REGALES APHORISMI: Or A Royal Chain Of GOLDEN SENTENCES, Divine, Morall, and Politicall, as at severall times, and on several occasions they were delivered by King JAMES.

Collected by certain reverend and honour­able personages attending on his Ma­jesty.

London Printed by B. A. and are to be sold at his house near the Upper-Pump in Grub-street, 1650.

Whem earth nor air, whom neither Tweed nor Thames.
Could circle in: Lo here the shade of James.
His brow most royall, as his heart most plain,
His faith most pure his works were Soveraign.
His leisures cried all factions down, and schisms,
And all his words almost were Aphorisms.

To the truly Honou­rable, and noble mind­ed, Thomas Draper, Esquire.


TO speak of Kings, was heretofore a task of as much difficulty as dan­ger: but to receive what Kings have written, or what Kings have spoke, espe­cially when their words have aimed at a publick end, as the advancement of the peoples happinesse, or the suppressing of enormities, is a work not [Page] onely safe but honourable; their precepts oftentimes being as powerfull as their examples: for the words of illustrious personages, do carry with them a secret attraction, and leave a deeper impression when the greatnesse of their persons is attended with the greatnesse of their Virtues. Indeed to speak or write well is the common happinesse of great men, who in the height of an extraordinary fortune, for the most part do expresse the height of an extraordinary un­derstanding. The letters of Phalaris are at this day extant, and report him louder for his Valour, Knowledge, and Mag­nificence, [Page] than Perillus Bull could for his cruelty.

But I shall here present you with a nearer, & a more grace­ful prospect; The selected say­ings of a King, who in the me­mory of many yet living reign­ed over this nation. A Platonick King, if we may trust the ap­probation of the age but im­mediately before us. A King who by his own books provi­ded better for the title of a happy memory, than many of his Predecessors who left it to the flattery of the times, & the vanity and complement of cu­stome. I shall here give you a sight of what sayings at several times did fall but carelesly and [Page] without premeditation from him, which being as short as they are acute, and acute as they are grave, I hope may not unfitly be termed Apho­risms: to speak more were to anticipate your understanding. I leave therefore the book to your acceptance, whose accu­rate judgement, can examine and advance an Apothegm, and whose candor can pardon an errour▪ if perchance in this re­collection any errour be slipt into it by the sudden unadvi­sednesse of him who is.

The most hum­ble of all that serve you. W. Stratton.

An Advertisement to the Reader.

THis Book hath a pre­heminence above any other which as yet hath ever been published in King James his name. For though the other books were dictated by him, and some passed more im­mediately under his own hand, yet these Apothegms proceeded immediately from his own voice; and as the voice is the more im­mediate [Page] Organ, and more near of kin unto the soul than the hand is, so this book doth carry a more lively representation, and of it self doth justly claim an entertainment suitable to those exquisite indowments which gave breath unto that voice. Here you may observe him to breath a new, not in his Parks, either in the height of his pleasure, or his passion, or when the season was too moist, but in that excellence of understand­ing with which, for the most part, he was always accompani­ed: Amongst other Apothegms observe onely this, which as yet hath never been committed to the Press, and it is reserved on [Page] purpose to be in this place inser­ted, which is, that when his Ma­jesty demanded of Gondomar what where the consultations of the deliberate States in Hol­land, Gondomar replied to his Majesty, that his intelligence did onely represent them to be busie in the overthrowing of the two vast and most exorbitant powers of this world. viz: The power of the Devil, and the pow­er of Kings. King James made no answer at all unto it, but by his silence seemed not to contro­vert it, and by his smile to al­low and to owne the Apo­thegm. For your better satis­faction, I have here given you these selected sayings in distinct [Page] numbers; you will find weight in them, and such a measure of understanding, that I be­lieve in one piece is no where else to be found.

Yours W. S.

[Page 1]Royal APOTHEGMS Both DIVINE and MORAL.


HEaven is governed by order, and all good Angels there; Nay, hell it self could not wel sub­sist without some order: and [Page 2] the very Devils are are divided into Legions, and have their Captains: how can any socie­tie then upon earth subsist, without order or degrees?


That no man can tell what part of the meat which he eat­eth turneth to nutriment, and what to excrement: but it is the Divine power, which appoint­eth and ordereth the same.


That the often mentioning of Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob in the Scriptures, is to signifie, that we should celebrate the me­mory of good men above o­thers, and of all, men above beasts, &c.


That it is termed in Scrip­ture, the God of Abraham, &c. some infer thereupon, That these Fathers are yet living in the flesh, because it is said, that God is the God of the living, and not of the dead, &c.


Upon discourse of the strict­ness of the Civil Law, touch­ing the power of womens ac­cusations in matter of Bastar­dy; His Majesty made menti­on of one that himself knew, that would not acknowledge to have had any child in her hus­bands life time: yet after his death above three years, she produced a son to inherit her [Page 4] dead husbands estate, and pro­ved the same to be his, which he never knew, nor owned in his life time: and for her excuse in concealing the same in his life time, she cited his jealousie, and other dangerous humours in him, for which she durst not make known that ever she was with child by him. And thi [...] is the usual custome of such as live at their stipends, and keep houses by their husbands al­lowance, where their husbands are not themselves.


That all humane Laws can­not be perfect, but that some must rest in the discretion of the Judge, although an innocent [Page 5] man do perish thereby; as his Majesty further conceived, that a Jury may cast upon evidence, and a Judge may give a just sentence, and yet the party inno­cent.


That it were better twenty innocents did suffer, than to have all dishonest men go free.


That there is many ways to find out truth besides evi­dence of real witnesse; to wit, the fame and report of the de­linquent: whereupon, Master Hugh May replied, and mentio­ned Master Haddocks good re­port and opinion conceived of him in Oxford, and yet was [Page 6] found at last a great offender: whereupon his Majesty repli­ed, the case was not after his meaning; and thereupon insist­ed further▪ to exemplifie his offence, confessing the same to be high and capital in respect of God and man (meaning Ma­ster Haddock who preached in his sleep,) First that his Majesty did God and the Country good service in discovering that man. Secondly that his practise was diabolical, and a new way to sin that his Majesty never heard of before. Thirdly, that he did therein practise against God himself, in [...]hat he did indea­vour to make his own inventi­ons as the Oracle of God, and [Page 7] by that means to bind mens consciences thereunto to be­leeve. Fourthly, that his Ma­jesty discovered him by his own papers and notes which were brought unto the King; the which Master Haddock con­fessed to be his own hand-wri­ting, and the notes of the ser­mon which (men say) he preached in his sleep: but for answer thereunto, said, he one­ly noted his Sermons first in writing, and so in the night dreamt thereof, and of the same thing he had penned before: but by this answer his Majesty con­vinced him upon his own ex­perience, concerning dreams and visions in the night; that [Page 8] things studied or mentioned in the day time, may be dreamt of in the night, but always irre­gularly without order, but not as his Sermons were, both good and learned; as in parti­cular in that very Sermon which he preached before his Majesty in his sleep, concerning Davids waters, &c. Psal. 69. wherein he treated, first, Physi­cally, then Theologically, which is not usual in dreams so to do. Fifthly, that Master Haddocks sin, being granted for liberty and good, then would all capi­tal sins have been protected and allowed; as Blasphemy against God, Treason against the King, Slander against any man, &c. [Page 9] and what not? and at last all defended under colour of being asleep. Sixthly, that in all his Sermons, he had always some sayings in defence or in excuse of the Puritans.


After the discourse ended concerning Master Haddock, as aforesaid; his Majesty proceed­ed to mention his great trou­ble with that Sect in Scotland, and could never yet reduce the Ministers from slandering in their Sermons openly; and would tell him the offences of his Servants by name; as if you keep such a one (naming him) God will blesse you; but if such a one (naming him also) [Page 10] you cannot prosper.


That he hath been constrained to make answer to Preachers in the midst of their Sermons; who digressing from the word of God, have told him openly before his own face, of certain communications wherein he hath not pleased their humours, although it had been private­ly done by me unto them, &c.


That for twelve years toge­ther in Scotland, he prayed on his knees before every Sermon, that he might hear nothing from the Preacher, which might afterward grieve him: but since he came into England his Pray­er [Page 11] hath been to edifie of that which he heard.


The thing onely which with­out intermission we are bidden to do, is to pray: For as for o­ther things they have their own time, but Prayer is never out of season.


We should not be like the Puritans in our Prayers, who speak to God as to their fel­lows, and sit at Christs table as with their companions: Let us joyn reverence with the sweet confidence we have in Gods love.


Bread without the staff of [Page 12] bread, which is Gods blessing, is no bread; for without this, even although it be in our mouths, we shall die for hun­ger, like the miserable rich man, that in his grratest abun­dance of all things, died for want.


We pray in in vain God to save us from temptation, if at every occasion we run into it: Like one who voluntarily sticks in the dirt, and cryes for help from those that passe by.


How can we paint Gods face, when Moses, the man that e­ver was most familiar with [Page 13] God, never saw but his back­p [...]rts?


Put case the Crosse had a vir­tue of doing miracles, as Peters shadow had; yet doth it not fol­low, that it is lawful to worship it, which Peter would never ac­cept of.


If the Pope may erre as a man, but not as a Pope, I would know, why the Pope doth not instruct or reform the man, or wherefore the man doth not require the Popes instructions!


They are fools, who because it is said, Examine your selves, and come, will not communi­cate [Page 14] till they be, as they think, perfect; forgetting that Christ came into the World, not for the healthfull, but sick; and that we come unto that Table, to be refreshed with that spi­ritual food, bringing nothing with us but a purpose to a­mend.


The wisdome of a King is chiefly seen in the election of his Officers, as in places which require a peculiar sufficiency, not to chuse them that he affects most, but to chuse every man according to his proper fitnesse.


Virtue is easier than Vice; for the essential difference be­tween [Page 15] Vice and Virtue, is Truth and Falshood; and it is easier and lesse pains to tell truth than a lie: And for Vices of the sences, Custome is all in all; for to one that hath lived ho­nestly, it is as much pain to commit sin, as for another to abstain.


It is likely that the people will imitate the King in good; but it is sure they will follow him in ill.


I have been often deceived, yet will I never leave to trust; neither shall the falshood of some, make me think there is none honest.


All that ever writ of Christ, said, he was an honest man: they had so much natural sight, as to see his civil goodnesse; but they wanted the supernatural to perceive his God-head.


The same sentence with di­vers Relations, may be both Ho­ly and Divelish.


I wonder not so much that women paint themselves, as that when they are painted, men can love them.


Of all the numbers of men that have been slain in War, not the tenth part have [Page 17] been fighting, but flying.


Parsons errs in his Resolution, in making the difficultie of our Salvation to lie in the hardnesse to find Gods mercy; when in­deed it consists onely in the right seeking of it: for then the other is sure.


God hath distributed his be­nefits so equally, that there is no Countrey which excelleth not all other in some thing; so that as it borroweth, so it lend­eth: so in men, there is no one excelleth so in one thing, but hath need of anothers wit in some other: From these two proceeds all trassick and so­ciety.


The Art of Physicians is very imperfect; for I doubt not, but for every Disease there is in Nature a several Simple, if they could find it out: so that their Compounds do rather shew their ignorance than their knowledge.


The Devil where he cannot have the whole, seeks ever to get one part of the Soul, either the Will, or the Understand­ing, which he may come easi­est by: as in Protestants the Will, in Papists the Understand­ing: A learned Papist, and an ignorant, are of two Religions.


The Papists Religion, is like Homers Illiades of the siege of Troy, or Virgils Aeneads of the beginning of Rome; both of them had a foundation of truth, so had the Papists the Bible: but they have all added so much that the first truth is almost lost.


Doctor Baily, holding confer­ence with the King touching the Popes arrogancy, alluding to Christs answer to his Apostles, He that desireth to bear rule, let him be the least among you; and therefore the Pope doth some­times colourably term himself, Servum Servorum, &c. To [Page 20] which the King replies, that by such argument or inference, he could prove the Pope to be humbly minded; to which the Doctor answered, that he did not always so account him­self, save onely when he had purpose to delude or deceive; otherwise he esteemed himself Dominus Dominantium, &c. His Majesties determination on the point, was, that the Popes cal­ling himself Servus Servorum, &c. was rather in a more strict and peculiar sence, as that he was Servus Petri, &c. sive Ma­riae Virginis, &c. and so by con­sequence, Servum Servorum Dei, &c. towards all other Do­minum Dominantium, &c. So [Page 21] likewise to be a professed Ca­tholick, is to be a Christian; but to be a Roman Catholick, is it which marreth the matter. It was the reproof of the Dona­tists, which were accounted Catholicks, but confined their profession into one corner of, Affrica. So also the Romanists, whereas the true Catholick is universal.


That whereas our Saviour saith, It is as easie for a Camel to passe through the eye of a nee­dle, as for a rich man to enter into the Kingdome of Heaven, &c. The Pope perverteth that saying; for that none shall have no Pardons but such as pay for [Page 22] them; so consequently, the rich are more easie to enter into Heaven than the poor, because the one can have pardon when he will, but the other is not able to purchase it: and thereupon his Majesty con­cluded the Pope to be justly called a Merchant of mens souls, as it is set forth in Re­vel. 18. &c.


That it is a Maxime in the Romish Religion, declared by most of their own writers. That the Pope may, if he will, at one Masse, free all the souls out of Purgatory. His Majesties inference on this position, was, with abnegation of the Popes [Page 23] Charity, and admiration of his unparalel'd cruelty, that being granted to have power so to do, doth not, nor may not apply his will unto it. If it were possible for one man to free all the world from hell, ought he not to do it? &c.


God never fails of his Word, but where he threateneth ill to man, as in punishing Ninivie; but always performs where he promiseth good, that, or better, as he promised to Abraham and his seed, everlasting earthly blessednesse, and instead of that gave them heavenly.


Not onely the Deliverance of the Jews, till they came to the land of Promise, but even their daily Preservation was mi­raculous: for there was never any noted plague in Ierusalem, though it stood in a hot Climat, which had it been, would have endangered the whole Nation, it being to assemble thither twise every year of necessity.


Men are often in arguing, car­ried by the force of words fur­ther asunder than their question was at first, like two ships going out of the same Haven, their journies end is many times whole Countreys distant.


Cowardize is the mother of Cruelty; It was onely Fear that made Tyrants put so many to death, to secure themselves.


That fashion among the Ro­mans of killing themselves, was falsly called Fortitude; for, it was onely to prevent the power of Fortune; when in­deed, Virtue lies within quite out of her reach. Nor can any man be overcome but of him­self; and so most truly were they, when they fled to Death for a refuge against Death.


It is easier to reclaim a man from any Heresie, than to con­vert [Page 26] an Atheist to the Truth: For to believe, is the first de­gree common to all Religions: and an Atheist is to be brought so far, before he come to chu­sing.


All Gods miracles are above Nature, but never against Na­ture; for that were to destroy his own work, which he can­not do; but he may excel it: Therefore the miracle of the Papists Transubstantiation be­ing against Nature, is false.


Types are the Images of the mind, which God allowed the Jews to keep them from Ima­ges of the sence, and to shew them, that his worship was to [Page 27] be in Spirit and Truth.


The Church at Rome, fell at first from her purity into in­firmities, then into corruptions, then into errours; and lastly, into abominations: God still punishing sin with sin.


Most Heresies have proceed­ed from mingling Philosophy with Religion; from that and Policy, have all the Papists er­rours risen: when Christ tels them, that flesh and bloud can­not inherit the Kingdome of Heaven.


We cannot conceive Eter­nity, but by Faith; we cannot [Page 28] understand what God is, and of that ignorance comes all sin; for surely if we knew him, we would not offend him.


Men as often fall out about small things; as great, because after the first contradiction, they maintain themselves, not the thing.


Before Christ came, it was enough for the Fathers to be­leeve onely; since, they must beleeve and understand both.


Those Princes which seek to secure themselves by bloud, shall find, that the more they kill, the more they have need to kill.


The Church is to be belee­ved in the interpretation of the Scripture, but not directly a­gainst it; for when it differs from that, it is no longer the Church.


There are three kind of Wis­doms that use to be in Kings, A sanctified Wisdom, A Wis­dom which oftentimes strains it self to a lesse evil, so to a­void a greater; And a Wis­dom of falshood: the first is both lawfull and necessary; the second is lawfull, but not ne­cessary; the third, neither.


All Governments howsoever [Page 30] in their Constitutions, in their practise tend to a Monarchy; And wheresoever the better sort of the people bear rule, there is always some one that resembleth a King amongst them: yea, though in the State of Venice, the Duke is but as it were a dead name; yet were it impossible that their Com­mon-wealth should long up­hold it self without him.


That a Monarchical Govern­ment by secular Kings and Priests, is the onely Ordinance of God; and the Republicks but onely a depraved instituti­on of man for depraved ends, as appeareth manifestly by the [Page 31] whole current of Scripture, e­ven from Adam to the primi­tive Church after Christ, &c.


That God in his wisdom ap­proved no fitter nor safer means to rule his people, but by such an institution.


That from the beginning, there was instituted heads over every Family, over the good & bad, as Seth & his posterity, Cain, Lamech, even to the De­luge: after that the 12 Patriarks were as secular Princes, as free as I am here, and more too; for they had potestatem vitae & necis in themselves without any Jury; after them the Judg­es, [Page 32] and so absolute Kings, with a promise that the Scepter should not depart, &c. And so after Christ to this very day. Besides, among heathen and savages by natural instinct they ordained Kings and Prin­ces. Among beasts they have a King, and so among birds; the Deer hath his Mr. of a herd; the smallest creatures have their chief: What shall I say then to such as will have no con­cordance with God, with men, with beasts, inferiour Crea­tures, with devils, nor any, but with themselves? and are all for a Republick, in all which I have said, there is no mention made of a Republick, as if it [Page 33] were a strange thing to God himself.


That his Majesty did think, many here in England, did wish their estates were lying by Amsterdam; which thing the King did also wish to such.


That in Venice, which is go­verned by a Republick, they do create no honours, or dignities, but a Merchant of Venice, which is seldom, &c.


That the Mothers and Nur­ses do call their children in re­proach, Barons, which is with us a stile of honour, &c.


That the Pope doth create [Page 34] Knights as a secular Prince.


That the honour conferred upon any Centurion abroad, is there with no esteem; but the King hath made many Knights of them here.


That no jurisdiction elective, as Emperours, Kings, Princes, &c. is any honour or prece­dency to any of the allies of him elected, but personal to himself.


That to have imployment in any Republick, in that state is dangerous; for do he well or ill, he is sure to rue it, and he speedeth best that doth worst; [Page 35] like a Scottish tale I have heard of, one that never sped well a­mong the Lawyers when he had a good cause, because he then least suspected it, and the other side bribed; but when his cause was ill, he then also bribed, and countermanded; and so the greatest carried it for the most part: even so in Republicks.


That the Agent here for the Venetians, although he present­ed to the King a letter from their Duke, subscribed with his own hand, with addition of all his titles, and the Kings in­serted; yet at the delivery, no mention made of the Duke [Page 36] himself, not so much as com­mendations; but Our Republick greets you, &c.


That the King in his reading, could never yet truly find, what the name of a Cardinal was, and yet he hath sought much for it, unlesse it were a Cardo on which the wheel moves, &c.


That in the primitive Church of Rome, they were inferiour to Bishops, and were but seven in number, as Parsons of the se­ven Churches mentioned a­bout Rome: but how they come to place them before Bishops, and make of them Princes, and [Page 37] Potentates, and how they be­come the Electours of the Pa­pacy, I cannot get to know.


That it is strange the Pope should create his own makers and electors.


That in attainder and tryal of innocents, wherein is scruple the Justice of our State pro­ceeds slowly, &c.


The preservation of the Bible is miraculous, that it should remain pure, and intire, after it had passed the hands of Infi­dels, which sought to de­stroy it; of Hereticks, which [Page 38] sought to pervert it to their own advantage.


No indifferent gesture is so seldome done without sin as laughing; for it is commonly raised upon things to be pitti­ed; and therefore man only can laugh, and he onely can sin.


God made one part of man of earth, the basest element, to teach him humility; his soul proceeded from the bosome of himself, to teach him good­ness: So that if he look down­ward nothing is viler: if he cast his eyes to heaven, he is of a matter more excellent than the Angels; the former part [Page 39] was a tipe of Adam; the se­cond of Christ, which gives life to that which was dead in it self.


Much money makes a Coun­try poor, for it sets a dearer price upon every thing.


At what time the Gospell did flourish, all kind of learn­ing did even abound, and upon the decay thereof, there came a vail of darknesse upon the face of the earth: the reason is a part of Religion, but Er­rour and superstition is the sa­fer by ignorance.


A lie of errour is a fault of [Page 40] credulity not of falsehood: but a presumptuous lie, is that which makes a man, as God made the world of nothing.


All Gods actions are for our good, either spiritually or temporally although we can­not comprehend them at every time.


There is not that thing upon the earth, (that well examined) yields not somewhat worthy of knowledge; that divine Ar­tizan that made them, never fashioned any thing unprofi­tably, nor ever set forth any of his workman-ship without some inward virtue.


The gifts of the mind are not easily obtained, you must practise them with great pain and difficulty, and good reason, for it were pitty such pre­tiousnesse might be had for the taking.


It must needs shew the Pa­pists religion to be ill, that they would plant it by liberty and War; whereas the true Catholick religion rose by fasting and prayer.


Whatsoever is spent in earthly vanities, they either die before us, or shortly fol­low after us, for all pleasures [Page 42] that are sensuall, and have not reference to the main end of mans creation (which is the service of God are vain, and of no importance, but meer foo­lery.


When God destinates a man to do good, he makes every opportunity and occasion (though it seem never so harsh in mans eyes) to turn to his good, and Gods glory: but when God leaves man to him­self, he makes more opportu­nities than he finds, and with­out occasion, takes occasion to work his own ruine, to his own shame.


It is good to propound to man Fame, Greatnesse, Honour, and Estimation, for wading to find these, he may happily meet with Honesty, Temperance, Fortitude, and Patience; and many times they that will not undergo actions for Virtues sake, will for Ambition.


An ill name may be free from dishonesty, but not from some folly; we should not onely be free from sin, but from suspicion; for it is not enough to be well lived, but well reported; and oftentimes weighty matters are as much [Page 44] carried by reputation as sub­stance.


Misfortunes are not accep­table in any kind, yet those are indured with most ease, that come rather by destiny, than by deserving.


In experience it is good to be neither pinching nor prodigal, yet if means allow it, rather thought a little profuse then too sparing, but the best way is, to make ability (which must alwayes be measured, by the just rule of our proper reve­nue) our compass to sail, and line to walk by; and for extra­ordinary expences we must li­mit [Page 45] them by the worth of the occasion; for in matters that return not we may be more magnificent.


He is not worthy to com­mand others that cannot go­vern his own affections and un­reasonable appetites.


No text of Law can be so certain; wherein, the cir­cumstances will not make a variation.


Justice should be blind, and friendlesse, it is not by it, that those that are in authori­ty, should reward their friends, or crosse their enemies.


Though outward Peace be a great blessing, yet it is far in­feriour to peace within, as civil wars are more cruell and un­naturall than wars abroad.


All Virtues turn to vices, when they become the servants of impiety.


All complainers be natural­ly given to exagerate their own griefs, and multiplies thereupon, as Papists do in Eng­land.


As a thing which is good ought not therefore to be abu­sed; so ought not the lawful­nesse [Page 47] of a good thing be for­born, because of the abuse thereof.


Every man ought to discern wisely and truly of every Vir­tue and vice, according to the true qualities thereof, and not according to the vain conceits of men.


Indifferent things if they be necessary as; food, sleep, and such like, in the qualities or form of using them, may smell of Virtue or Vice, and be great furtherers to any of them.


If our whole life were divi­ded [Page 48] into four parts, three of them would be found to be consumed on Meat, Drink, Sleep, and unnecessary imploi­ments.


There is great difference be­twixt Justice and Equity, for Justice by the law giveth eve­ry man his own, and Equity in things Arbitriall, that which is meetest for him.


Drunkenness hath a beast­ly Vice, and hath this propertie, that it is one of those vices which increaseth with age.


Medicine hath that virtue, that it never leaves a man in [Page 49] that state wherein it finds him.


We should presse to win God by importunity, if we ob­tain not at the first; and if we be not heard, should think, that that which we seek is not for our good.


A small sin wilfully com­mitted, is far more grievous before God, than a greater committed in a sudden passion, when conscience is a sleep.


That the King vowed never to be of that Religion, where so grosse an opinion as Tran­substantiation was, so ignorant­ly maintained, while God [Page 50] kept him in his right wits.


To manifest the grossenesse of their errour in their opini­on of Transubstantiation; The King had heard of a Jew, that once stabbed the bread or wa­fer, and some affirm there is­sued our perfect bloud, which among them is stil kept, & they permit sometimes mice and rats to eat it, &c. now consi­der how disproportionable a thing is it after consecration (if it be the very body, as they a­ver) that they should allow a Jew to crucifie him again, and also for mice and rats to eat our Saviour. His Maj. did vehemently inculcate the gros­nesse [Page 51] of this errour; and fur­thermore said, that Belarmine was much troubled about this point, whether the bread and wine, although much taken to­gether, do turn to corporal nu­triment or not, or transubstan­tiated as aforesaid, and then a greater errour followeth.


That it was strange to look into the life of Hen. 8. how like an Epicure he lived.


It was once demanded by King Hen. 8. of one, what he might do to be saved? who who answered, he had no cause to fear, having lived so mighty a King, and done so many wor­thy [Page 52] acts in his life time; but oh, said he, I have lived too like a King; which King Iames infer­red was like no King; for the office of a King is to do Justice and equity, but he onely served his sensuality like a beast.


That the Preacher Preach­ing out of the 29 Psalm, That I offend not in my tongue, &c. he could have wished, might have been before so many women, because they are most unruly therein.


That it was strange to note, that although all the members of a man declined by age, yet the tongue never, &c.


That although old men and women, were prone to give ease to all their other mem­bers; yet then the tongue most wanton, and coveting talk, &c. The Palsie of all diseases most maimeth the tongue, and yet improveth its tatling or unru­ly motion, &c. This was his Majesties reply to Dr. Moun­tain then Bishop of London.


That upon report made to his Majesty of a Goose that lo­ved a man, that it would never be from him wheresoever he went, and upon occasion would guard him from of­fence, &c. Whereupon his [Page 54] Majesty remembred that Goose of the Capitoll; and further said, he thought it as easie to prove the discent of the foresaid Goose, from that Goose of the Capitoll, as the Heralds now do prove the dis­cent of many Gent. of these times.


That in the direct worship of God himself, we ought to be guided by the Word of God, as he prescribeth in the same, and not otherwise, &c. as also in the matter of Sacri­fices; but in the form and or­der of Ceremonies, that indeed is solely left unto the Church, but not the immediate wor­ship, [Page 55] we may not therein fol­low our own wils; that is the main difference between the Church of Rome and us, if we may use a Will-worship, then they are in the right; but if we may not, then we are in the right.


Words are not the diffe­rence of good men and bad; for every man speaks well: therefore how noble a thing is vertue, when no man dares professe any thing else.


I love not one that will ne­ver be angry: for as he that is without sorrow, is without [Page 56] gladnesse: so he that is without anger, is without love.


There are degrees of men in respect of one another, in respect of God all are equall; all are to vse like duty, like reverence, towards him: all are alike beggars Gods door.


We are departed no further from the Church of Rome, than they from their first Jesus.


Give me the heart of a man, and out of that, all other his deeds shall be acceptable.


In cloaths, I would have a [Page 57] fashion should chuse a man, and not a man the fashion.


It is one of the miseries of man, that when he is full of days, and neer his end, that then he should love life most.


It hath like operation to make women learned, as to make Foxes tame, which teacheth them to steal more cunningly. The possibility is not equall; for where it doth one good it doth twenty harm.


Parents may forbid their Children an unfit match, but they may not force their [Page 58] consent to a fit.


No Country can be called rich wherein there is war; As in the Low-Countries, there is much money; but the Souldi­ers have it in pay from the Governours, the Boors have it for victuals of the Souldiers, the Governours have it from them again in taxes: so there is no Center, no Honour.


No man gains by War, but he that hath not wherewith to live in Peace.


God accepts the intent be­fore the deed; for if a man do justice because he would be [Page 59] counted just, and not for Gods glory, but because he stands answerable to God, if he do otherwise; or if he punish a man rightly, but withall satis­fie his own malice; both these are abominable: if he give Alms onely for his reputation sake, this is a wicked deed; be­cause there is Nullum medium, whatsoever is not of faith is sin.


No man shall do ill, that thinks ere he undertakes, what the end will be, not what his passion would have it to be.


Time is the essence of many Laws, so that a King may do [Page 60] well at divers times, both in making and marring the same law.


I should think it a sign that God loves me not if I should kill a man by chance, I would most unwillingly do that ill which it lies not in my power to amend.


I do not think the greatest Clarks are nearest Heaven, much of their knowledge is superfluous; For Bellarmine makes 400. questions of faith, and not ten of them which roucheth our Salvation to un­derstand.


Many have attempted to make glass malleable, and so Gold artificiall, but both in vain; for God doth ever Crosse the invention of man, least he should rejoice in his own work.


The persons of all men are to be alike. Equal to us, and our hate or Love, should one­ly go according to their Ver­tues or Vices. These bonds of kindred should onely com­mand us in all Civill duties, but not our judgements. And particular injuries should one­ly make us hate that particular [Page 62] deed, but not the doer in gene­rall.


Men of high understanding, as they do many things above the common strain; so they often fall into greater errours, than those of meaner capaci­ty, which in all their actions, will rather do nothing faulty than any thing extraordinary, being of a temper better mixt than the former.


The Divell always avoids the mean, and waits upon ex­tremities; so hath he sought to divide the world betwixt Atheism, and superstition.


All extremities come round to one end, the simple obedi­ence of the Papist, and the no obedience of the Puritan; the one breeds confusion, the other Ignorance, and security.


The end of the Law is to punish sin when it is commit­ted; But to keep it from being committed, it cannot; As the Pope, which thinks by allow­ing Fornication to avoid Adul­tery.


That the wearing of Leeks on Saint Davids day by the Welch-men, was a good, ho­nourable, and commendable [Page 64] fashion; seeing that all me­morable acts have by their A­gents something worn for di­stinction, and also to preserve the memory thereof unto po­sterity; even as the Passeover was to the Jews; that when their children should ask why they went girded, with staves in their hands, they might shew them the cause, &c. So the Welchmen in commemo­ration of the great fight by their black Prince of Wales, do wear leeks, as their chosen Ensign.


That an infallid thing may be discerned and known by a fallid means; as for exam­ple, [Page 65] our sences are fallid, but by them we know many things infallid, &c. whence the Pa­pists infer, that because the Church is visible, therefore the chief Head must be visible: The universal Church consist­eth of two parts, one visible, the other invisible; to wit, a visible body, and an invisible Spirit; and therefore the chief Head of the Church should rather be invisible: but we grant many visible Substitutes over the Church, as subordi­nate Rulers under the chief.


His Majesty observed a queint Interrogatory put to a jealous Lover, out of that fa­mous [Page 66] Comedy of Ignoramus, the which his Majesty highly commended; viz. whether he desired most, or rather to be termed, Publius Cornelius, or Cornelius Tacitus. In further approbation of which Come­dy, besides in opposition and dislike of another Comedy, performed and acted before his Majesty by the Schollers of the University of Oxford, that as in Cambridg one Sleep made him Wake, so in Oxford one Wake made him Sleep.


Concerning that saying, That the gates of hell shall not pre­vail, &c. that therefore their Church of Rome cannot fall, [Page 67] because of the certainty of Gods promise to his Church, which they falsly attribute un­to themselves. The question onely remains in the circum­stance of time, as between their Church, and the true Church, to wit, whether it be already past, or shall be hereafter; for they deny not but there shall be a general defection, and Antichrist shall be reveal­ed, &c. but they deny it yet to be; and we say it is already past, and fulfilled in themselves. But his Majesties absolute de­termination on this point was, The question between them and us, to be the same which is yet between the Jews and [Page 68] Christians; for they deny not but that a Messiah and Saviout must and shall come, and yet have him in a dayly expectati­on; but the Christian hold­eth that he is come already, and hath been in the world, and hath performed all things pre­appointed of God his eternal Father; even such, or the ve­ry like, is the question between the Papists and Protestants, concerning the right and true worship of that Messiah. The Church Militant his Majesty compared to the Moon, so full of changes; his reason for this opinion he gave, was, for that he could not see a Church in any place peaceably setled, but [Page 69] before he could duly consider thereof, he forthwith percei­ved the face of it changed, ex­cept it were those of Germany, and the low Countryes, as the Lutherans, and Calvinists.


God is never better honour­ed, than in giving him true worship, and in loving good men. The King at that time declared himself resolved al­ways to kneel at the Sacra­ment, and that for to testifie his humility toward God, be­ing a King, and the rather for example sake to others that are set under him: he said he would not retain willingly a [Page 70] Gout in the knee, alluding to Doctor Lawds Sermon, a little before made upon that sub­ject. His Majesty confessed the Gout in the knee very trou­blesome and offensive indeed, and that by a particular expe­riment of his own, upon an ac­cidental hurt which he recei­ved on his foot at Newmar­ket, being to receive the holy Communion on Christmasse day following, and resolved to take the same kneeling, as aforesaid, provoked his whole body into a very great sweat & anguish, and therefore conclu­ded the Gout in the knee to be a main impediment for sacred Duties, and so conceived it [Page 71] the easier way to sit, and then the mind might have the bet­ter opportunity to rove and wander after other prophane and wanton cogitations: His Majesty did acknowledge that we could never do too much worship toward God; should we not (said he) exceed the Turks? who in their false worship do fall often flat on their faces, and rise often in the night to perform false wor­ship; and this they are injoyn­ed to do, or otherwise they account themselves damned: he confessed that too much worship might be rendred to our Lady and other Saints, but doubtlesse never too much to [Page 72] God, and Christ his anointed. On the contrary, his Majesties opinion concerning the essence of Gods Deitie, and how some will seem to flatter him, &c. And thereupon commended a translation, that was so direct, as it described God as he was; for he cannot be flattered. As for example, God is said to be Omnipotent, it is true; yet there are some things that he cannot have done as he would, in respect of mans depraved nature. Again, he made all things; true, all that we can behold: but there was a place in which he was before he made the world. Again, it is said, that he is every where; [Page 73] true, but as a King is by his Ambassadours, not personal­ly every where. Again it is further said, that God is un­changeable; yet it is also said many times that he repents, and therefore though Kings may sometimes be flattered, yet God never can.


That he did not know nor read of above three Jews con­verted in 20. years.


That the Turk sent him Ambassage since his comming to England, to follow the steps of Queen Elizabeth, and not to professe Idolatry, for [Page 74] that would overthrow his Crown.


That the Turks will not suffer the Jews amongst them to sacrifice, for that was flat against their laws: As we will not suffer the Papists to worship the Masse, because against our Laws.


That the Jews had been so bitten with punishments for Idolatry, that they would ne­ver indure any shew of it.


That the religion of the Turks was composed of the Jewish religion, of the Chri­stian, and of the Arians; and [Page 75] policy thereof, was to draw infinites of people to his subjection, that were uncer­tainly affected; as in the low-Countries they use diversities of religions to strengthen their power, but this was observed by the King, to be a strange po­licy.


That he confessed the Turk to be the greatest Prince in the world; and yet that he did not command the tenth part of them which professed Ma­hometism.


That there was ten of his religion to one that professed any kind of Christianity, and [Page 76] therefore the Popes universa­lity convinced.


That through the divers compositions of the Turks re­ligion, a great part of the world was infected, as both the Indiaes, America, Persia, &c.


The King professed that he would chuse rather to turn Turk, than in some fables be­lieve Bellarmine.


That a German was natu­rally most constant to him­self, for although he could well fashion himself to any Country he travelled into, yet [Page 77] returning home to his own, he would appear to any mans judgement, nothing changed from the manner and conditi­on of his own Nation, and so in him is most truly fulfilled Coelum non animum mutant qui transmare currunt; but with the English, or any other na­tion, for the most part it is not so.


That he oft heard the Lord of Northampton say, that a French-man, though never so grave & sober of countenance, yet at one time or other would have his frisk of vanity.


That Tobacco was the live­ly [Page 78] image and pattern of hell; for that by allusion, it had in it all the parts and vices of the world, whereby hell may be gained; to wit, first it was a smoak, so are the vanities of the world a smoak and va­pour. Secondly, it delight­eth them who take it, so do the pleasures of the world delight the men of the world. Thirdly, it maketh men drun­ken and light in the head, and so do vanities of the world men are drunk therewith.' Fourthly, he that taketh To­bacco, saith, he cannot leave it, it doth bewitch him; even so the pleasures of the world make men loath to leave them, so [Page 79] they are for the most part so inchanted with them. Be­sides the former allusion, it is like hell in the very sub­stance of it, for it is a stink­ing loathsome thing, so is hell; it goeth in at the mouth and out at the nose, so doth the smoke of hell through the body and head.


That he hath heard an old Minister say, touching confor­mity, that it would be a scan­dall for himself to conform, yet will allow that his son may do it, as if he living a fool all his life, desired so to die.


That no man can thrive that keepeth a whore at rack and manger, to wit, openly, with justification. That to rove is proper to expresse the action of the body, but to rave is an action of the mind.


That miracles are now used and maintained among the Pa­pists, to the end to confirm a false belief on Saints, accor­ding as at first Christ used miracles, to cause and confirm a true belief on himself.


Evangelikes are not Evan­gelists.


That he is not of opinion that all speeches in Scripture touching beasts or fouls, by allegory doth agree with the proper and peculiar natures of them; as of that, Be wise as Serpents; or that comparison of Iob to the Ostridge, that see­meth to neglect her young by leaving her egs in the dust, which is not the proper nature of them, as hath been approved by Barbary-Marchants that have seen them: but it seemeth so outwardly, because she hi­deth her egs in the sand, and so removeth a little from them, but surely for no other end but to protect them, that at [Page 82] the time of need, and in the hat­ching to break the shell, which of it self cannot.


That there was never any noted Heretick, but the sect of him were much more hereti­call.


That he could find more ar­guments in the Papists work for the Pope, than the Pope himself could do.


That the Canonists are the very Divels of all the rest.


That Peter seeing Malchus his Kinsman witnesse against him, made him fear the more, [Page 83] and so denied his Master.


Thar if they had accused Christ of ryot, the same wit­nesse would have proved mat­ter to declare his Divinity, in healing his ear again.


To commit a sin against the letter of the Law moral, is greater than a sin against the consequent; as for example, Adultery is a greater sin than Fornication.


That he stiled a book once sent him, by the name of Mel­chisedeck, being without begin­ning or ending.


That he readeth more Pa­pists books than Protestant, and from thence findeth mat­ter to confirm him in the Pro­testant Religion.


That taking all things to the straight tenor of the written letter, is the matter of jar be­twixt the Puritans and Us.


That Henry the fourth of France would have sent Cardi­nal Peron to convert him, the which he denyed, for that he held him weak and shallow; and refused to lose a heavenly crown for an earthly.


That he would not admit a publick disputation between twelve Papists, and twelve Pro­testants, himself being chosen Umpire; because he might lose more, that would not be satisfied, than he could win, al­though the Papists side were convicted.


The true Protestant Religion stands like a virtue between two vices, Popery and Separa­tism: That, an extremity, in the excesse; this, in the defect: that aims at the confusion of the State; this makes confusi­on in the Church. Let that Prince that desires the welfare [Page 86] of his Kingdome, crush the power of the one, and curb the malice of the other: so shall his Church be peacefull, his State honourable, and on his head shall his crown flourish.


Let every Prince that loves rest, make war his last refuge: A desperate remedy is unsea­sonable, but where the disease is desperate: Be the war never so just, the effect is miserable. Far safer is a certain peace, than an uncertain victory; that is concluded by reason; this by fortune.


It is safer for a Prince to trust Providence and a weak [Page 87] Army, than to strengthen it with forreign forces: Yet when his necessity borrows their presence to compasse a Con­quest, let his wisdom purchase their absence though at a high price. He that entertains Aux­iliaries, holds a wolf by the ears.


As it is a stain to the honour of a Prince to break his pro­mise: so it is no lesse blemish to the wisdome of a State, not to prevent the means of break­ing it. To take too open no­tice of a Princes infirmities, if guilty, fils him with desperate Rage; if not, with implacable Revenge.


Let not the civil discords in a forreign Kingdom encourage thee to make invasion: they that are factious among them­selves, and jealous one of ano­ther, are more strongly pre­par'd to encounter with a com­mon enemy: those whom ci­vil commotions set at variance, forreign hostility reconciles. Men rather affect the possessi­on of an inconvenient good, than the possibility of an un­certain better.


Let no price, nor promise of Honour bribe thee to take part with the enemies of thy Prince: Assure thy self, whosoever [Page 89] wins, thou art lost: if thy Prince prevail, thou art branded for a Rebel, and marked for death: if the enemy prosper, thou shalt be reckoned as a Tray­tor, and not secured of thy life. He serves his Kingdome that destroyes a Rebel; and it is a common thing for him that loves the Treason to hate the Traytor.


Although a wicked King is sent by God for a curse to his people, and plague for their sins; yet it is not lawfull for them to shake off that curse at their own pleasures, that God hath laid upon them.


The safest guard a King can have, is the love of his subjects, his greatest honour their prosperity.


As Law is to a well go­verned Common-wealth, so are good orders in Houshold government, without which, no houshold can stand.


Though Moses were in­structed, inspired, and conduct­ed by Almighty God him­self: yet, he refused not the good counsell of Iethro, for the manner of his government, which also Almighty God allowed in him.


It is a certain rule in all dark Prophesies, that they are never clearly understood till they be accomplished.


Many respects may law­fully let in admission, that will not be sufficient causes of de­privation.


No wise man can think him a fit man to counsell him, or to govern under him, that can­not govern himself, and his own family; and therefore Basilius advised his son, to take such Counsellours, who had given proof and experience of their wisedome, in the good [Page 90] [...] [Page 91] [...] [Page 92] conduct and direction of their own affairs.


Emulation is the bait of Virtue; for looking into the sweetnesse of the reward, men undertake the labour.


It is lesse difficult for per­sons of indifferent estates, to make their choise of friends, than for great men; yet, onely safe to poverty; for there, he must be in love with himself, or nothing.


Better it is that matters be not stirred at all, than after they be once a foot, and in mo­tion, to give the truth leave to [Page 93] lie gasping and sprangling, un­der the violence of a Forraign faction.


Sometimes there is as good use, to be made of dishonest, as honest friends; for poisons are as necessary as wholesome simples, if they be in a hand able to prepare them.


Suggestions are needlesse from abroad, when the mis­chief is felt at home.


Although particular men of all profession of religion, have been some theeves, some murtherers some traitors; yet ever, when they came to their [Page 94] end and just punishment, they confessed their fault to be in nature, and not in their profes­sion; the Roman-Catholicks onely excepted.


The friends of a private Fortune, are lesse dangerous; in greater, there is more gain, and so more losse: he that stands without, stands naked, and subject to every storm: who underpropped, so long safe; but no sooner loosened, but ruined.


To answer an improbable imagination is to fight against a vanishing shadow.


It is a true saying, that alled­ged kindness upon noble minds, doth ever work much.


Too much suspicion begets treachery, and an obstinate belief is dangerous folly.


For a little money a man may have more from the Pope, than ever God promi­sed by his grace to grant, a re­mission of all sins past and to come.


Present crosses are but pre­paratives to them we may feel.


Let no man think that he may frame and make his wife as he pleaseth, that deceived Solomon, the wisest King that ever was.


It is wisdome for him that sits at the helm of a settled State, to demean himself to­wards his subjects at all times, so, that in hard times they may be willing and ready to serve his occasion: He that is onely gracious at the approach of danger, will be in danger, when he expects deliverance.


In all designs, which require not sudden execution, take ma­ture, [Page 97] and serious considerati­on, and weigh the convenients, with the inconvenients, and then resolve; and having resolved, neither delay the execution, nor bewray thy intention▪ He that discovers himself till he hath made himself Master of his de­sires, layes himself open to his own ruine, and makes himself prisoner to his own folly.


Liberality in a Prince is no virtue, when maintained at the subjects unwilling cost: it is lesse reproach, by miserable­nesse to preserve the popular [Page 98] love, than by liberality to de­serve private thanks.


It is the excellent property of a wise Prince, to use war as he doth Physick, carefully, un­willingly, and seasonably; ei­ther to prevent approaching dangers, to correct a present mischief, or to recover a for­mer losse. He that declines Physick, till he be accosted with the danger, or too much weakened by the disease, is bold too long, and wise too late: that peace is too precise, that limits the justnesse of war to a drawn sword, or a blow given.


Let that Prince that would beware of conspiracies, be rather jealous of such, whom his extraordinary favours have advanced, than of those, whom his displeasure hath discontent­ed: these want means to exe­cute their pleasures; but they have means at pleasure to exe­cute their desires. Ambition to rule, is more vehement than Malice to revenge.


Before thou undertake a war, cast an impartiall eye upon the occasion. If it be just, prepare thy Army, and let them all know, they are to fight for [Page 100] God and thee: It adds fire to the spirit of a souldier, to be assured that he shall either prosper in a fair war, or pe­rish in a just cause.


He that is not a Philosopher governs by guesse, and will prove a dangerous States-man, for when uncontrouled affe­ctions meet with high fortune, they commonly begin tyran­ny and oppression.


The difference between the godly, and ungodly is, that God doth visit the ungodly by punishments, names of Plagues, Curses, and destructions; as the [Page 101] plague of Egypt, the curse of Cain, the destruction of Sodom; but the righteous, when he doth visit them, his punish­ments, corrections, chastise­ments, and rods, which pro­ceed from instruction, not destruction, to purge them, not to destroy them.


It is not sufficient for him that already hath enough to defend him from basenesse and want, onely to eat, and drink, and make an even reckoning at the years end: for, that is ba­ser then baseness: no, let him do his Country service, and purchase honour to his house; [Page 102] for we are not in the the world for fruition, but for action.


There is no difference be­tween common Lovers, and common Whores, they both flatter, and make the name of love their bands, to serve their particular pleasures.


As mans nature is not onely to strive, against a present smart, but to revenge a passed injury; so we see, that ma­lice hath a longer life than ei­ther love or thankfulness hath: For, as always we take more care, to put off pain, than to enjoy pleasure; because the [Page 103] one hath intermission, and with the other we are satisfied; So it is in the smart of injuries, and the memory of good turns; Wrongs are written in marble, benefits are some­times acknowledged, requited rarely.


Allms-deeds merit nothing at Gods hands, yet they make him our debtor, according to his gracious promise.


Presumption is ever apt to draw comfort from the vast Ocean of appetite; but discre­tion from the sweet springs of opportunitie.


He Councels best that pre­fers the cause of God before any particular.


Where good men are a­fraid, to call a vice by the proper name, it is a sign that the vice is common, and that great persons (whom it is not safe to anger) are infected therewith.


He that knows not the true grounds of an evill, cannot help it but by change, which is a dangerous guide of a Com­mon wealth.


Conscience, not grounded [Page 105] on knowledge, is either an ig­norant fantasie, or an arrogant vanitie; in one extremitie the Papists erre, in the other the A­nabaptists.


Correction without in­struction is meer Tyranny.


God which is the great Law-maker, by his Laws prevents sins, to the end that pu­nishments may be inflicted on it justly, as to avoid Idolatry, he forbiddeth the making of Images: He that cannot live chaste let him marry.


False miracles, and lying [Page 106] news are the food of supersti­tion, which by credulity de­ludes ignorant people.


God who cals his elect unto himself, to make him enjoy heaven, compels none to make defection from himself: Nam perdicio tua, ex te Israel.


Time the mother, will bring forth Verity her daughter, in due season to perfection.


Riches are desired of wise men, onely to keep them from basenesse, and to exercise cha­rity.


A good Pastor is the Phy­sitian of the soul, and ought to apply his doctrine accord­ing to the tendernesse or hard­nesse of the conscience, for want of which discretion some mens zeal hath done hurt.


It is a point of wisedome to maintain the truth with as little disputation as may be, least a good cause be marred with ill handling.


The best Laws are made out of those good Customes, whereunto the people are na­turally inclined.


Grosse and brutish errors are sooner reformed than mea­ner escapes, for so much as the one cannot be defended without impudency, whereas the other admits some colour for excuse.


It is not lawfull to use un­law full instruments, were it for never so good a purpose; for that Axiome in Divinity is most certain and infallible, non est faciendum malum, ut bo­num inde eveniet.


Valour is overcome by weaknesse, but being too much [Page 109] prized, it turneth to unbride­led fury.


It is neither safe nor ho­nourable for a Prince to buy his Peace, or take it up at inte­rest. He that hath not a sword to command it, shall either want it, or want honour with it.


It is very requisite for a Prince not onely to weigh his designs in the flower, but like­wise in the fruit: he is an un­thrift of his honour, that en­terprises any design, the failing wherein, may bring him more disgrace, then the good success can gain him honour.


It is much conduceable to the happinesse of a Prince and the security of his Kingdome, to gain the hearts of his sub­jects: they that love for fear, will hardly be induced to fear for love: it is a wise Govern­ment which gains such a Tie upon the subject, that he either cannot hurt, or will not: but that government is best and most sure, when the Prince commands with love, and the subject joys in his obedience.


Let every souldier arm his mind with hopes, and put on courage: whatsoever disaster [Page 111] fals, let not his heart sink: the passage of providence lies through many crooked ways; and a despairing heart is the true Prophet of approaching ruine. His actions may weave the webs of fortune, but not break them.


It is the part of a wise Ma­gistrate to vindicate a man of Power, or State imployment, from the malicious scandall of the giddy headed multitude, and to punish it with great se­verity: scandall breeds hatred, hatred begets division, division makes raction, and faction brings ruine.


The strongest Castles that a Prince can build to secure him from domestick commo­tions, or forreign invasion is the hearts of his loving subjects and the means to gain that strength, is in all his actions to appear for the publick good; studious to contrive and resolute to perform.


It much conduces to the publick-weal, either of a Principality, or Republick, not to suffer the money and trea­sure of a State, to be ingrossed into the hands of few: money is like muck, not good, unless it be spread.


It is a necessary providence in a Prince to encourage in his Kingdome, Manufacture, Marchandize, Arts and Arms. In Manufacture lie the vitall spirits of the body politick; in Marchandize, the spirits na­turall; in Arts and Arms the animall: if either of these lan­guish, the body droops: as they flourish the body flouri­shes.


It is more dangerous for a Prince to violate his laws, then his subjects: they are liable to punishment and punish­ment satisfies, and satisfaction [Page 114] cures and rectifies the breach: But in him, the wound ranckles for want of cure: that how­ever a Prince begins to break his own laws, and ancient customs, his State begins her ruine.


If thou chance to entertain any forreign Souldiers, into thy Army, let them bear thy co­lours, and be at thy pay, lest they interest their own Prince: Auxiliary Souldiers are most dangerous: a forreign Prince needs no greater invitation to seize upon thy Countrey, than when he is required to defend it.


Be cautious in undertaking a design upon report of such as are exiled their Country, lest thou come off with shame, or losse, or both: their ends expect advantages from thy actions, whose miseries lay hold of all opportunities, and seek to be made whole upon thy ruine.


Many do deceive themselves, in saying, they care not for the Father or Mothers curse, so they deserve it not: But be­ware, you must not invert the order of nature, in judging your Superiours, chiefly in your own particular; for e­ver [Page 116] the blessing or curse of the Parents, hath a prophetick power joyned with it.


Beware of swearing and ly­ing, though but in jeft; for oaths are but an use, and a sin cloathed with no delight or gain: and therefore the more unexcusable, even before men.


The Devil never assails a man, except he find him either void of knowledge, or of the fear of God.


If a man shall once take up­on him to call that light, which God calls heavy; that sin veni­al, [Page 117] which God calls grievous; measuring any one sin by the measures of his lust and appe­tite, and not of his Conscience; what shall let him to do with the next that his affections stir him to? the like reason serving for all, and so go for­ward till he place his whole corrupted affections in Gods room.


As none can be Scollars in a School, and not be subject to the Master thereof, so none can studie, or put in practise the circles and art of Magick, without committing any hor­rible defection from God.


Treasurers and Ushers, are commonly hated in Court, because of necessity they must give denials and disgraces.


The honour of a King stands in the multitude of the people; and his strength and safety in the love of his subjects.


They are not fit for the Court, that are either obsti­nate in opinion, or uncourte­ous in carriage: wherefore the noble mind is most fit; for they are always more cour­teous to take things in good part, than the baser sort.


The glory of a Kingdome is a pious and potent Prince: the strength of a Prince, is a religi­ous and a loyal subject: the happiness of a subject is a long setled, and a well established peace, the fruits of that peace is plenty, and al worldly felicity.


It is the part of a wise Coun­sell, to use all means for the preventing jealousie between the King and his people, as the greatest evill in a Common­wealth, and the deadliest ene­my to affection and obedience. Griefs are more troublesome in the apprehension than in the sense: Evils that are felt, are [Page 120] far more curable than those which are feared.


As unity within it self feli­cifies, and perpetuates; so ci­vil discord demolishes, and de­stroys the very being of a Common-wealth. A Kingdom that is divided cannot stand. It is better for a State to admit of two inconveniencies, than one such mischief; and more honourable to comply with some losse on both sides, than by weakning one another to give advantage to a forreign enemy. That body is in great danger that bleeds inwardly.


Let that Kingdome which hath injoyed a long peace, ex­pect a hard bargain in the next war: long setled humours give foment to the distemper when it breaks forth, and prolongs the cure when it seeks remedy: No surfeit so mortall, as what proceeds from the security of a long continued peace.


Every Age breeds some exor­bitant Spirits, who turn the edge of their own sufficiency, upon whatsoever they can de­vour in their ambitious appre­hensions, seeking rather a great than a good fame, and holding it the chiefest honour to be [Page 122] thought the wonder of their times; which if they attain unto, is but in the condition of Monsters, that are general­ly much admired, but more abhorred.


Friendship is of that nature, as it always desires to be en­tertained with mutual good offices; therefore we must not suffer it to grow cold; for coldnesse is a degree of dead­nesse.


They that are to make de­mands or requests to their friends, must regard how the same may stand with the safe­ty of their friends, that their [Page 123] motions and requests may stand with their honour and surety to accord unto it.


The cause of assembling all Parliaments, are two; for Laws, or Money; the one be­ing the sinews of peace, the o­ther of war.


Good purposes as well in Princes, as private men, have many hinderers; therefore, when the commodities, or dis­commodities of taking or re­fusing are once throughly weighed, a speedy resolution is the best to cut off such [Page 124] inconveniences, that delay of time commonly bringeth.


As the naturall body is de­lighted in change, so is also the politick body greedy of altera­tion.


As a whole man meanly able, may do as much as a halfman better able; so an in­feriour wit bent and conver­sant upon one subject, shall many times with patience and mediation, dissolve and undo many of those knots and doubts, which a greater wit distracted with many matters, would rather cut in two, then unknit.


Such as are bent to hold with the difficulties of effect­ing any thing, are commonly against it.


Many neglect the wise­dome, to maintain themselves, that God hath bestowed upon them, and so worthily suffer by their own folly.


In civill actions he is the greater and deeper politick, that can make other men the instruments of his will and ends, and yet never acquaint them with his purpose, so as they shall do it, and yet not know what they do; than he [Page 126] that imparteth his meaning to those that he imployeth.


God made angels pure minds bodilesse, beasts bodies mindlesse, but man both body and mind, the Horizon between both.


Errours by mistaking, should not be too rigorously censured, but errours that be wil­full, should not be spared.


The duty of a Magistrate consisteth in three especiall points, in ruling, teaching, and judging, that he be wise to go­vern, [Page 127] vertuous to give exam­ple, and impartiall to judge.


If thy strength of parts hath raised thee to an eminent place in the Common-wealth, take heed thou sittest sure; if not, thy fall will be the great­er: As great worth is a fit matter for glory; so glory is a fair mark for envy. By how much the more thy advance­ment was thought the reward of desert, by so much thy fall will administer matter for dis­dain. It is the fortune of a strong brain, if not to be dig­nified as meritorious, to be de­prest as dangerous.


It is the duty of a States­man especially in a Free-State, to hold the Common-wealth to her principles, and first form of government, from the which the more she swerves, the more she declines: which being declined, she is not commonly reduced, with­out that extremity, the danger whereof rather ruines than rectifies. Fundamentall alte­rations bring inevitable pe­rils.


Let not the proceedings of a Commander, though never so commendable, be confined to all times; as these alter, so [Page 129] must they: if these vary, and not they, ruine is not far off: he least fails in his design that meets time in its own way, and he that observes not the al­teration of the times, shall sel­dome be victorious but by ch [...]nce: but he that cannot al­ter in his course according to the alteration of the times, shall never be a Conqueror. He is a wise Commander, and onely he, can discover the alte­ration of the times, and pro­portion his proceedings accor­ding to the alteration he disco­vers.


Necessity of fighting doubles [Page 130] courage in the souldier, and an impossibility of escape adds spirit to the coward: it is great wisedome in a Com­mander, always to leave a Port open, to encourage his enemy to flight: it is better to build him a silver bridge to invite him to go, then bul-warks of earth to necessitate him to stay.


It is the part of a wise Commander, not to suffer his souldiers to fall to the spoile till his conquest be perfected, being the ready way to snatch victory out of his hands: he that takes up the stakes ere the game be done, lays them often [Page 131] down again with shame and disadvantage.


The greatest weakning to an army is disorder: the grea­test cause of disorder is want of pay; by reason whereof the souldiers either mutiny or revolt: Let that Prince that would be obeyed in his Com­mands, not suffer a greater power in the Camp then him­self: the powerfullest Com­mander in an Army is neces­sity.


It is great wisedome in Counsellours of State to make [Page 132] hast, leisurely: State alterati­ous are best graduall; it is lesse danger to anticipate occa­sion then to foreslow it. To reap in a right season makes a full Barn, and a rich Farmer.


Those counsels are best carried, which the enemy ra­ther finds by execution, than relation, and which trust not to any, without whom they may be put in Act: as expe­dition is the life of Action, so society is the life of consulta­tion.


Prepare to war when thou propoundest for peace; other­wise [Page 133] thy peace will be hardly obtained, or too highly prized: What ere thy first Article be, let disbanding be the last; A cunning cur though he wag his tail, will shew his teeth; the best Treaty is with a drawn Sword, and the safest peace is concluded under a Buckler.


The Alchymists from a true position do produce a false assumption to maintain their practise; as for example, E­very creature or thing hath a natural inclination to the per­fection of the same kind; as poor silly Worms by change of climate may become Serpents; and in all Minerals [Page 134] the perfection is gold, so all inferious mettals have incli­nation to gold, which is but (as we say) the quintessence, fat, or cream of other mettals, and not consisting in any vein of it self. Now from this general position, the Alchymists with a certain composition with o­ther mettals (most having some gold in them) do think to ripen them into gold by Art, as men may do the other fruits of the earth; which is no certain rule, and therefore a false assumption from a true position.


That many learned writers have recorded things for truth, [Page 135] which experience hath falsifi­ed; as for instance, His Maje­sty gave his own experience touching the worms found in a Stags head, which are re­ported to die if put into wa­ter, but will live in wine, the which being tryed, they live equally in both.


Sir Francis Kinnaston by experience falsified the Alchy­mists report, that a Hen being sed for certain days with gold, beginning when Sol was in Leo, should be converted into gold, and should lay golden eggs: which being tryed, was no such thing, but became indeed very fat. His Majesties answer [Page 136] and conceit thereupon was, that surely somewhat was o­mitted in Sir Francis his expe­riment; to wit, he wanted faith to believe, as himself did al­ways in the like, or such mat­ters: but one thing more might have been added, more amply to satisfie the experi­ment; if the Cock had been first sed with gold, and after­ward have troden the Hen, might haply have suceeded better.


That it is as absurd and wick­ed to account the Virgin Mary the Queen of heaven (accord­ing to the Popes doctrine) be­cause she is the natural mo­ther [Page 137] of our Lord, as to think there is a Goddesse, because we have a known God.


That the Virgin Mary was more happy in bearing Christ first in her heart by faith, than in her womb.


That he did believe, that Christ did affect and love her while he was on the earth more than any other woman, as he had reason; but not as he was God, but as he was man, the son of her flesh. This doth not derogate from her due estimation, but to nullifie her power now with Christ in heaven, as well as of all other [Page 138] Saints, to remit and get par­don for sin.


Whether boldnesse or bash­fulnesse did soonest prevail in Court? His Majesties opini­on was, that bashfulnesse did; alluding to the Lord Duke of Buckingham, who at his first comming to Court, exceeded in bashfulnesse; and when his Majesty first cast his eye upon him, the Lord of Arundel be­ing asked by his Majesty, what he thought of him? he answer­ed, that his blushing bashful­nesse was such, as he thought he would do but little good in Court favours.


That if there were no other quarrel between the Papists and Protestants, but the num­ber of Sacraments, he would himself be a Papist; for he held it not worth the quarrel­ling: as appeared by a tale of two friends in Scotland, being great in friendship, and in the cup falling out about that sub­ject, the one a great Papist, the other a Protestant; so they fought, and were both slain; a third said, before he would have lost his life in that quar­rel, he would have divided the seven into three and an half.


That many things in Religi­on, were rather carried by mans opinion, than perfect in­tention to the truth.


That himself would not condemn any thing for here­sie that had been anciently con­firmed by an universal consent.


That of extream Unction, as of other things used by that Church of Rome, he was of an indifferent opinion, so it might be continued according to the first intention, and so of many other things with them.


That of his wife, the Queen [Page 141] Anne deceased, (he spake to his own comfort) that she would often say unto him, Look you keep your self in the right way; for I am re­solved to follow you whi­thersoever, even to the brink of hell; for I am within your charge: saying withal, that all good wives should never forsake their husbands in any thing, being required by them, not directly against God, not for any disease or sicknesse whatsoever.


That he would never believe any news in verse, since the hearing of a Ballad made of [Page 142] the Bishop of Spalata, touch­ing his being a Mattyr.


That he would never use o­ther argument to convince the Papists of their opinion of miracles, but by their own doctrine, whereunto most of their miracles are altogether repugnant: as for example; A fable they have, that the Picture of our Lady should stir, &c. their doctrine is, that their Images are but represen­tative, &c. Now what dis­proportion appeareth between their opinion and doctrine?


To bestow benefits on the bad, maketh them worse, and [Page 143] vilifieth the reward of the virtuous.


Clemency is a divine in­stinct, and worketh superna­tural effects.


By the Devils means, Devils can never be cast out; and therefore they are fools, who to cure a disease cast on by a witch, seek the help of some other witch, whereas prayer and amendment of life is the onely cure.


It is the part of a well advi­sed State not to entrust a weighty service, unto whom a noted injury, or dishonour [Page 144] hath been done, and not first righted: he can never be a zealous performer of service, the height of whose expectatiō can rather recover a lost name, than can gain a fresh honour.


It is the property of a wise Commander not to read books so much as men, nor men so much as Nations: he that can discern the inclinations, conditions, and passions of a Kingdome, gains his State or Prince a great advantage both in peace and war.


If thou art called to the dignity of a Commander, dig­nifie [Page 145] thy place by thy Com­mands; and that thou mayst be the more perfect in com­manding others, practise dai­ly upon thy self. Remember thou art a servant to the pub­lick weal, and therefore forget all private respects: remem­ber thou art a Champion for a Kingdom; forget therefore all private affections, either of love or hate: he that would do his Country right, must not be too sensible of personal wrongs. He that would be remembred in the rols of honour, must it count it no dishonour to for­get himself.


In the tender of an oath of [Page 146] Association or Covenant, be­have thy self wisely: either take it not, or being taken break it not: Wit may find out niceties to wrest it, but no just argu­ments to avoid it; an oath is ta­ken not in the sense of him that takes it; but of him that takes assurance by it.


In Domestick Commotions being doubtfull which side to take, if the cause be religion, thou needest no counsellour: If meerly civill let the Scriptures and reason direct thee: How­ever, there is a way presents it self to thy wisedome, where­by, if thou hast an estate, thou [Page 147] mayest make it sure whosoe­ver wins, and make thy one Stake sure whosoever loses. Capiat qui capere potest.


The lower sort of people are desirous of novelties, and apt for change; weighing go­vernment with the scales of their own fortunes: they are to sensible of evils in present to fear worse in future: let such know, they move in their par­ticular Orbs, not in the com­mon Sphear; and that the alte­ration of the heavens makes no star greater: which way soever the change moves, a Cobler shall be but a Cobler still.


It is high wisedome in a Prince to weigh the severall actions of his counsellours: for the want whereof so many good Princes have both lost themselves, and ruined their Kingdomes: it is a common thing, to mask private ends, under publick pretences: it is better for a State to have a wicked Prince of a good na­ture, than a good Prince with such Counsellours.


It is very requisite for a Prince to have an eye: the Clergy are elected, and come in by the collation of him or [Page 149] particular Patrons, and not wholly by the people; and that their power hold dependance, not from forreign authority: it is dangerous in a Kingdome, where the Crosiers receive not power from the Regall sword.


It is a perilous weaknesse in a State to be slow of resolu­tion in the time of war: To be irresolute in determination, is both the sign, and ruine of a weak State: such affairs at­tend not time: let the wise States-man abhor delay, and resolve rather what to do, than advise what to say; slow deli­berations in a quick businesse [Page 150] are Symptoms, either of a faint courage, or weak forces, or false hearts.


If a Conquerour hath sub­dued a Country or a City a­bounding with pleasure, let him be very circumspect to keep himself and souldiers temperate: pleasures brings effiminacy, and effiminacy fore-runs ruine: such con­quests without bloud, or sweat, sufficiently revenge themselves upon the heads of their intemperate Conque­rours.


It is a dangerous sign of [Page 151] approaching ruine in a Repub­lick, when religion is neglect­ed, and her established cere­monies interrupted. Let there­fore that Prince or State, that would be potent, be pious, and that they may punish pro­phanenesse the better, let them be religious: the joy of Jerusa­lem depends upon the peace of Sion.


It is dangerous for a Prince to use ambitious natures, but upon necessity, either for his wars to be skreens of his dan­ger, or to be instruments, for the demolishing insolent great­nesse: And that they may be the lesse dangerous, let him [Page 152] them, rather out of mean births than noble; and out of harsh natures, rather than plau­sible; and always be sure to ballance them with those that are as proud as themselves.


Let Princes be very care­full in the choice of their coun­sellours, chusing neither by the greatnesse of the beard, or the smoothnesse of the face, nor by the form of the head, but by the squarenesse of their actions: let them be wise, but not crafty; active without private ends, couragious with­out malice; religious without faction; secret without fraud; [Page 153] one better read in his Princes businesse, than his nature; and a riddle onely to be read a­bove.


Let him that desires to enjoy happinesse in a State, reverence good things past; submit to lawfull things present; be pro­vident for things future: let him wish for good Princes: if good, prize them without sa­tiety; if bad, endure them without rebellion.


Before thou build a For­tresse consider to what end; if for resistance against the ene­my, it is uselesse: A valiant Army is a living Fortresse: if [Page 154] for suppressing the subject, it is hurtfull: It breeds jealou­sies, and jealousies beget ha­tred. Howsoever, if thou hast astrong army, it adds nothing to thy strength: if thy army be weak it conduces much to thy danger: the surest Fort, is the hand of thy souldiers; and the safest Cittadel, is the hearts of thy subjects.


It is a Princely Alchimy, out of necessary war, to ex­tract an honourable peace; and more beseeming the Ma­jesty of a Prince, to thirst af­ter peace, than Conquest: bles­sednesse is promised to the [Page 155] peace-maker, not to the con­querour: it is a happy State whose Prince hath a peacefull hand, and a martiall heart; able both to use peace, and to ma­nage war.


Let not a Commander be too forward to undertake a war without the person of his Prince: it is a thanklesse im­ployment where mischief at­tends upon the best successe, and where (if a Conquerour) he shall be in danger, either through his own ambition, or his Princes suspicion.


When the humours of the [Page 156] people are stirred by discon­tents, or grief, it is wisedome in a Prince to give them mo­derate liberty to evaporate: he that turns the bloud back too hastily, makes the bloud bleed inwardly, and fils the body with malignity.


If having levied an army, thou findest thy self too weak, either through want of men or money, the longer thou delayest to fight the greater the incovenience grows: if once thy army falls a sunder, thou certainly losest by delay; where, hazarding thy fortunes betimes, thou hast the advan­tage [Page 157] of thy men; and mayest by fortune win the day: it is lesse dishonour to be over­come by force than flight.


It is the part of a wise Commander in wars, whether offensive, or defensive, to work into the breasts of thy souldiers, a necessity of fight­ing: necessity of the action takes away the fear of the act, and makes bold resolution the favourite of fortune.


Clemency and mildnesse is most proper for a Principalli­ty; but reservednesse, and se­verity for a Republick; but [Page 158] moderation in both: Excesse in the one breeds contempt, in the other hatred; when to sharpen the first, and when to sweeten the last, let time and occasion direct thy judgement.


Be not covetous for prio­rity, in advising thy Prince to doubtfull attempts, which con­cern his State: if they pros­per the glory must be his; if they fail, the dishonour will be thine: when the spirit of a Prince is stopt in the dis­charge, it wil recoil, and wound the first adviser.


If being Commander of [Page 159] an army, thou espiest a gross and manifest errour in thy enemy, look well to thy self, stratagem is not far off: he that sets his Queen in palpable danger, may chance, at next remove, give thy King Check­mate: he whom desire of vi­ctory blinds too much, is apt to stumble at his own destructi­on.


It is very requisite for a Prince that desires the conti­nuance of peace, in times of peace to encourage and make much of his Commanders: When brave spirits find neg­lect to be the effect of quiet times, they devise all means to [Page 160] remove the cause, and by sug­gesting inducements to new wars, disturb and unsettle the old peace, buying private ho­nour with publick dangers.


It is the height of a provi­dent Commander, not onely to keep his own designs undis­coverable to the enemy, but likewise to be studious in dis­covering his: he that can best do the one, and nearest guesse at the other, is the next step to a Conquerour: but he that fails in both, must either ascribe his overthrow to his own folly, or his victory to ex­traordinary providence.


Let States that aim at greatnesse, beware lest new gentry multiply too fast, or grow too glorious: Where there is to great a disproporti­on betwixt the Gentry and the common subject, the one grows insolent, the other sla­vish: Where the body of the Gentry grows too glorious for the Corslet, there the heads of the vulgar was too heavy for the Helmet.


Upon the beleaguering of a City, let the Commander endeavour to take from the de­fendants all scruples which [Page 162] may dis-invite them to a ne­cessity of defence: Whom the fear of slavery necessitates to fight, the boldnesse of their resolution will disadvantage the Assaylants, and deficilitate their design: Sense of necessi­ty justifies the war, and they are hopefull in their arms, which have no other hope but in their arms.


It is good for Princes and States (if they use ambitious men for their advantage) so to order things, that they be still progressive, rather than retrograde. Where ambiti­ous natures find open passage, [Page 163] they are rather busie than dan­gerous; and if well watcht in their proceedings, they will catch themselves in their own snare, and prepare a way to their own destruction.


Expect the army of thy enemy, on plain and easie ground, and still avoid moun­tainous and rocky places, and strait passages, to the utmost of thy power: it is not safe to pitch any where, where thy whole forces cannot be brought together: he never deserved the name of good Gamester, that hazards his whole rest upon less than the [Page 164] strength of his whole game.


It matters not much whether in government, thou tread the steps of severe Hannibal, or gentle Scipio, so thy actions be honourable, and thy life virtu­ous: both in the one, and in the other, there is defect and danger, if not corrected and supported by the fair repute of some extraordinary en­dowments: no matter black or white so the Steed be good.


It is not fit that any thing should succeed well with the wicked, for it is a pu­nishment [Page 165] of his fault.


As it is a principle of nature, that putrifaction is more con­tagious before maturity than after; so it is a position of Moral Philosophie, that men abandoned to vice, do not so much corrupt manners, as those that are half good and half evill.


The end of mans Creation is not for the slaughter; nor edu­cation of Arms, to make men cast-aways.


Virtuous men will use their education military, as wise men do their weapons, for or­nament [Page 166] amongst their friends, against their enemies for de­fence.


Those actions that are in­tended for opinion, are carried with more ceremony than or­dinary.


Dolus versatur in generali­bus. Generals dwell too much in the ayre; therefore he that will not be deceived, must de­scend to particulars.


When Iupiter speaks, he u­ses to joyn thunder to it: so a King should not speak, except he maintain it by action.


Christ recommends unto us the wisdome of Serpents, not thereby to deceive or betray others, but to arm our selves against the deceit and treason of Hypocrites.


There is a heaven and a hell, Praemium & Paena, for the E­lect and the Reprobate: but how many other rooms there be, we are not on Gods Coun­cel.


Prayer, is one of the wor­thiest actions we do; for we speak with God, and as it were enter in a reasoning with him, it brings down God from hea­ven, [Page 168] and makes him to grant our will, and dwell with us, and we with him Eternally.


Of temporal goods, we should pray onely for those that are necessary for our be­ing, or at least, wel-being; and not for those things that are for Luxury and Superflu­ity; for such are commonly baits to sin: But if God grant us also these, we should be thankfull, and soberly use them according to our calling.


It was never found, that bloud and too much severity, [Page 169] did good in matters of Religi­on; God never loving to plant the Church by violence and bloud▪shed.


The whole Scripture chief­ly containeth two things, a Command, and a Prohibition; to do such things, and to ab­stain from the contrary; it is our duty to obey in both.


It becomes every Officer and Commander, to know what belongs to his place, and not to encroach upon his Su­periours; so shall good order be best kept in a great Fami­ly.


It is the safest way in a martiall expedition, to com­mit the main charge to the hands of one: companions in Command begets confusion in the Camp. When two able Commanders are join'd in e­quall Commission, each is apt to think his own way best, and by mutuall thwarting each o­ther, both give opportunity to the enemy, and make destracti­on in the Army.


Let that Captain who is appointed for the guard of an assaulted City, avoid as a Rock all manner of confusion: when [Page 171] a multitude takes arms with­out order, that City becomes ruinous, without redresse.


If like Manlius thou com­mandest stout and great things be like Manlius stout to exe­cute thy great commands; it is a foul blemish in Sovereign­ty, when the will roars, and the power whispers: if thou canst not execute as freely as thou commandest, command no more than what thou mayest as freely execute.


If one party desire to ob­tain any thing of the other, be­ing in a mutuall difference, [Page 172] let him (if occasion will bear it) give him no time to ad­vise himself: Let him endea­vour to make him see a neces­sity of sudden resolution, and the danger of either deniall or delay: he that gives time to re­solve, teaches to deny, and gives warning to prepare.


Let not the Army at the first encounter, be too prodi­gall in her Assaults, but hus­band her strength for a dead lift: When the enemy hath abated the fury of his first heat, let him then feel, thou hast reserved thy forces for the last blow: So shall the ho­nour [Page 173] he hath gained by his va­lour be turned to thy use, and encrease the glory of thy va­lour. Foregames when they prove, are speediest; but After games if wisely plaid are su­rest.


It is very requisite for a well advised Republick to cast a strict and serious eye upon those that seek favour by thy service: some seek it in a publick way, some in a private: The first brings honour to a Republick and ought to re­ceive encouragement: The se­cond is very pernicious, and dangerous, and ought to be re­warded [Page 174] with severe punish­ment: that brings forth glory and emulation; this populari­ty, and faction, (and if not pu­nisht) ruine.


Let not the covetousnesse of a Captain purloin to his own use, or any way bereave the souldiers of any profit due unto their services, either in their means or spoils. Such injuries (being quickned by their daily necessities) are ne­ver forgot: What souldiers earn with the hazard of their lives (if not enjoy'd) prophe­sies an overthrow in the next battell.


If a Prince would have virtuous subjects, let his sub­jects have a virtuous Prince: so shall he better punish the vices of his people; so shall they trulier prize virtue, and folow it, being exemplified in their Prince.


It is the part of a wise Commander, to cast an eye ra­ther upon the actions, than the Persons, and rather to read men in their merits, than in Ladies letters: he that for favor or for base reward prefers a souldier, betrays his King­dom for a bribe, or sels his [Page 176] honour for a kisse.


Where order and fury are well acquainted the war pros­pers, and the souldiers end no lesse men than they begun: order takes spirit of fury, and fury takes rules of order: but where order is wanting fury runs mad; and when fury is wanting order lies dead: in the absence of order fury runs her own way; and being an unthrift of her own strength, fails in the first Assault, and cravens: and such, beginning more than men, end lesse than women.


It is the quality of a wise [Page 177] Commander, to make his souldiers confident in his wis­dome, and their own strength: if any danger be to conceal it; if manifest, to lessen it: let him possess his Army with the justness of the war, and a certainty of the victory: a good cause makes a stout heart, and a strong Arm; they that fear an overthrow are half conquered.


It is requisite for a General to mingle love with the severi­ty of his discipline: they that cannot be induced to fear for love, will never be forced to love for fear: love opens [Page 178] the heart; fear shuts it: that encourages; this compels: And victory meets encou­ragement, but flees compulsi­on.


In two degrees standeth the whole service of God by man, interiour upward by prayer, exteriour or down­ward by works flowing there from, before the world.


He that nourisheth a facti­on between his servants in his own family, doth nothing else but help to set his own house on fire.


Although we are not stocks nor stones not to feel calami­ties, yet we should not suffer the feeling of them, so to over­rule and astonish our reason, as it may stay us from taking the best resolution, and using thereof, for remedy that can be found out.


Age is venerable, not in respect of the apparence, but in respect of the annexion; be­cause wisedome commonly accompanies such a pre­sence.


The Devils are like the [Page 180] Pest which smites those surest, which flies it furthest, and ap­prehends deepliest the perill thereof.


Alexander was not thank­ed and commended for con­quering the world, but for doing it before thirty years old.


It is the greatest decay to youth, either not to indure good advice, or not to believe it, untill their perill and over­throw make them see it to their shame.


It is no power inherent in [Page 181] the Circles, or in the holiness of names of God used blas­phemously, nor in whatsoever rites or ceremonies, that either can raise any infernall spirit, or limit him perforce within or without such and such Cir­cles; but it is the craft of the Devill, the father of lies, who having first of all prescribed that form of doing, feigning himself to be commanded and restrained thereby, will be loath to pass the bounds of those injunctions.


Continual experience proves that idleness is ever the grea­test spur to Lechery.


Man being compounded of all the four complexions, whose father are the elements, although there be a mixture of them all in all the parts of the body, yet must divers parts of this Microcosm or little world of ours, be divers­ly more inclined, some to one some to another complexion, according to the diversity of their use: that of those discords a perfect harmony may be made up, for the maintenance of the whole body.


It is a thanklesse and a dan­gerous office, to make an a­ward [Page 183] betwixt two differing States, wherein as thou shalt seldome content above one party, so thou shalt often displease both: it is a bad service; wherein whilest thou endeavourest to make two friends, between themselves, thou gainest two enemies to thy self.


It is more dangerous for a Prince to be disdained by his subjects than to be hated: hatred admits fear, and fear forces loyalty. But disdain excludes both love and fear, and consequently dissolves o­bedience. That Prince that is hated, is in his high road to [Page 184] ruin; and he that is disdained is at his journeys end.


There be three sorts of Government, Monarchicall, Aristocraticall, Democrati­call: And they are apt to fall three severall ways into ruine; the first by Tyranny; the second by Ambition; the last by tumult. A Common­wealth grounded upon any of these, is but of short con­tinuance; but being wisely mingled, either guard the other and makes the government exact.


Before thou undertake a [Page 185] war let thine eye number thy forces, and let thy judgement weigh them: if thou hast a rich enemy no matter how poor thy souldiers be, if cou­ragious and faithfull. Trust not too mch to the power of thy treasure, for it will deceive thee, being more apt to expose thee for a Prey, than defend thee. Gold is not able to make good souldiers, but good souldiers are able to find out gold.


If the Territories of thy equall enemy are scituated far south from thee, the advantage is thine, whether he make [Page 186] offensive or defensive war; if North the advantage is his. Cold is lesse tollerable than heat. This is a friend to na­ture, that an enemie.


It is not onely uncivill but dangerous for souldiers, by reproachfull words, to throw disgrace upon an ene­my: Base terms are bellows to a slaking fury, and goads to quicken up revenge in a fleeing foe: he that objects a Cowardice against a failing enemy, adds spirit to him to disprove the aspersion at his own cost: it is therefore the part of a wise souldier to re­frain [Page 187] it, or of a wise Com­mander to reprove it.


Let that Commander, which desires to give a fair Ac­compt, be very strict both in punishments and rewards, and proportion them according to the merits of the deserver, and the fault of the delinquent: let the service of the one be duely rewarded, lest thou discourage worth, and the demerits of the other strictly punished, lest thou encourage vice: the neglect of the one weakens an army; the omission of both ruines it.


If tbou desire to know the power of a State, observe in what correspondence it lives with her neighbours. If it make alliance with the contri­bution of money, it is an evi­dent sign of weaknesse; if with her valor, or repute of forces, it manifests a native strength: it is an infallible sign of pow­er to sell friendship; and of weaknesse to buy it. That which is bought with gold, will hardly be maintained with steel.


If thy two neighbouring Princes be at variance, shew [Page 189] thy self either a true friend or a fair enemy; it is indiscreti­on to adhere to him, whom thou hast least cause to fear if he vanquish: Neutrality is dangerous whereby thou be­comest a necessary Prey to the Conquerour.


It is a greater argument of a Princes wisedome, not onely to chuse, but also to prefer wise Counsellors: and such are they, that seek lesse their own advantages than his; whom wise Princes ought to reward, lest they become their own carvers, and so of good ser­vants become bad Masters.


It is very dangerous to try experiment in a State, unlesse extream necessity be urgent, or popular utility be palpable. It is better for a State to con­nive a while at an inconveni­ence, than too suddenly to rush upon a reformation.


If a valiant Prince be suc­ceeded by a weak successour, he may for a while maintain a happy State, by the remaining virtue of his glorious prede­cessour: but if his life be long, or dying, he be succeeded by one lesse valiant then the first, his Kingdome is very likely to [Page 191] fall to ruine. That Prince is a true father to his Country that leaves it the rich inheritance of a brave son. When Alexander succeeded Philip, the world was too little for the Con­querour.


It is very dangerous for a Prince or Republick, to make continuall practise of cruell exaction; where the subject stands in the sense or expecta­tion of evill, he is apt to pro­vide either for his safety, either from the evill he feels or from the danger he fears, and grow­ing bold in conspiracy makes faction, which faction is the [Page 192] mother of ruine.


That Prince who stands in fear more of his own people then of strangers, ought to build fortresses in his land. But he that is more afraid of strangers than his own subjects shall build them more secure­ly in the affections of his peo­ple.


Carry a watchfull eye upon dangers till the come to ripenesse, and when they are ripe let loose a speedy hand: he that expects them too long meets them too late; and he that meets them too soon-gives advantage to the evill. [Page 193] Commit their beginning to Argus his eyes, and their ends to Briareus his hands, and thou art safe.


Of all difficulties in a State, the temper of true go­vernment most felicifies and perpetuates it. Too sudden al­terations distempers it; too contrary destroys it. Had Nero turned his Kingdome as he did his Harp, his harmony had been more honourable, and his reign more prospe­rous.


If a Prince fearing to be assailed by a forreign enemy, hath a well armed people, and [Page 194] well addrest for war, let him stay at home, and expect him there. But if his subjects be unarmed, or his Kingdome unacquainted with the stroke of war, let him meet the ene­my in his quarters: the fur­ther he keeps the war from his own home the lesse danger.


It is great prudence in a States-man to discover an in­convenience in the birth; which, so discovered, is easie to be supprest. But if it ri­pen into custome, the sudden remedy is worse than the disease: in such a case better to temporize a little, than [Page 195] struggle too much. He that opposes a full-aged inconveni­ence too suddenly, strengthens it.


Let a Prince preserve him­self in the favor of the people, more than the great-ones: they are many; these but few: these cannot be satisfied upon easie terms; whereas they are content with small mat­ters. Moreover, the Prince is necessitated to live always with the same people, but may do well enough with the same Great-ones: tumults in a State, are more dangerous than ambition.


If thou endeavourest to make a Republick in a Nation where the Gentry abounds, thou shalt hardly prosper in that design: and if thou would­est erect a Principallity in a land where there is much e­quallity of people, thou shalt not easily effect it: the way to bring the first to passe, is to weaken the Gentry; the means to effect the last, is to advance and strengthen turbu­lent and ambitious spirits: so that being placed in the midst of them, their forces may maintain thy power, and thy favour may prefer their ambi­tion: otherwise there shall be [Page 197] neither proportion nor conti­nuance.


It is more excellent in a Prince to have a provident eye for the preventing future mischiefs, than to have a po­tent arm for the suppressing of present evils: Mischiefs in a State are like Hectick fea­vers in a body naturall; in the beginning hard to be known, but easily to be cured: but being let alone a while, more easie to be known, but harder to be cured.


If a Kingdome be apt to rebellion, it is wisdome to pre­serve the Nobility and Com­monalty [Page 198] still at variance. Where one of them is dis­contented the matter is not great; the Commons are flow of motion if not quick­ned by the Nobility: the No­bility weak in power if not strengthned by the Commons: then is danger, when the Commonalty troubles the wa­ter, and the Nobility steps in.


He is said rightly to serve his Country whose body exe­cuteth what his wisdome plot­teth.


Common affability is com­mendable and not to be misli­ked, so it reserve the state of [Page 199] the party; otherwise it is not humility but basenesse.


Sauces, are more like medicines than meat, and they serve onely for the pleasing of the taste: and not for satisfying of the necessity of nature.


We ow all men salutation and a cap, but not familiarity; for except we be sure their worthinesse deserves it, we be­tray our selves.


Whatsoever God doth by a Medium, must know an end, what immediately belongs to eternity.


The Slanderer and he that de­fires to hear lies, are whelps of a litter; the one hath a Devil in his tongue, and the other in his ears.


Fortune hath no power o­ver wisedome, but of sensuali­ty, and of lives that swim and navigate without the loadstone of discretion and judgement.


The disposition of wicked men are perverse, Coaction must force them to goodnesse, and correction restrain them from wickedness.


Mans happinesse doth rest in the managing of his own time, [Page 201] so that every man may be blest and rich in perfection, if his own dissolutenesse, and un­thriftinesse incurs not the contrary.


All qualities without the di­rection of virtue, profit not, but overthrow their pos­sessours.


When the mouth of Lazarus was shut his soars spoke for him; so when we cannot use our hands in defence of our Country, we should lift them up for our Princes protection.


If he be to be pittied, that be­stows half his patrimony in [Page 202] hobbi-horses, then much more they, who having but a little time dedicate half to sleep and idlenesse.


As troubles come for exer­cise of virtue and encrease of merit, so affliction sends many to prayer and fasting, and few men seldom do well, except ne­cessity inforce them; for hun­ger and poverty makes men in­dustrious, and the laws make them good.


As the servants of God are known by humility and chari­ty, so the servants of the divel are known by pride and cruel­tie.


The confession of our sins do no lesse honour God, than his glory is blemished by Com­mission.


Suspicion is no where so conversant and powerful as a­mōg Princes, unto whom, to say rightly, it rightly belongs: For howsoever they are they have enemies; if good, envious; if evil some that lay hold upon that occasion; yea, even their friends are doubtfull, not being easie to be discerned, whether lovers of themselves or of their for­tunes.


To pray to the Lord with the lips for any corporall benefit, [Page 204] and yet to have the heart fixed in confidence of any naturall means, is a kind of spirituall adultery.


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