BELLUM TARTARICUM, OR THE CONQUEST OF The Great and most re­nowned Empire of CHINA, By the Invasion of the TARTARS, who in these last seven years, have wholy subdued that vast Empire.

Together with a Map of the Provinces, and chief Cities of the Countries, for the better understanding of the Story.

Written Originally in LATINE by Martin Martinius, present in the Coun­try at most of the passages herein related, and now faithfully Tran­slated into English.

LONDON, Printed for John Crook, and are to be Sold at his Shop at the Sign of the Ship in St. Paul's Church-yard. 1654.

The Liuely Effigies of Theinmingus ye present Emperour of the Western Tartars, who hath Lately ouerrun and Possest himselfe allmost of the whole Empire of China.


WWhereas in the course of this insuing Histo­ry there occurs frequent men­tion of the chief Provin­ces and Cities in China; which have either been assaulted and de­fended, subdued or destroyed, by the severall Armies, aswell from North to South, as from East to West; least the pleasure and de­light of this History, should be any way diminished by the fre­quent re-encounter of harsh and [Page] barbarous names of Countries, and Towns unknown to the Eu­ropean Reader, whilst his atten­tion follows the victorious Army. I thought it good to prefix a little Geographical table of the Coun­tries, and chief Cities, which might serve as a guide to con­duct the eye of the understanding, in the pursuit of the mentioned victories. I confess it is not so exact as the rigour of Geography exacts, but yet it is such an one, as was drawn by the hands of their learned Philosophers, and may well give us a sufficient no­tion of all the places mentioned.

As for more exquisit, and rare Maps both universal and parti­cular, as well of the Countries, as of the Cities, and of all the rari­ties they contain, together with the exact knowledge of their Longitudes and Latitudes, and of [Page] all that does belong either to A­stronomy or Geography relati­on to them; with what may be ex­pected from Natural or Humane History, I reserve all these rari­ties and curiosities to my Atlas of China which I am composing; taken from their own antient re­cords ever since the time of Noah; all which I have with incredible pains, and industry both gathered up together, and transported with me to Europe. I will not there­fore for the present deflower that worth of its greatest beauty, by an unseasonable exposition of it to the Readers view; but expect till it grow to that perfection, as I hope will ravish the unsatiable appetits of this our curious Age.






  • Yupi
  • Crocous fluv.
  • Sigan
  • Hanchung
  • Taitung
  • Taiyuen
  • Pucheu
  • Kiangcheu
  • Peking
  • T [...]ncu
  • Cinan
  • Xu [...]ing
  • Quang [...]ing
  • Tuocun
  • Legoyang
  • Caiyuen
  • Xanghai
  • Taoyuan
  • Kingki
  • Caifung
  • Chingtu
  • Mahu lacus
  • Kiang fluv Filius Mar
  • Tungting lacus
  • Vnchang
  • Yangchai
  • Hoigan
  • Nanking
  • Poyang lacus
  • Ta [...] lacus
  • Sungtiang
  • Hangche [...]
  • Cientang flu.
  • Nanchang
  • Kiucheu
  • Canchou
  • Kin [...]oa
  • Ve [...]cheu
  • Kienning
  • Fochen
  • Cheuxan
  • Iunnan
  • Queicheu
  • Queilin
  • Nankiung
  • Chaoking
  • Quangcheu
  • Hainun
  • Macao

BELLUM TARTARICUM, OR The History of the Warrs of the Tartars in China &c.

THE most antient Na­tion of Tartars in Asia, which was the Parent of many Nations, had been an Enemy of the Empire of China The Tar­tars were antient E­nemies to China. above Four Thousand years: during which time, as they had many sharp Warrs with those of China, in which they were somtimes conquered, so also more often they remained Conquerers of the Provinces of that Nation.

I call that Nation Tartars, Who are the Tar­t [...]s. which inhabiting the Northern parts, behind that famous Wall which stretching out above 300. German Leagues from East to West, hath ever served for a Rampart to hinder their irrupti­ons into the said Empire.

This Country the Chineses ha­ving a defect of the letter R. an­tiently called Tata: comprehen­ding under this name as well the Oriental Tartars, hitherto unknown to us in Europe, as the Occidental, containing the Pro­vinces, Sumahania, Tanyu, Ni­uche, Niulhan, and the like, from the lesser Tartary, and Kingdom of Cascor, to the Oriental Sea a­bove Japony, where they are se­parated by the Streight of Ani­an, from Oviora in America; if yet it be a Streight and not a Continent.

But it is not my intention to write all the Warrs which have passed betwixt them; but only of such as have happned in our me­mory, and in my presence; All the rest shall appear at large in my Abridgement of the Histo­ry of China. And that we may proceed with more Order, it will be necessary to reflect, how and from whence those Trou­bles had their begining.

It is therefore first to be known,The Tar­tars con­quered China hereto­fore. that the antient Western Tartars (of whom Paulus Vene­tus, and Ayton make mention under the names of Cataye and Maningin) waged war against China after they had subdued al­most all Asia to their Power; and this before the times of great Tamberlain, Tamber­lain never tooke Chi­na. who never reigned in China as some have falsly [Page 4] writ; for he florished about the year MCCCCVI; in which time Taichangus, Emperour of China, and the second of the Tai­mingian Family (the Tartars be­ing before beaten out of his Kingdome) governed peaceably all the Provinces included with­in the compass of that Vaste Wall which before I mentio­ned.

But the War which Paulus Venetus toucheth, betwixt the Chineses and Tartars began in the year MCCVI. as their Hi­story and Chronology testify, which lasting 77. years, at last in the year MCCLXXVIII. having totally conquered all that potent Empire, they ex­tinguished the Imperial Family of the Sungas, and erected a new Regal Family, which they called Juena; of which Tarta­rian [Page 5] Race nine Emperors by de­scent,The Tar­tars Empe­ [...]ours of China. governed in the Kingdom of China for the space of LXX [...] years in Peace and Quietness; and about the end of that War, came Paulus Venetus into Chi­na with the Tartars, as appear­eth by his Writings.

In this tract of time, the Tar­tars forgetting their antient Vi­gour of Mind and warlike Spi­rits, which the pleasures and de­lices of that Country had quai­led and tamed, being also weak­ned by so long a Peace, became of a sweeter temper, and recei­ved a deep Tincture of the Na­ture and Disposition of the Na­tives of China.

Whereupon a contemptible person (who was servant to one of those deputed to offer Sacri­fice to their Idolls) called Hugh, presumed to rebell against them.

This man commiserating the condition of his enslaved Coun­try, and also touched with the ambition of Reigning, first acted the part of a Thief, or High-way man; and being of a Generous Nature, bold, and as quick at hand as in wit; wanted neither Courage, nor Art, nor Compa­nions, nor Fortune, to gather such a multitude as in short time made up the vast body of an Ar­my; whereupon deposing the person of a Thief, he became a General, and with a bold at­tempt presumed to set upon the Tartars, and having waged ma­ny Warrs against them, obtain­ed many singular Victories; so as in the year 1368. he finally drove them out of the Kingdom of China, receiving for so memo­rable an action, the whole Em­pire of China as a worthy reward of his Heroical Actions.

It was he first erected the Impe­rial Family of the Taiminges, and being he was the first Em­perour of that Race, stiled him­self by the name of Hunguus; which signifies as much as, The famous Warriour.

After such an illustrious Acti­on, it was no wonder if all the Provinces submitted to him, both as to one that was a Native of their Country, and also because they looked on him as a man who had redeemed them from Thraldome: for it is the Nature of the people of China to love and esteem their own, as much as they hate and vilify Stran­gers.

Wherefore he first placed his Court at Nanking neer to the bank of that great River of Ki­ang, which the Chineses, in re­spect of the huge Mountains of [Page 8] water which it discharges into the Ocean, call the Son of the Sea: And having speedily order­ed; and established that Empire, fearing no Insurrections from these new redeemed Creatures, he was not contented to have chased the Tartars out of China, but he made an irruption into Tartary it self, and so followed the point of his Victory, as that he routed them several times, wasted all their Territories, and finally brought the Oriental Tartars to such streights, as he forced them to lay down their Arms, to pay Tribute, and even begge an Ignominious Peace. This Storm of War fell chiefly on the Tartars of the Province of Niuche, whither the Tartars of China being expelled were retired.

And those Tartars every year, [Page 9] either as Subjects or Friends, came into China by the Province of Leaotung to traffick with the Inhabitants; For, being brought to poverty and misery, they thought no more of making war against China. The Merchan­dise they brought were several, as the root cal'd Ginsem, so much esteemed amongst the Chine­ses, and all sorts of pretious skins, as those of Castor, Martais & Zi­bellens; and also Horse-hair, of which the Chineses make their Nets, and the men, though mad­ly, use it in tying up their hair, as the handsomest dress they can appear in. But those Tartars multiplyed so fast, as they grew quickly into seven Governments which they called Hordes, as much as to say into seven Lord­ships, and these fighting one a­gainst another, at length about [Page 10] the year of Christ MDL. came to erect a Kingdom, which they called the Kingdome of Niuche.

Thus stood China in relation to the Eastern Tartars; but to the Western Tartars they payed Tribute masked under the Title of Presents, that they might de­sist from War;

For the Chineses esteem it ve­ry unhansom to make war a­gainst any, if by any other means their Country can be conserved in Peace and quietness, being taught this by their Philoso­phers.

But in the mean time, being over jealous of the Enemies to their antient riches,A great Garrison upon the Wall a­gainst the Tartars. they never left that great Wall, which ex­tends from East to West, with­out a Million of Sorelgers to guard it.

Therefore this Kingdom of [Page 11] China being thus established in the Taimingian Family,A long Peace in China. enjoyed a constant Peace and quietness for CCL. years, and whilst the seven Lords or Governors made Civil wars, that renowned Em­perour of China, known by the name of Vanley being the thir­teenth Emperour of Taiminges Family, governed happily the Kingdom of China from the year 1573. to the year 1620. with as much Prudence as Ju­stice and Equity.

But in this time the Tartars of Niuche had so multiplied and spred themselves,The Tar­tars think of inva­ding Chi­na. as that being incorporated into a Kingdome, they became daily more formi­dable to China: And therefore the Governors of the bordering Countries, consulted privatly a­mongst themselves how they might curb and restrain these [Page 12] people within their limits: For their Governors have so much Power and Authority, that al­though they live as Slaves to their Prince, yet when there is question of a Common and pub­lick good, they govern absolute­ly and uncontroulably; unless by some higher Powers their Or­ders be restrained.

First therefore the Prefects or Governors,The first cause of the Tarta­rian war. did abuse the Mer­chant's Tartars of Niuche when they came into Leaotung, which is a Province confines next to them.

The se­cond cause.Then again when the King of Niuche would have married his Daughter to another King of the Tartars, they hindred this mar­riage by representing some pre­tended reasons of State.

The third cause.And finally when the King of Niuche suspected nothing from [Page 13] them he conceived his friends, they took him by deceit, and kil­led him perfidiously.

Wherefore to revenge these in­juries,The first irruption of the Tar­tars into China. the Kings Son gathered a strong Army, & taking his time, found means to get over the great Wall I mentioned; and the great River being frozen, he presently set upon the great City Kaiyven, (or as others call it Taxun) which lies upon the Confines of Tartary, which he took in the year MDCXVI.

From this City he writ a Let­ter in Tartarian Characters to the Emperour of China, which though writ in Barbarian Cha­racters,The Tar­tars Pro­testation against China. yet contained nothing barbarous. By this Letter which he sent by one of their Indian Priests (whom they call Lama) in a very humble and submissive manner he declared to him, that [Page 14] he had invaded his Country to revenge the injuries he had received from the Governors of the neighbouring Provin­ces. But yet that he was rea­dy to restore the City he had taken, and depose his Arms, if his Complaints might be heard, and satisfaction given him. The Emperour of China, called Van­ley, having received this Letter, though otherwaies of an eminent wisdom, and of as great experi­ence, yet being now broken with Age, in this business seems to have proceeded with less Pru­dence than that which accompa­nied the former Actions of his life; For, thinking it not to be a business of that moment as it de­served to be treated before him in his own Court, he remitted the business to the chief Gover­nors and Commanders. And [Page 15] these men puffed up with their u­sual pride, thought it not sit so much as to give an answer to the Barbarian King, but resent­ed it very highly that any durst be so bold as to complain to the Emperor of any injury receiv'd.

The Tartarian King, seeing they vouchsafed no answer to his just Demands,The bar­barous and superstiti­ous Vow of the Tar­tarian King turning his anger into rage, vowed to celebrate his Fathers Funerals with the lives of two hundred Thousand of the Inhabitants of China. For it is the custom of the Tartars when any man of quality dyeth, to cast into that fire which consumes the dead Corps, as many Servants, Women, and Horses with Bows and Arrows, as may fit to a­tend and serve them in the next life: Though now since they conquered China, they have left off this barbarous custome, be­ing [Page 16] reprehended and corrected for it by the Chineses themselves. After this superstitious Vow, ad­vancing his revenging Arms, he besieged Leaotung The chiefe City of Le­aoyang be­sieged and taken. (which was the chief City of the Province of Leaoyang) with 50000 men. But the City was defended by exceeding many men, who ge­nerally were all armed with mus­quets: The Tartars had nothing but their Scymetars, with Bows and Arrows, which they dis­charge with strange dexterity & Art. But because they chiefly feared the musquet bullets, they resolved by a Stratagem to make that unknown Instrument less hurtfull to them than their Ene­mies did imagin.A Strata­gem a­gainst musquets. For the Tarta­rian King commanded such as made the first onset, to carry a thick hard board for their Shield, which was as good to them as a [Page 17] wooden Wall; these men were seconded by other Companies who carried Ladders to climb up the Walls; and the Horse came up in the Rear. In this manner he set upon the City in four quarters, and received the dis­charge of their Musquets against his Wooden wall; Then in a mo­ment the scaling ladders being applied, before they could charge again, they were upon the Walls and enterd the City; for such is the quickness and nimbleness of the Tartars (in which they excel all Nations, and in which also they place their chief art) that in a trice, they either prevail in their Designs, or retire: and the little skill the Chineses had in the use of Musquets, was no small hinderance to the War. For the Tartars quickness and nimblenes not giving them time to charge [Page 18] again, being astonished with the suddain inundation of armed men, they presently fled which way soever they could; but be­ing pursued by the swift Tartari­an Horse, most of them perished in the taking of this great City. This City being taken, the Tartar like a Torrent over-run many others of less note,Many o­ther Ci­ties taken. but amongst others, he took that noble City Evamg­ning, and over-runing most spee­dily the whole Country of Leao­tung, he entred the Province of Pekin, and coming within seven Leagues of the very Imperial Ci­ty, He durst not advance, fearing the Enemy might compas or sur­round him, because he heard that a world of men came in to help their distressed Prince. But the Tartar struck such a terrour into the hearts of all the Coun­tries he had passed, as both Soul­dier [Page 19] and Citizen leaving their Houses left the empty walls to the Tartarians possession, knowing the Tartar to have that custom and practice to de­stroy and put all to fire and sword that did resist, and only pillage the Cities that submitted,How the Tartars u­sed their conquered Towns. leaving the Citizens alive, and under a milder Go­vernment. By which means ha­ving collected a world of Riches he returned to Leaotung victori­ous. And because his Southsay­ers had perswaded him that the standing of the old Walls were unfortunate, he beat them down, and compassed them about with new, fortifying them with new Munitions, and there proclamed himself Emperour of China: The Tar­tar calls himself Emperour of China, An. 1618. For although as yet he had taken no­thing of China, but only the skirts of the Eastern Country of [Page 20] the Province of Leaotung, yet in his hopes and aspiring thoughts he had devoured the whole King­dom: wherefore he was called in the China language Theien­mingus in the third year of his Reign, which was in that of one thousand six hundred and eigh­teen.

In this year some in authority about the Emperour Vanley, de­manded the banishment of the Priests, who did then preach the Christian Religion to that Nati­on; But the Emperour (who in his heart loved Christianity, and those particularly that first plan­ted that Religion amongst them) gave no ear for a long while to their Demands; But at length overcome by the importunity of a chief Commander, who had e­ver been a sore Enemy to Chri­stian Religion, and was called [Page 21] Xinchio, it was ordeined and pro­clamed that all those Fathers that did propagate Christian Re­ligion should be banished the Kingdom. Upon which some of them were secretly concealed in several Provinces by some Chri­stian Governours,God puni­shed China for their persecuti­on of Chri­stians. others being taken were carried in great Cages to Macao, where being shut up day and night, suffered extremely, whilst others also be-being whipt out of the Country, rejoyced to suffer somthing for his sake whose name they bore; and that which added more af­fliction to all these miseries, was the Emperour Vanley's Prohibi­tion to all his to profess Christi­an Religion. But upon this oc­casion the Christians of China (who from the horrid wilder­ness of Infidelity, had been brought to the pleasant Pastures [Page 22] of Christianity) gave illustrious examples of their Faith & Con­stancy; but the longer Narration of this glorious persecution is re­served for another place. I only touch it here, to admire the Di­vine Providence of God, who raised so sharp War against Chi­na, when they neglected Christi­an Peace; and permited at the same time, these Tartars to take so deep a root in this Empire of China, as afterward grew to that height, as both to extirpate the Royal Family of the Taiminges, together with the Kingdom, at the very same time they went about utterly to destroy all Christiani­ty. But it happened in this, as or­dinarily it doth; for by this very persecution, Christian Religion grew to that height and great­ness, that the Church glories to behold, and unless God vouch­safe [Page 23] to lend a potent helping hand, the vast Kingdome of Chi­na is utterly overthrown.

In the mean time the Chineses were very solicitous to expell this Enemy from the bowells of their Country, and first they selected very chief and eminent men for Commanders and Governours; then they gathered an Army of six hundred thousand choise Sol­diers. The King of Corea also sent to the Emperour of China, twelve thousand; with this po­tent Army therefore they went out in the begining of March MDCXIX. to give Battail to the Enemy. The Tartars resol­ved to meet them with an undan­ted courage; and for a good while the event and victory was very doubtfull; but in the end the Army of China was wholly routed, and their chief Com­manders, [Page 24] with fifty thousand men were all slain: The Tartars according to their custome, pro­secute the victory with all quick­ness and diligence; for the same day they took and sacked two Cities which they burned. After this, they over-run that whole Country, and came to the very Walls of Pekin, the Emperours Court; but durst not venture to besiege it, because they knew (besides the infinite number of Canons it contained) there was lodged fourscore thousand Soul­diers in it.

But the Chineses confess that there was such a fear and con­sternation in the City, that the King thought to have left that City and gone into the Southern parts of the Kingdom, which he had effectually performed, had not some Commanders sugge­sted [Page 25] that his flight would give courage to the Victorious, and breed trouble and confusi­on in the whole Empire, being that to fly is nothing elfs but to yield up the Land to the Enemy. Nay more, they say the disorders were such in the City, that if the Tartar had come on, he infallibly had made himself Master of it. But the Enemy was more greedy of Prey, and therefore like a Lightening they over-run all, spoiling and burning all Towns and Cities, and killing and de­stroying an immense company of Chineses in a most cruell man­ner,The Tar­tars return with great Riches. and leaving all these places dismantled and without Garisons, laden with infinite Riches, they returned victorious to Leaotung, where they had their first foot­ing.

After these things had passed, [Page 26] that renouned emperour of Chi­na call'd Vanley died,The Em­perour Vanle [...] dies Taichangus succeeds and dyes. and left his Son Taichangus to succeed him; who begun to gather a new Ar­my against the Tartars; but after four moneths reign he also died.

To him succeeded Theinkius, Theinkius is chosen. who as soon as he assumed the Crown sent an Embassadour, with many magnificent Presents, and worthy of the China Monar­chy, to the King of Corea; The end of this Embassage was to thank him for the Auxiliary for­ces sent to his Grandfather, as also to comfort him for the loss he had received in the late service of China, and finally to solicite and presse for further succours; For it seems those of Corea, Those of Corea more valiant than the Chineses. as they are nearer to Ja­pony, so they participate more of that warlike Spirit and Forti­tude, than those of China doe.

Besides, that he might more ef­fectually divert the imminent danger of his Kingdoms ruin,New pre­parations against the Tartars. he leavied new Forces throughout all the Kingdom, which he sent into the Country of Leaotung, to hinder the irruption of the Tar­tars any further into the Coun­try; And for their better supply with necessary Provision, he maintained a great Navy in the Haven of Thiencin to carry Corn and other necessaries for their maintenance. This Port of Thi­encin The Port of Thien­cin very commodi­ous. is a Station to which an in­credible number of ships resort, both by Sea and River, from all parts of China. So as by this means, by a very short and com­pendious way, they were easily provided with all necessaries. For all the whole Country of Leaotung is almost invironed with the Sea, and the furthest [Page 28] part is but two daies distant by wa­ter from this Port of Thiencin; but by land far more time is necessary.

Amongst other Commanders which came with succours to their Prince,The vali­ant Ama­zon of Chi­na. there was one He­roick Lady, whom we may well call the Amazon or Penthesile­an of China. She brought along with her three thousand, from the remote Province of Suchuen carrying all not only Masculine minds, but mens habits also, and assumed Titles more becoming men than women. This noble and generous Lady, gave many rare proofs of her courage and valour, not only against these Tartars, but also against the Re­bells which afterwards riss a­gainst their Lord and Emperour. But now she came in this War to supply her Sons place, whom she left at home in his own King­dome, [Page 29] as being yet a Child, and not able to perform that Ho­mage and Duty to which he was obliged. For in the mountains of the Country of Suchuen there is a King, not subject to him of China, but an absolute Prince; yet so as he receives the Honor and Title of a King from the Emperour of China; after which Investiture, his Subjects only o­bey him and pay Tribute; But because they surpass all others in Valour and Courage, therefore they are used by the Kings of China in warlick Affairs.

By occasion of this war the two noble Christian Doctors,The first invention of the Christians to advance Christia­nity. Paul and Michael, found means to perswade the Emperour to demand of the Portugeses of Ma­cao, some greater Pieces, and al­so some Gunnes and Gunners; hoping by this means also to re­store [Page 30] the banished Fathers of Christianity, as also the Religi­on it self. And their Proposition took effect, for both the one and the other were sent for, and the Fathers publickly admitted a­again, and many new Souldiers of Portugal came to help the Ar­my.

But God did most abundant­ly recompence this favour done to Christianity; For before the Portugese arrived, his Army had cast the Tartars out of the Coun­try of Leaotung, by means of the Inhabitants of that Country, who being much exasperated by the Tartarians cruelty,The Tar­tars are cast out. opened their City Gates as soon as the King of China's Army appeared, and rising against their Garison, gave entrance to the Army. In­somuch as they recovered the Metropolitan Town of Leaotung; [Page 31] For the King of Tartary being diverted by other Wars at home could not come soon enough to relieve it: So as by this means the affairs of China began to recover Life, and Strength, and the Tar­tars seemed wholly restrained.

But though Fortune seemed to shew a smiling face for China, The Tar­tars make war again. yet, as her custome is, she stood not long constant and stable: For the Tartarian King having dis­patched his affairs in Tartary, sent presently sixty thousand Horse to besiege Leaoyang a­gain; promising that himself in person would follow with greater Forces.They be­seige Lea­oyang, and take it And this Army took that strong City in the space of forty hours; both par­ties fighting with such vigour and fierceness, that thirty thou­sand of the Garison were killed, and the Tartars lost about twen­ty [Page 32] thousand of theirs. Nay the Chi­neses affirm, that they had never woon the City, had not the Go­vernor been corrupted by great promises of reward, to open them one of the Gates of the Town. But be it as it will, the Tartars woon the Town; The Vice-Roy hanged himself for grief. But the Kings Visitor, judging it unworthy to bestow the Title of a King upon the Barbarian, Constancy rewarded by the E­nemy. In admiration and re­ward of his Constancy and Fi­delity, obtained life and free­dom, but he knowing that accor­ding to the custom of China, he was guilty of death, because he had fought unluckily, more cruel to himself than the barbarous Enemy, hanged himself in his own Garters.

The Tartars having taken the City, proclamed by Edict, that [Page 33] they should kill none, if they would cut their hair, and use the Tartarians Habit.The Tar­tars Habits and Man­ners. For the Tar­tars (that I may say something of their Manners, as my subject gives me occasion) doe shave both the Head and Beard, reser­ving only the Mustachoes, which they extend to a great length, and in the hinder part of their heads they leave a Tuff, which being curiously woven and pla­ted, they let hang down careles­ly below their shoulders; they have a round and low Cap, which is alwaies garnished round with some pretious skin three fin­gers broad, of Castor, or Zibellin, and serveth to defend their Tem­ples, Ears, and Foreheads from colds and other Tempests. That which appears above the skin being covered over either with curious red silke, or else with [Page 34] black and purple horse-hair, which they die and dress most curiously; so as their appurte­nances being handsomely joy­ned together, makes the capp both commodious and handsom. Their Garments are long Robes falling down to the very foot, but their sleeves are not so wide and large as the Chineses use; but rather such as are used in Polony, & Hungary, only with this diffe­rence, that they fashion the ex­tremity of the Sleeve, ever like a Horse his Hoof. At their Gir­dle there hangs on either side two Handkerchiefes to wipe their face and hands; besides, there hangs a Knife for all ne­cessary uses, with two Purses, in which they carry Tobacco, or such like Commodities. On their Left side they hang their Scymiters, but so as the point goes before, [Page 35] and the handle behind, and there­fore when they fight they draw it out with the right hand behind them without holding the Scab­bard with the other. They sel­dome were Shoes, and use no Spurrs to their Boots, which they make either of Silk, or of Horse-skin very neatly drest; but they often use fair Pattins, which they make three Fingers high. In riding they use Stir­rups, but their Saddles are both lower and broader than ours; Their faces are comely, and commonly broad as those of China also have; their colour is white, but their Nose is not so flat, nor their eyes so little, as the Chineses are; They speak lit­tle, and ride pensively. In the rest of their manners they resem­ble our Tartars of Europe, though they be nothing so barbarous. [Page 36] They rejoice to see Strangers; They no way like the grimness and soureness of the Chines gra­vity, and therefore in their first aboads they appear more human.

Having thus briefly described their Manners, we resume our former discourse, and return to the victorious Tartars in the Ci­ty they had takens; In which, find­ing many rich and wealthy Mer­chants of other Provinces, they published a Licence that they might depart with their Goods, and withall commanded them speedily to voyd the City; Who presently obeying the Order, carried away all their Goods and Riches,The Tar­tars perfi­diousnes. little suspecting the per­fideous treachery of the Tartars; For they had not gone three miles from the Town, but being set upon by the Tartars, they were plundred of their Goods, [Page 37] and lost all their lives; which be­ing done, they returned into the fearfull City, laden with Riches, the Citizens trembling, lest they might happily experience the like perfidiousnes.

But the Tartar considering at how dear a rate he had bought the mastering of that City, and fearing also to find the like pro­vision and preparation in other Cities, they durst not make any further attempt; for they knew well that the Emperour had not only fortified all the antient pla­ces, but erected also new muni­titions, in the straights of many hard and rude passages.

And amongst all other strong holds, that of Xanghai, situated in the Island of Cu, was most emi­nent, containing a vast number of men in the Garrison, to resist the further progresse of the Tartari­an [Page 38] Forces. But that which most of all repressed the Tartars, was the great valour of the incompa­rable Commander Maovenlun­gus, who having with his great Fleet taken an Island neer Corea in the mouth of the River Yalo, The vali­antest Comman­der of Chi­na. vexed much their Army in the Rear, and was victorious in se­veral Skirmishes against them; so that the Tartars bent all their care and thoughts against this their Enemy. This renowned person was born in the Province of Evangtung, where being near the Portugese of Macao, he had much perfected himself in the art of war, and he brought with him many great peices of Artil­lerie, which he had recovered from the Shipwrack of a Holland Ship, upon the Coasts of that Territorie. And because the Emperour of China had declared [Page 39] the City of Ninguyven to be the chief in place of Leaoyang (where also he had placed a new Vice-Roy, and his Royal Visitor) therefore Maovenlungus placed the best part of his Artillarie up­on the Walls of this City.

The Tartars therefore acted nothing till the year 16 [...]5▪ and because they resolved to besiege the new Metropolitan City of Ninguyven, they first resolved to trie Maovenlungus his fidelitie;The faith­fulnes of the Com­manders in China. offering him half of the Empire of China if he would help them to gain it; But that noble Soul of his, proved as faithfull as valiant, by rejecting those Demands with indignation; and came pre­sently with his Forces to succour the City Ninguyven which they besieged; by which means,The over­throw of the Tar­tars. the Tartars having lost ten thousand men, were put to the flight; and [Page 40] among the rest, the King of Tar­tary's own Sonn was killed. Wherefore being furious with anger, they passed the frozen Sea, and invaded the Island Thaoyven, where they killed ten thousand that kept Garrisons there, toge­ther with all the Inhabitants; and by this one Act,Their Cruelty. having reven­ged their former discomfiture, they returned into Tartary, not with a resolution to sit still, but with an intention to return with greater Forces; By which re­straint, all things remained quiet till the year 1627. in which the Emperour Thienkius dyed in the flow'r of his age, and with him the whole Empire of China seemed to fall to ruin and destru­ction;The Kings of China, and Tarta­ry both di­ed. and in the same year, the King of the Tartars, who had cruelly murdered many men, himself augmented the number of the dead.

After Thinkius, in the Em­pire of China, succeeded that un­happy Emperour Zungchinius, Zungchini­nius cho­sen Empe­rour of China. brother to the former, of whom more hereafter. And after Thi­enmingus King of Tartary, suc­ceeded Thienzungus his Son,Thienzun­gus more milde than his Prede­cessors. who changed the manner of his Fathers Government, and by good Counsel began to govern the Chineses in a curteous and sweet manner; but though he lived not long, yet he served for a good example for his Sonn to Conquer China more by Ci­vilitie and Humanitie, than by force of Arms.

In this year, great Maoven­lungus Soldiers being insolent by want of action,The Sol­diers Inso­lencies ex­asperat the Country of Corea. grew very troublesom and offensive by their Rapines and Disorders to the Coreans, who were friends & Al­lies; and particularly they much [Page 42] exasperated the Province of Hi­enkin, insomuch that some of the Inhabitants of that place, moved with indignation of se­veral passages, secretly treated with the Tartarian King to in­vade the Chineses Army, in the habit and attire of the Inha­bitants of Corea, from whom they could expect no Treason, being leaguerd with them in friendship and amitie: promi­sing moreover their best assi­stance to effect this mischief, to him that was a Traitour both to Country, King, and the Empe­rour of China. But this Counsel pleased the Tartar, and therefore he sent a Vice-Roy with a potent Army,The Tar­tars are brought into Corea. to which the Coreans shewed the waies, and guided them through all the passages; who falling upon the Chineses Armie (which suspecting no­thing, [Page 43] was divided, and many stragling up and down the Coun­trie) made a huge Carnage a­mongst them. But when Mao­venlungus percieved they were Tartars, he presently made head, and gathered a Body of an Ar­mie together, and vigorously op­posed all those sharp assaults. But yet at length he was forced to yield the Field; and therefore leaving a Regiment or two to hold the Enemie in action whilst his Army retreated, he fled to his Ships, and to the Island which he had Fortified. The Tartars were vexed and grieved, both to see their victory so bloo­dy, and also that Maovenlungus, whom they chiefly aimed at, had escaped with most of his Army; and therefore enraged with An­ger, they fell upon the Corean Traitors, and killed every man; [Page 44] which action the King of Tartary much condemned; and then turn­ing their wrath to the four Nor­thern Provinces, which border upon Tartary, Corea wa­sted. they wasted and destroyed them all in a moment.

In the mean time the King of Corea gathered an Army to resist the Tartars; and Maovenlungus also, having recruited his Forces, came into Corea to revenge the received loss. The victorious Tartars were come within seven Leagues of the principallest City of all Corea. But finding the King to have taken the Straights and Passages of the Mountains which lead unto it, they desperat­ly resolved to force their passage. The Battel was hardly begun, but Maovenlungus, after a long march, falls in upon their rear: and the Tartars finding them­selves encompassed before and [Page 45] behind, nor any means to escape but by dint of Sword, fought most desperatelie, sustaining the shock of two Armies; And such a Battel was fought, as China ne­ver saw; for, (it is strange to write, yet very true) of the three Armies, none was victorious, but all in a manner destroyed.The Fight and slaughter of 3 Armies. Of the Tartarian Armie fifty thou­sand were found wanting; The Corean Armie lost seventy thou­sand; and few or none escaped of the Chineses Armie; For their Quarter being most commodious for the Tartars flight, they there made their most vigorous Char­ges, and so forced their way to­wards their own Countrie. So as none of them all gained the field, or could prosecute the course of a Victorie. Yet the King of Corea made a shift to rallie so many to­gether again, as to take possession [Page 46] of those his Countries which the Tartarians by their flight had left desolate. But the Tartars after all the losses, ceased not to make frequent inrodes into the Coun­try of Leaotung, The Ea­stern part of Leoa­tung is un­der the Tartar. and took all the Oriental part of it. From thence they made incursions into the o­ther part, and carried away great Preys and Booties; But they were alwaies so beaten, and so defea­ted, as they could never fix a con­stant habitation. For by this time were arrived seven excellent Gunners from the Portugese quarters,The Por­tugese send succour. which both by them­selves, and by teaching the Chi­neses, advanced infinitly the King of China his Affairs; espe­cially where that Christian Vice-Roy, called Sun Ignatius, Com­mander in chief, of whose affairs we shall say somthing hereafter

In this conjuncture of affairs, [Page 47] the Emperour Zungchinius sent a new Commander called Yvenus into Leaotung, A crafty Comman­der of the China Ar­my. with a new Armie and full power to conclude a Peace with the Tartars, if they would admit it: For the disor­ders of the times had caused so many needy persons, Theevs, and Cut-throats, that the Empe­rour grew more anxious how to suppress this great domestick E­nemie, which seemed to aim at the Kingdoms ruin, than he was of the Tartarian Forces. This Yvenus was a crafty and subtill wit, most eloquent both in speak­ing and writing; who by politick discourses, drawn from the na­ture of this war, had wrought so much, not only upon the Empe­rours mind, but also upon all the Councill, that they esteemed what he concluded as a Law to be observed: Wherefore the [Page 48] Chineses put all their confidence in him; nor had they been frustra­ted of their hopes, had not this wicked man been more wedded to his own interest, and love of Riches, than to the publick good, & fidelitie to his Prince: For first he received of the Tartars a vast Summe of gold; which wrought so much upon him, as that ha­ving invited to a Banquet that most Valorous and Faithfull Champion Maovenlungus, Maoven­lungus poi­soned. whom the Tartars only feared, he there poisoned that great Comman­der.

After this he made a most ig­nominious and shamefull Peace with the Tartars, condescending to all that those that fed him with Riches, could desire; But when the Emperour had perused the Treatie, he presently found his Plenipotentiarian had sold [Page 49] him, and therefore refused to ra­tifie or confirm the Articles. What should Yvenus act in this exigent? That he might force the Emperour to admit them, he peswaded the Tartars, in the year 1630. to enter China by another Country than that which was committed to his charge, promising them for his part, he would no way hinder their progresse by his Army. The Tartars knew that his ava­rice had so potent an Ascendent over him, as that they need to fear no hurt from him; and upon that Confidence admitted of his Counsell. Wherefore being se­cure from all assaults from any Enemie behind them, they en­tered the Province of Peking, and besieged the Kings Court:The Kings Court be­sieged. Inso­much that his Councel perswa­ded him to leave the Imperial [Page 50] City, and retire to the Southern Provinces; but he protested he would rather die, than quit the Northern quarters; and not on­ly so, but he forbid any to depart the Court, or Town besieged. In the mean time the Tartars make many fierce affaults, and as often were valiantly beaten back with great loss and Carnage. Yvenus was called to resist the Tartars, for as yet his Traiterous Complots were not discovered. And lest he should discover his Treason, he comes with his Ar­mie neer the very Walls, which were of so vast an extent, as both the Chinese and Tartars Armie might perfectly be discerned, though betwixt them there was a great Intervall. But though Y­venus was under the Emperours eye, yet he acted little; for his only aim was to return home la­den [Page 51] with Riches, he never desi­sted to perswade the Emperour to admit his conditions of Peace. So that the Emperour finding him evidently to be a Traitor, disclosing his intention to none of his Councell nor Governors, sends to invite him to a pri­vat Councel of war, giving also order that he should be admitted into the Citie by the Walls, lest if any Gate should be open, the Tartar being so neer might press in upon them; but indeed he or­dered the business in this man­ner, lest he should bring his Ar­mie into the City with him. Yve­nus therfore knowing he had ma­ny chief men about the Empe­rours person, who were both his favourites and friends, and that none of them gave him the least sign of any distast the Emperor might conceive against him, he [Page 52] boldly and securely presented himself at Court; and as soon as he appeared, he was presently arrested, and after some few questions, the Emperour com­manded him to be kil'd.The perfi­dious Ge­neral kil­led. The Tar­tars hearing of his death (before the China Armie had a new Ge­neral assigned) ransack all the Country round about, and after they had made excursions to the next bordering Province of Xan­tung, The Tar­tars for­rage all the Coun­try of Pe­king and depart. richly laden with all man­ner of Spoiles, they returned to their first residence in Leaotung.

And from these times till the year 1636. the event of their Warrs was very various; but in general we observe, that the Tar­tars could never fix a foot in Chi­na, The King of Tartary dies; ano­ther suc­ceeds. but they were presently bea­ten out again. In this same year Thienzungus, King of the Tar­tars died, after whom, succeeded [Page 53] his Son Zungteus, father to him that now governs China, of whom we now must begin to Treat.

This Prince before his Reign expressed much judgement in se­verall Occurrences,Zungteus the new King of Tartary, prudent & milde. surpassing all the Kings of Tartary in Hu­manity, and obliging curtesie: For when he was young, he was sent by his Father into China; where he lived secretly, and learned the China's Manners, Doctrine and Language; and when he came to be Emperour of China, he changed, and far surpassed all the Examples of his Predecessors: For having obser­ved, that their too hard and cruel usage of the Chineses, had been the principal obstacle of their ad­vancement, to the end he might conquer that Empire he so much thirsted after, as well by love as [Page 54] by Arms, he curteously enter­tained and cherished all those of China which came unto him,Mildeness and Gen­tleness to be used in Conquer­ing Nati­ons. u­sing all Prisoners with great sweetnes, and invited them either to submit freely to his Govern­ment, or take their course with full freedom. The fame of his humanity was spred far and neer; which induced many Commanders and chief Officers to fly unto him; by whose means and help, he became Emperour of that spacious and florishing Country. For experience shews us, that Love and Humanity doe work more upon mens hearts, in conquering and con­serving Kingdomes, than Arms; and cruelty of the Conquerors hath lost that, which strength of Arms had happily subdued. Wherefore when the Chineses came to understand that the King [Page 55] of Tartary did not only afford them a Sanctuary, but a favoura­ble Haven, many great persons flying the Indignation of the King of China, sheltered them­selves under the Tartars prote­ction. For in respect of the Chi­na's Avarice and perfidiousness, it's a necessary but a most inhu­mane Maxim,A barba­rous Prin­ciple of the Chine­ses. that those Offi­cers perish, who have managed the Kingdomes Affairs with less success. For they easily are brought to believe, that such un­happy events, do not proceed so much from the frown of a scorn­full Goddess called Fortune, as it doth from the perfidy and negligence of the Commanders. So as if any fought unhappily, or if he lost the Country commit­ted to his charge, if any Sedi­tion or Rebellion happened, the Governors hardly ever escaped [Page 56] alive. Seeing therefore they found so much Humanity in the Tartar, and so much Inhumanity in the Emperor, they rather chose to fly to the former.

By this occasion give me leave to relate what happened to that incomparable Commander (re­nouned both for Fidelity and Fortitude) called Ignatius. Ignatius the chief Comman­der of the Christians unjustly killed. This Heroick mind preferd his fideli­tie to his Prince, before his life, before the Tartarian's protecti­on, yea even before the strength of his formidable Army; and chose rather, with his unparallel'd Fidelity, to submit his head to a Block by an unjust sentence, than to abandon his Country, or once accuse the least default in his So­vereign's judgment,Ignatius his fidelity. though pre­vented, by very unjust impressi­ons: He might perchance have swayed the Sovereign Scepter of [Page 57] China, if he would have hear­kened to his Souldiers, but he rather chose to die gloriously, than to be branded with the name of a Traitor in posterity.

This man therefore after he had gained several Victories a­gainst the Tartars, and recover­ed many Cities from their posses­sion, so as he hoped shortly who­ly to extirpate them out of Chi­na, His Souldiers being long without pay, seditiously plun­dred and pillaged a Town which had ever been faithfull to the K. Ignatius by several petitions and Remonstrances to the Emperour, had declared his wants of mony, and their want of Pay; but be­cause he fed not those venal souls that managed the business with mony and presents, they alwaies suppressed his humble addresses for relief. Besides, this man be­ing [Page 85] a very pious Christian, he did nothing in his government,Ignatius his Piety. but what was conform to Rea­son and Justice; which was the cause he incurred the hatred of all the antient Prefects; who usu­ally receiving Bribes from the contesting parties, demanded fa­vour of Ignatius for their Cli­ents. But it was in vain to inter­cede for any, unless the justness of the cause did also ballance their Petitions. And these men attributing this proceeding, not to vertue, but to his Pride, think­ing themselves undervalued by him, dealt under-hand with the Prefects in the Court, to stop the Armies pay, that so they might destroy this innocent man. More­over, he was envied the Com­māders in the very Court, because he came to this eminent dignitie by his own valour and industrie; [Page 95] which they imagined was only to be given to Doctors, and Ignati­us was but a Batchelor; as if the most learned must needs be also the most valorous. In this conjun­cture of affairs, the Souldiers not contented with the seditious pil­lage, seeing the most imminent danger hanging over their most esteemed and beloved Gover­nour, by reason of their folly, they go about to perswade him to make himself King of that Country, nay more, to take the whole Empire to himself, as a thing due to his Prowess and Merits; promising their whole strength to effect the business; and also to extirpate those men about the Emperour, that aimed more to compass their malicious ends, than to promote the general affairs of the Empire: But Igna­tius, by pious admonitions, sta­ved [Page 60] them off from further vio­lence, made them obedient and quiet, commanded all to stand faithfull to the Emperour of Chi­na, and punished the chief of that fedition.

This Supreme act of fidelity deserved a better esteem and ac­ceptance, than that which was framed by the Emperour and his Court: who slighting this his allegeance, sent another Vice­Roy in his place, and comman­ded him to appear in Court: He then perceived they aimed at his life; and the Souldiers suspected the business; and therefore, mad with anger, they all jointly rose in Arms for hm, swearing they would live and die with him, and that he should not present him­selfe at Court. It is our duty (say they) to conserve thy life, which hast been so carefull of ours; and [Page 61] we have strength and courage e­nough to resist all the force of thy perfidious Enemies.

But Ignatius was deaf to al these allurements,He chuses rather to die, thatn either to reign, or to serve the Tar­tars. and studied by all means to sweeten their exulcera­ted minds; alwaies inculcating to them to the true and loyall to their Sovereigns service: chusing rather to water that ungratefull Soil of his native Country with the streams of his Blood, than either to spill his Enemies blood by the force and pow'r of his Souldiers, or retire to the Tarta­rian king, which offered him so fair preferments. But many of his Captains fell off to the Tar­tars; following, in this, not his example, but that of many o­thers, whom they saw eminently promoted amongst the Tartars. Some of those that then fled from the Emperour, are now [Page 62] chief Commanders under the Tartarian King, in their Chi­na Empire; some also have ob­tained the dignity of Princes, or Riolets in several Countries, for the reward of their Valour and faithfull service against China. So efficacious is that wedge which is made of the same wood.

But although hitherto these Tartarian Warrs had caused great troubles and tempests in the China Empire, yet all things now seemed calmed and pacified, so as they seemed secure from any fur­ther danger; for the Western part of Leaotung was strongly forti­fied, and there was a great Army in the Island of Cu, and the bor­dering quarters, which hindered the Tartars of the Eastern part of the Countrie, which they po­sessed, from further passage. But now the chiefest danger was [Page 63] from the Traitors and Theeves which were in the very Bowells of the Country,The Theeves in China, a chief occa­sion of its overthrow. who finally de­stroyed it; and gave it up in Prey to the Tartars.

I touched somthing of their Commotions before, now we must treat a little more largely of their proceedings, that the Reader may see how the Tartars came to subdue and conquer Chi­na.

The first Combination of these Rovers appeared in the remote Country of Suchuen, Severall Theeves. who having pillaged divers Cities, and em­boldened by prosperous success, ventured to besiege the chief Ci­ty of that Country call'd Cingtu, which they had infallibly taken, if that valiant Amazon, whom I mentioned before, had not come to relieve it with her Army; but by her valour they were beaten [Page 64] off with great loss,They are defeated, but not v [...]qui­shed. and not being wholly extinguished, they retired into the moūtains to recruit their Forces. These were seconded by a like Race of people in the Pro­vince of Queicheu, who took oc­casion of rising by reason of an unjust Sentence passed in a Sute betwixt two Grandees of that Country; and one of these great persons being offended with the Governors. These roving com­panions, first kill'd all the Magi­strates which had pronounced that unjust Sentence; & then they defeated the ViceRoy his Army; yet afterwards he routed them a­gain with a new Army, but could not extinguish them. Besides these,Famin augments the Theevs the Famin increasing in the Northern quarters in the Coun­tries of Xensi & Xantung, by reason of a great inundation of Locusts which devoured all, there rise up [Page 56] by this occasion, many loose fel­ [...]owes which lived by Rapin. These men at first were few in number, and small in strength, and only preying in little places, they presently fled to the Moun­tains; but finding they got both Meat and Riches, with little la­bour and less cost, they quickly got Companions to reinforce them; This Sedition being much augmented by the Emperour Zungchinius his notable avarice,And the Emperour his avarice who so exhausted the people by Imposts and Taxes, as if it had been a year of the golden Age. The Prefects of the Provinces, not being able presently to re­press the insolency of those peo­ple, they daily increased in cou­rage and strength; Insomuch as in several Countries they had eight very considerable Armies. They chose the strongest and va­liantest [Page 66] men amongst them for their Commanders; and these persons being grown rich and potent by preying, deposed now the person of the Ringleader of Theeves,The Com­manders aspire to the Em­pire. and aspired to no less than to the Empire of China. And at first they fought one against another, every one laying hold one what he could: But at length things were brought to that pass, that two of the Commanders be­ing only left alive, these two pre­vailed with the souldiers of those that were killed, to follow their Ensignes and Fortune; and they knowing well that if they were taken by the Emperors Officers, they could not escape a most cer­tain death, easily resolved to shelter themselves under the Arms of these two victorious persons.The names of the chief Felons. The name of one of these chief Brigands was Licungzus, the [Page 67] second was called Changhien­chungus, two notorious bold roguish fellows, who lest they should destroy one anothers for­tunes by their ambitious emula­tion, they separated themselves far from one another, resolving both to persue their prosperous fortunes. Licungzus therefore possessed himself of the Northern parts of Xensi and Honan; and the other tyrannised the Coun­tries of Suchuen and Huquang. But that we may not interrupt our discourse, by delivering the Acts of both these together, we will first treat of Licungzus his feats, being it was he was the cause of the Tartars coming to the Em­pire (which he himself might have possessed, if his proceedings had been moderate and human) and of the other we shall speak hereafter. Therefore in the year [Page 68] 1641. these pilferers having got immense riches in the Province Xensi, made an irruption, in a vast body, into that delicious sweet Provincs of Honan, They vex several Provinces. and went strait to the chief City cal­led Caifung, which they besieg­ed. There was in that place a ve­ry great and strong Garison, who by the benefit of artillerie moun­ed upon hand-wheeling Chars, forced them to quit the siege; then they fell upon all the neigh­bouring Cities, Plundring, spoil­ing, and burning all they could master. Having horded up store of provision of Corn, and aug­mented their Army by a compa­ny of Rascally Vagabonds and loytering fellows,They be­siege the noble Ci­ty Caifung. they returned again to besiege the Metropolitan City; but despairing to take it by Force or assaults, they resolved to ruin it by a long Siege, that [Page 69] they might enjoy the immense Riches of that noble City; and though this Town be three great Leagues in circumference, yet they rounded it so by their lines, as nothing could enter the City; this drave them to some straits, for although the Purveyer for victualls had brought in good store of provision in the two moneths space in which they were absent, yet because that Province which used to be most plentifull, was lean in Corn, they could not make suffi­cient provision for six moneths siege, for such an infinite multi­tude of people as were retired within the Walls; Yet it held out most obstinately for the space of six moneths, in which time though they were brought to hard shifts, yet hoping alwaies for succour from their Emperor, [Page 70] they would never submit to any conditions. I dare not relate to what an excesse this Famin came too, but it seems it surpassed the Famin of Hierusalem; An un­heard of Famin. a pound of Rice was worth a pound of Silver, & a pound of any old rot­ten skin was sold at ten Crowns; dead mens flesh was sold publike­ly in the Shambles as Hogs flesh, and it was held an act of Piety to expose the dead in the Streets for others to feed on, who shortly were to be food for others; but I will pass over, & conceal yet more horrible things than I have rela­ted. This City lies towards the South side of that vast & precipi­tate River which the Chineses call Hoang, because the Streams al­waies appear of a yellowish saf­fron colour; & because the River is higher than the plain levell downs, of a Leagues distance from [Page 71] the Town, they built upon the Ri­ver side, a long & strong Bulwark of great square stones, to prevent all inundations. The Emperours Army, after long expectation, came to relieve the Town, and advanced as far as these Bul­warks, and having considered the situation of the Country and Enemies Camp, it was thought the fittest and easiest way to raise the siege without giving battail, to let in the water upon the Ene­mies Army, by some breaches made in that long Wall or Bul­wark. It was in Autumn when they took this resolution, and the River, by reason of extraordina­ry rains, was swoln bigger than ever before; and they making the Sluces, or Inlets, too great, and the Breackes too wide, gave way to such an Ocean of water as it overrun the [Page 72] Walls of the Town (which were very stately and high) involving not only many of the Enemies in its ruin and destruction,The City of Caifung is drowned but also 300000.. men, and the Ci­ty it self perished in those floods of water. So the antient City, which heretofore had been ho­nored by the Emperor's Resi­dence, appeared no more a place of pleasure, but a vast Pool or Lake for Monsters of the waters to inhabit; for the houses of the Town were not over-run with water, but also beaten down; and also the Church of the Christi­ans, together with their Priest, who was one of the Society of Jesus; it was well known he might have saved himself, but being there were many Christi­ans perished, he willingly chose to die with those he had gained. The destruction of this City [Page 73] happened the ninth of Oct. 1642. about which time this famous Conductor of Theeves took the name of King,The Ge­neral of the Theeves▪ takes the Title of a King. with an addition of Xunvang, which sounds as much as Prosperous, and so was stiled Licungzus the prosperous; and having in a manner taken all the Country of Honan into his Dominion, he returned into the Province of Xensi, He takes the Coun­try of Xen­si. and wonn it wholy to his subjection. When he came to Sigan, which is the Metropolitan of Xensi, he found some resistance from the Garri­son, but he took it in three daies, and for a reward and encourage­ment to his Souldiers, he gave it to them to pillage also for three daies space; and then he gather­ed up all the Corn of the whole Province, as well to keep all the Country in their duty to him, as also to leave no Forrage for the [Page 74] Emperours Army. And now thinking himself secure of the whole Empire, he took the name of Emperour upon him,Calls him­self Em­perour. and sti­led the Family wherein he thought to establish this Dignity, Thienxunam, as much as to say, Obedient to Heaven; By which Title he perswaded the Souldi­ers and the People, that it was by the disposall of the Heavens that he should reign, that he might deliver the people from the Emperours Avarice, and extirpate those wicked Gover­nours that so much vexed the people, and deliver them from all their perfidious Plots. For he knew well, that this Glo­rious Title would be very accep­table to them of China, who be­lieve that Kingdoms and Em­pires come only from Heaven, and are not gained by any Art or [Page 75] Industry of Man; and that his actions might carry a face corre­spondent to his illustrious Title, he began to use the People with all humility and sweetness,The Theeves good Go­vernment. not permitting any Souldier to wrong or iujure them; only he persecuted all the Officers call'd Presidents, which he could find, and all those he put to death; and as for those that had been Presi­dents, because he found them rich, he made them pay great Fines, and let them live; remit­ting all Taxes in the places he subdued; severely commanding that the Subjects should be trea­ted with all Civility and Curte­sie. So as all men applauding and loving so sweet and milde a Government, easily submitted to his Power and Dominion; but where the Governours use Tyran­ny, there the Subject hath little [Page 76] care of Fidelity. There were in the City two Priests which ser­ved the Christians, that were Jesuits, and suffered much in the saccage of the City; but being afterwards known for Strangers, they were used with all humani­ty.

In the mean time a third cause of this Empires ruin grew up in the Court;The Pre­fects Dis­cord was another cause of the ruin of China. which was hatched in the Emperour Thienkius his time: For that Emperour exalted an Eunuch called Gueio, to such a height and power, as he gave the absolute Power and so­veraign Command into his hands, and passed so far as allway to stile him by the name of Fa­ther. This extravagant power caused much Envy, Dissention, and the banding one against ano­ther amongst the Governours, Presidents, Commanders, and [Page 77] Counsellours: and the Eunuch also added much to incense the flame, by his indiscreet usage of the favour he possessed; for if a­ny man had touched him, either in word or writing, or expressed less respect unto him in conver­sation, or behaviour, or did not flatter the base fellow, he would presently give order to put him to death, though he were a very eminent person; or at least de­grade him from all Office or Dignity. By which means he ex­asperated many, and amongst the rest he offended the Prince Zunchinius, who now, by the death of his Brother without is­sue, was come to be Emperour of China. This Emperour knew that the Eunuch had moved Heaven and Earth to hinder his coming to the Crown; but seeing he could not effect that, at least [Page 78] he maintained a seditious faction against the great ones; which finally proved the destruction of the Estate; For these men band­ing in two factions, studied more how to destroy one another, than to advance the publique good; yet both parties pretended the ge­neral good, but both neglected it; Every party endeavouring to ex­toll and exalt his own Creatures into places of trust and power: All which when Zunchinius the Emperour went about to redresse, he exasperated the minds of many of the Commanders against him; for as soon as he came to the Crown he cruelly persecuted all that favoured the Eunuch, and in fine killed this very Eunuch which had been his Predecessors Favou­rite, together with many more of his kind; of which Tragedy I will only relate the Catastrophe. The [Page 79] Emperour Zungchinius resol­ving to destroy both the Eunuch and all his power, sent him an order to go visit the Tombs of his Ancestors, to consider if any of those antient Monuments wanted reparation: the Eunuch could not refuse so honorable an imployment, which seemed ra­ther an addition to all his honours; but he had not gone far upon his journey, but there was presented to him (from the Emperour) a Box of silver gilt, with a Halter of Silk folded up in it; by which he un­derstood he was to hang himself by the Emperors order: which he could not refuse, being that kind of death (amongst the Chineses) is counted honourable, when it is accompanied with such formali­ties. But by this occasion the Emperour raised new Factions and more Traitors, which held [Page 80] secret correspondence with the Theeves Army. Hence it came to pass, that no Army was sent to oppose them, or if any went they did no manner of action, being alwaies hindered by the e­mulation of others; nay it hap­pened often, that when they might have taken great advan­tages, yet the occasion was neg­lected, lest the Commanders should increase their Power and Credit, by their Victories, with the Emperour. These Dissenti­ons and Emulations happened so seasonably to the Roving Ar­my of Theeves, as that to come, to see, and conquer, was to them one and the self-same thing, as I shall declare unto you.

Whilest these transactions pas­sed in the Court,The Theevs take the Province of Xensi. Licungzus Conductor of the Theeves, ha­ving setled all things in the Coun­try [Page 81] of Xensi, passed to the East; and coming to the famous great River of Croceus, finding on body to defend it, he passed over with as much facility, as it might have been maintained with ease, if there had been placed but a handfull of Souldiers. For this River runns with a violent rapid course, and with as vast a Sea of waters from West to East; but being there was no man to defend it, they passing it easily, presently seizd upon the chief and richest Citie in all those quarters, called Kaiangcheu, which is situated neer the South bankside of that River, and be­ing carried on with a strong gale of Fortune, he seized upon all other Cities, every one desi­ring either to free themselves from further vexation, or blindly and fondly submitting them­selves [Page 82] to any new change of Go­vernment. For we commonly delight in varieties and novelties, and hoping for better, we find worse. Only the City of Thaiy­ven made some resistance, but be­ing presently subdued, was fined with great vast summes of mony for their temerity. The Empe­rour Zungchinius hearing the Theeves had passed the River Croceus, and were advanced to the very Confines of Xensi (which borders upon the Province where he had placed his Throne & Roy­all Seat) he sent an Army under the Lord Marshal of China, to hold them at least in play, if he could not overthrow them; But this Army did just nothing, nay most of the Souldiers ran to the Thieving party, in so much as the Lord Marshal himself, cal­led Colaus Lius, seeing Affairs [Page 83] grew so desperate, Hang'd him­self for fear of further shame and dishonour.The Em­perour of China is troubled. The Emperour hearing of the ill success of his Affairs, began to think of lea­ving the Northern parts, where his Royal City of Peking is si­tuated, and to pass to Nankuing which is far more Southward; but he was disswaded from this intended course as well by his loyal, as disloyal Subjects: by these, that they might give him up more speedily into the ene­mies hands, before their trea­chery was discovered; and by the others, lest his flight might trouble the Kingdom more, and discourage all his Subjects from giving their best assistance; for they thought the City impreg­nable, being fortified with so strong a Garrison; nor did they doubt that the Kings presence [Page 84] would draw the forces of the whole Kingdom to him. And their Counsel had been good, if the Court had been purged of Traytors.

The Stra­tagem of the Theef.In the mean time the Theeves Conductor, who was no less quick and nimble in execution, than witty in invention, sowing a Fox his tayl to the Lions skin, caused many of his Souldiers in a disguised habit to creep into that Princely City, and gave them mony to trade in trifling ware, till he assaulted the Wals with the body of his Army, for then they had order to raise se­dition, and tumult in the City; and considering they were a Company of desperate Fellons, & of a very low & base fortune, it is stupendious to think how they could keep so profound se­crecy in a matter of so high con­cernment: [Page 85] But to this mine, which was prepared in the bow­els of the City, he held a secret train of Intelligence, with the Lieutenant of the City, who seeing the Emperours Affairs desperate, is said to have dealt with the Conductor of these Bri­gants about giving up the City unto their power; But, however it was, these Pilferers came in a short time to besiege the Royal City of Peking. There was in that City a vast Garrison, and as great a quantity of Artillery; but on the Quarters upon which the enemy made there assault, there was none charged with Bullets, but only with Powder.

Wherefore being secure from any annoy from that side,The Roy­al City of Peking is taken. in the year MDCXLIV. before the rising of the Sun, they entred the Metropolitan City of all [Page 86] China by one of the Gates which was opened to them; nor was there any long resistance made, even by those that were faith­ful to their Prince; for the Soul­diers of the Theef, which lay lurking in the City, made such a tumult and confusion, as none knew whom to oppose, in which respect they made a great slaugh­ter, so as Licungzus in this Ba­bylonian confusion, marched victorious through the City, till he came to the very Empe­rours Pallace, where though he found some resistance from the faithfullest Eunuchs, yet not­withstanding he presently entred that famous and renowned Pa­lace; And that which exceeds all admiration, the enemy had passed the first Wall, and Pre­cinct, and yet the Emperour be­ing alive, knew nothing of so [Page 87] strange a passage; for the Trai­terous Eunuchs, which were of most Authority, fearing he might escape by flight, deferd to ad­monish him of his own danger, or of the taking of the City, till they saw he could not possibly evade: Who hearing this dole­ful news, he first demanded if he could get away by any means; but when he heard that all pas­sages were be set, he is said to have left a Letter writ with his own Blood, in which he bitterly expressed to all posterity,The Em­perour ha­ving kild his Daugh­ter hanged himself. the infidelity and perfidiousness of his Commanders, and the inno­cency of his poor Subjects; conjuring Licungzus, that seeing the Heavens had cast the Scep­ter into his hands, he would, for his sake, take revenge of such per­fidious Creatures. After this reflecting he had a Daughter [Page 88] Marriageable, who falling into the villains hands might receive some affronts, he called for a Sword, and beheaded her with his own hands in the place; then going down into an Orchard, making a Rope of his Garter, he hung himself upon a Prune tree. Thus that unfortunate Emperour put a period, as well to that Em­pire, which had flourished so long with much splendor, ri­ches, and pleasure, as to his Il­lustrious Family of Taimingus, by finishing his life upon so con­temptible a Tree, and in such an infamous manner: To all which circumstances, I adde one more, that as the Empire was erected by a Theef, so it was extingui­shed by another; for although, others were chosen to succeed him, as we shall relate hereafter, yet because they held a small [Page 89] parcel of the Empire, they are not numbred amongst the Em­perours. His example was fol­lowed by the Queen, and by the Lord Marshall, who is call'd in their language Colaus, together with other faithfull Eunuchs; So as those pleasant Trees which served heretofore for their Sports and pleasures, now be­came the horrid and surest In­struments of their death. And this cruell butchering of them­selves passed not only in the Court, but also in the City, where many made themselves away either by hanging, or drowning by leaping into Lakes; For it is held by this Nation to be the highest point of fidelity to die with their Prince, rather than to live and be subject to another.

Whilest these things were [Page 90] acting, Licungzus enters the Pallace victorious, and ascen­ding up to the Chair of State, sate himself down in that Impe­rial Throne; but it is recorded, that in executing this first Act of Royalty, he sat so restlesly and unquietly, yea so tottering­ly, as if even then that Royal Chair would foretel the short durance of his felicity.The Theefs Tyranny and cru­elty. The next day after, he commanded the body of the dead Emperour to be cut into small pieces, accusing him of oppression and cruelty a­gainst his Subjects; As if he, being a villanous Traitour, and a Theef, after the saccaging and burning so many Provinces, and shedding such an Ocean of blood, had been of a better disposition. So we often condemn others, when we do worse our selves, and remark, yea, augment, the [Page 91] least faults of others, when we either take no notice, or diminish our own. This Emperour Zung­chinius was Father of three Sons, of which the eldest could never be found, though all imagina­ble means was used for his dis­covery; some think he found means to fly away; others think he perished by leaping with o­thers into the Lake; the two o­thers being yet little Children, were by the Tyrants command beheaded three days after; his barbarous humour not sparing even innocent blood: Which disposition he made shortly ap­pear, when casting of that veil of Piety and Humanity, with which he had for some time char­med the people, he commanded all the Principal Magistrates to be apprehended, of which he murdered many with cruel tor­ments, [Page 92] others he fined deeply, and reserved the Imperial Palace for his own aboad. He filled that most noble and rich City with ransacking Souldiers, and gave it up to their prey and plunder; where they committed such exe­crable things, as are both too long, and not fit to be related. But by this his horrid cruelty, and Tyranny, he lost that Empire which he might have preserved by curtesie and humanity.

Amongst the other imprison­ed Magistrates, there was one a venerable person called Us, whose Son Usangueius governed the whole Army of China, in the Confines of Leaotung, against the Tartars. The Tyrant Licungzus threatned this old man with a most cruell death, if by his pa­ternal power over his Son, he did not reduce him with his [Page 93] whole Army, to subjection and obedience to his power, promi­sing also great Rewards and Ho­nours to them both, if by his fa­therly power (which they hold sacred) he did prevail for his submission. Wherefore the poor old man writ to his Son this en­suing Letter.

It is well known that the Hea­vens, Earth, and Fate can cause these strange vicissitudes of For­tune which we behold; know my Son, that the Emperour Zunchi­nius and the whole family of Tai­mingus are perished. The Hea­vens have cast it upon Licungzus; we must observe the times, and by making a vertue of necessity, avoid his Tyranny, and experience his li­berality; he promiseth to thee a Royal dignity if with thy Army thou submit to his Dominion, and acknowledge him as Emperour: [Page 94] my life depends upon thy answer; consider what thou owest to him that gave thy life.

To this Letter his Son Usan­gueius returned this short answer.

He that is not faithfull to his So­vereign, will never be faithfull to me: and if you forget your duty and fidelity to our Emperour, no man will blame me if I forget my duty and obedience to such a fa­ther. I will rather dye than serve a Theef.

And presently after the dis­patch of this Letter, he sent an Embassador to the King of Tar­tary, The Tar­tars called into China against the Theeves. desiring his help and force to subdue this Usurper of the Empire; and knowing that the Tartars abound in men, but want women, he promised to send him some store; and presented him with several curious Silks, and sent him great store of Sil­ver [Page 95] and Gold. The Tartarian King neglected not this good oc­casion, but presently marched with fourescore thousand men, which were in Garrison in Leao­tung, to meet General Usangueius, to whom he expressed himself in these words. To the end to make our Victory undoubted, I counsell you to cause all your Army to be clad like Tartars, for so the Theef will think us all Tartars, seeing I can­not call greater Forces out of my Kingdom so soon as is required.

Usangueius, thirsting nothing but revenge, admitted all con­ditions, little thinking (as the Chineses say) that he brought in Tygers to drive out Dogs. Li­cungzus hearing the march of the Tartars together with Usan­gueius, The Theeves fly from the Tar­tars. knowing himself not able to resist, quitted the Court and Palace as easily as he had taken [Page 96] it: but he carried with him all the rich spoyls of the Court, and marched away into the Province of Xensi, where he established his Court in the noble City of Singan, which heretofore had been the seat of the Emperours. It is accounted that for eight days space by the four Palace Gates, there was nothing seen but a continual succession of Coa­ches,They car­ry away the Trea­sures of the Pa­lace. Horses, Camels, and Por­ters carrying away the pretiousest treasures, though they left also much, because the enemy ap­proached. Thus the immense Riches of Gold and Silver, which the Emperours of the Taminge­an Family had at leasure hoorded up, in the space of two hundred and fourscore years, were in a moment dispersed. But although they fled very speedily, yet they could not avoid the swift Tar­tarian [Page 97] Horses, for overtaking their Luggage, and the Rear of the Army, they Pillaged and vexed them for eight days; but yet they either could not, or would not pass the River Croceus, that so they might speedily return to amuse the trembling hearts of the Territory of Peking. The Tartars return therefore victorious and rich into the Ci­ty Peking, and there being admit­ed by the Chineses, they gave them the Empire. VVhere it is to be observed, that although Zung­teus, the Tartarian King,Zungteus King of the Tar­tars dyes. dying at the first entrance into China, did not obtain that noble Empire he so much thirsted after; yet he gave those Instructions, of the manner of conquering it, to his Councel, that they never desi­sted till they obtained it. This Prince dying, declared his Son [Page 98] of six years old, his Successor; commanding all his own Bre­thren to manage the Childs Af­fairs with all fidelity and circum­spection, making his eldest bro­ther his Tutor; and all those bre­thren, being Uncles to the Child, by a stupendious Union, and ne­ver to be parallel'd in any ambi­tious Nation, exalted this Infant to the possession of the Empire.

These things being thus passed, Usangueius, The Tar­tars refuse to depart China. seeing the Thief ex­pelled, began to think of creating a new Emperour, one of the Tai­minga's Family, who was a Prince not far distant: But being mindful of his promises made to the Tar­tars he offers them their rewards; he highly extols their Fortitude and Fidelity in the Kingdomes quarrel; and finally, desires them now to depart the Countrey qui­etly, and to entertain a strict alli­ance [Page 99] and friendship with them, seing they had abundantly re­venged all former injuries. To this demand the Tartars returned a long premeditated answer, but far contrary to what Usangueius expected, which they delivered in these tearms.

We do not think it yet a fit time to leave you & this Empire, unless ha­ving heard our Reasons, you should still persist in your demand; for we consider, that many of the Theeves are still extant, and seem rather dispersed than extinguished; and we hear that their great Conductor Licungzus, hath fixed his Impe­rial Seat in Sigan, the Metro­politan of the Province of Xensi; by which means he still possesseth the richest and most populous Pro­vinces, which are stil under his Dominion. If we depart, worse is to be feared will follow; He feared [Page 100] us Tartars, when he hears we are gone, having now time to recruit his Forces, he will doubtless make new Invasions, and perchance we shall not be able to send new Suc­cors: We therefore resolve to pro­secute the Victory, and quite ex­tinguish those Vagabonds, that so you may deliver the Empire to your designed King, in full peace and tranquillity. Be not solicitous of paying our promised Rewards, for they are as safe in yours as in our own hands. Their Craft and Deceit. That which we now desire to execute, is, that which presseth most, and seems to us to require no delay, that you, with part of your Army and part of ours, march speedily against Li­cungzus, and we with the rest, take our march towards the Pro­vince of Xantung, to extirpate those Theeves that have setled there; By this means the peace of [Page 101] the Kingdome will be firmly esta­blished.

Usanguieus either did not un­derstand the Stratagem, or if he did, he condescended not to ir­ritate an Army in the Bowells of the Kingdome.

Before the Tartars (which were called) entred China, they sent into their own and other Kingdomes to raise as many men as possibly they could, to the end they might conquer the Empire after they had acquitted them­selves of their promised assi­stance against the Theeves. But these Succours, not being arrived to reinforce them, therefore they thought it best to use no force, but gain time by fair words and new projects.A great company of Tartars enter Chi­na. But whilst this business was contriving, there came an immense company of Tartars into the Empire; not on­ly from the Kingdomes of Ni­uche, [Page 102] and Niulham, but also from the old Occidental Tartary, and from a Countrey called Yupi, which is more Oriental, and lyes above the elevation of Japony. This people is called Yupi by reason they make their Coats of defence, or Breast plates, of fishes skin, which grow in a manner impregnable. Nay which is more, I saw very many who were come as far as the River Volga; which people these Tar­tars call Alga-Tartars, and I find they have a Notion of Mus­covy, and Polony, but they are far more barbarous than the Ori­ental Tartars be; with these aux­iliary Forces, came in the infant King of six years old, Son to the late deceased King of Tartary, and when these were joyned with the body of the Army,The Tar­tars ceise upon the Empire of China. then they publikely proclamed their right to the Empire, and openly [Page 103] declared their concealed intenti­ons; and proclamed this child of six years old, Emperour of Chi­na, by the name of Xunchi, Xunchi is crowned the first Emperour of the Tar­tars. and the new erected Imperial Family they stiled by the name of Tai­cing. The Child of six years old took possession of the anti­ent Throne of his Forefathers, with a great gravity and Majesty, from whence he delivered this judicious Speech to the Com­manders and to his Army.

It is your strength and pow'r more than my felicity (my dear and ge­nerous Uncles, & you the rest of my noble Commanders) which sup­ports my weakness, and makes me so undantedly ascend and possess this Imperial Throne. This my Constancy, and this Chairs stabili­ty, I hope, is as happy a sign of my future prosperity, as its tottering proved unfortunate to the Thief Licungzus his Tyrannie. You see [Page 104] my first step to the Empire; but I know your valour to be such, that I look not only upon the Kingdome of China as my own, but conceive the Empire of the World not only by me possessed, but also established. The rewards due to such incom­parable Vetues, shall be no other than the riches of the Empire, and Royal dignities; proceed there­fore valiantly and stoutly. The whole Court was astonished to hear a Child of six years old speak so much sense, and hence they concluded that fate or Heaven had elected him for King; But yet, the young Prince did assume his eldest Uncle, as his Tutor and Father, the same day he was admitted to the Em­pire: and therefore the Tartars in their language, called him A­mahan, as much as to say, the Fa­ther King; which very thing, [Page 105] the China's express by the word Amavang. The fide­lity of the Kings Tu­tor called Amavan­gus. To this man there­fore he remitted all the Conduct of his Wars, and to him it is, the Tartars owe all their great­ness and Dominion: for as he excelled in Counsel and pru­dence, so also he was as eminent in fortitude and fidelity; and withall by the strength and force of his reasons and Counsels did ravish the wisest men amongst the Chineses, and his Justice and humanity did wholy enthrall and enchant the popularity. To all which I adde those fugitive Magistrates, who, as I related heretofore, had fled too the Tar­tars to avoid the Emperours indignation, did not a little pro­mote their cause; for these men, sometimes by word and exam­ple, did seduce the hearts of the Subjects, and sometimes sugge­sted [Page 106] dangerous, but political Counsels to the Tartars, against their own Country; but by both these means advanced them­selves to high and eminent dig­nities amongst the Tartars.

The same day some Bands of Souldiers were dispatched, with order to proclame Usangueius a Tributary King to this new en­stalled Emperour, which they performed with great magnifi­cence, adding to his name (as u­sually they do) the Sirname of Pingsi, which sounds as much as Pacifier of the Western world: in which quarters they established his Kingdom in the Capital Ci­ty in the Province of Xensi. This Prince considering that he could expect no more honoura­ble Dignity from the lawful Suc­cessour to the Empire of China, and that the Tartars were come [Page 107] into the Empire, in so vast a num­ber, that he could never hope to Conquer them, found means to dispence with his hitherto uncor­rupted fidelity, admitting the dignity, and submitting to the Emperour; and so he that had hi­ther to waged VVar for China a­gainst the Theeves,Usangueius forced to serve the Tartars. now was forced to march against China to subdue its Provinces to the Tartarian Empire. And as he was a Great Commander, so also by the help of the Tar­tars he quickly drove out the Theeves from his little King­dom of Xensi, where to this day he reigneth in the Metropolitan City of Sigan. But by these ho­nours the Tartars removed him from the practice of Arms, who remaining Armed, might have proved a dangerous enemy.

It was hitherto never known [Page 198] what became of Licunzus, It is not known what be­ame of Licungzus. some think he was killed by Usanguei­us in the fight, though he never appeared more, neither dead; nor alive, after this fight, in which all his forces were dissi­pated, or cut off. And with the same facility the Tartars sub­dued the Provinces of Peking and Xantung, where they im­mensly augmented their Ar­mies, by the access of the China's Souldiers and Commanders which submitted to them; for the Tartarians admitted all, even the Conquered, to their Army if they did cut their Hair, and wear their habits, after the Tar­tarian fashion: for in this Pun­tillio of Habit and Hair they were so rigorous, as they pro­clamed it high Treason in all that did forbear it. VVhich Law, did many times endanger [Page 601] them, and disturb the whole frame of their Affairs: For the Chineses both grieved, and fought more valiantly for their Hair and Habit, than for their Kingdom and Emperour; So as many times they chose rather to dye, or lose there heads, than obey the Tartars in these Cere­monies; of which I could relate many examples, unless in this relation I had resolved to be brief. But all these little rubs, did not hinder, but that in less than the space of a year,The Tar­tars sub­due seve­ral Pro­vinces. (not coun­ting Leaotung) they had con­quered Peking, Xansi, Xensi, and Xantung, which are the four vast Northern Provinces of China. In all which they chan­ged nothing in their Political manner of Government; nay, they permitted the usual custom of the Philosophers of China [Page 110] to govern the Towns and Pro­vinces; they left also the same Examens as were used for the approving of learned men; for by this prudent Counsel they wrought this effect, that having given the places of honour and trust to men of their own Crea­tion,They changed no Laws of the Na­tion. they found they surpassed the very Tartars in fidelity to them; yet they kept the Militia in their own hands, and the or­dering therof, & yet they stick'd not to admit even to these Offi­ces, such of the Country as were faithful to them; so as in the Royal City they retained still the same Orders and degrees of Prefects, together with the six high Tribunals, as they were established in the former Em­perours time: but so, as they were now compounded of Chi­neses and Tartars.

In the mean time the news of the Emperours danger came to the Southern parts of China, and the Prefects of every City gathering together very great forces marched towards the Ci­ty of Peking; but in their march they received the sad news of the Emperours death, and the taking of Peking, they therefore speedily called back their For­ces, and also all their Ships, which yearly used to carry Pro­visions to the Emperours Courts; a little after this, they received the news how the Tartar was invested in the Kingdom and proclamed Emperour. I was then my self in the great City Nanquin, Hung­quangus Crowned Emperour in Han­quin. where I beheld a strange consternation in the con­fusion in all things; till at length having recollected themselves, the Prefects resolved to choose [Page 96] an Emperour of the Family of the Taiminges whom they cal­led Hungquangus. This man came flying from the Theeves of the Province of Honan, and being he was Nephew to that famous Emperour Vanley, and Cosen Germain to Zungchinius the last deceased Emperour, they Crowned him with great pomp and ostentation, hoping for bet­ter fortune under his Govern­ment. As soon as this Prince was chosen he sent an Embas­sage to the Tartars, begging Peace, rather than demanding it; for he offered them all the Northern Provinces which they had taken, if they would joyn in amity with him. But the Tartars well understood the Po­licy of these Prefects and Coun­sellours; which was only to a­muse them with a Peace, whilst [Page 113] they could resume their strength and force;The Tar­tars admit no Peac [...]. And therefore the returned answer, that they would not receive as a gift, that which they had conquered by force of Arms; but seeing they had cho­sen a new Emperour, they migh do well to defend him; but as for them, they were resolved to have all or nothing.Xunchini­as his Son appears at Nankuing. This Legacy comming to nothing, whilst both parties prepare to take the Field, appears at Nankuing a young man, who gave himself out to be the eldest Son to the late deceased Emperour Zun­chinius; and he gave no small evi­dences of this truth and Clame; nay, he was acknowledged by many of the Eunuchs. But the new elected Emperour Hunquan­gus, being strongly touched by the ambition of reigning, would never acknowledge him, nor [Page 114] admit him; but commanded him to be imprisoned, and killed as an Impostor, though many of the Prefects enraged to hear of this order, hindered the exe­cution of the sentence.He causes troubles in China. But by this accident, things grew into a sedition, and the dispute was so high, that it gave occasion to the Tartars to take to the Pro­vince and City of Nankuing; some of the Prefects winking at it, if not enticing them under­hand to this exploit. The Tar­tars, vigilant to lay hold of all advantages, hearing of these e­mulations and divisions, present­ly march out into the Territory of the City of Hoaigan, and comming to the East side of the River Croceus, they pass over speedily by the help of their Boats; on the other side of this River stood the Army of Chi­na, [Page 115] which was so numerous, as if they had but cast off their ve­ry shoos; they had erected such a Rampart against the Tartars, as all the Horse would hardly have surmounted it. But it is the re­solution and valour in War, carries the Trophies, not the number of men: for hardly had the Tartars set foot in their Boats, but the Chineses ran all away, as Sheep use to do when they see the Wolf,The flight of the Che­neses. leaving the whole shore unfenced to their landing. The Tartars having passed the River, finding no enemy to re­sist, enter the most noble City of Nankuing, and in a trice make themselves Master of all the North part of the Country, which lyes upon the great River of Kiang, which is so vast, as it is worthily called the Son of the Sea; where it deserves particu­larly [Page 116] to be noted as a rare thing in the Warfare of the Tartars, that before they enter into any Country, they chuse and name both the Governours, and Com­panies, with all the Officers ne­cessary for all the Cities and pla­ces which they aym to take; so as in a moment they run like a lightning, and no sooner they possess it but it is fortified, ar­med, and defended. There was one City in these Quarters which made a generous resistance to all their re-iterated assaults, called Yangcheu, The City Yangcheu resisting the Tartar is taken and burnt. where the Tartars lost the Son of a little Royalet. This City was defended by that faith­ful Imperial Champion called Zuuis Colaus, but though he had a mighty Garrison, yet he was at length forced to yield, and the whole City was sacked, and both Citizen and Souldier put [Page 117] to the Sword; and least the multitude of the dead Carca­ses, should corrupt the Air, and ingender the Plague, they laid them all upon the tops of the Horses, and setting fire both to the City and Suburbs brought all to ashes, and to a total deso­lation.

By this progress the Forces of the Tartars much entreased,The Tar­tars take several places. for the Governours of many places, and several Regiments came to submit to his Dominion. To all which he commonly continued the same Commands and Offi­ces they were established in be­fore, and advanced many of them to higher dignity; and so by this humanity with which he trea­ted all that came flying to him, and by the cruelty he used to those that resolved to make re­sistance to the Force of his [Page 118] Arms, he gained this, that most men resolved to partake of his sweet treaty, rather than of his cruelty; so he easily conque­red all that which lyes on the North side of that River, which I named before the Son of the Sea. This River being a Ger­man Leage in breadth, and ri­sing from the West of China, holds its course to the East, and divides the Kingdom into Nor­thern and Southern Quarters; it also divides the Country of Nankuing in the very middle; though Nankuing the Metropo­litan and Royal City be placed in the Southern part. To Ma­ster this great City, they were to pass this River. They ga­thered therefore together many Ships, to Conquer this new Em­perial seat, and also the new set­led Emperour. The Fleet of [Page 119] China commanded by the most generous and faithful Admiral called Hoangchoangus, lay to­wards the other side of this Ri­ver. Here the Admiral fought so gallantly and resolutely that he skowred all China, and made it appear to the world that the Tartars were not invincible; Till at length one of his own Com­manders called Thienus born in the City of Leaotung, being corrupted by the Tartars, shot him with an Arrow to death: which Arrow fixed the uncon­stant wheel of Chinas fortune, and lost the whole Empire. But the Traytor, not contented with this perfidious Act, began him­self to run away, and by his example draw all the rest to imi­tate this Ignominious Action. His impudence passed yet to a higher strain, for comming to [Page 120] the Imperial City, and finding the Emperour preparing to re­tire, he joyned himself with him, as a faithful friend participating of his adversity; till he heard the Tartars (who passing the River followed the Kings flight with all imaginable diligence) were come near him,The Em­perour Hunquan­gus is ta­ken and killed. and then he took the Emperour Prisoner, and deli­vered him to the Tartarian army in the year MDCXLIV. This unfortunate Prince being thus betrayed before he had reigned full one year, was sent to Peuking, and there upon the Town Walls was hanged publickly in a Bow string, which kind of death the Tartars esteem most noble. The pretended Son to the Emperour Zunchinius, whether he were true or false, run the same course of fortune, when they had discovered him still a­live [Page 121] Prison: for they did not one­ly put to death all those which belonged to the Imperial Family of the Taiminges by Consangui­nity, but after a diligent search extirpated all they could find, which belonged to them even by Affinity; for it is a custom in Asia, if any one Conquer a Kingdom, to root out all belong to the Royal Family.

After this they divided their Army into two parts; the one they sent to Conquer the Medi­terranean Provinces of Kiansi, Huquang, and Quangtung, which are all of a marvellous extent; the other like a swift Torrent over-run all,The Tar­tars run to the City Hangcheu. till they came to the very VVals of the renowned and vast City of Hangcheu, which is the head City of the Province of Chekiang. Into this City the principal fugitives of the Army [Page 122] of China were retired; and those not only of the common Soul­dier but many great Comman­ders, and Prefects, where they resolved to choose a new Em­perour called Lovangus, of the antient Family of Taimingus. But this Prince would never as­sume the Title of Emperour, but contented himself with the Title of King; thinking his fall would be less, and his death not so bitter, as if he fell from the Throne of an Emperour: but yet to the end to animate them to fight with more vigour than they had done heretofore, he promised them to take that title when they had regained one Emperial City. He had not reig­ned three days (a shorter space than their personated Kings use many times to reign in their Tragedies) but the Tartars ar­rive; [Page 123] Which the fugitive Soul­diers seeing, and thinking by this pinch of necessity to force their pay from the King and City, refused to fight before they had received their salary: It was on this occasion that King Lovan­gus his heart, not able to bear such a desolation of the Citie, of his people and Subjects, as he foresaw,King Lo­ving as love to his Subjects. gave such an exam­ple of his Humanity and Piety, as Europ never saw; for he mounted upon the City Walls, and calling upon his Knees to the Tartarian Captains, he beg­ged the life of his Subjects. Spare not me (quoth he) I will willing­ly be my Subjects victime, and having denounced this unto them, he presently went out to the Tartars Army, where he was taken. This Illustrious testimo­ny of his love to his Subjects [Page 124] had not wanted a reward to Crown so Heroick an Action, if it met with a generous Soul like that of Alexander or of Cae­sar. VVhen they had the King Prisoner they commanded the Citizens to shut the Gates, and keep the VVals least either their own, or the Kings Souldiers should enter the City, and pre­sently they fell upon the Kings men, whom they butchered in a most cruel manne, but yet the water destroyed more then there Swords or Arrows; for many cast themselves headlong into the great River of Cianthang, which is a Liege brood and runs neer the City, others leaping and overcharging the Boats in the River were presently sunck,Many of the Kings Souldiers drowned. o­others flying away, full of fear and confusion, thrust one ano­ther at the River side into that [Page 125] unmerciful Element, and by all these many thousands perished. The Tartars wanting boats to pass this River, having thus ex­pelled or killed the Souldiery, they returned Triumphant to the City,Hangcheu is taken. where they used nei­ther force, nor violence; by which means this noble City was conserved, whose beauty, greatness, and riches, I hope to describe elsewhere, not by hear-say, but by what I saw the three years space I lived in it, and what I found when lately I came from it, into Europ. This City of Hangcheu hath an Artificial Channel or Dick to pass by wa­ter to the Northern parts of China; This Chanel is onely separated by the high part of the way like a Cause way from the Ri­ver, which as I said, runs on the South part of the City. The [Page 126] Tartars therefore drew many Boats out of this Chanel over the Causeway into the River Cien­thang, and with the help of these Boats they pass the River with­out resistance, and found the fai­rest City in all China called Xao­king prone enough to submit to their victorious Arms. This City in bigness yields to many others, but in cleaness and come­liness it surpasses all: it is so in­vironed with sweet waters as a man may contemplate its beauty by rounding it in a Boat; it hath large and fair Streets paved on both sides with white square stones, and in the middle of them all runs a Navigable Chanel, whose sides are garnished with the like ornament, and of the same stone there are also built many fair Bridges and Trium­phant Arches, the Houses also, [Page 127] which I observe no where else in China) are built of the same square stone; so as in a word I saw nothing neater in all China. They took this Town without any resistance, and so they might have done all the rest of the Southern Towns of this Pro­vince of Chekiang. But when they commanded all by Procla­mation to cut off their Hair, then both Souldier and Citizen took up Arms, and fought more desperately for their Hair of their Heads,The Chi­neses de­fend their Hair. than they did for King or Kingdom, and beat the Tartars not only out of their City, but repulst them to the River Cienthang: nay forced them to pass the River, killing very many of them. In truth, had they past the River, they might have recovered the Me­tropolis with the other Towns: [Page 128] But they pursued their victory no further, being sufficiently con­tented that they had preserved their Hair, resisting them only on the South side of the shore, and there fortifying themselves. By this means the conquering Arms of the Tartars were re­pressed for a whole year. But the Chinois that they might have a Head, chose Lu Regulus of the Taimingian Family for their Emperour, who would not ac­cept thereof, but would be only stiled the restorer of the Empire. In the mean time the Tartars had sent for new forces out of Peking: with which they left nere a Stone unturned, that they might get over the River Cienthang: but all was in vain. The drooping Affairs, therefore of the Chinois had a breathing: nay having gathered together [Page 129] more Forces, they promised hemselves greater victories. But a desire and emulation of ruling frustrated all their hopes. For the Commanders, and Pre­sidents which fled the Province of Chekian into the Country of Fokien, carried with them one of Taimingas Family called Thangus, and this man they chose King in the Country of Fokien, which confines with Che­kiang. This Prince pretended that the K. called Lu. should yield up his right to him, both because he had but a few Cities under him, and also, because he was further removed from the Imperial race, then he was. But King Lu pre­tended he was Proclamed by the Army, before him, and wan­ted not to set forth his victories over the Tartars. By which two contentions, the Tartars came [Page 130] to the Crown; for these two Royalets, would never yield to one another, nor so unite their Armies as joyntly to repress the Tartars. Since therefore this petty King Lu had onely eight Cities under his cōmand, whose Contributions were not able to maintain the necessary pay of his Army, he never durst ven­ture to pass over the River, but endeavoured only to defend himself. But the Tartars sought all means possibly to get over this River, yet they durst not venture to pass in Boats, because King Lu had many Ships and good store of Artillery which he had caused to come from Sea. But the Tartars felicity, and pros­perous fortune, overcame this difficulty: for as it happened that year being dryer then or­dinary, this River towards the [Page 131] South, where it runs betwixt high Mountains, which break the ebbing and flowing of the Sea, had lost much water and of depth, and here the Tartars Horse found it passable; and because the rudeness of those Mountains,The Tar­tars pass the River, and reco­ver the City Xao­king. seemed a sufficient Guard to the Country, they found no Souldiers to resist; but as soon as the Clowns espied twenty of their Horse to have passed the River, they present­ly advertised the Army, and they all betook themselves to flight. King Lu himself left the City Xaoking, and not daring to trust himself to the Conti­nent, he took Ship and sayled to the Island called Cheuxan, which lyes opposit to the City of Nim­pus; where he remains to this day safe, and keeps still his Re­gal dignity; which Island being [Page 132] heretofore only a retreit for Fishermen, and some Clowns, now is become a potent King­dom; by reason that many fly from China to this King Lu, as to there sanctuary to conserve the liberty of their Hair.The Island of Cheuxan becomes a Kingdom. In this Island they are now found three­score and ten Cities, with a strong and formidable Army, which hitherto hath contemned all the Tartarian Power and Forces, and watch for some hap­py occasion to advance again their Kingdom in China. But by this means, the Tartars took all the Cities and Towns of the County of Chekiang into their Dominion. One only City of Kinhoa, whose President was aswel a Native of the place, as also the Commander in Chief, and my very singular friend, sustained the Tartars assaults [Page 133] for some months. But to the end the resistance of this City should not be a hinderance to the course of their victories, the Tartars divided their Army in­to three parts. The first part marched towards Kiucheu by the Mountains, the second went by the City Vencheu, and the Sea shore,The City of Kinhoa is taken and de­stroyed. into the Province of Fokien; and the third obstinate­ly besieged the City of Kinhoa. In this Siege the Tartars by rea­son of great Guns which con­tinually played upon them, and by the wise Conduct and cou­rage of their noble Commander, suffered many and great losses; insomuch as he forced them to pitch their Camp further from the City; But at length they also brought Artillery from the chief City, by which they made so many breaches in the Walls [Page 134] as being in a manner dismantled, they found entrance; and bur­ned and sacked it with, all ima­ginable Hostility. The Gover­nour blew up himself and all his Family with a Barrel of Gun­powder in his own Pallace, least he, or his, should fall into the Enemies hands.

The Province of Fokien is invironed with the bordering Countries of Quamgtung, Ki­ansi, and Chekiang; from all which it is separated by a con­tinual Chain of Mountains which are even in breadth of three days journey to pass over; and withall, so full of ragged and ruggy Clifts, and obscure Val­lys, as they make the very Paths horrid, dark and obscure at Noon day.The Tar­tars take in Fok en very easily. Insomuch, as with­out any exaggeration they may well be paralelled either to the [Page 135] Grecian Straits of Thermopolis, or to the Asian ruggy and strait passage of Taurus. These pla­ces might have been easily de­fended if they had but placed a few Clowns, to repel the Ene­my or overthawrted the ways by any incumbrances; but the very imagination of a Tartar was grown so terrible to them, as they fled at the very sight of their Horses; leaving therefore these Mountains wholy ungarni­shed the Tartars found a passage, but so very painful, and full of difficulties, as they were forced to leave much of their Bagage behind them; and lost many of their Horses, in those fearful precipices; but by this means they took the Province of Fo­kien with as much ease, as it might have been defended, for they hardly spent as much time [Page 136] in taking it as a man would do to walk the extent of it. The King himself whom I named Lunguus (as signifying a Warlike Dragon) shewed himself a fearful Sheep, flying away, with a good Army of men, if that word of good, can be applyed to a nu­merous multitude that had no hearts;King Lunguus slain. but his flight served him for nothing; for the Tartars following him with their swift and nimb [...]e Horses, shot all this heard of silly Sheep to death with Arrows. It is thought the King himself was involved in this Massacre, for he never appeared, nor was heard of after­wards.

Now because the whole Pro­vince submitted it self volunta­rily unto him without any re­sistance, it did not only suffer little from the Tartars, but he [Page 137] may choose and select Souldi­ers out of it; and having thus again recruited his Army, he made another irruption into the Country of Quamgtung; and its worth remarking, that the o­ther Tartarian Commander who when the Army was divided as I related before, had order to subdue the Mediterranean Countries;The Pro­vinces of Quantung is taken. this man with some felicity and expedition passing victorious through the Provinces of Huquang and Ki­angsi, entred also on one side of this Country of Quamgtung, whilst the other came in by Fo­kien, and because the Town of Nankiung resolved to fight it out, they consumed it all, by fire and sword. So the poor Coun­try of Quamtung oppressed by a double victorious Army, was quickly over-run and subdued. [Page 138] After the Glorious Trophies, one of these victorious Armies enriched with all the rarites of China, was called back to Peking, but yet they left a Garrison in every City, assigning in the name of the King of Tartars both Ci­vil and Martial Officers, for the Countries Government.

The happy success in taking the impregnable Province of Fokien, is attributed by wise men, (to whose judgement I also sub­mit) to a more remote and hid­den cause which I will briefly relate. There was at this time a famous and renowned Pyrat called Chinchilungus; this man was born in the Province of Fo­kien, of which we are treating; he first served the Porteguise in Macao; then he served the Hollander in the Island called Formosa, A famous Pyrate in China. where he was known [Page 139] to all strangers by the name of Iquon. After this he became a Pyrat, but being of quick and nimble wit, he grew from this small and slender fortune, to such a height and power, as he was held either Superiour or equal to the Emperour of China; for he had the Trade of India in his hand; and he dealt with the Por­tugise in Macao; with the Spa­niards in the Phillippins, with the Hollanders in the Island For­mosa, and new Holland; with the Japonians, and with all the Kings and Princes of the Eastern parts in all manner of rich com­modities. He permitted none to transport the Wares of China but himself or his, to whom he brought back the riches and the Silver of Europ and Indies; for after he once rather extorted then obtained pardon of the King [Page 140] of China for his Pyracies, he be­came so formidable, as that he had no less than three thousand Ships of which he was Lord and Master. Nor was he contented with this fortune, but aspired privatly to no less than to the Empire; But because he knew he never should be accepted of the prefects & people, as long as there was any of the Emperial Fami­ly of the Taiminges alive, he ho­ped by the Tartars means to ex­tinguish them wholy, and after this was done, then he resol­ved to display his Banners and Ensigns in so pious a cause, as the driving out the common E­nemy from the bowels of the Kingdom, and no doubt but un­der this pretext, they would all have followed, helped and e­ven adored him, as their Savi­our. [Page 141] It was therefore evident that he had secret correspondence with the Tartars; and that he favoured them for his own pro­fit; And that which made the business more suspicious was, that at that time when the Tartars made their irruption into Foki­en, he was then declared Lord Marshal of the Kingdom, and all the Generals, Commanders and Souldiers, were either of his affinity, or wholy at his Com­mand and Obedience. And therefore it is no wonder if he found an easy admittance into the Country of Fokien; of which they presently made him King Pingnan, (as much as to say; Pacifier of the South) and they added many other Dignities, and Offices of trust, that they might more speciously illude him; for either they knew his aspiring [Page 142] mind,The Tar­tars de­ceive the Pyrat, and take him Prisoner by meer Art. or else his great power and authority was suspicious and formidable to them; but yet all the while the General of the Tartars remained in Fokien, they never expressed the least diffi­dence in him, but both with fa­vours, courtesies, presents and honours, they studied how further to ingage him, and pro­mised the Government of many more Provinces. He made him­self therefore secure of the Go­vernment of all the Southern Provinces; but all happened quite contrary to his expectati­on; for when this General of the Tartars, who was observed as a little King, was to depart to Peking, the custom was for all the Officers of the Kingdom to conduct him, for some part of his journey to give him an ho­nourable farewell; which last [Page 143] duty of Civillity, Iquon could not handsomely avoid, nor in­deed, had he any reason to be diffident of any distrust in him; so as he left his Navy in the Port of Focheu, and accompa­nied the Royolet with great splendor and magnificence. But when he came to take leave, and demand Licence to return; the General of the Tartars, invited him a long to Peking, where he promised him yet greater ho­nours from the Kings own per­son, to reward his Merits. He endeavoured by all imaginable occasions, to excuse this journey, but nothing was accepted, he was forced by their kindness to accompany them to Peking; and so he was taken by Art, who by Arms seemed Insupe­rable. He yet lives in Prison in Peking, because his Brothers [Page 144] and Kindred hearing of his Cap­tivity, presently ceased on the Fleet; with which they have much infested China, as we shall touch hereafter.

In the mean time the other Army which had passed the Mediterranean Provinces of Hu­quang, The Tar­tars over­thrown Quangsi. Kiansi, and Quamgtung, invaded the Country of Quangsi. But here it was that the Arms of the Tartars which hitherto were held invincible, were shewed to be weak, and where they least expected opposition, there they found the greatest destruction. It happened that in this Pro­vince of Quangsi the Vice-Roy, called Khiu Thomas, was a Chri­stian, and the chief Commander also of all the Militia of that Country was commanded by Ching Lucas, whose family for five Genetations has served the [Page 145] Emperours of China, with as much constancy and fidelity, as they did Christ. These two ha­ving gathered many together, which fled from all parts into Quangsi, after the Tartars had taken many places in the Coun­try, overthrew the Tartari­ans in a set Battail; and passing into the confining Province of Quamgtung, they recovered all the Western part of it. After this that they might have a head to fight for, and who might com­mand and govern them in all Occurrences, and withall to draw the minds and hands of the Chineses to the common de­fence of the Country, knowing that in the City of Queilin, Jungley made Em­perour of China. which is the head City of Quang­si, there was one of the Taimin­ges Family living, who was Ne­phew to the Great Vanleius, they [Page 146] elected him Emperour, and cal­led by the name of Jungley. This Prince fixed his Imperial seat in the noble City of Chatking in the Province of Quamgtung, and hitherto has fought several times with the Tartars, with good suc­cess. And in this Princes Court, the chief Eunuch called Pang A­chilleus, is the greatest favourite, and a great Servant of Christ, whom he hath long professed to serve both by word and deed; for to propagate Christianity he has ever mantained a mission of Jesuites about him, by whose painful endeavours many have embraced the Faith of Christ; And amongst others the very Mother of this Emperour, his Wife,The Heir to the Em­pire be­comes Christian. and his eldest Son, Heir of the Empire, called Constantin, did all imbrace Christianity. May this Man by the prayers [Page 147] of all Christians prove another Constantine to the Empire of China. The Emperour himself is not averse from Christiany, but hitherto he hath deferr'd his Baptism, but yet he permitted his Wife to send a Father of the Society to do homage to the Sea Apostolick, as all Europe has heard. God of his goodness grant him that felicity, which may redound to the universal good of China, and Gods grea­ter Glory.

But it was not only in Quang­si that the Chineses began to re­sume their courage,Theeves infest the Province of Fokien. but in the Province of Fokien also; for no sooner was the Tartarian Army called back to Peking, but a petty Heathen Priest broke out of the Mountains of Fokien, with a band of seditious fellows, and subduing the Tartarian Gar­risons [Page 148] he took the fair City of Kienning, and many others from their subjection; and others which lay lurking in the Moun­tains following his example, re­covered also many other Cities; about which time also the friends and Kindred of the Captive I­quon did extremely infest the Sea, and making descents upon the Land vexed the Province extremely about the Quarters of Siuencheu, and Changcheu. At this time the Governour of the Province of Chekiang was Vice-Roy of two Provinces, who hearing of these commotions came presently by night in great hast with all the force he could make, towards the Mountains of Fokien; for he with reason feared lest they should take possession of the passages of those places, which if they had done, the [Page 149] whole Province had been regai­ned. But when this Vice-Roy called Changus, found the Moun­tains and passages clear, and no opposition made in such difficult places, he then proclamed him­self victorious, and his enemies perfidious Rebels:Changus the Com­mander of the Tar­tars besie­ges Kien­ning in vain. wherefore comming without resistance into the Country, he besieged the City Kienning, which was de­fended by Vangus. This Siege held some weeks, but he never could take the place by force, and therefore having lost many of his men by assaults, he jud­ged it best rather to block up the place a far of, than to be­siege it so close and neer. But yet by this, he hindred other for­ces from joyning with Vangus, so that he was not strong enough to sally out upon them.

When the noyse of these com­motions [Page 150] came to Peking, It is at length ta­ken and ra [...]d. the Emperour presently sent a new supply to appease these tumults; and this fresh Army comming to joyn with the other, brought the City to great streights; but yet they could not win it, till at length they found means by a rare invention to transport their Canons over the Moun­tains upon Porters Shoulders, by which means they dismant­led the Town, and put all what­soever to the Sword, to the num­ber of thirty thousand persons, as my own friends writ unto me; and not content with this, they set fire on the Town, and brought it all to ashes, by which means, the stately Church ere­cted by the Christians for the service of God, was also consu­med by that devouring flame; yet the Priests that served in [Page 151] that Church got out miraculous­ly as Lot did out of Sodom, which name was appropriated to this City, by reason of that infa­mous vice. This City being ta­ken, it was no hard matter to re­cover the Country; for some fled to save themselves in the Mountains, others ran to the Sea, and so when this new Army had pacified all, they were cal­led back to Peking; where it is not amiss to observe the po­licy which the Tartars use in the Government and ordering of their Army; they are ever cal­ling back some, and sending out others; in which proceeding they aim at two things; first to keep the Countries in awe and subjection, by seeing variety of Troops continually passing up and down; and secondly to pro­vide for the poorer sort of Soul­diers; [Page 152] for the wealthy Souldier is call'd back to recreate, and ease labours, and the poor Souldier seeing his Companion grown rich, takes heart and courage to run the course upon hopes of the like good fortune.

Yet for all these preventions and cautions, their Empire was not so established, but by fre­quent rebellions it was often in­dangered, and particularly by one Rebellion which now I will relate, which shaked shrewdly the foundations of the new Empire. The Kingdom of China is of so vast an extent,How the Tartars dispose their Gar­risons. as it is a busi­ness of main importance, to di­stribute judiciously the Armies, and Garrisons. Now because the Tartars alone cannot suffice to furnish both, they are forced to use the help of the Chineses themselves, although they have [Page 153] a special care never to leave or place either Commander or Souldier who is a Native of the same Country, where they so­journ; yet this care could not exempt them from several Trea­sons, and Rebellions; yet they distribute and order their Mili­tia, with great circumspection; for the chief Commander or Governour resides in the Me­tropolitan City, whom all inferiour Officers obey. This man, maintains alwaies a com­pleat Army, which he com­mands to march, when he hears of any risings. Every City has also their own proper Gover­nour, with a competent number of Souldiers, but those for the most part are Tartars, and these are Chines. But all this Politi­cal, and well-established Govern­ment could not defend them [Page 154] from Traitors amongst them­selves. The first man that did revolt from them was one Kinus Governour of the Province of Kiangsi. Kinus Go­nour of a Province rebelleth. This man was born in Leaotung, and because it is a Country that borders upon Tar­tary, the King commonly most confides in the Natives of that Province. It happened, I know not how, that this Governour, by reason of some corruptions, and Avarice of the Visitor of the Country,The ha­tred be­twixt the two Pre­fects di­sturbs the Country of Kiansi. had some difficul­ties with him, which grew by little and little to open hatred; and although they both dissem­bled their private malice, as usually they do in China, yet at length the flame broke out to the ruin of the Country; for being the one was Governour of the Arms, and the other of justice, there was a necessity of oft [Page 155] meetings, & feastings also. It hap­pened once that whilst they were feasted with a sumptuous Ban­quet, they were also intertained by a pleasant Comedy; in which the Actors were attired with the habits of China, which were more comely and fairer than those which the Tartars use; upon which occasion Kinus tur­ning himself to the Visitor said, Is not this habit better, & graver, than ours? This innocent speech was interpreted by his corrival Judge, as if he had contemned the Edict about changing of Ha­bits, and expressed too much love to the Chines Garments, before those of the Tartars; and of this he sent and Express to advertise the Emperour.

But the Governour Kinus, had a corrupted Secretary, which served the Lord Chief Justice, [Page 156] who gave him intelligence of all that passed in word or deed in his Masters House. And as soon as he had notice that this Letter was sent to the Court, he pre­sently dispatched those who in­tercepted the Packet, which the Governour having read, went presently armed to the Judges Palace, whom he suddainly killed. Then presently he with the whole Province revolted from the Tartars, and with the great applause of all the Chine­ses, he submitted himself to Jug­ley the new elected Emperour. One onely City called Cancheu, which was governed by an in­corrupted Tartar, refused to sub­mit, which was the whole, and onely cause, that the Tartars did recover the two Provinces Ki­ansi and Quamtung; both which Provinces revolted at the same [Page 157] time with their Commanders, and both submitted also to the new elected Emperour.Many pla­ces revolt from the Tartar. Lihu­sus was Governour of Quamtung at that time, who resolved to joyn his Forces with Kinus, and so to cast the Tartars out of the Empire; which it is believed they might have affected, if the Governour of Cancheu, which is the Key and entrance into four Provinces, had not cun­ningly undermined all their designs and intentions. But this man hearing that Lihuzus had revolted, and marched to joyn his Army with Kinus, dispatched to him this deceitful Letter.The de­ceipt of the Go­vernour of Cancheu. I have not hitherto submitted to Kinus, because I knew his forces were not equal, nor able, to resist the Tartars: But seeing thou my most renowned and valiant Cap­tain, begins also to march against [Page 158] them, my hopes are at an end. I am thine, and imbrace thy cause; whensoever thou shalt come, or send, I will render my City to thee or thine. But in the mean time he sent to all the Governours in Fokien, to send him secretly all the possible succour they could raise altogether. Lihuzus having received the Letter marched to­wards him, as cheerfully, and as confidently; But though hee found the Gates of the City o­pen, yet he was furiously repel­led by the Tartarians oppositi­on; which unexpected accident so astonished his Souldiers, as many of them perished, and a­mongst the rest it is thought himself was killed, for he was never heard of after.

This reverse and cross for­tune did much disturb the pro­gress of the Emperour Jung­ley's [Page 159] affairs, though Kinus in the mean time had many singular victories over the Tartars; for when the chief Governour of all the Western parts of China, who had placed his chief Seat in Nankuing, had gathered great Forces to repress this aspiring mind, yet he was several times routed and overthrown by him, and if Kinus had pursued the course of his victories, he might have come to the very Walls of Nankuing; but he was sollici­tous of the City of Cancheu, which obliged him to a retreit; for neither was it safe for him to leave an enemy behind him, nor could he receive victuals from the Emperour Jungley, but by Cancheu, which is the natural descent of the River, and therefore when he heard of Li­huzu's defeat, he presently be­sieged [Page 160] that City with his whole Army; But whilst he was be­sieging this City, their came, unfortunately, a new Army of Tartars from the Emperial Ci­ty of Peking, which had order to recover this Province of Kiang­si; and therefore Kinus was forced to raise his Siege to op­pose their entrance by the Nor­thern parts of the Country; And at first having a vast Army, and used to the Tartarian warfare, he fought both valiantly and happily; but not being able to sustain any longer their redou­bled violent assaults, he was for­ced to retire for his security to the Nanchang, Kinus be­sieged by the Tar­tars. the chief City of that Country; which City the Tartars durst not venture to take by force, but resolved to reduce it by a long Siege; for which end they gathered together a [Page 161] Company of Country Clowns to make a large and spacious Trench round about the City to the River, and there they placed Ships, so as no Provision could possibly enter. This City of Nanchang is great and extreme­ly full of inhabitants, besides the multitude of Souldiers which defended it at that time; so as although Kinus had made great Provision for a Siege, yet after some months he came to great want and penury; and yet he held it out though many dyed, expecting still some succours from the Emperour Jungley, which could not be sent; because the Souldiers of Quamgtung could never subdue the City of Chancheu, by which his succour was to pass; wherefore Kinus being brought to great extre­mity, expressed his mind to his [Page 162] Souldiers in these words, There is no further hope, (my faithful Companions) but in our own va­lour and strength, we must force our way through the Tartarian Army by dint of Sword; be cou­ragious, and follow my example. And having ordered all affairs,Kinus breaks out of the Ci­ty. he suddainly made a Sally out of the Town upon their Tren­ches, where, though he found a vigorous opposition, yet with great difficulty he passed and for­ced their Trenches, by which means he saved himself and his Army, having killed many Tartars; for it is constantly re­ported that Kinus with his Ar­my lives in the Mountains, ex­pecting there some good occa­sion to renew the War.

The City of Nan­chang is destroyed.He being thus escaped, the Tartars Pillaged the City, and put all the Citizens to the sword; [Page 163] for it is the Tartars custom to spare all Cities which submit to them, and to those which have made resistance before they were taken they are more trouble­some, but they never spare or pardon those Cities which revolt after they have once been taken. In this Slaughter they killed the two Priests which assisted the Christians, and their antient and fair Church was burned in the City. After this the Tartars easi­ly recovered the whole Country, and having appeased all, and left new Garrisons in all places, the Army returned victorious to the Royal City of Peking. In the mean time this Court pre­pared new Armies to reduce Quamgtung with the other. Pro­vinces which acknowledged Jungley for the Emperour of China; for the Tutor to the [Page 164] young King of Tartary finding the defections and rebellions in the Southern parts to be very frequent; resolved to give those Quarters over to some Tribu­tary Royolets,Three Kings created with as many Ar­mies a­gainst Jungley the Em­perour of China. the better to con­tain those Countries in their duties; wherefore in the year MDCXLIX. he sent three Ar­mies, consisting partly of Tar­tars, and partly of Chineses, un­der three Tributary Princes, to govern these Provinces with ab­solute power and Dominion; one of these was King of Fokien, a­nother of Quamgtung, and the third of the Province of Quang­si; but with this condition, that first of all they should joyn their Forces to recover the Country of Quamgtung and drive away the Emperour Jungley. But we shall say more of this hereafter; now having seen the Rebelli­ons [Page 165] of the South, let us look a little back on the Rebellions in the North against the Tartars also.

In these Northern parts the Chineses shewed their desire of Liberty as much as they had done in the South; where the Commanders though over­thrown, yet not taken, retired into the abrupt and precipitious Mountains, where they held Counsel, how they might shake off the Tartars Dominion; three of these heads inhabited the thickest and highest places of that mountanous Country; the chiefest of which was called Hous; this man being strong in men, invited the rest to joyn with him, to deliver his Coun­try from this miserable thral­dome; one of them consented, the other could not come, but [Page 166] sent him two thousand men to assist him;Hous ri­seth a­gainst the Tartars. so as Hous marched out with five and twenty thou­sand men, which was no con­temptible Army if they had been as couragious, as numerous: He put out a Proclamation, in which he challenged the Tartars, and threatned them all extremi­ties, and to the Chineses, he pro­mised all liberty and freedom; and upon these hopes, many Towns and Cities admitted him very willingly. Sigan, the Me­tropolitan of the Country, was the only place able to resist him, having in its Walls three thou­sand Tartars, and two thousand selected men of China, who ser­ved the Tartar. The Gover­nour of this Town hearing of Hous his motion, gathered all things necessary for a long Siege, till a new supply of Tartarian [Page 167] Forces could be sent him. But when he heard that all the Towns and Cities in the Coun­try did voluntarily submit them­selves to Hous, The bar­barous re­solution of a Tartari­an Gover­nour. to prevent the like effect in his own City, he resolved to murder all the Ci­tizens most barbarously; nor would he ever be removed from this unhumane sentence, till the Vice-Roy commanding and per­swading, and the Citizens pro­mising all faithful service, at length he changed this Tyranni­cal Counsel. But he comman­ded under pain of death, that whereas hitherto the Chineses, who loved so much their Hair, that they only cut a little of it away, about their Temples, should hereafter shave it off who­ly and totally, that so he might distinguish the Citizens from any others if perchance they en­tred: [Page 168] he ordained besides, that if any spoke more than two to­gether, they should all be pre­sently killed; he forbad all men to walk upon the Walls, or to walk in the Streets by night, or to keep a Fire or Candle in his House by night, and finally disarmed all; declaring it death to infringe any of these or­ders.

These things being thus or­dered,The chief City cal­led Sigan is besieged. he sent out some Scouts to discover the enemies strength, who were partly killed, and part­ly came flying back to the Ci­ty; but this Tartarian Gover­nour, as well to make an often­tation of his strength, as of his security, commanded the City Gates to be lest open, nor would he permit the Draw Bridge to be raised or pulled up, to shew he feared nothing. But for all [Page 169] this the Commander Hous be­sieges this City a far off, which was three Leagues compass, and out of the reach of their Artil­lery; and to the end he might make a shew of greater forces than indeed he had, he joyned to his Army a Company of dull headed Clowns, by which means he made up a Body of thirty thousand men. The Go­vernour of the City seeing such an Army as appeared, believed them all to be Souldiers, and lest his Citizens should joyn with them, he thought again of cut­ting all their throats; but his friends ever diverted him from this outragious cruelty; and therefore to divert himself from such horrid projects, he used to walk upon the Walls, and re­create himself in seeing the Chi­neses under his colours fight so [Page 170] valiantly against Hous; for when he saw this, he used to cry out in their Language, Hoo Manzu, (as much as to say) O good Bar­barians; for so the Tartars call the Chinaes, as conquering Na­tions use to expose the conque­red to scorn and derision; and he crowned this scoff with these words Mauzuxa Manzu, as much as to say, let the barbarous kill the barbarous; yet notwithstan­ding when they returned victo­rious, he did not onely praise them, but gave them Mony, and other pretious rewards, which were exposed to publick view upon the Walls to animate them to high and generous exploits; so as Hous finding no Body stir in the City, as he expected, could do nothing; besides their came new succours to the Tartarian Army, which when Hous under­stood [Page 171] by his spys, he presently retired. But yet this flight did not serve his turn, nor could he wholy escape the Tartars hands, for the Horsemen pursuing them fell upon the rear, and killed many, carrying away great store of Riches, which the Commander distributed in such proportion, as he gave most to such as were wounded; what became of Hous after this action, is unknown, and therefore I conclude that these Northern revolts produ­ced no other effect, but the spoyl, Rapin and Plunder of all those Quarters, as it had produced the like in the Southern parts. The Tartars having happily over­come all difficulties hitherto,The Tar­tars inso­lencies produced great dan­gers. fell into another by their own insolency; from the yeare MDCXLIX. the Emperour of the Tartars, being now grown [Page 172] up to mans Estate, desired to Marry the Daughter of the King of Tayngu, who is Prince of the Western Tartars, hoping by this match, to conserve the friendship of him, whose Forces he feared; for this end he sent his Uncle to him, who was King of Pauang. This Prince passed by the im­pregnable City of Taitung; which as it is the last City towards the North, so also it is the Key and Bulwork of the Province of Xansi against the irruption of the Western Tartars; for it com­mands all the Souldiers which keep the many Fortifications of those Quarters, where a fair Le­vel down extending it self be­yond that famous Wall, I mentio­ned heretofore, gives a fit occasi­on for the incursion of the Tar­tars. The Women of this City are [Page 173] held the most beautiful of all China; and therefore it happe­ned, that some of the Embassa­dours followers did ravish some of them, and also carried away by a Rape, a Person of quality, as she was carried home to her Spouse, which was a thing ne­ver heard of heretofore amongst the Chinese. The people had re­course for these injuries to Kian­gus, who governed those Quar­ters for the Tartars; who hea­ring of this gross abuse, sent to that petty Prince Pauang, to de­mand the new Married Lady to be restored, and to desire him to prevent future disorders in that nature; but he gave a very slight Ear to such complants, and therefore Kiangus himself went unto him, who was not only slighted, but even cast out of the Palace. His anger was quick­ly [Page 174] turned into rage;Kiangus riseth a­gainst the Tartars. which made him resolve to revenge that in­jury by the Tartars bloud; he therefore Musters his Soul­diers, and presently falls on the Tartars, kils all he could encoun­ter; the Embassadour himself being let down by the Walls of the Town, hardly escaped by swift Horses. Then Kiangus displayed a Banner, wherein he declared himself a Subject to the Empire of China, but na­med no Emperour in particular, because perchance he had heard nothing of the Emperour Jung­ley, by reason of so vast a di­stance.Kiangus gathers great For­ces. But, however, he invi­ted all the Chineses to the de­fence of their Country, and to expell the Tartars; and many Captains as well as Souldiers, came in to him; yea even the very Western Tartars against [Page 175] whom he had ever Born Arms, being promised great rewards, sent him the Forces which he demanded. This accident ex­tremely troubled the Court; for they knew well that the Western Tartars did both as­pire to the Empire of China, and also were envious at their prosperous course of fortune; they also knew that they were more abundant Men and Hor­ses than they were; for from hence it is they bought all their best Horses, and they feared that now they should have no more; and therefore they resol­ved to send presently a good strong Army against him, be­fore he should gather a greater strength. But Kiangus who was as valiant as crafty, and one who by long experience knew how to deal with the Tartars, first [Page 176] feigned to fly with his Army; But in the rear he placed very many Carts and Wagons, which were all covered very carefully as if they had carried the richest Treasures they possessed, but in real truth they carried nothing but many great, and lesser pie­ces of Artillery, with their mouths turned upon the Enemy: all which the Tartars perceiving presently pursue, they fight with­out any order, and fall upon the prey with great Avidity; but those that accompanied the Wagons,Kiangus over­throws the Tartars by a strata­gem. firing the Artillery, took off the greatest part of the Army, and withall Kiangus wheeling about came up upon them, and made a strange carnage amongst them; and after this he shewed himself no less admirable in Stratagems than in fortitude and courage,He beats the Tartars again. when he fought a set pitched [Page 177] field with a new recruited Army of the Tartars, in which he ob­tained so noble, and renowned a victory, that he filled all the Court at Peking with fear and trembling; for by this means victorious Kiangus had gathe­red so vast an Army, as he coun­ted no less then a hundred and forty thousand Horse, and four hundred thousand foot, all men having recourse to him, to de­fend their Country against the Tartarian Army; And there­fore Amavangus, Tutor to the Emperour, thinking it not fit to commit this business to any but to himself, resolved himself to go against Kiangus, and try the last turn of fortune for the Tartars; Amavan­gus him­self goes a­gainst Ki­angus he therefore drew out all the eight Colours, that is, the whole Forces that were then in Peking; for under these eight [Page 178] colours are comprehended all the Forces of the Kingdom of Chi­na, whether they be Natives or Tartars; the first of which is White, called the Imperial Ban­ner; the second is Red, the third is Black, the fourth is Yellow; and these three last are gover­ned and Commanded by the Uncle of the Emperour, but the first is immediatly subject to the Emperour; of these four colours by several mixtures, they frame four more, so as every Souldier knows his own colours, and to what part of the City to repair, where they have ever their Arms and Horses ready for any expedition;The Tar­tars Ban­ners. so as in one half hour they all are ready; for they blow a Horn just in the fa­shion of that, which we appro­priate usually to our Tritons, and by the manner of winding [Page 179] it, they presently know, what Companies and Captains must march, so as they are ready in a moment to follow their En­sign, which a Horse-man carries tyed behind him, though com­monly none but the Comman­der and Ensign knows whether they go: this profound secrecy in their exercise of War, has of­ten astonished the Chineses; for many times, when they thought to oppose them in one part, they presently heard they were in a­nother Quarter; and it is no wonder they are so quick, for they never carry with them any Baggage, nor do they take care for Provision; for they fill themselves with what they find, yet commonly they eat Flesh, though half rosted, or half boy­led; if they find none then they devour their Horses, or Camels; [Page 180] but ever when they have leasure, they go a hunting all manner of wild Beasts, either by some ex­cellent Dogs and Vultures, which they bring up for that end, or else by incompassing a whole Mountain,The Tar­tars de­light in hunting. or large Field, they beat up all the wild Beasts into a Circle, and drive them into so narrow a Compass, as that they can take as many as they please, and dismiss the rest. The earth covered with their Horse-cloath is their Bed; for they care not for Houses, and Chambers; but if they be forced to dwell in Houses, their Horses must lodge with them, and they must have many holes beaten in the Walls; but yet their Tents are most beautiful, which they fix and re­move with such Art and dexte­rity, as they never retard the speedy march of an Army. Thus [Page 181] the Tartars train their Souldiers to hardness for War.

Out of all these Ensigns A­mavangus chose the choicest men to accompany his person. And besides, he took part of those which he had deputed to follow the three Royalets which he dispatched to the South, or­dering them to take as ma­ny out of the several Garrisons through which they passed, as might supply this defect. But yet although Amavangus had so gallant, and such a flourishing Army, yet he never durst give Battail to Kiangus, lest he might seem to expose the whole Em­pire of the Tartars to the for­tune of one Battail;Amavan­gus durst not fight with Ki­angus. So that al­though Kiangus did frequently offer him Battail; yet he ever refused to fight, expecting still to hear what reply the Western [Page 182] Tartars would make to his Pro­position of his Nephews Mar­riage; for he had sent a Legate to that Tartarian King with pre­tious gifts, as well to demand his Daughter for the Emperour of China, as to desire him to afford no succour to the Rebel Kian­gus. The pretious gifts of Gold, of Silk, of Silver, and of Wo­men, obtained whatsoever he demanded; and therefore Ki­angus seeing himself deserted of the Tartars, that he might pro­vide as well as he could for his own affairs, he returned to the City Taitung, of which he soon repented himself, when it was too late; for Amavangus calling in an innnumerable number of Pezants, in the space of three days, with an incredible dili­gence, cast up a Trench of ten Leagues cōpass, which he so for­tified [Page 183] with Bulworks and Ram­parts, that in a trice he blocked up that City. Then did Ki­angus see his errour in gran­ting them leasure to draw their Trench, which he knew would debar him from all manner of Provision. And therefore being inraged with anger, as he was a man full of metal, and a great Souldier, turning himself to his Souldiers, he said, If I must dye, I had rather dye by the Sword, than by Famin; and upon this marched out presently to the E­nemies Trench with his whole Army. Here it was that both the parties fought most obsti­nately, the one to seek his pas­sage, the other to hinder his ad­vance; so as the fortune was va­rious, and the victory doubtful, untill an unlucky Arrow trans­peirc'd Kiangus, and in him all [Page 184] the hope of China perished.Kiangus is killed. His Souldiers seeing him dead, part­ly run away, and partly submit­ted to the Tartars, who recei­ved them with all courtesy and humanity; for they had cause enough of joy, to see they had es­caped the danger of losing the Empire, and that they had con­quered so formidable a Com­mander. But yet they Plunde­red the City [...]aitung, and bur­ned the City of Pucheu, where the Church of the Christians also perished. From hence the Tartars returned to Peking, where I saw them enter over­loaden with Riches and trium­phant Laurels; But Amavan­gus pursued his journey to the Western Tartars, where he ra­tified his Nephew Xunchius his Marriage,Xunchius the Em­perour Marrys. and brought back with him an infinit Company of [Page 185] Horse from the Tartars of the Kingdom of Tanyu. In the mean time, the three Royalets which went to the Southern King­doms, to pacify those unquiet Provinces, passed their journey by the descent of the River Guei, and when they passed through that Province, which the Em­perour had given the Tartars to inhabit, and cultivate, after he had expelled the Chineses for their Rebellion; most of these Pezants, being wholy ignorant of tilling and manuring the ground, as having never been used to mannage a Spade or a Plough, but their Swords, these men I say, desired earnestly these Princes, that they might accompany them in these Wars, and in their expeditions; Two of these Princes rejected their Petitions, but the third called [Page 186] Kengus without any consent or order from the Emperour, listed them amongst his own Troups; upon which they joyfully chan­ged their rustical instruments in­to weapons for War; when the Emperour heard of this procee­ding, he sent word to Kengus to dismiss them, but he pretended various excuses, and did neglect the Emperours orders. He there­fore commanded the supreme Governour of all the Southern Quarters, who resides ever at Nanking, to take Kengus either a­live or produce him dead. He presently cast about how to com­pass the Emperours command with all secrecy, and received the three Royolets with all sorts of divertisements, of Co­medies, Banquets, and the like pleasures, as if he had received no distastfull order from the [Page 187] Emperour. And when the day was come that they resolved to prosecute their journey by the great River of Kiang, the said Governour contrived his busi­ness so, as he met them again in the River, and under pretence of taking his last farewell, he intertained them nobly with a Royal feast, and in as Royal a Junck, which in China are so magnificent, as they resemble rather some gilded Palaces than floating Vessels. In this Prince­ly Ship he entertained these Princes in all jollity and mirth, untill their Army had advanced a good way before, and then he declared to Kengus the Em­perours order; who presently promised all submission, and to return to Nanking with him, if he would onely permit him to go to his Ship, which expected [Page 188] him in the River, to order some little affairs of his own; which being granted, he no sooner got into his Ship, but knowing he could not avoid death by ano­ther mans hand,Kengus hangs himself. he chose rather to be his own executioner, and hanged himself. Yet for all this, the supreme Governour in the Emperours name, granted to this Mans Son the same Dignity and Province which had been conferred upon the Father; and thus the three Royalets joyning again, having passed Nanking and Kiangsi, came at length into the Province of Quamgtung, to carry on the War against the Emperour Jungley; and at their first entrance, they took many Cities, which were loath to op­pose the strength of their Ar­mies; onely, the City of Quang­cheu resolved to try its fortune and strength.

This City of Quangcheu is a most rich and beautiful place, environed with large waters, and is the onely Southern Port within the Land, to which Boats may have access; In this Town was the Son of the Captive I­quon whom I mentioned before; besides, there was a strong Gar­rison to defend it, and amongst others many fugitives from Ma­cao, who were content to serve the Emperour Jungly for great stipends; and by reason the Tar­tars had neither Ships, nor skill to govern them, and that the Town had both the one and the other, it is no wonder if they endured almost a whole years Siege, having the Sea open for their relief, But they made many assaults, in which they lost many men, and were ever bea­ten [Page 190] back, and vigorously repel­led. This courage of theirs, made the Tartars fall upon a resolution of beating down the Town Walls, by their great Canon, which took such ef­fect, as in fine they took it the 24. of November MDCL. and because it was remarked that they gave to one of the Prefects of the Town, the same Office he had before, it was suspected it was delivered by Treason.The City of Quang­cheu is ta­ken and Pillaged. The next day after, they began to Plunder the City, and the sac­kage endured from the 24. of November till the 5. of Decem­ber, in which they never spared Man, Woman or Child, but all whosoever were cruelly put to the Sword; nor was their heard any other Speech, But, Kill, Kill these barbarous Rebels; yet they spared some artificers to [Page 191] conserve the necessary Arts, as also some strong and lusty men, such as they saw able to carry away the Pillage of the City; but finally the 6. day of Decem­ber came out an Edict, which forbad all further vexation, af­ter they had killed a hundred thousand men, besides all those that perished severall ways du­ring the Siege. After this bloo­dy Tragedy, all the Neighbou­ring Provinces sent voluntarily their Legats to submit, deman­ding onely mercy, which they obtained by the many rich pre­sents which were offered. Af­ter this the Royalet marched with his Army, against the City Chaoking, where the Emperour Jungley held his Court; but he knowing himself far inferiour in Forces, and unable to resist, fled away with his whole Army [Page 192] and Family,The Em­perour Jungly fly [...]. leaving the City to the Tartars mercy. But whither this Emperour fled, is yet who­ly unknown to me, for at this time I took Shipping in Fokien to the Philippines, and from thence I was commanded to go for Europe, by those to whom I consecrate my self, and all my labours. But I make no doubt, but the Emperour retired into the adjoyning Province called Quangsi.

Now to give the Reader a little touch how the Tartars stand affected to Christianity, it deserves to be reflected on, that in the Metropolitan City of Quangcheu, which as I now re­lated was utterly destroyed, there was a venerable person, who had the care and superin­tendency of all the Christians, whose name was Alvarus Se­medo [Page 193] a Jesuit; this Man they took and tyed hand and foot, for many days, and threatned to kill him every hower, unless he would deliver the Christians Treasures; but the poor Man had no Treasure to produce; so as he suffered much, till at length the King hearing of his case, took pitty of his venerable gray Heirs and comely person, and gave him not onely his life and liberty, but a Bible, and Breviary,The Tar­tars offer a Church to Christi­ans. which is their Prayer Book, together with a good sum of Mony for an Alms, and finally a House to build a Church for Christians; and this is less to be wondred at from him, who heretofore was a Souldier under that famous Sun Ignatius, whom I mentioned before, where he knew what belonged to Chri­stianity, and also had seen the Jesuits [Page 194] in the Camp, from whence he fled to the Tartars. Nor is it onely this Tartar that loves us Christians, but in a manner all the rest do love, honour, and e­steem those Fathers,The Tar­tars em­brace Christi­ans. and many have imbraced our Religion, nor do we doubt but many more would follow their example, if we could enter Tartary, as now it is projecting, where doubt­less many great things might be performed, for the reducing of that Nation to the Faith of Christ; and perchance God has opened away to the Tartars to enter China, to give Christiani­ty a passage into Tartary, which hitherto to us have been un­known and inaccessible.

About this time also they made War against the Kingdom of Corea; Corea re­volted from the Tartars. for of late years they became also Tributary to the [Page 195] Tartars, upon condition that they should still conserve their Hair and habits: but now the Tar­tars would needs constrain them to conform themselves to the Tartarian fashion; and therefore all that Kingdom revolted from the Tartars; but my departure hindred me from knowing since what has passed.

But all these glorious victo­ries were much Eclipsed,Amavan­gus dyeth. by the sorrowful death of Amavangus, which happened in the begin­ning of the year MDCLI. He was a Man to whom the Tar­tars owe their Empire in China, and such an one as whom both Tartars and Chineses loved and feared, for his prudence, Ju­stice, humanity, and skill in Mar­tial affairs. The death of this Potentate did much trouble the Court; for the Brother to this [Page 196] Man called Quingtus, would needs pretend to the Govern­ment of the Empire, and of the young Emperour Xunchius, but both the Tartars and the Chine­ses resisted his clame, alleging, that, being of sixteen year old, he was able to govern the King­dom himself, and in conformity to this opinion, all the Presi­dents deposed the Ensigns of their Offices, refusing ever to receive them from any, but from the young installd Emperour Xunchius. To which Constancy the King Kuintus, Uncle to the Emperour, prudently yielded, lest he should exasperate the minds of many, and raise grea­ter troubles in the Empire than would advance his Family.

But I cannot doubt, but the death of Amavangus, must needs trouble the Tartarian Empire, [Page 197] and bring all their affairs into great disturbance; for they will hardly find a Man so beloved, feared, and expert in all Military Discipline and Government as he in effect shewed himself to be; but time will teach us, what will become of all, for since his death we have no certainty of any relation; now let us turn the threed of our discourse as I promised here above, and con­sider the fortune and success of the other Great Brigand cal­led Changhienchungus, to let the Reader understand how the Tartars did invade not onely the Mediterranean and Oriental parts, but also the Occidental Quarters of that vast Kingdom.

But before I begin to speak of this monster of nature,Changhien­chungus a cruel Ty­rant. I must ingenuously confess, I am both ashamed, and also touched with [Page 198] a kind of horrour, to declare his villanies, both in respect they seem to exceed all belief, and therefore I may perchance be held to write Fables, as also it is not handsome to make reflecti­ons on such Subjects; yet I may sincerely protest, that I have in my hands a long relation of all his Acts, written by two Reli­gious persons, who were then in the Province of Suchuen to exercise their Functions, which Country was the Theater of all his Brutalities which I shall relate; and because I judge these two persons to be of an incor­rupted a Faith, I judge therefore that a mortal Man might arrive to this pitch of wickedness and inhuman Cruelty. I therefore gathered out of that relation, what I here relate, which is no­thing else but a vast Mass of [Page 199] such abhominable Cruelty, as I doubt not even the most mildest Reader will take the Authour to be no Man but some horrid wild Beast, or rather if no more exe­crable name occurs, some De­vill transvested in our humane Nature.

This monster like a wild Bear entred into divers Provinces, filling all with Rapin, Death, Fire and Sword, with all other imaginable miseries; for he had a mind to destroy all, that so he might have no enemies, or leave any alive that might revolt from him, but onely content himself with his own Souldiers, and of­ten times he spared not these. But the Province of Suchuen, where he usurped the Title of a King was the chief Theater of his barbarous Cruelty; for af­ter he had afflicted and vexed [Page 200] the Provinces of Huquang and Honan, and part of that of Nan­king and Kiangsi, he entred the Province of Suchuen in the year MDCXLIV, and having taken the principal City called Ching­tu, in the heat of his fury he killed a King of the Tamingian race, which here had established his Court; as he hath done also to seve [...] other Grandees of the same Family.He kils divers Princes. These were the Preludes of the Tragical Acts, whose Scenses I go about briefly to describe, that so Europe may see, what a horrid and execra­ble thing an unbridled and ar­med cruelty appears to be, when it furiously rageth in the dark­ness of Infidelity.

This Brigand had certain vio­lent and suddain buttads of fu­rious cruelty, and maxims drawn from the very bowels of ven­geance [Page 201] it self; for if he were never so little offended by another, or suspected another to be offended with him, he presently comman­ded such to be massacred; and having nothing in his mouth but murder and death, he often for one single Mans fault destroy'd all the Family, respecting nei­ther Children,For one offending he puts to death. nor Women with Child; nay many times he cut off the whole Street where the offender dwelled, involving in the Slaughter, as well the inno­cents as nocents. It happened once he sent a Man Post into the Country of Xensi, who being glad he was got out of the Ty­rants hands, would not return; to revenge this imaginary in­jury, he destroyed all the Quar­ter of the City in which he dwelt, and thought he much bridled his fierceness, that he did [Page 202] not wholy extinguish all the Ci­ty. To this I adde another un­humane Act about his Hang­man, whom it seems he loved above the rest, because he was Crueller than the rest; when this Man was dead of his Dis­ease, he caused the Physician who had given him Physick to be killed; and not content with this, he Sacrifised one hundred more of that Profession to the Ghost of his deceased Officer.

He was affable and sweet to­wards his Souldiers; he played, banquetted, and feasted with them, conversing familiarly with them; and when they had per­formed any Military Action, with honour and valour, he gave them precious gifts of Silks and moneys; but yet many times he commanded some of them to be cruelly put to death before him; [Page 203] especially such as were of the Province of Suchuen where he reigned, whom he intirely ha­ted them, because he thought they did not rejoyce in his Roy­al dignity. Insomuch as he hard­ly ever did any publick Action,His ha­tred to the people of Suchuen. which though it begun like a Comedy, yet had not in fine, the sad Catastrophie of a Tra­gedy; for if walking out he did but espie a Souldier ill clad, or whose manner of Gate or walking was not so vigorous or Masculine as he desired, he pre­sently commanded him to be killed. He once gave a Souldier a piece of Silk, who complained to his fellows of the pooreness of the piece, and being over­heard by a spye, (of which he had a great number) who pre­sently acquainted him with what was said, he presently comman­ded [Page 204] him,He cuts off a Le­gion for one Mans fault. and this whole Legion which were of two thousand Men, to be all Massacred.

He had in his Royal City some six hundred Prefects, or Judges,He kils many City Officers. and men belonging to the Law, and such as managed the principal Offices; and in three years space there was hard­ly twenty left, having put all the rest to several deaths for very slight causes; He caused a Sergeant Major which the Chi­neses call Pingpu, to be flead a­live, for having granted leave to a China Philosopher, without spe­cial order, to retire a little to his Country House. And where­as he had five hundred Eunuchs taken from the Princes of the Tamingean Family,And he killed also the Eu­nuchs. after he had put their Lords to death; he commanded all these to be cru­elly put to death; onely because [Page 205] one of them had presumed to stile him, not by the Title of a King, but by the bare name of the Theef Changhienchungus, as if he then were no Theef.

Nor did he spare the Heathe­nish Priests, who sacrifised to their Idols. These sort of men, before he came into this Coun­try, having feigned many crimes against the Priests, which Prea­ched the Faith of Christ, had raised a bitter persecution a­gainst them; which God of his goodness did turn so much to their good, as they had permis­sion to teach and Preach pub­lickly the Law of Christ. But after this Tyrant came into the Country, the chief of these Hea­thenish Priests was apprehended for some words let fall against him, and in the presence of the Fathers, who by accident were [Page 206] then at audience with the Ty­rant, he was beheaded; And al­though they had learned of Christ to do good for evill, yet knowing the phrenetical anger and fury of this monster, who u­sed to punish those that interce­ded, with the punishment of the offender, they durst not make any motion for the least favour. It is true, this cruel Beast loved these Fathers, and would often converse with them, whom he experienced wise and learned, and he would often call them to the Palace to entertain him in discourse; but they knowing well his precipitous anger, went ever prepared, and expecting death, and indeed they were thrice deputed to death, and the fourth time escaped by Gods particular providence, as we shall relate in time and place. [Page 207] But he was not contented with the death of one of these same Heathenish Priests, but having got together about twenty thou­sand of the same profession,For one Mans fault he kils twenty thousand. he sent them all to Hell, to visit their Masters whom they had served. And then he would ap­plaud himself as if he had done a very Heroical Action, saying to them, These Men would have taken away your lives; but Thi­encheu, so they call God, which signifies the Lord of Heaven, has sent me to revenge your cause, and inflict due punishment upon these wretches. He would often confer also with the Fathers of Christian Religion, and that so properly as a man would take him for a Christian. He praised, and highly extolled the Reli­gion of Christians, which he well understood, partly by the [Page 208] conferences which he frequently had with the Fathers, and partly by reading their Books, which for the Instruction of Christi­ans they had writ in the China Language; and hath often pro­mised to build a Church to the God of Christians, worthy of his magnificence, when he once came to be Emperour of China; and indeed all the works he ere­cted were very splendid and magnificent; but he polluted them all with the blood of the Workmen; for if he found they had but committed the least er­rour, or the least imperfection, he presently put them to death upon the place.

He endea­vours to take Han­chung.On the North part of the Coū ­try of Suchuen, where it confines with the Province of Xensi, lyes the strong City called Nanchung, which though it be seated in the [Page 209] County of Xensi, yet in respect, it is both so strong and of so great an extent, it is held to be the Key of both the two Provinces. The Tyrant endeavoured by all industry to make himself Master of this important place, as being a convenient passage to the rest; wherefore in the year MDCXLV. he levied a vast Army, consisting of one hun­dred and fourscore thousand men, all Natives of the County of Suchuen, besides those of his own, which had alwaies fol­lowed him. This numerous Ar­my besieged the Town a long time, but found so rigorous re­sistance, that they began to be weary, and about fourty thou­sand of those Souldiers of Su­chuen revolted to the Prefects which governed the beleagured City; by which means the Ar­my [Page 210] was constrained to return to the Tyrant,He kils 140000 men most cruelly. without any me­morable Action: and he being enraged with anger to see them return, commanded all the rest of the Souldiers of the Province of Suchuen, which were in num­ber one hundred and forty thou­sand, to be all massacred by the rest of the Army. This horrible Butchery lasted four days; in which slaughter he comman­ded many of them to have their skins pulled of, which he filling with straw, and sowing on the head, commanded to be carried publickly and visibly into the Towns where they were Born, so to strike more terrour into the hearts of the inhabitants; and after all this, yet he had such a malitious hatred against this Country, that they did not re­joyce that he was King, as he [Page 211] never ceased to vex and torment it, even when it was in a man­ner left desolate. Many unex­pert persons, without head or guide, did take Arms against him, but he quickly dispersed them, being wholy unexperien­ced in Military Discipline; o­thers that were wiser, leaving the City, retired into the Moun­tains, which were in a manner the onely Men who escaped his fury.

After this he called all the Students of the Country to be examined for their degrees,He kils all the Stu­dents. promising to give those honours, to whomsoever should deserve them best; and the Chineses are so bewitched with the desire of these dignities, that they did not conceive the perfidious Strata­gem of the Tyrant. Their ap­peared therefore in the publick [Page 212] Hall deputed for that Ceremo­ny about eighteen thousand per­sons; all which he commanded his Souldiers to massacre most barbarously, saying, These were the people who by their cavil­ling sophisms, sollicited the peo­ple to rebellions.

He kils the Chil­dren and exposes the Ma­trons.I have a horrour to relate so many unhumane slaughters, and yet I see my self over-whel­med with new ones; for what an addition is it to all his related barbarities, to tell you, that he never spared Children, Boys, nor Girls, no nor Matrons with Child and ready to lye down? what an excess of all inhumani­ty to take the Prefects Wives, when their Husbands were con­demned, but yet alive, and to expose these Women to all kind of villanies, and then to kill them? This was so sensible to [Page 213] many, as they rather chose to kill themselves, than to under­goe so infamous and publick an opprobry by their honesty. I forbear to relate more of such detestable and execrable exam­ples, lest I offend the ears and minds of the Reader by such abhominations.

Let us therefore suppress these impurities, and pass to what hap­pened in the year MDCXLVI. when the Tartars entred into the Province of Xensi to give him Battail, so as he was forced to go out to meet them. And, to the end he might leave the Coun­try behind him with more secu­rity, he resolved to cut off all the inhabitants, except those which inhabited the North-East Quarters by which he was to pass, and therefore must needs reserve these Creatures to assist [Page 214] and furnish his Army with all necessaries; and therefore he deferred their death to another time. He therefore commanded all the Citizens of what quality or condition soever they were, that did inhabit his Metropoli­tan City of Chingtu to be bound hand and foot,He kils 600000. in the Ci­ty Chingtu. which was done by a part of the Army, which he had called in; and then riding about them, which vast multi­tude is related to have been a­bove six hundred thousand Souls, he viewed them all with less compassion than the cruelst Ty­ger would have done; whilst in the mean time, these poor victims with lamentable crys, which penetrated the very vault of Heaven, and might have mo­ved a heart composed of stone or Rock, holding up their hands, begged of this outragious Ty­rant [Page 215] to spare the lives of his in­nocent people. He stood a while Pensive, like an astonished and amazed Creature, so as it see­med to be an imperfect Crisis, wherin humane nature struggled a little with those bowels, and that heart which was composed of all cruelty; but presently re­turning to his beastly nature, Kill, Kill, saith he, and cut off all these Rebels, upon which words, they were all massacred in one day out of the City Wals, in the presence of this bloody monster. Those Religious persons which are there, the Fathers of Chri­stianity, resolved to make their addresses for the Tyrant to save their innocent servants lives; and though all men judged it a desperate attempt, yet they ob­tained the lives of those they claimed. So as they distributed [Page 216] themselves at the City Gates, and as their Clients passed bound to the Shambles, they mercifully unbound their Shakles, and res­cued them from death. By which occasion also they performed another acceptable Sacrifice to God, in Baptizing an infinit number of Children,Many Children Baptized. which the Souldiers willingly permitted, so as the horrid and execrable cruelty of this Tyrant proved as advantagious to these little Angels, as Herods slaughter did to the Blessed Innocents.

They write, that in this mas­sacre their was so much blood spilt, as made the great River of Kiang, which runs by the City, to increase and swell visibly; and the dead Corps being cast into the River, and carried downwards to the other Cities, did denounce unto them, that [Page 217] they were to expect no better Treaty from this Tyrants hands. And it quickly proved true, for he dispatched his Army to the rest of the Cities, and killed all that he could lay hands on; and thus this Tyrant did bring that populous Province of Suchuen into a vast wilderness. After this, he mustered all his Souldiers in­to a Field, which in China is ever deputed for that end, and is called by the Natives Kioo­chang, in this place, he delivered himself thus unto them, I hope by your valour to obtain the Em­pire of the world, when I have expelled the Tartars; but I desire to see you yet quicker and nim­bler than hitherto you have been; you all know, to free you from all burdens and heavy luggage, how I sunck threescore Ships full of Silver in the River of Kiang; [Page 218] which I can easily recover, to re­ward your pains and merits, when I shall once have obtained the Em­pire; he had indeed sunk the Ships, and killed the Ship-men, to conceal the place; but there remains yet a greater encum­brance, which retards much our journy, and all our enterprises, which is your Wives, which are a heavy burden to you all; There­fore put on a generous resolution, There will not be wanting other exquisit Women, when we are come to possess the Empire; and although as Emperour I ought to have some Prerogative, and make a difference betwixt you and my Royal person, yet I am content in this, to give you all a leading example, which may serve as a President. He kils all the Soul­diers Wives. After this Speach, of three hundred handsome and beautiful Maids, which he kept [Page 219] for his voluptuous pleasures, he onely reserved twenty to serve his three Queens, and comman­ded all the rest to be killed upon the place. The Souldiers pre­sently followed the example and command of their cruell Ty­rant, and cut off the heads of in­numerable innocent Women, as if they had been their mortal enemies.

Having now no more men in the Province of Suchuen to put to death,He burned his Palace in the Ci­ty of Ching­tu. he turned his fury and hatred against Cities, Houses and Palaces: for whereas he had built himself a very stately and magnificent Palace in the City of Chingtu, he consumed that, and with it, a great part of that noble City with fire; besides he cut down all Trees and Woods, that they might profit no man. And thus (as he said) [Page 220] having purged his Army, he marched on into the Province of Xensi to meet the Tartars; but as he marched, if he found any man remaining alive, he com­manded him to be killed. And not content with all this, if he espied any Souldier which mar­ched either too far before, or too far behind, though the fault were never so little, he killed him presently. He killed all his sick or weak Souldiers, that they might be delivered (as he said) out of so miserable and ruined a Country. I suppress many more passages of his cruelty, because I will hasten to the Ca­tastrophe of this Tragedy.

He was no sooner entred in­to the Province of Xensi, but one of the Emperours Uncles meets him with five thousand Tartars, and the Body of the Army mar­ched [Page 221] after him; five Horsemen run before the Army as usually they do amongst the Tartars; who if they be well received of the enemy, they retire, and take it as a sign of Peace and submis­sion; but if they receive any Act of hostility, then they march up to fight. These Horsemen were espied by the Tyrants Scouts, who presently brought him ty­dings of their approach. But he laughed at the news, and jesting­ly asked them, If the Tartars had learned to fly. He had at that time many persons tyed before him, which he intended to mas­sacre, and amongst the rest two of the Jesuits, for asking leave to return into Suchuen, which was the Country they had un­dertaken to convert to Christia­nity. But the suddain death of this Archbrigand delivered them [Page 222] all, from the imminent danger; for at the same time came in his chief Commanders, assuring him the Tartar was upon him; upon which news, he being of a bold and couragious humour, burst out of his Tent, and without ei­ther head-piece or brest-Plate, snatched up a Lance, went out with a few, to view the enemy. The Tartars presently assaulted the Tyrant; and the first dis­charged Arrow, which was as happy to the Tartars, The Ty­rant is slain. as it was to many others, peirced the heart of that monster of Cruelty, kil­ling that Man, who had an in­tention to make an end of all Men; and who from the base condition of a raskally Theef, presumed to take the Sacred Ti­tle of King and Emperour. The head being down, the Tartars easily seized on the body of his [Page 223] Army; but many of the Soul­diers submitted to them, others were killed, others run away; and the poor inhabitants of the Province of Suchuen received the Tartars as their Saviours.The Pro­vince of Suchuen is made subject to the Tar­tars. By which means this Province, which is the most Western in China, and borders upon the Kingdom of Tibet, became sub­ject to the Tartarian Empire.

When they had established Garrisons, and all their other affairs in that Country, they prepared to return to the Royal City of Peking; leading with them the two Captive Priests, which they had found in Chains, as a present most acceptable to the Tartarian Emperour, there I saw then, and left them in great veneration and honour in the year MDCL.

But this victorious Conque­rour [Page 224] returning crowned with Laurels,One of the Em­perours Uncles is ill recei­ved. was ill received and worse recompensed, by his Bro­ther the great Amavangus, who was the Emperours Tutor; and instead of a deserved tryumph, he received an unworthy death; for being to make a march of many Months, to undergo much labour, and many troubles, it happened so, as he lost more Men in marching than in fight­ing; he was accused of great negligence in governing his Army; and being of a generous nature, he thought he deserved high praise, but no blame, and therefore he took his Tartarian Cap, and scornfully trampled it upon the ground, which is the greatest sign of indignation, which they can express; upon which fact he was committed to a Prison proper to those of the [Page 225] blood Royal which he accused of any Crime; But he scorned to be the first of the Tartarian Family, which should suffer this first opprobry in China; and therefore before he was carried to this Prison called by the Chi­nese Coaciang, he hung himself miserably in his own Palace.He hangs himself. A Gallant Prince, and worthy of a better fortune. Many think this disgrace to have grown from Amavangus his eldests Brothers emulation; but I think that Amavangus was affraid that this Man wanting neither courage, nor wit, would quickly ruin the Tartarian affairs, by his rash proceedings. And here I will put a period, rather then an end, to this brief Narration of the Tartars War to the year MDCLI. in which year I was sent to Europe, by those that [Page 226] may command me. In which relation if there be nothing else worthy of admiration, yet it seems admirable to consider, that in seven years space, they conquered more ground in Lon­gitude and Latitude, then an Army could have walked in that space of time; for they over-run twelve vast Provinces of China; besides the immense extents of Leaotung, and the Kingdom of Corea.

VVhat since has past in such vicissitude of fortune, I know not; but as soon as God shall bless me with a prosperous re­turn into my beloved China; or that my friends acquaint me with any new Occurrances by Letters; I will procure all Europe shall understand the Issue of these prodigious revolutions.


An Addition to the former History, taken out of the last Letters from China, Written in the years 1651. 52. and 53.

AFter the Printing of this our History of the Tartarian Wars, returning to Brus­sels from Amsterdam (where I used all possible expe­dition to bring my Atlas Sinieus to the Press) I there, received my long desired Letters from China, sent by my friends from Rome; some of which being da­ted the 14. of November 1651. were writ by a Sicilian called Father Francis Brancatus, who sojurns in the City of Xanchai in the Province of Nanking; and [Page 228] reflecting, that happily it would not be ungrateful to our Euro­peans, if I made a private rela­tion of publick use; I resolved to draw out this little ensuing Narration from those Letters written in severall years.

The Empire of China is now grown to a more fixed and set­led Estate,See fol. 165. since the death of Amavangus Uncle to the Em­perour: who as he was the first Man that suggested to the Tar­tars the Emperours invasion, so also, it is to his care and vigilan­cy they owe the happy success of all, and its conservation.

But yet, the opinion framed of him after his death, was far different from the authority and power he carried in his life; for no sooner was the power of reigning by his death devolved into the hands of his Nephew called Xunchi; but that this Em­perour, [Page 229] though a youth in years, began his reign by the approba­tion of all estates and orders, with such maturity of judge­ment, and Councel, as he see­med to surpass the gray and hory heads of his wisest Coun­cellors. He was no sooner in­throned, then he expressed a strange ripeness of judgement and Justice joyned together in the same Action;Amavan­gus sus­pected and puni­shed after his death. for having discovered his Uncles wicked Councels and Designs, and tra­ced the obscure track of his ab­hominable vices, which were hid during his life: he did so much resent those detestable Acts, as he commanded his bo­dy to be digged up, and his mag­nificent Sepulcher to be beaten down;The vene­ration of dead mens tombs; a­mongst the Chi­neses. which kind of punish­ment amongst the Chineses it held to be the greatest that can be inflicted; being taught by [Page 230] their Religion to carry all ve­neration and respect to the tombs of dead persons. The Carcass being dragged out, they first beat it with Clubs, then they scour­ged it with Rods; and finally cutting off the head, they made it a spectacle to all Criminal op­probies. Thus the splendour of his Tomb, was brought to dust; and fortune payed him after his death, the turn, she owed him in his life. He punished also all the Officers and Prefects, which were privy to his Councels; putting some to death, and de­priving others of their digni­ties. Amongst all which I find the fortune of General Fung to have been very various: who though he be no Christian, yet being a singular friend, prote­ctor of my order, and particu­larly known to my self, I can­not but rejoyce to hear him re­stored [Page 231] to his place and dignity, after his discovered innocency. In the mean time the Emperour Xunchius, The Em­perour of the Tar­tars Mar­riage and their cu­stoms. growing up to Mans estate, and sollicitous to propa­gate his August off-spring, re­solved to accomplish his long intended Marriage with the Daughter to the Emperour of the Occidental Tartars: In which action the Tartars imitate the European custom; for they take a Lady of some illustrious blood or descent; But the Emperours of China seem little to value the nobility of blood, but select the primest beauty; nor will they refuse a person of a mean for­tune, if she be but graced with beauty; In so much, as the Wife to the late Emperour of China, was Daughter to a Man, that got his living by making straw Shoos. So King Ahasuerus raised a poor Captive Maid to be Confort with him in his Royal [Page 232] Throne: which kind of custom happily the Chineses, drew from the Persians, or else the Persi­ans had it from them. But to return to the subject that caused this little digression. The Em­perours VVedding was perfor­med with a Pomp and splendor proportionable to such an Em­pire: nor was there any magni­ficence wanting on the Spouses part; for according to the fa­shion of the Nation, she came accompanied with whole Armies of Men, and so many Troops of Horse, as they seemed innu­merable; nature seeming to have framed the riches of the Tartars more for warlike affairs, than for pleasure. Nor is this infinit multitude of Horse incredible, for I my self have seen eighty thousand Horse, all at one time, sent as a present from the Occi­dental Tartars to the King of China.

Which boundless power of the Tartars, The Tar­tars sub­due the rest of China. as it cannot be contained within any limits, so also it broke out into the Province of Quam­tung, which they wholy subdued; and out of that, like an impetu­ous Torrent, they ran into the Province of Quangsi; which they likewise conquered to their Em­pire. So as the King of China called Jungley, with his chief favourit the Eunuch, called Pang Achileus, who professeth Chri­stianity, were feign to fly to the confines of Tunking, being in a manner excluded the whole Empire. In so much as a friend of mine writes out of the Pro­vince of Fokien, that the King Jungley fearing to fall into the Tartars hands, was feign to leave the Land, and fly to Sea. But upon what Coast that unmerciful Element may have cast him, we know not, for we hear no news [Page 234] of our Father Andrew Xauerius Koffler who ever followed the Court of King Jungley, having had the happiness to have Bap­tized his Queen, his Son, and his Mother with many others of that distracted Court.

In the mean time, whilst one Cang, a Royolet amongst the Tartars, subdued the Province of Quangsi, the Governour of the Country, whom they call Colaus, fell into the Enemies hands, and the Tartars hoping by rewards and promises of dignities, to soften the mind of this so gal­lant a Man,The great fidelity of the Go­vernour to his King. and so eminent a Philsopher, abstained three days from any cruelty, or ill usage; But he scorned to prefer his life before his alleageance and fide­lity to his King; and therefore lost his head.

But yet, this generous Action was admired and honoured by [Page 235] those brutish Souls, who pre­sently erected a magnificent Tomb, in memory of so honou­rable an Act; for although the Tartars sollicit the Chineses to re­volt from their Prince, yet they honour and praise such as shew themselves constant to him; And this memorial, I owe unto his memory, well for his singu­lar friendship he was pleased to contract with me, as also to his eminent vertues, of which, I my self and the whole Church of Christians in China, were both Spectators and Admirers, for the space of twenty years. And that his name may not pe­rish, nor his Country; he was Born in the Province of Nan­quin in the City Changcho; be­ing called Kiu Thomas, a name worthy of eternal memory, in the Temple of vertue.

During the saccage of these [Page 236] Provinces; news arrives from the Country of Suchuen, that the notorious Brigand called Changhienchungus, famous for his infamous cruelty and abho­minable villanies,See fol. 197. was broke out again, and wasted all that Pro­vince with severall tempests of War; for though he seemed to be quite vanquished in the last Battails, yet he appeared again to trouble and vex the Empire with new Garboyls, and fur­ther Designs of War.

The Province of Fokien also began to grone under the same miserable condition of VVar; for the Reverend Father Peter Canevari Native of Genua, writes out of the City Chang­cheu which was besieged the 30. of March 1652. that Quesingus having made a descent from his Ships into that Province had overrun the whole Country, ta­ken [Page 237] some Cities and Towns, and carried on the War with great terrour to the Inhabitants. Inso­much as the Tartarian Comman­ders kept themselves, and their Army in their Forts, and other places of strength, not daring to appear in the field to oppose them; but yet he sayd they ex­pected new Forces and Succours from Peking; by which they doubt not, but quickly to sub­due him.

This Quesingus, who now vexeth this Province of Fokien, Quesingus the Pyrat. is Son to the famous Pyrate I­quon or Chinchilungo whom the Tartars imprisoned by a slight, as I recounted to you in my for­mer History.

And to let you know what I heard from some passengers of China, who in the month of Ja­nuary 1653. were cast, in a Ship of China, upon the Coasts of an [Page 238] Island called new Holland; whi­ther I had been brought before by their Barks, and Souldiers as their Prisoner; These Men related that a great Army of Tartars was arrived, to subdue Quesingus; whose Commander thought it fit to joyn art to his great Force, and therefore he commanded a handfull of Men to charge the Tartarian Army, and presently by feigning flights to retire to more advantagious and surer places. But in the mean time, he had placed a number of Horse in a deep valley behind a Mountain, towards which Quarters the fugitive Troops re­tired. This flight gave courage to the Tartars, and the desire of victory, made them venture so far from the River Chang, where their Ships lay at Anchor, as they found themselves enviro­ned by the Tartars Army. This [Page 239] desperate condition which ex­cluded the Chineses, from retur­ning to their Ships, caused a ve­ry sad, and bloody Battail, in which there perished above 8000 of the Chineses Army;Quesingus defeated. whilst Quesingus a spectator of this sad accident from the Mast of his Ships, and as they relate, was heard to say, that he would once more try his fortune against the Tartars; but if she proved a­gain adverse unto him, he then would submit, and shave his Hair, like a Tartar.

Having briefly related the State of the Temporality in this Kingdom, it remains I should touch a little of the State of Chri­stianity, since these great revolu­tions.

In which subject, I can onely say, that being at Brusels this last June in the year 1654. I recei­ved Letters from China, in which [Page 240] they gave me notice that the Fa­ther Jesuits, were very favou­rably treated by the Tartars; yea better than before, for they permitted free exercise of the Christian Catholick Religi­on, through an their King­doms, granting them leave not onely to enjoy their antient Churches, but did also liberally contribute to build new ones; So by the goodness of God, that which endamaged others, proved gain to them. But I reserve all particulars to a larger relation in a greater volumn, which shall continue, Trigautius his History of the missions dispatched into China; and considering he con­cludes that History in the year 1610. it shall be my endeavour to produce the rest of those me­morable Actions to these our present times.


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