REBELLION STRIP'T AND WHIPT, THROUGH All its Principles and Pretences; From the first to the last.

By way of Appeale to the Con­sciences of the City of LONDON in parti­cular, and the whole Kingdom in generall.

In the behalfe of his most Sacred MAjESTY, and the Church now trampled on by Traytors.


Printed in the yeere. 1648.

To all true-hearted Englishmen, of what degree or qualitie soever, especially to each particular Citizen of London.

Courteous and friendly Reader,

FOr so my believing charitie perswadeth me to style you, although my mean and inconsiderable deserts cannot hope to lay claim to the title;

As it is a certaine truth for our comfort, that man's passive extremitie, is Gods active opportunitie, deliverance then stepping in, when in our apprehensions wee are past hopes of being delivered; so it is as necessary a truth to be practised, that when Kingdomes, Cities, Fa­milies or friends are most passive under the extremitie of accumulative miseries, threatning ruine and desolation; then to be most active in our assistance, counsell, and to our power, deliveranco. Such like thoughts as these possessing me in these unhappiest of unhappy times, wherein a generally-feared destruction hangeth over our heads like a sharp pointed sword, only by a small thread, perswaded me with the poore widow (my abilities not being able to bestow more) to cast in this my following mite; and if it shall (though in it selfe worthlesse) prove by the con­curring operation of Gods Spirit upon the hearts of men, in the least manner, instrumentally contributary to the reformation of some infor­mation of others, and a desired restoration of the whole Kingdome in ge­nerall, the City of London in particular, where I received my first birth and being, to their ancient honour, and former truth and peace, return your thankes to the Lord of heaven and earth, the fountaine of all Mercies, and pray for the Eternall happinesse of

Your reall friend, Country-man, and fellow Citizen, Rexophilus Londinatus Christia­nus Protestans.
— Ne inutilis olim
vixisse videar —
25 Proverbs 11.A word spoken in season is like apples of Gold in pictures of Silver.
122 Psalme 8.For my brethren and companions sakes will I now say, peace bee within thy walls.

WHen the Hebrew-tongued bells sadly invite the Charita­ble assistance of others to a pacification of that rebel­lious Element, Fire,Hebrew Let­ters must bee read back­ward. A Custome in England to ring bels back­ward when houses are on fire. destructively active beyond its legall bounds, and a reduction of it to its proper center and due obedience; who will not (unlesse some whose preventing care is little about their own, and carefull pitty lesse imployed about others ruines) willingly contribute their quenching paines? Nay, who (ex­cept others as miserably destitute of honesty as wealth, whose strangely malicious mindes repine at the fruitfull industry, smiling prosperity of others, and whose irregular expectations hope to sup­ply the defect of their own wealth, and boy up their almost irreco­verably sunk estates, by a generally concurring destruction) will not subscribe to a voluntary demolition of their proper and more peculiar buildings; only to anticipate the devastation of others by that mercilesse raging tyrant?

When the angry windes begin to vent their spleen, and the pas­sive surges which not long before were united into one only unfur­rowed face, like slaves forced to a degeneration, are compelled by those powerfully Commanding Masters, into high swelling frowns, and deep-furrowed wrinkles, thereby menacing ruine to all float­ing travellers in that uncertain watery region; Will not then all obliged, and resolved guides, Vela moderantes per aequoris undas, unlesse some who with too much ease can change ingagements of publike preservation, into permissive if not active resolutions of de­solation, or others whose winding limbs embarqued on gainfull pri­vate hopes, or aguish losing fears can comply with every rouling wave, thereby in vain expecting in a Fly-boat of neutralitie to swim safely to a self-securing shore; will not all except such, consult a prevention of such a universally-threaten'd destruction?

My dearest Country-men, England hoc momento temporis (O that Fame could give my Pen the lye! but alas, alas, experience already hath and still doth afford us too too certain grounds evidencing its truth) is at this very day become a sad paralell of these preceding lines; England not long since famous abroad, happy at home, even beyond (si foelicitatem noverit) desire of additionall happinesse, for its united domestick structures; I mean its Monarchicall go­vernment compacted into so sweetly agreeing,King, Lord and Common in Parliamen [...] disproportion [...]d proportion, that setting aside those Concomitantes Regnorum deva­statores, [Page 2] those destroyers of men and Kingdomes, Ambition, Envy, and Sedition, which blind the judgements sight, enforcing it to a partiall (if not an envious) construction of the best things) the most prying eye could not discern thePoorest men. humblest stone remediles­ly press'd by an oppressingRich per­sons. Superiour, or highest advanced pina­cle proudly scorning inferiour subjected materialls without a check from the master builder, I mean the established law, whose enlive­ner fons (que) origo, is our Soveraigne Lord, King Charles, &c. Sine quo nulla nova fuit est Angliâ lex (que) erit.

Jeremiah, 9. chap. 1. v.This England quis non talia scribendo lachrymarum flumina mit­tet? who can forbeare wishing with the Prophet, That his head were full of water, and his eyes a fountain of tears to weep for his Native Country? by the beginning Sparcks of an unfortunate Nor­thern fire-brand (strange it is, that so cold, and almost benumming a climate should yield such nimbly-devouring fire) intermixing in its consuming progresse with unnaturally connaturalizing materi­alls, by degrees grown almost into one entire flame.

This winged Vessell truly styled Europ's Soveraigne, whose swel­ling sayles not long since were filled even to envy, and admiration of all round about her, by long continuing, uninterrupted succesfull gales; At last by the enforcement of rigid necessitie, justly steering its powerfully commanding course for its command proceeded from aCommission from his Ma­jestie. Just power, neere theScotland. Calidonian waters, met with some surly opposing gufts, high-working ambitious and rebellious waves, which not wanting a concurring assistance, and incouragement from other mutinous spirits (strange it is that children of the same wombe should rend the very bowels of their naturall parent upon the unreasonable invitation of aliens) accompanying the same Fleet with this Royall Pilot, denyed to strike sayle, or expresse obedience to his lawfull commands: Which strange and unnaturall opposition increasing like snow roul'd from place to place, even to a monstrous heap (by the senslesly assisting and furiously active hands of such persons) was soon, howsoever dissolved by the favourable breath, and gracious condescentions beyond expectation of the Royall Cōmander; himself, as it seemed, having a brest more affected with the losse of any under his command, however in their obedience re­pugnant, although I cannot but confesse, that many of that Nation were, and by their loyall words and deeds then did expresse them­selves [Page 3] repugnant to such a repugnancy, than with the losse of part of his Commanding power. Soon after which these two un­equall opposites met in mutuall embraces, and a pacification; and because their reciprocall agreement was confirmed by the agreeing suffrages of the supreamest Court, I will here silentium tenere, re­strain my pen from being further inquisitive, Whether or no it was an act lawfull, and that warranted also by religion, reason and law in them, not only to deny obedience unto, but oppose the com­mands of their lawfull (for now my expressions shall be plain to the apprehensions of every one) and Native Soveraigne; or Whether it were not an action absolutely necessary in their Prince, both in respect of religions, reasons, lawes, and his honours vindication to demand a reason thereof, and that not proving satisfactory, to op­pose such an opposition.

However I shall be bold to adde thus much, that if amidst the troubled waters of another Nation, England then labouring with the almost unavoydable effects of a long continuing peace (a supine securitie) with its adjuncts; as erroneous practices, oversights, miscarriages in some particular Ministers of State, as what Nation can plead a totall freedom from some intervening corruptions and Justice-perverting instruments? If by the additional aggravations of these Errours and mistakes by the Ambition & faction of some, who the better to facilitate a progresse in their own des [...]gnes, loudly spake to the undistinguishing multitude, that such deviations from particular lawes, were but intentions (but upon what rationall ground I know not) of subverting the whole frame of the Law. If such like stormes in England proved furthering instruments to purchase them a Calme, and a Serene Kingdome; If they beyond a probability of former hopes in this very opportunitie of opportu­nitie, obtained their owne desires from the unparalell'd favour of their Soveraigne; It were to be wished that they then had rather remained satisfied with the possession of so much happinesse, retur­ning to God, the fountain of all blessings, thankfulnesse for so great a mercy, studying expressive gratitude by obedientiall and loyall actions to their Prince, for such gracious manifestations, than like phanatick people, who havving mira­culously quenched fire begun in their own houses, and thereby prevented a mena­ced ruine; Not satisfied therewith (as if the misery of others could adde perpe­tuitie to their procured happinesse;) cast fire-balls so long into their Neighbours dwellings, untill in it its furiously-devouring race it returne where it first began; Which, if God for ingratitude, and other concomitant sins, as he is just without [Page 8] respect of persons, should in the revolution of future time permit; what mercy (although his mercy is above his justice) can they with confidence hope from him, who with so much neglect, I had almost written, impudence, have slighted his fa­vours? Or what pittying assistance can they expect others should shew unto them, who never supposed themselves contentedly happy in their own particular inte­rests, untill they had endeavoured, nay effected the generall unhappiness of others?

Deus necessitatis causam talis avertat oro;
O Lord prevent the occasion of such a necessitous assistance.

Further, all things considered, rather than expose themselves to future hazards, it might have been, and still may be a consideration worthy their thoughts, a lit­tle praevidere, Whether or no in after ages, when hot fiery disputing passions shall be lull'd asleep, when mens imbittered spirits shall by well poyzed impartiall judgements be stopp'd from irregular verball excursions, when private interests shall freely and unanimously resolve themselves into the generally reall good of the publike, Whether or no then their Successours reflecting upon such past acti­ons, and their Circumstantiall means also made use of, probably may not both in their private discourses esteeme, and in publike generall Counsells censure, their favours,Examples to this effect, our Nation hath many, and it is believed theirs is not without some few pre­sidents. or if they wil reformation, or rather alteration in government (Now free­ly theirs by the voluntary and graciously Confirming grant of his Majesty) to bee but the enforced issue of griping necessitie, and the purchase of a menacing bran­dished Sword, and because so enforced, resolve them as Null; and therefore for the Prevention hereof, that in the judicious ballances of after times they may not (to their lasting dishonour) be found too light. It had been, and as yet may be a well becomming policie in them to be fruitfull in succeeding actions of loyall thankfulnesse; Estote prudentes praestat, esse Promethium quam Epimethium; Too late penitentiall experience is but a sadning mistris.

Therefore to this purpose before the houre-glasse of such an opportunity is irrecoverably past, and its sands quite spent; It were a seasonable wish that they would take into their serious considerations, even their own loving Compellation and title of Brethren, and indeed wee are no lesse, having one politicall Father the King, who is amborum pater regnorum, to whom we owe obedience by the law of God, and the lands, which being undoubtedly true;

That they would make good that title by affectionate fraternall actions expres­sing themselves brethren, Affectione reali activa (que) non titulari solummodo (que) pro­fessione.

That their deeds speaking the language of enemies, like Cain's dealing with Abel, may no longer contradict their tongues expression, Ceremoniously, if not treacherously tearming us brethren, that they Sub specie fraterni nominis, as hither­to wee have had grounds to suspect, may with more facilitie deceive the credu­lous, and the rather now because it is murmured abroad, that Englands present miseries, by their fighting and Covenanting assistance have received much addi­tion; It concerneth them, non verba solummodo, sed facta dicere, for non prosunt verba quum contraeria facta videmus; Therefore it were to bee desired, that they would obey the command of Christ, to differ no longer, nor fall into new fractions, or further factions, because we are brethren. And to this purpose it is expected as well for their own vindication (I mean not the whole Nation, for many thousands therein [Page 5] have made good their constant loyalty to their King really, not ver­bally, but all such in that Nation whose consciences cannot but whisper themselves necessarily concerned in such a vindication, as requested, for their Brethrens assistance, that they would really and positively not with intermixed, uncertain distinctions, doubtfull ex­pressions, ambiguous tearms, which like wax from the Seal, may be apted to any construction, thereby owning the Jesuit (whom they seem so much to detest) for their Parent; but on the contrary, that plene plane (que) sine equivocatione, without mental reservation or premised evasion declare: and because mera declaratio sine actu inutilis & otiosa, words in such a case are ayery nothings, accordingly to act, for the restoration of our Protestant Religion to its generally practicall pu­rity, unity and uniformity; his royall Majesty, their and our dread Soveraign, now (horresco scribere! a restrained Prisoner) to his royall Prerogative and Rights by the Law of the Land, justly and undoubt­edly manifested to be his: his Subjects, singulatim, and their fellow Subjects, to their ancient Liberties, Proprieties and Immunities, by the same Law really theirs; and in the conjunction of such loyall affections, and really performed actions, the three Kingdoms to an entire Peace and undeniable Truth, according to the truest con­struction of their own solemn League and Covenant, which being by their contributed assistance forwarded to a perfect consummation, we shall return thanks to God for his exceeding bountifull expressi­ons of such a mercy and gratification to them, as Instruments con­ducing thereunto; hoping that we shall not need to put them in mind, that our hopes onely are, that such kind of auxiliary affecti­ons will proceed meerly out of loyall affections to his Majesty, and love to us their Brethren, and not from an intent commandingly to incorporate themselves into Englands Priviledges, Freedoms, Ho­nours and Wealth; therefore at present shall have no occasion to acquaint them, that Englands birth-right will not be sold upon une­quall terms, to this purpose.

O thou God of all Spirits, grant to them and us thy assisting grace, that we may obey thee O Lord, who art the King of heaven and earth, in all things, for thy own sake, according to thine own rule, and King Charles our Soveraign, thy substitute upon earth, for thy sake, that so all of us guided by one Law of truth, thy will reveil­ed in thy Word, governed by him our King according to the truth of Law established, and all our multiplied sinnes against thee [Page 6] being pardoned, treason and rebellion against his Majesty buried in an unrepealable Act of oblivion, we may for the future live in piety and godlinesse towards thee our God, in obedience and loyalty to his Majesty, in unity, peace and concord (like Brethren) one among another, Amem, Amen, Amen.

But I return to England, which still remaineth passive under a ty­rannically wasting fire, and like a Ship still tossed to and fro by ra­ging tempestuous windes; it's true Religion by Law established, it's really fundamentall Lawes, respecting both Prince and People, his just Rights, and the Subjects most certain and generally contenting Liberties approaching neer to a dissolutiō, though not a destruction, (for magna veritas & prevalebit, the gates of hell shall never be able to prevail against truth) being ready to sink into an Aristocraticall bound­lesse, or Anarchicall bottomles Sea: Therefore (my dear Country-men) that I might not appear like an uncharitable Travellour, passing tho­row a Town contracted by fire into one flame, without observation, pitty, or according to my present poor ability, some assistance; or that I may not seem carelesse to sail by a distressed Vessell, lost almost in the deep, by the violent beatings of seditiously conspiring waves: I have here contributed some buckets of water towards the asswaging of this devouring fire; sent some assisting necessaries aboard the King­doms sinking Ship: In doing whereof, if my zeal to the Protestant Religion, loyalty to my Soveraign, love and fidelity to my native Country, affection and approbation of the well composed Lawes thereof, compassion and pitty to all my misguided, misinformed and seduced Country-men, shall expose me to censure, condemnation, nay death it self, I am resolved, by the help of God, in whom alone is my confidence, with the Apostle, into whatsoever condition I shall be cast, therewith to remain content, esteeming it dulce & decorum pro Religione, Rege Patria legibusque Angliae mori.

Now because it concerneth all who raise buildings, not so much to catch the eyes-observance with insubstantiall shadowes, as to re­main lastingly serviceable, to lay a sure foundation, least that decli­ning or by opposing force, enforced to a removall, each particuler superstructure meet with the same ruine, and suddenly sinking-fate: my intent therefore not being for procuration of popular ayery ap­plause, but information and reduction of those into the good old way of the Christian Protestant Religion, Reason, Law and Loyal­ty, who through ignorance and misinformation have been made pe­des [Page 7] instrumentales, the feet by which the Machiavilians of these times have walked on towards the end of their designs; manus complicantes, the hands with which Politicians have framed their Engines for an enforced alteration of Englands government; with­out whose assistāce their plots would have proved but like statues without motion, or abortive Births, dead in the very womb: those I mean whose intentions at first never aimed at a totall change of Government, by a diminishing, though in a petitiona­ry, much lesse a bloody compulsive way, his Majesties royall Pre­rogative and just Regall power; but having been abused through specious pretences of Reformation, have been ignorant instru­ments of Englands unhappinesse.

As for the Initiatours, Contrivers, Plotters of this rooting design, who begin at the end thereof, and accordingly have in England, per fasque nefas, endeavoured the attaining their ends, le­velling all ancient bounds of Regall Prerogative, just Parlia­mentary Priviledges, private mens proprieties and liberties, dig­ging so deep in quest of the fundamentall Lawes, that they have arrived at the Antipodes, and yet after six yeers endeavours, are as far from finding that fundamentall vein, as they were when their bloody designs opened the first vein in the Kingdoms body: I can­not expect a smooth face from them expressing favour to these lines, or remain satisfied with what is written, therefore I shall onely pray for them, that the God of heaven would open their eyes, causing them to see, how with Jeroboam, they have not one­ly sinned themselves, but caused many thousands in England to sin, and grant them repentance and pardon for all their accumula­tive offences, before they go down to the grave and be seen no more.

I shall therefore fundamina ponere, leaving discourses of the ne­cessity of a Nationall government, the antiquity, rationality and precedency of Monarchy, beyond any other form, the compara­tive excellency of the English Government, in respect of others, practized and bearing the same title, the Presse having been alrea­dy fruitfull in Writings of that nature: lay down some undenia­ble positions and truths, ab omnibusque concessa.

First, in respect of a Government already lawfully setled.

Secondly, in regard of those ligamenta fidelitatis, promissory [Page 8] oaths, by which religious engagements we oblige our selves to an acknowledgement of some rights due to the supream Gover­nour, by the generally received and practized custome of a Nati­on; as also to maintain such rights against all violent oppositi­on, hindering any compelled diminution or alteration of the same, by any persons whomsoever.

Hoping that in the result of all, nemo Christianus contra Religio­nem, nemo Anglicina contra leges Angliae, nemo sobrius contra rationem, nemo fidelis contra Regem, nemo Pacificus contra pacem durabilem conten­det, that all true Protestants, rational men, faithfull Subjects, lovers of their Religion, King, Country and Peace, will condes­cend to what hereafter they shall find propounded.

Therefore by the way, first, let me request all such, whose thoughts cannot but speak themselves interested in these lines, to lay aside all prejudicate opinions, both of my self and others, hi­therto practically different from them, prejudice being like a partition-wall, which will hinder the judgements yeelding to what is proposed and really made good to be Reason, Religion and Law.

Secondly, that they would banish from their brests that Rebel to Religion and Reason, a too confident tenaciousnesse of their own opinions, not because in their appearance they still continue undoubted truths to their approving judgements; but because the past insinuating Declarations of some cunning, Polititians, and rhetoricall Jesuitized perswasions of others, have consonant to their particular erronious maximes, and pre-resolved upon designes urged them to a former practice of unjust and unlawfull actions.

Thirdly, therefore that they would cast away that desperately ruining resolution of potiùs malè currendo crimina criminibus addere, quàm errorem confi teri recurrendo, veritatemque veritatis causa propugna­re, being rather willing to continue slayes to the commission of additionall sins, then by repentance become triumphing Cham­pions, for the sincerity of truth; when as it is far greater and better policy humane and divine, by repentance to return into the way of truth, then by a continuing progresse in erronious paths, to expose themselves to a possible ruine here, and destructi­on hereafter: Besides, the whole current of the Scriptures every [Page 9] where speaketh mercy and pardon to the penitent (an argument in my judgement sufficient to induce all thereunto against con­trary suggestions of the world and the Devil; nay,Ezek. 18.21. to the end. the very end of Christs Birth, Death, Resurrection and Ascention onely pro­claim an invitation of sinners to come unto him, promising them pardon and salvation: Now therefore if that any one in this re­spect shall turn away his ear, neglecting to hearken to the Char­mer, charm he never so well, let them take heed that that place of Scripture, Zech. 1.4, 5, 6. prove not an evidence against their obstinacy, and the complaint and threats of our Saviour in Mat. 23.37, 38. concern not them; O Hierusalem, Hierusalem, which hast killed the Prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thee together, as a hen gathereth her chickens, and you would not: Behold therefore your habitation shall be left desolate.

From which heavy judgement, O thou preserver of men, keep and defend us all.

But I proceed to lay down my first fundamentall positions, in respect of a Government already established.

That all violent and irregular alteration of Government, con­trary to the fundamentall customes and constitutions of every re­spective Nation: First, if it receive its original from the supream Magistrate, and pressed upon the people, hath alwayes been brand­ed with the names of tyranny and oppession; nor have such sins, (although the Word of God permit not Subjects by armes to re­bel against him) passed unpunished oftentimes here in this world; however, without repentance, cannot escape in the world to come.

Secondly, if violently streaming from the seditious, compul­sive combination of the people, without and against the supream Magistrates consent, hath ever been stigmatized with those odious titles of Rebellion and Treason; whose just rewards are death here, with a successive never dying infamy, and unlesse the mercy of Heaven interpose, the eternity of death hereafter.

Therefore for the avoyding of Tyranny and Oppression on the one side, preventing of Treason and Rebellion on the other, with all those bloody issues and ruinous effects flowing from thence, tanquam a fonte sanguinolento, and consequently those punish­ments which tanquam undae sequuntur undas, tread on the very heels of such offences.

[Page 10]It must necessarily be granted an undeniable truth, that obedi­ence indispensable is due from every Subject of what degree soe­ver, according to the qualification of the persons, unto all Lawes (not opposite to the Law & Word of God) made & confirmed by the supream power of any Nation; and that these Lawes, accor­ding to reason, ought and must remain in full force and vertue, untill the same lawfull power, which first gave them the power of a commanding law, shall repeal and nullifie them: That all Christian Subjects do or should yeeld obedience to Kings perso­nall, and the Law his vertuall commands, if not derogatory to the Law of God; not onely because the King, quatenus Rex, or the Law, quatenus Lex tantùm, commandeth the same, but because in his Word he hath laid a precept upon us, both in the fourth Commandement, and in Rom. 13.1, 2, 3. where he enjoyneth every soul to be subject to the higher Powers, &c. and 1 Pet. 2.14, 15, 17. where he commandeth us by his Apostle, to submit our selves to every ordinance of man for the Lords sake; whether it be unto the King, as unto the supream, &c. so that if we deny active obedience to his legall commands, we deny it not to the King, and oppose the Law therein alone, but to God himself, per quem Reges regnant, Prov. 9.15, 16 acting contrary to his will revealed in his Word, and the practice of Christ himself, who gave Caesar his due.

But because peradventure a demonstration of my own judge­ment about passive obedience (active to Kings, having already been discussed of) may be expected, therefore that I might not leave my self to the uncertain interpretation of any:

I professe my self an English Protestant, and therefore in the truest sense, shall not refuse the stile of an English Catholike; disavowing all hereticall, idolatrous and superstitious Doctrines and Practices of the Church of Rome, and all other Opinions different from, and contradictory unto the Doctrine of the Church of England, established in the thirty nine Articles: not because it is established onely, but because it is consonant and agreeable to the Word of God; the truth whereof hath been, is, and hereafter will be made good against all hereticall and schis­maticall Opponents whomsoever.

In particular reference to a lawfull King, and the continuance of his government in peace and piety.

[Page 11]I detest and protest against all Jesuiticall distinctions,Vide King James premo­nition to chri­stian Princes, and his Apo­logy for the Oath of Allea­giance, pag. 50 51, 108, 109. alibique. destru­ctive tenents to all Religion and Government, of power reserved in Pope or people, of what degree or number soever, whether they be a body representative conjunctìm (if a body can properly be termed a body without an head) or any particular members divi­sìm, under any pretence or intention whatsoever, by force to dis­pose of, and change the Lawes of a Kingdom, depose Kings, divest them of their lawful power, dispense with Oaths, by which their Subjects stand as well religiously as naturally obliged, resist their lawfull commands by the sword, perswading Subjects to follow their example.

I acknowledge according to the truth of the Word of God,2 Thes. 1.4. Matth. 26.51. Matth. 9.54, 55, 56. Mat. 16.23. Book of Mar­tyrs, 3. vol. Hom. Church Engl. & Artic. the practice and precept of Christ himself, the examples of the Prophets and Apostles, the pattern of all the Martyrs, the gene­rally concurring Doctrine of the Catholike Church, now in pro­fession continued in the Church of England.

That active obedience is to be yeelded to the King as supream in omnibus licitis, in things lawfull; but if God for the punish­ment of a Nation should set over us a tyrannicall King, secundam voluntatem pravam non rationem rectam regentem, governing by his depraved will against reason, and commanding things contrary to the Word of God, we must not by force of arms rebel against him, but rather then so (if not prevailing by Petition unto him, or escaping by flight from him) patiently submit to the losse of our lives & estates; agreeing with the ancient Christians, that preces & lachrymae sunt arma ecclesiae, that the pen rather then the sword, patience, prayers and tears, then actively shedding blood best be­commeth Christians: Herein committing my soul into the hands of my faithfull Creator and mercifull Redeemer,Revel. 2.10. Mat. 5.10, 11, 12. 1 Pet. 3.14, 17. 1 Tim. 2.9. who have pro­nounced them blessed that suffer for righteousnesse sake, and the testimony of a good conscience.

But I know the Jesuite and others (too neer him in opinion, though remote from him in name) will contract their browes into a frown at this (though Christian like) asseveration and re­solution, interposing many ayery suppositions, distinctions,Homily Chur. Engl. Sacred royall Prero­gative of chri­stian Kings, printed Anno 1644. and I know not what frivolous questions; all which I shall at present forbear to insert, much more to answer; because they have suffi­ciently been (in the religious and rationall works of many learn­ed [Page 12] Writers, both ancient and modern, refuted and made to ap­pear but groundlesse, quickly vanishing into ayre.

Beside, his royall Majesty, since the beginning of this unnatu­rall War, having commanded nor demanded any thing (as in the sequell will appear) contrary to established Law, nor performed any action, which any other Prince as supream might not law­fully have done, se, sobolem, leges, Regnaque defendendo: It would be a needlesse, and a labour in vain in me (although in my con­science I approve the same) to spend paper in vindication of a Christians passive obedience, it being a question not arising from the past or present practice of our Soveraign Lord the King; therefore without all question, at present standeth not in need either of mine, or any other his Majesties Subjects defence: For he hath been, and is so far from commanding any unjust things, contrary to the Law of God and the Land, that he hath patient­ly suffered reproaches against his royall person, deprivation of his noble Consort, dispersion of his Princely Son, hazard of his own life, losse of his Revenues, with many thousands of his loy­all Subjects, nay, almost all the comforts which felicitates a mans life upon earth, being at last after all these a restrained prisoner: O happy, thrice-blessed wals conteyning such a King, pattern of true Piety, president of religious constancy, example of an un­paralelled Patience! O unnaturall men! Rebels to the King, Reason, Religion and Law, whose trayterous commands thus turns Princes Pallaces into a royall Prison: And all this he un­dergoeth, because he would govern onely by Law, and preserve a power in himself, whereby he may be enabled to preserve the Law.

But I proceed, passing by the generall power of a King in Divi­nity, and in that respect what he may do, and consider him onely as he is King of England, in a well setled Government, and there­fore to this purpose shall lay down some more fundamentall po­sitions, and unquestionable truths.

Vide all Acts of Parliament confessing the 1. Jac. cap. 1. 9. Edw. 4 fol. 8That our Soveraign Lord CHARLES, by the grace of God, is lawfull King of England, and of all other his Majesties Domini­ons and Countries, that he is supream Governour over all per­sons and in all causes, whether Ecclesiastical or Civil.

That is, There is (by the Law of the Land established, in [Page 13] which he is vertually present) no commanding power above him, without him, much lesse against him; nor can, ought or must any conjunctim or divisim, exercise any governing power within his Majesties Dominions, nor must any willingly ex­presse subjection or obedience to such an unjust and usurped power, standing in opposition to his lawfull power.

That there are regales columnae, to support this Monarchicall Fabrick from sinking or suffering any injury from any persons whomsoever, as summoning and dismissing of generall Coun­sels, whether Ecclesiastical or Civil, making or anulling of Laws, that is, his affirmative or negative voyce in Parliament; without which, the Building were rather a painted, then sub­stantiall Edifice.

Secondly, making of War or Peace, that is, disposing of the Militia, of arming his Subjects to prevent forraign Invasions, or suppresse domestick, rebellious Insurrections; without which it would also soon fall by seditious and ambitious un­derminers: nor could the King without this power be able to defend himself from wrong, or his Subjects from oppression.

Thirdly, creating and disposing of Magistrates, power over life and death, highest and last appeal; without which his title of Supremacy would be a title of supream mockery, the stile ofSchool boys know that Rex is but a deri­vative of Rego, which signifies to Govern. King a meer contradiction; nay, if he had not these addition­als, whereby he is onely abled, Regis agere partem, he were rather Rex titularis quàm realis; and if so, rather regulatus; and there­fore in the best sense, but a supream Subject then Rex regens, by vertue of his supream power governing his Subjects: were he deprived of these necessary adjuncts to a regall power, he then may (as his Majesty hath well observed himself) be waited up­on bare-headed, have his hand kissed,His Answer to the nineteen Propositions, Anno 1642. his Authority declared by his Subjects; have Swords and Maces carried before him, and please himself with the sight of a Crown and Scepter: but as to true and reall power, he should remain but the out side, picture and sign of a King.

Now that all these, with many more attributes of power re­quisite for a King to have, do appertain (by the established Law of this Land) to our Soveraign Lord King CHARLES his Heirs and Successors; I will not trouble the margin with [Page 14] quotations from the Fountain,Lex terrae A-1647. a prin­cipio ad fiuem. Remonst. Feb. 21. 1647. ali­bique scriptis. to make good, but refer the Reader to those pure streams flowing from thence, those brief Collections of that Reverend Lawyer Judge Jenkins, who there­in Atlas like, hath supported the true fundamentall Lawes of England, and like a faithfull Expositor, given the most religious, rationall and lawfull practiced sense of them.

But for the cleering hereof, I shall propound some queries to all rationall men, which will (the premises considered) answer of themselves, to which even the knowledge of the meanest judgement, if he know any thing, cannot but assent as reall truth.

Presupposed the King not the King in his minority, although it is as true then, for there is his tacite supream power impli­ed his Prote­ctour. [...] Jenk. Re­monstr. Febr. 21. 1647. Vide Recordi.Whether ever in this Kingdom any new Law was enjoyned or new Oath imposed upon the people in opposition to the Law established; by the two houses conjunctim, or by either of them seperatim, without, nay, against the King's consent; and if none, as none can be produced, by what power have they contrived Ordinances, and imposed them with a Vow and Co­venant, solemn League and Covenant, contrary to established Law, and his Majesties Proclamation?

Whether or no, turbulent, violent and irregular transaction in former Parliaments, wherein Kings have been deposed or necessitated to unlawfull condescentions, through force or fear have not been by succeeding Parliaments made null, and those Parliaments themselves esteemed but as traiterous Assemblies: and so, as cannot be denied, Res pares cum paribus comparemus; And let us all pray, that England may enjoy the happinesse of a free, lawfully acting, Christian like, peaceable, unbyased, no private self ends respecting, but the truly publike and generall good, cordially affecting, and really effecting Parliament, To which let all true English men, with my self say, Amen, Amen.

Whether ever formerly the Lords and Commons conjunctim, or either of them divisim, had the disposing of the Militia of the Kingdom, did create Magistrates, had power over life and death, to whom highest and last appeal were made, did make a great Seal, acting by vertue thereof, by any Law of the Land established, without, nay against the King's consent? And if there be no Law extant, interesting them in such a power, but on the contrary, it must necessarily be confessed, that all these [Page 15] things (by the letter of the Law, and the continuall practice thereof, which is optimus leges interpres) do belong to the King's Majesty, his Heirs and Successors: their own Propo­sitions of the second of June, 1642. confessing no lesse;First Book Col. Ordnan. 307. for then they petitioned him for a resignation of all these insig­nia regalia, for the removing of fears and jealousies between him and his people; which must necessarily imply a tacite confession, that his Majesty is solely interested in the dispo­sing of them; for to what end should they petition for those things, which without his consent they may claim as their own: and if so, let every mans judgement speak, Quis reus?

Whether or no there be any Law remaining established, or any clause reserved in the Law, by vertue whereof the Lords and Commons, or either of them are authorized in any case whatsoever reall, much lesse upon a pretence of any case, to remove Counsellours from his Majesty by force, to imprison his sacred Person, to use the regall Power, to alter the Lawes established, to impose new Lawes without his consent upon his Subjects, and the like, by force: All which, and more then these, have been put in practice since these unhappy times began; and if they cannot produce any Law, or the least resemblance of a Law, nay, of Christian reason, to warrant such like actions,Judge Jenkins Lex t [...]rrae Re­monffr. Frb. 1647. they must give us leave to ask the question, Who are guilty of Treason? seeing all these parti­culars thus usurped, are by the Law declared no lesse.

And here by the way, let me put them in mind of the dif­ferent judgement of former Ages, in Bishop Cranmer, a glo­rious Martyr for our Religion, from such kind of positions or practices.

He would not admit of the Popes authority in England, because he was pre-engaged to the King by Oath,Book Martyrs according to the Law of the Land; affirming, that the Popes authori­ty was against the Crown, Custome, and Lawes of the King­dom: Now unlesse there be a Law authorizing the People, under what notion soever, to do that which was unlawfull in the Pope to do (the offence being one and the same, com­mitted [Page 16] only by differing persons) I know not what to write more, but that Pope and People begin both with one letter; praying God to deliver us from the Pope and Papistical false Doctrines.

As for that old stalking-horse, the fundamental Law, which hath so often and so long been pretended, as an undeniable warrant, authorizing their beginnings and proceedings in opposition to his Majesty: Truly loyall English hearts and rationall men will no sooner credit that there is such a Law, because of their meer declarative affirmation, then that there is such an one as Atlas, really supporting the Heavens with his shoulders, because Poets have delivered so much to suc­ceeding Ages, in their feigned writings.

There indeed not any such Law, warranting these kind of actions, for none hitherto hath appeared in view; it be­ing a maxime, that quod non apparet jure non est; therefore shall be bold to put them in mind of part of Master Pym's speech at the beginning of this Parliament, leaving the application to their consideration.

The Law is that which putteth a difference between good and evill, between just and unjust; if you take away the Law all things will fall into a confusion, every man will become a Law to himself; which in the depraved condition of hu­mane nature, must needs produce many great enormities: Lust will become a Law, Envy will become a Law, Ambiti­on will become a Law; and what dictates and decisions such Lawes will produce, may easily be discerned. Thus far Ma­ster Pym.

Now that these things may not come to passe in its height however, and perfection in these our dayes: Let us pray, that the Lord would grant us all grace to tread constant steps in the path of his Law, giving us loyall hearts to the King, and causing us to expresse a reall, not verball obedience to the Law of the Land.

Further, because humanum est errare, and omnis perfectio nostra est imperfectio; all of us being full of originall sin; by reason of which, the suggestion of Satan, and the enticing pleasures [Page 17] and profits of this life, we are alas (quamvis Christiani, though stiled Christians) yet ready to commit sin with greedinesse against the God of heaven; as also, too too apt to prefer our own private advantage and interest before the publike good and benefit, not minding the peoples happinesse in practising piety, and enjoying Peace the mother of plenty, but often­times, spurred on by avaritious and ambitiously aspiring thoughts; we neglect rendring to God his, and all other degrees of men, from the Prince to the meanest of the people, their respective dues, which often occasioneth that confusion, like a fierce torrent overfloweth, and ruine like a boisterous storme, suddenly shipwracks a well governed Kingdom.

Therefore are Oathes tanquam Clavi religiosi, framed to keepe this building of Government more firme and close to­gether: To this end the Oathes of Alleagiance and Supre­macy are by the Law of the Land injoyned to be taken by all Persons capable thereof, especially men imployed in any publicke Office, but more particularly the House of Com­mons in Parliament, sine quo non est talis. 5. Eliz. cap. 1.

In which they sweare without Equivocation or mentall reservation, to beare Faith and true alleagiance to his Ma­jestie his Heires and Successours, to defend him and them against all Conspiracies and attempts whatsoever against their Persons, Crown and Dignitie.

Now let all reasonable Men consider, and within their owne judgements resolve these questions themselves.Coll. Ordn. first book, 93. Is it maintenance of his Majesties crown and dignity, and defence against all attempts, &c.

To force the Militia inseperably belonging to the Crown from him, under pretence of groundlesse feares and jea­lousies.

Is it maintenance of his Crowne and Dignitie,First book Coll. Par. Ordn. pag. 309, 310. June 1642. I meane his regall Crowne of Government to demand, as they did, in their nineteen Propositions, all governing Kingly power from him; plainly then speaking, that their intent was not to maintaine (notwithstanding their glorious pretences) [Page 18] the Law, nor resolution ad errores reformandum, but regimen Angliae mutandum. For had they really intended as they ver­bally often pretended in their Ordinances and Declarati­ons,Coll. Ordn- 130. alibique. Preservation of the Law of the Land, his Majesties royall person,Fo. 15. Coll. Ordn. Decemb. 1641. honour and Estate, just Prerogative and So­veraignty; they should have provided (having also declared in that grand Remonstrance to the Kingdome, that their intent was to restore the ancient honour, greatnesse and se­curity of the Crowne.) More wals of Brasse, if it were pos­sible to invent (which I must confesse passeth my beleefe) more, and a more excellent one, for preventing any more shaking of the Law established, by intrenching upon the Kings just Prerogative and the Subjects Liberty, then the Trienniall Parliament, which they confesse themselves to be a perpetuall Spring of remedies for the future. And not on the first Onset, Magis Postulare quam Petere, totally re­quire rather then desire the Kings royall Power;Nineteen Propos. for that end breaking all hedges of publicke and generall liberty to preserve or advantage some few private peeces of inclosed grounds.

Oath of Al­leagiance and Supremacy.Is it faith and alleagiance, and a Declaration in your Consciences, that none hath power to discharge Subjects from their Alleagiance and Obedience to his Majesty?

To frame Oathes wherein you ingage your fellow Sub­jects,Coll. Ordn. 93, 138. even in a manner to protest against their alleagiance and obedience to his Majestie; by Covenanting to assist the Forces raised and continued by both Houses, who are but Subjects (else why doe they Petition to his Majesty in those submissive stiles, Of his Majesties most humble and loyall Subjects) against the Forces raised by the King; and that they shall nor directly nor indirectly assist the Forces raised by the King, without the consent of both Houses; witnesse their Vow and Covenant, Ordered die Sabbathi 1643. and and their latter composed Negative Oath, much to the same effect.

Oath of Su­premacy.Is it a Declaration in your Conscience, that the Kings highnesse is the onely supreame Governour of this Realme, [Page 19] and all other his Majesties Dominions. To deprive him of his Negative voyce in Parliament, to create Magistrates, to exercise a power over the life and death of his Subjects, nay to doe any thing, but what Subjects ought to doe, and Oaths oblige unto?

Is it a defence of all Jurisdictions and Priviledges, Prehe­minences and Authorities belonging to the Kings highnesse, his heirs and Successours, and annexed to the imperiall crown of this Realm?

To declare that the King is not in a condition to govern,Answer to the Scots Declara­tion, Novemb. 28. 1647. to imprison him, to affirm that they will make no more ad­dresses unto him, that they will settle the government of the Kingdom without and against him?

These considered, I appeal to all: hear O heaven, judge O earth, with yee Inhabitants of England, Scotland and Ireland; who are guilty of perjury? I am sure none but will confesse that the Oaths of Alleagiance and Supremacy are lawfull in themselves, commanded by a compleatly lawfull authority, remaining enjoyned & confirmed by act of Parliament, there­fore ought to be taken by all, according to the literall sense thereof, and endeavours used to perform the same, accord­ing to each mans uttermost ability.

As for that exception savouring more of a Turkish or Je­suiticall, then of a Christian Protestant's affirmative judge­ment; nay, it is contrary to common reason, and altoge­ther vain.

For any one to apprehend, that singular persons one by one, are obliged to the observation of these Oaths, but a bo­dy representative is one; as if one man alone could be perju­red, and yet that the multiplication of that unite (equally engaged both in the keeping and the breach thereof) to four hundred, gave a dispensation from the guiltinesse of the sin, as if an offender were an offender, because quatenus homo uni­cus per se peccans, sinning as one man alone; and not because the offence committed was a deviation from the Law of God, Reason or the Law; when as it is far more correspon­dent to reason, to affirm that the more the Offenders are, the [Page 20] more guilty, because more spreading; and the greater the Offenders are, as representitave bodies, or Magistrates abu­sing a conferred power are more dangerous, because exem­plary, for citius ducti per exempla quàm praecepta, we are too apt to follow sin in a multitude, especially if they be great per­sons of repute, pretending assertours and reformers, though they prove desertours and deformers of Religion, Lawes and Liberties. Besides, God in the Scriptures commandeth us not to follow a multitude to do evil, which implieth that a mul­titude may do evil; and what is a representitative body but a multitude, in a grammaticall sense, and therefore if they do evil, they must not be followed: Nay, the whole current of Gods Word runs with variety of judgements threatned a­gainst all that are in authority, if they recede from his Com­mandements. The Prophet Micah, with others, are full in this respect,You may see many more a­mong the rest of the Pro­phets. Micah 3.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Amos 6.11, 12, 13, 14. Hosea 5.9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. O come therefore for the prevention of such like judgements, and the removing from us what we already lye under, let us by a timely repen­tance, return unto the God of heaven, humbly entreating him that he would forgive us all our sins; more particularly that he would not lay this hainous sin of Perjury to Englands charge, but give us grace to mourn and weep for that, and all others which have occasioned our Land to mourn in mi­sery, and weep in blood.

Now to contract the premised severals into a narrower compasse, thereby to make this rooting design appear plain­ly to all.

I shall desire all rationall men to take notice, that the Lords and Commons in that grand Remonstrance to the Kingdom, in December 1641. and their Petitions to his Majestie, Declarations and Ordinances, Preambles to their Protestation, Vow and Covenant, solemn League and Co­venant, which were but as so many applications to the peo­ple, for their information and procuration of their approba­tions assistance and affections; alwayes pretended a preserva­tion of the Kings Honour, Rights and Authority, the Law [Page 21] of the Land, the Protestant Religion, the Liberty and Pro­priety of the Subject. To this purpose you shall find many expressions.

In the grand Remonstrance they complain of the Jesuited Papists, &c. and a malignant Party,Col. Ordnan. fo 3. pernicious designs to subvert the fundamentall Lawes and principles of Govern­ment, on which the Religion and justice of this Kingdom is established.

They confesse the King to be trusted with the Ecclesi­astical law, as well as temporall,Coll. Ordn. fo. 19. that next under God the people owe obedience unto him.

They professe, their intent was not to abolish all go­vernment, and leave every man to his own fancy, for the service and worship of God, but to reduce within bounds the exorbitant power which some Prelates had assumed to themselves, contrary to the Word of God, and law of the land.

Where by the way takes notice, that then there was no mention made of extirpating Episcopall Government, since that, as much as in them lyeth, by their solemn League and Covenant, and Ordinances effected.

They professe to maintain the true Protestant Religion,Coll. Ordn. 281. the Kings just Prerogative, the lawes and liberties of the Land, and the priviledges of Parliament.

Resolved upon the Question,12. July 1642 fo. 457. That an Army shall be forthwith raised for the safety of the Kings person, preserving of the true Reli­gion, Lawes, Liberties and Peace of the Kingdom.

There they expresse fears,Fo. 461. that the true Protestant Religi­on and Lawes will be extinguished, &c.

That they will maintain and support his Majesties royall Honour and greatnesse.Fo. 466.

But I will trouble the Reader with no more expressions of this nature; the first Book of collection of Ordinances, if he please, will afford him variety.

Take a brief view of their Preambles to all their Oaths, [Page 22] which they pretend as motives and grounds occasioning their framing and imposing them.

May 5. 1641.

We the Knights, Citizens, and Burgesses in Parlia­ment, &c. having cause to suspect endeavours still con­tinuing to subvert the true reformed Protestant Reli­gion in his Majesties DominionsObserve that Established. established, and the fundamentall Lawes, and to introduce an arbitrary and tyrannicall Government, &c. therefore make this ensu­ing Protestation &c.

June 1643. in their Vow and Covenant.

There they declare, That there hath been, and is a Popish and traiterous Plot for the subversion of the true Protestant Religion, &c.

Thus you may perceive how in all their applications to the common people, they still urge intentions of preserving the King's just Prerogative and royall Rights, true Prote­stant Religion, the Lawes and Liberties of the Land: Now this must necessarily, according to common sense, be con­strued by the common people (whatsoever private reserved resolutions to the contrary, the framers of the Oathes and Ordenances had to themselves) a preservation and defence of Religion, Prerogatives, Rights, Lawes and Liberties, which are established and in being; for according to that old adage, ex nihilo nil fit.

But alas, these specious pretences were but Decoyes sent abroad to catch the plain hearted people, and the lesse advi­sed multitude into a complying assistance; their hands and tongues must help toward the demolition of England's anci­ent and well compacted Monarchical Fabrick; their breath­lesse [Page 23] bodies must be instrumentall piles, to mount these De­signers into the chair of a new modelized, pre-intended Go­vernment.

To this purpose therefore (contrary to all their Paper in­telligencers,Nineteen Propositions. daily diispersed among the people) they in their first Propositions to his Majesty (as I have already observed) lay the foundation, though cunningly, of this generall alte­ration in Church and State, wherein they had left nothing more to demand of him, but that (as a King, he had nothing more to grant.)

Which design of theirs hath appeared in more legible, additionall demands in their succeeding Treaties and Pro­positions, from that time unto this very day, wherein they have violently deprived his Majesty of his regall power; he at present being so far from commanding as a * King,Being kept as a Prisoner in the Isle of Wight. that his power in commanding is far below the commanding power of some of his meanest Subjects: Proh dolor! usque quo domine usque quò; how long, Lord, how long, holy and true, wilt thou suffer the Rod of the wicked to remain upon the back of the righteous? how long shall the workers of ini­quity triumph, speaking fiercely, smiting down thy people and troubling thy Heritage? Deliver our Soveraign thy ser­vant King CHARLES from cruell men, who imagine evil things in their heart, making war continually; whose tongues are sharper then a Serpent, and under whose lips lye the poyson of Adders, Amen.

Again, to make these Rooters design appear plainer and plainer to every eye, the Treaties at Oxford, and since at Ʋxbridge, (at which time nothing was left ungranted by his Majesty, whereby his people might be satisfied) but that he would have something left, I say, as King, to give; will evi­dence it to any impartiall judgement.

At Oxford, Anno 1643. the maine dispute betweene his Majestie and the two Houses Commissioners was, who should have the Power of Nomination and Election of State-Officers. The Right to both belonged to his Maje­stie; [Page 24] how ever, so desirous was he of Peace and a Recon­ciliation (his heart bleeding in tendernesse within, for the losse of so much of his Subjects blood) did readily and wil­lingly condescend that the Power of Nomination should be theirs, reserving choice of them to himselfe.

Now let us weigh the inequality, in reference to the prevention of the effusion of more blood. It may be sup­posed upon grounds of reason, that if I have the Power of Nomination, I will not name any one in whom I can­not confidently repose my trust, and of whom I have not a good opinion; therefore, if it be onely Peace and a mu­tuall agreement betweene two differing Parties, where it is sometimes fitting that both should abate of the rigour of their demands, what need I care who chooseth, or up­on whom the election falleth, seeing they are all equall in my esteeme: But this would not doe; they must have the Kings Supremacy, Election too, all, or as yet no peace; otherwise indeed the Civill Government cannot be alter­ed from a Monarchy into an Aristocracy; and so by de­grees subdivide it selfe into a Democracy. The Ecclesia­sticall cannot be changed from Episcopacy into Presby­tery, and so againe into Independency or confusion; vi­sibly at this day so appearing. Whereas if these men pre-intended not these things, but had really intended Peace, or resented the then bleeding condition and ruining King­dome of England, they would not surely have stood upon such unnecessary punctilioes, not any way absolutely availe­able to the generall good of the Nation; though abso­lutely necessary Rights belonging to his Majesty, with which he could neither in Honour, Justice, or Conscience voluntarily part. O Lord forgive them, forgive them such their unreasonable and unseasonable Demands, and lay not to their charge those severall bloudy issues which (since that time) have gush'd out in many places of this King­dome, Amen.

Againe, let us take notice of the further progresse, for ne­mo [Page 25] repente fit turpissimus, of these destructive Engeneers.

Hath not his Majestie resigned all his regall Power, since that, unto the two Houses during his life, being onely de­sirous that his royall Children may receive no prejudice by his too gracious condiscentions, freely offering a generall Pardon, and an Act of Oblivion to every one. Yet this will not satisfie them; they must have him forfeit his Honour and Reason, by acknowledging himselfe the Fountaine and originall cause of their unnaturally shedding of his Subjects blood; (strange action, that the gulty Offenders must be justified, and the Offended guiltlesse desired unjust­ly to condemne themselves) and wound his Conscience by pulling upon himselfe and Posterity that eating sinne of Sacriledge, by assenting unto an utter Extirpation of E­piscopall government, and a devastation of the Churches patrimony, contrary to his Oath taken at his Corona­tion.

Thus still you see the Designe of these Rooters at first, was to alter the Government of this Kingdome; and to that end have to deprive his Majestie of his regall Power,Fo. 20, 34, 30, 33. which since hath been openly avowed in their Declaration concern­ing the Scots Papers 13. Mar. 1647.

But peradventure, some will say that they are zealous supporters of the Subjects Liberties, and quellers of wick­ed actions, as Swearing, immoderate drinking, breaking of the Sabboth, and the like.

To which I returne an answer in generall, that nothing can be more desired, either for the suppressing or punish­ing of all sinfull words and deeds, and all such vicious­ly guilty Persons; or conducing to the liberty of the Sub­juct; if men desire onely to enjoy liberty under a Law, and not live as libertines without a Government than what was established and confirmed by Act of Parlia­ment, before ever they exposed their grand Remonstrance, that seede Plott of — to the view of the World;Decemb. 1641 witnesse that Declaration it selfe, which recounteth seve­rall [Page 26] Acts of favour condescended unto by his Majestie for the Subjects benefit; which with that lasting Bulwarke of preventing or remedying Errours, the Trienniall Par­liament, were enough to satisfie any but seditious and ambitiously aspiring thoughts. To make this appeare, It is worthy observation, that after the issuing out of that Remonstrance, not one Proposition was ever tendered to his Majestie, really tending to the generall good and liberty of every Subject; but whatsoever were present­ed unto him under the title of Propositions, contained nothing but Demands, in ordine ad Causam, in order to this Designe of alteration and change of Government. Now at this very day (as every one not prepossessed with prejudice, cannot but grant) the visible purchase of Hy­pocrisie, Perjury, blood and oppression; an ill foundati­on, and the worst lime to erect a building with, and which most commonly is followed with succeeding heavy judge­ments;Micah 3.9, 10, 11, 12. From which good Lord deliver us.

To this purpose further; you have already seene Ordi­nances framed, Oathes contrived for the Eradication of Episcopall government; and least it should by degrees, like a Flower pressed downe by the violence of a falling showre, rise againe in future times, when more favourable sunny dayes appear, they have exposed to Sale its Lands, the Churches patrimony.

You have seen the Presbyterian Government also digested into Ordinances, the preaching of it into approbation, the practice of it in severall Churcher in London, and other adja­cent parts, the peoples obedience pressed thereunto by Di­vines of the present Synod.

You have seen the civill Government also changed, Ordi­nances of one or both houses supplying the place of Acts of Parliament, without the Royall assent; Demands of a totall resignation of his Majesties regall Power; and because not in every respect condescended unto (as what father will be so unjust to his Posterity, though he may be uncharitable to [Page 27] himself, as to deprive them of their Inheritance, contrary to the Law of Nature, Religion and Law) the King therefore detained a Prisoner.

Tantumne potest suadere malorum religio!

Thus you may see the Designers riding triumphantly in the bloody Chariot of their compassed Ends, Revelling it at the Helmes of the Church and State, whilest their Royall injured Master is forced to a sad Cabbin under decks.

O that my abused Country-Men would seriously consi­der of the Premises, and that they would at length desert these Impostors, who by their glorious pretences of Re­formation, have deceived them into a Ruining assistance of themselves and others; not thinking it a shame to con­fesse an errour, and return when their Judgements are in­formed, that their former Judgements and practises have been erronious.

Againe, you have seene the meanes used by them to ef­fect their ends; by Perjury, infringing their Oathes of Al­leagiance, Supremacy, and their owne famed Protestati­on, by the effusion of Blood. And here I cannot choose but adde my feares, that some tall and gloriously spreading Cedars of Church and State, have rather beene hewen downe, because they hindered the Prospect of others, or prejudiced the rising growth of some Neighbour shrubs than fallen because rotten, uselesse or cumbersome to the grounds; which if true, (as some in the world best know) we had all need to pray that the Lord would even in the blood of Christ Jesus wash this Nation, especially from such kinde of blood-guiltinesse.

You may read the sad effects of these Designes, A wrong­ed King in distresse; A discontented Nobilitie; A discon­solate and dispersed Gentry; A disgraced disparaged and defamed Orthodox Cleargy; A murmuring and repining [Page 28] Communalty; An impoverished Countrey; A selfe-disho­nouring Nation, Division, Ambition, Sedition and Securi­ty, the forerunners of a generall ruine and desolation.

Helpe O Lord least we perish; And it be said of us, What is become of that glory of Nations, England? formerly fear­ed and beloved by all, yet not for feare expressing love to any, least what was omce spoken of Troy, be affirmed true of our Kingdome ‘Jam seges est ubi Anglia fuit.’

You may every where see God dishonoured, the Church of God unfrequented; Schismes and Prophanenesse every where abounded, and Heresies of all sorts, even to the de­nying of the Deity of Christ, the holy Scriptures, the im­mortality of the soule, and all these if not publiquely main­tained, yet connived at by those who pretend otherwise; you may see all Religion contracted into tongue discourse, Sanctification swallowed up by Justification; as if because Christ dyed to save Sinners, we must therefore wilfully sinne if we will be saved; you have many running so farre from the Papists meritorious hope of gaining heaven by good Workes, that they expect in haste to post thither by a barren Faith; arguing, nay esteeming good Workes as altogether unnecessary; when as indeed they must both be concomitants; for such a Faith without Workes will prove but a lame Sacrifice; and Workes without Faith will be but a blinde Offering, never finde the way to hea­ven.

You may see London, an envyed City, declined in the affections of all abroad,By assesse­ments, Contri­butions, Ex­cise, &c. because they were blinded in their affections by these deceivers at home, who by degrees have eaten out the very heart of her Honour, Wealth and Re­putation.

[Page 29]You have seen many of her Citizens tossed too and fro with every winde of Doctrine, steering their course with the current of each prevailing Faction, rather yeelding to a destruction, then endeavouring a preservation of the Cities honour and wealth.

You have seen her well proportioned and admira­ble Government dashed in pieces, the wisdom of some of her wise men degenerated into a self-contriving In­terest and Advantage, neglecting the Cities good in generall.

You have seen her grand Counsell turned into a Counsell of War, combining with the unruly Sword, to disturb, nay to destroy the Inhabitants with her civill Government; many sacrificing their fellow-Citizens, to the disposall of domineering Faction: spirits who eat the bread of extortion,Prov. 4.17. and drink the wine of violence.

You have seen the Cities peace, (formerly even to the envy of their Neighbours, dwelling onely within her walls) whilest blood, want and poverty ran like a devouring Lyon up and down each Country) inter­rupted by those who had most reason to preserve it in peace.

You have seen Sword-men, strangers unto you (if you consider your selves as Citizens of that famous Metropolis) by some stiled your servants, because en­tertained and paid you; but howsoever, I say, not ser­vants [Page 30] to the City, but more truely servants to the fa­ctious vipers within the City, even glorying in dying the stones of your streets with your own childrens blood.

Nay consider, I appeal to the whole City, what practicall Law have you almost left now in use, but the Law of imprisonment, whereby some men (first being made pre [...]endly guilty of that old ayery bug­bear crime, ill affection, or if you will, that beldam fault malignancy, that is, that will not swim in the same current of such hainous sins with the faction) are (to use their own word) secured; or others by reason of their long continuing distractions, being disabled so fully and speedily to satisfie some griping Creditors their debts, are the sooner hastened by additionall ne­cessity, want and grief, to a satisfaction of the last debt they owe to nature in a loathsom prison.

Or else, that (in it self excellent) but (as it is now used) bloody lettered Law, for suppressing and pu­nishing pretended mutinies, which only like a Gy [...]nt, standeth armed at the door, that so each successive Faction may the more freely ruine within; in the mean time, denying the entrance either of justice, mercy, peace or truth.

You have long since seen the Pulpit from whence nothing but the sincerity of truth, religious admoni­tions, holy advice, perswasively tending to the pra­ctice of godlinesse and true righteousnesse should issue forth, turned into a sophisticall Desk, to distract the brains of men with strange distinctions of Govern­ment, new fangled Doctrine, perswading their Audi­tors [Page 31] persons and Estates to an assisting compliance in the late Wars.

You have heard bitter expressions there against the established Government of the Kingdom, some envy­ing like mad, more more then rationall men, much lesse Christians against Episcopacy as Antichristian, and the book of Common Prayer as unlawfull and er­ronious, their best arguments being but invective rail­ings; although one hath stood the shock unmoved of the most fiery opponents, and the other a perfect pat­tern of true Piety, both of them receiving approbati­on and applause from all other Protestant Churches beyond the Seas, being onely disgraced and defamed, though without just cause, at home, by children of her owne womb.

You have heard the Ceremonies of the Church sti­led limbs of Antichrist, and others perswaded that they were imposed on tender consciences as necessa­ries; whenas indeed their own consciences could not but inform them the contrary, and that they were onely ordained for order and decency sake.

Besides,His Majesties Answer to the Kingdoms Re­monstrance Decemb. 1641. if any one seemed offensive to tender con­sciences, his Majesty (long before the Sword was un­sheathed) graciously promised an exemption from observance of them, and therefore needed not to have been made Arguments perswading to blood.

You have seen learned Divines, Doctor Featly, that brazen wall of our Religion, who unrazed, hath main­tained his hold, retorting the Jesuites arrowes into their own brests with shamefull wounds: Doctor [Page 32] Holsworth, a lively pattern of Piety: with many other religious and learned Divines, imprisoned and disgraced.

And my dear Country-men, ad quem finem haec om­nia, to what end think you did all these things tend? Pray consider, you may see the result of all quick­ly, in what concerneth you to whom I write, I meane you misled instruments, for I intend not (as I have already written) the contrivers hereof no further then as I am a Christian to pray for their re­pentance, conversion and forgivenesse.

You have been pleased, like children, in lieu of things substantiall, with toyes, as pulling down of May-poles, destruction of senselesse stony crosses, Re­formation of Tavern signs by fantasticall cringers inserted instead of Angels pictured; I think least the sight of such shadowes should put the misled people in minde of those reall Angels in heaven, and thereby fright or invite them into a too soon repentance.

You have had as fruits of your endeavoured Refor­mation, ignorant painted glasse windowes broken, the Communion-table removed, the Font locally chan­ged, though as by Baptisme we are visibly initiated into the Christian Congregation, it more signifi­cantly became the entrance into, then the body of the materiall Church, yet neither of them so ab­solutely and meerly necessary, as to counterpoize blood.

Heu pro quantillo pacem perdidimus.

You have had a new Directory, a piece made like [Page 33] wax, apted for any impression, easily squeezed into any form by active brains.

You have had a Catechisme in a large Character, the issue of above six yeers labour; which ever since King Edward the sixt's dayes, you might have fur­nished your selves with, in a smaller print, at an easie rate.

And to knit all these together, you have the Pres­byterian Government practized in place and oppo­sition to the Episcopall, and what have you purcha­sed by this? onely an intermixture of Lay-men with the Clergy (as afterward I shall plainly make ap­pear) for the managing of Ecclesiasticall affairs, both concerning Doctrine and Discipline.

Heu pro quàm parvis tantum sanguinis effudimus!

Thus much I write (God the searcher of all hearts is my witnesse) not to revile any Divines of the Presbyterian Party, whom I honour as Ambassa­dours from Heaven, when they dispense the truth of of God's Word: but they must give me leave to ac­quaint them, that unlesse they can shew any better grounds then I have hitherto read or heard from any of them since these unnaturall Wars, for the ma­king good the lawfulnesse of introducing this their meer alteration of Government by blood, contrary to the Kings consent, and the warrant of the Law of the Land, and having not the least ground for it in [Page 34] the Word of God: No errours formerly in Go­vernment being unreformed by his Majesty, no law­full means by a Synoy legally called and elected for redresse of what possibly could be found either unnecessary or burdensome in the Church to really tender consciences, being by him also denied; the Poynt of Government being then onely, and still is the difference between his Majesty and the two Houses; Therefore although the Protestants and they mutually agree in the fundamentals ef faith, and many other necessary truthes; yet I say, I can­not but certifie them, that neither my self, nor any Protestant of ENGLAND have reason to be­leeve that they have kept so close to the rule of God's Word, Reason and the Law, as they should have done,Malachi 2.7. or perhaps may prend. There­fore,

If they have any Arguments now in this juncture of time, besides that of meerly ignorant persons profes­sions of their good intentiōs, & good meaning, which they know will not excuse a toto, though in some things in may a tanto. It being a common excuse of many in these times, though they still persist in their irregularly, first begun courses, they may perform a Christian like and wise duty to themselves for their owne vindication, and to others, for their in­formation, to divulge them to the world; or if they cannot produce any, that then they would be per­swaded even for Christ Jesus sake, the Bishop of our soules, to returne and doe their first workes, least God come against them and us, and remove our [Page 35] Candlestick out of its place. But I proceed:

Because the introduction of the Presbyterian go­vernment in the Church, and a proportionable alte­ration of the Civill Government in the State is by some Ministers of that Party cryed up as the unum necessarium, tending to their preintended Reforma­tion, and the fulfilling of their solemne League and Covenant; I shall endeavour (although the Desig­ners intents probably were to lock fast the Common Peoples Consciences thereby unto them) to make good, according to the rule of Reason, Religion and Law, that nothing lesse is comprehended and con­tained therein; so that none stand ingaged, unlesse they wilfully will persist in sin, by their further as­sistance to endeavour a compleating of their Inno­vasion.

To this purpose I shall desire all a little to reflect backe upon what I have already promised; how that seeing the irregular faction of the two Houses al­wayes applyed themselves to the Common People as assertours and maintainors of the Law, Religion and the Kings just rights: towards which the assi­stance of many have been desired, and accordingly yeelded; they themselves having deferted their own Principles acted, in opposition to the Law and their owne Oathes and Covenant, as I have made good they are not in theis owne sence (though for my part I deny that they were ever at first in a lawfull sence ingaged) to take notice of their Ordinances and Commands: But rather to use all possible law­full meanes for the Restoring of his Majestie to his [Page 36] just Rights, The established Religion both in Do­ctrine and Discipline, to its former purity in pra­ctice, according to Law, the Parliament of England to its ancient genuine freedome, and regular Privi­ledges, and the resetling of Peace & truth in Church and State.

And to this effect, because some peradventure may apprehend themselves conscienciously inga­ged by the solemne League and Covenant to con­tinue their aydes in firmly setling the Presbyteri­an Government; I shall for the removing of such obliging apprehensions (passing by the unlawful­nesse of contriving, imposing, and indeed unwar­rantablenesse of entring into it at first; in which regard I acknowledge it contrary to the Lawes of the Land and authority of Scriptures) give a truely Christian and lawfull construction thereof, as it did at first literally, and still doth onely ap­peare to the takers thereof, who at first were not Concatenated Designers, and therefore for the better clearing of Mens judgements herein, shall first propound some necessary Qualifications and Limitations of Promissary Oathes; being bold to affirme, that if any afterwards shall obstinate­ly persist in remaining Instrumentally Active for this Innovasion; that I cannot see how they can free themselves from being wilfully guilty of opposing Reason, Religion and Law, as also rending in peeces all holy and obligatory Oathes and Covenants.

[Page 33]That all Promissory lawfull Oaths being religious bonds, must be taken in a literall and Gramaticall sense, and all law­full endeavours used for the performance of each clause con­tained therein, as they plainly appear (not admitting of altera­tion afterwards, or a contradiction by the mentall Reservati­ons of the Imposers) at the time of taking thereof to the judg­ment and understanding of him that sweareth, otherwise a man cannot sweare in Judgement.

That if any clause shall be inserted into any Oath directly opposite to the Word of God, or if any part of an Oath can­not be observed and performed without intrenching upon the breach of Gods Lawes, the one ipso facto is void, for Rei illici­tae nulla obligatio, and the other ingageth to aImpia poeni­tenda promissi [...], non perficiend [...]. repentance on­ly, and not to endeavours of performance; for per juramen­tum non tenemur nisi ad bonum & legale, by Oaths men are bound to nothing, but what is lawfull and good, either in respect of the end to which Oaths have a respect, or meanes conducing to that end; therefore in all such kind of Oaths, their generall conditions should be inserted, however are necessarily implied, (if I can, if it shall please God, if lawfully I may) for nemo tene­tur ad impossibile, and nil possimus quod non de Jure possimus; both possible and things lawfull must be the substance of Oaths, otherwise we cannot sweare in righteousnesse.

That no particular sentence in a secondary Oath destru­ctive unto, or different from any former lawfull ingage­ment, ought to be kept; therefore any Oath imposed by the irregular factions of the two Houses must not receive a con­struction, or actions accordingly used in opposition to the Affirmatively and Negatively Genuine, and commonly recei­ved and practised sense of the former Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy, both lawfull in themselves, and still according to Law resting established, least we adde sinnes of Omission to sinnes of Commission; but what is lawfull in any second Oath we must performe, what is not, we must forbear.

That in all clauses in Oaths concerning Reformation, pre­servation or defence of any thing, that thing necessarily must be extant, must have a being, otherwise we obliging our selves (if we can properly be said to be ingaged to nothing) to nothing, [Page 34] attest God as witnesse thereunto, thereby mocking him, and taking his holy Name in vaine, and in so doing erre against his third Commandement; therefore the Presbyterian Govern­ment not being particularly mentioned in the Covenant, nor at the first taking thereof, now about foure years and an halfe since digested in England into any form, much lesse obedience thereunto commanded, cannot be intended as a fulfilling of the Covenant; but the words Reforme, preserve, and defend, must have a regard to the Doctrine, Discipline, and Government established: as for that evasion (that the then takers of the Covenant dispensed with resolutions and actions of preserva­tion, &c. untill the same should afterwards be setled) it is alto­gether unlawfull and vaine; nor can any one by so doing ob­serve the Prophets counsell in Oaths, which must be taken in Righteousnesse, Judgement and Truth.

These things premised, I proceed to the Oath it self,—only by the way, let me put you in mind of your first Oaths of Al­legeance and Supremacy, with your Protestation, an Epitome of the former in these words, I promise, vow and protest to main­taine so far as lawfully I may, his Majesties Royall Person, Honor, and Estate; the true Reformed Protestant Religion, expressed in the Doctrine of the Church of England, &c. For explanation whereof I referre you to what already hath been said concer­ning the Oaths of Allegeance and Supremacy, advising every one to consider seriously that place in 30. Numb. 2. Ver. If a man vow a Vow unto the Lord, or sweare an Oath to bind his soule with a bond, he shall not breake his word, he shall do according to all that proceedeth out of his mouth.

Solemne League and Covenant. We Noble-men, Barons, Knights, Gentlemen, Citizens, Bur­gesses, Ministers of the Gospell, and Commons of all sorts in the Kingdom of England &c. by the providence of God living under one King. Vnder one King, that according to common sense and rea­son, must imply obedience and subjection in us unto him as a King enabled with power to governe, and that obedience must presuppose a rule of reason, and law, (now what that Law is, I have already handled) to square our actions of obe­dience by.

O that the people of England, &c. would in in this respect [Page 35] obey the Precept of Christ,—Give unto Caesar what belongs unto Caesar; His Majestie never expected more then what the Law manifesteth to be justly his,Witnesse all his Declarati­ons. why then should we give him lesse? Nay, endeavour to deprive him altogether of what we have neither reason, nor just power to attempt?

And being of one reformed Religion. The Cove­nant.—This must necessarily intend our Religion established, a Religion that is, not that shall be, which Religion commandeth obedience to all His Majesties lawfull commands, denieth the Subjects Liberty to take up armes against their lawfull Soveraigne, acknowledgeth him to be Supreme in all causes, and over all persons, Vide homilies, & 37. Artic. Church Engl. as well Ec­clesiasticall as Civill, &c. that to him properly and wholly be­longeth the government of all Estates of this Realme, there­fore without and against his consent, no different Government can be introduced.Covenant.

Having before our eyes the glory of God.—God is never more glorified then when we expresse a willing obedience to his commands two whereof emphatically enjoyne obedience to Superiors, and forbid wrong and prejudice to be offered by any to any one whomsoever.—

First, Honour thy Father and Mother, that is, all those that have authority over us, as all Expositors upon good grounds render the meaning of it.

Secondly, Thou shalt not covet thy Neighbours house, &c. nor any thing that is his;—that is, thou shalt not wish thy Neigh­bours hinderance in any thing, much lesse deprive him of the least thing properly belonging unto him,Vide the Mar­gent of the Bi­ble. or you shall not of­fer any wrong to any man whomsoever, whereby he may suf­fer damage in person, estate, reputation, or otherwise; for the word neighbour, must be taken in a more extensive significa­tion in the Commandement, then we commonly use it. O that every man with one eye fixed upon these two Commande­ments would with the other view what by the Law is justly due to his Majestie, and Posterity, and then consider, &c. Besides these you have the Prophets and Apopostles,Pro. 27.29.30. speaking the same truth as Ambassadours from heaven; Solomon adviseth us not to with-hold the goods from the owners thereof, though [Page 36] there be power in thy hand to do it,Prov. 3.27, 29, 30. nor to intend hurt against our neighbour, seeing he doth dwell by us withoutFeare, that is, putteth trust in us. Pro. 24.21. Eccles. 8.3, 4. Vide margent in the Bible. Covenant. feare, not to strive with a man causlesse, seeing he hath done no harme, My sonne fear the Lord and the King, and meddle not with those that are given to change, saith the same wiseman.

Take heed to the mouth of the King, and to the Word of the Oath of God, saith the Preacher,— that is, obey the King, and keep the Oath that thou had made for the same cause.

The advancement of the Kingdome of our Lord and Savior Je­sus Christ.

His Kingdome is never more advanced then when we obey his Precepts, and imitate his practice.

Mat. his Precepts will appear in part, if we consider that in his Sermon upon the Mount, after he had pronounced bles­sednesse to the poore in spirit, to those that mourne, to the meeke, to those which hunger and thirst for righteous­nesse, to the pure in heart, to peace-makers, to those which suffer for righteousnesse sake, to those that are falsly revi­led and persecuted; he addeth this Exhortation to his A­postles,— Let your light so shine, that is, let these things for which men shall be blessed, practically appeare in your lives and conversations, that so they may see your good workes, that is, others by your example of holinesse may be brought home to the fold of Christ, and glorifie his Father which is in heaven.

And for his practise you may read it in respect of his pay­ing tribute, Matth. 22.21. as also how that being brought before Rulers whom (though causelesly reviling of him) hee reviled not againe, being led as a sheep to the slaughter, and obedient unto death, that thereby hee might be a pat­terne for our imitation, to which purpose he invites us, Follow me for I am lowly and meeke, &c. and in our imitati­on we must follow him, in obeying his Messengers the Apo­stles counsells, for they are sent from him, and what their counsell was, you may peruse, Rom. 13. submit your selves unto the higher Powers, &c. 1 Pet. 2.13, 14, 17. be obedient to every Ordinance of man, for the Lords sake, whether unto the King as supreme, &c.

[Page 37]Now what is this but to advance the Kingdome of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ?

The honour and happinesse of the King, that is,Covenant. honour him as a King of England by a cheerfull obedience unto his Lawes, in which consists his greatest happinesse: ho­nour him by your assistance as Subjects, supporting and sustaining him by your supplies according to his impor­tant occasions calling for the same: For, as Christ advi­sed his Apostles to expresse their affections by keeping of his Commandements, if you love me (saith he) keep my Commandements, as if he should have said, if you love me you will keep my Commandements, and if you doe keep my Commandements, you then evidence that you love me; so in this respect obedience to and assi­stance of His Majestie are but expressions of honour, if you honour the King you will obey and assist him, if you obey and assist him, you make it appeare to the world that you do really honour him.

And Royall Posterity, that is,Covenant. what Honour and Rights were justly due to the Father, render to his Chil­dren, deprive not them of any part of their inheritance, their regall honour and power.

The publike liberty, safety and peace of the Kingdome. Covenant.

That must needs imply theMagna Charta. Law; for, by that we are distinguished from slaves; and in that we have security and safety with peace, the fruit of the observation of the Law.

Wherein every ones private condition is included. Covenant.

That is, Prince as well as people: O Lord blesse the Kings Majesty and royall Posterity, restore our Lawes to their vigor, and this poore Kingdome to a lasting peace.

Calling to mind the conspiracies and practices of the enemies of God, Covenant. against the true Religion and professors thereof.

That is, against the doctrinall part of our Religion,Vide the qua­lification of an oath behind. ex­pressed in the 39. Articles of the Church of England: for common reason and your Protestation affirmeth it necessa­rily meant of our Religion established, and against the maintainers, thereof.

[Page 38] Covenant. Calling to mind the treacherous and bloody plots against the Law of the Kingdome,— that is, plots by such waies and meanes, as the deplorable estate of Ireland long since was a sad witnesse of, whose rebellious and trayterors courses a­gainst His Majesties Royall Person, Crowne of England and Ireland, sufficiently then spake their intentions to sub­vert both Religion and Law.

Covenant. We have now at last for preservation of our selves and Re­ligion from utter ruine and destruction— That againe, I say, according to reason, must have a respect to a Religion and Law that is established; for it is improper and absurd to say, much more vaine to sweare, that I will preserve that from ruine and destruction which is not in being, ruine pre­supposing somthing that is to be destroyed; and preserva­tion somthing that otherwise will be ruined.

Thus you have the ground of this Covenant, (without mentall reservation and equivocation, which if the con­trivers had any, as since it appears they had, non ad vos per­tinet, it savoureth too much of the Jesuite, ipsi viderint, let them look to it, it concerneth not you to whom I write) according to the literall and Gramaticall sense and conso­nant to the Rules of Religion, Reason and Law explained; I proceed to the Covenant it selfe, wherein I shall observe the same religious, rationall and lawfull method.

i Art. Cove­nant. That we shall sincerely, really and constantly (through the grace of God) endeavour in our severall places and callings.

That is, according to the station wherein God hath placed us, the King in his regall Power, Magistrates as deri­vatives from him in their places, Ministers in theirs, private subordinate persons according to their severall degrees in theirs, none exceeding the rules proper to their peculiar Vocation; where by the way take notice, that although Superiours may and often do at one and the self-same time performe both their owne duties and also actions proper to Inferiours, yet it is unlawfull for Inferiours to take upon them without lawfull Commission the duty of Superiours; Lay private men must not in [...]ermeddle with what concer­neth [Page 39] the proper duty of a Minister, nor must Divines wil­fully intrench upon the bounds of the Civill Magistrates, nor they upon the Royall Fuction of the King; for this were to authorize confusion, whereas God is the God of Order.Covenant:

Endeavour (That clause must be impli­ed though not inserted. Be­sides it is also confessed as needfull in the exhortation for taking the Covenant, Ordered by the House of Commons, Die Veneris Feb. 1643. Covenant. so far as lawfully I may) the preservation of the Reformed Religion in the Church of Scotland in Doctrine.

That is, if their Reformed Religion be not contrary to the Word of God: this I adde, because few in England know what it is in its Doctrinall part, but by an implicite faith; and I adde it the rather, because the practice of the prevailing party there since these stormes first begun, so contrary to professions, may occasion suspition of their doctrines sincere truth, witnesse their Declarations, and therein Protestations to maintaine the Kings Rights, &c. contradicted by assisting endeavours to deprive him of his Rights.

In worship, discipline and government. That is, that Government which was established, and so re­mained at the compiling of the Covenant, grant it the Presbyterian, by the lawfull and supreme pow­er of that Kingdome, untill that government shall be altered by virtue of the self-same power.

Against our common enemies. That is,Covenant. all who by unlawfull meanes, contrary to the Word of God, the Lawes and customes of that Nation, and the con­sent of his Royall Majesty, shall indeavour an infor­ced alteration thereof. And here by the way, as well for vindication of my self and many others in England, as also seeing they esteem the Presbyteri­an Government there so rich a purchased jewell, for their future security; I shall add thus much, that since they enjoyed that government so confirmed as they have by the Royall ass [...]nt, we never would have [Page 40] disturbed them in their desired possession of their Church-government; as they have visited (for I love mildnesse in expressions in what concerneth my Countries interest) us by oaths and armes for an extirpation of Episcopacy, and for the future shall never intermeddle contrary to Reason, Religion or Law.

Covenant. The reformation of religion in the Kingdome of Eng­land and Ireland, &c. in Doctrine, Worship, Discipline and Government. according to the Word of God, and the example of the best reformed Churches.

As for the doctrine of the Church of England expressed in theThe doctrine of the Prote­stant Church in Ireland a­greeable to them. 39. Articles, being grounded on a sure foundation, the holy Scriptures (which are onely able to make us wise unto salvation) hath even to this very day, by the assistance, protection and efficaciously working of Gods Spirit in the hearts of many glorious pillars of our Church (reverend Bishops and other pious and learned Divines) stood like a rock unshaken, their tongues preaching, their pens maintai­ning, their bloods confirming the irresistable prevailing truth thereof, against Turke, Jew, Jesuite, and all other he­reticall and schismaticall opponents whatsoever.

Thus much I am confident all neighbouring Prote­stant Churches will condescend unto: therefore I shall proceed.

Covenant. In Doctrine and Worship.

That is, all erroneous tenents and practices (whether Papisticall, Schismaticall, or others) of those qui ambulant post spiritum suum, against whom the Prophet denounceth a woe,Ezek. 13.3. who being departed from the1 Tim. 4.1. faith which they once professed, are guided by the spirit of error, leading silly women, and unstable mindes captive, by the whistling of every breath of their windy doctrine, being clad in sheeps cloathing,Mat. 7.15. but inwardly ravenous Wolves: Ex­amples of which nature, too too many offer them- themselves in these unhappy times; wherein almost all [Page 41] things are countenanced, or at least connived at as lawful, but lawful things; therefore let us pray, That the God of Peace and Truth would bring into the way of Truth and Peace all such as have erred and been deceived, by seditious Schismatical guids, and erronious directions, and prosper thou, oh Lord, all their en­deavours tending to such a Reformation. Amen.

Discipline, Government according to the Word of God, Covenant. and the best Reformed Churches.

Now the question will be, which cometh nearest to the Word of God.

That Episcopacy claimeth the nearest alliance, truly entituling it self to be of Apostolical Institution, is a truth that hath been made good in all ages.

That for 1500 years continuance of Christianity, there is no example of the Church Governed otherwise: An Argument sufficient to suspect Novelties in opposition unto it.

That it hath been approved of by most of the Protestant Di­vines beyond the Seas,Vide Ecclesiast Histori [...]. (who are rather induced by necessity to the practise of Presbytery, there wanting means to maintain, or abilities lawfully to compass Episcopal Government, them wills and desires to enjoy the same: A strong Argument, per­swading that our Church is the best Reformed:) is also an ap­parent truth.

That in all disputes, especially this latter,Doctor Hall against SMECTYMNVVS Since the War of the reverend and learned Remonstrancer, against that odd Combination of * Let­ters, Episcopacy hath stood the field, triumphing in Reason and Religion, which have only perswaded my judgment to an in­clination thereunto, and an approbation thereof; and I presume any one, not obstinately prejudicate in their judgments, will soon be satisfied thereof, and agree with me herein; by the per­usal of that learned Bishops writings, or by any, whose learning and judgments are able to inform them therein.

But to write truth, whether Episcopacy or Presbytery come nearest to the Word of God, never was, nor at present is, the dis­pute between His Majesty and the two Houses; but quis reg­nabit? Where the supream power, in Causes Ecclesiasticall [Page 42] and Civil shall practically remain for the future, either in Prince or people: Nor indeed was it the end, that these Covenant-Con­trivers did aim at. Witness their second Article, wherein before tryal and examination (whereby truth or falshood is made evident,) they, contrary to reason, pass sentence of condemna­tion upon it; therein positively swearing, without respect of persons, (a strange expression, whereas the King is the first mo­ving wheel of a new Law) to extirpate the Government it self, that indeed being a Marble pillar, which first must be removed by them, before they can introduce their bloody-colour'd post of Presbytery; endeavouring in that Article to ingage the common peoples Consciences, (though I shall by and by make good, that no mans Conscience is thereby ingaged) to assist them, I mean the Plotters, to attain that which they had a pre-resolution to ef­fect, si non Precibus tunc vi, armisque: —Since that plainly ap­pearing as I have already shewed.

However that my deceived Countrymen may see how they have been abused into a belief of enjoying I know not how much happiness under the term of Reformation in Church, now generally re-baptized Presbytery; I shall present to your veiw a short Paralel, collected out of the writings of a pious, learned and conscientious Divine, of these two Governments, Episcopal and Presbyterian.Doctor Fearne For, as for that illegitimate thing, that new­born brat Independency, it hath such variety of shapes, and each of them also so monstrous, that I shall not need to meddle with it at all, being Confident that it will soon be hissed out of the Kingdom by a Universal Consent, or like Jonah's gourd vanish away, unthought of, in a moment. And here I cannot but in­sert my admiration, to perceive so many men still so firmly in their affections and Judgments, adhering to the present conclu­sive determinations of that changeable-coloured thing, nay, that word Parliament; when as it is that which hath so much a­bused even these first affecting persons, the City of London in ge­neral, their mis-lead supporters: Witness in particular, the pre­sent continuing imprisonment of the Lord Mayor, and Alder­men, and that strange and uncivil expulsion out of the Leiutenan, cy of the Tower, that deserving Gentleman Col. Francis West [Page 43] without the least pretended cause, even in the very middest of his expressed courtesies, and feasting favours cofenr'd upon their great Don, and his followers; although he formerly was chosen by the general Vote, nay, acclamation of the whole City, appro­ved of by themselves, and indeed beloved by all; Only to make way for that unfl [...]dg'd Titmouse of Manhood and Wit; that Imp of Independency Tichbourn, fitter, by far, mimically, again in his Fathers Chamber, to act a wanton girles part in a Com­medy, then to have so great a part of trust and commanding power, as he now hath conferred upon him. Oh Lord open the eyes of poor deceived England, especially the City of London, and suffer them no longer to walk in darkness, and in the sha­dow of a senceless stupidity, thus like blind men, groping for the path of peace and truth, even at noon day.

But I proceed to the Paralel of these Ecclesiastical Governments. And in the first place, take their defini­tions in general.

Episcopacy, in it self consider­ed, is a prelacy or superiority of one above all the Presbyters, within such a precinct or dio­cess, which one is appointed to have care of all the Churches within that compass, and furni­shed with Power and Authority for Ordination and Jurisdiction (that Authority not being Ar­bitrary, but bounded by Laws, [Page 44] and administred or exercised with advice and assistance of cer­t [...]in choyce Presbyters;) to the intent, that all Churches or Con­gregations under him may be provided of able Pastors, and that both these inferior Pastors and people may perform the duties required of them.[Page 43]Pressbytery is such a form of Church-Government,
Doctor Fearn in his book of Episcopacy & Presbytery considered.
as is ad­ministred by preaching, and Lay Elders joyntly, with equal voice and power in the several Judicatories of their Parochial Sessions, of their Classical or greater Consistories, of their P [...]ovincial Synods,
Page 3
and Nation­al Assemblies.

[Page 44]Now by this, if I mistake not, you may perceive that they both agree in ipso regimine Ecclesiastico, —in the Government it self, considered as it referreth to the Church, that is, all Mem­bers therein that are to be governed, though not in the manner, number or qualification of the persons governing; both parties confessing, that the power of Ordination, and of Judicature, (so far forth as the keys left by Christ in his Church do extend) is of Divine Institution, and that this power must be excecised or administred in his Church by some; so that, I say, the differ­ence is, whether the exercise or ministration of that power be restrained to certain choice men, or indifferently left to all Pres­byters, and their assisting Lay Elders: — For none will accuse themselves guilty of so much ignorance and folly, as to affirm, that the decent Ceremonies, and innocent Vestm [...]s of the Church, as Cross in Baptism, Surpless, Cope &, the like, were pra­ctised & imposed, as essential, and inseparably necessary adjuncts to the Government it self: All which, rather then contention for them, should have extended to blood, might, nay would have been, by the condescention of His Majesty, quietly layd aside, needing not the peremptoriness of the sword to silence them.

I. Under episcopal there is in every Parish a preaching Mini­ster, with Churchwardens; and in some Deacons or Curates, by these offenders are noted and admonished, and the offences presented to the Ecclesiastical Courts or Confistories, where they may be heard and censured [Page 45] the Minister having power in some cases of notorious scandal, to restrain from the Communi­on, untill the offence may be heard and judged in the Court and the party so offending, by the censure of the Church brought to give publike satisfa­ction.[Page 44]Under the Presbyterian Go­vernment there is in every Pa­rish a Minister, with a compe­tent number of Lay Elders and Deacons; according to the large­ness of the Parish: These make the Parochial Session, and have power to censure scandalous li­vers, contentious persons, and [Page 45] the like, to enjoyn publike pe­nance, and impose upon the pe­nitent, before he be received in­to the Church, a fine to be im­ployed on pious uses.
II. Under Episcopal, in every diocess, there are several divisi­ons, the lesser and the greater, these being called Deanries, there is Arch-Deconries, in those the Arch-Presbyters, in these the Arch-Deacons have power to call the Parochial Mi­nisters together to enquire of doctrine and manners, and see to the redressing of smaller abu­ses. In the Mother City is the Bishop residing with his Pres­byters, having the power of Or­dination of judging and deter­mining of all matter of doctrine or scandal, reserevd to his hear­ing by his Arch-Deacons, and of rejudging what was judged a­miss by them: This he doth, ei­ther in his Consistory, which he holdeth in his City, assisted by his Presbyters; or in his Vsitia­tions, going through his diocess, and causing his Clergy person­ally to appear, or in his diocesan Synod, which is made up of the City Presbyters, Dean and Chapter, the Arch-Deacons, and other choice Presbyters under the presidency of the Bishop.Under the Presbyterian in eve­ry County, there are also several divisions or Classes, containing such a number of Parochiall Ministers, who have their set meetings for conference; and in the City, or more eminent Town, is the great Presbyteri­an Consistory, commonly cal­led the Presbytery, made up of all the Parochiall Ministers within its precincts; and of Lay Elders, from each Parish one; in this is the power of Ordina­tion, of censuring crimes of the higher strain, with the greater Excommunication of hearing appeals from the Parochial Ses­sions, and rejudging what was there judged amiss.
III. Under Episcopal Go­vernment are held Provincial Synods, consisting of all the Bi­shops, Deans, Arch-Deacons, and of certain choice Presby­ters from every diocess within the Province; these have power to order all matters concerning the whole Province, to hear ap­peals from every Diocess, to re­judg what is done amiss, that could not be well determined in a Di [...]cesan Synod.Under the Presbyterian also are held Provincial Synods, made up of Commissioners, that is, certain preaching, and Lay Elders from every Indivi­dual Presbytery, or Presbyteri­an Consistory, within the Pro­vince: These judg and deter­mine matters pertaining to the whole Province: Also, all dif­ficult cases, that could not well be determined within the Pres­bytery, they receive appeals al­so from the Presbyters, and ex­amine what was there thought to be done amiss.
IIII. Under Episcopal Go­vernment are also held National Councels, consisting of the like Members as do the Provincial, these are of greatest au [...]hority: they examine and judg any thing done amiss any in Pro­vince: they consider and deter­mine matters of Doctrine and Discipline inorder to the whole Nationall Church.Under the Presbyterian, likewise, are held National Assemblies, consisting of Commissioners from all the Presbyteries in the Kingdom, each of them sending two preaching, and one Lay Elder; also from every Burrough one, and he a Lay man; and from every University one, and for the most part a Ley man too: In these is the supream and finall determination of all complaints and controversies, and unto the decrees that issue thence, all must obey under pain of Excommunication.

Now these premises impartially considered, which of these two Governments have the more effectual means to procure the end of Church Government, the preservation of truth and peace, the suppression of Heresie and Schism, let any rational unbyass'd-minded man judg; For my part, I ingenuously confess that it is [Page 47] contrary to common reason, in my apprehension, that Lay-men, from whose education no knowledg extraordinary beyond their trades and such like affairs can be expected, (although it is true that many are furnished with knowing parts, yet as true that the most in a Nation are altogether defective therein) can be as fit instruments for such kind of imployments as grave and learned Divines, whose only business it is to tread the path of all arts both humane and divine; so that if this continue in England, what I once read alledged against the Papal Consistory, that they did potius numerare suffragia quam argumenta pondirare; num­ber rather their Votes, then weigh the solidity of their Ar­guments; will, I fear, be our deserved censure.

From which justly meriting accusation
Good Lord deliver this Nation.

Again consider further, Bishops assume not the exercise of any power within any Princes Dominions, or use it over his subjects but by permission and authority from him, and that according to just Laws and Rules made by soveraign Authority for the manner of external Ministration thereof, so that when the E­piscopal power cometh to the holding of Courts and calling Assemblies, it wholy depends on the soveraign power;25 Hen. 8.19. with­out whose Assent, signified by his writ, they cannot assemble for the making of Canons and Constitutions, nor publish and put in u [...]e any of them being made.

Now Presbyterians take upon them to set up their Discipline in a Kingdom (therein indeed shaking hands with Jesuited Pa­pists,) maugre all opposition; It is true for external peace sake they hold it fit to crave leave first and beg the assistance of the Civil Power, but if denyed, will proceed without it, assembling together and making their own Laws without regulations from the Civil Power, for the manner and form of exercising their Discipline, allowing only the Prince, Potestatem Cumulativam [Page 48] (as they speak) a power to add more strength and vigour, not Privativam, to interpose or hinder their assemblies or decrees. And in this respect it were to be wished that England had never proved exemplary, as now in these latter times it doth by such kind of proceedings; The fountain from whence hath issued too ny bloody streams.

And here it will not be amiss to present the Reader with the grounds and reasons enforcing his Majesty with his loyal Sub­jects assistance to defensive Arms, and in that a Declaration of my own in particular and many thousand English Protestant Judgments more, whose pens, tongues and hands only endea­vored a restoration of his Royal Majesty to his just regal honor and authority.

Themselves and their fellow-subjects unto their due liberties both Parliamentary and private.

The preservation of the Protestant Religion in the Doctrine and Profession of the Church of England against all Papists and Sectaries.

The maintenance of the Government of the Church of Eng­land, as it standeth still by Law established until the Law of the Land shall make alteration thereof; not so peremptorily maintaining the continuance of Episcopal Government, as to enforce the remaining of its general practice in England, by force of Arms in opposition and against his Majesties (suppose that the King could or would dispence with his Coronation Oath) will and consent to that purpose cheerfully and voluntarily ra­tified; (not by the pressing violence of almost unavoydable ne­cessity or tyrannizing power of the prevailing Sword) but freely confirmed and declared by Act of Parliament, although perad­venture they may mourn the alteration and abrogation of so an­cient and apostolical a Government.

But because my Judgment pleadeth for Episcopacy, and it hath been an argument much urged against the Bishops, and in them the Government it self defamed — That

[Page 45]That formerly they silenced severall godly Ministers, prohi­biting them and others the exercise of holy duties; because they did only exercise duties that were holy; I shal write my thoughts freely herein; For, far be it from me to speak against, or any to forbid the Exercise of holy duties, as hearing, praying, reading, living strictly, Endeavouring to have a Conscience void of offence towards God, and towards Men: No, no, the practice of them in sincerity is the high way to Heaven, for without holinesse none shall see God; but in the mean time, take heed what you hear, beware of swallowing poyson wrapped up in Leaves of gold; take heed of these who have a forme of Godlinesse, a forme in Practice onely; that under pretence of long Prayers and outside piety, devour Wid­dows houses, that deny the truth of the word of God, the holy Scriptures; by their false Doctrines seducing many into erronious Opinions, the parents of worse succeeding actions.

For my part, if any did so forbid performance of holy duties, as I am altogether ignorant of any such; nor can easily be indu­ced to believe it, howsoever were I assured of its truth, I would not minima defendere peccata, plead an excuse for them.

But if then they did (as I believe they did) onely by suspensions endeavour to prevent the sowing of the seeds of sedition, schisme and heresie, or the growth thereof to any strength, either in pub­lick or in private, (as it was there) and is the duty of all Ecclesia­sticall Governours, they did no more then what the law of God and the land gave them a warrant for; therefore let every one as well take heed of calling good, evill; as tearming evill to be good: for in all probability, had such preventing-remedies as these been timely applied, when sedition, schisme and heresie first opened their black mouths, we never had arrived at this high degree (as at this present we are) of variety of Errours and pernicious de­structive Opinions— O Lord have mercy upon us.

But grant that some of them stretched the exercise of power be­yond its lawfull bounds, and in that respect were guilty, deser­ving punishment.

What, is the fault of one or more Bishops to the Government it self? could not the errours of particular persons be reformed, or punished but by an extirpation of the whole Government? durus est hic sermo, it is hard indeed, if God for the sin of two, Adam [Page 46] and Eve, nay of many thousands more, should have therefore denied mercy and reconciliation to all mankind. How everlasting­ly unhappy would the residue of the world have been! Deliver us good God from the cruell dealings of men, and if affliction must be our portion, let us fall into thy hands, O Lord, for thy mercy endureth for ever.

As for the remaining clauses in the first Article, viz. Of bringing the Churches of God in the three Kingdoms to the nearest uniformi­ty, &c. these things considered:

Covenant. That the Discipline of the Church of God is most Consonant to the word of God, approved of, and desired by forraigne Divines, and therefore the best reformed; not intrenching with the Papists upon the Civill power, nor with them, denying the Kings supre­macy in causes Ecclesiasticall, agreeing best with Monarchy, con­firmed by the Law of the Land. Other Churches therefore (ac­cording to the rule of reason and religion) within His Majesties Dominions, should rather conform to ours, then the uniformity of ours in Religion, Government, and Worship admit a change, or be transformed into any other form: To this purpose, O Lord, in­spire the universal Church with the spirit of truth, unity, and concord, and grant that all that do Confesse thy holy name may live in peace and godly love one with another. Amen.

Covenant. This limitation is approved by the Parliament, as behind, fol. 53. That we shall in like manner; that is, in a lawfull manner ac­cording to the word of God, endevour the extirpation of Pope­ry, — that is, their tenents of transubstantiation, worshipping of Images, praying to Saints, Preaching good works as meritorious to everlasting life and salvation, that Kings for diverse respects may be Deposed by the people, that then Subjects Oaths of Alleagiance may be dispensed with, King James Apol. Oath Alleg. with their deniall of the Kings Supremacy in all Cau­ses as well Ecclesiasticall and Civill, and the like; Endeavour ex­tirpation of these by execution of good Laws already established against their Errours and Professours thereof, by that meanes preventing their further growth, hindring their seducing of igno­rant and unwary people, and in case of Conspiracy and Treason against the Kings Majesty, His Queen, or Royall off-spring, the disturbance of the Peace of Church and State, by complaining of their attempts and deeds to the Magistrate, leaving them to the [Page 47] justice of the Law: and lastly, by recovering them by strength of holy arguments (as with strong phisick) from that infection of their judgment and consciences, and their soul-poysoning heresies, praying continually in the fervency of the spirit for their con­version.

But before I proceed to the next words (Extirpation of Church-Government by Bishops, &c.) I must desire the Reader to re­flect back upon what I have already written concerning the Li­mitations of an Oath, briefly thus, That no unlawfull Oath bindeth, Vide fol. 46. nor must unlawfull means be used for the compassing for effecting any thing in it self lawfull, &c.

Extirpation of Government by Arch-bishops, Bishops, Covenant. their Chan­cellors, &c. That is, by using all lawfull means warrantable by the law of God and the Kingdome, to that end, as petitioning the supream Magistrate the King, or any other way if any other way can be imagined, not I say, intrenching upon the law of God.

For, were an abolition hereof absolutely necessary, conducing to the generall peace of the Kingdom, as it is upon good grounds, believed, rather altogether distructive thereunto; will you buy a temporall peace upon such unequal termes, as to hazard your soul eternally (unlesse the mercy of God interpose) by wilfull perjury in the purchase, and gain an eating curse to your Posterity by Sa­criledge? Besides, it is against the Principles of all Governments, the Law of God, and the Land, to enforce an alteration by bloo­dy force, as I have already shewed.

Nay, you doe not onely hereby make your selves guilty of per­jury, treason, bloud and sacriledge, but you endeavour to compell His Majesty to the breach of His Oath taken at His Coronation, wherein He swore to Defend the Bishops, their priviledges, and Chur­ches under their government.

Again, were the Presbyterian government absolutely good, & so out of necessity the Episcopal must be removed, as it is not, yet a bloudy eradication is proculdubio, unlawfull, for we must not do evill, that good may come thereof; we must not like mad Mariners desperately steer our course amongst Rocks, hoping to arrive at a rich freight, lest we shipwrack our selves here, and lose the end of our voy­age, our hopes hereafter; therefore let all men, take heed of pre­tending [Page 48] a necessity of keeping this one Article of extirpation, because they have so Covenanted; unlesse they will make good also a necessity of breaking all Gods Commandements; which is an high degree of Blasphemy to maintain, for that is, impia pro­missio quae sine scelere impleri non potest, non (que) obligat; no Law ob­ligeth in opposition to the Gods Law; if it doth binde, it is to a repentance only; Therefore Recollect your thoughts now, for your owne Experience cannot but acquainte you, that a vio­lent deprivation of the Kings Regall power was at first the con­trivers designe; and now plainly appeareth to be the Result of the Warre on their part; and reflect upon the almost six years means made use of; or rather sinnes committed to effect the ac­complishment thereof; as Envy, Hatred, Malice, Hypocrisie, pub­lick pretences of Reformation, private intentions of Eradication, and Deformation, revilings of His Majesties Royall Person and Government, Scandalizing of the English Nationall Church, abo­minable Lying, contempt of Superiors, forceing of mens Consci­ences, Disloyalty, Perjury, Theft, Bloodshedding, nay, all imagi­nable Sinnes, with renewing of old Heresies, and raising of all manner of Schismes. Now if you love your selves and your soules, and would not contract the guilt of all these sinnes upon your owne heads; and as it were set your Seal of confirmation and approbation to the Sinnes of others; thus heaping up wrath against the day of wrath, be perswaded to desert these Plotters, and their Designes persist not; (contrary to Reason and Religion) in a rigid and sinfull keeping of that extirpating Article. Now seeing the day-star appeareth, and every one (who formerly were wraped up in the night of mistakes and misapprehensions, or blinded with the silken veile of a good Opinion of the Contrivers, (because outwardly they appeared in Angelicall habits) may without spectacles read that their pretences were only to usher in the in­tention; therefore the plea of ignorance and good meaning as formerly, can no longer be used, but be perswaded to come out from among these progressive ROOTERS, lest continuing with them in Sinne; you also with them partake of punishment. For God is just, as well as mercifull.

Covenant. Superstition, Heresie, Schisme, and Profanesse, &c. For the resi­due of this second Article having already written something [Page 49] (which also may aptly be applyed to these) when I handled the word Popery, I shall only turne it into a Prayer; yet because Schisme is joyned with the rest; if it were a time in these sad times, to jest, I should make it good, Rationally that your Con­triving Presbyterians have in that, Sworn against their owne Practice; for although the Protestant Church, like the Spouse in the Canticles is black; that is, not appearing genuina gloria, by reason of stormy weather; yet still she is Comly; still in her doctrine and discipline unaltered, remaining firme upon its old established foundation, notwithstanding the violent Endeavours of their changing times; nor was their Presbyterian Government then extant, and as yet but an infant, for want of the Royall as­sent, being neither able to stand, goe, or speak; they themselves also very well knew, what the word Schisme in an Ecclesiasticall sense meaneth; how that ille Schismaticus qui a ritu Ecclesiae petu­lanter, & ambitionis studio discedit; that Separateth himselfe upon a proud Pharisaicall conceit of holinesse from the Communion of the Church, in the performance of Religious acts. But I passe that by, Praying that God, the searcher of all hearts, would be pleased to root out of all our hearts and mindes the destroying blindnesse of Superstition, the spreading Leprosie of Heresie, the peace-Eating Gangren of Schisme, the tainting Corrupt humours of Profanesse, and all other things displeasing unto him, and con­trary to His word, that we enjoy a blessed harmonious consent in Truth and Godlinesse, expressing the power thereof in our lives and conversations, and that the Lord may be One, and his name One in these three Kingdomes.

We shall with the same sincerity, 3 Article. Covenant. &c. Endeavour to preserve the Rights and Priviledges of Parliament: These are — freedome of expressing mens judgements, & if taken in a comprehensive com­pleate sense, (King, Lords and Commons) power to repeal old, and Establish new Lawes; to which every Subject is bound to yeild obedience: Only thus much let me adde, that no Priviledges of one or both Houses can Patronize Treason, Murder,Vide Lex terrae. J. Jenkens. or breach of the Peace, by their own confession; nor is it indeed consonant to reason; that they, whose first institution was ordained for preservation; should themselves practice or command desolation; whose Consultations should tend to the prevention of Treasona­ble [Page 50] and Rebellious excursions; & their concatenated effects, disso­lution of the band of a nationall Peace, effusion of bloud; by impo­sing (to that purpose) penalties & punishments upon the offenders; should amidst such consultations be practically guilty themselves of the same Crimes; they should be guiltless that condemne the guilty.

Quae culpare soles, ea tu ne feceris ipse:
Turpe est doctori, cum culpa redarguit ipsum.

Preserve the Liberties of the Kingdomes, That is, as Kingdomes ha­ving liberties by the Law and Custome thereof distinct one from the other;Covenant. to preserve each of them, free from any usurping po­wer and unlawfull intrenching one upon the Other. And in this respect it were to be wished, that our Northern friends had kept close in their practice: and that England for the future, would take care to defend its particular Interests.

Liberties of the Kingdomes, not Libertinisme in a Kingdome. But Liberties, that is, the Liberty of each man therein, which as Natives, or otherwise belong unto them according to the funda­mentall Constitution and Law of each respective Nation: now this Liberty must necessarily have a respect to all degrees of men therein. Pray then let us not exclude the head of all, the King, as I have touched in my observation upon the preamble, especi­ally having sworn in the next Clause to Preserve and Defend the Kings Majesties Person, Covenant. &c. That is, Not to hazard His Person by opposing Armies in the field, where the ignorant Bullet can­not distinguish persons; Nor by administring the least occasion of heart-grieving & melancholy sadnesse; the slie, yet certain impai­rers of health, & menacers of the bodies ruine; nor by, and actions or speeches derogatory to the honour of a King, and not becom­ming the duty of a Subject; for you all know what greived Da­vid most; and who it was that said, At quod tu facis, hoc mihi dolet — Subjects insurrections against, and insolent abuses of their King, (like the apprehension of an injury received from an intimate friend) non tam cito tangit quam penetrat, like an arrow pierceth the very heart, upon an instant, therefore this is not the way to preserve the Kings person.

Covenant. Vide more to make this good backward. And Authority — Now, what that is I have already shewed, how that to Him belongeth the power of making and repealing Lawes, War or Peace, &c.

[Page 51] In the preservation of the true Religion & Liberties of the Kingdom. Covenant.

This, upon Rationall grounds must necessarily imply Religion and Liberties, in esse, not posse or velle, as I have already observed; Now both this Religion in esse by Law established, and the King­domes Liberties: His Majesty hath preserved, & stil doth, even with the losse of his own Defence, the Kingdomes true Liberties. And for His Religion I attest His very Enemies confession, to make good His constant Perseverance therein, and preservation thereof: my self in this particular esteeming it, melius silere quam pauca dicere, admiration supplying the place of Expression.

O therefore, that the world may bear witnesse with your Consciences of your Loyalty, that is,Covenant. faithfull obedience to your Soveraigne, (notwithstanding former aberrations through igno­rance) and that you, for your parts had no thoughts or intents to diminish that just power and greatnesse which belongeth unto him by the Law: Use your best endeavours to free Him from this unparallel'd and unjust restraint, and restore Him to His Re­gall power and possession of His Royall prerogative. Thus you will be instrumentall restorers, of Englands Honour, Peace, and Glory; and doe not content your selves, (as too many doe) that you have only sworn to maintaine the Kings Just Rights, when as your actions Endeavour the contrary, or endeavour not at all the maintenance of them, contrary unto this Clause of your Covenant.

We shall also with all faithfullnesse endeavour the discovery of all such as have been, or shall be Incendiaries, Malignants, 4. Article. Covenant. or evill Instru­ments by hindring the Reformation of Religion, &c. Who hindreth Reformation, and a reduction of Religion to the purity of practice, but those who hitherto have countenanced and still connive at a Toleration of all Erroneous practices, Schisme, &c. contrary to the second Article of this Covenant, hereby making themselves guilty; for Qui non vetat peccare cum potest, Jubet.

Dividing the King from His people — Are not they such divi­ders who have taken up armes only to deprive His Majesty of His Regall Power? Declared him not in a condition to governe;Covenant. Answers to Scots Papers, Novemb. 1647. Dec. Answer to Scots Papers, 13 March 1647. and by imprisonment of Him, disabled Him from performing His duty as a King, by protecting His Subjects; and by Proclamati­ons enjoyning their Obedience to the established Lawes? Who [Page 52] have divided the Kingdome from the King! but such, as by their actions,Negat. Oath. Oathes and Declarations have endeavoured to frame Rem publicam in Regno; Supreamacy in the people never heard of, nor ever practised in this Nation before, in opposition to His Majesties justly Supream power; going about to transforme this Kingdome into a body with two heads, which is monstrous and contrary to nature, and to contrive two shining Suns in Englands Hemisphear, which was ever ominous, and Prognosticatours of Destruction.

O Deus bone, in quae tempora reservasti!
Preserve us good God from confusion and suddaine ruine.

Who divide one Kingdom from another, making factions among the people, and causing fractions in their duties and affections, but they that invite the assisting invasion of neighbour Nations, maintaining Armies within its one bowells, to effect an alteration of Government by force? Who divide one Kingdome from another, but they that neglect, nay, deny timely supplies, whereby Ireland might have been reduced, in Obedience to His Majesty, and the Law of the Land; the want whereof disabled the Prote­stant party there, and enableth the Irish Papists to divide them­selves from the Crown of England and Ireland, endangering also the ruine of our own Nation; and all these contrary to the com­mon rules of Humanity, much more Christianity? and in oppo­sition also, to the Law of the Land and this League and Cove­nant, thus rightly, Rationally and Religiously expounded.

Covenant. That they, that is, Incendiaries, Malignants, &c. may be brought to publick triall, and receive condigne punishment as the degree of their Offences shall require.

For this part of the Article I have nothing to write but this Se­cundum Leges fiat Justitia, may Justice take place, running down like a stream; yet because non sanguinis homo; Misericordia prae­valeat opto, may they all finde pardon for their Treason and Rebel­lion against our Soveraign Lord the King, & the Laws in this world, mercy & forgiveness for all their sins against the God of Heaven in the world to come. To this purpose it were to be wished they would follow the often reiterated advice of Reverend Judge Jen­kens, to restore His Majesty to His Throne, and procure a gracious Pardon from Him, with an all-burying Act of Oblivion.

[Page 53]O that men would in this their day, perceive those wayes wich do lead to Peace and Truth, and walk therein before they be hidden from their eyes.

And whereas the happinesse of a blessed Peace between these King­domes, that is,5. Article Covenant. by the union of the three Kingdomes under One King, professing the truth of Religion, governing by His establi­shed Law; denyed in former times to our Progenitours, is by the providence of God granted unto us, &c. —

So that, now we are no more Aliens, nay Neighbours, but Brethren; not envying one anothers happinesse and prosperity, being not infested with offensive or defensive Acts of hostility up­on either of our borders, but reciprocally endeavouring one ano­thers peace and welfare, mutually joying in the enjoyment of one anothers happinesse; Let each of us endeavour that the King­domes may remaine in such a firme peace and union, that is, by our mutuall obedience to our Soveraigne, and the Laws of each respective Nation, and in brotherly love one towards another.

Amen, O heavenly Father. Give us to this end powerfull endea­vours to make good our Covenant accordingly. —

And may Justice be done to the wilfull opposers in manner ex­pressed in the precedent Article.

We shall also according to our places in this common cause of Reli­gion, Liberty, and peace of the Kingdomes, 6. Article. Covenant. assist and defend by all lawfull meanes all those that enter into this League and Covenant, &c. nor shall we make defection to the contrary part, but shall oppose and hinder

That is, all such who envying our blessed union thus religiously lawfully cemented, shal oppose us and it, endeavouring by heretical erroneous divulged positions to dishonour God and robbe him of his glory; by seditious doctrines; to infuse into the people a disloyal spirit of Treason and Rebellion against the Kings Majesty His heires and successours; of disobedience to Him and His law­full Commands; whereby His honour is despised, the generall good of the Kingdomes not onely neglected, [...]ut much endange­red: all which we shall do as in the sight of God.

And because these Kingdomes are guilty of many sins against God and his Son Christ Jesus as by our present distractions & dan­gers too manifestly appeareth. Let us all pray that the God of hea­ven and earth would give us his grace of humiliation for our own [Page 54] particular, & the general sins of this Nation, especially that we have not valued the inestimable benefit of the Gospel, nor received Christ into our hearts: conforming our lives and actions to his practice and precept; but rather have made use of the liberty and freedome which we had by Christ from the rigorous exaction and condem­ning power of the Law,Gal. 5.13. as an occasion to neglect and altogether to deny our obedience to the Law as the rule of direction. Not­withstanding that thou who art truth it self, hast told us that the end of thy comming was to fulfill and not to destroy the Law;5 Mat. 17. Neverthelesse we despise it, running madly into sin as an horse rusheth into the battaile. Let us further pray that God would be­stow upon us his grace of assistance, whereby we may be enabled to amend our lives; to performe all holy actions required by him­selfe, to himself, according to his revealed will, all our duties to­wards Men according to their severall degrees and places, Honour and obedience to the King as Supreame, to whom they primarily belong; to all subordinate Magistrates as rivelets streaming from him the Spring; Forgiving all our enemies, persecutors and slan­derers, praying God (who hath the hearts of all men at command, winding them which way he please as he doth the Rivers of wa­ter) to pardon their sins and turne their hearts, and cause us to live in love, peace and charity one with another. Thus let us shew an example of a reall reformation, that the Lord may turne away his wrath and heavy indignation, and restore truth and peace to these Churches and Kingdoms, which God out of his infinite mer­cy grant. Amen. Amen.

To draw to a conclusion, I shall (by way of a briefe recollection) propound some few questions to my poor deceived Country-men which their owne knowledge can answer.

Had the irregular faction of the two Houses intended as they only pretended a reformation of some errours, which perhaps like Cobwebs in an uninhabited house, were growne through too much security a crime incident to an uninterrupted peace in Kingdomes, they might have been swep't downe with the milde beesome of Instruction, and care taken to prevent the like for future, and needed not to have pull'd downe the building to take them away.

Did ever His Majesty in all His transaction by His Messages and Declarations since these unhappy times, propose any new thing [Page 55] for the inlargement of His owne Prerogative, or derogatory to the Law of the Land, and more particularly that part thereof which concerneth the Subjects Liberty?

Did the King Patronize any Instruments who ranne former­ly beyond the just bounds of the Law from condigne punishment? Did He ever practice Popery truely so called, or propose any thing that to the most jealous and suspicious thoughts might in after-times have occasioned the introduction thereof?

Or did he ever administer the least ground to fear his recidiva­tion from the Protestant Religion, but rather hath evidenced the contrary by His Practice, Proclamations, Declarations and Com­mands?

Did not His Majesty ever first send Messages of Peace and re­conciliation;Vid. all His Messages. Col. Parl. Ordin. Wooing His Subjects to the enjoyment of their owne Tranquility and happinesse?

On the contrary, have not the irregular faction of the two Houses, notwithstanding their pretences of Religion and Law; subverted the ancient Law and Liberty of our Nation, and defamed the Religion established abrogating its formes of Worship?

This will appear if you consider

That in all their addresses though pretending Peace they never endeavoured a reconciliation between His Majesty and them­selves in such a manner, whereby a mutuall satisfaction and secu­rity might have been given and received as it is requisite, between two differing parties, but they must have all; giving His Majesty no satisction at all?

Did they ever command the practice of the Religion and formes of worship established (notwithstanding their pretended maintenance thereof?) or did they ever so much as consult about preservation thereof, but on the contrary have suffered heresies, Schismaticall opinions openly to be Preached and Printed, contra­ry to the same Government?

Did not His Majesty yeild to the setling of the Presbyterian Go­vernment for three years in a Legall manner, as flowing from the power of the Crowne? But this would not satisfie. — They like strange gamesters, fling at all, they must have totaliter totum.

Therefore consider hereof, you have againe the result of the de­signe Epitomized. — Nolunt hunc regnare. — Their Writings, Actions, past, present, (although spiced over with never so many [Page 56] plausible pretences) affirme no lesse.

O Angliginae, Angliginae, quae vos dementia cepit?

O English-men let me expostulate with you; Did all of you, nay did any of you six years past by your first assistance, intend what you now see brought to passe? — The frame of your Government altered. — Your King your Soveraigne a Prisoner. I am confident that few or none of you, (you I meane to whom I write, contributers of your assistance, not knowing wilfull contri­vers) had then no such intentions; Why then by silence will you suffer the guilt of these bloody designers to be originally pinn'd upon your back?

Take notice that sin-guilty men are of a nature much like the Plague, they love to have company in infection, avoid the one therefore as you would flie from the other, follow the common Proverbe, Set the saddle upon the right horse.

Weigh in your thoughts past and present actions; have they not sufficiently abused you, you deceived, mislead, Londoners I meane?

Could you ever some years past, have supposed that an Army, formerly stiling themselves your protecting friends, [...] July 1647. should by an opposing march come against you; slaying even at your City wals some ingaged for your and its defence? that the Cannons mouth should by them be turned against your dwellings; that your de­fensive meanes of preservation within your wals, your Chaines I meane, by the prevalency of that faction, should be knock'd off?

Could you then expect or fear to be thus domineered over by such bucklers, and the Lording swords? I am certaine such thoughts could not then possesse you. Now, all this being true, why will you by your too too passivenesse be continuers of your owne Miseries?

Consider further, do you all expect Clavum regni tenere? doe you all hope to be Kings? to governe? none obey? you cannot entertaine such vaine conceipts.

Do you expect that liberty should be granted in Civill affaires? Vitam sine lege vivere to live without a Law. — No no: deceive not your selves — your cunning Masters that have hitherto blindfol­ded you and led you by the nose; will, when they have gained the full command of the reines, make you passive in any thing that their ambition, malice, and covetousnesse shall (though falsely) [Page 57] suggest as necessary and convenient. — Therefore be perswaded to a desertion of them and their designes. What though you have got a scratch or two in your reputation, by your former er­roneous actions; would you rather have it fester through neglect, and so indanger the losse of a member, then apply this salve of a penitentiall returne, which will heale you in a moment? Non est perniciosum in praelio vulnerari, sed post vulnus acceptum vulneri medicamentum non applicare; It is more madnesse to re­fuse a cure, then dishonour to receive a wound.

Is it not a far better, happier Government, and freer from oppression to live under our Soveraigne Lord the King, Ruling His Subjects by a written Law, and resigning the Ministers of that Law (if they neglect executing Justice and Judgement according to the direction thereof) to the strictly searching examination of a Parliament, (one of their proper workes) and according to their merit by them to receive Punishment, then under a company of Tyrannicall persons (quibus voluntates solummodo leges) gover­ning according to their owne wils, and from whom there is no ap­peale?

Once more therefore, let me earnestly desire all my abused and deceived Country-men, to returne to the God of heaven by a true and unfeigned repentance to their Soveraigne in Loyall affe­ctions, and obedienciall actions, to their Country in a true hear­ted fidelity.

And here although I have not the least cause (knowing the prin­ciples of Religion on which they stand, to doubt their contrary practice) yet for the further advancement of His Majesties Ho­nour, their owne reputations as English Protestants, Vindica­tion of the Kings so just a Cause, and stopping the mouthes of en­vious men, who watch for reviling opportunities, let me adde this request, to all those who by the assisting and directing power of the Almighty God have ever since these dismall dayes of bloo­dy disloyalty, been kept in the straight path of obedience to His Majesty, That they would invite all former wanderers out of that way, unto a returne, by perswasive arguments of reason, sound principles of Religion, alluring expressions of affection, laying a­side all bitternesse of spirit, revenge and hatred, the bane of Peace and reconciliation, forgetting all former deviations; putting a difference between the efficient and instrumentall cause, I meane [Page 58] the contrivers of this Rooting designe and the Instruments, who were abused into unlawfull actions by specious pretences, and know not the end to which these beginnings did tend; conside­ring that though Nature hath equally bestowed eyes upon all birds, yet she hath not given to all, eyes alike qualified with the Eagles; therefore let us all rather endeavour to cleare their sight, then muffle them with the vailes of scornefull and reproachfull words; Nay let us even to the most wilfull persisters and invenomed spi­rits imitate the example of blessed S. Steven, whose heart, hands, eyes, and tongue then begg'd mercy and forgivenesse of the God of heaven, for his hard hearted adversaries, when they were knocking him downe to the earth with stones. And when in after times the wheel shall turne, placing their expectations in the chaire of power with a nunc fruimur votis, forget not to use the reines of command with Moderation; still remembring that the irregular deeds of State affaires, and Princes imployed instru­ments, reflect alwayes upon their Royall Master; the Kings ho­nour being then wounded when they do but slip into the practice of unwarrantable, unjust oppressing actions, remembring also that many thousands in England have almost for seaven years time, been bred up like wilde Colts, by their Riders, unto stubbornesse and disobedience, and therefore in probability, may sooner be stroked then whipp'd into a condescending compliance; for of­tentimes we know, that the sence of an immoderately beating hand, forceth a penitentiall, (though formerly prodigall child) to a backsliding, and re-excursions, unto more desperate underta­kings.

Although England hath been long troubled almost with a general phrenzie, yet the Iron rod, Bread and Water are not properly to be given them as food, whom Time the mother of Truth, and In­struction the Judgements Informer, hath like Physick recovered from that distemper.

Remember that England hath been long sick of a Consumption, even to a fear'd dissolution of the whole body, like a Patient (by the losse of much blood) brought into an extreame weakenesse; and all know, that knowing Physitians (although probably there may still remaine some bad humour) administer not strong Purges, but comforting Cordials then, when there is as it were an interreg­num inter mortem vitam (que), not knowing which will be the Con­querour, [Page 59] life or death; still having in your thoughts that it is the onely glorious property of mercy, for a man then to pardon and forgive in­juries when it is in his power to be revenged. Thus let us win all unto us, and being won, lock their affections and judgements by such Chri­stian-like examples, and like true followers of Christ pray for all men, first for our Soveraigne Lord King Charls to this purpose.

O Thou Lord of Hosts, pitch thou thy tent hourely round about Him; be a shield to defend Him from all violent attempts against His Royall Person, from cunning insinuations against His Honour, Crowne and Dignity, be thou good God His comforter in this His day of Tribulati­on; permit not the waters of affliction to overwhelme His soul with sadnesse, but continually supply Him with patience proportionable to His sufferings: hasten, hasten good Father His deliverance. Restore Him unto His Regall Power and just Rights, settle Him, settle Him fast in His Throne; place the Crown upon His head, and suffer it not by the hands of Treason or Rebellion to be shaked, or removed from Him, or any of His Royall off-spring untill Shiloh come; Blesse His Majesties Royall Consort, our most gracious Queen Mary, cause Her with Mary in the Gospel to choose that better part which never can be taken from Her. Blesse, protect and defend our Noble Prince Charls, with the rest of His Majesties Princely Progeny: Blesse these Kingdomes of England, Scot­land, and Ireland, and all degrees of men therein, from the highest to the lowest: Forgive the iniquity of the people, turne us O Lord, from our sins, and we shall be turned, take away the heavy judgement of the sword from us, Restore our Peace, renew and continue our Plenty, com­fort us according to the dayes wherein thou hast afflicted us, according to the years that we have seen evil; Take away all bitternesse of spirit, revenge, hatred, and give us unity, brotherly love, and concord.

Blesse the famuos City of London; grant the Inhabitants a serious consideration of their former wayes, repentance and pardon for all their offences; turne them, turne them O Lord into thy paths, Let thy word be a Light unto their feet, and thy testimonies a guide unto their step. Restore unto them their ancient Government, and to that end give them Go­vernours, Magistrates, and all other Officers according to thy own will; Religious, not Rebellious, faithfull, not factious, carefull to discharge that trust which God and His Scared Majesty shal intrust them with, pro­pounding thy Law for their imitation; the knowne Laws of the Land for their direction, studying onely the glory of thee our God, the Ho­nour of our Royall Soveraigne and His Posterity, The peace and plenty, [Page 60] wealth and weale, prosperity and happinesse of all their fellow Citizens, from the greatest to the least and meanest. Preserve them and the whole City from the boundlesse rage of devouring fire, from Plague, pestilenti­all diseases & famine, defend it from the ravenous violence of maliciously ambitious men, from being tyrannized over & oppressed by the insulting sword: let not, O let not the wealth and glory thereof, nor any of the Inhabitants be exposed a prey to the unsatiable fury of avaricious, re­vengefull, blood-thirsty men: purge it from all heresie, schisme, profane­nesse, and whatsoever is contrary to thy word and Commandments; and to this purpose bestow upon them faithful dispensers of thy Word, feeing their flocks with wholsome food; not leading them unto Rockie Mountaines to famish, nor leaving them amongst Wolves, killing here­sies, to be destroyed, not giving the children of thy family either for fear or hope, stones instead of bread, Serpents in place of Fishes; not Preaching themselves but the Gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, in truth and sincerity. O Let not my Lord be angry and I will speak but this once; Be thou, (O Almighty, Omnipotent God) a strong tower of defence to all the particular Citizens, Members of that Honourable Corporation, with all the rest of the people within His Majesties Realms and Domi­nions, high and low, rich and poor, young and old, even from our So­veraigne Lord the King, to the tender infant newly stept into the world out of the darke prison of the wombe, and together with them all o­thers belonging to His RoyallEng. Scot. Irel. Family and household wheresoever di­spersed; Take thou every one of them into thy all-securing protection, give them blessings proportionable to their severall degrees, conditions and necessities, showre downe thy blessings upon all men from one end of the earth to the other; Let the sun-shine of thy Gospel breake forth in all dark corners of the world, dispelling the black clouds of Judaisme, Turcisme, Paganisme, and all other Errours whatsoever: Accomplish the number of thy Elect, and then come Lord Jesus, come quickly. Grant these Petitions O thou Father of all mercies and God of all consolati­ons, for the sake of thy Son our Saviour, to whom with thee and thy ho­ly Spirit, be ascribed all Honour and Glory, now and for evermore. Amen. Amen. Amen.

Soli Deo gloria.

Si quid novisti rectius istis
Imperti, si non, his utere mercum.

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