two Fore Teeth, the Two next in Six Weeks following, and at the expiration of Three Years, he will have cast them all; and when grown all up full again, they then will be equally white and long; when he waxes old, they will be very unequal, black and crooked.

General Rules to know a good Beast.

Observe if he be well quartered with large and big Members, his Horns strong, big, and somewhat black; his Brows wrinkled, a broad Forehead, the Hair wi [...]hin his Ears rough and soft; his Eyes lively and large; bla [...]k Muzled, Crook Nostrils, wide and open; his Neck­ [...]ine thick, long and fleshy, large Dewlaps, almost to his [...]ies; his Breast big and round, large and deep Shoul­ [...] [...] Bellied, falling deep in compass; Ribs wid [...] [...] or [...], his Reins and Back strait, and large bending to­w [...]ds the Rump; Thighs round, Legs strait and well se [...], full Knees, his Claws large and broad, his Tail well [...]ed [...]nd long, his Colour mostly black, or red, easy to be handled, and a good feeder.

G [...]neral Rules for-chusing, buying, feeding, and speedy satning of Cattle, &c.

For b [...]ying Draught Oxen, or chusing them from among any Herd, the best time is held to be in Mar [...]h, when, being b [...]re, they cannot easily hide their Faults, by the fraud of the S [...]ller; nor, by reason of their weakness, be to stubborn to be handled: It is most convenient to buy them as near a [...] may be to the place you in [...]end to Pasture them in, or b [...]ing them up, that finding little or no difference, they may equally th [...]ive; and if you find not a conveniency for this, consider the Country where you buy them, to be [...] near as may be, of an equal like temper to that whether you are to carry them; which will not only be a means for their thriving, but very much to preven [...] Sickness.

Consider again, that they are not dreading of Water, or [...]ridges they pass over; that they take their feed freely, [Page 10] and are not over nice or dainty in it, and not such as you design for the Plough or Team, be tractable to the Goad, that by their insensible dullness, they become not tiresome and vexatious to the Driver. The best breaking time is, from Three till Five; for before, they are too young; and after, to Restiff and headstrong; so that without great trou­ble, if at all, they will not become tractable: To hearten them the better, you may give them, when such things are in season, Lupius steeped in Water, Radishes, Wheat, Rapes, &c. by which means they will grow, in a manner, insensib­ly fat and lusty, even where Grass is not over plenty. N [...]w Grains is a great feeder; and some Cummin-Seed scat­tered amongst it, prevents any Cold, Watery Diseases in Winter; and when you change their green Pasture into dry Fodder, as the necessity of the Season requires, sharpen their Appetites, by choping Colwort-leaves small, steeping them in Vinegar Four or Five hours, and putting them into a Mash of Wheat-bran, which will make them feed the bet­ter; and having once well taken to their dry food, grow fat upon it.

Browsings of Oak Shrubs or Sprays, are very wholsome to cleanse their Blood, and make them hold out the better in sharp Weather, and in very cold Weather let their Morning Water be warmed; and this, particularly for Cows, helps their fruitfulness; and, if they are in Hilly or Wooddy ground, where they may bruize on, and feed a­mong pleasant Shrubs, they will be sooner fatter then Oxen or Bullocks, but not so in low grounds, or Meddow Pa­stures; and though these Cattle seem to covet drinking where the Water is muddyed or discoloured by Land-Floods ar [...] sudden Rains, yet it is not near so proper for their health as clear Springs; it likewise makes them give more and better Milk, sweater and pleasanter to the Taste.

To make an old Cow, or Oxes Flesh, tender, and pass for young, a rare Experiment.

To do this, after having well fed on Provinder that is dry, turn the Beast Three or Four days into fresh Pasture, then bleed pretty well, and let him or her be kept Forty [Page 11] Eight hours or thereabouts without any Meat; then boyl a Mash of Wheat, Cummin and Coriander-seeds, and give it as w [...]rm as the Beast will take it; this doe three days suc­cessively, Morning and Night; then give Chaff and Grains, a good quantity, after that, Hay of the latter cutting, sweet and short, then boyl a Mash of Pease, and that being eaten, turn the Beast into fresh Pasture; and the new blood that p [...]oceeds from this manner of feeding a Week or Ten days, will so soften and shorten the Fresh, that the Cow can­not easily be distinguished from a young Heifer; nor the Oxen from a Steer, if presently after killed and dressed, without long lying in Salt; for over Salting will hearden i [...] again.

For a Cow that is averse to the Bull, and will not, without much attendance and difficulty, be brought to the Bull.

Take a quart of new Milk, though not of her own, put into it a Dram of Saffron, a quarter of an Ounce of Car­damum-Seeds, and half an Ounce of Hemp-seed, strain it and give it her with a qurter of a pint of the Juice of Mint; drive her after it about the Yeard or Ground till she [...]e heated, and it will soon after prompt her to do what is desired.

To prevent Cows casting their Calves untimely.

When you perceive the Calf is come to any perfection, that is, your Cow has well conceived, drive her often gent­ly among Rushes, if such an opportunity can be had, and keep her there till she is disposed to lye down, which you may oblige her to by tickling and scratching; let her rest there till she is willing of her self to rise again▪ then take the Roots of those Rushes where she has lain, wash them clean, and boyl them in Vineger, with the tops of Nettles, and give it her warm to drink, sweetned with Sugar-candy; and, after this, half an ounce Oyl of Lavender, in half a pint of warm White-wine; and be assured, after this, unless occasioned by some violent straining in leaping, or great hurt, she will not cast her Calf before the pro­per time.

To make a Beast's Horns grow fair and large, and not shed.

To effect this, shave off the Hair round about the root of the Horns; wash it with the Juice of Comfry and Mai­den-hair, a Herb a so called, then boyl Plantain in his Wa­ter, and let him take it warm Three or Four days before turning out to Grass: This likewise prevents the violent pain under the Horns, that makes Cattle often run mad, and so do themselves or their Fellows much injury.

To make Cattle large in growth.

When the Calves are weaned, rub them well with hard Wisps of Hay or Straw; supple their Joynts with Neats­foot Oyl, give them Fennel-seeds in their Provinder, at least twice a week for a Month together; then the weather being warm, put them into fresh Pasture, wherein is a pleasant Stream, and wash them as the use is by Sheep at their sh [...]ering, or as well as the conveniency will allow; after that give them Agarick, as much as a Hazle-nut, made to the bigness of a Walnut, with Butter, and they will, though the breed was small, grow very large.

Barrenness in Kine, a Remedy often Experienced, and much approved.

Take the Roots of Eringos, by some called Sea-Holly, Southistles, and Pollipodium of the Oak, of each a good handful; boyl them in Water, wherein Osial and Pa [...]s [...]ips have been sodden, and give it the Beast to drink; then make a Decoction of Nettle-tops, and Ash-keys, and wash her Flanks, and other hinder parts with it very hot; stamp Garlick with Butter, and make into Balls, and give her one about the bigness of a large Wall-nut, fasting [...]ach Morning; Three days after, then turn her to the Bull, in a close warm Pasture, and you will have what you desire answered, unless extream Age hinder it.

To encrease Milk of good-taste and colour.

Boy [...] Lettice-leaves in new Wort, and give a Pint warm in the Morning, give her green Colwort and Radish­leaves, and then sweet Hay after it, make a wash of Lu­pins and Wheat-bran well boyled in fair Water, and let her have it over night about resting time, and although she gave l [...]ttle or bad Milk before, you will find it much in­creased and mended.

To prevent the stairing or unseasonable sheding of the Hair.

Take ground Ivy, two or three handfuls, the Roots of Fern a like quantity, Juniper Berries a good handful, bruise these well and boyl them in Water, bathe the Beast with it hot, and sleek him down with a hard rubbing Cloath; and when such of the stairing dry hair as is pro­per to fall off, sheads, it will be succeeded by that which will stand right, rendring the Beast thriving and graceful; and thus having laid down for the honest Hus­bandman that breeds Cattle, and for those that buy them, all necessary thing, in that nature, to be usefully observed: I proceed to what remains of other matters.

Rules for ordering the Neabeards Stalls, &c. For the en­crease, growth and health of Cattle &c.

[...]n the cold and damp Winter weather, be careful in foeding your Cattle, lest by neglect they fall away, and lose more th [...]n by great labour and expence can be easily regained in a long time; use to drive them in this season too and fro p [...]etty hard, that the natural heat may stir the H [...]mours, and render them lively; shift often their Lit­ter, and let their Provinder be fresh and sweet, rub them o [...]er often, and raise the Skin that it may hang the looser on the Flesh; if they be draught Oxen, when you return from labour, carefully rub them down with hard Wisps, then smooth the Hair and cleanse their Feet, wash their Claws with warm water, wherein a little Allom has been [Page 14] dissolved, to strengthen and harden them if they have been softened in the wet; do not over-labour or heat them in the hot weather; for, if they stand and cool to suddenly upon it, it subjects them to the Flux Feaver, and many other inconveniencies; the Dung heaps of Swine must not be near their Stalls, for that subjects them to the Pesti­lence or Murrain; and, they being of a delicate scent, must not be offended with foul Sinks, or Carrion near them; and, if any infection appear, speedily seperate them, and carry the sick Beast into change of Air; give him water wherein Rue and Cardus has been boyled, and the Juice of Garlick and Vinegar.

Their Stalls, especially in Winter, must be very close and warm, paved with hard Stone or Gravel, well rammed down, and laid asloap; with a conveniency to carry the Urine into the Drain. Boarded Floors I reject; because, let them be never so close, the Urine and other Excrements, get between them; and, corrupting in the hollow Caveties, cause noisome smells, by sending up putrified vapours to sicken and disease the Cattle: As for the Windows, let them open to the North-East, to let in cool Air in hot and stifling Weather; for, in cold Weather, especially in Winter, there is no occasion of opening them; and, in Sum­mer, in much rainy weather, though it be hot, keep them shut that the Damps and Vapours exhaled by the Sun, may be kept out, as much as is convenient; lest, they being too much drawn in, create cold Diseases in the Beast.

Of the Sundry DISEASES and SORRANCES IN Bulls, Oxen, Cows, Calves, &c. SHEWING From what Cause it Proceeds; the Symtoms to know them by; and approved Receipts for the Safe, Easy, Speedy, and Cheap Cure of them.

A Remedy for the Feaver.

THESE sort of Cattle are very subject to this Di­stemper, frequently arising from the corruption of the Blood, by Surfeiting in gross Feeding, ill Airs, no some Scents, or the like; and is known by the Beasts trembling, groaning, foaming at Mouth, h [...]viness or dulness of the Eyes; then immediatly let him Blood to re­ [...]dy it.

Take a handful of Plantain-roots well scraped, bruise them and boyl them in a quart of stale Ale, with Two Ounces of London-Treacle, give it hot with a Drenching Horn, and sprinkle his Hay or other Provinder with Wa­ter wherein Mallows has been boyled.

Murrains of sundry kinds, their Symtoms and proper Remedies

To know if your Cattle be tainted with this dangerous Distomper, which often sweeps away whole Herds, if not timely prevented: Take the following observation, viz.

In some Murrains the Cattle drivel and run both at Nose a [...]d Mouth; in others it afflicts them with extream Thirst, and pining away; and in many Cases it appears in the Joynts, which is known by their much halting, before it can otherwise be much perceived; sometimes it is known by an afflicting weakness in the Back and hinder parts, causing great Pains and Aches in the Loyns: There is a­nother kind rises with Pimples all over the Body, as also the swelling out of the Humour in divers parts, and then the Disease begins to settle between the Skin and the Hide, and sometimes appears like a Leaprosie in Pimples and Knobs all over the Body; their Eyes grow dull, and their Appetite fails them; and when any of these symtoms ap­pear, immediatly seperate those on whom they are visible.

To Remedy these Distempers, take Fennal-seed, Sea-Thistle, Angelica-roots, stamp and in [...]use them in White­wine, take a handful of each, to two quarts of Wine; and so, proportionable to the number of your Cattle; boyl them with two ounces of Wheat-flower, then strain out the liquid part, and give a pint at a time, very hot Morn­ing and Evening; bathe their Body with the decoction of Hellebore or Baresfoot, a Herb so called, which holds all the Winter; and let them have fresh Air, clean Litter, and with the Root of the forementioned Herb cut triangu­lar, the better to keep it in, peg their Dewlaps, by mak­ing first a hole through the Skin with a pegging Awl or Bodkin, and by being renewed, it will attract to it the poysonous corruption in a great measure, and eva [...]nate it at the hole.

Instructions to know whether the Murrain has seized an Ox or Cow, &c, beyond recovery, or to render it exceeding diff [...]cult.

To be satisfied in this, let the Beast blood in the Neck-Vein, taking away somewhat more than three pints, if the Beasts strength will allow it; if not, somewhat less, ac­cording to it; let it stand an Hour or Two, and if the Blood change, there is a fair prospect of Recove [...]; but if it do not, the Case is very desperate and little hopes remains.

However, in this Case, open the Ox or Cows Mouth, thrus [...] your Fingers to the Root of it, make way for a Ball of rusty Fat Bacon, about the bigness of an Egg, tempered with bruised Ragwort, bleed him or her at the Nose.

This done, take Rue, Longwort, Transie, Time and Hy­sop, of each half a handful; add long Pepper, Orpiment, Ju­niper berries and Tangerick, of each a penny worth, boyl them in White-wine and give it the Beast hot. viz. The liquid part to the quantity of a quart, having well tempered it with two Ounces of Methridate.

For Murrain of divers kinds, a Remedy.

Take Sulpher and unslac'd Lime, the Seeds of Coriander dryed, Marjorum and Garlick, beat these into a Powder, and having sprinkled it on the Coals, burning in a Cha­fing Dish or Pan, order it so that the Beast may be sumed with it, going up his Nostrils, and in all parts, which will bring away at his Vents, and by sweat, abundance of the Infectious humour; then give a quarter of an Ounce of Ru [...]arb, and an Ounce of Gardus boyled in a pint of White-wine, this must be done three or four times, as soon as the Symptoms of the Disease appear, though it is tryed with great success after it has seized him.

Of the Murrain, beginning in the Throat, and the Remedy for it.

The Symtoms of this kind of Murrain, is the swelling in the Throat, the dulness and weeping of the E [...]es, hea­viness and weeping of the Head, bloated and swolled.

To remedy this, take a quart of new Milk, three Cloves of Garlick, three Drams of Cinnamon, a quarter of a point of Olive Oyl, an Ounce of Turmerick well beaten, a handful of the tops of Rue, boyl and give him the liquid part, and about a quarter of an hour after bore a pretty large hole in the Skin of his Nose, run some soft Thread smeared with Tar through it, knot it like a Rowel, and it will be a means to draw out of the O [...]isice much poyson­ous Water and Matter, which afflicted the Throat and Brain, &c.

To cure the swelling in a Beast, occasioned by too much Blood.

Drive him a pretty pace till he grows warm, then blood him in the middle great Vein under his Tongue; and when he has bled pretty well, rub his Mouth with Salt and Vine­gar, and give him a ball as big as an Egg, made up of bruised Garlick and Butter.

For a Cough, and shortness of Breath.

Take a Spoonful of Tar-water, bruise with it a head of Garlick, and an ounce of Liquorish; boyl these in a quart of new Milk, and give it hot fasting, for two or three Mornings.

For the Head Garget.

The Symptoms of this Distemper are, the swelling of the Eye-lids and Lips, blisters on the Tongue, a lumpishness and flaging of the Ears.

In this case draw forth the Tongue, and if there be blisters, take them off with a sharp Knife, and slit the Tongue underneath an Inch long, though not very deep, and an infectious water will distill out; then wash it with [Page 19] Vine [...]ar, about an hour after take powder of Fenegreek, long Pepper, Turmerick, Liquorish, and Aniseeds, of each an Ounce; boyl them in a quart of Ale, and give it blood warm.

An approved Remedy for the Flux.

For this Distemper, Take Sloes dryed in an Oven, but not too much; beat them into powder, and give the Beast warm in Wine-Vinegar, two Ounces of it in a Pint, and keep h [...]m fasting a considerable time after; then give him a quarter of a pound of Rasins, and sower Grapes, in a quar [...] of the sharpest White-wine, and bruise them so that you may easily swallow them; and let the Beast browze on green Boughs, such as are sweet and wholsome; and if it stay not in, a little time after this is received, burn him in the sore-head; a little beneath the Horns, and slit his Ear and Lip, anoynting them with Oyl and Tar, to keep the Wounds from putrifying, and after wash it with Urine.

For Madness in a Bull, Ox, or Cow.

This proceeds from a defect in the Blood: Therefore to cure it, cord the Neck well, and let blood in the Tem­ples, under the Eyes, and in the Ears; then take Fenegreek, long Pepper, Turmerick, and green Aniseeds, of each an ounce, mix them with two ounces of the Juyce of Ru [...], warm it in a quart of strong Ale or Beer, strain it and thin it well, ther [...] spurt it up his Nostrils; or, tying up the Beasts head to a Rack, draw it as high as you can, and pour it into his Nostrils and Mouth, and let him continue in that posture half a quarter of an hour e're you let him down. This Di­stemper is known by their reeling, or fixing their Heads against a Wall or Tree.

For the Maw Garget.

This is known by drooping and heaviness of the Beast; the much panting of the Heart, and hanging down the Head and Ears; by costiveness in the Body, and forsaking their Food.

[...] [Page 19] [...] [Page 20] To Remedy this, let him blood well in the Neck-Vein; then take Plantain, Rue, Southernwood, Shepheards-purse, Smallage, Colewort, of each a small handful, bruis [...] them, then take about a handful of Hens-dung, lay it eight hours in a pint of old wash to steep, then strain out the Liquid part, and put the Herbs to it; add a quant of strong Ale, and set them on a gentle fire till one half of the Liquor be consumed; then put in an ounce of Tre [...]cle, and a spoon­ful of the Juyce of Garlick, half an ounce of Aniseeds, and the like quantity of Liquorish-p [...]wder, strain them, and give the Liquid luke-warm. This is approved in the Murrain, and has done Cures beyond Expect [...]tion.

For the Yellows, a Remedy.

This Disease being created of a complication of bad Hu­mors, has man [...] others its attendants, and indeed is the sore­runner of most: It appears by a yell [...]wn [...]s [...] in the E [...]s, Eyes, and Tail end; and sometimes turning up the H [...]ir, you may find it all over the Body.

The speed [...] Remedy for this, is to blood [...]he Beast, and in the bleeding rub him well with your Hand [...], to make him do it the freer; after this give two handfuls of Bay-Salt in a pint of warm Vinegar, let him fast upon this; and in the Morning, (for the other is best done over Night) Take Turmerick, Fenegreek, Aniseeds, and long P [...]pper, of each a quarter of an ounce, and two drams of Liquorish­powder, give it powdered and well mixed in a quart of Ale, as conveniently hot as can be taken: This also much helps in the overflowing of the Gall.

Pissing Blood.

To Remedy this, Take Nettle-tops or Seeds, the Herb Shepheards-purse, of each a handful; boyl them in a quart of red Wine till a third part be consumed, then strain it, and add a d [...]am of Cinnamon in powder, and the Liquid strain­ed out, let him drink it hot, fasting, and not eat or drink after it for four Hours.

Loss of Cud to restore.

Take a handful of Cud-wort, a Herb so called, bruise it, and make it up into Balls with Bacon Fat, give it him, and after it half a pint of White-wine Vinegar; and a little while after bleed him in the large Veins under the Tongue, and let the Provender you give him, be very sweet and pleasi [...]g.

The Galls over-flowing.

Take two ounces of Sea-Cole Soot, that which is hard knotted together, an ounce of fine beaten and sifted Pepper, and a [...] much Honey, make these up into Balls with the Yolk of a [...] Egg, and fill an Egg-shell with it, and so ram it down the Ox or Cows Throat; this must be done twice or thrio [...].

For any Infection by swallowing poysonous things.

Take two ounces of Mithridate, a quarter of a pint of Olive Oyl, put these into a pint of very sharp White-wine Vinegar, warm them over a Fire, and well incorporate the [...]; then give it as hot as he can drink it, and drive him a pace afterward, which will cause the poysonous Matter to e [...]acuate.

A Remedy for the Milting of a Beast.

This is when they have had an unluckey stro [...]k with a Go [...]d or Pole; or bruised by rushing against some piece of Timber; and this is known by their uneasiness in lying down, and suddenly rising up again as if they were rest­less

To Remedy this, take Stone-Pitch, bruise it into pow­der to the quantity of two ounces; add Saffron a dram, of Pepper, a quarter of an ounce in a quart of Ale, give it the Beast warm, and drive him after it till he become hot; co [...]l him again by leasurely driving, and let his lying down be easie, and the Cure will soon be effected.

The swollen Neck and Chest.

In this case, Take of Honey, Hogs-lard, Bees-wax, and fresh Butter, of each an ounce; make it into an Oyntment over a gentle Fire, and anoynt the afflicted place with it; but if the Neck be swollen and raw, take Honey and Ma­stick, of each three ounces, fresh Butter a quarter of a pound, and Hogs-Lard the like quantity; make them into an Oyntment over a gentle Fire, and bathe the place with it as hot as may be well endured.

If the Neck be much swelled and puffed up, boyl the Roots of Elecampane till they become soft; then stamp them in a Morter, mix them with Hogs-Lard or Mutton-Suet, three or four ounces of either; add to these Honey and Bees-wax, of each an ounce, Frankincense half an ounce.

For Putrefying or Rottenness.

This will appear by the poverty of the Beast, his Skin sticking close to his Flesh, continual scowering, and that in smell very offensive, of a whitish brown colour.

To cure this, or in some measure very much remedy it, Take Elder-leaves, Bay-berries, Myrrh, Rue, and Fetherfew; dry the Herbs so that they may be powdered; then take a piece of blue Clary, burn it till it becomes red, then powder it; mix of each of these an ounce, in a quart of Mans Urine, wholsome and sound; set it over a Fire till it well boyls up, then give him half a pint at a time, and it will in three times stay the scowering, and much restore his body.

For inward Sicknesses in general.

Some may not be presently able to find out the Cause of the Distemper, y [...]t perceive the Cattle sick; in such a case, till it can be better known, this has proved success­ful, viz.

Take a quart of Ale, a handful of Wormwood-tops, and as many of Rosem [...]ry, bruise them in a Morter, boyl the Herbs well, and then strain out the liquid part with [Page 23] hard pressing; bruise Garlick and squeeze out two s [...]oon­fuls of the Juyce of it, as much of Housleek and London Treacle, give the Beast this warm, two or three times, half a pint at a time, and it will mightily revive him, and stop the progress of the Disease.

For a Feaver in Winter.

This comes by cold Damps, lowness of Feeding in mo [...] wet places of unwholsome Grass; and its Symptoms are, the Beasts shaking and trembling, heavy-Ey'dness, groan­ing, foaming at Mouth, &c.

These, or any of them being observed, let the Beast blood with all speed. Take two ounces of the Juyce of Plantain, of Dioscordium an ounce and a half; of Lapins, a handful, dryed and ground into Powder; give him these hot in a quart of new Ale, being all well mixed, and about two Drams of small Pepper dusted in.

For a dry huskey or hoarse Cough.

Take a quarter of a pint of Hysop-water, and as much of Mint-water, and for want of them, boyl the Herbs in fair Water till it comes to a good strength; then add the Juyce of Leeks and Garlick, of each two spoonfulls; and to these put half a pint of Oyl Olive; gvie these well mixed toge­ther warm, twice or thrice; and if the Cold be not ex­traordinary, for want of these you may give Tar and Hone [...]-water.

For the Lasks or Ray in Calves, or Cough in young Bullocks.

This appears in their want of Appetite, and bad thri­ving

To remedy it, take a quart of New Milk, Curdle it, though not very thick, with a little Runnet, and heat this over the Fire for a Cal [...], and in twice or thrice giving of it 'twill ease him of his troublesome Distemper; but, for the Cold taken by a Bullock, if it be newly done, boyl a pint of Barly, a handful of Rasins in a pint of C [...]n [...]ry; or, [Page 24] for want of it sweet Ale; then having very well strained it out, beat up two Yolks of Eggs in it, and give it him hot; after this make him a Mash of Wheat-flower, Beans and Lintil Meal. For the Cough in young Calves, give them Centory bruised to powder, in White-wine.

To Cure the Manginess or Scab.

Boyl Garlick in Urine, mix Tar-water with it, and rub over the afflicted part; and if it be far gone, add Brimstone and a little slaked Lime to Dust it over afterward, and give him two or three Dosses of White-wine Vinegar, and powder of bitter Almonds pretty hot; this is also good against the biting of a mad Dog.

To know when Cattle are Hidebound, and the Remedy.

The first observation is, their want of thriving, though there are many others; if you go about to take up their Skin, it will seem to stick to the Ribs, also a lameness and defect in their going, and it proceeds from being in too much rain, sweating and taking cold after labour; to Cure or Remedy this, boyl Featherfew and Bay-leaves in fair water, rub him all over with the decoction, and af­ter that, with the Lees of White-wine and Neats-foot Oyl, boyled and well mingled, smooth him.

For the Staggers in a Bull, Ox, or Cow. The Dasie, &c.

The Beast that is afflicted with the Staggers, will look very red about the Eyes, and be often turning his Head backwards.

To Remedy this dangerous Distemper, take half a pint of the best White-wine Vinegar, tye his head up to the Stall, and pour it warm down his Nostrils, and let blood at the Nose.

If he turn round he has the Dasie, blood him in the Forehead, bind a Cloath over his head, and keep it warm, purge it well with the Decoction of Rue and Hysop.

Pissing blood, Pantasie and Taint.

Let him not drink in twenty four hours; then give him a dish full of Runnet Curds in a quart of Milk. If he have the P [...]nt [...]sie, he will pant much, and shake at the Flanks. For this, give him a handful of Soot, a quarter of a pint of Runn [...]t, and a pint of Chamberlye, well mixed and warmed. If he swell of the Taint or Sting-worm, give him Urine and Treacie, two ounces of the latter in a pint of the former.

For the Worm in the Tail.

This is perceived by the Hair breaking off in the Tail where the Worm lyes; and commonly, some of the Joynts will appear as eaten asunder, which you may feel knock one besides the other; and if the Tail be soft towards the end, it is a true sign of the Worm.

To remedy this, slit the Skin of the under side, above the decayed Joynt, against the Vein, and bleed him in the Veir very well; then take Garlick, Salt, and Butter, stamp their well together, and bind them on Poultis-wise.

For swelling behind, and rising of the body.

[...]or this, look in the Mouth for Blisters, break them, and bleed the Beast under the Tail; then rake in their bo­dies to break the Blisters there.

Take (for perfecting the Cure) a quart of Butter­milk, a handful of Sea-cole Soot, an ounce of bole Armoni­ack powdered, the Juyce of a red Onyon, and the powder of an Egg-shell, and give it the Beast warm, and he will soon be cured.

For the Towering, long sought, that is, Wind-bound, &c.

Much Poverty occasions this Distemper, and is known by their Hides sticking fast to their Backs; their Eyes sincking in their Heads, wheting of their Teeth, loss of Cud, and chusing to be alone.

To remedy this, let blood in the Neck; then take of Rue, Fetherfew, Southernwood, and Rosemary, o [...] each a handful; bruise them small, and put them into a quart of strong Ale or Beer; and after they have stood a considera­ble while, press them hard; then, to the liquid part▪ put long Pepper, Liquorish, Tumerick, and Anniseeds in powder, of each an ounce; half a quartern of Olive Oyl, make them Milk warm, and give the Beast the whole dose at a time; then bore the Dew-laps, and peg them with Bares-foot, or Spearg-grass, anointing the place with Salt and Butter.

For the scowering, long sought.

This distemper is known by the rank smell of the scow­ering, and is caused by superfluity to corruption of blood; over-heating, unwholsome Fodder, &c.

For this let blood in the Neck-Vein, take Turmerick, Fennegreek, Grain and Pepper, Anniseeds and Liquorish in powder, of each an ounce; half a pound of Allom, two ounces of Charcole in powder, wild Mint, Sage, Rue; Southerwood, Wormwood, Rosemary, Hysop, of each a handful; bruise them small, and put a quarter of a pint of White­wine Vinegar to them; put them to a quart of Ale, boyl them well, and give the liquid part, well strained, to the Beast hot.

To help in making Urine.

The defect in making Urine, many times proceeds from over much heat, sometimes by driving, Sandy water hinder­ing the passage to the Bladder; and often by bruised blood in the Kidneys.

To Remedy this, take Cummin-seed, Anniseed, Parsley-seed, and Mustard-seed, bruise them, and let them sleep in Vinegar ten Hours; then strain them, and give them the Beast blood warm; about an ounce of each of these is sufficient; for want of these, take Nettle-Tops, Bay-berries, Penneroyal and White-wine Vinegar, boyled to the Consumption of half.

For the swelling Foul.

This is known many times by a swelling in all four Legs, sometimes in one, two, or three; occasioned by Co [...]rupt Blood, and Rhumish Water.

To Remedy it, draw the Beasts Feet together, and slit with a short Knife, the Skin under the Fetlock Joynt, an [...]ch above the Heel, straight up and down, to pre­ve [...]t cutting the Sinnews: Take then Nettle-Tops, and Ga [...]lick, bruise them with Bay-Salt, and bind them to the wound a Day and a Night,

For the Foul between the Legs and Claws

This is often occasioned by Stubs, Sand or Miery Tra­veling. To Remedy it, pare off all that is dead, and rub the Quick till it bleed, then rub off the the Blood, and lay on dryed Verdigreese; then make a Plaister of Hogs-Lard, lay it on with a Cloath, and let it continue twenty four hours: And if Warts between the Claws, pa [...]e it, then Seer it with a hot Iron, and anoint it w [...]th Tar, Bees-wax, melted and well tempered together; then bind it with Flax.

For the Evil.

This is known by the weakning and often taking away the Limbs of the Beast, though many times it takes them in the Neck, as well as Legs, and sometimes in both, and proves very dangerous to remedy it.

Take Hysop, Sage, Rosemary, of each a good handful, and two handfuls of Burdock-leaves, boyl them in a Gallon of Spring water till half be consumed, then strain on [...] the liquid part, pressing it hard, put into it half a pound o [...] Roach-Allom, finely bruised, and pore two or three spoonfuls into the Beasts Nostrils warm, three times a day, and then let blood in the Tail.

To Remedy the Speed in the hinder parts.

This cometh of rankness of Blood, and is catching by young Cattle, from one to three years, and not beyond, coming through want of Blood.

To cure it, bleed in the Neck-Vein, and give the Beast a handful of Salt, in a pint of White-wine; then in the hollow of the Gambrils, make a slit two Inches long, but take care you cut not the Veins or Sinnews; then put in some Sparagrass, Salt, and Butter, beaten, and well tempered to gether; boyl Ruo, Sage, Featherfew, and Spurge-grass, bruised in a quart of Ale, give it warm, and drive the Beast well for an hour or two after.

For the biting of the Shrew-Mouse.

This is known by an extraordinary swelling, through the Creatures Venom.

To remedy it, make holes with an Awl in the Hide, as far as it is swelled, then take red-Earth pretty dry, and mingle it with White-wine, lay it to the place, bind­ing it on with a Cloath, and it will draw out the Ve­nom; but the Earth of Swallows Nests, with old Urine, if it can be got, is better.

For the stinging of any Venemous Beast.

Take Plantain bruised, a handful, Oyl of Scorpions, two ounces, mix them with Vinegar, and lay them on like a Poultiss, and that being taken off, in two hours lay on another Poultis of Dragons-Blood, Barly Meal, and the White of an Egg, renew it at twelve hours end: This is approved also against the stinging of Hornets.

For the swelling of the God.

Anoint it with sweet Cream, three times a day; then take the Lome of an old Wall, steep it in Vinegar, as also Ox Dung; then after Twelve hours, strain out the Vinegar and bathe it with it very warm.

Over-growing of the Lungs.

This is known by the Beasts breathing heavily, Feeble Coughing, Straining, and hanging out of the Tongue; Panting, and blowing, or little motion.

To remedy it, take the Ooze of a Tan-Fan, a handful; of brown Sugar-Candy, an ounce; of Olive Oyl three ounces; of Tar two ounces; mix these in a pint of New-milk, and give it the Beast at twice warm. Or, make up two Balls of Tar, Garlick, Butter and Sugar-Candy, each of an equal [...]uantity, about the bigness of an Egg, and force one at a time down his throat.

The Blain in Ox or Cow.

This is known by a swelling about the Face and Eyes; and of the Body, or if you find Blisters under the Root of the Tongue, cut them away, and rake the Fundament, and break those Bladders contracted there.

Take then Chamomile, Marsh-mallows, Groundsil and Bay-leaves, boyl them in Spring or running, water, mix Salt with the liquid part, and give it the Beast warm to drink.

Chollick or violent pains in the Belly.

This is known by the drawing up of the Belly, the un­easiness in standing; heavy lowing, and the Beasts Eyes running with water.

To remedy it, take the inward Rhine of Elder, Long­wort, and May-weed, of each a handful; Long-Pepper and Li­quorish, each an Ounce, Cummin and Anniseeds, each half an Ounce, Madder and Turmerick, each two Ounces, boyl th [...]se in a Gallon of Ale, and give a quart at a time very hot, and take care the Beast take not cold upon it.

For the Quinsey.

Take a handful of Bay-Salt, six roots of Garlick, four new layed Eggs with their Shells, and an ounce of Orpiment; [Page 30] boyl and strain these in a quart of White-wine, then add an ounce of Venice-Treacle, and give the Beast a pint at a time very hot.

For Worms in the Maw or Bowels.

This is known by heaviness, shrinking up of the sides and Belly, loss of Cudd, &c. To remedy it, take the [...]ops of Baum, Wormwood, Savin and Southernwood; bruise them with an ounce of Dill-seed, and as much Ginger, boyl them well, bruised in a quart or three pints of Stil­lers. Grounds; and add, when strained, half a pint of Aqua-vitae; give a pint at a time very hot, clean Litter the Beast, and leave him to rest.

For Putrefaction in the Lungs.

Take Brasile Wood, rasped to Powder, an ounce; of Oyl of Turpentine, an ounce of Juice of Liquorish, or for want of it the Powder; two ounces of Oyl of Bay-berries an ounce, mix these in a quart of Malliga; boyl them over a gentle Fire, to the consumption of a third part; and strain out the liquid, give it the Beast, half at Morning and half at Evening hot, and repeat it three or four days, and by proportionable quantities, you may make it all at once.

For a Cows Withering.

Take Mallows, Maiden-hair, Magwort, and Colwort­leaves, of each a handful; Aristolochea, Bittany and Mirrh, of each an ounce; bruise these, add a little fine beaten Pepper, and give it the Beast at thrice, in three pints of warm Milk, having been first sweetned over the Fire, and very well strained.

Loss of stomack, to Recover.

If this happen through over driving, poorness, weari­ness, or disagreable Food, if not soon remedyed, it will bring on Diseases: To do it then, take a hanful of Salt, dissolve it in White-wine Vinegar; rub the Mouth well [Page 31] wit [...] it, and pour the rest down his Throat, make a little Sawsage of Lean Bacon, well minced, and thrust after it.

For any hard swelling in a Bulls or Oxes Pizle.

Take Holly-Hauke Roots, Plantain and House-leek, bruise them with fresh Butter, and then fry them a little in a Pan, and strain out the Juice, and Butter; and that done, make it into an Ovntment, and anoint the swelled part; having fi [...]st washed it with Urine and White-wine V [...]negar, and if the Yard be Ulcerated, wash it with V [...]negar only, wherein Allom has been dissolved.

For swollen Feet, or Surbaiting.

This often comes by over traveling, in Stoney, or stiff Clayey ways, which fret and strain the Feet. To reme­dy it, take of Honey and Hogs-lard, of each two ounces, boyl them in a pint of White-wine, till they become so thick that when cold, they will rope like an Oyntment; spread it then on a Cloath, and lay it on the Foot, a good thickness.

The turning Evil or Sturdy.

This is a Distemper incident to the Head, though it sometimes happens in the Brains, and at other times, under the Horns, sometimes again in the Neck Joynt; the signs are these, holding up the head in the Air, looking wild­ly, or turning round: To remedy these, though very dangerous; take a sharp Knife, and open the Skin, just up to the Brain; then with a sine Chisel and Mallet, cut out so much of the Scaup, as you may come at a Blad­der that lies on the Brain, which is full of a Salt humour, take that away without breaking it, close in the Scaup even as possible; then draw the Skin over it, and sow it with fine Silk, even and close; anoint it with Oyl of Chamomile, make a Plaister of Turpentine, Wax and Rozen; lay it close on, and so bind it about that no cold may come in, with a Woollen Cloath; and to do this, [Page 32] you must cast the Beast, and bind him very strongly, or he will not endure the Operation.

Some hold the other two places incurable; but my Opi­nion is to let blood in those pa [...]ts; bathe with Oyl of Turpentine, and make a Drench with London-Treacle, Oyl of Myrrh, and a pint of Canary, taken very hot; and let him take up his Nostrils, the smoak of Juniper-Berries and Storax.

For a swelling Gall or bruise.

Beat in a Mo [...]ter, the Leaves of round Aristolochia, with Tallow of a Mutton Kidney, and bind them to the place; having first bathed it well, with Oyntment of Tobacco, and Marsh-Mallows.

For the Clowse or Chush.

Burn old Shooes, take the Ashes, mix them with Tal­low, hand Oyl of Turpentine, till they may be a kind of an Oyntment; and if not thin enough, add some Oyl of mile, and bathe the Neck of the Beast with it.

For Goaring.

Take a handful of Wood-ashes, finely sifted, a quart of the Grounds of Ale or Beer, two ounces of Oyl of Tur­pentine; boyl them till they may be spread, and layed to the Wound.

To stanch blood in any Beast.

If a Vein break, or any hurt come to the Beast, that it bleed much, or in blooding you cannot many times stop it at pleasure.

Take Hares or Rabits Wool, dip it in the Oyl of Spike, and apply it to the Hurt, Wound, or Incission; having first scattered over it a little powder of Franckincense, bind it on, and the bleeding wi [...] immediatly stay: For want of these, take the Ashes of Vine-twigs, and the juice of Nettles, well tempered together, and apply it to the afflicted part.

Lay over it a Plaister of Bees-Wax, Honey, Turpen­tine, Hogs-Lard and Wheat-flower; made and incorpo­rated over a gentle Fire.

For Itching or Mainginess.

Take an ounce of Verdigrease, a pint of Linseed Oyl, a quarter of a pint of Aqua-vitae; Tar-water, half a quar­ter of a pint, wash the Beast over with strong Vinegar and Urine, where the affliction is, then anoint him with this incorporated over a gentle Fire.

An Excellent Purge to preserve health.

Take the Dross of Olive Oyl, two ounces; a penny­worth of Honey, two penny-worth of Bay-berry Oyl, twelve Lawrel leaves dryed and beaten into Powder, mix these together in a quart of strong Ale, and give it M [...]lk-warm, fasting; then take a pretty large Candle, and put into his Fundament, as far as you can reach, and leave it there; this will effectually cleanse the Body, and bring away much foulness, and gross Humours.

Another excellent Purge to prevent Sickness.

Take Cinnamon, and shaved Harts-horn, of each an ounce; B [...]y-Salt, two ounces; Senna, a handful; Hellebore, two o [...] three Leaves; boyl these in running water, add two ounces of brown Sugar-Candy, and give him a pint hot fasting: This is an excellent preserver of health, after Winter, before Cattle are turned to Grass.

To Remedy Ha [...]ling.

This is caused sundry ways, but chiefly by the Blood falling down into the Heels, and the inordinate heat of the Hoof; rub it extream hard, then scarrifie or pounce the Skin; but if in the Foot, with your Knives poynt, open it between the Claws, cleanse it well with Linnen-F [...]ags, diped in water and Salt; anoint it with Olive Oyl, [Page 34] Hogs-Lard, Goats or Mutton Suet, and bind it up, not suffering the Beast till well, to goe in the wet, especially dirty ways.

Cramp and Kibes.

For the first of these, rub his Thighs, Legs and Knees, with Salt, dissolved in oyl of Spike, and make the Beast move up and down a pretty pace afterward.

For the latter, pare the Kibes, and let them bleed well, then take Verdigrease, and the Yolk of a new laid Egg; bruise or beat them well together; make of them a Plaister, and apply it to the Wound.

For defects in the Eyes, as Webb, Pin or Haw, &c.

Bleed the Beast in the Temple Vein, on that side the De­fect is; if it be a Haw on the Eye, take it off with the finest Launce of your Fleams; then open an Egg in the Crown, and let out the White, that done, fill it with fine beaten Salt, and roast it in hot Embers; then powder the Salt and Eggshell, and disolve in a Spoonful of Eyebright-wa­ter, a little of it; add some small quantity of the juice of Housleek, and with a Feather, sprinkle it into the Eye, twice or thrice a Day, and keep close the Lidd with your hand for a time.

For any Green Wound.

Take Turpentine, Hogs-Lard, Tar and Bees-wax, of each an ounce, and in melting over a gentle Fire, half an ounce of Verdigrease, and two Spoonfuls of Oyl of Wa­ter-Lillies; make them into a Salve or Oyntment, spread them on Leather, wash the Wound with warm Urine, and then apply the Plaister to it.

A good Medicine for any surprizing sickness, when it is not well known what to be.

Take the Roots of Poplar, and Sea Onions, and com­mon Salt, of each a handful, stamp and infuse them in Water three days; then heat the water gently over a Fire, [Page 35] and press it, sweeten it with a little Sugar-Candy, and give it the Beast to drink.

Lice or Ticks afflicting the Beast.

Take Helebore, or Bare-foot and Staves-Acre, a Herb so called; stamp and infuse them in Vinegar, boyl them with Oyl of Olives, to the thickness of an Oyntment, then anoint the part afflicted, and it will not only kill tho [...]e as are there, but keep any from coming after them, so long as the scent remains.

For the Lasks in large Cattle.

Take half a Gallon of Spring-water, the ba [...]k of Ivy, a handful; of dryed Sloes, two handfuls; of Verjuice a quart, boyl these in the liquid, to the consumption of half, and give the Beast a pint at a time hot to drink, when he is fasting.

To help a Beast that is Dewboulen.

Bleed him in the Tail, grate a Nutmeg, and take off the top of the Shell of an Egg, take out the White, fill it with White-wine and the Nutmeg, and then put the whole Shell, and all that is in it, down the Beasts throat, and walk him up and down till he grow hot. This sweling is caused by the Beasts eating of very wett Grass, and he sucks up with it much Air; wherefore a moderate purge in this case, will do very well.

A special way to breed Milk in Kine.

To do this, give the Cow Water wherein Spurg and Lawrel has been boyled, which will gently purge the Blood; then make her good Mashes of Mault and warm Milk; each Evening let her have a quart of Ale, and a quart of Milk mixed together; but then, the Curd taken off, put into it Coriander-seeds, Lettice-seeds, Cummin-seeds and An­n [...]-seeds beaten to powder, and when they are well mixed, a [...]d infused, for three or four hours, give it the Beast, [Page 36] and in repeating it a few times, she will give store of thick and sweet Milk; if it be in the Winter, to refine her Milk, when b [...]d, you may let her feed on Turnips, which much cleanse in their green Tops, and purge the Blood.

For the Beasts making Blend-water.

Some name this Distemper, the Morelough; sometimes it proceeds from corrupt Blood, or other times, from the Yellows, the Seed of most Diseases; and many times from sudden change of Pasture, or Air.

To remedy this, take the powder of Charcole, finely beaten, as much as will sill an Egg-shell, and [...]ole-Armoni­ack powdered, half as much; about a handful of the in­ward dry'd Bark of an Oak, bruised into powder; put them into a quart of Milk, and give it the Beast fasting in the Morning and at Night.

To take off the Wart, or An-berry.

This is a spungy Excressence, proceeding from corrupt Blood, and grows on the Beast most commonly from One to Four Years.

To Remedy it, take Nine or T [...]n Horse-hairs, and tye about the Wart, as hard as you can, and anoint it with Oyl of Spike, and in Eight or Ten Days it will fall off, and then it is to be healed with Unslack'd Lime; but if it happen to be flat, that it cannot be conveniently taken up, then you must take off by Cauterizing with a hot Iron, and anoint it with a mixture of Honey, and Oyl of Chamo­mile.

If it be among the Sinnews or Veins, or both, use Re­sogar, or Mercury, to take it off; then, for two days, st [...]p the Hole with Flax, and the white of an Egg, and so heal it with Lime and Honey.

For the Eating Sore in the Neck.

To Remedy this affliction, take Three Roots of Gar­lick, an Ounce of the Flower of Brimstone, Six Nut-galls, [Page 37] and a handful of Soot, boyl these in a quart of sharp Vinegar, and add a quarter of a pound of Hogs-Lard; let them boyl till they become the thickness of an Oyn [...]ment; and anoint the Sore with it, after washed with Chamber-lye, once or twice a day, according as the Sore, or dangerousness of it requires.

For the Aposthume.

Take two Ounces of Linseed, a handful of Mash-mallows, an [...] an Ounce of Nut-galls, bruise them well together; add the Juice of White Clud over, and two Ounces of Wood­soo [...]; boyl them in three pints of White-wine, till they come to the thickness of a Poultess; lay it to the swelling, and it will in a little time break it; then lay on a Plaister of Bees-wax, anointing it with Oyl of Mash-mallows, and re [...]ew it once a day, and by this means the Corruption will be brought away, and the wound made by it, healed.

The mattering Ulcers, Boyles, &c.

Take an Ounce of Leaven, two Roots of White Lillys, and an Ounce of Onions; bruise them, and boyl them well, in a pint of Vinegar, and having bled well in the Neck-Vein, apply this as a Poultess, to the place grieved, and it will remove the Cause in a short time, being renewed once a day; and heal up the Wound, if anointed with L [...]nseed-Oyl, that no relaps need be feared.

For the inveterate Head-ach.

Take a Root of Garlick, bruise it and boyl it in a pint of White-wine, strain out the Liquid part, and with a Syringe, spirt it into the Nostrils and Ears of the Feast; then fume him with Storax, dryed Rue, and Savin, giving him after to cherrish him, a quart of Ale, wherein Rosemary and Mint has been boiled, and it will take away by Rhume, and other means, the cause of the Grief; or if not, speedily give him a Root of Garlick, or Three or Four Lawrel-leaves, and a handful of Bay-Salt, the liquid part of a quart of White-wine, they have been boyled in.

Swollen Eyes.

To Remedy this, take two Ounces of Honey, a quarter of a pound of Wheat-flower, an Ounce of the Juice of Ce­lendine, make them into a Plaister, with Vinegar, and the White of an Egg, and lay it on the Eye that is swollen, and let blood in the Temple Vein.

For weeping, or Rheumatick Eyes.

Take an Ounce of Bole-Armoniack, two Ounces of wild Parsnip-Root, half a quartern of Eye-bright-water, a little handful of Meal, an Ounce of Honey, mix these well, by bruising such as are to be so done; and mix them with so much White-wine, as they may spread Playsterwise; and they will dry up, and drive back the Rhume, and much clear and enliven the Sight.

For Mattering of the Eyes.

This is caused by the congealing of Humours, before they can descend; to remedy it; take Saffron two Drams; Franckincense an ounce, and the like quantity of Mirrh; boyl them in a pint of White-wine, and strain thinly out the liquid part; of which, you must give the Beast three or four spoonfuls in his Nostrils, holding up his head that it may be contained, and not presently snorted out; with the remaining part, wash his Eyes and Mouth.

To recover a clear Sight, in dark, cloudy, or imperfect Eyes.

To do this, bruise fine white Suger-Candy, burnt Roach-Allom, and [...] Bone burnt till it can be powdered; being finely sifted, blow a little of it through a Quill, into the Eye, and often doing this, by his hard winking, will work off the Film or Skin that hinders the clearness of the Sight.

For Shails or Nails in the Eye.

To Remedy this, take an ounce of live Honey, as much Bo [...]e-Armoniack, an ounce of Stone-Salt, well burnt, half a quartern of the Juice of Baum, or Mint; bruise and mix them well together, and then infuse them in a pint of Eye­bright water, two or three days, take of the clear part, and keep it to wash the Beasts Eyes, Morning and Even­ing, and the defects by it, will be taken away.

For Spots, Pins, or Webbs in the Eyes.

Burn Allablaster, and beat it into fine powder, blow it in [...]o the Eyes of the Beast, and then prepare a water for washing them afterwards in the same following manner.

Take the Leaves and Roots of Strawberries, Parsley, H [...]usleek and Sage, boyl them well in White-wine, and st [...]ain out the liquid part, and being cool, wash the Eyes with them, as often as you blow in the Powder.

Directions to preserve the Lungs.

The afflictions of the Lungs, most usually proceeds from the unwholsome lying of the Beast, which generating store of raw Humours, and Crudities, they descend upon the Lungs, and afflict them with divers Maladies.

Wherefore be careful that as soon as you perceive any defect, by Caugling, Straightning, Ratling, Wheesing, &c. Make the following Medicine viz.

Take two ounces of Liquorish powder, and as much of [...]nny-seeds; Fennegreck-seeds, and Honey, boyl these in a quart of Maltaga; over a gentle Fire, strain it, and give the liquid part as hot as he can well endure it.

If the Cough has violently seized the Beast, take a handful of Wheat-flower, half an ounce of Poppy-seed, two rew layed Eggs, a handful of Bean-flower, and half a [...]andful of Mugwort, boyl these in a Gallon of Ale, and give a quart of the liquid part at a time, Morning and E­vening; if the Cough be old, add Hysop, a handful, and half a [...] ounce of A [...]loes.

For the Ague, an approved Remedy.

This Distemper is known by the beating of the Beasts Veins, his Melancholy, and the dulness of his Eyes, Driveling, Shivering, and the like.

To Remedy this, take a good handful of Rue, two or three Burdock-Roots, half a pint of Linseed-Oyl, a pickle Herring, mix and bruise these together, boyl them in two quarts of Vinegar, and press out the liquid part very hard; and having first bled the Beast at the Tail and Neck, give him a pint of it hot; and an hour after, another Pint, and the remainder the next Morning; and so do twice or thrice; if the Ague leave him not the first time, adding a quarter of a Pint of Mustard-seed, and it will effectually answer your expectation.

For a Beast that is swelled, by swallowing a Horse-Leach or poysonous Grubb, &c.

Take the Oyl of Olives, a pint of White-wine; Vinegar, half a pint; dryed Figgs two Ounces, the tops of Rue a handful; new Milk a pint, boyl them together, and strain out the liquid part, give it hot to the Beast, and keep him moving, and by purging, and sweat, the Ve­nemous quality will be evaporated.

For swelling by over-feeding on Corn and Clover.

You may in this, use the aforesaid Medicine for swell­ing, adding a little brown Sugar, and at the same time, giving him a Clyster made of Liverwort, Turmerick, Ground sil and Mallows boyled in fair water; adding to the li­quid part, a quarter of a pound of the coarsest brown Su­gar; rake the Beast as well as you can before you give it, dipping your Hand and Arm in Oyl, or anointing with Hogs-Lard.

For the Violent Chollick, pains in the Stomack, or Belly.

To Remedy these dangerous and painful Distempers, take an ounce of London-Trea [...]le, a quarter of an ounce of Rhubarb, two Drams of the Oyl of Mace, a little handful of the tops of May-weed, grosly bruised; boyl them in a qua [...]t of Ale, and give the Beast the liquid part, very hot, and [...]ase presently will be given, and in twice giving, the Distemper removed.

For the Brawns.

If the Beast be afflicted with pains of the Reins, Brawns or M [...]scles, which disables and enfeebles him; blood him in the Tail, or Flank: Take two Roots of Garlick, a hand­ful of Rue, two ounces of Sugar-Candy, an ounce of Cin­namo [...], and the juice of three or four [...]emons; put these into a quart of Ale, and boyl them well; then to the pain­ed p [...]rt lay a Plaister of Bees-wax, Turpentine, and Storax.

To stanch bleeding in a [...]y Wound, &c.

This many times occasions th [...] loss of a good Beast, when it may be easily remedy'd, taken in time: And i [...] done onely by burning the Twig of the Vine, and making Ashes, mix them with Litharge, and apply it to the wound or bleeding at the Nose, or over-straining after Gelding, which many times causes dangerous bleeding, and it will in a little time stay it.

For the Liver-Sickness.

This is most occasioned by bad digestion, and ill blood, which much afflicts the Liver, by carrying noctious Va­pours along with it, from the digestion of the Stomack, and oft proves fatal, if not regarded in time.

To remedy this, take a hanful of Hysop, two ounces of Figs, an ounce of Bole-Armoniack, and a few tops of Ju­niper, or for want of that, Juniper-Berries; boyl these in a quart of White-wine, and give it the Beast at twice, very [Page 42] hot; then when it has by its operation, stired his blood, bleed him well between the two times giving, and keep him warm two or three days.

For a Pestilential Blain.

Take for this (which comes by some poisonous Infecti­on, breaking out, as expelled and forced by Nature) a [...] Ounce of Turpentine, as much Rye-meal, Bees-wax half [...]n Ounce, make of these, with an Ounce and a half of Li [...] ­seed, a Plaister; apply it to the Sore, and it will draw it to a Head; then if it break not of it self, Lance it, and lay on a fresh Plaister, having first anointed it with Oynt­ment of Tobacco, and the poisonous Corruption in twice or thrice doing, will be drawn away, and render the Beast sound and healthy.

For Blood-pissing, an excellent Receipt.

This is occasioned by bad Digestion, so that the Liver by defect of the Stomach, and its own want of Heat, not be­ing able well to digest the Blood, sends it undigested to be conveyed away by the Uriturs; but many times it happens by Blows, or violent over-strainings, whereby the Kid­neys, or Reigns of the Back are bruised, or hurt, of some Vein broken. To Remedy this, take two Ounces of the Juice of Garlick, half a Pint of Aqua-vitae an Ounce of Bole-Armoniack in fine Powder, and give it hot to the Beast fasting; and if it stays not his Pissing blood the first time, you must use it oftner, and it will effect the cure.

For Aches and Pains.

This comes frequently by taking Cold, over-labouring, straining, some bruise, or hurt, or old sore not well cured. To Remedy this, let Blood in the [...]lanks, and under the Tail, then take Horstail, a Herb so called, Baum and Winte [...] Savory, boil these, of each a good handful in a Gallon of fair Water, and with a Rag dipped in the liquid part when it is as hot as may be, bathe the Limbs, or grieved [Page 43] part; after this, bathe in Oyl of Spike and Turpentine well mixed together and heated.

An approved Remedy for the Mainge.

This comes often by uncleanly Feeding and Lying, [...]ankness of Blood, or Humours: To Remedy it, rub the Beast with a Hair-cloath to take off the Scurff, and so, that the Maingy parts may bleed a little, that the salt wa­ [...]ery Humour may come forth; then bleed in the Neek, and [...]noint the maingy place with an Oyntment made of Butter [...]nd Verdigrease; hoil in a Quart of Ale, Rue and Cardus, and give him the liquid part warm.

For Mattering Sores or Ulcers.

Wash these with warm Vinegar, wherein has been dis­solved a little Allom, dry them after this gently with a clean Cloath, then take Stone-pitch an Ounce, Tar as much, Bees-wax and Sheeps-suet, of each two Ounces; make them [...]nto an Oyntment, or thin Plaister with Linseed Oyl, and [...]pply it as a Plaister on Linnen or Leather to the Sore, and [...]enew it in five or six days; but if there be any mortified, proud, or dead Flesh, you must eat it away with burnt Allom or burnt Salt.

For Hurts in the Heels.

Wash the Feet of the Beast clean from Gravel, Sand, or Dirt with warm Water, then clip away the Hair, if the Ho [...] be above the Hoof, and wash it well with Urine; af­ter t [...]at, let him stand a while, and then anoint it with [...]ar, Mutton-suet, and Oyl of Camomile made into an Oyntment over a gentle Fire, and bind it up with Flax, Tow, or a Linnen Rag, so that no Wet come at it. Do this twice or thrice, and it will be well.

For fastening the loose Hoo [...].

When the Hoof grows loose, or hollow, or seperates from the firmness that should hold it fast, which, if not [Page 44] apparent by moving, you may know by knocking it, f [...] then it will sound hollow.

To fix the Hoof, and restore the wasting and defe [...] take an Ounce of the Oyl of Bays, two Ounces of N [...] Oyl, and three of Turpentine, warm them, and mix th [...] well over a gentle Fire, dip a double Rag in it, and b [...] it about the Hoof as hot as may be, after you have pa [...] it, as you see convenient; and keep the Beast dry, that [...] from going in the Wet, and in twice or thrice renew [...] this, the Business will be effected.

Bruises under the Hoof.

To Remedy this, which proves very painful, especi [...] to labouring Beasts, and somtimes corrupts and makes t [...] Hoof shed, which utterly disables them, [...]ry two hand [...] of Cow-dung, stamped first with one handful of Pa [...] and Butter, and bind it on Poultiswise very hot; but [...] fore you do it, pare the Hoof, and bleed in the Foot-V [...] and it will Remedy the Grief.

A General Remedy.

Seeing particular Remedies cannot he always had wh [...] particular Immergencies require them, I have tho [...] to prescribe one that may be of special use to [...] [...] den Danger, or Death, if not cure most [...] to this kind of Creature, viz.

Take a handful of Longwort, a [...] much of the inward Rhine of Elder, a ha [...] of [...] these be well bruised, and put them into [...] of [...] there let them infuse a pretty while then seeth them o [...] a gentle Fire, add then an Ounce of long Pepper, as [...] Liquorish, Anniseeds, and Cummin-seeds, having first w [...] beaten them with half an Ounce of Turmerick; to thes [...] add a quarter of a Pound of Mather, and whilst th [...] are seething, put into a [...]owl, or other convenient Vess [...] a handful of Bay Salt, half a handful of Garlick, four [...] laid Eggs with their Shells, two Balls of Orpiment, b [...] these well together, and when the boiled Liquor is ha [...] [Page 45] [...]old, put it into the Bowl, and brew it together, and then [...]rain and press out hard the liquid part, and give half a [...]int a [...] a time warm.

You may make a greater quantity of this at a time, and [...]eep in a readiness for a Reserve on all necessary Occasi­ [...]ns, when a Beast falls Sick, or Sickness by visible Symp­ [...]oms i [...] threatned,

A pretious Medicine to prevent inward Sickness.

Take Grains, Cummin-seeds, Anniseed, and Bay-ber­ [...]ies, of each an Ounce, Fenegreek-seeds, and Turmerick, [...]ach half an Ounce, Orpiment a little Ball, Methridate [...]wo spoonfuls, Madder a little handful, bruise and mix [...]hese well together, and put them into three quarts of Ale, boyl them well, and strain out the liquid part, give it as the former.

For trembling of the Heart, or inward Pains.

Take Flintfoot that is hard, and dryed on a Post or Roof, beat it into Powder with Bay-salt, then seeth it in [...]running Water, also a handful of green Ivy, and a little [...]handf [...]l of Soot, and when the Ivy is soft with boyling, press out the liquid part very hard, and give it half a pint [...]t a time, as you see occasion, Blood-warm; and this is likewise excellent to give them in the Spring before you t [...]rn them to Grass.

The Gargyse, an approved way to cure.

The Gargyse is a swelling upon the Eye, beside the Bone, like a Botch, or Boil, and if the Beast have it cut off, a circle of Skin round it, and a little one round that; or you may do it by seering the Skin till you see it yellow, and this will keep it from coming to the Lips, which if it attain to, most hold it incurable; then seeth Bay-salt in Cha [...]berly, and wash the sore place Morning and Evening, scraping off the Filth, and so ordering it till the swelling sink, and it leave Wa [...]ing and Mattering; then take two [Page 46] Ounces of Honey, and a quarter of a pint of Nerve-Oyl [...] mix them over a Fire, and anoint the place with it, and it will grow well.

For Springes, a speedy Cure.

This Distemper is known by the Beasts unusual throw­ing his Head backward towards his Belly, and stamp w [...] his Legs.

When you perceive this, thrust your hand up into [...] Fundament as far as you can, pull out the Dung, and the [...] you will perceive streaks of Blood upon it; when yo [...] have done this as clean as may be, take a handful of B [...] salt, and at twice put it in as far as you may, and it wi [...] remedy the Distemper.

For Lameness or Halting.

When you perceive the Beast Halts, and is uneasie in [...] going, apply your self to his Feet, and where you find t [...] Hoof very hot, there is the Ailment, then feel above [...] and if the Blood be above the Hoof in the Leg, dissolv [...] or disperse it with rubing and cha [...]ing, and if it cannot [...] so dissipated, scarisie or pounce the Skin with a Knife, [...] Bodkin; or if it be in the Foot, open it a little with [...] Knife between the two Claws, and lay a Clout to the Sor [...] dipped in boyled Vinegar and Salt as hot as may be, na­king the Beast a Shooe of Broom, and let him not go into the Wet.

This Blood, if it be not let out in time, will corrupt and turn to Matter, and endanger the falling of the Hoo [...] at least admit but of a very difficult Cure; if the Blood be in the lowermost part of the Hoof, the outermost Claw must be pared to the quick, and then having let out the Blood, dip the Clout in Water, Salt, and Olive-Oyl, and lay it on them, taking this off, anoynt it with old Swine [...] Grease, and Goats Suet boyled together, and it will quick­ly be well: This by some is called the Fowl or Wisp.

For the swelling of the Knees and other Joynts.

If you find the Joynts swelled, bathe them with warm Vine [...]ar, chasing it in strongly with your Hands, then bruis [...] Linseed and Melliiot, a Herb so called, and lay it on Poul [...]is-wise, fryed in Hogs-lard; let this be done very hot.

If under the Swelling there be any Humour contracted, lay o [...] Leaven and Barly Meal sod in Water and Honey, and when it is Ripe, it must be Lanced, and anoynt it with Oyntment of Tobacco, covering the Wound with a Plaister of Diaculum, and renew this in two or three days, and the Beast will be easie, and sit to Travel, or go to Plough, &c.

For Hurts in the Heel or Hoof, &c.

For this, take Stone-pitch, Brimstone, and greasie Wool, and burn them upon the afflicted place with a hot Iron; this [...]s likewise proper when the Beast is pricked with a slub Thorne, or Nail, either of them being first pulled out; but if it be [...]leep, it must be gently opened with the sharp point of a Knife, and Grease melted into the Wound.

For Kibes in the Heels.

You must in this case, cast the Beast, if he be not very tractable, otherways he will not easily endure the pain of the Operation, and having bound his Legs, take a sharp pointed Knife, and turn out the Kibe as nigh as you can, and let him bloed well: Then

Take a Penny-worth of Verdigrease, and the Yolk of an Egg, temper them well together, and spread them Plai­ster-wise on Leather, then bind them to the Sore, and in once or twice renewing it, 'twill be well.

For the Swelling of the Udders.

If the Udders of your Cows be swelled, take a handful of I [...]y-leaves, boyl them well in a quart of stale Beer, [Page 48] bathe the Udders with the liquid part warm, and then smoa [...] them with Honey-combs and Camomile.

For Feet that are worn or surbated.

This happens most to the labouring sort of these Cattle and when it so falls out, wash their Feet with Man's U [...] very warm, and kindling a Fire with Twigs and Spra [...] when the Flame is done, make him stand on the glowr [...] Embers, and anoint his Horns with Tar and Oyl, or Hoggrease, then rub them over with Oyl of Bays and Cam [...] ­mile very hot, pi [...]k out the Gravel, and stop the Cl [...] with Tow dipped in Tar, and Hogs-lard.

Scabs and unseemly breakings out.

This is caused by bad Humours, occasioned by ove [...] ­rank Feeding: To remove it, the best way is;

Let the Beast Blood in the Nose, Ears, and Tail, bo [...] three or four handfuls of bruised Garlick in a Gallon o [...] Water, and being strained out, wash the place grieved w [...] it, and they will dye away, and peel off in three or fo [...] washings.

For any Venomous Wound.

Take a handful of Penny-royal, stamp it with an Oun [...] of the Flower of Brimstone, boyl them in a pint of Vi [...] gar, and as much Water, then add an Ounce of Allo [...] with as many beaten Almonds, or Figs, as will make i [...] thicken, when three parts boyled away; and spreading [...] Poultis, or Plaisterwise, apply it to the Sore, and it wi [...] in twice doing, draw out the Venom; then anoint it wit [...] an Oyntment made of Butter and Bees-wax, and it wi [...] heal.

To make Beasts seed well, and prevent pincing and falling aw [...]

Sometimes there are hidden Diseases, not without great difficulty to be discerned, that makes Beasts pine and languish, forsake their Meat, and lose their Flesh. To Remedy this; [Page 49] Take the Root of a Sea Oynion, and the Root of a Po­plar-tree, each four Ounces, scrape or slice them thin, add a handful of Salt, and infuse them in the Water your Beast drinks some hours before he does drink, and if there be more than one afflicted, use a greater quantity, and it wil [...] soon restore their Appetite, make them feed lustily, and create good Blood, which will plump up their Flesh, and render them plump and lusty.

For Swellings about the Jaws and E [...]rs, &c.

This is frequently occasioned by Pestilential Humours and is a forerunner of the Mur [...]ain; therefore, as soon as ever you perceive it,

Take a handful of Ragwort, stamp it with about three Ounces of rusty Bacon, open the Beast's Mouth, and put it under his Tongue as far as may be, then let him Blood at the Nose, and under the Tongue; when this is done,

Take a handful of Tansie, as much Rue, Longwort, Hysop, and Time, stamp them, and take a quart of the best Ale Grounds, and boyl them in it, but not overmuch, put the Liquor into a close Vessel, and add of Pepper-Grains, Orpiment, and Fenn [...]greek-seed, each an Ounce give a pint at a time very warm.

For swelling or hardness in the Dewlaps.

This frequently proceeds from Sickness, and Diseases in the [...]ungs; therefore if you perceive them very far up, and har [...], feel the Hide on the Back, and if it crackle or snap much,

Take Turm [...]rick, long Pepper-grains, Fennegreek, Mad­der, and Anniseeds, of each an Ounce, Methridate half an Ounce, boyl these in a quart of White-wine, strain out the liqu [...]d part, and give it the Beast hot, then peg his Dew­laps and put in a Pest or Sprig of Helebore, or Bears­foot, a Herb so called, and put the Beast into a warm House; give him some after a warm Mash of Bran, and boyled Barley.

For inward wasting.

This is known by a short husking Cough, and thrustin [...] out of the Tongue, and if he be much perish'd in the Lungs, the cure will be very difficult, therefor [...] it oug [...] to be taken in time; whether the Beast be so perished o [...] not, you may know by the Hide, which then will usually stick much faster on the left side, than on any other part.

To Remedy this, take Mace, Cloves, and Pepper, eac [...] half an Ounce, Anniseeds, and the bitter R [...]ind of Wall­nuts, each an Ounce, Garlick, a good Head, bruise the [...] well together in a Mortar, or some such like Utensil, and boyl them in a quart of old Mallaga, and give half a p [...] at a time, and it will wonderfully restore the Lungs.

The manner of Settering Cattle.

To do this, take Setter-wort, otherways called H [...]le­bore, or Bears-foot, and peeled Garlick, of each a ve [...] small handful, stamp them, and wrap them up in Butter like Pills, then make a little slit in the Dewlap of the Beast two Inches behind the Sticking-place to the Breast­ward, then open it with your Finger, so that you c [...] make way for one of the Pellets, or more, to lodge in the Vacancy, then run a Rowel, or String through both Li [...] of the Slit, dipped in Tar, or Grease, so that it may keep it together; yet, by drawing, turned round at pleasure: And three days after this is put in, open the Slit, and let o [...] the Corruption, if it be come down, if not, take out the old, and put in new Garlick, and Setter-wort in the for­mer manner, close it with the Rowel again new anointed, and often turn it round, that the Corruption may slow thence; and if, for all this, you find it much swollen, and hard, so that it will not come away, take a hot Iron, and take up part of the Sore, the Skin and the Flesh in such [...] place as is most convenient, but not to come to the Bo [...]e, and thrust this Iron through both sides, or right under, i [...] the swelling be just unde [...]nea [...]h, then anoint it with Ta [...], and Hogs-Lard; after you have run a little Stick with a [Page 51] fin [...] R [...]g dipped in Oyl, through the Hole, and having sea [...]ched it well, apply Oyl of Mallows to heal it up, &c.

General Rules for Feeding, Ordering, and Fattening Oxen, and Cows, &c.

Though particular Rules in many Cases of this Nature may be wanting, since all Counties have not the conveni­ency of Feeding alike, it will be therefore necessary, be­fore I enter on other Matters, to speak something in Gene­ral, and leave it to the Discretion of the Industrious Hus­ba [...]dman, Farmer, or Grasier, viz.

If there be store of good Pasture in the Country where you live, that is the best; but where it is wanting, espe­cially in the Winter, it will be proper to keep them in the St [...]lls, or in any good warm Housing-yard, or Pingle, if the Snow lye not thick on the Ground, where you may Fo­ther them with what your Store affords; where there are plenty of Tares to be had, it is a very good Feed for them, as also short sweet Hay, for the long they cannot so well manage, unless it be cut, or chopped; nor is it so sweet a [...]d nourishing for this kind of Cattle, if it grow on pro­portionable ground.

They likewise will feed well on Chaff, and cut Hay al­most to the smalness: The Leaves and tender Stalks o [...] Coleworts they much delight in, as also Turnips, and new Grains; these latter much increase Milk in the Udders of the Cows; and to keep up their Stomachs, give them Lu­pi [...]s and Chick-pease sodden in Water, but not very soft, f [...]r then they will be apt to refuse them, as grown clammy, and sticking about their Teeth and Lips; and when you g [...]ve them these, mingle them among Chaff, and a few Ears o [...] Wheat, and if you can get any wholsome green Branches o [...] Trees in the Winter-time, let them brouse on them, and they will cleanse their Blood, and much invigorate them; and these are also proper in Summer, especially the Elm, the Ash, Poplar, Holm, Oak, and Fig-tree: Then, to hasten their Fatning, give them Wheat-Ears, [...]apes bruised, Apples, Radish-Leaves and Roots, Meal mixed with Wheat-Chaff, and new Grains, and wash them [Page 52] with warm Water, often rubing and loosening the Skin; some allow making a little sli [...] in their Skins, and blowing in Wind between the outward Skin and the Rhine of their Bellies, will loosen their Skins, and make them thrive a­ [...]ace.

If their Appetites fail, give them Coleworts stamped and steeped in Vinegar; if they take them not in kindly, mingle a little Wheat-bran, and Chaff with them: In Win­ter they should be Foddered very early, then a [...] Noon, and at Sun-setting; and in so ordering, they will yield abun­dance of Tallow, and their Flesh grow extraordinary good and Juycy, to the advantage of the Seller and Buyer.

Other Methods for watering Cattle, and Distempers got by un­wholsome drinking, c [...]red.

In Winter, give your Cows and Heifers, often, warm Water, with Bran boiled in it, which is held exceeding good to render them Fruitful, and to make the Cows pro­duce Milk in a great measure; and in wa [...]ering those Lakes, or other convenient places filled with R [...]in-water, are bet­ter than any other; for, indeed, they desire not very fair Water to drink; however if their Water be over foul, it will fill their Stomacks with Filth it leaves behind, and hinder Digestion; and if they have unknown to you, drank any muddy Water, that makes them full off from their Feeding, by loss of Appetite, take timely ca [...]e to re­store them to that, and a good Cudd.

Take a handful of Peletory of Spain, as much Rue, Fetherfew, Sage, and Horehound; a good handful of Bay-salt, and three pints of new Ale▪ seeth them in the liquor pretty well, and strain out the liquid pa [...]t, and give it the afflicted Beast blood-warm in the Morning, as near Fasting as may be, and suffer no drinking till the Af­ternoon.

This is to be perceived by often belching, and a rumbling in the Belly, dullness of the Eyes, and their frequent [...]icking themselves, grieving and bemoaning, as it were their Condition. [Page 53] There is yet another way to Remedy this; when the things before-mentioned; cannot be had without muc [...] tro [...]ble, viz. bind the Tail close by the Rump as h [...]r [...] as may be, give half a pint of Olive Oyl in a pint of Whi [...]e­wine, and drive the Beast apace for th [...] space of a Mile, then anoint your Hands with Hogs grease, thrust them up the Fundament, and rake well out as much Dung as [...] can then drive him again, then let Blood under the Tail n [...] the Rump, and unbind him.

To cause encrease of Milk and keep them from Vermin, &c.

To encrease Milk, and make it good when it is naught let your Cattle seed a while on short Clover, then in their dr [...] Provinder, give them Cumminseed, and black [...] well scattered in it, that they may take it freely; rub the Udders over with Runnet, and afterwards with [...]ats-foot-O [...]l, and let them drink Water, Strawberry leaves having been bruis'd and steep'd therein. And if a Cow or Heifer b [...] barren; and you would remedy it, put her into Fields, o [...] other Grounds where Broom grow much about th [...] blooming time of it, and by cropping and feeding, her B [...]ood will be invigorated: Then give her the juice of Gar­lick and Housleek in a Pint of stale Beer hot, chafe her well with running, and so put her to the Bull.

There are some Cattle of this kind that breed Lice, which stants them, and spoils their growing; these must be rub­bed over duly, especially every other day whilst the Hu­mour lasts that creates it, and washed with warm Water wherein Savin has been boiled, also purged with the Deco­ction of Spurge-Lawrel, a Herb so call'd, and Tobacco­stalks; and so, the Humour wasted, and the Beast by tha [...] g [...]owing strong, the Effects will cease, &c.

If the Hair fall off, and render these kind of Cattle un­sightly, as many times by inward Defects it will be occa­sion'd, boil Briony-roots in the Urine of an Ox, and rub the Beast over with the liquid part when it is hot, and give h [...]m the juice of Hysop and Spear-Mint in a little Beer to d [...]ink. Do this often, that is, three or four times, and your Ends will be accomplish'd.

To order Unruly and Rustick Cattle, &c.

If Cattle are apt to creep Hedges into other Pastures, put Yokes with a cross Beam about their Necks, or a cross Beam on their Horns, boring a little holo into the tip of the Horn, and peg it on: This likewise hinders the Unruly from butting and hurting the Weak and Gentle; and when they are much used to this, some blindfold them, by clap­ping a piece of a broken Pail or Board before their Eyes, and hang it on their Horns, as also fasten it to their Neck with a String▪ And this is an excellent way, if you have brought them from a distant Farm, that they may not see to leap their Bounds, or gadd and stray back again.

Some Oxen not well tamed, and especially young Steer [...], grow restless, and refuse to labour at the Plough, or other­ways, and will be apt to lye down; and when they bind their Legs where they lye, so that they cannot get loose, thrash them well, and leave them in the Furrow all night without Meat, and coming the next morning, unloose him, and yoke him again, and he will go to your mind, and ne­ver attempt to lye down, unless excessively over-labour'd, for fear of the like Punishment to be inflicted on him for his stubbornness and failure, &c.

A TREATISE OF RAMS, EWS, LAMBS, &c. SHEWING How they ought to be Chosen, Bred, Fed, Order'd, and Cur'd of their sundry Distempers, Griefs, and Sorrances.

What is to be observ'd in the Choice of Sheep, with their Good­ness or Defect in growth, &c. in relation to respective Coun­ties.

OF Sheep there are sundry Breeds, according to th [...] Countries they are bred in, and the Pastures they feed on: The rich Champion Country produces a arge Breed; and the barren and cliffy, those of reasonable stature: The wild and mountainous Ground a small and wearish Sheep; and the best way to have Success and Pro­fit in dealing in them, is to procure a good, sound, healthy Breed: And to do this, know well from what Parts you have them; be diligent to enquire, whether there be any [Page 56] Infection in those Quarters, and of the ground they feed in, with the manner of their feeding and ordering, that nothing may differ in it; or if any thing be alter'd, it may be for the better.

As for the observation of the Ground where they feed, the red Soil is held the best, next to that the duskish, incli­ning to red, and that which is dirty and whitish is little to be regarded, as not fit for the Improvement of Sheep.

The Counties for the several Breeds that are of conside­rable note, are these, viz.

In Hereford-shire, especially about Lemster; and on those famous Hills call'd Cotswol [...]-hills, Sheep are fed that produ­ces a singular good Wooll, which, for fineness, comes very near to that of [...] Spain, for from it a Thread may be drawn as fine as Silk. And they are much the same in Worcestershire, tho' they are black Fac'd, small Bon'd, and bear but a little burthen.

Buckingham-shire, Warwick-shire, Northampton-shire, and Leicester-shire, produce Sheep of a large Bone and good Shape, likewise the deepest Staple.

Lincoln-shire, especially in the Salt Marshes and Fenny Grounds, produces the largest Sheep, but not the best Wooll, for their Legs and Bellies, tho' long, are for the most part bare or naked.

York, and Northward to the Borders of Scotland, pro­duces lusty Sheep, of big Bone; but then their Wooll is not so advantageous, as being rough and hairy.

In Wales, for the most part, the Sheep are small, and their Wooll little, but are the sweetest Mutton.

There are an excellent Breed of Sheep produced on Ban­s [...]ead-Downs in Surrey.

Kent, especially in Rumny-Marsh, produces abundance of Sheep, but the beginners of them were brought out of other Counties to raise the Stock; however, the Feed much en­creases them in Flesh and Wooll: And indeed, England, for the goodness of its Sheep, is able to vye with any Nation under Heaven.

To make choice of your Rams and Ews for good Breeders, and rear a healthful Stock, &c.

To make a good choice of Sheep, take the following Directions, as the best approv'd by all that deal in them.

As for the Ram, see his Eyes are brown, his Ears great his Breast, Shoulders, and [...]uttocks broad, his Stones large his Tail broad and well cover'd with Wooll; that he [...] l [...]rge and long of Body, his Forehead broad, round, and well rising, his Nostrils streight and short, with a very smal [...] Muzzle, his Horns not extraordinary large nor scaly-r [...]ug [...] tho' some approve of those without Horns, or very littl [...] o [...]es, especially in the Southern parts, accounting the Dod­d [...]r Sheep the best breeders, because in this case is not so d [...]ngerous; the Neck must be large and right, bending like a Horse; the Legs small, short, and nimble; the Belly deep and well Woolled; see that his Tongue be not black nor speckled, for then, according to the Verses of an excellent Observer of these matters, he will get black and speckled [...]ambs, which are not accounted good for rearing or [...]reed, viz.

And tho' the Ram in sight be white as Snow,
If black within his Jaws, his Tongue be wrought,
Refuse him quite, lest if he [...]eap the Ewe,
He does infest thy Fou [...] with Colour na [...]ght.

To chuse your Ews, take these Directions, viz. The best time to buy or chuse them from the Fould is at Two years old, and not exceeding Three: And as for knowing the Age, take notice, that the first Year he will have two broad Teeth before; at two, four broad Te [...]h; at three, six; at four, eight; and then the Mouth begins to break, and the Teeth to grow short and stand out of order: Observe that she has a deep Belly, white and shining, Wooll soft and plyable, a long Neck, large Dugs, smooth Horns, large, b [...]ck, and gold colour'd shining Eyes, long and lean Legs, a Tail long, and well cover'd with Wooll.

To know if Sheep are sound and healthy, or the contrary.

Having thus observ'd and made your Choice, other ma­terial things are to be consider'd: And first, to know whe­ther they are healthy or sound; and in this case observe, that the Wooll stands firm in all places, and not stragling here and there a patch of it off; in the next place open the Mouth, and observe the Gums, whether they are ruddy; also the Teeth white, and of a compleat evenness; the Sk [...] of the briskest red, and of a lively colour; the corner of the Eyes ruddy, the Fells loose, the Wooll very fast in all its parts, the Feet of a moderate temper, not given to glow­ing or much heat.

The Signs of Unsoundness and Rot are these, viz. T [...] Eyes are dark and pale, the Wooll easse to be pluck'd [...], the Gums white, the Teeth foul, and yellow; and, being dead, the Bellies will be found with much Water in th [...] the Flesh moist and waterish, the Fat yellow, and the Li­ver putrefied.

Divers ways of ordering Sheep, with the easiest and proper [...] Method for pasturing and feeding them fat, &c.

For the ordering of Sheep there are many things to be consider'd; it must be done with gentleness and moderati­on, Care taken in their housing and driving abroad, in re­spect to the several Seasons, for this is a tender Creature, and subject to Diseases and Infirmities on the least Suffer­ing or Abuse.

As for proper Food, which is one main thing to be con­sider'd, the Grass is best and most wholsome among which grows Melilot, Clover, Cinkfoil, Self-heal, Bettony, Pim­pernel, Broom, white Henbane, &c. Those that are most noisom and infectious to them, are, Penny-wort, Spere-wort, Knotgrass, mildew'd Grass, Hemlock, or any offensive stink­ing Weeds growing from overflowings of Water, or too much rankness of the Ground. High Grounds are the best Pastures, or the brousing among Woods, on the sides of Hills, to keep them from the Rot, which is chiefly caused [Page 59] by wet: to feed on Follows, or the Grass that springs after the Land has been plough'd for some time, is very sweet and pleasant to them; but drive them not into wet damp Grounds (if Necessity require feeding them there) till such time as the Sun is well risen, and has taken off part of the moist Vapours; drive them not in hot weather against the Sun, nor in cold to the North Winds, for their Head is a very tender part: In the excessive heat of the day shelter them under the shades of spreading Trees, Rocks or Hills.

If [...]hey be brought early in the Morning, before the Dew in Summer, or the Hoar-Frost in Winter, be off the Grass, chace them up and down the Field for a time, by which means, that they may in a great measure beat away the Mildews, Dews, Ke [...]ts, Webs, Rimes, or the like, to make themselves free places to feed in, and so not take in with their Food what may occasion dangerous Diseases; beside it stirs up the natural heat, wastes the moisture, and pre­vents the Rot in a great measure, makes them feed better, more deliberately, and without greediness; and so pi [...]k out such Grass that best pleases, and is properest for their Heal [...]h and Nourishment: Once a month, or oftener, give them Water wherein Bay-Salt hath been dissolved, and it will thin and purifie the Blood, and prevent those Distem­pers the thickening of it would occasion.

Of Housing and Sheep-Cotts; and how they ought to be manag'd and order'd as to Feeding, &c.

Convenient Sheep Cotts are very necessary for the pre­serving of Sheep, for this Creature affects cleanliness, and mus [...] be kept nice and in good Air; and these must be so placed, that they are not subject to [...]old Winds in Winter, nor to great heat in Summer; yet more convenient to stand towards the East than the South: They are best built low, long, and broad, that they may be warm in the Win­ter, and that the streightness of the Room may not hurt the young. Observe that where they stand the Grou [...] be firm and even, something sloaping, that their [...] may run away into the Gutter designed to carry [...]t off, [Page] and so be kept clean, without offending: It must be dry too, for the wetness much hurts their Feet, makes them catch Colds and Agues; it likewise injures their Wooll in their lying down, making them look rough and uncomely. And, to prevent Infection, litter them well with fre [...] Straw, that the Ews with young may lye soft and whol­some, which will make them feed more kindly, and take delight in the place, and so grow fat, and become profitable sundry ways.

There must be several Partitions of Hurdles, or such­like, to keep the weaker from the stronger and unruly, lest they be hurt by them. If they be cotted in the Field, for the advantage of dunging Land, as is used in many Cou [...] ­ties of England, take care the Ews great with Lamb be put by themselves; and these Cotts must be placed on dry Ground, not in low wet Furrows, lest the Sheep get the Rot: And here, for their better improvement, and to make them dung the better, if that be your purpose, ye [...] may feed them with short Hay and Offal Turnips, the lat­ter will scowre, purge and fatten them, and they will eat them very kindly, scouping out that which is within the Rhind or Paring, and brouse heartily on the tender Top [...]: Besides, this is very profitable for Land, because those the Sheep have medled with will never grow again, but lye [...] the Ground, and become good Dung: In Winter-time sweet Grains is pleasing to them, but not too many, le [...]t it make them over-moist, and contract the Rot.

They feed well on Hay, Tares, Chaff, and Pease, espe­cially in the Straw: They delight much to brouse on El [...] and Ash-leaves, which at the first shooting out are very healthful, proving Physical in thinning and purifying their Blood. You may also in their Troughs give them Barley, Beans, and Acorns ground together; as also Wheat-Bran boiled; and these things managed with care, will not only keep them in Health, but make them grow, thrive, and fat­ten them.

When the Ewe ought to be covered, and the Care to be taken therein, and in their yeaning or bringing forth, &c.

As for the time of the Ewe's being to bring strong and healthful Lambs for a good Breed, chuse them at two years old, and let them receive the Ram in a warm close Pasture; for, if they be cover'd much before, the Lambs they Produce, will prove weak and unfit for good Breeders, by reason the Ews are not at their strength, or at least-ways not con­tracted a sufficient heat to produce Lambs strong and lusty enough to continue their Health. A Ewe will bear pret­ty well from two years to seven, though it is not so pro­per; and for Breeders, keep only the first two or three years Product.

Those Rams design'd to serve your Ews for such Lambs as are intended for Breeders, before the Blossom comes on the Trees; must be well fed in the Cotts, or kept in good Pa [...]ture about a month e're they are turned to them, that so they may be full of Spirit, lusty and vigorous, and the better able to perform what they are designed for; and if yo [...] perceive, as commonly he will do, that the Ram ra­ther covets the old than the young Ews, because they are easier wooed; scatter Blades of Onions and Garlick in the way of the Ram and younger Ews, that eating them they may stir up Desire, and render them both [...]he willinger to a compliance.

There are various Opinions of having Ewe or Ra [...]-Lambs at pleasure; some say, That if the Ram cover the Ewe, their Faces being towards the North when the Wind blows, it will not sail to be a Male, and the like towards the South a Female. Others, That to knight the Ram's right Stone some time before he leaps procured a Male, and do­ing so by the left, a Female. That the juice of male or fe­male Mandrakes will work the like Effects. But these I conclude to be Conceits, when the thing naturally happens so, and therefore I shall lay little stress on them.

The Ews in their yeaning must be carefully regarded and helped by the Hand, if Nature be not of sufficient strength to bring forth, and after be comforted with warm Milk [Page 62] and Bran: The Lamb must be set on his Legs as soon as may be, and shewed to the Dams Teat, lest by long delaying she refuse to cherish him, as otherwise she would do; and if the weather be not very seasonable, they must be warmly housed.

The best time for bringing forth is about the latter end of April, if Pasture-Sheep; if Field-Sheep, it may be well enough from the beginning of January to the end of March.

How to order your Lambs after they are cast: Proper Times and Seasons for Gelding, &c.

Having set the Lamb on his Legs, and directed him to the Udder, make him take it in the Teat, and spirt some of the Milk in his Mouth, that finding the sweetness of the Milk, he may become the more familiar, and find an easie way to it of himself: But before you do this, milk out the first Milk, which is called Colostra, or crude Milk, and very hurtful, if taken by the Lamb, to put it into a Feaver or some such like Distemper, especially in a hot Season.

If when it is proper time he trifle with the Teat, and refuse to take it, anoint his Lips with Cream or sweet But­ter, and by licking them his Appetite will be stirred up to fasten on the Teat, and once pleased with the sweetness of the Milk, will suck very kindly.

If before the Lamb is fitting to be weaned, the Dam grow sick or dye, if you have not a spare milch Ewe to put him to, suckle him through a Horn, which you must be provided with, suitable on that occasion.

When the Lambs grow over-sportful, and wax wanton, cherish them in it a little; but if housed, separate them with Hurdles, and tye them after ten days to little Stakes with [...]o [...]t Strings, so that they may not gaul their Necks, lest they not only hurt one another, especially the stronger the weaker, but lose of their Flesh, and neglecting feed­ing, hinder their growth.

Be careful also to separate the weaker from the stronger, especially when their Horns begin to put out, when they are in their Cotts; and be diligent in suckling them Mor­ning [Page 63] and Evening, and see that the Ews Milk fall not away or be corrupted by any inbred Distemper, which you may not presently perceive: And so use them till they wax strong; then give them a little sweet Clover or short Hay or Bran mixed with Flower in Water; and the Season be­ing dry, and not too hot, turn them out to Pasture with the Ews.

Wean them, if possible, in warm weather, which may be conveniently done to such as are healthy or strong at se­ven weeks or two months, and then keep them high in feed, lest they pine and fall away, in bemoaning the loss of thei [...] Dams, or their Stomacks falling off, for want of due Nourishment, renders them sickly and weak.

As for the best time of Gelding, it is in this as in all other Cattle, when the Moon is in the Wain, and the Sign favourable in some of the fore-parts, for it being account­ed the Sign of Life, participating immediately with the vita [...] parts, to cut them when it is in Scorpio, which go­verns the Genitals, lets out much pure Blood and Spirits, endangering festering and death. This must be done in a warm Season, and some are of Opinion, that the best time is at five months old; but Experience teaches, it may at six weeks, two months, or nine weeks; yet indeed if they continue ungelded three months, they will be of a larger growth, though then there is somewhat more of danger, and when killed, their Flesh will not be so sweet after gel [...]ing; which you may do in the manner directed for Calves; anoint the Wound with fresh Butte [...], keep them up in soft Litter till the Wound cements, and when the foreness is over, or past danger, turn them out into short warm Pasture, and they will feed the better.

[...]hose that you keep for Rams ungelded, observe to take of that Ewe that brings frequently Ram-Lambs, or that has two Ram-Lambs at a time, which signifies lustiness and heat, and that the Breed will be strong, and able of perfor­mance.

Sheering of Sheep, and other matters necessary to be known, lating to Growth and Preservation.

The time of Sheering is not preseribed to a particular time, but varies according to the hotness or coldness of the Country; and, but not to do it before Midsummer, is held most agreeable, for the more the Sheep sweats in the Wooll, the better and more kindly it will prove for use though some do it much sooner.

Observe, before you Sheer, when you wash, that it be in a pleasant Stream, into which falls not the Washing of Lime-fatts, or any such offensive thing; let it be rather, if it may be, in a cloudy day than a Sunshiny, because w [...] wet, the Sun heating the Water when they are washed, scalds their Backs with it unless presently driven into a shady place: Keep their Heads up, that they snuff not any, or at least, not much of the Water up, l [...]st they are after af­flicted with the Head-Ach or Rheums.

Beware in Sheering not to out their Skin, or if you do, rub it over with Tar and Butter, lest in this hot Season it putrifie, and Maggots breed in it.

When you have sheered, give them Water to drink wherein Lavender has been steeped, and a little boiled Corn.

Diseases and Sorrances incident to Rams, Weathers, Ews, and Lambs, with the most approved Receipts and Remedies for them, and Directions to keep them from Sickness, &c.

The Head-ach, its Cause and Cure.

THESE Cattle are subject to sundry Diseases; occa­sioned by Infection, Evil-digestion, wet and un­wholsome feeding, eating unsavory and noisome Herbs that [Page 65] breed bad Blood and Humors, drinking dirty Water, and the often dropping of Trees upon them, being abroad, no [...]mino lerate Showres, Damps, Mists and Fogs arising from Moorish and Meadow-grounds.

For the Head-ach, caused by damp and unwholsome [...]eeding, burn Storax under the Nose of the Ram or Ewe, &c. give the Decoction of [...] and Housleek in a pint [...]f Whitewine blood-warm, and Water to drink wherein Cummin seeds and Fennel have been boiled.

For Giddiness or Dasie.

This happens mostly in the hot Season, through exces­ [...]ve heat; to remedy it, let him blood as soon as you per­ [...]ive him to stagger and round, by slitting the Nose-vein cross, then take a handful of Baum, Rue and Mint, boil [...]m in two quarts of Small Beer, and give him a pint at time Morning and Evening successively.

For loss of Cudd.

Take a handful of Wheat-flower, a spoonful of Bay­ [...]lt, make it into little balls with sharp Vinegar some­ [...]hat bigger than Hazle-nuts, thrust two or three down [...]s Throat fasting, as near as may be; do it two or three [...]ornings, and give Water after it wherein Sorre has been [...]iled, or for want of that, mix it with a little Ve [...]juice.

For the Ague in Sheep.

For this let blood, by making a little slit between the [...]ws behind and before, not suffering him for 24 hours [...] drink any cold Water; then boil two Roots of Gar­ [...]k, an ounce of Pepper, Wood-sorrel, Bettony and [...]e, each a handful in a quart of Small-beer; strain it [...]ll, and give it three days successively half a pint, or [...]thing more, at a time; but if it b [...] a Lamb, give a [...]t of the Ewes Milk wherein Polipodium of the Oak and [...]ebs have been boiled, at twice, viz. Morning and Even­

For the Rheum and Catarrh.

These troublesome Distempers proceed from abundan [...] of phlegmatick Humors to remedy it, burn under [...] Nose Assafoetida, the Bark of Elder and Ta [...]risk, give [...] Ale wherein a small quantity of Liquori [...]h and Annise [...] have been boiled, and let him not for two or three day be in any wet place.

For Pains in the Teeth.

For remedying this, bleed him in the Gums or upp [...] Lip, [...]ub the place with Salt and the Juice of Sage, [...] Garlick or Onions, two or three days, if the Pain [...] not sooner.

For the Aposthume and Ulcer.

Draw the Swelling to a head with a Plaister made [...] Rye-Meal, Ground-Ivy, and the Yolks of Eggs, and [...] ripe launce it, and put into the hole powdered burnt [...] lum and Salt, covering it with a Plaister of Burgu [...] Pitch.

St. Anthony's Fire.

This same is called the Wild-Fire, and very dange [...] to Sheep: To cure it, take Bole-Armoniack, Deers S [...] Turpentine, Soot, and the Juyce of Housleek, of [...] an Ounce, wash the Afflicted place with Goats-Milk; for want of it, Ew [...]-Milk, make the before-menti [...] Indredients into a Plaister, over a gentle Fire; clip [...] Wooll close, and give him Salt with his Water.

For the Ro [...], or Plague.

Take a handful of the Herb Melilot, the like of Com [...] Polipodium of the Oak, Rue, and Walnut-tree-leaves, the green Husks of Walnuts, if to be had, are better; b [...] them in a quart of Water, and a pint of Aqua-vitae, s [...] out the liquid part, and stir in it an Ounce of Methri [...] [Page 67] [...]ill di Tolved, and give half a pint at a time warm, and [...]et the Sheep be in dry Pasture, or any airy House.

For the Scab, or Itch.

Take Soot, the Stalks of Tobacco, and flower of Brim­ [...]oue, boyl them in fresh Chamberlye, and wash the grie­ [...]ed part.

For any Defect in the Lungs.

Take a handful of red Sage, the like quantity of Purslain, [...]arsle [...], Colts-foot, a Herb so called, and a Root of Gar­ [...]ck, boyl them, when well bruised in a quart of White­ [...]ine, then add to the strained Liquor an Ounce of Honey, [...] half an Ounce of Methridate, and give it the afflict­ [...]d Beast Morning and Evening warm.

For the shortness of Breath, and Cough.

Take Fennegreek-seeds, Cummin-seeds, the powder of [...]quo [...]ish, of each two Ounces, Colts-foot a handful, three [...]unces of the Oyl of Sweet Almonds, boyl them in three [...]nts of stale Beer, strain out the liquid part, and give it [...]e Sheep fasting; half a pint in the Morning blood-warm.

For taking in any venomus thing in feading.

Many times, especially in bad Pasture, the Sheep will [...]k in Spiders, poisonous Worms, or some other Infecti­ [...] that will make them sick, and very much swell: This [...]ing perceived; for a speedy Remedy, take half a pint [...] Vi [...]egar, and a quarter of a pint of Olive-Oyl, give [...] the Beast warm, and keeping him moving up and down [...]r ha [...]f an hour.

For the swelling of the Belly.

Th [...]s is occasioned by eating unwholsome Food: To [...]medy it, let blood under the Tail, and give them Water [...] drink, wherein Rue, Camomile, and Bay leaves have [...]en boiled.

For Lame or hurt Claws.

For Claws that are lame, bruised, over-grown, broken, pare them as much as is convenient, then make Plaister of Bees-wax, Rosin [...] [...]urpentine, unslacked Li [...] and Hogs-grease, anoint the Claw with Oyl of Camo [...] and lay the Plais [...]er on it, binding it up hard, and [...] him not to go into wet places till he is well.

To kill Lice and Maggots.

Take a handful of Burdock-roots, as much of B [...] boyl them in Camberlye, and wash the Sheep over v [...] it; or at least, the place afflicted with these Insects, [...] when that is dryed, anoint it with T [...]r-water, and it [...] not only kill those that are there at present, but pre [...] the putrefaction that breeds them.

For broken Bones, or bruised Joynts, &c.

Take Camo [...], Marsh Mallows, [...]ettony, Bug [...] and Honey suck [...]o leaves, of each half a handful, [...] them with Hogs-lard, and fry them in a Frying [...] spread them upon Leather, as a Poultis, and bind up [...] afflicted part with them very warm.

For the Feaver in Sheep.

If you find your Sheep Feaverish, suddenly ch [...] their P [...]sture, separate those that are infected, from th [...] that are well; and consider in the next place, from whence [...] cause of the Distemper proceeds, whether from Cold, Heat; if from the former, drive them to shelter; if fr [...] the latter, feed them among Trees, or in any conveni [...] shady Enclosures.

Then take Pulcol-Royal, stamp it, and squeeze out [...] Juyce, and mix it with half a pint of Water and Vineg [...] viz. an Ounce and a half of it, give it as warm as he w [...] receive it, and gently drive for half an hour.

For the Worm in the Claw.

To find this, look between the Claws, and you may [...]ercei [...]e Hair, or Wooll like a head; and indeed, this cal­ [...]d the Worm, is all a woolly substance, which, if great, [...]uses Lameness; to take it out, slit the Foot, pull it out [...]ithout breaking, and anoint the place with Tallow, and [...] and it will do well.

For the red Water.

For this Affliction, bleed in the Spining-vein in the Foot, [...]en stamp Rue, Wormwood, Bay-salt, and Butter, a [...] [...]y, it on as a Poultis.

For the Choler.

When this abounds, it causes a yellowness of the Skin, burning feaverish heat, and much pain. To remedy [...] take a good handful of young Elder-leaves, strain the [...]yce out, when well stamped, into a pint of A [...]e, and [...]ve it him warm.

For the Jaundice.

Take a pint of stale Urine, half an Ounce of Allom, a [...]ram of Saffron, boyl them to the consumption of a [...]ird part, and give it warm.

For the Flegm.

This much troubles Sheep, because they are naturally [...]lined to a waterish Flegmetick Constitution: To re­ [...]edy he Oppression by it [...] super-abounding, take Polipo­ [...] of the Oak; the Roots of Fern, Bettony-leaves, of [...]ch half a handful, boyl them in a quart of Ale, and give the Beast to drink, when strained, pretty warm, and it [...]ll cause him to avoid much slime, and watery offensive [...]atter.

For the Water in the Belly of a Sheep.

This many times, by over-moist Feeding, hangs bag [...] between the outward Skin, and Rim of the Belly; and not timely removed, causes the Rot; it may be done [...] gathering to one part, as may be by grasping and drivi [...] it with your Hands; then slit a little Hole, and put i [...] Quill, and so squeeze it out, then anoint the place w [...] Tar, and Butter, and it will heal; but if it be within [...] Rim of the Belly, it must be purged out, for if that [...] cut, it cannot be closed again; it may be done with h [...] an Ounce of Alloes, and an Ounce of Turmerick in w [...] Milk, given for a Fortnight fasting.

For the Cramp.

Take fine leaved Grass, or Cinquesoil a handful, [...] it, and boil it in a pint of White-wine, give him [...] pint warm in the Morning, and the next in the like [...] ner the next Morning, and bathe his Legs with W [...] wherein Rosemary has been boiled.

For the Pox.

This is known by coming out in small Pimples, over like the Purples, and when it first appears, sep [...] those that are afflicted with it, from the rest of the Fl [...] to prevent Infection; change the Pasture, and the W [...] being clipped away, anoint them with the Juyce of [...] li [...]k, well incorporated with Tar-water, or the thi [...] of Tar.

For the turning Evil and Morfound.

Blo [...]d pretty well in the Temple-Veins, of through Nostrils, and rub the place with the Juyce of young Net and half a pint of White-wine, give an Ounce of M [...] date as hot as can conveniently be taken.

For the Be [...]t.

To cure this, cut away the Tags, lay the Sore open, cast curious sine Mould on it, and lay on a Plaister of Tar, Oyl of Tar, Oyl of Turpentine, and Goose-grease well mixed, and incorporated together.

To fasten loose Teeth.

Sometimes, by reason of [...]old moist Distempers, the Sheeps Teeth grow so loose, that they cannot feed, and therefore must consequently pine.

To fasten them, then bleed the Gums, rub them with Salt, and burnt Allom, bleed again under the Tail, and boyl Sage and Lavender in fair Water, and give it to drink.

For Worms in the Belly of a Sheep.

These are known by the Sheeps beating his Belly with his Feet, stamping and turning his Head back to look on his Sides. To remedy this, stamp the Leaves of Corian­der, mix the Juyce of it with Honey, give him it warm fasting, and afterward warm Water, wherein Wormwood has been steeped, to drink.

An excellent Remedy for the Staggers.

This is a dangerous Distemper, and if not readily minded, takes away the Sheep in a short time.

To remedy it, take long Pepper, Hemp-seed, Liquo­rish Anniseeds, and Honey, of each an Ounce, add as much Penny-royal dryed, and powdered, put these into two quarts of new Milk, and give him half a pint at a time warm, successively one hour after another; or if in haste, and these cannot be readily got, take the dryed Flowers of Wormwood, a handful and half, a handful of Bay-salt, boyl them in Ale, give it in the foregoing ma [...]ner.

For the Murrain.

Peg the Ear with the Root of Setterwort, give the [...] brine and Tar about two Ounces in half a pint of White wine; wash, or rather sprinkle the Sheep with Water wherein Fennel-seeds has been boyled: This is also goo [...] for that called the Murrain of the Longs, occasioned [...] extream Drought, for want of Water in hot Weather.

For Defects in the Eyes.

If Films, Pins, Webs, Haws, or Rheums afflict [...] Eyes, burn Roach-Allom, and Harts-horn, blow th [...] finely powdered, with a Quill into the Eyes; and ab [...] half an hour after, bathe them with Eye-bright Wat [...], wherein Bole-Armoniack has been steeped.

For Rheums in the Eyes.

Boyl a handful of Honey-suckle-leaves, the like qu [...] ­tity of Selendine, and Eye-bright in a pint of White-wi [...] spirt this up the Sheeps Nostrils, and wash his Eyes wi [...] it.

For the Scabs on the Mouths of Lambs.

This is occasioned by feeding too early, when they must feed on Dewey, or otherwise over-moist Grass, be­fore the Sun has dryed it.

To remedy it, take a handful of Hysop, and as [...] Bay-salt, boyl them in a pint of Vinegar, and wa [...] their Mo [...]th [...] and Pallates with it warm, anoint the place with an Oyntment made of [...]ees-wax, Butter, and T [...]r, and in a short time it will heal.

For the falling off of the Wooll.

It is many times o [...]servable, that Sheep, especially such as have the opportu [...]ity of coming among Bushes, Bryars, Brakes, Fu [...]z [...]s, and the like, loose a great part of the [...] [Page 73] Wooll, easily coming off. This is occasioned by the dry­ness of the Skin, through the wasting of the Sheep for wan [...] Moisture: To remedy it, boyl, or bruise Ash-leaves in their Watering Troughs, and give them Fennel-seeds mixed with chope [...], or short Hay, three or four times; you may also wash them with Water, wherein Wood-Ashes have been soaked.

For the Posie, or running at the Nose.

This is ocacsioned by too damp Aires when they are a­broad late, or Fogs in low or Marshey Grounds, whereby the Brain is overcharged with Moisture.

To dry this up, which else may probably turn to Colds, Coughs, or sometimes a Rot, smoak them with the Flow­ [...]r of Brimstone sprinkled on a Chasing-dish of Coals, or burn [...]ags dipped in Brimstone; you may in a close House, smoak twenty or thirty together with little trouble, for [...]he Air being scented, and they snuffing it up, it will dry [...]p the moist Vapours; then give them Vinegar, in which Bay-leaves have been boyled, to drink, and it will purge [...]heir Heads, and the foulness of the Stomach, that send [...] [...]p the Vapour, and administers to the Moisture.

To prevent Sickness in Sheep,

Bleed them in the Tail and Nose, Spring and Fall, [...]urge them with Hysop and Lavender boyled in Whey, which will cause gentle breathing Sweats, to carry off [...]he gross and afflicting Humour, and rarefie the Blood, so [...]hat they will feed well, and wholsome, be lively, and [...]atten apace.

To prevent unseasonable Tireing.

If with moderate driving they lye often down, loll out [...]heir Tongues, pant, and are tired, take Plantain, bruise [...]t, and rub their Mouths and Noses with it, then take [...]isemart, which grows almost in every Ditch, do the [...]ke, and rub their Fundaments, and they, after having [...]rank a little Water, will go with a Courage.

For the Biting of any Veno [...] Creatures

Take of Rue and Smallage, of each a handful, Aqu [...] ­vitae half a pint, bruise the Herbs, and strain the Juy [...] out, stamp it over a gentle Fire in the Aqua-vitae, and wa [...] the afflicted place often with it hot, then take Vervei [...] Lavender, and Oyl of Spike, stamp the Herbs, and ma [...] a Poultis, and bind it to the afflicted part.

For Poyson, by licking up any infectious thing.

When any such Infection happens, you may know it b [...] the Sheeps staggering and reeling; then open the Mou [...] and under the Tongue, you will find Blisters, cut the [...] off with a sharp Knife, and rub the Mouth well wi [...] Bole-Armoniack and Sage, boyled in Chamberlye; th [...] give him a quarter of a pint of Olive-Oyl in half a pint [...] new Milk.

For Pains in the Bowels.

This is occasioned by over-rank feeding, or eating u [...] ­vory things; and is known by the drawing up the Be [...] spurning at it with their Feet, often lying down, [...] quickly rising, as uneasie. To remedy it:

Take a handful of Rue, and Fetherfew, boyl it in [...] quarts of Water, with an Ounce of Coriander-seeds, [...] give it the afflicted Sheep to drink.

For the running Scab.

This is occasioned by Surfeits, or too much gross [...] of Humour, bad Blood, or the like.

To remedy this, bleed them under the Tongue [...] Tail, boyl a good handful of Baum, and an Ounce and half of Turmerick finely powdered, in three pints of [...] Milk, and give a pint at a time warm, then wash th [...] with Water, wherein Elder and Burdock-roots have be [...] boyled, not giving them any Meat for twelve hours.

For the Dropsie, or puffing up of the Skin.

This is caused by feeding in wet places, or too early, when the Dew is much upon the Grass, so that in the Biting, they suck up too much Moisture, which they can­not digest, nor evacua [...]e, by sweating it out; and so be­ing capable of passing the Skin, it remains, and corrupts between it and the inward Rhine, and often occasions a Universal Rot.

To remedy this, clip off the Wooll close behind each Shoulder, slit the Skin there, and put in a Tent dipped in Oyl of Spike, and it will draw the Water to it, and so evacuate by twice or thrice renewing it then steep half an Ounce of Regulus of Antemony, in a pint of Ale, with a little of the Spice, called, Grains, and a little Sugar; warm it, and give to the Sheep about half a quar­ter of a pint at a time, two or three times, with a day or two's intermission between each time.

A further discourse on the Rot in Sheep very necessary.

As for the Rot, though I have spoken as to its Remedy, seeing it is the most dangerous of all to Sheep, destroying them in clusters, I shall speak some more fully of it, with the sign of its approach and causes.

In moist years, sheep are subject to the Rot, where, in dry years, they are exempted from it, and that not only from the moisture, for then would Sheep Rot in all moist Grounds; but there is a certain putrefaction in the Air, Grass, or Herb, or all of them that cause it, which usu­ally attend them in such moist years; which, together with their Food, corrupt their Livers; and that through foulness, wateryness, and defect of Blood, for want of its performing its due Office, creates this Disease.

When the beginning of this is perceived by their hus­key Cough, or some of them dropping away, with all speed with them to the salt Marshes, and by their feeding there, if there be no over-flowings of Water, or extream wet, the Liver, if not too much putrefied, will take heat, [Page 76] and recover it [...] Strength, and then the Blood, by the Acre­mony of the Grass, being purified and purged, the Sheep will do well.

Observations and other Directions

If May and June prove wet Months, the Proit causes [...] frothey Grass, together with the bad Air that must neces­sarily follow, causes the Rot in Sheep; therefore, in such Summers, keep your Sheep on the dry and barren Lands; Fodder them in Winter with hardest Hay, and most astrin­gent Fodder.

Some Grounds yield soft Grass above others, and this is subject to breed the Rot in your Sheep; therefore feed o­ther Cattle there, and your Sheep in the dryest, healthiest, and hardest Pastures.

If they be already infected with the Rot, which you may discern by the colour of their Eyes, pen them up in a Barn, or large Sheep Coat set about, it may be with wooden Troughs, and feed them a day or two with Oats, then put amongst them Bay-salt well stamped, and after that a greater quantity, till such time as they begin to distaste it, then give them clean Oats another day or two, and then as before, serve them with Salt well stamped, and so encrease as directed; follow this course till their Eyes have recovered their natural colour, and then you may assure your self the danger is over, and the Sheep will be well.

If you are not furnished with a convenient House, it may be done in a close warm Yard, or Pingle, if the Wea­ther be favourably seasonable.

Folding of Sheep in May, or June, if they prove wet, make them Rot the sooner, because they are more greedy devourers in the hurtful Grass in the Morning, than those not folded; therefore, at that time, liberty from the Food is well prevented.

Of red Water, and its Remedy.

This red Water is an infectious Disease in Sheep, offend­ing the Heart, and is also as pestilent among other Cattle; therefore, when you perceive any of your Sheep afflicted with it; let them Blood between the Claws, and under the Ta [...]l, then lay to the sore place, Wormwood, or Rue, fin [...]ly beaten with Bay-salt.

To kill all sorts of Infects in the Sheep.

Take Goose-grease, Brimstone, and Tar, mix them to­gether over a gentle Fire, and if there be any Maggots, Worms, or sore places infected with Flies, anoint it with thi [...], and it will destroy, and prevent the Mischief.

For Worms in the Body, take a quarter of a pint of the Juyce of Wormwood, and Sage, give it the Sheep in a pint of warm Milk, and put Bay-salt, and a little Allom, in the watering Trough, and by this means the Worms wi [...]l be killed, and brought away, either bred in the Sto­ma [...]k, or Bowels.

For Lambs that are yean'd Sick.

[...]f the Lamb be sick and weak when it is yeaned, then w [...]p, or fold it up in a warm Cloath, and opening the Mouth a little, blow into it; then draw the Dam's Dugs, an [...] squirt Milk into the Mouth of it, then boyl a little Saf [...]ron and Cinnamon in the Milk, and give it warm a­bout a quarter of a pint, and House it; by this means many Lambs are saved, that would be otherways lost.

For the Leaf-sickness in the Sheep, or Lamb.

This is often occasioned by their over-much brousing on Hawthorn, and Oak-leaves, or such like, which the Lambs especially, are very apt to do, and it is known by their sta [...]gering, or turning round, for that manner of feeding ingenders cold corrupted Blood, or Flegm gathered toge­ther [Page 78] about the Brain; and indeed, this Disease is very dan­gerous, and makes them suddenly fall down before thos [...] that are ignorant in it, scarce know they a [...]l any thing.

To remedy this, dissolve Assafaetida in warm Wa [...]er, and put the quantity of half a spoonful into each Ear of the Lamb, and a spoonful into that of a Sheep, then stop the [...] close, and it will work the Distemper from the Brain, and entirely cure them, if timely taken.

For the great, or general Scab, or I [...]c [...].

This is a grievous offensive Disorder, or Sorrance, not uncommon amongst Sheep, especially those that are much exposed in the Fields, or other places, to rainey weather, or great Mists, or Fogs; over-driven much in wet dirty ways, or the like: These things, I say, will afflict them with this n [...]useous Sorrance, making them break forth in­to Sca [...]s, which, upon view, you may know if it [...]e ge­neral, or only in particular places, by a filthy white Scurff sticking on their [...]kins; when you perceive this, take off the Wool as close as can [...]e, mix Tar, Goose­grease, and the Juyce of Rue, make them into an Oynt­ment over a gentle Fire, and anoint them with it warm, then clap some light fleeces of Wooll, or a few shreads of stocks over it, and the Scab will dry up, and peel off; you may, if it be very great, let Blood in the Tail and Ears, and give them the Juyce of Cardus in a Glass of White­wine to drink, and then a while after smoak them with Brimstone, which will put them into a kind of a Flu [...], that will carry off the Humour; and then, the cause remo­ved, the Effects will cease.

A Remedy good for the Sickness of Sheep in general.

It is convenient for all keepers of Sheep, to have the following Medicine by them, as well in the Field, as at home in the Coats, or Houses, to remedy any sudden Sickness, and stay the Sheep alive till other Medicines can be got; especially in the Feaver, Pox, Rots, Lungs defective, &c. it is excellent. [Page 79] Take Penny-royal half a handful, Scabeous, and Shep­herd's Purse a like quantity, boyl these, when you have bruised them well in three pints of small Ale, and strain out the liquid part by hard squeezing, and pressing the Herbs, then put to it two Ounces of London-Treacle, put it up in a Bottle, and stop it close, and give a quarter of a pint of this when you see the Sheep in any disorder, and it will be of wonderful use for their preservation, and restoring them to health.

Against violent Heats in Sheep.

Many times by bad feeding, or over-driving, defect in the Blood, or the like, the Body of the Sheep will be fiery­red and hot all over, to the endangering him into a Fea­ver or Plague: To remedy it, wash him with warm Water, wherein Pimpernel and Sage have been boyled, and give him Whey to drink, wherein Hysop and Polipo­ [...] have been steep'd, after they have been well bruised, an [...] hard pressed into the liquid.

A gentle purge f [...] Sheep.

If you would have them feed well, when you put them to Grass, especially in the Spring, it will be highly con­venient that they be moderately purged, which will puri­fi [...] their Blood, by carrying off the gross Humours con­tr [...]cted in Winter, and make them grow lusty and Fat. To do this,

Take three or four Sprigs of Spurg-Lawre [...], a quarter of an Ounce of Antimony, a handful of dryed Rose­leaves, if fresh ones are not to be had; bruise and boyl these in new Whey, and give to every one a quarter of a pint, keep them fasting after it 4 or 5 hours; then, if the Weather be warm and open, turn them to grazing in the Field, where there is no Water, for all that day, &c.

A particular Receipt for making a Ewe yean easily, and with out danger to her, or the Lamb.

If you perceive the Ewe defective in Nature, to bring forth her young, lay her soft, and to the best advantage for yeaning, then take a handful of the tops of Basa-mint, or Horse-Mint, stamp it, and put the Juyce; or for w [...] of that, if none but dryed Mint can be had, put the pow­der into a half pint of strong Ale, and give it the Ewe to drink, and she will presently yean.

A speedy way to increase their Milk.

Change their Pasture, if you find their Udders are dry­ing up, or that they give but little; but let it be short and sweet, nothing inferiour, but rather exceeding that they are removed from; for, indeed, nothing increases Milk in Ews more than change of Pasture, and fresh feed­ing; and if the Ground give opportunity, drive them one while to the Hills; and then again to the Valleys, and where it is sweetest, and short, they will eat with the best Appetite; there see they continue longest; and to bring their Milk down apace, give them mingled with short Grass, or short Hay, Fitches, Dill, Anniseeds, and the like, and their Milk will spring apace.

How to make a Ewe love her own Lamb, or that of any other Ewe, and foster it.

If the Ewe grow unnatural, and decline her Lamb, and will neither suckle that, or one of another Ews; to make her more kind after she has yeaned, take a little of the clean of the Ewe, which is the Bed, Nature provided for the Lamb to lye in, whilst he grew in the Ews Belly, dry it, and beat it to powder, and give it her in a Glass of White-wine, and afterwards she will fall naturally in love with the Lamb, and be very fond of it; but if an Ewe has cast her Lamb, and you would have her take to that of another; then take the dead Lamb, and with it [Page 18] rub and dawb the live Lamb all over, and when she has [...]cente [...] it, she will love and cherish it as her own.

For Canker or Ringworm.

If this happen either in the Mouth, or on the Skin, by the Eyes, Ears, or Pole of the Neck; to remedy it, as an eating and troublesome sore, make a mixture with Oyl, Salt, and Allom, and dissolved, or well incorporated over a gentle Fire, and anoint the place with it, then co­ver it with a Plaister of Tar, and the Flower of Brim­stone, and in so ordering three or four times; the Cure w [...]ll be wrought.

Profit [...]ble Advice to Shepherds, or those that have the Govern­ment, and ordering of Sheep.

As for those that undertake the Care of Sheep there is a great charge and care lies on them, if they intend they shall turn to any good Account; and therefore I shall con­clude this particular Treatise, with some Directions not, or very slenderly touched on.

Fi [...]st, It behoves the Shepherd to know what Food is good and nourishing for Sheep, and what hurtful, so that by chusing the one, and eschewing the other, he may keep his Cattle in good health: The Grass most wholsom for Sheep, is that which has store of Mellilot, Clover, Cinquefoil, Pempernel, Broom, and white Henbane growing among it. That which is unwolsome for Sheep, is that which has growing among it Spare-wort, Penny-wort, Penny-Grass, or any Weeds, or Flowers that grow from the overflowing of Water, or Inundations; as Brooklime, Mareblabs, Lady Smocks, Smallage, &c. also that which has [...]notted Grass growing among it is not good, nor where the Mildew falls, or such as is spotted with it.

Of all Rots, the Hunger Rot is the worst, for it pu­trefies the Skin, and Flesh. The next is the Pelt Rot, which cometh by great store of Rain, or going in much wet immediately after being Shorn; for the Wet Mil­dewing, [Page 82] the Sk [...]n corrupts the Body; and this is most [...] Fie [...]-sheep wanting shelter.

[...] are [...] whi [...]e Snales which the Sheep will li [...] [...] will soon rot them; and if you perce [...] [...] [...] a [...] the Ews Teats, that stop the Milk, wh [...] th [...] [...] them away.

[...] the Sheep will have a bladder of Water [...] [...] which must [...]e Lanced, and let out in [...] will not pr [...].

In a [...] of G [...]ievances and Sickness, the party [...] to tend, or look after Flocks of Sheep, [...] by their Feeding and Ordering, from what ca [...] [...] Sickness or Griefs may chance to arise, or happ [...] [...] Cold, his [...]st way is, as soon as he sees them [...] [...], to drive them to shelter; if from Heat, to d [...] [...] to feed in shady cool places.

It is best buying them in March, when they have [...] out the Winter. As for the Terms given them in m [...] Co [...]tries, for the better understanding them, take th [...] Rule: The Lamb for its first year, is called a Weath [...] [...]og: The second year the Male is called a Weather, [...] gelded; the Female a Theaf, and then she is fit for the Ra [...] If she passes another year, she is then accounted a dou [...] Theaf, and the best Breeder: As for Lambs, those th [...] Suckle, are for the sweetness of their Flesh, preferred be­fore Grass-Lambs; he must always have Necessaries re [...] to assist the Cattle, if taken ill, or hurt, and good Do [...] to guard them, especially on the Purlews where they [...] out late in the Evening, or all Night; for though we [...] not infested with Wolves in this Country, yet we ha [...] mischievous Creatures to injure them in their Lambin [...] time, by killing and sucking the Blood of their young, [...] not carrying themaway; your larger sorts of Pol-Ceats w [...] do this; but the Fox in Lambing-time, makes their Blood h [...] beloved Food. There are likewise Dogs very cunning [...] this Trade, for they will go several Miles in a Night t [...] [...]ind out Sheep and Lambs, and having worried them, and [...]ti [...]ted themselves with their Blood, return, as if the [...] had been no ways concerned; washing and licking the [...] ­selves so clean, as if they had not stirred from their K [...] ­nels, [Page 83] being sure to be at home e're any of the Family is stirring; and if they find themselves watched towards their Homes, so cunning they are, that they will make more dablings than the Hare, to avoid the pursuit or dis­cover [...] where their Habitations are.

I have heard of a Mastiff that was kept up in a Coller and Chain, but having got before a haunt of this Trade which perhaps caused his restraint, he seemed uneasie o [...] his Confinement at first, but within a little while, appear­ed no ways disordered, or disturbed at it; there was th [...] a great Rumoùr of many Sheep being worried in the Fiel [...]s, and this Dog having been before suspected, they charged his Master with it, but he declared it could n [...] be, for his Dog had not been out of his Coller for many Weeks before this happened; but one affirming, he saw a Do [...] that had worried Sheep, come running into his Yard, of the same bigness and colour, it came in the Man's Head to cause him the next Night to be watched, but so, that the Dog could not see the party did it; when, about Midnight, the Moon shining, he came out of his Kennel, and sitting on his Tail, with his two fore-feet, with the help of his hinder ones, he thrust off his Coller, and ha­sted to his Prey, and about three hours after came home, and put his Nose into his Coller, run it to the length of the Chain, and by straining with main sorce, thrust his Head in, licked his Feet, rubed his Nose clean in the Straw, lay down to sleep, as he had never removed from that place. This being told, created much Wonder and Ad­m [...]ration, at the cunning and sensibleness of the Dog; so, that for his Policy, many interceeded to save his Life, but the Owners of the Sheep being clamorous, and threaten­ing the utmost prosecution of the Law in that case, he was doomed to the Halter, and after all his cunning, had a Dogs Fate.

Concluding Instructions relating to the well ordering Sheep.

In Winter, get such Greens as your Sheep will eat, an [...] are by the highness of their growth out of their rea [...] which will keep their Bodies soluble, and their Blood [...] a good temper, much preventing the Rot: In Snowy We [...] ther it lies lightly on the Ground, sweep it off, and yo [...] will find sweet Grass, as it were, springing under it, [...] reason the Snow keeps it warm, as in a Bed, and secure it from the niping Frost, and sharp Winds, which are the greatest hindrance to it; but this cannot easily be practi­cable, but for a very few; however, their nibling of it [...] that season, much revives them, if it be short, and f [...]e [...] from old dead Stalks. To feed them on ploughed Land, where some Corn springs up again, that was shed out of the Ear before Seed-time, or in Copises, where tender Sprays give them a pleasant brousing, is very wholsome for them, and hinders the Winter Disease very much; and indeed, care ought to be taken of them, for they are o [...] main support of the Country; if you consider the great Commodity and Profit they bring in, their Wooll to Cloath us, their Pelts for sundry necessary Uses, their Fruitfulness and Increase, the delicacy of their Flesh for Nourishment, and the goodness of their Tallow and Suet on many oc­casions; for the use of Man in Food, Oyntments, Salves, and Medicines. Therefore I shall conclude with the Ver­ses of the ancient Poet:

Poor Beast, that for defence of Man created wast,
And in thy swelling Udder bear'st the Juyce of dainty taste,
That with thy Fleece keep'st off the cold that wou'd our Limbs assall,
And rather with thy Life, than with thy Death thou dost avail.

A TREATISE OF SWINE, As to their Choice Breeding, Feeding, Fatning; and the Cure of their sundry Dis­eases, Sorrances, and other Griefs, and Ailes.

Swine very profitable, with their proper Food, to render them in feeding, large, and well shaped.

THAT the keeping and nourishing of Swine pro­perly belongs to Husbandry, evidently appear by the Profit that arises from them, in most Farmers Houses, as well as the sale in the Shambles, for it is a chief Subsistance of their Winter Store, and produces many good Dishes for the support of their Families; nay, more than any other Creature whatsoever; beside, their Flesh is [Page 86] very sweet and nourishing, and always ready at hand, easily to be prepared for the Table. This made the Ancients, all but the Jews, highly esteem it above any other. The Greek [...] kept Swine as their surest stock of choicest Viands, and are so commended by many of their approved Authors; and the Romans in the height of their Lxuxury esteemed no Feast to be compleat; where whole Swine were not served up at the Table; and when their tame Stock failed, with much hazard and labour they searched the Woods, Forrests, and Mountains, for the wild ones: But to pass these things over, seeing my present Business is not to give Encomiums of them, but to lay down such Rules for their Breeding Feeding, and curing the Diseases incident to them, as ma [...] redound to the profit and advantage of my Country­men.

Though England in general breeds better Swine than any other Neighbouring Countries, yet we find a difference [...] to their growth, and the goodness of their Flesh in several Counties; and those of Leicestershire, and the bordering parts of Northamptonshire, claim a Preference, which mo [...] conclude proceeds from the great store of Food growing there, that most naturally ag [...]ees with them, viz. [...] and the Clay Countries bordering on these Counties, take the next place, by reason of the abundance of Pulse; for although Swine will feed eagerly on Mast; yet those that make it mostly their Food, neither grow, nor breed so well, or kindly, though their Flesh is [...]irmer, and very sweet; but above all Acorns hardens it most, and keeps it firm and close in salting, and afterward; but when there are no Woods, Barns, Marshes, Corn, Pease, and Bean-fields must supply the Defect; Pulse is very much coveted by them; also Chesnuts (they find un­der the Trees, when they open their Husks) and full Hazle-nuts, if they find any quantity, will fat them very soon. The best to fat, are of two or three years old; for if younger, the growth will much hinder it; and if older, they will take up much more Food and time.

A [...]rue discription of the Boar; and Sow, for the procuring a healthy and large Breed.

[...]f you design to have a good Breed, you must be curi­ou [...] i [...] your choice, which is the man foundation of it; and particularly have a regard to the Boars, and Sows; the choice Marks of which, are these:

Let your Boar be well set, and short, his Mouth draw­ing upwards but not over long, his Shoulders and Breast broad, his Thigs large and full, but short; his Stones even large, and hard, hanging down pretty low; his Br [...]stles thick, and strong; and for the most part, (as much as may be) bristling up, or standing upright; his colour white, or inclining to sandy.

As for the Sow, see that she be long and large of Body; he Sides deep, her belly large, with many Teats; her Buttocks broad, her Ribs long, and large; her Eyes small, he [...] Head little, her Legs short; for though the long-leged S [...]ine appears well, it deceives the Eye, and is not so much for Profit, as the short, as to Substance, and Fleshy: Now for the Colour, there are good of all but black, though white is accounted the best; yet those that are only spotted with black, are not to be rejected.

Having thus made your choice; the next thing to be considered is, when it is most convenient to le [...] your Sow b [...] covered, which take in the following Section.

The most convenient time for the Sow to take the Boar; how to be ordered in her going with Pig, and Farrowing, &c.

A Sow goes four Months with Pig, and will conveni­ently bring two Farrows in a year, but then it is to be considered what times are most convenient that the Lit­ter may turn to the best advantage.

The best time for the Sow to be covered by the Boar, is when she is fourteen Months old, but the Boar must b [...] of a longer standing, not less than three years old; and when he exceeds five, he is naught for Breeders, and the Sow ought not to breed after four, unless the [...]igs be to be disposed of young, for they will not be si [...] proper to raise a Stock. About Candlemas, in the [Page 88] increase of the Moon, is a proper time to let her take the Boar, then see that he serve her well three or four times; for these Creatures do not presently conceive, but often miss the first or second time of Serving, and so being with Pig, suffer not the Boar to come at her, lest by his boiste­rous rudeness he hurt her, and by this means you will have a Farrow; in the warm Weather when there is good Pro­vision for them, she most commonly brings as many as she has Teats, and every Pig naturally takes his own Teat, and will not suck anothers; and if her Milk be slack, or not sufficient, feed them at times with Oat meal and Milk, or Bran finely sifted into the Milk; if the Weather be warm, you may wean them at a Month, and let them go abroad, give them green Leaves, Wheat-Ears, and Pease to feed on, then is the Sow fit to take the Boar again for another Farrow, that she may bring forth in the end of Aut [...], so that she will have four Months to bear each Farrow, one to feed them, and one to recruit and gather Strength and Flesh. In your Sows Farrowing, you must lay her soft, and help her, if Nature prove defective, with your Hand, giving to comfort her, warm Ale to drink, with Bran scattered in it, or a little sweet Wine, and observe as much as may be, when she is with Pig, and not far gone, to keep her from Acorns, for much feeding on them will make her apt to cast her Farrow untimely.

Proper Seasons for Gelding and Splaying; how ordered after, also in Stying, and in Relation to their Food.

Having weaned your Pigs, and they are grown strong and lusty, at two Months old you may geld and splay them; though, if it be done at six Months, or a year, [...]f it be done with dexterity, that no danger ensue, and then they will be the larger, and fatten the sooner; let this be done in the waine of the Moon, in the manner as directed for Calves, and keep them warm a week after, and in places where they cannot injure themselves, by over-strain­ing, or leaping; it is not convenient to do it in hard frosty Weather, or when it is excessive hot, but in mild open Weather, for then they will sooner heal, and thrive the [Page 89] better, and be excellent Bacon, or Pork, either, as you desig [...] for your use. The Females in this case, are called Splay-guelts, and indeed, are esteemed, and prove better for spending than the Males, though young Shoats, or Males of three quarters old are accounted the dantiest Porks▪

Observe, not as by other Cattle, that you put your Hogs [...]ogether, many in one place, and in fattening time, [...]ne by one in Partitions, which will prevent many ill-con­ [...]eniencies; and once a Fortnight, dust some red Oaker, or [...]ed Lead in their Swill, and it will greatly contribute to­wards their Health, especially prevent the Measles, and o­ [...]her such like Infections.

Observe in this case too, that they eat not the Dung of Men, Pidgeons, Poultry, nor lye on Horse-dung, for [...]hese will certainly breed the Measles, and other infectious Diseases; any Carrion, or dead Flesh, is likewise hurtful [...]o them though they will often devour it greedily, if they [...]ant their fill of other Victuals, and this will inure to [...]eed on the Living, make Sows eat their own Pigs, and [...]oung Children in Cradles, &c. if they can conveniently [...]ome [...] them, as many Histories furnish us with Examples, [...]specially they will eat Poultry; and indeed, in that way, [...]rove a very dangerous Creature to others it can master, [...]r surprize; give them no Fish-water, nor the washings of [...]f Mustard Plates, or Trenchers, in their Wash, for that [...]ill make them sicken; Soap-water is likewise very bad, [...]nd will cause Diseases in their Eyes, and Head; and nail [...]ome thin plates of Lead at the bottom of their Troughs, [...]hich cooling their Noses, will please them the better in [...]heir Feeding, and has a certain Vertue to cure the Insla­ [...]ation of the Lungs, for this is the hottest of all Do­ [...]estic [...] Creatures, which makes him cove [...] cool places to [...]emper and allay the Fervor that incommodes him.

Rules for fatening Swine in Champion Countries.

Where Woods, many Tuffs of Trees, or Copises are [...]anting, they must, when at large, be fed from the Ground; [...]re a [...]arshey, or Morish Ground is to be preferred be­fore [Page 90] dry Ground, that they may mouzle and dig up Wo [...] or Snales; as also cool themselves with more conveni [...] in the hot Weather, and get Roots, which much con [...] butes to their Growth, and Health; especially Fern-Ro [...] Bulrush-roots, the Roots of Sedges; as also feeding u [...] divers kinds of fattening and physical Grass; and He [...] also Orchard, where waste Fruits fall; at Barn-doors, [...] find good feeding of all sorts of Corn amongst the [...] or Straw; and this with Beans, Tears, and some so [...] Barley, will keep them in good Flesh.

Now, if you design to fat them for immediate [...] Sty them up, and let them not out till they are as f [...] [...] you desire; in this Order keep them the two first [...] fasting, and early the third Morning give them a [...] quantity of dried Pease and Beans; repeat this at N [...] four hours after, and when it is your time to go to [...] but not any Water that day; but the next give th [...] same quantity of Meat; and let them drink their [...]ll; [...] if you can conveniently get it, twice or thrice [...] give them a lusty draught of sweet Whey, or swee [...] Milk, and thus, in a Month they will be sufficiently for Pork, and in five Weeks for Bacon.

How to order, and fat them in woody Countries.

The Swine delights most in woody Countries that [...] full of Quagmires, or where there is a sufficiency of [...] [...]er; and if there be any agreeable Food, they will th [...] there very much, as Beech, Mastholm, Services, Med [...] Crabs, Hazle-nuts, Acorns; and here likewise in [...] Rooting, they will find Snales, Insects, and Roots to [...] on.

Turn them into the before-mentioned Woods, or [...] as are very near, and most convenient to you, for Weeks, or two Months; and when they are well fle [...] drive them to the Sty, and shut them up for a Fortni [...] or three Weeks, feeding them as before, with old d [...] Pease, and some spilt Beans; give them likewise s [...] Fetches, or Tears, and they will grow hard of Fat, [...] their Flesh be white, and eat very sweet and short, [...] Salt well, and keep long.

[...]tract [...] to fatten Swine in Towns, and particularly for Bra [...]n, [...]r Larding.

For keeping, and fattening Hogs in Towns, where they [...]ve no: the advantage of leting them run abroad so much, [...]e [...]-Chandlers Grieves, or the hard pressings of the [...]llow may be dissolved, by cutting the Cakes in small [...]eces, and boyling them in Wash, or Whey, or the [...]ashings of Ale barrels, or the like; also O [...]fal; boyled [...]urnips, Parsnips, or Carrots sliceda, Cart-load of which, the [...]eason of clearing the Grounds, may be bought for little matter; and when their Flesh is raised with these, to [...]arden it, give (in two days) each Swine, a Bushel of dry [...]se, and a little Barley, then two or three days after he [...]ill b [...] fit for the Knife.

If you feed a Boar for Brawn, or a Hog for Lard, the [...] Week you put either into the Sty, give him a suffici­ [...]t quantity, three times a day, of Barley sodden, till it be­ [...]ins [...] burst; the next Week give him undried, and it will [...]o what you desire, if you give store of Swill in Was [...]. Whey, &c. after it: And these Rules are approved by [...]he must Thrifty and Experienced in this mat [...]er.

How to order your Pork, and Bacon, for the well keeping of it, and its eating sweet, and savory.

After all I have said on this Subject, there remains one [...]hing very necessary to be discoursed of, which is the or­dering the Hog, &c. when killed.

When your Hog is singed, or scalded, hang him on some Hool [...] by the Heels, and take out the Intrails, then cut off the Head, and after the Flitch is separated from the Chine, if for Bacan, or for Pork, cut into the several Joynts, pres [...] out the Blood as much as may be with clean Linnen-Clo [...]ths, and let the Meat cool on the Table all Night, and [...]he next Morning salt it, taking notice of all the bo­ [...]y places, to stuff it well; then if Pork, put it into your Powdering-Tub, that has rather had Oyl than Vinegar, or any other sharp thing in it, to prevent the Musting; when [Page 92] this is done, boyl some Water and Salt, till it will [...] an Egg, pour it on gently just warm, and laying [...] of Salt, cover it up close, and set it in [...] dry [...] place.

As for your Bacon-Flitches; lay them on Plan [...]s [...] salt them well for a Fortnight, or three Weeks, when [...] have taken Salt, hang them up in the Wind to dry [...] windy place, then let the Smoak come to them by de [...] for if it comes too much at first, it hazards th [...] [...] Rusty.

Diseases in Swine, their Causes, S [...] toms, anb proper Remedies for th [...] Cure, also other Griefs, Ails, H [...] &c.

For the Head-ach.

WHEN this is perceived by their unrest, and [...] times drowsiness, dulness of the Eyes, [...] their Heads against any thing that stands in their way, [...] lancholy, Grunting, and Groaning.

Then let the Swine blood under the Tongue, rub [...] Mouth with Bay-salt and Vinegar, and if it be [...] give him Lettice-leaves, if not, Colewort, or Beet-le [...] to eat; boyl in Whey, Fetches, Rosemary, L [...]v [...]d [...] and Vervein, and give it to drink; do this success [...] two or three Mornings fasting.

For the Meas [...]es.

This Distemper is occasioned by excessive, or un [...] some Feeding: To remedy it, take a hard Brush, and [...] it in cold Water, rub the Swine all over with it hard [...] gainst the Hair, then take Parsly-Roots, Rue, and B [...] [Page 93] [...]ch a handful, boyl them in a Gallon of fair Water, [...] a handful of Bay-salt, and two Ounces of Allom, and [...]ng kept the Swine a long time from drinking, give him [...]iquid part warm, a little Wheat-bran, to make him the [...]er taken, being scattered amongst it.

For the Swine-Pox.

[...]ake an Ounce of Me [...]hridate, as much of long Pepper, [...]w tops of Savin, boyl these in a quart of Sider, strain [...] the liquid, mix with it a quarter of a pint of Olive­ [...], and an Ounce of Honey, give this warm two or [...] Mornings.

For the Ague or Feaver.

[...]o not give him much Meat, boyl Pars [...]ips, Parsly­ [...]s, Sage, and Pepper, in fair Water, give him the [...]er, and what is boyled in it, thrice a day, having first [...] blo [...]ded him in the Tail, and then keep him warm in [...] Sty, but so that he be not oppressed for want of [...]

For Swelling in the Neck, Throat, or any part.

As soon as this is perceived in any part, let the Swine [...]od in the Tail, and under the Tongue, and to the grie­ [...] pa [...] apply a Plaister made of the yolk of an Egg, [...]-wa [...], Wheat-flower, and Burgundy-pitch, slice Horse­ [...]ish, and scatter Coriander-seed in the Trough, when [...] giv [...] him Bran and Wash very warm.

Stra [...]ns, Bruises, broken Claws, Bones out of Joynt, or [...]ken, &c. an Excellent Plaister.

[...]ake Oyl of Earth two Ounces, Stone pitch, and the [...]e ca [...]led Mellilot, of each an Ounce, Turpentine and [...]s-wa [...], of each an Ounce, the Juyce of Mugwort, [...] Oyl of Bay-berries, of each an Ounce, make these in­ [...] Sal [...]e pretty thin, over a gentle Fire, wash the afflict­ [...] [...]plao: with [...]rine, and having spread a convenient [...]ster, bind it on hard, and bind it on with Flax.

For the Husking Cough, or C [...]ld.

Take the Juyce of Long-wort, and powder of [...] rish, of each two Ounces, a quarter of a pint of O [...] Oyl, the Juyce of Colts-foot, a Herb so called, [...] Ounce, give it fasting in a pint of warm Ale.

For the Pain in the Belly.

Take two Ounces of Fennel-seed, one of long P [...] an Ounce of Fennegreek, a handful, of May-weed, [...] two Ounces of Treacle, boyl these in a quart of [...] Beer, give it him fasting, and let him fast about six [...] after.

For the Flux.

This Distemper is occasioned by an extraordinary [...] ativeness: To remedy it, bruise five or six Nut-gi [...] little handful of Bettony, dried Slows, and white S [...] of each an Ounce; Oyl of Turpentine, a quarter of [...] Ounce; boyl them in a quart of Milk, and a pint o [...] [...] negar, strain out the liquid part, and give it at twice, [...] Morning and Evening, very hot.

For the Plague, or any Disease in the Mil [...].

Take Methridate an Ounce, Ginger, Pepper, and [...] [...]iander-seeds, of each half an Ounce, Camomile- [...] a little handful, boyl them in a quart of Milk, st [...] and give it hot.

For Diseases in the Eyes.

Wash them with the Juyce of Selendine, Houslee [...] Bettony, blow through a Quill the powder of b [...] lom, or Sepia, and bind a rotten Apple, beaten sm [...] a Plaister over them.

How to know when a Swine is sick.

There are few Beasts more distempered or subjected [...]o Diseases then Swine, though their Distempers are by [...]any the fewer.

If you would know when the Swine is sick, without [...]ny v [...]olent Symptoms; then it is, when he hangs [...]own [...]is Ears, and has a dull Countenance, is ques [...]e in [...]is Appetite, and d [...]clines his fe [...]ding: But to come to a [...]ore certain Rule, though the former are sufficient tokens; [...]raw half a dozen Brissels from the back, and if the roots [...]r ends appear white, the Swine is in good health; but, [...]f black, [...]loody or spotted, then is he afflicted with some [...]nte [...]nal Sickness, or has received some violent bruise or [...]urt, not outwardly discernable.

When you perceive any of these symptoms, boyl Co­ [...]iander-seeds, and sweet Fennel in his Wash; then give him a [...] Ounce of Methridate, and a quart of Olive-Oyl, [...]in a quart of new Milk, very warm.

For eating infectious Herbs that makes them sick

There are divers Herbs dangerous to Swine, and from which they ought with all diligence to be kept, viz. Mad-Chary, Milfoil, and Henbane, &c. If they sicken by eating any of these, to make them well again; boil wild Cucumbers, and Anni-seeds in water; season it with Bay-salt, and give it him to drink, which will make him ev [...]c [...]ate from his Stomack, the Infectious Humour gene­rated there by these Herbs.

For Rheums.

D [...] a Rag in Brimstone, and at the end of a Stick, whe [...] lighted, hold it under his Nose, for a little time; after that, smoak him with Stora [...], scattered on a Pan of Coa [...]s: Then bruise Garlick, and make it into a Pill with Salt-Butter, about the bigness of a Wall-Nut, oblige him [...]o swallow it.

For Blood-shot, or bloody specks in the Eyes.

Wash the Eyes with the juice of Bettony and Turni [...] mixed with the juice of a rotten Apple, and give [...] sliced Parsnips among his other Food to eat.

Imposthumes or Swellings about the Head or Throat.

For this, take Camomoile, Allows, and May-w [...] each a good handful, boyl them when bruised, in a q [...] of White-wine-Vinegar; strain out the liquid part, [...] sweeten it, if you please with brown Sugar: Then [...] Tar, Bay-Salt, and Rye-flower; thicken it into a Plais [...] spread it, and lay it on the swelling, and it will draw [...] to a head, so that if it break not of it self it may be la [...] ­ed, and the Corruption brought away.

For Vomiting or casting up Food.

This often happens by the Swines eating of Hemlo [...], Hens-Dung, or something very nauceous, and afflicts to the Stomack, and will make them fall into some d [...] gerous Distemper, if not speedily remedyed: Therefo [...] to do it, let him fast twelve hours, then give him B [...] in water, wherein Dill or sweet-Fennel has been boyld; dissolve in a little Allom and Salt, and keep him w [...] for twelve hours.

Diseases in the Gall.

If the Swine be afflicted with the overflowing of the Gall, which occasions sundry Diseases, which in a little time may be known by the Skin, inclining somwhat to [...] yellow, but particularly the Roof of the Mouth: Ta [...] an Ounce of Turmerick, and as much Bole-A [...]oniack beat them into powder, add an Ounce of Honey, and a Dram of Saffron, give these in a pint of sweet Wo [...] pretty hot, without straining.

For Lice, or Ticks.

Anoint the Swine for this, with Oyl of Turpentine, and [...]ower of Brimstone; if any Maggots, or Putrefaction [...]ppear, anoint the place with black Soap, and Tar, and [...]hey will cease to generate.

For [...]hirst.

Excessive Thirst, through the heat of the Swines Body, [...]nd des [...]re of cold things to allay it, agitates, and fer­ [...]ents [...]he Blood, many times drawing on Feavers, and o­ [...]er hot Diseases; then to allay it, and prevent the ill con­ [...]quen [...]es, give him Sorr [...]l boyled in Water, fasting, and [...]hen driven out of the St [...], let him be in a place where [...]e may at liberty [...] bathe himself in cool Streams, or [...]onds; and after this, he will not care to drink to ex­ [...]ess.

[...]n excellent Oyntment for Fractures, Bruises, or broken Bones.

Take Sheeps suet three Ounces, Venice Turpentine, and [...]ees-w [...]x, of each half an Ounce, Galbanum and S [...]orax, [...] each a Dram, Oyl of Olives, half a pint, melt them [...]ver a gentle Fire, and if too thick, add two Ounces of [...]e Oyl of Camomile, and anoint the grieved part with it [...]ann, when you bind it up.

For Leanness, falling away, and Scurf.

Thes [...] proceed from corrupted Blood, proceeding from [...]ing on Dunghills, in muddy places, or in the Stys, on [...]ten and corrupted Litter, and many times want of [...]od in the proper Se [...]sons.

To remedy this, bl [...]d the Swine under the Tail, rub [...] over hard with a Wy [...]e-card, such as Wooll is car [...]e [...] [...]it [...]al, to take off the Filth and S [...] then mix a pound [...] Hog [...]- [...]a [...]d, or the rusty Fat o [...] Bacon, with a quarter a po [...] of Tar, and two Ounces of the flower of [Page 98] Brimstone, rub him over with it, boyl Fennel in his Wa­ter, and give him clean Litter.

For the sleepy Evil.

This mostly happens in the hot Weather in Summer: To remedy it, keep him fasting twenty-four hours, boyl in his Water Stone-crop, or the Roots of wild Cucum­bers, which, by cleansing his Stomack, will hinder the Vapours that arise from foul Digestion.

For the biting of a mad Dog.

Take new Chamberlye a quart, put into it two Ounces of Bay-salt, and as much Soot also beat in it an adled Egg or two, boyl them till a third part be consumed, wash the Wound, and lay on a Plaister of Turpentine, and Bees-wax; and in twice or thrice doing, it will be cured.

For a Hog that has been lugged by a Dog.

Take three Ounces of Tar, as much Soap, and Mutton­suet, mix them well over a gentle [...]ire, then incorporate them with half a pint of White-wine-Vinegar, and a quar­ter of a pint of Olive-Oyl, and anoint the wounded place with it as hot as may be.

For the Milt-pain.

This is known by the reeling, and going on one side; and is cured by Honey and Wormwood boyl'd in Water.

The Murrain, [...]s cure.

This is known by the Swine' [...] abstaining from Meat, grunting heavily, dulness of the Eyes, throtling, and hang­ing of the Ears, and is very dangerous; therefore, when you perceive any of the [...]e Signs, boyl two handfuls of the Her [...] Liverwort, a handful of the whitest Hen-dung, and two Ounces of r [...]d-Oaker, in [...] Gallon of Wash, give [Page 99] it warm; and if he refuse to take it, pour it down his Throa [...] with a Drenching-Horn, and wash him with warm Water, wherein Rosemary and Bays have been boyled.

The Quinsey in Swine.

To this Disease a Swine is very much subject; and when you perceive it has taken them, let blood under the Tail, and in the Vein behind the Shoulder; and if the Kernels swell much under the Throat, or on the side of the Neck, [...]et th [...]m blood under the Tongue, rub their Mouths with Salt and Wheat-flower; then take a handful of Dassidilly-Roots, a [...] much Salt, and an Ounce of shaved Harts-horn, stamp the Roots, and boyl all these in Vinegar, give the Swine half a pint of it hot at a time, and anoint the swel­ling with Oyl of Spike.

For the Spleen, an excellent Remedy.

Th [...]s comes principally by foul varacious feeding, to which, above all others, this Creature is very subject.

To remedy this Disease, give him the Juyce of Tame­rine in Water, wherein the Coals of Heath hath been of­ten quenched, and let him drink pretty often of it.

For pining and wasting.

Th [...]s is perceived by his want of Appetite, in forsaking [...]his Meat; and sometimes, when you bring him to his Meat, and he endeavours to feed, he instantly starts back, and falls down as dead: This many foolish People con­clude to proceed from Witchcraft, when, indeed, it is [...] natural Distemper.

To remedy this, shut up your Swine a whole day with­out Meat, or Water; the next day give them Water to drink, wherein the Roots of wild Cucumbers have been stamp [...]d, and strain'd, and let him fast an hour after; then give [...]an boyled thick in Water, and so do two or three days, and the Cure will be wrought; for the Cucumbers will make him Vomit, and cleanse his Stomack, sitting [Page 100] him for a good Appetite; and thereupon his Flesh will be recovered, if you give him hard Beans that have been steeped in Bri [...]e.

To prevent Pestilential Diseas [...]s.

Take a handful of the Roots of Polipodium, or Oak-Fern, stamp them well, and boyl them in a pint of White­wine give the Swine half a pint when he is fasting, very hot, and it will purge him of C [...]er, to which the Crea­ture is exceedingly subject, and is the Root, or Original of most Diseases that afflict him.

Of immoderate Thrist.

This in hot Weather greatly afflicts the Swine, and makes him cove [...] cool places, M [...]es, and Water, and is very prejudicial to Health; for excess of drinking brings Di­stempers, that often prove fatal, and dangerous.

To remedy this, give them Water, wherein Housleek and Wood-sorrel has been boyled, Peg his Ear, and thrust a Peg made of the Root of Setwort into the H [...]lo, so that it may stick fast there: This also is an approved re­medy, for the inflaming of the Liver, or Lungs, by too much hea [...], and want of moisture.

For Boiles, or Blains.

Take an Ounce of Burgundy-pitch, as much Bees-wax and Turpenti [...]e, makes these into a Plaister, by well in­corporating them over a gentle Fire, cilp the Hair as close as you can [...]ound about; anoint the place well with Oynt­ment of Tobacco, with a little thin Tar mixed in it, lay on the Plaister, then take it off at two days end, and La [...]ce the Sore, then take powder of burnt-Allom, scatter in it, and anoint and plaister it as before.

For a Thorn or Stub in the Foot.

Open the place hurt, with the point of a Knife, and if you can, draw it out, and anoint it with Oyl of Spike; if not, lay a Plaister of Stone-pitch and Turpentine to it, a [...]d it will draw it out with ease.

To help the Scowring.

This frequently happens through the sudden change of their Meat, especially in fatning-time, and much hinders their getting fat; as also puts the Owner to greater charge than need be, if not speedily remedyed, which is done with little cost; for to do it, is required no more than a p [...]nt of Verjuyce in two quarts of Milk, for the elder S [...]ine; and for young Porklings, or Shoats, you may give it above a quarter of a pint, and it will in twice or thrice doing, stay the Scowring.

For the violent Pain in the T [...]eth.

This is usually occasioned by contracting Wind in the [...]llowness of their Teeth, and by the violence of the P [...]in, many times makes them run mad for a time.

To remedy this, Lance the Gums close to the Roots of the Teeth, [...]ub them with Salt and burnt-Allom, then w [...]sh [...] the Swines Mouth with Vinegar, wherein [...]e [...]el­se [...]d [...] has been boyled, and blood him in the Ear, of the side where you perceive the Pain mostly to be, by o­pe [...]ing a Vein just behind it.

The Frensie in Swine.

This is held many times to proceed from a Worm g [...]wing of putrefaction in the Head, near the Brain, by which me [...]ns the Brain is hindered in its Office, and much afflicted, which causes Frensie and Madness: The surest Re­medy for this, is to kill your Hog, if he be in good plight; for in the Sty he will be apt to beat himself to [Page 102] death; or if abroad, break his Neck down any ste [...] place; or trying the water beyond his strength, be th [...] drowned; or what is as bad, by long swimming, tear [...] Throat out with his own Claws. However, if the H [...] when so taken (for his Head cannot be open so f [...]r as [...] take out the Worm, and he live) be not in plight;

Take the Juyce of Briony-root, an ounce, put it i [...] a quarter of a pint of single Poppey-water, [...]our it wa [...] into the Hogs Nostrils, and keep it in by holding up [...] Head; then give with his Meat, Colwort leaves boyled i [...] Vinegar.

To remedy want of feeding, and defects in the Liver, &c.

Give him half a dram of crude Antimony, in a [...] of warm Bran, and it will not only restore his App [...] when lost, but also remedy the foulness of the Liver [...] rid him of the Measles, if once they have entered the [...]

For Le [...]ness, Mislike, Scurf, and Mainginess, a most appr [...] ved Remedy.

These Diseases proceed from corrupt blood, occasi [...] by wet and foul lying, especially on rotten: wet Bo [...] or rotten Litter in the Stys, and sometimes from a s [...] city of Meat and Water, and now and then Wash [...] Whey, &c.

To cure it, let the Swine blood under the Tail; the with a Wool-card rub him from the back to the Tail, [...] all the filth and scurf come off, nay, till the skin is [...] by it, and the blood come; then take Brimstone, Goo [...] grease, and Tar, make these up into an Ointment ov [...] [...] gentle fire, then with a fine brush diped in it, rub t [...] Swine over with it, give him short clean litter, and keep him in the Stye for two or three days with good wa [...] food, and by this means the disorder will be remedyed.

Of the Cattar in Swino.

This happens by too much eating rotten Fruits, cor­rupting the blood; or Carrion, or other unwholsome things, especially wherein there is too much moisture and corruption. Hemlock or [...]enbane, if eaten, is a great producer of it; and to know when this afflicts your Swine, observe their Eyes; and if you see them heavy, du [...]l, moist, or watering, it is a sign. Their averseness also to their Meat is another.

To remedy this, give your Swine a drench of warm w [...]ter with Hens-dung in it; and in his wash, boyl Li­ve wort, a Herb so called, and red Oaker, some dryed Sloes, and [...]olipodium-roots, and give him luke-warm.

For Casting, Nauceating, or Vomiting.

This is a defect occasioned by the weakness of the Stomack, or its great foulness by eating unwholsome Food; a [...] is known by his straining and striving to cast; his of­fer gaping and shaking his head; when you perceive any of these signs, as also leanness and falling away, if it have contin [...]ed long.

To remedy it, give him splent Beans and Fennel seed mi [...]ed well together, and they will by their astringency, str [...]ngthen his Stomack, and restore Appetite.

For dangerous Impostumes in any part, an approved Remedy.

These troublesom Sorrances or Tumors being gathered by evil Humours, are very dangerous, if not timely reme­dy [...]d. They happen in many parts of their Bodies, as un [...]er their Throats, Ears, Bellies, and oft on their Sides. To remedy these:

If they be soft, and come to a head naturally, you may lance them; if not, you must use means to bring the Cor­ruption into a body that they may come to a head proper to be [...]uced or break of themselves; and to this purpose, use a Plaister made of Tar, Turpentine, and Oyl of Spike, [Page 104] or the Juyce of Lilly-roots; and when the Tumor is [...] to be lanced, press it between your Finger and Thu [...] and having given a small slit with a sine Instrument, [...] out the Corruption, and put in a Tent of Linnen-rag [...] Flax dipped in Oyl of Peter, and anoint the Wound vs [...] Salt-Butter; blood him likewise under the Tongue, [...] his Mouth well with Meal [...] and Salt well mixed togeth [...] and cover over the Orifice of the wound with a Plaist [...] of Diaculum, and in a few dressings it will be well; [...] if there be any proud or putrefied flesh in it, put in so [...] burnt roach Allom in fine powder, and i [...] will corr [...] away.

For the Murrain, another excellent Remedy.

This Disease is much incident to some in the Spring especially where they eat Grass among which young He [...] lock springs up. It is known by the dull and redness [...] the Eyes; the little List the Swine has to stir; his hea [...] grunting, and much hanging down his Head.

To remedy this; take the roots of Water or Ga [...] Lillies, bruise them, and squeeze out the Juyce, mi [...] quarter of a pint of it with half a pint of Salad Oyl, a [...] half an Ounce of Turmerick finely beaten into powder, give it the Swine in a Horn, that it may the better go down his Throat; and when you perceive him grow hoe, or sweat, blood him under the Ears, Tongue, and Tail, and give him cooling Washes to drink, with a little Bay-Salt sprinkled in it.

For Laxativeness.

This many times wastes them, if it continues long, and not only hinders their growth, but their fatning; though it is easily remedyed, by giving them Milk and Verjuyce to drink; and Beans, Pease, Barley, and such like dryed Meats for their Food: For want of Verjuyce, Vinegar, or the juyce of sower Grapes will do the like.

A peculiar way to prevent a Sow from the un-naturalness of eating or destroying her own Pigs.

Some Sows being used much to Carrion, and now and then to the snaping up of live Poultry will, if they be not well fed and looked to, un-naturally eat their own Pigs; and this it seems is not new to these voraciousCrea­tures for we find the antient Saxons looked on it so bar­barous and un-natural, they made a Law, That any Sow which eat her own Pigs, should he burnt alive.

This destroying or eating their Pigs as soon as far­rowel, springs from an un-natural greediness in them; whic [...] to remedy, you must watch her when she sarrow­eth; and if she be accustomed to such Tricks, take away the Pigs is they fall; then take the Rickling or u [...]derling Pig, and wash it all over with the Juyce of Stone, a He [...] so ca [...]led and put it again; to the Sow, and if she devour it, it will make her cast and vomit extreamly, and be so sick, that the pain and disorder she finds in it, will de­ter her from doing the like again: But of all the cures for such in un-natural Beast, is to fat and kill her, for there are bat few Sows that are guilty of this trick.

A present way to encrease Milk.

Some Sows when they have farrowed, are deficient in Milk to bring up their Farrow; in this case, to make her speedily give Milk, which is (especially at first) the most wholsome and nourishing to them; give her Sow-This [...]le to eat; if she refuse it raw, scald it, when choped small among Bran: And to relish her Stomack to an Ap­petite, whereby Milk may have wherewithal to encrease by feeding, give her Colwort-leaves boyl'd in Vinegar; and for her food, Pease, scalded Bran, and splert Beans, and she will give much Milk, and become lusty.

A Cordial for a Sow, sick in, or after her Farrowing.

Take a handful of dryed Rose-leaves, a few Leaves [...] Baum, and Flowers of Layender, boyl these in a quart o [...] Ale, sweeten the Liquid part when strained out, with a little brown Sugar, give her half a pint at a time wan [...] with a drenching Hom; and this will help her also in he [...] farrowing, and make the Pigs come kindly away, unle [...] by violent straining, or other accident.

For a Sow that is apt to cast her Pigs untimely.

This is a fault they are seldom guilty of, as being of a very hot nature, and not subject to flegmatick Humours, that mostly occasions Abortion; but sometimes it hap­pens, especially where any violence has been offered by strokes, luging with Dogs, or wrenching themselves through narrow Gaps or Pales; sometimes by the unruly lunching of other Swine; and it is known before hand, if notice be taken of it, by their often lying down, mou [...] ­full grunting, foaming much at Mouth, and redness [...] their Eyes when you perceive these things,

Take a handful of Fumitory; if that he not to be got, Featherfew; as much Hysop and Lavender; boyl them in the Wash, and having strained the Herbs, give it warm; if any bruise has been taken, let blood under the Ears.

To know when a Sow is near her farrowing time.

When this time approaches, her Eyes will look dull and heavy; she will, if at large, be searching up and down in corners for a secret convenient place; and when she has found own to her mind, she will take Straw in her, Mouth, and carry it thither; if she be confined, she will be making her Nest by lightning up the Litter; and lying round more in one place than another, hold up her Nose, to seent if any one be coming near her; beat other Hogs from her, often turn round, yet seem fearful of lying down, for fear of tumbling her new made Bed before the [Page 107] [...]me she is to use it. When you see these things, give her [...]oyled Whey and Bran to hearten and strengthen her in what she is to undergo, for it will not be long e [...]e she will fall down.

For blindness in Pigs newly farrowed.

Sometimes it happens, especially in cold frosty Wea­ther; that Pigs, by defect in the Sows Womb, or excessive sharpness of the Air, become blind: To remedy this, that it may not continue on them, give them in their Milk, Juyce of Selendine, and wash their Eyes with the same Juyce with a Feather dipped into it warm, and they will be r [...]ored.

Thus I such for Swine, being all that is necessary to be cons [...]ered of them in every point.

A TREATISE OF GOATS, THEIR Nature and Kind, and the Advan­tage accruing by feeding them.

Goats, their Profitableness: How to make choice of good Breeders, with the marks to know them, &c.

THOUGH some parts of England are not much acquainted with this sort of Cattle, yet the greater part is; as also the Principality of Wales: And indeed their Flesh, when young, is very dainty in the Opinion of many; equaling, if not exceeding Venison; and their Milk exceeding nourishing: Be [...]des, their Skins and Hair are fit for various uses, and bring not a little Profit to those that trade in them. The Patriarchs of old held Goats in much esteem, and bred up multitudes of them, making very savory Meat of their [Page 109] Kids; and so indeed should we at this day, were we want­ing o [...] those numerous flock of Sheep, &c. which daily supply the Table. However, it is a Domestick Creature, and so lows in course to be taken notice of in this Book.

The Goats have many things common with the Sheep, for th [...]y usually go to Buck about the same time. There an [...] in some places two sorts of these, the hairy sort, and that smooth; and those that have Wens and Warts under their Chins, are taken to be the Trustfulest; their Udders we [...] great, the Milk duck, and the quant [...]ty much. There is in these, as in other Cattle, something to be con­sidered in their choice, especially for breeding; and for this matter, to keep my preceeding Method, I shall lay down some Rules.

And first, of the He, or Buck Goat; Observe in your the sing him, that he b [...] well horried and bearded; his Main thick, his Head long, and his Neck short; his Legs fles [...]ey, his Eyes sprightly, I and somewhat large; his Ears lar [...]e, and somewhat declyning.

Secondly, as for the She Goat, in your choice, observe that her Udders be large; her Belly deep, and body long; her Leg short, well But cooked, and a compleat Head.

The best time for the Female to suffer the Male, and he cov [...]red for breed, is abou [...] the beginning or middle or February; if the Weather be not too extream, by reason of hard Frosts that many times continue the greater part of that Month, if not beyond.

How to order them in their Covering; the proper Season; and how, after they have brought forth, to bring up the young; with the manner of feeding them.

There is one thing remarkable in these Creatures; the Male, by a kind of instinct in Nature, know his Preroga­tive, and always goes before the Female: As for buying them you cannot expect they should be entirely healthy, because the heat, and a rank hu [...]our [...]in their Bodies, make them almost always fauv [...]ish of against.

The best kind for Breeders, are those that [...] [...]ntly bring forth twice a year. The Goa [...] is [...] to [...]gender [Page 110] at seven Months old, being according to the Proverb, even, As Letchorous as a Goat: For the Male, whilst be has not been weaned, will be leaping his Dam, if h [...]ds no other for his purpose; which, too early beginning, makes him wax feeble; and before he be six years old, un­able to get any Kids, especially such as worth Rearing; and therefore, after he has passed his fifth year, he is no longer fit for your turn: As for a Breed; you may put them to be covered again at the latter end of the [...], or beginning of Autumn; and though your Kids be brought forth by young Goats of a year, o [...] under two, yet the best way for their thriving is to put them to suckle to a Milch Goat of two or three years old, so let the young one breed, and the elder bring them up, and there will be no time, lost in procuring a good Block; suckle them, and other ways order them in all cases as the Lambs when they are weaned; yet with this caution, that living more un [...]ly and wanton than the [...], care must be taken, that they hurt not themselves or others.

To Brouse on, give green Boughs, especially Sprays of the Vine, which they exceedingly covet; and where they come among Vineyards, do damage; which occasion [...] the Ancients to [...] them to [...] their fabled God of Wine, that he might be satisfied by the Deaths of some, for the Mischief the rest had done: After three, they are not very good to breed, but for procuring such Kids as you design to dispose of very young; and past four, their Breed is good for little. The first leaping is accounted uncertain; the second frequently speedeth, but the third carries a certainty with it.

The Age of Goats, and many other things observable in the [...] as to their Knowledge, Housing, &c.

The Age of these Creatures are to be taken notice of by the Circles of their Horns, from their first growing till eight years, and then they are altogether past their best, and not worth buying, unless for their Skins, and Hair. The Females of those that are wanting of Horns, and called Pollards, give the best and sweetest Milk, of [Page 111] which some make good Butter and Cheese, especially if mingled with Ews and Cows Milk; it gives it [...] pleasure [...]ast [...], and occasions it to keep longer than any other; and many are of Opinion, they see as well by Night as Day: They always in their Lyings down, lay their Faces one from the other, and in that manner feed; to be more watchful against Danger, which way soever it may be likely to assail them by the means of Wolves, Dogs, or other Ravenous Creatures; and if abroad, they sence the young ones in the midst of them, that they may be able to defind them, unless they be unruly and break out, for which they are often chastised by their Dams.

[...]his is a very sensible Creature, and cautions of Dan­ger; for Nutianus reports, he once saw a couple of them accidentally meet on a Bridge very narrow, and long, over a rapid Stream, which, by reason of the straightness would not suffer them to return; then to go backward, as it were, blindfold, seemed more hazardous; whe [...]e upon, one of them lay leisurely down, and suffered the other to go over him; yet in Rockey and Mountainous pla [...]es they will climb and run up Cliffs pr [...]digiously, esp [...]cially in the Mountainous parts of Wal [...]s, where many of them are wild, and hunted by the [...]entry there, as their chief Recreation; and in common Inns you may see them run on the Ridges of Houses, like a Cat, yee the [...] d [...]ead to take the Water, and will not, unless very much forced to it by Frights.

Extream Heat more than extream Cold aff [...]icts them, because they are hot by Nature, especially those with young; and therefore in such times in Sum [...]rer, Heat drives them to Shades. Let them brouse in Copses, [...]or under Hedges, and they will by that means grow sat; and in the Cold, House them, at least those that are with [...]oung, and most tender; feed them with Oats, Pease, and Wheat-Ea [...]s. It is better, if you have a Conveniency, to keep then in sundry little Flocks, than altogether, for Healths sake.

How their Housing ought to be, and care as much as possible, to keep them from Diseases.

Keep Goats as well as Deer, from Vines, and choice Fruit-trees, for there they will make a miserable spoil, by plucking off the tender Branches, and their bi­ting and bruising, hinder them from kindly growing ever after.

As for their Standings, when Housed in Summer, let them be Airy, and Winter close and warm, having for that purpose two Windows, one to the North, and the other to the South, so that you may let in the Sun, or cool Air at pleasur [...], as the Season requires it.

Let it be hard under their Feet, descending, that the Urine may pass into the Sink, and not offend them; the Flooring must be hard, and the best is accounted of Stone, either flat, or pibble; as for their Littering, if it be sweet and clean, little will serve them, and in the Spring, Summer and Autumn, small green Boughs, Sedge and Rushes are most pleasing and delightful to them; and the best way to keep them from Diseases, is to keep their Housing clean, for ill Scents mainly offend and afflict them, inso­much, that they presently fall sick, and when th [...]y do, especially of some Diseases; it is very dangerous; for they drop not as other Cattle, by degrees, but fall down dead as fast as may be, so that twenty out of a hundred that seemed to be well over Night, have been found dead in the Morning,

And having thus far treated of this kind of Cattle in General, and Particulars: It now remains, I follow my former Method, to treat accurately of the Causes, Sym­ptoms, and Cures of their Diseases.

Diseases most incident to Goats, their Cau­ses, Symptoms, Prevention, and choice Receipts for their Cure, &c.

For the Feaver, or Ague.

THESE Distempers, and especially the first, are in­h [...]rents to Goats, and ve [...]y rarely, especially of any yea [...]s standing, they are altogether without it; it is occ [...]sioned, by too much heat in the Blood, by reason of their L [...]stfulness or indeed, that which prompts them to it, and is known by an interchange of Heat and Cold. To remedy this:

Let them blood under the Tongue, then take a great Thistle, Roots of Fern, and Reeds, of each a moderate ha [...]lful bruise them well; Co [...]iander-seeds two Ounces, the Juyce of Sorrel as much, Peels, or seeds o [...] Citron, or [...]emon, an Ounce and a half, boyl them in three pints of [...]unning Water, and give the Beast the liquid part to drink.

Another for the same.

[...]ake a handful of Bean-flower, an Ounce of Allom bea [...]en in powder; a few Roots of Pollipodium of the Oa [...], boyl them in two quarts of Skim-Milk, or Whey, and gi [...]e it at four times, the liquid part strained out pretty warm.

For the Dropsie.

This is a Disease Goats are many times troubled with, pr [...]ceeding from wet feeding, and too much lying abroad in [...]oggy Weather, or in Monish dump Grounds, and is kn [...]wn by the tumourousness, or pussing up of their Skin, which if you press, with your Finger, will indent, and no: presently rise again.

To remedy this, Lance the Skin a little under the S [...] der, and put a Rag dipped in the Oyl of Bays betwe [...] and the Flesh, and so often renew it, and by thus k [...] it tented, the Water will slow to that part and ev [...] give him, if you have a conveniency, at the same [...] Hop tops the tenderest, and the tender sprays of [...] or Beech, to brouse o [...]; however, give him a [...] of Milk at twice; wherein a handful of Dwarf [...] has been boyled.

For the Murrain or Pestilence.

These are Diseases fatal to this kind of Cattle, and though many times they seem lusty and well, yet by [...] denly taking them, they will drop down very fast, t [...] immediately dye; therefore always have the follow things to remedy so great a loss, which so little time w [...] procure in a readiness, to preserve them safe. Take [...] tops of Rue, Baum and Vervine, of each a handful, [...] them in two quarts of Sider, till a [...] third part be co [...] med, strain it out, and infuse in it a quar [...]e [...] of an Ounce [...] Saffron, and two Ounces of Methridate, or London-Tr [...]d and give half a pint at a time wa [...]in and according t [...] the number of your Goats, make a greater quantity, [...] have it in a readiness; and as soon as you see this Diste [...] ­per appear amongst them, separate as many as you pe­ceive infected, and put them into warm, but Airy place

For Pains in the Head.

This sometimes afflicts them even to Madness, occasi [...] ­ed by violent Heats first contracted by being in cold w [...] places, or unwholsome feeding; it is known by thei [...] reeling and staggering, running their Heads against [...] thing that stands in their way. For this:

Blood them in the Neck, and under the Tongue take Mather, a little handful; Turmerick, half an Ounce; a few tops of Hysop, Sage, and Rosemary; boyl them in fair Wa­ter, strain out the liquid part, and give it warm.

For Faintness, or Dizziness.

This proceeds from Heat, or want of seasonable Food, and is easily known by the languishing of their Eyes and Feebleness.

To remedy it, wash them with Water, wherein Hysop has been boyled, infuse a Dram of Saffron, and two Ounces of Dioscordium in a pint of new Milk, and give it w [...]rm, after it some Holm, Oak, or Vine Sprays to brouse on, and scatter Fennegreek-seed among their Pro­vender.

For Scabs, or Scurf.

T [...]ese are occasioned by gross Humours, proceeding from too much rank feeding, and which they are not of­ten troubled withal. To remedy it,

Bleed well, then give them Bole-Armoniack, Bay-salt, and the juyce of stamped Honey-suckle-leaves boyled in fair Water, and wash them with Chamberlye.

For Leanness, or Consuming.

Boyl two or three handfuls of Lupius in a quart of Wa [...]er, and as much Vinegar, strain it out, and give half a pint at a time, and it will bring them to feed and g [...]ow ver [...] Fleshy.

For the Surfeit.

This comes by over driving, and heat, when they stand still, and too suddenly cool; or by greedily brousing on unwholsome Boughs, or Herbs; and sometimes is known by breaking out, but oftner by their lolling out their Tongues, and panting for Breath; dulness of their Eyes, he [...]t of their Horns and Feet.

To remedy this, take a good handful of Ground-Ivy, stamp [...]t, and boyl it in a quart of fair Water, strain out th [...] liquid part, and put in an Ounce of Venice-Treacle, or Methridate, give half a pint at a time wa [...]m, and keep the afflicted Goats in dry places.

For a Stub, thorn, or other hurt in the Feet, &c.

These H [...]ts often come by clambering cragg [...] [...] places, and frequently, the sharp Stones getting b [...] their Claws, much hurt their Feet; to cure then [...] fects that may happen of these kinds:

Take an Ounce of yellow Bees-wax, half an O [...] Turpentine, a quarter of a pint of Linseed-Oyl, [...] quarter of an Ounce of Verdigrease in powder, [...] these in a very soft Salve, or Oyntment, which, by [...] stirring, you may soon do; then wash the grieved [...] with Urine, spread some of the Salve, or Oyntment, [...] and bind it on with Flax and Leather.

This Oyntment is good to heal up old Sores, B [...] Botches, Blains, green Wounds; to asswage Sw [...] and reduce Bruises to a sound state; also in Fractu [...] Bones, over-straining of the Sinnews, and the like.

For Diseases, or Defects in the Eyes of Goats.

These Distempers are sundry, coming by Blows, or [...] different effects of Heat, and Cold, which makes t [...] Eyes sore, dazy, subject to Watering, or Rheums [...] over them, Spects, Spots, or Scales.

When any of these happen, take Pimpernel, and [...] bright, of each a handful, boyl them in a quart of [...] Water, till the third part be consumed, then strain out [...] liquid part and wash the Eyes with i [...]; but for Sp [...] you must blow into their Eyes, some time before you [...] them, burnt Allom, or burnt Salt sinely powdered.

For Defects in the Lungs.

Take the Leaves of Bramble, or Dewberry-leaves, o [...] either a handful, the Roots of Scabe [...]s, and Comfry, of each an Ounce, bruise and boyl these in small Beer, an [...] give it warm half a pint at a time twice or thrice.

To preve [...]t breaking out, and she [...]ding their Hair.

[...]is many times happens by their foul lying, feeding, [...] or the like, and renders the Goats not only uncomly, [...] the fore-runner of dangerous Diseases, if not s [...] [...] prevented: To do which, Take▪

[...]llebo [...]e, or Bares-foot, a good handful, Suthernwooo [...] [...]e qua [...]tity, stamp them, and boyl them in a quart of [...] give half a pint at a time, and it will purge [...]h [...] [...], ce [...]se the effects of the bad Humours, and pre­ [...]any f [...]rther Mischief, or Danger from the increase of

A general Purge for the Goats, &c.

[...]ke t [...]o Ounces of Antimony, a handful of Spurg­ [...]el, a good handful of wild Cucumbers, bruise these to­ [...]r, boyl them in a gallon of running Water, and give [...] a pint in a Morning before they come to any full seed­ [...] and [...]t purges Blood and Choler in a good measure, [...]s the violence of the Feaver, and makes them after­ [...] th [...]ve very well.

To stench bleeding at the Nose.

This many times happens through excess of Heat, and [...]oulness of the Blood that gathers in the Head. To [...]dy it:

[...]ake a handful of Ash-leaves, as much of young Ne [...]tle [...] or the tops of Yar [...]ow, or rest Harrow, bruise them, [...] out the Juyce, and mixing it with Vinegar, give it [...]east, and spirt a little up the Nostrils, and the bleed­ [...] w [...]l [...]mmediately stay.

[...]medy the Convulsions, or Cramps that occasion their Halt­ [...]g or Lameness.

[...]his comes by taking sudden Colds after Heats, which [...]s it the Nerves and Sinnews: To remove it, chafe [...] the grieved part with Oyl of Turpentine, or Spike, [Page 118] and give a quarter of a pint of Sallad-Oyl to drink, a scatter Carraway-seeds, and Coriander-seeds into his P [...] vinder.

For Pains in the Belly.

This happens by Wind in the Bowels, or raw Digest [...] in the Stomack: To remedy it,

Take a handful of Camomile, as much of Bay-lea [...] boyl them in a quart of small Beer, and give the liq [...] part hot at twice.

A TREATISE OF ASSES, As to thier [...]ature, Breeding, Feeding, Order­ing, and Curing the sundry Dis­eases incident to them.

[...]ations on the Ass, his Hardiness, and man [...]e [...] of [...]

THE Ass is the hardiest of all Domestick Crea­tures, seeming by Nature, to be framed for labour; its Feed is indifferent to it, and any thing that is proper to be eaten by [...] it make a good Meal of. The simplicity of this [...]ea­ [...] is [...]d in History, to make Heraclitus (who always, [...]p [...] this t [...]me, wept for the Pride, Covetousness, and [...]ry of Mankind) to l [...]ugh; for, passing along [...] [Page 120] solitary, having a little before seen Luxurious Tab [...] spread with all manner of Dainties Sea and Land could af­ford, he espied a poor Ass contenting himself with Thistles, mumbling them with as much pleasure, as if h [...] had the best Provinder imaginable; which made him pre­fer his Indifferency before the pretended Wisdom of d [...] contented, covetous Persons, who having never so much, are grasping at more, and never truly enjoy what they really in one kind properly poffess: But to return.

The Ass likewise brouses on Briar-staks, will eat Ch [...] pleasantly; and indeed, by reason of his hardiness, [...] the few Diseases incident to him, requires little looki [...] to, although his Labour is considerable; for though here (by reason of the abundance of good Horses) riding [...] him is accounted scandalous, and not used but by t [...] meaner sort; yet in other Countries, they are used by great Ladies, as Palfreys, with [...]broidered Carpets, and guilded Trapings thrown over them. However, if we abate this in England, and should lay them aside as useless for riding, there is notwithstanding, much business they are capable of: For, as to carrying Burthens, the la [...] sort are comparable to Horses; they will hold out a [...] way without fainting or [...]tireing. Then, for draw [...] Burthens in a Cart, they are very serviceable; as also [...] the Plough, in light ground, or where there is no [...] of Trees, stiff Clay, or large Stones; for indeed, [...] Creature put beyond its strength, is foiled and disorder [...] and makes it unpleasant to him for the future.

Of Covering, and the proper time; their order in bringing forth, &c.

The breeding of these Creatures are in all particular, the same with the Mares, both in time and manner; And for a good breed, the Male and Female must be both of a reasonable Age, large bodied, sound, and of a good kind. The Male must be at least three years old; for [...]om th [...] to ten, they [...]ro very [...] bredding, though they bring forth their Col [...]s sometimes at two year, and a half; but it appears by th [...] bad thriving, not to be so well, nor good for Service or Pontinuanc [...]. [Page 121] To make the She-Ass retain the Seed, you must, after she has been well leaped, drive her up and down for an hour, or more, a handsome pace. She seldom bringeth forth two at once, and appears to have a kind of shame in her delivery; for when she finds her burthen ready to come forth, she will, if possible, retire into some dark [...]hady place to avoid being seen. They bring forth their Foal in a twelve Month; and for a good breed it is con­veni [...]nt to let them be covered but once in two years, that they may bear kindly every other year. Aristotle ac­counts their Lifes to be thirty years, and indeed they are very healthy, being afflicted with but a few Diseases.

The best covering time is from the twentieth of May, to the tenth of June; and whilst they are with Foal, they must not be greatly laboured, nor hard driven; but labour does the Male good, for by reason of his extream letche­rousness, he grows nought if he stands idle.

The ordering and weaning the As [...]-Colt; when to break him; Considerations of its Nature, and the housing required.

A. for the ordering the Ass-Colt when cast, suffer it the first year to run with the Dam; and the next, tye him up gently with her, only in the night time: The third is a si [...] [...]eason to break him, and render him tractable for labour, which will not be very difficult to do, by reason of his [...]ate dulness and easiness to be handled. There is in this Creature a great love towards her young; for if it be in danger, and cry out for help, she will not stick, if possible, to run through a circling fire to it. But above all things, they dread the Water, not willingly [...]a [...]eing to dip the tips of their Hooss in it; and indeed the much wetting their Hooss in travel, or wet grounds, is the cause of most of their Distempers; neither, unless exceeding dry, will the Ass, of her own accord, willingly drink in any strange Water; and when they drink, they do it so man­nerly, as if they were afraid to touch it with their Lips. Some, who have been curious to search into the [...] of [...]t, affirm, that seeing the shaddow of the [...] goodly large [...]ars in th [...] Water, in which they take great Pride, they [Page 122] are offended, and suddenly draw back, as [...]earing they [...] wetted.

They delight to lodge in wide Rooms, and by reas [...] of the melancholly guality that abounds in them, they among all Creatures, if any thing at all, are the least de­lighted in Musick; and for the same reason [...]oubled [...] fearful dreams, which make them not only groan [...] make piteous noise in their sleep, but also, if they [...] near any hard thing, to beat their Feet and Heads, w [...] by they much hurt and bruise themselves; but much m [...] those of their kind, that lye near them.

How to order the Ass in snowey, or hard frosty Weather, [...] there is little to be got abroad.

In the Winter Season, if the Snow be on the gr [...] especially, you must feed him in the House, with Ch [...] sweet Pease-Straw, and Hay chopped short; hard Bid [...] or chipings of coarse Bread beaten small; and to con [...] and keep them in heart, fit for service, give them [...] and then Bran in sweet Whey, skim Milk, or Wort; [...] it must be very thick, or, for the reason before menti [...] he will hardly fish for it, though never so hungry. T [...] care to let them stand dry, and if their Hoofs grow [...] shape, pare, them, and bring thim into a fashionable for that they may grow in thickness; in many places wh [...] they labour much, or go on stony ground, they [...] shooed; but this must be done lightly, and within co [...] pass, that they interfeer not, to lame them in their tr [...] ­ing.

Diseases particularly incident to them; and their Cures.

Pains in the Head.

THis comes from wet and cold in travel or lying; and sometimes of extream hent in the hot Summer Season.

To remedy this, take Polipodium of the Oak, a handful; Wood-Sorrel, or Field-Sorrel, a like quantity; boyl them in stale Beer, and give it him hot; soon after let him bl [...]od behind the Ears.

For defects in the Lungs.

This is known by his heavy and painful breathing, his lamentable braying, not clear, but inwardly as it were.

To remedy this defect, boyl Liquorish well bruised two Ounces; Centory a little handful, in three pints of [...]ning Water, till a third part be consumed; then give it him at two equal potions well strained, Morning and Envening fasting.

For the Hide bound.

This is occasioned by being too much in the wet and cold; To remedy it:

Let him blood under the Tail; rub him well over with hard wisps; boyl the roots of Fennel in new Wort, a handful to a quart; add an ounce of Lupins, and half as many Camomile-Flowers; give it as a drench, a pint at a time, Morning and Evening.

To purge Melancolly.

Take three or four Laurel-leaves, a sprig or two of Sa­vin, a quarter of an Ounce of Stibium, boyl them, well [Page 124] bruised, in a quart of Whay, and give him the liquid part well strained, to drink, and let him fast six hours after.

For Madness or Giddiness.

This is occasioned by the contending of heat and cold in the Brain; from Vapour arising by bad digestion. To remedy it:

Take a handful of the tops of Rue, and Cardus, boyl them in a pint of White-wine; and just before you give i [...] him, bleed in the Temple-Veins. Tye him up close in a [...] airey place, for six hours; then give him Water wherei [...] wild Cucumer-roots have been boyled, and good Litter.

To prevent Diseases.

Pick his feet clean from gravel and dirt; wash the [...] with warm Chamberlye, and stopt them with Goats o [...] Beef Suet; over that Flax, dipped in Tar: Give him in [...] pint of Ale, an ounce of Methridate, and a quarten of Olive Oyl.

For Swellings, Sores, Bruises, broken Bones, Sprains, and the like, do as in case of Bullocks, Sheep, &c.

A TREATISE OF Mules, or Moiles. THEIR Generation, Breeding, Feeding, Di­seases, &c. And the Cure.

Condsierations on the Generating Mules: Directions to chuse your Stallion and Mare for a large and good breed.

THE Moile or Mule, among other Domestick Cattle, I conceive necessary to treat of, as be­ing a Beast commendable for i [...]s enduring much Labour and Travel; kept with little, and not su [...]ject to many Diseases.

It is generally held, that if the She Ass and the Horse engender, they beget the She Mule or Moile; and that the contrary is done by a Stone-Ass upon a Mare: This la [...]ter however, must be the far better way, because the [Page 126] Mare is larger, and affords greater Nourishment to it is the Womb, and can more conveniently suckle it; so that consequently it will grow larger, stronger, and be of a more lively temper; and in this case the Ass is never fitter to cover the Mare, than when he has been hard drive [...], riden, or laboured, for then the Blood, and Humours be­ing stirred, and moved in the parts, render him the mos [...] active and vigorous for Performance.

This Ass-Stallion, (if you intend a good large Stoc [...] that covers your Mare, must be well chosen; that is, we [...] trussed of Body, full and Brawny Thighed, his Head lea [...] and small, his Breast full and large, his Ears large, and standing well upright, his Body of a very darkish Colour, or spotted brown.

The Mare properly to be chosen for this Business, oug [...] not to be under four years old, nor to exceed ten; let h [...] Shape be as lovely as may be, in case you choose her fo [...] Breed of good Horses, but it matters not whether her St [...] ­ture be extraordinary large; she goes in this case full E­leven Months, and sometimes more, and must have good usage and seeding.

How to order the Mare and Foal, and oblige the Mare that is backward, to consent to be covered, &c.

When your Mare is near Foaling, put her into a warm closeplace, and take care that she comes to no Damage, by over-reaching, or straining; when she has Foaled, take it from her, and the most expedient way will be, to put it to a Mare that has a Colt sucking, till the Dam has ga­thered Strength: This must be put to the second Mare in a dark place, lest she refuse it, till she become better ac­quainted.

Now there may in this Undertaking arise some difficulty, to oblige the Ass to cover the Mare, or she to receive him, being something of a different kind, but may be facilitated by early familiarity, as thus:

The Ass-Colt that you intend for your Stallion, may be taken young from his Dam, and put to a young milch Mare, so that being brought up among that kind, he will [Page 127] be no stranger to them, nor they to him. But where this cannot be ordinarily done, high feeding will make him met [...]lesom, and lustful; you must also put first an indiffe­rent Ass-Colt to her, that if she beat him it may not mat­ter [...]s to the discouragement of the Stallion you intend; and when he has wooed her that she seems something ply­able, then put the right Stallion to her, who will soon cover her, for these Creatures are naturally lustful; but yo [...] must take care you put him to a Mare that has never bee [...] covered by a Horse, lest her coyness, or immeasurable beating him, not only cools his Courage, but dull [...], and puts him altogether out of his Amorous sit, so that ten to five, if he be ever brought to be free in this kind of busi­ness afterward; and by this means you may procure your de [...]ire.

When you have brought up the Colts to a weaning time, which may be at three or four Months; turn him into some close Pasture, make him gentle and tractable by feeding him, letting him eat out of your hand, either sweet Grass, short sweet Hay, choped Straw or Chaff; for this kind of Creature, as I have said, will be kept with little, and fare hardly; but that which he has must b [...] sweet and good.

Proper Housing for a Mule, and how to order him in riding or labouring.

As for his stabling, it must be dry, pretty airy, not too hot in Summer; nor cold in Winter; though in seasona­ble Weather, they cove [...] better Lodging then the Litter of t [...]eir Feeding in dry Pasture. One of these thus brought [...]p, may be backed or put to work about three years old; they will hold labour extreamly, run very swiftly, and of in e [...]sie pace; so that in divers Countries beyond the Seas, they are chiefly used by the great Ladies as Palfreys, or to the same use and purpose of our Pad Nags; great esteem being set upon them, and their value prized high­er than considerable good Horses. These Creatures Pliny allows by a natural Course to live sifty years; they [...]re serviceable in the Plough, where the Husbandman is [Page 128] not unreasonable to put them beyond their Streng [...] viz. in such stiff or rooty ground as requires a strees draught of Hors [...]s or Oxen, &c.

Diseases, &c. Most incident to Mule [...] their Cause, Symptoms, and proper Remedy for their Cure.

For the Feaver, &c.

THE Distempers this Creature is afflicted with, [...] indifferent both to the Horse, and the Ass; but [...] they be well used, they are very few, and the principel's the Feaver, by reason of their dryness, cholerick Humour, and heat of their Blood; it is known by the burning [...] of their Hoofs. Ears, and redness of their Eyes.

To remedy this, bruise two handfuls of Pursley, stra [...] out the Juyce into half a pint of White-wine, and give it him in a Drenching-horn; then Blood him, and give h [...] four hours after a Mash, made of Malt, or Wheat-bran.

For Pains in the Head.

This sometimes afflicts them, that they fall down, a with the Staggers, Turning, or Giddyness, especially when they are too much Laboured, or over-much Travelled in hot Weather.

To remedy this, Bleed them in the Temple veins, and the Roof of the Mouth; rub his Mouth with Salt and Vinegar, and give a Head or two of Garlick bruised, and boyled in a pint of Vinegar, and give him the one half of the liquid part to drink, and pour the other warm into his Nostrils, holding up his Head, by drawing it to the Rack with a Halter, about half a quarter of an Hour, and give him a Mash of Lupius and Barley.

For broken Wind.

This but seldom happens to them, by reason of the lig [...]tness of their Body, and not over Pursiveness; and when it does, is not easily cured; however, to use the bes [...] means, viz.

Take an Ounce of Anniseeds, a handful of Rasins, and hal [...] an Ounce of the powder of Liquorish, as much Al­lom burnt, and bruised, then put them into two quarts of Water, wherein two handfuls of Smallage has been boyl­ed, and give him, (when they have been infused a consi­derable time, in it, over a gentle Fire) half a pint at a time of the liquid as hot as may be; Ride him gently, and then bring him home to a warm House. Litter him; and do thus five or six times, intermitting a day between.

To harden tho Hoofs.

The Hoofs of this Creature, if going in the Wet, will be apt to be very soft, so that the Shooes, if she have any on, will draw, and the Hoof apt to be much injured by splitting, or fretting.

To remedy this, rub them well over with Oyl of Tur­pe [...]tine, then bind on them a Plaister made of the same O [...]l, and slacked Lime, and let him stand in a dry House fo [...] twelve hours.

For the brittle, or rugged Hoof.

Scrape off the Scurf, or shelly Substance, with a sharp paring Knife, pick and cleanse the Feet from Gravel and D [...]rt, wash them with warm Water, and after he has stood a while in the Trough of warm Water, make an Oynt­ment of Tallow, Bees-wax, and Neatsfoot-Oyl, anoynt his Hoofs with them as hot as may be, and bind them up w [...]th Cloaths, and in twice or thrice so ordering, they will be soft and plyable.

For Diseases in the Eyes, Rheums, &c.

If Specks, or any other the like Disaster happen in [...] Eye, to obstruct the Sight, take burnt Allom, and Bo [...] Armoniack finely powdered, and sifted, blow it into t [...] Eyes through a Quill, and when a pretty while he [...] winked hard, spurt in some White-wine Vinegar.

For Rheums, purge his Head, by giving him Rue, a [...] Hysop, boyled in fair Water.

For any Strain or Sprain, new or old.

If it be in the Leg, clip away the Hair, and bleed [...] Shackle-vein, then take two Ounces of the Oyl of T [...] pentine, heat it hot in a quarter of a pint of strong Beer and when the bleeding is over, chaff it in strong [...] with your hand, then swathe it a day, then lay on it [...] Charger of Soap and Brandy, well mixed, as hot as [...] be; renew it twice or thrice, and then ride him gently [...] even Ground, and in a little time he will be recovered This may be done in any other part with exact management, and be also exceeding helpful in Bruises, or [...] like.

A TREATISE Of the various sorts of HOUNDS, And their proper use, viz: Spannels for Land and Water, the House-Dog, and the Shepherd's Mastiff,

SINCE Dogs are very serviceable Domestick Creatures, it will not be amiss to plac [...] them to­wards the compleating of this Book; for among Irrational Creatures, they may justly claim a place both for the Love, and the advantage they bring to Man, being very sensible Creatures, and largely capable of In­structions; and according to their kinds, are appropriated and designed for sundry Uses, being distinguished by Names and Distinctions suitable to their Natures, viz.

The Grey-hound.

This is a Dog of a curious sine Make; and to distin­grish those that will prove well, even when Whelps, that [Page 132] are fittest to be chosen, are loose, raw-boned, sickled, [...] crooked Hought, and generally unknit in every Mem [...] but those that appear the contrary, never prove we at a years end, he will be at full growth, and then [...] true one will have a fine lean long Head, with a sh [...] Nose, rush grown, from the Eyes downward; a chea [...] Eye, his Eye-lids long, and a sharp Ear, short and c [...] falling; a long N [...]ck a little bending, with a loose hang Wesand; straight Fore-legs, a broad Breast, hollow Side straight Ribs, a square and flat Back, strong and short [...] lets, a broad space between the Hips, a strong Ste [...], [...] Tail, a round Foot, and considerable large Clefts: A [...] briefly, to sum up his Character, he must have a Head [...] a Snake, a Neck like a Drake, a Back like a Bea [...], [...] Sides like a Bream or Tail like a Ra [...] and Foot like Cat.

The Blood-Hound.

This Dog is of singular good Scent, and for that p [...] pose, is very useful to Forresters, and those that keep [...] ney-Warrens, to find out those that have Robed th [...] they will also pursue Thieves so nearly, that they [...] find them out even in a Crowd. The Ears of this Ho [...] are thin, long, and hanging; his Head big, his Cry great, [...] he well proportioned in every part, though they open, [...] Bark but seldom, except in the Chase; the best Colour hold to be Brown, or Red, and they are very obedient [...] their Owners; and if the Quarry be trussed up, and [...] veyed away never so cleanly, if they once get the S [...] they will pursue it till found, and even take the Water [...] pursuit of it, if it have passed that way.

The Rach.

This is another sort of Hourd common to England, [...] Scotland, and no other Nation; the Female is with [...] called a Breach, and this will Scent the Feet, of either Birds or Beasts, and unweariedly pursue the Game, til run down.

The Sluth- [...]

This is a Dog most proper to Scotland, and from them so named, it is somewhat biger than the foregoing; and the best sort inclining to Brown, or somewhat Sandy, they will scent Mens Feet, as the Blood-Houn [...] till they come where they are, violently purshing any that have Robed, or Murthered; so that the Borderers of England an [...] Scotland, where Roberies are frequent, have them in great [...]steem and use; and if they stop at any Door, and wi [...]l pass no further, they conclude the Thief and Goods stolen, are there concealed, and so accordingly make sea [...]ch.

The Gaze-Hound.

This Dog is of an extraordinary quick and piercing Sight, and dexterous at singling out the fatest Deer in the He [...], and such a one as is young, and best ple [...]se his Ma­ster, to induce him to make [...]nsuch of him; [...]e is much use [...] and esteemed in York-shire, and those Northern parts, and will discern any thing at a much further distance tha [...] any other Dog whatsoever.

The Tumbler.

This Dog is chiefly for Coney-Warrens, and is a bold de [...]erate [...]n, taking his Denomination from his Tum­bli [...]g and Rowling, engaging the Game [...] at their Ho [...]s, without fear of Danger; however, hi [...] is very Politick in catching Conies; for, coming to the Burrough, he sheaks quietly by, without giving suspi [...]ion, or distur­bance; and when he has well observed their Hol [...], taking the Wind against him, that they may not scent him, he couches very close, as much out of sight as may be; and so having by that means the advantage of the Scent; he knews when they are coming, if he sees them not, and so starting up on a sudden, s [...]aps them, and what he has ta­ken, he immedia [...]ely runs with to his Owner, who lyes concealed at some distance, and then steals again to his [Page 134] Post, to persue his sport again; so that in a little time, he will take a dozen couple.

The Tarrier or Harrier.

This Dog has a good courage and scent, is very bold and daring, and are used on different matters for Game; though his best sport is at the Fox, or Badger, and have their Denomination from creeping into their Caves, and Holes, to unearth and drive them out, if there be any boulting places; and will fight stoutly under Groud in the the Badger, or Fox, and is very good to boult out C [...]nies into the Hays, or Nets.

The Leviner, and Beagle.

The Leviner, by some called, a Lyemmer, is a sine sha­ped Dog, as a Medium between the Grey-bound and Tarrie [...], having some proportion of either; he is very swift, and of a true Scent, and will take his Game very fast.

The Beagle is a very cunning Hound, of a good Scent, pretty swift, and a close follower of his Game, and is proper to England, not found in other Nations, unless carried thither, or of our Breed.

The Spannel.

This Dog, though much the same in Resemblance, (viz. the several sorts of Spannels) are, nevertheless, different [...] the uses they are put to; some are trained up for Setti [...] Partridge and other Fowls, to be taken by Net, or reache [...] with the Fowling-piece; others are for finding out the Fowl, and putting them up for the Hawk to fly at, others: for the Water, to hunt the Duck, Mallard, and other Water-Fowl, and to fetch them out of the Water, after they are shot. These are the tractablest of all Dogs, and may be learned many pleasant Tricks, too tedious to be here recited: A good Spannel ought to be of an indiffe­rent big Size, have long rough Ears, a thick Head, and a short Nose, a rough Coat and Legs, broad Feet, and bushey Tail.

The Ban-Dog, or House-Dog.

This Dog is as a Watch-man to a House, and very fer­viceable on sundry occasions, and under this Denomina­tion are those that are used in Game, at the Bear and Bull, for [...]astime, and Recreation.

As for the House-Dog, or Bear-Dog, choose him of a brindle Colour, with white about his Neck, or under his Throat, his Joynts well knit, and set, his Eyes fiery, and sharp sighted; his Head great, and his Face representing Ter [...]or, like that of a Lyon; his Teeth even, strong Fangs, and a sharp great Breast, his Legs and Feet short, but big, and well Sinnewed; his Tail or Stern well set on; let him be taught gentleness to Friends, but to breed Terror to Enemies, or Thieves, with his thundering Voice; staied, and not given to Ramble; and such a Dog, especially in the Country, is much to be prized.

The Field Dog, or Shepherd's Mastiff.

This Dog is so necessary to those that keep Flocks, that he [...]s as it were, the right hand of their business in fetching up, and turning the Sheep when they go astray, or attempt to pass their bounds into forbidden Pastures, keeping about them as a guard to prevent the attempts of Beasts of prey, or of such Dogs as come in the Night-time to worrey and suck their blood.

This Dog must be rather long than thick, that may give him the greater volacity in the pursuit; yet he must be strong, the better to deal with the Enemies to the Sheep, when they are restif, and not easie to be ruled. Their great Feet and Paw, like a Lyon, when very young, is a certain sign they will prove well; a briadled, or yellowish Colour is accounted the best; give these kind of Dogs their Food in time, to sleep in the day, that they may be most vigilent in the Night, when dan­ge [...] requires their attendance: When they are about a Month old, cut their Tails; but beware they seed not on the Carcass of any dead Sheep, lest it inure them to worrey the living ones.

Some further Observations on Dogs, as to their Breeding [...] Choice.

If you would have your Breach or Bitch bring a good Litter of Puppyes, keep her close as soon as you perceiu she begins to be proud, and procure a Dog to lime her suitable to your Mind, and her Inclination. The mo [...] proper Months are, January, February, and March, wh [...] the Moon is in the encrease. When she is proud, take th [...] most favourable signs, as those of Aquarius or Gemini, t [...] put the Dog to her; and let him be well chosen accordi [...] to the quality of the Bitch that is to be limed, of goo [...] proportion, and free from Diseases; so that engendring [...] this time, it is held that the breed will never run mad.

When the Bitch comes near her time, use her to [...] Kennel designed to litter in, that she may have the bette [...] Love and Agreement with it; and in her whelping, [...] her be kept very warm; at two Months end, wean t [...] Whelps, and if they are Hounds, enter them into hunti [...] with old stench ones, while they are about a year and h [...] old, and so they will soon be trained up to every thi [...] that is required of them. As for the Marks of a goo [...] Hound, the white, with black Spots at the seting on [...] the Tail, and black Ears, are the principal; of which [...] is proper to compose your Kennel. Consider by the wa [...] however, that they of a good Scent and Condition, a [...] the Hounds that are black, or the all white, or all live coloured; and for the String or Line, the true Talb [...] are best: The grizled, unmixed, or mixed, so it be sh [...] haired, is fit for a good Vermin-killer; and a couple [...] them are pr [...]per in a Kennel.

To discribe them more particularly, see that t [...] Hounds Head be of a middle proportion, rather inclin [...] to long than round; with large Ears, wide Nostrils, a [...] his Back bowed; great Fillets, large Haunches, w [...] trussed Thighs, streight Hams, the Tail near the Rei [...] big, and the rest slender; big Legs, and a dry sole of the Foot; great Claws, formed like a Foxes. [Page 137] As for their tunableness, the Experienced Hunts-man must sort them, as best delights him or others he keeps [...]hem for; and for chusing the Whelps under the Bitch, [...] I [...] will prove the swifter, and the heavier the [...] on [...]or▪ See your Bitch come of a good kind, be well proportioned, and have large Flanks and Ribs; and that your Dog be of a good breed, and young; for a young Dog and an old Bitch produce very good Whelps; and the [...]hird Litter is always accounted the best to be preserved.

As for their feeding, there is no certain rule, but the [...]ract [...]ce of it, they feeding on any thing that is proper [...]or them; yet often to change their Diet, is wholsome: [...]eed them not with too much raw Carrion, lest it breed Diseases.

Of Dieting, Coursing, and Airing a Grey-Hound, to fit him for a Match or Course.

Upon particular occasions, you must observe Rules as [...]or [...]d [...]eting a Grey-Hound for Coursing, or a Match; and [...]n that you must note four particular things, viz. Food, Exercise, Airing, and Kenneling. The first for nourish­ing the Body, the second the Limbs, the third the Wind, [...]nd the last the Spirits; and if you design him for a [...]atch, then over and above his Food, make him a Diet­ [...] viz. Take a peck of the finest and dryest Oat-meal, [...]wo pecks of good Wheat, grind them together, and [...]oult the Meal through a fine boulting Cloath; then scat­ [...]er among it a pretty quantity of Anniseeds, and Liquor­ [...] finely beaten; knead it with whites of Eggs, and new Ale-yeast; bake it in round loaves reasonably hard.

With this Bread scalded in Beef or Mutton-broth, or [...]hat [...]ade of Sheeps-heads, you may likewise feed him. Let him be fed Morning and Evening, half an hour after Sun-rise, and as much before Sun-set, and it will bring [...]im to much strength of Body, and pureness of Wind.

As for his Exercise, it consists of two things, viz. Cour­ [...]ing and Airing; as for the first, course him at least twice [...] week, if your Courses be strong and long; and in his Coursing, if he have taken any thing let him not break [Page 138] it, but take it from him, and cleanse his Chaps from [...] Wooll, and give him the Liver, Lights, and Heart; [...] so take him up with your Leash, and lead him: Feed [...] with his Diet-bread and Broath, and wash his Feet [...] Beer and Butter; but before the Course, give him [...] more then a white-bread Toast and Butter, or one dipp [...] in Oyl.

As for Airing or walking him, do it before Sun-r [...] and after Sun-set, viz. As soon as you have opened [...] Kennels, rub him over with a clean Hair-cloath, and [...] him play a li [...]tle about you; then take him into a F [...] where there are no Cattle, let him take his rounds, [...] about, scower and empty; after he has done this a wh [...] take him up and carry him home again, kennel him [...] feed him; and, except, when he is feeding, or [...] sing, always keep him to his Kennel.

Diseases in Hounds, or other Dogs, [...] their proper Remedies or Cures, &c.

For the biteing of a mad Dog.

Take Honey-suckle Flowers, or the branches, and [...] them; or the Roots and upper part of three leav'd G [...] mix the Ashes with the Fat of rusty Bacon, or old [...] grease; and lay it to the wound, and it will draw [...] Infection: Give at the same time, the Juice of [...] Leaves or Berries, in White-wine very warm.

For the Stone.

Take the Seeds of Grommel, Radish and Parsly; [...] them, and give the Dog in half a pint of Wine, the S [...] having been well seethed in it.

For pains or other Diseases in the Ears.

Take Charvil-water, and Verjuice, mix them together; [...]d pu [...] a Spoonful of it warm into the Ear, and hold it [...], by closing the Ear-laps with your hand half a quarter [...] an [...]our.

For the Mainge.

Take an Oat-sheaf, with its affles on, reduce it to Ashes, [...]d make a Lye in Mans Urine with it, and wash him [...]hen it is warm, twice or thrice a day: Bleed him on [...]e Ga [...]brel Vein behind; or take an Ounce of Gun-pow­ [...]r, and as much Flower of Sulphire, mix them with White-wine-Vinegar, till as thick as an Oyntment; anoint [...]e places grieved, and it will Cure him.

For the Itch.

Take the Flower of Brimstone; Oyl of Water-Lillies, [...]d Ellecampain-Roots, dryed and beaten into powder; [...]f each of these an Ounce; add a handful of Bay Salt, [...]ryed and finely powdered; make these into an Oynt­ [...]ent, with a quarter of a pint of Oyl of Turpentine, over [...] gent [...]e Fire; and with a Wooll Card, having rubbed him [...]ll the places appear a little bloody, anoint him with the Oyntment, as hot as may be well endured.

For the Tetter.

Ta [...]e Ink, made of strong Galls, Vinegar, and the [...]uice of Mint; rub the scurf from the Tetter, till it bleed; [...]hen mix in these an equal quantity with the Flower of [...]rimstone, till it be the thickness of a Salve; and by [...]nointing the place often with it, 'twill kill the Tetter.

For the biting an of Adder, Snake, &c.

If any Venomous Creature have bit your Dog; take Calaminth, a Herb so called, bruise it well in a Morter, [Page 140] with Turpentine and yellow Bees-wax, heat them o [...] fire, till they incorporate to a Salve; apply it to Wound, and give him Milk to lap, wherein the said [...] has been boyled.

For the Gauling.

If a Dog be gauled, take a little unslack'd Lime; [...] low-Bees-wax, and fresh Butter, beat them together, [...] Salve or Oyntment, and anoint the place, and it is a [...] sent Cure.

For sore Eyes.

Take the Juice of ground Ivy, and fasting-Sp [...] and anoint his Eyes Morning and Evening.

For the Worm in the Tongue and Body.

This is a little white thing under the Tongue, [...] often makes the Dog run mad; it must be taken ou [...] [...] a sharp Pen-knife, and anoint the Wound with Honey [...] Allom, well mixed together.

As for the Worms in the Body; give him a p [...] Milk, with an Ounce of the Juice of Wormwood, [...] an Ounce of the Flower of Brimstone in it.

To kill Lice, Fleas or Ticks

Take three or four good handfuls of Rue [...] boyl it [...] gallon of Spring water, till hal [...] be consumed, the [...] it, and put in an Ounce of the Powder of Staves [...] and bathe him with it pretty hot.

For a Bruise.

Take Mallows, Groundsil and Chick-weed; bruise [...] boyl them in the dregs of Ale, till soft, and apply [...] Poultis-wise, with Hogs-Lard; but if the bruise be [...] ward, put half an Ounce of Stone-pitch, and as [...] Bole-Armoniack in powder, to a pint of Milk, and g [...] it him warm.

For Surbaiting.

Warm Beer, and put Butter in; mix them well, and [...]sh his Feet; then bind them up with bruised Nettles, [...] Ho [...]s-Lard.

Of Madness in Dogs, and the Remedy.

There are accounted to be in Dogs, several sorts of [...]duess; as the Dumb, the Sleepy, the Falling, thee [...]umatick, and the Lank-Madness; and when any of [...]se af [...]lict him, keep him up close from other Dogs, and [...]e hi [...] Grass, with long Chieves, to cleanse his Blood; [...]d hi [...] only with thin Broths, and a little Manch [...]t, for [...]o or three days, giving him Salt and Oatmeal in the [...]tle water you give him.

At the end of those days, when he is a little prepared; [...]e half an Onnce of the Juice of Harts-ho [...]n, or Dogs­ [...]ngue, a Herb so called, an Ounce, of the strongest [...]nega [...] a quarter of an Ounce of Methridate; mix [...]se together, and give it with the addition of a Spoon­ [...] or two of Salled Oyl.

A TREATISE OF CONIES Wild and Tame. HOW TO Order, Feed them, and Cure the Diseases.

Of C [...]nies in gneneral, their Nature and Generation, & [...]

CONIES, though in former days accou [...] Vermine, are now preserved and much in es [...] for the delicacy of their Flesh and Furs; all [...] of these may be kept as well tame, as wild above most other Creatures, delighting in Impriso [...] and Solitariness, to shelter and secure them from the [...] Dangers their Fears suggest, as being a very [...]imerous [...] [Page 143] [...]ightful Creature, and naturally subject to Melancholly; [...]lighting much in the Earth, and holes in Rocks, and [...]her dark Caverns; yet exceeding Lustful, and violent [...] the act of Copulation, that when they have performed [...] they swoon, and lye in a Trance for a pretty while, as [...] they were dead; which they being sensible of, retire [...]o the secretest Places to perform their Generation work. [...]s for t [...]e Males, they are very cruelly bent, and would [...]ll all the young ones as soon as the Females had kindled; [...]d not Nature by instinct, given the Females a cunning to [...]de them, and so politickly close up the holes, that [...]e Buck Conie cannot, without extraordinary search, find [...]em, which he little minds, if they fall not in his way.

The [...]oe Conies are great breeders, very wonderful in [...]eir e [...]crease [...], bringing forth young ones every Month; [...]d therefore, when you keep any tame, you must [...]e at [...]e trouble to watch them when they kindie, and as soon [...] they have done it, put them to the Buck, or else they [...]ill mourn, and not regard the bringing up their young [...]es.

[...]o chuse Conies for a profitable breed, to keep tame or in a close Warren.

If you design to keep Conies tame, or to put them to [...]eed n [...]a Warren, or any other convenient Ground; [...]he be [...] marks to know a good breed by, is the clearness [...]f their Eyes, and the richness of their Furs; as for the [...]tter, that is accounted the best and richest, which has [...]n equal mixture of white and black hair; yet so that [...]e black rather shadows the white, than the white any [...]hing it all over-mastering it: For a black Skin with a [...] silver Hairs, is accounted much the Richer, than a [...]hite Skin with a few black Hairs; but however, an [...]qual and indifferent mixture of both is very acceptable, [...]nd will produce a profitable breed: Consider next, that [...] be deep, thick, smooth and shining; and a black Coat without Silver Hairs, though it be not so good as that [...]hich has, yet is much to be prefered before a py'd, a [...]n, a yeallow or a grey: Let your Hut be very large. [Page 144] Now as to the profit of the rich Conies, every one [...] them killed from Martilmas until Candlemas, are worth [...] ordinary ones; for they are in body much fatter, and l [...] ger; and when another Skin will yield but two pence, o [...] three pence, they are worth two Shillings, or more, [...] cording to the scarcity of them. And again, they encre [...] oftener, and at one kindling, bring forth more than [...] wild Conie; and, if you keep them in Boxes, are alw [...] ready at hand for your use at every season of the ye [...] without any fategue or trouble, charge of Nets, H [...] Ferrets, or any other Engines; and their Flesh you h [...] for nothing, for the Skins will recompence and over- [...] your Charges.

How to order your Boxes to keep Conies in.

If you intend to have good success in your [...] tame [...] you must have things according to accomodate them, th [...] they may breed and thrive; and particularly, Boxes [...] of good Wainscot in thin Boards, about two Foot squa [...] and one Foot high; and these squares divided into t [...] Rooms, the greater Rooth having open Windows of W [...] through which the Conie may feed at pleasure; and the lesser totally darkened, in which she may lodge, and [...] dle; and before them a Trough, to put in the food, [...] other necessaries; and these Boxes you may set one upo [...] another, for divers stories, where there is not larg [...] conveniencies; keeping the Buck Conies by themselv [...] and your Does seperate, unless those that have not b [...] and with such it is convenient you let a Buck lodge: A [...] when your Does kindles one Nest, and then proceed [...] kindle another, take the first from her, and put them to [...] ther in several Boxes, among the Rabits of suitable a [...] but there let them have sufficient room, for if they [...] pestered, or as it were stifled up, you must not expect them to thrive.

Of feeding and preserving Conies.

This feeding (the best sort of Conies) may be done with a great deal less cost and trouble than some People pre­tend to, or at least ways, than the ignorant in ordering them, would make the World believe.

The best Food that you can feed a Conie with, is the shortest, softest, and sweetest Hay; and one Lo [...]d will serve two hundred Couples a whole Year; and out of this sto [...]k of two hundred, you may spend in your own House, or dispose among your Friends two hundred, and sell two hundred more in the Market, and nevertheless maintain the Stock good, to answer every ordinary ca­sualty: Put your Hay into little cloven Sticks, and so place it, that they may easily reach it, and pull it out, yet so as neither to seatter or waste it; in the Troughs under their Boxes, put Oats in their Water; and this may pro­perly be their ordinary and constant Food; for whatever besides you give them, is properly termed rather Physical than Substantial Food; and is upon changing dyet for a time, conduceing to their health; and it may be so order­ed, to [...]e done twice or thrice in a Fortnight; and such things may properly be given for the cooling of their Bo­dies, naturally inclinable to heat.

The best Greens you can give them for the purpose, and intentions aforesaid, are Mallows, young fresh Clo­ver-grass, blades of green Corn, fower Docks, young Turnip tops, Cabage and Colwert-leaves, and the like, all which are very cooling and nourishing; and now and then, yet but rarely, you may give them sweet Grains, but beware you do it not often; for then you will cer­tainly bring the Rot among them, and sweep them away in a very short time.

In your greens, as Grass, Corn, or the like; see there be no young Hemlock in it, for they will covet to eat it, though all of a sudden, it makes them sicken and dye; being a kind of poyson to them.

The Boxes and Holes must not be neglected to be kept clean, for they above all things abhor [...]stench and nastiness, [Page 146] and therefore, they must not be omitted to be cleansed every day.

Of Conies in Warrens, their ordering, feeding, &c.

As for those that are in Warrens, there cannot properly be this care taken of them; however, something is to [...] considered, as to let them have Bushes and Shelters, t [...] prevent the Hoggard, or wild Hawks, Kites, &c. sei [...] their young, when they bring them out of their Burrough to Air, and teach them to feed; as also sence such ple [...] as may shelter them from the Pole-Cats, that haunts the [...] when they are out a feeding, on Moon-shiny Nights, [...] other things that disturb them; and in Winter, when [...] weather is hard, and little to be got, scatter short swe [...] Hay, especially, when the Snow lies on the ground, [...] feed on; scatter likewise some Greens, to nourish [...] physick them so that they be kept sound; but particularly, plash down small Twigs or Boughs of Sallow Birch, Osier, Beech, or any wholsome Tree; scatt [...] them in little heaps, lightly up, that they may creep unde [...] them; and they will serve not only for a shelter, but for very good Food; for they will eat the tender lea [...] Sprays, and also the Bark of the biger; if you find they are ill, scatter Parsly, and a little sweet Fennel ab [...] their Holes; and in so ordering them, they will b [...] healthy, grow fat, well furred, and increase in breed [...]

Of Diseases in Conies, their Causes and Cure.

The Diseases in this Creature are but few, yet th [...] are very dangerous and fatal, destroying sometimes g [...] multitudes of them; and the worst and most sweeping [...] these is the Rot.

Of the Rot in Conies.

For this Infirmity, which destroys Multitudes where [...] once takes place; it cometh by their too much feeding on green Meat, especially when the wet of the Rain, [...] Dew, or Mildew is upon it; and when you percei [...] [Page 147] this, seperate the infected if you can, however debar them as much as possible of green Meats; and give them dry sweet Hay▪ which will dry up the moisture, and knit them again; and to restore them in the Warrens, you may thrust it into their Holes, and by that means, keep them in for a time, that they may feed there.

Of madness in Conies.

This is a Distemper that often afflicts them, and is in­gendere [...] by corrupt Blood, proceeding from the rank­ness of their feeding; it is known by their disorderly leaping, tumbling and wallowing, with their heels upwards.

To Cure this, give them Hart-Thistle to eat, and it will remedy the Distemper; and thus much of Conies.

A TREATISE OF POULTRY: AND How they are to be ordered in al [...] circumstances, to the best Advan­tage and Improvement.

POULTRY are exceeding useful and prof [...] ­ble to the Farmer, Husbandman, and othe [...]s▪ and therefore, though it he something [...] of my Method, in a Book of Cattle, it will [...] be ungrateful to all that are Masters of any, but ra [...] oblige them as I hope, and farther adorn the Work: An [...] since this Nation affords as good a Store and breed o [...] Fowle, as any under Heaven, to give Rules for the im­provement, and increase of them, may farther increase [...] Grandu [...]e of this Island; and the first thing to do it, is [...] a good choice; and first of the Cock.

The choice of a Cock for breed.

For breed, the Dunghil Cock is always prefered before the Game one; consider then to make a good choice; let him be large and well sized, his Body long from the head to the Rump; thick in the Garth, his Neck loose and long, Arch-wise bending; his Body straight and high erected, is a Faulkon; his Comb, Wattles and Throat, rag­ed, large, and of a great Compass; and of a very deep red his Eyes; his Eyes great and round, in colour, an­swering his Plume and Male; his Legs thick, with good Spurs; as for his colour, it may be indifferent; how­ever, red, mixed with yellowish, and a sprinkling of black, is accounted the best.

The choice of a good Hen

Having chosen your Cock, the next business must be to choose a suitable Hen, and such a one should be in shape big and large, answering every proportion with the Cock; having a turft of Feathers on her Crown, in­stead of a Comb, with strong Claws; but for a sitting Hen, it would be best to chuse one that has no hinder Claws, for such there may be found; and then she will not endanger the breaking of her Eggs.

Being thus provided, and the Hen producing Eggs, the next thing to be considered, is the care in ordering, during, the sitting of the Hen.

How a Hen must be ordered, as to her sitting.

The best time for a good large breed, is to set her in Febru [...]ry, when the Moon is increasing; and then by the next New Moon in March, the Chickens will be dis­closed; you may set them from March, till October, (but the first Brood will be the best) but not after, for the Winter is an Enemy to their breeding; and her proper time of sitting is twenty one days: But Turkeys, Pea-Hens, Ducks, Geese, &c. sit thirty days; so that if you set her [Page 150] on any of their Eggs, let it be Nine days before you [...] any of her own to her: She will cover well Nine [...] Eggs, and let any number she sits on be odd, because they will then lye round, even and close; marke the up­per side of your Eggs when you lay them in the N [...] and if in some few days, you find the Hen has not tur [...] them, when she is gone off to feed, you must do it, for then she is not a good sitter; be sure the Eggs you set u [...] ­der her be sound and new, which you may know by their fulness or heaviness, also their clearness, by holding them to the Sun, or a Candle; raise her not unnecessarily at any time from her Nest; a Hen will be a good fitter from the second Year of her laying, to the fifth; let [...] not goe far when she rises to seek her food, especially if the weather be cold, for then the-Eggs will chill and spoyl before she returns.

Chickens and their ordering.

When your Chickens are hatched, if you find any weak, wrap them in Wooll, and air them before the Fire, scent them with a little burnt Rosemary, and you need not give them any Meat for two or three days, for they require it not; and then let their first be Oat-meal, some dryed, and some steeped in Milk; or else, Wheat-bread-Crumbs; and after they have gained strength, you may give them Crusts soaked, White-bread, parings of Cheese, or Curds, Barly-meal or Wheat-bread scalded, or the like; and so as they grow up, proceed to Barly, Wheat, or the like Grain: It is proper to keep them a Fortnight in the House, before you suffer them to goe abroad, and chop green Chieves among their Meat, and that will pre­serve them from the Disease called the Rye, and other Di­seases in the head; give them fair water, for if for ware of it, they drink that which is foul▪ it will breed the Pi [...]

For the better keeping of your Eggs, cover them in [...] heap of good old Malt, and they will remain sound all the year; gather them but once a day, and be sure to leave a Nest Egg to fatten the Chickens, even under the Hen; you need no more than give them duly feed, and not let [Page 151] them run and straggle too far to seek it; but if you will have them Cram-fa [...], Coop them up when the Hen is grown careless of them; then mix Wheat-flower with Milk, make it up into a Paste, roll little bits somewhat long, big in the middle, and narrow in the ends; dip them in the Milk, and thrust them down their Throats, and in Fourteen days they will be exceeding fat: And thus you may use Capons, Pullets and other [...]owle, sui­table to be cramb'd, and make them fat. As for the car­ving or making them Capons, the best time to take away the Stones of the Cocks, is when the Dam has left them, and their Stones are come down; to do it, you must see it experimented, or else you will never be an Artist at it, by private Directions.

Of the Turkey-Cock and Hen, their Choice, Laying, Sitting, Breeding, Feeding the young ones, &c.

A Turkey is very profitable for the Eggs, Carcass, and Feathers, and is a good shifter for his Food; and that your breed may be good, take the following Directions:

Let the Cock not exceed two years, and such a one as will be loving to the Chickens: As for the Hen, there is no doubt of her laying till she be five years old, and up­wards; let your Cock be large in Body, well crested, often spreading his Tail, and proud in his Gate; for if he be dejected and careless of himself, he will never make a good treader.

As for the Hen, when she lays, you must watch he, for she will endeavour to conceal her Eggs in secret places; and if she be a stragler, shut her up in laying time: The be­gining of their laying time, is in March, and in April they will sit; put not above thirteen Eggs under her, be­cause she has not heat enough to bring more kindly forth; and between five and twenty, and thirty days, expect the Chickens to be hatched; take them then away, and keep them warm, for any chilling cold destroys them.

You may feed them with new Cheese, crumbled small, or with Curds; give them new Milk, or Whey, or Wa­ter, to drink; feed them oft, for the Hen regards not [Page 152] much to scrape for them, or find them food; let them ra [...] in some senced Grass-plats, that they cannot get out, [...] house them a nights, for the Dew or Wet is very off [...] s [...]e to them▪

To satten the Turkies, great or small; gve them boyled [...]arly or Oats for fourteen days, and the next fort night, cram them with crams of Paste, made as directed [...] for the Chickens or Capons, they are not subject to D [...] ­seases when abroad, because they find such Herbs or Food as physicks them, and prevents sickness.

Breeding, Feeding, Fattening, and other rules for ordering Geese and Goslings to advantage.

Geese are very profitable to the owner, in their Fea­thers, Down, Eggs, Flesh and Fat, and are little charg­ [...]ble in keeping, as contenting themselves with Grass for want of other Food.

In choosing them for breed, the largest are accounted the best; and for colour, the white and gray are prefera­ble; the black are accounted the worst; let the Gander be stately, and of a good courage.

As for the laying time, it begins generally in the Spring, and some lay earlier, which are accounted the best: They will some lay twelve, others sixteen, and some more; when she is about to lay, she will take up Straw in her hill, and scatter it about; and being desirous to sit, she will continue long on her Nest after laying; she sits most kindly one her own Eggs, as knowing them by the scent from anothers; her usual time is thirty days, but in warm, weather she hatches sooner; in her sitting give her scald­ed Bran, and Skeg-Oats, and set a Tub of water by her, that she may cool and wash her Feathers.

Keep the Gosling in the house about twleve days after they are hatched; feed them with Barly-meal, and Milk, Chipping, scalded Curds or new Cheese; Bran scalded in water, Milk, or the tappings of Drink; when they are somewhat strong, dismiss them of their imprisonment; watch them abroad, and shew them the water, and put them up again; so do till they grow strong: At six weeks [Page 153] o [...] they are turned green Geese; and to fat them, boyl Ste [...] Oats, and give them thrice a day, with their fill of Milk and Water, and in three weeks they will be very at▪

To fatten Geese that are grown to Maurely, as five or or six Months; having taken them from the Ba [...]n-door, or Stu [...]ble-Field, when they are pretty well fleshed, put them up into Pens that are dark, or not much light; com­ing to them, give them Oats ground, Malt and Beads, and water with Barly Meal, and a sufficiency of these in three weeks, will fat [...] them to your mind.

As for pulling your Geese the best season is at moult­ing time, but be not so covetous to leave her naked, lest the cold or Briers greatly injure her.

This Fowle is troubled with a Gargil, [...] Disease that ca [...]ses stopings in the Head, and often mortal. To remedy it, take little Balls or Pellets of Garlick and But­ter, well bruised together, and give it fasting, and shut he: up two or three hours after it.

Of the Swan, her ordering, feeding and fatning.

The Swan is another Domestick Fowle, yet give their owners no trouble; as to their breeding, taking Rules for it themselves, better than can be directed; therefore where they place their Nest, let them remain undisturb­e [...], and they will very kindly produce their young, and bring them up: Their Down is exceedingly beneficial, as also their Skins for many uses; and if you you will have them fat for the Kitching, take the young Swans, called Cygnets, and feed them in every poynt as directed for the Geese, but they will not fat so soon; taking up for that purpose about seven or eight weeks, because their Flesh in harder and dryer; either coop them up, or put them into a close walk, where they may have a Pond or some other Water to trim themselves in, for nastyness makes them sick, and loath themselves; set them Barly and Wa­ter, if abroad, as also dryed Malt, on which they may seed as they list, and then they will be sooner fat.

Of breeding, feeding and fatning Ducks, wild and tame.

Ducks are profitable for their Eggs and Flesh, yet there are of these far more wild then tame; yet such as keep them, finds the advantage; for they are great shifters, as well as devourers, and will eat any nasty thing; as Guts, Frogs, Spiders, and sometimes Toads, as well as loose scattered Corn; being ever diligent to seek for their Food; they are great layers once a year, and when she sits, you must give her Meat that she may not ramble for her Food, for then she will not quickly return again; and Offal-Corn, and scalded Bran, with water, is suffi­cient; as for her sitting, hatching, and feeding the Duck­lings, observe the same rule as for the Goose; you may easily fat them with any Corn, Chickens guts, and the like, which may be done in a Fortnight or three weeks,

Several People keep wild Ducks, accounting them better feed than those bred at home; but in this there is trouble; for you must have a convenient place, Walled or Palled in, with a Pond or Spring in it; and covered over, if you give them their Wings, with a strong Net over it high raised, or Archwise bending Poles, with Turfs of Oziar, and Baskets, and other Covertures for them to shelter and breed in; with secret holes and creeks for their other conveniency, to retire; and so delighting and feeding in this imprisonment, they will lay and breed, and want no more attendance, than to he fed twice a day with Oats, scalded Bran, Fitches, or the like; and in this manner you keep and feed Plover, Widgeon, Sheldrake, and others.

Of the Peacock, Pea-Hen and Chickens.

The Peacock and Pea-Hen, have been formerly held for Dainties, but now are kept more for show, than advan­tage; yet the Pea-Chickens fatted, are as good as Par­tridge; and where you keep them, let the place be clean and neat, for they much delight in it; and let there be no pysonous Seeds, Berries, or Insects in their walks. [Page 155] When the Hen lays, she seeks the covertest place, to [...]ide them from the Cock, for he will else break her Eggs; [...]or does she bring them to him, till the Turft of Feathers on their Craw begins to appear, lest he should kill them, [...]ut then he is sufficiently in love with them; the Chickens are very tender, and must be kept out of the cold, they will feed and thrive upon any thing that is reasonable, and grow fat with Corn and crumbs of Bread, without coo [...] ­ing or penning up, or taking of much care of, as being careful of themselves.

The well ordering Plgeons and Dove-houses.

Pigeons are another Commodity, gainful to the own­ers, but injurious to the Neighbours, by devouring abund­ance of Corn; they are great breeders, and put those that keep them to little charge; for by flying abroad, they procure their own meat; they bring two at a time, once a Month, if they be well fed, and well paired; they will not of themselves divide: The Cock is not only loving to the Hen, but to the young ones, and will sit content­edly one the Eggs, whilst she goes off to feed; he will also feed the young, with as much diligence as the Hen: P [...]as and Tares they much delight in, and to keep them to your house, set a salt Pot up, where they may peck at it; that is, Bay-salt bruised small, with Anni-seeds, Cum­min-feeds, Ca [...]raway-feed, well mingled with it, baked in an Oven, in an earthen Pot, like a Sugar-loaf, for at this they take great delight to peck; and be careful to make the Wires and Holes where the young are, that the Pigeons may enter, but not Birds of pray; for though the Owl seems large in the Feathers, she will slip in at a little hole, and destroy them.

To keep tame Pheasants, Patridges, Quates and other Birds.

These are accounted Dainties, and the ordeing them may not be amiss, to be incerted among Poultry▪

To keep these, you must have a large room, with man little Boxes, so that they may play, run and hide them­selves [Page 156] at pleasure; in the middle, set Wheat-sheaves [...] them to peck at, and little shallow pans of water, [...] when they have pecked the Corn, they may drink at th [...] pleasure; give them boyled Malt and Rice, and if y [...] would fat them, keep them up in their Boxes, with li [...] Wires before them; give them Chilter-Wheat in Troug [...] before them, as also water, and in a Fo [...]tnight they w [...] answer your Expectation: And thus you may, keep a [...] fatten Black-Birds, Feldefares, God-wits, Knots, Grey plover, Curlew, Thrush, and all sorts of Birds, with [...] little variation of their feed, as you see them inclined [...] delight in one feed more than another.

Also Herons, Gulls, Bitterns and Pevits; but these latter, must mostly be fed with Flesh, Worms and Fis [...], cut small, and have store of water.

Diseases in Poultry and other Fowle, with suitable Remedies, &c.

Crow-Trod [...]en.

IF a Hen be Crow-trodden, as many times she is, it is known by the staring of her Feathers, and the duln [...]s of her Eyes, and hanging of her Wings; for this, stamp the blades of Onyons with Butter and Bay-salt, and give it her.

For any Stinging.

When you perceive this by their Lowring, and Swell­ing; give them Rue and Butter stamped together, and made up in o little Pellets.

For the Pip.

This is known by a white scale on the tip of the Tongue, take it off with a sharp Needle or other Instrument; and [...]ub the Tongue with Salt and Vinegar.

For the Flux.

Too much moist meat occasions this; for this boyl Sloes in their water, and give them Peas, Barley, and scalded Fran.

For the Roup.

This is a swelling on the Rump, which will corrupt the whole body, if not remedyed in time; to do it, pull off the Feathers about the Sore, open it and squeeze out the Corruption; wash the place with Salt and water, and it will be well.

For stopage in the Belly.

This binding is removed, by thrusting a Quill diped in Hogs-grease up their vents, and giving them bits of bread or Corn, steeped in Mans Urine.

To kill Lice.

Take the siftings of Pepper, mix it with warm water, [...]nd wash them with it, and it will kill the Lice.

For sore Eyes.

For sore Eyes, or other Diseases in the Eyes; take the Juice of ground Ivy and Pimpernel, wash them with it, and they in a few times doing, will be well.

To prevent a Hens Crowing.

Pull her Wings, and a few Feathers of her Crown and Neck; then give her parched Wheat, or Barly, and keep her for some time from other Poultry.

To prevent a Hens eating her Eggs.

Lay for the prevention of this vice, an Egg of Alla­blaster or Chalk in her Nest, and when she picks at it, [Page 158] she will weary her self, and make her Bill so sore, that for the future, she will be discouraged from medling with the Eggs.

To make a Hen lay well.

This may be done by feeding, as giving her toasted Bread sopped in Ale or Beer; Barly boyled, Spelt-Fitches, and the like, but not too much, lest she grow over-fat, and that bind her for laying at all.

To prevent a Hens sitting.

Hold her in a Pan of cold water set in her Nest, after that run a little Feather through her Nose, and the desire of fitting will be quite taken from her.

For a Hen over fat.

If your Hen be over fat, that it hinders her laying, beat a Tilesheard into Powder; mix it with scalded Bran, and give it the Hen, and she will be soon reduced to a moderate flesheyness.

These are all the noted Diseases incident to Poultry, and for want of knowing them, and their Remedies, many thousands have been lost; therefore I have set them down for the use of the good House-wife, that plenty and pro­fit may by industry increase.

THE EXPERIENCED Vermine Killer: OR, A ready way to take and destroy all sorts of Vermine, that are hurt­ful to Man, Beast, Fowl, or Fish.

A Sprine-Trap to take the Fox.

TAKE a sti [...]f Pole, so that it may be pliable; fix the great end fast in the Ground, and tye a line to the end of the upper part, with a loop made fast on with Sooe-makers wax; and to this Line fasten a small short stick, with a nick in its lower end, made thin on the upper side, where the Pole is bound down with it into another stick strongly fastned in the Ground, with a nick likewise under; then joyn both these sticks together, as slightly as they will hold the strong bending down of the Pole; and then open the end of the Line in a running Nooze, and place it in the Foxes [...]aunts, as wide as his Head will e [...]sily go in, or more, (but as covertly as may be, for he is a subtile Creature,) [Page 160] so that when he presses on it, (the two small sticks pre­sently seperating,) the bent Pole flys up with a swi [...] jerk; and if it take him by the Neck, it certainly hang him; but if by the Legs or Tail, it will hold him abo [...] the Ground; but then your Line ought to be small Wires about twenty or thirty well twisted. These Creatures are very troublesom (where they abound) to the Coun­try People; in making a great destruction among th [...] Lambs, Poultry, and Rabits▪ and in Parks, among the young Fawn.

Another way to take the Fox, by the Drag-hook.

Take a pretty large Hook, such as are used for salt-wa­ter Fish, baite it with Flesh, and tye it by a Line on a strong bough, so that the Hook (being altogether cover­ed with the baite) may hang so high that the Fox must leap to catch it, or else he will discover the Deceit; and when he has the baite in his Mouth, he will hang by it, and in pulling very hard to get it off, the Hook will stick in his Jaws, and hold him; but it must be armed with Wire, at least a handful above the Hook, lest, being only Line, he bite it in sunder.

To take the Pole-Cat.

This is a great destroyer of Fowle, especially the youn­ger sort of Poultry; to take them, procure a square piece of Timber, about an hundred weight, boared in the upper side just in the middle, and set fast in it a hooked crook; and in the Ground fasten four forked Stakes, then on them lay two sticks ac [...]oss, on which lay a long Staff that may hold up the dead- [...]all by the Crook; and under that Crook you must have a sho [...] stick with a Line made fast to it, which may [...]each down to the bridge below, that is five or six In [...]hes broad; and place Boards or Pails on each side the fall, or hedge it with close Rods, about ten Inches, or a Foot high, which guiding her to the Trap, the passage being wider then the [...]all is broad, she cannot miss being taken.

To destroy Rats or Mice.

Take an [...]arthen or brass Pot, pretty large, fill it with the dross or foot of the Oyl, and set it in any convenient place, where they haunt, about the middle of the place; then shew Pot-Ashes, such as the Sope-boylers use, round about it; and when the scent of the Oyle brings them ha [...]ily to it, the Ashes will strike a Scent in their Brain, tha [...] will stupesie them, so that they can make but slow has [...]e away; and thereby you have time to destroy them wi [...]h such Instruments as are fitting.

To scare away Rats and Mice.

Take the Prains of a Weasle, mix it with [...] till it is made into a kind of an Oyntment, and anoint the Posts and Places near their haunts, and the very scent of it w [...]ll make them fly the Place.

To gather Rats and Mice, and destroy them.

Take a couple, or more, of live Rats or Mice, and put them into an earthen Pan close covered, set them over a moderately heating Fire, and when they feel the heat, they will make a piteous cry, whereupon, those that are i [...] hearing, will flock as it were to their Rescue. They may be destroyed by scattering Hemlock-se [...]d in their holes, which if they eat, they dye. Or, small filings of Iron or Steel, mixed with Wheat-dough, destroys them.

To make Rats and Mice blind.

To do this, and easily to take them, mix the powder of Tithalamum with Wheat-flower, and make a dough of it with Metheglin, and lay it in their haunts, and such as [...]ibble it will be quickly blind.

To make Weasles forsake a House.

Get a field Weasle, by some called the hedge Wea [...] ­geld him, and cut off his Tail, then turn him loose, a [...] all that see him or scent him, will fly from him; and the better to scare them, hang a little bell about his Neck, and he will soon clear the House to your Content and Satis­faction.

To cause Weasles to dye, &c.

Take Mercury, Sal-Armoniack, and Wheat-flower make them into a Paste with Honey; cut it into [...] bits, throw it into their haunts, and they will greedily take it, and soon after dye.

To gather Weasles.

Take the guts of a Lizard, and the Herb Verjuice, bruis [...] them, and put them into Water to infuse; and when that is sufficiently done, strew it thinly on the floor near their haunts, and the scent will allure them to it; where you may set Traps for them, or lye in wait to circumvent their returning to their holes, and so destroy them.

To destroy Moles.

This may be done by a Mole-spear, stricking down where you see them heave, by setting Traps in their Tracks, especially glazed earthen Pots, as pi [...]fals, into which if they fall, as consequently they will, if set in their way, they cannot get out, if the height be above their length.

Some there are that fill a Jugg with a narrow Neck with Brimstone, Ceder-wood, Tu [...]pentine, and Rosin, and clap it, when lighted, to the Mouth of their Holes, which drawing strongly in with the Air, suffocates them.

Others make a paste of white Helebore, whites of Eggs, and Wheat-flower, which laid in little pieces at the Mouths of their Holes, they will eat at coming out to Air, and poyson themselves. [Page 163] You may likewise call them that are in hearing to you, by putting a live Mole in a Pot over a gentle Fire, as is said in Relation to Mice and Rats, on that Account.

To rid a House, or any place of Pismires.

Take the Flower of Brimstone, half a pound; Sale of Ta [...]tar, or Wine Lees three or four Ounces; mix them o­ver a gentle Fire, till they become red; then mix and beat the [...] with fair Water, till they cool; and when dry again, beat them to a fine powder; put the powder into Water, and let it infuse till the Water is Tinctured, and where­ever you sprinkle any, the Pismires, or Emets will dye, if they speedily avoid not the place.

Mu [...]k Shells burnt with Storax, or beaten to powder, will do the like; the smoak of burning the Roots of wild Cucumbers will drive them away out of any House; and Ci [...]eni [...]um melted into Oyl, and poured on their Nests, w [...]ll kill them.

Serpents, or Venomous Creatures, to destroy, or drive them away.

In Gardens where there is store of Worm-wood, and Rue, they will not frequent, nor come near Ash-leaves; strew Deers-suet, and the scent of it makes them fly; large Radishes are the bain of them; burn Centaury and Walwort, and the smoak will drive them away.

To draw them together, and to handle them, &c.

Take a handful of Sea Onyons, stamp them with Nine or Ten River-Crabs, and lay them in any convenient place, where Snakes or other Venomous Insects pass, and they will infallibly gather to it, so that they may be taken and destroyed; if you wash your Hands in the Juyce of Radishes, you may handle Snakes without fear of being bitten, for the scent of it makes her Sick, and loath to [...]ouch you.

To destroy Caterpillars.

These are great hurters of Fruit-trees, Herbs, &c. [...] where you find them entangled in the Trees, or [...] flicting the Plants, take wet Straw, or other moulde [...] Stuff, lay it in little heaps, to the Windward side of yo [...] Orchard, or Garden, where the Wind is scanty; Fire [...] with some dry Straw early in the Morning, or in the Eve [...] ­ing; scatter Pitch, Brimstone, and Rosin, or Turpent [...] on them, and the Smoak carried by the Wind among the Trees like a Cloud, or over the Herbs, will kill them, [...] make them fall to the Ground, where you may sweep th [...] up and burn them; this also destroys Flys and Wo [...] that bite the early Bud, or tender Plants.

To kill Worms or Snales in Walks, &c.

To do this, you must new lay your Walks, and under a quarter of a Foot of Gravel, lay a layer of Salt and Sea-coal-ashes, or slacked Lime, and whilst the strength [...] that remains in the Ground, neither Worms nor Sna [...] will live there.

To destroy Slugs, white and black, in Fields, Gardens, and other places.

These much afflict Pease, and Beans, at their coming [...] also young Corn, and tender Plants; and the most eas [...] way to destroy them, is to spread Lime slacked amo [...] them, or sow it on the Ridges of the Land, and it w [...] kill them, or keep them, or prevent any coming there [...] annoy it.

To destroy Erwigs, or Emets in Orchards, or Gardens.

To gather them, lay Fern, and small dryed Kekes, the first will bring them together, and into the latter they will creep, then set Fire to this Fuel, and so by renewing it, you may destroy them all in a little time.

To destroy Frogs.

If Frogs insest your Grounds, or out-Houses, which they will do, to the great Annoyance, by gellying, and pi [...]sing on the Grass that lye near Marshes, or Ditches. Take the Galls of a Sheep, Ox, and Goat, and being broken, lay them for them, and in feeding on that bitter liq [...]id, will soon dye.

To destroy Flies and Wasps.

Where Flies or Wasps swarm, and are troublesom, take a large Board, and dawb it thinly over with warm Turpentine, and the strength of the Scent will draw them to it, especially if you scatter a little Coriander-seed fin [...] ­ly sifted on it, viz. when it is dryed, and beaten to pow­de [...], and those that light on the Boards will be entangled, and not able to stir; then by this means you may take with divers Boards, a Million in a day.

To destroy Bugs, and rid Houses of them.

To remove this noisome and troublesome Vermine, take Oyl of Turpentine, wash over the Walls and Bedsteads with it, or particularly where there are any Crevises, Cracks, or Crannys, and they will dye away, and the Room, after some time using it, no more pestered with it.

The Juyce of wild Cucumers and Vinegar, is an ex­cellent Remedy against them:

Or smoak your Rooms, being shut very close, with Storax, Assasae [...]ida, and Brimstone.

The Juyce of Wormwood and Rue is very good to wash the Bedsteads, Crevises, or any place where you sup­pose they are; and if you would lye safe among a thousand i [...] a Room, Ri [...]ce your Sheets in Water wherein Sa [...]sa [...]rax has been well st [...]ped, and they will not enter upon them, or you may lay that Wood in Slices, or Shavings among your Linnen, and it have the same effect.

To destroy Fleas.

Take the Herb called, Asmart, or Hounds-Tongue, wi [...] a long Leaf, and red Fibers, growing almost in eve [...] Ditch, and lay it between the Mat, or Sacking, and [...] Bedding, scatter it under the Bed, and about the Roo [...] and the Scent will kill, or drive them away.

You may likewise set Vessels of soft Turpentine unde [...] your Bed, or hollowed up between your Sheets, and [...] will draw the Fleas in abundance to it; and being in i [...] will stick them so fast, that they cannot move; Ox blood▪ or Sheeps blood will take them in the same manner.

To destroy Lice in the Head or Body.

Take Hogs-lard, Quick-silver, and the Juyce of S [...]g [...] beat and mix them well together, till they come into [...] Oyntment, and anoynt the place, and it will destroy them.

Take Staves-Acre, beat it into powder, and it will by being rubbed among the Hair, kill all the Lice, and pre­vent them a long time from coming again.

To destroy the Nits, and make them come from off the Hair smoothly, mix the Staves-Acre with Oyl of Almonds, and make a kind of an Oyntment of it, anoynt a bridle [...] Comb with it, it will cleanse the Hair to a wonder.

To destroy Crab-Lice.

Take Quick-silver, Oyl of Spike, and the Pap of a Apple, make them into an Oyntment, by well mixing then together, and anoynt the place, and they will dye away, and not come any more.

To take and destroy the Otter

This Creature living sometimes by Land and sometimes by Water, and is a great destroyer of Fish, and mostly of the largest, and best that are found in Rivers, Ponds [Page 167] or L [...]kes. To take him, you must make a Wheel made with a double Team or Tonnel, and set an Iron Grate like a Gridi [...]on against the Team within, with fourholes, and the sliding stayed; or two round Sticks set upright, before the Team in the Wheel, so that they may hold up the Iron; let them be fast bound, to wheel beneath and above; then take a good stiff Rod, and set one end over the Weel, to hold up the Gridiron or Grate, and the other end must reach pretty well over the Teem; fasten a small Ozier at the end of the Rod made with a round kno [...], and so put down upon the end of the lowermost Ozier in the middle of the inner Teem, being put on but a very little way, so that the Otter coming within the first Teem, advances to the second, where the Fish is you [...]lt withal, and there putting off the Ozier, the Rod flys [...]p, then the Iron-grate falls, and stops the outermost Teem; and when he hears it fall, he will haste, to think to get out, but being stopped, fall a bi [...]ing the Grate, till he suc [...]s in so much Water as will drown him; or if that fail, you may take him alive in the Trap, and use him at pleasure.

To take the Heron.

This Fowl devours abundance of Fish, and therefore to circumvent her, take Gudgeon, Roach, or Dace, run a sm [...]ll Wire along within the Skin, on the outside of the Ri [...]s, then it coming out at its Gills, fasten a Hook to it, stake it down, the Wire fastened to a Line, so far as the Heron can wade, and the Fish will live and swim about a co [...]siderable time; then leave it, and if the Heron comes, she will greedily swallow it with the Hook, and be taken; and in this manner you may take in deeper places; you may take the Cormorant, Coot; and on the surface, the Sea-pye, and Osprey.

To take the Buzard, Ring-Tail, Kite, or Hen-Hairer.

These are great destroyers of young Poultry, and young Rabits, and may be taken easily with Lime-twigs, in the following manner: [Page 168] Take three small Rods growing on the end of the [...] or three slender Twigs placed on the end of a pre [...] Stick, so ordered, that two may lye on the Ground the third lye over them; the Stick must have a Hole in the end, and a Mouse, or young Chicken stale stales, to make them the speediler swoop and take ought to be alive, so fastened down wi [...]h a String Peg, in the Ground, that they can but just move [...] these Twigs smeered in Bird-lime, upon their swoop take the Stale, will catch hold of their Wings, tha [...] tering for a while in vain, they will fall down.

Tou may take them with Springes, or Iron-Trap [...] cealed under Leaves, Grass, or Straw; a dead Sta [...] the representation of it, being placed so, that at swooping they cannot well fail to be taken by the [...] Neck.

An excellent way to take Sea- [...]yes.

These Sea-pyes hovering over fresh Rivers, d [...] much young fry of fish. To take them, Lime O and fasten to them a small Fish by a Thread about a [...] lay them on Rushes, or Sedge, so that they may [...] the Water, and then the Pye stooping and seizing the thinking to carry it away, will been tangled [...]y the [...] so that if you have a Boat, you may [...]asily take her tering and strugling in the Water; and by this, and Rules given, any other Ravenous and hurtful Cre [...] may be taken.


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