NEW Anatomical Experiments OF JOHN PECQUET of DEIP.

By which the hitherto un­known Receptacle of the Chyle, and the Transmission from thence to the Subclavial Veins by the now discovered Lacteal Chanels of the Thorax, is plainly made appear in Brutes.

As also an Anatomical Dis­sertation of the Motion of Blood and Chyle.

Together with the further De­scription of the same Lacteal Chanels newly discovered in the Body of Man as well as Brutes.

Being an Anatomical Historie, Publickly propos'd by Thomas Barto­line, Dr. and Reg. Professor both in Physick and Anatomy, To Michael Lysere, Answering.

London, Printed by T. W. for Octavian Pulleyn, and are to be sold at his Shop at the Sign of the Rose in St. Paul's Church-yard. 1653.


NOT to insist up­on that general way of Commen­dation, the universal and ready reception this late and true discovery of our Author, Pecquet, hath had, may clearly appear in this, That no Man in all that Croud of Anatomists (of whom some are onely am­bitious [Page]of being Contra­dictory, as more desiring Controversy than Evi­dence of the Truth) not any but hath rather con­fess'd its Verity, than that they would in the least seem ignorant of being able to trace those Ves­sels, so difficult to be found, that the Inventor himself durst, out of just­ness to his good fortune, call it Chance. How this may yet be made clearer, let those that have seen what hath followed, be but indifferent Judges. [Page]So many able Physicians Congratulating his Dis­covery, and as willing to appear Admirers as Justi­fiers of this Truth: One, an approved Doctor both of Physick and Philoso­phy, undertakes to make out the benefit and use of this Discovery, from hence concluding those grand Absurdities that the Masters in Physick and Chirurgery have so many ages laboured under to be onely cleared and made out by this so admired Ex­periment.

Another undertakes, with admiration of him­self, to make it his own, without taking notice of our Author, in hope to produce (at least upon some) a Confession how much they owe to him for this Discovery.

A Third, an approved Master both in Physick and Chirurgery, after in his opinion the finishing of all that could concern the body of Anatomy, is, as I may so say, compell'd to set Pen to Paper, and by the discovery of that in [Page]Humane, which our Au­thor hath done in Brutes, to heap up to himself a Fame as lasting as the Sub­ject (I mean, Man) can be.

From hence it was I was so willing to get this so great and new a Master­piece of Anatomy made publick in our own Lan­guage, my Observation being this, That there was no Theater, nay scarce any private house of such as called them­selves but pretenders to Anatomy, in which the [Page]disquisition after this Truth was not labori­ously prosecuted; and ha­ving been very well sa­tisfied in the Roughness at least, if not Crabbid­ness of the stile, for a Publick Good, I could do no less than to adde what lay in my power to help those weaker per­sons, whose Hands are better than their Latine, to a Verity so demon­strable, so desired. I un­dertake to teach none, Translation being onely my Design; and if any [Page]thing may be thought fit to make it perfect, I will not be wanting in the least, so far as I am able, to contribute.

I confess it were to be wished that some among us of those most accurate Observers of Natures most secret Passages, would be pleased to offer some­thing out of their many Observations, to the com­pleating of so beneficial a Truth as this, no Nation, I am confident, having taken more industrious Trouble, or greater Charge, [Page]in Discoveries and Prose­cutions of Anatomical Ex­periments than this our own, Witness that great Master of Circulation and Generation, Dr. Harvey.

The new Anatomick Ex …

The new Anatomick Experiments of the Learned John Pecquet of Diep.

CHAP. I. Both Asellius who was the first dis­coverer of the Milkie Veins in the Mesentery, and the rest of the Anatomists were ignorant of the place of their meeting. The Receptacle of the Chyle above the Loyns, and the passage from it, not to the Liver, but to the true source of blood, the Heart, is discovered.

THE enrichment of the Anatomical Common-wealth by the Milkie Veins was the finding, not feigning, of the famous Asellius: But that he [Page 2]believes, with the Antients, that the Liver is the source of blood, and that the Milkie Veins have their confluence to it, This is [O Reader, if thou canst behold with thy eyes] his errour. Never­theless beware in the least thou stain not the fame of so gallant a man; 'Tis not a Little thou owest him, who first search'd out the unknown turnings of the Chyle, and by whose favour thou needs not to walk in darkness. Asellius opened it, 'tis enough. The discovery is not to be despised, though never so mean. The Besieged discover by the lightest repercuss of a Drum the Ambushes of the Enemies Mines; And Star-gazers gather their Won­ders by Shadows.

This was the cause (except I mi­stake my self) of Asellius his error, That beholding all the Milkie Veins to meet together in that Glandule placed in the middle of the Mesen­tery [which he cals the Pancreas] and from it to be stretched upward and downward, he verily believed [Page 3]that those branches (which were sometimes double, sometimes more, and not seeing them concentrate in any place) ascended to the very fissure or cleft of the Liver.

Neither since that time have any of those [that I know] who in the Anatomick Theatre exercised them­selves (often, and with great praise in living Brutes) endeavoured to trace into any other parts the Milkie liquor of those veins, which even they themselves did dis­cover.

And indeed the learned Wallaeus in his Epistles to Th. Bartoline saith, By these Milkie Veins the Chyle goeth upward: but by what means it doth so, is a matter more intricat. This seems to me to be most likely, which I have taken notice of in great and lean Hounds, That some of the Milkie Veins with one and a continued passage have entred into the Mesenterick-Branch, some into the very Vena porta, some into the hollowness of the Liver, and a very small number [Page 4]sometimes into the Vena cava near the Emulgents.

So conclude the most skilful Phy­sicians, Harvey, Vesling, Conringe, Bartoline, and many other; Nei­ther doth Riolane himself think better (which is marvelous in respect of the mans excellent quickness and sharpness of wit whereby he hath gone before all others in Anatomi­cal dissection) hear his Opinion of this matter in the XVIII Chapter of his Encheirid. This one diver­sity of distribution, saith he, trou­bleth many; For in a living full and opened Beast, those Milkie Veins are seen spread indeed in the Mesentery, and some of them pro­ceed to the Pancreas, some to the Liver, others are derived to the trunck of the Vena Cava, but none of them go to the Spleen, neither do they after the manner of the Vena porta run together in one stem.

I, by the leave of so great men, would say that not any of them by a particular inquest have searched the Lurkings of these Lacteal Veins [Page 5]within the Thorax. But I believe this is rather to be attributed to their misfortune than negligence, because none of them knew that the Chyle was not derived to the Liver, nor to the Vena porta, nor to the Vena cava near the Emul­gents, as the received errour held forth: but, which in dissection may be seen to any man more clear than the light, From the Guts to a certain RECEPTACLE of that bigness, which will full up the interstitium between the Lumbar Muscles, at least in Beasts.

Now this receptacle above the Vertebers of the Loyns receives the Liquor of the Milkie veins spread in the Mesentery, and rendreth it again by those Milkie Veins, which being hid within the breast, in a continued passage run to the Sub­clavial venal branches, till within the ascending stem of the Vena cava about the External Jugulars, being mixt with the blood, and running in one and the same Chanel, it throws its self headlong into the [Page 6]Whirlpool of the Heart, there to receive its purple dye & preparation for alimentary substance; As might be evinced by that noble Testimony the Prince of the Peripateticks hath asserted, That the Heart is the Ori­ginal of the Veins, and Forge of the Blood.

CHAP. II. The Chyle being found on the Con­fines of the Heart and Vena cava, is discovered to be convey'd thi­ther by the Subclavian Branches; And the Insertion thereof is plainly perceived at the concourse of the Axillar and Jugular Veins.

BEware (O Reader) and think not that thou owest to me the Originations of these Milkie Veins, or the Original of this my design: No, it was the gift of Fortune sport­ing with me altogether ignorant. But to use good words, and such as be­come a Christian, It was the great [Page 7]gift of Providence, which is God, revealing it to me imprudent. And lest by any Claim the duty of thank­fulness should be intermitted, It seems good to me for the praise of him that is Strong and Zealous, to set down plainly the whole Historie of my happiness, if indeed it be as pleasant for thee to hear, as me to rehearse it.

After I had some years ago, by Cutting up of Dead Bodies, ac­quir'd a dumb (I may say) and cold Knowledge, I resolved to squeez forth true knowledge from the Harmonie yea of twenty Living Creatures. And because these differ from the former almost onely in Motion, which hath its chief seat in the Heart, It was my purpose, having uncloathed and cut out the Heart, to contemplate it more ma­nifestly.

Therefore having cloven asunder the Thorax of a Great Hound, I begun my view of the contained parts without delay; I pluckt out the Heart, having cut asunder those [Page 8]Vessels wherewith it was tied to the rest of the body; The abun­dance of blood, which immediately flow'd, did at present stop my pry­ing fight; that being spent, I did wonder to see flowing in the Pipe of the Vena cava at its connection to the right Ventricle a milkie liquor, casting it self out by inter­mission.

The remaining drops of the blood had stain'd its colour, so that I suspected by the first view of it that it was Pus discharged from some apostumation lurking (may be) within the breast: But when the Heart being altogether pluck'd from its place, and placed on the Table, had almost with equal ve­hemency contracted it self into ninety Systoles, and in as many Diastoles dilated it self, and with a little palpitation had brea­thed forth its last spirits, I was a­shamed of my former thought, nor could longer think that so great a disease could be neighbour to so grand a vigour.

Therefore having perfected my design, and perused all the remain­ing contained parts which offered themselves fair and sound, as also the whole Thorax, I did open the Vena cava from the Diaphragm unto the Throat. Immediately there appeared a little stream of that Liquor I doubted of, not stain­ed with any mixture of blood.

From the Subclavian Branches unto the Pericardium within the Vein there setled down a very white Liquor, most like the Chyle spread abroad in the Mesentery; so that they being compared together, both their colour, smell, tast and con­sistence shew there was no difference betwixt them.

The motion of the embowelled Beast ceasing, that also did stop its flowing; neither did the rest suffer me to know whence or from what place that Milkie stream had its rise: Nevertheless inflamed with the desire of the concealed Mysterie, I prest the Thymus, I bound the neck, and I disquieted all the limbs [Page 10]of the foreparts, if any where per­chance the residue of that whitish substance would distil out of its winding vessels: But from thence onely came some drops of blood, and not the least Milkie substance appeared in the Vena cava.

Therefore [that which onely re­mained to shew my industry] I go about to demonstrate what part of this matter the Milkie Veins of the Mesentery might have by pressing them with the weight of my finger. They yield to my persute: for out of the Subclaval-branches such a­bundance of the juice I had ob­served did flow, that I both knew the Milkie Veins to be the source thereof, and did esteem it a great madness to hold this to differ from the Chyle.

Lest any thing nevertheless should be left unattempted, seeing from the upper parts of those Bran­ches the matter did rush down, I cleft the Veins of the neck, and all other the fore-parts; and pressing the capacity of [Page 11]the belly immediately where it swelleth below, and turning my sight to those opened Chanels near the Claviculars, behold to the accomplishment of my wishes, the Chyle did flow abundantly in the upper parts of the Subclavicular-branches on both sides.

I noted also small Valves cover­ing those minute perforations, or rather insertions, places most ma­nifest to the beholders, viz. little holes gaping with as little Valves, a little below the Cataracts or meet­ing together of the Jugular and Axillar: Veins: But there also I did observe the little Valves of the Jugular Veins, altogether to stop the easy ascent of the Chyle, which would otherwise fall into the deep pool of the Heart. But indeed I could not demonstrate by what way, by what passages the Chylus was conveyed thither, by reason of the emptied Mesentery of the Beast long ago dead, the Milkie Veins alto­gether vanishing with the out­pressed liquor.

CHAP. III. The double way of the Milkie Veins discovered within the Breast, from the discharge of the Chyle into the Subclavian Veins down to the fourth Verteber of the back; beyond which insertion there is no Twig of the Milkie-Veins stretched to the upper parts.

I Had immediately in the place of the dead dog another which unexpectedly was offered to me by accident, but his leanness seemed to foretell the emptiness of his La­cteal veins through his long hunger. Therfore I went about to cram this hunger-starv'd Dog; when at the de­sire of those, whom the newness of the matter had invited to the specta­cle, I did unbowel the hungry Beast.

Then it clearly appeared, which I told those that did urge me un­seasonably; for the Stomack with the guts were so miserably empty, that not any shew of the Lacteal veins in any place, yea not in the [Page 13]Mesentery, did remain to be per­ceived by the eyes of any of the beholders.

Immediately their haughty auste­rity did reproach my busy censure, and did deny any faith to things not appearing. I, when I did see the most, I might say all of them, to give no credit to me (by a con­temptible gesture) for all I could argue; Well [said I to my self] at last you have learned to use your eyes: But, 'tis just that these same eyes, whose loathing winks I obey­ed with willing service, be punish­ed in you hereafter with a stedfast beholding, as with an unavoydable scourge, and iterated inspection of the intrails.

I had foretold truly to those that rashly hastned the unseasonable dis­section, that the Pipes of the Lacteal veins were most slender, and onely remarkable by the whiteness of the Liquor they convey; which juice, whether it follow the upsucking Diastoles of the Heart, or which is more likely, it rusheth forward by [Page 14]the incitement of some impulsive cause afterwards to be enquired of, it maketh a very little stay in its passing. In vain is the Chanel sought, when the fulness of the Fountain faileth. Neither is Chyle procreated by fasting, neither is meat presently after the eating thereof converted into that nourish­ing substance.

Therefore, not being hindred by any mans command, I brought the insnared Dog under my diet; and when I had refreshed his long fast­ing with abundance of meat, again about the fourth hour after his ful­ness, we addrest our selves to the examining of his Entrails.

Our chief purpose was, not to observe the Lacteal veins, which we beheld with infinite flowing rillets streaming in all places through the Mesentery, but with all our endeavours to pry into the Thorax.

The Heart there untouched did unfold its Systoles; the rest of the Lifes Instruments which are near [Page 15]to the Heart, did each accomplish its own duty. Neither as yet being resolved to offer violence to any, I turned back the Lungs, being lifted by the stedfast hand of a ser­vant, from the right side towards the cavity of the left, that I might view all the secret-rooms of the back.

I beheld the branches of the Vena cava, all were livid; no branch of the ascending Arteries was discovered near the Milkie holes I had lately found out: I followed the sprules of the Sixt­pars, whereof these were stopt by the opposition of the Diaphragm, other swallowed up of the lower belly. At last turning my sight to the highest sides of the Vertebers of the Back, I know not what whi­tishness, like to a pipe of Chyle, staid mine eyes, it creeping for­ward a little, with crooked turn­ings close to the back-bone; by the shape of it I doubted whether it was a Nerve, or that Vessel which I with all care had enquired [Page 16]after. Therefore tying a ligature a little below the Clavicles, I imme­diatly perceived that it emptied it self, and became flaccid above the Ligature, and below a tumor not onely remaining, but rather in­creasing by reason of the Flux of the matter, my doubt was then sa­tisfied.

But because Mistakes in this kind produce as erroneous conse­quences, I durst not yet pass a pe­remptory sentence, by mine eyes which were witnesses of so evident a matter; I enquire also into the left side, there also a brother-conduit to the right side did stray up and down, who likewise being bound up as the other, by the same event confessed himself to be a ducture of the same kind; I hastned there­fore to divide these Vessels, so con­spicuous through the middle of the Pleura, from the rest of their fellow­parts of the breast, with my sharp Knife: The unexhausted neigh­bour-head of the untoucht Heart did overflow my work with a bloody in­undation: [Page 17]But the Heart immediatly being pulled out, was both punished for its troubling the work, and removed all obstacles of its further continuance.

After the Blood was spung'd a­way, from both the Ligatures, and the Pleura being removed, I dis­covered the Milkie-Canals to the Throat. From the third Verteber of the Back, where they had for­saken the society of their upholder the back-bone, adhering to the Oesophagus under which they win­dingly did creep, hither and thither did they proceed to the Clavicles themselves; firmly leaning on the Thymum, in a fourfold or more nu­merous stream they enter the Sub­clavian Veins: I beheld these Veins with most covetous eyes being im­mediately split asunder; when be­hold again through these little holes found out about the Jugulars, the Li­gatures being untyed, on both sides a Milkie rivolet did pour forth abun­dantly Chyle into the Vena cava.

But then the Spectators contempt [Page 18]repenting at the miracle, by their encouragement it was imposed on me to search out whether any con­tinued Conduit of the Chyle did go to the Head, or was derived to the Fore-limbs. But when I had cut off the head, and dis-membred the limbs, no Milk did follow, no not by pressing the Inferiour belly. Now from that abundance of Chyle which emptied it self into the Vena Cava, I argue, that the Chyle nei­ther runneth to the Head or Fore­limbs, but altogether floweth into the Subclaval Branches.

CHAP. IV. The double way of the Lacteal Veins is cleared from the fourth Verteber of the Back to the Cen­ter of the Diaphragm.

MY hope did grow by fortu­nate events, and my toyl was forgiven to my prosperous la­bour. The discovered Door im­boldned me to search the Gallery. [Page 19]I return to the Ligatures; and ha­ving bound them near the out­standing sides of the third Verteber of the Back, now I certainly follow downward the swelling Milkie-Veins.

About the fourth Verteber, which is the seat of the Heart, they were hid under the gullet; I then did dis­ingage this gullet, being tyed with all the rest of the vital parts, ma­king my amputation near the Cla­vicles; Yea the Aorta also which I had spared, thinking it would not shadow it, cutting gently the branches which are interlaced a­mongst the ribs, upon that account that it was an hindrance, was com­manded to depart the Cavity of the Thorax; and having removed all impediments of the remaining engagements, you might behold o­penly, without doubting eyes, the whole course of the Milkie-streams along the highest platform of the Back-bone.

The fourth Verteber did uphold their joyning together, the rest of [Page 20]the space to the tenth Verteber up­held them parted in two and divided with winding turnings like to Ri­vers. They did flow with like ful­ness, not seldome with traverse trenches, as it were for mutual help obliquely tyed together. At length in a common Chanel, and again in divided streams by little and little growing into embossed billows, do swell up at the Center of the Diaphragm; not a slender token of the near fountain from whence the Chyle through the breast flow­eth into the Subclavian veins.

Therefore when I went about to separate the Diaphragm it self from the Lacteal Vessels, that it might not hinder my last (which I hoped for) search, the swelling billow of the Vessel being torn on the left side near the twelfth Verteber of the back, whose tunicle is very thin, wondring at the abundance of the poured-out milk there harboured, I suspected there was not a little Receptacle of that Liquor hid there. But the unwariness of my hand [Page 21]stopt my progress, and made me throw away the rest of the Car­case as useless; for the outflowing of the Chyle altogether emptied the Lacteals, and the remaining pel­licle of the vanishing tumor, where it seemed to grow in billows, the Ventricle (as they say) thereof be­ing cut could promise no happy event to my further Inquest.

CHAP. V. The Receptacle of the Chyle till this day unknown, is searched af­ter. 'Tis demonstrated that the Chyle floweth not towards the Liver, neither the Lacteal-veins tend thither. The Receptacle of the Chyle is discovered under the Center of the Mesentery. This receives the Chyle from the con­fluence of Asellius his Lacteals. Asellius his Pancreas is not al­waies in all, nor the same, neither one. The Milkie Veins lack not their own Valves through the Breast.

HAving fed a Dog abundantly with fitting diet, a few hours after his repast, I placed him on the Anatomical Theatre. The first Exercise onely opened his Breast: Neither made I any stay, but stopping on both sides the en­trances of the Lacteals beneath the Clavicles by a Ligature, I prevent­ed the Chyles escape. Pulling away [Page 23]the stops of the staying parts, I hastned my progress; And to in­large the belly which straitned the Cavity of the Thorax, I made in­cision from thence clean through the Abdomen, according to its longi­tude, and by this means exposed to view the whole Cavity of the Tho­rax.

I had not long time to contem­plate the Sisterly-Lacteal rivolets, not differing in much from the o­ther. My young-grown suspition of a Receptacle urged me by degrees into a mindful belief, that the lurk­ing place was by all tokens evinced to be beyond the Diaphragm, hid under the Center of the Mesentery. Neither would I have delayed by the destruction of the resisting En­trails to have unlocked the En­trance, except that old Error of Sanguification now last of all had not troubled my mind, even hardly departing from her former prin­ciples.

Until this Time, Opinion, not Truth, thrust the Chyle from the [Page 24]Mesentery into the substance of the Liver, and did attribute the un­deserved privilege of Sanguifica­tion to that Entrail provided by Nature for another use. I with exact diligence did examine all the branches going thither, each by it self, whether the Chyle run through any of them to that place. I on every side did seek out the Milkie­rillets, and found none of them to be stretched to the Liver; I cleft the Vena-porta, I opened the Sple­nick-passage, neither did I spare the Mesentery it self, except in so far as the rising tumor of the Milkie­veins appearing white through the Mesentery, seemed to allow; which my careful fear of the evanishing Chyle did preserve, being mindful of the Receptacle. I discovered the Center of the Vena-cava, not onely where it enters the Emulgents, but even from the Iliacks to the Dia­phragm; and from all parts no­thing flowed but Blood, no spring of Chyle did in the least colour this false-believed passage.

Neither [O Reader] trust thou to mine eyes, which I used most dili­gently in a matter of so great weight: There are Witnesses, no more friends to me than to the truth, which beheld it, and whose scornful laughter I rather feared, than hoped their pardon, if I had stuck in the matter. Thou thy self enter the Lists, seeing long ago I have roused up and challenged thy spirit to so brave atchievements. He is a sluggard who for fear of la­bour hath all his faith in his ears; neither is he worthy of wisdome, who follows that errour whereof he may undeceive himself.

The truth being unshel'd by so great testimonies, viz. That the Chyle did not flow to the Liver, nor to the Vena-porta, neither to the Vena-cava near the Emulgents; Upon this View of the Entrai [...]s we were commanded by the Chyle to seek some other place of the lower­most belly by which this discharge of Chyle was to be protruded out into the Thorax. The fruitfulness [Page 26]of the Milkie-veins did keep the Mesentery from falling; I dischar­ged the turgid veins, and made them fall flat by tying Ligatures about the Basis thereof. Then by piece­meal, to be more wary, taking a­way the Diaphragm, you might see clearly the residue of the Trunk of the Aorta, that lurked under the productions thereof, together with our Lacteal-veins.

These likewise on the left side, under that part of the Aorta which sendeth forth the Phrenetick-Ar­teries, did unfold their swelling Chanels, below both sides running into one stream, seeming to grow into a swelling lake of Chyle. And then, my eyes allowing the touch its part, by pressing with my fore-finger I oft tried on each part the escape of the enclosed liquor: There, which is wonderful! the passage did render it self flat to the compressing finger; The softness coming by jumps did argue a blad­der not of small capacity to hold Chyle lurking under the Center of the Mesentery.

At last, I cut with a sparing Knife all the hiding tunicles; Such a bladder I espied, not divorced from the Aorta, but as it were re­ceived into its protection, under the Coeliack stern and Emulgent bran­ches, neither altogether lurking, nor altogether appearing: So at last was laid open that most desired storehouse of the Chyle, and that Receptacle searched out by my so much labour.

This was stretched downward from the Diaphragm upon the pro­minences of the Vertebers of the Lower belly, even to the third Ver­teber of the Loyns or thereabouts; here and there it did adhere be­twixt the Kidneys to those emul­gent Kernels or Cases, which are called Atribilar Grandules; being kept in below with the Dams of the Lumbar muscles on both sides, it did occupy the whole space in the middle, but with a furrow some­thing inclining to the right side.

But whence comes so great pro­vision of Nourishment? I say, by what Chanels doth the Chylous [Page 28]liquor run into that Lake drain'd by its continual gliding through the breast? I long ago suspected the Mesenteries diligence, and chiefly that neighbouring tumor of the La­cteal veins therein, which was believed by me to disgorge into this Receptacle the nourishment they received from the Guts. The dawn­ings of truth, which are ever un­quiet, suffered me not any longer to be toss'd in these mists of Con­jecture.

Therefore immediately the tu­nicle of the Receptacle being torn, the Chyle ran forth; and follow­ing by the cleft of the same wound the Chyle, which I had set free, by loosing my tyes in the turgid La­cteals of the Mesentery, by its evi­dent springing out removed all my doubts.

The knowledge of this Recepta­cle evanishing altogether with the Chyle, being mindful again of A­sellius, turning over the middle of the Mesentery, I search for that great Glandule he saith is placed [Page 29]there; but the absence thereof did altogether dis-appoint my labour. For, for the most part Domestick Beasts want that Glandule, or at least you shall see it to fall into many distinct little ones, some­times divided into five, as Walleus hath observed before me.

The Mesentery of the Beast be­ing viewed, presented three, placed at a manifest distance one from the other: They were adjacent to the Emulgents, one of them to the right Emulgents, being of a more longish figure; The rest lay near the left, with a more round body, more re­presenting a Globe.

It is, my resolution to discover the use of these, and of Asellius his Pancreas, wherever 'tis found. While the Mesentery swels with turgid Lacteals, a part of the Chyle is poured into the hollow bosomes of these Glandules; which is clear not onely by the many Conduits of the Milkie veins encompassing them like Spider-webs; but also their shedding of Chyle if you cut them [Page 30]up. Indeed the Mesentery having unburthened the Lacteal veins, the Chyle also is then poured out of the Glandules into the Receptacle by the lower, yet more ample pipes: From which the flowing again back to the Mesentery [as doth evidently appear by the turgidness of the Re­ceptacle when the Mesentery is quite taken away] is stopt by the forbidding Valves: There remain­ing onely in the Glandules a rem­nant of serous liquor, which I e­steem the spongious Glandules have onely drunk up, being superfluous to the passing aliment, as a reward of their hospitality.

I would have sacrificed, if the double Vessels of the Lacteals stray­ing on the Vertebers of the Tho­rax, had not by their constantly whitish tumor called back my wan­dring eyes to their view. The shut­ting of their passages with a Liga­ture about the third Verteber of the back, had raised up their Cha­nels downward; neither did they, while the Mesenterick Lacteals [Page 31]emptied themselves of their Milkie substance through the torn passage of the Receptacle, at all change into a smaller stream, or throw out their Chyle.

Therefore when I pressed back again the full Conduits with the force of my fore-finger, the little Valves lurking in the knotty veins did dis-appoint this my last labour, not without a most delectable te­stimony of their presence.

CHAP. VI. Not onely a Dog, but other Do­mestick Beasts have their Milkie Veins and Receptacle; and 'tis shewn 'tis not lacking in man. The Testimonies of Grave men are called to witness the truth of this Book.

THus (good Reader) you have the exact Historie of the La­cteal Conduits. Within the course of three Dissections I have com­prehended the continual work of almost three years; because by the loss of so little a time, you may be delivered from errour. The cut­ting up of three Dogs will afford thee that which was scarcely at length granted to me by the un­bowelling of more than a hundred living Beasts.

Neither believe thou I was onely convinced of this by the evidence of prying into the intrails of Hounds: All kind of Beasts almost vindicates also to it self this Glory [Page 33]of the shewen Chylous Conduit: Kine, Horse, Swine, and not a few of other sorts being offered, did stain with their blood my incision-knife.

Nature onely sports it self for a while in Sheep: In these not a double Conduit, but one Pipe alone doth carry the Chyle from the Re­ceptacle to the fourth Verteber of the back, and thence cleft in two waies it unburthens it self into the Vena cava by these little Valves in the Subclavian holes, as hath been shewn in a Dog. I have observed the same, but seldomer, in other Beasts: but howsoever the Chyle desireth short waies, and shuns the multitude of passages, notwith­standing from the same starting off at the Receptacle, it endeth its course at the same mark of the Ju­gulars.

I spake not of Men, because I abominate the Thoantean Sacrifi­ces, being inur'd to a more meek devotion. I did not spare Beasts who were fram'd by the Creator [Page 34]for the use of Man. I honoured the Living Creature which was more holy than these: The remem­brance of that inbred Law, which I adore, abstained from this; his health is my scope, and not that that is to him most fearful. That Medicine is to be shunned that Cruelty doth teach, and that Wis­dome to be abhorred that Murther produceth.

Nevertheless I boldly affirm, That also Men, whom the univer­sal Parent hath indued with the same burthen of intrails with Beasts, have not a different storehouse of Chy­lous substance. This [lest you should scorn our opinion, as Ship­wrackt in the very Haven by our lack of Experience] besides the long continuance of the Lacteal veins in the humane Carcase, observed by Tulpius in Amsterdam, by Veslin­gius in Padua, and Folius in Ve­nice, is proved by the famous Te­stimony of that worthy Gassendus, which affirms that the Illustrious Peireschius did behold in the Me­sentery [Page 35]of a Thief opened a little after his execution, the Veins tur­gid with Milk. Writing his Life he thus proceeds: Wherefore Pei­reschius did procure, that before the sentence of death should be pronounced against the person con­demn'd to be hang'd, he should be securely and well fed, that there might be matter for abundance of Chyle against that time he should search for it; and thence within an hour and a half after he was hanged, and the body commanded to be brought unto the Anatomick Theatre, it was performed with so great diligence, that the Belly being immediately opened, the white Veins did appear, So that from some of them, being opened, you might have gathered a Milkie li­quor, which indeed seemed very wonderful. Gassendus himself was present at this spectacle, which he told me long ago with his own mouth, whilst he lived in Paris.

And because that is not good which desires not to be communi­cated, [Page 36]I brought many, not Com­mon men, not out of the dregs of the people; but men Learned, and much seen in Anatomical mat­ters: That, being rather partners of my happiness, than witnesses of my knowledge, they might at least by their authority compel you to venture on the matter.

It pleaseth me by some of their pickt-out names to overthrow the obstinateness [if yet it remain] of your mind. In the mouth of two or three Witnesses every word is justified, saith the holy Oracles. I will produce more. And amongst the first indeed James Mentellus, a Patrician, and famous Professour of Physick in the College of Paris, and his most worthy Grand-child unto whom the World oweth the Invention of PRINTING. Then Peter Mersennus, a Learned Doctor of the same faculty. I will adde Adrian Auzot of Roan, a man indued with all sorts of Learn­ing, by whose help, advice and in­timate friendship, not a few things [Page 37]were discovered to me. I would have wished that Ludovick Gayan, the famous Chirurgian, whose great skill I admired while he dis­sected in the Publick Physick-Schools of Paris, and the noble Mentellus read the Lecture, should either be the Condemner of my Errours, or Assertor of that Truth manifested to me by so many Experiments. Neither would I have passed by, if Death too soon had not envied, James Duval, a most skilful Doctor of the same faculty in Paris, who ingenuously was long ago a Herald of this dis­covered verity, as the love to the same made him a most diligent spectator of my Experiments.

I will not speak more of these men, lest by the unpolished rude­ness of my speech I prejudice them. I would likewise produce more, but the faith of the Wit­nesses is suspected where a few and so famous do not suffice. Nei­ther is the mind of him that judgeth [Page 38]free of unbelief, if he will have, beyond the Laws appointment, the number multiplied of the Wit­nesses.

The Exposition of the Figures.

The First Figure sheweth the Milkie Vessels found within the Breast, together with the Recepta­cle of the Chyle, by themselves di­stinct from the cut-up Beast.

  • A. The Ascendent Trunk of the Vena cava opened all along upwards.
  • BB. The meeting together of the Jugular and Axillar Veins, where the springing out of the Chyle into the Vena cava, or the little en­trances of the Lacteal Conduits, are marked with points.
  • CC. The Valves of the Jugu­lars stopping the ascent of the Chyle running into the Vena cava.
  • DD. The distributions of the Milkie Conduits at their springings into the Veins.
  • EE. The divers meetings of the Lacteal Vessels at the appointment of sporting Nature.
  • F. The Bottle or Billow which oft hath appeared within the breast on the left side near the uncut Dia­phragm.
  • G. The Chanel on the right side swelling greater.
  • [Page]HH. The portion of the Dia­phragm which remaineth.
  • I. The RECEPTACLE of the Chyle.
  • LLL. The stems of the Mesen­terick Lacteal Veins; the greater Tunicles of these near the Recep­tacle signifieth there are Valves pla­ced there to hinder the reflux of the Chyle.
  • MMM. Divers Valves within the breast giving passage to the Chyle to the Vena cava, but stopping its return to the Receptacle.

The Second Figure demonstrateth an open Dog with the Vessels ex­pressed in the First Figure, as each one in his proper place is situate in the Beast.

  • 1. The Ascendent Trunk of the Vena cava.
  • 2. The part of the Aorta re­maining betwixt the Kidneys, stick­ing to the Receptacle of the Chyle.
  • 3 3. The Kidneys.
  • 4 4. The cut-up Diaphragm.
  • 5 5. The Muscles of the Loyns, called [...].
AN Anatomical Diſſer …

AN Anatomical Dissertation Concerning the CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD, AND MOTION OF THE CHYLE.


Printed in the Year 1653.

An Anatomical Dis­sertation concerning the Circulation of the Blood, and Motion of the Chyle.

The sum of the Dissertation.

The Circular motion of the Blood through the whole body of the Li­ving Creature is demonstrated; the cause of that motion is shewn; the opinion of Attraction is re­futed by Water-works; the pres­sing of the Chyle out of the Guts into the Milkie Veins is set forth, and the Straining-office of the Liver is asserted.

THE prosperous success of the discovered paths in which the Chyle is carried, by the former Experiments, is an in­couragement stirring up the bold [Page 44]endeavour of a confident mind to make inquest wither it rusheth. But because the commerce which the Lacteals have with the Ascen­dent Vena cava shew the Chyle is tributary to the Blood; 'Tis most fitting that the Superiours motion be considered in the most honoura­ble place, before the Vassals course come in view.

Here then we will first conclude, That the Blood rushing into the Arteries by the impulse of the Sy­stoles, and returning again by the crooked small passages of the Veins even into the bosome of the Dia­stoles, is circulated in the whole body, as is proved by the tests of Experience, and so returned into the Vena cava, as also by the reflowing motion of the Vena porta.

Next we will reason concerning the beginning of this motion, chiefly against those who attribute the re­turn of the Blood, shed out of the Arteries into the Veins, and so into the Ventricles of the Heart, unto [Page 45]the attracting Diastole; and the Mysteries of Pneumatical or Wind­works whereby they advance At­traction are discovered; So that by the touchstone of Experience it shall be cleared, That the Water followeth the Clack in a Pump­pipe not onely by the weight of the air which compresseth the Globe of Earth-water, but likewise by the Elatere of the Air, that is, by its Spontaneous dilatation, or extend­ing it self of its own accord: As also that the same Air in an Aeo­lipilas or Wind-gun that is thrust hard together; and that in Bel­lows are heaped up, and that in Flesh doth protuberate in Cupping­glasses.

Afterwards we will demonstrate a threefold incitement of the same motion in the Blood: For [good Reader] the Systole doth not onely stir up the Blood; There is also a natural quality in the greater Ves­sels, according to the measure of their capacity. Adde to this at least the Elastick or extended bur­then [Page 46]of the adjacent weight either of the pressure in Respiration, or of the Muscular Contraction.

Lastly, having by the same Ar­guments held forth the motion of the stream of the Chyle, we will demonstrate with all clearness pos­sible the Transcolatory or straining use of the Liver, appointing with Aristotle the Gall for the Excre­ments of the Blood.

CHAP. I. The motion of the Blood from the Heart by the Arteries to the Extremities of the Body, and from the Extremities by the Veins a­gain to the Heart, is asserted by Experiments.

THat I might try whether the Blood flowed by the Arte­ries, I tyed strait with a thread the Artery sometime of the fore-foot, sometime of the hind-foot, some­time the Carotidals, lest any thing should escape me, in a living Dog. [Page 47]The Artery in a short time beyond the Ligature, viz. towards the Ex­tremities of the Body, falling, and rising on this side; I mean betwixt it and the Heart, by reason of the obstructed stream, doth teach that the Blood is carried from the Heart by the Arteries unto the Extremities of the Body.

But lest (Reader) thou shouldst accuse my inference of Lightness, the Artery being cloven beyond the Ligature, yea to take away thy cavelling, being quite cut off, did scarcely stain the wound with Blood; when being opened on this side the Ligature, it burst forth in a spring of Blood.

Having examined the Arteries, I resolved to view the course of the Blood in the Vena cava: This be­ing freed from its Teguments, I bound it in the same place, still re­serving its Fellow-Artery free: But with a success directly con­trary to the other; for on this side the band towards the Heart it fell, and rose beyond the Ligature to­wards [Page 48]the Extremities of the Body: Then being wounded in that place that was flaccid, it emitted no Blood; but being opened where it was dilated, it threw forth more Blood than the whole capacity of the skin of the thigh and leg should contain: Therefore, say I, as the Blood from the Heart is spread a­broad by the Arteries, so being re­turned by the branches of the Veins into the Vena cava, 'tis again ga­thered into the Ventricles of the Heart it self.

But lest any should doubt that the Blood which springeth out of the Veins hath not flowed into them from their Fellow-Arteries, I opened the Crural vein where it most appeared; the Blood swiftly sprung from it: then I tyed it's Fellow-Artery, and which is won­derful! the force being abated, the Blood of the Vein distilled by drops first, and at last quire stopped: But the freedome of the loosed Ar­tery renewed its stream; and the Blood issuing out of the Vein with [Page 49]former vigour shew what commerce the Arteries have with the Veins.

Neither [Reader] let it trouble thee, that sometimes, though sel­dome, Blood springeth from the Vein on this side the bandage where the Veins are then most fallen. Believe me, not affirming but as one that hath tryed, that the dispersed twigs do disburthen themselves of this Blood so discharged into the Vena cava.

One day (as I have said) I was at work, and wounded on both sides the Ligature of the tyed Vein, behold not onely beyond, but on this side the Ligature I wondred to see unceasable springing of the Blood. I then did separate the Vena cava from her coverings upwards, even to the division of the Iliack Branches, and I bound all the Branches of the Veins I met with in my passage straitly, the Blood stopp'd: Then indeed on this side the Ligature the Blood evanish'd, and was exhaust from that place up to the Valve that lurketh in [Page 50]the Groin, its Clack stopping al­together the descent of the Blood which pressed it, shew clearly that the Blood had no power to descend by the Veins.

Then concluded I, If the Blood be onely spread by the Arteries, a member, the Artery being tyed, may be amputed without blood­shed. Sooner then I had said it I tyed the Crural Artery, leaving the Veins loose, and at the ham a little below the bandage I cut off his leg: some drops of Blood in­deed did flow from it, viz. such as the last Valves of the cut-asunder Veins did not contain, and with which the twigs of the Arteries dispersed up and down the skin for the nourishment thereof were fil­led. But when the Cut-veins are emptied of that Blood which is be­neath the Valves, and the small Branches of the Cutaneous Arteries are stopp'd, partly by the congeal­ing occurse of Cold repressing the Heat, partly by the contraction of the grieved parts through the [Page 51]wound, the flowing of the Blood did altogether cease; neither did any more Blood spring from any of the dispersed Vessels spread over the whole amputation, till way was made for the Arterial Blood by un­tying the Crural Artery.

I tried the same in the Axillar, in the Jugular: but because 'tis more troublesome in a Dog by rea­son of his short neck, in a Goose the Experiment did easily succed.

And lest you should deny that in a man which is demonstrable in a brute, pray you look upon your Arm, if leanness perchance suffer the full Veins to appear; there if you rub downward with your fin­ger, it then swelleth most, you will wonder to see the knotting of the Shut-Valves, and from them down­ward to the pressure of the finger the Canal of the Vein empty. Look to a Chirurgion ebrathing a Vein, he binding straitly a Ligature about the brawn of the Arm, stop­peth the flowing of the Blood from the hand to the heart: He looseth [Page 52]a little the Blood-band, being to hard tyed, that the Artery being freed from the straitness of the com­pressed Muscle of the Arm may re­fresh the choked Veins with a fresh stream of Blood.

Neither imagine thou that I have but once made Trial of the Cir­culation of the Blood in the greater Vessels of the Veins and Arteries. Indeed having tried this every where, yea in the smallest Branches of both, as my sight would serve, I found it every where the same. This was shewn by Ligatures in the hands and feet: This both the breathing and Valves of each Vein, yea those in the finger, did demon­strate.

CHAP. II. The Vena porta doth discharge it self by the Liver into the Vena cava of the Blood it receives from the Coeliack Artery; and hence the Gallant Harvey's Opinion is confirm'd.

HAving manifested the Cir­culation of the Blood from the Heart by the Arteries unto the Extremities of the body, and from thence by the Veins hi­ther again, I resolved to know how this holds in the Vena prrta.

Having tyed the Branches of the Coeliack Arteries, where the Blood enters the Mesentery, they fell and rose after no different manner from the rest, viz. swelling from the Trunk to the bandage, and be­coming flaccid betwixt the Liga­ture and Intestines.

I oft-times tyed the Meseraick-port-veins, yet nevertheless they filled betwixt the Intestines and Ligatures, and did altogether fall [Page 54]betwixt the Ligature and Liver; yea being opened on both sides the Ligature, the Blood issued out. I tried the Veins of the Spleen with the same success; also that Vein which is called Vas breve, betwixt the Stomack and Ligature in the middle thereof full; but betwixt it and the Spleen it seemed to wain, notwithstanding being opened on both sides, the Blood followed.

From these I inferr [except you please to admit frequent Synana­stomosies betwixt the Branches of the Port-vein and their Fellow-Arteries] that the Blood is either stopp'd by none, or at least very small Valves within the Branches of that Vein.

The opinion of Riolan presently came into my mind, viz. That the Blood of the Vein-port doth not at all pass into the Vena cava. And the Authority of so famous a man had altogether stopp'd my fur­ther search, if my eyes, which I appointed strict Judges of the game, had not withstood it, reproaching [Page 55]my laziness that fail'd in the midst of the course.

Therefore being more troubled, I had my recourse to the Trunk of the Vena porta, and I bound with a Ligature the Mesenterick branch three fingers broad from the Liver: At the same distance I bound the Splenetick; the knot indeed was strait, but easy to be loosed. Scarce had I left off binding, when behold the Pipe betwixt the Ligature and Liver which before rose Turgid, was now a bloodless Chanel, and became flaccid, on the other side the Pipes of both the Branches were filled with an indifferent stream of Blood flowing from the Intestins and Mesentery, yea from the Sto­mack and Spleen also.

I fill'd again the emptied trunk of the Vena porta, by untying one of the Ligatures; which being pre­sently again tyed, next the Liver, it was emptied. The Experiment be­ing frequently reiterated, it was evident that the Blood flow'd abun­dantly and swiftly out of the Vena [Page 56]porta into the Windings of the Li­ver. And perceiving that through the Concavity of the Liver the Vena porta did divide it self in many Branchings for the conveyance of Blood after the manner of Arteries: Whether [say I] doth not the Vena porta it self, instead of an Artery, thrust out into the Liver, an abun­dance of fervid Blood for the che­rishing of the stomack and con­cocting faculty? The smalness of the Coeliack Branches being alto­gether, as I thought, unable for so great an effect.

And rightly I thought it; for the Vena porta within the Liver is altogether an Artery: For as the Arteries issue their Blood from out their Trunk into their Branches, but the Veins return it from their Branches into the Trunk: So the Vena porta from its Trunk distri­buteth Blood to its furthest Branches that are within the Liver, which Blood it hath gathered into its Trunk from the Branches it hath without the Concavity of the same. [Page 57]And as the Coats of the Arteries are thicker than those of the Veins, so the Vena porta hath a thicker skin within the Liver than it hath in its Vessels without the same.

Neither believe that I depart from ocular inspection when I say that the Coat of the Vena porta is thicker within the Liver; for I broke in pieces at leisure all the substance of the Liver of the Beast which I anatomiz'd, and laid open the form of the uncloath'd Vena porta: The Tunicle whereof with­out the Liver retain'd the thinness of a Vein, but within the Liver did altogether appear to be an Artery: So that it did undoubtedly appear which before I did suspect, That some of the Vessels of the Blood, as the Aorta, deserve onely the name of Arteries; Others admit onely the name of Veins, as the Vena cava; And to conclude, some are appointed by Nature for both du­ties, such as we have found the Vena porta to be.

But when I doubted whither so [Page 58]great a current of Blood flowed, and believing it had its course unto the Vena cava, I tyed [I will not say with the Antients the Trunk, but] the branch thereof where it entreth the gibbosity of the Liver, as far from the Liver as I could; and then the Blood rushing to the bandage [the branch greatly rising betwixt the Ligature and Liver] shewed the manifest commerce be­twixt the Vena porta and the Vena cava; and how appositly the Learn­edst English Physician, Will: Har­vey, held the motion of the whole Blood to be Circular.

CHAP. III. That the Blood floweth out of the Right Ventricle of the Heart through the Lungs into the Left Ventricle.

THis one thing did remain to perfect so great a Circulation, to know fully the Passage of the Blood from the Veins through the Heart into the Arteries. The evi­dent diversity of Cavities and Turn­ings for the carrying of the Blood both in Children in the womb, and more adult persons, did vex my troubled mind.

Indeed in persons of firm age that oval perforation, or rather communication [which is sprinkled with Botalus the Inventor's name] or, if you will, that Synanastomosis useth not to remain. It is that by which, in the Child in the womb, the Blood directly from the Vena cava filleth the right Ventricle of the Heart; also by the Venal Ar­tery entreth immediately the left Ventricle.

Neither doth that little Ductus remain Pervious, but degenerateth into a Ligament, by which the Aorta of the Child in the womb receiveth the Blood through the Ar­terial vein, the shortest way from the right Ventricle, without any turning into the left.

Then at last, that the commerce of the Heart, with the Entrances of the Vena cava, might be dis­covered, with the famousest Anato­mists I considered the structure of the substance of this Noble-intrail; and in the first place, the three doors of the three-corner'd Valves, situ­ate betwixt the joyning of the Vena cava to the right Ventricle of the Heart, offered themselves to view: I was willing to take notice of their office, which was, to give easy en­trance to the Blood into the Heart, but stopt its return into the Vena cava.

The impervious solidity of the Septi, or Partition of the Heart which lyeth betwixt the Ventricles, denied it altogether a passage. [Page 61]Therefore I inferr'd, the Blood is­sueth out of the right Ventricle into the Arterial vein: And indeed in that place the three Sigmatoidal or S-like Valves give place to it rush­ing forwards, but withstand its re­turn.

Nevertheless having burst asun­der the partition, I viewed the left Ventricle: It differed from the right in that it was of a more ob­long and narrower hollowness: Into two Entrances of it two Ca­nales were inserted, on this side that which they name the Arteria Venosa, on the other side the Aorta was placed, at the boundings of both were placed Valves: This [the Aorta or great Artery] had, as in the Arteria Venosa, three sigma­toidal Valves, to give way to the Blood thrust out, and to stop its return: That [the Arteria Ve­nosa] had two Miter-like Valves, that kept Centry, to give Entrance to the Blood into the Heart, and to stop its flight from thence.

By reason of this fabrick and fa­shion [Page 62]of the Heart, and the offices of its Instruments, I could not any more approve their denying the flowing of the Blood from the Heart into the Lungs by the Arterial Vein, and again its return from the Lungs into the Heart by the Venal Artery.

And lest some perverse people should charge me onely with sup­positions, behold I produce an Ex­periment. I bound with a Liga­ture both the Vessels as near the Lungs as was possible, and then the Arterial Vein in its body was di­lated betwixt the Heart and Liga­ture, beyond the same Ligature to­wards its furthest Branches in the Lungs it became flaccid: But the Ductresses of the Venal Artery al­together in a contrary effect did swell and fall.

But seeing indeed our speech is fallen on the two Veins of the Lungs, the Anatomists have with unfit tearms [in my judgement] na­med them: For what mattereth it, if with the subtil des Cartes, I call [Page 63]that onely an Artery through which the right Ventricle disburthens it self into the Lungs; seeing both the thickness of its Coat, the figure of its Valves, and the office of its Pipe receiving Blood from the Heart, do altogether assimulate it to the rest of the bodies of Arteries? And why, I pray you, entitle they that an Arterial Vein through which the Lungs disgorge their pur­ple streams into the Heart, seeing the testimony of its Coats, Valves and Office, assert it a Vein? Not­withstanding name them as they will, 'tis all one to me, so they be known: But a demonstrative truth in this matter should not have sa­crificed it self to Hippocrates his opinion.

CHAP. IV. The Circulation of the Blood in the Child in the Womb.

THat which we have already shewn concerning the Cir­culation of the Blood, I would have thee [Reader] to understand it chiefly of grown persons: Not to deny its Circulation in Children in the womb, but that in them the Circular motion differeth a little in its passages.

By the Hypogastrick Arteries the Blood is carried into the womb of the Woman with Child; the Um­bilical Vein carrieth that part of it which is best concoct into the Liver of the Embryon: but that which is more serous and unconcoct return­eth by the Maternal Veins unto the Heart as its Pot, whilst the thicker groweth together into the Placenta or Lump, as into the wombs Liver.

The Vena cava thrusteth the Blood, receiv'd into the Embryons [Page 65]Liver, from thence into the right Ventricle of the Heart, where it joyns with it, and so into the left Ventricle thereof, by the then open Oval-passages. The Blood going out of the right Ventricle into the Arterial Vein, partly by an inter­jected little Pipe, as it were by a sloping Canale, it floweth freely into the Aorta; Partly a good quan­tity possessing the Lungs, oppresseth them with so great weight, in respect of want of breathing for the hard passage from the furthest branches of the Arterial Vein into the Venal Artery, that the Lungs of the Child in the womb [if it did not breath sometimes] representing both the colour and density of the Liver, would never swim above water.

Certes, Respiration stirreth up the Blood in the Venal Artery. The Bronchia [Canales of the Wind­pipe] by their breathing dilatation pressing together their fellows, on the one part the Arterial Vein, and on the other part the Venal Ar­tery, to press out the contained [Page 66]Blood so far as the Valves will suffer.

The Blood of the left Ventricle immediately penetrateth into the Aorta, and from thence rushing to the furthest parts of the body, re­turneth by the Veins to the Heart, as hath been shewn in Adult per­sons.

And because the Umbilick Vein emitteth more Blood than the nou­rishment of the Child requireth, the Providence of Nature hath branch­ed out a pair of Branches, the Con­sorts of the Umbilick Vein, either of them from the Iliack, or [which I have most frequently observ'd] from the Hypogastriack Arteries even unto the Placenta. They re­found the Blood that is more than nourisheth the Child into the Liver of the womb, whether this be re­quir'd by the celerity of the mo­tion, or whether the impure mass of the Mothers blood requires a better digestion by the mixture of a warmer.

But lest I should seem to have [Page 67]found out this reflux by vain Ar­guments, put I pray thee a straw into the Umbilick Vessels that be­long to the Placenta or Lump; then blow thou, and the Vein alone will carry the wind into the Child: But on the contrary, if thou blow by the Reed into the Child, the Arteries will carry the wind into the Lump, the Veins remaining al­together flaccid.

At last the Umbilical Vein by de­grees becoming unprofitable, dege­nerateth into a Ligament: by the same chance the Canale of the Ar­terial Vein, going into the Aorta, evanisheth, and the Botalian per­foration is filled: but the Umbilick Arteries nevertheless remain. I have many times observ'd it in cutting up of Adult persons, viz. the wind blown into the Hypograstriack and Iliack Arteries, did not onely shew the Umbilicals near the Navil by the small tumor it did raise, but en­tring their infinite Branches on e­very side, by them its empty tumor [Page 68]declar'd the many branchings of the Artery in that place.

CHAP. V. That the Arterious Blood is partly by Synanastomosies poured out of the Arteries into the Veins; partly being extravasated by the Anastomosies of the Arteries, returneth again into the Veins.

HAving demonstrated the Cir­culation of the Blood to and out of the Heart, 'tis fitting that according to the example of those that are well deservers of the Ana­tomick Commonwealth, we search out, with an inquest resembling the former, its passages from the Ar­teries into the Veins.

Many are of opinion that the furthest points of the Arteries are inserted into as small parts of the Veins; but the smalness of the points of the minute Vessels not to be discerned by any eyes, though [Page 75] [...] [Page 68] [...] [Page 69]arm'd with Spectacles doth not confirm, doth not confute this opi­nion.

They aver also, that wind blown into the roots of the Vena porta within the Liver, doth enter the conjoyn'd Branches of the Vena cava; and that it doth insinuate it self from the Trunk of the Ar­terial Vein into the Lungs, and fur­thest Branches of the Venal Ar­tery.

I have many times tryed it in the Liver, but the Experiment ever failed; I doubt whether more by defect of breath in me, or errour in them. In the Lungs indeed I have found that the common passage of the Synanastomosies of the same Pipes were open.

One day it was my business to view the Arterial Vein, being made bare of all its Cloathing. I did observe it, not with a few knots of Embracements to stick fast to the Venal Artery. Putting a Reed into it in that place where 'tis in­sert into the Heart, I blew; pre­sently [Page 70]the spreading breath did raise the bloodless Canals, and being roll'd to the ends of the Capillar Veins, was received into the hol­lowness of the Venal Artery, which is indeed an evident token of their Synanastomosie. But though it held in the Lungs, yet nevertheless I will not conclude it holds so in the Liver or Muscles.

Indeed I will confess, that by the intermediate openings of the Synanastomosies, that the Blood may be turned out of one Vessel into another, seeing the individible coherence of the Veins with the Arteries in some places, proves this, and their not easy separation with­out tearing of both. But I believe he admitteth absurdly this Synana­stomosis where the Veins have no coherence with the Arteries; yea rather I would believe, that a part of the Blood by the Anastomosies with­out the inclosures of the Arteries, doth abound to be strain'd in the flesh, that that of it which is more exactly concoct may turn to nou­rishment [Page 71]in the simular parts, But that which is not well digested, may return into the Veins, which perchance in all places without have entrances to their most inward places.

For if the perpetual Flux of the Blood within the Vessels casteth forth no Blood without the Vessels, whence proceeds the increase of the bodies bulk? And if the substance of the parts of the body be in per­petual motion, from whence, I pray you, will proceed the restorement of the tabid leanness of withered bodies?

There is indeed some seedy sub­stance in the Blood fit for the re­storing of the decayings of the parts, viz. That which being more concoct useth to unite it self into a fibrous thickness: And indeed, the Blood drawn from the Limbs into hot water, doth spread its se­rosity and colour in the water, when in the bottome of the bason there remaineth a fleshy thickness of membranous dregs compos'd of [Page 72]white fibers, and therefore more fit for the solidity of the body; to wit, that which either remained af­ter the satisfying of the parts, or was melted by the washing vigour, may be, of the following Blood, or was transvasated by the short pas­sages of the Synanastomosies, and did hasten to be recocted in the Pot of the Heart.

And lest any should confound the Offices of Synanastomosies and Anastomosies by reason of the likeness of the words, I call Syna­nastomosies the intermediate open­nesses of the Arteries cohering to Veins for the carrying of the Blood out of one Vessel into another; I call Anastomosies the furthest points of the Arteries whereby the Blood is extravasated and received by the tunnels of the Veins for the gathering together of the same.

The OBJECTIONS against the Extravasation of the Blood, answered.

BUT I hear them objecting the prerogative of the more subtil Blood in the Artery: For if the Blood be strain'd in the flesh, how comes it to pass that the Veins issue forth more gross Blood?

Deservedly indeed, and together with thee wondring would I be a­maz'd at the undeserved grosness of the Blood, if the Arteries should thrust into the Veins all the serosity they contain; if the heat with the same warmness; if their Blood un­mixt with the age of the withering flesh: But no man doubts but that the serosity of the Arteries partly goes a part into the Reins, partly is spread in the flesh, and partly evanisheth by insensible per­spiration; even as by the thickness of the Coats of the Arteries, and neighbourhood of the Fountain, the heat is sustain'd: So by the coldness [Page 74]of the Spermatick part, and by the distance of the forsaken heart it doth by little and little grow chiller: Adde the easy passages of the pores for its expiration: For as the flesh increaseth by food, so they perish by fasting: This is con­firm'd by the interchange of vigo­rousness and languishing each day, yea by hunger and fulness. That which now doth grow into flesh, within a short time withering, doth for the most part give place to the succeeding nourishment, viz. that which did grow together by the offence of cold, being melted by the coming of a hot stream again, re­neweth the journey it was stopt in, and doth return to be recocted in its former forge.

The serosity is diminished, the heat tempered, the dregs of the chan­ged flesh mixed with it: What won­der then that the Arterial Blood is excelled by the Venous, in respect of the consistency of its substance?

Neither canst thou more wisely object the unavoydable corruption [Page 75]of its standing without the Vessels. Indeed the wandring Blood, out of the inclosures of the Arteries, doth abound through the whole bulk of the body; the increase of the Li­ving Creature declareth this; the scarlet dye of the blushing brow holdeth this forth; the red incir­culing burning tumors do the like; and such kind of passions evanish­ing in paleness immediatly after Blood-letting.

But notwithstanding, the onely narrowness of the Veins stayeth the Blood, if by the again flowing of it they be strain'd beyond the bounds of their capaciousness; and in its stay, if it be longer, that Blood which followeth is defiled by the mixture of the retain'd dregs, and doth end in divers sicknesses, ac­cording to the diversity of hurtful humours. So while the heat doth burn more vehemently, the Blood is kindled into an inflamation, Thou shalt behold the more plen­tiful serosity, except exhausted in sweat, or exhaled by transpiration, [Page 76]grow into a Dropsy, or sometimes spread it self into a Rheumatism; the Flegm endeth in an Oedema; the Choler boyleth into an Erysipe­las, and Melancholy is condens'd into a Schirrus.

Hence 'tis that the Blood it self doth grow into a Plurisy, viz. when sudden cold seizeth on the inward parts, it beateth back most unseasonably the more vehement heat of breathing; and with its sudden cold binding up the Canals of the intercostial Veins, it strait­neth the Chanels, now scarce suf­ficient for the reflowing Blood, which by the more frequent motion of the Systoles is gathered thither, and turneth into atter the same Blood, being longer seated there, and extravasated, wandreth in the flesh, except it be prevented by Phlebotomy.

CHAP. VI. The beginning of the Blood's mo­tion is inquir'd after; the innate weight of the Blood, though the Arteries should pay the part of a Syphon with the Veins, is shewn not to be enough for its Circula­tion.

THE undiscovered cause of the discovered matter rather ag­gravated than abated my grief: The motion of the Blood is dis­covered, but its beginning being yet conceal'd, challengeth me to [...] new labour, the difficulties of which, (Reader) I will essay to make plain by these admonitions.

The Blood rusheth forward ei­ther by its own proper incitement, or 'tis thrust forward by anothers; we acknowledge it hath no proper one, except its heaviness, whose vertue I will prove vanishing by these following reasons.

The Blood indeed, whom the in­nate weight may carry downward [Page 78]by the descendent Arteries, and the Trunk ascendent of the Vena cava, cannot by the self-same endeavour flow to the upper parts of the as­cendent Arteries, neither by the de­scendent stem of the Vena cava; except, with some famous Philoso­phers, you ascribe the reason of this effect to the disposition of the Ves­sels: For (say they) the Arteries so cohere with the Veins, that you may say not undeservedly their fa­blick imitateth a Syphon.

They call a Syphon a reflex'd Pipe, either whose declining Legs uphold a high Angle, or whose elevat Legs lean on a depressed Angle.

That therefore the ascending li­quor may come to the high Angle of the Syphon, 'tis needful that the Leg by which it should flow, be plac'd under a more depress out­sending Vessel, that from thence the greater weight of the liquid heap may make the weaker water mova­ble to follow it through the other door. So by the ascending stem of [Page 79]the Vena cava, which the provi­dence of Nature hath plac'd a little lower than the Entrances of the ascending Arteries, the Blood flow­eth down (say they) which for this ought altogether following to ascend.

And as the Liquor, rushing by its own weight into the depressed Angle of the other Syphon, is re­flected out of the bottome by its own instinct, till on both sides, by an equal Superficies it point forth the quietness of a just ballance; and if the Pipe of reflection being more short, doth hold abroad a more declin'd openness than the tunnel of the other Leg, it cometh to pass that for the same heaviness, that 'tis poured out by its own pro­per stream. So the Blood [say they] by the ear'd trunk of the descending Aorta throwing it self headlong to the lower parts, of its own ac­cord riseth up again from the bot­tome by the descendent Vena cava, and by the door of the same, which is a little low situate, by a sponta­neous [Page 80]flowing again is refunded into the pool of the Heart. Re­member, Reader, lest the doubtful­ness of the name should trouble thee, that that is call'd the Ascen­dent Vena cava which springeth upward from the Heart; but that which spreadeth Branches from this down to the extremities of the parts, is call'd the Descendent, ta­king the name from its Original, not from its office.

Truly you may say, that with the workmanship of Nature, Truth it self hath conspir'd to their opi­nion, and that injuriously I deny my assent to most evident rea­sons.

But if with me you take notice, that at the same time the liquor ascendeth to the high Angle of the Syphon, that it rusheth downward; and again, that it ascendeth in the same moment from the depress'd Angle of the overturned Syphon, by which it is poured into it: Then it will be clear, how incongruous the succession of continual flowing [Page 81]of the Syphon is with the motion of the Blood.

And indeed the Blood, while the Expression of the Systoles thrusteth it in the wide-open Arteries, at the same moment by their Extremities, penetrateth into the Veins: But then onely it breaketh out of the Veins into the Heart, when the Systole ceasing, leaveth to the Dia­stole its own part by intercourse to be acted. And even from this 'tis clear, that the Blood no waies imi­tateth the liquor in a Syphon.

But because we do hardly depart from those things that please us, I demand, that if the Chanels of Blood play the part of a Syphon, and for that the Law of Conter­posure requireth an equal fulness necessarily on both sides, how comes it to pass, that in a dead Body Death doth altogether empty the Arteries, whilst the Veins remain turgid?

Yea the Experiments of Circu­lation will voyce against the Sy­phon. The Jugular Vein represent­eth the emissary of a standing Sy­phon [Page 82]from its sublime Angle into the Heart: When I had tyed this Vein in the Neck, notwithstanding, by the Ascendent Arteries Blood was sent upwards, yea and above the Ligature it extended above mea­sure the Jugular Vein.

The straitned Pipe of the Crural Vein taught the same, viz. it be­coming flaccid from the Ligature towards the Heart, cleared that it issued the Blood thitherward: But shall I believe that any foolishly will attribute the ascent of this in­to the Heart unto the heaviness of the rushing heaps of Blood into the Aorta?

But neither that Artery it self which watereth the Leg when 'tis tyed [if it be to be attributed to the weight of the Blood, as the motion in an inverse Syphon] can be eva­cuate under the Ligature, against Experience; For the so little re­mains of Blood there, will not be able to thrust upwards the whole weight of Blood which weighteth in the Vena cava.

But when I said, the exhaust Arteries of dead Bodies, do not thou believe 'tis to be attributed unto the evanishing subtilty of Arterial Blood. For this also hath its own density, neither less perchance than that grossness which is included not onely in the Vena cava, but Porta also.

Easy experience will supply my admonition. The wounds of a Li­ving Beast at the same time empty­ing the Vena cava, together with the Aorta, and, if thou please, the Vena porta it self: Let the Blood drawn out of each place settle in its own platter; Let none of them be dissolv'd into a vapor, and except that which was drawn from the Branches of the Arteries blushed with a more clear purple, with a moyst vain trial shouldst thou search after a difference.

Thou mayst in a dying Creature stop the Arterial Blood, if thou tye the Artery in the Leg; and I my self many times having tried this, I beheld the Artery towards the Heart to be [Page 84]tumid, with Blood that did not at all evanish.

Therefore, seeing neither the course of a Syphon agreeth to the Circular motion of the Blood, neither the weight thereof seems to serve for that purpose, yea many times 'tis impediment thereto, as 'tis clear in Limbs hanging more negligently, Laziness making the vigour of the Blood more stupid; we are to have our recourse to the vertue of an ex­ternal incitement, the innate one failing.

CHAP. VII. The impulse of the Systole alone is not enough for the Circular mo­tion of the Blood. In a Diastole there is no Attraction.

THE impulsion of a Systole, Attraction of a Diastole, the rough contraction of the Vessels, and endeavour of the adjacent parts upon every occasion, seem all ex­trinsecally to affect the Blood. Let us discover by an exact Examina­tion which of these, and how much each of them conferreth to the mo­tion of the Blood.

Of the Impulse of the Systole.

The Systole thrusteth the Blood; & that part of it so promoted driveth before it the former part; but that which last leaves the Heart, whilst the Arteries are emptying in dying Creatures, albeit no following part doth drive it, nevertheless hastneth into the Veins; And while we tye [Page 86]the Crural Artery in a living Beast, beyond the Ligature we see it to issue out that Blood which is in­clos'd towards the Extremities, becoming by little and little flaccid, without incitement of Blood fol­lowing, which is stopt by the thread.

Let us try the same in the Vein which watereth the Leg, by staying the continued flowing of the Blood with a Ligature; then swelling from the Thread towards the Ex­treme parts, the Blood nevertheless hasting towards the Heart, will de­monstrate that the course of the Blood by the Arteries towards the Extremities, is not to be attributed alone to the impulse of the Systole urgent, neither its return thence by the Veins to the Heart.

Of the Diastole's Attraction.

We are therefore to observe the office of the Diastole. 'Tis the duty of it to receive the Blood: but whe­ther, as some think, it draweth it [Page 87]by Attraction, or such it, and so assisteth the impulse of the Systole, is to be enquir'd after.

Diastole immediately followeth the Systole: Therefore when the Systole endeth, the Canals of the urging Veins swelling, the heap of the Blood prepared for eruption beateth at the gates of the Heart, and doth ingurgitate its Ventricles, the Diastole onely offering the du­ties of obedience; so that it un­doubtedly appeareth how super­fluous it is to appoint an Attractive, or rather, if you will; a sucking vertue, which in the business of fluid things I ever tolerated with tingling ears.

And indeed, whatsoever our Ad­versaries argue, and whatsoever En­gins they apply in assistance of At­traction, Experience, which is clear­ly more eloquent, doth both throw it down and refute it. It pleaseth me to fight with the fame Engins, that being vanquish'd by their own Arms, at last they may confess those examples they bring, of the Air in [Page 88]the Bellows; of the water in the Aeo­lipilaes, or Pump, or Reed; And to conclude, of the Flesh in Cupping Glasses, succeeds by no allurement of succing, but onely by the vio­lence of External Impulsion.

That I may be more able with a more happy success to unfold this hitherto unfolded Mysterie, 'tis to be suppos'd that the Globe of Earth and Water is compress'd, not onely by the weight of the Air, but like­wise by the vertue of Elateries in­nate in it: But because indeed that is not easily suppos'd which yet is in doubt, suffer thy self, I pray thee, Reader, to be perswaded with me by the same Arguments, and clear­ness of Experiments.

CHAP. VIII. 'Tis shewn by Experiments, that there is not onely a Weight in the Air, but likewise a rarefactive Elatery.

I would treat of the Air's pon­derosity, yea in its proper (as they say) place, except it were an Argument known to all. For who doth not see the Air of its own ac­cord to descend into the Chinks and Ditches, yea even into the low­est Center of the Earth, if you delve so deep? Who doth not know that a little Bladder, the more tur­gid it is, is so much more heavy than it self being flaccid? Who, if he weigh a Gun burthened with con­densed Air [they call it a Wind­gun] will not observe that its weight then is heavier than 'tis when it is discharged? To conclude, to whom is it unknown that the lightness of an Aeolipila, the Air of which is rarified exactly by the force of heat, is not at all to be compared with [Page 90]the heaviness of it being cold?

Neither indeed believe thou that I am affrighted with the opinion of that kind of airy weight in refund­ing the vapours of the Athmosphere. For by the Air I understand the Athmosphere, neither for the present doth my Philosophy ascend higher.

Feign to thy self this, as a heap of spongious, or rather woolly mat­ter encompassing the Earth-watrish Globe, whose superiour parts there­fore are susteined by the inferiour, compressing it by degrees, so that the nearer they come to the Earth, so much the more they are com­pressed compactly by the weight of the parts incumbent; And for that cause by its Spontaneous dilatation [which I call Elater] howsoever the heap'd on burthen do press them down, yet the under parts, if they have liberty, will en­deavour to rarifie themselves.

Hence I inferr, that the lowest of those parts, as being plac'd un­der the whole burthen, so to be most condensed of them all; And [Page 91]for this reason the superfice of the Earth-watrish Orb is pressed of the same, not by its weight alone, but also by the vertue of his Elatery, whose endeavour to rarifie is most valid.

But because they are words, and I have given you leave to proceed from the Ears to the Eyes, I will prevent thy desire, and I will view the misty secrets of the Air by the search of Experience, which I at all times follow as my Leader.

I will produce in the first place some Experiments concerning Va­cuum, or Emptiness, which I be­lieve as yet have not been commit­ted to the Press; no Monuments of my own deep cunning, far be it from me to arrogate to my self the glory of those detected Miracles which were not first discovered to me: For whatsoever I did exqui­sitly elaborate with an exact en­deavour more frequently about so weighty a matter for fear of errour [Page 92]which troubled me, it was imitati­on, and not invention.

I will produce Authors, not of Books, which as yet I have not so much as heard to be extant; but of those Experiments at least which follow, and whose Authority is great, and Name venerable.


The first Experiment. A little Bladder being emptied of its own accord at falling down of Quick-silver, rarifying in the high Viol of the Pipe, declareth the Rarefactive Elatery of the Air.

RObervallius, the most famous Reader of Ma­thematicks in Paris, in the Kings Chair, did after this manner ope­rate, while I was present, in favour of that vertue whereby the Air of it self doth dilate it self, indeed not without success.

He had a Viol made of Glass, which on both ends, both on the broad Basis, and the gaping end of the neck, A, three foot long at least, was open: By the door of the Basis B, which was shut up closely with a strait bound thread, He put and enclosed in C one of the little Bladders (or Swims) which useth to be found swelling in the belly of a Carp. It was empty of air, as far as was possible; and lest that the slipperiness of its Tunicle should hinder it to express the Air, he wrested it a little without violence, being dryed, and he excluded Air out of the hole made in it with the same Ligature. And moreover, be­cause the compacted thickness of the Tunicle of a Sowes Bladder a­bove all other stoppeth best the pas­sage of Quick-silver, he covered therewith the hole of the broad Basis, and filled up with Quick­silver even to the brim of the neck the whole hollowness of the Glass body, A.B. He clos'd with his fore-finger, as with a stopple, the little door A, [Page 95]and holding the Viol overturned perpendicularly, he put his finger

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

together with the mouth A it stop­ped, into another Vessel wherein he [Page 96]had poured Quick-silver in D: withdrawing his finger easily, the highest part of the Quick-silver fal­ling swiftly, deserted the bottle of the Viol, and after divers sparklings in the Pipe of the neck, the top of the remaining parts stood in E, nei­ther seem'd to fill the Pipe above the Superficies of the Quick-silver in the lower Vessel D, more than seven and twenty inches.

A wonderful sight appeared to the beholders; the Carp's little Bladder, which the straitness of the narrowneck kept up into the higher bottle, did of its own accord swell again. Indeed I had been amazed [except my mind had cur'd the er­rours of mine eyes] at the swelling fulness of that sudden Meteor in C, in the middle [as they say] of Va­cuity. But the residue of the Air within the secret passages of the writhed indeed, but not altogether exhausted Bladder, taught that there was a Spontaneous Elatery in the Air, whilst free, and not compressed by the weight of any thing lying above it.

For 'tis but a vain reason they bring; The Airs subtility, say they, penetrateth the thickness of the glass, and being spread abroad in every place of the writhed bladder, at last entreth the same by its pores, and extends the whole to his former swelling. But let them remember that which they believe, That the Glass is on every side pervious to the entring Air, and therefore the Air is carried in all places with the same force of its rushing rayes to­wards the Bladder, staying in the middle of the Bottle C; so that it should rather compress and oppress it, than re-acting it self against it self, have a care to raise its unpro­fitable dilation. Adde this, that the peirc'd on all hands B adder could not stay the Air, or contain it which it had received within.

Neither troubles it me, that they say that the pores pervious open to the entring Air, forbid its return. For then the entred Air should be compell'd, by the Valves shut on all sides, to remain within; So that [Page 98]the little Bladder should retain, the swelling it hath once receiv'd, and should still remain full; which is de­monstrated to be most false, by the lankness of the Bladder, either by inclining the engin a little, or by admitting therein a little portion of the Air from abroad. And hence their opinion is ruined, which be­lieve the Bladder swelleth again by the Spirits of the Quick-silver.

By which, seeing it clearly ap­pears, that the Air which after writhing lay fast in the most inward places of the Bladder, did dilate the skin thereof by its insited Elatery in the falling down of the Quick­silver. Likewise it appears, that that Air which was pressed to the inward Superficies of the Vial by the Metallick weight, and did stay inclosed in the outward folds of the Vesicle, was enough by the vertue of the same Elatery to fill the whole Vial.

Neither let my Adversaries be­lieve, that the heaviness of the Quick-silver while it fill'd the Vial [Page 99]did quite thrust forth the Air; The contiguity of dry things doth not exclude the Air, whose outrooting is onely done by glew; In other things there is either Air, or both the Superficies adhere; so boys wet leather, by whose force they elevat, and weigh up, and throw forth the hanging weight of heavy stones. Neither do Liquors them­selves altogether go away; beat together the wet palms of your hands with as great force as you can, notwithstanding the humour remaining in the inward bosome of the skin will not evanish for any pressure; Glass by nature is smooth, nevertheless it is polished byart; nei­ther doth the whitish silver-shining of Quick-silver argue its most per­fect smoothness. Truly the weight of the Metal bruising the sides of the glassy porosities, the Air, as I have said, being freed by the falling down of the Metal, doth display it self by its proper Elatery in every place within the Pipe.

May be you will infer, The Air [Page 100]by the iritating of the Quick-silver falling tumultuously, doth become fit for dilatation. So also would I think, except the unmov'd stability of the Glassy walls should seem to gainstand her course downwards, and should rather roul down those sliding parts of the Quick-silver, which are contiguous to the Glass, towards the Cen­ter, than suffer them to fall down perpendicularly. So the brinks of the shore restrain the sides of those streams which glide a pace in the midst of their Chanels. So the ca­pacity of Tunnels onely granteth li­berty of flowing to these whirling Liquors in the middle pool onely of the falling stream, and likewise to the grane in the Milhopper, if you have taken notice of it.

I should have admired the inter­changable violence of the skipping beatings within the Pipe, except the Air which then was outwardly incumbent on the Quick-silver of the Vessel D, and whose substance is easy to be compress'd, being [Page 101]compell'd to give place to the hea­vier weight of the body rushing down from the top of the Vial, had not made me suspect the Air it self by the repercussion of its Elastick or dilating vertue even to recipro­cate the jumps of the Quick-silver within the Pipe it self, till at last the essays of it inclosed within the Pipe be not overcome with the weight of the Quick-silver.

The second Experiment. The divers falling of Quick-silver according to the sundry heights of a Hill, proveth that the lower parts of the Air by degrees are more compact than those that lean on them.

NEither believe thou that I ob­scure the matter with unskil­ful speeches, when I say the Earth is press'd by the Air; I have a most emi­nent witness, the most subtil Pascalius the son, who first among our French did, not onely with Quick-silver, but [Page 102]other Liquors also, raise up the Experiment concerning Vacuity, scarcely being well born, and al­most suffocate amongst strangers; yea with such a success of his won­derfull industry he carried it up, that he did put in all the Devota­ries of true wisdome through all Europe an eager desire to try the Experiments of Vacuity.

By his care there was lately an Experiment tried in Avernia, at the root of the high Mountain com­monly called Le puy de Domme, near the City of Claramont, Quick-silver being poured into a Pipe four foot long, almost like that which we have describ'd above, it did fall down to the third half line of the twenty seventh inch above the su­perfice of the Quick-silver standing in the undermost Vessel. Ascending then the Region of the Mountain, which was about an hundred and fifty paces higher than the roots thereof, the Cylinder of the Quick-silver which remained in the Pipe possess'd the length but of twenty [Page 203]five inches. At length coming to the top of the Hill, at least five hun­dred paces higher than the root, the same Cylinder of the Quick-silver found his bound of rest and height in the second line of the twenty fourth inch; and so from the lowest roots of the Mountain to the highest top thereof, it was shortned the length of three inches, and half a degree, viz. the Air which incompass'd the top be­ing lighter, by reason of less pres­sure, than that about the middle and root of the Mountain, ought also to hold up a shorter Cylinder of Quick-silver, according to the equality of the balance.

Neither wonder thou that this Experiment doth not agree with those that I tried in Paris by fal­ling of Quick-silver: For both the difference of the foot of measure in Avernia from ours, which it ex­ceeds in some lines (which I ex­actly observed) and the divers di­stance of Places may be from the Center of the World (even thou [Page 204]being Judge) may not keep equa­lity in these Experiments.

The third Experiment. The equality of weight of the out­ward Air with the internal Cy­linder of the Quick-silver, is shewn.

IT pleaseth me also, lest the stub­born opinion thou hast of the Antients should murmure against my reasons, whereby I have asserted the equality of weight of the ex­ternal Air, and internal Quick-silver, to teach the Experiment of Vacuity in Vacuity, first happily tried by the sagacity of the acute Auzotius.

Take a Vial like the former in bottle and neck A B, except that near the basis B it hath a little Pipe G added to it, by whose little door, when need requires, the Air hath an open entrance into the Vial. By the open door of the upturn'd and high Basis B, put in a four-square [Page 105]Vessel of equal sides C, so that its large hollowness towards

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G

the openness in the top of the Basis [Page 106]B, by its bottome covering horizon­tically the Pipe of the neck A C, plac'd perpendicularly under it. Truly the Vessel C. by its four An­gles inwardly leaning on the Glass, shall leave a space pervious be­tween the sides of the Vessel and the Vial. Place in the Vessel C. a vertical or erected Pipe of choyce length likewise, made of Glass, and open at both ends C F: then with a Sowes Bladder [wherewith likewise you shall stop the Basis and little door G] you shall exact­ly bind it about in B to exclude the Air; then you shall command your servant, by putting his finger under, to stop the mouth of the Vial A; and let him keep it so long stopped, till with Quick-silver put in at the added entrance F, you fill the whole Engin; which en­trance also being well bound up with a Sowes Bladder, if he shall withdraw his finger plac'd under the mouth A, and drench'd, as be­fore, in the Quick-silver standing without in the Vessel D, you shall [Page 107]wonder to see the equall ballance perpetually of the Quick-silver A E. with the outward Air; All the Pipe that stands upmost shall be emptied of its abounding Quick-silver by the sides of the inclosed Vessel C, the Pipe of the Vial A E retaining the same Quick-silver seven and twenty inches high. And then if you bore with a very smal pointed Needle the B [...]adder of the door G, and give entrance to a little Air, it being mixt with that which is spread abroad in the Vial, inten­deth the E [...]atery of the same, so that now on all sides it acteth with a more strong endeavour, and op­pressing the Quick-silver in the neck A E subject to it, it depresseth it not a little, and compressing that which standeth in the inward ca­vity of the Vessel C, it compelleth it to ascend the superiour Pipe C F with a remarkable rouling; Yea according to the quantity of the entring Air you shall see it grow up twenty seven inches high to­wards F, the Quick-silver of the [Page 108]lower Pipe being altogether thrust out.

The Air presseth downward the Quick-silver in E A, by reason of the changed equall weight of the outward Air and inclosed Quick-silver, proceeding from the increase of adventitious Air entred by G: It thrusteth it upwards into C F, because the restor'd endeavour of the compressory vertue searcheth in­wardly after an equall weight.

What then, Reader, is to be concluded from these things? The outward Air ballanceth the Cylin­der of the interiour Quicksilver A E, therefore the Air even in its own sphere, as they call it, is weighty.

The parts of the Air in the Pipe and Carps Bladder are distended by their own spontaneous dilatation; therefore the insited Elatery of the substance of the Air to rarifie it self, doth imitate the nature of a Sponge or Wool.

And so the thicker the Air is, as hath been manifest in the Moun­tain [Page 109]Experiment, and that of Va­cuity in Vacuity, insomuch it acteth on all sides with a greater and stronger Elatery invading the su­perfice of the Earth-watrish Globe.

The fourth Experiment. The Water onely by its weight com­presseth the Earth-watry Globe; But the Air compresseth it, not onely by its weight, but by its Elatery.

I will adde an invincible Ar­gument from an easy Experi­ment. Let there be a round long Pipe of Glass A B, at least three foot long, and four degrees, if you will, in diameter; let the end thereof B be hermetically clos'd exactly, that is, with the Glass it self, the other end A being open; fill the whole Glass with Quick-silver, except the seven inches C A; fill up the residue, viz. C A with water; then closing the Pipe with your finger turn it over, and sustain [Page 110]it so long, till the water being lighter, having changed its place

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E

with the Quick-silver, at last doth [Page 111]ascend to the other end B: Dip both the Pipe and thy finger stop­ping it, into the Quick-silver which standeth ready in the Vessel D; Drawing away thy finger easily, the Metal shall so flow out of the Pipe, that the Cylinder of Quick-silver A E which is to remain within the Pipe, will not remain according to its custome twenty seven inches above the standing superfice D, but it shall seem to be diminished six lines or degrees, by reason of the heaviness of the Air incumbent, and constantly remaining in seven inches measure. Neither is it any wonder; for such is the proportion between Water and Quick-silver, that ha [...]f an inch of this doth weigh above seven inches of that.

Hence it clearly appears, that Water onely by its weight, and by no endeavour of an Elatery, as 'tis heavy to Quick-silver within the Pipe, so it is to the superfice of the Earthly lump.

But the vertue of the Air is far more excelient; for if over again [Page 112]essaying the Experiment, you fill up, not with Water, but Air, the re­maining space of seven inches C A, that is, if you shut up with your finger the Pipe from the Quick-silver B C, to the mouth A, being onely full of Air for the space of seven inches C A, being afterwards overturned and dìpp'd in the Engin D, you shall admire to see the Cy­linder of Quick-silver A E to be lower by seven inches under the twenty seventh inch. So that it clearly appeareth, that as the sub­ject Quick-silver, so the Earth-watry Globe is not so much pres­sed by the weight, as by the Elatery of the Air.

I would have you note, that when I said the Cylinder of the Quick-silver rested at the twenty seventh inch within the Pipe, I spoke then according to the most frequent Experiments; For the place of rest changeth in the Pipe according to the divers changes of the external Air in its rarefactions and condensations.

CHAP. IX. The Engins drawn to the assistance of Attraction, are demolished.

HAving demonstrated by Ex­periments conquering all stifness, and subduing all belief, That, more than in a wool heap, the heaping up of the intricate parts in the Air, and the Elater innate therein for rarefaction doth beat the Globe of Water and Earth; I pro­ceed to examine their Engins who advance Attraction.

That the Water entreth into Water-works, not for fear of Vacuity, but by necessity of an equal weight is cleared by the period of the Waters ascent in them, and Ex­periments.

And first indeed the office of the sucker in the Pump, which they e­steem the greatest, is to be con­sidered: For they believe our opi­nion is overthrown, and that we [Page 114]have nothing to object, when they have attributed to the Heart the worthy name of the Vital Anilia: For as, say they, the rising Clack sucketh the Water, and falling down beateth it back; So the Heart by the gaping Diastole by drawing the Blood suppeth it up, which in the pressure of the Systole it com­pelleth to depart.

The mention of Anilias is so common in the Mechanicks, which some call sucking in, that none is ignorant of their office when he hears their names: But howsoever the r [...]use in drawing up Liquor is frequent, not any as yet hath found out, in an instrument of so great use, the true inciter or genuine cause of its liquid motion.

The Inventers, and all those that afterwards have been occupied in Water-works, believ'd that the Water is drawn and suck'd up by the rising of the Clack, which whiles it riseth raiseth up the Wa­ter, and accelerateth them for fear of vacuity to rise upward against [Page 115]their falling nature: But I will shew by the following reasons whether they think well or no.

The Earth-watry Globe is com­press'd on all sides, not onely by the weight of the Air, as we have pro­ved, but likewise by the most strong endeavour of the Elatery innate in it: Therefore where the heaping of the Aerial parts doth equally act in the subject Waters, it shall also be right that their emulous super­ficies should remain in the ballance of equall hight.

But if the endeavours of the Air be unequall, 'tis necessary also that the superficies of the Waters should become unequall; So that the Wa­ter should rise higher, where the pressure of the Air is lighter; and so long it should elevate its super­fice, till the rising heap of VVater, together with the Air which it sus­tains, should equally ballance that other Air which is of more heavy pressure.

'Tis easy for thee to be taught this in a Bucket mechanically.

Take a Cylindrick Bucket A, and fill it at least half full with

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G

VVater; then place in it the dish of the covering B C D, whose [Page 117]middle ought to be pervious D, to receive the Glass Pipe perpen­dicularly D E, and the covering B C D being movably contiguous to the Bucket encompassing it, should stay otherwise the eruption of the Liquor; indeed if you press down the dish with the weights F F, the VVater pressed down on every side about the hole D, will fill the upright standing Pipe D E, till with its emulating heaviness it spring up to the place of equall weight G.

And this is the incitement of the ascending VVater in the Pump.

Before you place in the Pipe of the Pump, standing now in the VVater, the Clack, the Elastick (inforcing) weight of the Air beateth no less the inward than outward VVater: VVhence it comes to pass, that the Superficies of the VVater both without and within the Pipe is of the same altitude: But when the Clack is fitted to the Pipe, and is lifted upwards, it together with it heaveth up the Pillar of Air which [Page 118]is perpendicularly stayed thereon: Hence all weight within the Pipe is taken away, and then the VVa­ter which is urged sharplier by the perpetual pressure of the outward Air leaning thereon, rusheth into the easy Pipe; so long ascending till it come to two and thirty foot height, and there at last it is of e­quall weight with the circumfus'd Air.

Neither will the Rule of Coun­terposure [if we believe experience] suffer the superfice of the VVaters springing within the Pipe or Pump, though the Clack should be ele­vate, to ascend higher.

You may likewise marveil at this in Quick-silver. For the Cy­linder of Quick-silver inwardly will not ascend more than twenty seven inches above the superfice of it which standeth in the Vessel, in either Pump or Pipe: For indeed that Cylinder of Quick-silver doth counterpose, a heap of water of a­bove two and thirty feet, in weight.

None of the VVater ariseth above [Page 119]thirty two foot, none of the Quick-silver above twenty seven inches, though the Clack be drawn up with the greatest force of the Pipe: Therefore neither fear of Vacuity, who in the highest places of Na­ture should offer it self, moveth the VVaters to follow: Neither the endeavour of the Air, which is spent with so little force of Counter­posure doth oppress the Earth-watry Globe with its infused Ela­tery.

Hence let all VVater-workers take notice, and all those Crafts­men who hope by the benefit of ear'd Syphons to draw VVater over the tops of intermediate Hils, that the Hill be not above two and thirty foot high above the Spring, otherwise they shall lose their la­bour. The same judgement con­cerning drawing, as they call them, Pumps, is firm and stable. I omit other Pumps, and especially those in which the Clack like a Bucket is dipped in the VVater to draw it up; For the elevate VVater receives no [Page 120]period of ascent in their Pipes, ex­cept what is prescrib'd by the force of that power that moves the Clack: Yea they have not any business with the fear of Vacuity or of the Air.

Seeing therefore that the VVa­ter hasteth into the Pump, not by the incitement of Attraction, but by the Elastick heaviness of the spread-about Air, there is no reason why we should spend any longer time in refelling the Argúments which our Adversaries draw from this Engin, to prove the Attraction of the Heart.

That Bellows do not draw the Air, but onely receive it thrust in them from without.

Neither will the Heart more happily prove Sucking or Attracti­on, by playing the part of Bellows. A pair of Bellows do neither suck nor draw the Air to them, but are compell'd to receive it being thrust in by external violence.

The Air liyng hid within the lur­king places of the folded and closed Bellowes, is of the same Elatery (that is, Spontaneous dilatation) that the circumfus'd external Air is of; and so the resting of the equal weight contains both unmoved; Whiles you distend the Bellowes, even then the inward Air [as was made clear in the Bladder of a Pearch] of its own Spontaneous dilatation, which is therefore more weaker, it would ratifie, except a more strong force of an outward Air did compell the Air next their Pipe without, and any liquid thing that is within, to equal ballance.

The force of Aerial dilatation, which it hath from its proper Elatery, doth languish, but by an external cause becometh firm.

Neither let any man with more successful Eloquence perswade me of the Attraction of Aeolipilaes and Cupping Glasses, proceeding of the effect produc'd by the Fire; and [Page 122]that thou mayst more easily under­stand how deservedly I oppose it, hear my opinion concerning the business of Heat.

Indeed the least Heat doth dilate the Air, as no man doubteth; But with this difference from that di­latation whereby it is sometimes of it self freely dilated, That the Spon­taneous dilatation enerveth the power of the Elastick (impulsive) faculty, as the Experiments of Va­cuity in Vacuity, and the Carps Bladder do demonstrate; But the other, which is extraneous to the Air, viz. from the accession of heat, will make it firm, and will aug­ment its growing, and is found by little and little to remit in its lan­guishing.

The Weather-Glass doth demon­strate, that not onely the Air, but that the Water also is ex­tended by the accession of Heat.

So the Hand or a Coal put upon the upward Bottle of a Weather-Glass, causeth the water therein contained to descend; A great Ar­gument that the Air which is di­lated within doth in force excell the descending water which it com­pelleth to give it place.

Neither doth the onely Air pro­duce its own ends by the incite­ment of Heat; Yea the heap of water is likewise extended thereby.

This is easily tryed, if you be pleased to thrust down the particle of water C. sticking in the middle of the Weather-Glasses stalk unto the lowest seat of the Air that up­holds it; For fire being put unto the upper Bottle A doth not onely compell downward the inclos'd water C, but also compelleth it to [Page 124]grow bigger, either because it drencheth the Air which it dilateth

  • A
  • B
  • C

A, in the descending water C; or because it stirreth up the Aerial [Page 125]parts of the descending water to Rarefaction, viz. to the third de­gree, which before scarcely posses­sed two degrees.

I prescribe no Law to the water to be hung in C; for oft-times I have found it by chance hanging, and not a little distant from the water in B in the under Vessel, which by the diligence of my la­bour I could have brought to pass.

The Air growing cold in A, the water floweth upward, for the Elastick vertue of this, as it imita­teth the increments of Heat, so likewise it observeth the changes of the deficiencies in the same.

How the Flesh and Blood is thrust into the Cupping-Glasses.

The kindled fire doth thrust out of the Cupping-Glass the greatest part of the rarified Air; and after­wards by the Cupping-Glass pres­sed hard to the skin, so that no external Air can enter [because of [Page 126]the stopping of the motion may be of the Fiery Spirits hindred by the Glass] it is extinguished; There­fore the Heat doth languish, which the motion of the Fiery Spirits did sustain: At last the Air within the Cupping-Glass becometh cold, and that strength of it being weakned, which the heat raised, being feeble 'tis overcome by the strength of the outward Air. Which external Air, to conclude, compressing in all places equally the body, except that space that is contain'd in the Cup­ping Glass, doth thrust into it the Flesh and Blood, as the Liquor into the Pumps.

Adde, that those Aerial parts which possess the porous lurking places of the body, neither do they less lye in wait for Dilation than Externals watch by Elatery to raise the obedient Flesh and Blood into a tumor. For whiles the Air in­clos'd in the Cupping-Glass begins to wax cold, and by this means its endeavours become less, then the Air, which wandreth in the [Page 127]Pores of the Flesh, being deliver­ed of its trouble, raiseth the skin into a little tumor by its Sponta­neous Elatery.

But Snow, say some, or any cold thing cramb'd in the Cucurbite, hindreth its commerce with the Flesh; and on the other side a Linnen Cloth a little hotter put thereon, as Chirurgions do, stir­reth up the Attraction; Wherefore the Elastick force of the Air clos'd within the Cupping-Glass be­cometh not dull with cold.

But I know not out of what in­tention they object that which I have found not once altogether contrary to Experience. For I have oft put Water, yea Snow, on a Cupping-Glass applied to the Flesh, but the inward Air was with such swiftness condens'd, that the Flesh suddenly grew into a little tumor not without most great pain; But so soon as I had covered the Cucurbite with a very hot Linnen Cloth, presently the pain did remit, and the tumor diminish. [Page 128]'Tis then no wonder that the Chi­rurgions cast such a Linnen Cloth over the Cupping-Glasses, lest ei­ther they should stir up more ve­hement pain, or raise the Flesh to too great a tumor, or draw out the Blood in too great abundance.

Neither believe thou that with this success I have applied a Cup­ping-Glass onely to live Bodies, yea I have applied it to Carkasses and Liquors. And indeed put into Boyling Water a Cupping-Glass, you will admire to see a heap of Water crept into it, the Fire being altogether extinguished, or the Heat become Luke-warm; and if then you apply to the Cupping-Glass a Cloth dipp'd in any Cold Liquor, or Snow it self, or Ice, the inward Air contracting it self, and its Ela­tery being debilitated by the Cold, a greater abundance of Water shall be thrust into the Cupping-Glass.

How Water is thrust into the hot Aeolipila.

So Aeolipilaes [Wind-balls or Globes made of Copper, with Ca­nals going out of them, which Glass-makers use instead of Bel­lowes] being placed in the midst of a Fire, exhale most of the Air they contain; and then as the re­sidue of the Air within grows cold, and the force of the Elatery being weakned, the external prevailing Air hastneth the Water into the Engin by its Tail-pipe dipp'd therein; and that with no little force, as we discern by the noyse of its murmuring.

And hence likewise falleth to the Ground the Prop of the Attractive Opinion rais'd by Heat.

Other waies of drawing Air out of Aeolipilaes are propos'd and explain'd.

There is another way of filling Aeolipilaes, viz. by out-sucking; a strong argument against our im­pulsion, if indeed it were firm, which all have already believ'd, That the Air when we suck is drawn backwards to the Throat. It pleaseth me therefore to explain this Mysterie.

Close the Tail of an Aeolipila in thy Mouth, so that the Air con­tain'd in both places may become continued in the same Closet of the Mouth; Indeed so long as the Tongue is not moved, nor the Breast enlarged, and the Air likewise in both places [to wit, in the Mouth and Aeolipila] quiet, doth persevere in the Law of equal poisure. But where there is either Motion in Tongue or Breast, 'tis needfull that in both places the Air is moved: and because by one of the Motions [Page 131]at least the Aeolipila is emptied, it pleaseth me to enquire after what manner this is perfected.

Either use onely the Lungs, or the Bellowes-like dilatation of the Breast, or the beating onely of the Sucking Tongue, as they believe, against the Palate.

By the first way indeed the whole Breast is distended, in the mean time no breath of exteriour Air en­tring in either by the shut-lips, neither by the breathing holes of the nostrils either to the Mouth, or to the Aeolipila. The distended Breast likewise prepares a more ample place for the Air, which is contain'd by the den of the Mouth, contiguous to the Aeolipilary Air. The Air having receiv'd room ex­tends it self towards the Breast, and therefore the Elater of it becometh more weak than that of the Aeo­lipilar; which when this [to wit, clos'd within the Aeolipila] per­ceives, and that it is repress'd by the endeavours of none, it rarifies it self, and it doth propagate its [Page 132]bounds without the Aeolipila, as the force of the weaker will suffer it.

But by the latter manner, the whole Tongue, together with the Pipe of the Aeolipila, doth more compactly beat against the whole Palate; Then the middle of the obsequious Tongue sinking to the door of the little Pipe, forsaketh the Palate, and by a more sharp endeavour doth fold it self into a Furrow; So that of that force the space that is obnoxious to the Aeo­lipilar Air, not being empty indeed, but full with the little Air which had remained below the cavernous Cuticles of the Tongue and Palate, sollicitateth the Elatery of the same (I mean of the Aeolipilar) Air to dilatation, and allures and in­viteth this Spontaneous Elatery out of the Aeolipila into the Furrow of the Mouth; and doth not, as our Adversaries believe, compell it by drawing.

When so much of the Air hath flow'd out of the Aeolipila both [Page 133]wayes as could, by the pressure of the external Air which is then more thick than the internal, the Water shall so long run into the Engin by the Tail suddenly dipp'd in the Water, till a just counter­poyse shall give rest to the equal strength of both that's without and within.

After the same manner some­times thou suckedst; after the same manner Children plunder the Wine­hogsheads by stealth, dipping there­in their Drinking Reeds; yea by the same way fill the Syihons with Liquor, viz. by the weight and endeavour of the outward Air, stir­ring up the flowing of the Liquors according to the dilatation of the Throat or Mouth.

Thus having demolish'd the chief Engins whereby our Adversaries e­stablish their Attraction, I am re­solv'd to spend no more time in su­perfluous matters.

CHAP. X. The true Causes of the Blood's Mo­tion are discovered.

HAving demonstrated what a light incitement the weight of innate gravity is to the Motion of the Blood, and having observ'd by evident Experiments that the Hearts Systole sufficeth not alone for this effect, and having altogether cut off the helps of the Diastolick At­traction, it remaineth that we con­sider the Construction of the Ves­sels, and that we ponder their Com­pression from the Agitation of the neighbouring parts.

'Tis certain that the Vessels are straitned by Spontaneous Contra­ction, or by Violent.

I call that Spontaneous whereby of themselves they leave their swel­ling fulness.

I call that Violent which an Ex­ternal Cause produceth.

I demonstrate the Spontaneous after this manner.

Of the Spontaneous Contraction of the Vessels.

I believe no man doubteth, that the Blood is urg'd out of the Ven­tricles of the Heart, and floweth into the Arteries by a certain force or compression of the Systolick Motion; And if at that time the force of its flowing were not hin­dred by any stops, the Blood was able to return even to the Heart by the endeavour onely of Compres­sion.

But remember [Reader] that the Blood thrust into the Arteries by reason of its Continuity, so thrust with it the Venose Blood, so that notwithstanding nothing flows a­gain from the Veins into the Heart, till the action of the Systoles be quite ended, and the Diastoles be­gun; And for this that not onely the Arteries, but the Veins also in the last moment of the Systoles are turn'd with abundance of two sorts of Blood, viz. with the old and with the new comed.

The Tunicles of the Vessels be­ing then more stretched by reason of the stay of the Blood during the Systoles continuance, doth stir up the innate Elatery according to the measure of its natural capacity, that immediatly so soon as the Tri­glochinon Valve had finished his duty by the succeeding Diastole, should quickly discover his power that lay at wait, and should com­pell the compress'd Blood to rush into the open and empty bosomes of the relaxed Heart.

Hence appears what the Sponta­neous Contraction of the Vessels is: The Violent followeth.

Of the Violent Contraction of the Vessels.

This is rais'd up either by the sharpness of the more piercing humour; so the sharper Bile doth straiten the Intestine Membranes into wrinkles, or pricking and so­lution of Continuity from what­soever Cause: So when sometimes [Page 137]I opened the Duodenum according to its length making incision, that I might observe the Liquor flowing out of the Pancreatical Vessel of Virsungus into this Gut, the Gut did so wrinkle it self, that it con­tracted the incision to the middle; and closing up the little entrance of Virsungus his Canale, did alto­gether stop the running watrish humour which flowed from thence. And the same judgement which belongeth to the Guts is to be gi­ven of the other Vessels and Mem­branes of the Body.

The Contraction of Vessels after this manner may be brought to pass by the help of Ligatures, viz. the pricking of Pain, being Compani­ons to the straitnesses of the Liga­tures, do solicitate all the neigh­bouring parts to the help of the diseased; and whilst they concurr to the spending of their obsequious Blood, where the Valve doth per­mit, the Vessels become wrinkled. Hence the Blood in the Veins hast­neth from the Ligature to the Heart; [Page 138]but that in the Arteries hastneth to the Extreme Parts, the Valves admitting it, whereof some indeed forbid regress by another way to­wards the stoppages.

Of the Compression of the Vessels.

But so far as belongeth to the Compressary Coarctation of the Vessels, I say the same is perfected both by the pressure of breath'd Air into the Lungs, and by the en­deavour of the Muscles adjacent to the Pipes whilst they are stirr'd.

So a more vehement motion maketh the Pulse beat swiftlier, and produceth a more frequent blow­ing; so the quaking tumult of the leaping parts in a dying Creature, proceeding from the Cold falling on them, doth empty the Arteries, the Veins remaining full.

Therefore I say the Blood is Cir­culated by a three-fold incitement, viz. by the Impulsion of the Sy­stoles; by the Contraction of the Vessels, whether Violent or Volun­tary; [Page 139]and by the Endeavour of the Adjacent Parts, by the Com­pression of their Vessels: These three are so disposed towards one another, that some of them ever­more recompenseth the defect of the other, though slowly, by the perseverance of his duty. While the Heart doth beat, it doth out of it self thrust the Blood into the Veins and Arteries; The Contra­ction of its own Tunicle doth em­pty the tyed Artery beyond the Li­gature; The Contraction of the Vicine Parts gives assistance to this effect; The Tumor of the tyed Vein beyond the Ligature, that is, betwixt it and the Extreme Parts, is intended by the Continual mo­tion of Blood which the Arteries, being free of a Ligature, issue out; On this side the Ligature, that is, towards the Heart, the Evacuation is perfected by the Contraction of the Tunicle, and pressure of the Vi­cine Parts.

And so the Blood is press'd out of the Heart into the Arteries; it [Page 140]is tunned partly out of the Arteries into the Veins by the Synanasto­mosies, partly 'tis poured out into the Flesh, and from thence gather'd into the Veins, it returneth again into the Heart in a Circle so ne­cessary for the Life, that being ne­ver so little hindred, either Faint­ness, or Swouning, and not seldom also Death followes thereon.


CHAP. XI. It is demonstrated, that the Chyle is also thrust into the Lacteal Veins, and is driven towards the Heart, and that it is not sucked.

THE Motion of the Blood being perfected, it may easily also be shewn whither the Chyle is roled.

All know that the Chyle is ex­press'd from the Aliments that fall into the Intestines from the Sto­mack which concocteth them, and [Page 142]that they go through the Tunicles of the Intestins by the little Pores opened by Nature into the Pipes of the Lacteal Veins, But whether the Pervious Intestins imitate a Sive or a Sponge, their double Coat (which is proper to them) doth not denote any one of them, but them both. Nature hath wo­ven their outmost coat with the threds of most small Fibers artifi­cially, like a st [...]aining Sieve, unto which by her providence with a wonderful anointing she hath glewed on the inside a wrinkling or spongeous, if you will, lining, of a most soft substance; that both the sharpness of the Aliments may pass unhurting them; and that that juice which is most subtil may be strain'd out of the Excrements into the La­cteal Veins.

The former Experiments clearly shewed the passage of the Chyle; now we are to search whether the Chyle is thrust or drawn.

That the Chyle is not drawn.

The Chyle is not drawn or sucked; for whether you bind in the Mesentery the Lacteal Veins, or whether you put a Ligature on the same, within the Chest of the Breast beyond the Ligature, that is, towards the Intestins swelling up, they will suffocate the Attra­ctory or sucking opinion.

Neither affirm thou that the Lacteals, like Blood-suckers, do draw the Chyle by sucking: For the Blood-suckers do not draw the Blood, neither do they otherwise draw out the same, than we, when putting a Reed into a Spring or Hogshead, we draw out the Liquor by the distention both of Mouth and Lungs; for the Blood-suckers do prick the Cutaneous Veins, and whiles they swell, by the labour of the Lungs playing the part of Bel­lowes, by their dilatation the Blood entreth into their easy Stomacks. Therefore the Chyle is not thrust [Page 144]forwards into the Lacteal Veins, but it comes to be inquir'd of whe­ther by the proper action of the Intestins, or by a vertue extraneous to them.

Of the Contraction of the Intestins.

When the Chyle or Juice fried out of the meat slideth from the Stomack into the Guts, it tumifieth them, and doth extend their Fibers most obsequious-like into an Ela­tery: So that their vigour being augmented by intension, returning again of their own will to their natural estate, they straiten the Guts by depressing the Chyle from the Stomack to the Fundament. And hence I conclude, The Guts, like some Membranous Bodies, have their proper Contraction, but an Extraneous dilatation.

Besides this Contraction you are to observe the dilatation and wrinklings of the Spongeous Mem­brane which is within the Guts: For that Tunicle drinking up the [Page 145]more fluid juice of the Chyle that slipped out of the Stomack, doth swell as a Sponge; and when 'tis wrinkled by either the Compressi­on of the adjacent parts; or some other Cause, partly it removes the Chyle inwardly, partly it doth ex­press it into the Lacteal Veins.

Moreover, you are to take no­tice, That that Contraction of the Intestins, and wrinkling of the in­ward Membrane, succeedeth the extraneous dilatation, and that it little or nothing avails for the thrusting of Chyle into the La­cteal Veins, yea rather that it much stoppeth its passage: For the Gut the more Contracted it is, the more it stoppeth the Pores, and therefore the open ends of the Lacteal Veins, and giveth a less pervious passage to the inclos'd Liquors. And this also is taken notice of above in the violent Contraction of the Ves­sels, and easy Experience doth prove, it both in other Membranes, and most in the Bladder new pull'd [Page 146]out of the body; For indeed 'tis contracted, the piss flowing out; neither will it then being prickt up and down with a Needle, shed any of the Urine out of the Needle holes, except by compressing it violently you wring the Liquor out of it.

So the Peristaltick motion of the Guts, if any such be to be ad­mitted, for it was not any where discovered to us in Living Crea­tures, because it successively draw­eth together their Coats, closing with wrinkling the passages, is un­sufficient to thrust the Chyle into the Lacteals; Except may be you joyn to it the other motion of di­latation, by which, while it doth corrugate the upper part of the In­trals together with it, it distends the inferiour, which being filled with meats, it may issue through it a greater deal of Chyle into the Lacteals.

But seeing that dilatation, which is produc'd from the falling down Chyle, is of little force, and scarce [Page 147]opens those little Pores wherein the Chyle is thrust, indeed we are at last to arrive at a more vehement Compression of the Guts.

Of the Compression of the Guts.

I find amongst the first a two­fold Cause of this, viz. Respiration, and a Contraction of the Muscles in the Belly and Breast; such an one chiefly as is stirr'd up by the emptying of the Excrements out of the Guts, and unburthening of the Bladder, and may be of evacua­ting the Gall. For then the Air inclos'd in the Lungs which they draw in, and the vehement endea­vour of the Muscles do not a little compress the Intrals: So that I be­lieve by that motion the Chyle is express'd out of the Stomack into the Guts, and that this white sub­stance breaketh out of the Guts into the Lacteal Veins.

I pass by that Contraction and Dilatation, by whose means the [Page 148]Muscles of Respiration are stirr'd up by a Continued motion; For they do not so Compress the In­trals that they are able to express the Chyle out of the Guts. I for­bear the beating of the Arteries a­bout the Guts; for the Arteries being quiet after the tying of the Coeliack Branch, the sliding-in Chyle doth no less tumifie the La­cteal Veins. It onely remains then that we fly to the vehement Con­traction of the Muscles, or to the Continual Vicissitude of Breathing outward and inward.

But because the perpetual passing of the Chyle, so long as Aliments remain, requireth likewise a Con­tinued Cause of Compression, which in vain is sought in that all­most Momentary Contraction of the Muscles: We are in my judge­ment at last to fly to the Vicissitudes of Breathings.

OF RESPIRATION. 'Tis declar'd how Respiration is wrought, and what it availeth the Motion of the Chyle. That the Lungs are not a pervious Tu­nicle, is known by Experiments.

REspiration is done, as is known to all, by the Alternal Elatery of the Lungs and Air, so as by the dilatation of the Air, which is receiv'd and rarified by the heat of the Lungs, the Lungs together with the Muscles of Re­spiration are distended, and after­wards by their Spontaneous Con­traction the Air it self is compell'd to go out.

But the distention of Lungs in fetching breath, which the open wounds of the Breast declare, is an Argument, That their Tunicle is altogether impervious. And in­deed 'tis more compact, neither ever will it give leave to the Air to go through them by any force or breathing.

These things will be manifested by Experiments. If you blow with an Oat-reed into the Bronchia [Wind-pipe] of a Living Crea­ture, whilst you are cutting it up: For use what means you can, the Wind will not touch the flame of the Candle you hold to it, except in that place you have opened the Coat thereof.

Here you are to take notice, That Chirurgions oft-times erre in the wounds of the Breast; They hold near to them the flame of a Candle, and by its motion, which is procur'd by the Air breathing out thereat, they foolish­ly inferre, That the Lungs are [Page 151]wounded. But if they shall reply any thing, then in Empyick ope­rations they may be bold to averre the rupture of the Lungs from the like mobility of the flame.

Neither should you esteem the Tunicle of the Lungs porous by the matter of a Pleurisy avoyded by Screation or urine. For as our Riolan hath exactly set down in the third Book and fourth Chapter of his Encheiridion, There is no such effluxion, except the Pleura be burst, and the Lungs excoriate; viz. if either before the Pleurisy they stuck to the Ribs, or whiles the inflammation begins to in­crease, the Lungs sticking to the Pleura, both by the Glew of the Viscous humour swearing out by the Phlegmones heat, and by the smallness of the motion, hindred by the pain and tumor, they are joyn'd together. For the Phleg­mone then touching both the Mem­branes Infects both together with rottenness turning into an Ulcer: [Page 152]Whence it comes to pass, that the Matter rushing into the Lungs, is either thrown out by the Wind­pipe in Spittel, or is carried by the Venal Artery into the left Ventricle of the Heart, and thence going into the Aorta it goes through the Reins, and is avoyded with the Urine.

What, say you, if there be no Contiguity of Membranes, the Pleura nevertheless will burst, will the Atter remain in the bottome of the Breast? It will altogether remain, even to the undoing of the party, except by the quickly open­ing of the Empyema you empty it of this Purulent burthen.

But I return to Respiration, in which whilst the Pulmons are di­lated, they also press the Midriff downward; and the Liver, which then plays the part of a Pistil acting by the weight of its bulk beating by intervals, doth not onely compell the Chyle to depart out of the Stomack through the [Page 153]Pylore into the Guts, but also di­stends their little Pores, and thence thrusts into the Lacteal Veins the most subtil substance of the Ali­ment. So Children gripe with their hands an Ele-skin full of water, and through the little holes with the small point of a Needle made therein every where, by pressing it they cause the water to spring forth into many small streams.

But because our speech is arrived at the depression of the Diaphragm, it will not be besides our purpose to declare all I have observed con­terning its Motion.


VVHilst the Lungs draw in the Air, by little and little swelling at that middle of the Diaphragm where it is tyed to the back, they drive downward the descending fibers of this middle, which in the Circumference indeed are fleshy, but membranous in the Center, and by their palpitation compress the inferiour places of the Stomack hanging under, together with the Liver: But indeed the other mid­dle, where the Diaphragm is plac'd, under both the Breast-bone, and Cartilages of the Bastard Ribs, [Page 155]and doth unfold the membranous Fibers of its Center, and lifteth up obliquely its fleshy Fibers of the Circumference together with the fore-region of the Breast; So that whilst the hinder parts of the Dia­phragm are depress'd, at the same almost moment the former parts are lifted up with a vehement stri­ving indeed.

Neither believe thou that those Muscles in Breast and Belly, which they call the Muscles of Respira­tion, do any way assist this mo­tion; for they being quite cut a­way even till the Cartilages of the Breast-bone be discovered [the In­tercostal Muscles and Diaphragm being preserv'd] and the den of the inferiour Belly being laid open, nevertheless the Creature doth breath as much as if these Muscles were not wounded at all.

And these are the Motions which I have observ'd in Aspiration [draw­ing in the Breath] but in Expirati­on, both the fore-parts of the Dia­phragm [Page 156]together with the Breast­bone, do fall, and the hinder-parts, together with Liver and Stomack, doth rise, and then the Diaphragm is drawn in wrinkles by its Fibers, both in its membranous Center, and fleshy Circumference.

Before I finish my speech of the Diaphragm, I would have you take notice of this one thing, That those fleshy productions of the Dia­phragm above the Loyns, as it were Appendicles, do lurk under the Re­ceptacle of the Chyle, so that they cannot be distended, but together with them distending the Recepta­cle it self, they compell it to issue out the Chyle it contains; and these are enough of the Diaphragm. We will answer the Objections brought against our Opinion, asserting, That Respiration is the sole inciter of the Chyle into the Lacteal Veins.


VVHy therefore, sayst thou, should not Re­spiration of it self blind thrust into the Lacteals dige­sted with undigested, with pure secu­lent? Except, Reader, I were re­solv'd of Common Opinions, onely to admit that which is voyc'd by the testimony of Experience, I would answer; Seeing the Lacteal Veins do not immediatly receive the Chyle from the Stomack, for it hath no Lacteals, that Concocti­on is perfected before it comes from the Stomack; and for that whatsoever [Page 158]Aliment descends into the Guts most ready prepared, that Chyle should be expressed out thereof, it cannot become raw by the mixture of any undigested substance.

But because many times not a few things do rush down out of the Stomach towards the Funda­ment, or Bladder, before the finish­ing of requisite Concoction; nei­ther is there any patent way be­twixt the Stomack and Bladder, but that of the Lacteals; I am my self compell'd to confess, that many times even Crude Aliments do descend from the Stomack.

And indeed presently after the immoderate drinking of Wine, a man in Cups shall make water; neither doth that limpider Urine which he maketh receive any tast or tincture. Hence I reason, that it hath not flowed through the Mass of Blood, from which it should have received something of either. The stay of Urine in the Body made of Mineral waters, [Page 159]is most short. The Urine within a quarter of an hour after the ta­king of Asparagus receives its swell and colour. Yea the Juice press'd out of the Indian Figs makes the Urine become Purple.

Therefore I, I say, believe, that before the Concoction be finish'd, these Liquors hast to the Bladder by the passage of the Chyle; the Pylore admitting them either for the urging over-fulness, or for the opening force of these Diuretick Liquors, or for some other rea­son.

Neither object the Vas breve, that its postern doth empty these superfluities in the Milt, and from thence spread in the Liver, are ga­thered again, that they may ascend to the Heart; and afterwards be­ing thrust into the Arteries, at last are thrown headlong by the Emul­gents into the Reins; For both the shortness of time doth not agree to so great a Circuit, and they through so many errours and mix­ture [Page 160]of humours should not onely receive a tincture, but, which is a­gainst our daily experience, should be sharpned with saltness.

But if thou shouldst suspect un­perceivable passages from the Sto­make towards the Reins, suffer thy self, Reader, not to believe such passages, till with their grown greatness they leave of to evanish out of thy sight.

I would rather believe that these Liquors flow out of the Stomack by the Pylorus, and that they are thrust out of the Guts through the Lacteals unto the Receptacle of the Chyle discovered by us under the Mesentery; and from thence partly by the Chylous pas­sage of the Breast do flow unto the Heart, the Forge of Blood; partly being separate from the Chyle, do flow into the Reins plac'd on both sides, either by the Trunk of the Emulgent Arteries sticking firmly to the Receptacle of the Chyle, which perchance for this use is [Page 161]thence from without pervious with­in, and fit like a strainer to trans­colate the serosity: Or if you had rather, they have diverted by the adjacent Ministry of the Atrabilar Cases; or by the Ministry of the Peritoneum, whose doubling is very subject to carry the Liquors, in respect of the neighbourhood of the Parts.

Truly there appears no fitter way to me for the carrying out of those things which oft-times leave the Stomack not onely without Concoction, but oft-times not be­ing so much as hot therein.

So, whiles the Air is most hot, immoderate drinking of cold water openeth the Belly; The same force is in Asses Milk, and Mineral Wa­ters. The Tunicles of Grapes, of Berries, and all the slughes of Fruits, Seeds or Pulses, though never so long boyling in the heat of the Stomack, nevertheless they are even then thrown out Crude: [Page 162]How much more shall they rush out of the stomach before they be concocted, who are of an apertive and laxative quality? And hence it is, that Medicins being drunk and avoyded by the siege, both tast and smell sometimes with the colour remaining.

Your Object again, That the Chyle rusheth into the Lacteal Veins, even when the spirit of the Lungs is spent, and the force of breathing altogether extinct: So that opening the Breast of a Living Creature, and the Pulmons be­coming flaccid, nevertheless the Lacteal Veins tyed in the Mesen­tery will swell for a little time.

Truly 'tis a weighty Argument against our opinion; For answer­ing of which, I wish you to take notice of that, that I have oft tryed, That the Lacteals tyed in the Mesentery, then onely swell, when the Living Creature, the Breast being unhurt, vehemently doth yet move the whole entrals [Page 163]of the lower Belly, together with the Muscles of all the body: For when, the Breast being opened, the motion of the Animal is extin­guish'd, the Lacteals leave off al­together to swell; except may be the Spongeous Membranes of the Guts, in respect of the Colder Air, or pricks of grief, drawing them­selves together, they express a little of the residue of that Chyle they before had gathered, into the La­cteals.

I conclude, Therefore Respi­ration doth thrust the Chyle into the Lacteals, the other two, viz. Contraction and Compression, as­sisting it. This, by the endeavour of the Vicine parts, stirreth up the Chyle contain'd both in the Guts, and likewise in the Lacteals: But the other is such an Enemy to the fulness of the Canals, that it suffers not, after death, any footstep to re­main either of Lacteals in the Breast or Mesentery, neither of the Re­ceptacle on the Backs Vertebers.

And these are the things I had to publish concerning the Motion of Blood and Chyle, and of the incitement thereto. It remaineth (Reader) I should take away the Complaint thou hast in behalf of the Liver, from which I took away the office of making the Blood.

CHAP. XII. Of the Transcolatory use of the Liver.

AFter I have taken from the Li­ver that usurped Glory of Blood-making which undeservedly it retain'd for so many ages; 'tis just I should assign to it that duty for which it was made, and plac'd in the Forge, as they call it, of the first Region, and that I should dis­close the true office thereof.

Besides that office which it dis­chargeth, as is said before, instead of a Pistill beating the parts plac'd under it in the Lower Belly by the motion of Respiration; The Liver also doth, by that great stream of Blood it receives from the Vena porta, administer Heat to the Sto­mack to help the Concoction of the Meat; And moreover, doth strain the Blood through his most fit Pa­renchyma [Substance.] And as the Reins purgeth the Blood of its Se­rum, [Page 166]and the Melt of its Acidity, so the Liver doth deliver it of the fellowship of the Bile that is mixt therewith.

For if no sourse of Chylous mat­ter doth come unto it, neither there­fore doth the Liver impurplush any Aliment into Blood; And onely the Trunk of the Vena porta [which likewise doth not from any place receive Chyle, as hath been shewn] doth fill it with the Blood where­with it swelleth; Neither doth any man wisely [if I be any whit wise] repute Bile the Excrement of the second Concoction, neither should he esteem it separable by any other Instrument.

And indeed you shall not find any where, in any kind of Living Creatures, the Blood without the mixture of Bile; The yellowish and salt Serum will testifie so much: Except perchance in some Crea­tures, to whom meek Mistris Na­ture hath concocted a sweeter Blood; As in others, in which she [Page 167]hath infus'd Blood without Acidity, whom she hath endued either with no Melt at all, or at least with a very little one.

The continual Heat, which che­risheth the Heart, and warmeth the mass of Blood, dissolves all the subtilest parts of the Serosity into Vapours, and again Concocting the rest [which by its frequent frying, and pressing of the sweet from the salt, I call the remaining Progeny] it would altogether turn it to Bile; Except the providence of Nature for the purging of the bitter Excre­ment, or rather of Salt thickned by too much Concoction, had en­dued the Body with a fit Emun­ctory.

And as Fullers use to colour their hands with those Liquors they die with, so that Bilous Intral, the Li­ver, according to the divers tinctures of Bile, either is yellowish red, or of a languishing ash-colour, some­times blackish green, or brown, though the Blood be exactly red.

Hence in the Child in the Womb, in which there is never any Chyle bred, about the beginning of its forming, the Liver hath its Saffron-colour'd Cystis full of Bile, though other waies the Blood be of a purple die: Which is an evident Argument, that the Bile is not the Excrement of the Second, as they call it, Concoction; but an Ex­crement of the Blood, which (Blood) is onely transmitted into the Liver of the Child in the Wombe.

Neither may be the fervid Blood in the Mother, and strain'd by the Uterin Liver [the Lump] in the Ma­trix, should in such purity erre in the Veins of the Embryon, except it should leave the greatest part of it in the Liver, into the which it first floweth by the Coeunt Pipes of the Umbilick Veins.

And this, as I believe, is the Chief Office of the Liver in Living Creatures.


WIll you so indeed, say you, exhaust the whole Blood of its Bile by the diverting Coeliack Branch?

Before (Reader) I answer what I think, I will interrogate thy knowledge by vicissitude in this place: Prethee tell me by what Engin the Blood, which at the same time enters the Iliack Arteries that it enters the Emulgent, doth issue its serosity into the Reins? For that without doubt the wis­dome of Nature appointed the ne­cessity of the Blood's Circular mo­tion, that through divers periods at last the whole Blood might suc­ceed into the same Inns.

Again, you demand, by what means this Transcolation is per­fected; and how it cometh to pass, that those passages pervious to the Bile, exclude the Serum and Blood: Neither they on the other side are patent to the Bile which admit the Serum? whether because the Se­rum is more subtill than the Bile? or otherwise?

I confess the Cause of so great a wonder is hid from me, if you will not admit for a sufficient reason the diversity of Figures which is in the straining bodies, and in the open­ings of the Colon.

In vain wilt thou endeavour to put a Triangle of the same altitude with the Diameter of a round hole, into it, or into a three-angled hole a Quadrangle, or some other many Angled Figure: And I shall easily suffer my self to be perswaded, that the same kind of Figures is not found in Aqueous Parts which is found in Bilous; and that therefore the Bile [at least that which is most gross] [Page 171]being unfitting to the passages of the Reins, cannot retire thither; As neither can the thicker serosity, for the same discommodities enter into that Province which is onely proper to the Bile.

But if thou demand, whether or no there be Figures in the most smallest particles of Bile or Water.

I will answer first, That the Water is not onely a porous body, but likewise cavernous with many Figures of pores. The Learned Gassendus hath demonstrated this with great sagacity. But in vain shall the diversity of Figures be as­serted into the Aqueous Pores, which diversity thou deniest to ad­mit in those parts whereof the Wa­ter consists. But that there was diversity of Figures in the Pores of the Water, Gassendus proved by a Noble Experiment.

He threw a Measure of common Salt into Spring Water; the Water within a short time did onely dis­solve a certain part of this, the rest [Page 172]of the Salt remaining untouched. In the same VVater Nitre being in­fus'd, a part of it did by melting mix it self with the VVater, a part remained undissolv'd. Thirdly, by the same a part of Allom dissolved, a part remained whole. Fourthly, Sal Amoniack tryed the same For­tune, with others, which by them­selves he had mixed with the VVater.

As I think you may also express the Figures of melted Salt in that VVater which is commonly call'd Stygian, or Aqua Fortis, and the waies of dissolving Metals in the same.

This Aqua Fortis is of two sorts; One, call'd Common, dis­solves all Metals except Gold; The other, call'd Regia, reduces their King to Powder; Silver neverthe­less therein reserving his Figure with unspotted Constancy, scorning the Pride of such a prerogative.

The Matter of the Common is the Spirits of Vitriol, Nitre, & Sea-salt.

This becomes Regia, if you im­pregnate it with as much Sal Am­moniack as it can dissolve. But nei­ther, as I think, can the Common make impression in Gold, because the figured little Bodies of these Spirits do so exactly fit the Golden Pores, that flopping their motion, they rest within the Metall. It dis­solves the rest either with its Fire, or with the Sulphur which is in Metals arroding with the sharp points of their Figures the divers Cavities of the Metallick Pores, whilst they contend to be admitted into the fellowship of those fitter to them; I had almost said, bat­tering down the Cavities: But be­cause Sal Ammoniack, mixed with these Salts, doth agree with the Pores of Silver, but no waies with with those of Gold, it first occu­pieth the Silver Pores, so that it quieteth the invasion of his fel­lows, whom it stirreth up against Gold, the VVall being demolished, and admits them desiring it.

If thou have any other Cause of these Events, Reader, different from the Figures of the Aqueous Pores, and those which determine the Salts and their Spirits, prethee commu­nicate it to our knowledge.

Truly the quadrat space of the Pores shall be so fill'd with the wonted quadrature of Sea-salt, as their six-corner'd profundity shall be possess'd with hexaedron solidity of the points of Nitre.

The same judgement is to be given of the Figures of the rest of the Salts.

If Bile, which we acknowledged to be Salt mixt with a certain Oilous humour, be mixt with Se­rum, it salts it: and the Urine is in so much more brackish, as there is more Bile mixt with it: And if the abundance of Bile exceed the dissolving force of the VVater, whatsoever remains, being rolled up in Crystalline Sand, and like Salt, fusi'e by Fire under it, 'tis just it should settle in the bottome. Hot VVater will contain more [Page 175]Salt mixt with it than Cold VVater will, viz. the Fire enlarging its Pores by reason of the fellowship of the Air contain'd there, and ea­sily rarified.

VVhence, seeing there is neither Guts nor Cavities promiscuous to the Bile and Serum, neither pro­miscuous diverticles, but seeing that onely of the Bile floweth out to the Urine, which being most subtill in the mass of Blood, is most fit to tincture the Urine; so neither doth the grossest of the Serum pe­netrate into the Gall, but that onely that can lubricate the way, and in which the Bile can flow; it will not therefore be amiss to admit in both Bile, viz. and Serum, diversity of Figures.

I said the most subtill: For the Bile is not of one onely consisten­cy; Yea I think it three-fold, and that to be most subtill which being mixt together with the Se­rum, avoydeth with the Urine.

The other two sorts is demon­strated [Page 176]by the Liver; That which is more subtill, entreth the Gall; The other, of more gross juice, possesseth the Hepatick Passage; The out-flowing of both may be moveth the inmost Tunicle of the Intestins, both of them discharge the duty of natural Clysters, and being mixed with the Excrements, are evacuated.

So the variety of the Searcher-like passages, and the divers con­figurations of straining. Bodies, doth in this place stop the passage of fluid things, but in that al­lows it. Hence the Urine, toge­ther with the Bile, passeth through the Reins into the Bladder, I mean that which is subtillest in the mass of Blood; The Acidity goeth to nourish the Melt; The Subtiller Bile floweth out of the Liver into the Gall, the Gros­ser running into the Hepatick Pas­sage. I will say in a word, That the Excrements can take up [Page 177]their Inns by the Gates onely appointed for them, the Posterns of others being altogether shut a­gainst them.

‘Mundus regitur Opinionibus.’

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