SAMUEL HARTLIB HIS LEGACIE: OR An Enlargement of the Discourse of HUSBANDRY USED IN BRABANT and FLAUNDERS; Wherein are bequeathed to the COMMON-WEALTH of ENGLAND more Outlandish and Domestick Experiments and Secrets in reference to Universall HUSBANDRY.

Psalme 144. verse 13, 14, 15.

That our Garners may be full, affording all manner of store, that our Sheep may bring forth thousands, and ten thousands in our Streets.

That our Oxen may be strong to labour,—that there be no com­plaining in our Streets.

Happy is that People that is in such a Case: YEA, HAPPY is that People whose God is the Lord.

Psalme 4. verse 6, 7.

There be many that say: Who will shew us any Good? Lord, lift thou up the light of thy Countenance upon us:▪

Thou hast put gladnesse in my heart, more then in the time, that their Corne and their Wine increased.

Entered according to the late Act concerning Printing.

LONDON, Printed by H. Hills, for Richard Wodenothe at the Star under St. Peters Church in Cornhill, 1651.

To the Reader.

Courteous Reader,

THe Discourse which I did formerly publish con­cerning the Brabant-Husbandry, was somewhat imperfect, nor was the Author thereof then knowne unto me; but since I have learned who the Author was, I have also lighted upon a more perfect Copy, which I intend to offer to the Publique in a Second Edition; that such as have enter­tained that first offer with liking and acceptance, may finde the benefit of a clearer and fuller satisfaction in that which shall further be imparted unto them. And to the end that Ingenuity and Industry may want no incouragement, in the meane time accept of these Enlargements upon the same Sub­ject; wherein you will find divers other wayes, and no lesse (if not more) profitable, then that which was left by Sir RICHARD WESTON (the Author of the Brabant-Husbandry) as a Legacy to his Sonnes: Whose Introduction to that Discourse, I have here premised to this, to bespeake thee in his words to his Sonnes, and to gain thy affections more fully to these wayes of advantaging both thy selfe and the Publique. And I could wish, that God would put it in the heart of those Worthies that manage the Publique Trust, that by their Influence and Authority, these and such like Meanes of Industry, may not be left wholly to the uncertaine, disor­derly and lazy undertakings of private men, so as not to have an eye over them, and over that which in their pro­ceedings doth so mainly appeare to be a Publique Concern­ment. Therefore let us all joine to intreate and petition them, that in order to the Publique and General Welfare of this Common-wealth, these two things at least may be thought upon and setled.

1. In respect of the known unto wardnes of the Major part [Page] of the People; who being wonderfully wedded to old cu­stomes, are not easily won to any new course, though ne­ver so much to their owne profit, that two or more fit Per­sons of approved skill and integrity may be made Publique Stewards or Surveyors; one of the Husbandly, the other of the Woods of this Common-wealth, and impowered to oversee and take care of the preservation of what is, and by all good improvement to procure and provide for what is wanting to the present age: and (except some such Expedients be u­sed) it is more then likely will be wanting to suceeding a­ges.

2. That according to the usual custome in Flaunders, a Law may be made of letting & hiring Leases upon Improve­ment; where the manner is, That the Farmer covenanteth on his part, to improve the land to such or such a great­er Rent, by an orderly and excellent management of Hus­bandry, as well as Building. The Landlord on the other side covenanteth on his part, at the expiration of the said Lease, to give so many years purchase of the Improvement (according to the agreement) which is 3. or 4. years or some times more, or to give out of it such a parcel or moity of Ground. As if land formerly going for 6. 8. an Acre, be upon Improvement worth 10. 8. or 13. 8. 4. d. an Acre. The Landlord is to give 4. or 5. 8. upon every Acre, more or lesse, according to the agreement. If it please God to blesse these Motions, and that accordingly the National Husbandry of this Common-wealth be improved; we may hope through Gods blessing to see better dayes, and to be able to beare necessary and Publique burdens with more ease to our selves, and bene­fit to Humane Society then hitherto we could attaine unto. Which more and more to advance, in reference to a Publique and Ʋniversal Interest, as subordinate to Higher things; & which though lesse visible and sensible, are more permanent, and to truly Rational and Spiritual Husbandmen as perceptible, shall be the uncessant prayers and endeavours of

Thy faithful Servant SAMUEL HARTLIB.

Sir RICHARD WESTON late of Sutton in the County of Surrey his Legacy to his Sonnes &c. Anno Dom. 1645.

My Sonnes,

I Have left this short ensuing Treatise to you as a Le­gacy; if I shall not live my selfe, to shew you (what therein is written) by examples, which I know instruct far more then precepts; yet precepts from a dying Father, instructing of his Children what he hath seen and knowne, and received information of from wit­nesses free from all exceptions, should make such an impression on them, as at least to beleeve their Father writ what he thought was true; And therefore suppose those things worthy to be put in practise by them, which he himself would have done, if it had pleased God to have grant­ed him Life and Liberty; Especially seeing the matter it self, which is required by him to be done, is in shew so profitable, and so easie to be effected, and with so little charge, considering the great gaine that is proposed by it, that not any thing can restraine a rational man from triall thereof, but not giving credit to the Relator.

The whole Discourse shewes you, how to Improve barren and hea­thy Land, and how to raise more then ordinary profit thereof, by such waies and Meanes as are not practised in England: but as commonly in some parts of Brabant and Flaunders, as the Husbandry of Wheate and Rie is here. By that meanes you may nobly augment your estates, and will receive so much the more profit and praise, by how with more industry and diligence you governe your affaires; and will not onely be imitated, but also honoured by your Neighbours, when they shall see your labours prosper so farre, as to convert barren and heathy ground left unhusbanded for many ages, into as com­modious arable land, with Pastures and Meadowes, as any be in this Kingdome. And certainly, that man is worthy of praise and Honour, who being possessor of a large and barren Demeasne, constraines it by his labour and industry to produce extraordinary [Page] fruit; which redounds not onely to his own Particular profit, but also to the Publique benefit. Cato saith, It is a great shame to a man, not to leave his Inheritance greater to his Successors then he received it from his Predecessors: and that he despiseth the Liberalities of God, who by Slothfulnesse loseth that which his land may bring forth, as not seeming willing to reape the fruits which God hath offered him. Nay he threatens the crime of high Treason, to those that do not augment their Pa­trimony so much as the Increase surmounts the Principal. It is a thing much celebrated by Antiquity, and thought the noblest way to gather Wealth, for to imploy ones Wit and Money upon his Land, and by that meanes to augment his estate. If you observe the Common Course of things, you will finde that Husbandry is the End, which Men of all estates in the world do point at. For to what purpose do Souldiers, Scholars, Lawyers, Merchants, and men of all Occupations and Trades, toyle and labour with great affection, but to get Money? and with that money when they have gotten it, but to purchase Land? and to what end do they buy that land, but to receive the Fruits of it to live? and how shall one receive the fruits of it, but by his own Husbandry or a Farmers? So that it appeares by degrees, that what course soever a man taketh in this world, at last he cometh to Husbandry, which is the most Com­mon Occupation amongst men, the most Natural and Holy, being commanded by the mouth of God to our First Fathers. There is Care and Diligence requisite in Husbandry, as there is in all the Acti­ons of the World; and therefore as a Captain hath a Lieutenant to command his Souldiers in his absence, or for his ease: So must you provide some able honest man, to whom you will commit the execu­tion of such things, as you your selves cannot do without too much la­bour: whereof you must often take an account, and conferre with him (as occasion shall require) about your businesse, that nothing may be left undone for want of Providence. To such a man you must give good wages, with intent to advance your own gaine, and take the more ease by reason of his honesty and knowledge.

You will finde this Husbandry (after you have once had experience of it) to be very pleasing to you, and so exceeding profitable, that it will make you diligent: For no man of any Art or Science (except an Alchymist) ever pretended so much gaine any other way, as you shall see demonstrated in this ensuing Treatise. The Userer doubles but [Page] his Principall, with Interest upon Interest in seven yeares; but by this little Treatise, you shall learne how to do more then treble your Principal in one years compasse. And you shall see how an Industri­ous man in Brabant and Flaunders would bring 500. Acres of barren and heathy Land, that was not worth at the most above 5. l. a year, to be worth 7000. l. a year, in lesse time then seven years. I know no reason, why the like may not be done in England: for we are under as good a Climate as they are; Our heathy Land that is nei­ther Sand nor Loame, is as good a soile as their barren ground is. We have not onely Dung to enrich our Land, but also Lime and Marle, of which they know not the use, where they sewe their gain­fullest Commodities mentioned in this ensuing Treatise, nor of any other Manure, but onely Dung. In fine, I am certain, there is none of their Commodities but grow in England, as they do in Brabant and Flaunders, but ours are not of the same kinde, as theirs, nor put to the same use. What cannot be vented at home, may as well be vented from hence into Holland, as the like Commodities are from Flaun­ders thither. I will say no more of this Subject in the Preface: one­ly it remaines to tell you, that you must not expect either Eloquence or Method in this ensuing Treatise; but a true Story plainly set forth in the Last Will and Testament of your Father, which he would have you execute: but before all things, to be sure you lay the Foundation of your Husbandry upon the Blessings of the Almigh­ty God, continually imploring his divine aide and assistance in all your labours: for it is God that gives the increase: and beleeving this as the Quintessence and soul of Husbandry, Primum quae­rite Regnum Dei; et postea haec omnia adjicientur vobis. These things being briefly premised, I will leave the rest to this short ensuing Treatise, and commit you all with a Fathers Blessing to the Protection and Providence of Almighty God.

Thus far Sir RICHARD WESTON'S Introduction to the Discourse of BRABANT-HUSBANDRY; which is shortly to be published in a Second Edition corrected and enlarged.

The greater Faults escaped in Printing.

PAge 11. line 29. for Raith Rape, reade raith (or early-ripe) Rape. p. 22. l. ult: for these in Northampton-shire. I know. r. these. In Northampton­shire I know &c. p. 41. l. 26. for a hundred hands, r. a thousand hands. p. 57. l. 17. for Spine, r. Spaine. p. 78. l. 4. for how ill they manage, r. how they till, manage. p. 87. l. 16. for putrifyed r. petrefied p. 93. l. 13. for go tound, as the causes of their operations. r. go round, as an horse in a mill, and endeavour very little to advance or know the causes of their operati­ons. p. ead. l. 17. for the is, r. is the. p. ead l. ult. for on, r. our. p. 94. l. 31. for dence, r. pence. p. 99. l. 23 for Maram's works. r. Markam's works. p. 105. l. 20. for mentioned, r. as mentioned. p. ead. l. 29. for avdance, r. advance. p. 126 l. 23. for The Professors of Art and Industry preferre their private gain, r. The Professors of Art and Industry, besides their private, aime also at a publick good; these preferre their private gaine &c.

A Large letter concerning the Defects and Remedies of English Husbandry written to Mr. SAMUEL HARTLIB.


According to your desires, I have sent you what I have observed in France, about the sowing of a seed called commonly. Saint Foine, which in English is as much to say as Holy-Hay, by reason, as I suppose of the excellency of it. It's called by Parkinson in his Herball, where you may see a perfect description of it, Onobrychis Vulgaris, or Cockes head; because of its flower, or Medick Fetchling: By some it is called Polygala; because it causeth cattel to give abundance of milke. The plant most like unto it, and com­monly known; being frequently sowne in gardens, is that which is called French Honey-suckle, and is a kind of it, though not the same. France although it be supposed, to want the fewest things of any Pro­vince in Europe; yet it hath no small want of Hay, e­specially about Paris; which hath necessitated them to sowe their dry and barren lands with this seed. Their manner of sowing it, is done most common­ly thus: When they intend to let their Corne-lands ly; because they be out of heart, and not situate in a place convenient for manuring; then they sowe that land with Oates and these seeds together about equall parts; the first year they only mowe off their Oates, leaving the Saint Foine to take root and strength that year; Yet they may if they please, when the year is seasonable, mowe it the same year it is sowne; but it's not the best way to do so: the [Page 2] year following they mowe it, and so do seven years together; the ordinary burthen is obout a loade or a load and a halfe in good years, upon an Arpent, (which is an 100. square Poles or Roddes, every Pole or Rod being 20. foot) which quantity of ground being nigh a 4th. part lesse than an English Acre; within a league of Paris, is usually Rented at 6. or 7. s. After the land hath rested 7. years; then they usually break it up, and sowe it with Corne till it be out of heart, and then sowe it with Saint Foine as formerly: for it doth not impoverish land, as Annuall Plants do; but after seven years, the roots of this plant being great and sweet, as the roots of Licorish, do rot, being turned up by the Plough, and enrich the Land. I have seen it sowne in di­vers places here in England; especially in Cobham-Park in Kent, about 4. miles from Gravesend; where it hath thriven extraordinary well upon dry Chalky bankes, where nothing else would grow: and indeed such dry barren land is most proper for it as moist rich land for the great Trefoile or great Clover-Grasse (although it will grow indifferently well on all lands) and when the other grasses and plants are destroyed by the parching heat of the Sun; because their roots are small and shallow; this flourisheth very much, having very great root and deepe in the ground, and therefore not easily to be exsiccated; As we have observed Ononis or Rest-Har­row commonly to do, on dry lands; but if you sowe this on wet land, the water soon corrupts the root of it. This plant without question would much improve many of our barren lands, so that they might be mowen every year once, at least 7. years [Page 3] together, and yeeld excellent fodder for Cattel, if so be that it be rightly managed; otherwise it com­eth to nothing; as I have seen by experience. I therefore councel those who sowe this, or the great Trefoile or Clover-Grasse, or any other sorts of grasses; that they observe these Rules.

1. That they do make their ground fine, and kill all sorts of other grasses and plants; otherwise they being native English will by no meanes give way to the French ones; especially in this moist climate; and therefore they are to be blamed; who with one ploughing sowe this or other seeds; for the grasse presently groweth up and choaketh them, and so by their negligence, and ill Husbandry, discoura­geth themselves and others.

2. Let them not be too sparing of their seeds; for the more they sowe, the closer and thicker they will grow, and presently fully stock the ground, that nothing else can grow. And further, the seeds which come from beyond the Seas, are oftentimes old and much decayed, and therefore the more seed is required.

3. Not to expect above 7. years profit by it; for in that time it will decay, and the natural grasse will prevail over it; for every plant hath his period; some in one year; some in 2. others in 3. as the common Thistle; and therefore after 7. years, let them either plough the land up, and sowe it with that same seed again, or with other Graine as they do in France.

4. Let not sheepe or other cattel bite them the first year, that they may be well rooted; For these grasses are farre sweeter then the ordinary grasses; and [Page 4] cattel will eat them down, leaving the other; and consequently discourage their growth.

5. The best way, if men will be at the charge, is to make their ground very fine, as they do when they are to sowe Barly, and harrowe it even; and then to howe these seeds in alone without any other graine, as the Gardiners do Pease; yet not at so great a distance; but let them make the ranges a­bout a foot's breadth one from another, and they shall see their grasses flourish, as if they were green Pease; especially if they draw the howe through them once or twice that summer to destroy all the weeds and grasses: And if they do thus, the great Clover and other seeds may be mowen even twice the first year, as I have experimented in divers small plots of ground.

There is at Paris likewise another sort of fodder, which they call La Lucerne, which is not inferior, but rather preferred before this Saint Foine, for dry and barren grounds; which hath been lately brought thither, and is managed as the former; and truely every day produceth some new things, not onely in other Countreys, but also in our own. And though I cannot but very much commend these plants unto my Countreymen, knowing that they may be beneficial to this Nation; yet I especially recom­mend unto them a famous kind of grasse growing in Wilshire 9. miles from Salisbury, at Maddington, which may better be called one of the wonders of this Land, then the Hawthorne-tree at Glassenbury, which superstition made so famous: for divers of the same kind are found elsewhere. You may find this grasse briefly described in a Book called Phyto­logia [Page 5] Britannica, (which lately came forth, and set down even all the plants which have been found na­turally growing in England Gramen Caninum Supinum Longissimum, which groweth 9. miles from Salisbury, Mr. Tuckers at Maddington: where with they fat hogs; and which is 24. foot long, a thing almost incredi­ble; yet commonly known to all that Shire. Now without question, if the seed of this grasse, be sowne in other rich Meadowes, it will yeeld extra­ordinarily, though perchance not so much, as in its proper place. I wonder that those that live there abouts, have not tryed to fertilize their other Mea­dowes with it: for it is a peculiar species of grasse; and though some Ingenious men have found about 90. species of grasses in this island: yet there is none like to this, that can by any meanes be brought to such an height, and sweetnesse. And truly I suppose, that the thorough examination of this grasse, is a thing of very great importance, for the improve­ment of Meadowes and Pastures; and it may excel the great Trefoile, Saint Foine, La Lucerne, or any exo­tick plant whatsoever. And though I am very un­willing to exceed the bounds of an Epistle; yet I cannot but certifie you, wherein the Husbandry of this Nation in other particulars (as I suppose) is great­ly deficient, which I will do as briefly as may be; and likewise, how ingenious men may finde Remedies for these deficiencies.

First he would do the honest and painful Hus­band-man 1. defici­ency con­cerning ploughs and car­riages, a very great pleasure, and bring great pro­fit to this Nation, who could facilitate the going of the Plough and lighten our ordinary Carriages. I won­der, that so many excellent Mechanicks, who have [Page 6] beaten their braines about the perpetual Motion and other curiosities, that they might find the best wayes to ease all Motions, should never so much as to honour the Plough (which is the most necessary Instrument in the world,) by their labour and stu­dies. I suppose all know, that it would be an extra­ordinary benefit to this Countrey, if that 1. or 2. horses could plough and draw as much as 4. or 6. and fur­ther also, that there is no small difference in ploughs, and waggons, when there is scarce any sure rule for the making them; and every Countrey, yea almost every County, differs not onely in the ploughs; but even in every part. Some with wheels, others with­out; some turning the Rest (as they call it) as in Kent, Picardy and Normandy,) others not; some ha­ving Coulters of one fashion, others of another; o­thers as the Dutch, having an Iron wheele or circle for that purpose; some having their sheares broad at point; some not; some being round, as in Kent, others flat; sometying their horses by the taile, as in Ireland. So, likewise Waggons and Carts differ: some using 4. wheels, others two onely; some car­rying timber on 2. wheeles in a Cart, others with 4. wheeles, and a long pole onely between, which is the best way; some plough with 2. horses onely, as in Norfolke, and beyond seas in France, Italy, where I never saw above three horses in a Plough, and one onely to hold and drive: but in Kent I have seen 4. 6. yea 12. horses and oxen; which variety sheweth, that the Husband-man, who is ordinarily ignorant in Mechanicks, is even at his wits end in this Instru­ment, which he must necessarily use continually. Surely he should deserve very well of this Nation, [Page 7] and be much honoured by all, that would set down exact Rules for the making of this most necessary, yet contemned Instrument, and for every part there­of: for without question there are as exact Rules to be laid down for this, as for Shipping & other things. And yet in Shipping, how have we within these 6. years out-stripped our selves, & gone beyond all Nations? for which Art some deserve eternal honour. And why may we not in this? I know a Gentleman, who now is beyond seas, where he excels even the Holland­ers, in their own businesse of draining; who pro­mised much in this kind, and I think, he is able to performe it; I could wish, he were called on to make good his promise. In China, it is ordinary to have waggons to passe up and down without horses or Oxen, with sailes as ships do: & lately in Holland a waggon was framed, which with ordinary sailes carryed 30. people 60. English miles in 4. houres. I know some excellent schollars, who promise much by the meanes of Horizontal sailes (viz.) to have 3. or 4. Ploughs to go together; which shall likewise both sowe and harrow. I dare not being ignorant in these high speculations, engage my selfe to do much thereby; but wish these Gentlemen, whom I know to be extreamly ingenious, would attempt some­thing, both for the satisfying of themselves and o­thers. There is an ingenious Yeoman of Kent, who hath 2. ploughs fastened together very finely, by the which he plougheth 2. furrowes at once, one under another; and so stirreth up the land 12. or 14. inches deep, which in deep land is good. Neare Greenwich there liveth an Honourable Gentleman, who hath ex­cellent Col. Blunt. Corne on barren land, and yet plougheth his [Page 8] land with one horse, when as usually through Kent, they use 4. and 6. These things shew that much may be done in this kinde; and I hope some in these a­ctive times, wil undertake and accomplish this work of so great importance.

There is a Book long since Printed made by Sir 2. Defi­ciency, about digging of land, Setting and how­ing in of Corne. Hugh Plattes, (the most curious man of his time) cal­led Adams Art revived, wherein is shewed the great benefit which would accrew to this Nation, if all land which were fit to be digg'd, were so ordered, and their corne set. Mr. Gab. Plattes likewise hath written much of this kind, and promiseth that men shall reape 100. for one; all charges borne which are very great. That this may be true, he bring­eth some probable Reasons, supposing that lesse then a peck of Wheat will set an Acre. I dare not promise so much as these Gentlemen do, neither can I com­mend M. Gab. Plattes setting Instrument: For I know there are many difficulties in it, which he himselfe could never wade through; but concerning digging and setting and howing in of Corne, these things I dare maintaine.

1. That it is a deficiency in Husbandry, that it is u­sed no more.

2. That one good digging, because it goeth deep­er than the Plough, and buryeth all weeds, killeth the grasses; is as good as three ploughings, and if the Land be mellow, not much more chargeable.

3. That it would imploy many 1000. of people, that a third part of the seed might be saved. As I have found by experience, that all the weeds and grasses, might be more easily destroyed thereby, and the ground better accommodated for other [Page 9] crops; and to conclude, the croppe considerably greater. Yet thus much I must further say, con­cerning setting of Graine, That great Beanes are e­ven of necessity to be set, and that small Beanes in Surrey and other places, are likewise set with Profit, for the reasons above mentioned; that to set Pease (unlesse Hastevers) Oates, Barley, is a thing even ridi­culous: that Wheate although in divers grounds it may be set with Profit; yet to Howe it in (as the Gar­diners speak) as they do Pease, though not at the same distance, but about a foot the ranges one from another, is better then setting, for these Rea­sons.

1. Because to set Corne is an infinite trouble and charge; and if it be not very exactly done, which children neither can nor will do, and these must be the chiefe setters; will be very prejudici­ous.

2. If wormes, frost, ill weather, or fowles, de­stroy any part of your seed, which they will do; your croppe is much impaired.

3. The ground cannot be so well weeded, and the mould raised about the roots by the howe. Which 3. inconveniencies are remedied by the other way.

Further I dare affirme, that after the ground is digged or ploughed and harrowed; even it's better to howe Wheate in, then to sowe it after the common way; because that the weeds may be easily destroy­ed by running the howe through it in the Spring, and the mould raised about the roots of the Corne, as the Gardiners do with Pease, it would save much Corne in deare yeares, and for other Reasons before mentioned. Yea it is not more chargeable; for a [Page 10] Gardiner will howe in an Acre for 5. s. and after in the spring for less money runne it over with a howe, and cut up all the weeds, and raise the mould: which charges are not great, and you shall save above a bushel of seed, which in deare years is more worth then all your charges.

Further 1. s. 6. d. an Acre for the sowing and har­rowing of an Acre in Kent is accounted a reasonable price; but if any feare charges let him use a Drill-Plough. I therefore cannot but commend the how­ing in of Wheate, as an excellent peece of good Hus­bandry, whether the ground be digged or plough­ed; not onely because it saveth much Corne, im­ployeth much people; and it is not chargeable; but it also destroyeth all weeds, fitteth grounds for af­ter crops, & causeth a greater increase, and in my ap­prehension is a good Remedy against Smut and Mil­dew. There is an Ingenious Italian, who wonder­eth how it cometh to passe, that if one setteth a Graine of Corne, as Wheate, Barly, &c. it usually pro­duceth 300. or 400. as I have tryed: yet if you sowe Wheate after the ordinary way, 6. or 8. for one is ac­counted a good crop; what becometh of all the Corne, that is sown, when as the 50th. part, if it do grow, would be sufficient? For answer to this.

1. I say, much Corne is sowne, which na­ture hath destinated for the Hens and Chickens, being without any considerable vegetative faculty.

2. Wormes, Frosts, Floods, Crowes, and Larkes, (which every one doth not consider) do devour not a little.

3, Weeds, as Poppie, May-weed, and the grasses growing with the Corne, do destroy much.

Lastly, when Corne is so sowne after the ordinary manner, much is buried in the furrowes; especial­ly if the ground be grazy: much is thrown on heaps in holes, and consequently starve and choake one another. Most of these Inconveniencies, are to be remedyed by this way of setting, and howing in of Corne.

Gardening, though it be a wonderfull improver of lands, as it plainly appears by this 3. Desi­ciency concern­ing Gar­dening. that they give extraordinary rates for land (viz.) from 40. s. per Acre to 9. pound, and dig and howe and dung their lands, which cost­eth very much; Yet I know divers, which by 2. or 3. Acres of land maintaine themselves and family, and imploy others about their ground; and there­fore their ground must yield a wonderfull increase, or else it could not pay charges; yet I suppose there are many Deficiencies in this calling.

1. Because it is but of few years standing in England, and therefore not deeply rooted. About 50. yeares ago, about which time Ingenuities first began to flourish in England; This Art of Garden­ing, began to creepe into England, into Sandwich, and Surrey, Fulham, and other places.

Some old men in Surrey, where it flourisheth ve­ry much at present; report, That they knew the first Gardiners that came into those parts, to plant Cabages, Colleflowers, and to sowe Turneps, Carrets, and Parsnips, to sowe Raith, Kape, Pease, all which at that time were great rarities, we having few, or none in England, but what came from Holland and Flaunders. These Gardiners with much ado pro­cured a plot of good ground, and gave no lesse then [Page 12] 8. pound per Acre; yet the Gentleman was not con­tent, fearing they would spoile his ground; because they did use to dig it. So ignorant were we of Gar­dening in those dayes.

2. Many parts of England are as yet ignorant. Within these 20. years, a famous Towne within lesse Graves­end. then 20. miles of London, had not so much as a messe of Pease but what came from London, where at pre­sent Gardening flourisheth much. I could instance divers other places, both in the North and West of England, where the name of Gardening, and Howing is scarcely knowne, in which places a few Gardiners might have saved the lives of many poor people, who have starved these dear years.

3. We have not Gardening-ware in that plenty and cheapnesse (unlesse perhaps about London) as in Holland and other places, where they not onely feed themselves with Gardiners ware, but also fat their Hogs and Cowes.

4. We have as yet divers things from beyond Seas, which the Gardiners may easily raise at home, though nothing nigh so much as formerly; for in Qu. Eliz. time, we had not onely our Gardiners ware from Holland, but also Cherries from Flaunders; Apples from France; Saffron, Licorish from Spaine; Hopps from the Low Countreys: And the Frenchman who writes the Treasure Politick saith, that it's one of the great Deficiencies of England, that Hopps will not grow, whereas now it is knowne, that Lico­rish, Saffron, Cherries, Apples, Peares, Hopps, Cabbages of England are the best in the world. Notwithstanding we as yet want many things, as for example: We want Onions, very many coming to England from Flaun­ders, [Page 13] Spaine; Madder for dying cometh from Zurick-Sea by Zealand; we have Red Roses from France; Anice-seeds, Fennell-seeds, Cumine, Caraway, Rice from Italy, which without question would grow very well in divers moist lands in England; yea Sweet Mar­jorame, Barly, and Gromwell-seed, & Virga Aurea, though they grow in our hedges in England.

Lastly, Gardening is deficient in this particular: that we have not Nurceries sufficient in this land, of Apples, Peares, Cherries, Vines, Chestnuts, Almonds; but Gentlemen are necessitated, to send to London many 100. miles for them.

Briefly, for the advancement of this ingenuous calling, I onely desire, that Industrious Gentlemen would be pleased to encourage some expert work­men into the places where they live, and to let them land at a reasonable rate, and if they be poor and honest, to lend a little stock; they will soon see the benefit that will redound, not onely to themselves, but also to all their neighbours, especially the poor, who are not a little sustained by the Gardiners la­bours and Ingenuities.

4. Our Husbandry is deficient in this, that we know not how to remedy the infirmities of our grow­ing 4. Defi­ciency in Smut & Mildew. Corne; especially Smut and Mildew, to instance in these two onely, which oftentimes bring great ca­lamities to these Nations: Smut in wet years, Mil­dewes in dry. These distempers in Corne, are not onely in our Countrey; but also in other places. A learned Author saith, that Smuttynesse of corne, which maketh it smell like a Red Herring, was not Helmont. knowne in France, till about 1530. at which time the great foule disease began to break forth, which [Page 14] he conceiveth from hence to have some original; as also the campe-disease. Mildewes are very great in the Kingdome of Naples, which oft stick to the sithes of those that mowe grasse and Corne: and (God be thanked) we are not troubled with Locusts, which is a great flying Grasse-hopper, nor Palmer-wormes, which is a kind of great black Catter-piller, nor with great haile in summer, nor with great drought, which sti­fleth the eare in the stalke; which Calamities in hot Countreyes, do very oft totally destroy the honest and patient Husband-man's labours: neither are we troubled with extreame colds, which in New-England and other cold Countreyes, do oft destroy the Corne. But to returne to our purpose.

And first briefly to shew you my opinion concern­ing the Causes of Smuttynesse. I desire not to fetch Causes a farre off, and to tell you of the sad Conjuncti­ons of Mars and Saturn (for I think, Quae supraenos, be­long not to us) when as we have enough at home: This is certain, ethat there are many evident Causes of this corruption of Corn.

1. A moist season about Kerning-time: which moi­sture either corrupteth the roots of the Plant, or the nourishment of it, or the seed in its Embrio: or per­haps in some measure all these.

2. Low, moist, foggy ground, for the reasons a­bove mentioned.

3. Dung'd land. In Vineyards it's observed, that dung causeth more increase in quantity, but lesse in goodnesse, so that the ill taste of the dung may ea­sily be discerned; because wine hath an high taste, without question the same happeneth to other Plants, although it be not so easily discerned for the [Page 15] ferment or ill odour of the dung, cannot be over-mastered by the Plants, as wee see also in Animals, that corrupt diet causeth unfavory tastes in the flesh: so hogs in New found-land, were they are nourished by fish, may by their tastes be called rather Sea-porpusses, then Land-swine.

4. The sowing of Smutty Corne oft produceth Smuttynesse; the Son like unto the father; I account Smutty Corne an imperfect or sick Graine, and sup­pose that by a Microscope the imperfection may be discerned.

Lastly, the sowing of the same seed oft on the same field, causeth Smuttynesse; because that nitrous juice, which is convenient for the nourishment of the Graine, hath been exhausted in the precedent years; and therefore it is excellent Husbandry eve­ry year to change the species of Graine, and also to buy your Seed-Corne, from places farre distant. I am informed of a Gentleman, who did sowe some Wheate which came from Spaine, where the Graine is usually very hard and flinty, and as it were tran­sparent, and farre weightier then ours (as it ap­peareth by a measure at Amsterdam which holdeth about 3. bushels, and if our Wheat in the Northerne parts weigheth 160. the Southerne Corne weigheth sometimes 180. 200. 220:) and had a crop beyond expectation.

The usuall Cures of Smuttynesse, besides those mentioned before, are these.

1. To lime your ground, which warmeth and dryeth the land.

2. To lime your Corne, which is done thus. First slack your lime, and then moisten your Corne or [Page 16] lime, and stirre them together till your Graine be as big as a small Pease. This liming preserveth Corne likewise from birds and wormes, and is found a very good Remedy against this disease: others make a strong ly with common salt, and steepe their Corne in it all night, and then draw away their ly for fur­ther use; which seldome faileth of its desired effect. Whether this strong ly doth by its corrosivenes, mor­tify the weake and imperfect Corne, so that it will not grow; Or whether it be a Remedy, to cure the imperfections thereof, is worth the enquiry? I sup­pose that this ly doth exsiccate the superfluous humidi­ty, which is the cause of this corruption. If Corne be brought into the barne very Smutty, in Kent they usually thrash it on dry floores planked with boards; by which meanes, the Smuttynesse is beaten away, and sticketh not to the Graine, onely a little blacknes appeareth about the eye, but if it be thrash­ed on a moist floore, the blacknesse sticketh to the graine, which therefore appeareth darke, and is sold at a lower rate to the Bakers.

Mildew is without question an unctuous dew, which descendeth from above, about Midsommer; it aboundeth in dry years, as Smuttynesse in moist. I cannot thinke that there is ordinarily any Maligni­ty in this dew, but it produceth its effect by mani­fest causes, viz. from an oily viscous quality which stoppeth the pores of the husk wherein the Wheate lyeth, and depriveth it from the Aire, and conse­quently from nourishment: for the Aire is the life of all things. I have heard and do beleeve, that if you streake any eare of Wheat with oile, it will produce the same effect. I am sorry that I never [Page 17] tryed, that I might better understand the nature of this sad calamity; which often undoeth the Indu­strious Husband-man; and causeth great scarcity in this Isle. It is to be observed further, that Wheat on­ly suffereth considerable damage by Mildew; be­cause it lyeth in a chaffy husk, which other Graines do not. The Grounds most subject to Mildew are these.

1. Those that are inclosed with trees and high hedges. And truly this is the onely great Inconveni­ency I find by enclosures.

2. Lowe velleyes. I have seen very oft in the same field, the bankes fine, bright Corne; and all the lower parts, though greater in straw; yet little worth by reason of the Mildew.

3. Dung made of straw, I have observed to dis­pose much to Mildew, and Sheeps-dung to be a kind of Antidote against it: as also Pigeons-dung; because, as I conceive, these, 2. last sorts abound much in Ni­ter, which produceth a firme, hard, bright Corne, not easily to be putrefyed; but the other being more oily and Sulphureous causeth a darke Spungy Corn, soon corruptible. And 2. Because straw is a part of the same kind corrupted which is alwayes in some measure hurtfull to the same species both in Ammals and all Vegetables; and therefore rotten sticks or the earth proceeding from them, is found hurtful to the roots of trees; and trees will hardly grow, where the Roots of other trees have formerly been corrupt­ed.

The Remedyes for this Accident, briefly are these. (Not to speak of Bees, who questionlesse make most of their Honey from these Honies or Mildews: for they [Page 18] gather very little, in comparison of that which fal­leth.)

1. The best way is to cut down the trees about your ground, and your hedges low, that the wind may ventilate your Corne.

2. To sowe early; that your Corne may be full Kerned, before these Mildewes fall. I am informed, Sir Jo. Culp. that an Ingenious Kt. in Kent, did for curiosity sowe Wheate in all moneths of the year and that the Corne sowen in July, did produce such an increase, that it is almost incredible; and truly I think it a great fault in many places, that they sowe late, for many reasons: I am sure in France, they usually sowe before Michaelmas.

3. Some use (and with good profit) to draw a line over their Corne, and to strike off the Mildew, before it be inspissated by the Sun; This ought espe­cially to be done before sun-rising: 2. men in an hour will easily run over an Acre; the Mildewes usually fall like a thick fog, or a Misty raine; if you go to your Bees, you will soon perceive it by their extraordina­ry labour, very early in the morning.

4. The use of a kind of bearded Wheate, is an ex­cellent Remedy: for the beard shoveth off the dew, that it doth not so easily insinuate it selfe into the eare, and likewise causeth the eare to shake by the least wind. There is a kind of Wheate in Bucking­ham-Shire called Red-straw-Wheate, which is much commended: it's a strong-stalked Wheate, and doth not soon lodge, and therefore excellent for Rank land, where Corne is apt to lodge, and consequent­ly to Mildew; but I question whether it hath any property against Mildew. This I am very confi­dent [Page 19] of, that if this Wheate, or any other, were without the Chaffy huskes exposed bare to the Aire; as Bar­ly and Rie are, Wheate would not be afflicted with Mil­dew: Perhaps such Graine may be found by diligent enquiry. I have casually picked out of a Wheate-field some stalkes, which have had 2. eares on them: and though Barly usually hath been 2. ranges; yet I have seen some sorts with 4. 6. and there are many great varieties in graines not yet dis­covered. Truly, if any one knoweth better wayes then these, how to cure this Malady of Mildew, he is much to blame, if he do not publish it for the good of his Countreymen,

I will not here set downe the divers manners of 5. Defi­ciency, cocern­ing the planting of Apples, Peares, Cher­ties, and Plums. Graftings and Inoculations, which neverthelesse is an art absolutely necessary in Planting; for every book of Husbandry doth shew it, and every Gardiner can teach it those who are desirous to learn it; Neither will I set down all the sorts of Apples, Peares, Cherries, Plums, &c. for it would be too tedious a discourse; and Mr. Parkinson hath already very excellently done it, in his Book called Paradisus Terrestris, where at leasure you may read it. I will onely point brief­ly at the Deficiencies, which I find in this part of Husbandry, and the best wayes to Remedy them.

1. I say, that it is a great Deficiency in England, that we have not more Orchards planted. It's true, that in Kent and about London, and also in Gloucester-Shire, Herford, and Worcester, there are many gal­lant Orchards, but in other Countreys, they are very rare, and thinne: but if there were as many more, even in any Countrey, they would be very profitable. I know in Kent, that some advance their ground e­ven [Page 20] from 5. s. per Acre to 5. pound by this meanes, and if I should relate, what I have heard by divers concerning the profit of a Cherry-Orchard, about Sittenburne in Kent, you would hardly beleeve me; yet I have heard it by so many, that I beleeve it to be true: Namely; that an Orchard of 30. Acres of Cherryes, produduced in one year above a 1000. pound, but now the trees are almost all dead; it was one of the first Orchards planted in Kent. Mr. Camb­den reporteth, that the Earle of Leicester's Gardiner in Qu. Eliz. time, first began to plant Flemish Cher­ryes in those parts; which in his time did spread in­to 16. other Parishes, and were at that time sold at rgeater rates then now; yet I know that 10. or 15. pound an Acre hath been given for Cherryes, more for Pears, and Apples.

2. There is a great Deficiency in the ordering of Orchards, in that they are not well pruned, but full of Mosse, Misletoe, and Suckers, and oftentimes the ground is packed too thick of trees; for they should stand at least 20. foot asunder; neither will ill husbands bestow dunging, digging, or any o­ther cost on Orchards, which if they did, might pay halfe their rents in some places. One told me for a secret, a Composition for to make Trees bear much and excellent fruit, which was this: First in an old tree, to split his root; then to apply a Compost made of Pigeons-dung lees of wine, or stale Ʋrine, and a little Brimstone, (to destroy the wormes,) it hath some probability of truth: for experience I know, that a bushel of Pigeons-dung, hath caused a tree to grow and bear, which for divers years before stood at a stand; but concerning splitting the roots, I know [Page 21] not what to say. Some old Authors affirm this ought to be done; because that the roots may as wel be hide-bound, as other parts of the tree, and not able to attract his nourishment, and when the Roote is split, it will speedily send forth divers small fibrous roots, which are the principal Attractors. It were good that some would give us an exact account of this Experiment. But Some will object against Or­chards, that they spoile much ground, and there­fore ought to be planted onely in hedges. To this I answer.

1. That Plumtrees and Damsins, may very well be planted in hedges, being ordinarily thorny plants; this is used very much in Surrey and Kent, where the Plums usually pay no small part of their Rent; yet I never saw in these Southerne parts of Eng­land, any Apples or Peares thrive in an Hedge, un­lesse a Crab or a Wilden, or some Sweeting of little worth. How they thrive in Hereford-Shire and those places, I know not.

2. The Inconveniences of Orchards, planted at 20. or 30. foot distance, is not worth speaking of: for this is the usuall course in Kent, when they plant any ground, they exactly place them in ranke and file, and then plough their lands many years, and sow them with Corn, till the Orchard beginneth to beare fruite; then they lay them down for pasture, which Pasture is not considerably soure; but hath this advantage above other Pastures.

1. That it is sooner growne by 14. dayes in the spring than the Medowes, and therefore very service­able.

2. In Parching Summers here is plenty, when other places have Scarcity

[Page 22] 3. They are great shelters for Cattel, especially Sheepe, who will in those places, in great snowes scrape up meate, which in other places they can­not do: and if the pasture were soure; yet the losse is not great; for it will be a convenient place for the Hogs to run in, who must have a place for that pur­pose, where there are no Commons.

4. I say, that the Benefits are so many by Orchards, that you ought not like an ungrateful man to thrust them up to the hedge: for they afford curious walkes for pleasure, food for Cattel, both in the spring ear­ly, and also in the parching Summer, and nipping snowy Winter: They affoard fuel for the fire, and also shades from the heat, physick for the sicke, refresh­ment for the sound, plenty of food for man, and that not of the worst, and drink also even of the best, and all this without much labour, care, or cost, who therefore can justly open his mouth against them?

3. Deficiency is, that we do not improve many ex­cellent Fruits, which grow amongst us very well, and that we have as yet many fruits from beyond seas, which will grow very well with us. I passe by the generall and great ignorance, that is amongst us, of the variety of Apples, of which there are many sorts, which have some good and peculiar uses; most men contenting themselves with the knowledge of half a score of the best, thinking the vertues of all the rest are comprehended in them: as also of the variety of Pears, which are incredibly many. A Friend of mine neare Gravesend, hath lately collected about 200. species. I know another in Essex (Mr. Ward) who hath nigh the same number. I heare of another in Worcer­ster-Shire, not inferiour to these in Northamton-Shire. I [Page 23] know one, who hath likewise collected very many. So that I dare boldly say, there are no lesse in this Island then 500. species; some commended for their early ripenesse; some for excellent tastes; some for beauty; others for greatnes; some for great bearers; others for good Bakers; some for long lasters; other for to make Perry, &c. But to our purpose: I say many rare Fruits are neglected; to Instance.

1. in the Small-nut and Filbird, which is not much inferiour to the best and sweetest Almonds.

2. The great Damsin or Pruin-Plum, which groweth well and beareth full in England.

3. Almonds, which groweth well and beareth good fruit, as I have seen divers bushels on one tree in my brothers Orchard.

4. Wal-nuts, which is not a fruit to be despised.

5. Vines, and Mulberries, but of these presently in an­other place. I might likewise add Currants, Raspeses, of which excellent drinkes may be made.

6. Quinces, of the which I cannot but tell you that a Gentleman at Prichenell in Essex, who had a tree from beyond Sea, hath the best in England, and hath made above 30. pound of a small peece of ground planted with them, as I have heard from his own wifes mouth. And therefore it is by reason of our ill Hus­bandry, that we have Quinces from Flaunders, Smal­nuts from Spaine, Pruins from France, and also Wal­nuts and Almonds from Italy, and Chestnuts (which I had almost forgot) from Portugall. And now I cannot but digresse a little, to tell you a strange and true sto­ry, with my opinion of it. In divers places of Kent, as at and about Gravesend, in the Countrey and else­where, very many of the prime Timbers of their old barnes and houses are of Chestnut-wood, and yet [Page 24] there is scarce a Chestnut-tree within 20. miles of that place, and the people altogether ignorant of such trees. This sheweth that in former times those places did abound with such timber; for people were not so foolish surely in former times, to runne up and down the world, to procure such huge ma­stey timbers for barnes and such buildings when as there was plenty of Oakes, and Elmes, at their doors: And further, it sheweth, that these Trees will grow again with us to a great bignesse. This putteth in­to my minde, the story of the moore-logs, which are found in divers places of the North of England, in moores many foot deepe; which logs are long and black, and appeare to be a kinde of Firre, or Pine; and yet in those places, people are altogether ignorant of these Trees, the Country not producing any of these species. The first story of Kent, which I know to be true, causeth me to wonder the lesse at the latter: for I see that a species of wood, may be destroyed, even totally in a place. And

2. I know, that in Virginia and New-England, that Pines and Firres and Cedars, do grow wonderfully thick in such Moores or Swamps, and being light wood, and easily wrought, they are continually u­sed, while they last, for buildings. Further, I sup­pose, these Moores, are Commons, to the which the poore have used to resort for firing, and how soon great woods will be consumed by them, every one making what havock he pleaseth, all men know. As concerning their being so deepe in the ground, and blacknesse; I suppose that when wood, was abun­dant in those places, every one did cut what they pleas'd, and left what was not for their turnes, [Page 25] which being in moist places, was soon glutted with moisture, and made ponderous; by which meanes it soon buried it selfe, as ships do, on quicksand, or perhaps the turffe (which hath a peculiar faculty vegetative, for where it is exhausted, it soon grow­eth againe) in time hath growne over them; the people permitting it, because that wood, once sobb'd in wet, is of little use, as we see by Piles on the marshes-side, scarce any man vouchsafing to carry them home. The blacknesse of this wood proceed­eth, as I suppose, from the sooty fume, or evaporati­on of the black turffe, which endeavoureth, as all earths do, to reduce all things into it's own nature; which though it be not able fully to accomplish; yet it introduceth divers dispositions, and quali­ties, as blacknesse in the wood. Some suppose, that these moore-logs have laine there ever since the flood, with whom I will not contend; seeing that any wood, if it be kept from the Aire continually moist or dry, will endure even thousands of yeares with­out putrefaction.

6. Deficiency, is the Not-improving of our Fruits for the best ends and purposes. Normandy, which The 6. de­ficiency, concern­ing not impro­ving our Fruits. produceth but little wine, maketh abundance of Cider and Perry, which they estimate equally to wine, if it be made of good fruit. The ordinary Per­ry is made of Choaky Peares, very juicy, which growe along by the high-way-sides, which are not to be eaten raw. In Biscay in Spain, where wine is scarce, they make Cider of a certaine sweet Apple, which hath a little bitternes in it, and is like to our snonting, & the Cider is very good. And truly here in England, if we would make Cider and Perry of the best sorts [Page 26] of Fruits, which is rarely done, (for we think any fruit good enough for that purpose) we might make drinks no wayes inferiour to the French wines, which are usually spoyled before they come over the seas to you, their spirits soon evaporating. There are two wayes of making Cider and Perry: one, by bruising and beating them, and then pre­sently to put them into a vessel to ferment or worke (as it is usually called) of themselves: The other way, is to boile the juice with some good spices, by which the rawnesse is taken away, and then to ferment it with some yest, if it worke not of it self, this is the best way: and I have tasted Cider thus made of an excellent delicate taste. Neither let a­ny complaine of the windinesse; for it is onely want of use: When I had for 2. or 3. years continu­ally drunk wine beyond Sea, the strongest beer for 2. or. 3. weekes, was as windy to me, as Cider will be to any; and afterward when I went to Paris, the wine of that place was as troublesome as English beer for a little time: how much wine might be saved and also malt if English-men did take these good courses, which other Nations do, and consequently how much advantage would this Island reape there­by? If I were an house-keeper in the Countrey, I would make excellent Beere, Ale, Cider, Perry, Metheg­lin, Wine, of our own grapes, and if my Friends would not drink these, they should drinke water, or go away a thirst: I would scorne to honour France so much as men do usually; and the Spaniard and I­talian should not laugh at us, and say that we can as well be without bread, as their wines, Currents &c. Thus may many other excellent drinks bemade out of [Page 27] our Fruits: not to speak of those which are made of our Graine, as Barly, Wheate, &c. yet I must tell you, that I know an Ingenious man, who can without malting Barly, make a drink not inferiour to wine, and a greater quantity of Aqua-vitae out of them, and with lesse cost, then by the ordinary way, by a pecu­liar fermentation of his own; which time will disco­ver. There is another Ingeuious man, who out of Damsins, and other fat and sweet plums, can make a drinke not inferiour to the best wines, and abun­dance of Aqua-vitae. Many Ladies know how to make Cherry, Raspes-wines; and Sir Hugh Plattes in his Closet for Ladies, discloseth many secrets of this kind; as also for Conserves, Marmalades, which are things both delightful and profitable. I have a kinsman, who can even out of black-berries, make a very plea­sant drinke, which curiosity he is unwilling to pub­lish. Glauber an excellent Chymist hath divers se­crets of this kind, even to the advancing of Hawes, Hips, Canker-Berries, Slowes, to excellent Aqua-vitae's, drinkes, vinegers, which he himselfe first invented. In Russia in the spring-time it's an usual custome to pierce the barke of the Birch-trees, which at that time will weepe much liquor, and yet like children be little the worse; this the poor ordinarily drinke for ne­cessity, Helmont it's a pleasant healthful drinke; and also the rich men, because it's an excellent preservative a­gainst the stone.

The meanes to advance this profitable and plea­sant worke, are these.

1. To advance Nurceries of all sorts of Peares, Ap­ples, Plums, Cherries, which Gentlemen may do for a smal matter, and then plant out these trees, when [Page 28] they are growne great enough. The best and cheap­est wayes to raise all Nurcery wares is done thus. Plums may be raised either of stones, which when you have eaten the plums, may be presently pricked into the ground, or by Slips, which you will find about the old trees. Apples may be raised from Ker­nels (Crab kernels are the best) which ought to be preserved in dry sand, till the spring, least they grow mouldy: or Crab-stalke may be fetched out of the woods, and grafted. Some Trees as Sweetings, Cod­lings, Quinces, will grow very well of slips. Cherries are very well raised by stones, (the Black-Cherries are the best) which so soone as you have eaten them, are to be howen into Beds made very fine, the ranges a foot distant; beware least you let them heate, and take heed of the mouse. I have seen Cher­ry-stones and Apple-Kernels grow 2. foot and a half in one yeare; and consequently in few years they would be fit to be transplanted. The Art of Grafting, Inoculating a Gentleman will learne in two houres.

2. For the advancing of Ingenuities in this kind, as that making of Vinous-Drinks, out of Apples, Plums &c. I counsel all Ingenious Gentlemen to try divers experiments in these kinds; with these Cautions.

1. That he attempt not great quantities at first, which perchance will be chargeable and trouble­some; for by a gallon he may have as much certain­ly, as by a hogshead.

2. Not to be discouraged, if they succeed not well at first dash: for certainly there are many Ingenui­ties in these fruits, which time will discover.

3. Proceed by fermentation: for every liquour which will ferment, hath a vinous spirit in it, & with­out [Page 29] fermentation even the best fruits will have none.

Lastly, fermentation is done either in liquido, or hu­mido; and herein consists some Mystery. I have forgot to speake of Apricocks, Peaches, Melicotores, which are fine pleasant fruits, yet very dangerous; and therefore called by the Italians, Mazzofrancese, that is, Kill-Frenchman; and wish Ladies, and others to take heed of surfeiting by these and some other dangerous plums.

I cannot without much tediousnesse, relate the diverse sorts of Vines, which are even Infinite; The 7. deficien­cy, con­cerning Vines. Rome having in it usually, 40. or 50. sorts of Vines, and all very good: Other places of Italy, Spaine, and France, have also great varieties; I therefore passe them by, as also the manner of managing of them; because it is described in the Countrey-Farme, and also by Bonovil a Frenchman, who at the command of King James wrote a short treatise of Vines and Silk-wormes, for the instruction of the plantations of Virginia. I shall onely according to my method shew you the Deficiencies amongst us in this particu­lar plant, and the best Remedies for it.

And first, although I thinke that the wine is the great blessing of God, which Hot Countreys especial­ly enjoy, as temperate Countryes do Milke, Butter, Cheese in abundance, and the coldest and Barrennest Fowle, & Fish in an incredible number; God of his goodnes distributing some peculiar blessings to every Coun­trey; Notwithstanding I dare say, it's probable, that Vineyards have formerly flourished in England, & that we are to blame, that so little is attempted to revive them againe. There are many places in Kent called by the names of Vineyards, and the ground's of such a [Page 30] Nature, that it seemeth probable, they have been such. I heare further by divers, people of credit, that by records it appeareth, that the tithes of wine in Glocestershire was in divers Parishes considerably great; but at length Gascony coming into the hands of the English, from whence cometh the most of the strong French wine, call'd high-Countrey-wine, and cu­stomes being small, wine was imported into England from thence, better and cheaper then we could make it, and it was thought convenient to discour­age Vineyards here, that the greater trade might be driven with Gascoine, and many ships might finde imployment thereby.

Some fond Astrologers have conceited, that the earth being growne older and therefore colder, hath caused the sun to descende many degrees lower to warme and Cherish it, and one argument which they bring for this opinion is, that Vines and Silke-wormes are found in those Countreyes, wherein for­mer times they were unknowne: But if these fond men, had considered the good Husbandry in these times, with the blessing of God on it, they had not run into such foolish imaginations. This is true indeed, that the Roman souldiers, who had Alsatia given them to live in, which is one of the best and most Southerne places of Germany, mutined; because they thought it so cold, that Vines would not grow there, and that therefore they should be deprived of that delectable liquor; whereas we find at this present day Vines flourishing many hundred miles more to­wards the North, both in France, Loraine, and Germany; and that they are crept down even to the latitude of England; for the Renish-wines grew within a degree [Page 31] of the West-Southern places of this Isle, & Paris is not 2. degrees South of us, yet Vines grow three score miles on this side Paris, at Beaumont; yea the Vines of these places are the most delicate; for what wine is preferred before the neat Renish for Ladies, and at table; and truly in my opinion, though I have tra­velled twice through France; yet no wine pleased me like Vin D'ache & of Paris; especially about Rueill, which is a very fine brisk wine, & not fuming up to the head, and Inebriating as other wines: I say therefore that it is very probable, that if Vines have stept out of Italy into Alsatia, from them to these places, which are even as farre North as England, and yet the wines there are the most delicate, that they are not limit­ed and bounded there. For a 100. miles more or lesse causeth little alteration in heat or cold, and some advantages which we have will supply that defect. But not to insist too long on probabilities, Isay, that herein England some Ingenious Gentlemen usu­ally make wine very good, long lasting, without ex­traordinary labour & cost▪s. To instance in one, who in great Chart in the Wilde of Kent, a place very moist and cold, yearly maketh 6. or 8. hogs-heads, which is very much commended by divers who have tast­ed it, and he hath kept some of it 2. yeares, as he Sir Pe­ter Ri­card. himselfe told me, and it hath been very good; O­thers likewise in Kent do the same: and lately in Sur­rey a Gentle-woman told me, that they having many grapes, which they could not well tell how to dis­pose off, she, to play the good House-wife, stampt them to make verjuice; but 2. moneths after drawing it forth, they found it very fine brisk wine, cleere like Rock-water, and in many other places such experi­ments have been made. I therefore desire Ingenious [Page 32] men to endeavour the raising of so necessary & plea­sant a commodity; especially when French Wine is so deare here, and I suppose is likely to be dearer, I question not, but they shall finde good profit & plea­sure in so doing, and that the State will give all en­couragements to them: and if the French Wine pay excize and customes, and the Wines here be toll-free, they will be able to affoard them far cheaper, than the French can theirs, and supply the whole Isle, if they proceede according to these Rules.

1. To choose the best sorts of grapes, which are most proper for this Isle, and though there are many sorts of grapes amongst Gardiners; yet I commend 4. sorts especially to them; and I desire that they be very careful in this particular: for it is the founda­tion of the worke; if you faile in this, you faile in all; for I know that Burdeaux-Vines which beare very great grapes, make verjuice onely at Paris, and that the tender Orleans-Vine doth not thrive there.

The first sort is the Parsely Vine or Canada-grape; because it first came from those parts, where it growes naturally; and though the Countrey be intolerably cold; yet even in the woods without manuring, it so farre ripeneth his fruits, that the Jesu­its make wine of it for their masse; & Racineè (which is the Juice of the grape newly exprest, and boiled to a Syrupe, and is very sweet and pleasant) for their Lent-provision, as you may reade in their Relations: and this Vine seemeth to be made for these Northerne Countreyes, because it hath it's leaves very small and jaggy, as if it were on purpose to let in the sun, and it ripeneth sooner than other grapes, as I have observed in Oxford-Graden.

[Page 33] 2. Sort of Vine is the Rhenish-grape; for it groweth in a temperate Countrey, not much hotter in sum­mer then England; and the wine is excellent as all know.

3. Sort is the Paris-grape; which is much like the temper of England, onely a little hotter in summer: this grape beareth a small bunch close set together, very hardy to endure frosts and other inconvenien­cies, and is soone ripe; so that the vintage of Paris, is sooner ended then that of Orleans or Burdeaux; and though it be not so delicate to the taste, as some other grapes; yet it maketh an excellent brisk wine.

4. Sort is the small muskadell; which is a very fine pleasant grape, both to eat and to make wine. In Italy it usually groweth against their houses walls, and of this they make a small pleasant wine, a moneth or 2. before the ordinary Vintage. It is a tender plant in respect of the other Vines in the fields: these Vines I know are the most convenient for this Isle; because they beare small bunches, and grapes soon ripen, and are hardy to endure frosts and ill wea­ther.

2. To choose convenient places. For this end I councell them, First to plant Vines on the South­side of their dwelling-houses, Barnes, Stables, and Out­houses. The Gentleman of Kent, whome I mention­ed before, useth this course: and to keepe the Vines from hurting his tiles, and that the winde may not wrong his Vines, he hath a frame made of poles or a­ny kinde of wood, about a foot from the tiles, to the which he tyeth the Vines; by this meanes his Vines having the reflection of the yard, sides of the houses and tiles, do ripen very well, and beare much; so [Page 34] that one old Vine, hath produced nigh a hogshead of wine in one year: and I wish all to take this course; which is neither chargeable, nor troublesome, but very pleasant; and if all in this Island would do thus, it's incredible, what abundance of wine might be made, even by this petty way.

2. If that any Gentleman will be at the charge of making a Vineyard, let him choose a fine sandy warm hill, open to the South-East rather than to the South-West: for though the South-West seemeth to be hot­ter; yet the South-East ripeneth better, as I have seen in Oxford-Garden; because the South-East is sooner warmed by the Sun in the morning; and the South-West winds, are the winds which blow most fre­quently, and bring raine, which refrigerate the plants: and such a place is very requisite; for in o­ther places Vines do not thrive, even in France: for if you travel betwixt Paris and Orleans, which is a­bove 30. leagues, yet you shall scarcely see a Vine­yard, because it is a plaine Champion-Countrey. So likewise betwixt Fontarabia to Burdeaux, in the Southerne parts of France, for an 100. miles together; because the land is generally a barren sandy plaine, where onely Heath abounds and Pine-trees, out of which they make Turpentine and Rozen, by wound­ing of them; and Tarre and Pitch, by the burning of them: and if any finde such a fine warme hill, and do dung and fence it well, he hath a greater advan­tage of most of the Vineyards of France by this conve­niency, than they have of our Isle, by being a hun­dred miles more South; for most of their Vineyards are in large fields not enclosed, on land that is sto­ny, and but indifferently warme. But some will say, [Page 35] that the wet weather destroyes us. It's true, that the wet will destroy all things; Sheepe, Corne, &c. yet no man will say, that therefore England will not produce and nourish these Creatures; and if extraordinary wet years come, they spoile even the Vines in France: but take ordinary years and our moisture is not so great, (though some abuse us, and call England, matula Coeli) but the Vines, espe­cially those I have mentioned before, will come to such perfection as to make good wine: and if ex­traordinary raines fall; yet we may helpe the im­maturity by Ingenuity, as I shall tell you anon: or at worst make vineger or verjuice, which will pay costs.

Further these advantages we have of France.

1. This Isle is not subject to nipping frosts in May as France is; because we are in an Isle, where the Air is more grosse than in the Continent; and there­fore not so piercing and sharpe, as it plainly appear­eth by our winters, which are not so sharpe as in Pa­dua in Italy: neither are we subject to such stormes of haile in summer, which are very frequent in hot Countreys, and for many miles together do spoile their Vines, so that they cannot make wine of the grapes: for those grapes which are touched by the haile, have a Sulphurious and a very unpleasant taste, and onely fit to make Aqua-vitae. Further some­times in France, caske for their wines is so deare, that a tun of wine may be had for a tun of caske: and the custome and excize which is laide on wines here, is as much againe as the poore Vigneron in France ex­pects for his wine. Not to speak of the ill managing of their Vines, especially about Paris, where poor [Page 36] men usually hire an Acre or 2. of Vines, which they manage at their spare houres, and most common­ly packe in so many plants on their ground, for to have the greater increase, that the ground and Vines are so shaded by one another, that I have wondered, that the Sun could dart in his beames to mature them; and therefore I cannot but affirme again, that we may make abundance of wine here with profit, the charges of an Acre of Vineyard, not being so great as of Hops: an hundred sets well rooted, at Paris cost usually but 4. or 6. sous or pence, where I have bought many: 2000. will plant an Acre very well, 50. s. a year is the ordinary rate for the 3. diggings with their crooked Instrument called Aven­tage, and the increase usually 4. tuns for an Acre, which will be profit enough: and though I referre all to Bonovil and others, who have written of the managing of Vines; yet I councell to get a Vigne­ron from France, where there are plenty, and at cheaper rates then ordinary servants here, and who will be serviceable also for Gardening.

2. I will briefly tell, what I have seen. In Italy through all Lombardy which is for the most part plaine and Champion, their Vines grow in their hedges on Walnut-trees, for the most part: in which fields, they speake of 3. harvests yearly viz.

1. Winter-Corne, which is reaped in June &c.

2. Vines and Walnuts, which are gathered in Sep­tember.

3. Their summer-graines, as Millet, Panicle, Chiches, Vetches &c. Buck-wheate, Frumentone, or that which we call Virginia-Wheate, Turneps, which they sowe in July when their Winter-corne is cut & reaped, they [Page 37] reape in October. In France, their Vines grow 3. manner of wayes; in Provence they cut the Vine a­bout 2. foot high, and make it strong and stubbed, like as we do our Osiers; which stock beareth up the branches without a prop.

2. about Orleans, and where they are more curi­ous, they make frames for them to run along.

3. About Paris they ty them to short poles, as we do hops. In France they usually make trenches, or small ditches, about 3. or 4. foot from one another, and therein plant their Vines, about one and a half deepe, which is a good way, and very much to be commended; but if we here in England, plant Vines as we do Hops, it will do very well, but let them not be packt together too thick, as they do in France in many places, least they too much shade the ground, and one another. In Italy when they tread their grapes with their feet in a cart, they powre the juice into a great vessel or Fat, and put to it all their husks and stones which they call graspe, and let them ferment, or (as we say) worke together 12. or 14. dayes, and usually they put 1. third of water to it, this maketh a wine lesse furious, Garbo or rough, and therefore a good stomack-wine; but it spoileth the colour, and taketh away the plea­sant brisk taste. In France so soon as they have pres­sed out their liquor with their feet, they put it in hogsheads, and after in their presse squease out what they can, out of the graspe; which serveth to fill up their hogsheads while they worke, which is usually 3. or 4. dayes, and then stop them close: this is also the way used in Germany, and is the best, for it maketh a fine gentile wine with a curious co­lour. [Page 38] In Germany, when their grapes are green, they make fire in their sellars in stoves, by the which meanes, their wines worke extraordinarily, & do di­gest themselves the better: This course we must also take here in England some years; for it helpeth the rawnes of all liquors very much. There is an Inge­nious Dutchman, who hath a secret, which as yet he will not reveale, how to helpe maturation by a com­post applyed to the roots: The compost which I have spoken of before, made of brimstone: pigeons-dung, is very excellent for that purpose, as also lees of wine, blood, Glauber. lime used with moderation. He also knoweth how to make soure grapes produce good wine; I suppose his way to be this, all juice of grapes newly expressed is sweet, and which may by it selfe alone be made in­to a sweet syrupe, which the French call Racineè: fur­ther in the Evaporation of liquors, which have not fermented or wrought, the watery part goeth a­way first.

3. Fermentation giveth a vinous taste, and ma­keth a liquor full of spirits.

You may then easily guesse at the way, and per­haps he may add also some sugar and spices, as the Vintners do when they make Hippocras. I know a Gentleman, who hath made excellent wine of raisins well boil'd in water, and afterward fermented by it selfe, or with barme, its called usually Medea. I like­wise know, that all sweet and fatty Juices will make fine vinous Liquors, as Damsins, if they be wrought or fermented ingeniously: but whosoever goeth about such experiments, let him not think that any thing is good enough for these purposes: but let him use the best he can get: for of naughty corrupt things, [Page 39] who can expect that which is excellent and delicate.

The Deficiency of us in this kind is so obvious, that all the world takes notice of it, and it is (next the 8. Defi­ciency concern­ing Hemp & Flox. neglect of fishing) the greatest shame to this Nation; for all know that we have as good land for these seeds as any can be found in Europe. and that the sowing of them requireth neither more labour, cost or skill than other seeds. And further that the ma­terials made from these are extreamly necessary: for how miserable should we be without Linnen, Can­vases, Cordage, Nets? how can we put our Ships to Sea, which are the bulwarks of this Isle? And yet we are necessitated to have these Commodities, from those who would destroy (I will not say the Nation, but I may boldly say) our Shipping, and Trade. I hope that this will more seriously be considered by those at the Helme of our State. I will freely and plainly relate, how this Deficiency may easily be Remedyed, according to my judgement.

1. To compell by a law, that all Farmers, who plough and sowe 50. or 100. Acres of land, should sowe halfe an Acre or an Acre of Hempe or Flax, or to pay 5. s. or 10. s. to the poore of the Parish where they live, or some law to this purpose; for there is no man but hath land fit for one of these, Hempe de­siring, a stiffe land, Flax that which is light.

For there is so much irrationality in some profes­sions that they must be forced even like brutes to un­derstand their own good. In King Edward the 6. dayes something was enacted to this purpose, as I am informed. In Henry 8. dayes, there was a law enacted that every man should sowe his lands, and that no man should enclose his lands, least he should [Page 40] turne it to Pasture; for we have had great dearth in England through the neglect of Tillage, which lawes even as yet stand in force; yet there is, nor need­eth there be any force to compell men to till and sowe their lands; for they have at length found the sweetnesse, and willingly go about it for their own profits sake, and now we suppose (and not without cause) that Enclosing is an Improvement: and so concerning Hempe and Flaxe, I say, if they were once accustomed to sowe them, they would never leave it, as I see Farmers do in East-Kent; scarce a man but he will have a considerable plot of ground for Hempe, and about London far greater quantities of Flax is sown then formerly.

2. It were convenient, that every Parish through the Nation should have a stocke for to set their poor to worke, that the young children and women might not run up and down idle, and begging or stealing (as they do in the Countrey) of Apples, Pease, Wood, Hedges, and so by little and little, are train­ed up for the Gallowes.

3. That a severe law should be enacted against those who run up and downe and will not worke: for if all know, that they may have worke at home, and earne more within doores honestly, then by running rogueing up and downe, why should they not compell them to it? and though some may think the Parishes will lose much by this way; because that the stock wrought will not be put off, but with losse, as perhaps 10. l. will be brought to 8. l. yet let them consider how much they shall save at their doors, how many inconveniences they are freed from; their hedges in the Countrey shall not be [Page 41] pulled, their fruits stolne, nor their Corne pur­loined; and further, that the poor will be trained up to worke, and therefore fit for any service: yea and in their youth learne a calling by the which they may get an honest lively hood; and I dare say, their Assessements for the poor, would not be so fre­quent, nor the poor so numerous: and the bene­fit which redownds to the Nation, would be very great.

4. The charitable deeds of our fore-fathers, ought to be enquired after, that they be not misplaced, as usually they are, but be really be­stowed for the good of the poore, that are labo­rious (as in London is begun) and if there be any that will not worke, take Saint Pauls rule, who best knew what was best for them. I dare not advise to take in part of Commons, Fens, &c. and to improve them for this use, least I should too much provoke the rude mercilesse multitude. But to returne to my discourse. I say, that sowing Hempe and Flax, will be very beneficial.

1. To the Owners of land: for men usually give in divers places 3. l. per Acre, to sowe Hempe and Flax (as I have seen at Maidstone in Kent, which is the onely place, I know in England, where thread is made: and though nigh a hundred hands are im­ployed about it; yet they make not enough for this Nation,) and yet get good profit. How advantageous will this be to those who have drained the Fens, where questionless Hempe will flourish, and exsiccate the ground, (for Hempe desireth stiffe moist land, as Flax light and dry,) and like wise to those in the North of England, where land is very cheape? I hope [Page 42] in a little time Ireland will furnish us with these com­modities, if we be idle; for there land is very cheap, and those seeds need no inclosure; for cattel will not touch them, neither doth it feare the plunderer either in the field or barne.

2. It's profitable to the sower. I know that they usually value an Acre at 10. or 12. l. which costeth them usually but halfe the money. Whether there be Flax, that will yield 30. or 40. l. per Acre as some report, I know not.

3. To the place where it is sowne; because it sets many poore to worke. I wish it were encouraged more in the North than it is; because there be ma­ny poore, who could willingly take paines: and though spinning of linnen be but a poor worke; yet it is light, and may be called Womens recreation, (and in France and Spaine the best Citizens wives think it no disgrace to go about spinning with their Rocks) and though in some part the poore think it nothing to earne 4. or 6. d. per day, and will as soon stand with their hands in their pockets, as worke cheape; yet in the North they account it well to earne 3. d. or 4. d. by spinning, which they may do.

Lastly, it would be very beneficial to this Nation, and save many thousand pounds, I may say 100. thousands, which are expected, either in cash or good Commodities; and we should not be beholding to Holland for fine linnen and Cordage, nor to France for Poldavices, Locrams, Canvaces, nets, nor to Flaunders for thread; but might be supplyed abundantly with these necessary Commodities even at our own doors.

There is no small Deficiency in dunging and ma­nuring [Page 43] lands, both because that all manner of ma­nuring 9. Defi­ciency, concern­ing Dunging, and Ma­nuring Lands. and amending lands, is not known to eve­ry one, and also that they do not imploy all they know to the best use. I will therefore set downe most of the wayes I have seen here in England, and beyond Seas, by which land is improved, and the best wayes to use the same.

1. To begin with Chalke, which is as old a way as Julius Cesars time, as he himselfe reporteth in his Commentaries. Chalke is of 2. sorts.

1. A hard, strong, dry Chalke, with which in Kent they make walls, burn lime &c.

2. Kind is a small unctuous Chalke: this is the Chalke for land, the other helpeth little; onely it maketh the plough go easier in stiffe lands: broomy land is accounted the best land for Chalke and lime, but it helpeth other lands also; especially, if you Chalke your ground, and let it ly a year or 2. which is the way used in Kent; that it may be matured and shat­tered by the sun and raine, otherwise if it be turned in presently, it is apt to ly in great clods, as I have seen it 20. years after. Chalke also sweetneth pasture, but doth not much increase it, and killeth rushes and broome.

2. Lime, which is made of divers sorts of stones, is an excellent thing for most Lands, and produceth a most pure graine: 160. bushels is usually laid on an Acre, but I suppose that if men did lay but halfe the dung on the ground, as they usually do, as al­so lime and Chalke, and dung and lime it oftener, it would be better Husbandry: for much dung causeth much weeds, and causeth Corn to lodge; and too much Chalke doth too much force the land, so that after [Page 44] some good crops, it lyeth barren many yeares. It's good Husbandry likewise to lay down lands before they be too much out of heart; for they will soone recover; otherwise not.

3. Ordinary Dung, which every one knoweth; but let it not be exposed to the Sun too much, nor let it ly in an high place; for the raine will waste away it's fatnesse. It's observeable, that earth the more it is exposed to the Sun, it's the better, as we see that land is much bettered by oft ploughings: for the Sun and dew engender a nitrous fatnesse, which is the cause of fertility; but dung is exhausted by the Sun, as it appeareth by the foldings of Sheepe, which profit little, if it be not presently turned in; there­fore a Shepherd if his time would permit, should turne up the ground with an howe for to sowe Tur­neps, as Gardiners do. I have seen Ordinary Dung on dry lands in dry years to do hurt, and it oft causeth weeds and trumpery to grow.

4. Marle. It's of divers kinds: some stony, some soft, some white, some yellewish, but most common­ly blew. It's in most places in England, but not knowne by all: the best markes to know it, is to expose it to the Aire, and to see if the Sun or Rain cause it to shatter, and if it be unctuous, or rather to take a load or 2. and lay it on the midst of your fields, and to try how it mendeth your lands. It's excellent for Corne, and Pasture; especially on dry lands. In Essex the scourings of their ditches they call Marle, because it looketh blew like it, it help­eth their lands well,

5. Snaggreet: which is a kind of earth taken out of the Rivers, full of small shels. It helpeth the bar­ren [Page 45] lands in divers parts of Surrey. I beleeve it's found in all Rivers; It were well, if in other parts of England, they did take notice of it.

6. Owse out of marsh ditches, hath been found very good for white Chalky land: as also Sea-mud & Sea-Owse is used in divers parts of Kent, and Sussex.

7. Sea-weeds.

8. Mr. Carew in his Survey of Cornwall relateth, that they use a fat Sea-sand, which they carry up many miles in sacks, and by this they have very much improved their barren lands. It were worth the while to try all manner of Sea-sands: for I sup­pose, that in other places they have a like fertilizing fatnesse.

9. Folding of Sheepe, especially after the Flaunders manner, (viz.) under a covert, in which earth is strewed about 6. inches thick, on which they set divers nights: then more earth must be brought and strewed 6. inches thick, and the Sheepe folded on it, and thus they do continually Winter and Summer. I suppose a shepherd, with one horse will do it at his spare houres, and indeed sooner then remove his fold; and this folding is to be continued, especially in Winter, and doth the Sheepe good; because they ly warme and dry: and truly if I am not mistaken, by this meanes we may make our Sheepe to enrich all the barren dry lands of England.

10. Ashes of any kind. Seacoale-ashes with horsedung the Gardiners of London much commend for divers uses. It's great pitty, that so many thousand loads are throwne into waste places, and do no good.

11. Soote is also very good, being sprinkled on ground▪ but it's too deer, if it be of wood; for it's worth 16. d. or 2. s. a bushel.

[Page 46] 12. Pigeons or Hens-dung is incomparable: one load is worth 10. loads of other dung, & therefore it's usually sowne on Wheate, that lyeth a far off, and not easy to be helped: it's extraordinary likewise on a Hop-garden.

13. Malt-dust is exceedingly good in Corne-land: blood for trees; also shavings of hornes.

14. Some commend very much the sweeping of a Ship of Salt, or drossey salt and brine: it's very pro­bable; because it killeth the wormes, and all fertility proceedeth from salt.

15. I have seen in France, poore men cut up Heath and the Turffe of the ground, and lay them on an heape, to make mould for their barren lands. Brakes laid in a moist place, and rotted, are used much for Hop-grounds, and generally all things that will rot, if they were stones, would make dung.

16. In New-England they fish their ground, which is done thus: In the spring about April, there cometh up a fish to the fresh Rivers, called an Alewife; because of it's great belly: and is a kind of shade, full of bones; these are caught in wiers, and sold very cheape to the planters, who usually put one or two cut in peeces into the hill where their Corne is planted, called Virginia-Wheate, for they plant it in hills, 5. graines in an hill, almost as we plant Hops (in May, or June; for it will not endure frosts) and at that distance; it causeth fertility extraodinary for two years, especially the first: for they have had 50. or 60. bushels on an Acre, and yet plough not their land, and in the same hills do plant the same Corne for many years together, and have good crops: besides abundance of Pumpions and [Page 47] French or Kidney beanes. In the North parts of New-England, where the fisher-men live, they usually fish their ground with Cods-heads; which if they were in England would be better imployed. I sup­pose that when sprats be cheap, men might mend their Hop-grounds with them, and it would quit cost: but the dogs will be apt to scrape them up, as they do in New-England, unles one of their legs be tyed up.

17. Ʋrine. In Holland they as carefully preserve the Cowes urine, as the dung to enrich their land: old urine is excellent for the Roots of trees. Columella in his book of Husbandry, saith, that he is an ill hus­band that doth not make 10. loads of dung for every great beast in his yard, and as much for every one in the house, and one load for small beasts as hogs. This is strange husbandry to us: and I be­leeve there are many ill husbands by this account. I know a woman who liveth 5. miles South of Canter­bury, who saveth in a paile, all the droppings of the houses, I meane the urine, and when the paile is full, sprinckleth it on her Meadow, which causeth the grasse at first to look yellow, but after a little time, it growes wonderfully, that many of her neigh­bours wondered at it, and were like to accuse her of witch-craft.

18. Woollen raggs, which Harford-shire-men use much, and Oxford-shire, and many other places: they do very well in thinne Chalky land in Kent for 2. or 3. yeares. It's a fault in many places, that they neg­lect these, as also Linnen-raggs, or Ropes-ends, of the which white and browne paper is made; for it's strange that we have not Linnen-raggs enough for paper, as other Nations have; but must have it from Italy, France, and Holland.

[Page 48] 19. Denshyring, (so called in Kent, where I onely have seen it used, though by the word it should come from Denbigh-shire,) is the cutting up of all the Mr. Camb­den. turffe of a Meadow, with an instrument sharpe on both sides, which a man with violence thrusts be­fore him, and then they lay the turffe on heapes, and when it's dry, they burne it, and spread it on the ground. The charge is usually 4. Nobles, which the goodnesse of a crop or 2. repayeth.

20. Mixture of lands. Colum. an old writer saith, that his Grand father used to carry sand on clay, and on the contrary to bring clay on sandy grounds, and with good successe, the Lord Bacon thinking much Natur. Histor. good may be done thereby; for if Chalke be good for loamy land, why should not loame be good for Chalky bankes?

21. I may add Enclosure as an Improvement of land: not onely because that men, when their grounds are enclosed, may imploy them as they please; but be­cause it giveth warmth and consequently fertility. There is one in London, who promised to mend lands much by warmth onely, and we see that if some few stickes ly together, & give a place warmth, how speedily that grasse will grow.

22. Steeping of Graines. The Auncients used to steep Beanes in salt-water: and in Kent it's usual to steep Barly, when they sowe late, that it may grow the faster; and also to take away the soile: for wild Oates, Cockle, and all save Drake will swimme; as also much of the light Corne, which to take away is ve­ry good. If you put Pigeons-dung into the water, and let it steep all night, it may be as it were halfe a dunging: take heed of steeping Pease too long; for [Page 49] I have seen them sproute in three or four houres.

23. Is the sowing of Course and cheape Graine, and when they are growne to plough them in. For this purpose the Auncients did use LƲPINES, a plant well knowne to our Gardiners: and in Kent some­times Tares are sowen, which when the cattel have eaten a little of the tops, they turne them in, with very good Improvement for their ground.

I will not deny, but that we have good Husbands, 10. Defi­ciency, concern­ing the not Im­prove­ment of our Mea­dowes. who dung and Marle their Meadowes and Pasture­land, and throw downe all Mole and Ant-hills, and with their spud-staffe, cut up all thistles and weeds, and that they likewise straw ashes on their grounds to kill the Mosse; and salt for the wormes, and they do very well, but yet there are many who are negli­gent in these particulars, for the which they are blame-worthy, but the Deficiencies, of which I in­tend to speak of, are these following. Cato, one of the wisest of the Romans, saith, that Pratum est quasi paratum; alwayes ready, and prepared; and preferreth Meadowes before the Olive-Gardens, (al­though the Spaniards bequeath Olive-trees to their children, as we do cotages) or Vines or Corne; because Meadowes bring in a certaine profit, without labour and paines: but the other requireth much cost and paines, and are subject to Frosts, Mildew, Haile, Locusts: to the which for the honour of Meadowes, I may add, that the stock of Meadowes, is of greater value, and the Commodities which arise from them, are divers and of greater value, than Corne, as Butter, Cheese, Tallow, Hides, Beef, Wooll; and therefore I may conclude, that England abounding in Pastures more than other Countries, is therefore richer; and I know (what others think I care not) that in France Acre for [Page 50] Acre is not comperable to it, Fartescue Chancelor of England, saith, that we get more in England by stand­ing still then the French by working: but to speak of the Deficiencies amongst us.

1. We are to blame, that we have neglected the great Clover-grasse, Saint Foine, Lucerne.

2. That we do not float our lands, as they do in Lombardy, where they mowe their lands 3. or 4. times yearly, which consist of the great Clover­grasse. Here are the excellent Parmisane-cheeses made, and indeed these Pastures far exceed any other places in Italy, yea in Europe. We here in England have great opportunities by brooks & Rivers in all places to do so, but we are negligent; yet we might hereby double if not trebble our profits, kill all rushes &c. But he that desireth to know the manner how to do this, and that profit, that will arise thereby, let him reade Mr. Blithes Booke of Husbandry, lately print­ed.

3. That when we lay down land for Meadow or Pasture, we do not sowe them with the seeds of fine sweet grasse, Trefoiles, and other excellent herbes. Concerning this you may reade a large Treatise of the Countrey-Farmer; for if the land be rich, it will put forth weeds and trumpery, and perhaps a kind of soure grasse little worth, if it be poore, ye shall have thistles, May-weed and little or no grasse, for a yeare or 2. I know a Gentleman, who at my entreaty, sowed with his Oates the bottome of his Hay-mowe, and though his land were worne out of heart, and naturally poore; yet he had that year not onely a crop of Oates; but he might if it had pleased him, have mowen his grasse also, but [Page 51] he spared it, which was well done, till the next year, that it might make a turffe and grow stronger. By this Husbandry lands might be well improved, e­specially if men did consider the diversity of grasses, which are 90. sorts, and 23. of Trefoile: I know a place in Kent, which is a white Chalky downe, which ground is sometimes sowen with Corne a year or 2. and then it resteth as long or longer: when it is laid down it maintaineth many great Sheepe and ve­ry lusty, so that they are even fit for the Butcher; and yet there doth scarce appeare any thing that they can eate, which bath caused divers to wonder, as if they had lived on Chalke-stones: but I more seri­ously considering the matter, throughly viewed the ground, and perceived that the ground natu­rally produceth a small Trefoile, which it seemeth is very sweet and pleasant, it's commonly called Trifolium luteum, or Lupilinum, that is, yellow or Hop-Trefoile: and I am perswaded, if that the seed of this Trefoile were preserved, and sowen with dates, when they intend to lay it downe, it would very much advance the Pasture of that place; there­fore I desire all Ingenious men, seriously to consider, the nature of the Trefoiles, which are the sweetest of grasses, and to observe on what grounds they natu­rally grow: and also the nature of other grasses, which (as I have said before) are no lesse then 90. sorts, naturally growing in this Isle; some on wa­try places, some on dry, some on clay, others on sand, Chalk &c. some on fruitful places, others in barren; by the which meanes I suppose a solid foun­dation might be laid, for the advancing the Pasture-lands of all sorts, through this Island: for I know [Page 52] some plants, as the Orchis call'd Bee-flower &c. which will thrive better on the Chalky barren bankes, than in any garden, though the mould be never so rich and delicate, and the Gardiner very diligent in cherishing of it: and why may not the same pro­priety be in grasses? for we see diverse benty grasses to thrive, especially on barren places, where scarce any thing else will grow. J must againe and againe desire all men to take notice of the wonderful grasse which groweth neare Salisbury, and desire them to try it on their Rich Meadowes.

It's a common saying, that there are more waste lands in England, in these particulars, than in all 11. De­ficiency, concern­ing waste Lands. Europe besides, considering the quantity of land. I dare not say this is true; but hope if it be so, that it will be mended. For of late much hath been done for the advancement of these kinds of land; yet there are as yet great Desiciencies. In the times of Papistry, all in this Island were either Souldiers or Scholars; Scholars, by reason of the great honours, priviledges, and profits, (the third part of the Kingdome belonging to them) and Souldiers, because of the many and great warres with France, Scotland, Ireland, Wales. And in those times Gentlemen thought it an honour to be carelesse, and to have houses, fur­niture, diet, exercises, apparell, &c. yea all things at home and abroad, Souldier-like: Musick, Pictures, Perfumes, Sauces (unlesse good stomacks) were counted, perhaps unjustly, too effeminate. In Qu. Elizabeth's dayes Ingenuities, Curiosities, and Good Husbandry began to take place, and then Salt Marshes began to be fenced from the Seas; and yet many were neglected, even to our dayes, as Hollhaven in [Page 53] Essex, Axtel-holme Isle in York-shire: many 1000. of Acres have lately been gained from the Sea in Lin­colne-shire, and as yet more are to be taken in there, and in other places. Rumsey-marsh in Kent, con­sisting of 45000. Acres and upwards, (as Cambden relateth) is of some antiquity, where the land is usu­ally let for 30. s. per Acre, and yet 1. d. per week con­stantly is pay'd, through the whole levil, for the maintenance of the wall, and now and then 2. d. whereas ordinary salts are accounted dear at 5. s. or 6. s. per Acre; so that the improvement is very con­siderable: the same I may say of Fens, especially that great Fen of Lincolne-shire, Cambridge, Hungting­don consisting as I am Informed of 380000. Acres, which is now almost recovered; and a friend of mine told me very lately, that he had proffered a marke per Acre; for 900. Acres together, to sowe Rape on, which formerly was scarcely valued at 12. d. per Acre; very great therefore is the improve­ment of draining of lands, and our negligence very great, that they have been waste so long, and as yet so continue in divers places: for the impro­ving of a Kingdome is better than the conquering a new one.

2. I see likewise no small faults in this land, by ha­ving so many Chases and Forrests, where brambles, brakes, furzes do grow, when as these trumperies might be cut up, and pot-ashes made of them; and the ground imployed profitably for Corne, or Pa­sture. I know a Forrest by Brill in Buckingham-shire taken in, and the land is usually let being now well enclosed, for 4. or 5. Nobles per Acre.

3. Sort of waste-land, is dry heathy Commons. I [Page 54] know that poore people will cry out against me, be­cause I call these waste-lands; but its no matter: I desire Ingenious Gentlemen seriously to consider, whether or no these lands might not be improved very much by the Husbandry of Flaunders, (viz.) by sowing Flax, Turneps, great Clover-Grasse, if that Ma­nure be made by folding Sbeepe after the Flaunders way, to keepe it in heart?

2. Whether the Rottennesse and Scabbinesse of Sheepe, Murrein of Cattel, Diseases of horses, and in general all diseases of Cattel do not especially proceed from Commons?

3. If the rich men, who are able to keepe great stockes, are not great gainers by them?

4. Whether Commons do not rather make poore, by causing idlenesse, than maintaine them; and such poor, who are trained up rather for the Gallowes or beggery, than for the Common-wealths service?

5. How it cometh to passe, that there are fewest poore, where there are fewest Commons, as in Kent, where there is scarce 6. Commons in the County of a considerable greatnesse?

6. How many do they see enriched by the Com­mons; & if their Cattel be not usually swept away by the Rot, or starved in some hard winters?

7. If that poore men might not imploy 2. Acres enclosed to more advantage; than twice as much in a Common?

And Lastly, if that all Commons were enclosed, and part given to the Inhabitants, and part rented out, for a stock to set all the poore on worke in every County; I determine nothing in this kind: but leave the determination for wiser heads.

4. Parkes. Although I cannot but reckon Parks amongst lands, which are not Improved to the full; but perceive considerable waste by them, by brakes, bushes, brambles &c. growing in divers places, and therefore wish there were fewer in this Island; yet I am not so great an enemy to them, as most are: for there are very great Uses of them, as.

1. For the bringing up of young cattel.

2. For the maintaining of Timber, so that if any have occasion, to use a good peece of Timber either for a Mill-post, or a Keele of a Ship, or other special uses, whither can they go but to a Parke?

3. The skins of the Deere are very usefull, and their flesh excellent Food. Not to speak of the Medi­cinal Ʋses, nor of Acornes for hogs &c. But some will object, that the plough never goeth there. To the which I answer, Its no matter: for I cannot but Preem­minence of Eng­lish laws. say as Fortescue Chancellor to Henry 6. doth, That God hath given us, such a fruitful land, that with­out labour we have plenty; whereas France must digge and delve for what they have. And I suppose, that I could maintaine 2. things which are thought great Paradoxes, (viz.) that it were no losse to this Island, if that we should not plough at all, if so be that we could certainly have Corne at a reasonable rate, and likewise vent for all our Manufactures of Wooll.

1. Because that the Commodities from Cattel, are far more stable than Corne: for, Cloth, Stuffes, Stoc­kins, Butter, Cheese, Hides, Shoes, Tallow, are certain e­ven every where: Corne scarcely in any place, con­stantly in none.

2. Pasture imployeth more hands, which is the second Paradox; and therefore Pasture doth not de­populate, [Page 56] as it is commonly said: for Normandy and Picardy in France, where there are Pastures in a good measure, are as populous as any part of France; and I am certaine that Holland, Frizeland, Zealand, Flaun­ders and Lombardy, which rely altogether on Pastures are the most populous places in Europe. But some will object and say, that a shepherd and a dog for­merly hath destroyed divers villages. To this I an­swer, that we well know what a shepherd and a dog can do, (viz.) looke to two or 300. sheepe at the most, and that 2. or 300. Acres will maintaine them, or the land is extreamly barren; and that these 2. or 300. Acres being barren, will scarcely maintaine a plough (which is but one man and 2. boyes,) with the horses: and that the mowing, reaping, and threshing of this Corne, and other worke about, will scarcely maintaine 3. more with worke through the whole yeare. But how many people may be imployed, by the Wooll of 2. or 300. Sheepe, in Picking, Sorting, Carding, Spinning, Weaving, Dy­ing, Fulling, Knitting, I leave to others to calculate. And further, if the Pastures be rich Meadowes, and go on dairing, I suppose all know, that 100. Acres of such land imployeth more hands than 100. A­cres of the best Corne-Land in England, and produ­ceth likewise better exportable Commodities. And further, if I should grant, that formerly the shepherd and his dog did depopulate; yet I will deny, that it doth so now: for formerly we were so unwise, as to send over our Wooll to Antwerpe and other places, where they were Manufactured; by which meanes 1. pound oft brought 10. unwrought to them; but we set now our own poore to work, and so save the depopulation. [Page 57] Yet I say, it's convenient to encourage the plough; because that we cannot have a certainty of Corne, and carriage is dear, both by sea and land, especially into the Inland-Countreyes; and our Com­modities by Wooll do cloy the Merchants.

5. Rushy lands. Blith telleth us, good Remedies for these Inconveniencies, (viz.) making deep-trenches, oft mowings, Chalking, Liming, Dunging, Ploughing. I know where hungry guests Horses soone make an end of them.

6. Furze, broome, heath, these can hardly be so de­stroyed, but at length they will up againe; for God hath given a peculiar propriety to every kinde of earth, to produce some peculiar kinds of Plants, which it will observe even to the worlds end, unles by Dung, Marle, Chalke, you alter even the very Na­ture of the earth. In Gallitia in Spine, where such barren lands do very much abound, they do thus: first they grub them up as cleane as they can; of the greater Rootes and branches they make fire-wood; the smaller stickes are either imployed in fencing, or else are burnt on the ground; afterwards the land being ploughed twice at least, they sowe Wheat, and usually the crop is great, which the Landlord and Tenant devide according to a compact; then the ground resteth, and in 3. or 4. years, the Furze or broome will recover their former growth, which the paineful Husband-man grubbeth, and doeth with it as formerly. I set this downe that you may see how laborious the Spaniard is in some places, the poverty of the countrey compelling him to it.

7. There are other Inconveniencies in land, besides weeds and trumpery (viz.) Ill tenures, as coppy­hold, [Page 58] Knight-service, &c. so that the Possessor cannot cut any Timber downe, without consent of the Lord; & when he dyes must pay one or 2. years rent. But these are not in the power of the poor Husband-man to remedy; I therefore passe them by: yet hope that in little time, we shall see these Inconveniencies remedied; because they much discourage Improvements and are (as I suppose) badges of our Norman slavery.

To conclude, it seemeth to me very reasonable, and it will be a great encouragement to laborious men, to improve their barren lands, if that they should have recompence for what they have done, according as indifferent men should judge, when they leave it, as is the custome in Flaunders.

I have likewise observed some Deficiencies in Woods, which I shall briefly declare, with the best 12. Defi­ciency, in Woods. way to Remedy the same.

1. It's a great, fault that generally through the Island the Woods are destroyed; so that we are in many places very much necessitated both for fuel, & also for timber for building and other uses; so that if we had not Coales from New-castle, and Boards from Norwey, Plough-staves & pipe-staves from Prussia, we should be brought to great extreamity: and many Mechanickes would be necessitated to leave their callings.

2. Deficiency, is that our Woods are not ordered as they should be; but though Woods are especially preserved for timber, for building and Shipping; yet at this time it's very rare to see a good Timber-tree in a Wood.

3. That many of our Woods, are very thinne, and not replenished with such sorts of Wood, as are con­venient for the place.

[Page 59] 4. That we fell continually, and never plant or take care for posterity.

These Deficiencies may be thus Remedyed.

1. To put in execution the Statutes against grubbing of Woods, which are sufficiently severe. It's well knowne, we have good lawes; but it's better knowne, they are not executed. In the Wilde of Kent and Sussex, which lies far from the Rivers and Sea, and formerly have been nothing but Woods, liberty is granted for men to grub what they please; for they cannot want firing for themselves, and they are so seated, that neither firewood, nor timber can be transported elsewhere. I know a Gentleman who proffered there good Oake-timber at 6. s. 8. d. per tun, and the land in those parts in general is very good. About Tunbridge there is land which formerly was Wood, is now let for 30. s. per Acre; so that to keepe such lands for Wood, would be both losse to the owner and to the Island: But in other parts of the Island it is otherwise, and men are much to be blamed for destroying both timber and fuel. I have seen at Shooters-hill near London, some Woods stubbed up which were good ground for Wood, but now are nothing but furze, which is a great losse, both to the owner and to the Countrey: For the land is made worse then it was formerly. I conceive there are lands, which are as naturally ordained for Woods, viz. Mountainous, Craggy, uneven land, as small hills for the Vines and Olives; plaine lands for Corne; and low moist lands for Pasture: which lands if they be stubbed, do much prejudice the Common-wealth.

2. That all Woods should have such a Number of [Page 60] Timber-trees per Acre, according to the Statute. There is a good law for that purpose, but men de­lude both themselves and the law, that they every felling cut downe the standers which they left the fel­ling before, least perchance they should grow to be Timber, and leave 12. small standers, that they might seeme to fulfill in some measure the Statute; but it's a meere fallacy, and causeth the Statute to faile of it's principal end, which is to preserve Timber.

3. The best Remedy against thinnesse of woods, is to plash them and spread them abroad, and cover them partly in the ground, as every Countreyman can direct; by this meanes the wood will soone grow rough and thick. It's good Husbandry likewise to fill your woods with swift growers, as Ashes, Sallow, Willow, Aspe, which are also good for Hop-poles, Hoopes▪ Sycamore is also a swift grower. In Flaunders, they have a kinde of Salix, called by them Abell-tree, which speedily groweth to be timber.

4. That some law be made, that they which fell, should also plant or sowe. In Biscay there is a law, if that any cut downe a Timber-tree, he must plant 3. for it, which law is put into execution with seve­rity: otherwise they would soon be undone; for the Countrey is very mountainous and barren, and de­pendeth wholly on Iron Mines, and on Sbipping: their Woods are not copsed there, but onely Pollards, which they lop when occasion serveth. I know one, who was bound by his Land-Lord to plant so many trees yearly, which according he did, but alwayes in such places that they might not grow. In France, neare to the borders of Spaine, they sowe Ashkey, which when they grow to such a greatnesse, that they may be [Page 61] slit into 4 quarters, & big enough to make Pikes, then they cut them downe; & I have seen divers Acres together thus planted: hence come the excellent Pikes, called Spanish-Pikes. Some Gentlemen have sowen A­cornes, & it's a good way to encrease Woods. Though the time is long, I doubt not but every one knoweth, that it's excellent to plant Willowes along the waters side, and Ashe▪s nigh their houses for firing: for they are good peeces of Husbandry; and it's pitty that it's not more put in practice. There is a Gentleman in Essex who hath planted so many Willowes, that he may lop [...]000. every year: if others were as Ingeni­ous, we should not want fire-wood; Osiers planted in low morish grounds do advance land from 5. s. per Acre to 40. s. 50. s. 3. l. and upward; it's much used Westward of London: these Osiers are of great use to Basket-makers. There is a sort of small Osier or willow at Saint Omars in Flaunders, which grow­eth on Islands which floate up and downe; its farre lesse then that which the Westerne men call, Eights, with this they make their curious fine Baskets: this plant is worth the procuring, being so nigh: John Tredescat hath some plants of it. There is a plant likewise in England, called, the sweete Willowes; it's not onely good for shade and firing; but as I am in­formed, the leaves do not soure the grasse, but that the cattel will eat them sooner than Hay: if this be so, it may be of singular use for Meadowes.

5. That those things which mightily destroy Woods, may be restrained, as Iron-workes are; there­fore the State hath very well done to pull downe di­vers Iron-workes in the Forrest of Deane, that the Timber might be preserved for Shipping, which is ac­counted the toughest in England: and when it is dry [Page 62] as hard as Iron, the Common-people did use to say, that in Q. Eliz. days the Spaniard sent an Ambassador purposely to get this Wood destroyed: how true this is I know not; but without question it's admirable Wood for Shipping, and generally our English Oake is the best in the world for Shipping; because it's of a great graine, and therefore strong: but the Oakes of other Countreyes have a finer grain, and more fit for Wainscot; and in this kinde our Forefa­thers have been very provident; for we have an Act of long standing, prohibiting Iron-workes within 20. miles of London, and within 3. miles of the River of Thames: though you may finde Iron-stone in di­vers places, as in the great gravil-pit at Woolwhich. There are some Ingenious men, who lately have got a Patent for making Iron with Sea-coale: I hope they will accomplish their desires; for it would won­derfully advance this Island, and save Wood. There are 2. faults in Sea-coale, in respect of melting Iron-oare:

1. That it is apt to bake together, or cake.

2. It hath a sulphurious fumein it, which is an ene­my to Metal, and consumeth it as we see by our I­ron-Bars in Windowes at London; so that the Metal­line nature of the Iron-stone is much wasted by it, and that which remaineth is very brittle, and will be Could-shire. I know that by the mixture of Coale beat­en with loame and throughly dryed, one (if not both of these Inconveniencies) may be taken away. In the Duke of Cleveland's Countrey they use halfe Turffe, halfe Charcoale. There is a way by making a kinde of Barter with Loame, Ʋrine &c. which will cause Charcoale to last very long, as I am informed: [Page 63] but these discourses belong to another place.

It's a great Deficiency here in England without 13. De­ficiency, of Bees. question, that we have no more Bees, considering that they are neither chargeable, requiring onely a few strawes for an house, nor troublesome: and this Island may maintaine ten times as many: for though a place may be over-stocked with these Animals, as with the greater; yet I know no part of this land, that is so: and I know divers places which would maintaine many 100 hives, yet scarce one to be seen.

2. Our Honey is the best in the world, and Wax a staple Commodity. Further we know, that cold Countreyes, not comparable to ours as Mos­covia, have farre greater quantity than we have; so that it's incredible what quantity is found in the Woods, if the story of the man be true, who fell up even to the eares in Honey, and had there perished, had not a Beare, on which he caught hold, pulled him out. Now I have enquired, how it cometh to passe that there is so great store of Honey in Moscovia; consider­ing the Winters are extreame cold, and also very long: and I am credibly informed that first, the spring when it beginneth, cometh extraordinary fast, that the dayes are very long, and the Summers farre dryer then ours here in England, so that the Bees are not hindred by continual showers; as they are some yeares here in this Isle: and lastly, that the Countrey aboundeth much with Firs, and Pine-trees, which the Inhabitants usually cut, that the Gumme, Rosinous or Turpentine substance may sweate forth, to which places the Bees do come, and presently fill themselves, and returne laden: and perhaps for these very reasons, Bees thrive very much in New-England.

2. We are Deficient in the ordering of them. Not to speake of the negligence of particular men, which is very frequent: nor to write a general story of the ordering of them; because it requireth much paper: and Mr. Leveret and Butler; especially the latter, hath written so exactly, and upon his owne experi­ence, that little can be added to it: onely in a point or 2. I differ from him; of the which I will speak briefly.

1. That we must take and destroy all the Bees for their Honey, and not drive them, as they do in Italy once or twice yearly.

2. That if a swarme be poore, with little Honey, that that swarme ought to be taken; because it is poore; so that the rich stockes are destroyed, be­cause they be rich, and the poore swarmes, because they be poore: so that be they rich, or be the poore, they must be destroyed. An Italian reporteth, that in the City of Askaly, there was a law made, that none should destroy a swarme of Bees, unlesse he had a just cause; accounting it a part of extreame inju­stice and cruelty, to take away without cause, both the goods and lives of such good and faithful servants. I am credibly informed, that an English Gentleman beyond the Seas, getteth many 100. l. yearly, by keeping Bees after a new and Ingenious Manner, which is thus. He hath a roome made very warme and close; yet with glasse-windowes, which he can open at his pleasure, to let the Bees fly abroad when he pleaseth, where he keepeth his Bees, and feedeth them all winter with a sweete com­position made of Molessoes, Flowers, sweete Wine, Milke, Raisins, &c. (for with such things as these, they u­sually [Page 65] feed the Bees in Italy) and oftentimes in sum­mer, when the weather is rainy, windy, or so dis­posed, that the Bees cannot conveniently go abroad, he feedeth them at home, with divers sweet things, and gathereth divers flowers, and layeth them a­mongst them, and sticketh up many fresh boughes in divers places of his Roomes, that in swarming­time, they may settle on them; by these meanes he preserveth all his swarmes, and gathereth an incredi­ble quantity of Honey and wax; and truly this way seemeth to me very probable: for

1. We know the Bees, (even as we say of the Aunts) will worke continually, even night and day; winter and summer, if that they were not hindred by darkenesse, cold, and moisture.

2. That Bees do not onely make Honey, (for I sup­pose, that they have a peculiar propriety of making Honey, as the Silk-wormes Silk) out of Mildewes or Ho­ney, but also out of all sweet things, as Sugar, Molo­ssoes &c.

3. That many sweet things may be had, far cheap­er than Honey; which (I suppose) the Bees will trans­mute into perfect Honey. This way, I conceive, would be very advantageous to us in England, for the preserving of late swarmes, and also for the en­riching of old stocks, so that we need not destroy them, but might drive them from hive to hive, and set them to worke againe; and truly I think there is no place in the world so convenient for this pur­pose as England; because that though our Winters be long, yet they are not very cold; but Bees would be stirring in them: and further our Summers are so subject to winds and raines, that many times [Page 68] there is scarce a fine day in a whole weeke: and Fur­ther Molossoes, Refuse Sugar, Sweete Wort, Milke, &c. may be had at reasonable rates.

I hope ere long to give an exact account of this experiment, and desire those who have any Inge­nuities in this kind, freely to communicate them. I have not observed many things more of impor­tance concerning Bees, in my travels; onely in Ita­ly they make their hives of thinne boards, square, in 2. or 3. partitions, standing either above one an­other, or very close side to side, by the which meanes, they can the better borrow part of their honey when they please. In Germany their hives are made of straw, to the which they have a summer-doore, as they call it, which is nigh the top of the Hive, that the Bees when they are laden, may the more easily enter and discharge themselves of their burthens.

3. We are to blame, that we do not imploy our Honeys in making Metheglim: It's true that in Here­ford-shire and Wales, there is some quantity of this liquor made; but for want of good cookery it's of little worth; but usually of a browne colour, of an unpleasant taste: and as I suppose commonly made of the refuse honey, wax, dead Bees, and such stuffe, as they ordinarily make it elsewhere: for the good house-wife thinkes any thing good e­nough for this purpose; and that it is pitty to spoyle good Honey by making Meade: but I know that if one take pure neate honey, and ingeniously cla­rify and scum and boile it, a liquor may be made not inferiour to the best Sack, Muskadine, &c. in colour like to rock-water, without ill odour or sa­vour; so that some curious Pallates have called it [Page 69] Vin Greco, rich and racy Canary, not knowing what name to give it, for its excellency: This would bring very great Profit, not onely to the Publique by saving many 1000. l. disbursed for Wines through all the world, but would be very advantageous to private families, who use to entertaine their friends very Nobly, Wines being at present intolerably dear and naught; I hope therefore ere long to see it put in execution. An excellent drinke not much un­like this may be made of Sugar, Molossoes, Raisins &c. of the which I have already spoken, yet think it fit to put you in minde of it againe.

It's a great Deficiency here in England, that we do 14. De­ficiency, concern­ing Silk-wormes. not keepe Silke-wormes (which in Italy are called Ca­valieri,) for to make Silke. I know that is a great Pa­radox to many, but I hope by this short discourse to make this truth to appeare plainly: The first ori­ginal of Silke-wormes, by what I reade in Histories, is from Persia, where in infinite numbers they are still maintained; & the greatest profits of that great Monarch do arise from hence: China also aboundeth very much with Silke. In Virginia also the Silke-wormes are found wild amongst the Mulberry-woods, & perhaps might be managed with great profit in those plantations if Land were not so scarce and deare. I suppose this Silke-worme of Virginia is produced by the corrupti­on of the Mulberry-tree, as Cochinneale, from ficus In­dica or Indian figiree: for some Ingenious and curi­ous men who have strictly observed the generation of Insects, do finde that every plant hath an Insect which groweth out of its corruption, (as divers sorts of lice from Animals, and that these Insects do usually feed on that plant, out of which they were [Page 68] made, as Lice on the same Animals from whence they were engendred. I know a Gentleman here in Lon­don, who hath 3. or 400. Insects, and can give a ve­ry Mr. Marshal. good account of their original feedings. And also Mr. Moriney in Paris, hath a large book of the same subject. But to returne to our purpose: I say that we had Silke-wormes first from Persia. In Ju­stinian's time about 1000. or 1100. years ago, some Monkes presented a few to him at Constantino­ple; where in his time they began to plant Mulber­ries: from thence it came to Italy, about 3. or 400. years since: for the Auncient Writers of Husbandry, as Cato, Pallad, Columell, do not so much as mention these creatures: and at length these have passed o­ver the Mountains into France within an 100. years; where they flourish so much, that if we will beleeve their own Authors, they bring greater profit than the Wine and Corne of that large Countrey. I know that France hath Silke enough to maintaine their ex­cesse of apparell, and to export Plushes, Velvets, &c. Now then if that these wormes can thrive, not onely in the parched Persia; but also in Greece, Italy, yea in France; which differeth not much from the temper of England; why should we think, that they are con­fined to that place, & must move no farther North-ward? for they have come many 100. miles to­ward the North, why not one 100. or 2. more? & fur­ther we see that Mulberries, which is their food, thrive here as well as in anyplace. But some will object that our Aire is too cold and moist. To which I answer.

1. That those who write of Silk-wormes, say, that you must take heed, that you make not the place too hot: for too much heate may destroy; and therefore [Page 69] that you must set the windowes open to let in the cold aire.

2. We know, that moistnesse of aire rather en­creaseth such Insects, and nourisheth them. Indeed if moisture hurteth, it's because that it too much corrupteth their food, and causeth a flux amongst them: but this easily is prevented, as I shall shew you anon. But to be short, it is not onely my opinion that Silke-wormes will thrive here; but the solide judgement of King James and his Councel confirm­eth the same: as you may see by his letter to the Deputy-Lieutenants of every County; wherein also many weighty reasons are conteined to convince men of the same; which letter followeth anon.

Lastly, we finde by experience, that Silke-wormes will thrive here, and therefore the matter is out of question: for divers Ladies, Gentlewomen, Scholars, Ci­tizens, &c. have Nursed up divers wormes to per­fection, though they have had little skill in the managing of them; and likewise not such accom­modations as are necessary for them; and more would they have done, if they could have had Mul­berry-leaves. I am informed that one neare Charing-Crosse maketh a good living by them: as also ano­ther by Ratliffe-Crosse; and therefore if we can bring up an 100. why not a 1000. yea, 100000. if we had food for them? Truly, I know no reason to the con­trary, neither could I ever finde one that could speak any thing to the purpose against the busines. And further I must tell you, that the ordering of this worme is very easie, none need to be bound prentize to the trade; the speciall businesse is to be carefull in feeding them, and keeping them sweete; which [Page 72] things children use to do. He that would learne this Art exactly let him read Boneil, or an Author W. S. Printed 1609. about Mulberries, and sold in Paul's Church-yard, by Eleaz▪ Edgar; but because that the books are out of print, I will give you a few Rules.

First endeavour to get store of Mulberry-trees, which are of 2. sorts the white and the black. The white groweth greatest, and hath a fine leafe, and sweetest, and therefore fittest for the young wormes. This is easily propagated by Slips, as Quinces, Cod­lings. The Black Mulberry is difficultly propagated by Slips; but must be raised from seeds, sowen either at Michaelmas, when the Mulberries are eaten: or kept in dry sand till the spring; and then sowe or howe them in, as other seeds and stones, and must be dili­gently weeded. This groweth not to be so great a tree as the former: the leaves are rougher and harsher, and fittest for the wormes. When they are strong and ready to spin, when your trees are grown to a good bignesse, you may plant them forth, as is usually don for Walks or Orchards, or in waste places, as they do in Italy, (for the Fruit is little worth, one­ly the Leaves are usefull,) where I have seen the trees as bare of leaves at Midsummer as at Midwinter. There are 2. sorts of Silke-wormes, the Spanish, and Calabrian. The Spanish is the smaller and more tender, and maketh a finer silke. The Calabrian is greater and more hardy, and maketh more Silke, but courser. This sort seemeth to be the best for this Countrey. When the Mulberry-trees begin to bud, take the egs of your Silke-wormes, and lay them on a peece of stuffe or say, (some use to Bathe them first in warme Malm­sy, and say that it maketh them stronger,) and carry [Page 73] them about you in the day in a Box, in the night lay them under your Bed, or in a warme Oven, till the wormes begin to come forth, then lay a peece of paper of the widenesse of the box, cut full of holes, on them, and on the paper lay Mulberry-leaves, and as fast as they hatch they will crawle forth, and stick to the Mulberry-leaves; which remove into other boxes, till all be hatched: then when they have past their second sicknesse, feed them on shelves 2. foot broad and 18. inches one from another: the Roome where you keepe your Wormes, must neither be a low place, nor nigh the tiles; but a midle Roome, warme and dry, yet sometimes a little cold aire is good.

Take heed of Rats and Mice, as also of Hens, Ro­binred-brests; Sparrows, and other birds; for they will eate them.

They have 4. Sicknesses, the first 12. dayes after they are hatched; and from that time at the end of every 8. dayes: their sicknesse lasteth 2. or 3. dayes, and then they are to be fed but very little.

The whole time that the wormes do feed, is about 9. weekes: feed them twice dayly at least: at the first when they are small, give them a few leaves; and as they grow greater, more, and feed them oftner. Let your leaves be dry and well aired upon a Table or cloth before you give them; and gather not your leaves, till the dew be off; and in dry seasons if you can possibly, you may keepe your leaves gathered 3. or 4. dayes or longer.

Keepe your shelves and boxes very cleane: but take heed you touch not your wormes with your hands, when you remove them; but move them not when they are sick.

In cold moist weather, set a Pan of Coales in the Roome, and burne a little Benjamin, Juniper, &c. e­specially when they are young, (viz.) the first 5. weekes; but afterwards, unlesse it be extraordina­ry cold, give them Aire, and keepe them not too hot, and let the Roome be well sented with Herbes.

Let not your Wormes be too thick on the shelves: if any dy or be sick, speedily remove them, least they infect the rest.

As soone as by the cleare Amber-colour of your wormes, you perceive that they would spin; make Arches betwixt your shelves, with heath made clean, branches of Rosemary, Lavender &c. where the wormes will fasten themselves, and make their bot­tomes in 2. or 3. dayes, and about 12. or 14. dayes after, will come forth: before which time, you must take away the bottome, which you will use for Silke, and kill the worme within, by laying the bottomes in the sun 2. or 3. dayes, or in an hot Oven.

The bottome which you will keepe for seede, lay in a warme place, till the wormes come forth; which put on some peeces of old say, Grogran, Velvet, made fast to some wall: there they will engender, and the Male having spent himselfe falleth downe and dyeth; so the Female, when she hath laid her egs, which egs when they are gray, you may gently take them off with a knife, and keepe them in a peece of Say in a dry place, till hatching-time come.

The winding of the Silke off the bottome requireth a peculiar wheele, which an Artificer must make: 1. l. and 2. ounces of the bottome yeeldeth from 1. ounce to 3. of Silke.

An ounce of Spanish seed yeeldeth ordinarily 8. or. [Page 73] 10. l. of Silk, and the wormes will eat 250. l. of leaves: the Calabrian wormes being greater, do eat nigh 300. weight, and yeeld 11. or 12. l. of Silke.

To conclude, I desire all men seriously to consider, what Advantage this businesse will bring to this Island, if it be brought to perfection. Truly I know nothing doth hinder but want of Mulberry-trees, which will in little space come to a considerable greatnesse. And though I commend those, who en­deavour to advance this worke in Plantations, and prefer it before Tobacco; yet I know that it cannot be for want of hands; whereas here in England we have plenty of women, children, old folkes, lame, decrepite, &c. who are fit to be overseers of this worke. And I wonder Gentlemen do not go obout a thing so pleasant and profitable, (for 3 4. or 5. at the most will attend as many wormes, as will make 40. or 50. l. worth of Silke in 2. or 3. moneths) and the wormes eate only leaves, which are of no value: neither is there any considerable trouble about the wormes unlesse it be the 12. or 15. last dayes. I hope, if that particular men will not endeavour to ad­vance this worke, for their private profit; yet the State will for the Publique Good; it being the best way I know, to set all the poor children, Widowes, old and lame people on worke: and likewise will save this Nation many 100. thousand pounds per annum. And further, the way to accomplish this work may be done without grievance to the Subject, (viz.) to command every one to plant or sowe so many Mul­berry-seeds which may easily be procured from be­yond Seas &c. But I leave States-matters to States-men, I am none.

A Coppy of King James's Letter to the Lords Lieutenants of the seve­ral Shires of England, for the increa­sing of Mulberry-Trees, and the breeding of Silke-wormes, for the making of Silk in England.

JAMES REX. Right Trustie and Well-beloved, We greet you well.

IT is a principal part of that Christian care, which appertaineth to Soveraignty, to endeavour by all meanes possible, as well to beget, as to increase among their people the knowledge and practice of all Artes and Trades, whereby they may be both weaned from idlenesse and the enormities thereof, which are infinite, and exercised in such industries and labours as are accompanied with evident hopes, not onely of preserving people from the shame and griefe of penury; but also raising and increasing them in wealth and aboundance, The Scope which every freeborne spirit aimeth at, not in regard of himselfe onely, and the ease which a plentiful estate bring­eth to every one in his particular: but also in re­gard of the honour of their Native Countrey, whose commendations is no way more set forth then in the people's activenesse and industry. The conside­ration whereof having of late occupied our minde, who alwayes esteeme our people's good our necessa­ry [Page 75] contemplations: We have conceived as well by the discourse of our own reason, as by information gathered from others, that the making of Silke might as well be affected here, as it is in the King­dome of France, where the same hath of late years been put in practice. For neither is the Climate of this Isle so far distinct or different in condition from that Countrey; especially from the hither parts thereof, but that it is to be hoped, that those things which by industry prosper there, may by like in­dustry used here have like successe▪ and many pri­vate persons who for their pleasure have bred of those wormes, have found no experience to the con­trary, but that they may be nourished and main­tained here, if provision were made for planting of Mulberry-trees, whose leaves are the food of the wormes. And therefore we have thought good there­by to let you understand, that although in suffer­ing this Invention to take place, we do shew our selves some what an Adversary to our profit, which in the matter of our customes for Silke brought from beyond the Seas, will receive some diminution: Neverthelesse, when there is question of so great and Publique Ʋtility, to come to our Kingdome and Subjects in general; and whereby (besides multi­tudes of people of both Sexes and all Ages) such as in regard of impotency are unfit for other labour, may be set on worke, comforted and releeved; we are content that our Private Benefit shall give way to the Publique; and therefore being perswaded, that no well-affected Subject will refuse to put his helping hand to such a worke as can have no other private end, in us, but the desire of the wellfare of our peo­ple, [Page 76] we have thought good in this forme onely to require you (as a person of greatest authority with­in that County,) and from whom the generality may receive notice of our pleasure (with more con­veniency then otherwise) to take occasion either at the Quarter-Sessions, or at some other publique place of ineeting, to perswade and require such as are of abil [...]ty, (without descending to trouble the poore, for whom we seeke to provide) to buy and dis­tribute in that County, the number of ten thousand Mulberry plants, which shall bedelivered unto them at our City of &c. at the rate of 3. farthings the plant; or at 6. s. the hundred, containing five score plants. And because the buying of the said plants at this rate may at the first seeme chargeable to our said Subjests, (whom we would be loath to bur­then) we have taken order that in March or Aprill next, there shall be delivered at the said place a good quantity of Mulberry-seeds, there to be sold to such as will buy them; By meanes where of the said plants will be delivered at a smaller rate then they can be affoarded being carried from hence: having re­solved also in the meane time, that there shall be published in print a plaine Instruction and Direction, both for the increasing of the said Mulberry-trees, the breeding of the Silke-wormes, and all other things needful to be understood, for the perfecting of a worke every way so commendable and profitable, as well to the planter, as to those that shall use the Trade. Having now made knowne unto you the motives, as they stand with the Publique Good, where­in every man is interessed; because we know how much the example of our owne Deputy-Leintenants [Page 77] and Justices will further this cause, if you and other your neighbours will be content to take some good quantities hereof, to distribute upon your owne lands: we are content to acknowledge thus much more in this Direction of ours, that all things of this nature tending to plantations, increase of science, and workes of industry, are things so naturally pleasing to our own disposition, as we shall take it for an argument of extraordinary affection towards our person: Besides, the judgement we shall make of the good dispositions in all those that shall expres in any kinde their ready minds, to further the same: And shall esteeme, that in furthering the same, they seeke to further our honour and content­ment; who (having seene in few years space past, that our Brother the French King, hath since his coming to that Crowne, both begun and brought to per­fection the making of Silkes in his Countrey, where he hath wonne to himselfe honour, and to his Sub­jects a marvellous increase of wealth) would account it no little happinesse to us, if the same worke which we begun among our people, with no lesse zeale to their good, (then any Prince can have to the good of theirs) might in our time produce the fruits which there it hath done: whereof we nothing doubt, if ours will be found as tractable and apt to further their owne good, now the way is shewed them by us their Soveraigne, as those of France have been to conforme themselves to the Directions of their King.

15. Deficiency, is the Ignorance of the Husbandry of other 15. Defi­ciency, concern­ing the Ignorance of the Hus­bandry of other places. places (viz.) what seeds, what Fruits, what Grasses they use; what Ploughes, Harrowes, Garden­ing-tooles they have; how ill they manage and im­prove their lands; what cattel they have; how they feed and fatten them; and how they improve their Commodities &c.

For there is no Countrey, where they are such ill Husband-men, but in some particular or other they excell: as we see even in the several Counties of this Island, every County hath something or other, where­in they out-strip their Neighbours. And that much profit may arise from hence in this Nation, is mani­fest by that excellent Treatise which is published by you concerning the Husbandry of Flaunders; wherein briefly are set down divers particulars very usefull for us here in England, and formerly unknowne. And without question France, Spaine, Italy, Hol­land, Poland, Germany, &c. have many excellent things both for Husbandry, Physick, Mechanicks, worth the manifesting, and very beneficial to us: so likewise there are divers things in our plantati­ons worth the taking notice of, in Husbandry. To passe by the Southerne Plantations, as Barbadoes, An­tego, Saint Croix Christopher, Mevis, Monferate, where the Commodities are onely Cotten-woolls, Sugars, Gingers, Indicoes, which our cold Climate will not produce; and also Tobacco, which groweth also with us, about Norwich and elsewhere. We will onely saile upon our Northerne Plantations, Virginia, New-England, and instance in a few things. Why may not the Silke-grasse of Virginia, the Salsaperilla, Sassa­fras, Rattlesnake-weed (which is an excellent Cor­dial) [Page 79] be beneficial to us, as also their Cedars, Pines, Plum-trees, Cherries, great Strawberries, and their Lo­custs (which is a prickly plant, a swift grower, and therefore excellent for Hedges) be useful to us? So for New-England, why should we thinke, that the Indian Corne, the Marsh-wheate, that excellent Rie, the Pease, (which never are eaten with magots) the French or Kidney Beanes, the Pumpions, Squashes, Wa­ter-Mellons, Musk-Mellons, Hurtleberries, wilde Hemp, Fir &c. of those parts, are altogether uselesse for us? as also the Cramberries, (which are so called by the Indians, but by the English, Beare-Berries; because it's thought the Beares eat them in winter, or Bar-Berries; by reason of their fine acid taste like Bar-Berries) which is a fruite as big and as red as a Cherry, ripe onely in the winter, and growing close to the ground in bogs, where nothing else will grow? They are accounted very good against the Scurvy, and very pleasant in Tarts. I know not a more excellent and healthfuller fruit.

But some will object, that they will not grow here with us, for your forefathers never used them. To these I reply, and aske them, how they know? have they tryed? Idlenesse never wants an excuse; and why might not our forefathers upon the same ground, have held their hands in their pockets, and have said, that Wheate, Barly, would not have grown amongst us? and why should not they have beene discouraged from planting Cherries, Hops, Licorish, Potatoes, Apricockes, Peaches, Melicotones, and from sowing Rape-seeds, Colliflowers, great Clover, Canary-seeds &c. and many more of this kinde? and yet we know, that most of these have beene brought to [Page 80] perfection, even in our dayes: for there is a Vicissi­tude in all things, and as many things are lost, which were knowne to our forefathers, as well the Purple colour, &c. as you may read in Pancivoll: so many things are found out by us, altogether unknowne to them, and some things will be left for our poste­rities: for example, not to speak of Gun-powder and Printing, nor of the New-world and the wonders there, which notwithstanding are but of a few 100 years standing: I say 20. Ingenuities have been found even in our dayes, as Watches, Clocks, Way-wisers, Chaines for Fleas, divers Mathematicall Instruments, Short-writing, Microscopes, by the which even the smallest things may be discerned, as the egs, eyes, legs, and haire of a Mite in a Cheese: likewise the Seleno-scope, which discovereth Mountaines in the Moone, divers stars, and new planets, never seene till our dayes. But to returne to our purpose, I say that in Husbandry it is even so. For the Aunti­ents used divers plants which we know not; as the Cytisus-tree, so much commended for Cattel; as also their Medick fodder, which Colum. saith, endureth 10. years, and may be mowen 4. yeares, 7. times in a yeare: & one Acre he esteemeth enough for 3. horses. This fodder likewise is accounted very sweete and healthful, whereas the plants which are usually called Medicaes with us, are Annual plants, and have no such rare proprieties. So we are igno­rant what graine their Far, or fine Bread Corne was, what their Lupine, Spury, and a 100. of this kinde, as you may reade in Matthiol. or Dioscorides: so on the contrary, infinite are the Plants which we have, and they knew not; as well appeareth by their small [Page 81] and our large Herballs; and dayly new Plants are discovered, useful for Husbandry, Mechanichs and Physick, and therefore let no man be discouraged, from prosecuting new and laudable Ingenuities. And I desire Ingenious Gentlemen and Merchants, who travel beyond Sea, to take notice of the Husbandry of those parts (viz.) what graines they sowe? at what time and seasons? on what lands? how they plough their lands? how they dung and improve them? what cattel they use, and the Commodities there­by? Also what bookes are written of Husbandry, and such like? And I intreate them earnestly, not to thinke these things too low for them, and out of their callings: nay I desire them to count nothing triviall in this kinde, which may be profitable to their Countrey, and advance knowledge. And truly, I should thanke any Merchant that could informe me in some triviall and ordinary things done beyond Sea, (viz.) how they make Caviare out of Sturgeons Rowes? in Moscovia, how they boile and pickle their Sturgeon, (which we English in New-England cannot as yet do handsomely)? how the Bolognia Sausages are made? how they ferment their bread without yest? of what materials divers sorts of Baskets, Broomes, Frailes are made? What seed Groute or Grutze is made of? and also how to make the Parmi­sane Cheeses of Italy, which are usually sold here for 2. s. or 2. s. 6. d. per pound? or the Angelots of France, which are accounted better Cheeses than any made in England? as also the Holland Cheeses, which are far better then our ordinary Cheeses; and yet these sorts of Cheeses are made not of Mares milke, as some think, but from the Cowes; and our Pastures are not inferi­our to theirs &c.

2. I desire Ingenious men to send home whatsoe­ver they find rare of all sorts; as first Animals, the fine­woolled Sheep of Spain, Barbary Horses, Spanish Sonnets &c. and so likewise all sorts of Vegetables not growing with us, as Pannick, Millet, Rice which groweth in the Fenny places of Milan; and why may it not grow in our Fens? and the best sorts of Graines or Fruits in use amongst us? perhaps there is Wheat that is not sub­ject to Smut or Mildew; perhaps other seeds will give double increase, as Flax, Oates, Pease; and divers o­ther things of Importance there are beyond Sea, which may be useful to us; as the Askeys, the Corke, Acornes, the scarlet Oake, sweete Annise, which groweth abundantly in Milan, Fenel &c. Tilia or Linder-tree for basse Ropes &c. Spruce, Pines for masts and Boards, seeing that they are swift growers, and many will stand in a small peece of ground: they have for­merly growne here, and some few do flourish in our Gardens and in Scotland. I suppose that this ought seriously to be considered: for although we have plenty of Oakes, yet what will it profit for Ship­ping without Masts? and how difficult it is to get great Masts above 22. inches diameter, is very well known. Many things I might add of this kind, but for brevities sake I reforre you to Mr. John Tredes­can, who hath taken great paines herein, and dayly raiseth new and curious things.

3. Consider that these new Ingenuities may be profitable, not onely to the Publique, but also to private men; as we see by those, who first planted Cherries, Hops, Licorish, Saffron, and first sowed Rape-seeds, Colliflowers, Woad, Would, Early Pease, Assparagus, Melons, Tulips, Gilliflowers, &c. and [Page 83] why may not we finde some things beneficiall to us also?

16. Deficiency, is the Ignorance of those things, which 16. Defi­ciency, of the Ig­norance of things taken from the Earth & Waters of this Island. are taken from the earth and waters of this Island.

Although it may seeme to many that these things do little concerne the Husband-man, who usually is not a Naturalist, but onely endeavoureth to knowe his own grounds and the seeds proper for it, and sel­dome pierceth into the bowels of the earth: yet if we consider, that out of the earth he hath Marle, Lime, Stone, Chalke, for the enriching his lands; and also Loame and sand for his buildings; oftentimes fuel for fire &c. it will plainly appear, that it is ne­cessary for him to know even all Subterrany things, and to be a petty Philosopher, and that the know­ledge of these things will be very beneficial for him. And here I cannot but take notice of a great Deficien­cy amongst us, (viz.) that we have not the Naturall History of all the Sands, Earth, Stones, Mines, Minerals, Metals, &c. which are found in this Island: It would not onely advance Husbandry; but also many other Mechanic [...] Arts, and bring great profit to the Pub­lique. I hope some Ingenious man will at length un­dertake this taske: For the Lord hath blessed this Island, with as great variety as any place that is knowne, as shall in part appear anon: and it may be proved by that great variety which is found near the Spaw-waters in Knares-borough, as Doctor Deane re­lateth in his Booke called the English Spaw: Or the glory of Knares-borough, springing from several famous Fountains there adjacent (called the Vitriol, sulphurous & dropping well) sand also other Mineral Waters: Whose words are these: Here is found not onely white and yel­low [Page 84] Marle, Plaister, Oker, Rudd, Rubrick, Free-stone, an hard Greet-stone, a soft Reddish stone, Iron-stone, Brimstone, Vitriol, Niter, Allum, Lead, and Copper: (and without doubt divers mixtures of these) but also many other Minerals might (perhaps) be found out by the diligent search and industry of those who would take paines to labour a little herein.

Printed at Yorke by Tho. Broad being to be sold in his shop at the lower end of stone gate, neare to Common-Hall-Gates, 1649.

This letter will not permit me to make a com­pleat Naturall History of the things of this Isle; yet I shall relate divers things which may be as hints, to set some others to worke, which I have found in Mr. Cambden and others: and shall briefly Instruct the Husband-man what he ought to take notice of, for his own and others good. And first, if he live nigh the Sea; let him take notice of those things the Sea casteth up: for it hath even with us, cast up Am­bergrease, which is worth so much Gold; with the which not long since a fisherman of Plymouth greas­ed his bootes, not knowing what it was: sometimes it casteth up Jet and Amber, as at Whitbey oftentimes. In former times we had Oysters, which had very faire great pearles in them, of good worth; and at this time some of them are found in Denbigh-shire; Cop­peras-stone likewise is found along by the sea-coasts of Kent, Essex, Sussex, Hampshire, out of the which Cop­peras is made; a thing very useful for Dyers, Curriers, &c. further Sea-weeds are not to be sleighted; for in Jersey they have no other fuel amongst them; and here [Page 85] in England it is burnt to make Kelpe for Glassemen, and is also very good manure for divers lands; also Sea-owse is not onely good to lay on land, but at Dover, and other places, the inhabitants make bricke thereof, called Flaunders-brickes &c. Sea-sands in Cornwall do very much enrich their lands; and in Cumber-land out of a certaine kind of sand they ex­tract salt &c.

2. Let him take notice of all sorts of Waters, which issue forth of the earth differring from the ordinary, in Colour, Odour, Taste: for it is well knowne, how advantageous these waters are; often­times not onely to particular men, but also to the Countrey about; yea to the whole Island, as appear­eth by the waters of Tunbridge in Kent, and of Epsham in Surrey, Knares-borough-Spaw in Torke-shire, and by the Allum-waters in Newenham in Warwick-shire, like milke in taste and colour, and are excellent for the Stone and Wounds: and also it appeareth by the Salt-fountaines in Worcester-shire and Cheshire, which furnish all those parts, with an excellent fine white salt: by the hot Bathes in Summerset-shire, and the luke-warme waters by Bristol &c. At Pitchford in Shropshire, is a fountaine which casteth forth liquid Bitumen which the people use for Pitch &c.

3. Let him not despise the sorts of Sands, which he findeth: for some sands are for buildings, as the rough sorts; others for scouring; others for casting fine metals, as Highgate-sand, others for the Glassemen, as a sand lately found in Sussex. In Scotland there is a sand, which containeth a considerable quantity of Gold: and in divers Countreyes fine Gold aboundeth very much in sands; and if we may beleeve an ex­cellent [Page 86] Dutch Chymist, there is scarce any sand with­out it. [...]lauler.

4. Let him take notice of the Earth, Loames, Clayes &c. which have divers and necessary uses: as first, the stiffest Clayes, as New-Castle, and Nonsuch, are for the Glassemens pots, for Crucibles, melting-pots: the lesse stiffe for ordinary Earthen wares, Brewers, Tiles, Bricks, &c. white Clay is for Tobbacco-pipes: Marle of divers Colours and stiffnesse is excellent for Husband-men: Fullers earth is found in Kent, Surrey, and lately in di­vers other places, for the great benefit of the Clo­thier: Rub and Rubrick in Yorkeshire, as also divers o­ther in Oxford and Glocestershire excellent for Pain­ters &c. Turffe for firing may be found in most parts of this Isle, if people were Industrious: necessity now and then compelleth them to be Inquisitive; as it did lately at Oxford, and Kent, where it is found in good quantity. In Holland they have little fuel, save what is taken out of theit ditches; and there­fore it is truly said, that their firing, is as it were fish'd out of the water, and it's indifferent good fuell: Coales are found in very many places, yet divers places are in great want of them.

5. Let him take notice of the several stones found in this Isle, as of Free-stones for building; Cobbels and rough hard stones for Paving, Toombe-stones; soft sandy stones commonly called fire-stones, because that they will endure strong fires, and therefore fit for Iron furnaces; and this propriety these soft stones have, that when they are white hot, a steele Instrument will scarce touch them to hurt them: Alabaster is found at Burton on the Trent, and in Staffordshire and at Titbu­ry-Castle: xcellent Marble at Snothill in Hereford-shire: [Page 87] a course Marble neare Oxford, in Kent, also at Purhick in Dorsetshire: Millstones in Anglesey, in Flintshire, Darby shire, Lime-stones: Chalk in very many places, for divers uses: Allum-stone is found in Anglesey, but especially at Gisborrow in Yorkeshire, where the Allum-workes are, which serve this Island: Lapis Calaminaris is lately found in Summerset-shire, by the which Copper is made Brasse: Manganese for those that make white Glasse, lately found in the North: the best Emery for polishing Iron in Jersey: Plaister at Knares-borough: Black-leade in Cumberland, and no where else in Eu­rope: There is a stone in Durham out of which they make Salt: Diamonds are found about Bristole and Cornwall, very large, but soft: There is a stone neare Beaver-Castle like a Starre. In Yorkeshire ano­ther like a Serpent Putrefied: and also other stones round like bullets, which being broken, have as it were a serpent in them without an head &c.

6. Of all Minerals and Metals Iron-stone is found almost in every County, and is profitable where wood is plentiful▪ the best is found in Lancashire, one loade and a half making a tun of Iron: it hath been transported into Ireland to mix with poore Mine. In Richard the 2. time a Copper Mine was found in Wenlock in Shropshire, but exhausted: in Queen Eliz. dayes one was found at Keswick in Cumberland: and lately in Staffordshire, Yorkeshire, and neare Barstable in Devonshire, one which some Gentlemen intend speedily to worke: Leade is found in Durham-wall and Devonshire: Brimstone in Yorkeshire and Wales, Antymony in Staffordshire: a Silver Mine in Cardigan­shire: a Gold Mine was discovered in Scotland in King James his time: and many rich Mines, might be [Page 88] discovered in England, if that the King's prorogative (which was to take all Royall Mines to himselfe, (viz.) Silver, Gold and Copper) were so certainly abo­lished, that they which should find these Metals in their owne lands, might safely digge them. But some will object and say, that many things are of little worth and profit. To these I Answer, that God hath made nothing in vaine: every thing hath his peculiar use, and though some things seem to be of little worth and contemptible, as Sand, Loame, Chalke; yet it hath pleased the wise Creator to make these things very necessary for mans comfortable subsistance, which they that want these things can testify: As for example in New-England, where there is no Chalke nor Lime-stone, they are compel­led, to burne Oyster shells, Cocles, to make Lime; or else they could hardly build any houses. The like I may say of Sand and Loame in divers places, where they are wanting.

2. I say that most of those things I have spoken of, are very profitable in one place or other. To instance in some of the meaner sort; at London Brick-men give 50. l. per Acre, onely for loame to make brickes, and pay 3. l. per Acre, of yearly Rent, and are to leave the land worth the same yearly Rent; likewise I know a Chalke-cliffe in Kent not 2. Acres of ground, valued at many 100. l. and that one Colume of Chalke which is 10. foot square, is valued at 40 or 50 l. at 8. d. per loade: The Oker Mines of Oxford and Glocester-shire are of great value: and so would others of that kind, if they could be found; so is the Black-leade Mine. Also the pits of Clay, Marle, Coale, Turffe &c. And therefore I desire all [Page 89] Countrey-men to endeavour to know all sorts of Stones, Clayes, Earths, Oares, and to teach their chil­dren the use of them, that they may know that this sand is for building, this loame for brickes, this clay for pots, this Marle for Corn-land: and if that they shall finde any Stones, Earths, which they know not, that they would lay them up, till that they meet with some ingenious man, that can informe them. The richest Mines of the world, have been found out by these meanes, if we will beleeve Histo­ries. And this I am sure of, that by this meanes, they may much advance their knowledge, and be more profitable to the Publique, their Neighbours, and also to themselves.

17. Deficiency, is the Ignorance of the Vegetables of 17. De­ficiency, of the Vegeta­bles of this Island, & their Vertues and Ʋ ­ses. this Island, and their Vertues and Ʋses.

And the first Deficiency that I take notice of, is the Ignorance of the ordinary seeds which are commonly sowen amongst us: for usually the Countrey-man contenteth himselfe with one or two sorts, and knoweth no more, when as there are very great va­rieties; some of which agree with one sort of ground, some with another: as for example, there are very many sorts of Wheates, some called White Wheate, some Red Wheate, some Bearded, (which, as I have said before, is not so subject to Mildewes, as others) others not: some sorts with 2. rowes, others with 4. and 6. some with one eare on a stalke, others with double eares, or two on the same stalke; Red­stalke-wheate of Buckinghamshire, Winter-Wheat, Summer-Wheate, which is sowen abundantly in New-England, in Aprill and May, and reaped ordi­narily [Page 90] in 3. moneths; and many sorts more. Not to trouble my discourse with Spelt, Zea, Tiphine-Wheate, or Olew, Far, Siligo, Alica, which were u­sed amongst the Auntients; but now unknowne not onely to the Countrey-man, but even to the learned-est Botanicks: so I may say that the ordinary Yeoman is ignorant of the diversities of Barleys, for there is not onely the ordinary Barly, but also Big, Sprat-Barly, which hath lately been sowen in Kent with good profit; also Winter Barly sowen in winter, Barly with 4. 6. rowes, naked Barly, which require divers dis­positions of land: some delighting in finer, others in stiffer grounds. So there is also Winter and Summer-Rie, and 20. sorts of Pease, the ordinary s [...]chew, the raith or Early-ripe Pease, the Roncivals, Hastivers, Ho­tarses, Gray-Pease, Green-Pease, Pease without Skins, Sugar-Pease, whose shels are sweeter then the Pease it selfe, and have beene within these 10. years plenti­fully sowen in Lincolne-shire with profit; also Ful­ham, Sandwich-Pease, &c. which require divers sorts of land and seasons: so also there are divers sorts of Oates, White, black, naked, which in New-Eng­land serveth well for Oatemeal without grinding, be­ing beaten as they come out of the barne; Scotch, Po­land, &c. Also Buckwheate, Lentiles: divers sorts of Tares, of Hempe and Flax, altogether unknowne to most Countrey-men: but I hope that hereafter they will be more inquisitive after them: for divers of them may be of good use on their lands.

2. Deficiency in this kinde, is, that they are igno­norant of the Plants and Grasses which naturally grow amongst us, and their Ʋses, which likewise were made for to be food for Cattel, and also for [Page 91] the service of man. This ignorance causeth them to admire and to esteem even as miraculous, ordinary and triviall things; as for example, how it cometh to passe that in one Meadow an Horse thriveth very much and speedily, and yet a Bullocke will not in that place: and contrariwise in a Meadow close by the former, the Bullock will thrive, and the Horse not: so also how it cometh to passe that Conyes and Sheepe will thrive well, where there is scarcely any Pasture, and yet come to nothing on Commons, where there is a greater quantity of Pasture; which proceed­eth from this cause, that somekinde of Plants are more agreeing and sweeter to one sort of Cattel then to another, and every beast almost hath some Plant or other, which they love exceedingly. I sup­pose, that the observances of this kinde, might be very useful in Husbandry. These Deficiencies I will draw to 3. heads.

1. I say that divers Plants (not to speak of Fruits, because we have already spoken of them) that grow naturally in our Island, may be very serviceable to the Husbandman, both for his Pastures & Corne-lands. To instance in some few: we see that divers sorts of wild Vetches, Chiches, Tares, &c. grow wild in divers places, which though they beare not so great and large crops, as some others already used; yet who knoweth what they would do, if they were manu­red as other graines, and in land proper for them: for we see that the transplanting of Plants into Gar­dens, doth very much meliorate or better them; and without doubt all those graines, which are in use with us, were at first picked out of the field and woods; and by Ingenious men found useful for man or beast; and of late divers have been found, not [Page 92] knowne to our Forefathers, as Saint Foine, Lucerne; and why may not we finde divers Grasses, Vetches, Me­dicaes, Wild Pease, &c. which as yet are scarce taken notice of?

2. There grow divers sorts of wilde Pease, but to speak of 2. onely.

1. Sort which groweth on the stony beaches of the Sea, where there is little or no earth, the rootes are many foot deepe in the ground. In Queene Ma­ries dayes in a dearth, the poor people gathered di­vers sackes full of them, and they were no small reliefe to them: who hath tryed, whether they would thrive better on better land?

2. sort groweth on dry barren land, and is com­monly called the everlasting Pease; which continu­ally groweth out of the same roote. In Gardens I have seene it grow 10. yeares together, and larger at the 10. years end, then at the first. I have also seen it flourish on barren grounds, where Oates were burnt away: who knoweth but these and other Plants may be serviceable, if not for man at least to beasts, or Pigeons? for in New-England, the great flights of Pi­geons are much maintained by these; I am sure it were good to make experiments on these, and divers others.

2. Head, is the Ignorance of the Mechanical Ʋses of Herbs and Trees; for even for these Ʋses most Plants have some peculiar propriety. To instance in a few. We know that Elme is for Wheels; and the best wood for to make Herrings red, Oake is for the Shipwright, Joy­ner, Tanner; Horne-beames Beech, for the Millwright; Line-tree for base ropes, Old Elder without pith is very tough & fit for Cogs of wheeles, Tooth Pickers; Pear-tree [Page 93] for Mathematicall Instruments and Engravers &c. Osi­ers for Baskets; Walnut for Gunstockes; Aspe for Hoopes; Box, Ash for a 100. uses; and much more might be spoken of this kind, if time would per­mit. So likewise divers Plants are for Painters, as you may see in Batte's Experiments: some for the Dy­ers, but as yet we know but 4. (viz. Woade, Would, Green-wood, and Madder) amongst 1200. plants and upward, which grow wilde with us. I could wish some Ingenious man would take the paines to search out the Mechanicall Ʋses of Plants; surely it were a good way to advance Mechanickes, who in their callings usually go round, as the causes of their ope­rations. I know a Gentleman, who promiseth some things in this kinde, and I hope will be as good as his word.

3. Head, the is ignorance of the Physioal Ʋses of Plants: for though very many 100. Plants do grow amongst us; yet but few of them are used Physically: wheras there is scarce any one, but may be useful in this kind. And truly in my opinion it is a great fault, that we so much admire those things, that are far fetcht and deere bought; when as oft-times they are gathered in unseasonable times, and corrupted by long voya­ges by sea, counterfeited by Merchants; yea we have very oft Quid pro quo, and ranke poysons, and do neglect those Medicines which God hath given us here at home. I am credibly informed, that in former times, Virga Aurea was in great use with us, and usually sold for 8. d. per ounce, and brought from France: but so soone as it was found growing plen­tifully in our hedges, it was cast forth of the Apothe­caries shops, as of little vertue. And though some will object, that our Plants have little vertue: I say it's false; for God hath tempered them for on Com­plexions: [Page 94] and we see that very oft one simple Medi­cine doth more good then the great Compositions of the Auncients, which are rather ad pompam then for health, and seeme to savour somewhat of the Moun­tebanke; because Opium is alwayes an ingredient. And further we see, that where any Endemicall or National disease reigneth, there God hath also plant­ed a specifique for it: As the Cochleare or Scurvy-grasse for the Scurvy, in the Balticke Sea, where it is very frequent, and also in Holland, England. So in the West-Indies, (from whence the great Pox first came, and where it reigneth very much, that not onely man, but other Creatures are infect­ed with it, so that even Dogs dye of that disease in our Northerne Plantations, perhaps catching this in­fection, by mingling with Indian dogs,) there grow the specifiques for this disease, as Gujacum, Sassaperilla, Sassafras, and the Salvages do easily cure these dis­temper. Further we see, that even the Irrational Crea­tures, can finde not onely meate, but also Medicines for themselves; as the Dog, Couchgrasse for a vomit: the Dove, Vervein; the Weasell, Rue; the Swallow, Ce­landine; the Toade Plantine; and where is our rea­son, that we cannot?

I therefore desire all Countrey-people, to endea­vour to know these Plants which grow at their doores: (for God hath not planted them there for no purpose; for he doth nothing in vaine,) and to collect together the plain simple Medicaments of their Grandame; by this meanes they may save many a 40. dence: I meane preserve themselves and families, and Neighbours, in good health Some small Trea­tises have of late been written, to shew the Ʋse of [Page 95] our Plants, in Physicke; and I hope Ingenious men will dayly more and more communicate the Secrets of this kinde, which they have in their hands, for the Publique Good.

They that write of 4 footed beasts, do reckon a­bout 18. De­ficiency, concern­ing Ani­mals. 120. species of them: halfe of them are scarce­ly knowne amongst us. I do suppose therefore, that divers species are wanting, which may be usefull. To instance in some: And

1. To begin with the Elephant, the greatest, wi­sest, and longest-lived of all beasts: which abound very much in the Easterne parts of the world; as China, India: and are accounted very serviceable, both for the warres, and for carriage (15. men u­sually riding on his backe together,) they are not chargeable to keepe; why may they not be of use even here, when I am credibly informed, an Ele­phant lived divers years here in a Parke? so that they can endure the coldnesse of this Climate.

2. The Buffle, which is as big as an Ox, and ser­viceable both for the plough, and for their milke: their skins make the best buffe, they will fare very hard, and live in Fens and bogs, where nothing else can. In the Duke of Floernce's Countrey neare Pisa, are many of them.

3. The honest and patient Asse, which was very much used in the old time for carriage, (as the Horse for the warre, and the Oxe for the plough,) and in many Countreyes at this time, they will eate thistles, and live even with nothing. They may save poore men (who are not able to keepe an Horse, because he is a great feeder,) much labour.

4. Mules, which is a very strong and proud beast, [Page 96] and will carry far more then an Horse, and are more sure-footed. I suppose, that they might be serviceable to the Carriers here, as they are beyond the Seas.

5. Black Foxes, may be profitable; whose skins have been fold from 20. l. per skin to 90. l. I might add divers more of this kind: as Muske-cats, Sables, Mar­tines, Minkes, Musk Squash, Guiney-pigs, and a sort of Cony, which some few have in Hamp-shire, whose Furr is worth 2. s. 6. s. or 3. s. per skin, being little inferiour to Beaver, &c. but for brevities sake I passe them over: as also divers sorts of Fowles, of good use; as a kind of Ducke with a Crooked bill, which layeth constantly as Hens do, as also Hawkes of diver; sorts, of good value, which perhaps the Countrey­man loveth not; because they are enemies to his Poultry.

2. Deficiency, is that we do not endeavour to ad­vance the best kinds of these Cattel, which are a­mongst us. And

1. To begin with Horses. The French-man that wri­teth a booke called the Treasure Politick, saith, that in England in Qu. Eliz. dayes, we had not above 3. or 4000. Horse worth any thing for the war, & those onely in Noblemens stables; which thing perhaps did the more encourage the Spaniard to invade us: but at this time we are known to have very many 1000. of Horse, not inferiour to the best in the world: yet I suppose, that we might much meliorate our breed by Spanish Jennets, Barbary, &c. And we are not so careful to encrease good Horses, as we should be.

2. We are too negligent in our Kine, that we ad­vance not the best species: for some sorts give abun­dance of milke, and better then others: some sorts [Page 97] are larger, more hardy, and will sooner fat, &c. Lancashire and some few Northerne Counties, are the onely places, where they are a little careful in these particulars.

3. We are not curious in procuring the best sorts of Sheepe, for greatnesse, foundnesse, and fine wooll. I wonder that some of our Sheep-masters have not procured of those exceeding fine-woolled Sheepe of Spaine; whose wooll costeth the Merchant nigh 10. s. per pound, before it is exported: I suppose, that it would for a time mend our wooll, if not continue so for ever: for these Sheep were first carryed forth out of England, if we may beleeve stories, Spaine not affoarding such Sheepe before. Dutch Sheepe are reported to have 2. or 3. Lambes ordinarily. Dutch Sheepe are very great with greate tales; but their wooll is very course, not onely because of their course feeding; but also because in hot Countries, they ordi­narily mingle with Goats; and therefore in Venice ordi­nary Porters will scarcely eate any Mutton. And here I cannot but relate, that all strangers very much won­der at 2. things in our Sheepe, (not to speak of the fine­nesse of wooll.) And

1. That our Sheepe if they be sound, seldome or never drink, even in Summer; though they go on the dryest Chalky lands: as it plainly appeareth in Kent, where there is scarce water for the great cat­tel; which proceedeth from the moisture of our aire, and abundance of Raines and dewes.

2. That our Sheepe do not follow their shepherds, as they do in all other Countries: for the shepherd goeth before, and the Sheepe follow like to a pack of dogs; this disobedience of our Sheepe, doth not happen to [Page 98] us, as Papist-Priests tell their simple flocks; because we have left their great shepherd the Pope; but because we let our Sheep range night and day in our fields without a shepherd; which other Countries dare not for feare of Wolves and other ravenous beasts, but are compelled to guard them all day with great dogs, and to bring them home at night, or to watch them in their folds.

3. Deficiency in this kind, is the neglect of Fish-ponds, which are very profitable: for Fish usually live by such wormes and flies as are engendred in the ponds, and require no charge. Concerning the or­dering of them, and the profit of them, Read Mr. Vaughans Golden Grove. And surely it would be a great benefit to this Island, if we had Fish at reasonable rates. I cannot therefore passe by two extreame Abuses, which exceedingly destroy Fish, and are in no wise to be permitted.

1. That divers poore men keepe many Swine, and in nets, or otherwise catch many bushels of the young fry of Fish, and feed their Swine with them.

2. That the Fisher-men in the River have the meashes of their nets so straight, that they take ma­ny sorts of Fish when they are too small, and do destroy farre more Fish then they take. I hope these Abuses will be reformed with all severity. To this head I may add Decoyes, which are very frequent in Holland, and profitable; but very rare with us in England: yet may be very profitable and delightful.

4. Dificiency, is the Ignorance of the Insects of this Island. And though it may seeme ridiculous to many, to affirme that Magots, butterflies, should be of any importance; yet I desire them to consider, that we [Page 99] have our Honey, the sweetest of foods from Bees, which are cattel of this kinde: also all our Silkes, Sattins, Plushes, and bravery from the poore Silke-worme, which may be called a Magot, Caterpillar, or Butter-flie &c. the richest of our Colours from the Cocheneile, which is one of this sort. Gum-lac is made by Aunts, some are used for food, as Locusts, &c. as you may reade in Musset's Book de Insectis. Many of these likewise are used in Physick, as Cantharides, Wood-sowes, Lice, &c. Some think, that Medicines transcending even the Chymists, may be had out of these; for every Plant, which hath a Medicinal ver­tue, is also sublimed up into this living Quintessence: & therefore I commend divers ingenious men, as Mr. Marshal and others, who have collected many hun­dred sorts of these; and I hope they will communi­cate ere long their experiments to the world.

19. Deficiency concerning divers things necessary for the 19. Defi­ency, con­cerning divers things necessary for the good of Cattel. good of Cattel.

1. That we are ignorant of the divers Diseases of Cattel & their Cures. Not to run over all the Diseases of Cattel and their Cures, which would be too long, and you may read them in Mr. Marram's workes, The Countrey-Farmer, and others. I will instance onely in two, which some years sweepe away Cat­tel, as the Plague doth men, (viz.) the Murreine a­mongst Great Cattel, and the Rot amongst Sheep. And though divers have wrote concerning the Cures of these Diseases; yet we do not finde that effect which we desire: and therefore I hope some will attempt to supply this Deficiency, and write a good Treatise about the Diseases of Cattel. Of these 2. Diseases, I shall briefly declare my minde: And

1. Of the Murreine, which proceedeth from an [Page 100] Inflammation of the blood, and causeth a swelling in the throate, which in little time suffocateth the cat­tel. The especial Causes of this Disease, are an hot and dry season of the year; which dryeth up the waters, or at least doth so putrefie them, that they are un­wholesome: and also the letting of Carrionly un­buried. This Disease is thought to be infectious; but perhaps it may proceede from one Common Cause, as the Rottennesse of Sheepe. The best way to keepe your cattel from this Disease, is to let them stand in coole places in Summer, and to have abun­dance of good water, and speedily to bury all Ca­rion: and if any of your Cattel be infected, speedi­ly to let them bloud, and to give them a good drench &c. by these Meanes divers have preserved their cattel; when their Neighbours have perished.

2. Concerning the Rot of Sheepe: not to speake of the Pelt-Rot, or Sheepe that are starved; but of the Ordinary Rot, called by some the White Rot; and is a kinde of Dropsey: their bellies are full of water and their liver discoloured. I have seen out of the livers of Sheepe tending to Rottennesse, living creatures leap­ing like small Flounders: which without question in little time will destroy the liver, and con­sequently produce an indisposition not unlike to the Rot. The common people say, that these wormes are caused by the over-heatings of Sheepe, and that Rottennesse proceedeth from a plant called Cotyledon, or Marsh-Penny-wort, which is of a very sharpe taste, and therefore not likely that Sheepe will eate it; but it may be a signe of wet rotten land, as broome is of sound and dry land. This is certaine, that in wet moist years, [Page 101] Sheepe dy very much of the Rot; and in dry years on the same ground, they hold sound: and yet I have heard that in Ireland, which is farre moister then England, Rottennesse of Sheepe is not known. It were therefore well worth the labour of an Ingenious man, to inquire into the Causes of these Indispositions in Sheepe.

The Meanes, which have been found very effectual for the curing these Diseases, are these: first, to drive your sheepe up to dry lands, or to keepe them in the fold, till the dew be off the grasse, or to feed them some dayes with fine dry hay, especially of Salt Mea­dow, or to put them into Salt-Marshes; for in those places Sheepe never Rot, or to drive them to some salt River, and there to wash them, and make them drink of the water, this will kil the Scab; and also the tickes, and fasten the wooll; but if you have not the conveniencies before said; then Rub their teeth with salt, or rather make a strong pickle with salt and water, and force them to drinke thereof. Some dry pitch in an oven, and add to the pickle, and have found very good successe: for these Medicines do exsiccate the superfluous humidities, open obstructi­ons, and kill wormes. Some commend the Antimo­niall Cup, as a Catholick Medicine against all Diseases of Cattel.

2. We are Ignorant of divers Ingenuities, con­cerning feeding and fatting of Cattel and other crea­tures. To instance in some: And

1. Of the Horse who is a great feeder. In Kent and Hartford-shire they usually cut all their Oates and Pease small, and give them with their Chaffe; by this meanes the Horses sooner fill themselves, and eate [Page 102] all the straw up: some put this Horsemeat into a bag, and so order it that a little only lyeth in the Manger; which when that is eaten up, more falleth down, and not before; by this way Horses do not blow their meate, nor throw it out of the Manger with their noses. A further good peece of Husbandry they use, which is this, when their Horses are well fed at night, they fill the rack with Wheate or Barly-straw, and so leave them; the Horse perceiving that that which is in the rack is not very pleasant, lyeth down and taketh his rest, which is as good to him as his meate: if he rise in the night, and fall to the rack and Manger, as he usually doth, and findeth nothing but straw, he sleepeth till the morning; but if it be Hay, Tares, or Pease, the Jade will pull it all down and spoile it, and likewise will be hindred from his rest; by the which double damage doth ensue. Currying and dressing of Horses ought not to be forgot, it is halfe as good as their meate. Brimstone and Elecam­pane rootes are the especiall Ingredients for this Phy­sick.

2. Of the feeding and fatting of Cowes. We usual­ly feed Cattel with straw in rackes in the yard, or turne them to the fields, and there let them feed as much; and how they please; which hath many In­conveniencies: as first, cattel spoile as much with their heeles as they eate, especially if the ground be moist, or if the flie be very troublesome, and they blow and stench and tumble much, and if the flie be busie, they run up and downe, and over-heate themselves, and fat very little; so that oftentimes in June or July they fatten as little as at Christmas, and most of their dung is lost by these meanes &c. But [Page 103] in Holland they do thus: They keepe their cattel housed Winter and Summer; for the Winter-provi­sion, they lay in not only hay, but also graines, (which they buy in the Summer, and bury in the ground:) and also Rape-seed Cakes, and sowe Turnips, not one­ly for themselves, but their Cowes also; with the which Turnips being sliced, and their tops, and Rape-Cakes, and graines &c. they make Meshes for their Cowes, and give it them warme; which the Cowes will slop up like Hogs, and by this meanes, they give very much Milke. In the Summer-time, they mowe the great Clover-grasse, and give it them in ra [...]kes; so that their cattel are not troubled with the pinching frosts, nor rains, nor with the parching Sun in Sum­mer, neither with the flie, nor do they over-heate themselves or spoile halfe so much meate; and are alwayes as fat as their Masters, or Bacon-hogs. The Dung and Ʋrine they charily preserve, and thereby keepe their Meadowes of Clover-grasse (which are constantly mowen twice or thrice yearly) in good heart: & indeed cattel ought not to go amongst Clo­ver-grasse, because it usually groweth with long Haume (as they call it) like Pease, which if it be bro­ken will not thrive. In Barmudaes they have a pecu­liar way of fattening their cattel, not used any where else that I know, which is with Greene Fennell, that groweth in that Island plentifully.

There is a plant in Essex called Myrchis, or Cow­pursley, which groweth fast and early in the spring, which they give their cattel at the beginning of the yeare, and they eate it well.

It is an ill custome that is used almost every where, to let Hogs ly in their Dirt and Dung, when they [Page 104] are fattening; for all creatures Generally do hate and abhorre their owne Dung: and an Hog is the cleanliest of all creatures, and will never dung nor stale in his Sty, if he can get forth, which other crea­tures will: and though he tumble in the dirt in Summer; yet that is partly to coole himselfe, and partly to kill his Lice, for when the dirt is dry, he rubbeth it off and destroyeth the Lice thereby.

Sir Hugh Plattes in his writings setteth down divers Ingenious wayes, of Fattening Poultry &c. and more may be found out dayly. The Jewes have a peculi­ar way of fattening Geese, with Milke, Figs, Raisins, and other sweete things; by the which they make the liver of an extraordinary greatnesse, and is a dish much valued by them.

In Moore-fields there is one that keepeth many 100. of Conyes, with graines and branne: and some others who keepe the great laying Duckes, with these things and bloud, to their great advantage. I have seene a Booke translated out of French, which teacheth how to gaine divers 100. l. per annum. by 50. l. stock in Hens. I suppose that about London, where eggs are so deere, great profit might be made by them. Turkeyes may be kept with good profit, where there are many Meadowes, as in Soffolke. In Barke-shire many keepe tame Pheasants, and have gained well thereby.

3. We do not know how to improve the Com­modities proceeding from Cattel to the highest: as for example, our ordinary Eutter might be better sented and tasted: some Ladies have fine Ingenuities in this kinde. We cannot make Cheese comparable to the Parmisan, nor so good as the Angelots of France: [Page 105] our ordinary Cheese is not comparable to the Holland Cheeses, where also divers sorts of Cheeses are made of divers Colours: but I cannot much commend their Green Cheeses, which are made of that Colour by Sheepes-dung &c. but I hope that in little time, our good Housewives will scorn that any shall excel them.

20. Deficiency, is The want of divers things, which 20 Defi­ciency, Of the want of divers things, which are necessary for the accom­plishment of Agri­cuture. are necessary for the accomplishment of Agriculture—As

1. That we have not a Systema or compleat Book of all the parts of Agriculture. Till the latter end of Qu. Eliz. dayes, I suppose that there was scarce a booke wrote of this subject; I never saw or heard of any. About that time: Tusser made his verses, and Scot wrote about a Hop-garden, Gouge translated some things. Lately divers small Treatises have been made by divers, as Sir Hugh Plattes, Gab. Plattes, Markham, Blith and Butler, who do well in divers things; but their bookes cannot be called compleat Bookes, as you may perceive by divers particular things, not so much mentioned by them. The Coun­trey Farmer translated out of French is enough, if not more than enough; but it's no waies framed, or squared for us here in England: and I feare, the first Authors went on probabilities and hearsaies rather then experience. I hope some Ingenious man will be encouraged, to undertake a work so necessa­ry and commendable.

2. Deficiency is, that Gentlemen try so few Expe­riments for the avdance of this honest and Laborious Calling; when as many Experiments might be made for a small matter: for halfe a Pole square, will give as certain a demonstration, as an Acre; and a Pottle as a Hogshead. I hope in time there will be erected a [Page 106] Colledge of Experiments, not only for this, but also all other Mechanicall Arts.

3. Deficiency is, That Gentlemen and Farmers do not meet and communicate secrets in this kind, but keep what they have experimented themselves or known from others, as Sybils leaves, I mean as rare secrets not to be communicated. I hope that we shall see a more Communicative spirit amongst us ere long. And Sir, I cannot but desire you, if you have any things more in your hands of Gabriel Platte's, or any mens else, that you would with speed publish them.

4. Deficiency is, That we want a Place, to the which men may resort for to find such Ingenious men, as may be serviceable for their ends and pur­poses; and also know where to find such seeds, and plants, as they desire, as the great Clover-grasse, Saint Foine, La Lucerne, &c.

5. Deficiency, That men do usually covet great quantities of Land; yet cannot mannage a little well. There were amongst the Auncient Romans some appointed to see that men did till their Lands as they should do, and if they did not, to punish them as Enemies to the Publique; perhaps such a law might not be amisse with us: for without que­stion the Publique suffereth much, by private mens negligences; I therefore wish men to take Columell's Councell; which is, Laudato ingentia Rura, Exigu­um Colito. For melior est culta exiguitas &c. as ano­ther saith, or as we say in English, A little Farme well tilled, is to be preferred: for then we should not see so much waste Land, but more Industry, greater Crops, and more people imployed, then are at this present, to the great profit of the Common-Wealth.

21. Deficiency is, That by reason of our sins we have 21 Defi­ciency, That be­cause of our sins we ha [...] not the blessin of God upon our Labours. not the blessing of the Lord upon our Labours.

And this is the reason, that although the Husband-man hath been laborious and diligent in his calling these last years; yet our Crops have been thin, his Cattel swept away, & scarcity & famine hath seased on all parts of this Land; and if we had not been supplyed from abroad, we had quite devoured all the creatures of the Island, for our sustenance, and yet we could not have been satisfyed, but must have devoured one another. And therefore to conclude; though I desire the Husbandman to be diligent and laborious in his calling, yet I councell him to break off his sins by Repentance, to have his eyes towards him, who is the Giver of every good thing, and to pray dai­ly to him for his blessings, who giveth freely to them that aske, and upbraideth not. And although all callings ought to look up to him that is on high; yet the Countrey-man especially; for he hath a more im­mediate dependance on him then any other: for if the Lord withold his fat dew of Heaven, or the for­mer or latter Rain, it is in vain that the Hushandman rise up earely, and goe to bed late, and eate the bread of carefulnesse: for we know, that it is the Lord that ma­keth barren places fruitful, and he likewise that turneth fruitful Lands into barrennesse, (as the Land of Ca­naan, which was very fruitful even in the time of the Canaanites, but now a barren desert) and there­fore, I again desire the Countrey-man to walk as it becometh a Christian, in all Sobriety, Righteousnesse and Godlynesse: not to trust to his confidence, in his own labours, and good Husbandry; but on the Lord that hath made all things: for though even Paul himselfe [Page 108] doth plant and Apollo doth water; yet it is only the Lord that giveth encrease and plenty, which he will not deny to those that fear him: for they shall want nothing that is good.

And thus Sir, I have written to you very largely my thoughts concerning the Husbandry of this Island, and partly what I have seen in many travels. Good Sir, be not offended at my long and impertinent sto­ries, my rude language and unmethodical discourse. It was, if not to satisfy; yet somewhat to gratify the universal goodnesse of your spirit, and care of the Publique, which God hath enriched you withall. And these are onely my first thoughts, which in haste I have hudled up together. I hope (if the Lord send life and health) my Second thoughts shall be better: But whatsoever I have done, pray look on it, as comming from one who is desirous to serve you, and to advance the Publique Good, according to the talent the Lord hath given him. Thus I com­mit you to the protection of the Almighty: And rest

Your, ——

Copies and Extracts of more letters written to Mr. Sa­muel Hartlib: They all tending very much to the great Improvement not onely of Agriculture, but of true and reall Learning, and Naturall Philosophy.


The severall things observed and set down during my stay in the Countrey, are these.

1. I learned the whole way and Art, of making and ordering of Woad, viz. the time when they sowe it, when first they weed it, and cut it. I saw the manner of their gathering it, grinding, balling, drying it, and after sweating and curing it. Informing my self of the whole charge and pro­fit of it: Have made divers Annotations on it: And taken order for some seed to be sent to me, for other more Compendious and Profitable tryals, answera­ble to the Nature and Philosophy of it.

2. This and some other things gave me occasi­on to make the best inquiry I could, of House-wives and of Fowlers, for all sorts of dying weeds, and herbs, used in the dying of wooll, or of nets, which I have carefully collected to improve to a more then ordi­nary use; some being very remarkable.

3. Among other Generall Inquiries and Adven­tures, I heard of one at Ware, that charr'd Sea-coale; procured an errand and Commendations thither; went, was civilly used; and satisfyed in the truth and manner of the thing, and found the Gentleman who was the first Author of it, to be one Aires, now dead, an Ingenious man, a great Malster, made much profit of it: It drying Malt as sweet, as if the Sunne it self did it: Is cheaper then either Wood, or Straw; and may be many other waies applyed.

4. I went into the Isle of Ely, to see one of the Holland-mills, for dreyning; though set up there and kept by certain Frenchmen. The Invention seemed to me but mean and rude, and Mr. Wheeler's way much more Ingenious.

[Page 110] 5. I saw at Wicklesen the manner of your Holland Sluces. The ruines also of a Cochlea, for the empty­ing and dreining of water, of which Ʋbaldus hath writ a whole Treatise. Likewise a petty kinde of Pinnace with ordinance, somewhat like a close Litter, but Flat-bottom'd; which rowed with wheeles instead of Oares, imployed it seemes formerly with admirable successe, for the taking in of Crowland, and which gave me a proofe of what I for many years have thought possible, and of very great use and service, and still think it of unknowne value, if it were skillfully indeed framed, and applyed as it might be.

6. The Lord F. W. assured me of a Gentleman in Norfolke, that made above 10000. l. sterl. of a peece of ground, not 40. yards square, and yet there was nei­ther Mineral or Metall in it. He after told me, it was onely a sort of fine Clay, for the making a choise sort of earthen ware; which some that knew it, see­ing him dig up, discovered the value of it, and send­ing it into Holland, received so much money for it: it's a story not to be despised.

7. His Lordship told me the way of making of Spunke or Touch-wood.

8. Mr. H. His Lordship's Bailiff, shewed me a small plat of ground, scarce an Acre and halfe, wherein he as­sured me, he had in one yeare 21. hundred of Hops; and falling out then to be scarce in other places, he made of that small parcel of ground 9. score l.

9. At Milton, I saw a Spring, that might have been made big enough to serve a large Towne; which my Friend Wheeler had newly discovered, and broke up; every man opposing him in it, and de­riding [Page 111] his confidence, till he made it appear, and ashamed them. Hereupon he gave me several marks of knowing and finding out Springs under ground.

10 From Springs we converted our discourse to Pipes, for the carrying along of water under ground to any House, or Towne; wherein he imparted some secrets to me, both of the fittest Wood and Trees for Pipes, and preserving them whole ages from cor­ruption, by wayes extreamly rational and not hi­therto observed or found out by any.

11. This drew on some Discourse of Woods, their Differences and several Applications: in which he told me many singular Observations.

12. After this, I saw at Milton an Excellent Modell of a Garden, Orchard and Walkes; and being further curious, my Friend related a Witty Invention he once put in Practise, to plant an Orchard in a Moorish place, where never grew a Tree.

13. I casually met with one Boughton, a most singular rare man, in carving or cutting out Figures in small or in great of Stone; and for that reason ser­vant in ordinary to the late King: Who acquainted me of many excellent Ingenious men, and promised to seek me at my lodging.

14. Being in Camebridge-shire, I examined more particularly the Husbandry, planting, ordering and curing of Saffron.

Some other things came in my way, not without notice: But these are the chief. My own Improve­ments, and comments upon all which, I shall more at large give you, when we meet together; being alwayes

Your's ——

Quere's sent into France about the Seed called La Lucerne.

WHen one N. N. was last in France, being in dis­course with Doctor D. concerning Saint Foine, he was then told by Doctor D. that (for the Improve­ment of barren grounds) there was (in those parts of France about Paris) another seed that did farre excell that of Saint Foine, and that the name of that more excellent seed was La Lucerne. I am desired by a friend of mine (to whome N. N. related this passage of Doctor D.) that by your kindnesse he may be spo­ken to of this La Lucerne: and his direction's desired, where the said seed is to be had? for what price? how much is usually sowed upon an English Acre? what time of yeare it is sowen? whether it be sowen a­lone; or with any other ordinary Corne? and with what Corne? and with what kinde of land it best agrees with? and finally what other particulars he can direct more then is here set downe?

The Answer to the Quere's from Paris.

I Have been with Doctor D. about Lucerne, who tells me that it groweth best in wettish grounds, that the best time of sowing it in England will be in Febru­ary at the same time that Oates are sowne, with the which also it may be sowen, but best alone; that to the sowing of an Arpent, which is much what the same with an English Acre, there will go 12, or 15. l. of the Seed, the which useth to be sold here at 8. or 9. sols the pound.

More Quere's concerning Lucerne.

I Desire further to know, what kind of wet grounds are best for it? whether Moorish or clay? whether Poore or Rich? whether it must be sowen yearly? or whether it will continue over a year in the ground? and if more then a year, then how many years it will continue without being new sowen? whether it be onely good for Meadowes, or for Pasture? and if for Pasture, then whether the Sheepe or Cattel be suf­fered to go upon it? or whether it be carried off greene as the Clover-grasse is in Flaunders?

Lastly, for what Cattel it is most proper?

Another Answer from Paris.

I Thought to have sent you 9. l. of the seed of Lu­cerne for the sowing of three Acres, Doctor D. ha­ving told me, as heretofore I told you, that 3. l. would sowe an Arpent or Acre; But as I was going about it, I met with a Gentleman an acquaintance of mine, who some yeares since (but unknowne to me hitherto) hath had some Acres of Meadow of Lucerne upon his Ground, to whom having casually spoke of my businesse, and told him all that Doctor D. had told me about the Lucerne; he answered me, that Doctor D. was most grosly mistaken in the quantity of the Seed required for the sowing of an Acre; and that it would not take up 3. l. but two whole sacks, each sack containing the full loade of a strong Por­ter; after which rate the quantity of Seed for the sowing of 3. Acres would fill a great dry-fat, the sending whereof by land would come to excessive [Page 114] great charges, and therefore necessarily to be sent by Sea in my opinion. You will be pleased to im­part these things to your Friend, and to let me know his finall resolution upon them, the which shall be faithfully accomplished by me; and in the meane while I will get him a perfect and full Answer upon all his Quere's, not from Doctor D. (whom I dare trust no more in this businesse, having found him guilty of such grosse mistakes about it) but from that other Gentleman, who told me he could him­self resolve most of those Questions; but that for to be the surer, he thought it best to conferre first with his Farmer about it. You make Apologies for put­ting me upon these Inquiries; but I pray you to be­lieve, that at any time I shall most readily and cheer­fully perform any service that shall lie in my power, for you or any of your Friends for your sake. And I were very unreasonable, to think troublesome any thing that you require of me, when as continually I put you to so much trouble my selfe.

The last Answer concerning Lucerne.

THe information about the Lucerne that I have got from my Friend, being a very particular one, and containing a very full Answer to all the Questions propounded by your Friend; is such as followeth: It requireth a rich ground, but some­what loose and light, so as a stiffe Clay, and such o­ther tough grounds are no waies fit for it; The ground must not be over-dry nor over-moist, but in a mean; yet somewhat more inclining to moisture, then to the contrary. It must be ploughed three times; the [Page 115] first time in October, and the second and third, to­wards the Spring. Naturally it doth not love Dung, and cometh much better in a ground that is suffici­ently rich of it self, then that which hath been in­riched by Dunging; and where Dung is made use of, it must be very stale and well rotten, and long be­fore the sowing-time. It cannot endure the cold, and therefore must not be sowen till the cold wea­ther, and all the danger of it, be quite past, viz. a­bout the beginning or midst of Aprill. The Quan­tity of the Seed, is the Sixth part of Corne, that the same ground would require: so as only one Bushell of Lucerne is to be sowen on that space of ground, which would require six Bushells of Corne. It must be carefully weeded, especially in the beginning. And to the end that it may take the more firm root, some Oates must be mixed with it, but in a very small proportion. It is to be cut as soon as it begin­neth to flower, which in the hot Countries (Provence, Languedock, and Spaine) it doth five or six times, and some years seven and eight times in a Summer: but in this Climate it useth to be cut but twice a year, a­bout the end of June, and about the end of Septem­ber: Being cut, it must be turned very oft, that it may dry the sooner, and be carried off the ground the soonest that may be; and it must be kept in close barnes, being too tender for to be kept in reeks, o­pen to the aire, as other Hay. It is good for all kind of Cattel, Kine, Sheep, Goats, and as well for the young ones (Calves, Lambs, Kids) as for the others; but above all it agreeth best with Horses. It is much more feeding then any other Hay: insomuch as any lean beasts will soon grow fat with it; and to Milch-beasts, [Page 116] it procureth abundance of milke: but it must never be given alone, especially to beasts that have not been long used to it: but must ever be mixed with Straw, or with some other Hay: for otherwise it over-heateth them, and filleth them too much with bloud; and that so suddenly, as it greatly indangereth their health, and their life too; which it doth principally to Kine: to whom it is more dangerous, if too plentifully given, then to any other Cattel. After the last cutting, you may let your Cattell graze on your Lucerne-fields, and that all Winter long, untill the beginning or mid­dle of March. Of once sowing you will have your Meadow continue good for 10. or 12. years, and until 15. and afterwards too, it will still continue to bear; but the hearb will then notably decay in good­nesse. Wherefore it is best to turn in then to some o­ther use. Kine must never eate of this hearb green; but onely dryed, and that moderately too, as hath been said. But Horses eating their fill of it green in the Spring, are purged thereby, and grow fat by it in 8. or 10. daies time: If one desire to have of the Grain, one may let such a proportion of the Meadow, as one will, grow up to seed, after the second cut­ting, any year except the first only: and when the seed is ripe; the tops of the hearb, with the coddes wherein the seed is inclosed, must be cut in a dewie morning, and put into sheets, for fear of loosing the seed, and must be beate out with Flails upon the same, when that it is well dryed: and afterwards the remaining part of the hearb must be mowen close to the ground; after which it continueth to sprout out again after the usual manner. The Hay [Page 117] on't will keep good two or three years; and one A­cre is sufficient to keep three Horses all the year long.

A Post-script to the last Answer concerning the Lucerne.


THe Gentleman, who had given me the Note about the Lucerne, hath told me since two par­ticulars more, which he had forgot to put into it: The one, that not onely to other Cattel, but even to Horses, with whom that Hay agreeth best, of all other beasts: it is not to be given but in Winter; because that in the Summer it would too much heate their bloud: And the other, That this Hay must be per­fectly well dri'd, before it be carried off the ground; and to that end turned very often: because that being put up with any the least moisture, it will quite spoile much more then any other Hay. Now these, and all the other particulars, which I have had from that Gentleman, have been confirmed to me by many others. And yet within these 2. or 3. days I met with a Physitian of Rochell, who assuring me that the Lucerne was very common in his Coun­trey, made me a relation of it agreeing with the for­mer, only in these three points, viz. That of once sowing it will continue 10 or 12. years; That it is cut twice a year, serving afterwards for Pasture all Winter; And that it wonderfully fatteneth all kind of Cattel; but very much different from it in all the others, and in some of them point-blank contrary to it. For he saith, that it is to be sowen in the be­ginning of March; that it desireth a temperate ground, but rather dry then wet, and no waies fat [Page 118] nor clayish, but stony and gravily; that it need not be mixed with any other Hay, but may be given a­lone, and all the year long; in Summer aswell as in Winter; not only to Horses, but to Cowes and other Cattel. He added, that the proportion of the seed, is the charge of a Porter for four Arpents or French A­cres. Which particulars I thought good to impart unto you; that your Friend comparing them with the other's, might make his best profit of them; and this Rochellois; (or Rocheller) who hath lived 3. or 4. years in England, thinks that the Lucerne will come admirably well in that Countrey.


THe meaning of these Words—The quantity of the Seed is the sixth part of Corne that the same ground would require—is this, That whatever quantity of Wheat or Barly an Acre of ground would require of the seed of Lucerne, you must take but the sixth part of that quantity of seed of Lucerne; so as that ground which for its sowing requireth six bushells of Corne, doth require but one bushel of Lu­cerne-seed.

An Arpent de terre (which how much it is in English measure COTGRAVE'S Dictionarie will perfectly tell you) requireth 10. l. of that seed, as several Grain-sellers (of whome I went to enquire for it) have u­nanimously told me: the seed being exceeding small, and to be sowen wonderfully thinly. As for Saint Foine or Holy Hay, I have seen it grow here about Paris in several places, in rich fat grounds, and those both high and dry, and others low and [Page 119] Marshy. It is cut but once a year, much-what about the same time of other Hay, and a great deal of the seed of it is required for sowing the ground with it. But being once sown, it lasteth 10. or 12. years, as well as Medica or Lucerne, wherewith also it corre­spondeth altogether in its Vertues and Ʋses.

A Copy of a Letter, relating a Proof or Experiment of an English Husbandry.

Honoured SIR,

I desire your acceptance of this small present, may be according to the reall worth of the thing; not as at first sight it may appear to be (viz.) straw or stub­ble. This is I assure you, no other then the true and reall Experiment of what by the blessing of God the native fertility of our English ground, rightly husbanded, will bring forth: nay I can upon most probable grounds affirm, that had I used all the Art and Care which I could and might have done (had I not been otherwise taken off) it could hardly have failed to have been double, treble, or quadruple to what it is. And it is also most true, that any rea­sonable good ground well mannaged may yield one, ten, a hundred, &c. Acres, in which there shall be very many superior to the biggest root of these, and hardly one inferior to the best, but one; by which account it will easily appear, how much beyond the old way, this is the increase, there being be­tween two and five quarters on the Acre; and the product of this way will be rarely under 10. quarters, not rarely 16. or 20. and the same for most graines; yet will this dull age as to goodnesse not believe it [Page 120] without some testimony, and perhaps scarce suf­fer themselves to be convinc'd by this so eminent an Experiment; wherein it plainly appears, That out of one fingle Barly-Corne is sprung about 80. Ears, of which near 60. had, some 38. some 36. 34. 32. 30. and hardly any lesse then 38. which in all is above 2000. for one: And truely, the charges to be bestowed on a Acre of this sort is no way double to the common way. Ac­cept it therefore, and reserve it as a real Rarity, and a jewell onely fit for a Publique and Pious Spirit, as yours is: till I shall by Gods assistance be able next yeare to produce you more abundant examples of God's wonderfull power and bounty that offers, and man's ingratitude that neglects, or refuses such ho­nest meanes, of the truest and most justly gotten humane wealth, honour, and happinesse.

Your most faithfull and obliged Friend and Servant —

An Extract of A Letter from Amsterdam dated the 28. of November 1650. in answer to the former Commu­nication, with an other Experiment of a French Hus­bandry.


J am much obliged unto you for sending me the Discourse of the Braband-Husbandry, which I have [Page 121] perused. Not long ago I was told of certaine Men which would faine have morgaged some thousand Acres of Heathy grounds which lay here and there as Commons. But the late Prince of Orange by the ad­vice of his Councel durst not entertain any such Pro­positions, the Lands belonging to the Communalty. On the other hand the Ʋndertakers would not be contented with lesse for imparting of their Secret. It appears unto me by all circumstances, that it was the same designe of Husbandry with your's, the par­ties (if I remember well) being Englishmen. From Paris I am advertised (for certain) of one, who did last year (1649.) ferment one Grain of Wheat, which this year hath produced him 114. Eares and within them 6000. Graines, which is more then 80. Eares, and 600. Graines of your English Friend's. This year (1650.) he hath a great many fermented and sowen.

An Answer to the foregoing extract of a Letter from Amsterdam.


J Have received from you a Relation of a very great and wonderful Production or Increase, which your Friend at Amsterdam relates to be done in France. I am farre from lessening the admirable greatnesse of that person's skill and successe. Only since I find my selfe taken notice of by the same party, and the Ex­periment I made the last year of Barly weighed in the scales with this, and found too light; I shall take leave to say, that (besides all difference that is or may be conceived to be, betwixt the Soyles; that of France hath a manifest advantage in the elevation [Page 122] and powerful operation of the Sun.) That it is pro­bable he did use all possible Meanes both to the Ground and Seed to make them both fruitful, which I did not at all; but quite contrarily I chose the worst seed I could procure, and my ground was as barren as any whatsoever in the parts adjacent. I added nothing to either; all I did was after the blade was sprung up. And whereas your Friend mentions 600. out of 80. eares, those ears contained, one with the o­ther at the least 30. single cornes, which is 2400. That besides that, Wheate is no whit inferior to Barly, but rather more inclined of its proper nature to branch and spread. It is also allowed as long time againe to grow, and therefore may better spread to many ears then Barly. That my eares of Barly rated at 30. one with the other, (which they were at least, some having 38. a thing I suppose rarely (if ever) seen in England before) are full as high as his Wheate-eares ra­ted at 52. And the seeming great difference between 2400. and 6000. when looked into, will prove not to be in the number of eares, which differ no more then as 14. to 10. but in the nature of the Graines, there being universally as many more in an eare of Wheate as in an eare of Barly. That if (as it is most like) he in France did onely try conclusions, to what height nature might possibly be scrued by Art, and that what is here related, was the effect of that tri­al; that holds not comparison with mine, which is generally practicable, without any considerable ex­pence of time or stock more then in the common-way. Lastly I affirme, in all possible humble reference and submission to God's good pleasure, power and pro­vidence; that when I shall make use of good Seed [Page 123] rightly prepared, good Land in right condition, & all other helps which I know & can use; I shall not doubt for smaller numbers of the same graine (viz.) Wheate to produce 200. or 300. eares, and in them 10000. 12000. or 15000. cornes, (and somewhat like that, for whole fields together, and that here in England,) howsoever let us alwaies remember to give all pos­sible praise to God, whose blessing onely makes rich.

I am your faithful Friend and Servant —

Another Letter from Paris, discovering the secret of the forenamed French Husbandry.


J Do with much impatience desire the Treatise or Discourse published by you about the Braband-Hus­bandry, and do very much admire the industry of that English Gentleman your Friend, who hath found out the waies of making Corne multiply so prodi­giously. The Parisian Experimenter of Corn's mul­tiplication I know not: but a Friend of mine very well acquainted with him, assureth me to have had the following Description of his Secret from himself; and to have seen the experience of it very fully in the year 1649. not in any great quantity, but in a Garden, only for trials sake.

Pour into quick or unslak't Lime as much Water as sufficeth to make it swim four inches above the Water; And unto ten pounds of the said Water pour­ed off, mix one pound of Aqua-vitae, and in that li­quor steep or soake Wheate (or Corn) twenty four houres: which being dryed in the Sun or in the aire, steepe again in the said liquor 24. houres more, and do it likewise the third time: Afterward sowe them at great distances the one from the other, about the distance of a foot between each graine. So one graine will produce 30. 36. 38. 42. 52. eares, and those very fruitful, with a tall stalk, equalling the stature of a man in height.

Another Extract of a Letter from the Lowe-Countries.


THese are to give you special thankes for com­munication of the Parisian Experimenter's Se­cret. Water (if he meanes Cold water) poured into quick or unslak't Lime cannot work much in one hour upon the Lime; but if it be boiled with it, and that the water be poured alwaies afresh upon the Lime, then it will come to be so strong at last that an egge may swimme in it, as I learn'd by tradition from Doctor Hartmannus, but could never make any tryal of it for want of unslackt Lime in the place where I live. This perhaps may be yet better; but Experience goes beyond Reason in these cases. The often ma­cerating or steeping, and drying of graines I like very well. I have only according to Mr. Gabriel Platt's directions steeped them 24. hours in turned or tained Raine-water and Cow-dung, and afterwards sowen [Page 125] them thus wet; which on Sandy grounds hath pro­duced such goodly corne, as if it had been very good Land. Some here use Salt-Peter, which also doth much good; but is found likewise in Sheepes-dung, as may appear by its fertility. I have lost the Book of Husbandry of Mr. Plats, which was called, A Disco­very of Infinite Treasure hidden since the world's begin­ning; Whereunto all men of what degree soever are friendly invited to be sharers with the Disco­verer. For having lent the same to a Friend, that it might be translated into High-Dutch, I could never see it again. I am told it is out of print. But if you could help me to another, you would do me a pleasure. I have nothing to add for the present, but that the Ge­nius of this Age is very much bent to advance Husban­dry; & that in all Countries I hear there are found Gen­tlemen; that study professedly these Improvements more then in former times. I rest alwaies

Your's ——

Another Letter expressing the Reasons, why the Experi­menter of the Barly-Corne, thinks it not fit or ex­pedient to part with his secret as yet, for a more com­mon use.


I Find dayly more and more, that it is too true, that most men love money, that they even wor­ship [Page 126] it in their hearts, as the onely Summum Bonum. I need not go farre for a proofe, since they have brought one to my hand. That (having so faire and just offers made, in order to the Corne-business; as I have presented to them by your hands,) will by no meanes (though so very much to their own profit and the Publique Good) part with their monies; and yet stick not to demand (in effect) the discovery from me of that talent of knowledge, which God hath made mine by his free gift; as the reward of my Industry, and faithful love to my native Countrey; (An Estate, if I mistake not better gotten then by any of the common meanes; by which men grow rich dayly.) Surely the commodities cannot be lesse then equal. The most wise and vertuous men that ever lived, have preferred Art, Industry and Ingenuity farre before money. Money (especially the Abuse of it) is become the very Poyson of the world, against which Art and Industry is an Antidote or Cordiall. Money is counted and enjoyed by thousand thou­sands, Art and Industry but by a few. And things of excellent use are accounted Jewels, especially when rare and scarce. The Professors of Art and In­dustry preferre their private gaine (too often) before the being and well being of the whole world; nay of their own sould. These are ever ready to part with unvaluable treasures upon easie conditions: Those will not upon any conditions whatsoever (but such as please themselves, or are full of op­pression) part with their monies (no not to save a Brother's, or hardly a Father's, or a Child's life.) And finally, if they judge it improvidence to part with a little of their estates, onely for a time, to returne [Page 127] againe to them shortly, like Noah's Dove with an Olive-branch, a double branch of Peace and Prosperity: I desire to be excus'd, if I upon better grounds, hold it prophane to sell a better right then a birth-right for lesse then a messe of pottage; even for just no­thing, and for ever. I can never forget the exceed­ing great Ingenuity to the world, shewed & given by Mr. Gabriel Platt'es, as will more fully appeare, when you shall have printed those writings of his which he left to your trust & custody) & the world's base In­gratitude, that let such a man fall downe dead in the street for want of food, without a shirt to his back; none (but your selfe that want not an enlarged heart, but a fuller hand to supply the world's de­fects) being found with some few others, to admi­nister any reliefe to a man of so great merit. In a word, that God that hath forbid to muzle the Ox that treads out the fodder, hath appointed every man to use his blessings (next to his Glory) for the providing for and preservation of his family, which he that can do and doth not, is worse then an Infidel. I dare not give away this meanes of obteining outward blessings to my selfe and family, till I have found a way to make it instrumental to that end; and that end once effectually attained to, I dare not deny God's mercy and bounty to me, nor longer restrain the Publique Ʋse of this universal good: I remaine

Your's ——

A Secret practised with very good successe in England, concerning sowing of Wheat, to prevent it from being Smutty.

FIrst take your Wheate, pour the same into a tub of Water, and stir it about; take off all the Corn that swimmeth on the Water, and pour the rest upon a floor, letting the Water run off. Then make a strong brine of Bay-Salt, and pour some of the brine on the Corne upon the floore; and take to halfe a quarter of Corne, halfe a peck of Salt, and strow it on the Corne, and stir and mix it continually, as you pour thereon the brine, and strow the Salt thereon, untill the Corne be all wet and overstrowed with Salt.

Then take to a halfe Quarter of Corne, halfe a bu­shell of Ʋnslak't Lime, and strow that likewise over the Corne, mingling it well together; which done, you may sowe the same the next day. The brine must be cold when you pour it on the Corne, and you must prepare no more Wheate, then you intend next day to sowe.

Another Secret practised in Germany for the inriching of Meadowes.

A Meadow yields 6. times more Hay, when it is turned up with a plough, and sowen thick with ashes burn't out of the substance thereof, but the rain must fall first. Afterwards sowe your Meadow with the seed of Trefoile, and plough and harrow them in. The first grasse which groweth thereon, let it be very ripe, that the seed may fall off it selfe; then let some [Page 129] go over it, and with rakes stir it, that it fall out. Afterwards let it be mowen off, and carried to a certaine place where it may be dryed, so the Grasse will grow presently againe, and may be mo­wen again in three weekes.

How to make Rushy ground to beare Grasse.

BReake the Rushy ground, and rake the rootes and the rushes together, and burne them or carry them away, Then spread upon that ground, Turffe­ashes, or Pigeons-Dung, Chalke or Lime, according to your ground. Try of every one of these upon a little plot of your ground: you may use other Ashes, Marle, or Dung for experiments: and that which you finde doth kill the Rushes and other Weeds best, use it: you are to make gutters or draines to carry away the water from the ground: you may destroy Rushes or Ferne, if you will; but cut or mowe them downe in the beginning of June, and so use to do it 2. or 3. yeares together at that time.

For planting or sowing Walnuts.

IN the season when they are full ripe on the trees, a few dayes before they would fall, as neare as can be guessed, let them be gathered or beaten off; and in the green huske, or without it, put them in­to good ordinary earth in a barrel or basket: So let them continue untill the beginning of March fol­lowing: as soone as that moneth begins, get as much warme Milke from the Cowes as will steepe them 24. hours: after they are steeped, set them in ground [Page 130] well digged, and judged natural for such fruit, with their little end, or their prickled sharpe end up­wards, about 3. or 4. inches deepe in the earth, and not one of 28. will faile, as hath appeared by experi­ence. This may make dry Walnuts also prove trees: the Nuts used as above said, as farre as may be, set them neare one foot a-sunder, and in a right line to weed them. The Walnut breeds good Timber, good shadow, good smell, good fruit. At 4. yeares growth transplant them.

Mr. Lanyon's Description of the usuall manner of plant­ing & transplanting (according to that of Flaunders) of those Trees called Abeales, impanted for Publique Good.

THey are first planted from any even the least part of the Roote of the same Tree: you must divide the root, by slipping each part from the o­ther, and not by cutting it in sunder: you may take those parts from those trees whilest they grow, and without danger to them, rob them of all the small sprigs of the roote, and leave only the Master-Roots; but the most usual way is to multiply them, when they are transplanted; which time is at their growth of 5. yeares: their season is in March. They are first planted in the way of a Nursery, in loose earth, moist and sandy, or inclining to it: their distance is 10. inches, one from another (the earth being first pre­pared as for a Garden): you are to make holes with a stick, the depth of the length of the part you have to set setting him so that you may onely see a part of it above ground, the earth being closed about [Page 131] them; they are to be kept weeded as any other plants. The second yeare in February you are to prune off all from the Master or Middle shoote, and so to the 3. and 4. yeare: the 5. you may transplant them, so as they like the ground of their Nursery. Their usual distance one from another is 10. foot: you may drive a stake with them when you transplant them, to secure them stiffe against the winde; for that they will grow very tall in those years, and so be much exposed to the winds. They may without much prejudice (to Corne) be planted in the fur­rowes where it growes; so as the ground be moist, and you keepe them well pruned, and leave onely a bush at the top of the tree. No stiffe Clay grounds will admit them to thrive, they will grow in moist Clay ground, but onely in height, and will not bur­nish for want of roome to extend their roots. This tree if he likes his ground; will be at full growth in 20. years. He is valued in Flaunders after 7. years growth, worth every year 12. d. until his time be up. He growes very straight without boughes, onely a bush on the top, and so exceedingly well becomes a Walke. This Timber is uncomparable for all sorts of wooden vessels, especially Traies; Butchers-Traies cannot well be made without it, it being so ex­ceeding light and tough. Some years ago there were ten thousand at once sent over into England, and transplanted into many Counties. Mr. Walker at Saint James can give the best account of them to all such as desire further to be directed in this particu­lar.


This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. Searching, reading, printing, or downloading EEBO-TCP texts is reserved for the authorized users of these project partner institutions. Permission must be granted for subsequent distribution, in print or electronically, of this EEBO-TCP Phase II text, in whole or in part.