A SEASONABLE VINDICATION Of Free-Admission, and Frequent Administration of the HOLY COMMVNION To all Visible Church-members, Regenerate or Vnregenerate. From the Institution, Precept, President of Christ himself; the Doctrine, Practice of the Primi­tive Church, Fathers, Councils, Christians: the Confessions, Articles, Records, Chief Writers of our own and other refor­med Churches: the dangerous Consequents, Effects, Schisms arising from the Disusage, Infrequency, Monopoly of this Sacrament, to visible or real Saints alone; and Sus­pension of all others from it, till approved Worthy upon trial. And that upon meer Anabaptistical, and Papistical false Principles, Practices, (here discovered) unadvisedly embraced, imitated, asserted, exceeded by sundry over-rigid, re­forming Ministers; to our Saviours disho­nour, our Churches great disturbance, their own, their peoples prejudice; and the Common Enemies, and Se­ducers grand Advantage.

By Will: Prynne of Swainswick Esq a Bencher of Lincolns Inne.

1 Cor. 10. 2, 3. 16, 17.

And did ALL eat the same spiritual meat; and did ALL drink the same spiritual drink, &c. The Cup of blessing which we blesse, is it not THE COMMUNION of the Bloud of Christ? The Bread which we break, is it not THE COMMUNION of the Body of Christ? For we being many are one Bread, for WE ARE ALL PARTAKERS OF THAT ONE BREAD.

Aug. Ep [...]st. 179.

Non bonum est homini hominem vincere, sed bonum est homini ut eum Veritas vincat volentem; quia malum est homini ut eum Veritas vincat invitum. Nam ipsa vincat necesse est, sive Negantem, sive Confitentem.

LONDON, Printed by F. Leach for the Author, 1656.

To the over-sadly divided, misguided Mi­nisters, of the miserably distracted, undermi­ned, almost ruined Church of England; especially such who in Theory or Practice have swerved from their Duties, in casting off the Frequent Administration of the Holy Communion, with their peoples Free-Admission thereunto; and in other particulars of moment here briefly touched.

DEar reverend Christian Brethren, whom I cordially honour for your Rom. 1. 1. c. 10. 15. 2 Cor. 5. 20. c. 6. 1. c. 8. 23. high and heavenly Calling; give me leave, with that Christian Liber­ty which becomes me, without any fear or flattery, to inform you; that I have for many years by-past, with a bleeding soul and mournfull spirit, taken special No­tice of some offensive Deviations from, and Negligen­ces in your Ministerial Function, (whereof many of you are guilty) which have given great Advantages to your Common Romish, and Sectarian Adversaries, and just scandal to divers of your best-affected Friends, some whereof I formerly endeavoured by seasonable, [Page] timely In my 4. and 12. Serious Questions, [...] and Seasonable Vin­dication of them. My 16 Important Questions. Sus­pension suspen­ded. Indepen­dency exami­ned. A full Re­ply to brief Ob­servations. Publications, to crush in the very shell, and now deem high time to remind you of, being grown Epidemical, yea almost destructive to your very Mini­stry, as well as perillous to our Church and Religi­on.

Not to inlarge upon your own manifold intestine 1 Cor. 3 3, 4. sad Divisions between and against your selves; which have separated you into several Opposite Squadrons, (that I say not Factions, and Battalioes) of Presbyte­rians, Episcopalists, (or Royalists) Independents, Interdependents; openly, secretly warring against, and seeking to supplant each other, by the extravagant power, proceedings of illegal Arbitrary Committees, and new coyned Orders, Ordinances, Covenants, En­gagements, with other Machiavilian Devices, where­by you have endeavoured to eject, sequester, suppresse, vex, ensnare, ruine one another under our successive late publike Revolutions of Government. By which you have now at last made your selves meer Tenants at will, both in respect of your Benefices, Tithes, Mini­stry, to every New upstart power; a derision to your Popish, a prey to your Anabaptistical and other Secta­rian Adversaries; who infinitely increase their Num­bers, Proselytes, by these your unbrotherly feudes; and have no special Committees to restrain, eject, suppresse them, but are crept into most Committees, and places of power, to vex, molest, discountenance, persecute, e­ject, sequester many of you, at their pleasures; and secretly encourage, countenance, abet our last insolent spreading Romish Sect of Quakers, to disturb, affront, revile your persons, Doctrine, Ministry, both in the Church, Streets, and all other places, and to publish their most rayling scurrillous Invectives against you, to accomplish your speedy extirpation by these Instru­ments of the Pope and Devil, which they dare not immediately attempt by themselves In which prose­cuted design of your utter speedy extirpation, all Ana­baptists, [Page] Sectaries concurre, and unite their forces with the Jesuites and Popish party, as Iohn Canne demon­strates in his Second voice from the Temple, p. 2. where he excites The Supreme Authority of the Nation, the Parliament of the Commonwealth of England, to whom he dedicates it, utterly to extirpate the National Church Ministry, Worship, Government of England; aud to starve, famish all the Ministers thereof (whom he stiles, Antichristian Idols) by taking away the food and maintenance whereby hitherto (and at this present) they are [...]ourished, fed, and kept alive. In regard of which joynt desperate Co [...]federacy against you by these your combined common Adversaries, I shall now ex­hort and advise you,

First of all, To lay aside and abandon all private a­nimosities, factions, feuds, contests, and persecutions against each other; as not only unbeseeming the Rom. 10. 15 H [...]br. 13. 20. Isay 9. 6. Eph. 2. 14. to 22. Embassadors, Ministers of the God, Prince, Gos­pel of Peace; but as the most probable, unavoidable means of your own speedy destruction; as these two Gospel Texts will assure you, Mat. 12. 25, 26. And Iesus said unto them, Every kingdom divided against it self is brought to desolation, and every City or House divided against it self shall not stand. And if Satan cast out Satan (or one Min [...]ster another of a contrary par­ty) he is divided against himself; how shall then his kingdom (or Christs, where his Ministers are thus divi­ded, and cast out one another) stand? And Gal. 5. 15. But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that you be not consumed one of another. Among all the evils that afflict the body politick of the Church or State, there is none so pernicious as division, especially a­mongst the Ministers and chief Officers thereof,See Mr. John Daille His Apology for the Reformed Churches, ch. 2. because it strikes at the very foundation of their being, and poisons the original of their life and strength. Where­fore, I beseech you most especially to avoid, detest this destructive sin.

[Page] 2ly, Seeing all Ministers and Christians are speci­ally obliged by the John 13. 34, 35, c. 17. 20, 21, 22. Eph. 4. 3. to 17. command, and will of their Master, and by their own welfare, safety, salvation, to continue inseparably united one to another, and all to­gether to make up but one harmonious Body; I shall ex­hort, beseech, advise you all, to Psal. 133. 1. live and love like Brethren;Phil. 1. 27. To be all of one mind and of one Spirit, striving together for the faith of the Gospel;Ephes. 4. 3. To keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.Joh. 13. 3 [...], 35. To ma­nifest to all the world that you are Christs disciples by loving one another. And to pursue this pathetical ex­hortation of the Apostle, to cease the Contentions be­tween the Minister and people in the Church of Co­rinth, 1 Cor. 1. 10. Now I beseech you Brethren in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions among you; but that ye be perfectly joyned together in the same mind and in the same judgement.

3ly,Hab. 2. 1. Stand constantly upon your watch, and Phil. 1. 27. Jude 3. unite all your studies, endeavours together against the manifold plots, policies of Satan, and your Iesuitical, Po­pish, Sectarian common Enemies, who seek nothing but the speedy ruine of your persons, Ministry, and of our Protestant Religion, Church, State, being more active, subtle and successfull of late years in this design, than ever in former ages. And let their present joynt at­tempts, combinations against you, be a prevailing ar­gument to unite your affections, endeavours, studies to countermine them.

4ly, Avoid all carnal, Machivilian Policies, all sor­did Compliances, andEzech 2. 6. Mat. 10. 26. 28. 31. base Fears of any Mor­tals, how great or powerful soever: And neverRom. 3. 8. act nor consent to any evils, error, unrighteous, impious Projects, or hypocritical designes, yea, hope that any good may come thereby: but rather part with your lives, liberties, and all worldly enjoyments, than with a good conscience, and the truth or Ordinances [Page] of God intrusted to your care.

5ly, Take Notice of some particular late failings and scandalous sinfull Omissions or Neglects in the discharge of your Ministerial Office, in which divers of you have been and still are very peccant.

Whereas, by our former Liturgies (confirmed by 2 & 3 E. 6. c. 1. 5 & 6 E. 6. c. 1. 1 Eliz. c. 2. sundry Acts of Parliament yet in force) the Deca­logui, or Ten Commandements of God himself,See Dod, Downham, Bp. Andrews, El­ton, and others on the comman­d [...]ments. (asserted by all or most of you to be Moral, and Per­petual, as they are a rule of Life and Obedience) were to be publikely read in all Churches, (as heretofore was usual) once every Lords day, and when ever the Lords Supper was administred; to the end the people might the better remember and observe them in their lives and conversations. This godly custom, hath for sundry years together been universally neglected, and cast aside by all or most of you. By which means, the elder sort of people have quite forgotten these Com­mandements; the younger sort are alltogether igno­rant of them, and generally know not, whether there be any such Decalogue for them to learn, know, ob­serve: their Parents, Masters, not instructing them in them in their private families as formerly; since discon­tinued publikely in our Chnrches; The number of Antinomians is hereby augmented, confirmed in their Error: the Knowledge, Sence, Conscience of sinnes against these Precepts, almost quite obliturated: And these Laws of God, with all other good Laws of the Realm, quite cast aside, slighted, scorned, violated in the highest degree, by many professed Saints of the highest Orb, like Old Almanacks quite out of date or force, especially the 5, 6, 8, and last of them, Thou shalt not covet thy neighbours house, &c. nor any thing that is his: now turned into an affirmative, or quite expunged out of the Decalogue of too many English Protestants, as well as theSee Ledes­ma his Cate­chism; Officium beatae Ma [...]iae, and Popish primers which expunge it. second Commandement heretofore out of the Papists. And whether this o­mission [Page] be not a sinne against Deutr. 6. 1. to 10. c. 18. 18. to 22. c. 4. 9, 10. Acts 13. 15. Psal. 1. 2. Iosh. 1. 8. and other Scriptures, fit henceforth to be reformed, let your own Consciences, with all Protestant Com­mentators on these Texts, and the Decalogue resolve you.

2ly, Whereas the Summary Heads of the Christian Faith, comprised in antient Creeds, (made, See Cy-prian de Sym­bolo, Dr. Jack­son, and others on the Creed: and all antient Greek and La­tin Liturgies. used in the Primitive Church, and continued in all Christi­an Churches, as most useful, necessary, ever since) were usually repeated by the Ministers and people in all our Churches heretofore, when ever they assembled to worship God on Lords-dayes, and other Festivals or times of Devotion; This Godly, profitable Christian practice, hath been generally disused and set aside by most of you for sundry years together: whereby the old Principles of our Christian Faith and Creeds, are quite forgotten, or neglected by the ancienter sort, and unknown to the younger people, (not instructed to learn or repeat them by heart as formerly, by their Parents and Masters, since disused in our Churches by Ministers) and a world of New Faiths, Heresies, Blas­phemies, Errors, have been set up and vented in oppo­sition thereunto, destructive to the very Foundations of our Religion. Now whether this Omission be not a great Misdemeanour or Oversight in you, repug­nant to the 1 Cor. 15. 1. to 8. Hebr. 5. 12, 13. c. 6. 1, 2, 3. 2 Pet. 1. 12, 13, 15. c. 3. 2. and other Texts, let all Old and New Expositors on the Creed, deter­mine, and your own Consciences judge?

3ly, Whereas by the Laws of our Land, confirming the Book of Ordination, and the Liturgies of our Church, all our Deacons, Ministers, formerly on Lords dayes and other times of publike Divine Service, were spe­cially obliged to read certain Psalms, with one Chap­ter of the Old Testament, and another out of the New, in the Church, for the peoples better edification and [Page] instruction in the Scriptures, and incouragement to read them diligently in their Families and private Closets; yet now of late years, contrary to their Solemn Pro­mise at theirSee the Book of Ordi­nation. Ordinations, diligently to read the Ca­nonical Scriptures of the Old and New Testament to the people assembled in the Church, and contrary to Exod. 24. 7. Deut. 6. 1. to 10. c. 11. 18. to 22. c. 31. 11, 12, 13. Josh. 8. 34, 35. 2 Kings 23. 1, 2, 3. 2 Chron. 34. 29, 30, 31. Neh. 8. 1. to 19. c. 9. 1. 3. c. 13. 1. Isay 34. 16▪ Ier. 36. 6, 10, &c. c. 51. 61, 62. Luk. 4. 16, 17. Acts 13. 15. c. 15. 21. 31. 2 Cor. 1. 13. Eph. 3. 4. Col. 4. 16. 1 Thess. 5. 27. Rev. 1. 3. c. 5. 4, 5. 2 Cor. 3. 14. 1 Tim. 4. 3. contrary to the practice of Gods own people the Iews, of Christ himself and his Apostles; of the Pri­mitive Fathers, Councils, Church, Christians, asBish. J [...]wel D [...]fence of the Apology, [...]ar. 5. [...]. 9. d [...]vis. 1. p. 489. 490. part. 6. p. 608, and His Reply to Harding, Art. 3. divis. 6. p. 117, 118 and Artic. 15. Of reading the Scriptures, p. 383, &c. Bi­shop Iewel proves at large, of allHarmony of Confessions, sect. 10. to 16. Protestant Chur­ches in foreign parts; the Practice, Canons, Rubricks, and Liturgies of our English Church, and command of God himself in the forecited Texts, most of our Inde­pendent Ministers have wholly cast off the reading of all Psalms, Chapters of the Old and New Testament in their Churches and Meetings (more particularly in Pendennis Castle in Cornwall, where there was not one Chapter, Psalm either sung or read, during my near two years close imprisonment, in their Meeting-house there;) yea, many Presbyterians and other Ministers have overmuch failed herein, reading only either one Chapter out of the Old Testament or New, and somtimes only one Psalm, without a Chapter, now and then on Lords dayes, and other Publick Dayes of worship. By which ill president, the generality of their people (e­specially such who cannot read) are become wholly ig­norant of the Scriptures, and made a prey to every se­ducer; the constant reading of the Scriptures in privat, is much neglected; the Scriptures themselves much slighted; yea many turned professed Anti-Scripturists, rejecting the Old and New Testament both together; [Page] and others who retain the New Testament, have quite rejected the old, as nothing appertaining to Christians; though a chief part of the Churches foundation, & appro­ved, injoyned to be searched, studied, read by Christ himself and his Apostles in the New Testament, Mat. 5. 17. 18. c 7. 12. c 22, 40. c. 26. 56. Mar. 1. 2. Lu. 1. 70. c. 16. 26. 31. Acts 3. 18. c. 10. 43. c. 13. 15. 27. c. 26. 22. 27. c. 28. 23. c. 17. 2. 11. c. 18. 24. 28. Rom. 1. 2. c. 16. 26. Ephes. 2. 20. c. 4. 11, 12. 13. 1 Pet. 1. 10, 11. 2 Pet. 1. 19 20, 21. c. 3. 1, 2. with other expresse Gospel texts. And is not this a grosse sinful Omission now fit to be repented of and reformed by you all, having produced so many sad effects, and complying too much with the Papists,B [...]sh. Jewels Defence of the [...]pol [...]gy, part. 5. ch. 9. divis. 1. p. 499. and Mr. Harding, who stiles the pub­like reading of the Scriptures to the people in their mother Tongue, The instinct and work of Satan?

4ly, Many Minsters and Congregationt (especially Independents and Anabaptists) have wholly cast off the Singing (as well as reading) of Psalms, Hymnes, and Spiritual Songs, not only contrary to theExod. 15 1 &c. Numb. 21. 17. Deut. 31. 19 &c. Judg. 5. 12 2 Sam. 22. 1. 2 Chron. 29. 27. Ps. 18. 1. Ps. 92. 1. Cant. 1. 1. l. sa [...] 5. 1. c. 26. 1. c. 30. 29. c. 35. 10. c. 38. 10. Amos 8. 23. c. 8. 3. precepts of God, and Practice of the [...]aints in the Old Testament: but of Christ himself, his Apostles, Saints, Church in the New, Luke 1. 13, 14. Mat. 26. 30. 1 Cor. 14. 15. Ephes. 5. 17. Col. 3. 1 [...]. Heb. 2. 12. Iam. 5. 13. Rev. 15. 3. c. 5. 9. c. 14. 3. And is not this a sin fit to be redressed by those who are guilty of it? unlesse they deem our present Oppressions, Thraldom, and publick Calamities such, as deserve to turn all our Psalms into Lamentations, and Songs into Howlings, Amos 8. 10. Ezech. 26. 13. Iam. 7. 9.

5ly, Whereas our Ministers heretofore by our Coun­cils, Canons, Liturgies were obliged to Catechise and in­struct their younger Parishioners in the Lords Prayer, Creed, ten Commandements and Principles of Christian Religion; and made a Conscience to perform it on Lords dayes and other Seasons in the Church, to the great edification and corroborations of their People a­gainst [Page] Heresies, Sects, Errors, Vices; The generality of Ministers of late years have either totally rejected, or in a great measure neglected this part of their Ministe­rial duty; contrary to Gal. 6. 6. Heb. 5. 15, 16. c. 6. 1, 2, 3. Deut. 6. 1. to 10. and other expresse Scriptures. Whereby Parents and Masters have for the most part given over this dutyin their Families; and so the peo­ple being generally ignorant, uninstructed, unsetled, un­grounded in the Principles of Religion, areEph. 4. 14. Jam. 1. 6. tossed and carried to and fro with every wind of doctrine, made a prey to all sorts of Sectaries and seducing Spirits, and divided from our Churches into different separated Conventicles, almost past hopes of reducing to the tr [...]th and unity of the Gospel. How necessary it is therefore for all peccant Ministers to reform this Sin, let the Pre­face to Mr. Crooks Guide, and others who have written of the Vtility and Necessity of Catechising, inform them.

6ly, Some Ministers (especially Independents) have (contrary to Luke 9. 62. Rom. 1. 1. Heb. 7. 23, 24.) See a Tran­script of a Let­ter [...]om the Summer Hands at the end of my Fresh Disco­very of Prodi­gious Bending Stars. quite renounced their very Ministerial Ordination and Function, preaching only now as gifted Brethren, not as Ministers of the Gospel; and others of them have either overmuch neglected or scrupuled the bap­tizing of Infants; especiallyMr. Henry Burtons Vindi­cation. of these who are not of their own independent Congregations: Which how repug­nant it is to the precepts and Presidents of Christ and his Apostles; How scandalous to our Protestant Church and Religion, how advantagious to our Papal, Anabapti­stical, aud other Sectarian Common Enemies, let Mr. His Vindi­cation of the judgment of the Reformed Chur­ches, & Prote­stant Diviues, concerning Or­dination, Lon­don 1647. Seaman, Mr. Baxter, Mr. Hall and others, who have written largely on these Subjects of late times re­solve them; and themselves now reform with penitent hearts.

7ly, The thing I shall here principally charge upon the consciences of hundreds of Ministers guilty of this Sacrilegious Crime, is, their many years wilfull discon­tinuance [Page] of the frequent publike celebration of the Lords Supper to their Parishioners; against the very essential duty and Office of their Function, as Ministers of Christ, and Incumbents of Parish Churches, the Precept and Pre­sident of Christ himself, the Practice of the Apostles, Pri­m [...]tive Church, Fathers, Christians, and all former Chur­ches, Ministers of Christ throughout the world; the Ca­nons, Decrees, Injunctions, Laws, Statutes of our own and foreign Church [...]s, States in all ages, and the very Di­rectory it self; as I haveMy Sus­pension suspen­ded; [...] Legal Resolution of 2. Important Questions; A New Discovery of some Romish Emissaries and Popish Errors. elsewhere, and shall here more largely manifest. By which Negligence and O­mission, I shall desire them now at last most sadly to consider,

1. That they rob God himself of one chief publick Ordinance, and part of his solemn worship.

2. That they rob Jesus Christ himself of one of his instituted Sacraments, whereby they should principal­ly shew forth the benefits, fruits, and memory of his death, till his Second coming, 1 Cor. 11▪ 25, 26.

3. That they rob their Churches and people of the inestimable benefits, comforts of Christs most blessed Supper. Wherein they are more culpable, sacrilegi­ous and injurious to Christs Institution and their peo­ple, than the Sacrilegious Popes and Popish Priests, who administer this Sacrament to themselves in both kinds every Masse, and give the People the Consecrated Bread in all places, once a year at least, and the Cup too in some places, by special Bish. Jew­els Reply to Harding, p. 73. Fox Acts and Mon. Vol. 1. p. 910, 911, 912. dispensations: whereas they deprive themselves and their people wholly of both parts of this Sacrament for sundry years, and will not dispence it to them at their and others earnest in­treaties.

4. That herein they give as high, as grosse, as sinful a Non obstante to Christ himself, the Primitive Church and Fathers, in casting aside this Sacrament of the Lords Supper for so many years together; as theSessio 13. Surius Concil. Tom, 3. p. 821, 822. Council of Constance did, when it took away the use of the [Page] Cup only from the Lay-people; and hereby justifie, imitate, exceed this their Sacrilegious, Antichristian practice.

5. That hereby they sinfully neglect, renounce one principal essential part of their Ministerial function and pastoral duty, which they were purposely ordained Mi­nisters, and presented to their Parochial Cures and Be­nefices diligently to discharge, (as I haveA Legal R [...]solution of two important Quaeres. Har­mony of Con­f [...]ssions. sect. 10. to 16. elswhere manifested at large) to wit, to administer this Sacra­ment to their people.

6. That they herein pointblank oppugn, contradict the See My Susperston sus­pended. Tho. Beacons Cate­chism. constant practice of the Primitive Church, Fathers, Christians; who usually administred the Holy Commu­nion to all their visible Church-members every Lords day; with the constant usage of all the Churches of God throughout the world, in all former ages till this present, who prescribed, practiced the frequent celebration thereof, as a necessary, usefull, and most comfortable duty.

7. That herein they have in a great measure imita­ted the tyranny and practice of Pope Innocent the 3d. and the Popish English Clergy under him; who inter­dicting the whole Realm of England, Anno 1208. (by reason of differences then risen between King John, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and other Prelates) for 6 years, 3 moneths, and 14 days space; thereupon through the Clergies obstinacy cessaverunt in Anglia omnia Ec­clesiastica Sacramenta praeter solummodo Confessio­nem, & viaticum in ultima neccessitate, et Baptisma par­vulorum, ad irrestaurabile damnum Ecclesiae, tam in temporalibus quam spiritualibus, asHist. Ang­liae▪ An. 1208, 1214. p. 239. 240. Mat. Par­k [...]r, Antiq▪ Ec­cles. Brit. p. 148 149. &c. God­wins Catalogue of Bishops, [...]. 62. 63, &c. Fox Acts and Mon. Vol. 1. p. 324, 326, &c. Ho­linshed, Speed, Grafton and o­thers in tbe life of King John. Matthew Pa­ris and others inform us: The King hereupon by spe­cial Writs and Patents, commanded William of Cornhil, Joseline of Cornwal and others, to seise all the Lands, Goods, Livings of the Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Pri­ [...]rs, Religious Persons, Clerks and Priests, that should from the Monday next before Easter refuse to celebrate [Page] divine Service and Sacraments to the people; and confis­cated them all as forfeited to his Treasury: Being driven to use such austerity and sharpnesse against them, to en­force them to perform their Pastoral charge; asActs and Monuments, Vol. 1. p. 324. Mr. Fox records out of the Clause Roll of 9 Johannis in the Tower of London. And have not many whole Pari­shes, Cities▪ and Dioceses, well nigh for as long a space or more, been actually interdicted in like manner, by sundry obstinate Ministers, from all Ecclesiastical Sacra­ments, except baptizing of Infants, (and some of them from that too) and from the administration of the Lords Supper to such as lie at the point of death, which was not denyed to any during that long Papal Interdict? And do they not deserve then, as severe a seizure of their Be­nefices, Lands, Goods for this their wilful neglect of their Pastoral duty for so long a season, as the Popish Clergy then incurred for their negligence, obstinacy, and fear of the Popes displeasure?

8ly, This Crime and Neglect of theirs is highly ag­gravated by sundry circumstances, which instead of ju­stifying or extenuating, doth elevate it to the highest pitch.

1. It hath been carried on and acted by special Con­federacies, Combinations amongst most Ministers guilty thereof; who have had sundry publike and privat mee­tings, yea some days of Humiliation (which is worse) to carry on this Sacrilegious design [...]; as the Popish Priests and Prelates formerly had, for the Sacrilegious taking away of the Consecrated wine from the Lay­people in theSessio 13. Surius Concil. Tom. 3. Fox, Vol. 1. p. 783. Council of Constance.

2. They have justified it both inDr. Drakes Bounda [...]y, Mr. Collings Juri­dical suspensi­on, & others. Presse and Pul­pit, as not only Lawful and Necessary, but their boun­den duty; yea the will and appointment of Iesus Christ, as theSee Gerson, & D. Featlies Grand Sacri­leg of the Chur: of Rome. Popish Preists have justified their Half Com­munion, and taking away the Cup.

3. They have miserably wrested, perverted, tortured many Sacred Texts of Scripture to warrant this their [Page] Sacrilege, as the Popish Priests have done to justifie their depriving the people of the Sacramental Cup.

4. They have printed, preached against theMy short Vindication of 4. Serious Que­stions. p, 17. to 29. & 47. ex­presse Letter of the Scripture, all Antiquity, the Arti­cles, Homilies, Liturgy, and these Writers of our Church, and Confession of the Council of Constance it self, That our Saviour never administred the Sacrament to Iudas, but only to the other xi. Apostles; to justifie their Sacri­lege by this palpable untruth.

5. They have cast most vile aspersions upon this most blessed Sacrament, to justifie this their practice, and deterre the people from it; stiling it frequently in their Pamphlets, Sermons; A Brother­ly and Friendly Censure, p. 6, 7. An Antidote p. 6. [See My short Vindicati­cation, p. 28. to 36.] Dr. Drak [...]s B [...]nda [...]y, and o [...]hers. Deadly poyson: A Cup of poyson, which will poyson and kill mens souls. An Ordi­nance of Christ, which hath no efficacy spiritually to quick­en, regenerate or convert men, but only to confirm such who are already regenerated and really converted. And asserting, That it belongs to none but real Saints, and such as are truly sanctified; and not to all visible Mem­bers of the visible Church able to examine themselves.

6. They have pleadedDr. Drake, Mr. Collins, & others tendernesse of Conscience, Duty; and partaking with unworthy Communicants in their sins, to justifie their Non-celebration of this Sa­crament, which both in Conscience and Duty they are obliged duly to celebrate; and by not doing whereof they are not only partakers, but Authors, abet­tors, perswaders of their peoples sinful contempt and neglect thereof.

7. They have deprived many thousands of Gods dear, precious real Saints of the inestimable benefits, comforts of, strength and growth in grace by this most heavenly Ordinance, to whom they confesse it doth of right belong, and debarred themselves also from it, for sundry years together, only for fear such whom they deem ignorant, scandalous, should partake thereof. And is not this the extremity of injustice, impiety, un­charitablenesse, to debar Gods Children, and Christs [Page] invited Guests from his Table, only for fear some un­worthy or unbidden guests should intrude thereto? Certainly this is diametrically contrary to theLuke 12. 42. to 47. Of­fice of every Good and Faithfull Steward whom the Lord hath made ru [...]er over his houshold to give them their por­tion of meat in due season; who cannot expect a blessing, but curse from his Lord when he cometh, and that he should cut him in pieces, and give him his portion with un­believers.

8. Some of them are grown so inveterately and tran­scendently malicious against the frequent publike ad­ministration of the Lords Supper, that they deem, prose­cute it as a scandalous Crime in other Ministers, for which they d [...]serve to be sequestred and suspended from the Ministry: Some Ministers in Surrey, Middlesex, and other places having lately been prosecuted, yea se­questred and put out of their Livings, and those of the late Kings party all silenced and prohibited to admini­ster the Sacraments at once, principally upon this account. When as those Ministers rather deserve suspension both from their Office and Benefice, as Scandalous, who have wilfully neglected the celebration of this Sacrament for sundry years, and are guilty of all the premised aggra­vations of this their Sin and Sacrilege.

Now Dear Brethren, I beseech, I adjure you in the Name and Fear of God, without prejudice or partiality, to reflect on all these premises, so far forth, as any of you are really guilty of them; and now at last to be­hold, consider, lament, repent, reform these transcen­dent Exorbitances and Excesses, into which the Policy of Satan, the pravity of your own hearts, the ambitious affectation of a New Ecclesiastical Iurisdiction over the Sacraments of Christ himself, and the Consciences of your flocks (the sourse of this New Sacrilegious extra­vagance) have hurried you by degrees: and2 Chron. 30 8. be no more stiffnecked in the obstinate neglect, defence, or excuse of all or any of them; Which I have faithfully [Page] represented to your view in their proper colours & just aggravations; not with the least intention to cast any re­proach or infamy upon your Persons, or Ministerial Fun­ction (which I cordially honor, reverence, and have ever supported, defended to my power;) but the more effe­ctually to convince you of the greatnesse, sinfulnesse of these your Errors and Deviations whereinto you have lapsed of late years; and for which especially (in my weak apprehension) God hath brought so much neg­lect, contempt, reproach upon, and opposition against your persons and calling, more than in former ages; of which you all now so much complain in Presse and Pulpit, not without just cause: You all well know,1 Sam. 2 27▪ to the end That the kicking at Gods sacrifice and offring which he command­ed, and despising of God therein, was that which made Elyes sons and their Ministry to be lightly esteemed, and brought ruine on them and their families, and caused God to translate the Priesthood from them unto Samuel. Yea, you cannot but take notice of Mal. 2. 1, 2, 8, 9. And now, O ye Priests, this commandement is for you. If ye will not hear, if ye will not lay it to heart, to give glory unto my name, saith the Lord of hosts, I will even send a curse upon you, and will even curse your blessings; yea, I have cursed them already, because ye do not lay it to heart, Behold, I will corrupt your seed, and spread dung upon your faces, &c. Ye have departed out of the way, ye have caused many to stumble at the Law, ye have corrupted the covenant of Levi, saith the Lord of hosts: Therefore have I also made you contemptible and base before all the people, according as you have not kept my wayes, but have been partial in the Law. And may you not then conclude from these two Scriptures; That your kicking against the Sacrament of the Lords Supper, and casting this offring quite aside, which Christ com­manded you frequently to celebrate, with your depar­ting out of the way in all the forementioned particulars (which hath caused many to stumble at the Law) are the [Page] principal causes, that have moved God to make yo thus contemptible and base before all the people? Yea, hath not your casting off the Lords Supper for so many years, occasioned many of the people to cast off all other Ordinances, Sacraments? encouraged the Anabaptists to cast off Infant-baptism; and thousands to reject both your Ministry, Churches, and to turn Anabaptists, Seekers, Quakers, Ranters, Independents, Papists; and some professed Atheists? I shall therefore apply that wholesom advice of our Saviour to the Angel of the Church of Ephesus, unto you, at this season, Rev. 2. 5. Remember therefore from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do thy first works; or else (you may justly fear what follows) I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy Candlestick out of its place, unless thou repent.

Now because Christs own institution, practice, and the practice of his Apostles recorded in the word, is the [...] [...]or. 11. 1, 2. 3. Ephes. 5. 1. [...]. Iohn 2. 5, 6. only rule you ought to follow in the admission of your Parishioners and people to this Sacrament, and your administration thereof unto them; give me leave to pro­pound these Observations to you from them, which through Gods blessing may rectifie both your Erroni­ous judgements, consciences, practices in secluding o­thers from the Sacrament, without any Gospel grounds.

1. It is clear, thatMat. 26. 26. to 30. Mar. 14. 22. to 26. Luke 22. 8. to 23. 1 Cor. 11. 23, 24. 25. Iesus Christ himself secluded none from this Sacrament of his body, either for igno­rance or scandal; but admitted all his disciples to it at first, without any pre-instructions that we read of, ei­ther of its nature or use, but what is recorded in the very institution it self, done sodenly after the passeover, as they sate at Table. That all his disciples were then ig­norant of the Article of his resurrection from the dead, and would not believe that he was risen, within 4. dayes after he administred this Sacrament to them (though heMat. 20. 19. c. 26. 32. 27. 63. Mar. 8. 31. Lu. 18. 33. c. 24 25. 26▪ 45. 46. oft foretold them he should rise again the third day, [Page] and the Prophets also predicted it) as is clear by Mat. 28. 17. Mar. 16. 11, 13, 14: where Christ himself appeared to the eleven, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardnesse of heart, because they believed not them that had seen him after he was risen, upon their double testi­mony to them; whose words seemed unto them as idle fa­bles, and they believed them not, Lu. 24. 11, 12. 21, 22, &c. 37, 41, 46. John 20. 24, 25. to 30. Yet he admit­ted them all to his Supper, though thus ignorant and unbelieving. And as he admitted all his Disciples, though thus ignorant: so he likewise admitted Iudas himself, though a John 6. 70, 71. c. 18. 2, 3, &c. c. 17. 12. 22. 6. Mat. 26. 14 15, 16. 47, Acts 1. 16. to 21. Devil, a Thief, a Traytor, a Sel­ler of him to the Iews for money, a Son of perdition, yea cast away, and Christ then knew him to be such a wretch.

2ly, It is most evident, thatMat. 26. 2. 17. to 26. Mar. 14. 14. John 18. 28, &c. all those whom Christ admitted to eat the Passover with him, he likewise admit­ted to receive this Sacrament of his last Supper, without secluding any of them. But all circumcised Persons what­soever, as well unregenerate, ignorant, or scandalous, as the most regenerate, knowing and holy Saints (if not totally cut off from the Congregation, and legally, not morally unclean) were admitted to eat of the Passo­ver, Exod 12. 3, 4. 43. to 50. Deut. 16. 2. &c. Josh. 5. 10. 2 Kings 23. 21, 22. 2 Chron 30. 1. to 26. c. 35. 1. to 20. Ezra 6. 19, 20, 21. 1 Cor. 10. 11. 3, 4, 5▪ Therefore all such Christians and Church members (if not actually cut off by Excommunication from the Church) ought, by Christs own practice, to be admitted to the Lords Supper, 1 Cor. 10. 16, 17, 18.

3ly, We read of no special Preparation Sermon made by Christ to fit his Disciples to receive this Sacrament: of no Classis or Presbytery appointed by him to examin their faith, knowledge, graces, preparation, worthi­nesse, fitnesse before they were admitted to it; or to seclude them from it, if adjudged unworthy, ignorant, or scandalous by them. Of no such extraordinary pre­paration, [Page] prescribed to them ere admitted to receive it, as is now See The Practice of Pi­ety, Mr. Rogers of the Sacra­ment. D. Drakes Boundary, Mr. Collings Juri­dical suspensi­on. peremptorily exacted, prescribed, as abso­lutely necessary ere men must approach, or be admitted to receive it; and no other preparation or self-examina­nation then was requisite for the receiving of the Passo­ver, or other daily holy duties. All which our Savi­our, no doubt, would have absolutely prescribed at his first institution and celebration of this Sacrament for a pattern to all succeeding ages, if so absolutely necessary, as [...]ome over-rigid Ministers (now wiser, holier, and more scrupulous than Christ himself, the Author of this Mystery) now affirm in Presse and Pulpit, without any precept or president from their Lord and Master Jesus Christ, but their own fancies.

4ly, It is apparent from the 1 Cor. 10. 16, 17. The Cup of blessing which we blesse, is it not the Communion of the Bloud of Christ? The Bread which we break, is it not the Communion of the Body of Christ? For we being many are one bread: For we are all partakers of that one Bread: That all the believing Corinthians and Members of the visible Church of Corinth (except the 1 Cor. 5. 7. [...]3. incestuous Corinthian excommunicated from the Church and all other Ordinances as well as this) did re­ceive the Lords Supper usually together: Yet many of them were very ignorant; yea meer babes in Christ, whom the Apostle fed with milk, and not with strong meat, being not able to bear it; and some of them denyed the resurrection of the dead, or were ignorant of it, 1 Cor. 1, 2. 3. c. 7. 10, 11. c. 14. 38. c. 15. 12, 13. &c. O­thers of them were in a great measure scandalous: 1 In going to Law with their Brethren before unbelievers, for which he reprehends them, 1 Cor. 6. 1. to 8. O­thers of them guilty of Adulterie, lasciviousnesse, for­nication, ch. 6. 18, 19. c. 10. 8. 2 Cor. 12. 21. Others of them spiritually proud, and puffed up with their know­ledge, who did eat things sacrificed to Idols in Idols Temples, and scandalized their weak brethren, ch. 8. [Page] 1. 2, 7, 8, &c. c. 10. 22, 23, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33. O­thers of them withheld due maintenance from Pa [...]l himself & those other Ministers who instructed them, ch. 9. 6. to 20. Besides, their men and women were very disorderly in their publike assemblies, and came together not for the better, but for the worse, for which he reprehends them ch. 11. 3. to 34. and ch. 14. throughout. More par­ticularly, when they came to receive the Sacrament of the Lords Supper they were very disorderly, in not recei­ving it all together, and tarrying not one for the other; in despising and not relieving their poor Brethren, and not eating with them; yea some of them were drunken when they came to receive; and they were also full of schisms, contentions, factions; some being for Paul, others for Apollos, others for Cephas, &c. 1 Cor. 11. 16. to 34. 1 Cor. 3. 1, 2, 3. Yea, the Apostle writes expresly that he could not speak unto the generality of them, as un­to spiritual, but unto carnul, even as unto babes in Christ, being carnal and walking as men, chap. 3. 1, 2, 3, 4. Yet notwithstanding all these disabilities, si [...]s, scandals, they were then freely admitted to the Lords Table, and not secluded from it. And though the Apostle reprehends them in this Epistle for their ignorance, these other vices sins and disorders in their meetings; yet he gives no order to their Ministers or Presbyteries to seclude them from the Sacrament till better instructed, prepa­red, and reformed in their lives; but only admonish­eth them, to reform those their abuses themselves; to judge and examine themselves before they eat and drink of the Lords bread and cup; because otherwise they shall eat and drink Judgement to themselves, and bring Gods temporal Iudgements of sicknesse and death upon them: yet no way dehorts them from constant and frequent reception of this Sacrament by reason of this danger of unworthy receiving, which they must take care to re­form, 1 Cor. 11. 33, 34. but in no case omit the duty, being Christs prescribed Ordinance, to shew forth his [Page] death till [...]e come, Verse 25, 26.

From which only Texts and Presidents in Scripture, relating to this Sacraments institution and reception, it is most clear to my judgement and conscience,

1. That Ignorance in Church-members and bapti­zed Christians of years of discretion, is no sufficient [...]ause to debarre them from the Lords Supper, no more than from the preaching of the word. The reason is most clear, because Christs Supper (asDe Trinita­t [...], [...]. 3. c. [...]. Augustine, Reply to Har [...]ing▪ See here, p▪ 8. Bishop Iewel, In his [...] [...] 4 [...]5, 42 [...]. See M [...] Sus [...] sus­p [...] [...], p. 30, 3 [...]. Thomas Beacon, and others resolve) is both a visible and audible Sermon, Word, and the Priest therein preacheth and declareth the death of the Lord, with the fruits and benefits of his pas­sion to the Communicants, to instruct, teach, edifie them thereby; as he doth by his other Sermons, reading and preaching of the word at other seasons. Therefore the best and readiest way to instruct and reform the peoples ig­norance, is frequently to call, presse and admit them to this holy Sacrament, that they See M [...]. J [...]h [...] H [...]ms [...], his Second Vindi­cation of Free admi [...]ion, p. 28. to 33. may be thereby edified, in­struct [...]d, comforted, inlightned by it, and not to seclude them from it, year after year; which doth but conti­nue, and increase their former ignorance, and harden them therein.

2ly, That no scandalous sins, crimes, unregeneracy, or want of spiritual, saving graces, ought to seclude any external Christians or Church-members from the Lords Supper, no more than from hearing of the word, pray­er, thanksgiving, fasting, reading the Scriptures, or any other publick or private duties of Gods worship: Be­cause they are peremptorily [...] Cor. 11. 24, 25, 26▪ Luke▪ 22. 19 See he [...]e, p. 50▪ commanded to perform this duty in remembrance of Christs death, and thereby to shew forth his death till he come, as well as to hear, read, pray, fast, praise God, and the like, from which no sin, nor unpreparednesse may exempt, or excuse any man; yea it is a far greater, and more dangerous sinne, wilfully to neglect, omit, contemn the performance of this or any other holy duty, than sinfully to perform and set about it, there being a total disobedience in the [Page] one, but a partial obedience at least (through a failing in the due manner of peformance) in the other. Which I wish all Ministers and Christians would now sadly consider: And so much the rather, because the Apostle and Spirit of God in this Epistle (pointblank against Dr. Drakes, Mr. Collins, and others conclusions thence) make the Corinthians scandalous sins forementioned, their resort to, and eating meats offered to Idols and Devils in their Temples (a more scandalous crime than any English Christians are now guilty of) not a ground to seclude them from the Lords Table, Supper, Temple, as unfit to communicate with other Christians; but presseth their frequent participation of the Lords Table, and resort to his Temple, his Ordinances, as the stron­gest argument to disswade, reclame them from these scandalous sinnes; Witnesse these expresse words, 1 Cor. 10. 14. to 24. Wherefore my dearly beloved, flee from Idolatry, I speak as to wise men, judge ye what I say: The Cup of blessing which we blesse, is it not the com­munion of the bloud of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? For we being many, are one hread; For we are all partakers of that one bread. Behold Israel after the flesh, are not they which eat of the Sacrifices partakers of the Altar? What say I then? that the Idol is any thing, or that which is offered in sacrifice to Idols is any thing? But I say, that the things that the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devil [...], and not to God: and I would not that ye should have fellowship with Devils. (Mark this inference, and that which follows) Ye cannot drink the Cup of the Lord, and the Cup of Devils: Ye cannot be par­takers of the Lords Table, and of the Table of De­vils, &c. In which clause the word cannot, is not ta­ken physically or naturally (for they did actually eat, drink of the Table, Cup of the Lord and Devils, for which he reprehends them:) nor of a moral or spiritu­al cannot, as some interpret it; that is, You cannot law­fully, [Page] or spiritually, of right, drink of the Lords Cup, or be partakers of the Lords Table, but ought to abstain or be secluded from them, so long as ye partake of the Cup and Table of Devils; which is clearly contradicted as false by the 16, 17, and 20 verses: but of a rational and lo­gical Su [...]h a can­not as we read of, 1 John 3. 9. Gal. 5. 17. Lu. 14. 20. Mat. 6. 24. Acts 27. 31. Lu. 11. 7. Rom. 6. 1, 2. 2 Cor. 13. 8. Cant. 5. 3. which will well expound this cannot here. cannot; That is, You cannot (in reason, duty, ju­stice, convenience, experience) drink of the Cup, and partake of the Table of Devils, or go to Idols Temples; but flee from Idolatry, and not have fellowship with De­vils; because you all drink the Cup of the Lord, and are all partakers of the Lords Table, and of that one bread, which is the Communion of the Body of Christ. Which argument is thus seconded, enforced in the 2 Cor. 6. 14, 15, 16. Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbe­lievers: for what fellowship hath righteousnesse with un­righteousnesse? and what communion hath light with darknesse? or what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an Infidel? And what agreement hath the Temple of God with Idols? For ye are the Temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch no unclean thing, and I will receive you, &c. A full Exposition of and Commentary on this former Text. Therefore by the Apostles own argument and resolution, the most scandalous Church-members, if not actually excommunicated, not only may, but must, yea ought to be admitted to the Lords Supper, and not secluded from it; and their participation thereof ought to be thus enforced on them by Ministers, as the stron­gest argument, and most prevailing reason, motive, to reclame them from their scandalous Sins; which have no rational fellowship, communion, concord, part, agree­ment or consistency with such a sacred Ordinance, but ought to be abandoned as most incongruous, unsuita­ble, and repug [...]ant thereunto, and to their Christian [Page] profession. Which is more agreeable to the will, mind of Iesus Christ, and will be far more effectual upon the Souls, Consciences, lives of scandalous Sinners, than their many years sinfull seclusion from this Sacrament, which doth but harden them in their scandalous sins, and cause them to have more fellowship with Devils in their works of darkness, than ever they had before their seclusion from the Lords Supper.

3ly, That all visible Church Members as visible, have an equal external right of admission to this Sacra­ment, and ought all equally to receive it in common, without any seclusion, when administred, being that wherein their common Christian communion principally consists, and is testified unto the world: whence it is sti­led 1 Cor. 10. 16. Here p. 5. &c. The Communion, and no other Ordinance but it so termed. Therefore there is no Classis, Presbytery, or other Church Officer appointed by Christ or his A­postles, to suspend or seclude any Church-member from it, but rather (if any such Classis or Officers there be) to incite and invite them to it, when negligent to receive it: Isay 55. 1, 2. Iohn 7. 33. Rev. 22. 17.

4ly,See the Directory. That though preparation Sermons to the Lords Supper, to instruct and prepare the people for the more devout and diligent receiving, are commendable, profitable, usefull, especially where the people are igno­rant, carelesse, and backward to receive it. And al­though an extraordinary self-examination, preparation, humiliation and repentance be very profitable, advan­tagious, comfortable to such who have time and means sufficient, before they approach to this Supper of the Lord; yet they are not so absolutely necessary asMr. Rogers, of the Sacra­ment, The Pra­ctice of Piety, Dr. Drake his Boundary, Mr. Collins Juridi­cal suspension. many now assert them in print, and Discourse; nor the want of them a sufficient cause for any persons to debar themselves, or for Ministers or Presbyteries to seclude others from this Sacrament; There being no other, no greater preparation, qualification, or higher degree of [Page] faith, love, charity, repentance, devotion, and other Christian graces, required in our approaches thereunto, than unto other publike and private Ordinances of Gods worship, for ought appears by Scripture. And that self-examination required of Christians when they receive this Supper by the Apostle in the 1 Cor. 11. 28. is required of all Christians at other times and seasons by the same Apostle, 2 Cor. 13. 5, 6, and of all Saints, long before this Sacrament instituted, as a constant and daily duty, especially in times of affliction, and approaches to God in other holy duties, Lam. 3. 39, 40. Psal. 4. 4. Ps. 119. 5 [...]. Hag. 1. 5. Prov. 6. 6. Jer. 8. 6, 7. Eccles. 5. 1.

5.See my Suspension sus­pended, and Vindication of 4 Serious Q [...]e­stions. That the Ministers administring the Sacrament to an ignorant, scandalous, or unworthy Communicant, who eats and drinks judgement or damnation to him­self thereby, doth no wayes make him guilty of his sin, or unworthy receiving; for then Christ and the Mini­sters of Corinth should have been guilty of Judas and the Corinthians unworthy receiving. The reasons are apparent, 1. Because the administration of it is theLuke 12. 42 c. 22. 19. 1 Cor. 10. 16, 17. c. 11. 23, 24, 25, 26. c. 9. 16, 17. c. 4▪ 1, 2. Ministers bounden duty; and the receiving, the recei­vers; but the unworthy receiving, his own Sin alone, and personal crime, to which the Minister is no party or accessory, no more than the rider guilty of his hor­ses halting, stumbling; or the Musician of his instru­ments jarring; or Schoolmaster of his Scholars blots, or misframing of his Letters; or the Physician or Chi­rurgian of their Patients distempers or disorders which hinder the good operation of his wholesom medicines. Or the Minister guilty of the peoples unprofitable hea­ring, whenEzech. 2. 1. to 8. 2 Cor. 2. 15, 16. Hebr. 4. 2. 7. the word becomes unto them the savour of death unto death, and a means of their obduration by their own defaults. 2ly, Because the good successe of the Sa­crament, and all other means of Salvation,1 Cor. 3. 6, 7, 8. Heb. 4. 1, 2▪ depends not on the Minister, but Gods blessing on them, and the peoples due receiving of them. 3ly, Because the [Page] Ministers are unto God a sweet savour of Christ in them that are saved, and in them that perish, as well in admi­nistring the Sacraments, as preaching the Gospel, 2 Cor. 2. 14, 15, 16. they being both ordained by God and Christ himself, as well to be [...]u. 2. 34. c. 8. 18▪ c. 20. 18. Isay 8 14. 15. c. 28. 16. Rom. 9. 33. 1 Pet. 2. 8. Ma [...]. 10 14, 15. c. 21. 44. Mat. 16. 15, 16. Iohn 15. 22. Ezech. 2. 3. to 9 1 Cor. 11. 25. to 30. 2 Cor. 2. 15, 16. Heb. 6. 6, 7, 8. savours of death unto death in a secondary and accidental respect, to magnify his justice towards those who unworthily receive, abuse or contemn them; as to be a savoar of life unto life to them who receive them worthily, to the magnifying of his free grace to­wards them. Wherefore there can be no real ground or scruple of conscience left for Ministers, not to admi­nister it freely unto all Church members, but only meer design, to erect a new Iurisdiction and Presbytery, to seclude men from this Sacrament only, under a pretext of conscience.

5ly, ThatIsay 1. 2. to 21. Z [...]p. 2. 1. E­z [...]ch. 6. 1. to 9. J [...]r. 3. 1. to 24. 2 Chron. 33. 2. to 21. c. 36. 14, 15, 16. Mar. 16. 15, 16. Rem. 10 18 19, 20, 21. Tim. 1. 12. to 17. c. 2. 1. to 7. Psal. 65. 2, 3. Ps. 95. 6, 7. Ps. 96. 1. 2. to 11. Ps. 100 1, 2, 3, 4. Psal. 146. 11, 12, 13. Acts 9. 1. to 23. no scandalous sin whatsoever doth di­rectly and properly of it self debarre Christians from the Sacrament, or any other publike Ordinances or private duties, (the best ordinary means prescribed by God to cure and heal their sins, convert and reclame them from them;) but only consequentially, when they are actually and judicially excommunicated, or cut off from the Church and publick Assemblies for them,1 Cor. 5. 5. 7. 1 Tim. [...]. 20. for the terror of o­thers, the prevention of infection by their Society, the shaming, punishing of themselves for their scandalous sins, and bringing them to repentance for them. That excom­munication it self doth not formally, specially and in­tentionally seclude men from this Sacrament, (as most ignorantly fancy) no more than from any other pub­lick Ordinance; but only consequentially and indi­rectly, by secluding them for a time from the Eus [...]b. Eccl. Hist. l. 6. c. 45. Bishop Jewels reply to Har­ding, p. 35. Church it self, and Communion, Society of all the faithfull, where the publick Ordinances and Sacraments are administred: whence it is stiled and defined. A casting or putting a scandalous Sinner out of the Church: A cutting him off from the Congregation, and a delivering him over unto [Page] 1 Cor. 5. 5. 7. 13 Gal. 5. 12. 1 Tim. 1. 20. Tit. 3. 10. 3 Iohn 10. Bochellus Decreta Eccl. Gal. l. 1. Tit. 14. Summa Angel. et Rosella. Tit. Excommunica­tio. Gratian, Causa 11. Qu. 3▪ Articles of England, Artic. 33. Harmony of Confessions, sect. 10, 11, 14, 15. Euseb. Hist. l. [...]. c. 46. Satan; but never, a Suspension from the Lords Supper, or other publike Ordinances; being only the consequence, nor form or essence of Excommunication, so much of late contested for, and so little understood, by those who are most eager to introduce it.

6ly, I humbly conceive, that no greater measure or degree of knowledge, faith, profession of Christ, Con­fession of sinne, and repentance, is necessarily required by God, or to be exacted by Ministers, to enable men now to receive the Sacrament of the Lords Supper, than in the Primitive Church was exacted by Christs own A­postles and Ministers in persons of ripe years newly converted to Christianity, upon their admission to Baptism; they being both Sacraments and Seals of the Covenant of Grace alike, and requiring the self-same qualifications. Hence our learnedReply to Harding, Art. 2 d [...]vis. 25. p. 103▪ 104. Bishop Iewel writes, It appeareth by St. Cyprian, St. Hierom,August. de Eccles. Dogma [...] l 1 c. 52. St. Augustine, and other old Writers, That they that were baptized, as well Children as others, immediately received the holy Mysteries in both kinds. St.Hierom. contra Lucife­rium. Hie­rom speaking of one Hilarion saith thus. He cannot ad­minister Baptism without the Sacrament of Thanksgi­ving. Cyprian de Lapsis, Serm. 5. St. Cyprians words touching this matter be these: Ubi solennibus adimpletis, &c. After the so­lemnity (of the Consecration) was done, and the Deacon began to administer the Cup unto them that were present; and among others there received, the childs turn being come, by the power of the divine Majesty, she turned a­way her face, &c. Here by the way we may well gather, That like as the Priest, the Deacons, and the people recei­ved, even so the child received too, without any manner of innovation or difference. This Custome of administring the Lords Supper as well to infants, as others, imme­diately after their Baptism in the Primitive times, pro­ceeded (as I conceive) from the very practice of the Apostles. Acts 2. 38. to 42. where the 3000. Converts so soon as they believed and were baptized, were immedi­ately [Page] admitted into the Apostles fellowship, and to the breaking of bread, which most interpret of the Sacra­ment of the Lords Supper, comparing it with Acts 20. 7. & 1 Cor. 10. 2, 3. 16, 17. Now a verySee Mr. Blake his Covenant sealed, p. 233. small mea­sure of instruction, knowledge, faith, repentaece, confes­sion of sin, and acknowledgement of Christ, was reputed sufficient in the Primitive Church by the Apostles and Ministers of Christ, to qualifie and admit converts of ripe years to the Sacrament of Baptism; as is clear by Mat. 3. 5, 6. Acts 2. 38, 41, 42, 46, 47. c. 8. 12, 13, 16. 36, 37, 38. c. 9. 17, 18. c. 10. 47, 48. c. 11. 16, 17. c. 16. 15. 30. to 35. c. 18. 8. c. 22. 16. where all were instru­cted, converted, believed, baptized in one and the very self-same day, and made profession of the faith of Christ, upon the first Sermon they heard, without any further delay or Suspension of them from Baptism. Therefore they and all other baptized Christians of ripe years, im­mediately upon their baptism and conversion, ought now to be admitted to the Sacrament of the Lords Supper upon the self-same terms and qualifications, and not secluded from it, under a pretence of ignorance or unfitnesse to receive it.

7ly. Whereas some Ministers most insist upon the 1 Cor. 11. 27, 29. Whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord unworthily, shall [...]e guilty of the body and bloud of the Lord. For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself (not to the Minister or other Communicants) not discerning the Lords body: as the prime ground, and reason to suspend ignorant and scandalous persons, in their judgement, from this Sacrament. I beseech them to observe, 1. What the Antient Fathers, andDefence of the Apology [...] ▪ part. 5. [...]h. 16. divis. 1. p. 514, 515. Bi­shop Iewel out of them concludes against the Papists, who object it, to prove a Transubstantiation in this Sacrament Even soContra Cres­con [...]um, l. 1. cap. 23. St. Augustine writeth of the water of Baptism. Baptismus valet al [...]is ad Regnum, aliis ad judicium. Again he saith,Contra Cres­co [...]um, l. 2. c. 23. Baptismum [Page] multi habent, non ad vitam aeternam, sed ad poenam a­ternam, non bene utentes tanto b [...]ne. VerilyDe Tempo­ [...], Serm. [...]0. Saint Augustine saith, Reus erit, non parvi pretii; sed san­guinis Christi, qui (fornicatione et adulterio) violat et commaculat animam, Christi sanguine et Passione mun­datam. Againe he saith,De Tempo­re, Serm. 120. Adultter reus erit aeternae mortis, quia vilem in se habuit sanguinem Redemptoris. D [...] Pessi [...] & [...]ruc [...] Domi­nis. Athanasius saith, Adorantes dominum, neque ita, ut dignum est ei, viventes, non sentiunt se reos fieri Do­minicae mortis. De Ablu­tione P [...]dam. And St. Cyprian saith, Impiis in morte Christi nullus superest quaestus, sed justissime eos beneficia neglecta condem [...]ant. If thenSee here, p. 45, 46. Baptism be received by some unto judgement and everlasting pain, as well as the Lords Supper: If Fornicators and Adul­terers by defiling their souls made clean, by the Passion and bloud of Christ, be guilty of the bloud of Christ, though they receive not this Sacrament; If those who worship the Lord in prayer, or any other sacred Ordinance as well as this, and yet live not so as is meet for the Lord, are thereby made guilty of our Lords death; If wicked mens despising of the benefits of Christ, doth justly condemn, and make Christ death ungainfull to them, as well as unworthy receiving this Sacrament: Then this Text can afford no Juris­diction or ground at all to our Ministers, or others, to seclude any from the Lords Supper, no more than from Baptism, or any other sacred Ordinance upon this Account, [...] 2ly. Observe what ExpositionDefence of the Apology, p. 515. Bi­shop Iewel in the same place gives of this Text. This therefore is St. Pauls meaning, that the wicked resorting unworthily to the Holy Mysteries, and having no regard what is meant thereby, DESPISE THE DEATH AND CROSSE OF CHRIST: and therefore are guilty of the Lords Body and Bloud that are repre­sented in the Sacrament. To come nearer to the pur­pose, [g] Aug. ad Bonef. Epist. 50. St. Augustine saith, Habeant foris Sacramen­tum corporis Christi, sed rem ipsam amittunt intus [Page] cujus est illud Sacramentum: ET IDEO SIBI JU­DICIUM MANDUCANT ET BIBUNT. Here Saint Augustine saith, they are guilty, NOT BE­CAUSE THEY RECEIVE, BUT BECAVSE THEY RECEIVE NOT THE BODY OF CHRIST. Mark well these words Mr. Harding, (and let others mark them now) they are effectual: The wicked by St. Augustines judgement are guilty, NOT BECAVSE THEY RECEIVE, but BE­CAVSE THEY RECEIVE NOT THE BODY OF CHRIST. And if so, then I hence inferre, That those who willfully neglect to receive the Sacra­ment of the Lords Supper, or keep off others from it who desire and presse to receive it, are more guil­ty of the body and bloud of Christ, than those who un­worthily receive it; because theySee the [...] in the Common Prayer Bo [...]k▪ Heb. [...]. 24. 30. M [...]t. [...]. 14▪ 15. [...]ct [...] 13. 45, 46. 51. more neglect, contemn, despise and undervalue Christs death and passion represented therein, than those who in obedi­ence to his Institution make conscience externally to receive it, when administred; and do neither exter­nally, nor internally, Sacramentally nor spiritually receive the body of Christ: when as the others who receive unworthily, receive it externally and Sacra­mentally, at least in the Elements: Which Judas likewise did, as Bishop Iewel there asserts, out of two Quotations inAug. Epist. 160. & in Psal▪ 3. St. Augustines writings. 3ly. Consider, that when our Saviour sent forth his Apostles (and Ministers, who succeed them) to preach; he gave them this Commission, Mark 16. 15, 16. Go ye into all the World, and preach the Gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized, shall be saved; BVT HE THAT BELIEVETH NOT SHALL BE DAMNED. Which is likewise secon­ded John 3. 18, 36. 2 Cor. 2. 15, 16. If then the damnation of those who believe not the Gospel preached, authorizeth not Ministers or Presbyteries to seclude any unbelieving Christians, or other unprofitable hea­rers [Page] from hearing the Word and Gospel read or prea­ched in the Church or elsewhere; then by the self-same reason, this danger of eating and drinking damnation, and being guilty of the Lords body and bloud, can be no sufficient Authority, Ground or Commission for any Classi [...], Presbytery or Minister whatsoever, to seclude any visible unexcommunicated Church-member from the Lords Supper, no more than from the Word prea­ched, read, prayer, or any other sacred Ordinance; whichSee Perkins cases of consci­ence, book 2. c. 10. Every man of years living in the Church, and being bap­tized, is bound [...] conscience by the commande­ment to use the Lords Supper. God commands them to frequent; which no mortals [...]may or can (without the highest presumption, u­surpation) juridically enjoyn them to abstain from, or neglect; Seeing we ought herein to obey God, rather than men, as the Apostle: themselves have twice resolved, Acts 4. 17, 18, 19, 20, 29, 30, 32. c. 5. 20, 21, 28, 29. &c. 42. and Daniel long before them, Dan. 6. 5. to 18.

All which particulars, with what else I shall subjoyn in this Vindication, duely considered, together with that Commission which every Minister publikely re­ceived heretofore at his Ordination, when he had this power conferred on him (Be thou a faithfull Dispen­ser of the Word of God, and OF HIS HOLY SACRA­MENTS. Take thou Authority to preach the Word of God, AND TO MINISTER THE HOLY SA­CRAMENTS, IN THIS CONGREGATION where thou shalt be so appointed) And that solemn promise he then openly made,See the Book of Ordina­tion; confirmed by the Statutes of 5 & 6 F. 6. [...]. 1. 3▪ [...]. 6. c. 2. 8. El [...]z. c. 1. I will by the help of the Lord, GIVE MY FAITHFVL DILIGENCE ALWAYS SO TO ADMINISTER THE DOCTRINE AND SACRAMENTS OF CHRIST AS THE LORD HATH COMMANDED, AND THIS REALM HATH RECEIVED THE SAME, according to the commandements of God: will (I hope) through Gods blessing on them, resolve and determine all those di­stracting needlesse Controversies, touching Suspension of particular Persons, or whole Parishes from the Lords [Page] Supper, and remove all New-erected Bars and Rayles to keep the people from Free-admission and accesse to the Lords Table, in all plaees where of late years they have been injuriously sequestred from it; and restore the fre­quent Celebration thereof in remembrance of our Savi­ours Passion. And so much the rather, because the very Directory it self (as well as our old Common Prayer Book) in the Section Of the Celebration of the Commu­nion or Sacrament of the Lords Supper, resolves thus in the very first lines. The Communion, or Supper of the Lord is See Peter [...]ombard, Sent. l. 4. distinct. 35. Henricus de Vu [...]ruma & o­ther Schoolmen thereon: Grati­an de Consec. D [...]st. 2. frequently to be celebrated. But how often, may be considered and determined by the Ministers and other Church-Governours of each Congregation as they shall find most convenient for the comfort and edification of the people committed to their charge. After which it directs, When the day is come for administration, the Mi­nister shall make a short Exhortation, expressing the ine­stimable benefits we have by the Sacrament, together with the ends and use thereof setting forth the great ne­cessity of having our Comfort and Strength renewed thereby in this our Pilgrimage and Warfare; which being the things I plead for, I cannot but hope, all Ministers of the Church of England will henceforth cor­dially pursue, notwithstanding all former Books, Cavils, Scruples to disswade them from their duties herein.

Phil. 2. 1. 2. If there be therefore any consolation in Christ, if any comfort of love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if any bowels and mercies, fulfil ye my joy, that ye be like min­ded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind herein.Phil. 4. 8, 9, 23. Finally brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any vir­tue, if there be any praise, think on these things. Those things which ye have both learned, & received, and heard & seen in me, do, & the God of Peace shall be with you. The Grace of our Lord Iesus Christ be with you all Amen.

So prayes your unfe [...]gned Christian Friend and Brother in the Lord. WILLIAM PRYNNE.

A Seasonable Ʋindication of the frequent Administration of the Holy Com­munion, to all Visible Church-members, Regenerate or Vnregenerate.

HAving heretofore in4 Serious Questions, prin­ted 1644. A Vindication of 4. Serious Que­stions, A [...]. 1645 16 Important Questions tou­ching Ecclesia­stical Jurisdi­ction and Cen­sures. And Suspension sus­pended, publi­shed 1646. several Publi­cations from Divine and Humane Au­thorities of all sorts, largely evinced, That the holy Communion of the Lords-Supper belongs equally to all, and every visible Member of every particular Church capable of self-examination, (not actually cut off from it by a legal Excommunication) be he regenerate or unregenerate: That it ought to be now frequently admi­nistred in publick to all congregations, as it was in the Pri­mitive Church: That it is a powerfully Converting, as well as a Confirming Ordinance: That Christ himself ad­mitted Confessed by the whole Council of Ba­sil. Fox Acts & Monuments Vol. 1. p. 909. Besides those Councils, Fa­thers, Protestant Confessions, Authors of all sorts quoted in my Vindication of 4 Serious Questions, p. 12. to 29. & p. 47▪ Judas to it (though a Devil, Theef, Traytor, Covetous wretch, selling Christ for money to his Crucifi­ers) at its original institution, as well as the holiest Apo­stles. That all Ministers are bound by their Office, Duty, Christs command, to administer; and all their people of age of discretion, often to receive it. That none may or [Page 2] ought to be secluded from it, but such as are for their No­torious sins, actually excommunicated from Church-Com­munion and all other Ordinances. That sole Suspension from this Sacrament, by way of Church-censure, with free admission to all other publick Ordinances: and Examination by Ministers or Presbyters of other mens fitness by way of Jurisdiction, before their admission to the Lords Supper; are not warranted by any precept, or president in Gods word. That neither the Ministers who deliver this Sacrament, to unworthy Receivers presenting themselves humbly and earnestly to receive it; nor such who receive together with them, are guilty of their unworthy receiving, but them­selves alone, nor any wayes partakers with them in their sins: Answering likewise all Objections to the con­trary. (Which Mr. John Humfrey, in his Sermons, Vin­dications of Free-admission to the Lords Supper, and Re­joynder to Dr. Drake, hath acutely, judiciously, solid­ly backed; vindicated since; with John Timson, in The Barre removed, and Answer to Mr. Collings, and Mr. Saunders:) And having newly in my Legal resolution of two Important Quaeres of General pres [...]nt concernment, clearly demonstrated from our Statute, Common and Ca­non Lawes, the bounden Duty of Ministers or Vicars of Parish-Churches, to administer the Sacraments, as well as Preach, to their Parishioners: with the Legal Reme­dies to reclaim them from, or punish or remove them for their wilfull obstinacy in denying the Sacraments to them: (A Theam not formerly handled by any of my Profession, generally unversed in such Law-points:) Which Remedies doubtlesse may, will be put in exe­cution against such Anti-Communion, refractory, sacri­legious Ministers, who wilfully rob their Parishioners of their Sacramental Bread and Wine, (being herein far worse than Popish Priests, who deprive their Laicks only of the Cup, but freely admit them to the Sacred Bread, in the eating of whith alone they likewise mis­instruct them,Concil. Con­stant. Sess. 13. Surius Tom. 3. Concil. p. 821. Bella [...] min. Sua­rez, and others. De Integritate Sacramenti, et Communione sub utraque specie, Concil. Trident. Sess. 21. c. 3. Bi­shop Jewels Reply to Har­ding, p. 72, &c. that they also drink Christs Cup and [Page 3] Sacred Bloud:) And though they oft preach unto their people when they injuriously detain their Tithes, Dues; Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the Ox that treadeth out the corn: Deut. 25. 4. 1 Cor. 9. 9. that so they and theirs may have bread to eat at their own Ta­bles; yet themselves (against this and other Divine commands) still muzzle the mouths of those Oxen (their Parishioners, whose Tithes and Duties they receive) which not only tread out, but sow and provide them corn, and keep them thus muzzled, sundry Moneths, nay Years together, from eating any Bread at the Lords own Table, though he Luke 14. 16, 17, 23. c. 22. 17, 19, 20. Matt. 22. 3, 4, 9, 10. c. 26. 26, 27. 1 Cor. 11. 23, 24, 25. &c. invites, commands, compels them by his Word, precepts, and the presidents of all former ages, frequently to resort thereto.

To prevent which Prosecutions, by their injured, offended people, and reclaim them from this their Sa­crilegious obstinacy by all Christian friendly means, or else to leave them exposed to the Justice, Penalties of our Laws, without any colour of Excuse, or Plea in bar, in Law or Conscience; I thought it convenient (by way of Corollary to all my former Publications of this subject) to recommend to them and others some Pas­sages touching the Lords Communion, and its oft cele­bration, distribution to ALL Church-members, in our peerless Bishop Jewel, and shining Thomas Becon, with certain Observations of my own deduced from them; which through Gods blessing may rectifie their erro­nious Judgements, Consciences, Practices, wherein now they ignorantly act the Parts, imitate, exceed the extravagances, promote the designs of Papists, Ana­baptists, and other Sectaries, and by building blindly or unadvisedly upon their Foundations, increase their Numbers, Churches, and decrease, subvett their own; as we all find by sad experience, and themselves will most repent of (if now they will not reform their Er­rors) when it will be over-late. I shall therefore be­seech all such Ministers to lay aside all obstinacy, self-interests, [Page 4] Prejudices, Parties, Combinations, By re­spects whatsoever, and with sincere, unbias [...]ed, doci­ble Spirits, to pursue Solomons divine advice, Prov. 8. 33. Hear instruction and be wise, and refuse it not; lest Poverty and shame befall them, as they doe those who re­fuse instruction, Prov. 13. 18. and lest they sin wilfully without hope of pardon.Cyprian, lib. 2. Epist. 3. Post inspirationem vero et revelationem factam, qui in eo quod erraverat perseve­rat prudens & sciens, sine venia ignorantiae peccat, prae­sumptione atque obstinatione superatur; as S. Cyprian re­solves.

It is a memorable saying of [...]mbros. in 1 Cor. 11. See Bishop Jewels Reply to Harding, p. 72. S. Ambrose touch­ing the Sacrament of the Lords Supper. Indignus est Domino, qui aliter Mysterium celebrat, quam ab eo tra­ditum est. Non enim potest devotus esse, qui aliter praesu­mit quam datum est ab Authore. Which had those Mi­nisters I now deal with, duly pondered, they would never have presumed to advance their own new Cro­chits, above the Precept, against the express President of the very Author of this Mystery. Which how great a Crime it is, that old blessed MartyrEpist. l. 2. Epist. 3. St. Cyprian will inform them in these positive words. Not to doe that thing that the Lord did, what is it else but to cast off his word, and to despise his Discipline, and to commit, not worldly, but SPIRITUAL ROBBERY AND ADUL­TERY, while as a man, from the truth of the Gospel, STEALETH AWAY BOTH THE SAYINGS AND DOINGS OF THE LORD, and corrupteth and defileth Gods Commandements? And is not their pe­remptory denyal to administer the Communion to their people year after year; their stealing away the Body, Bloud, Bread, Cup, Table, whole Supper of the Lord himself from their Parishioners, and corrupting, wresting, defiling sundry Scriptures to justifie this their practice, a casting off his Word, a despising of his Discipline, a committing, not of worldly, but spiritual Rob­bery, Adultery; yea, a stealing away of the sayings and [Page 5] doings of the Lord, worse than that of theBishop. Jewels Reply to Harding, p. 79. Aquar [...]i (of whom he writes) who did oft consecrate the Sacram. and deliver it to the people; Yet, vel ignoranter, vel simpliciter in Calice Dominico sanctificando, ET PLEBI MINISTRANDO, non hoc faciunt quod Jesus Chri­stus Dominus & Deus noster, hujus Sacrificii Author & Doctor, fecit & docuit; consecrating and ministring water to the people instead of wine? And if St. Cypri­an might well write this against the Hereticks called Aquarii, which in the holy ministration would use no wine, but instead thereof did consecrate water, and mi­nistred it unto the people, MUCH MORE MAY WE SAY THE SAME AGAINST OUR ADVERSA­RIES, WHICH CONSECRATE AND MINISTER UNTO THE PEOPLE NO CUP AT ALL, writes ve­nerable Jewel: as these now, do consecrate, minister to them no Sacrament at all, which is far worse. I shall desire these Sacrilegious, novellizing Ministers, (for the most part unacquainted with Antiquity) se­riously to ponder, what this imcomparably learned, most judicious, pious, Bishop Jewel (in the name and defence of the Church of England) after all his sufferings, and exile for Religion, hath written of the Holy Com­munion, &c. against Mr. Harding, in hisI herein follow the E­dition printed at London, 1609. Reply, Article 1. of Private Masse, where he informs us in positive terms;

1.p. 21. vid. p. 70, 71. to the same ef­fect. That the holy Communion, was so OFTEN, & so GENERALLY FREQUENTED AMONGST ALL CHRISTIANS IN THE PRIMITIVE CHURCH IN ALL THEIR ASSEMBLIES and CONGREGATIONS, that at length the very company and fellowship of them was called COMMUNIO, taking name of that action which was most solemnly used among them at their meetings (which he there proves by sun­dry instances out of S. Aug. Pag. 16. 23, 24. S. Hierom, and others) whichDe Sermo. Dom. in Monte. 12, in Johan. Tract. 26. Aug. (like as alsoAd Lu­ciniam in Apo­logia, advers. Jovinian. S. Hier. and others) witnesseth, the whole people DAYLY RECEIVED TO­GETHER. [Page 6] In specu­la Ecclesiae. Hugo Cardinalis saith further; Vel aic [...] ­tur Communio, quia in Primitiva Ecclesia populus com­municabat quolibet die. It is called the Communion, for that the people in the Primitive Church DID COMMUNI­CATE EVERY DAY. In the primitive Church they in their health RECEIVED DAILY, and in their sick­nesse Justin. Martyr Apol. had the Sacrament sent home unto them. From whence he thus objects against Mr. Harding his Pri­vate Masse, and censures, the negligence of the Priests in the Church of Rome, in administring the Com­munion, and in not exciting the people to the fre­quent reception of it:Ibid. p. 11, 12, 13. Mr. Harding granteth, that the people in the Primitive Church RECEIVED THE HOLY COMMUNION EVERY DAY (when they looked hourly to be caught, and done to death, in the persecution of Paynims, that they departed not hence sine viatico, without their voyage provision) and so con­sequently unawars he confesseth, that in the Primitive Church was no private Masse; which, as he saith, came in afterward BY THE NEGLIGENCE AND UNDE­VOTION OF THE PEOPLE (in not repairing so frequently to the Communion as at first) It is great pity so good a thing (as it is supposed) should have no better beginning. One special principle of these mens Doctrine, is, to imbar the people from reading and under­standing of the Scriptures, & to suffer them to know nothing; for that, as some of themMr. Har­ding Tit. 15. Divis. 7. fol. 155 b. have said, THEY BE DOGS & SWINE, AND THERFORE SHOULD NOT PRECIOUS STONES BE LAID BEFORE THEM: yet now must their negligence be the rule of Christs Religion. This is laid as the ground and foundation of the whole cause. Charity, say they, is cold, and the people carelesse. But therefore hath God appointed Pastors and Ministers to oversee and con­troul the people, and not to suffer them to perish in their negligence. Were it a matter of tithes, or o­ther payment, the people should be called upon, and [Page 7] not suffered in any wise to be negligent, neither should their negligence stand for excuse; how much lesse should it be suffered when the case toucheth God? The Bishops and Fathers in the second Coun­cil Council Brac. 2. cap. 84. Seu ex Synodo Graeco collecto. holden at Bracara in Spain, decreed thus. If any man resort unto the Church, and hear the Scriptures, and FOR NEGLIGENCE OR WANTONESSE WITH­DRAWETH HIMSELF FROM THE COMMU­NION OF THE SACRAMENT, and in the reverend mysteries does break the rule of discipline; we decree, that such a one be put out of the Catholick Church, until he have done penance, and shewed the fruits of his repen­tance, that having obtained pardon, he may be received again to the holy Communion. Thus the godly Fathers in old times did not flatter and favour the peoples negligence in this Case, as Mr. Harding and his fel­lows doe; but exhorted, warned, reproved, rebuked them, called them MALAPERT and IMPUDENT, THAT WOULD BE PRESENT, AND NOT RE­CEIVE, AND EXCOMMUNICATED THEM FOR THEIR NEGLIGENCE: But these men con­trarywise turn away their faces from their Brethren, and suppresse their voice, and will not be heard, &c. and find no fault with the people; but rather make them believe, that they receive for them, and apply Christs death unto them by their Mass, & that the very hearing thereof is sufficient for them, and meritori­ous; and thus, as much as in them lyeth, THEY INCREASE THE NEGLIGENCE OF THE PEOPLE, AND DISCOURAGE THEM FROM THE HOLY COMMUNION. The people is taught nothing, they understand nothing, they see nothing, neither comfort, nor memory of Christ, nor benefit of his passion. And this is the cause of their Negligence; therefore they stand thus back, and withdraw themselves: Howbeit what needeth Mr. Harding to charge the people with negligence and [Page 8] undevotion? THE POPE HIMSELF AND HIS CARDINALS DOE SCARCELY COMMUNI­CATE ONCE IN A YEAR; BUT ARE AS NEG­LIGENT AND AS UNDEVOUT THEREIN AS THE MOST PART OF THE PEOPLE. Now let us view the weight of Mr. Hardings reasons. The people is negligent and undevout, Ergo, The Priest may say Masse alone. This Argument is very weak. So might Mr Harding say, The people will not hear the word of God, Ergo, The Priest may goe into the Pulpit and preach alone. For Christs Supper (asAugust. [...]de Trinit. l. 3. c. 4. St. Aug saith:) IS A SERMON, and the Priest therein PREACH­ETH AND ƲITERETH THE DEATH OF THE LORD, &c. As for the people, they are not so negligent nor undevout as Mr. Harding here chargeth them; they are Gods people, glad to be instructed, and desirous to follow, and wheresoever the Gospel is received, glad to give testimony thereof, & to increase the same, BY THE HOLY COMMU­NION OF CHRISTS BODY AND BLOOD, IN GREAT COMPANIES AND WHOLE CON­GREGATIONS ALL TOGETHER. But what ill luck is this, that they whom Mr. Harding so of­ten condemneth for Hereticks, CAN BE SO DE­VOUT, AND HE AND HIS CATHOLICKS THUS REMAIN WITHOUT DEVOTION? Let the people be taught; let them hear the holy mi­nistration in their own tongue, that they may under­stand the holy mysteries, and feel comfort and sweet­ness in the same; let them see examples of diligence in the Clergy, then will they be no longer negligent: then should M. Hard. perforce give over his private Mass, as seeing the whole right of his cause hangeth only of the negligence, and mis-doing of the people.Ibid. p. 18. 19. The Church (saith Mr. Harding) hath charged and ordered, that no man who is worthy and disposed shall be refused. O Miserable is that Church, whereas NO MAN NO [Page 9] NOT SO MUCH AS ONE, IS WELL DISPO­SED! Here in few words he condemneth the whole Church of Rome, even the whole College of Cardinals; amongst whom, as he saith, there is not one well disposed and worthy, and therefore they all withdraw themselves from the Com­munion. But Chrysost. ad Popul. An­tioch. Homil. 61. Chrysostom saith, If thou be not worthy to receive the Communion, then art thou not worthy to be present at the Prayers: Therefore Mr. Harding should drive his unworthy people from the Church, and not suffer them to hear his Masse. They imagin that any man, be he never so great a sinner, may pray to God, and have free accesse to the throne of Majesty: Only they think a sinner may not receive the holy Communion. But it is written, Heb. 4. 2 Tim. 2. Let him depart from his wicked­nesse whosoever calleth upon the name of the Lord. Whosoever is a member of Christ, and may boldly call God his Father, may also be bold to receive the Communion. If Mr. Harding wish indeed, that the people would prepare themselves and communicate with the Priest, as he pretendeth; why doth he not provide for them? Doubtless there are many godly men among the people, and oftentimes more virtuously disposed a great deal than the Priest. Neither is it of their unworthiness that they abstain so often; nor of their worthiness, that they receive once a yeac, but only of custom. But if the People be slack, yet must the Priest doe the daily Sa­crifice, saith Mr. Harding: that is, He must offer up Christ unto his Father for the sinnes of the world. Herein appeareth the wanton folly of this people: That they may do, and are commanded to do, they will not do; but that they cannot do, that they will needs doe, &c. Christs death must be kept in remembrance; Ergo, the Priest is bound to say daily Masse, yea although there be no man to receive with him. Alas! How holdeth this poor argument? Or how may we make it good? Is there no other mean to remember Christs death, [Page 10] but only by saying private Masse? Or is not every one of the people bound to remember the same as deeply and as of­ten as the Priest? &c. He addes,Ibidem, p. 12, 13. The Feast (saith Mr. Harding) is common, all are invited: They shall be received that are disposed and proved: If this feast be common, it must needs be common to very few, for the provision is very little to serve many. That all be called in the Latin Mass, is a great and manifest untruth: for neither the Priest nor the Deacon, either by word or by gesture calleth them; nor have they any prepara­tion for them if they were called; Yet are not these men a­shamed to say, They shall be received that are di­sposed and proved. Every man ought humbly to pre­pare and dispose his heart before he presume to hear, or receive any thing that toucheth God: For God is Spi­rit, and we are Flesh; God is in heaven, and we on earth. Pythagoras, being but an heathen, was wont to say, We ought not to speak of God without light; that is, with­out premeditation and good advisement, who it is of whom we speak. And the Pagans in their sacrifices were wont to remember their Priests with these words, Hoc age: the meaning whereof was, Dispose thy mind, it is God un­to whom thou speakest. The wise man saith, Eccles. 18. Be­fore thou pray, prepare thine heart, and be not as a man that tempteth God. Likewise in old time, they that were called Catechumeni, were warned afore-hand to prepare their hearts, that they might worthily receive Bap­tism; as it is decreed under the name of Clement,Clem. epist. 3. whose words be these: Let him prepare himself in all things, that after three Moneths ended, upon the Ho­ly day, he may be baptized. Also Tract. 10: & 11. in Jo­han. St. Augustine exhorteth the Catechumeni, likewise to dispose their minds against the time of their Baptism: Thus ought every man to examine and prepare himself before he hear Gods word; Before he presume to open his mouth to pray unto God; Before he receive the Sa­crament of Baptism; and namely, Before he come [Page 11] to the holy Communion. And therefore the Priest gi­veth warning unto the people with these words, Lift up your hearts: which words, as De Bono Perseverantiae, l. 2. c. 13. St. Augustine saith, were commonly used in the holy Mysteries. But I think Mr. Harding here by these words, prepare and dis­pose, meaneth privy Confession, which many have used, as a rack of mens consciences, to the maintenance of their Tyranny: [...] Dist. 17. Peter Lombard saith, Without it there is no way to heaven. In Concil. Lateran. c. 21. Innocentius the third commandeth, That whosoever is not confessed, neither be suffered to come into the Church being alive, nor to be buried when he is dead.De Potesta­te Ecclesiae. Hugo writeth thus, I am bold to say, whosoever cometh to the Com­munion unconfessed, be he never so repentant and sor­ry for his sins certainly he receiveth unto his judge­ment. So violent the late Writers have béen in ex­acting things of their own devices. Otherwise the old Fathers, notwithstanding they sometimes speak of Confes­sion, yet they require it with more modesty, and many of them require no such thing at all. De Paeni­tentia, & in Psal. 50. Hom. 2. De La­zaro, Hom. 4. Chrysostom saith, Let the Court (where thou yieldest thy self guilty) be without witnesse: Let God alone see thee. And a­gain, If thou be ashamed to shew thy sins to any man, then utter them every day in thy heart. I say not, go, confesse thy sins unto thy fellow servant, that may up­braid thee with them; but confesse them unto God that is able to cure them. And again, thus he ima­gineth God to speak unto a sinner, Open thy sin pri­vately to me alone, that I may heal thy wound. And Theodorus, sometime Archbishop of Canterburie, saith, De Paeni­tentia, Dist. 1. Quidam Deo. Graci & totus Oriens confitetur soli Deo: The Greeks, and all they of the East, confess confess themselves on­ly to God. Thus much I thought good to touch hereof, lest it should be thoughs there is none other way for a man to prove and dispose himself, but only by Auricular Confessi­on. The meaning of these words of St. Paul,1 Cor. 11. Let a man examine himself, standeth in two points, in Faith [Page 12] and Repentance: Faith containoth the truth of our belief, Repe [...]tance cencerneth the amendment of our life: which kind of examining endureth all our life long. But to say or think we are all examined and disposed one only day in the year, and that of custom, not of Holiness, and not one day before, nor one day after, it is childish, it is super st [...]ti­ous, it is Jewish, it is no pers [...]asion meet for the people of God. If Ad Popul. Antioch. Hom. 61. Chrysostom were alive, he would cry out, O what presumption! O what a custom is this! And De Sacra­mentis, l. 5. c. 4. Leo Epist. 81. St. Ambrose would say, If thou be not worthy e­vry day to receive, then art thou not worthy once in the year.

2ly. He hath these observable passages out of the Fathers and School-men concerning the community of the Lords Supper, (belonging alike to all the Church, People, Congregation present, whence it is stiled the Communion, and not to the Priests, elect, or truly re­generated alone) and concerning the end, use of the Sacraments to unite Christians together into one body and Christian Communion, and prevent all Schisms, Dis­cords, Separations in the Church.Bishop Jewel, ibid. p. 16. 19, 26. 71, 89, 90, 97. Christ himself hath already determined the case: For albeit he hath appointed no certain number of Communicants, yet hath he by speciall words appointed a number, Take ye: Eat ye: Drink ye ALL: Divide ye among your selves; Mat. 26. Mar. 19. Luk. 22. 1 Cor. 11. Do ye this in my remembrance: Ye shall set forth the Lords death: These very words, I say, cannot be taken of one single man, but necessarily import a number. St.In 1 Cor. 11. Hierom saith, Dominica Coena OM­NIBUS debet esse communis; quia ille omnibus Disci­pulis suis qui aderant, aequaliter tradidit Sacramenta. The Lords Supper must be common to All. And that he proveth by Christs example; because Christ gave the Sacraments equally to all his Disciples that were present. In Apolog. 2. p. 82, 83. Iustin Martyr declaring the order of the Church in his time, saith; Of the things that be consecrated eve­ry man taketh part: The same things are delivered to [Page 13] the Deacons to be carried to them that are away. AndAmbr. 1. Cor. 11. St. Ambrose, expounding these words, Wa [...]t one for a­nother, saith thus, That the oblation of many, may be celebrated together, and may be ministred unto All: Strom. l. 1. Clemens Alexandrinus saith, As [...] [...] as the manner is, have divided the Sacrament▪ they give every of the people leave to take part of it. Chrys. in 1 Cor. Hom. 23. St. Chrysostom plain [...]y de [...]cribeth the very order of the Communion that was used in his time, by these words, The spiritual and reverend Sacraments are set forth equally to rich and poor, neither doth the rich m [...]n enjoy them more and the poor man lesse; They have all like honor, and like coming to them. The Sacraments once laid forth, are not taken in again until all the people have communicate, and taken part of that Spiritual Meat: but the Priests stand still and wait for all, even for the poorest of them all. AgainChrys. in 2 Cor. Hom. 18. he haith, There are things wherein the Priest differeth nothing from the people; as when we must use the fearful Myste­rie [...]: for we are all of one worthinesse to receive the same. Ad Phila­delph. Ign [...]tius saith, One bread was broken for all, and one Cup was divided to all. In theCan. Apost. Can. 9. Canons of the Apostles, it is decreed; That if any man resort un­to the Church, and hear the Scriptures, and abstain from the Communion, he stands excommunicate, as one that troubleth the Congregation. TheDe Conse­cratione, Dist. 1, & 2. like Decrees are found under the names of Cal [...]xtus Anacl [...]tus Mar­tinus, Hilarius, and others: by which it is certain, that the whole Church received together. This La­tin word Missa, in the time of Tertullian, and St. Cy­prian, signified a dismission, or a license to depart, and was specially applied unto the Communion upon this occasion that I must here declare. They that were then named Catechumeni, that is to say, Novices in the faith, and not yet christened, were suffered to be pre­sent at the Communion, untill the Gospel was end­ed. Then the Deacon commanded then forth, pro­nouncing [Page 14] these words aloud:Is [...]odorus, in Lexico. Catechumeni exeun­to: or thus, Ite, Missa est, Goe ye forth, Ye have li­cense to depart. Of this dismissing or departing forth of the Catechumeni and others, the Service it self was then called Missa. The rest remained still in the Church, and received the Communion together with the Priest. Further, the breaking of the bread, which e­ven now is used in the Masse it self, signifieth, a di­stribution of the Sacrament unto the people, asAugust, ad Paulinum, E­pist. 59. St. Augustine saith unto Paulinus, Ad distribuendam com­minuitur, It is broken to the end it may be divided. Surely, oneDe Missa publica proro­ganda. Lorichius, a Doctor of Mr. Hardings own side, saith thus, Ipsius Sacramenti Institutio vult, ut omnes una manducemus et bibamus. The very instu [...]tion of the Sacrament willeth, that we all eat and drink together. After which,Bish. Jew­els Reply to Harding, p. 103 104. Bishop Iewel adds, It appears by that place ofCyprian, Serm. 5. De Lapsis. St. Cyprian, the h [...]ly Communion was thought so necessary to all the faith­full, that children and infants were not excluded. And it appeareth by St. Hierom, Aug. de Eccles. Dog­mat. l. 1. c. 52. St. Augustine, and other old Writers, That they that were baptized, as well children as others, immediately received the holy Mysteries in both kinds. Hieron. contra Lucife­rium. St. Hierom speaking of one Hilarius, saith thus, Non potest Baptisma tradere sine Eucharistia: He cannot administer Baptism with­out the Sacrament of Thanksgiving (Therefore all that were admitted to, and though worthy of one Sacra­ment, were freely admitted to, and thought worthy of the other in the Primitive times)Cyprian de Coena Dom. Vident haec Sacramenta Pauperes Spiritu, et hoc uno contenti ferculo, omnes hujus mundi delicias aspernantur, & possidentes Christum, aliquam hujus mundi possidere supellectilem dedignantur.

He further addes in another place, It is Ibidem, p. 20, 21, 22, 23, 28, 29. granted of all, without contradiction, that one end of all Sacraments is to joyn us to God; Another end is to joyn us all toge­ther. And so likewise writeth S. Paul, 1 Cor. 12. All we [Page 15] are baptized into one body. And therefore saithContr. [...] stum Manich. l. 19. c. 11. St. Augustine, In nullum nomen Religionis coagulari, &c. Men cannot be brought into any name of Religion, be it true or false, unless they be joyned together with some bend of visible signes or Sacraments. And as touching the la­ter of these two ends, the sameEcclesiast. Hierarch. c. 3. Dionysius (Areopa­gita) writeth thus, That holy, common and peaceable di­stribution of one and the same bread, and common Cup, preacheth (or prescribeth) unto them a heavenly unity, as being men fed together. And Pachymeres the Greek Paraphrast, expounding the same place, hath these words; For that common diet and consent bringeth us in­to the remembrance of the Lords Supper. St. Cyprian (ad Magnum) saith, With what love and concord all faithfull Christians are joyned together, the Lords Sacrifice doth de­clare. These words do sufficiently declare both the common receiving of the Sacrament, and also the knitting and joyning of many together. Without all question the effect that Dionysius meant standeth in this; that the people prayeth and receiveth the Holy Communion together, and thereby doth openly testi­fie, that they be all one in Christ Jesus, and all one a­mongst themselves. And thereforeAd pop. Antioch. Hom. 61. Chrys [...]stom saith, For that cause in the Mysteries we embrace one a­nother, that being many, we may become one. ButDe Coena Dom. St. Cyprian saith, The whole Church is but one House, in which the Lamb is eaten. The Communion or fellow­ship of the Church standeth in sundry respects; For we communicate together, either in consent of mind, as it is written of the Apostles,Acts 4. They had all one heart and one mind: Or in knowledge of God, as Christ prayeth for his Apostles unto his Father,John 17. That they may be one, as thou and I be one. And St. Paul to the Philippians, Philip. 2. I thank my God alway, that ye are come to the Communion of the Gospel. Or in one Christ, as Paul saith;Gal. 3. There is now no bondman, there is now no freeman, but all are one in Jesus Christ. To be short, [Page 16] we communicate in Spirit, in Prayers, in Love; we are all washed with one Bloud; we are all fed with one body; we have all one hope of our vocation; and all together with one heart and one voice, be we never so far asunder, do glo­rifie God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. And this is that only House where [...]n the Lamb is eaten, grounded upon the Foundation of the Apostles and Prophets. In this House we dwell, here we wa [...] together with consent: here we eat the Lamb of God, being all Brothers and Members of one Body, and all One in Christ Jesus. God restore you (Mr. Harding) once again into the same House, that you may open the eyes of [...]our heart, and see from whence you are fallen. In Johan. l. 11. c. 26. Cyrillus saith, They that receive the my­stical benediction are one body with Christ, and also be­tween themselves. Whereunto agree these words of In Eccle­siast. c. 3. St. Hierome, spoken in the behalf of Christ, Blesse thine inheritance which thouhast gathered together in thy Church, by the Mysterie of my Body and Bloud. AndIn 1 Cor. 10. Anselmus a man of later years, We break and divide the bread into many parts, to declare the unitie of the love of them that receive it. Here note, This de­scription of unitie standeth in receiving the Sacra­ment, and not only in the Communion. The whole Church of God is but one house, and all the Members of the same doe communicate together in Faith and Spirit. Hereof we may form the Major. Every par­ticular Church ought to be a resemblance of the whole Church; and this particular Communion ought to be a resemblance of that General Communion. That Ge­neral Communion is common to all, and every Member re­ceiveth his part. Ergo, the particular Communion ought to be ministred commonly unto all, and every Mem­ber to receive his part. Or thus, The Ministration of the holy Communion representeth the Conjunction and fellowship that we have in Faith; And asAd Mag­num. St. Cyprian saith, ‘That Christian men are joyned toge­ther in unseparable Charity, the Lords Sacraments [Page 17] do declare.’ But Christian people being assembled in one Church, do communicate in faith all together: Ergo, being so assembled, they ought to communicate in Sacraments all together. But Mr. Harding of the nature of this word Communio, seemeth to fashion outHaeretici Or­dinem & tex­tum Scriptura­rum supergre­dientes, & quantum in ip­sis est solven­tes, membra veritatis trans­serunt & transformant, & alteram ex altero sacien­tes, seducunt multos, ex his quae aptant ex Domimcis clo­quiis malo composito phantasmati, I­renaeus adv. Haereses, l. 1. far other arguments.

It is called Communio, saith he: Ergo, it may be private.

It is called Communio: Ergo, it may be received of one alone.

It is called Communio: Ergo, the Priest may receive it without Communicants.

Mr. Harding, weigh your Argnments better, before you send them thus abroad; You shall lesse offend God and your own Conscience; you shall lesse de­ceive your Brethren, and children shall take lesse occa­sion to wonder at you.

Ibidem, p. 23, 24. Now to adde a little more hereunto touching the nature of this word Communio, wherein you so un­courteously charge all others with ignorance and lack of learning, as it pleaseth you to do throughout your whole Book, I think it not amisse to shew you, what certain Writers, both old and new, have thought and written in that behalf. I need not here to allege the words that St. Paul useth touching the holy Commu­nion, 1 Cor. 10. 16, 17. We are all one Bread, all one body, as many as do communicate of one Bread. Neither thatHierom. 1 Cor. 11. Saint Hierom saith, The Lords Supper must be Common. Neither thatIn 1 Cor. Hom. 27. St. Chrysostom, The thing that is the Lords they make Private: But the Lords things are not this Servants, or that Servants, but common to all. Neither thatIn Johan, Tract. 26. St. Augustine saith, He would have us to understand, that this Meat and Drink is the Fellow­ship of his Body and of his Members. Neither thatIn 1 Cor. Homil. 24. Chrysostom saith, What shall I call the Communication or Communion? we are all one self-same body. What signifyeth the Bread? The Body of Christ: And what [Page 18] are they made that receive it? The Body of Christ. Al­though these Fathers by these words do manifestly de­clare, That the holy Mysteries in their time were di­vided commonly to the whole people: yet will I take no advantage thereof, for that Mr. Harding will reply, They come not precisely to the nature of this word Communio. Therefore I shall note one or two others, and such as Mr. Harding cannot deny, for that they speak directly to the matter.In Dionys. cap. 3. Pachymeres a Greek Writer, the Paraphrast upon Dionysius, hath these words; Therefore (saith he) hath this Father Dio­nysius called it The Communion, for that there all they that were worthy, did communicate of the Holy Myste­ries: (And all then were reputed worthy, and received daily in the Primitive Church, but persons excommu­nicate and injoyned to Penance; who upon great and notorious crimes could not be suffered to communicate with the rest of the faithfull, sometimes during their whole life, but only when they should depart the world. This extremity was used for terror of others, and such reconciliation was thought necessary at the end, for solace of the party, that he should not utterly be swallowed up in despair, but might perceive he was received again a­mongst the faithfull (by sending the Communion to him at his death) and so depart comfortably as the Member of Christ, asPage 100. Bishop Jewel writes and proves in the next page.)In 1 Cor. 10. Haymo writing upon Saint Pauls Epistles, saith thus, The Cup is called Communi­cation, which is as much as participation, because all do communicate of it. In Specu­lo Ecclesiae. Hugo Cardinalis, saith thus, Afterwards let the Communion be said, which is so cal­led, that we should all communicate. De Missa publica proro­ganda. Gerardus Lorichius, Dicitur Communio, quia concorditer de uno Pane, et uno Calice multi participamus, &c. Is is cal­led Communio, because we (being many) do communi­cate together agreeably of one Bread & one Cup. And this word Communio, is as much as participation, or recei­ving [Page 19] of parts. De Eccle­siae Observatio­nibus. Micrologus, Non potest proprie dici Communio, nisi plures de eodem sacrificio parti­cipent. It cannot justly be called a Communion, un­lesse many do receive of one Sacrifice. If Mr. Harding will not believe us, yet I hope he will believe some of these. They be all his own. It were much for him to say, they be all ignorant and unlearned, and not one of them understood what he wrote. Certainly their age will give it them, they are no Lutherans.

3ly. Ibidem p. 24. Whereas Mr. Harding in defence of Pri­vate Masse puts this case: What if 4. or 5. of sundry houses, in a sickness time, being at the point of death, re­quire to have their rites cre they depart; the Priest after that he hath received the Sacrament in the Church, di­neth, and then being called upon, carrieth the rest a mile or two unto the sick; He doth what he is required: Doth he not in this case communicate with them? &c. Else if this might not be counted a lawful and good communi­on, and therefore not be used, one of these great Inconve­niences should willingly be committed; That either they should be denied that necessary victual of life at their de­parture hence; which were a cruel Injury, and a thing contrary to the examples and godly ordinances of the Pri­mitive Church: Or the Priest, rather for companies sake, than of devotion, should receive that holy meat af­ter he had served his stomack with common meats, &c. Bishop Jewel amongst other solid Answers hereunto, returns this. But if the people would now communi­cate every day, as they did then (in the Primitive Church) or at least oftner than they do now, then should not this matter seem so necessary at the end, as is here pretended: And so had Mr. Harding lost another Ar­gument.

To these 3. passages of Bishop Iewel, I shall annex that of his learned coetanean, and fellow Exile for Re­ligion, Thomas Beacon, (a burning and a shining light) in his Catechism, Vol. 1. of his Works, f. 462, 463. [Page 20] where after he hath proved by sundry Scriptures and Authorities, That the Lords Supper in the Apostles times, Primitive Church, was commonly received every day, or Lords day at the least. Adding, That among the Greeks, even at this day, if any man absent himself from the Lords Table by the space of 14. dayes (except he can ren­der a reasonable cause of his absence) he is excommuni­cate, and put from the Company of the faithfull: and that in all those mighty, large, populous Kingdoms, un­der that most puissant King, Precious John, the holy Communion of the Body and Bloud of the Lord, hath from the beginning been daily administred unto the peo­ple, and yet is at this present day, as Histories make mention. He then censures this as a grosse Popish in­novation and abuse (contrary both to Scripture, and Antiquity) That whereas the Lord Christ Iesus would have the holy Communion of his blessed Body and precious Blood to be oft times received of the faithfull, for a remembrance of his death and passion, and for the worthy, earnest, diligent consideration of that inestimable Benefit which we have obtained of God the Father, through the Son his passion and death: The custom of the Popes Church is, that the people receive the Sacrament u­sually but once a year, that is to say, at Easter. By which [...]eans, the Commandement of Christ is bro­ken, the Sacrament neglected, the death of Christ not so earnestly remembred; the people become unthank­full, Dissolution of life breaketh in, Vice increaseth, Virtue decreaseth.

From these (with sundry other like) Passages of Bi­shop Iewel, and Thomas Beacon, (incomparably emi­nent both for their Learning and Piety) it is irrefra­gable,

1. That in the Apostles days (as some from Acts 2. 46, 47. c. 20. 7. 11. 1 Cor. 10. 16, 17, 21. c. 11. 17. to 34. resolve) and in theSee Bishop Jewels Reply to Harding, p. 11, 13, 38, 39, 48, 51, 359, & My Suspension suspended, p. 24, 25, 26. Primitive Church for many hundreds of years next after the Apostles, and among [Page 21] the Greeks and Christians under Precious Iohn at this day, all Christians and visible Members of the Church, of years of discretion to examine themselves, constantly received the Communion all together every day, or Lords day at the least, when ever they met to pray, hear the Word, or perform any other publike Duties of Religious Worship unto God; and that out of meer duty, piety, de­votion, zeal and love to Christ. Chap. 12. divis. 2. p. 228. Bishop Iewel, in his Defence of the Apology of the Church of England, proves this more fully by the confession and testimo­nies of sundry Popish Authors. Thomas Aquine saith, In Primitiva Ecclesia, quando magna vigebat devotio Fidei Christianae, Statutum suit, ut fideles quotidie communicarent. In the Primitive Church, when great Devotion of the Christian Faith was in strength, it was ordained, that the faithfull should receive the Com­munion every day.Durand. in rational. l. 4. c. 55. Durandus saith, In the Primi­tive Church, all the faithfull daily received the Com­munion. In Luc. c. 24. Hugo Cardinalis saith, In the Primitive Church All, as many as were present at the Canon of the Masse, did daily communicate: and if they would not, they departed out of the Offertory. If ye think these Authorities are not sufficient,Contra Musculum, de Sacrificio. Iohannes Cochlaeus saith, Omnes olim, &c. In old time both all the Priests, and all the say people received the Communion with the Minister that had made the Oblation, as is plainly perceived by the Canons of the Apostles, and by the Books of the antient Doctors of the Church, &c. Likewise saith In Canon. Missae. Iodocus Clichthovius, In Primitiva Ecclesia, &c. In the Primitive Church the faithful received the Com­munion every day. Likewise it is noted in the Margin upon the Apostles Canons. Omnes olim, qui intere­rant, communicabant. In old time, all that were pre­sent, did communicate. In the Council of Antioch, Can. 2. & Concil. Aquisgran, cap 70. Omnes, &c. All that come into the Church of God, and hear the Holy Scriptures, and refuse the receiving of the [Page 22] Lords Sacrament, let them be put from the Church. These Decrees reach not only to the Ministers of the Church, but to the whole People.In 1 Cor. 11. St. Ambrose saith, Munus obla [...]um totius populi fit, &c. The obla­tion offered is made the whole peoples; For that in me bread all are signified; For in that we are all one, we must all receive of one bread. In imitation hereof, the Protestant Churches in forein parts did frequent­ly receive the Lords Supper all together, witness the Harmony of Confessions, sect. 14. p. 307 Former Confession of Helvetia, Artic. 22. Of the Lords Supper: We do therefore use the holy meat of­tentimes; because that being admonished hereby, we do by the eys of faith, behold the death and bloud of Christ crucified, and meditating upon our salvation, not without a tast of heavenly life, and a true sense of life eternal, we are refreshed with this spiritual, lively, and inward food, with an unspeakable sweetnesse, and we do rejoyce with a joy that cannot be expressed with words for that life which we have found, and we do wholly and with all our strength pour out our thankssgivings for so wonder­full a benefit of Christ bestowed upon us. And thisIbid. p. 349. Confession of Sweveland, of their practise: Our men do often times, with as great reverence as they may, re­ceive the Sacrament, to be the lively food of their souls, and to stir up in them a gratefull remembrance of so great a benefit. The which thing also useth now to be done among us much more often and reverently, than heretofore was used: (to wit, in times of Pope­ry:) With theIbid. p. 331 Confession of Auspurg, in these words, Therefore the Masse, (to wit, the celebration of the Lords Supper) must be used to this end, that there the Sacrament may be reached unto them that have need of comfort. As Ambrose saith, Because I do alwayes sin therefore I ought alwayes to receive a medicin. And seeing the Masse is such a Communion of the Sacra­ment, we do observe one common masse every Holy­day, and on other dayes, if any will use the Sacra­ment, [Page 23] when it is offered to them, which desired it. Nei­ther is this custom newly brought into the Church. With whatEzech. 3 9. Zech. 7. 22. hearts of adamant, browes of brasse, searedness (not tenderness) of Conscience then, can or dare any Protestant Ministers, Parsons or Vicars now, who have Cure of Souls, obstinately deny, peremptorily refuse to deliver the Lords Supper to themselves, or any, or all of their Parishioners and Church members, when they earnestly desire it at their hands, not only for sun­dry dayes, weeks, months, but years together? and that under a new monstrousSee Dr. Drekes Boun­dary to the Ho­ly Mount. Mr. Collings, and others. pretext of extraordi­nary Zeal, Piety, Devotion, Sanctity, tendernesse of con­science, transcendent Love to Christ, his Sacraments, their own and their peoples souls? Or with what colour will such Pastors be able to justifie or excuse them­selves before any Tribunals of God or men, when le­gally accused, convicted for this notorious detestable Sacrilege, and Apostacy from the custom of the Pri­mitive and Protestant Churches, if they presently re­pent not of it with confusion of face, and redemption of their former wilfull neglect herein, by constant, fre­quent, publike Communions henceforth delivered to all their people in Common, without future seclusions of any unexcommunicate persons from it, who unfeig­nedly desire it.

2. That the Apostles, Primitive Christians, Fathers, Authors, with these two most judicious Divines, be­lieved, asserted, both by their preaching, writing, pra­ctise, Bish. Jew­els Reply to Harding, p. 20, 21, 23, 24, 29, 32, 38, 27, 28. That the Sacrament belonged to, and ought to be administred to every visible Christian and Church-member alike, to all the whole Congregation in common; and that none ought to be secluded, suspended from it, but persons actually Bish. Jew­els Reply, p. 24. 29, 30, 35. Harmony of Confessions, sect. 14. excommunicated from Church-com­munion, and all other publike Ordinances, for notorious, scandalous offences: That upon this ground, and its frequent common reception by all, it was stiled, The Communion, both by the Fathers, Primitive, and Mo­dern [Page 24] Christian Church-writers of all sorts. This is the express doctrine of the whole Church of England, con­firmed by13. Eliz. c. 12. Parliament, and subscribed, assented to by all true Ministers, Pastors of the Church of Eng­land, admitted to any Pastoral Charge, Article 30. The Cup of the Lord is not to be denyed to the Lay-peo­ple; For both the parts of the Lords Sacrament by Christs Ordinance and Commandment, ought to be ministred to all Christian men alike. A universal affirmative, admitting all unto, and sequestring no (unexcommunicated) Christian from both or either parts of the Lords Supper. Which the Confession of the Protestant Churches in Saxony, thus backHarmony of Confessions, 12 Section, p. 285. See 14. Sect. p. 360. Ar­ticle 22. Of the Sacraments. The Church also is dis­cerned from other Gentiles by certain Signs and Cere­monies instituted of God, and usually called Sacraments, as are Baptism, and the Losds Supper. Which notwith­standing are not only Signs of a Profession, but much more (as the antient fathers said) Signs of Grace; that is they be Ceremonies added to the promise of the Gospel touching Grace, that is, touching the free remission of sins, and touching reconciliation, and the whole benefit of our redemption; the which are so instituted, that every man may use them; because they be pledges and testi­monies which declare, that the benefits promised in the Gospel, do appertain to every one. For the voice of the Gospel is general: this use doth bear witness, that this voice doth appertain to every one which useth the Sacraments. What other Protestant Churches, Confessions affirm to this purpose, you may read at large in the Harmony of their Confessions, Sect. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. With what colour of Piety, Iustice, E­quity, Conscience, Zeal, Prudence, Christianity, Cha­rity then, dare any of our Independent, Presbyterian, or other Ministers seclude, debar, not only pretended ignorant, scandalous, unregenerate, Visible Church-members, nor actually or legally excommunicated, but [Page 25] even true regenerate godly Christians, and their whole Churches, Parishes, (if not some whole Towns, Cities) from this holy Supper and Communion, from month to month, yea year to year, upon false pretences, that it belongs not to them; that they shall prophane the Sa­crament; cast pearls before Swine; give holy things to dogs; damn, poyson their own and their peoples souls, if they give the Bread, Cup of the Lord unto them; and make visible and real Saint ship, fitness, worthinesse, the sole rule, ground of right, interest in, and admission to this Sacrament; against the professed Doctrine, Pra­ctice of all former ages, Churches. And all in truth to erect a more than arbitrary Ecclesiastical Papal Tribunal over Christs own Sacraments, and their Pa­rishioners consciences, persons, to admit to, or seclude all and every of them from the Lords Supper at their pleasures, upon their own terms and times alone; the sole true round of this impious, sacrilegious, unchristi­an, antichristian Innovation; for it deserves no better Epithites.

3ly. That the Apostles, Primitive Church, Christians, Fathers freely and usually admitted all visible Christi­ans whatsoever to the Communion of the Lords Supper, of discretion to examine themselves, whom they freely admitted to Baptism, Prayer, hearing of the Word, or any other publike Ordinances of Gods worship: Bish. Jew­ [...]s Reply to Harding, p. 11. 12. 53 67 29. Apostol. Cano­nes Can. 9. Harmony of Conf [...]ssions, sect. 14. p. 344. enjoyning them all under pain of Excommunication, when ever they heard the Word, or met together in publike, to receive the Lords Supper likewise in common together, and excom­municating such who communicated not in this sort, as men working the trouble and disorder of the Church. That they required, exacted no other, no greater, no solemner self-examination, preparation, fitness, visible worthiness, or real graces in the, when they came to receive the Lords Supper, but the very same they demanded, ex­pected from them, when ever they came to be baptized, pray, hear, read the Word, or converse with God in any [Page 26] other sacred Ordinances of his worship, God himself re­quiring the like examination, qualification, preparation, fitnesse in all other holy duties and approaches to him in his word, as in this duty, as is evident by Eccles. 5. 1, 2. Lam. 3. 40, 41. Psal. 26. 6. Isay 1. 16, 17, 18. 1. 15, 16. 2 Chron. 30. 17, 18, 19, 20. Exod. 12. 48. 2 Cor. 13. 5. Jam. 1. 5, 6, 7, 21. Mat. 22. 12. 1 Pet. 2. 1, 2. Hebr. 12. 1. 1 Tim. 2. 8. Heb. 4. 2. 2 Pet. 1. 5. to 19. Luke 8. 18. Mar. 4. 24. Rom. 14. 23. and other texts, compared with 1 Cor. 11. 28, 29. and ChristsMat. 26. 26, &c. Ma [...]. 14. 22, &c. Luke 22. 19, 20. 1 Cor. 11. 23, &c. so­dain institution and celebration of this Sacrament at his last Supper, without giving any previous Notice of it to his Disciples to prepare themselves for its worthy reception, their former preparation, fitnesse to eat the Paschal Supper, and hear Christs heavenly instructions given them, Iohn 13. 14, 15, 16, 17. being deemed by Christ himself a sufficient preparative to communicate with him at his Table. Upon what true ground of conscience, piety, justice, reason or religion then, can any Ministers now seclude all or any of their baptized Parishioners of sufficient capacity to examine them­selves, whom they freely, constantly admit to commu­nicate with them in baptism, prayer, preaching, sing­ing Psalms, hearing, reading Gods word, and other or­dinary or extraordinary publike duties of Gods wor­ship, from the Communion of the Lords Supper only? or deem them unprepared, unqualified, unworthy to communicate in this Ordinance alone; when as they deem them sufficiently qualified, prepared, worthy to converse with God, and the most regenerated Saints in all or any other publike Ordinances but this? Or by what divine warrant from Gods own Word, our Saviours, his Apostles, the Primitive Fathers, Christi­ans, theHarmony of Confessions, sect. 14. Protestant Churches, or B [...]shop Jewels Do­ctrine or Practice, can they now over-rigidly exact [...]a more transcendent, serious, diligent, special examina­tion, preparation, qualification, worthinesse, fitnesse, [Page 27] holinesse in their people when they resort to the Com­munion of the Lords Supper, than when they come to hear, read the word, fast, pray, receive the Sacrament of Baptism, give thanks, or sing praises unto God; or else seclude, or deem them for unworthy Receivers, who can eat or drink nothing but their own damnati­on? Yea, with what conscience, reason, justice, can any Communicants neglect, refuse, delay to receive the Lords Supper, upon this pretext alone, that they are wholly unworthy, unfit, unprepared only for this du­ty, when publikely administred in the Churches where­of they are members, and they there present at all or any other sacred publike Ordinances, in which they then repute themselves not unfit, unworthy, unquali­fied, unprepared to converse with God, and commu­nicate with other Christians, but in this duty alone? Doubtlesse the serious consideration of Bishop Jew­els, St. Ambrose, and St. Augustines words forecited, touching due preparation to all holy duties, with that of Chrysostom, If thon be not worthy to receive the Com­munion, then thou art not worthy to be present at Pray­ers: and of the Primitive Christians daily communica­ting, as well as hearing and praying, will rectifie this common received Error both in Ministers and People, now made the principal plea in barre, excuse, justifica­tion, by the one magisterially to sequester, repell their Parishioners from the Lords Table, and by the people voluntarily to withdraw, debar themselves from it, a­gainst Christs own precept and their bounden duties, to the prejudice, if not peril of their souls. Which I write not, to make any carelesse or neglectful of due preparation when they repair to the Lords Table; but to stirr all up to a like conscientious, holy preparation in all their publike or private approaches to God in o­ther duties; to rectifie this common, superstitious, epidemical errour, that most think they are unworthy, unprepared for the Lords Supper only, even then when [Page 28] they deem themselves not so for all or any other sa­cred publike duties; and thereupon approach not to it when it invited, or so frequently as they ought; and that henceforth none may deem themselves only wor­thy to receive the Lords Supper once or twice a year, but unworthy at all other seasons, they being not wor­thy to receive it once a year, if they be not worthy every day, according to St. Ambrose doctrine; Who writeth thus of the custom of the Latine Church in his time (as Reply to Harding, p. 19. Bishop Jewel records his words)Ambr. in 1 ad Timoth. c. 2. Non quoti­di [...]. Every week we must celebrate the oblation, although not every day unto strangers, yet for the Inhabitants; yea some­times twice in the week; who then as frequently re­ceived the Communion, as they heard the Word, or prayed, and deemed the self-same preparation suffici­ent for all three Ordinances then conjoyned, as unse­parable in point of usual practice. The reason why Christ instituted the Sacrament of this Supper in the most common daily Elements of Bread and Wine, was, that so they might be commonly and frequently recei­ved by all at his Table for the spiritual nourishment of their Souls, as well as daily and frequently received for the nutriment of their bodies at their private Ta­bles.

4ly. That Christ himself, his Apostles, the Pri­mitive Fathers, Christians, with all others who thus pressed, practised the daily administring and recei­ving of the Lords Supper, reputed it a converting, as well as confirming Ordinance, Haec au­tem est com­mmunis Theo­logorum Do­ctrina, Sacra­menta conferre Gratiam, vel faciendo, ubi non invenit factam, vel factam augendo. Nostra Sacramenta dicuntur salvare, REGENERARE, &c. Bel­larmin. Amesii Bellarminus Enervatus, Tom. 3. l. 1. c. 4. begetting, quickning grace in unregenerate, as well as confirming, inorea­sing Grace in regenerate Christians, as the Word read and preached doth. ThisDe Trinit. l. 3. c. 4. St. Augustines foreci­ted words (For Christs Supper is a Sermon, and the Priest therein preacheth and uttereth the death of the Lord) with sundry others, who stile it a visible Word, [Page 29] a means of quickning and begetting Grace, &c. sufficient­ly manifest, and I haveA Vindi­cation of 4 Se­rious Questi­ons, p. 39. to 48. Suspension sus­pended, p. 24. to 39. See Mr. Humsrey his Rejoynder to Dr. Drake. His 2. [...]indi­cation of Free. Admission to the Lords Sup­per, p. 32, 33, &c. Mr. Blake his Covenant sealed, p. 204. 240. elsewhere proved at large. How dare then any Novellers, (Ministers or others) deny it to any unconverted, unregenerated Christi­ans, as a meer deadly poyson only to them; being the most probable, effectual lively means of their humiliation, compunction, regeneration, conversion unto God, prescribed as the chiefest balsom, cordial to heal their wounded, sin-sick Souls, and support their despairing, languishing Spirits? Or how dare any such Souls, Spirits, Christians (though laden, heavy laden with the greatest Crimes) abstain from this most Soveraign Medicin to effect and perfect their Spiritual cure, upon pretence of their own unfitness, unworthiness, unprepa­redness, when as the more dangerous, more desperate, mortal their Wounds & Maladies are, the more & more speedily they need, the fitter they are for this Spiritual Basilicon, this heavenly Electuary, which theySee My Suspension sus­pended, p. 36, 37. Concordia Lutherana, p. 542. to 550. then most deferre, neglect, when they need it most, and would first be healed, cured by some other means before they re­sort to this most precious healing Physick, which most effectually applies Christs passion, bloud, merits to their despairing dying Souls, of all other Ordinances whatsoe­ver? If all, in desperate, corporal wounds, diseases, resort presently to the most effectual healing Medica­ments, why not then in Spiritual likewise; but be en­joyned, perswaded, enforced under pain of damnation to defer and forbear them?

5ly. That itBish. Jew­els Reply, p. 11, 12, 13. 29. 69. Chrysostom. in Ephes. Homil. 3. was the constant practice, duty of the Primitive Fathers, Bishops, Pastors, and of the Pro­testant Churches Ministers in the beginning of Refor­mation to invite, excite and stirre up all their people, when backward, negligent, undevout, to the frequent constant rec [...]ption of the Lords Supper; reputing all such who neglected this duty, to be malapert, impudent, un­worthy of Christian Communion, and rebuking, censu­ring, excommunicating them as such, till they repented [Page 30] of this sinne, as the premises largely manifest; together with that pathetical Exhortation in our Book of Com­mon Prayer, prescribed by the whole Church, Parlia­ment of England to be used by all Ministers, 5 & 6 E. 6. c. 1. 1 Eliz. c. 2. and read in Churches, when they shall see the people negligent to come to the Holy Communion; which I shall de­sire all our Ministers, and Negligent Communicants oft to read, ponder at their leisures, for their better information and conviction. With what consciences, reason, equity, Piety then, can any who professe them­selves the only true faithful orthodox Ministers of Jesus Christ, (yea the holiest and devoutest Zealots of all o­thers) now make it their chiefest busines, their greatest glory, praise, the argument of their ferventest zeal and devotion by preaching, writing, disputing, not to exhort provoke, encourage, invite, compel their people to, but to dehort, deter, s [...]quester, debar their Parishioners & others from the Lords Table, and their holy Communion with Christ and one another in this Ordinance, for whole mo­neths, yea years together;Mr. Ru­therfords Di­vine Right of Church Gov. p. 252, 253, 254, &c. A Brotherly and Friendly Cen­sure, p. 5, 6. Mr. Drake, p. 179, 180. Mr. Coll. and others. advising them to abstain, fly from it, as a most certain deadly poison & damnation to their souls; and instead of discharging their Pastoral duties in excommunicating all such who prophanely neg­lect to repair to it, seclude, excommunicate themselves, and all their Parishioners from it (though they ear­nestly importune them to be admitted to it) month af­ter month, year after year, against all Lawes of God and Man; and by most absurd, unchristian, unreaso­nable whimsical conceits, and pervertions of Scrip­tures, endeavour to justifie in Presse and Pulpit this their most sacrilegious, unchristian, impious, Papal, An­tichristian practi [...]e before all the world; An Anti­dote against 4▪ Dangerous Questions. A Brotherly and Friendly Cen­sure Mr. Drake his Boundary to the Holy Mount. Mr. Collings, Mr. Saunders, and others. censuring all others as professed Enemies to Reformation, Christs Covenant and Kingdom, Prophane, Licentious Libertius, Erastian Hereticks; Men of loose Principles, void of piety, devotion, holinesse, &c. who either concurre not [Page 31] with, or publikely oppose them in these their irreligi­ous Innovations, and tyrannous usurpations, diame­trically contrary to the Doctrine, Practice of all for­mer Christian Bishops, Pastors, Ministers, Churches, from the Apostles dayes till this day. The Lord now convince, rebuke, humble them for these their scanda­lous Practices, Publications, and reclame them for the future, for their poor oppressed peoples spiritual wel­fare, and our Churches future peace and settlement in these distracted times.

6ly. Bishop Jewel, and Thomas Beacon, in their fore­cited passages, charge these particulars on the Church and Clergy of Rome, as antichristian Papal Practices, Innovations, Errors, Crimes, contrary to the instituti­on, doctrine, Practice of Christ, his Apostles, the Pri­mitive Church, Fathers, Christians, and of all reform­ed Protestant Churches, Ministers; in which most of our Anabaptistical and Independent Ministers, yea many Presbyterians now imitate, equal, and farre ex­ceed them.

1. That the Custom of the Popes Church and Popish Clergy is, usually to administer the Lords Supper to the People, but once or twice a year, by which means the com­mandement of Christ is broken, the Sacrament of Christ neglected, the death of Christ not so earnestly remembred, the people become unthankefull, dissolute in life, vice in­creaseth, virtue decreaseth. But how many Ministers now amongst us, not only neglect, but peremptorily refuse to administer the Sacrament to their Parishioners & peo­ple, so oft as once or twice every year at certain times; but not so much as once in two, three, or four yeares space, or more, together? whereby all the forementio­ned sins and evils are more multiplied amongst us of late years, than formerly in times of Poperie: Herein therefore they are more inexcusable and blame-worthy than the Papists, whom they exceed in this exorbitancy.

[Page 32] 2ly, That the Pope and Popish Priests made the peoples negligence and undevotion in not resorting daily and fre­quently to the Lords Supper, the rule of Christs religion, and Ground-Work of their private Masses. And instead of controuling, rebuking the people for not repairing con­stantly and daily to this Sacrament, they suffered them to persevere and perish in this their negligence; yea in­creased their negligence, and discouraged them from the holy Communion: whereas, were it a matter of Tithes or other payments, they should be called upon, and not suf­fered in any wise to be negligent, neither should their neg­ligence stand for excuse. And do not our Anabapti­stical, Independent Ministers, crept into many Parish Churches, and some Presbyterians likewise, make the peoples negligence, ignorance, unpreparednesse, un­devotion, the very Ground-work of their casting off and discontinuing all publike Communions in their Churches, there formerly celebrated every Month, or quarterly at least, and to set up private Communions in their Conventicles and private Meetings to some few selected Proselites like so many private Masses; yea, instead of exciting their Parishioners to the frequent constant receiving the Lords Supper, and reprehen­ding them for their undevotion, backwardnesse in re­sorting to it, do they not foster, incourage them in their Non-approaches thereunto; nay use all possible strai­ned Arguments to disswade, deter, debar them from the least accesse unto it; though strict and diligent in calling on them for their own Tithes, dues, wherein no negligence or plea must be admitted? O then do they not fully imitate, equal, yea exceed the Popes and Po­pish Priests herein, (who force all to communicate once a year at least, under pain of Excommunicati­on) under pretext of avoiding Popery and prophane­nesse? The Lord set this home upon their Spirits, that they may reform it without delay.

3ly, That the Popes and Popish Priests debarred the [Page 33] people from reading the Scriptures, &c. upon this ground, that they be Dogs and Swine, and therefore should not such precious stones be laid before them. And do not many of our Minsters, upon this very Ground debar all their people from the Lords Supper, and justifie it inMr. Dr [...]k [...], Mr. Collings, and others. Print and Pulpit, from Mat. 7. 6. Give not that which is holy to Dogs, nor cast ye your Pearls before Swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and rent you? Which was certainly never intended of the Sacrament of the Lords Supper (not then instituted) nor of such who earnestly desire frequently to receive this Pearl, this holy thing, and are ready to rent their Ministers for not delivering it unto them, whereas they would high­ly love, honour them, did they constantly give it to them, as they ought by Christs injunction, and the Pri­mitive Fathers practice; But rather of heavenly admo­nitions, reprehensions, Instructions given to excom­municated, obstinate Sinners, who would be more ex­asperated than reformed by them, as I haveA Vindi­cation of 4 Se­rious Questions p. 38, 39. Four Serious Que­stions, p. 3. else­where proved at large, andMr. Hum­sr [...]ys Second Vindication of Free Ad­mission to the Lords Supper, Sect. 12. p. 71. &c. others very lately. And are they not then direct Popes, Papists herein, fighting with their Arguments against their own People, and Christs own sacred Communion?

And here let me inform these Censorious Ministers, who term and deem all those baptized Christians, whom they judge unregenerate, Doggs, and Swine; that these are no Scripture, Gospel or Christian terms, or Epethites becomming their Lips or Pens, but meer Anti-Scripture, ungospel, unchristian Reproaches, Revilings unbecoming their ministerial Function, and Profession of Christianity, diametrically contrary to Gods, Christs, the Holy Ghosts, the Prophets and A­postles language in holy Writ: Which in the Old Te­stament stiled all the circumcised Israelites, and seed of Abraham, joyned unto him by external federal Cove­nant and profession, though for the most part really void of saving Grace, and inward spirituall holines [...], [Page 34] Exod. 22. 31. c. 19 6. Le­vit. 11. 44. c. 19 2. c. 20 7. Num. 15. 40. c. 16. 3. Deutr. 7. 6. c. 14. 2. 21. c. 26. 19. c. 28 9. Ezra 8. 28. c. 9. 2. Isa. 6. 13. c. 62. 12. Dan. 8. 24. c. 12. 7. Holy men: A Kingdom of Priests, and an holy Nation, a peculiar people: an holy people unto the Lord thy God, a chosen special people unto himself above all the Nations which are upon the face of the earth; the holy seed: the holy people, the redeemed ones, Exod 3. 7. 19. c. 6. 7. c. 7. 4. c. 33. 15, 16. Levit. 20. 26 c. 26. 12. Deut. 9. 29. c. 10. 15. c. 29. 13. c. 32. 9. 43. 1 Sam. 2. 24. c. 12. 22. 2 Sam. 7. 7. 11. 23, 24. 1 Kings 8. 16. 36. to 52. c. 14. 7. 2 Kings 11. 17. 1 Chron. 17. 21, 22. c. 29 17, 18. 2 Chro. 6. 6. 24. 39. c. 23. 16. Psal. 38 9. Psal. 29 11. Ps. 47. 9. Ps. 50 7. Ps. 68. 7. 22. Ps. 77. 15. 20. Ps. 78. 1. 20. 52 62. 71. Ps. 79. 13. Ps. 81. 11, 13. Ps. 85. 2. Ps. 94. 5. Ps. 95. 7. 10. Ps. 100. 3. Ps. 106. 4. 40. Ps. 111. 6. 9. Ps. 135. 12. Ps. 148. 14. Isay 1. 3, 4. c. 3. 12. c. 5. 13. 25. c. 40. 1, 2. c. 58. 1. Jer. 2. 11, 12. 31, 32. c. 5. 26. 31. Ezech. 13. 9. 19. Dan. 9. 20. Hos. 4. 6. 8. 12. Joel 3. 3. Amos 7. 8. 15. c. 9. 13. Obad. 13. Mich. 2. 4, 8, 9, c. 3. 3. 5. c. 6. 2, 3, 5. Zeph. 2. 9, 10. Zech. 8. 7, 8. Gods people, the Lords people, the Lords portion and inheritance: his own people, the sheep of his pasture; the people of the Lord of Hosts; and that not only when they kept them­selves pure frō Idolatry, false worship, & other wickednes, but even when they were polluted with idolatry, false wor­ship, all manner of pollutions, impieties, & plagued by God, punished and carried away captive for their sins, as the marginal Texts, with sundry others testify. So all their Priests, Levites, Cities, (especially Jerusalem) are stiled holy, most holy to the Lord, the holy Court, though many of them were polluted, prophaned, defiled with all kind of wickedness and idolatry, Exod. 30. 29. Levit. 11. 44. c. 21. 6, 7, 8. Isa. 52. 1. c. 64. 10. c. 1. 21. Neh. 11. 1. 18. Dan. 9. 24. Mat. 4. 5. and other Scriptures. Thus all the converted Jews and Gentiles under the Gos­pel, externally professing, embracing the faith of Christ, and baptized into Christ, are stiled Gods people, my peo­ple, by God himself in the Old Testament; Ps. 110. 3. Hos. 2. 23. Zech. 13. 9. and likewise in the New, Rom. 9. 25. Holy, Holy Brethren, Saints, Saints by calling; a holy Generation, a Royal Priesthood, a peculi­ar people; 1 Cor. 7. 14. 1 Thes. 5. 27. Hebr. 3. 1. 1 Pet. 2. 5. 9. Rom. 1. 2. 1 Cor. 1. 2. 2 Cor. 1. 1. c. 13. 13. Eph 1. 1. 15. c. 6. 18. Col. 1. 2. 26. Philem. 5. yea they are said to be in Christ as branches in the vine, Iohn 15. 1. to 9. sanctified with the bloud of the Covenant, Heb. 10. 29. To be redeemed by Christ, 2 Pet. 2. 1. yea reputed Members of the visible Chur­ches [Page 35] of God, and of the Saints, though the major part of them be not really sanctified, & defiled with manifold sins, 1 Cor. 1. 2. c. 14. 17. to 34. c. 14. 23. 33. Acts 20. 28, 29, 30. 1 Thess. 1. 1. c. 5. 14. 2 Thess. 1. 1. c. 3. 6. to 16. Rev. 2. 4, 5. 14, 15. 20. c. 3. 1. &c. 4. 14, 15, 16. compared together, to omit many other like Texts. And such as these, even when they fall into scandalons sinnes, are to be restored with the spirit of meeknesse, and to be admonished as Christian BRE­THREN, and not reputed Enemies, Dogs, or Swine, Gal. 6. 1, 2. 2 Thess. 3. 6. to 16. being still our Brethren in Christ, till either actually apostatized from the Profession of Christ, or actually cast out of the Church by excommunication for grosse scandalous Crimes, as the New Testament ever stiles them. Let them therefore henceforth beware how they stile any Christians, who frequent the publick Ordinances, and professe the faith of Christ externally as well as them­selves, Dogs or Swine, or use them as such by secluding them from the Sacrament, though they joyn with them in all other sacred ordinances, as their Christian Bre­thren, and fellow Members of the Church of Christ.

4ly. That the Pope himself and his Cardinals doe scarcely communicate once in a year, but are as negligent and as undevout therein as the most part of the people, And are not many of our Ministers now more negli­gent and undevout herein, than the Pope himself and his Cardinals, or most part of the Popish people under them? in that they do scarcely communicate not only once in a year, but scarce in many years together in publike in their Churches? And that not out of bare negligence, as they, which is bad; but out of mee [...] de­sign, to deba [...]re all their people from the Lords Supper likewise, lest they should participate with them at the Lords table, which is far more impious, detestable both to God and Man.

5ly, That the Pope and Popish Priests think that any [Page 36] man, be he never so great a sinner may pray to God, and resort to other Ordinances; only they think a Sinner may not receive the Holy Communion. And is not this the very Doctrine, Opinion, thought of many of our Mi­nisters now, who deny, debar their people the Lords Supper, and yet admit them freely to all other Ordi­nances of Prayer, Preaching, &c? Yet this must be no Popery, forsooth, in them, but new Evangelical light sent down from heaven of late into their hearts.

6ly, That Mr. Harding and the Popish Priests, write, professe, That the feast of the Lords Supper is common, all are invited, but they only received to it those who are disposed and proved; that is, after they have been examined by, and made an Auricular Confession to their Priests, and been adjudged by them worthy to communi­cate. But yet many of our Parish Priests and Mini­sters now, are far worse than these Popish Priests here­in: For many of themMr. Ru­therford, Di­vine Right of Church-Gov. p. 280. Dr. D [...]k [...]s Boun­d [...]y, Mr. Col­lings Suspensi­on. deny this Feast to be com­mon; but peculiar only to the true regenerate Saints: they invite not all unto it, but such alone who have saving faith and grace within them; Yea, they invite not such of their Parishioners to this feast for whole years to­gether; but deny them their portion in this heavenly banquet, for fear some unregenerate ones should there­by intrude into this feast together with them. Neither will others of them admit any to this feast, unlesse they, on their now Presbyteries Dr. Drakes Boundary, p. 113, 114, 115, &c. See Mr. Hum [...]ryes Re­joynder to it, p. 159, 160, &c. first examine them tou­ching their lives, faith, knowledge, Graces, visible wor­thiness, and adjudge them upon trial to be well disposed and provided to eat of this heavenly feast; for which they have neither precept nor president in Scripture, but only from these Popish Priests, whose language, practice they imitate. And such as will not subject themselves to this their Tyranny (as Bishop Jewel terms it) must no wayes be admitted, but secluded from Christs Table by these Servants, though their Lord himself invites, commands them to resort thereto. Yea [Page 37] (which is a strain beyond all Popish Tyranny of this kind:) Some Ministers have refused to try or examin those Parishioners who have freely offered to put themselves upon their strictest Inquisition and Scruti­ny, or administer the Sacrament to them, or to those they every way thought fit, worthy to receive it, pe­remptorily denying it to them moneths after moneths, and year after year, (though importuned by all Chri­stian means to administer it) upon this most unrighte­ous, untheological, unchristian ground, That if they should admit them to the Sacrament, which was of right due unto them, then others of their unregenerate Parishio­ners would croud in amongst them, and claim it likewise as their due. Thus the children must be kept from this their daily, monthly sacred bread, because the Dogs (as they prophanely term all other Christians at large) should Mat. 15. 27. not so much as gather up any of the Crumbs that fall from the Lords Table. Yea, most of our Anabaptisti­cal, and Independent Ministers, who have got into our Parochial Cures, of purpose to enjoy the Glebes, Tithes, (though they disavow Parochial Congregati­ons as unevangelical, and antichristian, which then in conscience they should not accept, for filthy Lucres sake alone, and willingly resign to others) are so tran­scendently peccant and super-tyrannical herein, that they will upon no terms or intreaties whatsoever ad­minister the Lords Supper to the best, the holiest Saints of God, whose graces they cannot but approve (nor yet baptize their Infants for the most part) unlesse they will first new-mould themselves into their Anabapti­stical Societies, or Independent Church-models, the neglect or refusal whereof alone, (I know not by what warrant from Christ or his Apostles) they make a suffi­cient ground for ever to debarr them from this Sacra­ment, though never so worthy, so prepared other­wise, to receive it.Isay 1. 2. Hear, O Heavens! Hearken, O Earth, and blush, tremble at these monstrous Sacri­legious [Page 38] Impieties, these super-transcendent Papal Ty­rannies, and worse than Antichristian Exorbitances, which have rendred many who professe themselves the eminentest Protesta [...]t Ministers, and Saints of the high­est Classis, more injurious, undevout, unrighteous, un­charitable, and tyrannical herein, than Popes (Extrav. de Concessione Praehendâ, &c. in Glossa. Reply to Harding, p. 234. In illis quae v [...]l [...], est ei proratione voluntas, and that there is no other reason to be yielded of his doings, but only this, Qu [...]a ipse voluit, being now verified of them, as well as formerly of the pope) or Popish Shavelings. The serious consideration whereof should make them exe­crate these their Popish Exorbitances, and repent in dust and ashes for the [...].

7ly, That Popish Priests from the Name and Nature of the Communion argue thus point-blank against both. It is called Communio: Ergo, it must be private: Ergo, it may be received of one alone, &c. And do not many of our Ministers now argue thus, or more absurdly than they? It is called Communio, because formerly received by all Christian Congregations together in Common: Ergo, It may, it must now be wifully discon­tinued and laid aside for sundry years together: Ergo, none but Saints and segregated Conventicles must re­ceive it together in private; Ergo, none that are not of our private Church-way or Congregation must receive it from or with us: Ergo, neither the Parish Priests, nor any whole Parochial Congregations may or ought of right to receive it all together in the publick Church now, as they did heretofore.

8ly, That the Popish Priests (though they admini­ster this Sacrament but commonly once a year to the people) yet d [...]m it a Cru [...] injury, a thing contrary to the examples and godly Ordinances of the Pr [...]mitive Church, to deny the Lord [...] Supper to private persons on their death or sick beds who desire it. And therefore would ra­ther deliver it alone to the sick person, without the Priests communicating with him, contrary to the nature and in­stitution [Page 39] of the Communion, than suffer the party to die in discomfort, and be swallowed up in despair without it. But many of our Ministers are now so cruel, and hard­hearted to their Parishioners, that they will upon no terms or intreaties, daily frequently, or yet at all deliver the Communion publikely to them in the Church in their healths, that so they might not stand so much in need of it in their sickness, asReply to Harding, p. 24. 100. Bishop Jewel adviseth (to prevent this Popish Mischief) and the Primitive Chri­stians, Fathers practised: Neither will they admini­ster or send it privately to them at their deaths, as the Primitive Fathers did, even to excommunicate persons on their death-beds, to comfort their hearts, strengthen their faiths, and keep their souls from sinking in de­spair. In this therefore they are more uncharitable, injurious, tyrannical, than the very rigidest Popish Priests and Popes unto their People.

9ly, ThatBishop Jewels Reply to Harding, p. 12, 13, 18. & Defence of the Apology, p. 226. the Popes and Popish Priests having discontinued the daily Communion of the Lords Sup­per with the people, have instead thereof set up Private Masses, wherein the people stand by only as Ga [...]ers, and Spectators onely of the Priests eating and drink­ing; but yet must not eat, drink, or communicate with them at the Altar or Lords Table, they [...]ei­ther calling them thereto by words or gestures, nor ha­ving any preparation for them if called: making them believe the hearing and seeing of what they do is suffici­ent: whereby they increase the Negligence of the people, and discourage them from the Holy Commnion. Which Practice, though meerly Popish and Antichristian; Bish. Iew [...]l ibid. p. 3. to 12. 279, 280, 281. 365, 366. contrary to the precept and practice of Christ and his Apostles, the Custom, Doctrine, Canons of the Primitive Fathers, Churches; the Harmony of Confessions, sect. 12. 14. Confessions, Articles of all forein Churches, and of the Artic. 25. Church of England, professedly condemned, declamed against by the Ex­hortation prescribed in the Book of Common Prayer, ra­tified by sundry Acts of our Protestant Parliaments, by [Page 40] Bishop Jewel, and all former Protestant orthodox Writers; Yet Dr. Drake in his Antiquaeries, Preface, & p. 6. and his Boundary to the holy Mount, p. 160, 161, &c. herein plays the down-right Pope & Popish Priest, not only in imitating, but thus justifying, pleading for this Practice, as fit to be introduced in all our Prote­stant Churches. Scandalous Persons, yea Heathens may be present at the Lords Supper, and all Sacramental acti­ons, and that with a great deal of profit. The fruit of the visible and audible Word may here be attained by bare presence, &c. But they must not be admitted to, but debarred from the participation of the Sacramental Bread and Wine. Mark his reason. By presence, bene­fit may be gained; but the Danger of eating and drink­ing unworthily cannot be incurred without actual recei­ving. A better solider Argument for Private Popish Masses, if true, than any produced by Mr. Harding, Bellarmine, or any Romish Pope or Priest. In which passage he proclaims open war, against theMat. 26. 26, 27. Mar. 14. 22, 23. 1 Cor. 11. 23, &c. Insti­tution, Practice, Doe this, &c. of our Saviour; who in­stituted this Sacrament, not to be Gazed upon, but eaten and drunken by all present, admitted no bare Specta­tors, but Gave it to ALL his Disciples: Yea he there­in bids defiance to the Holy Ghost and St. Paul him­self, 1 Cor. 10. 2, 3, 4. 16, 17. c. 11. 22. to 34: to theGregor. dial. l. 2. c. 23. Bishop Jewels Reply to Har­ding, p. 365. Mr. Fox Acts and Monu­ments, Vol. 3. p. 1, 2. Ite Missa est, Qui non communicat det locum, Custom, Doctrine of the whole Primitive Church, Fa­thers, Christians, as Bishop Iewel will at large instruct him; and more particularly to the 25 Article of the Church of England. The Sacraments were not ordai­ned of Christ to be gazed upon, or to be carried about, but that we should duly use them. And this Exhorta­tion, Resolution in our English Liturgy. Whereas you offend God so sore in refusing his holy Banquet, I admo­nish, exhort, and beseech you, that unto this unkindnesse you will not adde any more. Which thing you shall do (let this Doctor and others mark it well) if ye stand [Page 41] by as Gazers, and lookers on those that do commu­nicate, and be not partakers of the same your self, this makes the fault much greater, and is a further contempt, having the Mysteries of Christ in derision. Is it not said, Take ye and eat, Take and drink ye all of this? With what face then will ye hear these words? Will not this be a neglecting, despising and mocking the Testament of Iesus Christ, &c? Wherewith o­ther Harmony of Confessions, sect. 14. Protestant Churches in their very confessions ac­cord; And St. Chrysostom long before them, ad Ephe­ [...]o [...], Hom. 3. Whosoever standeth by, refusing to com­municate, is wicked and shameless, and unworthy to be partaker of the Prayers. Thou wil [...] say I am unworthy to be partaker of Christs Mysteries; thou art then un­worthy to be partaker of the Prayers. Thou mais [...] no more stand here, th [...]n one of the Catechumeni, or No­vices, that was never Christened. Thus, Dum stulti vitia vitant in contraria currunt: This New Doctor will on no means admit ignorant, scandalous, or unrege­nerate Christians to receive the Sacrament; for fear they should eat and drink their own damnation: but yet de­fines, they may be present at it, and all the Sacramental actions, without receiving; and that too with a great deal of Profit; What, I pray? To make their fault much greater, to commit a further contempt, than if they un­worthily received them; by having the Mysteries of Christ in derision, and neglecting, despising and mocking the Testament of Jesus Christ; as our whole Church resolves, against this his Popish Whimsy, contradictory to it self: For if they may see and hear the Sacramental actions and administrations worthil [...], and with a great deal of profit; no doubt they may also receive it with much more profit and comfort too: and it will Nonplus this grand Rabbi to resolve us, how any can be a fit, a worthy, a profitable Auditor and Spectator of this Sacra­ment; and yet an unfit, unworthy, unprofitable, yea damned Receiver. Let him therefore not disown, re­tract [Page 42] this his Popish Dotage, Contradiction, Absurdity, to which he is driven, to avoid the dint of myIn my 12. Queries. My Vindication of 4 Serious Que­stions; And Suspension sus­pended. for­mer Arguments, against his absurd new-found Suspensi­on and excommunication of men, by way of Church cen­sure for notorious Scandals, only from the actual recep­tion of the Lords Supper; but not from being Spectators at it, and freely admitting them as unexcommunicate true Churchmembers to all other Ordinances, without the least seclusion from them: For which Mr. Iohn Humfrey hath since sufficiently schooled him, in his Rejoynder to his Boundary.

10ly, That the Popish Priests having abolished dai­ly, weekly, frequent Communions together with their people in the Church, who ought to receive the Sacra­ment, and remember the death, Passion of our Saviour, as often as the Priests themselves, do yet (to keep a perpetual remembrance of Christs death) oblige them­selves to say Privase Masses daily, communicate alone without the people, and offer up Christ daily in sacrifice to his Father, wherein appeareth their wanton folly, that they may do, and are commanded to do, they will not doe; but that they cannot do, that they will needs do. And is not this the wanton folly of our Anti-Communion Mi­nisters now? That they may lawfully, and are com­manded to do, (to administer the Communion fre­quently, constantly to all their people) they will by no means do, but argue, plead, preach,Dr. Drakes Boundary. Mr. Collings in his Suspension. write against it: But that themselves confesse they cannot, nor ought to doe, that they will needs do, in despight of God and Men, even Pope▪ like,Primum l [...]gant, deinde causas in cos quaerunt. Cyril. in Johan. l. 12. c. 45▪ Iust. [...]yd [...]ord Law: Iew [...]ls Reply to Harding, p. 358 without any arti­cles, hearing, conviction, and before any judicial Suspension, Excommunication, by any Classis or Ecclesi­astical [...]udicature, against all or any of their Parishio­ners, excommunicate, and keep back all, or the Major part of their Parishioners from the holy Communion for sundry months, years together, by their own lawlesse, Arbitrary, Tyrannical usurpations, without any lawfull [Page 43] Authority from God or Man; and will neither receive it alone themselves, as the Popish Priests do, nor suffer their people to receive it with them, to keep a perpetual remembrance of Christs death; thereby incurring that Censure of Tertullian, de Resurrectione carnis, Ha­retici ex conscientia infirmita [...] is suae nihil unquam tra­ctant ordinari [...]; yea that just Wo and Censure denoun­ced by our Saviour, Mat. 23. 11. Luke 11. 52. Woe unto you Scribes and Pharises, Hypocrites, for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men: for you neither go in your selves, neither suffer ye them that are entring to go in: or, them that were entring in, ye hindered and forbad; as Luke renders it. The Lord give them now Gr [...]ce to discern and reform this their perverse, Phari­saical Pride, Hypocrisie, and Tyranny, yea Enmity a­gainst the Memorial of our Saviours passion: for it deserves no milder Titles, being such in reality.

11. That the Popish Priests require a more extraor­dinary, transcendent holinesse, worthinesse, examination, confession of sins, preparation, and qualification in such Christians as they admit to the Lords Supper, than they exact from them in their approaches to God in any other holy Ordinances and Duties of his worship, (be it Prayer, hearing or reading of Gods word, Fasting, Thanks­giving, singing of Psalms, Baptism, and the like;) And that upon this conceit,Mr. Har­ding against Jew [...]l: See [...]is D [...]fence of the [...]ipology, p. 263▪ 264. [...]ss [...]le Romanum, Pontificale Ro­manum, Ho [...]ae [...]eatae Mariae; L [...]desma his▪ catechism. Bel­ [...]armine, De Veneratione Eucharistiae. Bishop Jewels Reply to Harding, p. 283, 284. Amesius Bellarmin. Enervatus, Tom. 3. l. 4. c. 8 that it is more sacred and di­vine, than any other Ordinance whatsoever. For there it is, Hoc est Corpus meum; there we eat and drink (say they) the very Body and Bloud of Christ it se [...]f, and so converse more immediately with Christ and God him­self, than in any other Ordinance. Which ridiculous Popish dream of Transubstantiation, as it [...]ish. Iewels Reply to Harding, p. 282, 283, 284. 305, 306. 453. Bishop Morton against Masse-Ceremonies. ushered i [...] their elevation, Adoration of the Sacrament, prostra­tion, kneeling, bowing to it and their Altars, with other [Page 44] various Papal Superstitions and Idolatries; so it first introduced this Suspension, Excommunication of Chri­stians from the Lords Table only (now so eagerly contested for by Anabaptists, Independents, and over­rigid Presbyterians) though freely admitted to all o­ther Ordinances of Gods publike worship, and that extraordinary, transcendent, special Worthinesse, Ho­linesse, Self-examination, Preparation, Fitnesse, which they appropriate to this Ordinance alone, to make men worthy Receivers, yet never presse upon them to make them worthy Petitioners, Hearers, Readers, Thanksgi­vers, Meditators; introduced first by Popish Priests after Transubstantiation, as an appendent, or conse­quent of it; but not known, practised in Christs Church before, in the primitive purest times (as the premises evidence) when they received the Lords Supper every day when they met together to pray, or hear the word: Which as it hath bred a strange Schism between the Sacrament and Ordinances of God themselves, as if the Lords Supper were far holier, and Christ more re­ally, immediately, and in another manner present therein, than he is in Baptism, Prayer, or the Word preached; when as in truth, Gods Sacraments, Ordi­nances are all of equal holinesse, and God the Father, Sonne and holy Ghost equally present with us, and as im­mediately conversed with by us in them all, as in the Lords Supper; as is undeniably evident, by Eccles. 5. 1, 2. 1 Cor. 10. 2, 3, 4 Mat. 28. 19, 20. Acts 10. 33. 44. 47. Iohn 6. 29. to 66. compared with 2 Chr. 6. 19. to 42. Ps. 16. 11. Ps. 27. 4, 8. Ps. 17. 5. Ps. 65. 4. Ps. 84. Ps. 95. 2. Psal. 100. 1, 2, 4. Ps. 105. 4. Ps. 132. 14. Ps. 140. 13. Isay 26. 8, 9. c. 6. 3, 5. c. 64. 1. 5. Jer. 30. 21. Mat. 7. 6. 1 Cor. 9. 13. 2 Tim. 3. 15. Rom. 6. 3, 4, 5. c. 1. 16, 17. Gal. 3. 1, 2. 27, 28. By these passages of the Fathers, cited byDefence of the Apology of the Church of England, ch. 14. divis. 2. p. 260, 261, 264. Bishop Iewel against Harding, who charged him with too Grosse an Errour, in making the presence of Christ in [Page 45] Baptism, like to his presence in the Supper. In Johan. Tract. 50. Saint Augustine saith, Habes Christum in praesenti per Bap­tismatis Sacramentum: Thou hast Christ in the time present by the Sacrament of Baptism.In Epist. ad Ephes. Hom. 20. St. Chry­sostom saith, In the Sacrament of Baptism, we are made flesh of Christs flesh, and bone of his bones. Super Mis­sus est. Hom. 3. Saint Berna [...]d saith, (of Baptism) Lavemur sanguine ejus; Let us be washed with his bloud.In Serm. de 4 Feria, c. 1 L [...]o saith, Thou art washt in the bloud of Christ when thou art baptized in his death. By these few, (writes Iewel) it may appear, That Christ is present at the Sacrament of Bap­tism, even as he is present at the holy Supper, unlesse ye will say, We may be made Flesh of Christs flesh, and be washt in his bloud, and be partakers of him, and have him present without his Presence: Therefore Chryso­stom when he hath spoken vehemently of the Sacrament of the Supper, he concludeth thus; Sic et in Baptismo; Even so it is also in the Sacrament of Baptism. The Body of Christ is like wise present in them both. And for that cause Beda in 1 Cor. 10. Beda saith▪ Nulli est aliquatenus ambigendum, tunc unumquemque fidelium Corporis Sanguinis (que) Dominici participem fieri, quando in Bap­tismate Membrum Christi efficitur. No man may doubt, but every faithfull man is then made partaker of the Body and Bloud of Christ, when in Baptism he is made the Member of Christ. And whereas Mr.Reply to Harding▪ p. 284. Har­ding and others advanced the Dignity of the Lords Supper, above Baptism and the Word, and seclude those from it, whom they admit to the other, upon this Ground; That those who eat and drink the Lords Supper unworthily, eat and drink judgement to themselves, not discerning the Lords body: Thereto Bishop Iewel re­plyes, St.In Mala­c [...]i. c. 1. Ierom saith, Dum Sacramenta violantur▪ ipse cujus Sacramenta sunt, violatur. When the Sa­craments be misused, God himself, whose Sacraments they be, is misused. And St. Augustine saith, Qui indigne accipit Baptisma, Iudicium accipit, non Salutem, [Page 46] Who so receiveth Baptism unworthily, receiveth Iudgement, (or Damnation) not Salvation; as well as he who receives the Lords Supper unworthily. Yea, Christ himself when he sent forth his Disciples to preach and baptize, Mar. 16. 15, 16. said unto them, Go ye into all the world, preach the Gospel to every Crea­ture: He that believeth (the Gospel preached) and is baptized, shall be saved; he that believeth not shall be damned: To which he superaddes Mat. 20. 14, 15. c. 11. 20. to 25. Mar. 6. 11. And whosoever will not re­ceive you, nor hear your words, when ye depart out of that house or City, shake off the dust of your feet; Verily I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable for the Land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgement, than for that City. 2 Cor. 2. 15, 16. For we are unto God a sweet savour of Christ (in preaching the Word as well as administring the Sacraments) in them that are sa­ved, as in them that perish: To the one we are the sa­vour of death unto death; and to the other we are the savour of life unto life. By which it is apparent, that there is as much danger, judgement, damnation incurred by every man by his unworthy receiving of Baptism, and unprofitable hearing and contemning the Word preached, as by his unworthy receiving the Lords Supper; as also by his unworthy praying, which is an abomination unto the Lord, and turned into sinne, Psal. 109. 7. Prov. 28. 9. Isa. 66. 3. Upon which ac­count all unregenerate, ignorant, impenitent, scanda­lous persons should be totally secluded from Baptism, preaching, hearing of the Word and Prayer, as well as the Lords Supper by our Ministers. So this Errone­ous Popish opinion (refuted at large by Dr. Ames, in his Bellarminus Enervatus, Tom. 3. l. 1. c. 4. De Sa­ramentorum Comparatione) hath severed the ordinary daily use of the Lords Supper used in the Primitive times, from the ordinary publike Prayers, and prea­ching the Word; which it alwaies accompanied in the [Page 47] best and purest times; and ingendred a world of un­necessary, unchristian Controversies, Schisms, Sect; in the Church of God, especially in our own, of later times. And therefore ought now to be duely consi­dered, reformed, exploded, as well as that Monster of Transubstantiation, which originally introduced these fond superstitious Popish Errors, that now so much in­toxicate the brains, perplex the consciences both of Protestant Ministers and People, and are like to prove our Churches ruine. The Church of England in her 13 Article, with our Protestant Writers, Divines, doe all Generally condemn the Popish doctrine of Merit of Congruity; Yet most of them now really embrace, justify,(f) See Bishop Jewels Reply to Harding, p. 283, 284, &c. preach, teach, print it, in their extraordinary Preparations for the Lords Supper. They all generally now teach and exact, a visible, or real worthinesse, as absolutely necessary for every Communicant; (g) Dr. Drake his Boundary, Mr. Collings. Mr. Rogers, Of Preparation to the Sacrament. The Practice of Piety, touching Preparation for the Sacrament. [...]ntidote a­gainst 4. Qe­stions. without which, he must in no wise approach to the Lords Supper, for then it will certainly prove meer poyson to him, and he shall only eat and drink thereat his own damnation. But if he be so really, so visibly worthy and prepared, as they prescribe and require hi [...] to be, then he may certain­ly assure himself, that God will accompany this ordinance with his special presence, Grace, blessing, so as he shall assuredly reap much Grace, encrease confirmation of his Faith, Ioy, Peace, Assurance, and all other Graces by it. Whether this be not the Popish Schoolmens meriting Grace of Congruity; (h) Bonavent. in 3. Sent. dist. 4. art. 2. qu. 2. and others thereon. Summa Ange­lica, Tit. Me­ritum. and tying of Gods Grace, Spirit, to our Worthinesse, Merits, Preparations, for our own inherent Worthinesse and Preparation sake, let all ju­dicious Protestants resolve? Verily, when I seriously ponder that Memorable Passage of Martin Luther in his Greater Catechism,Concordia Lutherana, p. 242. to 252. That this Sacrament was not institnted for those that are worthy, and purely clen­sed, from their sins, but clean contrary, even for misera­ble and wretched sinners, sensible of nothing but their own unworthinesse, Therefore let such a one say; [Page 48] Lord, I would very willingly be worthy of this Supper: but yet I come unto it, induced by no worthines of mine own, but trusting on thy Word alone, because thou hast commanded me to come, &c. For the Sacrament is not to be looked on as an hurtfull thing, Nota. from which we should run with both our feet, but as a saving and whole­some Medicin, which may heal thy diseases, and give life both to thy Soul and Body. Why then do we so shun it, as if it were a Poison, which being received would bring pre­sent death unto us? Yea, but some may say, I am not so sensible of my sins and unworthinesse as I should be. To such as are in this condition I can give no better ad­vice, than to look into their own hearts, and to see whe­ther they be not flesh and blood, and may not say with Paul, Rom. 7. I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwelleth no thing that is good. In summe, by how much lesse sensible thou art of thy sins and defects, the more reasons thou hast of comming, and frequent seeking Help and Physick And when I consider these Passages in the Practice of Piety; (so much ap­proved by all our Divines, and pious Christians) con­cerning the due manner of Practicing Piety in receiving the Holy Supper of the Lord, Edit. 31. p. 402. 435. That no man living is of himself worthy to be a Guest at so holy a Ban­quet. The Rules there prescribed, How to consider and perceive our own unworthinesse, by examining our lives according to Gods Commandement: With these ensuing Meditations prescribed to every Communicant to ponder, both before and at this Sacrament,Page 451, 452, 453. Ponder then, with what face darest thou offer to touch so holy a body, with such defiled hands; Or to drink such precious blood, with so lewd and lying mouths; Or to lodge so blessed a Guest, in so unclean a Stable: For if the 1 Sam. 6. 19. Bethshemites were slain for but looking irreverently to the Ark of the Old Testament; what judgement maist thou justly expect, who with such impure eyes and heart, art come to see and receive the Ark of the New [Page 49] Testament, in which Col. 2. 39. dwelleth all the fullnesse of the Godhead bodily? &c. If John Baptist (the holiest man that was boru of a woman) thought himself Mat. 3. 11. un­worthy to bear his shooes; O Lord, how unworthy is such a prophane wretch as thou art, to eat his flesh, and to drink his precious bloud? If the blessed Apostle St. Peter, seeing but a glympse of Christs almighty pow­er, thought himselfLuke 5. 8. unworthy to stand in the same boat with him; How unworthy art thou to sit with Christ at the same Table, where thou maist behold the infinitenesse of his Grace and Mercy displayed? If the Matt. 8. 8. Centurion thought that the roof of his House was not worthy to harbour so divine a Guest; What room can there be fit under thy Ribbs for Christs Holinesse to dwell in? If the Mal. 9. 20. 21. bloud-issued sick woman feared to touch the hem of his garment; How shouldest thou tremble to eat his flesh, and to drink his All-healing bloud. Yet if thou comest humbly in Faith, Repentance and Cha­rity, abhorring thy sins past, and purposing unfeignedly to amend thy life henceforth, let not thy former sins af­fright thee; for they shall never be laid to thy charge, and this Sacrament shall seal unto thy Soul, that all thy sins and the judgements due unto them, are fully pardoned, and clean washed away by the bloud of Christ. For this Sacrament was not ordained for them who were perfect, (or worthy) but to help penitent sinners unto perfection. Christ Mat. 9. 12. 13. c, 11. 28. came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. And he saith, The whole need not a Physician, but they that are sick. These hath Christ called, and when they came, them he ever helped; witness the whole Gospel, which testifieth, that not one sinner who came to Christ for Mercy, went ever away without his errand. Bath thou likewise thy sick soul in this Fountain of Christs bloud; and doubtlesse, according to his promise, Zech. 13. 1. thou shalt be healed of all thy sinnes and uncleannesse. Not Sinners therefore, but those who are unwilling to repent of their sinnes, are [Page 50] debarred from this Sacrament, &c. Ibid. p. 458 I am in a word a Rom. 7. 14. 24. carnal creature, whose very soul is seal'd under sin; a wretched man compassed about with a body of death; Yet, Lord, seeing thou Mat. 9 13. c 11. 28. c. 22. 1. &c. callest, here I come; and see­ing thou callest sinners, I have thrust my self in among the rest; and seeing thou callest All, with their heavi­est loades, I see no reason why I should stay behind. O Lord, I am sick, and whether should I go but unto thee, the Physician of my Soul? Thou hast cured many, but never didst thou meet with a more miserable Patient, &c. And why should I doubt of thy Good will, &c? With this further passage,Ibid. p. 408. But then thou wilt say, It were safer to abstain from comming to the holy Communi­on, than to resort unto it. Not so: For God hath Nam. 9. 11. Heb. 2. 9. Mat. 22. threatned, to punish the wilfull neglect of his Sacraments with eternal damnation. And it is the commandement of Christ, Mat. 26, 26 1 Cor. 11. Take, eat, doe this in remembrance of me; and he will have his Commandement under the penalty of his Curse obeyed. And seeing this Sacra­ment was the John 13. 1. greatest token of Christs love, which he left at his end to his Friends, whom he loveth to the end; therefore the neglect and contempt of this Sacra­ment, must argue the Heb. 10. 28, 29. contempt and neglect of his Love & Bloudshedding; than which no sin in Gods ac­count can seem more haynous; Nathing hinders why thou maist not come freely to the Lords Table; but because thou wouldest rather want the love of God, then leave thy filthy sins. O come then, but come a Guest pre­pared for the Lords Table: Seeing they are [...]poc. 19. 9. bles­sed who are called to the Lambs Supper. And when I further observe the several passages of like nature in others of our Writers, touching this Sacrament; with this Confession of our sinnes in our English Liturgy; And this acknowledgement, We do not presume to come unto this thy Table, O Lord, trusting in our own wor­thinesse, but in thy great and manifold Mercies: we are unworthy, O Lord, to gather up the crumbs un­der [Page 51] thy Table, &c: even then when we approach unto this Supper; With those passages prescribed in the Exhortation before this Sacrament, to be used by all our Ministers to their People when they see them negligent to come to the Holy Communion: When God calleth you, be not you ashamed to say, I will not come, &c? I for my part am here present, and according to mine Office, I bid you in the Name of God, I call you in Christs behalf, I exhort you as you love your own salvation, that ye will be partakers of this Holy Communion, &c. I can no wayes approve the forementioned Doctrin and O­pinion, of visible or real worthinesse (pre-required by ourDr. Drake his Boundary, Mr. Collings his Juridical Suspension. New Doctors, as the only rule of their admit­ting men to this Sacrament) as Orthodox or solid, but reject it as erronious, Popish, and meer merit of Congrui­ty; Disclaim that General received opinion, That there is another sublimer Fitnesse, Holinesse, Exami­nation, Preparation required of all men in their addres­ses to this Sacrament, than to any other of Gods Ordi­nances; And cannot but conclude it a most damnable, impious, dangerous, unchristian practice, for any Mi­nisters to dehort, debar, prohibit any of their unex­communicated Parishioners from it, who desire to re­ceive it, whiles they freely admit them to all other Ordinances, since God himself both thus calls and com­mands them under pain of the highest sinne, contempt and damnation, to repair constantly to this Sacrament, as the chiefest medicine to cure, comfort, refresh their sin sick, drooping, despairing Souls. And up [...]n unpassionate seri­ous, second thoughts of what is here premised, I doubt not they will all subscribe to my Opinion herin, though they may deem it a strange Novelty at first reading, and admit all freely to this Sacrament, as well as to other Ordinances.

12ly. Our ReverendApology of the Church of England, c. 12. Divis. 3. Defence, of the Apology, p. 228, 229, &c. Reply to He [...]ding. p. 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, &c. 82. 108, 109. Dr. Fea [...]lies Grand Sacrilege of the Church of Rome. Bishop Jewil, the Har­mony [Page 52] of Confessions, sect. 14. with all Protestant Chur­ches and Divines, justly chargeth the Church of Rome, and Romish Priests, with Grand Sacrilege, Church-rob­bery, wickedness, injury, impiety in the highest degree, for denying, prohibiting the Cup of the Lord to the Lay people in the administration of this Sacrament, contrary to Christs own institution and practice, the practice of the Primitive Church, Fathers, Christians, in former ages, & all other Christian Churches in the world, for certain reasons best known to themselves; and more especially for this very reason (asIn Tracta­tu contr. Haere­sin communi­candi Laicos sub utraque specie. Iohn Gerson, a principle member of the Council of Constance, privy to its secrets records) That if Lay-men should communicate under both kinds, as Priests, Dignitas Sacerdotis non esset super dignitatem Laicorum, The Dignity of Priests should not be above the dignity of Lay-men: Whence Gabriel Biel extolleth the dignity of the Priest above our Lady, and all other Saints, because he may commu­nicate under both kinds, and they cannot. And so have they altered the Sacrament of aequality and unity, and made it a Sacrament of difference, and dissention, asReply to Harding, p. 73. Bishop Iewel truely observeth. Now I appeal to the Judgements, Consciences of all judicious Protestants, andGratian de Consecr. Dist. 2. &c. Pope Gelasius himself, who justly condemned this practice, as most wicked, injurious, impious Sacri­lege in the Popes and Priests of Rome; whether it be not a farre greater, worser, execrabler Sacrilege for any of our Protestaut English Ministers, contrary to our Saviours precept, president, the custom, doctrine, practice of the Apostles, Primitive Churches, Fathers, Christians, and all other Churches in the world; yea, to the Councils, Canons, Injunctions, Articles, Litur­gies, Homilies, Writers of our English Church, and 1 E. 6. c. 1. 5, & 6. E. 6. c. 1. 1 Eliz. c. 2. 3. Iac. c. 4, 5. Statutes of our Realm, obstinately, wilfully to detain, not only the Sacred Cup, but Bread, and whole Lords Supper from all their Parishioners, for sundry Moneths, Years together, as no wayes due or belon­ging [Page 53] to them? And that onely upon no other real Ground but this alone,See Dr. Drakes Boun­dary. Mr. Col­lings his Iuri­dical Suspensi­on. The Di­vines of Syon College Consi­d [...]rations and Cautions, Iune 9. 1646. p. 5. &c. to erect a new Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in themselves and their intended Presbyte­ries, over the Lords Sacrament it self, and all their peo­ple; and to advance their own Sacerdotal or Presbyteri­al Dignity hereby above the Dignity of their ordinary Lay Parishioners; this New Papal Authority, Tyranny, Sacrilege, being never claimed, practiced by them be­fore, but only since their late pretended divine right, and claim to their new Presbyterian Soveraign Authori­ty, to examine all their Parishioners visible worthiness, fitnesse, preparednesse to receive this Sacrament, before their actual admission thereunto. Wherby they have now altered this blessed Sacrament of Equality & Unity, (to which all visible Members of every particular Congre­gation capable of Self-examination, have an equal right and common interest, as well as themselves, or their new Presbyteries, Triers, and ought to receive it together with them, as frequently as they shall receive it) & made it a Sacrament of Difference, Dissention, division, sepa­ration, and no Communion at all; nor yet so much a Sacrament or Ordinance of Christ at all in many Chur­ches, but only in Notion and Dispute, not actual publike Celebration, according to Christs command,Luke 22. 19, 1 Cor. 11. 24, 25, 26. Mat. 26. 26. &c. This doe in remembrance of me. They having now me­tamorphosed our Saviours precepts, Take ye, Eat ye, Drink ye ALL of this, in Remembrance of me: As OFT as ye eat this Bread, and drink this Cup, shew ye the Lords death till he come, into This doe not, Take ye not, Eat ye not, Drink ye not AT ALL in Remem­brance of me. Never once (much lesse oft) eat this bread, nor drink this Cup, nor shew ye the Lords death thereby till he come. O my obstinate refractory Chri­stian Brethren (if I may be now deemed worthy by you, to call you so) who are guilty of this practice; I ad­vise you, beseech you, for the Honour of my blessed Saviour, and this his holy Sacrament; the Honour of [Page 54] our Protestant Church and Religion; the Honour of your own Ministry and Function; the comfort, the Salvation, the edification of your own & your peoples Souls, now at last most seriously to consider this your worse than Papal, Romish, impious Sacrilege, Impiety, Antichristian Pride, Usurpation, Tyranny, Rebellion a­gainst Christs positive Precepts, (for I can truly give it no other, better Terms than these) with shame and confusion of Face, Heart, Spirit; and then be2 Chron. 30. 8. no more stiff-necked; no longer Popish, Romish, in this and other forementioned particulars, as you have hi­therto been: which render you more really scanda­lous, if not impious, than any you debarre from this Sacrament: AndGal. 16. repute me not your Enemy, nor a Rayler; because I thus plainly, impartially tell you the truth, and have paralleld your late pra­ctices with Popes and Popish Priests exorbitances, Sacrileges; not minced your Crimes with diminu­tive termes, but set them forth by their proper Titles, in their Native Colours, that you might the better discern their horrour, avoid their dan­ger, and bee the more humbled for them before God and Men; butPsal. 141. 5. 1 Sam. 25. 32, 33, &c. Prov. 9. 8. c. 24. 25. c. 28. 23. repute me your best, your truest, cordiallest Christian Friend, Tit. 1. 13. for disco­vering these your Iniquities, and rebuking you sharp­ly, that you may be sound in the Faith. Rev. 2. 5. Re­member therefore whence you are fallen; repent and re­form your late dangerous Errours, and doe your first workes, by discharging your Pastorall duties to your people, in frequent, publike, common Ce­lebrations of the Lords Supper, together with them, as your Ministerial and Parochial Functions, Christs Precepts, the Statutes, Edicts of our Church and Realm oblige you; And that upon this ensuing Consideration super added to the Premises.

[Page 55] 7ly, ThatReply to Harding, p. 20. 21. 93. 112. Harmony of Confessions, sect. 12, 13, 14, 15. Articles of England 28. Harmony of Confessions. sect 14. August▪ de Consensu Evan­gel. l. 3. c. 25. Bishop Iewel and the Fathers, Authors forecited by him, resolve; That one principal end of the holy Communion, is, to joyn and unite Christians together in Christian Communion, unity, amity, as being all fed together, and partakers of this one bread: That by their common open receiving of this holy communion frequently together, they do openly testifie and declare, that they are all one in Christ Jesus, and all one amongst themselves; That this is the principal means to joyn & keep them to­gether; and to prevent Schisms, Divisions, Sects Conten­tions amongst Christians; It being impossible (asContr. Fau­stum Manich: l. 19. c. 11. S. Aug. writes) to conjoyn men together into any name of re­ligion, be it true or false, unles they bejoyned together with some bond of visible Signe or Sacraments, like confede­rated sworn Brethren. Hereupon the later Confession of Harmony of Confessions, p. 306. 310. Helvetia, cap. 12. writes thus of this Holy Supper, Moreover we are admonished, in the celebration of the Supper of the Lord to be mindfull of the body whereof we are made Members, and that therefore we be at Con­cord with all our Brethren, that we live holily, and not pollute our selves with wickedness and strange Re­ligions, but persevering in the faith to the end of our life, give diligence to excell in holinesse of life. With which accords the Former Confession of Helvetia, in these words, Also the Lords Supper is as a badge unto us: for as one loaf, and one wine, are made of many grains and grapes; so we being the whole multitude of the faith­full, are gathered together to be one bread and one body. By this we testifie in an outward profession, that we are redeemed by the bloud of Christ, and made the members of Christ, to whom we give thanks, in whom we are Confederates, and do promise to perform mutual duties one towards another. The Confession of Saxony thus seconds them, God will have this publick receiving to be a Confession, whereby thou maist shew what kind of Doctrine thou dost imbrace, and to what company thou doest joyn thy self. Also he will (hereby) that the mem­bers [Page 56] of the Church should have a Bond of mutual love among themselves. Ibid. sect. 15. p. 360. God would that these pub­lick Meetings should be witnesses of the Confession and severing of the Church of God from the Sects and Opinions of other Nations. John, assembled his flock at Ephesus, and taught the Gospel, and by the use of the Sacraments, the whole Company did declare that they embraced this Doctrine, and did invocate this God, who delivered the Gospel, and that they were separated from the worshippers of Diana, Iupiter, and other Idols. For God will be seen and have this Church heard in the World, and have it distinguished by many Publike Signs from other Nations. And the promises wherein, God doth affirm he will preserve his Church ar included in the very words of the Supper, where he commandeth, the death of the Lord should be shewed forth, and this Supper distributed till he come. There­fore doubtlesse the principal and only means that Mi­nisters or Magistrates can use, to prevent the dange­rous, universal, epidemical increase of Sects, Schisms, Separations from our Parish Churches and publike As­semblies; to reclaim, reduce, re-unite their people in personal presence and affection to themselves, their Churches, and one another, and to restore unity, ami­ty, peace, settlement, to our miserably distracted, di­lacerated Church and Realms, divided, subdivided in­to so many Sects, Factions, one from and against a­nother, is, to restore, presse, practise the frequent publike use of this Holy Communion every Lords day, or Moneth at least, and not to seclude any of their Parishioners from it capable of self-examination, but such alone who are actually excommunicated from all Church-Communion, and all other publick Or­dinances, for their notorious sinnes demeriting such a censure. The contrary Doctrine, Practice, (deri­ved from, and asserted by the See Lu­cas Osiander, Contra Ana­baptist. De Ecclesia, c. 6. quaest. 3. &c. Harmony of Confessions, Sect. 10. to 16. Anabaptists, [Page 57] but oppugned by Protestant Churches, Writers here­tofore, though now asserted by Independents andMr. Ru­therford, Di­vine Right of Church Gov. p. 280. Dr. Drakes Anti­queries, and Boundary, Mr. Collings Juri­dical Suspensi­on, Mr. Gillespy and others. rigid Presbyterians) That this holy Communion belongs only to the truly regenerate, or to none but visible Saints: not to any unregenerate Persons or Sinners, who are all to be seclnded from it. That none ought to be admitted to it, but such who upon trial and due examination by their Ministers or Presbyteries, shall be adjudged worthy Com­municants, and sufficiently qualified, extraordinarily prepared to receive it: And the discontinuing of this Communion in most Churches upon these false Princi­ples for sundry moneths and years together, having been the original fountain, sourse, and principal occa­sion of all those unhappy Schisms, Divisions, Separati­ons, Contentions, Sects, Disputes, Differences which have rent our Churches, Realms, into so many Pieces, and brought so much hatred, scorn, contempt upon our Ministers persons, Functions, Ministry, in wise mens observations. To put this out of question. I shall desire all sadly to consider, that the greatest rents, schisms that have befallen the Church of Christ in these later ages of the world, have proceeded from Er­rors, Crntroversies touching the Sacraments, which have severed it into irreconcilable Sects and Separations. The Popish Error of Transubstantiation, and the conse­quences (of Adoration, of the Hostia, Masses, &c. ari­sing thence) with the Sacrilegious depriving the Laity of the Cup, by the solemn [...] 13, [...] Conc [...]. [...]om 3. p. 821, 822. See Har­mony of Con­fessions, sect. 14 [...]. 324, 325, 330, 340, 351. Decree of the Council of Constance, was the original Ground, the principal (though not only) cause, of all Protestant Churches Separation from the Church of Rome; as Mr. Fox his Acts and Monuments, the French Book of Martyrs, Bishop Jewel, Bishop Morton, and others in their lear­ned Works heretofore, Dr. Daniel Featly, in his Grand Sacrilege of the Church of Rome, Mr. John Daille his excellent Apologie for the Reformed Churches, shewing their Necessity of Separation from the Church of Rome, [Page 58] and others in their late Treatises of Schism, at large demonstrate: And had not the Council of Basil (since the Decree of Constance) granted the use of the Sacra­ment in both kinds, Bishop Jew­els Reply to Harding, p. 72. Ae [...]aeas Sylvi­us Hist. Concilii. Basiliensis. Fox Acts and Mo­numents. Vol. 1. p. 905. to 912. History of the Council of Trent. and restored the Cup unto the king­dom of Bohemia; and the Council of Trent since, upon certain conditions granted the same to other Kingdoms and Countries, they had all totally revolted from the Church and Popes of Rome, and turned Protestants, so much were they displeased with them for this Grosse Sacrilege. Hence the Council of Basil in their Act of Concession of the Sacrament in both kinds to the Bohemi­ans, useth this observable Preface:Fox Acts and Monuments, Vol. 1. p. 909. In the name of God and of our Saviour Jesus Christ, upon the Sacra­ment of whose most blessed last Snpper we shall intreat, that he which hath instituted this most blessed Sacra­ment of Unity and Peace, will vouchsafe to work this effect in us; and to make us, that we may be one in the said Lord Iesus our Head; and that he will subvert all the subtilties of the devil, which through his envious craftinesse, hath made this Sacrament of Peace and Unity, an occasion of Wars and Discord; that whiles Christians do contend touching the manner of commu­nicating, they be not deprived of the fruit of the Com­munion. Whereupon St. Augustine in his Sermon up­on Infants, in the Decrees, De Consecratione Distinct. 2. Quia passus, saith thus. So the Lord Iesus Christ certified us, and willed that we should appertain unto him, and consecrate the Mystery of our Peace and U­nity upon the Table. He that receiveth the Mystery of Unity, and doth not keep the bond of Peace, doth not receive a mystery for himself, but against himself. This we thought good above all things to be premised. A clear testimony, that the Popish Abuses in the Sacra­ment, and this Sacriledge in depriving the people of the Cup, was the original cause of all the Schisms, Warres, Discords, then in and against the Church of Rome, and between her, the Bohemians, and other Churches, [Page 59] Kiugdoms. Since this, theFox [...] & Monument [...], Vol. 2 p 87, [...] &c. [...] and the Letters of [...]. erronious Doctrine of Consubstantiation in the Sacrament, hath totally and almost irreconcilably divided the Lutherans from the Calvinists, and other Protestant Churches, and set them at open variance, hostility one against the other. Moreover, these erronious tenets of the [...] a­gainst the Ana­baptists. Har­mony of Con­fessions, sect. 10. [...]0 15: Articles of England, art. [...]6. Anabap­tists; that none ought to be baptized before they can ren­der an approved account of their faith: and that none ought to be admitted to the Lords Supper but visible Saints, who upon prec [...]dent trial and examination shall be adjudged worthy to communicate; That communica­ting with any other but Saints doth prophane this and o­ther ordinances, and defile those Saints who communi­cate with them; hath occasioned them first to separate wholly, not only from the Church of Rome, but from all other Protestant Churches whatsoever, whether Lu­therans, Calvinists, Presbyterians, or Independents, and to communicate with neither of them. The Inde­pendents See A Re­ply of 2. of the Brethren to [...] [...]. Mr. Burtons [...] of Independency, Mr. Edward Gangraenaes. taking up the Anabaptists wicked erroni­ous Principles against mixt Communions, have there­upon separated themselves from the Presbyterians and our Parechial Churches, and upon this foundation, e­rected new gathered Churches, and segregated conventi­cles of their own. And some over-rigid Presbyteri­ans, unadvisedly swallowing down this Anabaptistical Drugg, See Mr. Rutherford, Gillespy, D [...]. D [...]ke, [...] Col­ling [...], Syon Col­lege, the [...] Mi­nisters, [...] Books of this subject. founding their New Presbyteries, Triers, Trials of all Communicants worthinesse, Suspensions of all ignorant, scandalous persons from this Sacr [...]ment, and unmixt Communions only of visible Saints thereon, have thereby split themselves upon a double rock, and manifold inextricable inconveniences, to the total sub­version, and unexpected sudden frustration of their in­tended platform, and elevated hopes. First, by closing with the Anabaptists and Independents in this Foun­dation of their Separation from all other Chur­ches and Christian Congregations, they have made most of their conscientious Parishioners to turn [Page 60] See Mr. Edwards Gan­graenacs. Anabaptists or Independents, and to desert both their Church and Ministry; whereby their numbers are decreased, and these their Opposites Churches Numbers infinitly increased in few years space beyond all belief. 2ly. By denying, upon this Account, to ad­minister the Lords Supper to the generality of their Parishioners as unworthy of it; and none other but Dogs or Swine; and by not administring it in their Churches upon this ground, for sundry moneths, nay years, lest any unworthy Communicants should presse unto it; they have therupon incurr'd the general indig­nation, hatred, contempt, reproaches, and lost the af­fections of the residue of their people, caused many of them to turn Ranters, Quakers, Achiests, contemners, neglecters of all ordinances; for to resort to old Episcopal Clergy-men, and those who will freely admit them to the Lords Table. And so by this their Error, sacri­lege, ambition, neglect in, and forbearing to celebrate the Lords Supper (against Christs own precept, the Custom of the Primitive and all other Churches) to their Parishioners, as formerly, and endeavour to set up a New Judicatory, or inquisition over their Persons, Consciences, to examin their fitnesse, and suspend them from the Communion, they have by divine retaliating Iustice or Providence at least (and I desire them to ob­serve it) sodeinly, unexpectedly, beyond all humane probability, by an unparalleld sacrilege, lost most of their Church revenues, Tithes, Duties, either seised, or detained from them by their people from whom the [...] detain this Sacrament; yea lost both their intended Presbyterial Government, Classes, Iudicatories, Repu­tations, Credits, Reverend esteem, the love and affecti­ons of the Generality of their Parishioners, and rendred their Persons, Function, Ministry, generally odious, contemptible, opprobrious throughout the whole Na­tion; as themselves experimentally feel, complain of, and all intelligent men observe. Which being an un­deniable [Page 61] experimental truth, there can be no better, speedier means used, to regain their former honor, love, respect, and reduce their straying flocks from their se­veral Schisms, Sects, Conventicles, unto their Parochial Congregations, Assemblies, Ministry, but to renounce those Anabaptistical Errors, Practices, they have unad­visedly taken up and strenuously defended; to restore the frequent weekly, monthly use at least of the holy Communion (the principal bond of Christian Amitie, Peace, Vnity,Harmony of Conf [...]ssions, sect. 14 and Practice of [...]. serving instead of ANOATH to bind them all together in the true Profession of Christianity, to re-gather their people together, and re-unite and keep them close to themselves and one another) and to grant a free admission unto all visible Church members able to examine themselves, to the holy Communion, as well as to all other Ordinances (as Christ, his Apo­stles, the Primitive Fathers, Christians did; and the premises undeniably manifest they are bound to doe) and to endeavour by preaching, writing, exhorta­tions, and all good Christian means, to prepare and excite all persons capable, to the frequent par­ticipation of this Sacrament, and not dehort, deterre any such from it, as they have done of later years, and thereby driven them both from their Chur­ches and Ministry. Remember whatReply [...]. 18. Bi­shop Jewel in his forecited words replies to Mr. Har­ding, O miserable is that Chdrch, wherein no man, no not so much as one is well disposed, and fit to communicate at the Lords Table. What conscientious, zealous Christian can with comfort continue in such a Church, or what Minister with comfort or conscience conti­nue in his Pastoral charge over it, and not remove, or separate from it to some other Church and people bet­ter qualified for Christian Communion, at Christs heavenly Feast? Such Churches these Ministers de­clare their own to be, by their practice, to whom they pretend they cannot, dare not administer the ho­ly [Page 62] Communion at all, as having no right unto it to the peoples scandal, and their own; And how many such Parochial Churches have we now in England, who have had no Sacrament of the Lords Supper pub­likely administred in them for divers years last past? though the more sinfull and worse they are, the more they need this Soveraign Medicine, this Sinne-clen­sing, Soul-recovering Antidote to cure their Spiritual Maladies, and diseased Souls; the with-holding where­of from them, instead of working their Spiritual cures, hathSee Con­cordia Luthe­rana, p. 542. & My Suspension suspended, p. 36. but only lengthned, increased their diseases, and made them more sinfull, obstinate, vicious, irreligious, sacrilegious, prophane, undevout, atheistical, neglectful, contemptuom of this and all other sacred Ordinances than before, and banished the serious frequent medita­tion of Christs precious bloudshed, and benefits of his passion quite out of their remembrance; As therefore theSee Mr. Humfrey his Reply to Dr. Drake, p. 154. Anabaptists, and Independents seclude none from their Sacraments, whom they deem visible mem­bers of their selected, refined, gathered Congregations; upon this account, That none are or ought to be mem­bers of their Churches, but such who have an equal right and free admission to all Gods Ordinances: So let our Presbyterian Ministers now upon the same account, either separate from their Churches, as no true visi­ble Churches of Christ, or else admit all the visible, actual Members of their Parochial Congregations, to this holy Communion, as well as to all other Or­dinances, wherein they have all an equal interest, as Church-members, lest all their people withdraw and separate from them, as many thousands have lately done, and will do, must else doe more and more, till this Sacrament be restored to them, That being no true visible Church of Christ, nor true Christian Congregation, wherein the Sacraments are not duly, frequently administred, as well as the Gos­pel preached, as all See the Harmony of Confession [...], section 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. Articles of England, art. 19. 26. Protestant Churches, Confessi­ons, [Page 63] Writers, unanimously resolve: And those Chur­ches must needs be full of Schisms, factions, Conten­tions, Animosities, hatreds, void of Christian love, unity, and in a most desperate sad condition, where the Supper of the Lord (the Articles of England, artic. [...]8. sign and bond of the love, peace, unity, amity that Christians ought to have a­mongst themselves, and Sacrament of their redemption by Christs death) is wholly cast aside, kept from them by their Ministers. Which the Lord give all such obstinate Church-distracting, Church-destroying Ministers grace now timely to consider, reform, for their own, their peoples, the Churches benefit, uni­on, Peace, and future Settlement, upon serious pe­rusal of all the premises, compiled, published for this much-desired end alone.

For a close of all, I shall desire all proud Pharisai­cal, supercilious, over-severe Ministers and other Chri­stians puffed up with such a swelling conceit of their own transcendent Holinesse, worthinesse, and most others unworthinesse, that they think them altoge­ther unworthy to communicate with them at the Lords Table; to consider seriously with themselves, these few particulars, which may abate this their spi­ritual pride and uncharitablenesse, and reform their erronious practices in this kind.

1. Advisedly ruminate upon Christs own parable of the boasting Pharisee, and humbled sinfull Publi­can, who went both up together into the Temple to pray; and which of these two Christ himself justified, Luke 18. 9. to 15. Which Parable he spake unto certain who trusted in themselves, as being righteous, and despised others, v. 9. This alone methinks should at least abate, if not fully cure this their overweaning self-conceit. Compared with those Isay 65. 5. Which say (to others) stand by thy self, come not near to me, FOR I AM HOLIER THAN THOV. These are a smoak in my nose, a fire that burneth all the day; [Page 64] Behold, it is written before me, I will not keep silence, even recompence into their bosoms. Let all such pure Justiciaries take heed they come not within the verge and censure of Prov. 30. 12. 13. There is a generation that are pure in their own eyes, and yet are not washed from their fillhinesse. O how lofty are their eyes, and their eye lids are lifted up: (with spiritual pride) Withall let them remember that of Jam. 4. 5. and 1 Pet. 5. 5. Yea, all of you be cloathed with humility, for God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace unto the hum­ble. With that of Phil. 2. 3. Let nothing be done through strife or vain-glory; but in lowlinesse of mind, let each esteem other. BETTER THAN HIMSELF. And then they would seclude none from the Lords Table (especially before a legal conviction, trial, and sentence of Excommunication judicially passed against them) as unworthy to bear them company, being as good, or better than themselves, in the judgement of true Christian Charity and Humility, if they pursue this Apostolical precept.

2ly, Let them Ponder our Saviours own precept, Mat. 7. 1. Luke 6. 37. Judge not, that ye not judged; Condemn not, and ye shall not be condemned. With that of Rom. 14 4, 10. &c. Who art thou that judgest another mans servant? to his own Master he staudeth or falleth; But why dost thou judge thy Brother? or why dost thou set at nought thy Brother? (yea count, call him a meer Dogg or Swine, and seclude him from Christs Table as such, before any legal trial or conviction of him as such?) We shall all stand before the judgement sent of Christ, &c. So then, every one of us shall give an ac­count of himself to God. LET VS NOT THERE­FORE IVDGE ONE ANOTHER ANY MORE. Compared with 1 Corinth. 4. 3, 4, 5: But with me it is a very small thing that I should be judged of you, or of mans day (or judgement) yea I judge not my self, but he that judgeth me is the Lord. Therefore IVDGE [Page 65] NOTHING BEFORE THE TIME, until the Lord come, who will both bring to light the hidden things of darknes, & wil make manifest the counsel of the hearts; & then shall every man have praise of God, Jam. 2. 12, 13. So speak, and so do, as they that shall be judged by the Law of Li­berty: For he shall have judgement without mercy, that hath shewed no mercy; and mercy rejoyceth against judg­ment, John 7. 51. Doth our Law judge any man before it bear him, and know what he doth? Which texts duly weighed, would take off all rash, censorious, private, illegal judgements passed upon whole Parishes hearts, and spiritual estates, and suspensions of them from the Lords Table upon bare surmises, before any judicial hearing, trial, conviction of their scandalous Crimes and Offences, deserving such a severe, unchristian cen­sure, by those who have no divine nor humane Autho­rity to inflict it, as now they doe.

3ly. Let such remember, that as Christ himself never erected any private Consistory in himself, his Apostles, Ministers or Presbyterian Classis for the trial, examina­tion of any mans knowledge, preparation, worthi­nesse, Graces, before they came to the hearing of the Word, Prayer, or other publike Ordinances of his wor­ship; but injoyned every man only to examine, prove himself, and search, try his own heart, wayes, Lam 3. 40, 41. Psal. 4. 4. 2 Cor. 13. 5. compared with Ier. 8. [...]6. c. 31. 18, 19. and to judge himself, (not others, whose hearts, states he cannot certainly know:) 1 Cor. 11. 28. 31. Rom. 14. 3. to 14. So in our approaches to the Lords Sup­per, he gives no Commission to any Classis, Minister, in or by his word, to try or examine any others fitnesse ere they be admitted to the Lords Supper, but only com­mands every man to1 Cor. 1 [...]. 28. 31. examine and judge himself a­lone, (not any other,) The reason is there rendred, For he tkat eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh judgement (ordamnation) to himself▪ (alone) not to any other: For if we would judge our selves, [Page 66] we should not be judged, v. 31. The Fathers, with other Commentators generally on & from this Text, presse all, to examin themselves before they receive this Sacrament, And the Churches ofHarmony of Con [...]ssio [...]s, s [...]ct 14. 308, 310, 314, 315, 322, 339. Helvetia, Bohemia, Belgia, Sax [...] ­ny, in their publike Confessions, and Church of England in her publike Liturgy, from this Text, Exhort all Com­municants diligently to examine themselves, before they eat the Sacramental Bread, or drink of that Cup: but injoyn not their Ministers or Classes juridically to examin or approve them as worthy Communicants be­fore they admit them; introduced originally by Popish Priests, who called their people toSee my N [...]w Discovery, p. 38 39. Auricular Confes­ [...]ion, and shrift, before they would admit them to the Sacra­ment, which the Fathers in the Primitive times exact­ed not, as Bishop Jewel formerly manifests. And this will still their Polypragmatical Humor, of 1 Pet. 4. 15. 1 Thess. 4. 12. playing the Bishops in other mens Dioceses, and Popes in other mens consciences; instead of examining their own Hearts, Lives, Actions, Consciences, Faith, Love, Repentance and other Graces, especially their own Charity, Humi­lity, Gentlenesse, and Long-suffering towards their Bre­thren, whom they thus seclude from the Sacrament, without any legal Commission from God or Man, which will hardly consist with that true Christian bro­therly love, charity, humility, gentlenesse, meeknesse and forbearance, which is required in all worthy Communi­cants, as they deem themselves.

4ly. Let such Divines and others who make the truth of Grace, or real visible Saintship, the onely condition, qualification of rightfull admission of any to the Lords Supper, consider these sad inevitable consequences of this their Error. 1. That no Minister, person whatsoever (without immediate revelation from God) can Jer. 17. 9. 10. 1 Sam. 16. 6, 7. Acts 1. 24. certainly or infallibly know the hearts or truth of any Parishioners Graces; and therefore by this rule, he neither can nor dares administer it to any, de fide; because1 [...]ro. 28. 9. 9. 1 Kings 8. 39. 2 Tim. 2. 19. God only knows their hearts and truth [Page 67] of Graces. 2ly, That many who appear and seem to be real Saint, for a time, appear at last to be wickedMat. 23. 27. 28. Acts 20, 30 1 [...]. 2. 18, 19. Hypocrites: and many thousands who appear not out­wardly to be Saints, even to the most eminentSee 1 Sam. 1 11. to 19. 1 Kings 19. 14 18. inspi­red Prophets of God, are yet real Saints in truth and Gods esteem, Rom. 11. 3, 4, 5. If this then should be the only rule of admission to the Sacrament, many false Hypocrites should be admitted to, and thousands of re­al Sain [...]s secluded from it. 3ly, All new converted, or tender-hearted, humble, doubting Christians, la­bouring under the burthen of their corruptions, or Sathans temptations, not fully assured of the truth of their [...]eal conversion, Graces; should then necessarily sequester themselves from this Sacrament, when they need it most, though their Ministers should deem them fit and worthy; because unresolved of the truth and re­ality of their own saving Graces, and so unworthy to communicate in their own resolutions. 4ly, If truth of Grace be necessarily requisite in all Receivers, then much more, or at least equally requisite in all Mini­sters, who consecrate and administer to, as well as re­ceive it first of all, with their Parishioners. And then, if the Parishioners doubt,As all Ana­baptists, Q [...]a­k [...]rs, S [...]ctaries, now do. deny, or have no certain assu­rance of the truth of Grace in their Ministers; by this rule, they neither may, can, nor will receive at all: And so Ministers having no certain infallible assurance of their Parishioners true conversion or Graces, nor they of their Ministers, this Sacrament must be wholly ex­ploded and laid quite aside. Upon which Considera­tion the Church of England in the 26. Article, and the Protestant reformed foreign Churches in their Harmony of Confessions, sect. 10. to 16. Con­fessions resolve; That the unworthinesse of the Ministers, doth not hinder, or take away the efficacy of Gods word, Sa­craments, Ordinances, which are effectual because of Christs institution and promise, although they be mini­stred by wicked men, which will be ever mingled with the good in the visible Church. 5ly, I desire such Mi­nisters [Page 68] who have preached, printed, cryed up this false rule of admission to, and administration of this Sacra­ment, sadly to consider, the retaliating justice of God upon them, arising from this their error, and neglect of administring it. That whiles they have peremptorily debarred their Parishioners and people from the Lords Supper, and laid it quite aside, as denying or doubting their real Sain [...]ship; many of their people have upon their own principles, turned Anabaptists, Independents, Quakers, Seekers, yea, publikely in their Churches, Pul­pits, Cans Voice from the Tem­ple. Audlands, Spe [...]ds, and o­ther Q [...]a­kers late Pam­phlets. Writings proclaimed them, to be no real Saints or Ministers of Christ at all, but Baals Priests, Seducers, of the people, false Prophets, Hirelings, Hypocrites, De­ceivers, Impostors, Antichrists, fit only to be cast forth unto the Dunghil, trodden under foot of men; deserted both their Church assemblies, Ministry, and withheld their Tithes. I beseech them sadly to ponder, how God hath thus re­paid them in their own false coin, and to acknowledge his justice on them in it.

5ly, Let them consider this notable passage ofAbba [...]i, Theon [...]. de [...] el­le vonum, Colla­tio. c 21. B [...]. Patrum, Tom. 5 [...]ars 2. p. 229. Abbot Theon (about 530 years after Christ) That mens sins ought not to deterre them from, but excite them to the frequent participation of the Lords Supper; and that those who deem themselves worthy receivers, (as these supercilious secluders of their Parishioners from the Sacrament doe) are most unworthy. Nec tamen ex eo debemus nos a Dominica Communione suspendere, quia nos agnoscimus peccatores, sed ad eam magis ac ma­gis est, et propter animae medicinam, et purificationem Spiritus avidè festinandum: veruntamen ea humilitate mentis ac fide, ut indignos nos perceptione tantae gratiae judicantes, remedia potius nostris vulneribus expetamus. Ali [...]quin, nec anniversaria quidem dignè est praesumenda Communio, ut quidam facunt, qui in Monasteriis consi­stentes, ita Sacramentorum coelestium dignitatem, & sanctificationem, ac meritum metiuntur, ut aestiment ea non nisi sanctos & immaculatos debere praesumere, et non [Page 69] Potius ut sanctos mundos (que) nos sua participatione perficiant Qui profectò majorem arrogantiae praesumptionem, quam declinare sibi videntur, incurrunt, quia vel tunc cum ea percipiunt dignos se ejus perceptione dijudicant. Multo enim justius est, ut cum hac cordis humilitate qua credimus et fatemur, illa sacrosancta mysteria nunquam pro merito nos posse contingere, singulis ea Domini­cis diebus ob remedium nostrorum aegcitudinem prae­sumamus, quam ut vana persuasione cordis elati, vel post annum dignos eorum participio nos esse credamus. Wherefore as the blessed antient MartyrEpist. 14. Bi [...]l. Patrum Tom. 1. p. 93. b. Ignatius in his Epistle to the Ephesians, thus exhorts them to the frequent reception of the Eucharist. Date itaque ope­ram ut crebrius congregemini ad Eucharistiam et glo­riam Dei. Quando enim saepius in idem loci convenitis labefactantur vires Satanae, et ignita illius ad peccat [...]m jacula irrita resiliunt: whichBibl Pa­trum. [...]om. 6. [...]ars 2. p. 275 E. Joannes C [...]machus likewise seconds, pressing the frequent reception of the Eucharist upon these and other Grounds (which the primitive Christians daily and frequently received in common, as the marginal Anastatius Si [...]nita, qu [...]st. 7 Bibl Patrum. Tom. 6. pars 1. p 725. Tertu [...] ­lian Apologeti­ [...]us. Beati Rhe­nani Annotat. in Tertull. De Corona M [...]l [...]s, p. 734. C [...]nt. M [...]g [...]l [...] 2. to 8. cap. 6. De Ri [...] ­bus circa [...] ­n [...]m. Authors, besides those forecited, and Eusebius De Demonstratione vangeli­ca, lib. 1. c. 10. p. 300. inform us) So let our rigid In­novators, now imitate this their practice for the future, lest they increase the power, kingdom of Satan, their own and their Parishioners sins and damnation; by de­barring them from this spiritual balm, and soveraign means of their Salvation, instead of making them more worthy and prepared to receive it, or lesse sinfull, by their Suspension from it.

6ly. Let them ponder, that the Primitive Fathers and Christians, though they were over-rigid to such as fell away to Idolatry, through fear, in times of persecuti­on; yet upon their repentance they admitted them to receive the Lords Supper at home in private, when they lay sick upon their death-beds, though they stood actually excommunicated from the Church and all publike Ordi­nances; [Page 70] to the end they should not be swallowed up utter­ly in despair, but die comfortably as the Members of Christ; asReply to Harding, p. 30. 35. Eusebius Ecclis. Hist. l. 6. c. 36. Nicep. l. 6. c. 6. Cent. Mag. 3. col. 133. Bishop Iewel proves at large by the story of Serapion, and Concil. Carthaginense 6. Can. 13. With what hearts, faces, consciences then, can these Cathari, and Novations deny this Sacrament now to their Parishioners, who earnestly desire and long af­ter it, both in their healths, sicknesses, and at their very deaths, though never actually excommunicated, nor guilty of such Grosse Apostacy to Idolatry: when as they freely admit them to their Church-assemblies, and all other publick Ordinances? contrary to the practice of the Primitive Churches, Fathers: who cast all such as were excommunicated for any scandalous sins crime, or heresie, ont of their Churches, debarred them from their Congregations, and all Christian Communion with them in prayer, or any other publike Ordinances, as well as in the Lords Supper; which is most apparent by the Excommunications and presidents ofEus [...]bius Eccles. Hist. l. 6. c. 63. Nicepho­rus Eccl. Hist. l. 6. c. 6. Bishop Jewels Reply to Harding, p. 35. Serapion, Nicephorus l. 6. c. 37. Cent Mag. 3. c. 7. col. 151. Numerianus, Niceph. l. 5. c. 25. Cent. 3. col. 144. 151. Philip, andTheodores Hist. l. 5. c. 18. Theodosius the Em­perors; Sozomen, l. 6. c. 25. Apoiinarius, andTheodoret, Hist. l. 1. c. 2. 4. Centur. Magd. 4. col. 414. Arius the Here­ticks, with others recorded in Ecclesiastical Histories; By this pregnant Testimony of Tertullian in his Apolo­gy: Summumque futuri judicii praejudicium est, si quis ita deliquerit, ut a Communione orationis et Con­ventus, et omnis sancti commercii relegetur: By these phrases ofEpist. 28. 38. 40. 54. 62. Edit. Pamelii, & De Oratione, lib. St. Cyprian, whereby he expres­seth the nature and use of Excommunication in his age. Arcere, cohibere, ejicere, excludere, pellere, rejicere ab Ecclesia, Seperare a Christi corpore, &c. By these ex­pressions ofHomil. 7. & 22. in Josuam. Hom. 13. in E­zech. Hom. 3. et 12. in Hieremiam. Tract. 15. in Matth. Origen, Ab Ecclesiae corpore desecari, per Ecclesiae Praesides. Auferatur è populo Dei, eradi­cetur, et tradatur Satana. Is qui praesidet populo, & regit Ecclesiasticam disciplinam ejicit eum de Congregatione [Page 71] fidelium. In Ecclesiis Christi consuetudo tenuit talis, ut qui manifesti sunt in magnis delictis, ejiciantur ab ora­tione Communi, &c. By this phrase ofEpistola [...] Patrum▪ Tom. 3. p. 47. Gregorius Thaumaturgus, Bishop of Neo-Caesaria, against cove­tors plunderers of Captives and other mens goods for filthy gain; whom he resolves to be, a Dei Ecclesia abdica­ti; which Theodorus Balsamon (Patriarch of Anti­och) thus expounds. Ecclesia abdicatus, id est, ejec­tus et al [...]onus; dicuntur enim abdicati, filii, quando propter aliqua crimina ab haereditate paterna alienantur. In tempore autem talis calamitatis, existimare aliorum calamitatem esse sui lucri occasionem, est impiorum ho­minum, et Dei invisorum, et qui omnem improbitatem superant. Unde visum est, eos abdicare, pro eo quod est, aperte Ecclesia expellere, et a sidelium multitudine separare, ne propter ipsos Dei ira ad omnes veniat, &c. Which I wish the plundering Covetous Saints of our age, would consider, being all ipso jure, excommunica­ted persons; Qui ea rapiunt, quae ad eos, qui in bello cap­ti sunt, pertinent. To these I might adde the like phra­ses and passages of St. Basil, St. Hierom, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, Isychius, Prosper, Primasius, Eucherius, and others, collected by theCen [...]. Mag­ [...]eb. 3, 4, & 5. c 4. De Clavi­bus. Century Writers: where you may peruse them at leisure. With that of A [...] Mo­nac [...]os Scrmo. Bibl. Patrum. Tom. 3. p. 500. b. Faustus, Rhegiensis Episcopus: Illis ipsis qui graviter apud nos delinquunt, nullam tristiorem, nullam acerbiorem possumus invenire sententiam, quam ut A corpore Congregationis abscissi, sine pace discendant: And infinite other Testimonies in all succeeding ages, proving excommunicated persons for scandalous effences, to be See My New Discovery, p. 41, 42. totally secluded and cut off from the Church of God and all publike Ordinances therein Whatsoever; and not suspended only from the Communion. Which utterly subverts that New-found Excommunication only from the Lords Table, introduced, exercised, and so much contested for by our Novellizing Ministers of late years, against the practice of the Church and people of God in all former ages; to the dishonor of Christ and [Page 72] his Sacrament, and the great prejudice, grievance, of­fence, scandal of their people; which I trust they will now reform, upon this Discovery and Conviction of their Error.

Finally, let all such remember, That Iesus Christ himself (the only1 Car. 11. 22. to 30. Author, instituter of this Sacra­ment, for a perpetual remembrance of his death and pas­sion, [x] Mat. 11. 28 29. c. 22. 2. to 1. Rev. 22. 17. Isay 55. 1 2. compared w [...]h Mat. 14. 23, 24. Mat. 26. 26, 27 Heb. 9. 19, 20, 1 Cor. 10. 1, 2, 3, 4. 16, 17. c. 11. 20. to the [...] till his second coming in the clouds) invites and calls all Christians good and bad, for whom he died and shed his bloud, though the greatest, vilest, worst of sinners, and unworthiest of all others, to come unto this Sacrament, as a most effectal means to heal, cure, convert, comfort, ease, refresh, sanctifie, confirm, save them, as the foreci­ted Passages out of Luthers Catechism, the Practice of Piety, all Liturgies, and most Writers of this Sacrament, accord; inviting none thereto, but such as confesse themselves most grievons Sinners, standing in need of his free pardon, cure, grace, mercy, which they there ex­pect to receive and get sealed to their souls; Whereupon they are all bound under pain of contempt of the greatest mercy, highest sin, and severest judgemeet, to resort unto it when they are thereunto invited, as well as to other Ordinances, their sinfulnesse, unpreparednesse, being no discharge or exemption from this their bounden duty: which is a greater Crime to forbear, than receive un­worthily; as being a total and higher wilfull contempt, undervaluing of this Ordinance. That Christ himself at its original institution See My Vin­d [...]cation of 4. Serious Questi­ons, p. 17. to [...]9. admitted Judas himself unto it, though John 6. 70, 71. c. 12. 6. Mat. 26. 14 21. 2 [...]. 47, &c. Acts 16, 17, 18. a Devil, Theef, Covetous wretch, a Traytor to, and seller of him to his malicious crucifi­ers: together with Peter, whomMat. 26. 33, 34, 35, 69. to the end, Mar. 14. 66, &c. Lu. 22. 25, &c. John 18, 15, &c. he then foretold should within few hours after thrice together most shame­fully deny him, as he did, and the other Apostles, who Mat. 28. 56. all soon after for sook him, fled; and were all of them then Mar. 16. 11, 12, 13, 14. Lu. 24. 21. to 49. Johan 20. 2. to 30. ignorant and uncredulous of the Doctrine of his re­surrection [Page 73] and ascension (as I haveA Vindica­tion of 4. Seri­ous Questions, & Suspension susp [...]nd [...]d. elsewere proved at large.) And that purposely to manifest, that this Sa­crament (which is but a visible word) belongs equally to all visible Members of every visible Church, whether good or bad, regenerate or unregenerate, (though it be a favour of life unto life to the one, and of death unto death to the other) as well as the word preached; and a converting as well as confirming Ordinance, from which no Churchmembers professing Iesus Christ, may or ought to be secluded. Wherefore, if the Disciple be not above his Master, nor the Servant above, or greater than his Lord, (as theJohn 13. 16 c. 15. 20. Mat. 10. 24. Lord of this Sacrament assures us) then no Minister of Christ may, can, or ought (under pain of highest Antichristian Insolency, Pride, Tyranny, and affront to Christ himself, his Kingdom, Power, and Soveraign Authority) to seclude or keep back any from his sacred Table whom himself hath called, invited, admitted thereunto, upon any pretexts whatsoever. Let every one therefore henceforth Phil. 2. 10, 11. Rom 14. 11. bow and submit to Christ herein, and no longer stubbornly stout it out a­gainst him,Psal. 50 22. lest he tear them in pieces suddenly, and there be none to deliver; and seclude them for ever from his Mat. 26. 29 R [...]v. 19. 9. Lu. 22. 16 30. Table, Kingdom in Heaven, for suspen­ding his invited guests from his Supper, here on earth, without his Commission, or command. I shall close up all withAd Cacil. l. 2. Epist, 3. St. Cyprians words (recorded likewise byReply to Harding, [...]ag. 107. Bishop Iewel) which I wish all our Ministers to lay to heart: Religioni nostrae congruit, et timori, et ipsi loco et officio Sacerdotii nostri, custodire Traditionis Do­minicae veritatem, et quod prius apud quosdam videtur er­ratum, Domino monente, corrigere; ut cum in clarita­te sua et Majestate Caelesti venire caeperit, inveniat nos tenere, quod monuit; observare quod docuit; facere quod fecit. And his words to Cornelius the Pope, (registred in theSection 14. p. 332. Harmony of Confessions out of the Confession of Auspurg) How do we teach or provoke the people to shed their Bloud in the Confession of Christs [Page 74] name, IF WE DENY THE BLOOD OF CHRIST TO THEM WHO ARE IN THIS WARFARE? Or how shall we make them fit for the Cup of Martyrdom, IF WE DO NOT FIRST ADMIT THEM BY THE RIGHT OF COMMUNICATION TO DRINK IN THE CHURCH THE CUP OF THE LORD?

FINIS.

ERRATA.

Epistle page 4. l. 34. yea r. in, p. 5. l. 6. r. First, Whereas, p. 13. l. 5. these, [...]. p. 22. l. 7. experience, expedience. Mar­gin p. 9. l. 10. bending, blazing.

Page 2. l. 23. or, r. and, p. 4. l. 10. superatus, p. 9. l. 25. year, p. 13. l. 17. saith. p. 23. l. 2 ae. forecited Authors. p, 24. l. 13. backs, p. 25. l. 18. ground. p. 28, l. 3. dele it, p. 38. l. 19. formerly, r. frequently, p. 41. l. 13. on, by. l. 37. not, now. p. 49. l. 3. Sacra­ments. p. 48 l, 35. into p. 53. l. 21, as, a. p. 54. l. ult, and p. 55. l. 1. dele 7ly, l. 14. Signs, p. 6. l. 15. [...]or, or. p. 61. but, then. p. 64▪ l. 2. but will recompance even.

Margin, p. 38. l. 3. Praebendae. p. 54. l. 3. Gal. 4. 16.

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