A DESIGNE FOR PLENTIE, By an Vniversall Planting of FRVIT-TREES: Tendred by some Wel-wishers to the Publick.

GEN. 1.20.

And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed which is upon the face of the earth and every Tree in the which is the fruit of a Tree yielding seed, to you it shall be for meat.

LONDON, Printed for Richard Wodenothe in Leaden-hall street, over against Leaden-hall.

To the READER.

Courteous and Ingenuous Reader,

IN the publication of this small Treatise; it is just that every one should have his due.

First, Gods goodnesse is to be praised, who having indued man with knowledge above the beasts of the field, and put all things under his feet,Esa. 28.26, 27, 28. he doth in a more speciall manner (as the Prophet saith) instruct the Husbandman to discretion, and doth teach him how to order his affairs for the best advantage of Humane Societies.

Secondly, his Providence is to be acknowledged in bringing things to light, which without his good hand would have been lost and lien in darknesse, as this Dis­course would have been, if he had not stirred up some favourable Instruments to preserve it, and bring it un­to my hand to be published for the Common good.

Thirdly, the Instruments whom he hath employed both to bring forth this birth into the World, and to preserve it after it was brought forth, deserve some commendation. He that was made Instrumentall to bring it forth into the World, is not yet known unto [Page] me: for although I have endeavoured by a diligent search to finde out his name, yet I have not been able to compasse the matter: onely this I have been told, that the Author of this Designe was an aged Minister of the Gospel, who for the space of many years had for his own recreation, and that he might be servicea­ble also to others experimented this part of Husbandry which at last he resolved by this Treatise to make pub­lick, but was by death prevented; the place of his a­bode being said to be Loving-land neer Yarmouth. He who did preserve it from being lost, and gave it to a friend of mine, is the Honourable Collonel John Barkstead, the present Lieutenant of the Tower, a Gentleman whom I know not, but such as know him do give him this Character, that he is of a very pub­lick and ingenuous Spirit; in his Military Relations, exceeding active and circumspect; zealous for Justice and good Order, to represse the licentiousnesse of the times; and one who being capable of publick thoughts and generous cares, is willing freely to communicate and impart the same to all that can reap any benefit thereby. As for my self, I claim nothing but the con­tentment to be the Publisher thereof, that I may be Instrumentall to advance the comforts of many there­by, and so help forward the Authors honest Designe; and I am the more willing to divulge this brief Tract upon this Subject, because it will serve as a fore-run­ner to a larger Volume of Fruit-trees, which an expe­rienced friend of mine, Mr. Ralph Austin hath in a rea­dinesse to put forth at Oxford. Such as have perused Mr. Blithe's Improver improved (a Book worth the reading by all that apply themselves to Husbandry) in [Page] the second Part, Chapter 43. towards the latter end, will meet with a promise made concerning this Trea­tise of Master Austin's, which now he is putting to the Presse, as by his own Letter written in November last 1652 he doth informe me: therefore I intend in this Preface and by this Treatise, as by a small taste of so good a matter, both to raise thine appetite and quicken thy desire to see that larger Work, and to stay thy stomack a little till it come forth, in hope, that when God shall have furnished this Wise and Noble Nation with all these and many other means of Plenty we shall then be all inclined to beat out swords into Plough-shares, and our spears into pruning-hooks,See another dis­course lately pub­lished by a wor­thy and speciall friend of mine, called, Bread for the Poor, & Advancement of the English Nation, promi­sed by Enclo­sure of the Wast [...]s and Common Ground of England. and that by a happy Union of England and Scotland, and the peaceable settlement of the affections of all people under the present Government, we shall live as Bre­thren, and study by the wayes of Common Industry to strengthen the hands of those that bear Rule over us, and are set for our defence; whose burthen, al­though it be extraordinary great, yet by the good hand of God upon us, it will be greatly eased and les­sened, when all hands shall suffer themselves to be set a work, and the earth yield her increase. For certain­ly the present constitution of the Nation (if we become not so fatally and more then brutishly miserable, as to study continually one anothers ruine) is not in so weak and dangerous a condition, as it was in Queen Eliza­beth's dayes when she came first to the Crown. For then as Bishop Carleton describes it, the state of affairs was far otherwise then now it is,Chap. 1. pag: 3. as appears by his own words in his Book (called a Thankfull Remembrance of Gods Mercy) where he writes as followeth.

She [Queene Elizabeth] did not serve God in vain. For it is a thing to be wondered at, that the land being That is, when she came first to the Crown. then without strength, without Forces, without Soul­diers, yea, without Armour; all things necessary should be so suddenly furnished. She had provided Armour at Ant­werp, but King Philip caused that to be stayed. Yet was she not discouraged, but laid out much money upon Armour though she found the Treasury but poore. She procured Armour and Weapons out of Germany. She caused many great Guns to be cast of Brasse and Iron. And Gods provi­dence and favour appeared in her protection. For new mines of Brasse were found at Keswike, that had long bin neglected. From whence there was not onely suffici­ent matter to supply her wants, but abundance thereof to be transported to other Countreys. The stone called Lapis Calaminaris, whose use is needfull for working in Brasse, was also at the same time first found in England. There was provision made at home also for the making of Gun-powder. Which was done first here by her commandement: For before, it was bought and imported.

Berwick before her time, was weak and had but 500 Souldiers: She fortified the town, made the new inner wall and increased the number of Souldiers and their stipends, that provision might be made for the training up of expe­rienced Souldiers and martiall men. She provided a Navy, the best furnished that ever England saw. Neither needed she to do as her Father & Ancestours were wont to do, when they wanted Ships, to send for Ships and hire them from Hamburg, Lubeck, Dantisk, Genua and Venice; for she had them readie at home to serve her. Yea all the good Townes upon the Sea-coast, beholding this incredible ala­crity and forwardness in their Prince, strived also to imi­tate [Page] the same, and therefore with great cheerefullnesse and readinesse built Ships for warre. So that in a short time, the Queenes Ships and those of the subjects joyned toge­ther, rose to such a number, that they were able to im­ploy twenty thousand men in sea-fight at once. The Noble­men, the Gentlemen and Yeomen, did all strive to answer so noble a resolution of their Prince. And therefore great store of Armour and Weapons were every where provi­ded. And brave spirits were bred and inabled to service, whereby they became an helpe and Ornament to their Countrey; so that Queene Elizabeth was quickly growne so strong, that all her Adversaries were not able to hurt her. And was not this a great work of God, that so weak a Woman should be able to defend her selfe against so many, so potent enemies? Yea, and not onely to match them, but to master them? This was Gods doing, &c.

This Remembrance of her condition, and of Gods wonderfull preservation of this Nation at that time, should not onely encourage us to hope still in his mer­cy, whereof we have as great experience hitherto as ever she had, but also direct us to the performance of the duties fitting us for the continuance of such mer­cies towards us. For as then all the neighbours of this Nation were either open enemies or uncertain friends, so it now may fall out again in this juncture of time, that we shall finde none abroad cordially to appear for us; but if we be found faithfull to one another at home in minding the interest of the Gospel, in seeking Peace and Truth, in setling Judgement, in repressing the enormous scandals which are broken forth, and in advancing all manner of Industrie, we may expect [Page] the same successe which that blessed Queen had, and a greater Harvest of Spirituall and Temporall Bles­sings then ever yet this Nation hath received. Which that We may live to see, I shall not cease to pray, and in praying with the best and utmost of my endea­vours to approve my selfe,

Thine and the Publiques most faithfull Servant, SAMUEL HARTLIB.


AS Plenty oft-times is the producer of Pride, Pride the root of Envy, Envy the mother of Contention, Contention the spring of War: so is War the cause of Poverty and Poverty brings forth Famine, and where Famine rageth must needs follow inevitable destruction. It is greatly to be wished, and as a blessing from God to be desired; that all men would as wisely, and conscionably eschew and shun the Climax, and wayes to destruction as they seem warily and carefully to fly destruction it self, when it presseth [Page 2] upon them. But (alass) such is the wickedness and blind­nes of mans heart, that he is desperatly set on to follow that way, which will at last winde him into most certain destruction: And so be, that men may attein their own private interest and end, they never consider the ulti­mate and woful end and conclusion of their wayes and actions.

Quicquid agas, prudenter agas; & respice finem.
But he that's wise, his practicks so intends,
That he may levell Actions to their ends.

The consideration of which thing (as it too sadly may be appliable unto this Nation, and the Inhabi­tants thereof, by reason of this late intestine, and un­naturall War) hath moved us, to prepare what Cata­plasme we can against the inevitable Malady, which a long & continued war threateneth (if not already begin­neth) to bring upon us, that is to say; A generall Fa­mine and want of all necessary things for the support and sustentation of life: the which we may also feare the rather, by reason of the unseasonable weather for Seed-time and Harvest, with the unspeakable morta­lity of Cattel in many places, which hath declared, and evidenced no small displeasure of God against us, and threateneth us with most certain famine: besides the want of trade, traffique, and imployment both by land and by sea; together with the daily losses by sea, and expenses of provisions by land, are no meane ingredi­ents in this threatened, & approaching miserie. What more may be observed, also from the discouragements of men in their husbandry, and making improvement for plenty (as not knowing either for whom they la­bour, or who they are that may reap their labours, or what themselves shall enjoy) may strongly imprint a feare of famine. Now as in a time of famine it were [Page 3] too unchristian-like to hide our selves from our own flesh, and to deny relief (as God lendeth us) to such as want it: so were it too selfish for any not to labour to prevent famine; and to hide themselves, and their ad­vice (which God hath granted them) from a publique Good: It being counted no less sin by God,Ezeck. 16.49. Not to strengthen the hands of the needy, then not to fill their hands with benefits, and supplies.

For which cause we have thought it our dutie to present an Assay of Plenty, which we call (A Designe or Project for Plenty) yet not a project of any private ad­vantage to us; but of publique good and plenty unto this Nation; if so be it may be enlivened and nourished by Authority and Law:Cambden. Brit. As in Glocest, and Worcest, shires, &c. In Kent about Feversham, where by the industry and example of Ri­chard Harris Fruterer to K. Hen. the eighth 30 Towns are planted to their inestimable benefit. Otherwise we shall but term it (The Embrio of Plenty, and the untimely Birth of good Desires) which had it come to perfection, might have yielded both pleasure and profit to many. And such a Project also it is, as is not without experience both in our own, and other Nations; nor yet without good Reasons to speak for it; whereof we shall desire to make all rationall men partakers. For

With men of Reason, Reasons will take place,
But nought can get from fools but base disgrace.

Moreover, when we Consider (besides the necessitie, as aforesaid) the Accomodation this Nation affordeth for such a Designe, the Possibility and Facility to effect it: And yet the Sluggishnesse of most in our Nation, who perhaps would be glad to have plenty in their families: Yet care not to take pains, or to be at any cost to effect it.

Like to the Cat, who fish would gladly eat,
Catus vult pis­cem, sed non vult tangere lympham.
But yet her foot in water will not weat.

We are incouraged the rather to make our Demon­stration thereof, adding therewithall our Reasons, and answering such Objections as may possible lie against it.

1 First therefore, we do conceive that it will make much for the benefit and publike relief of this whole Nation. And for the prevention of famine in time to come (through the blessing of God) if there were a Law made, and put in force by Authority for a gene­rall and universall Plantation of such wholesome fruit (according to proportion) as might be for the relief of the poor, the benefit of the rich, and the delight of all.

2 The fruits we conceive most wholesome, beneficiall and suitable for our Climate, are the Apple, Peare, Walnut and Quince.

3 The Proportion to be ordeined; that every five pounds per annum of plantable land, as well field as enclosure, being in private occupation, (except Cities, Towns incorporate, and such Towns where the rents are raised onely of the houses without lands) shall plant and preserve 20 fruit-trees of Apple, Peare, Walnut, or Quince: and 10 li. per annum, 40; and 15 li. per an­num, 60; and 20 li. per annum, 80 trees; and so in proportion.

4 That there may be a certain limited time set, that the aforesaid proportion according to every mans occu­pation, may be perfected, with a penalty to be inflict­ed for the neglect; and that every year may be pro­portioned in order to the whole with a penalty like­wise.

5 That in every Town there may be ordeined two Officers (called Fruterers or Woodwards, or such like [Page 5] name) specially to be chosen every year, and authori­zed, to see the said proportions to be planted and care­fully preserved. And to have power to levie the pe­nalties upon the defaulters; and to employ the same to some publick use.

6 That the High Constables in every hundred do take account of the said two Officers in every Town be­longing to their division: and to present them to some Superiour Court; that so there may be no collusion or deceit in the businesse. And that the said High Con­stables, and Fruterers, or Woodwards be fineable and punishable, if they neglect to do their duties.

7 That if any evil-disposed person be found to de­stroy any of the planted Trees; or to cut, mangle, or break them; or to pull up, or carry away their fen­cings, when they are young trees, and require fencing; that then he be severely punished by corporall, or pe­cuniary Mulct, or both; as being an enemy to a publike and common good.

8 That the said Fruterers or Woodwards in every re­spective towne may have power (as the Surveyers of the high-wayes) so to call out, and appoint certain common dayes to work, in dressing, pruning, moulding mossing, trimming the said trees (which dayes are to be in the moneths of October & November for mossing and pruning, those moneths being the moistest; and the Winter frost following thereupon will seare the wounds, so that the Cut parts are not subject to put out Syens, whereby the body and fruit are decayed; And in January and February for moulding the trees) and to set fines upon such as make default, and leavy the same to some publique use.

9 That all Trees already planted, be accounted into the [Page 6] proportion; and that as any trees do die, or decay, or grow barren, care be taken that others may be planted in their stead; and that within a limited time upon some penalty to be levied by the Woodwards or Fruite­rers.

10 That when those lands, which are in particular oc­cupation be fully planted; like care be taken by a com­mon work in the common dayes to be appointed, for the planting of all Wastes and Commons every thirty yards a tree, and by thirty yards all over, till they be throughly planted.

11 That the Commons and Wastes be planted, and fen­ced at the publique charge of every Town to which they do belong: and that all such fines as are levied up­on the transgressors in this project be imployed to the publique work and use.

12 That the fruits and benefits arising of the Planta­tions upon the Commons and Wastes be given to the poor, & necessitous people of every Town, unto which they do belong. And that by the discretion of the Fruiterers or Woodwards they be yearly distributed accordingly.

Reasons for this designe.

As touching the reasons for this design, they are very many, whereof I onely propound some for satis­faction to all men.

1 First, the wholesomenesse of these fruits are such as may challenge every mans estimation of them,Gerard. Herb. and diligence to obtein them. Apples are good for hot sto­macks, for all inflammations, tempering melancholy humours; good for diverse diseases, as the Strangu­ry, [Page 7] Plurisie, &c. Peares are cold, and binding, good for hot swellings, do help the lask and bloody flux, and being made into drink, do warm the stomack, and cause good digestion. The Walnut is an ingredient in Antidotes against the plague, and biting of venomous beasts; whose kernels made into a milke cooleth and comforteth the languishing sick body. So Quinces do strengthen the stomack, stay vomiting, and stop the flux; and are good for many other things.

2 The benefits, which from such a generall Plantation will arise to this Nation, is very much. As,

1 First, by this means there may be a great Improve­ment of Land without any losse of other fruits, which it usually yieldeth, as of Grasse, Corn of all sorts, or any other thing: and so men may receive a double gain; first, of those fruits upon the ground; and secondly, of such fruits as growing upon the trees, the land beareth as it were by the by.

2 There will be a great plenty of wholesome food ad­ded where little or none of that Nature was before;In which Countreys the very Hogs feeding upon the fal­lings, make choice of fruit, and first taste, eating up the pleasant fruit, leaving the o­ther, there is such abun­dance. Gerards Herb. for besides every family may have of these fruits e­nough for all uses in food; so also may thereby be ob­teined a good and wholesome drink from the juice of the Apples, and Peares, as in the Counties of Worce­ster and Glocester is very exemplary in that particular, to their profit and plenty.

3 By this means much Corn, (especially of Barley) may be saved (which is spent out in Malt) and may serve for food in the time of want; and other Corn by that means become more reasonable in prices.

4 And likewise much expense in Wines may by rea­son of the Perry and Syder, which in all parts may be made, be spared: and which kinde of drink (being once [Page 8] accustomed) will be as proper and wholsome for our English bodies, as French wines, if not more.

1 3 A generall Plantation (as aforesaid) will make won­derfull plenty, as may be gathered by a supposition probable as this: Suppose 20 trees of Apples and Peares be planted, and well fenced upon a tenement of 5 li. per annum, once in seven years they may (by Gods blessing) bring forth halfe a bushel of good fruit apiece; and in 10 years a bushel a tree; in 13 years two bushels, and so forth; what a plenty will this make in so small an Occupation?

2 And besides it will yield great plenty, yea abun­dance to the poor, who shall yearly receive from the common Plantations of the Commons and Wastes so much good fruit, as that they cannot be destitute all the year. And if to buy; yet in such a generall Plan­tation, good fruit will not cost above 4 d. or 6 d. the bushel, which now will cost 12 d. or 16 d. if not more in many places, which kinde of provisions the poor preferre before better food, as the story goeth.

The poor mans childe invited was to dine
With flesh of Oxen, sheep, and fatted swine,
(Far better chear then he at home could finde)
And yet this childe to stay had little minde.
You have (quoth he) no Apple, froise nor pie,
Stew'd Pears, with bread and milk, & Walnuts by.

4 This generall Plantation is very requisite, seeing so many places are wholly destitute of all fruit,Cambden. Brit. and yet both the ground and Clymate throughout this whole Island able and apt to yield of fruit great plenty. Cambden saith, that they are whining and slothfull [Page 9] husbandmen, who complain of the barrennesse of the earth in England; and doth confidently affirm, that it proceedeth rather of the inhabitants idlenesse then a­ny distemper, and indisposition of the air,Camb. ex will. Malmesbur. that this our England affords no wine: and that it hath heretofore had Vineyards which yielded wine well nigh as good in taste and smell as the French wine;And at Brom­well Abbey in Norfolk. and indeed so are many places unto this day in our land called Vine­yards; as at Elie in Cambridgeshire; of which re­maines upon Record these old Rimes.

Quatuor sunt Eliae, lanterna, capella Mariae,
Et Molendinum, nec non dans Vinea vinum.

In English thus.

Four things of Elie Town much spoken are,
The leaden lanthorn, Maries Chappel rare,
The mighty Mill-hill in the Minster-field,
And fruitfull Vineyards, which sweet wine do yield.

5 And if our England be so able and apt for wine, much more is it able and apt for these ordinary and wholesome fruits.

Besides, such an Universall Plantation will both yield great store of fuel to burn, and wood for many occa­sions (the Apple, Peare and Walnut-trees, being all of them good Joyners timber) fit to make chaires, stools, tables, and many other house-Utensils) and al­so it will much warm the Countrey by so many thou­sands of trees planted in open and waste grounds to the great comfort both of man and beast.

6 And as concerning this work, it is very feasable and easie, the banks, and quickrowes may be set, as well with good fruit-trees at a convenient distance, as with thorn, hasel, harbow, or brier: besides, how ma­ny usefull stocks of crab and wilding are to be taken from the roots of such as grow in rowes, and to be found in woods, which being transplanted and grafted will be as good fruit-trees, and last longer then such as are reared up from seeds or kernels?

7 The delight and pleasure, which by this will arise, will not be small in a little while; when one may be­hold the waste and wilde places all abounding with fruitfull trees (like the Garden of God) keeping their order, and distance: each one offering the weary tra­veller some little collation to quench his thirst, and re­fresh his spirits; inviting him to rest under their sha­dow, and to taste of their delicates, and to spare his purse; which is a benefit well known in the Western Counties of this our England.

8 To these might be added the benefit of the Walnut for oil; the delight and comfort of all these for con­serves and preserves, both for sicknesse and health: and their use in a Famine, when all other fruits of the earth do fail; whereof the Nation of France hath had good triall, who had starved in some Famines, had it not been for their Chesnuts, Walnuts, Apples, and Pears, these being far better food in a famine then asses heads, doves dung,2 Kings 6. Miseries of Germany. or old leather, which some have been constrained to eat to preserve life; yea sometimes the flesh of dead men, and their own children.

Objections against this designe.

Object. 1 But here it may be some men wil object, that these are but vain and trifling things, not worthy a law, or injunction for so noble a Nation as this is.

To which the answer is easie: that our slothfulnes is the more, and improvidence the more to be con­demned, that so noble a Nation should need a goad, and spur to put them on to the improving of such trifling things; which are of such necessity, profit, faci­lity and delight, as these things, which every diligent and prudent provident husband should endevour af­ter continually of themselves.

Object. 2 But it will be a hard and difficult matter to get so many plants as may supply the Proportion throughout the whole Nation.

We answer, the slothfull man saith, there is a lion in the way; and if men were as willing as they might be, the woods and hedgerows would afford stocks not a few to graft upon: besides, there are not wanting commendable Planters and Arborists in this Nation, whose nurseries will afford at very low rates many thousand of wilde stocks fitting to be removed, and improved for this businesse.

Object. 3 Yea, but there is such rudenesse and ravening in the common people of England, that all would come to nought.

Answ. True as our scarcity of these fruits are in e­very place, so it is, and so it will be: but plenty yields satiety and content: and the western Countries can witnesse this to be otherwise; besides, good laws, [Page 12] and good execution of them will prevent all such like mischiefs.

Object. 4 But it will be a great while before this Designe come to perfection.

Answ. Yet if a beginning be not made, there can be no hope of any perfection; and if men begin well, the work will go on the better; for the saying is,

Dimidium fa­cti qui benè coe­pit habet.
He that begins with heart and great good will,
Hath got the half of that he would fulfill.

Besides he is the most unworthy of his own life, who is like the Bear, lives onely to suck his own claws, and will not provide for posterity as well as himself. For,

Non nobis so­lum nati fu­mus, sed liberis, &c. Cicero.
Man is not born unto himself alone,
But to his after race when he is gone.

Object. 5 But the Commons and Wastes cannot wel be plant­ed. Answ. If not all of them, yet the most of them will bear forth these trees: and we see the most bar­ren places to bring forth the thorn, oak, and ash-trees, and why not these also? which are not so hard to grow as some of them; besides such directions may be given, as may be very advantagious for their root­ing and growth in such barren places, as afterward shall be shewed.

Object. 6 But these trees being planted in hedge-rows amongst other trees of greater growth and top, will never pro­sper and come to perfection; and so much labour will be lost.

Answ. These trees being prudently set, and provi­dently husbanded in banks and hedge-rows, will thrive the best of all, and prove most fruitfull; for if the grounds be cold and wet, then to set them in banks and rows will be far better, then to set them abroad, the banks being the driest places for planting: And if the grounds be dry and sandy, then the banks are the best, as being least hurtful to the roots of trees, and gaining moisture unto them by the ditches, when any do fall, whereby they are refreshed and preserved. And for other trees which may overtop them, if every honest and good member in this our Common-wealth could as easily remove his wicked and bad neighbour, as the Husbandman can remove such trees from his plantation, there would not be a bad neighbour in England. And how much a good fruit-tree will ex­ceed in profit any other tree of what kinde soever, may easily be gathered by this computation: Suppose one load of wood in twenty yeers may be cut from any husband, or powling (and it must be a good one, which will yeeld so much in such a time) which load of wood may be worth nine or ten shillings; yet a good fruit-tree (by Gods blessing) will yeeld as much fruit in one yeer as will countervail that profit; for some good fruit-trees have been known to yeeld eight, nine, or ten coombs of good fruit in one yeer, which at four pence the bushell will come to more then the best tree for wood will yeeld in twenty yeers. And suppose an Oak after 300 yeers growth be worth five or six pounds, yet a good fruit-tree within fourty yeers will yeeld the same profit four or five times dou­ble, which is far beyond the benefit arising of the best [Page 14] Timber-trees in England. And moreover, trees for timber may have the woods to grow in, and such con­venient places in fields and rows, as may be no annoy­ance or hinderance to the fruit-trees of this plantation.

It is a folly manifestly plain,
To be pound-foolish, penny-wise in gain.

Object. 7 These plantations in arable grounds, and common fields, will both hinder the Plough, and by their sha­dow destroy and hinder corn.

Answ. If indeed they should be planted in the middest of plowed lands, something might be said against it; But in all common fields for corn, there lie land-divisions, and baulks, or meers, which though but narrow, yet are sufficient and apt to bear trees, (as being the best ground) if they be planted upon them: And at thirty yards distance in length, and about thirty yards in breadth one from another likewise; they will be no hinderance at all to the Plough, nor yet to the growth and increase of corn; for at such a distance the Sun and winde will have such power on every side that they will disperse their beams and air without any let; and in case (when these trees are grown large and great) they may hinder a peck of corn a tree, yet will they recompense that losse twenty-fold in their fruit and fewell to the owners: besides, a good husband may keep up his trees so by pruning, as that no da­mage at all may be susteined by them.

Object. 8 But fielding grounds which lie in parcels are often so intermixed, that sometimes ten several persons may have severall proprieties in five acres of land: and [Page 15] therefore how can trees be planted either at an equall distance of 30 yards; or who shall plant them, or re­ceive their fruits or fuel being so many and diverse pro­prieters?

Answ. If men were without reason, this might make an objection; but reasonable men wil conclude that mears or balks in their length may be planted at 30 yards distance without difficulty, and that such small par­cels will fall likewise about 30 yards distance in breadth, not much under or over; which will make no difference: and such trees as are to be planted upon partable Mears, may by Law be appointed to be charged in their plantation, and fencing, and divided in their benefits equally between suc howners, as have a community therein.

Object. 9 But this Designe, if once it come to perfection, will undo many families, who live by Brewing and Malt­ing.

Answ. The light of nature will teach us that a common, and publike good is to be preferred to all private profit; as the saying is,

A publique good doth many wayes outvie
Bonum quò communius eò melius.
All private good, and self-utilitie.

Besides, the multiplicity of men practising Brew­ing, and Malting is but rather a bane then a benefit to this Common-wealth; ministring occasion to thou­sands of blinde and unnecessary Tipling-houses, whereby drunkennesse, disorder, and dangerous plots are fomented and nourished to the great dishonour of God, and disturbance of the State and Common-wealth; [Page 16] so that it were to be wished that every pri­vate family in this whole Nation were so provided, that there might not be any further occasion to ex­pend so much corn in Malt, or so much money and precious time in Ale-houses and drink, which would cause every pious heart rather to rejoyce with thanks­giving, then to repine with murmuring for the disap­pointing of self-ends and advantages, when the pub­lique Good should be so greatly advanced.

Instructions concerning this Designe.

Although planting doth chiefly depend upon the blessing and providence of God,1 Cor. 3.6. (without which no benefit can be expected) yet God who ordaineth the end, appointeth also the means conducible thereunto; not that men should rest in the means appointed, but that they waiting upon God in the use of meanes should expect his blessing thereupon of his grace and mercy: according to the saying,

Rest not in meanes, use meanes Gods gifts to gain;
God gives the end, and meanes his ends t'attain.

Therefore we have thought good to set down for the help of such as are unskilfull in the noble Art of Planting, such necessary Instructions and Directions touching this Designe, as by experience have been found usefull and commodious for our Countrey of England, letting go those unprofitable conclusions wherewith many have filled their books of this Art of Planting, taken for the most part out of the writings [Page 17] and experiments of other Nations, as Italy, France and Spain, &c. which being of far different Climates from our Nation, however they may be usefull and effectuall unto others, are indeed altogether uselesse and in-effectuall unto us in England: for,

Each land the like alike will never yield,
Non omnia fert omnia tellus.
Clime alters much in Garden, Orchard, field,
Leave France to French, and Spain to Spanish Sun;
What England may is best to think upon.

Instructions concerning wilde Sets and Stocks to plant 1 and graft upon.

For the increase and store of wilde Sets and Stocks to plant and to graft upon; It is very requisite,

1 That every man, according to the proportion of his occupation have some yard or inclosure for his wilde Sets and Stocks, which may serve him as a continual Nursery, to plant and supply all his other Grounds and Plantations.

2 Let this Inclosure or Nursery be well and strongly fenced so as no cattel may hurt it; for a beast will do more mischief in a night unto the Nursery then it will recover in seven years after.

3 The Nursery would not be of the richest and fattest ground, but rather inclinable to leannesse, that so the wilde Sets and Stocks being transplanted, may be re­moved from a mean to a better; from a lean to a fat­ter soyl, otherwise they will not prosper.

4 At the first, let this Nursery be well digged, and as much as may be made cleer of all noisome weeds, (e­specially [Page 18] of Spearegrasse) by harrowing, raking, and sowing Turneps the year before, or covering that all over with brakes: otherwise the weeds willl much hinder the growth and increase of the plants or Sets.

5 To replenish this Nursery in the best way, is to sowe that all over with the goods, or stamping of crabs, apples, pears, and kernels of Quince about Alhollon-tide, or in November, or at such time as you make your Verjuice, Sydar, or Perry, and then to riddle good earth all over to cover them a finger thick (or to rake them in, which is not so good) and so covering them with thorns to expect their Spring in February, March, and April, when the covering is to be taken away from them.

6 Chuse the best and greatest walnuts, (as the Welsh nut, French nut, &c.) and set them all about your Nursery, without the plants, some three or four foot distance; or they may be set altogether upon beds by themselves.

7 For three years after the Nursery be thus replenish­ed, be carefull to keep it very clean from weeds, grasse, or any other beggery, for it will requite the owner a­bundantly for his paines.

8 The wilde Sets being three foot high would be re­moved, and set a foot distance one from another, and would have their long top-roots cut off, that they may root the better, and grow the greater; otherwise they will grow down with a long top, and up with a high top, their bodies being slender, not fit to graft, and to remove dangerous, as having few or none other roots but their long top-roots.

9 At this first removing of the wilde Sets, cut off [Page 19] onely the spray and branches of the plants, pruning them into a straight wands, and cut not off their heads, for that will hinder them, being so young and tender.

10 There is another way to replenish the Nursery, which is by setting at a foot distance branches of apple trees with Burknots, or the suckers which are found in Orchards, and may be taken from the Roots of the Apple, Pear, or Quince-trees, or the shoots of the Kentish Codling cut off and pricked in the ground, all which wil take and grow wel; onely it must be remem­bred that such suckers must be taken as may have some roots, and these must be well pruned and headed like­wise when they are transplanted into the Nursery.

11 The Quince is rhe most apt of all other to grow, whether by kernels sowne, suckers, or even any young branch cut off from the body, with a soals foot, set in­to good earth about November will take and grow. Also if a bough be half split from the body in the Spring; and then bound well about with new cow-dung, and so let grow till Michaeltide, or October, it will be rooted into the dung, and may be taken off and transplanted with profit.

12 If an Apple or Peare-tree have any goodly young bough (if it be not bigger then a mans wrest) it may be rooted upon the tree: if in June the bark be taken away round the bough the breadth of four fingers, and a be skep (having a hole in the crown answerable to the bignesse of the bowe) be slit down the side, that it may open, and so set, and fastened below. The bark­ed place with the mouth upward, and so filled with fat, sad, and clayish earth well moistened, and so let stand untill November or Deecmber, and then being [Page 20] cut off below the skep, the head pruned, and trans­planted into good ground, and the skep gently taken away, so as the earth be not loosed, it will grow a fruit­full dwarf-tree.

Instructions concerning Removings, or Transplantations.

1 When your wilde Sets and Stocks are fit for trans­planting, it is best to remove them before they be grafted, so they will be in lesse danger to die; and the cutting of the tops of the wilde Sets will be no hinder­ance either to growth or grafting.

2 The best time to transplant these trees, is September and October (with their leaf upon their head,) because the winter will both close and consolidate the earth about the roots, and also the remainder of sap in the trees descending into the roots will fasten them the better, and prepare their growth in the Spring the su­rer: November, December, and January may serve, but are nothing so good as the other moneths.

3 In all removings have speciall care to prune both the root and head, remembring this, that it is farre better to have a large root and little top, then to have a great top and a little root, which seldom comes to good. A great many roots may endure a good large top, but a few roots would have a little top.

4 Where the soil is very good, it will be sufficient to dig a hole four times as big as the root, which let it be digged about Mid-summer, or as soon after as you can for the crop growing thereupon. First pare off the uppermost part thereof, laying grasse to grasse, or stub­ble [Page 21] to stubble, and upon that on the one side of the hole lay the best earth (which will be the first speete, or spade) and the rest by it self on the other side of the hole, and so let that lie open to Sun and air, till you transplant the trees; then set your tree in the best earth first, being well broken and mouldred, laying out the roots in their severall proportion set not your tree too deep, after that put in the worst earth upper­most, carefully closing the earth alwayes about the roots. You may lay some dung upon the uppermost face of the hole after all, if you please.

5 In light and sandy ground, and shallow soil, dig your hole, and prepare it as aforesaid; but you must re­member to dig it much deeper, three or four foot deep, & when you set your trees fill that up with good moist earth within a foot and half of the uppermost ground: then setting in the tree, take slur of some sink or hog-yard, or mud of some pond, (or for want of these make poy, with good earth and water) and pour it amongst the roots, drawing them forth each in his way, and so fill that up with good earth: this will never fail expectation in the growth of young trees; onely remember that in sandy ground trees must be set deeper then in moist and good earth.

6 In moist and wet grounds it is good to dig a hole, and prepare that as followeth: when you are to set your tree, dig a hole four foot over and two foot deep, and then lay a faggot of wood close bound in the bottom, well troden down, fill up the hole again with the best earth, then set your trees upon the plain ground on the top, raising an hill of earth round about the root, which may cover it well from heat and cold, it will like exceedingly.

7 When the trees are transplanted into light or sandy ground, if the Spring or Summer following prove drie, they must be watered very well, but very seldom. The water would be taken out of some standing pit (which is better then spring, or well-water) or else mixed with cow-dung (which maketh a laxative and lusty water for young trees) and when they are wa­tered, cover their roots with old straw, or hatch, put­ting it by in rainy weather, for fear of mice harbour­ing in it.

8 In the ttansplantation of Walnuts be very careful to preserve the top-root; for if that be perished, the tree will not thrive, if not die.

9 The Apple-tree loves to grow best in rich soil, but indifferently in any.

The Peare best in a sandie, and light soile.

The Qvince in a moist ground, and fat.

The Walnut-tree in a clayish or mixt soile.

10 Note that the Medler, and Service-trees may be planted in sandie, and gravelie ground, and will grow in places, where other trees will not thrive. And these fruits are both wholesome and pleasant.

11 When the Trees are transplanted and set, they must be wel fenced and stayed against the shaking of winds both for their preservation and steady growing: Thorns pricked into the ground, and bound about the Tree with a withe, and a stake set fast into the ground to stay them is used by some; three stakes set in a tri­angle about the Tree with crosse bars nailed from stake to stake; by others, stakes driven aslope into the ground two wayes, and well fastened to the Tree with hay-bands, and fenced, others use: and some having [Page 23] fenced their Trees with a triangle (as is aforesaid) use to cut off the head of their Tree wholly, leaving as a staffe, which after will both grow strong against windes, and put forth a gallant head in few years: onely it is to be remembred that, that fencing and staying of your Trees is best, which is most secure, least subject to grate your Trees, and longest lasting.

Instructions concerning Grafting.

1 As touching the kindes, manner and time of Graft­ing, they are as followeth.

The kindes.Manner.Time of grafting.
1 Cōmon grafting is-By cleaving the stock.These three first in the latter end of Fe­bruary, March, or beginning of April.
2 Incysing — is-Shoulderwise between the Bark and Tree. 
3 Packing — is-By sloping the Impe and stocks, and cloving them together like a whipstock. 
4 Inoculating — is-By placing a bud into the Bark of another Tree.This last about the tenth of June.

2 There is an other way of crossing the pith of trees, which is by boring two holes through the stock across a hand breadth one above another, and making two pins of the same wood to drive them hard in; some take this to be a good way.

3 Good winter-fruit sowne of kernels in Nurseries, and so transplanted, will prove good fruit, though they never be grafted at all: and note that the Wal­nut will not be grafted.

4 Never graft your Sets the same year you do remove them, but let them stand and take root a year at least or [Page 24] two, then they will nourish their Grafts, and thrive ex­ceedingly.

A Generall Rule for Grafting.

To grow apace graft when the change is near,
But at the full Moon for your trees to bear.

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