VOX TURTURIS vel COLUMBA ALBA ALBIONIS. THE VOICE OF THE TVRTLE, OR, ENGLANDS WHITE DOVE In the deluge of Division, the second time sent forth from Gods Arke, to present a Peace-offering upon the Altar of Jehovah Shalom.

Humbly proposing that divine direction, which the God of Peace hath revealed in his Word of truth, for determining Differences by an holy Ordinance of his owne Institution, wherein himselfe is the sole Judge, Proverbs 16.33. Prov. 18.18.

Shewing how by this Divine way of Gods Judgement, not onely the great diffe­rences here in Church and State depending, may speedily and happily be determi­ned with glory to God, Honour to the King, and happinesse to the Kingdomes, but also all the greatest Controversies, both Civil and Sacred throughout Christen­dome may be Composed, the Effusion of Blood prevented, Many Prophecies con­ducing to an universall Peace fulfilled, the happy use of this holy Ordinance made knowne, and the name of God thereby manifested, and magnified among all Nations, which by Cruelty and bloody Division is Blasphemed even among Heathens.

Per E.M. Arm. Christi servorum minimo minorem.

Should not a people enquire at their God? to the Law and the Testimony, if they speake not according to this word, 'tis because there is no light in them,

Isa. 8.19, 20.

Hearken, and give eare to me, O my people, for a Law shall proceed from me, and I will bring forth my Judgement, for the light of the people.

Isa. 51.4.

When I shall take a convenient time I will judge righteously, the earth, and all the Inhabitants thereof are dissolved, but I will establish the pillars.

Psal. 75.2.3.

Per sortem Deus ipse in judicio sedet. Sicut enim Deus per Jethronem consulait ut causis levioribus ab a­liis judicibus dijudicatis difficiles Moysis Cognitioni reservaretur: Sic Deus instituit, ut quae nulla cujusquam ingenii, vi & perspicientia causa dignosci posset, ad se per sortim judicium deferretur▪

Cartw. in Proverbs 16.33.

LONDON, Printed for T.W. 1647.

To the Gentle, Judicious, religious Reader: The humble addresse of the harmlesse Dove.

THis Dove, like that of Noah, at the first sending forth found no rest for the sole of her foot, no place for her peace-offering; as in Mesech, and the tents of Kedar, whilest the Dove perswades, and pleads for peace; proposed and pressed an holy and happy way of peace; the Serpent prevented and perverted the progresse therof and preparation was made for war: She looked and laboured for peace, but there was no good and for the time of healing but behold trouble Jer. 14.19. The Land remained like a glassie sea mingled with fire; Rev. 15.2. Every field of our Albyon so called quasi Olbyon, because happy and pleasant, was become like that place called Armagedon (1) craftinesse of destruction as it is interpreted, Rev. 16.16. The whole land over-spread with waters of Marah and Meribah of bitter strife bloody division; Waters like the fountaines on which the third Angell poured out his Vials and they became blood like the rivers of Egypt (which was their first plague) all turned into bloud or like that Sea on which the second Angell poured his Vials of wrath so that it became as the bloud of a dead man and every living thing died therein Rev. 16.3.4. So deplorable was this deluge of deadly dissentions,Exod. 7.20.21. that the Rod horse and his rider who had power to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another, &c. Rev. 6.4. may be said to have run a race of ruine through this wretched Land; and foure of those seven Angels which stood before God with seven trumpets, might seeme to have sounded in these three sor­rowfull Kingdomes Rev. 8. that seeming but a prophesie, the performance whereof is manifested in our unhappy Calamities: at the founding of the first of which An­gels trumpet, there followed haile and fire mingled with bloud which falling on the earth▪ the third part of the trees and all green grasse was burnt up; are not a third part of our trees our strong men, our young men our provisions and fruits of the earth consumed? The two staves of beauty and bonds are broken, mentioned Zech. the Bonds of unity and beauty of orderly government are broken, and we may feare the breach of the staffe of bread comes marching towards us like Je­hu, furiously, fearfully. At the sounding of the second Angels Trumpet as it were a great mountain burning with fire, was cast into the Sea, and part of the sea he came bloud. and the third part of the living creatures which were in the sea died, and the third part of the ships were destroyed. In this mare mortuum, [Page]and dead sea of dissentions, 'tis to be feared we have suffered shipwracke, of at least the third part of our martiall men, Munition, and mony, the three sinews of a State, besides the decay of Trading and Merchandizing, &c. At the sounding of the third Angel, there fell a great star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp and it fell upon a third part of the rivers, and fountains of waters, and the name of the star was called Wormwood, and the third part of the waters became wormwood, and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter: The Lord ha­ving permitted that grand Impostor the divell, a dangerous deceiver from the begin­ning, Lucifer in the shape of an Angell of light to mix wormwood with the fountaines of living waters the holy word of God; Many men by the wormwood of mis-interpre­tation, and gall of misapplication thereof, have so imbittered those sweet and plea­sant waters that they are to too many become aquae mortis destructive and deadly; which in truth in themselves are the cleere Aquae vitae waters of life quick­ning and reviving the drooping dying soule; At the sounding of the fourth Angel, the third part of the Sun was smitten: Christ the Sun of righteousnesse obscured by the pride and infidelity of men; the third part of the Moon, the Church; and the third part of the Stars the Ministers and teachers; so as the third part of them was darkened; and the day was smitten, that it shone not, for a third part of it▪ and the night likewise; the light of the Gospell clouded by the night of blacke igno­rance. Alas! I.om. 4.1, 2. how is the gold become dim? how is the most fine gold changed? the stones of the Sanctuary are poured out▪ are scattered in every place in every corner of every street. The sons of Zion comparable to fine gold how are they esteemed as earthen pitchers the worke of the hands of the potter? The Prince, the Peers, the Priests, all slandered and sleighted, derided, despised destroyed. The whole Land is filled with bitternesse and made drunke with wormwood.Lam. 3.15. Isa. 51.19, 20. The mighty have stumbled against the mighty, and both are fallen together. The whole body is sicke, and the whole heart is heavy. The Lord hath taken his peace from this people, Jer. 16.5. From the crown of the head, to the sole of the foot there is no whole part nothing but wound, and bruises and putrifying sores, Isa. 1.4 5 6. We may with griefe of soule heare Englands voyce on high (like the voice in Ra­ma [...]. Rachel weeping and that bitterly not to be comforted for her caeildren be­cause they mere not) lamenting the invaluable losse of the flower of her Nobility,Jer. 4.31. Gentry and Commonalty in their bud of gallantry wallowing and weltring in dust and bloud. Thus lofty Lucan;

Bella per Albinios plusquam civilia Campos,
Jus (que) datum sceleri, canimus, populum potentem
In sua victrici conversu [...] viscera dextra
— Quis talia fando nefanda
Temperat a lacrimis? —
—En quô discordia tristem,
Perduxit populum? funestos reddidit agros,
Vastavit (que) vias exhausit civibus urbes.

So that it may be said of England, what the faithlesse, and therefore fearfull [Page]men, which were sent to search the Land of Canaan, reported thereof to Moyses, 'tis [...] Land that cateth up the Inhabitants thereof, Num. 13.33. And that which ought [...]ot steightly to escape Christian consideration for the building of this Babell of bitter­nesse continuing of these Babylonish broyles,Num. 14.17. these Contentions carrying us headlong on [...] confusion) the simple and ignorant multitude, as naturall bruits made to bee taken and destroyed, not knowing what they did, as silly sheep led unto the slaughter, Psal. 44. they were killed all day long, and accounted as sheep appointed to bee slain; they were forced on both parts to tread morter, made and moystened with their owne bloud.

What heart not altogether adamantine, can doe lesse, then take up the Prophet Jere­mies lamentation;Jer. 14.17. Let mine eyes run down with teares night and day, and let them not cease: Lam. [...] For the virgin, the daughter of Zion is broken with a great breach, with a very grievous blow. There is no healing of thy bruise, thy wound is grie­vous: all that heare the bruit of thee, Nahum. 3.19. will clap their hands over thee.

In this sad and deplorable condition have these three Kingdomes now for a long sea­son laine languishing: like an Oake cleft in shivers by wedges of its own body, like the mad Philistines, and as in the dayes of Midian, the Lord set every mans sword upon his neighbour, Judges 7.22. And the people were as meat to the fire, no man spared his brother, Judges 7. Isa. 9. Isa. 9.19. What will ye doe now in the day of visitation, and of destru­ction? to whom will ye flee for helpe? and where will ye leave your glory? to whom will yee seek, and of whom will ye take counsell? Isa. 10.3.4. Gather to­gether on heaps,Isa. 10.gird your selves, ye shall be broken in pieces; take counsell toge­ther, it shall be brought to nought, pronounce a decree, and it shall not stand, Isa. 8.10. If ye will be safe, Then sanctifie the Lord, let him be your feare, and let him be your dread, Isa. 8.9, 10. and he shall be as a sanctuary, &c. Bind up the testimony, seale up the Law; should not a people inquire at their God? to the law, and to the te­stimony, if they goe not according to this word, there is no light in them. Isa. 13.14 Is there no balme in Gilead? is no Physician there? Jer. 8 22. Psal. 10.8, 9. The way of the Lord is an holy plain way, wherein the ignorant cannot erre, Isa. 35.8.9. A strait way wherein they shall not stumble. Ier. 31.9. vid. Deut. 17.8 9.15.

If the Lord have in his compleate Treasury of truth revealed a Divine way for cu­ring our Contentions, and setling peace among the Mighty,God enjoynes strict observa­tion of his ordinances, Deut., 9. to refuse that pious perfect way, and rely on our owne humane powers or policies, is an argument either of igno­rance and blindnesse, there is no light in us, or of pride or arrogance, that wee will not seeke after God, Psal. 10.4. That we take counsell, but not of the Lord, and had need be­ware the woe that waites on all stubborne contemners of Gods counsells, Isa. 30.

Observe the Lords gracious invitations and incouragements by language of love, to come and consult with him, and he cured by his divine direction and prescription; Come unto mee all weary and heavy laden, I will ease and refresh you. Commit thy cause to the Lord he will bring forth thy judgement as the light;Psa. 37.5, 6, 7.33. and thy righteousnesse as the day. Cast thy burthen on the Lord &c. Aske of me things to come: stand in the waies, and behold, and aske for the old way, which is the good way,Isa. 51.and walke therein, and ye shall find rest to your soules. Jer. 6.16. There is none to guide thee, none to lead thee one of the mire of thy miseries, none to take thee by the hand, of ad [Page]the sonnes that thou hast brought up.Mans extremi­ty, Gods op­portunity, Isa. Esa. 42.10, 11, 12.15, 16, 17, 18, Jer. 33.6.9. Esa. This righteous branch may returne this Dove with an Olive Branch of Peace and truth, being sent out with a prosperous seed of Peace, Zech. 8.12. The day pro­posed in this Trtatise is a turning & seeking to God, consulting with, inquiring of, relying and waiting on God in his, owne ordi­nance, all which are both commended &c commanded by God in his Word. Sors Intermen­tia divine pre­destinationis, non fortune fa­mula. O [...]gen. Homil. 23. in Josh.Thy sonnes lye in the heads of the streets, [...] as wild bull in a net: Heare now, miserable and dranken, not with wine, but divi­sion: Behold, I will take the cup of trembling out of thy hand. Hearken and give care to me, O my people: for a law shall proceed from me, and I will bring forth my judgement, for the light of my people. Behold, I will give them health and a­mendment: for I will cure them, and will reveale unto them the abundance of peace and truth: And it shall be to me, a name, a joy, a praise, and an honour, before all the nations of the earth, &c. Behold, the daies come, that I will performe the good thing which I have promised; I will cause the Branch of righteousnesse to grow, and he shall execute judgement, and righteousnesse in the Land. Jer. 33.14.15. I will raise up a righteous Branch, and a King shall reigne, and execute judgement and justice in the earth, Jer. 23 5, 6. The Lord is our judge, the Lord is our Law giver, the Lord is our King, he will save us, Isa. 33.22. The Lord will not faile his people, nor forsake his Inheritance, for judgement shall returne to justice, and the upright in heart shall follow after it, Psa 94.14 15. He shall not faile till he have set judgement in the earth, and the Isles shall waire for his Law, Isa. And againe, Isa. 2.4. an universall peace is there prophecied to be performed by the Lords Judgement between the Nations. Swords to be beaten into mattocks and speares into pruning hookes, and no more fighting; and in the preceding Prophece [...]t it is shewed that God by Christs judgement shall restore the state and government of things to their right use and order.

What this Dove proposeth and presseth, is no other, then that the determination of the great differences depending between his Majestie and the Parliament, might be referred to the Lords judgement by divine Lott, being an holy way originally instituted by God himselfe to that peculiar end of ending Controversies, as by Prov. 18.18. and many presidents in holy writ, and the authority of Divines both ancient and moderns is plentifully proved. Neither is there any other way revealed in Gods word, whereby so apparent, and immediate a judgement may be said to be given by God, as by this way of the divine Lott; And howsoever, by reason of the ignorance of some who know not, and therefore neither conceive, nor consider the holinesse and happinesse of this divine way; The infidelity of others, who either doubting of the truth of Gods word, (or perhaps distrusting the justice of their owne cause) dare not trust the judge­ment of God in the disposition of the Lott; The arrogance and selfe conceited obstina­cy of others who preferre their owne wisdomes, counsells or wayes, before the judgement, Oracle, and ordinance of God: And because of the selfe-seeking ends of others, who principally prosecuting those designes which conduce to their owne private purposes, pro­fits and preferments, and so grow carelesse of promoting Gods glory, and the Kingdomes peace, but rather protract it) Although I say, by reason of these Remoraes, this sa­cred Ordinance, Judgement, and Decree of God, may want its due respect among the worldly wise (as the best and most divine matters and ordinances, which concerns Gods glory, and the peoples good, usually meet with strangest opposition) (the Devill and his agents labouring the prevention of all proceedings tending to that purpose) yet the harmlesse Dove humbly desires, that all true lovers of Gods glory, the Kings honour [...] [Page]and the Kingdomes peace and happinesse, would be pleased throughly to peruse this Treatise (penned and published to no other end, then the glory of God, and peace of his people) and seriously to consider the matters especially those Texts of holy truth there­in contained, and the happy effects which by the holy use of this sacred Ordinance may be produced and then doubtlesse they will confesse the use hereof in this Kingdomes case, to be not onely convenient, but necessary, and to be prefer [...]ea before any way or meanes of humans designment, in these seven severall respects.

  • 1. In respect of the glory of God which will hereby be more advanced not onely by committing of our doubtfull and difficult differences to his divine determination, making and taking God for our onely Judge, saying with Jehoshaphat, and the men of Judah; Wee know not what to doe, but our eyes, hearts and hands,2. Chron. 20.12.are towards thee, but also by the just, holy, and happy Judgement which the Lord will give by his owne way of the divine Lott; Whereas if peace be procured by humane powers and policies, wee are apt to attribute most to the arme of flesh, and sacrifice to our own nets, and the Lords glory is too often layd aside, as the Lord by his Prophet Jeremy com­plaines; Wherefore say my people,
    Jer. 1.31.
    we are Lords, we will come no more to thee?
  • 2. All motters in difference, both Sacred and Civill, in Church and State will be setled according to the will of Jesus Christ, himselfe being Judge, which will be more pleasing to God profitable and satisfactory to men.
  • 3. The Kings Honour will be preserved, and his mind better satisfied, being wonn by divine judgement willingly to consent, not forcibly by Conquest and compulsion con­strained to passe or signe Propositions.
  • 4. His Majesty will be more cleerely satisfied touching his just Rights and Pre­rogatives, being assured that the King of Kings, who is the primitive of all Princi­palities, by whom, and from whom all powers are ordained and derived, knowing what is justly due to Princes, will give to Caesar, the things that are Caesars, as to God the things that are Gods. And as concerning that party of the Nobility, Gen­try, and Comminalty, which adhered to his Majesty in these unhappy warres▪ their pu­nishments both pecuniary and corporall touching their lives, liberties, and estates,
    Deut. Gods judge­ment by Lott will take off all aspersion of cruelty and oppression. Num. 15.34.35 Levit. 24.12.
    be­ing left to Divine disposition, rather then humane designement, will be a way more phasing to God, and more mercifull, pions, and satisfactory in the sight of men. To this purpose you may please to peruse the 2 Chron. 28. in a case of the like nature between Judah and Israel, where the Prophet Oded presseth for fraternall pitty and mercy to be shewed to the conquered brethren. And Num. 25.34. The man that gathered sticks on the Sabbath day, and the sonne of the Israelitish woman that blasphemed, being convicted of their crimes, were not put to death, untill Moyses had inquired of God, and received commission from the great Judge of the world, for their execution.
  • 5. All future [...]ewdes malice and resolutions of revenge, which might remaine a­mong Families in generations to come, will be much mitigated if not cleans remitted, when the desposition of the Lord, shall be discorned in dispatch of the differences.
  • 6. All Vowes, Covenants and Oathes, made by either party in any matter of op­position one against the other, may by Gods judgement (declaring the illegality of the matter sworns to be performed) be made voide, and not binding, which by no humane [Page]Lawes of dispensation could be discharged, freed, or made disobliging to the [...] of the Covenanters, &c.
  • 7. Division and Effusion of Blood, (detestable to God, damnable among men; To the Devill and his disciples onely delightfull) will bee prevented and avoided, [...] mindes touching all doubtfull and difficult differences more cleerly convinced, resolved▪ and satisfied by Gods owne immediate judgement (against which no honest godly Christian will presume to murmure, dispute, or oppose;) And a pious, prosperous, s [...], firme, lasting, found and well-grounded Peace with Truth, by the Prince of Peace, who is our Peace, truly and perfectly established. Which that the God of Peace by his blessed Sonne, on whose shoulders he hath set the government of Peace, with the assi­stance of his blessed Spirit of Peace, who is onely able, may please speedily to performe, heartily prayeth, the unworthiest of Gods servants, who is humbly
Thine also in Christ Jesus, E.M.

The Contents of the ensuing Treatise.

  • CHAPTER I. OF the severall acceptations, and derivation of the word Lott; of the division, and distinctions of the severall sorts of Lots, And of the definitions and descriptions of Lotts; but especially the Di­vine Lott, which is intended for the Subject of this Discourse.
  • CHAP. II. Of the Persons, places, times, manner and subject matter, by whom, where, when, how, and upon what occasions, Lotts have been, may, are, or ought to be used.
  • CHAP. III. Of the manner how Divine Lotts may be applyed, and happily used for determining the great differences depending between His Majesty and the Parliament; and also all other dissentions fit to be decided by the Lords judgement by Lott, in Church and State (not onely in these Kingdomes, but also through­out Christendome) may be composed and reconciled. And of the conveniency, equality and necessity of this Divine way, of concluding the Contentions of this Kingdome. Shewing also, how by the reviving of this Sacred way of Peace-making many Prophecies in holy writ may be fulfilled.


Page 6. line 4. for It, read the Feast of Purim. Pag. 26. l. 10. read before, next after mindes in the 11. line page 35. live 20. for Iizeh read Iireh. Some other faults are escaped, which the Reader in his discretion may reforme.

CHAP. I. Of the severall acceptions of the word LOT.

THE various acception of the word Lot, as it hath produced seve­rall observations thereupon, so it hath met with many mis-inter­pretations therof: for being in severall Languages diversly ta­ken, 'tis thereby of many much mistaken: Likewise the use of Lets being ancient and sacred, hath in all Ages bin frequent a­mong men of all sorts: And having been so much in use, by mans corrupt and irreligious carriage hath bin subject to much abuse: Neither ought that to seem strange, seeing there is no creature of Gods, nor any ordinance, be it civill or Sacred, howsoever good and holy in it selfe, but receiveth some sully, if not a deep tincture from the defiled fingers of the unlawfull and irreverent users thereof, from the foule hands of the illiterate, ignorant, or ungodly, and superstiti­ous abusers thereof, or from the false and filthy tongues and pens of the cunning contemners and opposers, and subtil supplanters of it. Among such hath the lot for a long time suffered, who for particular designes, and ends of their own, endea­vour the utter abolition of this sacred Ordinance, and seek to smother and obstruct the Sacred use thereof; They cry down Gods divine way of determining differences, to the end they may fish more freely in troubled waters, and advance their own co­vetous and ambitious purposes, plotts, and destructive devices.

The Latine word sors, signifying in English a Lot, is often taken, or rather mista­ken for Casus, fortuna accident. Chance, fortune, accident, hazard, or the like; as, sors objecit mihi fortem. Horat. And tuers sortem quam fortuna dedit. Ovid. But this must needs be in an ignorant, heathenish, atheisticall sence; as the Phili­stims, 1 Sam. 6.9. their Priests and Southsayers, when they advise to send away the Acke, made them mark which way it went; if to Bethshemesh, then 'twas God that plagued them with destruction by Emerods; but if not, then it was a Chance that happened unto them. The wicked attribute almost all things to Fortune or Chance, whereas indeed there is nothing done without Gods providence and decree: Quod sapientibus & piis singularis Dei providentia est, id insipientibus & profanis fortuna dicitur, Downham, in Ram. Dial. l. c. 5. Ignorantia causarum confuxis for­tunam, Lactant. instit. lib. 3. c. 29. Folly, error and blindnesse, and (as also Cicero confesseth in his Acad. quaest. l. 5.) the ignorance of causes brought in the name of Fortune; When the event of the Lot which is onely in Gods disposall is attributed to Fortune, which in very truth is it selfe but a mere fiction. Sometimes 'tis [Page 2]taken for Conjecture, Divination, Southsaying, &c. but in a sinfull and superstiti­ous sence, as, ista vetula scit multa de sorte, That old wife or witch seemes to know many things by the conjecture, or by the superstitious use of Lots. Ovid stiles Lots, faticinae sortes. And the Diviners, Southsayers, Fortune-tellers, and supersti­tious abusers of this Oracle are stiled fatidici. Darius pro sortibus usus ost hinnitu equi, alii aspectu solis exorientis, Pet. Mart. So the Lot sometimes is taken for Desti­ny, Fate, fatall necessity, mysterie. To facimus fortuna Deam coelo (que) locamus, Ju­venal. Sometimes for possession, property, or right in a thing: as, Hierusalem fuit in sorte Benjamin, Jos. 18.28. Mic. 2.5. somtimes for Division and parition of lands by Lot. Sometimes for succession of time, either from the naturall Condition, or Di­vine disposition there of, Cum dies abscesserit, noctem (que) sors reduxerit. Sometimes 'tis termed capitale, the whole sum in a common banke or stock, wherein many have part, a principall sum of money borrowed, or laid out to usury: Quicquid accipitur ulira sortem, usura est. Etiam de sorte nunc venio in dubium. Terent. 'Tis also taken for a Prize, prey, booty, reward, had, obtained, given, or gained 1 For charge, office, state, condition, any kind or course of life, and for whatsoever befalls a man in any state, course, or condition of life, Isa. 17.14. Isa. 57.6. The event how­ever casuall, in relation to the instrument, yet falleth out certainly this or that, by Gods wholly disposing the instrument, 1 Sam. 14.41. Gratam sortem habemus. O­vid. We are content with our state or condition. Status ex dispositione Dei pendens. Sorte tua contentus abito. Sorte tori gaudens Ovid. Rejoycing that shee was nobly married, for the soboles divinitùs data, the issue, off-spring, fruit of the body: Sa­turni sors ego prima fui. Ovid. I was the first child that Saturn had. In marriage and children, good or bad successe is sometimes said to be a Lot. Oftentimes 'tis ta­ken for the judgement, sentence, and decree, whereby any thing is adjudged and assigned to any one: For the providence of God, the answer of God, the Oracle of God, so Martìnius. The vocation of the Elect here, and their right to glory here­after is said to be their Lot, Ephes. 1.4.5. Col. 1.12. Acts 1.16. Dan. 12.13. Thou shalt rest and stand up in thy lot, at the end of the dayes. St. Augustine calls Pre­destination a Lot. In holy Writ wee find that Almighty God was Consulted with, and answers thereupon returned by Lot. Thence even the very Heathen had an honourable esteeme of this holy Oracle,Per sacras quae­rere sortes, O­vid. Met. lib. 1. Tibull. lib. 1. Ille sacras pu [...]ri sortester sustulit, Heathen Poets giving it the name of Sacred; shewing more re­verence to Gods Ordinance then Christians doe in these times. Sometimes Lot is taken for the signum quo sortimur, instrumentum, whereby the will of God is either lawfully or rashly sought out. The Divinatorii calculi, the signes, notes, or instru­ments by which Lottery is used and executed, whether beans, stones, barks, bran­ches, gold, silver, wax, clay, paper, parchment, or the like, whereof the Lots are made,Aret. de sorte. and are termed in Greek [...], sors, Lot, as Prov. 16.33. The lot is cast in­to the lap, &c. Sometimes for the event, as, give a perfect lot, ô Lord. 1 Sam. 14.42.

Also the res ipsa, [...], the subject matter of the Lottery, as the inheritance to be divided, is termed a Lot. Also [...], possessie quicquid cui (que) sortitò obvenisset, Whatsoever is given to any one by Lot, is termed [...]

In the Hebrew language a Lot is called, and that most properly [...] Ghoral by which word they expresse the inheritance, place, and portion, which by divine disposition is assigned to any or every one;Dict-a [...] Of the same signification is [...] Na­chalah, hareditas, c [...]u sors haereditaria: according to this sence is Davids expressi­on, the Lot is fallen to me in a faire ground, I have a goodly heritage. In this sence the Land of promise is said to be the generall Lot of the children of Israell, and therein the possession of every particular tribe, the Lot which the Lord gave them. So the Lord himselfe is truly said (for so he is) the Lot of the righteous, as they are the Lot of the Lord. Hence Moses, Deut. 32.9. The Lords portion is his people: and Jacob is the lot of his inheritance. And Jer. 10.16. The Lord is termed the portion of Jacob, and Israel the red of his inheritance. To this purpose the sweet singer of Israel; The Lord is the portion of mine inheritance, and of my cup: thou shalt maintain my lot. Troubles and persecutions in this vale of misery, the Church militant, are the Lot of the faithfull, which the Lord allotteth to them for confir­mation, and obsigation of their faith, and proofe of their patience; But the rod of the wicked shall not rest on the Lot of the righteous. Their troubles are many, but yet transitory, not perpetuall, the Lord delivereth them out of all, and after crowns them with joy and life eternall in the new Jerusalem, which is likewise the Lot of all true believers.

Clerus, the Clergy takes denomination, [...], à sorte from a Lot, and are so called either quia sorte fuerint electi, & sic sors sint Domini, vel quod Dominus illorum esset portio either because the Clergy, and all that served in any office or place in the Temple, from the highest to the lowest were originally elected by Lot to their severall places of service, as appeareth 1 Chron. 24.25.26. chapters, as Aretius, a late learned Writer in his Problemes confirmes.Aret. de ossiciis Ecclesiasticis, Problem. 68. Or else because the Clergy are (or ought to be) the Lords peculiar Lot, as was the tribe of Levi, ele­cted and selected, separated and set apart, specially from the rest of the Tribes, for the Lords service: for Election is also termed a Lot, as Acts 1.26. Sort cecidit super Matthiam, The Lot, the Lords election fell upon Matthias.

Or els the Clergy is so called, because God alone is, & ought to be accepted as their sole & chief portion, and to whom they have, or ought to have solely and wholly se­parated & dedicated themselves to serve the Lord in his Sauctuary, whence also they received their subsistence; For the Levites had no inheritance with their brethren, but the Lord was their Lot and portion. [...], sors, Lott, is also used and taken for that part of the Lords flocke, which is committed to the charge of any Pastor,Acts 07 20.28. whereof the holy Ghost hath made him overseer, as the Apostle saith. And as that parish or flock is termed the Lott of the Pastor, so may the Pastor be said to be the Lott of that flock or Parish, as being thereunto allotted by the Lord: So the Pa­stor and parish, may be said to be mutually each others Lott, so disposed of by the Lord. Many other acceptations Authors afford, which I omit to recite, as not very pertinent to the present purpose of this discourse, fearing I have been overtedious in this point.

I shall therefore proceed to the next point considerable concerning Lotts, which [Page 4]is the Derivation of the Word in the severall Languages of Greeke,Derivation. Latine, Eng­lish, and some others, whereof I shall endeavour brevity, but withall set downe such Collections as I have made concerning the knowledge of the name, and the Etimologie or derivation thereof, much conduce into a more cleare knowledge of the nature, property, and condition of the thing it selfe. Quandoquidem cum nomen & ejus etimologiam, vel notationem. (ut appellat Cicero) rectè noveris▪ tunc etiam na­turam, proprietatem conditionem, effectum, materiam, formam, vel finem rerum optimè nosse queas: Seeing that by the right knowing of the name of things, and the true Etimolegy, or (as Tully termes it) notation thereof, we may attaine the know­ledge of the nature, property, condition, effect, matter, forme, and end of those things in more perfect manner. Therefore nomen (a name is so called) quasi nota­men, quod notitiam facit, because it affords a more perfect notice, and a more nota­ble knowledge of the nature of the thing named. Whence Plato saith, [...] 1. Qui intelligit nomina, resetiam intelligit; He that understands the names of things, understands the things themselves. And Isiderus saith, Nomina si rerum nescis perit cognitio rerum: Ignorance of the names hinders the knowledge of things themselves.Nibil aliud est scientia nisi serre per causas, & originationes. Wherefore, [...], in a true method of teaching, the names ought first to be sought out, sifted and searched into, Quia rerum notitia â nominibus dependet, the knowledge of things doth much depend upon the derivation and Etimologie of their names.

Now the Etimology of the word Lot in severall Languages, I find very signifi­cant and proper to the end for which Lots were first ordained, the ending of con­troversies and setling of Peace.

The word Lot (as Martinius observes) is a Saxon word, and hath its derivation, A lite quam terminat, from strife which it determineth. In the German tongue, Lot is called los a [...] litis, from solving of doubts and difficulties, and salving of diffe­rences and dissentions; for which end it was primarily and principally ordained, as herein afterwards I shall endeavour to demonstrate. Likewise the word Lot (as 'tis the proper name of a man) is rendred to signifie, involutas colligatus, involved, rolled up, wrapped up, either because the instrumentall notes or signes, the Lots (as they are termed) by which Lottery is used, are usually folded and rolled up, until they are drawn, or else because upon the unfolding and opening thereof in extricable difficulties and knots are dissolved, secret and hidden things and mysteries are un­veyled and revealed, and contentions to humane apprehensions irreconcileable are composed.

The Latin word sors, signifying a Lot, as Martinius Aretius, and others affirm, is derived from series, which signifies a methodicall course order, and rule, not per antephrasin, (as some malevolent ignorants would surmize) as meerly casuall and being voyd of order; but because in doubts indissoluble, Chaos-like confusion, and ambiguous matters; The Lot reduceth such distractions and divisions to a cer­taine divine order and rule; When the Apostles doubted who should succeed in the place of the Apostate Judas, the Lot immediatly decided that doubt, Act. 1. When [Page 5]the question grew among the nine Hero's, which of them should Duell with He­ctor, Hom. Iliad. 7. In adeunda hae­reditate haeredes disceptant de partibus, sortes adhibitae cui (que) declarant ordi­nem. Ideo (que) ab usu & eventu rectissime a serie sortes dictas esse judico. Aret. de sortibus, loc. 180. the Lot determined that dispute, and fell upon Ajax, as Homer saith, [...]. In any difference touching partition of Lands, goods, or the like; the readiest way to reconcile is by Lot: so that sors à serie may seem a very proper derivation, reflecting upon the use and end for which the God of peace and order prepared the Lot, viz. to be a peace-maker, a speciall means of setling contenti­ons, and procuring peace. The earth and the inhabitants,Dissolved, Ps. 75. & 3. are divided and out of order, I will establish the pillars thereof, saith the Lord, Psal. 96.10. and the world shall be established, and I will judge the people in righteousnesse, and reunite their dis-jointed soules, left it run into an irrecoverable ruine.

[...], signifying sors, a Lot, some seeme to derive from [...], vocare, relating to the calling, condition, place, or profession which God hath conferred and cast upon any one as his lot or portion: or [...], à ligno, from the wood whereof the signes, or instrumentall notes, or markes, the Lots were usually made. Or else [...] quasi [...], bonus, formosus; beatus, from the goodnesse,The Clergy should be without ble­mish, defect, or deformity. beauty and blessednesse, which should alwayes attend the Clergy (being the Lords lot) both in purity of doctrine, and piety of life and conversation, or from the good, beautifull, and blessed operation, fruit and effect, which [...] the Lot produceth, 1. Peace, which may well be ranked amongst the best, most beautifull, and blessed of all sublunary comforts, and then which the wofull experience of the contrary in these three Kingdomes for these three yeares past will force us to confesse, nil dele­ctabilius, si rerum seitur verus egendo valor; If the true worth of things be knowne by the want thereof. Therefore the words in the Chaldean and Arabian tongues which signifie [...], a Lot, are in the native and genuine construction rendered dulce, a sweet, delightfull desirable thing, as Martinius relates, and expounds the words. And this is no improper sympathizing of the words, in regard the very feet of the Peace-bringer (as God himselfe tells us) are beautifull, and the Prince of peace himselfe hath pronounced the Peace-makers blessed. And this surely should move the Clergy to remember and give due respect to, and not to despise that divine Ordinance which originally gave them not only this denomination of Clergy, but also their place and dignity, vid. 1 Chron. 24 25.26. whole chapters. And withall, if without offence I may be so bold, I should pray them to consider the Covenant that God made with the Tribe of Levi, Mal. Mal. a Covenant of peace; and, as they were intended for Embasladours of peace, so they would preach and presse peace, and withall their power promote and further those holy and divine wayes that conduce to peace, magnifying God in those Ordinan­ces (whereof this of the Lot is at this time a most usefull one) which conduce to his glory, and the Kingdomes peace.

I find also another, and that a proper derivation of the word [...], viz. [...], quasi [...], from the verb [...], signifying frango, to breake or dissolve, which (Eustathins saith) is contracted from [...]. And Martinius sets downe another most apt and pertinent derivation of [...], not unlike this last, scil. [...] [Page 6] quasi [...],Dici videtur quia [...], (1) tollit contro­versiam. 1 Quia tollit, fraugit controversias, takes away and concludes Con­troversies; which suteth directly with the end for which the Lot was ordained [...] the effect which it operateth, Vide plus de hoc apud Martinium de sorte. Aret. Problem. de offic. Eccles. 68. & 180. de sorte. It was instituted in remembrance [...] the Jewes delivery from Haman, before whom Lots were cast day by day, [...] from [...] or [...] voco, to call, whence it is that in ordi­nary speech men are said to be of this or that vocation or calling. and moneth by moneth for their destruction.

Pur in the Syrian tongue also signifies, a Lot, Sors; thence the Feast of P [...] the feast of Lots, mentioned Esther 9.27. ordained by speciall decree to be obser­ved and celebrated by the Jewes, and their posterity, in perpetuity as a memorial of Gods mercifull deliverance in their depth of misery. [...] in the Greek signifieth ignis, fire: vel per antiphrasin, quia ignem contentionis extinguit; By contraries, because it extinguisheth the fire of contention, as before Lot, à lite quam terminat, Lot, from the strife it determineth. Or [...] ignis quia purgat, & purificat ab effe [...], and that not improperly according to the nature of fire, because it purgeth & puri­fieth, disperseth, dispelleth, and cleereth those black and ominious clouds of contenti­on, and deadly dissention, which if not reconciled may ruine whole flourishing Kingdomes upon the Rocke of confusion. And thus hath it been plainly pro­ved by the very derivation of the word & name of Lot in severall languages to su [...]e very properly with the nature of the thing it selfe, and most aptly to answer the reason and end for which the Lot was by God originally instituted and ordained, and corresponding also very fitly to the purpose for which 'tis now proposed, videli­cet, the advancing of Gods glory, preserving the Kings honour, and promoting the peoples good in determining those differences which by humane endeavour can hardly be ever happily composed. But hereof More amply hereafter. I proceed now to the division and distinction of the severall sorts of Lots.

Touching the distinction and division of Lots, whereof there are severall sorts, according to the severall Authors treating on the subject, I shall use all possible brevity.

Lyra sets downe two sorts;Lyra in Num. c. 34. in Prov. 16. in Je. c. 1. 1. Divisory, used for dividing of any thing among divers persons, which he holds very lawfull, if used without Avarice, revenge, or injury to any.

2 Consultory used for determining of somewhat to be done, which he holds also lawfull if in case of necessity it be used with due reverence, and the event expected from God; but unlawfull otherwise, if used in triviall occasions, without reverence, and the event expected from any created power.

Lavatur and Sheindler two sorts, Divisory, Divinatory; Divisoriae licita quibus haereditates, possessiones pradae, &c. dividuntur.

Divinatoriae illicitae, quibus occulta investigantur, quisve rerum aut personarum fu­turus sit exitus.

Serarius heapeth up severall sorts, [...] Josh to. 2. c. 7.1.17. Tho. sum. part. 2 q. 95. art, 8. & de soctibus. cap. 2.3.4. Sacra, profana; permissa, prohibita; bona & laudabilis; mala & reprehensibilis. Consultory and Divinatory; Serious, Ludicrous.

Thomas Aquinas makes three sorts, viz.

  • 1. Divisoria, quâ quaritur quid cui (que) sit exhibendum, determining what each shall have.
  • [Page 7]2 Consulteria, quâ quaeritur quid sit agondu [...], Inquiring what were best to be done: to implore a divine sentence, judgement, or decree by Lot, is not only law­full, but commanded by holy Writ in case of necessity.
  • 3 Divinatoria quá quaritur quid sit futurum, Searching what shall hereafter ensue. Most learned Writers are of the same opinion with Aquinas.

Divisoriae cui aliquid sit adjudicandum, ut in divisione agrorum, bonorum, &c. Consultoriae quibus quaritur quid potissimùm sit agendum; aut quid sit futurum, ut sunt Divinatoriae.

Peter Marter, a late learned Writer setteth down the same sorts of Lots,Pet. Mart. in 1. Sam. cap. 10. with the same cautions and observations in the use thereof, as hereafter shall be shewed.

Peucer & Krackevitz set down three sorts, but in another sort,Peucer de Di­vin. C. de sorte Krakevitz in Je. c. 1. Sortilegium triplex.

  • 1. Divinum, divinitùs rectum & directum, Lots divine, divinely disposed, and directed, guided, and governed immediatly by God himselfe.
  • 2 Civile ceu politicum, Civill or Politicke used for the ending of strifes, law­suites, or other great contentions, or the parting of Lands, Goods, Gifts, Legacies, or the collations, of honours, offices, places, &c.
  • 3 Divinatorium & superstitiosum, Divinatory and superstitious, whereby men presume upon unwarrantable grounds to find out hidden matters, and ghesse at fu­ture events without any precept, direction or president in Gods word, and this by most Authors is held diabolicall.

The two former being piously applyed, may prove most profitable and prospe­rous meanes of ending the bloody divisions in these three Kingdomes.

Perkins mentioneth three sorts in his Cases of Conscience.

  • 1 Civill or Poli­ticke, used as before is expressed for ending of▪ strifes and contentions, dividing pos­sessions, goods and places.
  • 2 Sporting used (as he saith) cōmonly for the setting up of Bankrupts, dicing &c.
  • 3 Divining, used for the foretelling of future events; The first warrantable in cases of weight and necessity, with prayer, and other religious duties preceding. The other two notable abuses, having no warrant in Gods word.

Eastius maketh foure sorts;East. hist. of the Gospell.

  • 1 Politicall for election of Magistrates in cases of War, in places of the Common-wealth, &c. approved by many.
  • 2 Ludicrous for sport and pastime, questioned and disallowed by most, and by him denyed as unlawfull.
  • 3 Diabolicall, for Divination, Soothsaying, &c, condemned of all as dangerous, damnable.
  • 4 Divine, appointed, approved, directed by God, confirmed by the practice of Patriarks, Prophets, Apostles in the Old and New Testament, and by the opinion and writings of the most learned Divines, both ancient and modern.

Martinius Di­ctionar. Theo­logicum. Martinnus sets down three sorts;

  • 1 Divine, which by Gods command and in­stinct is used, and this is not to be practised, but with prayer to God preceding, who declares certainly his will in humane dubitation, Jos. 7. 1 Sam. 10. Jon. 1. Act. 1.
  • 2 Humane, which are lawfull for men to use in those things which are subject to their will and liberty. This is termed sort politica, a politick Lot:
    A Lot is some­times stiled a [...] instrument whereby Dei voluntas, aut legitime, aut te­mere exquiritur. Legitimae sortis exempla sunt, Levit. 16. Num. 26. Deut. 1. & 31. & lib. Jos. de illegiti­ma sorte multa in historiis su­perstitionum Gentium. Martin, ib.
    being either first [Page 8]Divisory in parting common goods, Levit. 16. Jos. 18. or secondly Consultory in things of free Election, as when among persons which seem to bee alike fit for place or imployment, some one is elected. Here beginneth a speciall note, which is, that Lots are not rashly to be used, but then at length when a matter cannot other­wise conveniently be decided or concluded, and truly with reverence of God, without temptation or contempt of him, and without any imposture.
  • 3 Diabollicall, abused to inquire curiously of things, either past, or to come. This kind of Lot is called [...], because chiefly 'twas used for Divination.
  • 4 Sortes judiciorum apud Romanos erant (saith Martin.) the Romans used Lots of judgements, or judiciall Lots. Servius in Aen. 6. non audiebantur causae nisi per sortem ordinatae; Causes were not heard, unlesse ordinated by Lot.


  • 1. sort [...]s mitto, I cast a Lot;
  • 2. Sorts eligo, I choose by Lot;
  • 3. Secun­dum sortis casum assigno & do, I assigne and give according as the Lot falls;
  • 4. Ser­te dispono, I dispose by Lot;
  • 5. Ordino generalitèr, etiam sine sorte, I ordain gene­rally, also without Lot.
  • 6 Sorte accipio, I receive and accept by Lot.
  • 7. Obtine [...] tanquam sorte, I obtaine or gaine as it were by Lot.

Sortiri & dimicare, seeme to beare the same acception. Apud Sueton in Augusto cap. 13. where sortiri est sorte le­gere vitam vel mortem; at dimicare, ferro decernere, [...], to Duell or deter­mine by the Sword. Micare is also sortiri. nempe, sortiri per digitos subitò expanses sub certo numero. Micare, [...]. Hence Causabonus saith dimicare to duell or fight is derived, which is properly by Lot or mication to put an end to controver­sie. Thence it was taken for taking away Controversie any way: but because it was often done by the Sword, it is put for pugnare, to fight in the same manner as [...], and cernere, to discerne Varro in Parmenone micandum erat cum Grace. Utrum illius numerum, an ille meum sequatur.

Thus much touching the division and distinction of Lots. I shall now proceed to the definition and description thereof, which is no lesse various then the division.

Definition of divine lots.Touching the description and definition of Lots, I shall not endeavour to describe or define the severall sorts thereof, but principally, and only that which I intend as the subject of my present discourse, which is the divine Lot, and the divisory or po­litique Lot.

Now those descriptions and definitions which Authors afford, seem to be drawn either from the operation, fruits, and effects which the use of these Lots do produce, or from the end and finall cause for which they were ordained.

St. Augustine upon the [...]0th Psalme, describes a Lot thus: Sors res est in huma­na dubitatione, indicans divinam voluntatem; or thus, as Peter Martyr quotes it: Sors nihil aliud est, quam Judicium divinae voluntatis in humana dubitatione. A di­vine resolution of humane ambiguity and haesitation; A divine declaration of Gods will and pleasure in humane dubitation.Diez in Mat­thioe festum. Divina voluntatis decretum. A di­vine decree of Gods divine will as Diez on 06 Matthias Election. Divinum judicium & voluntatis Dei solennis testificatio.

Which descriptions doubtlesse are meant of divine Consultory Lots, which in cases [Page 9]difficult and doubtfull were prescribed by God, to be used in a pious religious man­ner, answerable hereunto is that expression of St. Ambrose, where he stiles Lottery a divine tryall: Sors voluti divino pendet examine, Ambros. A divine sentence:Ambros. de Tob. cap. 20, Ele­cti sunt due judicie humano, & electus de duobus unus judicio divino, August in Psal. 30. de Matthia, Act. 1.26. Ubi ex fide integra & oratione praemissâ s [...]rs ducitur; ea que Dei voluntas continet in occulto, (that the Lot discovereth to men Gods hidden will) Sors declarat in manifesto, Orig. in Josh. hom. 23. the lot maketh it known openly what God decreeth secretly: Dei judicium quod est in occulto, sors pandit in publico: Orig, in Josh. hom. 23. ib. Which sayings all may be well understood of Gods approving will, what he would have done, or not have done of us, and must be restrained to divine lots a­lone, which God hath appointed to be used to that purpose. Accordingly it is true what St. August. Solent quae sorte dantur divinitùs dari. August. de Gen. a lit. lib. 10. c. 18. Those things that fall to vs by Lot, are given us of God, according to that of the Psalmist, Psal. 16.6, 7. the lines or lot are fallen unto me in pleasant places▪ yea, I have a faire heritage, I will blesse the Lord for it. Dionysius saith that the election of Matthias by lot was a di­vine revelation: I sta sors (saith he) fuit splendor quidom divinus per quem ostendebatur quod Matthias in Apostolum assumendus erat; A certain Divine splendor, whereby was shewed that God had chosen Matthias to be his Apostle, Praecedente oratione, non jam casu sed providentiâ sors divinum judicium deferebat, Aret. super. Act. 1. Origen. ibid. Aretius saith that the lot falling on Matthias, was divina vocis instar: & Matthias non mi­nùs divinitùs erat electus quàm reliqu [...] undecim, A divine voice or choice, declaring that he was no lesse divinely elected then any other of the eleven, whom Christ him­selfe personally and immediatly called to follow him.

Orig. in Josh. c. 18. De ratione sortium. homil. 23. Ephes. 1.11.12. Colos. 1.12. Gratias agentes Deo patri qui dignos & ido­neos nos fecit i [...] partem sortis sanctorum in lumine.St. Paul, Ephes. 1.11.12. saith, In Christo sorte vocati sumus, as Origen obser­veth, praedestinati secundùm propositum ejus qui omnia operatur secundum Consilium voluntatis sua, ut simus in laudem gloria ejus: Whereby the Apostle noteth the im­partiality of this divine way of election, and teacheth that as all the works of God are without respect of merit: so to be a Christian is Gods free gift, shewing that both himselfe and the rest of the Apostles were chosen in Christ by lot, by the free mercy of God, without any merit of theirs, according to the counsell of Gods di­vine pleasure, that as from him, and by him, and for him, are all things, so in his name, and according to his way, and will revealed to his praise and glory, should all our intentions and actions be directed.

To this purpose St. August. saith, Praedestinationem & gratiam posse diei sortem, Predestination and Grace may be termed or called lots, Secundùm interiorem veró in­tellectum (saith Origen) Paulus videtur judisar [...] quam dicit, In parte sortis sanctorum, Ephes. 1.11. Colos. 1.12. Origin Josh. hom. 23. & sorte vocati in Christo, nonsolùm in hominibus, sed in supernis virtutibus sors agatur; Et quod in occultis habetur apud Deum, sortis gubernatione etiam hominibus demonstra­tur: Quod ita gestum esse nonsolùm in terris arbitror, verùm etiam in coelestibus, &c. [Page 10]Origen upon those fore-cited places of St. Paul, and other places of the old and new Testament, seems to be of opinion that lots are used, not only among men upon earth, terrestriall fraile morealls, but even among the supernall and celestiall prin­cipalities and powers, andThe Angels in heaven had their severall places & char­ges assigned to them, who should rule this or that Province, Dan. 10.13.21. who tend this or that person, Mat. 18.10. who governe this or that Church, Rev. 1.20. Orig. in Luc. hom. 13. Pet. Mart. com. loc. 7. Cart. com. in Prov. 18.18. spirits in heaven, grounding his opinion upon that text, Deut. 32.8. when the high God diuided to the Nations their inheritance; When he separated the sons of Adam, he appointed the borders of the people accor­ding to the number of the Angels of God, according to the 70 translation. The Lords portion is his people, and Iacob the lot of his inheritance: Whence he infer­reth, that by Lot God had Israel for his peculiar lot and people.

Peter Martyr termes Lottery, or the religious use of divine Lots, Modus consu­leudi Deum, inquirendi per divinum consilium, A divine way or meanes of consult­ing and advising with Almighty God, of inquiring and desiring divine counsell and direction in caset of doubt and difficulty; and to that purpose saith, that sortiri ni­hil aliud est quam aliquid agere, ex eujus eveuta rem incognitum possumus deprehen­dere: Use of Lots is nothing else but the way or meants by whose event, hidden and secret matters are brought to light and knowledge: according to that of Cartwright in Prov. 18.18. usus sortis valet ad rerum recon [...]itiffimarum per vestigationem quom­admodum soeps ad eam rem adhibita est; the use of Lots is very prevalent for the per­vestigation and discovery of the most recondite things, and to that purpose hath of­ten been applied. And in another place upon that text saith, that Sort est Dei mundi juditis quasi vicarius, quâ Deus ipse de rebus dub [...]t, & nulla hominum art [...] aut ingo­nio investigandis decernis. The Lot is as it were the Vicegerent or deputy of God, who is the Judge of the whole world, whereby he doth discover and determine such doubtfull and obscure matters as by the art and wit of man cannot be discerned and found out: And the same Author saith also upon the same text, that the singular and speciall use of a Lot is shewn, and was ordained for the continuing of concord and unity, and composing of strife and enmity, especially among the mighty. Hoc autem proverbio Balomon specialem & singularem esse sortis usum designat ad concordiam alendam, & in componendis litibus & dirimendis controversiis, maxim [...]cùm inter magnates contentio aboritur, indicans, lites inter magnates agrè & difficulter tol [...] docens similitèr concordiam & pacem ut inter omnes fic praecipuè inter magnites & cos qui principatum obtinent colendam & fovendam esse; ut quae difficulter, semel vio­latae, recuperetur & redintegretur; quod clientelis, societatibus pecunia confis [...] [...]tuò non cedunt, & cedere sibi infamiae ducunt, cum quod sorte divimitur, ad neutrius in­famiam redundat: neutrius enim aut sapientie aut potentiâ, aut opibus in hoc jud [...] praejudicatur. But in this Salomon sets forth the speciall and singular use and end of Lots to be for the nourishment of concord and amity, and the composing of con­tentions, and taking away of Controversies, especially among the mighty, shew­ing that strife among Princes, Potentates, and Rulers of the people are very hardly decided, teaching likewise that peace and unity, as among all men, so especially among the mighty, ought principally to be preserved and cherisht, in regard that love among such being once violated, is not without much difficulty and danger recovered and restored, because each side confiding in their friends powers and [Page 11]policies hold it infamous to yeild or submit either to other: whereas, when the controversie is decided by Lot, it redoundeth to the infamy of neither, for the wealth, wisedome, power, or valour of neither is hereby prejudiced or dis­paraged.

Also the same Author in Prov. 16. v. 33. stileth a lot judicium Dei, the judge­ment of God, Gods immediat judgement, and saith that Deus ipse sedet in ju­dicio per sortem, God himselfe is present, and sits in judgement by the lot, grounding his opinion upon the very words of the text it selfe, in sinum conji­citur sors à Jehovah autem est totum judicium ejus, tota dispositia, tota ratia, Whereby is confirmed the event of a divine lot to be the evident judgement of God: the Lot is cast into the lap, but the whole judgement thereof, the whole reason and disposition is of the Lott.

St. Ierous upon those words in the Canticles 4.1. spoken of the Church, Eces speciosaes, &c. oculi tui, oculi columbarum, Hieron. super Cant. hom. behold thou are faire my love &c. thine eyes are the eyes of Doves: hath a very considerable observation con­cerning this subject of Lots: which I here the rather insert and relate because it alludeth in some sort, both to the title and subject of this present discourse, and will not (I hope) be held impertinent, in regard the Dove is sent to present a peace-offering by this holy way of the Lort.

The words of St. Ierom are these; Quòd autem oculi ejus comparantur co­lumbis, ab hoc profactò contingit, quia divinas scripturas ne [...] jam secundùm lite­ram sed secundùm spiritum intelligat, & aspiciat in eis spiritualia mysteria: Co­lumba enim est indicium Sp. sancti, spirituali ergo sensis intelligere lege [...]s & pro­phatas, h. e. oculos colu [...]b a habere; That the eyes of the Church are compard to Doves. Hence it comes, because she understands the holy Scriptures, not ac­cording to the letter, but according to the spirit, and therein beholds spiritu­all mysteries: for a Dove is the emblem of the holy Ghost: in a spirituall sense therefore not in a literall, to understand the Law and the Prophets, that is, to have oculos columbe, the eyes of a Dove.

And Jerom proceeding in that interpretation▪ saith thus; In Psalmis verò hujus­modi ani [...] a pennas sibi dari columba desiderat ut volare possit in intellectū spiritua­lium misteriorū & requiescere in [...]riis sapi [...]tia: Sed & si dormire quio possit hoc est collocari & requiescere in medio sortium, at (que) intelligere sortium rationem, & cog­noscare divi [...] judicii causas no [...] solù [...] penna quibus in spiritualibus intellectibus volet, pro [...]tuntur ei sed dear [...]entate pennae, id est, verbi & rationis ornament [...] deco­ratae scapula quo (que) ejus in speci [...] auri fieri dicuntur, ubi constantia fidei & dognatun [...] stabilitas judicatur perfectorum: In the Psal. The devout soule desires the wings of a Dove, that she may fly into the understanding of spirituall mysteries, and to rest in the Courts of wisedome: wherein if any shall have the happinesse to repose▪ that is, to be placed and enjoy rest in the midst of lots, and to under­stand the reason of lots, and know the causes of that divine judgement not only wings whereby he may fly into spirituall understanding are promised to him, but also silver wings, id est, to be decorated and beautified with the ornament [Page 12]of elegant language, and right reason. Yea, and also feathers of pure gold, that is to say, resolution and constancy of faith, and stability and firmnesse of perfect arguments, and firme resolutions to maintaine the same; To have the discern­ing eyes of a Dove, is to see with a spirituall eye into the lofty learning of di­vine lots; to have the silver wings of a Dove, is to fly to the spirituall under­standing of the reason of divine lotts; and to have the golden feathers of a Dove, is with spirituall faith and wisdome, to mount into the transcendent knowledge of the mysterious causes of that divine judgement; to know and remember the divine author thereof, the God of peace, and the holy end for which this Sacred Oracle and divine ordinance was originally instituted, to wit, composing of differences, and settling of peace and unity.

St. Hieron. on Prov. 18.18. thus defines a Lot, Sors est occulta & incomprehen­sibilis praedestinatio ex divinâ regula procedens, quae inter potentes, dum singulis propria assignat. dijudicat; The lot is an hidden, and incomprehensible predesti­nation proceeding from a divine rule, so judging betweene the mighty; that what is justly due to each one the Lot asigneth, being guided and governed by God alone. As Eastius in his history of the Gospell upon that place of Hierom observeth and thereupon saith thus, I wonder then how any fraile and mortall worm dares deride or despise so high and holy an ordinance.

Dudley Fennor, a divine moderne writer, defines a Lot thus, Sors est medium à Deo constitutum quo Deus ipse controversias quae aliter ab hominibus dirimi non pos­sunt, componit; The Lot is a way or meanes instituted by God himself; whereby he composeth those controversies, which otherwise cannot be decided or determi­ned among men; remedium quo nullum facilias, nullum felicius, A remedy to prevent ruine, then which none can be more ready and, easie, none can be more holy and happy.

The Apostles persisted in the ancient custome of the Church under the Law in difficult cases to cast Lots,Maier in act. 1.2.26. for they had no figne, which of the two proposed was most worthy, and therefore left the Election to the Lord. Neither was their Lott in vaine; for if lots being cast in (Jonah by common ignoble and heathenish persons) had the due effect much more by the Apostles preparing to it by prayes & invocation of the Lord.Election by Lot, Gods judgement. Calvin in Act. 1. As there is an abuse so there is a good use of Lots, as by the Apostles practise appeareth. The corruption of the abusers doth no more vitiate nor vilifie this sacred Ordinance, then the adulterate vani­ty of the Caldees genuine Astrologie, or an hereticall Reader the holy Scripture, an ungodly preacher, the word of God, or an unworthy receiver, the Eucharish In this Election we may discerne the conveniency and necessity of Gods judge­ment by lot in case of difficulty by the Apostles care and piety to wait on God. Commit a doubtfull case to Gods determination in the way prescribed in his Word; Inquire of God, addresse themselves to the Law and the testimony, not presumptuously rely on their own judgement (though doubtlesse they might, with much more safety then any of the most sanctified of these times) but go to god in his own way, wherby they gave him the glory and the good redounded to [Page 13]themselves; For whereas (as Mayer saith) they seemed to esteeme more of Ioseph then Matthias, as naming him first, and givin him two names of excellent signification. Barsabas the sonne of rest, sirnamed Iustus, signi­fying his singular honesty; yet God contrary to their opinion prefer­reth Matthias and leaveth Ioseph. Thereby teaching them and us not to glo­ry in the estimation of men, but study to be approved of God, and in our opinion and acceptance of others, not to give too much way to our owne wilfull partiall humour, by neglecting the one party, and respecting too much the other, but rather in a case of doubtfull difficulty, to leave the judgement to the Lord by lot, lest we should seeme to sleight Gods judgement, or to fight against God, in preferring our owne wills before his, which naturally all men incline unto be­ing partially affected to their owne desires and designes, which are weake and wretched, and whose hearts are deceitfull above all things, rather then to sub­mit to the Lords wisdome, which cannot be deceived and who seeth not as man seeth but giveth to every one what is justly due, To Caesar the things that are Caesars▪ and to God the things that are Gods.

Seeing then Lotts in generall are Gods ordinance, and have been used by the holiest and best of Gods servants with such good successe, the use of them under the old Testament ought not so to prejudice the use of them now, as that it should be counted an imperfection in these dayes to cast lots upon any just occa­sion (which tends to Gods glory in setling peace and unity among his people, then which nothing is more pleasing to God) seeing none will affirme that whatsoever was in use then, is an imperfection now, especially of matters mo­rall, which all Divines hold to be perpetuall, and none can deny the Proverbs of Salomon to be sound canonicall morall Divinity: And this Augustine also ac­knowledgeth, where he confesseth Lots upon Ministers to be lawfull,August. Epist. 119. c. 20.180. Conc. 2. ad Doct. Chri­stis 28. especially in the time of persecution if it be disputed amongst them who shall tarry, that the Church may not be lest desolate, or they being slaine, it is by Lot to be de­cided who shall supply the place. And with him consents Gregory. 1 Reg. 14. and Origen. Nom. 23. in Jos. It followeth in the next place, that something be said touching the persons, places, times, manners, cases, & occasions; who where, how, and when Lots have been used, and are still in use, a briefe collection whereof in the insuing chapter appeareth.


IT was the opinion of Origen, and others of the learned Fathers grounded on the [...]. Septuagints translation of Deut, 32.8. and other places of Scripture that Lots were not only used among men on earth, but even by the Lord him­selfe among the celestiall powers and Angels in heaven, who had their severall places and charges assigned to them by Lot, who should rule this or that Pro­vince Dan. 10.31. who tend this or that person, Mat. 18 10. Acts 12.15. who govern this or that Church. Rev. 1.20. Quod ita gestum esse non solum in terris arbitror, verum (que) etiam in coelestibus; & hujusmodi sortem quae apud Deum di­stinguitur, etiam illo tempore habitam cum divideret & constitueret excelsus gentes▪ [Page 14]& disseminaret filios Adam, & constitu [...]rit fi [...]es g [...]tium secundùm [...] lorum Dei: Which thing was not usuall upon earth alone, but in heaven also with God himselfe, who allotted to the Angels according to their severall excellencies the tuition of the Nations of the earth, at what time they were disposed of into their severall territories, Origen, in Jesu Nave. cap. 18. [...]. 23.

Ambrosan Luc. c. 1. summus sa­cerdos adhac sorte quaeritur. The high Priest is ele­cted by Lot.St. Ambrose also upon the first of Luke, and many (not of former times only, but of later dayes also, and those of good esteeme and note) affirme that the high Priest in the old Testament was elected by Lot. Beda in Act. c. 1. Alexan. de Ales s [...] part. 2. q. 185. in. 4 Tom. de sort. c. 2. & Cajotan. in Luc. c. 1. Bulling. in Act. c. 1 Perkins aurea armill. c. 22. Schindl. Lexlc. Pontaglot, Luc. 1.9. The Hebrews, saith Mayer on the first of the Acts v. 26. were wont to begin no weighty businesse, but having first consulted with the Lord, and the Bible by Lot.

By whom, where in what cases, and upon what occasion Lots have been used, and where they are still in use, is the next point considerable.

The Apostles of Christ parted among themselves (as Prochorus writeth) the whole world to preach and plant the Gospell in.Proch. hist. Joan. c. 1. And in like manner the 72. Dis­ciples, which of them should accompany and attend on each Apostle, as the Levites did on the Priests, and Johns lot light for Asia, and Prochorus his Lot for to attend on John. And in the Jewish Church for the more ready and orderly performance of Sacred offices, the divisions thereof were made among them by Lot: where the whole body of the tribe of Levi was sorted into ranks;1 Chron. 25.8.9. & first the Priests all divided, into twenty foure Companies according to their Families, which took their courses by turnes, every weeke after weeke in order, the order of their courses being de­termined by lott, to take away all murmuring, that none might complaine as be­ing lesse regarded and cast behind others: And accordingly the Levites were di­vided into twenty foure Companies,1 Chron. 14. [...]. &c. and appointed to attend the former companies of Priests: but who, which, and when, was decided likewise by Lot. Moreover, the Priests that were of each company cast lotts for the sharing of offices among them­selves (ut tolleretur materia querimoniarum, for the avoiding of emulation and discord in the Church:) as also for the better settling of servises, namely who should tend the Altar of Insence, who the Table of holy Bread, who the dressing of the Lampes, who the Altar of burnt-offerings, who should feed the fire, &c. as from the books of the Jewish Liturgies is very evident.

Zachary the Priest of the course of Abi [...], went in by lot to burne Incense, Luk. 1.9 The Levites Musicall, and Porters decided by Lot, what course should be observed in their ministeriall and musicall imployments by the one, and which gates of the Temple should be waited at by the other, 1 Chron. 26.13.

The election of Matthias to be an Apostle, was by lot, Act. 1.26. Classius in meditat. Sacr. sup festum Matth. dicit sortem esse judicium Dei immediatum, & solennem divinae voluntatis testificationem. Et res (viz. Electio Matthia) ad ejus­modi fuit inst [...]tuenda i, e. per sortem, ut omnibus constaret, non tam hominum suffra­glis quam Dei arbitrio & voluntate rem omnem peragi. & in Act. 1.26. prec [...]ti dixe­runt, Tu Domine qui corda nosti omnium ostende utrum elegeris ex his duobus, v. 25. [Page 15] D [...]di [...]e dic [...]ur s [...]tes Du [...]ru [...] i [...]rum virorum, i. [...]. in [...]am aut [...] [...]j [...]cisse, [...] extracta post modum certam de r [...] cogn [...]scenda sent [...]ntiam pat [...]fac [...]r [...]nt. S [...]rs [...]ci­dit super Matthiam: Si [...] Dous hoc judicio manifestè declaravit Matthiam esse divi­ [...]ùt desig [...]tum & electum Christi Apost [...]l [...]m sortibus, qua in pop [...]le dei [...]aut oli [...] in usu ad explorandum Dei voluntatem certam, Cajet. Levit. 16.8. Numb. 33.58. 1 Sam. 10.20. Prov. The Apostles used Lots here, because as the Lord had immediatly called the eleven, so it was a fitter supply of the twelfth roome, that not men, but God should elect one, Mayer in Act. 1.26. Matthias non minus di­ [...]itùs electus quam reliqui undecem.

It was St. Austius desire to have it determined by lot amongst the Pastors of Gods people, where divers of them are in a City, which of them should stay by it, and who retire themselves in time of publick persecution, that neither the stayer might be taxed with presumption, nor the removers with cowardize, August. Epist. 80. According to which rule the Geneva Ministers to this day (as it is reported by some) use to cast Lots who shall visit the Pesthouse, Bar [...]. in Io [...]. c. 1.

Lotts were used also in the distribution of civill services among Gods people or­dinarily, and that first in a military matter, wherein the Levites quarrell, that had his Concubine ravished, so that she died upon it at Gibia in Benjamin: the other Tribes resolved to goe up against Benjamin by lot, viz. who of them should be Warriours, and who bring in provisions for those that abode abroad in the field: which thing without much tumult in a Democracie could not easily have been de­termined otherwise, Iudg. 20.9, 10. Pet. Martyr, and Fran. Iunius: and secondly in a City businesse, where the same people after their Babilonian captivity cast Lots among themselves, who should take the burden of bringing in wood for the Altar, by Ezra's own direction.

Lot [...] frequent among other Nations, besides Gods owne people, the Jewes.

NEither was the use of Lotts lesse frequent among other Nations, then among Gods chosen people the Israelites:Plato de [...]. for Plato in his imaginary Modell of a Common-wealth, intended the most part of his Magistrates, to be designed yearly by Lot, for the preventing of, and meeting with the peevishnesse and way ward [...]sse of the people. For which intent he adviseth that [...]60. be Elected yearly by most voyces of the Commonalty out of foure rankes of Citizens, 90. out of each ranke, for Aldermen or Senators;Mr. Gatak. of the nature and use of Lots, p. 44. and the one halfe of them by Lot assigned to govern the City for that yeare: as also sixty Sheriffs to govern the territory thereunto belong­ing, which was divided into twelve parts; And furthermore it was yearly determi­ned by Lot, which part of the City should send Rulers into this or that part of the Country. And besides these three Surveighers of houses, edifices, highwayes, water­courses in and about the City; Five Clarks of the Market, a Master of the Revels, and three for Triers and disposers of prizes in solemn g [...]nes, and Judges for private Causes, to prevent Corruption, were all appointed by Lot.

Choice of Priests by lot.The choice of Priests, and such as undertook the charge of Sacred things was to be left to God himselfe, to dispose of by Lot, as it pleased him. Many of their Offi­cers likewise at Athens, both Civill and Sacred, were disposed of by Lot.

Officers both civill & sacred chosen by lot.The Athenian Senators sent to the Common Councell at Delphos, and their ordi­nary Councell of five hundred were all chosen by Lot: the Election being alter this manner; The names of all those in each Ward that were capable of that dig­nity were noted on little Tables, or tokens of brasse into one vessell, and as many Beans black and white, all but fifty black into another; and so each mans token being drawn out of the one, and a bean withall out of the other, either he past to further tryall, and held it if he were approved; or he was for that yeare rejected, as his Bean proved white or black: so fifty apiece being extracted out of each of the ten Wards, the number was made up of five hundred. And out of those so dig­nified with the Bean, nine were advanced by like course to further place of autho­rity named Rulers, or Regents: out of which were six Masters of the Ordinance [...] the King, or Master of the Ceremonies, the Major for the yeare, and the Marsh [...]. The nine Regents thus called out of the five hundred, Lots were cast againe for the ten Wards, which should rule first, which next, and so on to the yeares end: after­wards ten Presidents for the first seven dayes, and ten for the next seven, and so on till thirty five dayes were expired, the full time of their whole principality. Our of which ten, Lot was again drawn for a Commander or Provost, whose government lasted but one day of seven. Neither might any one of the ten have it above one day at once, because the keys of the Castle of Athens were in his keeping; seven of them had it as the black Bean favourd them; and three were necessarily debarted of it. Sigon. de Repub. Athen. l. 2. c. 3.

Iudges elected by Lot.For hearing and tryall of Causes a competent number of persons according to the quality of the suites to be heard, were assigned by Lot, as they drew Beans or Acorns with the letters upon them that belonged to those Courts: each of which persons so allotted received a rod from the Cryer, with the name of the Court writ­ten on it, or of the same colour that the letter was over the Court-gate, and then went with that, and his Bean or Acorn, unto that Court that had the letter on the one of the same colour with the other, and was there admitted for a Judge.

Besides these ordinary Judges, there were certain Arbitrators, or umpires by Lot assigned for deciding of lighter matters; which matters were divided among them by Lot. Their Clearks also of the Pleas, with ten Treasurers taken out of the best rank, ten Comptrollers or Auditors, ten Surveyors or Scavengers, ten Wardens of the Ports, ten Clerks of the Market, one Register, ten of Sheriffs and Bayliffs, ten Sacrists for superstitious services. And if any one presumed to come to Court or Councell not being designed by Lot, a penalty was laid upon him.

In Sparta the Competitors for any office, were sometime in order by lot admitted to passe the suffrages of the assembly.

At Syracusa in Cicily, Cican Verr. 4. Joves priest out of three chosen by Voyces out of three Fa­milies, was designed yearly by Lot.

At Rome the Vestall Nuns were elected by lot.Attic. l. 1. c. 12.

The two hundred Gentry of Rome, divided into tens, cast Lots for governing the State in course among themselves after Romulus his death, each ten their fifty daies, and each of the ten his five, &c. till all had taken their turnes: which Custome ex­pired at Na [...]a's Election.

The two Consuls so often as any extraordinary businesse fell out, that was to be done by them, and could not conveniently be done but by one of them (as the De­dication of a Temple, the nomination of a Dictator or Soveraign Generall, the keeping of Courts for creation of some new Officers, &c.) used by lot to decide whether of them should have the honour of it: and in time of War they cast lots also, which should go [...]o the wars, and which stay at home: And being both toge­ther in the same service with equall authority, they did sometime in the execution thereof by Lot daily take their turnes.

The Pretors parted the Government of the City between themselves by lot.

And by lot the Questors or Treasurers charge was assigned unto them: out of which Questors the Tribunes were sometime designed by lott; and out of the Tri­bunes were allotted certaine persons for forraigne Plantations.

In warlike employments Consuls & Praetors had their legions and armies by this course alotted them. Also such Tribes as should afford Souldiers for service: and such persons of each tribe as should serve were assigned by lot; And hence it fell out that M. Curius when a sudden Muster was made in his Consulship, & none of the youn­ger sort appeared, cast lots upon all Tribes, and citing him which was first drawn of that Tribe that come next to hand confiscated his goods, and sold him to be a slave.

Doubts in choice of Ediles or Surveyors (where divers Competitors had an equall number of voyces) were decided by Lot which of them should hold.

And in their Assemblies for election of Officers the Lot determined, which Com­panies or hundreds should be demanded their suffrages the first, and give the lead­ing voices.

Severall Pleas were ordinarily parted among them by lot, some to have and try Causes of treason, some of murder, some of extortion, and the like; and the the Judges tooke assistants to them which they elected by lott, as they themselves, were by lot appointed for the hearing of such Causes as were allotted to them.

Plin. sec. E­pist. 3. lib 9.In Vintage time Senators were made choice of by Lot, to attend the Court in the abscence of the rest by the appointment of Augustus.

Dion. Cass. lib. 55. Augustus by Lot set apart a certain number of Senators to consult with at con­venient times for preparation of Causes to be heard in the Court afterward: or ra­ther to dispatch businesses by without the Court, yet so as the whole Court might seem to have some hand in them: he did likewise assay by Lot to reform the Senat: he first parted the City into certain Regions and Wards, and then appointed the yearly Officers to share them amongst them, and to undertake the charge thereof, By lot he enjoyned two of those that had been Pretors formerly to be elected year­ly for the custody of the common Treasury.

In Tiberius his reigne, there were certaine persons assigned by lot to cleare the Lawes in some cases then questionable.

Vespasian assigned persons for redresse of wrongs done during the civill wars, and to rid the Courts of multiplicity of suits; which intermission of Justice had cloyed them with, Taeit. hist. l. 4. Suet. Vesp. c. 10.

Certain persons were assigned by Lot to mitigate harsh Lawes, Claud. c. 23.

Legates or Lievtenants were sometime designed by lot: in which case the use of Lotrery sometimes being questioned,Tacit. hist. l. 4. Cic. ad Attic. Epist. 17. Liv. hist lib. 43. & cic. Verr. 1. though it were by some opposed, yet the ma­jor part went with it [...] and would have it still retained as a soveraigne preservative against ambition and corruption; and a singular remedy for the preventing both of injury and envy: in which regard they esteemed it as a kind of divine Ordi­nance, where it was carried without fraud and covine, as it ought.

Panorm. ad 5. de sorti leg.Neither is the practice of civill Lottery unusuall in Italy, even at this day: for in Venice (the mirrour of Policy, and supposed modell of Plate's Platform) the Gen­try at twenty yeares of age come to the Generall Councell by Lot, (but otherwise not till twenty five yeares of age,Contaren. l. 1. Gat. of Lots p. 58. by the ordinary course: in Election of whom, every fourth of December, they that seek it, having made proof of their Gentry, have their names all cast into one pot, and brought to the Duke, before whom stands another pot with as many balls in it, wherof a fifth part is gilt, and all the rest silver only: the Duke draws out of the one each mans name, and a ball out of the other, which if it prove a golden one, he is thereupon admitted; if a silver one only, he stayeth at least a yeare longer.

When their Duke (the chiefe Magistrate) hath his designation, there is Lottery upon Lottery, and Voycing in a prolix and intricate manner, interchangeably mix­ed together the one with the other: the place being voyd either by deposition or decease, all their Gentry of thirty yeares of age or upward (and none under) as­semble and come in order as they sit (Lotts first being cast which side of them shall come in first) to the Lot-pot, having as many balls in it as there be of them in number, whereof thirty only be gilt, there a child draweth for each of them till for thirty of them, those thirty gilt ones be drawne. For which thirty the child draw­eth againe the second time out of another pot having nine gilt ones. The nine, withdrawing into a conclave, among themselves name forty such as have each of them six voyces at least: out of the forty so named, are twelve selected by Lot; which twelve choose twenty five, each at least by eight Voyces: of these twenty five are nine set apart by Lot, which nine do further nominate 45: those forty five againe reduced to eleven, the eleven chuse forty one of the chiese Senators, which forty one have power to elect a Duke. These forty one after an oath by them seve­rally taken, to elect whom they judge worthiest, and some other solemnities per­formed, write each of them in a scroll whom he thinketh good: the scrolls being mingled together, are drawn as they come, and the fitnesse of the person first drawn is discussed: who, if he have twenty five Voyces with him, used anciently to carry it without further ado: but now hee that hath most voices above that number, come he first or last to hand, hath the place. If none hath voices enough, they be­gin again, and continue till some be nominated that hath.

And in their yearly Assemblies at election of other Officers, all their Gentry [Page 19]that have suffrage in Councell, draw first for sixty gilt Balls out of two Pots by one Lottery: and after those sixty, for thirty six other gilt ones out of another by a second Lottery: and the thirty six that have thus drawn gilt Balls twice, have power to nominate to such offices as are then to be chosen: which is done in this manner, they go apart into certain conclaves by nine and nine, in foure Companies: where all those of each company in order of years draw out of a Lot-pot, balls with markes upon them for the severall offices; and according to the ball that each of them hath drawn, he nominates what Citizen he will for that office, who, if he hath six voices of those nine, the party yet holdeth; if not, another must be nominated by him till some one be so approved. By this meanes among those foure Companies are foure compettitors nominated for each of their offices, whereof one is chosen by most voices of the whole assembly, the Electors and the whole Kindred of the parties nominated being only first excluded.

In the Tuscan State, though not the Electors,Grimston. yet their offices are elected after the same manner: for dividing those that are capable of office into three rankes, and casting them into three boxes: out of the first they draw the Magistrates of highest place, the middle sort out of the second; and the lowest, out of the third: and ha­ving thus drawn five severall ones for each office, hee carrieth it that hath of the five the most voices in the Councell: which election standeth, and is alwaies con­firmed by the Duke.

Theodosius the Emperour, though at that time a great Commander, disdained not as a common Souldier in martiall services, to take his turn among the rest.

Hom. Iliad. n. Sophoc. [...]n Aiale. Ovid. Metam. l. 13. Hom. Iliac. 3. Plaut. in Timol.In Duells, a Champion hath been sometimes singled out by Lot, by lot it hath been determined which of them should give the onset.

By lot it was determined who should be enclosed in the belly of the wooden horse at the taking of Troy. Virg. Aen. 2.

Plaut. in Timol.By lott, Timoleon being to transport his Army over a river in the face of the ene­my tooke the rings of the severall Leaders, by drawing them to decide in what order they should p [...]sse, and when the ring of one of them that had a trophey en­graven on it, came first to hand, they left off further lotting, and very cheerfully made each of them with all the speed they could over, and so discomfited those for­ces that stood on the other side to inhibite their passage.

Plaut. in Pericle. Pericles, to restrain his Souldiers inconsiderate eagernesse to fight, divided them into two parts, and by lot assigned some to fight, and others (that lighted on the white Bean) to rest the whilest, and make merry.

Joseph. Captiv. lib. 7. c. 35. Josephus, with his company being in a desperate condition, and they choosing ra­ther to dy than to fall into the hand of the enemy, and to be at his mercy, decided by Lot who should slay each other and by that means he escaped; his lot comming out with the last mans, whom he perswaded to surrender himselfe to the Romans.

Jos. captiv. l. 7. cap. 35.The Jewes besieged in Masada, at Eleazars instigation, chose by lot ten men to slay all the rest, with their wives and children, which being done, one of those ten again singled by lot dispatcht the other nine, and in the last place himselfe.

At Syracuse they used to deliver their minds in Court by Lot, which practice [Page 20]continued unto Tullie's time: and likewise the delivery of their minds in course after the order of Alphabet is celebrated for Di [...]nysius his act, who having drawne the letter M. when one jesting, said he would play the Mome, made answer that he would not play the Mome, but the [...] Monarch, which proved accordingly, for be­ing chosen Generall, he turned tyrant: whence grew the Proverb, to say, M. is his Lott.

In Voyages some were by Lott set ashore for discovery, principally where there was conceived to be difficulty or danger.

At Sea sometimes Lots have been cast, to determine who should row, and who were to have other employments.

It was the custome of all the Rhodian State, both rich and poore, to speak freely in their turns by Lot.

In Publique works, as at the building of Tyre ▪ and in private labours, as at Vul­cans Forge; and in mutuall combinations, as in assaulting the Cyclops, each man had his task or standing often assigned him by Lot. Aen. 1. Aen. 8, Hom. Odyss. 1.

P [...]ta. hist. l. 33. Sesostris the Egyptian King compelled Kings that were tributary to him, to draw his Coach in their turns by Lot, like horses in a Charret, when it pleased him once a yeare to ride in state.

Thus it doth appeare that the use of Lots hath been frequent among all sorts, both for the distribution of Civill and Sacred offices and employmems; and also it will be made clear, that it hath been no lesse frequent in the division of lands and possessions, goods and chattells, yea, oftentimes of rewards too (aswell as penalties) as honours and dignities.

Num. 26.55. & 33.54. & 36.2.1 For at the entrance of Gods people into the Land of Promise, the whole Country in generall was divided by Lot, by Gods own speciall appointment, among the twelve Tribes: Concerning the manner of Lottery in that particular busmesse, there is some diversity of opinion; 1 Some think, that the Lots of the Land were put into one pot, and the Tribes names into another, and that one choice person, to wit, Eleazar drew for all: Others that out of one Pot of Tickets containing the names of the portions, one of each Tribe drew for the Tribe he was of. Others lastly, sup­pose that the Tribes names only were put into the Lot-pot, and that each Tribe as it was drawn, had his choice of which part he would, yet undisposed of, when he drew. The first opinion seemes most probable, and that first, because once drawing so, might well end all: which could not be in the second, where question might be who should draw first: and secondly, because it is not said that such a Tribe drew, or was drawn first or second simply, but that the Lot came out first or second for such a Tribe, which agrees not with the third.

Num. 35.7, 8. Losh. 25.2.Now as the Land in generall was thus divided by Lot, so in particular were the forty eight Cities assigned to the Levites, divided among them by Lot according to their Families: and whereas the Levites were divided into three Families, accord­ing to Levi's three sons Kohath, Gershom, Merari: and the Koathites subdivided [Page 21]into two ranks, i.e. the Antonites, or the issue of Aaron, Kohath Nephew by his son A [...], which alone had the Priesthod, and the rest of that house which came not of Aaron; Lots were cast among them for these their severall Families,Iosh. 21.8. in what Tribes there should Cities be assigned unto each: and in conclusion the Aaronites had thirteene in Juda, Sime [...]n, and Benjamin; the other Koathites. ten in Ephraim, Dan, and the one halfe of Manasses; and the Merarites, twelve in Reuben, Gad, and Zebul [...]n: the whole number forty eight.

At the return of the Jews unto the Land of promise from the Chaldean captivity a colonie was drawn by Lot for the peopling of Ierusalem, one being taken of each ten, and a tenth of the whole company for the storing of the City. Yea, the whole City it selfe was by lot shared in three parts, by the three seditious Commanders in the time of the Roman siege.

Moreover Lots were used for partition of movables, goods and chattells, and the like, as in the case of setting forth the tith, of Bullocks, Goats and Sheepe, Levit. 27.32.

And secondly in division of booties, of prey and spoyles taken in warre, Lorts are said to have been cast upon Jerusalem when it was sacked by the Chal­dees, and her people by Lot shared among the conquerours for slaves, Obad. v. 11. Joel. 3.3. Nahum 3.10. as the Nobles of Niniveh were shared by lot among the Medians, or Scythians, for slaves, when it was severall times surprized by them.

And thirdly of goods gotten by pilage or stealth, as David complaines that they had parted his garments among them, and cast Lots upon his Vesture, which is just­ly supposed to have been practised upon David, 1 Sam. 19.11.12. but was certain­ly fulfilled in our Saviour, Math. 27.35. Mark 15.24. Luk. 23.34. Ioh. 19.24. Such a Lot as this is alluded too by Solomon, where he brings in theevish compani­ons inviting to joyne and adventure with them, saying, Cost in thy lot among us, Prov. 1 14.

By Lott certaine persons were picked out to be saved, or slain: so David measured out the Moabites with two cords to be destroyed, but with one cord to be saved alive, as the Chald. Paraphr. expounds the place, 2. Sam. 8.2. and in this sence do Interpreters understand that place of Ezech. 24 6. where the Lord bids the Prophet pull the flesh piece by piece, every piece of it out of the Pot or Caldron, and cast no lot in it, thereby signifying that the people should not be some saved and some destroyed, but all utterly destroyed without distinction or difference. In this kind was the lot cast on the two Goats (for it was divisory meerly, not divinatory to tell whether was fitter for service, both being alike fit for it) whereby the one was taken for the scape-goat, to be sent out alive and saved, the other left to be slain to make a sin sacrifice to God in behalfe of his people.

Among Prophane writers nothing is commoner than the use of Lotts in this kind: Inheritances among coheires were by lot divided: Saturns three Sons parted among them Heaven, Sea and Hell, by this way of Lottery. Claros and Lacedaemon according to some Grammarians derive their names from hence: that is,Ex Near Eust. ad Claros [...] and Lacedamon, quasi [...] i.e. [...].

Thus Poloponnesus after right of possession by joynt conquest recovered, was parted between Cresphontes, Temenus, and the sons of Aristodemus.

Thus Lotharius his foure sons parted the Realme of France amongst them after their Fathers decease.Greg. Tur. hist. l. 4. c. 22. Thus Fredereck the second King of Denmarks, and Adelph Duke of Holst divided between them the Territory of the elder Iohn of Holst de­ceased without issue. The goods and chattels of every Courtier deceased, where a fourth part is to come to the Court, is to be parted into foure parts by the Heire or Executor, and Lots are to be cast whether he shall choose his three, or the Court her fourth by the civill Law. And our common Law alloweth this course of partition of Land among Partners or female coheires, viz. that by dividing the land into parts as equall as may be, and then wrapping up of scrolls of each part in as many waxen Balls, to be drawn by the partners in order of yeares out of the bonnet of some other indifferent party.

In Cities new built, and at the first foundation or altering of a state as also upon enfranchising forreigners, or non-freemen, each one used to have his house, portion of land, or tribe, he should belong to, assigned him by Lot: a thing practised by Lycurgus in the Spartan Republique: and by Aeneas also, Aen. 5. and by Romulus at the founding of the Roman State.

In Egypt they yearly assigned by Lott to each man or Kindred what land they should till.

After Victories obtained over some Countries, the Greek and Roman Conque­rours were wont to divide the land by lott among the Souldiers,Aristoph. Dio­nys. Hal. li. 2. or other of the people.

In Countries overburdened with multitudes of people, or such as were unable to maintain the Natives by reason of a long and grievous Famin, it was an usuall course to decide by lot who should remain at home, and who remove to seek their fortunes abroad, Liv. l. 5.

In the Palestine expedition it was tryed by lot which should be first assaulted, Tyre or Askalon.

A Prey taken in the field, or in the sacking of a City, were it goods or jewells, or garments, or beasts, or mens persons, it was ordinarily divided by lot,

A swift horse able to travell one hundred miles a day, was put to lot with the rest of the prey, and drawn for one Probus (one of the Emperours name) of which name there being foure, and Probus still comming out of the Lot pot, to end the con­troversie, it was agreed on by all, that Probus the Emperour should have him, who said at first he was fitter for a flyer then a fighter, when the people thought he would have kept him to himselfe, and not have put him to lot with the rest of the booty.

In distribution of rewards, almes, and gifts, where every ones turne could not be served, or that which many had alike interest in, could not equally be divided, it was by Lot designed which way it should go, or to whom, Digest. l. 40. tit 5. leg. 24.

The two Tarquins, Titus and Araus decided by Lot, who should first kisse their of an Olive leafe. [Page 23]Mother the Oracle telling them, he should reigne that gave his Mother the first kisse: wherein Brutus went beyond them both in kissing his Grandmother the ground.

When 'tis questionable in some cases at civill Law, whither party is Plain­tiff, and whether Defendant (both commencing suit (as they may) at once) that doubt is commonly put to the decision of a lot Ʋlpian. l. 14.

At the Popes Election, the Cardinalls in the Conclave have their cells assig­ned them by lot.

At solemn Feasts, messes of meat were anciently assigned by lot unto each man in particular.

Among Gods people the Hebrews,Levit. 27.32. Thucyd. lib. 3. Gods part in the tith of their cattell was by lot set apart; and among the Heathen likewise, where by a solemn Vow a tenth of the increase of the fruits of the earth, or of their cattell, had been be­fore made over to their Idols, Dyonis-Hal. l. autiq. 1.

The Arabians formerly consecrated yearly a third part of their Cinamon, which the lot lighted on, to the Sun, and the Sun did fire that part of himselfe, as they fable. Among those heathen in their feastivall Lottery the messe first drawn was accompted holy, and held to be some Gods share; Mercuries most commonly, whom they deemed president of Lottery: that which is rather ter­med to be Mercuries Lot, then that which others say of an Olive leafe.

In the division of lands at the settling of new Colonies or estates, some part was usually by lot set apart for Sacred uses in the first place.

In former times they had a Custome,Herodot. lib. 3. when buyer and seller could not a­gree to draw Cutts (as we do) or cast crosse and pile, and by mication or shift­ing of finger, to decide whether should come to others price, and this kind of Lot was likewise employed in pecuniary penalties, where the offenders were too many to be all of them amerced. Augustus enforced every fifth man (of such as frequented not the Senat as they should) that the lot lighted on, to pay his fine for his absence, which was remitted to the rest. Yea in cases of life and death there was an especiall use of it: as when Melchi, Melchizedecks father, who having a purpose to sacrifice one of his sons cast lots with his Wife whether he or she should choose one of them to be exempted, and after that, upon the rest of them (She having chosen Melchizideck by that meanes preserved a lot was cast for one to be slain for a sacrifice, as 'tis surmised by the Pseudo- [...]thanas. hist. Meleh. Like that of Hesione the Trojan Kings Daughter, who by the deter­mination of a lot was to be exposed to a Sea-monster.

The Persian King tithed out his Magicians upon discovery of their frauds: and Combises his Army in his Ethiopian expedition for want of victualls se­questred a tenth part of themselves for the rest to make meat of: Augustus commanded the two Flori to cast lots for their lives, the one whereof offering himselfe without [...]ot to be slaine the other thereupon slew himselfe.Lots frequent and famous a­mong the Ro­mans.

Most famous and usuall was the Roman practice in this kind, termed there­fore by them their ancient Law, or their Countrey custome: whose manner it [Page 24]was when some troopes of their Souldiers had deserted their Colours, left their stations, carried themselves cowardly in fight, or disorderly otherwise, for frighting of all, and saving of some; to draw out by lot sometime more some­time fewer, but most usually a tenth part of all that were faulty, or deepest in fault, by an ignominious kind of death to be made an example to others, the rest of them punished only with some other kind of disgrace. This tithing of Delinquents to death by lot, was attempted by Caligula but practised at seve­rall times by Appius, Jul. Caesar, Augustus, Antonie, Apronius, Crassus, Galba, Macrinus: Nor is this kind of military discipline out of use with Martiall men among us at this day, with whom Souldiers that are taken tardie are per­mitted, sundry of them together, to cast the Dice for their lives on the Drums head, some of them to be punished or executed, and some to be cleered and saved.

The use of Lotts was also very frequent in these Dominions among the an­cient Brittaines (as Cambden in his Britannia saith) in matters of doubt and difficulty,Cambden. fol. 135. English Saxons. and although sometimes in a superstitious divinatory manner, and in matters not fit thereby to be inquired of, yet never without all possible reve­rence and prayer preceding: Contrary to the irreligious course of these later distempered times, where Gods sacred ordinance is most impiously abused in all manner of vain & vile wayes of lusorious sporting, playing, Dicing, Carding, Lotteries, and the like, whereby God is dishonoured, and men therefore justly thereby cheated and abused, and yet these wicked wayes continually practised by many not of the meanest, yea, maintained by some of our Clergy in presse and pulpit. And that holy way which God ordained for setling peace and unity, is abused by prophane sports and vile vanity whilest we runne on in a most de­structive way of ruine and misery by bloody violence and barbarous cruelty. So that we may lament with David Woe is me that I am constrained to dwell in Mesech, &c. Gods holy ordinance instituted for ending differences and setling peace is utterly despised and wee like the men of Mesech make ready for warre. And no marvell seeing Cambden derives the Brittaines from Iaphets line,Ezek. 38. whence the Prophet Ezekiel proves Gog and Magog the princes, and the men of Mesech to spring, and so by a derivative line, the Brittaines may seeme to spring from thence or to have affinity to the men of Mesech, both seeming to spring from the same [...]ine of Iaphet; But from the terrible destruction there threatned after their divisions and warres, The God of peace deliver and pro­tect the poore distressed Brittaines, that they never partake of the fearfull judge­ments there menaced to the men of Mesech, though they seeme to suite with them in their contentious cruell courses.

How this sacred Ordinance may be used and applyed as a soveraigne Medicine to heale the unhappy divisions of this distracted Kingdome, and to cure and compose these destructive dissentions and contentions between the King and Parliament.

1. THat a Treaty, time and place be appointed, if the Prince and Parliament shall be so pleased, apt and able persons on both sides selected, and autho­rized, truly to state and set down all things in difference betwixt the King and Subject; Secondly, that particular Propositions, both concerning his Majesties and the Parliaments desires and demaunds, by them be drawne into particular heads, whereby what is expected by each from other, may more clearly ap­peare. Thirdly, that all Propositions may be so stated and set down as that they may tend principally and onely to these ends, 1. That the glory of God may be advanced and maintained in matter of Religion and Church-government.

2 That his Majesties honour may be preserved in his just Rights and Pre­rogative.

3 That the Peace and happinesse of the Kingdome and Subjects may be pro­duced by establishing of the Lawes of the Land, confirmation of the Liberty and property of the Subject and just priviledges of Parliament.

These are the three principall, fundamentall; and cardinall grounds out of which all particular Propositions can arise, issue, or proceed.

Zech. 8.19. Hos. 6.6.1, 2, 3. Mercy is pre­pared for the Land, if the people prepare to receive it at the Lords hand. Ezr. 8.21. Levit. 23.27, 28. Exod. 19.10, 11 Esth. 4.16.That three solemne dayes or set times of Humiliation, fasting, prayer and praise, be published and proclaimed throughout the whole Realme to be set a­part and celebrated, for our preparation to meet the Lord in this way of his direction; that we may seek of him a right way for deliverance from the judge­ments that do threaten the Land: such a Fast as was prescribed by Ezr. 8.21. may be a faire president for this Land to proceed by. Also like that Exod. 19.10.11. Moses commanded to sanctifie the people for three dayes, and on the third day (for on that day the Lord will come downe in the sight of all the people) to have them ready prepared to meet the Lord.

Queen Esther enjoyned a Fast to be kept, when she was to go into the King for the Jewe deliverance; Gather together all the Jewes (saith she) and neither eat nor drinke for three dayes, night nor day, When Lorts were cast for their de­struction, but fell for their deliverance, whence the Feast of Purim was ordai­ned to be celebrated by them and their posterity to all perpetuity.

When dissention was arisen between the servants of Isaac, Gen. 26.20, 21. and the servants of Abimelech touching the Well of water, Isaac's servants digged three Wells before the contention was concluded: the names of the first and second Wells were Esek and Sitnah, signifying Contention and hatred, for that they strove together; but the third was Shibah signifying an Oath or covenant of recon­ciliation that was then and there made between them, because by Oath or Co­venant the contentions between Isaac and Abimelech, and their servants were [Page 26]then concluded. Thence the City was called Beersh [...]ba, i.e. the Well of the oath or covenant of conclusion.

Prayer, prea­ching, & prai­ses to be as peace-offe­rings for Prince, Priest and people to make reconci­liation for them, Ezek. 45.That on the first day by all of what degree, quality, or profession soever, hear­ty prayers be sent up by Prince, Priest and People to the searcher o [...] all hearts, for his holy and heavenly blessing on the endeavours of those who are on both sides selected for consultation about these great affaires of the Kingdome, that God who is wonderfull in counsell, and excellent in working, would be pleased to be present with them, and assist and direct them in the composing of such particular Propositions as conduce to his glory, the Kings honour, the King­domes happinesse, and not to any their own particular ends and before purposes, and that God would by his remembring Spirit put into their minds whose presence they stand, and so make them wise and carefull to consi­der for what they stand, and from whence the sentence and judgement of their demands and desires is to proceed, even from the omniscient Lord, who tryeth the hearts and reines,We know not what to do, but our eyes are towards thee. 2 Chr. 20.12.13 Said Jehosha­phat, & al Iudah when they pro­claimed a Fast, and gathered together to aske counsell and inquire of God. 2 Chran. 19.6, 7. seeth their inmost secretest thoughts, is a God of pure eyes, and cannot endure iniquity, impiety, nor injustice; and of most per­spective sight, discerning the most subtill devices, and cannot be deceived by any State-stratagems, nor deluded by mentall reservations, or subtill policies.

These considerations sadly premeditated, will prevent all illegall and unjust Propositions and promote the way of proceeding by faire and cleare particu­lars, Propositions and demands; None will dare to make unjust demands if they consider who is the Judge and disposer. And as Iehoshaphat to the Judges, so give me leave to speak to both sides; take heed what ye doe, for the tryall is not appointed by the judgement of man but of the Lord, and he will be with you in the cause and judgement: wherefore now let the feare of the Lord be up­on you; take heed, for there is no partiality with the Lord our God, neither respect of persons, nor receiving of reward.

The necessity of the use of Gods Iudge­ment by divine Lott, being so just, equall and impartiall. As Azariah, to Asa, and all Judah and Ben­ [...]amin. 2 Chr. 15.1. 2 That the Preachers and Ministers whom God hath made to be stars in the firmament of the Church, to lead and guide the feet of the people in the waies of peace, declare and unfold to the people the authority, happinesse and holi­nesse of this way of proceeding, shewing who was the originall author and the only disposer of lotts, for what end God ordered them, and what comfort may thence arise to the three Kingdomes: Controversies will be concluded, peace produced, and the further effusion of blood prevented.

3 That the Pastors admonish the people to prepare themselves to appeare be­fore the Lord as Moses did at the delivery of the Law. Thus will I do unto thee, and because I will do so; therefore prepare to meet thy God, O Israel. Isa. Is. 62.10. Go through go through the gates: prepare thou the way of the peo­ple; Cast up, cast up the high-way, gather out the stones, take up the stumbling block out of the way of my people. Lift up a Standard for the people. This way is not unlike that way, Isa. 35.8. prophecied: There shall be a path and a way, and the way shall be called holy; the polluted shall not passe by it &c.

4 That praise be rendred to our gracious God for directing us such a divine [Page 27]way of determining these unhappy differences and divisions which continued would bring the Kingdome to desolation and destruction,Say among the Nations, the Lord reig­neth: surely the world shall be stable, and not move, and he shall judge the people in righteousnesse, vid. Psa. to the end. Ps. 97.1, to the end. Isa. 42.10.11,, 27. Esa. 59. Zech. 7.5. Almighty God at first revealed this holy and happy way to his own people only; therefore David after he saith. The lott is fallen unto me in a faire ground, &c. presently addeth, I will blesse and praise the Lord who hath given me understanding to know and acknowledge so great mercies. Isa. 58.2. They seem to seeke me, and delight to know my wayes as a Nation that did righteously, and forsook not the ordinance of their God: they aske of me ordi­nances of Justice, they take delight to approach unto God, &c.

5 Cautions for Fasts, that they be not performed singly and severally, each side and party at severall times, and for themselves severally, and one against the other as hitherto it hath been, which (it may be feared) hath caused God to with-hold his hand of mercy from us, in regard we have without charity ra­ther prayed for ruin, then reconciliation one to another fasting for strife and debate, to smite with the fist of cruelty, having our hands defiled with blood,God by his Prophet com­plaines of such fasts, as also of the contem­ners of his Or­dinance of Peace and Iu­stice. Isa. 58.2. our feet swift to shed bloud, not knowing, not willing to know the wayes of peace: such fasts God hath not chosen, with such sacrifices of bloud God is not well pleased Is. 1.15. When ye spread forth your hands, I will hide mine eyes from you: yea, when yee make many prayers I will not heare, for your hands are full of bloud. Your fasts, feasts, prayers, praises. Assemblies, oblations, sa­crinces, Sabbaths are all vain; not valued, but vilified; not accepted, not re­spected, but rejected as hatefull detestable abominable Is. 1.11.

But our Fast, must be an universall and unanimous Fast, throughout the three Kingdomes joyning all in hearty prayer for the forgivenesse of the crying sins of the Kingdomes, for the remission of the sins of each place, and person therein, and with single and sincere hearts forgiving each other, forgetting all wrongs and renouncing all revenges, even as God for Christs sake shall for­give us being members of one body, whereof Christ is the head, brethren in Christ, God being the Father to whom alone belongeth revenge: such sacrifice (we may believe) will prove acceptable.

In the second day that the like duties, preaching praying, and praising of God, as on the first, be performed religiously: but Dove-like mourning, and Bear-like roaring cannot well accord before the Lord; We roar like Bears, and mourne fore like Doves, saith the Prophet Is. 39.11. We look for judgement, but there is none; for salvation, but it is far off.

Neither our praying, fasting not preaching, can prove acceptable in the sight of God the searcher of all hearts and tryer of reins, unlesse the madness of our ma­licious minds be mitigated, the hardnesse of our cruell hearts be mollified and the act of violence be out of our hands. If we outwardly pretend to appear before God in the forme of Doves, with a shew only of simplicity sorrow and inno­cence, but in hearts be ravening Wolves, stinging Serpents roaring Beares, ready to teare and devour one another. What fruit can fasting produce?

It is said 1 Chr. 10.13, 14. of Saul, that he died in his transgression which he [Page 28]committed against the Lord and his Word in that he asked not counsell of the Lord therefore he slew him, and turned the Kingdome to David.

To put on the shew of a silly sheep the habit of a harm lesse Lamb yet inward­ly to be subtill foxes, and greeey wolves, ready to supplant to worrey to r [...], to destroy one another cannot but make our fasts or other sacrifices rather de­testable then delightfull, rather abominable then acceptable: this is not the fall that God hath chosen: and we may justly feare that the Lord hath protracted our peace making with-held, the happiness of union from us, only for our Cain like cruelty, bloudy-mindednesse to our brethren: Our fasts have not found the hoped for fruit, our prayers have not prevailed for Peace, nor hath our preach­ing been prosperous in the purposes, and thing whereunto it was sent and ap­pointed.

In the Civill law all appeal is denied from the sentence of a Lott, be­cause it is the sentence of the Lord, who hath no supe­riour.That after the holy duties religiously performed to prevent revolting from the judgement which God shall give by Lotts, and revenging private wrongs passed before between particular parties; that all, both Prince and people Com­manders and Souldiers, Pastors and Flocks, unanimously joyn in Covenant with Almighty God willingly to submit to that judgement which God shall give by lotts, without any repining, repugnancy, or resistance thereafter, and really to remit all wrongs without retaining any malice, or mentall reservation of revenge hereafter.

A judicio sortis appellari non po­test. Baldus Bar­tol. Jason apud Go. 2. ad Taur. Le. 38. Greg. To­loss. appel. l. 2. Hee shall call the heavens, that hee may judge his peo­ple. Psal. 50.5. Call my Saints together unto me, those that have made a covenant with me. The hea­vens shall de­clare his righ­teousnesse, for God is judge himselfe. Ne­hem. 10. A pat­tern for the Covenant, Ezra 10.5. Exod. 19.5, 6. If ye will keep my Covenant, then shall, ye be my chiefe treasure above all people, and yee shall be unto me also a kingdome of priests, and an holy Nation.And whereas we have joyned in Covenant and association, one side against the other, even to the death and destruction one of another: Now all make Covenant each with other, una voce, uno animo, uno corde, Altogether with heart tongues, and hands in thoughts words and deeds, to maintain and preserve the glory of God in the true Protestant Religion, the honour of the King in his just rights and Prerogatives, and the welfare of the State and Kingdome in the Lawes of the Land, the Liberty and property of the Subject, and privi­ledges of Parliaments according as Almighty God by this his judgement shall declare and decree to renew our league of brotherly love and Christian amity, to live in love endeavouring by all possible meanes to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of Peace, all professing, protesting and covenanting before Almighty God to defend, and with their lives and estates to maintain Gods glory the Kings honour, and the Kingdomes peace against revolters Jer. [...]1.6. Proclaim all these words in the Cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem, saying, heare ye the words of this Covenant and do them. v. 3. And say thou unto them thus saith the Lord God of Israel cursed be the man that obeyeth not the words of this Covenant. 2 Chron. 15. When Israel had for a long time bin without God without a Priest and without the Law and there was no peace to him that went out or in but great vexations on all the inhabitants of the Countries. Nation destoryed of Nation, City of City, and God did vex them with all adversity. Asa their King upon the Prophecie and advice of Azariah assembled and gathered togther all Iudah and Benjamin, and the stranger out of Ephraim Manasseh and Si­meon to Ierusalem in the third month the 15th year of his raign; and they sacrificed [Page 29]and entred into a Covenant to seeke the Lord God, with all their heart, and with all their soule, that whosoever would not seeke the Lord, should be put to death, small or great, man or woman; and they sware unto the Lord and all Israel rejoyced at the oath: for they had sworne with all their heart, and sought him with their whole desire, and hee was found of them and the Lord gave them rest round about. And there was no more war unto the thirty fift yeare of the reigne of Asa: Whence may be concluded how much so holy a Covenant conduceth to the peace of a divided Kingdome. Let this be like that Covenant, Num. 18.19 a Covenant of salt, sure, stable, incorruptible.

Cautions in this Covenant, to beware of mentall resurvations, malevolent thoughts and murmurings, remembring still in whose presence they stand, the pre­sence of that Lord who understandeth their thoughts before they are conceived in their minds; who is omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent, we cannot deceive, we cannot resist, we cannot evade nor escepe his punishments, his judgements, his re­venging hand: We ought with David to acknowledge, that Righteous art thou, Psal. 119.137. Jer. 50.5. O Lord: and just are thy judgements. And in Psal. 119.126. I have sworn, and will per­form that I will keep thy righteous judgements. Jer. 50.5. Come let us joyn our selves to the Lord in a perpetuall Covenant. Now I purpose to make a covenant with the Lord God of Israel that he may turne away his wrath from us 1 Cor. 29.10, 11. Is. 59.21. As for me, this is my covenant with them, saith the Lord, &c. Esay 61.8. If we shall co­venant with God, with submission to obey his judgements, then the Lord will keep his Covenant with us for remission of our sins, release of our miseries, and shewing abundance of mercies, Hosea 2.18. And in that day will I make a covenant for them, &c. and I will breake the bow, and the sword, and the battell out of the earth, and I will make them to lie down safely, Isa. 2.4 Job 5 23. Mic. 4.2, 3 4 5. and Hos. 2.18. You and performe unto the Lord your God let all that are round about him, bring pre­sents unto him that ought to be feared, Psal. 76.11.

3 That on the third day or time on which the Lotts are to be cast the Sacred act from which we are to expect the declaration of Gods divine will for resolving of ou [...] doubts, and dissolving and determining our dangerous and deadly differences, the holy duties of praying, preaching, and praising God, as on the two former dayes were prescribed, be also now performed.

That the Min sters in a more speciall manner stir up the people to a most serious and hearty consideration, as of the greatnesse, so of the goodnesse of God, as of the incomprehensible glory, so of his incomparable mercy, as of the infallible ju­stice of God, so of his infinite piety and pitty towards his people, giving them to understand, that as Almighty God vouchsafeth his testifying presence in an oath, so his Majesty is pleased to vouchsafe his determining presence in a more immediate manner in this divine way of his own institution.

We read not of divine Lotts used by any of Gods servants, but in case of greatest consequence, and alwayes with most religious reverence exhort the people as David in 95. Psal. v. 6. Come let us worship and fall downe, &c. In the election of Matthias by Lott, the Apostles form of proceeding is a perfect president, Act. 1.15. The E­lection is begun with wholsome exhortation: Surgens Petrus in n [...]sdio Fratrum [Page 30]dixit, &c. Peter stood up in the midst of the Disciples, took a text, preached and per­swaded the conveniency, nay, necessity of a new election by lot, to make up the num­ber of the twelve. Secondly, the election proceedeth with devout Prayer and p [...] supplication; the persons and lotts being provided, v. 24. And they prayed, [...] sayd, &c. Thirdly, the election was determined by divine revelation. v. 26. B [...]ve­cidit sors super Matthiam, The lott fell on Mutthias: which was as Aret. saith, Divinae vocis instar, splendor quidam divinus, as Dionys. Per quens oftende batur M [...] ­thiam in apostolatum esse assumendum.

He is the Rock, his work is perfect: for all his waies judgement: a God of truth, and without iniquity, just and right is he, Deut. 32.4. He whose dwelling is in the highest heavens, whom the heaven of heavens is not able to containe, will bow the hea­vens, and deigne to come downe, not in thunder and lightning, as in the giving of the Law with terrour and astonishment to the people; but with mercy and com­fort, sun-shine of favour, beames of affection, after these terrible stormes of tempe­stuous troubles, will be intreated to dignifie his owne divine ordinance with his gracious presence, will humble himselfe so, as from the height of his Majesty, to be­hold the depth of our misery, descend to weake wormes of the earth, and by this divine way of his owne direction and institution decide our distractive differences, and determine our deadly dissentions, and so deliver us from imminent, nay almost inevitable ruine and confusion. He that is the King of Kings, Rex terrorum, & ter­rorum Regum; The primitive of principalities.

He from whom all dominion is derived, that standeth in the Congregation of the mighty, and judgeth among the Gods; He at whose presence the Mountaines of the mighty leap like Rams, and the Jesser hills of the haughty skip like Lambs, The boysterous waves of waters fled and, and the swelling Seas fell backward, at whose lookes the earth trembleth and if hee touch the mountaines they sm [...]ke; The Great Creator of heaven and earth will vouchsafe to take the judgement of an earthly cause into his heavenly hands,Ps. 104.32. with righteousnesse will he judge the world and the people, and their matters with equity. They know not, neither will they understand, that they walke on in darknesse, who delight in division, and desire the Sword for their arbiter umpire or judge. All the foundations of the Land are dissolved, and disordered, it must be the Lord Gods worke, to establish the Pillers thereof. The Lord is known by executing judgement, arise therefore, O God, and judge thou the earth, for thou shalt inherite all Nations, Psal. 82.8. I will heart what God will speake, for he will speake peace unto his people &c. he maketh warres to cease in all the earth. Psal. 76. In Judah is God known, &c. In Salem is his taber­nacle: there brake he the arrowes of the bow, the shield the sword and the battell. Thou art more bright and puissant than the mountaines of prey; The stout-hearted [...] spoiled, and none of the mighty men have found their hands. Thou didst cause thy judgements to be heard from heaven. Surely the wrath of man shall turne to thy praise: the remainder of their rage shalt thou restrain. Awake, A [...]se, put on thy strength. O Albion, put on thy garments of beauty, O Br [...]ttain trust in God alone by Abrahams example, Isa. 51. Heare ye that follow righteousnesse, looke unto the [Page 31]rocks whence yet are hewen, &c. hearken unto me, for a law shall proceed from me, and I will bring forth my judgement for alight of the people, v. 4. My righteousnesse is neer, I will judge the people: the Isles shall wait for me, and trust unto me. Arise, O England, be bright, O Brittain; for thy light is come, the glory of the Lord is come, Awake as in the ancient dayes, as in the generati­ons of old: re­member and re­vive that anci­ent ordinance of the Lords owne institution dire­cted, for compo­sing of conten­tions. Remember and bee ashamed, bring t [...]againe to mind, O ye R un­agates, remem­ber the former things of old. Isa. 35.8.9. Ier. 31.9. Via Divina, non devia non Dia­bolica, sicut illa Sauguinolenta. Zach. 4.6.7. the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee, Isa 60.1. Awake, awake, and stand up, O Je­rusalem which hast drunk at the hand of the Lord, the cup of his wrath, thou hast drunken the dregs of the cup of trembling, and wrung them out. There is none to guide thee among all the sons whom thou hast brought forth: neither is there any that taketh thee by the hand, of all the sous that thou hast brought up. These things are come unto thee, destruction, desolation, and the sword, therefore heare this now, thou afflicted: Thus saith the Lord, the Lord, and thy God, that pleadeth the cause of his people. Be­hold, I have taken out of thy hand the cup of trembling, &c. Isa. 5.1.17, 18. &c. What have I here, saith the Lord, that my people is taken away for nought, and they that rule over them, cause them to howle and lament: Therefore my people shall know my Name; behold, therefore they shall know in that day, that I am he that doth speaks, behold is is I. How beautifull upon the mountaines are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace, that saith unto Sion, thy God reigneth. Isa. That giveth to the Lord his due glory, by committing their cause, and casting their burthen upon the Lord, and leaving the determination of their differences to his divine judgement by that holy way that he hath prescribed in his holy Word, ra­ther then the destructive way of the bloody Sword, if the Lord will please to arise and have mercy upon Sion; The Prophet Zachary will shew you how, non in ex­ [...]rcitu, &c. Not by army, nor by strength, but by my Spirit, saith the Lord, and they shall bring forth the principall stone with shouting, and crying, Grace, grace unto it.

That the Ministers doe admonish the people humbly to wait on God in his holy ordinance, implore his aid for our reconciliation, and rest, and rely on his saving sentence; he will give a perfect lott, and just judgement, whereby we shall be de­livered from the heaviest of his temporall judgements, the Sword.

The consideration of Gods greatnesse may humble the haughty and hardened hearts of the people: The meditation of his mercy may mollifie their malicious and bloody minds, to be more tender-hearted one towards another, being children of one Father. and brethren in Christ Jesus, following the precept and pattern of our Saviour, Be ye mercifull, as your heavenly Fathen is mercifull, so their Fast will be more religious, their preaching more profitable, and their prayer more accepta­ble, whilest they forsake their courses of cruelty, and follow the way of love, truth, peace and unity. O this wor unity is the [...], the onely word of comfort that can make us happy. Albion can have no hope of recovery, till she heare of the sweet names of Peace and Unity, which of an Albion she is like to become an Acheldama, of an Eden Garden, a gastly Golgatha, cruelty and division cry her down, exinanite, exinanite, down with her, down with her, even to the ground, cry the bloody brood of cursed Cain, and have drawn the line of vanity, of cruelty over her: God is pleased in mercy to reveale, and revive this holy way of reconci­liation, whereby to recover, restore, and raise her up again,Ier. 29.11. vid. Isa. 46.13. and 49.7, [Page 32]8 9 & adfinem. Their speech bewrayeth them (as they say to Peur) to be of Ashdod, or Egipt, that bring into the Church of Christ, the way of the Sword, to be of the bloody brood of cruell Cain, or cursed Corah, who preach and teach that the foundation of the Church of Christ,Christs church not to be built in or by bloud. who is the Prince of Peace, should be layd in the blood of the members of his body, that pretend or intend to settle and reforme the Christian Religion by the slaughter of Christians, the true, faithfull servants and Saints of God, in whose sight their death is right deare and pretious. These new Builders, like those of the old world, to get them a name upon earth, make brick of their own devising, and build them a Babel, a Tower that they hope, may reach up to heaven; yet when they have all done, they shall have but brick for stone, and slime for morter, and the end will be confusion: So too too many in these times, to get them a name and opinion of being more holy then other men (touch me not, I am of purer mold then thou art) to make themselves greater, and raise themselves higher, make brick of their owne pretended purity, seeming sanctity and forme of godlinesse, endevouring by cruelty and policy, to build them a Tower, a Babel of power and supreme Authority, that shall gaine them the kingdome of Heaven, and kingdomes on Earth, and when they have all done, it is but the brick and stime of mortall corruption, and haughty ambition and vaine frustrated ima­gination; And they can prognosticate to themselves no fairer end then Babels was, confusion in conclusion.

Dissentions are workes of darknesse, wrought by the prince of darknesse the Divell,Let us cast a­way the works of darknesse, and put on the armour of light. Rom. 13.12. 1 Cor. thence comes warre; And if needs there must be warre, and that war be Gods, and concerning his cause (as 'tis or hath been professed) in such a warre 'tis fit to use such wayes and weapons, such rules and orders as the onely wise and invincible Generall, the Lord of Hosts directeth and prescribeth. In such an holy warre, The noble Army of Martyrs, the chiefest ser­vants of God alwayes used holy Armes, divine Artillery, arma ocelefiae; they put on the armour of God, their loynes girded with verity, their feet shod with the preparation of the Gospell of peace, they had on the brest-plate of righteousnesse, but above all, they tooke the shield of Faith wherewith they were able to quench all the fiery darts, and evade the violent vollies of short, which their most deadly enemies could discharge against them; Why then may not in this, un­happy warre the arme of God rather then the arme of flesh bee happily used? Why not the holy sword of the Spirit, rather then the bloody sword of sinfull flesh? Why not divine points of heavenly doctrine to penetrate and illuminate and convince the faculties of the soule, rather then endevour to beat religion into the braine with a Pole-axe, or pierce the heart by Pike or Pistoll? Why not the ho­ly ordinances of a mercifull God, Canons of comfort tending to peace, and conver­sion. Before the murdering preces of mercilesse man hurrying to perdition and con­fusion, under which sad and lamentable condition the three Kingdomes have for a long season layne languishing. The Prophets Quere; Is it because there is no God in Israel, that we goe to inquire, &c. How long shall the sword devoure, know ye not that it will be bitternesse in the end? Should not a people inquire at their [Page 33]God? to the Law, the testimony, the Ordinance, the Oracle of God; If they go not his way of peace, 'tis because there is no light in them; He that hateth his brother is in darknesse, 1 Jo. 2.9, 10, 11. where then shall he appeare that murdereth his brother.

For the manner of making, drawing, and using of Lotts, I find not, either in Gods word or other Divine writings, any certain prescript forme or rule of neces­sity to be practised and followed; The use thereof being frequent among the people of God, and many other Nations, the forme of making and using the Lott in such, or such a manner or way, hath bin left to humane designement. For though the Lott be Gods immediate ordinance, God himselfe being the originall author thereof, and the sole and onely disposer of the event thereof, as 'tis before manifestly and plen­tifully proved: yet where God leaves a matter indifferent in the manner of use, the restriction of this indifferencie is left to secondary causes; as in case of the Lot; It is left to humane disposure for the manner how, and the materialls whereof Lots may be made, whether written or printed, in Paper, Parchment, or the like, Vellam; or cut in wood, or the barke of a Tree, as some have used it, or ingraven in any met­tall, Bone, Ivory, or other matter.In. act. 1. Maier. The most Ancient (as by a late learned Writer is observed) used Beanes, black or white, Letters of the Alphabet, or Globules which were either gilded or silvered, as among the Venetians, or covered over with wooll, as among the Gemcans, &c. as Petrus Gregorius sheweth in tit. de Elect.

Pet. Martyr, in his common place, chap. 8. part 1. of Vrim and Thummim. Where it is to bee noted, that only the King, or else the father of the Consistory had power to consult, or pro­pose the mat­ter to the Priest: the Priest only had the power to resolve, and secondly the matter propo­sed must not be triviall, but of moment & great difficul­ty.It is observed by Peter Martyr, out of an old expositor of the Law, called Kim­hi, upon Judges 20.27. that it was the manner among the Hebrews, when they asked any question or counsell of God by Lott, touching publike or weighty mat­ters, to come to the Priest apparelled with his Ephod garment, and standing before the Arke of the Lord, upon whose Ephod were set twelve precious stones, wherein the names of the ten Tribes were engraven, together with the names of the Patri­arks Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; and also all the letters of the Hebrew Alphabet: It behoved him that asked a question, to turn his face to the Priest, and his speech was neither to be so lowd as he might plainly be heard; nor yet so low, as if he had only prayed with his inward cogitations: but in such wise as Anna prayed, 1 Sam. 1.13. where it is said, that she only moved her lips, and said nothing that might be heard. After this the Oracle was shewed to the Priest in this manner: By the power of the holy Spirit certain letters did arise, and eminently appeare above the others; as some say, the letters which gave the answer were [...]. An exam­ple is taken from 2 Sam. 2.1. when David asked the Lord, Shall I go up into any of the Cities of Judah? the Lord answered, [...], go up. Here (it is said) [...] ap­peared out of the name [...] Schimeon: as [...] out of the name of [...] Levi: and [...] out of the name of [...] Jehudah. Others affirm, that the letters which represented the Oracle, were [...] i.e. that they did after a strange manner joyne themselves into perfect syllables, and entyre words, and made the answer compleat. And this is that Vrim and Thummim which is mentioned in the holy Scriptures. Which Peter Martyr calleth Lot, and reckoneth the Vrim and Thummim among the several sorts of divine Lotts, and stileth that way of consulting with God, Lotts, by which Gods counsell was asked, as in the 8. chap, before cited appeareth.

Rabbi Solomon thinketh that such was the manner of Lotts, as that the names of every of the Tribes were written in severall Scrolls; which being thrown into a pot, were afterward drawn by the chiefe Priest.

Cicero in his book de Divinations affirmeth, that when Numerius Suffecius had cut in sunder a flint stone, the Lotts made in an Oak leaped out, and that at the same time an Olive tree d [...]d sweat Hony; and that therefore a little Chest was made of the same tree, into which the Lotts were cast: These were called Prenestine Lots, which were very famous in times past. In Plautus wee read of Lotts made of Firre and Poplar trees, which were cast into a vessell of water; and according as every Lott arose, first or last from the bottome, so the matter was decreed. Pausanius saith, that Lotts were wont to be done out of a pot made of Clay, and that one Cresphon in the division that was made of Peloponnesus, to handle the matter, that the field of Missena might fall out to his share, he corrupted the Priest Temenus; for he dried other Lotts by the Sun, but Cresphons by the fire: and therefore Cres­phons Lotts being longer before they were made wet, he obtained the field of Mis­sena. In a word, it is evident from what hath been said, that Lotts have been of frequent use in all ages, and among all Nations, especially Gods owne people, and are very justifiable by the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, even in such cases wherein the one party holdeth his right and interest in the matter con­troverted to be unquestionable, as may be certainly concluded from the practice of Samuel, who knowing assuredly that God had appointed, and he himselfe had an­nointed Saul to be King, yet doubted not to commit the matter unto Lotts, as be­ing assured of the infallible justice of that sacred Ordinance, wheras another perhaps would have said, shall a matter of such weight be put to hazard? perhaps the Lotts will fall out otherwise, and so will exclude this man from being King, as Pe­ter Martyr well observeth,Pet. Martyr. loc. com. c. 8. part. 1. but his faith was firmly resolved and assured, that the Lord was just and holy in all his Oracles, his Ordinances, his wayes, his judge­ments. Moyses in the same manner in his own cause, upon the matter of Corah and his company in their Rebellious carriage, charging Moses and Aaron with assum­ing a larger extent of prerogative then the Lord had lent them,Num. 16. The rods with the names of each Tribe written thereon, were no other then Lotts. Num. 17. a g [...]eater Commissi­on then God had given them; Yee take too much upon you Moses and Aaron, Marke hereupon the meeke demeanour of Moyses, you sonnes of Levi (said he) ye take too much upon you, and therefore let each one take his Censer [his Lot, &c.] and goe before the Lord, and let God be the just Judge, whom he hath chosen, let God shew by the Censor, to whom he hath given the Authority of King, Priest, &c. Is our Religion, our lives, our estates, liberties, or what is more deare and pretious to us, in Controversie; if we distrust not the justice of our cause, why should we doubt the Judgement of our God?

But to proceed to the manner how the differences now depending, may be de­termined by the Lords judgement by Lott: When upon a treaty the differences in particular shall be truly stated, and for each side and part by the persons appointed, for that purpose certainly set down; that briefe heads or titles of each particular proposition in difference to be written in severall small papers or Parchments cut [Page 35]into equall proportions, and two Lotts written with the severall briefe titles of the severall Propositions; And for distinction, to discern, which is for his Majestle, and which for the Parliament, two severall Motto's be appointed and nominated to be written with the severall titles of the said Propositions in the said papers or parch­ments respectively, wherein the severall Propositions are inscribed: [...] lea. 23.6. The Kings own Motto, Dieu & mon droit (if to his Majestie it shall so seeme meet) to denominate his demand or Proposition: And, Jehovah Tsidkenn. The Lord our righteousnesse, for the Parliament: (if to the Parliament it shall so seem good.) And in respect that both parts professe the maintenance of the same matters, and both appeale to God (though in a wrong way, it may be doubted, by the sword) to declare who is in the right, this divine way may happily not seem unsutable to the present occasion, and being the same it pleased God to put into my thoughts. I humbly pray it may be without ostence, either to my Soveraigne, or his Parliament) to publish.

For example in some particulars, of composure of the Lotts, thus viz.

If the proposition in difference be, whether Episcopall, or Presbyteriall govern­ment, or the way of Independency (as 'tis termed) a divine way not to be despised, be the most right in Gods sight, the King maintaining Episcopacy, the Parliament Peesbytery: His Majesties Lott may be thus, Dieu & mon dr [...]it, Episcopall govern­ment: the Parliaments thus, Jehovah Tsidkenu, Presbyterian government: The In­dependants thus, Jehovah Jizeh, Discipline and doctrine according to Gods word.

In the Controversie touching the proper right of the Militia, thus the Kings Lot, Dieu & m [...]n dr [...]it, Militia mihi regni: The Parliaments thus Militia Regno, & sic decateris. For all other matters in difference two or more Lotts as the case requireth, may be composed in the same manner. Thus all chiefe Officers of trust for Church Kingdome and State may be elected;Lotts for all in competition Blanks for all but one, and that to have this inscripti­on: Whom God shall choose. so the Election being left to the wise and just disposall of God, all siding partiality and other differences and deceits will be avoi­ded. Thus Delinquents may have their Clergy, their lotts for their lives, and so their death or life shall be left to the pleasure of the Lord, not the humour of revengefull men. The like touching pecuniary mulct upon their estates, vid. Nunth. 15.33.

Now of the casting or drawing of Lotts, whether into the lap, the pot, the bagg or urn, non refert, 'Tis meerly matter of indifferency. But touching the manner how the Lotts may be cast, and drawn upon the present occasion.

Thus the Lord God hath directed me, that after the Celebration of the third so­lemne day of fasting and prayer in some spacious Church, or place which the Lord shall choose, Dout. 17.8, 9. appointed for that purpose, on the Communion table there be set, three Chalices, and the Lotts; one for his Majestie, another for the Parliament be provided for every particular difference.

As 1 Chron. 24.6. Shemaiah the sonne of Nathanael the Scribe of the Levites, wrote the Lotts before the King and the Princes, and the high Priest, and the chiefe Fathers of the Priests and the Levites; So that one particular person be appointed, or more, for making any writing the severall Lotts in the presence of King, Parlia­ment, and Clergy, or other indifferent men on both sides, who are to see to the equall composing of them, that no outward distinction may be discerned by the [Page 36]party or parties, who are selected to draw indifferently between both parties: for which purpose some of the chiefe of the Clergy, who are esteemed most religious, upright, and conscionable, may happily be most fit, of those not above one, to each part, and these to draw by turn, and neither of these to see the Lotts, not speak with any concerning them, untill they have drawn them out of the Chalice or Cup, into which they are put to be drawn.

That only two Lotts at one time (or three Lotts, as in some cases occasion may require) which concern the same point in difference, be cast into the middle Chalice on the Table; and then the Lott which is drawn, and taken to be put into the Cha­lice which standeth at the upper end of the Table, and the Lott which is left behind in the middle Chalice, to be put into the Chalice at the lower end of the Table. That the particular Lotts be put into the middle Chalice successively two or three at a time, and thence drawn, one for each party, by one of the two persons appointed for that purpose, untill the Lotts be all drawn.

Then the Lotts in the upper Cup to be opened; whereby it may appeare what Lotts are by God given to the King, and what to the Parliament; thus there will be no feare or danger of the deceit either of Composers or drawers.

Let murmurers against Gods judgement herein, and despisers of his Divine di­rection, remember the severe punishment that was inflicted by God upon Gorah and his Company.

And unto this people thou shalt say: Thus saith the Lord, Behold, I set before you the way of life, and the way of death. I call heaven and earth to witnesse, I have herein set before you life and good, death and evill, choose therefore life, that the Land may be preserved from Ruine.Jer. 21.8. Deut. 30.19.

Who is on the Lords side, let them come unto the Lord, cleave unto the Lord, commit their cause to the Judgement, sentence and decree of Justice it selfe, the great Judge of heaven and earth, who will in the first place settle Religion and Church-government in such fort as shall conduce to the glory of God: Give to God the things that are Gods: Exod. 32.26. and wil give to the King, to Caesar the things that are Caesars, in his just rights and prerogatives: and to the Kingdome, Parliament, and People what is their just dues in Lawes, Liberties, Priviledges, and properties, by this di­vine, holy, happy way, without effusion of blood, or further Contention.

The Doves expressions, and intentions, being but sutable to the nature of Doves, truly simple, and innocent, she desires the integrity of her meaning, may not be ble­mished by mis-interpretation, she is assured the Lott is a divine way of determining differences, and a farre more holy and happy way, then any of humane designment, which her Author will be humbly ready before the right Honourable, the high Court of Parliament, or the reverend Assembly of Divines, by divine authority to make good, but the forme for the use thereof, she leaves to the learned and religious to re­form if they please. Si qd novisti rectius istis, Candidus nuperti, si non haec temnere noli.

Having shewed (though with much weaknesse) how divine Lotts may be used and applyed for composing the present Controversies depending in Church & State, between his Majesty, and his Parliament, and the form of making and drawing the Lotts, as the Lord was pleased to put into my mind (a more pertinent, compleat, and [Page 37]perfect manner and way then which, no doubt the wise and learned may find out.) It resteth now that somewhat be said touching the lawfulnesse, holinesse, and hap­pinesse of this way of determing differences, and of the Sacred necessity and con­veniency of the use thereof, in cases of greatest difficulty Civill or Sacred, rather then the Sword, or any other humane way or meanes, not onely here, but also throughout Christendome, and all parts of the world, where God Almighty is ac­knowledged as the great and just Judge in Heaven and Earth, and how the holy use thereof may be an happy fulfilling of divers Prophecies in the book of God contained.

The lawfulnesse of this Sacred Ordinance, I hope and believe no religious or learned man, no good and true Christian will presume to oppose or deny, especially in cases of such difficulty, as by legall meanes cannot otherwise be happily, justly, and clearly decided and determined.

First, in regard it is an holy Ordinance originally instituted by God himselfe for ending of differences: And also an holy Oracle ordained for the discovery of hidden matters by humane indeavours inscrutable and uninvestigable, as in the first chapter of this discourse is plentifully proved and confirmed by divine authority ancient and moderne.

Secondly, because not onely the holy word of God doth likewise confirme the lawfulnesse of the use thereof by Gods speciall direction, and the practise of the Patriarkes, Prophets, and Apostles, but also the opinion of the best Divines, both ancient and moderne, and the frequent and happy use thereof upon severall occasi­ons, both in former, later, and even in these times doe manifestly attest the same;The Apostles use thereof cleares that. Prov. 18.18. Isa. 5.16. The Lord of Hosts shall be exal­ted in judge­ment, and the holy God shall be sanctified in justice. Isa. 48.11. Let Mount Zion rejoyce, and the daughters of Judah be glad, because of his righte­ous judge­ments. Psa. 50.6. The heavens shall declare his righteousnesse, for God is judge himself. as in the second chapter appeareth.

Thirdly, this is no Typicall thing or Ceremony of the old Leviticall law, which by the comming of Christ vanished, or was to be abrogated or abolished, but is set downe, and prefixed in the firmament of Gods word, as most happy and use­full in a Maxime, Axiome, statute, and Rule of morall, and so perpetuall divinity a­mong the Proverbs of Salomon, which are no lesse Canonicall then any other part of holy Writ, being all holy Canons of sound morall divinity, as Master Cart­wright, a religious and learned Expositor of that Booke, in his Preface thereunto affirmeth, and if any shall object and say 'tis there exprest as a prescription, not a precept, and so may be a matter of meere indifferency, for to be used or not used; I conceive (under favour of the learned) that all divine directions in Gods word may be said to amount not onely to instructions, but even to Injunctions, especial­ly where the direction is given for use of any of Gods Ordinances, and the ends of the use and practise thereof tends immediatly to the advancement of Gods glory, and the good and happinesse of his Church and people. As herein it must needs follow, by making God the Judge and Peace-maker betweene his people; which divine direction if they shall refuse to make use of, amounteth to at least a con­tempt of this counsells, if not a Rebellion against his command, as it must be, if Gods prescriptions ought to be received as precepts. I put these cases, if an obsti­nate Patient refuse the prescription of the learned Physitian, all men will confesse [Page 38]he wilfully and deservedly suffereth losse of life. The great Physitian of Heaven prescribeth a cure for our contentions, if we neglect or reject it; who can deny, but porditio tua ex te. Hos. 13.9. ô Albyon, will be a proper motto, for so obstinate a Nation, this destruction is of thy selfe O England, but in God is thine helpe.

Againe, in the other case resembling this of ours, if a loving Master shall graci­ously offer himselfe to be Umpire, Arbiter, or Judge between his divided Servants, to determine their differences, and they shall ungratefully and ungratiously reject so Fatherly a favour, and fall to the Sword, what shall we call this but Contumati­ous disobedience, if not Rebellion, yea, the Lord by his Prophet Isaiah is pleased to pronounce them Rebellious and that with a witnesse too, even a woe therunto an­nexed, Woe to the Rebellious, that take counsell, but not of me, that cover with a cove­ring, but not by my spirit: we ought not to believe, but to try the spirits, whether they be of God or no,1 Jo. 4.1. who brag so much of the spirit, and yet dare take the Sword out of Gods hand, and with confidence in the Arme of flesh, in a sensuall divellish manner fly in the face of God, by defacing his Image, destroying their Brethren; Surely (as our Saviour said in another case) ye know not of what spirit yee are, Ibid. v. Gen. 9.6. which despise the sword of the Spirit, the way of peace prescribed by the word of God, and desire to be tried by the destructive sword of malitions man. To deny, despise, or neglect the use of this holy Ordinance is an argument that wee disesteeme Gods word, or vilifie his Ordinances, and account them matters of indifferency, to be used, or not used at our pleasure: or that they are unnecessary, vaine, superfluous, unprofitable and uselesse, which even to thinke is a prophane and blasphemous opinion.

Againe, in the fourth place, God is a God, nay, the God of Peace, he delighteth in nothing more then Peace, Vnity, and Amity among his People, and the word of God is a perfect word, a most compleat Treasury, wherein are contained all things conducing to his glory, and the good and welfare of his Church and people; Now as nothing is more distastful to God, nor prejudiciall to his people then division and dissention,Is there no balme in Gi­lead, &c. so nothing more acceptable to God, nor beneficiall to them then Peace▪ Can it then be doubted or denied, but that our good God hath in his word (the Treasury of Truth) prescribed some cure for Contentions, and some means to settle Peace;Psal. 85.8. Psa. God shall judge his peo­ple: and those that are his wil not refuse his judgement. And if we will with holy David hearken what the Lord God will say; we may find that he will speake peace to his people, ye may heare the Lord tell you Proverbs 18.18. The Lott causeth contentions to cease, and settleth peace between the mighty. There are mighty differences, between mighty persons, the King, and the Parliament, there is no Supreme Court or persons for either party to make ap­peale unto, but the Court and Lord of Heaven, and what Judge I pray you? what Arbiter? what umpire more fit to decide and determine these mighty differences betweene these mighty parties, then the most mighty, most mercifull, most wise, most just Judge of Heaven and Earth? and by what way more proper and impar­tiall then this way of the Lord, the Lott, whereby the whole disposition of the businesse, is done by the Lord, not by the Lott: For although the Lotts and Pro­positions are composed and proposed by man, Deus ipse sedet in judicio per sortem, [Page 39]God sits in judgement by the Lott, and disposeth of the event thereof, The Lott is cast into the Lapp by man, but a Jehovah est totum judicium, tota ratio, tota dispositio, The whole judgement reason, and disposition of the event is of the Lord. It then this Sacred Ordinance being of Gods owne ordination and institution, were never abrogated nor abolished, but remaines morall and perpetuall, so lawfull, so usefull, so divine, so holy so happy, tending immediatly to Gods glory, in leaving the con­clusion of our differences to his divine Judgement, what reason can be shewed why the Sacred use thereof should be rejected, and the devouring Sword received and preferred before the Lord in his owne way, seeing bloudshed is not onely uni­versally throughout the Scripture prohibited, but also fearfull threatnings thereunto added, as the most crying sinne which pierceth the Heavens, and pulleth downe upon the offenders inevitable maledictions, and execrable punishments.

Many Prophecies may be fulfilled by the use of this sacred Ordinance, this holy way of God. There shall be a path and a way, and the way shall be called holy: the polluted shal not passe by it, for he shall be with them, and walk in the way,Isa. 35.8, 9, 10. and the Fooles shall not erre. There shall be no Lyon, nor noysome beast, &c. A straight way wherein they shall not stumble, Jer. 31.9. By this holy way of the Lords Judge­ment in Controversies, the lowest and weakest in estate, degree, or understanding, shall not be oppressed, despised, or injured; so the loftiest and worthiest shall not be preferred, accepted, or exalted, but just judgement shall be executed. And the neglect of this sacred way in cases convenient is an argument of Gods high displeasure, and an evident signe of the universall confusion of the cruell contem­ners thereof, as in the 24 h of Ezech. 6. God sets it downe as a signe of epidemi­call destruction to that bloudy City, where the use of the Lott is denyed to them. Wee on the bloudy City, &c. let no Lott fall upon it.

Also for the old way, which is the good way, walke therein, and ye shall find rest unto your soules. Jer. 6.16. Isa. 35.8 9.10. Jer. 31.7.9. This holy way the Saints will not refuse, but the wicked either shall not have the happinesse at all to use it, or else shall for a time, till God call them, oppose it, but the righteous shall revive and receive it, with glory to God, good and gladnesse to themselves. 'Tis a way of righteousnesse, in respect of God and man; In respect of the righteous judge­ment thereby given by God, and secondly of the righteousnesse that men are taught thereby. For when Gods judgements are abroad on the earth, the Inhabitants will learne righteousnesse, Isa. 42. Christ Jesus, to whom God, Jo. 3.35. hath commit­ted all power and judgement, shall by his judgement set all things in order upon earth.Ier. 23.5.6. A King shall reigne and prosper, and execute judge­ment and Iu­stice on the earth, &c. Judah shall be saved; and Is­rael dwell safe­ly, and they shall call him the Lord our righteousnesse Servants, Pro­phets, Priests, blind, deafe, dumbe, Mat. vide Isa. 29. ver. 13. to the end of the chapter.

Behold my servant, &c. Hee shall bring forth judgement to the Gentiles, Isa. 42.1. He shall bring forth judgement in truth. He shall not faile till he have set judgement in the earth: And the Isles shall wait for his Law, v. 34. and v. 10.11. God char­geth the Inhabitants of the Isles, and the Townes of Kedar (a place of irreconcile­able contention by the Prophet David's relation) to give glory unto the Lord, promising v. 16. to bring the blind by a way of his owne; To make darknesse light before them, and crooked things straight, blaming his servants for their [Page 40]blindnesse, his Messengers for their deafnesse, and those that should be lights of others for their darknesse, either for their ignorance in not discerning the Lords way of judgement, or negligence in not directing his people that way, or wilfull obstinacy in cleaving and adhering too, and confiding in humane counsells wayes or courses, rather then the Lords divine directions, telling the people that he is wil­ling to magnifie and exalt the Law, for his righteousnesse sake, as in the ensuing verses of this chapter appeareth, together with heavy threatnings against his owne people, because they walked not in his wayes, nor were obedient to his Law, to the end of the chapter.

If this way of the Divine Lott be a way of the Lord, a Judgement, Sentence, Decree,Acts 17. God hath appoin­ted a day in which he will judge, &c. Jer. 33.14.15. Behold the dayes come, saith the Lord, that I will per­form the good thing which I have promised, &c. I wil cause the branch of righteousnesse to grow up, & he shall exe­cute judge­ment & righ­teousnesse, &c. At that day a man shall look to his Maker, and his eyes to the holy one of Israel, and not to the Al­tar, the workes of his hands, or fancies of his own braines, &c. Isa. 17.7. Acts 17.31. Jer. 25.15, 16. Blood purged out of the mids of Jerusalem, as the Lord pro­mised, Is. 4.4. Isa. 43.7. Jer. 31.19. It shall be to me a name, a joy, a praise and an honour before all the Nati­ons of the earth. Statute, Law, and Ordinance of the Lord, wherby Christ Jesus may gaine glory to himselfe from all Nations of the earth, by making them one flock, under one Shepheard, by the way of his owne judgement, bringing Jewes and Gentiles, Christians and Turks, Heathens and Infidels, to be of the same sheepfold under his government, as by this Prophecy may be intended: If Christ shall not faile till he have set Judgement on the earth, Psal. 94.15. Isa. 42.4 viz. set all things in good order. The whole earth, for the most part, especially Christendome being at this time in terrible tumultuous turmoiles, combustions and bloody contentions concerning Religion, and other matters of civill government: Doubtlesse it may be a blessed fulfilling of this Prophecy, if all the differences both concerning Church and State being truly stated, were referred to the judgement and resoluti­on of the Lord himselfe by this way of his owne prescription. By this meanes the barbarous way of warre the heaviest of Gods judgements more fit for heathe­nish brutish people then Christians would be avoided, effusion of bloud prevented, and the glory given to the Lord alone, to whom it is onely and justly due, and for which end God made man, and so the name of God being spread ever the face of the earth. All Nations might be taught it, and brought to the use of this blessed way of Reconciliation. To difpise or neglect this way of the Lord, and goe the way of cruel­ty and violence, the way of the Sword, is to change the Judgements of the Lord into wickednesse, and to refuse and contemne the Judgements and Statutes of the Lord, as the Lord by his Prophet complaines, Ezek 5.5, 6, 7.

Surely the way of Cain like cruelty, Bloudy butchering of our Brethren, can be no way acceptable, but rather detestable to the God of Peace, no satisfactory way of Judgement to the consciences of men, no sound foundation whereon to settle Reformation, or build the Church of Christ. The judgement of Christ in this way of divine Lott, will appeare more consonant to the Word, and will of God, more Pious and prosperous among men. If we seriously consider these ensu­ing Prophecies.

Isa. 9.5, 6, 7. Surely every battell of the warriour is with noise, and with tumbling of Garments in blood: but this shall be with burning, and fuell of fire. For unto us a Child is borne, a Sonne is given; the government is upon his shoulder: and be shall call his name wonderfull, Counseller, &c. the Prince of Peace. The increase of his Government, and Peace shall have none and: Hee shall sit upon the Throne and [Page 41]kingdome of David, to order and stablish it with Judgement and Iustice. Jer. 23.5, 6. Jer. 33.14. Behold, the dayes come, saith the Lord, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall raigne and prosper, and shall execute judgement and justice in the earth. In his day Judah shall be saved, and Israel dwell safely, and this is the Name whereby they shall call him the Lord our righteousnesse.

In cases of difficulty and difference, the Prince of peace, the wonderfull Coun­seller, the true King of the Israel of God, may well be a more competent, and cove­nient Judge, then the bloody Sword, which though victorious, yet cannot by its Conquest so convince the minds & consciences of men, as therby to invest the Con­querour with a true right and just title to things therby obtained. Peace, amity, uni­ty, how pious, how pretious, how prosperous among Brethren, both Gods Testa­ments are a plentifull testimony, and if no Text to prove it might be produced, yet the wofull experience of the want thereof, would sufficiently confirme it. But if jarres, divisions, dissentions, dangerous, doubtfull difficult arise, (as offences will and doe come) why should not the determination thereof be referred to the judge­ment of Justice it selfe.

If the rod of Pride bud, and spread, and cause and raise contentions among the ambitious sonnes of men; Then shall the bud of the Lord be beautifull and glorious, Isa. 11.1. And there shall come a rod out of the stock of Ishai, on whom shall rest the Spirit of the Lord, the spirit of wisdome and understanding of counsell, and strength of knowledge, &c. And he shall judge, but how? not after the manner of men, after the sight of his eyes, or hearing of his eares. But with righteousnesse and equity shall he judge the poore, and meeke of the earth; and hee shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, &c. Isa. 2.11. to the end. The haughtinesse of men shall bee hum­bled, Isa. 11.1. the loftinesse of men shall be abased, and the Lord onely shall be exalted in that day. Cease yee from man whose breath is in his nostrills for wherein is hee to be esteemed. Isa. 3.13, 14. The Lord standeth up to plead, yea, he standeth up to judge the people. The Lord shall enter into judgement with the ancients of his people. Isa. 4.2. And what shall bee the fruits of his Judgement, why Justice being the girdle of his loynes, &c. The wolfe shall dwell with the lambe, the leopard ly down with the kid, the calfe the lyon▪ and fat beasts shall rest toge­ther, and a little child shall lead them, &c. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all his holy mountaine [his Church:] for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, &c. Jer. 31.34. Blessed fruits of a more blessed stocke, When the Lord shall wash the fi [...]hinesse of the daughters of Zion, and purge the bloud of Jerusalem out of the middest thereof by the spirit of judgement. Isa. 4.4. That Israel may be glad and the daugh­ters of Judah rejoyce because of Gods righteous judgements. Jer. 23.5, 6. [...]3.14.15, So shall the heathen feare, when the Lord shall build up Zion, and shall appeare in his glory, vid. Zech. 4.6.6 12, Jer. 33.9. Psa. 165.12. cause his power to be knowne to the sonnes of men, &c. If a bitter root bearing wormwood and gall shall be found among you, to whom will ye seeke for health and helpe; why in that day, the root of Ishai shall stand up for a signe unto the people, and the Nati­ons shall seeke unto it, and his rest shall be glorious. In cases of bitter contentions [Page 42]and bloudy divisions; This tree of life, whose fruit healeth the Nations, hath di­rected us to appeale to his judgemen [...] for reconciliation, he will thereby compos [...] our Controversies, and make his owne Name glorious by concluding and ceasing controversies among his people, and by that meanes bring all Nations to submit to his divine judgement.

Answerable hereunto is that of the second of Isa. 2▪ 3, 4▪ 5. where 'tis prophesied, that in the last dayes, the mountaine of the Lord shall be upon the top of the mountaines, and all Nations shall flow unto it. And he shall judge among the Nations, and they shall beat their swords into mattocks, and their speares into pruning-hookes, and shall fight no more, &c. vid. Jer. 3.17, 18. They shall follow no more the hardnesse of their heart, the house of Judah shall walke with the house of Israel, and they shall come together out of the land of the north &c. Now what judgement is intended by these Prophe­cies and whether this divine way of Gods judging in cases of difference may not be received within the compasse of these Prophecies, I would be glad to learne? Seeing there is not (that I can find) in the whole booke of God any other imedi­ate way of divine judgement, whereby differences may be decided, particularly provided and ordained by God himself to that end, but onely this sacred ordi­nance: In holy Writ I find but two divine Oracles or sacred wayes of consulting with Almighty God in cases of extreme difficultie, whereby a certaine plaine vi­sible, and immediate response and resolution might be received (videlicet) Urim and Thummim, and the Lott. The former was a more mysticall and obscure way; this not unlike that way before mentioned, Isa. 35.8, 9. for by Lott a plaine, certaine, and imediate resolution was alwaies returned, prompt and facile to any ordinary capacity: That way of Urim and Thummim is abolished, but this sacred way of the Lott (no lesse Antient and holy then the former) as a most usefull, holy, and happy way of Gods divine judgement, ordained for determining of doubtfull, dif­ficult and dangerous differences is still retained, as by these pacificall Proverbs, of the 16.33. and the 18.18. appeares, being both Canonicall and Morall Scripture, and so perpetuall divinity; besides many presidents, both Ancient and moderne, of the use thereof before herein premised. And truly, I beleeve this may be justly said of this sacred Ordinance, that it was never piously used and performed, nay, when by irreligious Infidels practised, but it ever brought glory to God, and good to the users thereof; that all men may see and confesse, that the Lord is holy in all his wayes, and just in all his judgements.

And doubtlesse this holy way is of especiall happy use, for resolving of doubtfull cases, discovering of hidden and recondite matters, and determining of difficult and mighty differences among mighty persons; For where Controversies by hu­mane endevours cannot be decided and the parties on both sides so stout, that other­wise they cannot be appeased, by this meanes the matters may be composed, and the men pacified.

In cases of this nature, those that have the best causes, and the clearest conscien­ces, will desire to have their differences thus decided. For he that is confident of the justice of his Cause, needs not doubt the judgement of God: and the way of [Page 43] the Lord is strength to the upright man: but feare shall be for the workers of ini­quity, Prov. 10.29. They shall goe into the holes of the rocks &c. Isa. 2.19 20 21.

In cases of this difficult condition, when they say unto you Isa 8.19. Enquire at them that have a spirit of divination, and at the southsayers which whisper and murm [...]r. The divine spirit will tell you that those divinato [...]y spirits are deceit­full, and have no warrant from the divine word of God. That both North and Southsayers are more subtile then solid, and their words are but wind. A dry mind not fit to fan or cleanse Jer. 4.11. That whisperers are lyers, and murmu­rers against Gods divine direction, deserve to have their mouthes stopt. Thou art wearied in the multitude of thy counsels &c. Isa. 47.12, 13.14. That a woe is pronounced, by the Prophet against them that take counsell but not of the Lord: that cover with an hypocritis all covering, not of his spirit. That State po [...]icies are often State fallacies and that divine directions, though delivered by a simple Dove, are to be preferred before any Machiavilian machinations contrived by subtill Serpents, if you would be advised, who so wise as the Wonderfull Counseller, the Prince of Peace? who is wonderfull in counsell and excellent in working,Ier. 32.10. he will direct you to him that hath the spirit of wisdome and coun­sell &c. Isa. 11.2. Isa. Thus saith the Lord, &c. Aske of me things to come, &c. aske after the old way, &c.

Should not a People inquire at their God? from the living to the dead? will ye deviate from the way, of the living Lord, to the dead Letter of your owne lawes? from the divine law of the Lord, to the humane lawes, counsells, and devises of the crafty Achitophels of the Land? will ye deviate from the way of Peace to the way of Warre, to the Law of Armes, of Harmes? God directs you to goe to the Law and to the Testimony, to the statute judgement, ordi­nance prescribed by Gods word: If they speake not according to his Word, it is because there is no light in them. He that hateth, or indeavoureth to sup­plant or oppresse his brother abideth in darknesse, and he that despiseth Gods Counsell and Ordinance conducing to Peace remaineth in the shadow of death. Doe ye esteeme the heavenly wholsome counsell of God in his word of truth? or the crafty cruell courses and counsells of men more? Isa. 50.10.11. If God be God follow him, but if Baal be hee, If Mars or Machiavel, be your Gods, the bloudy sword or State stratagems follow them. Is it because there is no God in Israel, that ye goe to inquire of Baalzebub the god of Eckron? Is there no balme in Gilead, no Physitian there? Is it because the Lord hath prescribed in his Word no holy way of ending Controversies, that the cursed way of Cain-like cruelty must make the conclusion? How long will it be before ye restraine the people from persecuting and oppressing their brethren? know ye not that it will be bitternesse in the end? Is there no efficacy in the ordi­nances of God and yet so much eminency in the ordinances of men? Are the judgements of men so righteous and shall not the Judge of the whole world doe right? Shall the ordinances of men be commended and commanded and the Ordinance of God contemned, and condemned as uselesse or illicite? Heare [Page 44]the Lords expostulation with his owne people: Have I that brought you out of the land of Egypt and led you through the wildernesse Have I been as a wilder­nesse unto Israel or a land of darknesse? Jer. 2.31. Wherefore saith my people then Wee are Lords we will come no more to thee? Isa. 45.19. I said not in vaine unto the seed of Jacob Seeke ye me. v. 22. Looke unto me yee shall be saved: all the ends of the earth shall be saved. Will ye forsake the Fountain of living waters, which will never faile ye? and dig ye pits, broken pits of your owne power and poli­cies, which may prove fallacies and will hold no waters of true continuing comfort?

Truly the hope of the hills is but vaine, nor the multitude of the mountains, but in the Lord our God is the health of Israel,Jer. 3.13. The high look of man shall be humbled, and the Lord onely exalted, Isa. 2, Isa. 51. I, even I am he that comfort you. Who art thou that fearest man, &c. and forgettest the Lord thy ma­ker, &c? v. 12.13. No perfect Peace in our case without consulting, & receiving the resolution of the great Peace-maker. Zech. 8.3. A Ci­ty of truth. 1 Cor. 3. [...]1. Psa. 147.2.14. Quo facilius preceptum eo gravius pecca­tum. not the hills of our haughty ones, nor mu [...]titudes nor mountaines of our Mighties can make us happy; All our Powers and policies, wealth and Armies, without a pious Peace cannot preserve us from ruine. And for a firme and well-grounded Peace, wee cannot be assured, nor ever secured, except the Propositions for Peace bee confirmed, setled, and perfected by the Judgement, sentence, and decree of the great Peace-maker, who is our peace, who is more puissant then the Mountaines of prey: and in pious Policies more wise then all the wise men of the world com­bined and conjoyned; who will nullifie and disappoint all their counsels even when he pleaseth catch them in their craft, and snare them in their own net.

Jerusalem is builded as a City at unity in it selfe; Nisi Dominus Aedificaverit other foundation can no man lay, except the Lord whose Tabernacle is at Sa­lem, build Bethsalem, Jerusalem all humane labour is but lost. And in this respect there is a sacred necessity of the use of this holy Ordinance, there being no other way of Gods judgement for the perfecting of our peace prescribed in Gods word. Zech. Who hath despised the day or way, of small things? This way of the Lord prescribed by his Word however despicable in the eyes of sinfull mortalls. Who art thou ô great mountaine? thou shalt be a plaine: for neither by an Army, nor by strength but by my Spirit, by my selfe, by the way of my Word shall the work of Peace be finished saith the Lord of hosts, vide Isa. 2.11. to the end of the chapter.

In a second respect, there is also a sacred necessity of the use of this holy way, in respect of the equall and impartiall proceedings for tryall of differences de­pending betweene King and Parliament. 1. In regard the King is under Christ the next and imediate Supreme Governour of these Kingdomes, and the Par­liament the supreme Court of Judicature in these Kingdomes. Now neither Party can appeale to any person or Court superiout to them but Christ and the Court of Heaven. And for either party to become Judges in their owne case is hardly consistent with the lawes of God or man. And therefore wee must needs conclude Christ under God to be the most equall, convenient, and just Judge for determining the differences.

Third [...]y in respect of the Covenants, Vowes or Oathes, which have passed on both sides, which being made before, and to God (I conceive under favour) [Page 45]cannot by any humane meanes consent compulsion or Authority bee dispensed withall, dissolved or disanulled; nor the consciences of those men, that made,It may be sea­red, lest for oathes the Land mourn­eth in teares of bloud, when so many lives have been shed and spilt. or tooke such Covenants, Vowes or Oathes satisfied or cleered untill they shall be convinced by this or some other Divine way of the Lords judgement concerning the truth or falsity, justnesse or unjustnesse of their owne Tenent and demands, which they have Covenanted, vowed, and sworne to defend and maintaine, especially when the parties on both sides have Covenanted expresly and directly one against the other, to maintaine things diametrically opposite, there the one party cannot without breach of his Covenant, or violation of his vow or oath yeeld to the other in that particular, neither ought by the rules of reason or Religion, or any warrant which I find in the word of God, to be forced or compelled thereunto.

An instance hereof in this case concerning Episcopacy, which the King hath vowed to maintaine, & the Parliament Covenanted to eradicate. In this case the King cannot yeeld unto the Parliaments demands without violation of his oath, neither ought his Majesty, as I conceive (under favour) to be compelled there­unto, it being against his oath unlesse the Lord shall so give judgement, and thereby declare the Presbyterie or other Government which the King or Par­liament, shall propose to be I [...]re divino, or fitter to be established in this King­dome: As hereby the Lord will surely and truly shew upon Propositions of se­verall formes, which is most consonant to his Word and will. He will give to God the the things that are Gods. And surely in all Ecclesiasticall cases of this nature, wherein the glory of his Name is so much concerned, the judgement of God is more proper and fit then the judgement of man.

Againe in the case of the Militia, the Question being desired to whom of right the same appertaines, man by the Sword cannot be so competent a Judge as the Lord (by whom all powers are ordained and ordered,) may be by the Lett, in this case or any other concerning God, the King or Kingdome. He by whom Kings reigne and Princes decree justice. He by whom Princes rule and the Nobles and all the Iudges of the earth, is the fittest judge, Pro. 8.15.16. For where the sword [...]ts as chief justice t [...]ere might goes away with right. There jus potestatis, not potestas juris, is predominant, there we find no power of right but that right which power obtains, bears the sway, justice is justled out by strength of hand, but by the righteous judgement of the Lord, the right of the Militia, and all other matters in difference wil be justly disposed. We know that the judgement of God is according to truth Psa. 19.9. Rom. None ought to judge another (but by warrant from God) in right or title especially where the Judges lay claime to the same thing in question. He wil give to Caesar the things that are Caesars. Tri­bute to whom tribute, Custome to whom custome, to all and every one their proper due: In this divine judgement, as we cannot faile of right so we need not feare any wrong: where the Lord is Judge, there is no partiality, nor re­spect of persons. Give me leave to aske the Apostles question, why dost thou judge thy brother? wee shall all appeare before the Judgement seat of [Page 46]Christ, as it is written,Warre among Christians and neglect of the use of this Or­dinance occa­stoneth the Lords name to be blasphe­med. Conver­sation of Chri­stians should winn others to follow their faith, and glo­rifie God in Christ, Heb. 13.7. 1 Phil. 2 Tim. 2.19 Rom. 1.21.22. Let whosoever nameth the name of Christ depart from e­vill, from dis­sention, This way or­dained not in vain by the Lord, nor set down in his Word to no purposo. every knee shall bow, &c.

Why then should the Heathen reproch and scoffe at the Christian for their cruelty, and barbarous bloudy-mindednesse one against another, saying. Where is that God, that Christ that Prince of peace, which they so boast of? Cannot, or will not he reconcile them? why doth he suffer them thus bruitishly to butcher one a­nother? cannot he be? or will they not trust him to become their Arbiter. Umpire. Iudge to end their differences and settle peace among his people. Thus whilest the name of God and Christ should by the use of his holy Ordinance be magnified by such as are called by his Name, godly Christians, by their inhumane cruelty, and irreligious carriage in the neglect of his holy Ord [...]nance, his holy Name is blasphemed and that among Turkes and Infidels▪ whereof the Lord him­selfe Isa. 52.5. complaines; Now therefore what have I here saith the Lord that my people are taken away for nought and those that rule over them cause them to howle and my Name continually is blasphemed; as also the Apostle speakes, that by ill carriage of Christians, the name of God and Christ is blasphemed among the Gentiles.

I said not in vaine to the seed of Jacob; Seeke you me: I the Lord doe speaks righteousnesse and declare righteous things: looke unto me and yee shall be saved: all the ends of the earth shall be saved for I am God and there is none other. No part of Gods word is uselesse or superfluous; not any ordinance of God therein unnecessary or vaine. The wicked are so proud they will not seeke after God, Psal. 10.45. To refuse or resist any way or ordinance of God is to fight against God. To neglect or despise this holy ordinance, is to dishonour God by disobedience to his direction.

'Tis an argument of guiltinesse or infidelity in the refusers: of guilt in that they dare not endure or abide the test▪ touch-stone or tryal of the truth, or else of infidelity in that either they doe not believe the word prescribing this Ordinance. Or else they dare not or will not trust God in the dispo [...]tion of the Lott; Though the word be plaine in that point, and cleere as the Sunne, Prov. 16.33.

Reasons why this way ought to be embraced and used before any humane way.

First because 'tis a most holy way in three respects. 1. In regard of the Author or first instituter thereof. 2. In respect of the ends for which it was ordained. 3. In respect of the meanes to attaine those ends, Gods divine way of judgement.

The Author and Instituter is God himselfe, as hath been plentifully proved in the precedent part of this Treatise.

The ends three. 1. Gods glory, which should they come in competition, wee ought to preferre before the salvation of our soules.

Secondly, ending the present differences, preventing of future dissentions.

Thirdly, setling and establishing of a firme and lasting Peace, then which [Page 47]among Gods people nothing more pleasing to God, more profitable to them­selves.

The meanes wherby those ends are attained, viz. the divine judgement makes this way the most happy for both sides, & for many reasons the fittest to be used.

Secondly▪ in respect of the equality and justice of this way of proceeding and tryall, being without corruption, fraud, deceit, or guile, without force or compulsion, without any partiality.

Thirdly, because the mouths of murmurers and malitious men will hereby be stopped, and no default or defect, deceit or mistake, injury or falsity can be at­tributed to this judgement.

Fourthly, in regard 'tis satisfactory to the mindes and consciences of all good men, who will believe and honour the Judgement, in respect of the Judges in­tegrity, who cannot erre or doe wrong.

Fifthy, because the use hereof is an exercise and an evidence of our faith and obedience; A true tryall is hereby made, whether wee believe his Word, observe his Ordinances, and dare trust his Judgement.

Sixthly, because this being an ordinance of God, there is as strict a Precept given by God in his Word, for the due keeping and obser­ving thereof, as of any the Lords lawes and Commandements,Isa. 58.2. They seek me daily, and will know my wayes, even as a people that did righ­teously, and had not forsa­ken the sta­tutes of their God, they aske of me the ordi­nances of Iu­stice, they would seeme to draw neare un­to God, &c. Deut. and many other places of Scripture, with promises of plenti­full blessings thereunto annexed, and menaces, and curses for neglect thereof. And if humane ordinances must not without much danger, bee disobeyed. I wonder how the wisest and the mightiest men dare despise the divine Ordi­nances of the Almighty Lord of Heaven and Earth; Considering that Sacred and severe Injunction there prescribed, with promise of life▪ and good to the obedient observers, death and evill to the disobedient deserters thereof.

Seventhly, because the further effusion of blood will hereby be prevented, all parties better contented and all future malice feuds, and discontents among many Families and persons in the Kingdomes forgiven, if not forgotten, re­moved if not obliterated, which when they shall discerne the the divine hand and judgement of God in determination of the differences, will remaine more cleerely satisfied touching the same and one towards another.

Eightly▪ all businesses may hereby bee Transacted with glory to God, and without vain-glory, blame accusation or dishonour to either party. In this tryall the Victor cannot sacrifice to his owne Nett▪ attribut any praise to the arme of flesh, nor the evicted receive any foyle or disgrace from the hand of the Adverse party, in regard the Lord is the onely agent, and the judgement dispo­sition and event is onely of the Lord. Whereas if either party should relinquish their former Tenents and condiscend to any Propositions which they former­ly (before the unhappy warre commenced) refused to assent unto, it might be held and accounted as an argument either of much weaknesse or wickednesse in them, in not yeilding thereunto before so much Christian bloud was spilt and so much misery calamity distraction, and damage had been brought to the King­dome by their standing out.

Ninthly▪ in case of differences in Religion, this divine way without all per­adventure will prove the most pious, prosperous, and most pleasing to God and men, if we consider these ensuing particulars.

First, the glory of God is primarily and imediatly concerned, and to be con­sidered herein viz. the salvation of his soule▪ which hath special relati­on to, and dependeth much upon the doctrine and discipline of that Church whereof he is a member.

Thirdly, the chiefe and continuall care of every man ought to be, first the glo­rifying of God, and secondly the salvation of his soule.

Now if differences arise touching the way which is the most pious and best way to glorifie God, and attain the salvation of soules, which is the purest way of divine worship, which Church hath the most orthodox doctrine & discipline, whether shall the doubting conscience go for satisfaction in those points? It will be answered to the Scriptures which are Gods Testaments, his revealed will, the Touchstone of Truth. Thither we are to appeale for satisfaction.

But then put case (as in truth it is) that diversity of Interpretations have bred diversity of opinions and divisions, and so controversies increase, and grow end esse; Mens corrupt constructions have troubled the Fountaine of living waters, with the mud of their mis-interpretations, the Word of truth, which would give light to the whole world, like the Sunne in his brightnesse, an in­fallible standard of true doctrine, and determiner of all Controversies, is hid under the bushell of mens mystie-clouded understanding and apprehension and that which should be a cure for our contentions, is by mans misprision made an occasion of further difference and determination of the differences of Interpre­tation? Surely he that in the beginning was the Word, and the Word that was with God, and that Word which was and is God, will be the fittest Judge of the Interpretation of the Word of truth: That Word by which all things were made, and without it was nothing made, must make peace betweene the Interpreters of the Word, or it will never be made. That Word in which was and is life, and the Life the light of men▪ the Light that shineth in darknesse, the true light that lightneth every man that commeth into the world the way, the truth and the life must shew us the true way, the way of truth, the true way of life eternall; He must teach us the way of Peace; Lead us in the paths of Peace, declare unto us by the light of his divine judgement, which way is most conducible to his glory, and his peoples good▪ which Interpretation hee best approveth of, which way of doctrine and discipline is most pleasing to God, and profitable for his Church; Reveale that way of Keligion or Reformation, which is most agreeable to the will and word of Jesus Christ,Prov. 16.11. Prov. 2.6. to whom the Judgement is to be committed. None but God onely can reveale the way of life. We can know nothing of God clearly and perfectly, untill God himselfe [Page 49]manifesteth it unto us, Psal. 103.7. and 147.19.2. Dan. 3. J cause to walke in the way of righteousnesse, and in the midst of the paths of judgement; Prov. 8.20. And without this way of divine judgement, Controversies will rather increase then cease, Divisions be multiplyed rather then diminished. Therefore let us pray with holy David, Arise, O Lord judge thou the earth, for thou shalt inherit all Nations. And in this point the Dove declares her selfe an Independent to the world.

For man by humane power or policy, without advising with Almighty God, and receiving his divine resolution, to set up a Set forme of Discipline and Religion, such as he in his opinion shall conceive most agreeable to Gods word, and then in­force as he in his opinion shall conceive most agreeable to Gods word, and then in­force all to fall downe and worship in that forme and way, or inflict punishment on the refusers, their course is evill, and their force not right Jer. 23.10. 'tis next doore to Nebuchadnezzars Image and Idolatry: If we would have a Religion established consonant to Gods will and Word, let us consult with the Lord, and convince the consciences of opposers by the Judgement of Jesus Christ, the way of the Lord, the oracle of God, prescribed in his holy Word, not the way of the Sword, or other humane way or ordinance, which can be but a sandy foundation whereon to ground Religion or Reformation.

A sacred ne­cessity of the use hereof in differences in religion, the Lord ought to be trusted with the interpreta­tion of his own word. The Te­stator with the meaning of his Testament.And I thinke I may presume, that the wisdome of our wisest men, the most pru­dent and potent Pillers of our State and Church, will nor presume an infallibility of judgement in themselves; a gift so divine, that our most rarely-gifted Divines will not dare to attribute it to themselves, it being a quality so incompatible to, or with any sublunary creatures; And we may feare to find errour in Scripture inter­pretation, aswell as in life and conversation among the sonnes of Levi, the most sanctified Clergy, who being well advised, will neither shame nor be ashamed of that sacred Ordinance, which gives them that title of Clergy, but looke upon it as that Starre in the East, whereby with the Wise men they may be led to Christ, the light of the Gentiles, and the glory of his people Israel. Whereby the Sunne of righ­teousnesse, with healing under his wings, the day-spring from on high may visit us, gi­ving light to them that sit in darknesse, and the shadow of death, Luke. 2.32. and guiding our feet in the way of peace, Luk. 1.78.79. For he is the Fountaine of our peace and felicity, and we should be zealous of his glory, which leads me to the tenth reason.

Tenthly, It is an excellent occasion, cause and meanes of glorifying God, where­of man should be most carefull: God being the beginning from which all thing; spring, from whence proceedeth every good and perfect gift; the meanes by whom we live, move, and have our well being, and the end unto which all things tend; and to the advancement of whose glory we should bend all our endeavours, purpo­ses and practises; For his glory is most deare to him, Exod. 7.4.5. He will not give it to another, Esa 42.8. and 48.11. therefore man should beware lest he intend or indeavour to rob God of his glory, by preferring humane before divine Counsells, wayes and courses, by respecting mans, and rejecting Gods ordinances &c. No Peace will be on earth, no true love or good will among men, nor good will of God towards men, unlesse glory be given to God on high, as by the doxology of the Angels appeares. Gods glory is the supreme end of all divine revelation, Ephes. [Page 50]2.7. of all his workes,So the Hea­then shal feare thy name, and all kings of the earth thy glo­ry. The Doves addresse to the Divines. Mal. 2.1, 2, 3, &c. If they had stood in my counsell, and had declared my words and my ordinances to my people, then they should have turned them from their evil way, and from the wickedness of their inven­tions, Ier. 24.22. I create the fruit of the Lipps to bee peace, I will heal, &c. But the wicked are like the raging Sea, that can­not rest, whose waves cast up mire and durt, Isa. 57.19.20. Isa. 52.7. How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that de­clareth and publisheth peace? that de­clareth good things, and publisheth sal­vation, saying unto Zion thy God raigneth. Christ is the Prince of peace, & prime & only peace­maker, if we re­fuse to make him our um­pire, our Iudge, we rob him of his honour, & his office. Their course is evill, and their force is not right, Jer. 23.10. Mal. Mal. 4.4. Jer. 13.15, 16.57. Eph. 1.5.6. Jo. 11.4.48, Exod. 9.16. Psa. 50.15. Prov. 16.4. of mans life Psa. 6.4.5. Psa. 9.13.14. and service, Psa. 101.1. Zach. 7.5, 6. Jo. 3.28 29. 'tis the royall Robe of his infinite Majesty, Psa. 104.1. And all meanes fur­thering the same, are available to salvation, Psal. 50.23. Rom. 4.20.21.

Divine providence having made it my Lott (who am lesser then the least of the servants of Christ) to treat of the sacred Ordinance of divine Lott; Let not the Di­vines and reverend Clergy disdaine, if som texts of holy truth be directed to them from the mouth of the Almighty touching this point of glorifying God, and teach­ing the people his lawes and statures, and ordinances. And now, ô ye Priests this commandement is for you. If yee will not heare it, nor consider it in your heart, to give glory unto my Name, saith the Lord of Hoasts, I will even send a curse upon you, and will curse your blessings: yea I have cursed them already, because ye doe not consider it in your heart, Behold I will corrupt your seed, and cast dung upon your faces, &c, And ye shall know that I have sent this commandement unto you, that my Covenant with Levi might stand. My Covenant was with him of life and peace; Not warre and destruction, not a covenant with death, and agreement with hell. The law of truth was in his mouth, and he walked with me in peace and equity, and did turne many from iniquity. He taught Gods people to know the wayes, and walke in the paths of Peace, turned their hearts from inclining to strife and debate, their heads from imagining mischiefe against their brethren, held their hands from smiting with the fist of wickednesse, or being defiled with blood, stopt their feet from running the race of Ruine, shedding innocent bloud. For the Priests lips should pleserve know­ledge, and the people should seeke the law at his mouth; For ye are the messengers of the Lord to that purpose; But yee are gone out of the way: ye have caused many to fall by the Law: ye have broken the covenant of Levi of life and peace, saith the Lord, Therefore have J also made you despised, and vile before the people; because yee kept not my wayes, but have been partiall in the law. Have wee not all one Father? Hath not one God made us? why doe we transgresse every one against his brother, and breake the covenant of our Fathers? yee have wearied the Lord with your words, when ye say, &c. Where is the God of judgement?

As God, is the God, not of confusion, but of peace, so he meant and sent his Mi­nisters to be Embassadours of peace, not contention. And if God in his Law, his Word, have instituted and prescribed a way, an ordinance of Peace, where shall the people seeke the knowledge of this Law, this Ordinance, this Statute, but at the mouths of his Ministers. Is it lawfull for them to goe out of this way, to cause the people to fall from this Law? to be partiall touching the Law, to teach what part thereof they like, and neglect what part they dislike; Doe ye not weary the Lord with your words and wayes, when ye deny or doubt of the way of his di­vine judgement. If a tender Father shall offer his judgement to be Umpire, Arbi­ter, judge, between dissenting Brethren his children; who refuse such a Fatherly fa­vour, and fall by the Sword, and so fall to the Sword; ought not the Priest to tell those contentious brethren of their Rebellious disobedience, and shew and direct then the divine way of reconciliation? Jf J be a Father, where is mine honour? if a [Page 51]master, where is my feare, saith the Lord unto you, O priests, that despise my name, and if ye aske wherein? in that ye say the way and ordinance of the Lord is not to bee regarded and ye offer blind and lame, and uncleane sacrifice, humane deviser, in stead of divine directions. And 1 Sam. 2 29.30. Marke the Lords expostulation with Eli, Wherfore have ye kicked against my sacrifice and mine offering which I commanded in my Tabernacle, and honourest thy children above me, to make your selves fat of the first fruits of the offering of my people? But it shall not be so: for them that honour me, I will honour; and they that despise me, shall be despised. Behold, the dayes that I will cut off thine arme, and the arme of thy fathers, &c. May not the Lord say the like to the despisers of his Ordinance? wherefore have you preferred the issues of your owne braines, before my Instituted Ordinance, to make your selves rich and glorious thereby? I will cut off your power and authority, &c. Remember the law of Moses my servant, with the statutes. Judgements and ordinances wich I commanded, &c. The Prince, Parliament, Prophet, Priest and People may please to observe and remember those texts touching the Lords glory, and his ordinances.

I shall conclude this point with that of the Prophet Ieremiah: Heare ye, and give care, be not proud, for the Lord hath spoken it. Give glory to the Lord your God, be­fore he bring darknesse, and before your feet stumble in the darke mountaines, and while yee looke for light, he turne it into the stadow of death, and make it as darknesse. But if yee will not heare this, my soule shall weep in secret for your pride, vide Psal. 10.4.5. The wicked is so proud, he seeketh not for God, but worldly goods. Gods judgements are high above his sight, &c.

Zech. 4.10. Thus saith the Lord; Stand in the waies, and behold, & aske for the old way, which is the good way, and walk ther­in, and ye shall find rest for your soules, Jer. 6.16. Jer. 25.5. Turn again now eve­ry one from his evill way, and from the wic­kednes of your Inventions, &c.'Tis a most holy, happy, and honourable way in respect of the Authority, Anti­quity, ends and use thereof. Aske for the old way, &c. whatsoever things are written afore-time, are written for our learning &c. Rom. 14.4.

'Tis a most plaine, perfect, easie, ready way, and as full of felicity as facility, Quo facilius preceptum, eò gravins peccatum; Who hath despised the day of small things. By how much the divine way; precept, or direction is more easie, by so much the neg [...]ect thereof, is more heavy, more sinfull.

This judgement of the Lord will be a most firme foundation whereon to build Bethsalem, Jerusalem, a safe lasting, and well-grounded peace. Wee may observe that ship to be most frequently and furiously tossed and tumbled with waves and tempests that anchors in the mud, and slitting flexible yeilding earth; Wee may find it so in those ships of state, which anchor too terrenely, which confide in their own crackt counsells, too much in the mud of their own imaginations, the durt of their own devises, the brittle earthen pitcher of their own policies. That Peace is most safe that is grounded on the rock of Christ Jesus his divine counsell, judge­ment and direction, upon God, the rock of our salvation; that state remaines but in a weake and tottering condition, that hath not the salvation of the Lord for their walls and bulwarkes. But that State or People which dare cast their burthen on the Lord, in case of danger, division, destruction, commit their cause to his hea­venly disposition, and contentedly, and confidently say, The Lord is our Iudge, Isa. 33.22. &c. per totum. the Lord is our Law-giver, the Lord is our King, he will save us: they shall dwell on [Page 52]high: their defence shall be in the mountaint of the Rocke: surely there the mighty Lord will be unto them as a place of floods and broud rivers, &c. Their eyes shall see the King in his glory: Ierusalem a quiet habitation, a tabernacle that cannot bee re­moved. Isa. 32.16. &c. Iudgement shall returne to Iustice, and all Nations shall fellow after it. Iudge­ment shall dwell in the desart, and justice remain in the fruitfull fields. And my people shall dwell in the Tabernacle of Peace, and in sure dwellings, and in safe resting places. And the worke of Iustice shall be peace, even the worke of Justice and quiet­nesse, and assurance for ever. I shall conclude with these Admonitions, exhortati­ons of the Lord by his Prophet. Which the Dove humbly directs to the Prince, Parliament, Clergy and People of the Land.

Isa. 50.10, 11. Who is among you, that feareth the Lord, let him heare the voice of his servant, he that walketh in darknesse, and hath no light? let him trust in the Name of the Lord, and stay upon his God. Behold, all you kindle a fire, and are com­passed about with sparkes: walke in the light of your fire, and in the sparkes that ye have kindled. This shall ye have of mine hand, ye shall lie down in sorrow. Ezek. 15.7. I will set my face against them, they shall go out from one fire, and another fire shall de­vour them. Woe to the re­bellious that take counsell, but not of me, &c. Isa. 30.1, 2, 3. vide Isa. 10 and Isa. 29.14, 15. Woe unto them that seek deepe, to hide their counsell from the Lord, &c. vid. ver. Both Prophet and Priest doe wickedly, wherfore their way shall be unto them as slippery wayes in darknesse: they shall be driven forth, & fall therein: for I wil bring, &c. Jer. 23.11, 12. Woe is me now, for my soule fainteth because of the murtherers, Jer. 4.31. The conclusion of one warre, may be the commencement of another, even to confusion. And Isa. 51.4. Hearken unto me my people, and give care unto me, ô my people, for a law shall proceed from me, and I will bring forth my judgement for the light of the people. And Isa. 45.7. I forme the light, and create darknesse: I make peace, and create evill: I the Lord doe all these things. v. 11. Aske of me things to come concerning my sons, and concerning the workes of mine hands command you mee. And Isa 46.8. Remember this, and be ashamed: bring it to mind, O you transgressors. Remember the former things of old, for I am God, &c. My counsell shall stand, and I will doe whatsoever I will, ver. 9.10. Heare me ye stubborne-hearted that are far from justice, I will bring neere my justice, &c. ver. 12.13. And Isa. 47.10, 11. Thy wisdome and thy knowledge, they have caused thee to rebell, and thou hast said in thine heart, I am, and none else. Therefore shall evill come upon thee, and thou shalt not know the morning thereof. &c. And Isa. 48 18.19. Thus saith thy Redeemer, the holy one of Is­rael, I am the Lord thy God which teacheth thee to profit, and lead thee by the way that thou shouldest goe. O that that thou hadst hearkened to my statutes, then had thy peace been as a river, &c. For mine own sake, for mine own sake will J doe it: for how should my Name be polluted? Surely J will not give my glory to another, vr. 11. And Jer. 8.7. Even the Storke, the Turtle, the Crane, and the Swallow know their app [...] ­ted times, but my people know not the judgements of the Lord. How doe ye say, we are wise, and the law of the Lord is with us. The wise men are ashamed, they are afraid and taken: Lo, they have rejected the word of the Lord, and what wisdome is in them. ver. 8.9. Jer. 7.27.23. But thou shalt say unto them, this is a Nation that heareth not the voice of the Lord their God, nor receiveth discipline, truth is perished, and is cleane gone out of sheir mouth, Thou shalt speake all these words unto them, but they will not heare thee, &c. Jer. 7.27.28. Therefore Behold, the dayes come▪ saith the Lord, that it shall no more be called Topheth, nor the valley of Benhinnow, but the valley of slaughter, &c. ver. 30. O that mine head were full of water, and mine eyes a fountaine [Page 53]of teares, that I might weep day and night for the slain of the daughter of my people. Oh that I had in the wildernesse, a cottage of way faring men, that I might leave my people, and goe from them; for they be all adulterers, and an assembly of Rebells. Shall I not visit for these things, saith the Lord? and shall not my soule be avenged on such a Nation as this? upon the mountaines will I take a lamentation, &c. And I will make Jerusalem an heape, and a den of dragons, &c. who is wise to understand this, &c. why doth the land perish? &c. And the Lord saith, Because of oathes the Land mourn­eth, their course is evill, and their force is not right, Jer. 23.10. God standeth in the assembly of gods, he judgeth among gods. Psal. 82.1. They know not, & under­stand nothing: they walke in darknes, albeit the foundati­ons of the earth be mo­ved, ver. 5. because they have forsaken my law which I set befor them; And have walked after the counsell and stubbornnesse of their own wicked heart, &c. Jer. [...].13. Woe to the rebellious, that take coun­sell, but not of me, &c. Jer. 11.24. They are all rebellious traytors, walking craftily: they are brasse and yron; they are all destroyers, Jer. 6.28. This people hath an unfaithfull and rebellious heart: they are departed and gone, &c. Jer. 5.23. Thou hast stricken them, but they have not sorrowed; consumed them, but they have refused to receive corre­ction: they have made their faces harder then a stone, and have refused to returne. Surely, they are poore, they are foolish for they know not the way of the Lord, nor the judgement of their God. I will get me to the great men, and will speake unto them: for they have known the way of the Lord, and the judgement of their God: but these have altogether broken the yoke, and burst the bonds &c. Jer. 5.3.4, 5. My people is foolish, they have not known me: they are foolish children, and have none understanding: The children of men are vanity, and the chiefe men are lies, Psal. 62.9. vide Isa. 41.28.29. they are wise to doe evill, but to doe good they have no knowledge, Jer. 4.22. for they have perverted their way, and forgotten the Lord their God. They have changed my judgements into wickednesse, for they have refused my judgements and sta­tutes, and have not walked in them, Ezek. 5, 6. O yee disobedient children returne, and I will heale your rebellions, Jer. 3.20, 21, 22. Thy wayes, and thy inventions have pro­cured thee these things, &c. Jer. 4.18. Therefore, thus saith the Lord stand in the wayes and behold, and aske for the old way, which is the good way, and walke therein, Isa. [...]55.6, 7. Thy children shall be taught of the Lord, & much peace shall bee to them, Isa. 54.13. and yee shall find rest for your soules, Jer. 6.16. Aske of me things to come, Isa. 45.11. Should not a people inquire at their God, to the Law and the testimony, the Lords judge­ment, the surest testimony of truth. Then shall ye goe out with joy, and be led forth with peace, &c. And it shall be to the Lord for a name, and for a praise, for an ever­lasting signe, that shall not be taken away, Isa. 55.12, 13. This people have J formed for my selfe: they shall shew forth my praise, Isa. 43.21. How happy and honourable a thing were it for England to be the first in reviving this ordinance of the Lord for advancement of his glory. I shall pray pardon for my presumption, in presenting these texts of truth, to the grave and pious consideration of the great Counsell of the Kingdome; It will, I hope,Prov. 1.5.33. prove no hinderance to the happinesse of their pro­ceedings, to take along with them the Counsell of the everlasting Counseller, nor to aske counsell of that onely wise Counseller, who is wonderfull in counsell, and excellent in working. Where no counsell is, the people fall; but where many counsellers are, there is health, Prov. 11.14. Deceit is in the heart of them that imagine evill, but to the counsellers of peace, shall be joy, Prov. 12.20. Many devises are in the heart of man, but the counsell of the Lord, that shall stand, Prov. 19.20. There is no wisdome, [Page 54]neither understanding, nor counsell against the Lord, Prov. 21.30. The Lord break­eth the counsell of the heathen, the politique worlding, and bringeth to nought the counsels of the people. Psa. 33.10.11. Human judge­ments are of­ten erronious and sinfull, Psal. 58.1, 2. Doe ye indeed spoake righte­ousnes, O con­gregations, doe yee judge up­rightly, O yee sons of men? yea, in heart ye work wicked­nes; you weigh the violence of your hands in the earth. But the counsell of the Lord shall stand for ever. God stand­eth in the assembly of gods, he judgeth among gods: How long &c. all the foundations of the earth are out of course. I have said ye are gods, &c. but yee shall die like men, &c. O God, arise therefore judge thou the earth, for thou shalt inherite all nations, Psal. 82. vid. Psal. 14. The Lord shall sit for ever, hee hath prepared his Throne for Judgement. The Lord is knowne by executing judgement; For hee will judge the world in righteousnesse, and the people with equity. And they that know thy Name will trust in thee, &c. Psal. 9. Thou hast not failed them that seeke thee.

The wicked is so proud, he seeketh not for God, he boasteth of his hearts desire, blesseth himselfe in his owne time, contemneth the Lord in his ordinances. Yet he saith in his heart, I shall never be moved, nor come into danger; God hath forgotten, he hideth his face, and will never see, will not regard. Yet thou hast seen it, thou beholdest mischiefe and wrong: that thou maist take the matter into thine owne hands: the poore commit­eth himselfe unto thee, for thou art the helper of the helplesse: Thou preparest th [...] heart, and bend thine eare to judge the cause, that earthly man cause to feare no more: Let not man prevaile put them in feare, that they may know they are but men, Psa. 10.

The Prophet David also, a man after Gods heart, adviseth to commit our cause to God to cast our burthen on the Lord, prayeth that his sentence may come forth from the Lords presence,Isa. 28.15. and that the Lord may behold equity, shewing that by the holy waies of Gods word, he had been kept from the paths of the cruell man, of the destroyer. Psal. 17.2.4. and Psal. 16.7 saith, I will praise the Lord, David never set upō weigh­ty matter, with­out consulting with the Lord. who hath given me counsell▪ &c. And 'tis evident that holy David did most frequently in cases of difficulty, consult with the Lord by Lott, being assured that the Lord would maintain hi [...] Lott. And so did Moses, Joshuah, Samuel, &c. Prophets, Pa­triarks, Apostles. David presumed not to make choice of, or settle any person of the sonnes of Aaron, the tribe of Levi, in any place or office of the Lords service in the Temple, of his own will, appointment and pleasure, but left all both high and low to the Lords owne Election by Lott, as before is shewed, and likewise ap­peares, 1 Chron, 24.25, 26. chapters.

Wee read it recorded of King Uzziah that he did uprightly in the sight of the Lord,2 Chro. 26.4, 5. while he sought the Lord in the dayes of Zechariah (who understood the visions of God) and when he sought the Lord,Sudden eleva­ted prosperity, an occasion of sudden ruine causeth for­get fulnesse of the Author and man, to trust in them­selves, which procureth their perditi­on. God made him to prosper; And God did help him marvellously, till he was mighty. But when he was made strong, his heart was lifted up to his destruction, ver. 15.16.

An example well worth your meditation, and serious observation, while hee consulted with God▪ sought God, tooke counsell of God, in all his great enterpri­ses, God made him to prosper, and made him mighty; But then marke the occa­sion of his fall. his heart was so lifted up and hee would exceed his commission, meddle with matters concerning the Lords service, which pertained not to his place. It perteyneth not to thee Uzziah though a King to burne Incense to the Lord, Goe forth of the Sanctuary, for thou hast transgressed, and thou shalt have [...] [Page 55]honour of the Lord God, ver. 18. Though his zeale and intention seemed good, yet because they were not governed by the word of God, and the rules thereby prescri­bed, he did wickedly, a [...]d was therefore justly reproved, and also punished. And wee may remember what befell Vzza, for but irreverently looking into the Arke; procul hinc, proculite prophani. God alowes to Caesar, the things that are Caesars, but reserveth the things of God, for God; Gods worke ought to be done in Gods way; humane helpes, humane might, meanes, manner, in divine matters, God expects not, respects not. Humane Formes, Rules, Traditions, Directions, Instruments, or Agents, not warranted by Gods word, in the execution, or use of divine and spirituall affaires, actions, or ordinances, are no where commanded, no where commended, but rather condemned.

God hath helped you marvellously, untill yee are become mighty,As David told his Pinces, 1 Chro. 22.5. We must build an house for the Lord, mag­n [...]ficall excel­lent, and of great fame and dignity throughout all Countries. and yee are about a mighty worke, the worke of Reformation of Christs Church. God hath sent his Prophets among you, to bring you unto the Lord, as he did, 2 Chronicles 24 19. to Judah and Jerusalem, and they make their protestations among you, call heaven and earth [...]o witnesse, that except yee follow the Lords directions herein, yee will transgresse highly, and run into an heavy primunire, forfeiture of his fa­vour, incurring the penalty of his displeasure, and so be grievously punished as Vzzah was, for medling with the Priests office, Christs office, the high Priest, (if I may so say) and Pastor of the soules of his Saints, who is a Priest for ever after the order of Melchisedech, and for usurping his office, you will have none honour of the Lord God. They tell you the worke of Reformation is most sutable to the Redeemer, and a worke not lesse then, nor inferiour to that of our Redemp­tion, and therefore 'tis a worke more fit for the hand of the supreame head of his Church, even Christ Jesus, then any humane power, and to seeke to take that di­vine worke out of his Almighty hand, will prove a transgression of an high na­ture, and so doth the word of truth tell you, 2 Sam. 7.14. to deprive him of his ho­nour▪ will be rather prejudiciall then propitious to your proceedings. They tell you that David, a man after Gods owne heart, 1 Chron. 22.8.9. 1 Chron. 28.3.6. was not permitted to build a materiall typicall Temple made with hands, because his hands had been in blood, and yet surely his warres were undertaken for Gods cause, by Gods direction, and against Gods enemies. Thou hast shed much blood, and made great battells: thou shalt not build an house unto my Name: for thou hast shed much blood upon the earth, in my sight. Behold a sonne is borne to thee, 2 Chro. 27.9. which shall be a man of rest, for I will give him rest &c. therefore his name is Salomon, and I will send peace and quietnesse upon Israel in his dayes. He shall build an house for my Name. Thus said the Lord to David, and thus say the Lords Prophets to you, as Oded, a Prophet of the Lord once said to the Israelites in a case of this nature; Behold, because the Lord God of your fathers was wroth with your brethren of Judah, he hath delivered them into your hand, and ye have slain them in a rage, that reacheth up to heaven; And now ye purpose to keepe under the children of Judah and Jerusalem, as servants and handmaids unto you: but are you not such, that sinnes are with you before the Lord your God? you have made great Battells [Page 56]against your brethren,1 Chr. 22.5.8. &c. and shed much of their blood upon the earth in the fight of the Lord, because therefore your hands have been in blood yee shall not build [...] house to the Lords Name; The worke is great, the house is not for man, but for the Lord God; Yee cannot, yee shall not build the Temple of the Lord; yee shall not settle Religion, in, or by blood. But divine Salomon, the Prince of peace, he shall build an house for the Arke of God, a Temple for the Lord; he is a man of rest, God will give him rest, and he will give rest to his Church in due time from their Enemies, and send peace and quietnesse upon Israel; In rest and quietnesse shall they his Israel be saved, their strength is to sit still, and waite the salvation of God by Christ, he is our peace, the government of peace is upon him; his Church his Saints, his servants wait for Reformation of errors, and Reconciliation of all differences from his Wisdome, Judgement, Sentence and Decree; and consulting onely with Christ in cases of weighty consequence, not fit for flesh and blood to determine, pray with divine David; Let my sentence come forth from thy pre­sences, That mount Zion may heare and be glad, Psal. 84.11. and the daughters of Judah re­joyce, because of thy righteous judgements, Psal. 97.8. Say among the Heathen, that the Lord raigneth, the World also shall be established, that it shall not be mo­ved: he shall judge the people righteously. How beautifull are the feet of those that bring tydings of Peace, that declare and publish salvation, saying, to Z [...] the Lord raigneth, no perfect peace, but where the Lord is King and Judge, Who will build up Ziou, and then appeare in his glory, &c. Psal. 102.15 16. So the Heathen shall feare his Name, and the Kings of the earth his glory. And now ha­ving humbly proposed to you, though with much weakness, Gods way for ad­vancement of his glory, by composing Controversies, and setling Peace, I shall shut up with the prayer and advice of holy David, to his sonne Salomon, and [...]o the Princes of Israel,1 Chron. 22.12, 13. The Lord give you wisdome and understanding, and give ye charge over Israel, even to keepe the Law of the Lord God. Then shall you prosper if you take heed to observe the Statutes and the Judgements, which the Lord commen­ded Moyses for Israel. And to the Princes of Israel, ver. 9. Now set your hearts and your soules to seeke the Lord your God, and arise, and so build the Sanctuary of the Lord God, Psa. &c. He setteth peace in thy borders, &c. He sheweth his Word, his statutes, hiss judgements to his chosen Israel, he hath not dealt so with every nation neither have they known his judgements. And touching the respecting, or rejecting of Gods coun­sells, wayes, and judgements, be pleased to peruse the first and second chapter [...] of Proverbs, prescribed by the Pen of the Goly Ghost, in the hand of Salomon, I called they refused, none regarded, they would none of my judgements, but set at nought my counsels. Therefore shall they eat of the fruits of their owne way, and be filled with their owne devises, &c. But if they will receive my words &c. then shall they understand righteousnesse, judgement and equity, and every good way, discretion shall preserve them, understanding keepe them, and judgement deliver them from every evill way.


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