THE ARRAIGNMENT OF PRIDE, OR, Pride set forth, with the Causes, Kinds, and several Branches of it: the odi­ousness and greatness of the sin of Pride: the Prognosticks of it, toge­ther with the cure of it: as also a large description of the excellency and use­fulness of the grace of Humility: di­vided into Chapters and Sections. By W. Gearing Minister of the Word at Lymington in Hantshire.

Superbus dictus est, quia suprà vult videriquàm est: qui enim vult supergredi superbus est. Isidor. lib. Etymolog.

LONDON, Printed by R. White, for Fran­cis Tyton, and are to be sold at the three Daggers in Fleetstreet, near the In­ner Temple gate, 1660.

TO THE Right Worshipful RICHARD LVCY OF CHARLECOT in the County of WARWICK, Esq; and to the Religious Lady ELIZABETH LƲCY his Wife.

Right Worshipful,

DIvers Nations and great Cap­tains have born divers En­signs in their wars: the Egyptians in the City Helio­polis carried an Ox, in Mem­phis a Bull, in Arcine a Cro­codile: The Persians in their first Standard had the picture of the Sun, which they call Mithra; in the second Fire, which they call Grimasdes, in the third a golden spread-eagle: The Romans when their Empire grew great and strong, had five principal Standards; in the first and chief before the Legion was an Eagle, in the second a Wolfe, in the third a Minotaur, in the fourth a Horse, in the fifth a Boar: The Cymbrians [Page]carried into the field a brazen Bull: Julius Cae­sar bare an Elephant: Porus King of India had the picture of Hercules: The Germans carried the picture of lightning; the old Brittains used to paint their faces to seem terrible to their ene­mies: but now-adaies every man bears the ensign of Pride: the world is a sea of monsters, a Pa­geant of fond delights, a feigned Comedy, a de­lectable Phrenzy, a Cage of gaudy birds, a The­atre of guilded fooleries and painted vanities. Pride is an hook whereby the spiritual Leviathan draws multitudes of men to destruction: Pride rides on horse-back cum purpuratâ & phlerataâ veste, while many of the poor and needy members of Christ, even Orphans, Widows, Fatherless and Friendless are fleeced to the bare bones; Some are grown great, and are very proud of their greatness, giving honour to none but the God Mauzzim, Suidas. like Thules that proud King of Egypt, who (having enlarged his bounds to the sea, and called it Thule, Difficile est ut non sit superbus qui dives est. August. Serm. 31. an Island after his own name) asked where there were any King or God more potent then he; yet even these men while they hold the liberty of others in their hand, are lan­guishing in the bondage of their own ambitions; others abounding with wealth and riches (whose eyes are dazled, whose hearts are bewitched with the glory and sweetness of these outward things) are puft up with secure presumption, Psal. 73.6. Pride com­passing them about as a chain, who like the Scy­thian Griffons keep great heaps of gold and silver, Genimian. lib. 4. cap. 9. and yet enjoy it not. Some have said that Pride was born at the Court; but I am [Page]sure it was bred in every ones heart: some look very big for having a great feather in their cap; some for a gay coat or gaudy suit which they have gotten upon their backs; but if there be any glory in these, it is to be given to the Bird, to the Silk-worm, to the Stuffe, to the Clothier, to the Taylor: others have lofty looks because of their long locks, or because they have got a set of borrowed and powdered hair, an argument of the weakeness of those heads that wear it, to be proud of a mendicated execrement. Such as these take more pains to cherish the ornament of their face then of their conversation, and had as rather see the Commonwealth in confusion, as their Perri­wig in the least disorder: Some would be cryed up for compleat persons for their beauty, neat garb, skill in singing and dauncing, their fine complements and courtings, quaint discourses and artificial behaviour: Quod vo­lumus san­ctum est. August. others would be mag­nified for their great wit and little learning, and will have their own opinion in every thing, en­grossing all the talk to themselves whereever they come, and if any weak person be overcome by them, they will speak Tragically upon every thing in Controversie, Quod in corporibus tu­mor, hoc in animabus superbia est. Sicut enim illic quod immodice tur­get, sanum non esse, ita & tumidos carere sani­tate dicimus. Chrysest. homil. 17. in 1. Tim. and by making themselves prodigal of that which they have not, they will needs be Judges of that whereof they are uncapable: how many are there daily to be seen, who rely upon the only Mercury of their wit, and overflowing in the loose­ness of their own opinions, they are as unstable in their manners as in their imagina­tions, [Page]and while they think to elevate themselves beyond the vulgar in the search and science of the most excellent things, they are drowned in the misprision and ignorance of themselves.

But of what a base spirit is man to think to add to his worth by such toyes as these are, no one of them making him better, but many times worse, then before? good spirits cannot long be in love with such fooleries; he that loadeth himself with Pearls will never trouble himself with Cockle­shels; such trifles are vain and foolish, having no vertue, but in the bud, nor goodness, but in the blossome, which oftentimes comes to nothing: Ut in area extollitur palea super granum, non quod sit dignior, sed quod sit levior, & cum sit levior, altiorem ob­tinet locum; sic in hac vita superbus fertur su­per humilem, non ob me­ritum & veram virtu­tem, sed ob vanitatem & falsam de se opinio­nem; & cum sit parvi momenti, se aliis ante­ponit, à quibus virtute superatur. Hect. Pin­tus in Ezek. the excellency of true ver­tue consisteth not in setting up, or set­ting off our selves, for it matters not where we be, so we be in rule and order. Naturalists say of true Balm, that it is tried and known by dropping it into water; for if it sink down to the bottom, it is held and taken to be the most excellent: So to know a man to be truly excellent, truly wise, truly generous, noble, learned, we must see whether his vertues tend to the bot­tom, that is to humility and lowli­ness; for if they swim on the top and be set to shew, Qui sine humilitate virtutes congregat, qua­si in ventum pulverem portat. Greg. homil. 6. they may be termed vertues and graces, but falsly so called: he that gathereth vertues to­gether without humility, is like a man that carrieth dust into a rufling wind, saith one of the Antients: It is said that the Walnut-tree [Page]is very hurtful to the Vine in the field where it is planted, for it sucks out the nourishment of the earth, not leaving enough for the Vine; and the leaves of it are so thick, that they make a dark shade, drawing Passengers to it, who to beat down the fruit, tread down and spoil the Vine: of this nature are all worldly vanities to the soul, wherein foolish men pride themselves; while the thoughts run out after them, a mans whole time is taken up with them, many strong temptations assault him, and his heart is trodden down and spoiled: In brief, Pride banisheth heavenly love and the fear of God out of the heart, en­feebleth the spirit, and blemisheth a mans repu­tation, and though it be the sport of the world, yet is it the bane of the heart: Pride is a fornace, whose mouth is self-conceitedness, the flame va­nity, the sparkles contemptuous words, the smoak an evil name, the ashes misery, and the end shame: but on the contrary; they that write of husbandry tell us, that if one write any word upon a sound Almond, and put it into its shell, binding it well, and setting it into the earth, all the fruit of that tree will grow with that word imprinted in it: So also whosoever hath humi­lity in his heart, shall have it also grow up with him in his outward actions; and as the life springs from the heart, the Almond from the kernel, it will bring forth all the actions that are the fruits thereof with humility stampt upon it, which will be seen in a mans eyes, lips, vestures, gestures, and in all his carriage.

And now (right worshipful) I bring to you a [Page]few clusters (though not in a Lordly dish) which I gathered in the time of a great sickness, when God shut me up from the publick exercise of my Ministry for divers moneths together: Pardon I beseech you my boldness in adventuring thus far upon so slender a knowledge, and less de­serts: the good report that you have for your humble conversation, and the great respect that you shew to the godly and learned Ministry, when multitudes of men requite their labours with intolerable contempt, hath encouraged me to pre­sent you with this little Treatise, the design whereof is to set forth the nature, the original, the several branches, the greatness and deformi­ty of the hemlock of Pride, with salves to cure this fretting leprosie, and to display and advance that contrary and most excellent grace of humili­ty, a garment which the greatest man and the best Christian need not dis­dain to wear, Nihil excelsius humili­tate, quae tanquam su­perior nescit extolli. Ambros. sup. Luc. 7. a dish that should never be wanting at your tables, which (like the Mulberry) will prove both food and Physick for your souls: Non magnum est humi­lem esse in abjectione, magna prorsus & rara virtus humilitas hono­rata. Bern. sup. mis­sus est. God hath advanced you in the world above many others; but yet humility will raise you higher, setting you neer to the most high: Its no great matter for a man to be humble in a mean and low estate; but it is a great and rare grace to see humility in men of honour and greatness: Be pleased I pray you to accept of this small pre­sent, a better then such as this is, being past my power to bestow; and for greater gifts you need [Page]not any: my building (to the view whereof I take the boldness to invite you) is not great, and therefore my entry into it must not be over-spa­tious. The Lord replenish you more and more with this soul-adorning grace of humility, which hath a wonderful aptness to receive a Sea of graces and heavenly blessings from the over­flowing fountain and Father of mercies; so prayeth

Your Worships in the Lord to be commanded, W. G.

Index Rerum.

  • Chap. 1 THe porch or entrance into this work
  • Chap. 2 Of Pride in general: the definition of Pride
  • Chap. 3 Of the causes of Pride
  • Chap. 4 Of the kinds of Pride
    • External
    • Internal
  • First of External Pride of the body, and those things that belong unto it 1 Of Pride of apparel
    • Sect. 1 Of immodest apparel
    • Sect. 2 Of costly apparel
    • Sect. 3 Of wearing habits above our de­gree, where also the manifold use of ap­parel is shewed
    • Sect. 4 Of superfluous garments
    • Sect. 5 Of wearing strange apparel
  • Chap. 5 Of Pride of beauty, and the vanity thereof
  • Chap. 6 Of Pride of gesture
    • Sect. 1 Of proud looks
    • Sect. 2 Of a proud gate or pace
    • Sect. 3 Of disdaining to give salutations and civil respect to superiors or equals: some objections answered
  • [Page]Chap. 7 Of Pride of hair: plaited hair, long hair, borrowed hair
  • Chap. 8 Of Pride of riches
  • Chap. 9 Of Pride of honour
    • Sect. 1 Of affectation of high Titles and a name in the world
    • Sect. 2 Of affecting high places
    • Sect. 3 Of the Pride of men in high places: where the several steps to the Pride of the Papacy are set down
    • Sect. 4 Of Pride of a generous and noble descent
  • Chap. 10 Of Pride of diet
  • Chap. 11 Of pride of strength
    • Sect. 1 Of Pride of bodily strength
    • Sect. 2 Of Pride of strong holds
  • Chap. 12 Of Pride of children
  • Chap. 13 Of Pride of outward priviledges
  • Chap. 14 Of internal Pride: and first of Pride of the heart
  • Chap. 15 Of Pride in the will
  • Chap. 16 Of Pride in the affections
  • Chap. 17 Of Pride of gifts in general
  • Chap. 18 Of Pride of wit
  • Chap. 19 Of Pride of memory
  • Chap. 20 Of Pride of eloquence
  • Chap. 21 Of Pride of learning and knowledge
  • Chap. 22 Of Pride of inward strength
  • Chap. 23 Of Pride of grace, and of humility it self
  • Chap. 24 Sect. 1 Of the odiousness of Pride, both to God and man; and how God re­sisteth the proud [Page]
    • Sect. 2 Five reasons why God resisteth this sin of Pride
  • Chap. 25 Of the greatness of the sin of Pride
    • Sect. 1 Of the original of Pride; and that it is an Epidemical evil, found in all sorts of persons
    • Sect. 2 How Pride is found in every sin, and the root of all sins, especially of se­ven great sins
  • Chap. 26 Of the Prognosticks of Pride, in three Sections; shewing the mischiefs it threatens to the soul in seven things
  • Chap. 27 Of the cure of Pride: the first di­rection
  • Chap. 28 The second direction
  • Chap. 29 The third direction
  • Chap. 30 The fourth, fifth, and sixth directions
  • Chap. 31, 32, 33 The seventh direction: where Jesus Christ is largely set forth as a great example of humility from his birth to the time of his crucifixion
  • Chap. 34 An exhortation to humility, setting forth the excellency and usefulness thereof: the conclusion of the whole work

The Authors cited in this Treatise.

A
  • R. Abbot contr. Bishop
  • Abbot on Jonah
  • Adams
  • Melchior. Adam
  • Albertus magnus
  • Ainsworth
  • Ambros.
  • Sir Anth. Shirley
  • Anselm
  • Aquinas
  • Aretius
  • Aristotle
  • Arnobius
  • Augustine
B
  • Babington
  • Baronius
  • Sir Richard Barckley
  • Basil
  • Beda
  • Bellarmin
  • Becolcerns
  • Beneventius
  • Bernard
  • Beza
  • Bonavent.
  • Boys
  • Bruson
  • Bulling. Epist.
  • Bucan. loc. com.
  • Bulla Pii 5
C
  • Calvin harm. Evang.
  • Calvin instit.
  • Cameron. stellit.
  • Carion Cronic.
  • Cartwright
  • Cassiodorus
  • Clem. Alexand.
  • Caussin. holy Court
  • Caelius Rhodigin.
  • Chald. Paraphr.
  • Cedren. Graec. hist.
  • Chemnit. harm.
  • Conrad. Lycost.
  • Cicero.
  • Caesarii homil.
  • Coster. Enchyrid. de no­tis Eccles.
  • [Page]Chrysostom
  • Cyprian
  • Chrysologus
D
  • Davenant in Colos.
  • Diodorus Siculus
  • Mr. Dent
E
  • Erasmus
  • Estius
  • Euripides
  • Euseb. hist.
F
  • Fox
  • Dudl. Fenner
  • Ferus
  • Franz. hist. sacra.
G
  • Gerson
  • Genevenses
  • Glos. interlin.
  • Grymstons Rom. hist.
  • Gorran
  • Gualter
  • Greg. moral.
  • Greg. homil.
  • Gratian
H
  • Hist. novi orbis
  • Bishop Hall
  • Hect. Pintus in Ezek.
  • Hieronym.
  • Mr. Hieron
  • Herodotus
  • Horat
  • Hooper
  • Hugo Card.
  • Hugo de S. Vict.
  • Hugo de discipl. monac.
  • Hilarius
I
  • Irenaeus
  • Isidor. Soliloqu.
  • Isidor. Etymol.
  • Ital. transl.
  • Joseph antiqu.
  • P. Jovius
  • Innocentius
  • Justin hist.
  • Junius
  • Jul. Capitol.
  • Juvenal. Sat.
K
  • Keckerm. Syst. Ethic.
  • King on Jonah
L
  • Livius
  • Lucius Apuleius
  • Lumb. sent.
  • Lyra
  • Lyran
  • Luther
M
  • Magdeb. hist.
  • Marlorat
  • Macarius
  • [Page]Mantuan
  • Maldonat
  • Sir John Mandevil
  • Melancton
  • Musculus
  • M. S.
N
  • Nazianzen
O
  • Onuphrius
  • Ovid
P
  • Pagnin
  • Paraeus
  • Parisiensis
  • Petrarc. de remed. utr. fortunae.
  • Piscator
  • Plia nut. hist.
  • Philo Judaeus
  • Plato
  • Procop. de bel. Gothico.
  • Plutarc. moral.
  • Plutar. vit.
  • Platina de vit. Pontif.
  • Jo. Picus Mirand. Epist.
  • Philostratus
  • Dr. Plaifer
Q
  • Quintilian
  • Qu. Curtius
R
  • Rheyner
  • Rhem. Annot.
S
  • Salvian de provid. dei
  • Sir Philip Sydney
  • Seneca
  • Sent. hebr.
  • Septuagint
  • Struther
  • Suidas
  • Socrat. Eccl. hist.
  • Stella
  • Suetonius
  • Syr. Versio
  • Dr. Sutton
  • Symmachus
T
  • Tacitus
  • Tailer
  • Tertullian
  • Theophilact
  • Theodoret. Eccl. hist.
  • Torshel
  • Tremellius
  • Tripart. hist.
  • [Page]Thuanus
U
  • Valer. Episcop.
  • Valer. Maxim.
  • Vella
  • Volateran
  • Virgil
  • Vulg. translat.
W
  • Jo. Wolf lect.
  • Weemes
  • Wicelius
  • Woodward
Z
  • Zanch.
  • Zosimus

THE ARRAIGNMENT OF PRIDE.

1 John. 2.16.—and the pride of life—’

CHAP. 1. The Porch, or Entrance into the work.

THe drift of the Apostle in this Epistle, and in this Chapter, is, to exhort all the faith­ful (whom he divides in­to three ranks, Mundum vocat homi­nes deditos rebus; hujus m [...]ndi, i.e. corporalibus ac sensibili­bus; mun­dum au­tem sic acceptum, i. e. homines malos diligi vetat, quatenus tabes sunt, &c. Estius in loc. Per ea quae sunt in mundo omnia, quae­nos ad peccandum solicitant, quaecunque tandem sint. Aretius in loc. according to their standing in Grace) un­to Brotherly Love, vers. 7-10. which that he may the more effectually press upon them, he calleth them back from the love of other things; the immoderate love [Page 2]and desire whereof, is contrary to brotherly love and charity; and the things of this sort, are the world, and the things of the world, ver. 15. By the world, may be meant the men of the world, addicted to the things of the world, i. e. to corporal and sensible things. And the world being thus taken, we are for­bidden to love wicked Worldlings, as they are such. By the things of the world, we are to understand Pleasures, Riches and Honours, or all those worldly things which provoke us to sin against God, whatsoever they are.

The reasons why our Apostle laboureth to draw them off from the love of worldly things, are,

1. A Disparatis; Because God and the World cannot be truly loved together, ver. 15. If any man love the world, the love of the Fa­ther is not in him.

2. A partibus mundi integralibus: From all the parts of the world, whole and entire, which are the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and pride of life.

3. From the Original of all worldly things.

  • 1. Negatively, they are not of the Father.
  • 2. Affirmatively, but of the world.

4. Res huma­nae non ha­bent [...] aut [...], sed [...]. From the frailty and instability of all these worldly things, ver. 17. And the world passeth away, and the lust thereof.

In this 16 verse, the Apostle gives us an ac­count of whatsoever is in the world, reducing it all to these three heads, The lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and pride of life.

The Evangelist speaks not of the frame of the world, but of the things of the world, which the corrupt nature of man is apt to dote upon; it consisteth of the lust of the flesh, &c. The word Lust is taken,

1. For the habit, or lusting faculty, and such lusts as these are called habitual lusts.

2. For the motions and actions of lust, and these are called actual lusts.

Lusts are either good or evil:

1. Good; & these are either natural or spiritual.

Natural lusts that are good, are such as come from nature in her state of innocency.

There be also spiritual lusts; as when the Spirit lusteth against the flesh, Gal. 5.17. and the soul of a Christian panteth and longeth after God, Psal. 42.1.

2. Evil lusts: Which are such as are contra­ry to the commands of God; and these are here described to be of two sorts:

  • Fleshly lusts, and
  • Worldly lusts:

Called the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eye; the one denotes unto us all inordinate motions of the will, all unlawful desires of the under­standing, of the affections and sensual parts, Gal. 5.16.

By the other; (viz. the lust of the eye) is meant an inordinate desire of worldly things; Fastus, five superbia mund. it is such a desire, as is the desire of the will as well as of the affections: And so the speci­all objects of it are Pleasure, Riches, and Ho­nour; the act of Pleasure, is Lust; the act of [Page 4]Riches, Covetousness; the act of Honour, Ambition, and Pride of Life.

The Syriack reads it, Syr. vers. [...] non simplicitèr vitam signi­ficat, sed vitae genus, & quod vulgò di­cunt statum. Estius. [...] est vivendi ge­nus & ra­tio. Calv. in loc. the pride or haughti­ness of the world. The Greek word [...] signifies a proud ostentation of any worldly thing; and the word [...] doth not simply signifie the life of man, but the manner, state, and condition of that life; and therefore cal­led Pride of life, because pride is found most in such as minde the things of this life, and be­cause it is most demonstrated in the course of our life.

Austin saith, that with these three the De­vil set upon our first Parents; the lust of the flesh in them, was to taste of the forbidden fruit; the lust of the eyes, to have their eyes opened; Beda in Mat. 4. Haec tria pro trino numine mundus ha­bet. and the pride of life, to be like unto God. And Beda sheweth, that the Devil made use of these three for the tempting of our blessed Saviour. The reasons why the ob­jects of Lust are reduced to three heads; are,

1. Because these are things that men most desire.

2. Because men are most unable to refrain these lusts. Pride here cometh after Lust, to note to us, that what men greedily lust after, they enjoy by pride.

CHAP. 2. Of Pride in general.

MY purpose (God assisting me) is from this Text, to handle this great sin of Pride: And first I shall define it, though I confess that it is a sin so great, that I can hardly give a full definition of it. I have read of Apelles, Conrad. Lycost. that excellent Painter, that being commanded to pourtray a Giant of a great stature, and find­ing it hard to set him forth so great (in that small table he had in hand) as was required, he painted in the table an hand of huge big­ness, and two Giants also, who with two long sticks measured one finger of the Giants hand, that by the greatness of that finger, the mighty stature of that Giant might appear. So at this present I am compelled to do; I am now to set forth to you a mighty Giant, that swelling sin of Pride, and a little to touch upon that excellent Grace of Hu­mility: I can but only paint a hand of ei­ther, but by observing the Proportion thereof, you may the more easily take a true survey of both.

Quest. You may ask, What is this sin of Pride?

Answ. Superbia est amor af­fectus seu appetitus inordinatus propriae ex­cellentiae, alios injustè cupiens superare. Gerson. Superbia est elatio vitiasa, quae inferiorem despiciens, superiori­bus & pa­ribus sata­git dominari. Hugo de S. vict. Pride is an inordinate desire of a mans own excellency and glory, a refusal to be in subjection to those to whom he ought, and a sinful affection to be above others. Proud men (like the Sons of Belial) do reject every yoke; and like those Citizens that hated Christ, and sent a message after him, saying, We will not have this man to reign over us, Luke 19.14. Therefore the Romans painted Pride in the form of a Devil, having three Crowns upon his head, one upon another; in the first was written Transcendo, I surpass all others, because the proud man thinks he ex­ceeds all other men. And therefore saith Hugo, Pride is a vitious haughtiness, whereby a man despiseth his inferiours, and earnestly busieth himself to rule over his equals, and those also that are above him. In the second Crown was written, Non obedio, I obey no others; because Pride would give Laws to others, but obey none himself. In the third was written, Perturbo, I trouble all; and we see by experi­ence, that the pride of some persons doth trouble a whole Nation. Pride then is a swel­ling desire of a mans own excellency and glory, Caera su­perbia est vitium quo se existi­mans ali­quid. vel esse honum quod non est, vel à se esse quod est, in se, non in Domino gloriatur. Bern. Epist. Melius est in malis factis humilis confessio quam in bonis superba gloriatio August. in Luc. 18. whereby a man is pufft up with something that is in him, or the conceit of something that is pe­culiar to him. Pride makes a man high in his own esteem; it was a proud one that said, I am not as other men are, Luke 18.11. and he gives God thanks for it, that he is no extortioner, un­just, [Page 7]&c. a strange kinde of Prayer, Non est ista supplicatio, sed superlatio; this is no con­fession of his sins, but a commendation of his vertues; he cometh not as a beggar, to shew his rags, to move mercy and compassion; but as a proud bragger, shewing his robes, stand­ing upon his merits; Non ostendit vulnera, sed potius munera, he confesseth not his wants, but boasteth of his worth: And many in the world there are of his stamp, that think all their Geese are Swans, holding themselves more wise, more holy, of better con­versation, of more pure note, and better report then others; as if this were a thing most just, for a man to justifie himself, as Au­stin speaks against Faustus the Ma­nichee: August. contrae Faust. Manich. lib. 5. cap. 7. The clock of the Pharisees Tongue, went truer then the dyal of his Heart. Adams. But he should have let an­other have commended him, and not his own mouth; he should not have been his own Cryer and Trum­peter. The Hebrew word Gauoah, signifying the high man, is by the Greeks rendred [...], which signifies an appearance, not a real thing; an appearance more then enough; shewing that Pride is a great vanity, an appearance of that which is not in reality; the counting of a mans self to be something, when he is nothing: Gal. 6.3. Superbia of­fuscat ocu­lum mentis. Bern. Its natural to men to think too well of them­selves, and too meanly of others; to magni­fie, yea, Deifie themselves; and vilifie, yea, nullifie others: For a man looking through the spectacles of self-love, thinks every gift [Page 8]that God hath bestowed on him greater then it is, imagining shadows to be substances, and mole-hills mountains; yea, even his own ble­mishes and deformities to be ornaments; Nar­cissus-like, Acts 8.9, 10. doting upon his own face; and as Simon Magus, who though he were a wicked wretch, and a notorious Witch, yet will have it given out, that himself was some great one, To whom they all gave heed from the least to the greatest, saying, This man is the great power of God. Apoc. 3.17. So the Church of Laodi­cea said, I am rich, and encreased with goods, and have need of nothing. So the Scarlet-coloured Strumpet glorified her self, Apoc. 18.7, 8, 9. and thought her self a Queen, when she is ready for ruine.

Yea, this corruption prevails upon the ve­ry Regenerate, and such as are in part san­ctified: We read that the very Apostles them­selves strove for precedency, Luke 22.24. and 9.46. Surely the Disciples thought that it was a very small matter for them, to think every one his own peny the best silver, and to envy Peter, James and John, for being in more esteem with Christ (as they thought) then themselves. And in all ages since Christs time, there have been some in the Church, that have had an over-weening conceit of their own righteousness, purity, and perfection, as the Catharists, Donatists, Jovinianists, Pelagians, and the Quakers, and others of that stamp in these days, thinking that a just man hath not sin remaining in him; and the Papists, and [Page 9]such like, who will have a hand in their own conversion.

CHAP. 3. Of the causes of Pride.

1. THe first cause of Pride in us, is, that bit­ter root of Pride that was in our first Parents; it is an evil that is hereditary to us all, that every one of Adams race brings with him into the world; it is reigning in every soul in the state of nature, and it is abiding in the best; and if God leave them but a lit­tle, they will quickly shew it, as Hezekiah did; though he was holy, sincere, and full of faith and confidence in God; yet when God left him in the business of the Ambassadors of the Princes of Babylon, his heart was lifted up, 2 Chron. 32.25, 31. and stufft with pride.

2. A second cause of Pride is ignorance. Menander an Heathen could say, [...], &c. Whensoever you see a proud man, say, There's a fool; and it is weakness, folly and ig­norance that causeth pride and high thoughts of our selves; as with the lowly there is wisdom, Prov. 11.2.so with the proud and high-minded there is folly and ignorance. Melancton said, that all proud men are fools, and all fools are proud: Melanct. explic. dom. 11. post. trin. Proud men are in darkness, and self-conceited men are foolish; and blinde men see no evil; and men use to call a proud fantastical man, a [Page 10]proud fool: Prov. 26.12. Nay Solomon saith, Seest thou a man wise in his own conceit? there is more hope of a fool then of such a man.

Ignorance of God, and of our selves, is a great cause of pride.

1. Ignorance of God: Proud Pharaoh was ignorant of God, when he scorneth the mes­sage sent to him from God; he cryes out, Who is the Lord? I know not the Lord, &c. The ig­norance of Gods glory and greatness, and of his infinite perfections, is one cause why the heart of vain man is apt to swell with pride; Principium superbiae est nescire Deum. Chry. homil. de Ozia. Cognitio Dei conster­nit atque contundit hu­manam superbiam. Cal. instit. lib. 1. cap. 1. for were we acquainted in some measure with Gods glorious perfections, it would humble us in the sense of our mani­fold imperfections: Likewise the ignorance of Gods purity and ho­liness, his mercy and goodness; men are apt to pride themselves, while they look upon others, comparing themselves with the best; but did they look up to Gods infinite great­ness and goodness, and to his unspotted holi­ness, the pride of their hearts would fall down.

2. Ignorance of our selves is the cause of pride, De igno­rantiá tui venitsuper­bia. Bern. in Cantic. and high thoughts of our selves. De­monax the Philosopher being asked when he began to Philosophize, answered, when he began to know himself. And Plato saith, that the Oracle of Apollo did stir up every man that entred into his Temple, to the knowledge of himself, by this short sentence [Page 11]written over the gate of the Temple, Homo scito teipsum; bo­num est e­nim scire propriam infirmita­tem. Aug Nosce teipsum, Know thy self; labouring by the true knowledge of themselves, to bring them to humility: Therefore saith Austin, O man, know thy self, for it is good to know thine own infirmities. When men stand upon their own bottoms, and magnifie themselves, it is an argument they know not themselves: De­formed persons in the dark see not their own spots. If a Leper should boast of his beauty, The Owl is a proud bird, but of great debi­lity of sight. you would say, this man knoweth not his own face, or hath not seen his face in a glass; so he that walks in the dungeon of ignorance, seeth not himself, and knows not that evil that is in himself, and what evils he is subject to, there­fore he is apt to have high thoughts of him­self. Did man consider his many sins, and daily transgressions, his inability to stand, his readiness to fall, the corruption of his birth, the wickedness and misery of his life, and the uncertainty of his death; did he consider, that what good soever he hath, it is not his own; and what he hath he may lose, if not rightly used; and that one day he must be called to an ac­count for what he hath received; then would he finde little cause to be proud of any thing. The more wisdom a man hath, the more hum­ble it will make him; and the more ignorant he is, the more proud. Job saith, Job 28.13. That wisdom is not to be found in the land of the living; the Chaldee Paraphrast translates thus, Neither is it found in the land of proud livers, or of those who in their lives are proud sinners: [Page 12]They that have least wisdom, least grace, com­monly think they have most; and they that have most, see the most want. By seeing much into themselves, they see how much they want; and that which they have, being no­thing to what they lack, makes them have mean thoughts of themselves.

3. A third cause of Pride in many men, is, from the flattering applause of others. When mens parts and learning, Qui auditis blanditiis in altum se extollit, quid aliud quam au­rum reprobum fuit, quod fornax igne con­sumpsit? Gregor. and their opinions in Controversies are ap­plauded, when men are cryed up for their wit, eloquence, memory, this is apt to puff them up with pride; then they think there is something in them extraordinary, for which they may hold up their head: This makes them look too much upon themselves, as those that stay long at a glass, poring upon their own faces, till at length they fall in love with their own shadow. When Herod made an eloquent Oration to the people, they gave a shout, Act. 12.22, 23. saying, It the voyce of a God, and not of a man: This vain applause of the people, pufft up his heart with pride, making him to give that glory to himself, that was due to God. A proud heart loveth to be tickled and flatter­ed; Adulatio blanda om­nibus ap­plaudit, omnibus salve dicit. Haec sagitta levitèr volat, & cito infigitur. Cassiodor. in quadam Epistola. and flatterers deal with men whom they flatter, as the Jews did with Christ; they blindefold him, then call him Rabbi, and seem to reverence him. A blinde man heareth the [Page 13]good that is said of him, but perceiveth not the hurt and evil that is meant towards him; and it many times fals out, that those that love to be flattered for their vertues, are also (as a just plague and punishment upon them) flat­tered in their sins. It is a great weakness in any man to delight in such persons, being the most pernicious people in the world, keeping a man ever from the true knowledge of him­self; and they will follow him no longer then they can get by him, like the Celedony stone, that loseth its vertue, unless it be rubbed with gold; or like the Ivy, that sucks out the sap of the Oak that supports it: They deal with a man, as a man doth with a candle, carry it while it serves his turn, and hurl it away when it is like to burn his fingers.

4. The fourth cause of Pride is the Devil: The true Original of all Pride is Satan himself; through his sin, it was the first sin that he com­mitted, some think. God did discover to the Angels, Zanch. de nat. Dei. that the second Person in Trinity should take upon him the Humane Nature, and that these would not stoop unto him: Thus Zanchy and others. But whatever the particu­lar object of it was, it is most probable that it was the sin of Pride. When the seventy Dis­ciples which our Saviour had sent out to work miracles, and to preach, returned again with joy, saying, Lord, Luk. 10.17, 18.even the Devils are subject unto us through thy name: He said unto them, I beheld Satan as lighting fall from heaven. Some are of opinion, that our Saviour spake [Page 14]here of the fall of Lucifer from Heaven for his pride; Gregor. Theophil. whereof ye may read Revel. 12.7, 8, 9. where it is said, Superbia est caput antiqui Serpentis. that Michael and his Angel fought against the Dragon and his Angels; and in fight prevailed so, that there was no more place found in Heaven, either for the Dragon himself, or for his Angels, but he was cast out, and they with him; and this fall (no question) Christ Jesus was an eye-witness and beholder of in his Divinity, being that Michael there spoken of, who gave him the fall, and threw him down; and thus they take the an­swer of Christ to be a caveat to these Disci­ples, to take heed of being infected with pride, occasioned by their prosperous success, from this fearful example. Some say, the Devil hath in him every sin secundum reatum, Aquinas. Dr. Boys. but only pride secundum affectum: They say he is guilty of other sins, only tempting men to them; but that pride is his own proper and pe­culiar sin; but the Scripture notes him to have been a lyar and a murtherer from the begin­ning; therefore I see not how their assertion holdeth. But though it be not his proper sin, yet it is his special sin; and therefore the Pro­verb saith, As proud as Lucifer. Men use to parallel a proud person with the Devil, and no sinner besides; and it is an undoubted chara­cter of a childe of the Devil, in whomsoever it domineereth: And for that cause, Satan (like that great Leviathan) may be called the King over all the children of Pride. Iob 41.34. And as every Souldier may be known under whose [Page 15]banner he fights, by some sign that he carri­eth: So Pride is the mark to know under whose banner he fights, that bears it, scil. the Devils. Pride is the proper badge of the Devil, Quid est Diabolus? Angelus per superbiam à Deo superatus. Aug. in vigil. nativ. dom. Serm. 4. which he gives to all his fol­lowers. One calls Pride the Devils Grammar, the first book taught in his School; this Grammar teacheth ill construction, and ill versifying, to measure our selves at a large ell, and others at a short one, making long short, and short long: This Grammar also maketh ill declen­sions, teaching even children as well as men, to decline from good to evil. Superbus est Diaboli. Martyr. Aquinas. And the proud man doth daily worship the Devil, being guided by his Laws and suggestions, framing himself to do his will. Pride began in mente Angelica, and being conceived in the minde of an Angel, it changed his most noble na­ture into a Serpentine nature, and no mar­vel he desires to make men like himself.

CHAP. 4. Of the kindes of Pride.

PRide is twofold; External and Internal.

First, of External Pride of the body, and those things that belong to it: and first,

Of Pride of Apparel, and the vanity thereof.

SECT. 1. Of immodest apparel.

1. THat Apparel is vitious, and an ensign of Pride, when it is not modest, but carries with it an incentive to lust and wanton­ness. Hos. 2.2. The Prophet Hosea speaks of the adul­tery between the breasts; they had either naked breasts, or else hung alluring Orna­ments between the breasts. A woman in the attire of an Harlot met the young man, Prov. 7, 10. One of the Ancients saith, that they which dress themselves with a desire and intention to please men, or to provoke any to lust, they offer up their own souls to the Devil: And Hierom saith, If a man or woman adorn themselves so, Hieron. Epist. as they pro­voke others to look after them, though no evil follow upon it, yet the party shall suf­fer eternal damnation, because they offered poyson to others, though none would drink of it. Such apparel is the badge of Pride, the bait of Lust, and the foment of Va­nity.

SECT. 2. Of costly apparel.

2. THat apparel is a badge of Pride, that is too expensive, when so much of a mans estate is wasted upon the superfluous decking of this earthly tabernacle, by which the bowels of many of Gods poor distressed Saints might have been greatly refreshed. Let wo­men wear modest apparel, not with broidered hair, gold, pearls, or costly aray, but with good works: 1 Tim. 2.9, 10. The Lacedemonians had a Law, that none but harlots might use rich apparel, that ho­nest women might be brought out of love with bravery. Now when they wear such costly garments, that thereby they are restrained from feeding and clothing the poor and needy members of Christ, this is sinful. This is exceeding con­trary to the garments that the god­ly wore in former times, wherein all excess and adorning of the body was aban­doned. Our first Parents were clad in beasts skins, the Prophets wore rough garments, and John Baptist was clothed in Camels hair, and the blessed Virgin only in a mean ha­bit, to cover nakedness, not to beautifie her body. Matth. 3. Non ad or­natum cor­poris, sed ad tegumentum nuditatis. Chrys. Vestis est reme­dium turpitudinis erubescentiae, quam per peccatum contraximus; ante peccatum sufficiebat homini propria pulchritudo pro vestiturâ, nec habebat causam erubescentiae. Now great folly it is so curiously and expensively to deck and trim the body, [Page 18]that must ere long be a dish and feast for the worms, and neglect the soul that must live for ever. Tell me, saith Cyprian, if Paul durst not glory, but in the Cross of Christ, how darest thou to pride thy self in these vanities? It is the foolishest thing that can be, for a man to be proud of gay and cost­ly garments, which are but the badge of sin, and the ensign of shame. What cre­dit were it for a Traytor to be fettered with silver bolts, or a Fellon to be hanged with a silken halter? Our garments are but a remedy for the filthiness of our shame, which we have contracted by sin. Before the Fall, mans own proper beauty was sufficient to him instead of apparel, neither had he any cause of shame: Consider the Lilies of the field, saith our Saviour, they labour not, nor do they spin, yet Solomon in all his glory, was not arayed like one of these.

SECT. 3. Of wearing habits above our degree.

3. HEre also doth Pride appear, when per­sons wear habits above their rank and degree. The pride of the rich man is set down, Luke 16. in that being neither hono­rably descended, nor deservedly advanced, Luke 16.19, 20. Auferimur cultu; gem­mis auroque togun­tur Omnia; pars mini­ma est ipsa puella sui. Ovid. lib. 2. de Re­med. but only having scraped an huge estate together, he would (being but a Peasant, or at best, but a private man) be apparelled above his place: For our Saviour tells us, There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linnen, &c. This some gather, because he is not called Vir, but Homo in Latine, nor [...], but [...] in Greek, and those that are skilled in the three Learned Tongues, know, Solis nobilibus [...]cu­it bysso indui. Philo­stratus. that A­dam in Hebrew, [...] in Greek, and Homo in Latine, signifie mean men of no esteem, whereas Ish, [...], and Vir, signifie some desert and re­nown purchased by Arts or Arms: Now his pride is set forth, Purpura olim vestis regia & senatoria, 1 Macchab. 14.43. in that he was clothed in purple and fine linnen. Purple was anciently a garment on­ly for Kings and Noble Senators to wear, granted by license among the Jews to their High Priests to wear.

And fine linen] This same Byssus, translated [Page 20]fine linnen, was linum Indicum & Aegyptia­cum, Chemnit in Luc. 16. so precious, as anciently it was exchanged for gold, weight for weight, as the learned note. Genes. 4 1.42. We read that Joseph, by the appoint­ment of Pharaoh, was so apparalled, when he was made Viceroy of all Egypt; and our Saviour Christ tells us, Mat. 11.8. that they that wear soft rayment, are in Kings houses. This man then being at the best, but some Citizen or rich Tradesman, forgate himself, and took too much state upon him, to strout it like a Peer of the Land. Mollia indumenta ani­mi molliciem indicant. Bernard. Quid de ha­bitu dicam? in quo jam non calor sed color requiritur, magisque cultui vestium quam virtutum insistitur? Bernar. Serm. super pass. Soft garments do shew the softness and effeminateness of the minde, when men do much affect them. Every man is to consider his place and ability, and see that he exceed not in sumptuousness for the matter of his garments; for it is not fit he should wear silk, that is scarce a­ble to pay for cloth; and commonly, to wear garments above our calling, is but an allure­ment to evil. It is written of the Emperour Severus, that in his time he never beheld any man in Rome apparelled in silk and purple: but now there is a great confusion of degrees; for Gill cannot be known from a Gentlewoman.

The use of apparel is divers:

1. For necessity, to warm us, and preserve us from injury by wind and weather.

2. For honesty, ornament and comeliness.

3. For distinction of one Sex from another, and for distinction of qualities of men and wo­men: [Page 21]For great persons may and ought to wear rich apparel, so it be sober, seemly, and civil. Curiosity of garments is a demonstra­tion of the deformity of the minde and manners; Ornamentum est quod ornat. Seneca. Vestium curiositas, deformita­tis mentis, & morum judicium est. Bern. and that is an orna­ment which doth adorn the body, saith Seneca. John Baptist was not apparelled in soft raiment, viz. in silks and velvet, and such effeminate­ness, that suited the Court, and not the wilder­ness; his apparel was neither costly, for the matter and stuff whereof it was made, nor yet curious, for the fashion and manner of making, but decent and comely for his per­son and profession. He had his garment of Camels hair, and a leathern girdle about his paps, and his meat was locusts and wilde honey. Matth. 3.4. Serica, purpura, & tincturarum fucus de­corem habent, sed non praebent. Bernar. ad Sophiam Virgin. Thus as Valerius Maximus writeth of Diogenes the Philoso­pher, that he would rather content himself with a thredbare gown or cloak, and live upon herbs, then go to the Court and flatter the Emperour: So John Baptist would wear a mean habit, and live in a mean estate, ra­ther then frame himself to wink at vice, and flatter Herod; therefore he chose rather to wear a homely weed, best beseeming the plain and naked truth, Quae au­tem contra mores ho­minum sunt flagitia, pro morum diversitate vitanda sunt, &c. turpis enim omnis pars est suo universo non congruens. August. confess. lib. 3. cap. 8. then gorgeous and gaudy apparel, better suiting a Parasite then a Preacher. Some think it is lawful for Countrys [Page 22]to wear what they list, and to follow every day a new mode. Howsoever (questionless) the God of Order alloweth a difference and distinctions of persons; yea, even approveth that they should be known from the vulgar by their apparel, answerable to their estate, Luke 7.25. And a man may see by natu­ral reason, that silks, and better stuffs too, were to no purpose, if none might wear them: yet excess is reproved even in Princes, Amos 6. But against meaner persons espe­cially, that seldom use any other book then a Looking-glass, and are vain in their ha­bits, there is a notable threatning, Isa. 3.16, 17. Doubtless it is a fault even in the greatest, when bravery in the Court, causeth beggery in the Countrey. It was not the costly apparel of Solomons Servants, but the good order that they kept, that the Queen of Sheba so much admired. 1 King. 10. Dudley Fenner. De vestitu lex est, ut eo tantum utamur, qui cujusque aetati, ex aequalium bonorum, modestissimorumque ex­emplo prorsus sit [...]. Tit. 2.3.

SECT. 4. Of superfluous Garments.

4. PRide appears in the superfluity of Appa­rel. There may be superfluity herein.

Quantum ad magnitudinem,
Et quantum ad multitudinem.

1. For the greatness of Garments; Cato speaks of one that was called Grando, because he would have every thing great, a great Hat, great Shooes, and all his garments very great. Thus women are to be taxed, that wearing costly garments, do draw long tails after them, sweeping the ground, and raising the dust there­with: Much of that superfluity might be spa­red to cloath the backs of many poor Christi­ans, whom they see half naked before their eyes. God taxeth the Jews for this superfluity by the Prophet Jeremiah; Jer. 2.34. In thy skirts is found the blood of the souls of the poor innocents: I have not found it by secret search, but upon all these. The good things which they had in great abun­dance (with which they ought to have relieved and cloathed the poor) they consumed in the skirts of their garments; but such kind of gar­ments as these shall be consumed with burning and fuel of fire, or Cibo ignis, meat of fire, ac­cording to the Hebrew, Isa. 9.5.

2. Superfluity consisteth in the multitude of garments. Great was the pride of Heliogabalus; [Page 24]that would not wear a garment twice: but in the Countrey of Licaonia, Mat. 10.10. Luke 9.3. none might wear but one garment in one whole year. When Christ sent out the Disciples to preach the Go­spel, he bids them not to have two coats a­peice, and to take nothing with them for the journey.

Object. But is it not lawfull for a man to have two coats, to have change of raiment?

Answ. You are to know, that this inhibiti­on of Christ was onely temporary, not per­petual, Mat. 10.5, 6. but onely till the Apostles had preached to the Jews, which to do, one suit would serve their turn (for they were commanded not to go into the way of the Gentiles, nor to enter in­to any City of the Samaritans, but to go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Is­rael) And either their journeyes should be so short, Non proibisse il possedere quaeste tali coseima com­manda lor qüaesto, non solo perche, non stano ro­tardat i da nifs uno im­pedimento, ma ancora à fincche gustando ali­quanto il benefitio de la divina providenzia sia­no preparati à questo of­ficio Apostolico. as they might ea­sily reach from place to place with one coat, and without refreshing themselves by the way; or else he would extraordinarily strengthen them, and provide for them, that they should in the strength of what they had eaten at one place, go to another, as he did Elijah: If Christ had not allowed them to have had two coats at other times, as well might they say that they should never preach to the Gentiles, because Christ forbade them for a time to go into the way of the Gentiles; which is cancelled, Mat. 28.19. when he bids them go teach all nations: [Page 25]Mark 16.15. and so was this cancelled also by the practise of Christ and his Apostles; for Ju­das was his Almoner, and purse-bearer, and his Disciples had two swords in his company: And in all probability, Paul had two cloaks, 2 Tim. 4.13. for we reade of one that he left behind him at Tro­as, and it is likely he had another with him.

But that which I am now speaking of, is a su­perfluity in respect of the multitude of gar­ments: Take not two coats; that is, saith Lyra, superfluous garments: One man weares e­nough on his back at once to cloath two naked wretches all their lives. Adams. many there are, that have such variety of gar­ments, that they will rather let the moths eat them, than give away any of them to clothe the poor and nee­dy. To such James speaks, Go to now you rich men, Jac. 5.1, 2.weep and boule for the miseries that are coming upon you: your riches are corrup­ted, your garments moth-eaten: the very moths shall witness against such abusers of apparel.

Object. Doth not John Baptist, (when the people came to his Baptism, asking him what they should do) say unto them, Luk. 3.11. Let him that hath two coats impart to him that hath none; and he that hath meat, let him do likewise; this is no great variety, nor any superfluity, to have two coats; doth not this seem to set open a wide gap to Anabaptistical parity, and equality, and Plato­nical community?

Answ. I must confess that it is an hard task, to walk with an even foot in this argument, but either the rich or the poor will abuse some­thing as shall be taught them: let a man teach [Page 26]that it is lawfull to possess goods, cloaths, mo­ney, land, and other goods that a man hath left him by his Ancestors, or gotten by his ho­nest industry, and rich men will soon conclude, that they are absolute owners of their wealth, and may use it, yea even abuse it, at their own pleasure: Let a man on the other side stir up men to charity, the poor are apt presently to think themselves more than quarter-masters of their rich neighbours goods; and if they be somewhat slow in giving, they will be quick enough in taking them before they be given.

Quest. A question may arise then, Whether there is any propriety, any meum and tuum in goods and cloaths, &c. because the Baptist here speaks of an equal division?

Answ. 1. We must answer affirmatively, that there is; and it may thus be proved: What God giveth, man may possess, Psal. 104.28. That thou givest them, they gather: the blessing of God maketh rich, Prov. 10.22.

2. They are not onely given to men as ge­neral blestings, but as peculiar favours to his own children: Blessed is the man that feareth the Lord, &c. Psal. 112.1. Wealth and riches shall be in his house, ver. 3. Many of the godly have had great riches, as Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Jo­seph, Job, David, Solomon, Joseph of Arimathea, Nichodemus, and others, whose faith Christ commendeth to us; therefore the possession of abundance is lawfull. Object. Are not all things the Saints?

3. Christian piety doth not overthrow but maintain a civil policy, which alloweth possessi­ons; [Page 27]else to what use be all Laws about weights, measures, buying, selling, usury? yea, else what use is there of the eighth Command­ment? But I must not stay here: for though it be lawful for rich men to possess and enjoy those things that God hath given them, or (more truly) lent them, 1 Cor. 3.21. Answ. Theirs by right, but not by pos­session; a right to all things, not in all things. Jus ad rem, non in re. yet they must remember, that they be but stewards of them, and must come to account for them, and must use them well. Under these two kindes of provision for back and belly, John prescribeth liberality in every kinde, signifying unto us, that eve­ry one must out of his superfluity, and what he may spare, supply his brothers necessity, and what he seeth him want. Lyra saith, that in those hot Countreys men needed but one coat; therefore we must give what others need, and what we may spare.

SECT. 5. Of strange apparel.

5. PRide appeareth further in wearing strange apparel, of new and stange fa­shions. Heliogabalus erected a Council of Women, Sir Rich. Barkley de summo bo­no. who should determine what man­ner of attire the Matrons of Rome should wear. Caligula was a laughing stock for the dissolute fashion of his apparel: In Li­caonia [Page 28]they would endure no inventions of any new fashions: If any one devised any new fashions, When Alphonsus King of Arragon was ad­vised to wear more costly apparel: I had rather, said he, excel my subjects in man­ners and authority, then in a Diadem, and purple. Diogenes meet­ing an effeminate young man that had attired himself finely but undecently for a man, as he thought: Art thou not ashamed, said he, when Nature hath made thee a man, to make thy self a woman! that differed from the ancient manner of their Coun­trey, the deviser was banished, and the device abolished. The Persians had a Law, That whosoever brought into their Countrey, any strange or new manners, or fashions, he should lose his head. And Adrian the Emperour would say, that there is not any thing that doth more hurt a Commonwealth, then to infect the same with strange and unaccustomed manners and fashions in apparel; therefore he made a Law against both. When men clothe themselves with garments of divers colours, and strange fashions, this I call strange apparel: And here you may see the fantasticalness of proud spirits, fre­quently to change the colour and fashion of their apparel: These men are like the Camelion, changing themselves into every colour and shape they behold; one day they are in this colour and fashion, and the next in another: Such as these are but beasts in the shape of men; a beastly minde, and a bar­barous habit usually go together; good men have always shunned these fooleries. Such as these the Lord threatneth, Zeph. 1.8. It shall come to pass in the day of the Lords Sacrifice, that I will punish the Princes and the Kings children, [Page 29]and all such as are clothed with strange apparel. God judged not the ornaments of silver, and gold, and precious stones, to be absolutely needful for us; for if he had, he would not have hid them in the bowels of the earth, and in the remotest parts of the world, in Shell­fishes in the Sea, &c. And one observeth, if God would have covered us with divers coloured garments, Non haec ornant corpus, sed mentem detegunt. Quintilian. he would have made Creatures some green, some yellow, some red, and some of all colours, and have caused silk to be sown as flax is. There was never any age but found danger in gorgeous and fantastick apparel, and Seneca saith, this hath brought ruine upon many a Commonwealth. Tacitus. The Roman Histo­ry saith, that the first that wore purple, was smitten with thunder. Chrysostome saith, That God would have us look on Herods garments, who (as Josephus saith) was clothed in cloth of silver when he made his oration to the peo­ple, Acts 12. Joseph. Antiqu. that those that see the vanity of his gar­ments, may also see the penalty of his pride. It is but immodesty and madness for Christi­ans to jet it out in silk, and silver, and gold, seeing the Persians therewith clothe their very Camels.

1. It is prodigal spending of Gods blessings and benefits to be bestowed on better pur­poses.

2. It is a note of vanity and idleness, Faemina culta ni­mis, faemi­na casta minus. to be still devising new-fangled fashions.

3. It is an ensign of pride to use them, be­ing [Page 30]invented without consideration of con­veniency.

4. It argues much levity and frothiness, to be still changing; it would make the world believe, that the Moon were our Mistress and predominant planet, and then every body knows what kinde of people we are. Excessive bravery doth not make those that wear it more commendable. Clemens Alexandrin. Paedagog. lib. 3. cap. 11. It is a great reproach our English Nation hath gotten, to follow all fashions: Therefore o­ther Countreys do paint an English man naked, with his cloth under his arm, and a pair of shears in his hand, seek­ing a Taylor to finde him out a new fashion.

To conclude this Chapter, it is better to have our mindes well clad with ver­tues and graces, The Turks say, Ut derisi potius quam ve­stiti esse videantur An­gli. Sir John Man­dev. 1 Pet. 5.5. 1 Tim. 2.10. then our bodies with vestments; this is required of women the weaker vessels, and therefore it is much more beseem­ing men, that must guide and go­vern them, 1 Pet. 3.3. then are we best adorned, when we are clothed with humi­lity and good works, and do put on the Lord Jesus Christ.

CHAP. 5. Of Pride of Beauty, and the vanity thereof.

BEauty in self is a commendable thing, and many good women in Scripture have been commended for their beauty; as Eve made in perfection, Sarah, Pulchritudo corporis est congruentia partium, cum quadam coloris suavitate. August. ad Nebrid. [...]. Euripides. Genes. 12.11.14. Rachel, Genes. 29.17. Esther, Est. 2.7. Bathsheba, 2 Sam. 11.12. Rebecca, Gen. 26.7. Jobs three daughters, Job 41.15. Naomi, Ruth 1.20. Goodmen like­wise have been commended for their beauty, as Joseph, Gen. 39.6. who was a good­ly person, and well-favoured; David, 1 Sam. 16.12. who was ruddy, and withal of a beau­tiful countenance, and goodly to look to. Daniel and his three companions, Dan. 1.4. Moses, Exod. 2.2. But beauty is a thing whereof people are apt to be proud: Ezek. 28.17. This is charged on the Prince of Tyrus, that his heart was lifted up because of his beauty; though that be meant of his honour, riches, and great­ness which had a splendid beauty in them; yet is it also true of natural beauty; Pulchritu­do corporis bonum Dei donum est, sed propterea id largitur etiam malis, ne magnum bonum videatur bo­nis. August. de Civit. Dei, lib. 15. cap. 22. men and women are apt to grow proud of it. Quintus Hortensius a Roman Consul, is infamed by [Page 32]Historians, because he stood long poring in a glass when he made him ready, and was too curious in trimming up himself. Philip King of Macedon deprived a Magistrate from his Office which he had given him, onely because he heard he was more busied in beautifying and trimming his person, then in studying his books. The use of glasses was first intended, that thereby men and women might the bet­ter know themselves; that the most beautiful might learn to avoid all infamous things, and not defile the dignity of their persons with the deformity of their manners. It was the advice of Socrates in Laertius, Socrat. in Laert. that young men should have always a looking-glass to look themselves in it; if they were outwardly deformed, they might labour to recompence it with inward comeliness; and that those that were outwardly beautiful, might also labour for inward beauty: But alass! our glasses have now lost their primary institution, Lucius Apuleius de ma­gia, lib. 1. Qui eximia forma est, id agat, ut animi pul­chritudo corporis pul­chritudini splendore re­spondeat. Nazian. in maximum. and made many persons to forget themselves; and like Narcissus, to dote upon their own faces, think­ing that every one that seeth them wrongs them, that doth not admire them. Besides, many there are that use artificial painting to set off them­selves, that they may seem more beautiful then they are. Painting is not intended to please chaste eyes, and is but a whorish varnish, learnt from that wicked Jezabel whom the Dogs devoured. Socrates saith, That one [Page 33] Pambus lamented (being brought out of the wilderness to Alexandria by Athanasius) there, seeing a woman taking pains that way, he burst out into tears, Fastus inest pulchris, sequiturque superbia sormam. Dum comun­tur, poliuntur, vestiun­tur faeminae, annus est. Seneca. and wept bitterly: And being askt why he wept, he assigned two causes;

1. Saith he, because she takes so much pains, and spends so much cost and time to cast away her self, and damn her soul.

2. Because she taketh more pains, and be­stoweth more labour to please vain young men, then I have done to please God. Tripartit. Histor. lib. 8. cap. 1. p. 484. Now Solomon, or Bathsheba his Mother (both very beautiful) say, that favour is deceitful, and beauty is vain, Prov. 31.30. or a very vanity, as the Geneva Translation hath it. Beauty is compared by holy men to a painted Snake, that is fair without, and full of poyson with­in. Deles picturam Dei (muli­er) si vul­tum tuum materiali candore oblinias, si exquisito rubore perfundas. S. Ambros. Little reason hath any one to be proud of it, or trust in it; as the Poet long ago.

Virg.
Oformose puer, nimium ne crede colori,
Alba ligustra cadunt, vaccinia nigra leguntur.

What then can be said of Jezebels art? if natural beauty so soon vanisheth, 2 King. 9.30. Haec non sunt membra quae Deus fecit, sed quae Diabolus infecit. Cypr. de Veland. Virginib. then surely artificial beauty sooner decayeth. 'Tis a great vanity to be proud of beauty, which is but as a Tulip, or flower in May, that sheweth it self to day, and to morrow wither­eth [Page 34]away, and returneth to the earth from whence it came: The body it self passeth away like a shadow, who then can undertake that beauty, which is but momentaneum corpor is accidens, a momentary accident of the body, shall abide with him? If the body fall to ruine, the accident cannot stand. Among all the qualities that flee away with the body of man, there is none more swift then beauty, which on a sudden sheweth it self as a plea­sant flower to the eyes of the beholders, cau­sing many to praise it, but by and by it va­nisheth. When thou with rebukes dost cor­rect man for iniquity, thou makest his beauy to consume away like a Moth. Saith David, Surely every man is vanity. Psalm 39.11. Beauty is but a slender vail, and but skin deep; an hot burn­ing coal will scorch it, the nail of an enemy will lacerate and pluck it off, Florem de­coris singu­li carpunt dies. Seneca in Octavia. and a few fits of a quartan-ague will change it into swarthy deformity; old age, and the space of a few years, will shew the slightness and vanity of it, and death will utterly consume it. The apprehension of this (I suppose) made that beautiful Roman Prince Domitian write thus to his friend: Socrates vocabat for­mam modici temporis tyrannidem. Bruson. lib. 2. cap. 44. Beauty is the finest flower that will soon­est fade and wither. Petrarc. de remed. utri­usque fortunae. Know thou, saith he, that there is nothing more set by then beauty and comeliness of body, and nothing less durable. One in Germany was so fair, that some were very earnest with him to have taken his picture.

He answered them, no. But, said he, a few [Page 35]days after I am dead, take me up, and picture me as you finde me then, and let me be a Mo­nument to posterity; and they took him up two or three days after he was dead and buri­ed, and they found him half eaten up with Toads and Serpents, and venemous Creatures, and so he was pictured accordingly. Thou that now pridest thy self, that the form of thy face and body is without comparison: Know thou, that it is not long ere the habit of thy mouth, and the colour of thy face shall be changed; thy goldy locks, and shining hair shall wax gray, and become white, or fall off from thy head; that deep wrinckles shall plough up thy tender cheeks, and bright forehead; that some sad cloud shall cover those pleasant torches of the eyes, Repentè dum nescit in­canescit caput, rugatur facies, &c. Hieron. Epist. ad Cyprian. and darken those shining stars; that the scurvy or some other standing filthiness shall cover over that white and slender Ivory of the teeth, and break them in pieces, that they shall not on­ly be of another colour, but of another form and fashion; thy strait neck and shoulders shall grow crooked, together with thy feet; thy hands wither, and thy whole body be decrepit; Anceps sorma bonum, mortalibus exiguum do­num, brevi temporis mo­mento capitur, &c. Seneca in Hippol. 1.760. and the day will come, that thou mayest not know thy self in a glass; and all these things which thou thinkest to be far from thee (if thou livest) I tell thee, will soon befal thee: And though thou wilt not believe me, nor any [Page 36]man that now shall tell thee of it, yet then thou wilt exceedingly wonder to see thy self so much transformed. What will it avail thee to be proud of that which is not thine, which in colour is inferiour to many Roses and Lilies of the field, and which thou canst not keep long with thee? besides, bodily beauty hath been a snare to many a soul. Beauty hath kept back many from making any progress in the way of holiness, and hath turned them the contrary way. How many precious hours do many persons spend at the Glass, and in trim­ming this outward sheath, which might have been much better be­stowed in adorning the soul? Suetonius writeth, that Augustus Caesar, was never wont to spend any time in trimming and beautifying him­self. Aristippus being per­swaded to go to Co­rinth to see the beau­tiful Lais, gave this answer, Non emam tanti poenitere. where­by many profitable things are neg­lected. He that is in love with his face, or comely form, hath an enemy at home; and (which is worse) a delightful one, such a one as robs him of his time, taketh away his rest, steals away his heart; such a one as is the foment of lust, and frequently as great a passage to hatred as love; that which bringeth the chastity of many in suspicion, and is the occasion of reproach, and often draws a man or woman into danger; and yet this is a thing that the world doth much dote upon: Nothing doth so soon kindle a fire in the affections of men, as the beauty of women.

Oh! boast not then of bodily beauty, but rather labour after spiritual and heavenly [Page 37]beauty, that with the Kings Daughter (Psal. Gratior est pulchro ve­niens in corpore virtus. 45.13.) thou mayest be all glorious within. This is more pleasant, and more lasting then corporal beauty, which the longest day can­not wear out, nor any disease extinquish, nor death it self. If beauty and grace be joyned together, as in Abigail, they are much to be desired. Eliab was of fair coun­tenance, yet saith God to Samuel, look not on his counte­nance, 1 Sam. 16.7: for I have refused him. It is said of Aspa­sia the wife of Cyrus, that she was [...], wise and beautiful; but beauty little benefited Bathsheba, nor Absalom, who had a beautiful face, and a deformed soul. As a jewel of gold in a Swines snout, so is a fair woman without discretion, saith Solomon. Prov. 11.22. But we read of the Laver of brass, that it was made of the looking-glasses of the women which as­sembled at the door of the Tabernacle of the Congregation: whence some of the Rabbins, Exod. 38.8. Ainsworth ad loc. the Chaldee Paraphrast, and Junius and Ains­worth do collect, that these were Religious women, such as had renounced the vanities of the world, and given themselves to the service of God; in sign and token whereof, they brought their looking-glasses, the instruments they were wont to use in dressing their bodies. to make the instruments, whereby through faith they might sanctifie their souls: Of such we read, 1 Sam. 2.22. Some say they helped the Priest to wash the Sacrifices, and it may be they used to wash the feet of such as had tra­velled far, and took pains to come to Jerusa­lem to the service of God.

CHAP. 6. Of pride of gesture.

SECT. 1. Of proud looks.

THe heart of man is many times discern­able by the face, In loculis, poculis, & oculis cog­noscitur homo. Sent. Hebr. Superbo­rum est [...] & despi­cere. Inte­rior animi qualitas intuentium oculis pa­tenter indi. catur. Temperan­da est saci­es & mo­dificanda in gestu suo, ita ut nec proter­ve exaspe­retur, nec molliter dissolvatur, sed semper habeat rigidam dulcedinem, & dulcem rigorem. Hugo de Disciplina Monach. and the pride of the heart is visible in the eye: Solomon speaks of a proud look: Six things the Lord hateth, yea, seven are an abomination to him; and the first of the seven is a proud look. Prov. 6.17. As an amica­ble, so a disdainfull and scornfull frame of heart is seen in the eye: It is written of Richard Ne­vil Earl of Warwick, that he had so high and terrible a look, especially when but a little moved, that it was said of him, Every wrinkle in his forehead was a sepulchre to bury a Prince in; One character that the holy Ghost gives of a wicked man, is the pride of his coun­tenance, Psal. 10.4. The eye of man of it self is not proud and haughty, but as the heart in­structeth it: There is a generation, saith Agur, O how lofty are their eyes, and their eye-lids are lifted up, Prov. 30.13. Let thy face be so com­posed and tempered in its gesture, saith Hugo, [Page 39]that it be neither too much exasperated, nor effeminately dissolved, but let it alwaies have a rigid kinde of sweetness, and sweet kinde of rigour. David professing his humility sets it forth thus, Lord, my heart is not haughty, nor mine eyes lofty. Psal. 131.1. and no such per­son would he entertain in his family. Him that hath a high look, saith he, and a proud heart will I not suffer, Psal. 101.5. such the Lord threatens: The lofty looks of man shall be humbled, and the haughtiness of man shall be bowed down, Isa. 2.11. Thus God threatned to visit the fruit of the stout heart of the King of Assyria, and to bring down the glory of his high looks, Isa. 10.12.

SECT. 2. Of a proud gate or pace.

PRide is not only visible in the eye, but also in the pace or going. David prays, Let not the foot of pride come against me, Psal. 36.11. It is said, that Agag came to Samuel delicate­ly, 1 Sam. 15.32. and we read of the daugh­ters of Israel, that they made a mincing, and a tinckling with their feet as they went, Isa. 3.16. The Tragick Socks were called Embades, they were for a strutting and lofty gate. God noteth the very pace and gestures of men and women, and those that walk in pride, he is able to abase, Dan. 4.37. Let the daughters of England see whether they are not guilty [Page 40]in this kinde, as well as the daughters of Zion? When Elijah had denounced utter ruine upon the house and posterity of Ahab, Ahab hear­ing those words, rent his clothes, put sack­cloth upon him, fasted and lay in sack-cloth, and went softly; he was so humbled, that his very pace and gesture was altered, 1 King. 21.27, 29. and the Lord takes notice of it: Seest thou how Ahab is humbled before me? &c. Let there be gravity in thy gesture, simplici­ty in thy moving to and fro, honesty in thy walking: Let no uncomeliness, no lascivious­ness, Sit in gesta tuo gravi­tas, in mo­tu simplici­tas, in incessu honestas: Nihil dedecoris, nihil lasciviae, nihil petulantiae, nihil insolentiae, nihil levitatis in tuo incessu appareat; animus enim in corporis gestu apparet. Isidor. lib. 2. soliloqu. no malepartness, no pride, and insolence, and levity appear in thy goings; for the minde appeareth in the bodily gesture, saith Isidore.

SECT. 3. Of disdaining to give salutations and civil re­spect to Superiors or equals.

PRide of gesture is further manifest, when men give no reverence to their Superiours, no respect to equals, either by courteous sa­lutations, friendly deportment, or carriage suit­able to the persons with whom they have todo. Some great persons inhigh places are so puft up with pride, that they will shew no civil respect to any they think are inferiour to them. Exces­sive [Page 41]was the pride of Caesar the Dictator, Sueton. de C. J. Caesay re dictatore. p. 30, 31. who was continual Consul, and perpetual Dictator; for so he wrote, C. Julius Caesar, Dictator perpe­tuus: He would be stiled Pater Patriae, and have his Statue among the Kings, and his Image among the Gods: His pride was many ways notorious, especially by receiving the de­crees of the Senators himself sitting, though they presented them to him themselves; yet took he it so highly, and in such snuff, that Pontius Aquila rose not to him as he rode a­long the streets, that in a long time he would promise nothing, or give nothing, but if Pon­tius Aquila would give him leave: But this his intolerable pride hastned his end.

Great is the pride (in this respect) of an upstart Generation of men among us, called Quakers, in these days, who will give no re­spect to their Superiours, Equals, or Infe­riours.

Object. But here it is objected by them, That our Saviour saith to his seventy Disciples, when he sent them forth to preach the Gospel (among other things that he gave them in charge) Salute no man by the way, Luke 10.4. Here some will say, Doth Divinity and Christianity over­throw common courtesie, and take away and abo­lish good manners and civility?

Respon. Surely no: that's but a vain fancy gathered from this and such like places of Scri­pture.

Object. 1. But may not this encourage men in evil courses?

Respon. We must distinguish between a mans person and his sin; for we may salute his per­son friendly, and yet reprove his sins sharply; as Christ calls Judas friend, Mat. 26.50. and yet saith he was a Devil, John 6.70.

Object. 2. But they will say, They know not whether every passenger they meet be a brother or no, therefore they will not salute him.

Respon. That as our Saviour Christ in that Chapter, proveth every man to be a neigh­bour, so ought we to think every man profes­sing the Christian Religion a brother, having one God for our Father, one Church for our Mother, being baptized in the same faith, pro­fessing the same truth, living under the same Law.

Object. 3. But they will say, Peradventure he may be a Papist, or an Atheist, or one differing from that Profession which they have taken up.

Respon. What if he be? till I know the worst, charity requires me to hope and judge the best; yea, our Saviour Christ in the very next verse, Luke 10.5. bids his Disciples at their entrance into any house, say, Peace be to this house, before the inhabitants were converted, yea, even be­fore they knew whether they would accept and embrace the means of their salvation, being offered to them.

Object. 4. But they will further press us with the authority of the blessed and beloved Apo­stle John, 2 John 10.11. who saith, If there come any unto you, and bring not this Doctrine, [Page 43](sc. that which he had taught them) receive him not into your house, neither bid him God­speed; for he that bids him God-speed, is par­taker of his evil deeds.

Respon. But if we consider to whom, and of whom, and of what sort of coming these words are spoken, the Objection is easily an­swered: for,

1. These words are written to the Elect Lady and her children, as we may see in the inscri­ption of the Epistle, and these might easily be seduced.

2. They are spoken of cunning Hereticks, who-sought to creep into private houses, and insinuate themselves into silly women, and se­duce the simpler sort of people, as Paul told his Scholar Timothy; 2 Tim. 4.6. and is plain by the words here, If they come unto you, and bring you another Doctrine.

3. He doth not say, if you meet them by the way, Salute them not, speak not to them; but if they come to your houses, receive them not, entertain them not; and for the prohibition of bidding them, Nulla cum talibus com­mercia, nulla convivia, nulla colloquia miscean­tur; simus ab illis tam separati, quam sunt illi ab Ecclesia profugi. Cyprian. God-speed, it cometh after such time as they have manifested and declared themselves to be such bad people, and dangerous persons: And concerning such, Cyprian hath a good caution, have no conversa­tion, commerce, or familiarity with those that are open Hereticks, and professed ene­mies to the true Christian Religion which you [Page 44]profess; for what reason is there that you should entertain them at your private houses, that refuse to go with you to Gods publike House and Ordinances. Herein I am per­swaded, many in this Nation, in themselves well-meaning people, shew too much weakness: We must not bid men [God-speed] in evil practices, if we per­ceive and know them. But for uncivil and discourteous carriage to any, espe­cially to such as we meet and know not, it hath no warrant from this place; nay, it is not credible, that John that was the best loved, and most loving of all the Apostles, would let fall any word against the offices of love, whereof kindly saluting of strangers is one.

Object. 5. They say, They know not what ill purpose he may have in his minde, as namely, to rob, steal, kill, &c. and therefore they fear, if they should bid him God-speed, or God be with him, they should be, as it were, accessary to his bad actions.

Respon. This is a causless fear: They pray rather that he may be diverted, and turned from such lewd purposes and practices; for so long as God is with any man, he will keep him from all such bad businesses: And when I pass by a man at his work, and bid him God speed, I pray to God to bless him in his honest labours which I see him about, and not that he may have success in any evil way which I am not privy to; and when I part from any man, and bid God be with him, what do I but de­sire God to bless and keep him from doing and taking harm?

Object. 6. They say, This is a kinde of taking Gods name in vain, and speaking of him, when we think not of him.

Respon. I would know, whether any man can know, whether I think of God, when I use his name in saluting any man: I am sure that Solomon saith, 1 King. 8.39. 1 Cor. 2.11. That God onely knoweth the hearts of the children of men; and Paul saith, None can know the things of man, but the Spirit that is in man. Howsoever, it cannot be denied, but that ordinarily our devotions are more settled and composed, our minds better disposed in our more solemn prayers for our brethren; yet why may we not shew much love and good affection in short and sudden good wishes and ejaculations? for what can be said more shortly and sweetly, then God be with you? for if God be with us, who, Rom. 3.31. or what, can be against us?

The meaning then of that place, Luke 10.4. is not to forbid common courtesie, and ordi­nary civility, but only needless complements, and idle curiosity, whereby they might be hindred and stayed from the quick and speedy dispatch of their business: So Elisha sending home Gehezi to restore the Shunamites son to life again, bad him, Gird up his loins, 2 King. 4.29. take his staff in his hand, and salute no man by the way; and if any body saluted him, not to answer him again. Dice que­sto accio­che essi faccino questo viaggio con ogni diligenza senza indugio alcuno. Ital. annot. The meaning of which place (in the judgement of the Learned) is nothing else, but that he should make haste, and not loiter [Page 46]or linger, and trifle out his time by the way, entertaining needless discourse with any body, which many times solemn salutations and ta­king acquaintance one of another give occa­sion. Otherwise, that Salutations have been usual in Scripture, might easily be proved; for Boaz of Bethlehem salutes his Reapers, Ruth. 2.4. and is saluted of them again. And in the New Testament, Questo era il lo made di salutare, per quale essi desidera vano pro­sperita, & ogni felicità & benedittione. Ibid. the Angel saluteth Mary, and so doth her Cousin Elizabeth, the wife of Za­chariah, and Mother of John Bap­tist; yea, Christ himself, even after his Resurrection, saluteth both the women that were at the Sepulchre, and also his Apo­stles: Therefore we see that courteous saluta­tions are lawful and commendable, notwith­standing the rudeness and incivility of Qua­kers, and such absurd persons in these days to the contrary, that will neither salute, nor give respect to any man whom they meet. Christ himself saluteth his Disciples, saying, Peace be to you: It was the common and ordinary salu­tation among the Hebrews, and it was a good one, for by it they wished all sorts and kindes of good to the party whom they saluted; and so the seventy were enjoyned, Into what house soever you enter, say, Peace be to this house.

CHAP. 7. Of Pride of hair.

PRide of hair is to be seen three ways; in plaited hair, long hair, and borrowed hair.

1. In plaited hair, which is expresly forbid­den by the Apostle: Speaking to women, he saith, Whose adorning, 1 Pet. 3.3. let it not be that outward adorning of plaiting the hair, &c. The Lacedemonian Souldiers were called Comatimilities, because they trimmed their hair as if they had gone to the games of Olympia. Which by the most judi­cious Interpreters is conceived to mean all that artificial dressing of the head and hair beyond its natu­ral use, meerly for vain oftentati­on. The natural use of hair is to be a covering; now when persons alter the form of it, by frizzeling, plaiting, and curling of it, this is unwarrantable. Hierom expresly condemneth the hanging the hair be­low the forehead. Plutarch tells us that it was usual among the Romans, when a woman was to be dressed at a wedding, that they did plait and divide the hair of her head with the point of a spear, to shew how much they hated curiosity in dressing. Causin said of some La­dies, When was it that a dozen of Communi­ons had taken from them one hair of va­nity?

2. In long hair: We read of the Antichri­stian [Page 48]Locusts, Rev. 9.8. that they had hair as the hair of women; not that it is unlawful for women to have long hair, 1 Cor. 11.15. for long hair is a praise to a woman, and is given to her for a covering, saith the Apostle; but in respect of the abuse of it by men: For though Paul saith. It is a shame for a man to wear long hair, Coma longa apud Grae­cos in viris erat signum luctus. Plut. Mor. 1.560. and nature it self teacheth that lesson; yet so effeminate are many men, that their hair is as the hair of women for the length of it. The Apo­stle doth not prohibit a man to nourish his hair a little for his health sake, as is the custom in cold Countreys; but discommendeth those that cut it not at all, or wear it of too great a length, as Absolom did, whose hair afterwards proved his destruction; for he was hanged up in an Oak by the goldy locks of pride, whom many young men, and some old men now a days do imitate. Aug. l. 1. de opere Mo­nach. tri­bus extrem. capitibus. Austin reproveth certain Monks or Anchorets, whom he calleth Crini­tos fratres, because they wore hair hanging down upon their shoulders, in a certain imi­tation (as they would seem) of the old Na­zarites, Sampson, and others. I shall not use any bitter invectives against this sort of men, but (as that good old Servant of Christ Mr. Dod sometimes said) if we can preach them into Christ, they will cut off their long hair.

3. In borrowed hair: And here is to be con­demned the folly of many men in these days, that cover over one sort with another, and [Page 49]change the colour of the hair given them by God, by wearing Periwigs of another colour, Pyrrhus and Han­nibal were wont to change the colour of their hair. and all, that they may seem more beautiful, and younger then they are, and may the more affect those that look upon them. Now this which they think is their glory, is their shame. To such men Cyprian speaks to the purpose, Wilt thou alter the workmanship of God, and think to escape the judgement of God? Non metuis quâ talis es, ne cum resurrecti­onis dies advenerit, ar­tifex te tuus non re­cognoscat? Cypr. tract. a. de habit. virgin. Thou who makest another colour to thy face or hair then God hath given thee, exchanging thy na­tural with artificial, art thou not afraid, that in the day of the Resur­rection, thy Artificer and Maker do not know thee? he meaneth, with the knowledge of approbation. Our Saviour tells us, that we cannot make one hair of our heads white or black, nor change the natural hue of the excrements of the body, Mat. 5.36. as if he should have said, He that affect­eth to seem grave, being but green, Quicquid ex se Deum contempserat in culpâ, totum Deo serviret in poenitentiâ; & quot in se habuit oblectamenta, tot invenit holocausta. Gregor. Homil. 33. Philip and Archidamus could not abide artifi­cial coloured hair. cannot make one of his black hairs gray; nor he that hath not lost his Coltish tricks, with his Colts teeth, but carrieth a youthful minde in an aged body, cannot with all his skill make one of his hoary hairs turn black again. We read of a certain woman (thought to be Mary Mag­dalen) but known to have been a notorious sinner, Luke 7.37, 38. when she was convert­ed, she washt the feet of Christ with tears, [Page 50]and did wipe them with the hairs of her head, &c. Her love was great, iuflamed in her heart, as she thinks nothing too much, but all to little too testifie the same, verifying that saying of Gregory, whatsoever she had abused in the service of sin, she now converted to be instruments of repentance, and consecrated to the service of God: Those amber lips of hers which were wont to be used lasciviously, to kiss wantonly, were now converted to an holy use of kissing penitently; that oynt­ment wherewith she was wont to perfume her self, she bestowed upon her Saviour; those eyes which she had used as lattices of lust, were now cisterns of salt tears, to wash Christs feet; and those hairs which she had used to curl and frizzle to allure her Lovers, now became Towels to dry the same.

CHAP. 8. Of Pride of Riches.

RIch men are very apt to be proud; it is an hard matter to have high estates in the world, and not to have high mindes; there­fore saith Paul to Timothy, Charge the rich, 1 Tim. 6.17. that they be not high-minded. Pride is a worm growing out of riches; rich men are subject to Satans greatest tem­ptations, Superbia divitiarum vermis. Tolle superbiam, & divitiae non noce­bunt. Aug. in Serm. 31. who chiefly sets on the vessels that are most richly laden. But riches have been the cause of the ruine of many that have been pufft up with them: Crassus an exceeding rich Roman, growing very proud, procured himself to be made General of the Romans Army, being then threescore years old, where he was overthrown and slain with his son, and almost all the Army of the Romans; and to give him the greater disgrace, the Parthi­ans caused his mouth to be filled full of gold, with these words, Thou hast thirsted after gold, now take thy fill. I have read, that Allan King of the Tartars made war upon Calipha King of Persia (a man that insatiably doted upon his riches) and took him Prisoner in his own City, his Souldiers fighting very faintly in his defence, because he had laid up his trea­sure in a Tower, and would not pay them [Page 52]their wages. He was by Allan imprisoned in the same Tower, with these words, If thou hadst not kept this treasure so greedi­ly, Nich. Causin's Holy Court. To build many fair houses, and be master of many servants, to have much money, corn and cattel, can be but small com­mendation, because they be not in homine, but extra hominem. Seneca ad Lucil. Epist. 41. but distributed it among thy Soul­diers, thou mightest have preserved thy self and the City; now there­fore take thy pleasure, eat and drink thereof, seeing thou hast loved it so well; and so suffered him to dye for hunger in the midst of all his riches. Abbas the late Persian King, having a heavy complaint made of one of his Mirza's, or great Princes, for his intolerable pride, and tyranni­cal oppression of the poor people, and finding the accusation just, thought death too small a punishment for him; therefore he condemned all his Lands and Goods to be sold, and restitution therewith to be made to such as he had oppressed; and if all would not serve, he condemned himself to pay the rest out of his Treasure or Exchequer, being in some sort guilty by making no better choice: He caused his ears and nose to be cut off, and him perpetually to wear a thing about his neck like a Hogs yoke, Sir Anth. Shirley, p. 71. and inhibited all per­sons from giving him any relief, but what he got by his own labour, to teach them how dear poor mens goods cost them. Devout Bernard inveighed (not without cause) against the vain pride, and superfluous pomp of the Prelates in his time, Bernard. which grew by their abuse of abundance of riches. There is (quoth he) [Page 53]an infamous sort of men, that reign in the whole body of the Church, the Ministers of Christ serve Antichrist; they jet up and down in great honour and pomp, with the Lords goods, but they give no honour to the Lord, and that is the Whores attire, which you see every day carried about: Insana & stolidae ja­ctantiae est, ob rerum abundantiam efferri a­nimo; lubrica namquè & instabilis fortuna, citóque sublimia dejici­untur, & humilia ex­altantur. Plut. Mor. 1. p. 271. Their saddles, briddles and spurs be gilt, the furniture of their feet is set out with more pride and pomp then the Temple of God. Hereof it cometh, that their tables be so sumptuous, and furnished with de­licate meats, their cupboards with rich plate; from thence cometh their gluttony and drunkenness, and harmony of their pleasant instruments of Musick: This is not (saith he) to adorn the Spouse of Jesus Christ, but this is to riffle her, this is not to pre­serve her, but to destroy her; this is not to defend her, but to give her to Thieves for a prey. It is written of Cardinal Sylberperger, that he took such pride in his money, that when he was grievously tormented with the Gout, his only remedy to ease his pains, was to have a bason full of gold set before him, in­to which he would put his lame hands, turn­ing the gold upside down. But it is written to the commendation of Pope Alexander the fifth, Platin. de vitis Pon­tific. that he was so far from being proud of riches, that he was very liberal to the poor, and left nothing to himself; whereupon he would often take occasion to say merrily, [Page 54]That he was a rich Bishop, Diodorus siculus. a poor Cardinal, and a beggarly Pope. Diodorus Siculus tells us, that the people of Carthage when they were in a poor and mean estate, they usually every year offered the tenth and tythe of their spoils to Hercules their supposed God; but when they grew rich, and were Commanders of divers Countries, and Masters of great mat­ters, they grew proud, and forgot their de­votions, 1 Sam. 25.17. and Hercules fell short of his homage, service and sacrifice. Nabals much wealth, and little wit, made him so proud, that he thought no body good enough to speak to him. Good men are apt to be tainted with this infection; for we finde that Hezekiah grew proud of his treasures, 2 Chron. 32.25, 27, 28. and his heart was lifted up; for Hezekiah had exceed­ing much riches and honour; And he made himself Treasuries for silver, for gold, and for precious stones, &c. and God had given him substance very much. Art thou proud of thy riches? thou hast but a doubtful and bur­thensome happiness, and that which will yield thee more envy then joy: And scarce shall you finde a rich man, The richest man in the world is much in­feriour to a golden mine. but at last he will be driven to con­fess, that it was better for himself in Mediocrity, then in great abun­dance. Art thou proud that thy riches do encrease? thou hast as much cause to be troubled, that thy joy, peace and tranquilli­ty do decrease: Thou hast little reason to be proud of riches, if thou considerest what [Page 55]difficulty it is to get them, what anxiety to keep them, what fear to lose them, what grief in parting from them: Great wealth doth not make a man truly rich, but keep him the more busie; God often takes a­way the worlds good things from his dear­est children, lest they deprive them of bet­ter things. riches make not a man the Lord, but the Keeper of them: See therefore that thy riches be not thy masters, but make thou them subservient to thee; o­therwise they are not riches, but bonds and fetters, and heaps of cares and fears to perplex thy minde. The labour to get worldly riches is long, but their use is short; and he that taketh greatest pains to gather them, hath often times least use and pleasure of them; and those goods that are gotten by shifts, are (for the most part) lost with shame. Thou boastest thou art full of riches, take heed that this fulness doth not break thee; all ful­ness seeks an exit; such fulness hath brought death to many, Omnis plenitudo exitum quaerit. Riches make them­selves wings and flee away as an Eagle, &c. Prov. 23.5. and hath taken away rest from all. In the highest of thy prosperity be afraid of an after-clap, for the tide may turn, and the wheel quickly run round; and thy riches may be taken from thee, or thou from them. Luke 12.19.20. That proud rich man mentioned, Luke 12. layeth open his folly many ways:

1. By making, as it were, no difference between his soul and the soul of a beast, by placing his content in these things, and cal­ling them animae bona, the good things of his [Page 56]soul, which be not Corporis, but Fortunae, as the Philosopher speaks, O bruta verba! si suillam a­nimam habuisses, quid ei pro re laetá nisi hoc ipsum renunciasses. Bafil. as men commonly speak. O brutish words! saith Basil upon the place.

2. His folly appeareth, in that he calleth them his own goods, Famelici panis est, quem apud te detines; nudi vesti­mentum quod in capsulis servas; dis­calceati so­lea est, quae apud te computrescit: Egeni pecunia est, quam tu defossam habes. Basil in loc. Aliena rapere convincitur, qui ultra necessaria fibi retinere probatur. Hieron. whereof he was but a steward, being deceived in his Title and Tenure, holding himself an owner, and ma­ster of what he was but a servant, and for which he must be accountable to God: Be­sides, he should not have scraped all to him­self, but have imparted what he could have spared towards the relief of the poor, the fatherless, the stranger, and the widow, as some of the Ancients note upon the place.

3. His Arithmetick failed him; for where­as he thought he had a lease of his life, and sure estate in these goods for many years, it so fell out, The Wicked make garments, and the Godly put them on; little knows the wick­ed for whom he builds and gathers. that he was disappoint­ed of his hope, and dispossessed of his hold in a very few hours. God said unto him, Thoufool, this night thy soul shall be required of thee, or do they require thy soul, and then whose shall all those things be which thou hast pro­vided? Some descant upon the words thus, [This night shall they require thy soul;] i.e. the [Page 57]Devils, with whom they say, this covetous wretch had driven the bargain before, and there lacked nothing but the delivery; and doubtless all of his stamp do lay their souls to pawn and mortgage. Others observe (and that truly) that where good men die willingly, singing their Nunc dimittis with good old Simeon; worldly wretches must be made yield their due, as bad debtors must be forced to payment: But I note this only by the way. Then saith God, Whose shall these things be? King David observed long ago, Psal. 39.6. that man often­times disquieteth himself in vain, heaping up riches, and not knowing who shall gather them. And Solomon saith, that a stanger some­times eateh up, and enjoyeth all a mans labour, Eccles. 6.2. King Saul could never endure David, yet he was the man that succeeded him in his Kingdom. Haman could never brook Mordecai the Jew, yet he was his heir: As the Partridge sitteth on eggs, and hatcheth them not; or (as the ordinary Translation, and the Margin of the new) gathereth young, which she hath not brought forth, and which will for sake her again, when they perceive she is not their Dam; so he that getteth riches, and not by right, Jer. 17.11. Nemo un­quam hostis tam pericu­losus, quam in improbos prosperitas sua. Aug. Epist. 39. shall leave them in the midst of his days, and at his end shall be a fool. Such a proud fool was a Cardinal here in England, in the time of King Henry the sixth; so rich he was, that he thought nothing could prevail against him; and when he lay on his death bed, and perceived he must die, he murmured exceedingly, and said, if [Page 58]the Realm of England would save my life, I am able to get it with policy, or to buy it with my riches. Fie, said he, will not death be hired? will money do nothing?

Little reason there is (if men rightly consi­der it) why they should be proud of riches, Periculosior prosperitas animo quam adversitas corpori. August. in Psal. 41. Poor Lazarus was car­ried into rich Abrahams bosom; to note, that Heaven will hold both rich and poor; neither riches nor poverty sim­ply do exclude men thence. when as our Saviour tells us, That a rich man shall hardly en­ter into the Kingdom of Heaven; and, That it is easier for a Camel to go through the eye of a needle, then for a rich man to enter into the King­dom of God, Mat. 19.23, 24. that is, one that hath riches in admiration, whose heart is wedded and glewed to it; and so he expounds himself, Mark 10.24. How hard is it for them that trust in riches, to enter into the Kingdom of God! This speech therefore must not be simply considered of all rich men; for Abra­ham, Job, David and Solomon, and many other holy men, were very rich. But when Christ saith, It is easier for a Camel to go through the eye of a needle, then for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God:

1. Some say, That in Jerusalem there was a certain little Gate called Foramen acus, through which a Camel could not go with a burthen upon his back, but must first be un­loaded, and creep upon his knees: Semblably, if rich men will enter in at the strait Gate of Heaven, they must empty their hearts and mindes of pride, and the love of riches, and [Page 59]be ready and willing to leave them at Gods pleasure, by his appointment and direction, Mat. 5.3. and also be humble and poor in Spirit.

2. Others take the speech to be an Hyperbo­lical Amplification: How hard is it for them that have many riches, &c. as is usual in Scripture to set out a great number by an Hyperbole; As many as the sand on the Sea shore; or, the Stars of Heaven; or, the Birds, or Beasts, or Fishes, &c. And surely, rich worldlings are not unfitly compared to Camels, whose riches are more for burden then for use; Quibus divitiae sunt potius oneri, quàm u­sui. Hieronymus capit Came­lum pro animante; cui subscribit & Erasmus. Alcani intendeno un canape da ancora, ma non ne banno per anco­ra adutta alcuna auto­rità. Ital. as a Camel carrieth a burden, but not for himself, yea, oftentimes carrieth gold all day, and at night is turned into the stable with a galled back, a pair of dirty heels, and an empty belly: So a greedy worlding, that hath toiled all his life time, and made gold his con­fidence, at the hour of death is turn­ed into Hell with an heavy heated soul, and a guilty conscience, having even got Hell for his hire, to provide for such as will never thank him, and who will not bestow any of it by way of Restitution, to redeem him out of Hell; or (if there were a Purgatory, as the Papists say) they will say, he hath answer­ed for getting it, and they will not part with any, but keep it.

3. A third sort there be, who under­stand not a Camel, but a Cable rope, which good Authors avouch to be signified by the [Page 60]Greek word [...], as Beza, Calvin, Chem­nitius, Stella; and these follow Theophilact, [...] funis nau­ticus & crassus, cui anchoram alligabant, à similitudine Cameli ani­mant is tortuosi. Caelius lib. 4. cap. 18. who saith, That how­soever a whole Cable cannot possi­bly be got through the eye of a needle, unless it be as big as the ring of an anchor, which is not usual; yet if it be unwound, and unravelled, in tenuia filamenta, into the several small links and threds, it may be done, though with much difficulty; and so an im­possibility is not pretended, Vulgarius vult hoc lo­co significari rudentem nauticum, & apud Sui­dam eo reperitur signi­ficatu. Item non im­possibilitas praetenditur, sed raritas rei demon­stratur. Hieron. but only the rarity of it is demonstrated, saith Hierom. Therefore seeing riches have been such stumbling-blocks and snares to many souls, we have little cause to be proud of them; but they that have them, ought to pray, that they may be sanctified to them, and that they may have the right use of them, Luke 16.9. And to pray with Agur, Give me neither poverty nor riches, &c. lest I be full, and deny thee, and say, Who is the Lord? &c. Prov. 30.9.

Let every one labour then to be rich in God, in Wisdom, in Faith, in Godliness, in good Works. The godly poor God chuseth to enrich with Heavenly riches; not a Sena­tor, for he would have said, My Dignity is chosen; August. de verb. domi­ni. Serm. 59. if a rich man, my Wealth is chosen; if an Orator, my Eloquence is chosen; if a Philosopher, my Wisdom is chosen, saith Augustine. This is durable riches, and riches [Page 61]that can never be taken away. To him that hath God, nothing can be wanting, unless he him­self be wanting to God, saith Cyprian, Habenti Deum nil potest de­esse, nisi desit ipse Deo, quia Dei sunt omnia. Cyprian. Orat. Domin. because all things are Gods.

CHAP. 9. Of Pride of Honour.

SECT. 1. Of Affectation of high Titles, and a Name in the World.

HErein the pride of the Pharisees appear­ed, who affected the name Rabbi; i. e. Mat. 23 8. to be counted wise and understanding. When Sarah cast out the bond-woman and her son, Christo non vieta che non si renda il suo ho­nore a i magistrati, e a i maestri: ma condauna l'ambitione. Ital. Annot. Sir Rich. Barckley de Summo bono. the posterity of Hagar were content at first with the name of Hagarens; but afterwards in the pride of their hearts, considering that Hagar was but a bond-woman, they would not be called Hagarens, from Hagar; but Saracens, from Sarah the free-woman, and princi­pal wife. True vertue is contented with one [Page 62]title, or with none at all; for it self is a suffi­cient title. Alexander the great, being pufft up with pride for his great victories, could not bare the greatness of his fortune with that vertue he woon them: That vain Woman Cleopatra, would be called Regina Regina­rum. But being more desirous of honour, then able to receive it, he command­ed himself to be called the Son of Jupiter, and to be honoured as a God; and while he went about to encrease the glory of his acts, he defaced them with such vain titles; for he received more mocks of the wiser sort, then adoration of his flatterers: When he sent to the Cities of Greece to have his new title of Godhead to be confirm­ed by publique authority, Sapor the Persian wrote to Constantius, and called himself King of Kings, and Brother to the Stars, the Sun, and the Moon, &c. the mat­ter being in consultation, one steps up, and said, Well, seeing Alexander would needs have it so, let us make him a God. Great and detestable is the pride of the Pope of Rome, who will be called the most holy Father, yea, Holiness it self: What is this but to lift up him­self above Christ? Christ indeed is absolutely called the Holy One; but the Pope calleth him­self, the Most Holy One, and that absolutely: Thus he proudly exalts himself above Christ, which is proper to Antichrist. The like may be noted from the title of Christs Priesthood, Hebr. 4.14, 15. where he is called an High-Priest, and a Great High-Priest; but the Pope arrogateth to himself an higher title, Ponti­fex Maximus, the greatest High-Priest, where­in [Page 63]again he lifts up himself above Christ, shew­ing that he is not his Vicar, but the Successor of the Arch-Priest of the Pagans, whom the Romans called Arch-flamens. And Gregory sometime Bishop of Rome said, Whosoever calleth himself, Pareus in Apocal. Their glory is great, that got the name of Great, as Alexander the great, Pompey the great, Charls the great; but they get more glo­ry, who obtain the name Optimus; i. e. the best. Trajan wrote his title upon a wall, which Constantinus see­ing, called Herbam parietariam. or desireth to be called the Universal Bishop, is in this his ambition a fore-runner of Antichrist, in that he proudly pre­ferreth himself above the rest. And the Pope afterwards becoming Bi­shop of the chief Seat, and not con­tented with that title, a while after he made himself greatest, or chief Priest, which Dignity till then was proper to the Roman Emperours: for after Augustus, all the Roman Princes, who governed the Roman affairs under the name of Emperours (as Onu­phrius writeth) either took on them the chief Pontificacy, or else suffered themselves to be called Pontifices Maximi, as Constantinus, Constantius, Valentinianus, Valens, and Gra­tianus; who although they detested the fun­ction of chief Priesthood, being addicted to the Christians, nevertheless they despised not, nor rejected the title thereof; Gratian the Em­perour being the first (as Zosimus tells us) who forbad by Proclamation, that the Title of Pontifex Maximus should be given to him. Now these Augustal Titles being rejected by the Emperours, because of the impiety there­of, the Pope assumed them to himself, making [Page 64]himself the greatest Priest, and soon after Oe­cumenical, Catholick, and Universal Bishop, being stiled Prince of Priests, and Head of Churches. But what will it profit men to have swelling titles, and to have their names known upon earth, if their names are not registred, and upon record in Heaven? What can it be­nefit a man to be famous and talked on upon earth, and be commended in City, Court, and Countrey, and to have his name in many Books? If this be not attended and accompa­nied with a sanctified heart, its but matter of pride and vanity.

To this Section let me adde, that the affecta­tion of vain-glory, and getting themselves a name, hath been found in men of a base con­dition; and some will endanger their lives to get themselves a name, not fearing to run into present death, to win same to them­selves after this life, Such was the humility of Pertinax the Em­perour, that he forbad his name to be written in the Imperial posses­sions, because they were not proper to the Emperour, but to the Romans. by some noto­rious fact, not respecting the wick­edness thereof. Pausanias being ambitious of a name, slew Philip King of Macedon, the most famous man in his time. I have read like­wise of another, that set the Temple of Diana on fire, which for the sumptuousness of its building, and curiosity of Workmanship, was one of the wonders of the world: And being askt why he did it, he an­swered, for no other end, but to get him a name, and that he might be talkt of when he was dead. And Livy tells us of a Roman, [Page 65]who was so desirous of glory and fame, that he attempted to burn down the Treasure-house at Rome; and being apprehended, and put to torment, and examined, he confessed, that he had no other end in it, but that writers might make mention of him in their Chronicles.

SECT. 2. Of affecting High Places.

THe Pharisees loved the uppermost seats in the Synagogues, Luke 11.43. and greetings in the Marker-place. Christ doth not say, You sate in the upper-most seats (and therefore de­nounceth a woe against them) for of necessi­ty, some body must sit in the chiefest seats; but this was their sin, The poor Prodigal desireth to be made but as one of his fa­thers hired servants. not the taking, but the loving the first place, Ye love the upper-most seats, &c. de­siring it, striving for it. This was the disease of the Pharisees, 3 John 9. Vain ho­nour is the idol of fools. Adams. and it is heredita­ry to all proud persons; and wheresoever it is, it is a mark of pride. It is said of Diotrephes, that he loved the preheminence. Christ re­proved this kinde of pride by a Parable, when eating bread in the house of one of the chief Pharisees, Luke 14.7. Luke 14.7, 8, 9, 10. he put forth a Parable to those which were bidden, when he marked how they chose out the chief rooms, saying to them, When thou art bidden of any man to a wedding, sit not down in the highest room, lest a more ho­nourable man then thou be bidden of him; and [Page 66]he that bade thee and him, come and say to thee, Give this man place, and thou begin with shame to take the lowest room. But when thou art bid­den, go and sit down in the lowest room; that when he that bade thee cometh, he may say unto thee, Friend, go up higher; then shalt thou have worship in the presence of them that sit at meat with thee: David had rather be a door-keeper in the House of God, then to dwell in the tents of wickedness. A door-keeper, in limine insidere, to sit in the threshold, as the Hebrew signifies; frequentare limen, ver­sari in ecclesia. Tremel. The Rabbins expound it, to sit at the gate, as the meanest Officer in Gods house. [...], ra­ther then be in the tents of wicked men in pomp Septuag. For whosoever exalteth himself shall be brought low; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted. Here was was a fault among the ghuests, and them that were invited and called to the feast; and that was, by put­ting themselves forwards too fast, striving for the highest room, and not simply taking it, according to mens rank and place in the Church or Commonwealth; for the contra­ry is rusticity, and want of good education (not civility or urbanity) from which he disswadeth by two Arguments:

1. Lest the judgement of the Master and maker of the feast, jump not with the conceit of his ghuest, and so he having authority to place and displace in his own house, put him back that was over-forward. The like advice gave King Solomon long before, Psal. 48.10. Prov. 25.6, 7. saying, Put not forth thy self in the presence of the King, and stand not in the place of great men; for better it is that it be said unto thee, Come up higher, then that thou shouldest be put lower in the pre­sence [Page 67]of the Prince whom thine eyes have seen.

2. From the evil issue and success that proud persons do meet with; viz. to be disgraced: For as Solomon tells us, Prov. 16.8 Luke 18.14. That pride ever goes be­fore a fall; and, He that exalteth himself shall be abased. True honour consisteth not in the Titles, Dignities and Preferments that we pos­sess, but rather in the good works that we do; Augustine saith of Cato, Quo minus pe­tebat gloriam, eò magis illum sequebatur. Aug. de Civit. Dei, lib. 5. cap. 12. and he is more honour­able and praise-worthy, that de­serveth honour, and hath it not, then he that possesseth it, and de­serveth it not. Canst thou reckon that to be any part of thy happiness, which produceth an infinite number of evils? It may be thou art in great Assemblies saluted with caps and knees, and art reverenced at Feasts in the highest places at the table; and yet thou considerest not that oftentimes many a wicked man is preferred before thee: And what advantage is that to the state of thy body or minde, whereof a man consisteth? that cannot be counted the greatest good, which often is not only turned into evil, but also per­verteth them that possess it, and maketh them worse.

SECT. 3. Of pride of men in High Places.

IT is commonly seen, that high Places are apt to puff men up with pride. Hamans pre­ferments made him so proud, as he thought none good enough to be his Peer. Intolera­ble hath been the pride of many Popes in this kinde: What pride did Pope Gre­gory the seventh shew, Regni e falsi honori, le gemme, et l'oro, cui solo it mondo vagillan­do crede l'alta fatiche, il nostro hyman lavoro, Che sia del tempo dolo­rose prede, Nascon d'affannai, et fuggonsi poche hore, Solo il ben nostro oprar gia mati non muore. Benevent. de Rambai­dis. to make the Emperour Henry the fourth, stand three days and three nights at his gate, bare-footed, and bare-legged, with his wife and children, in the deep of winter, in frost and snow, to intreat for absolution? The like pride appeared in Pope Alexander the third, that made Frederick the Emperour at Venice, fall down be­fore him to the ground, and ask him forgiveness, while he trod upon his neck, and gave him a push or two: And to shew the more arrogancy, he used these words of Scripture for a pretence, saying, Super aspidem & Basilicum ambulabis. The like pride was in Pope Celestinus, that put the Crown upon the head of the Emperour Henry the sixth, not with his hand, but with his foot, and threw it down again from his head with his foot; affirming, that he had power to make Emperours, and to depose them. What great [Page 69]pride was in that Pope that cast Francis Dan­dalus Duke of Venice under his table to gnaw bones among the Dogs? It is written also con­cerning Pope Boniface the eighth, thus, That Albertus Duke of Austria, being by the Electours chosen King of the Romans, desired of Boniface the blessing and confirmation: To whom this proud Pope answered, That he was unworthy of the Empire; and having the Crown on his own head, and a Sword girt about his loyns, he said, I am Caesar. Julius the second, the Predecessour of Leo (a better Souldier then a Priest) goeth with an Army (as Wicelius witnesseth) in the year, 1513. against the King of Navarre, and threw Pe­ters Keys into the River Tiber, saying, If the Key of Peter cannot, let the Sword of Paul prevail. Of which Mantuan saith thus:

Ense potens gemino,
Mantuan.
cujus vestigia adorant
Caesar & aurato vestiti murice reges.
Great Caesar with victorious Kings
Who golden Crowns do wear,
They do adore his foot steps who
The double sword doth bear.

Now here we may observe the steps or lad­ders, or gradations to the pride of the Pa­pacy.

1. The first was the departing of Constan­tine from Rome to Constantinople: So saith [Page 70] Gratian; but Vella, and other Popish Writers, tell us otherwise.

2. The second, was the fall of the Empire in the West, Anno 471. in the time of Au­gustulus: Of whom this Epigram was made,

Augustus Romanum imperium condidit,
Augustulus labefactavit.

Augustus founded the Roman Empire, Augustulus destroyed it.

3. The third was a Charter made by Con­stantine, Emperour of the East, to Benedict the second; viz. That they might chuse a Pope without the Emperour, which before they could not.

4. The fourth was the Amity between Za­chary Bishop of Rome, and Pipin Governour of France, who ruled for Childerick, and sent to Pope Zachary to be resolved in this doubt, Whether it were fit for him to be King, that had the Name and Dignity, or he that bare the burthen. He presently picked out the meaning, and said, He that bare the burthen; then Pipin laboureth to depose his Master, and doth so. The occasion was this, the Pope finding the Lombards grievously disturbing Italy, Aistulphus, or as some, Aristulphus King of the Lombards besieged Rome three moneths. sent for Pipin with an Army out of France, by whose help he suppressed the Lom­bards, and thrust the Greek Magistrates out of Ravenna, and all Italy, usurping the Prin­cipality of Ravenna, by the gift of Pipin the Conquerour; unto whom in recompence there­of [Page 71](a thing not heard of before) he gave the Kingdom of France, thrusting Childerick the lawful King, into a Monastery or Covent. Here is not Scala Jacobi, or Coeli, but Inferni; for one must gratifie the other again.

5. The fifth step was, the decay of the Ea­stern Empire, Anno, 756.

6. The sixth step was, the Translation of the Roman Empire from the Greeks to the French or Germans, in the person of Magni­fical Charls (as Bellarmine calleth him:) for the Romans making insurrection against Pope Leo the third, because of his detestable pride, the said Charls, the Son and Heir of Pepin, coming with his Army into Italy again, freed the Pope: Hereupon the Pope not to be ungrate­ful (out of the fulness of his power) gave un­to Charls the Title of the Roman Empire (the which belonged to the Greeks, and therefore was not his to dispose of) crowning him Em­perour of the West. On the other hand, Charls the new Emperour to gratifie the Pope, forced the Citizens of Rome to swear fidelity to Leo, and appointed him Lord of Rome; the which Donation, Lodowick Son of Charls, af­terwards confirmed and encreased.

7. The seventh step, was the Constitution of Electors of the future Emperours, enacted by Pope Gregory, and Otho the Emperour, both Germans and Kinsmen.

8. The eighth step reacheth to Heaven: for thus they teach, Christus be ato Petro aeternae vitae clavigero, terreni simul & coelestis imperii [Page 72]jura commisit, Christ hath committed to bles­sed Peter, the Keykeeper of Eternal Life, the power both of earthly and heaven­ly Jurisdiction and Government. Boniface the eighth made a Decree, That ēvery humane Crea­ture must submit him­self to the Bishop of Rome, under pain of eternal damnation. Platina de vitis Ponti­fic. These be the words of Gratian con­cerning Pope Nicholas, and the Gloss upon them saith, Argumentum quod Papa habet utrumque gladium, & spiritualem & temporalem: An argument that the Pope hath both Swords, both the Spiritual and Tem­poral; and in the marginal notes, Papa habens utrumque gladium, imperium transtulit: The Pope having both Swords, translated the Em­pire.

That the properties of God are attributed to the Pope, you may see by their writings. Papa dicitur habere coeleste arbitrium, & ideo etiam naturam rerum immutat, substantiam unius rei applicando alii, & de nihilo potest ali­quid facere.

Thus the Popes Parasites flatter him; Sicut non est Potestas nisi a Deo, sic nec aliqua tem­poralis vel Ecclesiastica, imperialis vel regalis nisi a Papa. As there is no power but of God; so (say they) there is not any Temporal or Ecclesiastical, Greg. 7. sirnamed Hildebrand said, That he had power to give and take away Kingdoms at his pleasure; and it is more to make and marre Kings, then to be a King: as R. Nevill Earl of Warwick sometime said in the Civil War between Henry the sixth, and Edward the fourth of England. Imperial or Regal power, but of the Pope; In cujus femine scripsit Christus, Rex Regum, Dominus Dominantium, on whose [Page 73]thigh Christ hath written, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords. Gregory the ninth letteth this Doctrine fall from his own pen, Ad firmamen­tum coeli, hoc est, universalis Ecclesiae, fecit Deus duo magna luminaria, i.e. duas instituit digni­tates, quae sunt Pontificalis authoritas, & re­galis potestas; & ut quanta est inter solem & lunam, tanta inter Pontifices & Reges differen­tia cognoscatur. For the firmament of Heaven, that is (saith he) of the Universal Church, God made two great lights; that is, appointed two Dignities, which are the Pontifical Autho­rity, and the Regal Power; and as a great difference may be seen between the Sun and Moon; so as great a difference may be known between Popes and Kings. See what pride is in the Man of Sin, Some Popes in pride have caused them­selves to be worship­ped. who op­poseth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or worship­ped. That high places are apt to puff men up with pride, Decius the Emperour evidently saw, who when his Father would have invested him in the Empire, as David did Solomon in his Kingdom, in his life time, re­fused the honour with this modest excuse, I fear if I am made Emperour, lest I forget that I am a Son; Vereor, nc, si fiam im­perator, dediscam esse filius; & malo non esse imperator & humilis filius, quam imperator & filius indevo­tus. Valer. Maxim. lib. 4. and I had rather not be an Em­perour, and be an humble Son, then an Em­perour, and an undutiful Son.

He knew it seemed, that Honores did or­dinarily mutare mores, that honour did change [Page 74]mens mannes; and so surely theydo in nature corrupted, and not by grace corrected, or where grace prevails not, or is not predomi­nant above nature; for where it is, goodness will so oversway greatness, as no Dignity shall cause men to neglect or forget their duty. Now this is a great vanity, for men to be proud of honours, or high places, especially if we consider the instability of honours, great preferments, Craesus King of Lydia, spoiled by Cyrus King of Persia, and bereft both of his Kingdom and life: Cyrus him­self afterwards served so by Thomyris. and great mens favours; as appears in Parmenio and Clitus, in high favour with Alexander the great, and Seneca with Nero, and Bellisarius with Justinian the Emperour; yea, even in Dionysius himself, Bajazet, and many other great Princes: And even in holy Writ, 1 King. 2.5, 6. we see Joab a great favourite with Da­vid at the first, is at last distasted by himself, and quite cashiered by Solomon his Son, and that by his approbation and appointment; so likewise Haman rose not so fast, Hest. 7. but he sell faster. They that be in the hight of honour to day, Tolluntur in altum, ut lapsu graviore cadant. may be in the lowest degree of disgrace by to morrow; for we know not what a day may bring forth, Prov. 27.1. And we have seen many notable instances of the transitoriness of worldly honour in these our days: Man being in honour abideth not, Similis est pecoribus morticinis. he is like the beasts that perish, Psal. 49.12. The old Translation reads it thus, Man shall not continue in honour, he shall be like the beasts that dye; or as Tremel­lius, Tremell. he shall be like the beasts that dye of the [Page 75]Morrain, and so become useless and fit for nothing: And many times men are lifted up on high, that their fall may be the greater. Dionysius of Syracuse, glad to teach a School at Corinth, to get a poor living. Some in these days boast of the honour that they have got­ten by the disgrace of others, of their rising by others falling; but this is a great vanity, to grow proud that we rise by others ruines. Thus did the common souldiers in Tacitus repress the pride of Pompey: Nostrâ miseria mag­nus es. Tacitus. Honour is the greatest outward glory, saith the Philosopher. Arist. Ethic. 4. Thou art great by our misery, therefore swell not against us. He that (like Matthias) cometh in the place of another, must rather lament the others loss, then grow proud of his own gain. If the Gen­tile be advanced by the fall of the Jew, he should not boast against the Jew, but rather lament the Jews falling, then be proud of his own rising. Many in these our days, have erected to themselves stately Pallaces, Ʋbi honor non est, ibi contemptus. Hier. Epist. by the fall of other mens houses; and such as these, are ready to swell with pride against their de­cayed brethren: It is a sign of a vain mind, to think the worse of any man because he is fallen; or to think the better of our selves, be­cause we are risen. What though Job be on the dunghil, yet he shall be restored; and though Joseph be in prison, yet he shall be ad­vanced.

If therefore men are ambitious of honour, 1 Sam. 2.30. let them honour God: Them that hononr me, saith he, I will honour. Let David carry [Page 76]himself valiantly in the wars of Israel, though Saul himself labour to keep him down, Non facit nobilem atri­um plenum sumosis ima­ginibus; animus facit nobilem. Sen. Epist. 44. and to ecclipse his glory, yet the very women in their songs shall prefer him before their King, saying, Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands: If Mordecai the Jew be faithful to King Ahashuerus, and dis­cover the Treason of Bigtanah and Teresh, there will come a time, that the King will be at leisure to read the Chronicles, and reward his good service, Est. 6. If Daniel continue con­stant in Gods service, it shall at last appear, that the truth was at his side, and he shall pre­vail, and be preferred according to his desert, Men mistake the way to be great, while they neglect the way to be good. Adams. Dan. 6. If Paul and Si­las be painful in their places, and seek their Masters glory, and the en­largement of his Kingdom, by the propagation of the Gospel, if men be dumb and silent, the very Devils shall confess them to be the servants of the most high God, and to shew unto men the way of Salvation, Acts 16.17. In a word, if our Saviour Christ go about preaching in the Synagogues, and curing diseases, and doing all sorts of good deeds, howsoever the Rulers of the Jews accuse him, Joh. 6.15. and persecute him, and seek to execute him, yet many of the common people admire him, yea, seek to advance him, and thought to make him their King, howbeit he will accept of no such honour; yea, Pilat himself cannot but confess to his eternal Glory, and his own per­petual [Page 77]shame, that though he condemned him to please the people, and not displease the Emperour, yet he found no cause of death, nay no fault in him, Joh. 19. The way to be truly honoured, is first to be vertuous; Nobilitas sola est at­que unica virtus. Juvenal. Sat. 8. and this the wise ancient Romans knew right well, by building the Temple of Honour within the Gate of Vertue; to teach all their people, that who­soever would come to the one, must pass through the other; and doubtless, whereso­ever Honour is placed in the Crest, and hath not vertue for a Supporter, all true Heraulds know to be but false Arms; and wheresoever it is conferred without vertue, it will not con­tinue, it being out of its element and proper place: But on the other side, There be two things make holi­ness above greatness; 1. The work of Holiness. 2. The re­ward of Holiness; Blessing shall cover the head of the righteous, Prov. 10.6. Dr. Sutton. wheresoever is vertue, there honour and estimation shall be first or last; for it follows true vertue, as the shadow accompanieth the body when the Sun shineth; and when it doth not, it is but the over-casting of a cloud, and the Sun will one day shine again.

SECT. 4. Of Pride of a generous and noble descent.

PRide of descent is, when men do boast of their noble Extraction and Generous O­riginal: This is a thing most ridiculous, for a man to boast of that which belongeth to ano­ther: It is better that others be known by thee, then thou be known by others. Plato saith, that every King cometh of a slave, and every slave of a King: Such was the pride of C. Caligula, that he took from the ancient noble families their Arms, and Badges, as from the Torquati their collar; from the Cinnati, their curled lock; from Cneius Pom­peius his posterity, the sirname of Magnus. Suetonius in vit. Ca­lig. The great Tamerlain was the son of a Peasant, and kept Cattel; Arsaces King of the Parthians, was of so base a stock, that his Parents could not be known, yet he got such re­nown by his vertue, that his poste­rity were called Arsacides, as the Emperours of of Rome were called Caesars, of Augustus Caesar. Per­tinax a Roman Emperour, was son of an Artificer, his Grandfather­was a slave. Agathocles King of Cicily, the son of a Potter. The Emperour Probus, the son of a Gardiner. The Suldan of Cayro, was cho­sen out of the Mamalukes, to which honour none might arise, unless he had first been a slave. Divers Popes likewise were basely de­scended. Little cause have men to pride them­selves in the Nobility of their birth, when they come by it by their Parents, who by some vertuous or noble acts, exceeded other [Page 79]men, and were by the people held in the great­er estimation, which honour for their sakes, descended to their posterity: So that if any glory be due, it is due to the Parents, and not to the children, unless they tread in the steps of their Parents, and many times Children do not tread in the steps of Vertuous Pa­rents; which gave occasion to Cicero to re­prehend Catiline, by comparing the antiqui­ty of his blood with the vitio­sity of his manners; Faelix quem virtus gene­rosa exornat avorum, & Qui virtute suis adjicit ipse decus. who saith of him, That he was not more fa­mous by the Nobility of his Pa­rents, then ignominious by his no­torious vices. Let the French King and Queen, saith one, be thy Parents, if there be no ver­tue in thy mind, I will regard thee no more, then if thou hadst an Husbandman to thy Fa­ther, and a poor Countrey-woman for thy Mo­ther. But if Nobility of blood be joyned with grace and true humility, it is a thing much to be esteemed. The Jews boasted themselves, they had Abraham to their Father: Luke 3.8. It is more credit for a man to be countenanced by his own vertues, Verè nobilis ille non quem, sua villa sed virtus nobilitat; & me­lius domum Domino, quam Dominum dome honestari. then the ver­tues of his Progenitors: It is better to be the beginning, then the end of a mans house. The best Nobi­lity is built by vertue: God chuseth not as man doth, by outward ap­pearance; he chuseth Saul out of Benjamin, the least of the Tribes, and his Fathers family the least in that Tribe, by his own confession, [Page 80]to be King over Israel, 1 Sam. 9.21. So in the choice of David, 1 Sam. 16.7. Not Eliab, nor Amminadab, nor Shammah, nor any of the rest chosen, but little David, that kept his Fathers sheep. Thus Christ chose Fishers to be his Disciples, Mat. 4.18.21. and Shepherds to be the Heraulds of his Nativity, Luke 2.8. The foolishness of God is wiser then men. Of whom he maketh choice especially, the Apostle tells us, 1 Cor. 1.26. That not many wise, not many mighty (after the flesh) not many Noble are called.

Brag not of the clarity of thy blood; for God made all mankinde of one blood; Acts 17.26. and if any mans blood be more purethen others, it is not Nobility, but soundness of bo­dy causeth it. Malo Pater tibi sit Thersites, dummodo tu sis Aeacidae similis, Vul­caniaque arma capessas, Quam te Thersitae simi­lem producat Achilles. Boast not of thy an­tiquity, for every mans Original was one and the same; there was but one common Parent of man­kinde, one Spring and Fountain of all men. Beast not of the antiqui­ty of thy Family: for how many Noble Fa­milies have there been of whom there is no remembrance at this day? and in our days we have seen the overthrow of Noble and Royal families: Every thing which springeth up in time, dyeth with time. Boast not of thy Birth, for thy Nobleness cometh not by thy birth, but by thy life. Let us not then so much desire to be great, as to be good; nor to fet our Pedigrees from ancient houses, as to carry our selves worthy such Ancestors; else their [Page 81]goodness cannot so much credit us, as our badness will discredit them. Sir Philip Sidney. We may say of all these outward things, as an honourable Gen­tleman was wont to say of the Arms of his house left him by his Ancestors,

Vix ea nostra voco;

We can scarce call them ours, alluding to a saying of a Poet,

Et genus, & proavos, & quae non fecimus ipsi, &c.

In a word, if we be good, we shall be great; for if they are greatest in blood, These two are infi­nitely and joyntly in God; viz. Greatness and Good­ness, who is both optimus & maximus. who can de­rive themselves from the highest persons, and greatest Peers; then surely incomparably greater be they, which can derive themselves from him which hath no Peer; and so may all the faithful, without check of pride or pre­sumption; for Christ himself acknowledgeth them as his kinsfolk, Matth. 12.50. saying, Whosoever (let him be never so mean in other respects) shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven, the same is my Brother, and Sister, To be the Sons of Nobles, is nothing, to the Sons of God; to be born of Princes, is but baseness, in comparison of this, to be born of God; Moab is but a wash­pot, Edom but a wiper of shoes. Dr. Sutton. Saints are Gods ex­cellent ones on earth, Psal. 16.3.and Mother. And here it may not be unfit to bring in these Verses:

Why doth Earths Gentry count themselves so good,
Giving Coat, Arms, for all the world to gaze on?
Christs Blood alone makes Gentlemen of blood,
His shameful death doth give the fairest blazon.
then he is ancient'st, and of best behavi­our,
Whose Arms and Ancestors and from his Sa­viour.

CHAP. 10. Of Pride of Diet.

IT is said of the Rich man, Luke 16. that he was not onely clothed in purple, but also he fared deliciously every day: As he painted his back with gorgeous and gaudy apparel, so he pampered his belly with delicate and dainty fare, Great feastings are not without great sin; men thereby become unfit for the service of God; it makes men dull to hear the word; Venter non habet aures; Pinguis venter dormit libenter, readier to sleep then learn any good. and that not now and then, but every day. He might have fared well, & feasted sometime, as appeareth, Psal. 104.15. where God gives not only bread, but wine and oyl also: But here was his pride, in making dainty bread his daily bread, and keeping his Christmass (as they say) all the year long; he was altogether given to security and sensuality, being, as Crassus in his purse, [Page 83]so Cassius in his pots; like those greedy Epi­cures described, Isa. 56.12. He that prides himself with his delicious meats, and dainty fare, is an an absolute Idolater: His God is his belly, Phil. 3.19. The Temple of this false God (saith Tertullian) is in the lungs; his Cook is his Priest; his Table, or Dresser, his Altar; his Meat, his Sacrifice; and unto this his God Bell he offereth whatever Sea or Land will afford him; it is a wonder to see how he hath his Officers in every place; for him war is waged against the Ayr, and Clouds, and Birds are disnestled from the Kingdom which nature hath allowed them; for him the face of the earth is turned into a shambles; for him Seas are sounded, Depths are plum­meted, Shipwracking storms, and direful tem­pests are ferried over; all this hurly-burly is made for a stomach four fingers broad, for which a little bread and water would suffice in necessity, and in superfluity the whole world is too little to satisfie. Adam had been better without his Apple, Esau his red pottage, and Belshazzar his feast for his thousand lords, Dan 5.1. 1 Cor. 10.31. Such a one was that rich fool, Luke 12. who pulled down his barns, and would build them up greater, and never made any conscience of doing good with all his goods, but onely to play the Epicure, and live the life of a beast, in idleness, riotousness, and sensuality: Soul, take thine ease, eat, drink, and be merry. We should remember, that we live not to eat, like those Creatures Horace speaks of, that eat consumere naturam, to consume nature, but [Page 84]that we may live and glorifie God. And our Saviour teacheth us that lesson, Luke 21.34. and Paul, Rom. 13.12, 13. Christ pronounceth a woe to such Sensualists, Luke 6.25. Woe to you that are full, for ye shall hunger: Most commonly men are punisht in the same things they sin: Qui sumptus magnos ubi non decet fecerit, ubi decet exiguos fa­ciet. Seneca. Dives tormented in his tongue, because he had abused it by his Epi­curism: And waste is commonly pun­ished with want.

It is written in an old Chronicle, that in the days of King Vortiger, sometime King of this Land, An. 447. there was a wonderful plenty of all pro­visions (like Pharaohs seven plentiful years in Egypt) whereupon ensued the common sins growing out of it, Pride, Idleness, Gluttony, and Adultery; and after that ensued such a famine and plague, as the living were scarce able to bury the dead. Pride, Idleness, and fullness of Bread, were the sins of Sodom. As the humility of Christ appeared in many other things, as I may have occasion to shew here­after, so also in abstinence in his Diet: We often read, that he fasted, seldom that he feast­ed, never that he surfeited: And when he did go to eat with those that invited him, he would labour to feast their souls, as they feasted his body: And when he was to work a miracle, and feed five thousand grown men, besides women and children, he had not in his fami­ly five loads of bread (which any man would have thought little enough for so many) but only five loaves of bread, and not wheaten [Page 85]bread neither, Austin makes an Allegory of the mi­racle of loaves, thereby under­standing the calling of the Gentiles, who came from far to the Common­wealth of Israel: They had nothing to cat; i. e. saith he, They wanted spiritual food, and the knowledge of God and Christ: By the five loaves he understands, the five Books of Moses; by the two fishes, the two Testaments; by their sitting down on the grass, the mortifi­cation of their flesh, submitting unto him, after which time he satisfieth and sufficeth them. John 6.9. Sic care nutrienda est ut ser­viat, & sic domanda, ut non superbiat. Hugo de S. Victore. wherein there might have been some more hold and tack; but even barley bread, which is not so hearty and baitable: The like may be said of the other part of the diet of Christ and his Apostles; it was not flesh, that is held the more solid and substantial feed­ing; but fish, a frothy and flaggy kind of meat; nor any great deal of fish neither, such as Peter and his fellow-fishers caught, when they brake their nets, Luke 5. but only two fishes; nay more then that, as for their num­ber they were but two, so for their quantity they were not great, as Whales, Dolphins, or the like, but two little small fishes; as ap­peareth, in that a little boy, as John speaketh, carried both them and the five loave. Whence one of the Ancients inferreth, that our flesh is so to be nourisht, that it may be fit for service, and so to be kept under, that it swell not with Pride.

A little will serve to suffice nature: Qui ad naturam vivit, semper dives est; qui ad opinionem, pauper. Sen. Good David would have been content with Nabals superfluity and rever­sion, 1 Sam. 25. and poor good Lazarus with the crums that fell from the rich Gluttons Table; and [Page 86]many a poor Saint and Servant of God with small pittances; and why should any of us be at any great cost with our bodies, to feed them with all manner of dainties, when as thereby we do but, as it were, cram our selves fat to feed the worms? Insanus & irritus la­bor est, ge­rere curam carnis, et abjicere curam cordis. Bernard. Its a shame to delight more in the dead carcasses of a Beast or Fowl, then in the living God. Wherefore it is true that Bernard saith, It is a mad and vain kind of labour, so much to indulge the flesh, and to cast away the care of the soul. It is folly for a man to lay his whole living upon a house, and then have nothing to main­tain it: This is our case; for our body is but domicilium animae, the dwelling-place, or ha­bitation of the soul.

CHAP. 11. Of Pride of Strength.

SECT. 1. Of Pride of Bodily strength.

PRide is one of mans greatest weaknesses, but always grounded on some supposed strength, either of body or minde. Great was the stature and bodily strength of Maximinus the Roman Emperour; [...]. Amos 2.14. Grimstones Roman History. One on the Theater before Maximinus (to daunt his pride) sung certain Greek verses to this effect, Et qui ab uno non potest occidi, à multis occiditur; cave multes, si singulos non times. for as (Julius Capitoli­nus reporteth) he was eight and an half Geometrical foot high, which is two foot and an half more then we see any man ordinarily to be in these days; and as he had a great body, so had he all parts thereof proportionable to his greatness, and was so extreamly strong, that a cart heavy laden, which two Oxen could hardly move, he would easily draw and turn at his pleasure; with his fist he brake an horses leg, and striking a horse in the chap with his fist, he brake out all his teeth, and was so fierce and couragious, that he made no account of any man: He overcame sixteen strong men that were Water-bearers [Page 88]and Servitors of the Roman Camp, coming to handy gripes with them, without resting, not being moved by any of them: Yet he whom one man could not overcome, was at last overcome by many Souldiers, and o­thers with them, who came very boldly to his Pavilion, and without any resistance slew him and his Son. Great was the strength of Sampson, so that when a young Lyon roared upon him, he rent him, as he would have rent a Kid, having nothing in his hand, Gibbor The mighty man, shall not be deli­vered by his great strength, Psal. 33.16. Judg. 15.14, 15. Fortis es, & altum sapis? at res vilissima; nam & Leo est te auda­cior, & aper fortior, Chrysost. Judg. 14.6. and when he was bound with cords, by the men of Judah, how did he break those cords asunder? The cords that were upon his arms, became as flax that was burnt with fire, and his bands loosed from off his hands; and finding a new jaw-bone of an Ass, he slew a thousand men there­with: At another time he went to Gaza, and took the doors of the Gate of the City, Judg. 16.3.21. and the two posts, and went away with them bar and all, and put them upon his shoulders, and carried them up to the top of an hill that is be­fore Hebron: yet at last was he betrayed by Dalilah into the hands of the Phi­listines; None was stronger in body then Milo, yet many men were more excellent then he. who took him and put out his eyes, and bound him with fet­ters of brass, and made a Miller of him, to grinde in the Prison-house at Gaza. Dost thou exceed others in strength of body? yet consider thou art therein inferiour to [Page 89]the Horse, the Elephant, and divers other beasts; thou shewest what a poor creature thou art, to put confidence in bodily strength. The force of an hidden evil overcame Hercu­les, that was not to be overcome by any man. The strongest man in the world, There is none strong like our God, 1 Sam. 2.2. Jer. 9 23. Cogita quantarum ipse sis vi­rium; istae enim non tuae sunt, sed hospi­tii, imo carceris vires tui; vanum au­tem est, cum ipse sis fragilis, forti habi­taculo (di­cam melius) forti Adversario gloriari. Petrarc. de Remed. utriusq, fortunae. The Amorite was strong as the Oaks, yet God destroyed him, Amos 2.9. his strength is but weakness, compared with the strength of an Oak. Let not the strong man glory in his strength, saith the Lord. There is no man so strong, but his strength may be impaired either by immoderate labour, or by some sharp and violent disease, or by excessive grief and sad­ness, or decrepit old age, which overcometh all things. Dost thou boast of thy great strength? let me tell thee, that every weighty thing laboureth with its own burthen; and this is the nature almost of every thing, when it cometh to its height, it descendeth not with an equal motion; the ascent is more slow, but the descent is precipitious, and this bodily strength when it begins to decline, will de­cline apace.

SECT. 2. Of pride of Strong-holds.

I Find in Alexanders wars, that when he came to subdue the Sogdians, a people that had a rock for their habitation, and the munition of rocks on every side, Volateran reports of Niniveh, that it was eight years a building by no less then ten thousand Workmen; and Diod. Sieulus saith, The walls were an 100 foot high, the breadth able to re­ceive three carts on a row, it had 1500 tur­rets, but is now laid waste. they jeered him, and askt him, Whe­ther his Souldiers had wings or no? Unlefs thy Souldiers can flie in the aire, we fear thee not. Many men when they get into a strong hold (like David in his strong Mountain) think they shall never be moved: But fee how the Lord threatens Is­rael, if they hearkned not to the voyce of the Lord, and to do all his Commandments and Statutes, that he would bring upon them a Nation of fierce countenance, that should besiege them in all their gates, until their high and fenced walls came down, wherein they trusted throughout all their Land. Natural men since the fall, must have some strength or other to trust to: Deut. 28.52. Gen. 11.7, 8. When Cain was driven out from his Fathers house, he falls a building of Cities; and we read of some after the Flood, that would build a Tower of Babel that should reach to Hea­ven, to get themselves a name; but the Lord soon confounded their language, and scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all [Page 91]the earth. Thou boastest that thou livest in an impregnable Castle: Dost thou not know the Proverb, Quis cladem illius ur­bis, quis funera sando Explicet? aut posist lachrymis, &c. Virg. 2. Aeneid. that there is no place that is invincible? Even that Tower of Locris (that double Tower) could not be defended by Hannibal himself; and that impreg­nable Tower of Praeneste, then which Historians say, never was a stronger, when it could not be overcome by force of arms, it was taken by flattery and false promises, and was demolished. That Fortress cannot stand long, where wickedness getteth in between the timber and the stones; besides, the faith of Gods children, which can remove mountains, is able to throw down the strongest walls, Heb. 11.30. as it did the walls of Jericho. No strong-hold of it self is sufficient to secure a man from the wrath and vengeance of God pursuing him. Jam seges est ubi Tro­ja fuit. Ovid. Epst. 1. I have read of Bishop Hatto in Germany, that suffered the poor to starve at his door, albeit the Rats eat up his corn; but after they had devoured his Corn, they sought after him from house to house; wherefore he built him an house in the River Rhemes, where the water runneth very swiftly; yet that would not serve, they got to him, and eat up him also; where­upon that Tower is called, The Rats Tower unto this day. There is no true security in any thing but in God: He that dwelleth in the secret place of the Most High, shall abide under the shadow of the Almighty: Psal. 91.1, 2.I will say of the Lord, he is my refuge, and my fortress: [Page 92]my God, Psal. 18.2. in him will I trust. The Lord is my rock and my fortress, &c. my strength, in whom I will trust; my buckler, and the horn of my salvation, and my high tower, saith David. The name of the Lord is a strong tower, the righteous runneth into it, and is safe, Prov. 18.10. God hath promised his people, that the munitions of rocks shall be their place of defence, Isa. 33.16. The Lord will set them so high, that none shall be able to reach them, to do them hurt: But let the wicked man build never so high, his pride will bring him down: Thy terribleness hath deceived thee, saith God to Edom, and the pride of thy heart, [...]. Cedren. hist p. 452. O thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rock, that holdest the height of the hill: though thou shouldest make thy nest as high as the Eagle, I will bring thee down from thence, saith the Lord, Jer. 49.16. When Nicephorus Phocas had built a mighty wall about his Palace, for his security, in the night he heard a voyce crying, O King, though thou buildest as high as the clouds, yet the City may easily be taken, the sin within will mar all.

CHAP. 12. Of pride of Children.

CHildren, especially to Mothers, whose affections are very strong, are very taking things, being little images of themselves: Pa­rents take so much delight in their children, that the evils of children affect them, as if they were their own. How earnestly doth the wo­man of Canaan cry out to Christ for her daugh­ter? Matth. 15.21. You read likewise of a man crying out to Christ, Master, I beseech thee behold my son, for he is all that I have, Luke 9.38. Behold my son, that is, have mercy on my son; as it is expounded, Matth. 17.15. And so sometimes videre is taken for respicere, and respicere for misereri seu delectari, Psal. 66.18. Parents are apt to dote too much upon an only son, therefore when they are taken away, the grief of Parents is excessive. The greatest mourn­ing in Scripture, is set out by the mourning for an only son: Indeed, some there are, whose affections are so strong to their children, that they take it heavily, if God take away but one of many children from them. Ambrose re­porteth a doleful accident, that befell a poor man in his time, who had five sons, and knew not how to relieve himself and them in a famine, unless he sold one, to buy food for [Page 94]the rest: On a time, with a heavy heart, he called them all about him, to see which he might best spare: He looketh upon his eldest son, It is engrafted in the hearts of Parents, by the very Law of Na­ture, to be loving, and pittiful, and kind to their children; there­fore God in his Law, Exod. 20. only bids children be dutiful to their Parents in the fifth Commandment, but saith nothing to Parents to be careful for their children, knowing it to be de­rived to them by a kind of natural in­stinct, and therefore they need no teaching for it. Luke 7.12. and thought he was best able to shift; but shall he part with him that was the strength of his youth, and the first that called him father? he cannot endure it; then he looketh upon his youngest, and thinketh how he may part with him; and alas, he faith, he was the Nest-chick, and dearly beloved of his deceased mother, and there­fore he must not go; a third resem­bleth his Ancestors and Progeni­tors, having the Grandfathers neb, and the Grandmothers eye, and in him they should live, when he was dead, and therefore he must not go, whatever came on it; the fourth hath been ever loving to him, and the fifth most diligent, dutiful, and industrious; so that the poor man can spare never a one of his Olive plants from about his table. And if a man could not part with one of many, what a grief (think we) was it to the poor widow of Naim, to part with one and all? she being not a young wife neither, that might have many moe, but an old widow, utterly without hope of issue.

Hath God given you many children, pride not your selves in them: Men are apt to glory in them, because they bear their names, their [Page 95]resemblance, and they do, as it were, live in their children, when themselves are dead; they are the Parents multiplied. Hast thou many children? thou hast also many cares for them, and many sorrows about them: If thy children are good, thou art still in fear of losing them; if evil, thou art in continual sorrow for them; and till thou knowest how they will prove, thy solace is ambiguous, and thy care is certain. Many good men have been great­ly afflicted in their children; as Adam, Abra­ham, Isaac, Jacob, Eli, David, and others. Glory not then in the multitude, beauty, strength and comeliness of thy children; for God can easily take them all away, as he did Jobs children, and all at once. Thus God threa­tens Ephraim, glorying in his children, Their glory shall flee away like a bird, from the birth, Hos. 9.11. from the womb, & from the conception: though they bring up their children, yet I will bereave them, and there shall not be a man left. Many fond and indulgent Parents, are like the Ape, that killeth its young with hugging them. Parentes nostros sen­simus par­ricidas. Cypr. Chrysost. lib. 3. de Monast. vit. cap. 4. May not children now use the same complaints as were in Cyprians days? Our Fathers and Mothers have proved our murtherers, soul-murtherers, worse then they who murther the body, as Chrysostome speaketh. When Parents too much dote upon their children, they take a quick way to bereave themselves of them. We read that Jacob loved Joseph, and doted more upon him then upon all his children, Gen. 37.3. therefore the Lord bereaves him of his Joseph (that lay so [Page 96]near to his heart) for many years together, and then his sorrow was as great for the loss of him, as he took delight and contentment in the enjoyment of him. It is the greatness of our affections, Woodw. Childs Patrim. as one well observeth, that causeth the greatness of our afflictions. They that love too much, will always grieve too much: It is good for Parents so to delight themselves in their children, as that they could be ready and willing to part with them; and then, with Job, they will bless God, not one­ly for giving them, but also for taking them away. He was a wise Heathen that said, I kiss my childe to day, and then I think it may be dead to morrow. Love your children only as crea­tures, and let not the Mothers childe, be the Mothers God; nor the Fathers son, be the Fathers Idol. Eli honoured his sons more then God; therefore God said, there should not be an old man in his house for ever, 1 Sam. 2.30, 31, 32, 33, 34. and all the in­crease of his house should dye in the flower of his age; and this should be a sign unto him, that his twosons, Hophni and Phinehas, should both of them dye in one day.

Let Parents imitate those that brought their little children unto Christ, that he might touch them, and bless them: Let them bring their children to Christ, and offer them to God:

1. Luke 18.15. By prayer, for his blessing upon them: Thus Abraham prayed even for Ishmael, Gen. 17.18. There's no question, but Job prayed as well as offered sacrifice for his children, lest [Page 97]they might forget themselves and offend God in their feastings. This must be a daily duty of Parents, and continued act so long as they and their children live upon earth.

2. They are to be offered to God by Bap­tism, in the face of the congregation so soon as conveniently they may: If a Father knew he had some special friend that had cast his love and affection upon some one of his chil­dren in such sort as he meant to adopt him, and make him his heir, he would be careful that he should be trained up according to his directions. Now faithful Parents must know and believe, that God is the God of them and their seed, and therefore having made his co­venant with them, they should earnestly desire to have the seal of it. I know that Baptism doth not confer grace, ex opere operato, as a Kings Letters under the broad-seal do not give a pardon to a malefa­ctor, Non profuit ei visibilis Baptismus, quia defuit invisibilis spiritus san­ctus. August. but only signifie that it's the Kings pleasure to afford him that favour; as also that all that are ba­ptized, shall not be saved, as Austin speaks of Simon Magus. The outward Baptism did not profit him, because the invisible holy Spirit was wanting to him. And lastly, that it's not ab­solutely necessary to salvation, but God can save without it, as doubtless he did divers Is­raelitish children dying in the wilderness without circumcision, and as was the case of the Thief upon the Cross, Valentinian, and o­thers. However it be not necessary in regard [Page 98]of God, yet in respect of us, it is, both that we may be obedient to his commandment, and also to help our weakness.

3. They must be brought to Christ, and offered to God (when they have knowledge and years of discretion) by good education: for this God took special order in his Law; telling his people, that his laws must not only be in their own heads to know them, Deut. 6.7. but in their mouths to talk of them, and learn them to their children. And questionless, the com­mon dissoluteness and disobedience of children when they be grown up, proceeds from the carelesness of Parents; when they were young, they offered them not to Christ, nor put them to his school, but trained them up in wan­tonness, pride and vanity, which is the bane of youth. And thus some have brought their children to beggery, others to the Gallows, and more have brought them to spiritual and eternal death.

CHAP. 13. Of Pride of outward priviledges.

EVil men are very apt to pride themselves in their outward priviledges. The Jews boasted they were Abrahams seed according to the flesh, though they cared not to follow Abrahams faith: they boast also that they have the Temple of the Lord, Jerem. 7.4. Deus habitat in medio nostrs, apud nos babet domicilium. Haec pri­ma hypocritarum muni­tio. Calv. in Jerem. 7. and they cry, the Temple of the Lord; as if they should have said, God dwelleth in the midst of us, he hath his habitation with us: This is the first fortress of hypocrites, saith Calvin. They gloried, that they were a vine of Gods own planting, that God had known and chosen them out of all the fa­milies of the earth to be his peculiar people, and had entred into covenant with them. There is nothing more common with proud and wicked men, saith Salvian, then to defend themselves by the name of Catholick, when in life they are more prophane than Goths and Vandals: Salvian. de provid. dei. lib. 7. Vanum sine cor­pore nomen. Hoc nomi­ne ecclesia. sola Romana gloriatur. Coster. in En­chirid. de notis Eccles. a vain name without a body: yet this is the ar­gument of Costerus the Jesuite; in this name the Roman Church alone doth glory. But what doth this priviledge of a religious name profit them that call themselves Catholicks? and the [Page 100]same may be said of the Catholick faith and profession. Little reason have men to be proud of outward priviledges: for the Apostle tells us, that in Christ Jesus, neither Circumci­sion availeth any thing, Gal. 6.15. nor uncircumcision, but a new creature; nothing is acceptable to God, nor available to salvation; Chrysostome saith of the Jews, that divinis penè obruti erant bene­ficiis. and un­der these two, he Synecdochically comprehendeth all outward privi­ledges, prerogatives, dignities and precedences whatsoever: under circumcision comprising the dignities of the Jews, Rom. 3.1, 2. Rom. 9.4, 5. under un­circumcision, the Gentiles, with all their wit, wealth, strength, laws, policy, or whatever is of esteem among men, and glorious in the eyes of the world, all which he accounts as nothing in respect of regeneration. Luk. 16.15

1. Therefore first, wealth, strength, nobili­ty, wisdom are nothing, and not to be gloryed in, 1 Cor. 1.26, 27, 28. You see your calling brethren, not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble are called: But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise, and the weak things of the world to confound the mighty, &c. and things that are not to confound the things that are, that no flesh should glory in his presence.

2. Outward callings are nothing, as to be Emperours, Kings, Priests, Prophets, A­postles.

3. Or outward actions of hearing, fasting, almes-giving, prayer. It is a mark of a wicked [Page 101]cast-away to rest in these things, of one who buildeth the house not upon the Rock, Qui domū aedificat, non in petra sed in are­na, August. in Ps. 103. but upon the Sand, saith Austin. It is the note of such as shall be refused, when the great King shall make distinction between the sheep and Goats.

4. Kindred and alliance avail not; for if the blessed Virgin had not as well conceived Christ in her heart by faith, Beatior Maria percipi­endo fidem Christi, quàm concipiendo car­nem Christi, & Chri­stum faelicius gestavit corde, quam corpore; mente, quam ventre. August. as in her womb according to the flesh, she had not been saved, Luke 11.27, 28. For when a certain woman said unto Christ, Blessed is the womb that bare thee, and the paps that gave thee suck; he said, yea rather blessed are they that hear the word of God and keep it. It seemeth to have been an usual thing among the Jews to commend Pa­rents by their children, and to commend chil­dren by pronouncing their Parents blessed in them: So it is recorded of Rabbi Jochanan Ben Zachary, that commending one of his scholars, he brake out into this speech, Bles­sed is she that bare thee. And in prophane Authors, this and the like speeches are usual, Ashre sev­valed techa. Beataquae te genuit. Tremel. in loc. ‘Faelices tales quae te genuere Parentes.’

Thus Solomon tells us, that a wise son mak­eth a glad father, but a foolish son is heaviness to his mother, Prov. 10.1. yea as good chil­dren be comforts to their Parents privately, so they be credits to them publickly, as the Psal­mist [Page 102]saith, he that hath good children need not be ashamed to meet his enemy in the gate; and that this is an especial outward bles­sing, Quisquè nascitur ex Adamo, nascitur dam­natus de damnato. Aug. in Psal. 132. our Saviour denyeth not; for in his answer he doth not cross and contradict the speech as false, but only correct it, shewing, that though it were a good thing in the kind to have good children, yet it was a better thing to be good our selves; and howsoever his blessed mother were a vessel of grace on earth, and be now a glorious Saint in heaven, yet herein consisted not the height of her happiness, in that she bare him in her body, but rather in this, that she believed on him in her heart. And if Christs kinsmen had not been his brethren as well by spiritual adoption and regeneration, as by carnal propagation, Mark 3.30, 31, 32, 33, 34. and generation, they should not have had inheritance in the king­dom of God.

5. Nay, the outward Elements are nothing without the inward grace.

1. For Baptism, it is not the washing the face or body, nor the washing away the filth of the flesh, that is acceptable to God, but the stipulation of a good conscience that maketh request to God, 1 Pet. 3.21.

2. For the Sacrament of the Lords Supper, he that doth not as well receive panem dominum, 1 Cor. 11.27,—29. as panem domini, the bread that is the Lord, as the bread of the Lord, is an unworthy receiver, and so is guilty of his body and blood: and the reason why these outward priviledges are [Page 103]nothing available with God, is, because the things that God regardeth are spiritual, and eternal, not temporal and carnal, as these are, which shall utterly cease in the Kingdom of glory: for then shall Christ have put down all rule, and authority, and power, 1 Cor. 15.34.

Object. But it may be said, that these out­ward priviledges and earthly prerogatives of King over his Subjects, Master over his ser­vants, Father over his children, have a place here in the Kingdom of grace, and that Christi­anity doth not overthrow civil policy.

Resp. That a man must be confidered two waies, both in regard of his outward or inward man.

1. In regard of his outward man, as he is a member of the civil society, whether family, Church or Commonwealth, there be differ­ences of persons, as Masters, Servants, Magi­strates, Subjects, bond-men, free-men, poor, rich, as the Apostle tells us, Colos. 3.18. 20.—22.

2. But if a man be considered in respect of his spiritual estate, as he is a member of the in­visible or Catholick Church, Rom. 14.17. Eph. 4.4. Gal. 3.28. under spiritual government, consisting in righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost; there is no distin­ction or difference, Rom. 12.5.

The Popish opinion therefore which teach­eth, Christi no­men indu­ere, & non per Christi viam pergere, quid aliud est quam praevaricatio divini nominis? Cyprian. [Page 104]eth, that there be some outward callings and actions that may commend us to God, where­in we may glory, is here justly condemned, as to lead a single life, to keep many set fasting days, and pray much, to vow voluntary pover­ty, to perform regular obedience, to profess a monastical life or monkery, to be buried in a Friars Cowl, to abstain from such and such meats, &c. whereas Paul tells us, that out­ward priviledges will not serve our turns, Virginity and single life an external prehe­minence among men, no internal righteous­ness before God: it's among those things unde faciamus benè, sed non undè fiamus boni. August. 236. Serm. de temp. V. Abbot cont. Bishop. nor meat commend us to God, 1 Cor. 8.8. Therefore it is a great vanity for men to think highly of themselves for outward priviledges, nor may we glory in them. Nay, the King himself may not be lifted up above his brethren; Deut. 17.20. Pauls example is excellent to this purpose, who neither esteemed the things before his conversion, as his education and breeding, being a Jew, a Citizen of Rome, a Pharisee, a great Doctor and Rabbin, brought up at the feet of Gamaliel, of the Tribe of Benjamin, &c. or after his con­version, Epist. ad regem. as being an Apostle, wrapt up into the third heaven, hearing unspeakable words, not possible for a man to utter. And if any man had cause to glory in these things, Paul had: 2 Cor. 12.4, 5, 6. But saith he, I forbear, lest any man should think of me above what he seeth me to be, or that he heareth of me: and of the esteem that he had of all these, [...]. you may see, Phil. 3.8, 9. he accounts them all to be but loss and dung for [Page 105]the excellency of the knowledge of Jesus Christ, for whom he suffered the loss of all things.

CHAP. 14. Of internal Pride, and first of Pride of the heart.

THe heart is the principal seat of Pride: As the heart is in the midst of the body to convay life to all parts; and as the Sun is in the midst of the Firmament to convay his light, heat, and influences to all inferiour and sublunary bodies; So Pride gets into the midst of the heart to corrupt all: thence we read in Scripture of Pride of the heart, Prov. 16. and of the proud in heart. This pride of heart is demon­strated,

When the heart is carried out after great and high things; The Lord chargeth this on the Prince of Tyrus, thine heart is lifted up, Ezek. 28.2.and thou hast said I am a God, I sit in the seat of God, in the midst of the seas; yet thou art a man, and not God, though thou set thy heart as the heart of God: By the heart we understand here, the thoughts, designs, projects, and high imaginations of the heart which carried out his heart after high and great things. There­fore God is said to scatter the proud in the ima­ginations of their hearts. Luk. 1.51. David cleareth him­self in this, Lord, mine heart is not haughty, Ps. 131.1.nor [Page 106]mine eyes lofty, neither do I exercise my self in great matters, or in things too high for me. Pride when it getteth into the heart, Javah signifies to have high thoughts, and to mind high things. mak­eth a man highly conceited of him­self, lifting him up above the com­mon condition of mortals, cau­sing him to think he is a petty God, and to set his heart as the heart of God.

1. Hence it is that men lay aside the study and the knowledge of practical truths, that tend most to edification, and would most ad­vantage them, and busie themselves about the knowledge of things too high for them, and which if they do know, they are not the near­er to the power of godliness. Let no man be­guile you of your reward (saith Paul to the Co­lossians) in a voluntary humility and worshipping of Angels, Col. 2.18. intruding into those things which he hath not seen, vainly puft up by his fleshly mind: they did but argue then for Angels, as Papists do for Mediators; they must have Angels, middle persons between God and men, and then come to discourse of the Hierarchy of Angels; there may be much of pride under a seeming shew of humility; some there are that seem humble without, that are proud enough within, as Alexander said of Antipater, when one told him, Antipater est intus purpura. Plutar. [...]. that Antipater jetted it not in purple, as other of his Lieutenants did; true said Alexander, but Antipater is all pur­ple within, meaning that he was as proud in heart, as those that made so great an outward shew: so the Apostle here speaks of a volun­tary [Page 107]humility, or as the marginal note is (which I best approve of) a voluntary in hu­mility, that they must not come to God im­mediately, but must have an Angel to make way for them, as a poor supplicant cometh not immediately to his Prince, but hath some Courtier to make way for him; Thus they pleaded for Angels, as the Papists plead for Saints, to be Mediatores ad Mediatorem; to be Mediators for them to the Mediator, but all this was but real pride, The word [...] signifies an intruder upon others rights. intruding on things which they have not seen; intruding upon Gods right to whom it belonged to appoint his worship; but these voluntaries in humility in­vade upon God, or intrude on things which they have not seen. When men shall look up­on doctrines that tend to the practice of god­liness as low things, and they must have higher things, this cometh from pride of heart. If any man consent not to wholesome words, 1 Tim. 6.3, 4, 5. Costui è gonfiato di su­perbia non sapendo nul­la, ma essendo stolto in­torno à le questioni. Ital.even the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the doctrine which is according to godliness, he is proud, knowing nothing, but doting about questions aad strifes of words, whereof cometh envy, strife, railings, evil sur­misings, perverse disputings of men of corrupt minds, and destitute of the truth, supposing that gain is godliness: Such men as these may think themselves the only Gnosticks and knowing men, but such a one is proud, knowing nothing; when men make use of their knowledge in a [Page 108]way of opposition, and so make themselves and others Scepticks in religion, this is a know­ledge or science falsly so called, ver. 20. O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding prophane and vain bablings, and oppositions of science falsly so called: this keeps men off the further from embracing the truth, and being setled in it.

2. From this root it is that many men sinful­ly cry down Magistracy and Ministry; many such there are in our daies: but these men do not act without a precedent, Num. 16. Korah and his accomplices have shewed them the way. I know nothing that more crosseth Satan in his design, then a good Magistracy and a faithful Ministry; and therefore 'tis no wonder, if by his instruments he labour first to corrupt them, then to disparage them, and alienate the peo­ple from them, and so to ruine them: and then they would set up themselves in their places, who thus impudently cry down these two great Ordinances of Magistracy and Mi­nistry.

1. That Korah and his company aymed at the Priest-hood, appeareth by Moses upbraid­ing them, Num. 16.9, 10. Seemeth it a small thing to you, that the God of Israel hath separat­ed you from the congregation of Israel to bring you near to himself to do the service of the Ta­bernacle of the Lord, &c. and seek ye the Priest­hood also? as if he should have said, is it not enough that God hath advanced you above thousands of your brethren, but that ye will [Page 109]have the Priest-hood also? This was the de­sign of the Kohathites. What is Korahs plea? The people are all holy: what need then any one to teach or offer sacrifice? they can all teach themselves, say our Church levellers, the Church are all Saints, and they all know the Lord from the greatest to the least. Where­as Christ hath given some Apostles to his Church, some Prophets, some Evangelists, Ephes. 4.11, 12, 13, 14.and some Pastors and Teachers, for the perfecting of the Saints, for the work of the Ministery, for the edifying of the body of Christ, &c. where we may observe,

1. That Pastors and Teachers are as truly a gift to the Church of Christ, as Apostles and Prophets, though much inferiour to them, yet they are more constantly continued to the Church then the former.

2. These were given to the Church, not only by laying the ground-work to bring men home to Christ, but also to edifie the body of Christ, and to bring it to it's just perfection, till we all come in the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God unto a per­fect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ: for till we come to be grown up in Christ, we have need of the Mi­nistry.

3. This is a great means to prevent childish­ness of spirit, which many nowadays are sub­ject to, being tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine. Now from this pride of heart it is that men so much [Page 110]slight the ministry; those whose hearts are full of pride do lift up themselves against Gods messengers; and the high conceit that men have of their own gifts and parts, makes them slight that ministry that God hath appointed for the salvation of their souls. Thus it was with the proud Corinthians: whom Paul up­braids by an Irony, 1 Cor. 4.8. Now ye are full, now ye are rich, ye have reigned as Kings without us, and I would to God ye did reign, that we also might reign with you.

1. Now ye are full: full without us; so full, that they had no appetite to any more, no mind to any meat set before them, so fill'd were they with gifts and parts, that they had no mind to Pauls ministry.

2. Now ye are rich: so rich, that they could impart to others, and even teach their teachers [rich without us].

3. Ye have reigned as Kings without us: as great difference between them as between King and Subjects; Voi havete conseguito il regno senza voi, ye have gotten a King­dom without us. Hal. 1 Cor. 3.1, 2. proud men do ever carry a Kingdom in their heads; and then he speaks by way of Emphasis, now, or already: he could not speak unto them as to men, but as to babes, that were fed with milk, not with meat, they were not past the spoon; yet were they so full, so rich, so high in their own conceit, that they needed not Pauls mi­nistry, nor any further teaching from him.

2. It is evident that Korah & his companions aimed not only at the Priest-hood, but also at [Page 111]the Scepter, Num. 16.13. for Dathan and Abiram said unto Moses: Is it a small thing that thou hast brought us out of a land that sloweth with milk and hony, to kill us in the wilderness, except thou make thy self altoge­ther a Prince over us? Wilt thou put out the eyes of these men? Now what was the fair vizard that they put upon so foul a face?

1. They pretend to be great enemies to ambition; they say to Moses and Aaron, ye take too much upon you, This pretext would quickly take, when they made themselves Tribunes of the peo­ple, and chamoions for their spiritual liber­ties. Torshel. why lift you up your selves against the con­gregation of the Lord? ver. 3.

2. They cry up the people, they were an holy people, all the congre­gation are holy, every one of them; here then is the inference. No need of a Magistracy, they are a holy people that have the Lord to govern them; and a holy people that know how to govern themselves.

3. They charge them for taking too much upon them, whereas they took no more then God had given them: and for lifting up them­selves above the congregation, when God had thus advanced them: Exod. 4.10, 11, 12. yea Moses was very backwards to take a commission from God, and after he had it, complaineth of his burden, Num. 11.11. Now these men pretended to rise up against Moses and Aaron; but Moses tells them, that they were gathered together against the Lord: Numb. 16.11. when God by his providence placeth men in the Magistracy and Ministry, [Page 112]and they act faithfully in their places, those that band against them do rise up against the God of heaven, whose right it is to pull down one and set up another: therefore when such as these are trampled upon, the Lord vindi­cateth his own authority, and exalteth his own name: See the success of this course of Korah, Dathan and Abiram, &c. it was very dreadful; for one part of them, the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up and all that they had, so that they went down alive into the pit, and the earth closed upon them, ver. 33. and another part of them were consumed by fire from the Lord, even the two hundred and fifty men that presumed to offer incense, ver. 35.

The people therefore must not meddle with Davids Crown and Scepter, nor Samuels E­phod; Ʋzzah must not meddle with the Ark, nor Saul offer sacrifice: nor the Emperours Cook take upon him to expound Scripture; for if he do, and set a false gloss upon it, and falsly apply it, Basil may wisely and worthily check and reprove him, It belongeth to thee to prepare puls and broth for the Emperour, Tuum est pulmen a Cae­sari praeparare, non E­vangelium exponere. Basil. but not to expound the Scriptures. If the Cobler be so sawcy, as to find fault with the thigh of a picture, whose art and trade reach­eth no higher then the ankle, the Painter may well tell him, that he is out of his element, and put him in mind of the old Proverb, Ne sutor ultra crepidam.

It is good for all men to mind their own matters, and not to be Curiosi in alienâ repub­licâ. Ʋzziah, though a King, yet for offer­ing incense, and usurping upon the Priestly office, is smitten with leprousie to his dying day. Purpura facit Impera­torem, non Sacerdotem. Theodoret. lib. 5. c. 18. Saul is reproved as a fool by Samuel for the like fact and sault, 1 Sam. 13.13. The Reason. Ambrose gives to Theodosius, Purple makes an Emperour, not a Priest.

CHAP. 15. Of Pride in the Will.

VVIll-Pride is demonstrated two waies.

1. When mans Will is set up against Gods Will. It is Gods prerogative Royal, that his Will is a Law to himself, and to all Creatures; it is his prerogative to do what seemeth good in his own eyes: I say unto you, saith Bernard, that every proud man exalts himself above God; for God will have his Will to be done, and the proud man will have his own Will to be done. Now God ap­proveth things that are reasonable; but the proud man goes with­out reason, and against reason. Bern. flor. cap. 1. now here is the pride of man, that he set­teth up his own Will to himself as his Law, and that he careth not to be guided and ruled by the Will and commands of God: every proud person seeks to do what seemeth good in his own eyes. God com­manded the Jews, saying, obey my voice, and I will be your God, and you shall be my people, and walk in [Page 114]all the waies that I have commanded you, that it may be well unto you; but they hearkned not, nor enclined their ear, but walked in the counsels and imaginations of their evil heart, and went backward, and not forward, Jer. 7.23, 24. and ver. 27. Therefore thou shalt speak all these words unto them, but they will not hearken to thee, thou shalt also call unto them, but they will not answer thee. Austin, when he confesseth that sin of his in his youth, robbing his neighbours Ort-yards, he aggra­vateth that sin by many circumstances, and a­mong others, because he would satisfie himself; and therefore saith, that all sinners do what is good in their own eyes, not what God would have them.

The Will of God revealed may be divided in­to two branches.

1. Obedientia nisi humili­um esse non potest. August. The particular Will of God revealed to some particular persons, upon particular oc­casions, to the performance of some particular duties; and this many times dispenceth with a general precept: as we may see, Gen. 22. when Abraham is commanded to go to mount Moriah, and there offer up his own son in sacrifice to the Lord, contrary to the sixth commandment, that saith, Exod. 20.13. Non occides, thou shalt not kill. Item, Exod. 11.2. Exod. 3.22. where the Israelites are commanded to rob and spoil the Egyptians, of jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and rai­ment, contrary to the eighth commandment, which saith, non furaberis, thou shalt not steal. [Page 115]So where Saul is commanded to slay the A­malekites, with all that appertained to them, 1 Sam. 15.3. and spare nothing. Now herein appeared A­brahams and the Israelites humility in setting about what God com­manded, and Sauls pride, Proud men wish in their hearts, though they dare not speak it with their tongues, for fiat voluntas tua, fiat voluntas mea; the wicked through the pride of his counte­nance will not seek af­ter God, Psal. 10.4. in doing no more of Gods command then what seemed good to him; there­fore he is reproved by Samuel, and rejected, by the Lord, 1 Sam. 19.28. But these instances are no pre­cedents to us, unless we have the like charge that they had, and then we must yeild absolute and simple obedience, without reasoning or disputing the case: For however Gods Will be sometimes occulta, yet it is never injusta, saith Austin: he doth not as men should do, viz. bid things because they be lawful, and forbid them because unlawful; but whatsoever they were before, his Will al­ters the nature of them; for whatsoever he biddeth is lawful; Ipso facto, virtute mandati aut intera dicti. and whatsoever he forbid­deth is unlawful, ipso facto, by vertue of the command or interdiction; of this we have sel­dom any examples nowadaies.

2. The other branch of his revealed Will which is more ordinary, is his general Will concerning all estates and conditions of people, contained in his general precepts: and this hath divers branches.

1. The first whereof is the conversion of a sinner. As I live saith the Lord, I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked, but that [Page 116]the wicked turn from his way and live. And Christ saith, This is the Will of him that sent me, John 6.40. that every one that seeth the Son and be­lieveth in him, should have everlasting life. And Paul saith, that it is the Will of God, that some of all sorts of people should be saved, 1 Tim. 2.4. and come to the knowledge of the truth.

2. A second branch of Gods revealed Will to us, is our Sanctification, 1 Thes. 4.3. and Peter tells us, that it is the Will of God, that by well-doing we put to silence the ignorance of foolish men. 1 Pet. 2.15

Now when men do not endeavour to effect their own conversion, when they will not come to Christ, Joh. 5.40. that they may have life, nor labour after sanctification, they set their wills against the Will of God.

2. The second note of Will-pride is impa­tience.

1. When men are impatient of reproof: better is the patient in spirit than the proud in spirit, saith Solomon. Eccles. 7.8. Superbi amant verita­tem lucentem, oderunt redarguentem. Aug. confes. lib. 10. cap 23. Reverend Musculus found this spirit in the Anabaptists in his time; when he had deserted the Romish Church, he was compelled through poverty, to hire himself with a Taylor, and to work with him at his trade; this man he found to be an Anabaptist, one that pretended to much holiness, but was nothing so, though a great talker. Musculus therefore repro­veth him; and among other things finding that he was idle, and neglected his calling, [Page 117]urged him, with that of the Apostle, He that will not work, let him not eat. Melch. Adam. in vit. Mus­cult. p. 735. But the Ana­baptist was too proud to receive a reproof, and poor Musculus was presently thrust out of his doors. Pride stops the ear against reproof. Reprove a scorner, saith Solomon, and he will hate thee: this shews such men to have Athe­istical hearts; did they believe holy reproofs and threatnings taken out of the Word of God, they would not scorn them, but tremble at them: when the Word of God cometh so close, that it toucheth mens bosome sins, and crosseth them in their evil ways, but they will not hearken, but find out shifts to evade the force of the Word, this cometh from Pride in the Wills of men. When Jeremiah had made an end of speaking to all the people all the Words of the Lord, for which the Lord their God had sent him to them: Jerem. 43.1, 2. Then spake Azariah the son of Hoshajah, and Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the proud men, saying to Jeremiah, Thou speakest falsly; The Lord God hath not sent thee to say, Go not into Egypt to so­journ there; but Baruch the son of Neriah, set­teth thee on against us. Now as a proud man hateth a just reproof, so being guilty, he easily applyeth to himself any thing that he heareth, though not spoken to him, Sueton. in vit. Tiber. Neron. as Suetonius re­cordeth of Tiberius Nero, that hearing Zeno the Philosopher disputing, and not under­standing some harsh sentences he used, he asked in what Dialect he spake? who answering truly, in the Dorick, it was taken so ill, as the [Page 118]poor man was condemned to perpetual banish­ment for it, as if he had closly taxed Tiberius his loose and lascivious life he led among the Rhodians who spake that Dialect. They who have high thoughts of themselves, think meanly of what others say to them: were men poor in spirit, they would embrace every advice that hath truth and holiness in it. Therefore when the Prophet would fasten a reproof on the Jews, Jerem. 13.15. he saith to them, Hear, and give ear, and be not proud. As in the matter of private reproofs, so, the proud man cannot endure Church censures. Hist. Mag­deb. Cen­tur. 2. Aquila the antient Greek translator of the Bible, left Christianity, and turned to Judaism, being angry at a sentence of excommunication against him: so Santan­gelus the great Lawyer of Burdeaux was much enraged against the famous Camero, Cameron. Stellit. in Epist. and other Ministers of the Protestant Church, because he was convented before their Synod for some de­linquency.

2. When men are impatient under afflicti­ons: A proud man cannot endure to be crost in any thing, nor bear the least affront: such men are like the Devil, who is the proudest and the most discontented creature of all other: Pride fils men with murmuring & discontented­ness against Gods Providences; if things go not according to a proud mans will, then he fumeth and is impatient. Thus it was with the Isra­elites; God had brought them out of Egypt, brought them through the wilderness, and to the border of the land of Canaan; but when [Page 119]they hear there are Giants, and fenced Cities, Num. 14.2, 3, 4. then they fall a murmuring against Moses and Aaron, and said unto them: would God that we had dyed in the land of Egypt, or in this wil­derness: and in their mad mood, they say one to another, Let us make a Captain, and let us return into Egypt. So in like manner those discontented rebels, Numb. 16. call Egypt a land flowing with milk and hony, ver. 13. whereas it was a land where their infants were murdered, and themselves cruelly enslaved; they had forgotten those evils and miseries out of which God had delivered them, but now they talk as if God and Moses had done no­thing for them, but deprived them of many comforts which there they possessed. He that ruleth over his own spirit, saith the wise man, Latius regnes domando spiritum, quam si Lybi­am remotis Gadibus jungas. Horat. lib. 2. od. 2. ad Salust. is greater than he that o­vercometh Cities, Prov. 16.32. Therefore self-denyal is a Grace enjoyned by our Saviour to accom­pany the bearing of the Cross, Luk: 9.23. A man must not only abnegare sua, de­ny and forsake his goods and lands for Christs sake, if necessity require; nor also abnegare suos, forsake his friends if they labour to with­draw him from his best friend; Amandus est genitor, sed praepo­amdus est Creator. Arabr. but also abne­garese, he must deny himself, yea to hold him­self as it were an excommunicate person (as one saith in another case) if he will bring his will to submit to Gods Will, and quietly bear the yoke of Christ. How patiently doth our Saviour carry himself in this respect; when a [Page 120]bitter cup was put into his hand to drink. Thus he praies to his Father: Father, if thou be willing, Luk. 22.42 Matth. 26.39. remove this cup from me, as Luke hath it: Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me, as Matthew hath it: nevertheless, not my will, but thine be done. Calvin saith, these latter words be a correction of his former petition, Videmus ut pia sint vo­ta, quae in speciem à dei voluntate discrepant: quia non exactè sem­per, vel scrupulose à nobis inquiri vult deus, quid statuerit ipse, sed quod pro sensus nostri captu optabile est, flagi­tari à se permittit. Calv. in Harm. Evang. which he saith, he let fall on the suddain, by reason of the greatness of his grief, without considering what his Father had de­creed: he was so earnestly bent on what he naturally desired, without recalling himself: yet he freeth him from fault, though he asked what was not agreeable to his Fathers will. Its lawful saith he, to pray for the peaceable and flourishing estate of the Church, the suppressing of superstition, and the repressing of the enemies of Gods truth, though perhaps he purpose not to grant these things, but will have his Son reign in the midst of his enemies, and his Church as the Lilly among thorns, and the wicked to remain, to exercise the faith and patience of his Saints.

But in my conceit Beza saith better on Mat. Quod ad­ditur, non significat repugnantiam voluntatum quae peccato non caruisset, sed diversitatem, quae per se vitiosa non est, ne in hominibus quidem, si modo hominis voluntas cognitae dei voluntati libens acquiescat. Beza in Mat­thew 26. 26.39. that it was not a correction, but [Page 121]an explication of his former Petition, and a Declaration with what condition he should ask it: nor doth it signifie a repugnancy of wills, which could not have wanted sin, but a diversity, which per se is not vitious, no not in men, if so be the will of man doth willingly assent to, and rest in the known Will of God.

The meaning then briefly, may be this: Father, if it may stand with thy good pleasure, Christ was willing to die, voluntate rationa­li, though not naturali, for our redemption, to be obedient to his Fa­ther. Lumb. sent. lib. 3. distin. 17. and mans redempti­on may otherwise be wrought, let this bitter potion of my passion pass by me; but rather then disobey thy decree, and not do what I came for, I yeeld to any thing, submitting my self to thee, and my will to thine.

This confutes the Monothelites, a Sect of Hereticks of old, that thought and taught Christ to have but one pure Will, as Calvin noteth: but properly it condemneth such as desire the fulfilling of their own perverse, crooked and corrupt wills, whatsoever be­came of the Will of God: but if Christ in whom reason never lost his regiment, Perdidit vitam, ne perderet o­bedientiam. Bern. nor was ever either non resident or non regent, yet sub­mitted himself and his Will to his Fathers Will, what ever it cost him (for as Bernard saith, he lost his life, that he might not lose his obedience) then what arrogancy and Pride were it in us, to desire our wills simply to be done? no, all our prayers, petitions, deprecations, and sup­plications, [Page 122]must be with condition and sub­mission to the Will of God; Oramus, non ut deus quod vult faciat, sed ut nos quod vult facia­mus. Cyprian. when we pray that petition, Thy Will be done, we pray not that God may do what he Will, but that we may do what he willeth, saith Cyprian.

CHAP. 16. Of Pride in the affections.

PRide in the affections is discovered by a kind of a sinful and fantastical affectation to be like unto God: there is a likeness to God in holiness, in grace, in humility, this is com­mendable; and this is the Image of God wherein man was created; but Pride is a sinful affecting to be like unto God. There are two things wherein a proud person doth affect to be like unto God.

1. It is Gods prerogative royal, that what­ever excellency he hath, he hath them in and of himself; he is not beholden to any creature, It is written of one Timotheus an Athenian, that after he had proudly said in a great assembly, Haec ego feci, non fortuna, he never after prospered in any thing. Deut. 8.14, 15, 16, 17, 18. and the whole glory of all that he hath belongeth to him: Now a proud man doth assume to himself the glory of all the ex­cellency that he hath. Therefore God gives a caveat to his people, Beware when thy herds and flocks multiply, and thy silver and thy gold is multiplied, &c. that then thy heart be not lifted up, and thou forget the Lord thy God [Page 123]which brought thee forth out of the land of E­gypt, from the house of bondage, &c. Beware lest thou say in thy heart, My power, and the might of my hand hath gotten me all this wealth: But thou shalt remember the Lord thy God, for it is he that giveth thee power to get wealth, &c. and Deut. 9. saith he, when thou shalt pass over Jordan, and possess Nations greater and mightier than thy self, Cities great and fenced up to heaven, ver. 4. speak not thou in thine heart, after that the Lord thy God hath cast them out from before thee, saying, Deut. 9.1, 4. For my righteousness the Lord hath brought me in to possess this land; but for the wickedness of these Nations the Lord doth drive them out before thee: Perhaps in word, the proud man may make some kind of acknowledgement of God, as the proud Pharisee; Lord, I thank thee, I am not as other men are, nor even as this Publi­can: yet he assumeth all the glory to himself, though in word he seem to honour God. Parisiensis Parisiensis saith, that a proud man is both an idolater, and sets up himself as his own idol, and so robs God of his glory. The proud man makes himself his own Alpha, thanks himself for all; makes himself his own Omega, seeks himself in all, begins, and ends at himself. Humble Paul cries out, In me, that is, Rom. 7. in my flesh, there dwells no good thing, and when he speaks of his own labours, he saith, 1 Cor. 15.10. Rhem. annot. in Heb. 5. by the Grace of God I am that I am. The Papists here are to be taxed, who (as the Rhemists do confess) affirm Gods election to be because of faith or [Page 124]good works foreseen in us. But this is con­trary to Scripture and reason: for that which is the effect, cannot be the cause; but good works and faith be the fruits of election; as Austin speaks thus on Eph. 1.4. He chose us not because we were holy, but that we might be holy; he chose none being wor­thy, Elegit nos non quia sancti eramus, sed ut sancti essemus. Neminem elegit dignum, sed eli­gendo effecit dignum. Aug. cont. Julian. Pe­lag. lib. 5. cap. 3. but by chusing made him wor­thy; you have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, saith Christ to his Disciples: whereas if God should elect for faith and good works fore­seen, men should first chuse God, by believing in him, and doing such good works as were acceptable to him. It was the errour of the Elders of the Jews, when they came to Christ in the behalf of the Centu­rion, to plead his worthiness to him, why he should heal his servant. Here was their Pride to think, that by outward service of God men might merit his favour: He loveth our Nation (say they) and hath built us a Syna­gogue: Luk. 7.2, 3, 4. wherein they resemble our Papists and divers orders of Monks and Friars, who will not stick to promise men heaven, if they will be but bountiful Benefactors to their Frater­nities, and Monasteries, Cells and Cloysters: But however he could challenge nothing for himself, Omnes per­egrini ri­tus, & ex­ternae religiones, Senatus consulto damnatae erant. Tertul. in apologet. cont. gentes. nor they for him at Gods hand, for these his good deeds; yet he was a worthy man, [Page 125]and a good Christian, as appeareth by his love to Religion, and care to build a place for the people to assemble themselves to Gods wor­ship. No difficulty detaineth him from doing his duty: Its like enough that this fact being complained of, might procure him Tiberius the Emperours displeasure, and cost him the loss of his office; for all forreign and strange Re­ligions were hated, and might not be admitted by the Romans, as Tertullian tells us.

2. It is Gods prerogative royal to act all for himself, he hath no higher end than his own honour and glory. The Lord made all things for himself, for his own glory, Dionysius junior alebat Sophistas, non quod magni faceret, sed ut propter eosin admiratio­nem esset. Plut. mor. 11 p. 400. Prov. 16.4. Now a proud man doth not mind the glory of God in his own thoughts, but his own glory, his own praise, credit and esteem. The Pharisees when they gave alms, blew a trumper, that people might take notice what merciful men they were, that they might have the glory of men; and when they prayed, they often did it in the corners of the streets, that they might be seen of men. Humane applause was all they sought for; ap­probation from God and acceptance with him they look not after, and this they have as their reward. Therefore saith Christ to his hear­ers, Mat. 6.1, 2, 4, 5, 6. Take heed that you do not your alms before men to be seen of them, &c. Mat. 6.1.

Object. But it may be said that our Savi­our, Mat. 5.16. commends and commands, what he forbids and condemneth here; for [Page 126]there he saith, Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works: and here, See that you do them not before men to be seen of them.

Answ. If we compare the places, we shall see its no such matter; for in the former place we are bidden to do good works before men, that they may see them, and glorifie God for them, and be occasioned to imitate and follow them, as 1 Pet. 2.12. And here we are for­bidden to do them before men: About one hundred and odd years agone; some of the Princes, Noble-men, and Gen­tlemen of Germvny in a vain glorious way, caused these five letters V.D.M.I.Ae. the first letters of ver­bum dei manet in aeter­num, to be wrought or embroydered, or set in plate upon their cloaks, or sleeves of their garments, to de­clare to the world, that forsaking Popish traditions, they were professors of the pure Word of God: but many of these men had not the Word written upon their hearts. Joh. Wolf. lect. membr. Tom. 2. ad ann. 1549. not simply, but eo animo, to be extolled, praised and magnified for doing of them: we may bona opera ostendere, shew our good works; but not osten­tare, not make an ostentation of them; we must aym at Gods glory, not our own: if it follow, it must be upon the by, and more then we ex­pect or respect in doing our duties. It must, as one saith, be but a conse­quent, no cause moving us. But praise will follow vertuous and pi­ous actions, as the shadow the body. The Romans made the image of vain glory in the form of a vagrant wo­man, writing over her head, This is the Image of vain-glory: This Image had a Crown on her head, a Scepter in her left hand, a Peacock in the other, her eyes vailed and blinded, sitting on a Chariot drawn by four Lions; the reason of all this was, be­cause [Page 127]the lovers of vain honour and glory, are as inconstant as a vagrant woman; the Crown on her head shewing, that they ever desire to be honoured and admired in this world like Kings; the Scepter betokening thier desire to rule; the Peacock shewing, that as the Peacock decks his former part with his tail, and so leaves his hinder parts naked, so vain­glorious men deck themselves in the eye of this world, and deprive themselves of eternal glory; the vail that is before her, denoteth how blind the vain-glorious man is, that he cannot see his own folly and arrogancy; the four Lions intimate, that the vain honour of this world is ever drawn with four cruel sins, as fierce as Lions, Pride, Avarice, Luxury, and Envy: A proud man can bear reproach of none, and seeks to be adored and praised by all. Calvisius Sabinus got servants skilled in all arts, and speaking all languages, arrogating all that they knew to himself. Seneca ad Lucil. Epist. 27.

CHAP. 17. Of Pride of gifts in general.

GIfts are those endowments with which God fills the minds of men for the edi­fying of the Church of Christ, and of these the Apostle tells us there is a diversity, 1 Cor. 12.4. Si sono benle differenti & de doni, maegli e vn medesimo Spirito, &c. Questo fanno il genere sotto il quale si conten­gonole specie che sono soggiunte delle ammini­strationi, & operationi. Ital. Annota. in 1 Cor. 12.4, 5, 6. and these all proceed from the Spirit of God: Gifts are (as it were) the life of a Christian; and the Spirit of God is the life of them all. There is not greater va­riety of Herbs, Trees, Plants, Knots, Flowers in a curious garden en­closed (to which the Church is com­pared) then there is of gifts in the minds of men: some indeed have a double portion of gifts, as Elisha had of the spirit of Elijah, and every one hath his proper gift suit­able to that place whereunto God hath called him, his dimensum, as the Scripture termeth it. Now the design of the Devil is to make a man proud of his gifts, and to look more upon his gifts, then look to the giver of them: when a man feeds this humour in himself, and is so far from checking it in his heart, that he rather seeks to foment it, and add matter to it, and sheweth it by the contempt of others of in­feriour gifts, this is a note that gifts do puffe him up with Pride.

Now this is a great vanity for a man to be proud of gifts.

1. Because these gifts are not our own, but Gods: Who made thee to differ from another? or what hast thou (saith Paul) which thou hast not received? and if thou hast received it, 1 Cor. 4.7. why then dost thou boast? &c. every good and perfect gift cometh from above from the Father of lights who giveth freely, &c. Jam. 1. We have nothing that is good, Omnia mea mala, purè mala sunt & mea; om­nia mea bona, purè bona suit, et non mea. Hugo Card. Austin observeth a­gainst the Heathen, that Christian vertues far surpass the vertues of the Heathen by the name they are called; saith he, you call yours habits, because you have them; we call ours gifts, because we receive them from God. but is the gift of God, and cometh from the grace of God. Thus one saith, All my evils are purely evil, and mine; All my good things are purely good, and not mine: And Austin upon the fifth Petition of the Lords prayer saith, What can be less then bread? yet lest we might think to have that of our selves, our Master hath taught us to beg it of our hea­venly Father, saying, and praying daily, Give us this day our daily bread: therefore seeing all that we have, whither for the body or mind, are Gods gifts, we must not say of them as proud Nebuchadnezzar doth, Is not this great Babel that I have built? &c. Dan. 4.30. Be not these the things that I have attained to by my wit, parts, industry? &c. We may not say of the gifts of God in us, as the Atheists of their tongues, Psal. 12. that they are our own, and we may do with them what we list: for, if they are ours, let us shew our evidence, [Page 130]when we purchased them, and what we paid for them, before whom the instruments were drawn, sealed and delivered: Besides, we must know that as our gifts be not our own abso­lute fee-simple and free-hold, but we only co­py-holders and tenants at will, nor have we any such custome but may be broken at the pleasure of our Land-lord: so we be not so much as quarter owners of them, but only stewards over them, and must be accomptable for them, Luk. 16.2. Therefore we must not be proud of any gift, but acknowledge Gods goodness, and say with the Kingly Prophet, what shall we render to the Lord for all his bene­fits towards us?

2. Because Pride of gifts hinders a man from doing much good with them; the end why God giveth diversities of gifts to men, is that they may impart them to the benefit of one another: Posuit Deus in Ecclesia quosdam ut oculos, quosdam ut linguas, nonnullos ut aures, alios item manuum, alios pe­dum qui rationem obti­nerant. Basil. you know that in the body of the world there are diver­sities of commodities for this end and purpose, that one Nation may have commerce with another. Hirams country yeelds good timber and stone, Solomons country good wheat and oyl: Moah was a sheep-country, and Ophir was famous for gold, Chittim for ivory, Basan for oaks, Lebanon for cedars: this is the ground of all commerce and traffick: so God hath enriched one with this gift, ano­ther with that, not to grow proud of it, or to monopolize it to themselves, but mutually to [Page 131]impart their gifts to the good of one another. 1 Cor. 12.21, 22, 25. As in the body natural there are many mem­bers, yet but one body, and the eye cannot say to the hand, nor the head to the foot, I have no need of thee, but all must be helpful to, and not disdain each other, that there may be no schisme in the body, the members must have the same care of one another: so men of the greatest gifts and parts must not disdain to be helpful to the meanest Christian. There was found in the house of Luther these words, Res & verba Philippus, Res sine verbis Lu­therus, verba sine re Erasmus. Melancton was words and matter, Luther was matter without words, Erasmus words without matter: there­fore as Dr. Hall observeth, hath the blind man legs, and the lame man eyes, that there may be an exchange between them for the benefit of mankind.

3. The more and greater our gifts are, the more we are indebted to God; when God com­eth to call us to give up our accompts, he will look into our receipts: he that hath had five talents must account for five; for to whom much is given, of him much shall be required. Now to be proud of thy great gifts, Luk 12.48 is to be proud how much thou standest indebted to God.

CHAP. 18. Of Pride of Wit.

PRide of wit, is when a man is pufft up with his knowledge, quickness of apprehension, depth of judgement. As the finest cloth is soonest stained, so the rarest wits are most sub­ject to Pride: as moths do sooner breed in fine cloth then in course, so Pride and vain­glory do soon surprize a man of the quickest wits: a good and modest wit is bet­ter then a great wit; Errores magni siac mag­nis ingeni is non nascun­tur. August. That men should not be proud of wit, or na­tural parts, Chemni­tius proveth from the example of Tacianus, who by the testimo­nies of Clemens. Alex­andrinus and Eusebius, was a man of great parts, yet fell into great heresies, and gross absurdities. Vid. Chemnit. Harm. 1. part. [...] 2. p. 7, 8. for often-time a great wit is the spring of great evils, and the greatest errours usu­ally arise out of the greatest wits; thence Tertullian called the Philo­sophers (the great wits of the world) Haereticorum Patriarchas, the chief Fathers of Hereticks. When men of great wit and parts appear for an errour, the repute of their ingenu­ity and parts draws many after them, and doth much mischief; and such men do most misuse their wit, and abuse it to licentionsness. The Grammarian busieth his brains a­bout the Concordances and regiments of Nouns, Verbs and quantities of Syllables, and will not for any thing make a Soloecisme in [Page 133]speech, but will not stick to make a thousand in his actions; the Rhetoritian discourseth co­piously, the Logitian disputeth subtilly; the Arithmetitian is cunning in numbers and divi­sions, but he will scarce impart a penny to the poor; for then if it come to matters of practice in life, he is better skilled in addition, and mul­tiplication, then in substraction and division; he will use Zeno his Rhetorick, and open his hand wide to get riches; and then his Logick, shut it again to keep them, when he hath them. About these things many men beat their wits: But its better to have a true knowledge of a mans self, then the course, scituation, and o­perations of the stars and planets, then the vertues of herbs and plants, then the diver­sities of humours, and complexions, and con­stitutions, then the natures of beasts or what­ever Philosophy rational, moral or natural can afford to man; for what booteth it the Geome­tritian or Cosmographer to be able to measure the compass of the earth, or take the height of the moon, when with all his art he cannot meet out the length of his own life, though but a span long, nor take the measure of himself and his own deceitful heart? if we look not into our selves, we cannot know our selves; and if we take a strict view of our selves, we cannot be proud. That witty men are apt to abuse their wits, Austin shews in an Epistle of his to Licentius a young Noble man that was very witty, one that had been sometime his scholar; a witty Poem of his coming to [Page 134]the hands of Austin (who perceived he had wickedly abused his wit therein) he writes to him in this manner: I have read this Poem of thine, and I know not with what verses to la­ment and mourn over it, because I see a preg­nant wit in every line, August 39. Epist. ad Licent. but such a one as I cannot dedicate to God: then he exhorts him, Da te Domino meo, &c. Give thy self to my Lord, who hath given thee this excellent wit; if thou hadst found a golden cup, wouldst thou not have given it to some publick use? God hath given thee a golden wit, Pliny saith of C. Caesar Dictatour that he was a man of a prompt and ready wit, as nimble and active as the very fire; that he ordinarily indited letters to four Secretaries or Clarks at once, and was wont to write, read, and to give audience to sui­tors, and hear their causes all at one in­stant. Plin. nat. hist. lib. 7. cap. 25. thy understanding is a golden cup, and wilt thou let thy lusts drink out of it, or wilt thou drink thy self to the devil in it? know thou, that Satan seeks to make thy wit an or­nament to him, and thy parts the credit of his court and cause. Boast not of the acuteness of thy wit; for it is not the acuteness of wit, but the goodness, equability, solidity and constancy thereof that is best to be commended: a quick wit is but as a slender web, if it be light, fro­thy, and inconstant. Some there are that glory of the depth and subtilty of their wit, glorying of their trains for their foes, and tricks for themselves and their friends, how by their wits they have fet off others, and set up themselves, yea even what they have gained by their sinful devices, these are like brazen­faced harlots: this is a wicked emulation to [Page 135]strive who shall be worst. This fault had sometime overtaken Austin before his conver­sion, but he confesseth and bewaileth it bitter­ly; we must beware of it, for it is a fearful thing to be wilful and witty in wickedness; Jer. 4.22. of such the Prophet speaks, They are wise to do evil, but to do good they have no knowledge. Such as these are all worldly Polititians and cun­ning Machiavilians, that think themselves wiser then Moses, and Daniel, David or Solo­mon, yea peradventure then God himself; for they will prefer their own wits before his re­vealed will in his Word, and their own plots and projects, stratagems and devices, before his precepts and prescriptions, statutes and di­rections: such a fellow was Achitophel, 2 Sam. 17.23. who out of pride, and for anger that his counsel was not followed, went and made his will, and then hanged himself: such another was the King of Tyrus, of whose Pride and fall you may read, Ezek. 28. from 1. ad 10. such ano­ther was Herod Agrippa, of whose pride and fall we read, Act. 12.22, 23. for being con­tent to accept the peoples flattering acclama­tion of his vain-glorious declamation, for which they accounted him a God and no man, his miserable end presently ensuing, proved him a miserable man and not god. The wisdom of the flesh, saith the Apostle, is enmity with God; Rom. 8.7. [...], M [...]ton ad­juncti. whatever mans corrupt wit and carnal wis­dom enclineth to, delighteth in, or exerciseth it self about, is directly contrary and opposite unto God, and very enmity it self against him.

CHAP. 19. Of Pride of Memory.

MEmory is one of the greatest natural gifts, and one of the principal utensils of our life, it is the repository of truth, and the store-house of the soul, depending much upon the understanding: Some men have excelled for the greatness of their memories, having, Plin. nat. hist. lib. 7. cap. 24. Some have so good a memory, that they go (as it is said) to ga­ther Mulberies with­out a hook, to the well without a pitcher. as one saith, drunk memoriae dolium; a whole hogs-head there­of. The memory of King Cyrus was so great, that he was able to call every souldier that he had through his whole army by his own name: L. Scipio could do the like by all the Citizens of Rome; and Cyneas Em­bassador of King Pyrrhus the very next day that he came to Rome, both knew and sa­luted all the Senatours by name, and the whole degrees of Gentlemen and Cavalry in the City. King Mithridates governed divers Nations of divers languages, and gave laws and ministred justice to them, and made speeches to every Nation in their own lan­guage: Thuan. in chit. doct. virorum. p. 384. and so great was the memory of Beza, that when he was above fourscore years of age, he could perfectly rehearse any Greek chapter in Pauls Epistles, or any other thing which he had learn't long before. Now some [Page 137]have been proud of their memories, and God hath taken it from them, as from Messala Corvinus the great Oratour, who after a great sickness forgot his own proper name: Staupiti­us Tutor to Luther, and a good man, in a proud ostentation of his memory repeated the Gene­alogy of Christ (Matth. 1.) by heart in a Sermon of his, but being quite out, when he came to the captivity of Babylon, Melch. Adam. in vita Stau­pitii. p. 20. he uttered these words, Now I see that God resisteth the proud. Canst thou remember many things? know, that God can make the remembrance of those things sad to thee, that have been most delightful to thee: Memoria similis reti, quod majora continet, minora transmittit. E­rasmus. If thou hast done that which is good, the remembrance of that will be sweet unto thee; but if thou hast done evil, the remembrance of that will cause thee sorrow and vexation of spirit; If thou canst remember many things, then thou must expect that thy sins, and reproaches, faults and wickednesses will come to thy remembrance, as well as any good thing that hath been done by thee; It is said of Julius Cae­sar that he forgot no­thing but injuries. and the thoughts of by-past evils will more afflict thee, then the delight of any pre­sent good can be pleasant to thee. A free man will indeed remember his captivity with de­light, Haec olim meminisse juvabit. a man that is set at liberty will remember his bonds, and a man that is ransomed and returned home his exile, a rich man his pover­ty, a man restored to health his sickness: but there is some thing that will stick close to a [Page 138]man upon the remembrance of it, and that is ignominy and reproach: a good name is bet­ter then riches, yea then life it self. Boast not then of the greatness of thy memory; for in the remembrance of divers things, there wanteth not abundance of trouble; some things will prick, some things will wound and tear thy conscience, some things will terrifie thee, some deject thee, and other things will confound thee. Art thou proud of thy great memory? let me ask thee this question, What then is the reason thou art so forgetful of Gods Commandements, When one promised Themistocles to teach him the art of memory invented by Simonides, he said he had rather learn the art of for­getfulness, then of memory. and of divine precepts, which are but few in num­ber? whence is it that thou forget­test that one and only God, and thy duty towards him? It may be, thy memory is very tenacious of inju­ries, of worldly things and outward concernments (for even old men do precisely remember all their several debtors, and their manner of dealing, and all the coffers, cabinets and corners, wherein they have laid up and hid their gold and jewels; they carry an exact inventory of them in their heads.) But what a vain thing is it to remem­ber all other things, and not know how to return into our selves, and to forget the one thing necessary? Its good to put many things out of our minds, and utterly to forget them, so we may remember God; and whosoever truly remembreth him, may say he hath for­gotten nothing. Eccl. 12.1. Therefore remember thy [Page 139]Creatour in the daies of thy youth: Remem­ber the providences of God, and the years of the most High to observe them and improve them for thy good; remember the justice of God to keep thee from sin, remember the commandments of God to do them, the mercy of God to keep thee from despair; remember thy sins to mourn and grieve and to be daily humbled for them, and Gods mercies to be continually thankful for them; remember death that thou maist alwaies be in preparation for it: King Philips Page of Macedon, Memento Philippe te esse homi­nem. was to sound this every morning in his ears, Remem­ber O Philip that thou art but a man; the re­membrance of these things will never puffe thee up with Pride, but alwaies keep thee very humble.

CHAP. 20. Of Pride of Eloquence.

ELoquence is an excellent gift wheresoever it is bestowed, and for this many heathens have been famous. The Athenians exiled Thucydides their Captain General: Pronunciatio & vita Philosophi debent esse compositae; it ought to be like snow coming leisurely, not like rain coming down as by buckets. Plin. nat. hist. lib. 7. cap. 30. but after he had written his Chroni­cle, they called him home again, wondring at the eloquence of the man. Socrates sold one Oration that he made for twenty talents of gold. Pliny saith, that Cicero's elo­quence was the cause that all the Tribes renounced the law Agraria, as touching the division of lands among the Commons, albeit their greatest maintenance consisted therein; he saith that he was the first that was saluted by the name of Pater pa­triae, Father of his country; the first that de­served triumph in his long robe, and the Laurel garland for his language, and calleth him the Father of eloquence and of the Latin tongue: Augusto prosluens, & quae principem deceret eloquentia fuit. Ta­citus. Suetonius saith, that in eloquence Augustus Caesar was most excellent and expert; and well might he be so: for even during his wars, he saith, he read, wrote and declamed every day; he would never deliver a speech to his wife or servants, but it was pre­meditated, [Page 141]lest it might rusticitatem olere, savour of clownishness, or gravitate carere, want gravity: and Caesar the Di­ctatour in eloquence, Philosophi et multo ma­gis Theologi debent ver­ba ponere, non projicere, et imprimis quaerere non quantum, sed quemad­modum dicant. Medicus aegros in transitu non curat; ergo concionator qui animarum medicus est, insistere debet, donec auditores condiderit. Seneca ad Lucil. E­pist. 40. either matcht or over-matcht the very best in his time, saith Suetonius; and Cicero de Oratore saith, he giveth place unto none. But most of these were pufft up because they had the trumpet at their lips. It is better for a man to be dumb then eloquent, if humility be not adjoyned thereunto: no man can be a good Oratour, unless also he be truly good: One being askt why he spake so well, and lived so ill: answered, because his words were in his power, but not his actions. When Calisthenes had made an eloquent Oration in the praise of the Macedonians, Alexander not pleased with his person, taxeth and disgraceth his action, saying the goodness of the cause made him elo­quent, and any man might have spoken as well of such a subject; and therefore to try him, bid him to speak ex tempore in their dispraise, which when he had likewise done eloquently, he took him off and said, Before the goodness of the cause, now vain-glory and malice made him eloquent. And Hierome was wont to say of a Philosopher, that he was a vain-glorious crea­ture, and a base bond-slave to praise. Gloriae ani­mal, et po­pularisaurae mancipium. Hieron. Doubt­less eloquence in it self is much to be desired, especially by Ministers; this made Paul ex­hort the Ephesians, as to pray for all Saints, so [Page 142]for him in particular, that utterance might be given unto him, Ephes. 6.19. that he might open his mouth boldly, to make known the mystery of the Gospel. And although some think that Paul was not eloquent (which they would collect from 2 Cor. 10.10. it being only, Optimi doctores sunt qui docent faciendo, & qui magis admiratione digni sunt cum viden­tur quam cum audiun­tur. Seneca ad Lucil. Epist. 53. as I suppose, a slight opinion that that proud Church of Corinth had of him, as appeareth by the verses following) yet doubtless Paul was extraordinary eloquent, as appears in that the Lystrians took him for Mercury the god of elo­quence, because he was the chief speaker, Act. 14.12. also it is evident by his divers Orati­ons in the Acts of the Apostles, and by all his Epistles; yet such was his humility, and so meanly doth he think of himself in this respect, that he earnestly begs their prayers, that he may speak and speak to the purpose as he ought to speak. Echerus bonus Orator, nunquam tamen dubita­vit, nunquam intermisit, sed semel incipiebat, & semel desinebat. Seneca. When the Holy ghost was poured out on the Apo­stles on the day of Pentecost, they will not be silent, when the Spirit hath given them utterance and made them eloquent; where there is a head fraught with learning and know­ledge, and an heart full of devotion, there will be a mouth full of instruction, as Solomon tells us, Prov. 10.11. Prov. 15.7. The mouth of a righteous man is a well of life: and the lips of the wise disperse know­ledge, being like Maries pound of Spikenard to persume the whole house, John 12.3. or [Page 143]like a candle in a work-mans shop, Austin confesseth this to God of his Father, that he troubled not himself how he pros­pered in Gods service, only his care was that he might be eloquent, and learned to speak well. Luke 4.20, 22. to give light to all that are in it. Our Saviour and John Baptist were very eloquent and powerful Preach­ers. Herod was much affected with Johns preaching, Marke 6.20. and the men of Nazareth were much ta­ken with the preaching of Christ; their eyes were all sastened on him, and wondered at the gracious words that came out of his mouth: he taught them as one that had gravity and authority in his speech: Mat. 7.29. so powerful were his words, that when the Phari­sees and chief Priests sent their officers to take Christ, they were taken by his words; Joh. 7.45, 46. and be­ing returned, they said unto them, Why have ye not brought him? The officers answered, Never man spake like this man. Many by na­ture and Art have Gratiam verborum Grace of words, but want verba gratiae words of Grace or gracious words; now Christ had both, and Grace was poured into his lips: Psal. 45.2. they have Gratiam verborum that are eloquent, and many times by pride abuse it to reproach others, or set off themselves; but they have verba Gratiae, that speak a word in season to the wearied soul, Ephes. 4.29. Whither our elo­quence be natural or acquired, we should use it without affectation and ostentation, and not pride our selves in wit, words or phrases, Reyner. and good words to the use of edifying, that it may minister grace to the hearer. Herod had an eloquent tongue, but was pufft up with it, and the peoples admiration of him for it; [Page 144]whereas he had a thousand miscarriages in his life that troubled him not: But Herod by all his eloquence could not perswade the silly worms, who (as the Scripture saith) immedi­ately devoured him, because he gave not God the glory, Act. 12.23.

CHAP. 21. Of Pride of Learning and Knowledge.

GReat was the flaw natural reason met with in Adams fall; that that breach might in some measure be made up, God did not only lighten that Luminare magnum, his holy Scripture, but lightned also luminare mi­nus, a less light, the light of reason; by the help of arts and sciences he enlarged mans capacity even to the apprehension of his supernatural properties. Whither humane sciences began before the flood, or since; whither they were derived from Abraham to the Chaldeans, or from Joseph to the Egyptians; and whither Cadmus brought learning to the Greeks, and Carmenta to the Latines, or whither it came in by the Phaenicians or Assyrians, in general, I have now nothing to do to enquire; but this that I shall say, is, that wheresoever or in whomsoever they are, they be of God. This I note to stop those mouths that spend their invectives against humane learning: humane learning is with them like Sauls armour; tis [Page 145]too cumbersome, too unweildy to bear.

Object. But the Scripture saith, God will destroy the wisdome of the wise, and bring to nought the understanding of the prudent, 1 Cor. 1.19. and Paul bids the Colossians be­ware, lest any man spoile them through Philo­sophy and vain deceit, Colos. 2.8.

Answ. 1. When he saith, he will destroy the wisdom of the wise, it is not suam his own, nempe divinam illam quam ipsis dedit, viz. that divine wisdom that he hath given them, but fucatam illam, Summa cura provideto, ne cum accepta scientia tenchras ignorantiae pe­tit, lumen humilitatis tollat; & sic vera sapi­entia esse nequit, quae licet elocutionis fulgore luceat, cor tamen lo­quentis obscurat. Greg. moral. quam sibi arrogarunt, that adulterate wisdom which they have arrogated to them­selves, and so grow proud there­with; Those sentences which Paul quoteth out of the Greek Poets in the Acts and elsewhere, are (as Austin speaketh) thereby deliver­ed ab injust is possessoribus, as it were redeemed out of the hands of unjust usurpers: then indeed was the Mathematical and Chal­daick learning truly owned, when it was scitu­ate in Moses and Daniel: then was the Ora­torial and Greek learning rightly placed, when it was in the tenure of Paul and Apollos: all humane sciences, holy sentences and aphorisms are then in their due and un-usurped possessi­on, when they fall into the hands of the Saints generally, and specially, when they reside in Gods Ministers, whose lips must preserve knowledge.

2. When the Apostle speaks against Philoso­phy, [Page 146]you are to know that he neither con­demneth the whole body of Philosophy in general, nor any part thereof in particular be­ing rightly used; t'is only that empty nominal and equivocal Philosophy that goes about to seduce with enticing words, that Paul con­demneth; Davenant in Colos. 2. he only inveigheth against the a­buses thereof, by men that are pufft up with fleshly wisdom: he rejects it not simply, but only in some respects, when it containeth not it self within its own bounds, and keeps not within its compass; but intrencheth and in­trudeth upon Divinity, to the dishonour of God, and disadvantage of the truth, and thus it becometh vain deceit, which is added inter­pretative, Calvin in Colos. 2.8. by way of interpretation, as Calvin observeth upon the place: that old serpent the Devil is not more subtile in his turnings and windings, L'Apostolo non con­danna la filosofia semplice­mente usando, egli à le volte i principii communi con la vera filosofia main quanto ch' ella non si contienne suoi termini ne indrizza­ta à la gloria dei. Ital. Annot. in loc. whereby he compasseth the earth, then were the hereticks of former times, turn­ing and winding in their Philosophical subtil­ties; the practice of the Fathers in those times, was out of solid and substantial Philosophy to convince them, and so to do by them as David by Goliath, to wound them with their own weapon.

It were easie to shew divers Paradoxes in Philosophy, which cannot stand in divinity, wherein mans pride sets him to dispute against the wisdom of God; As

1. The eternity of the world: Philoso­phers say, the world is from eternity, because they say, Ex nihilo nihil fit: Out of nothing, nothing is made; and Divinity teacheth us; that God made all things out of nothing: Quod qui­dem verum est physice, & juxta naturae re­gulas, sed non Meta­physice, si ad primam causam & causam causarum, sc. deum respicias, qui mundum hunc visibilem ex nihilo creavit, & creare potest quicquid vult. that Maxime in Philosophy is true Physically, and according to the rules of nature, but not Meta­physically, if we look to the first cause, to God the cause of causes, who made this visible world out of nothing, and can create whatsoever he will.

2. The second is, that there shall be no re­surrection, A privatio­ne ad habi­tum nullus estregressus. because its an axiome in Philoso­phy, that from the privation to the habit, there is no regress; a natural body reduced to its first matter, whereof it was made cannot possibly take up the same again, and live after death: the Athenians therefore mock at Paul, when he teacheth at Athens the doctrine of the resurrection, a doctrine cross to Philo­fophical principles: which also is true natu­rally and physically, but false if you take it in a Metaphysical and supernatural sense, referring it to God.

3. Divers dispute also Philosophically a­gainst justification by faith only, or by Christ alone, as the imputation of his righteousness to us, Rom. 5.19. 2 Cor. 5.21. Psal. 32.1. Here again they wrangle and proudly cavil, [Page 148]saying, How can one be just or righteous by anothers righteousness, any more then be wise by another mans wisdom, or learned by ano­ther mans learning? I answer, that these things be not of the same sort or kind; for the former be also inherent in their subjects, as they can­not be separated from them, or imparted to any other; But the other may and are, virtu­te unionis Christi & Christianorum, by vertue of the union of Christ and Christians.

And a man may be fed with another mans meat, if it be given him, and he eat of it; or warm in another mans garments, if he wear them, or most properly pay his debts with ano­ther mans money, if it be either given him or lent him.

Divers other devices there are in Philoso­phy, or more truly, divers conceits and odd opinions of Philosophers, which cannot stand with the truth of Divinity.

1. As all their sorts and kinds of Magick, and judicial Astrology.

2. That the soul is not an immortal sub­stance.

3. That all things come to pass and are car­ried either by chance and fortune, and at all adventures, and meer contingences, as the Epicuraeans: or else by fatal destiny, and a concatenation of second causes, as the Stoicks: Item all their fond and foolish false opinions de summo bono, concerning true happiness: Some of the learned have reckoned up above two hundred and eighty opinions concerning this [Page 149]point: Thus when any thing taken out of the writings of any men, though never so antient or learned, or what shew of wit or wisdom soever it make, if it be contrary to the Scri­ptures, and the written Word of God, its no better then vain deceit, and therefore we must beware of it, avoid it, lest we be spoiled by it: In a word, we must not fet principles in divi­nity or the articles of our faith, Aquinas hath a good and modest rule, Rati­oni naturali verae nun­quam con­trariatur Theologia, sed eam excedi saepè, & sic videtur repugnare; non enim vera ratio dicit, illa superiora fieri non posse absolute, sed non posse fieri virtute aliqua finita, quod etiam theologia fatetur. In his & hujus­modi Philosophia Theologiae se submittat, ut Hagar Sarae; Patiatur se ad­moneri & corrigi. Sin nimus pareat, ejice ancillam Aquin. Clem. Alexan. Struther. out of the writings of Philosophers, nor set up our rest to believe no more then we can see reason for; for there be divers things in the Scriptures, beyond the course of nature, and above the reach of humane reason, Rom. 1.22. 1 Cor. 2.14.

All knowledge if it be not sanctified, is apt to puff a man up with pride, 1 Cor. 8.1. as the Apostle speaks of it. One observeth that a great wit without learning, Knowledge when it is used to ostentation, it is no better then a drunken knowledge; therefore he that is pufft up with it, had need be let blood, in vena sapientiae. is a good knife without a whet-stone; and learning without solid judgement, is as the edge of glass, it is sharp, but in brittle mettle; and to this I may add, that wit and learning without humility are a body without a soul, and but a sharp sword in the hand of a mad [Page 150]man; reason doth not so far exalt a man a­bove a beast, or learning the knowing man above the ignorant, as humility doth the godly man above them both; but where all these three meet together they make a compleat man, and Christian. This kind of pride that I am now speaking of, is discovered in po­pular preachers, whose end should be to win souls to Christ, but they desire to get into a croud and there preach only for ostentation, and to get applause, pretending before their Sermons earnestly to beg the Spirits assistance, Hi quaerunt potius fastū hominum, quam pastū ovium. Bernard. and yet trust more to their own wit, memory, and eloquence in the venting of their quaint phrases and neat compositions, in the framing whereof they never sought for the direction and assistance of God.

CHAP. 22. Of Pride of inward strength.

WHen Christ tells Peter, that all of them should be offended because of him, Matth. 26.31. Peter being over-con­fident of his own strength, answered him, Luk. 22.33 though all men shall be offended because of thee, yet will I never be offended, ver. 33. and Luke tells us, that he said, Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to death. Christ had not only said, that All that very night should be offended because of him, but he produceth a Text out of the Old Testament for proof of it, saying, for it is written, I will smite the shepheard, and the sheep of the flock shall be scat­tered abroad, Zech. 13.7. Here was a plain prediction out of a Prophet expounded by the Lord of the Prophets; yet Peter one of the great Prophets children and scholars will not admit it, but opposeth it, and not once nor coldly, faintly, and fearfully, but twice, and that boldly and confidently, yea impudently, [...] Mark. 14.29, 31. Now that this was a great fault in Petr, Chrysostome assureth us, saying, that it was a note of great pride to gainsay such a Master; and our selves cannot but con­fess as much: Tully tells us, that Pythagoras his scholars would jurare in verba Magi [...], swear whasoever their Master had said, [Page 152]for [...] went far with them, Cicero. lib. 1. de nat. deor. yea even pro oraculo & solidissimo argumento: and Plato saith, it was a received position in his time, that their worthies, whom they thought descended of the gods, Filiis deorum absque ulla demonstratione cre­dendum. Plato. Humana omnia dicta argumentis & testibus indigent; at sermo Dei ipse sibi testis sufficiens est: nam necesse est ut quicquid incorrupta ve­ritas loquatur, incorrup­tum veritatis testimoni­um sit. Salvian. must be put to prove nothing, but their word went for a sufficient warrant: it was surely then a great fault in Peter not to believe his Master, who was the eternal truth, yea even the eternal Son of the eternal God. Now Peters pride and arrogancy, and over-weening conceit he had of himself, caused him to think him­self Christs Colledge-Phaenix, and prefer himself before all his fellows; Though all men should be offended because of thee, yet will not I; yea I will die with thee, rather then deny thee. What difference, I pray, for the present, while this proud fit holds him, between him and the Pharisee? Luke 18.9, 10. who makes a strange prayer, beginning not with begging, but boasting, God, I thank thee, I am not as other men are, extortioners, unjust, adul­terers, or as this Publican: and wherein was Peter behind? for he makes ever as fair a flourish; for saith he, though all forsake thee, I will still follow thee; though all nen flinch from thee, though all men deny thee, I will ra­ther die with thee: Here were big words, but they proved but wind, as the event declared; for his vain confidence proved but pain cowar­dice, and he that promised most performed [Page 153]least: for the rest that said little or nothing (at least not till they were provoked by his example) did not act recorded contrary to their promise, but he denies his Master, swaggers and swears that he knew him not: therefore it is great presumption to arrogate or attribute, or assume too much to our selves, or rely too much upon our own strength; for if we be left never so little while to stand upon our own feet, we slip and slide and fall presently: men of this humour be like a company of drunken souldiers, who seem very valorous, while the wine hath overcome their wits, but when they have slept out their surfeit, and be come to themselves, do oft betake them to flight, and think one pair of heels worth two pair of hands: The Scripture tells us, that the way of man is not in himself: and Christ tells us, Heu nihil invitis fat quenquam fidere divis. Virg. AEneid. Opem mihi feras Domi­ne ne scan­dalizer. Chrysost. that without him we can do nothing, Joh. 15.5. We must not therefore promise any thing of our selves, but rather pray that God would direct us in our promises, and enable us to per­form them: It was Peters fault that he did not; he should rather have prayed as Chry­sostome saith, Lord, enable me that I may not be offended, then rashly have promised I will not be offended. We are here assaulted with many temptations, sometimes at the right hand by prosperity, sometimes at the left hand by ad­versity, sometimes privately, sometimes pub­lickly, sometime in one sort, sometime in another; therefore we have need of strength beyond our own, and to be strengthned some­times [Page 154]in our understandings and judgements, that we may discern and distinguish between good and evil, truth and falshood; some­times in our wills, that we may make a right choice, according to our understanding and knowledge; and sometimes in our affections, to teach us to love, hate, fear, &c. what and how we ought, both for the matter, manner and measure: Gods children in Scripture are compared to good and fruitful trees; now to keep the comparison; what is it for a tree to be of a good kind, fruitful and planted in a fertile soil, unless it be hardy and able to en­dure and bear out Summers heat, that it spill it not, and winters frost and cold that it chill and kill it not? in like manner, unless we be strengthned, supported and sustained from above, we shall never be able to hold out, and bear about the many troubles and trials that will befal us; for as our natural life is strength­ned and preserved by food and such necessaries as be needful for our bodies; so our spiritual life must be maintained by the graces of Gods Spirit, as needful and necessary to our souls. Briefly, we need strengthning that we may be able rightly to use our spiritual armour, both defensive and offensive, Paulus Jovius. as its best for us, and appointed to us: else, as Scanderbeg told one that beg'd his sword, it would do him but little good, or stand him in small stead, because he had not his arm too: so we can make but poor use of Gods armour, unless we be strengthned by his arm, Col. 1.11. with all might, accord­ing to his glorious power.

CHAP. 23. Of Pride of Grace and of Humility it self.

Pride of Grace is when Christians swell and grow big with conceit of their own per­fection, and in comparison of their grace, zeal, knowledge, conscience and obedience, do not stick both to slight and condemn their bre­thren: others are carnal, they spiritual; others are weak, they strong; others ignorant, they see the truth; others are luke-warm, themselves zealous professors: nay some there are that are proud of humility it self, and proud that they are not proud. Pride begets diseases out of pretious remedies, saith Chrysolgous. Mr. Foxe said, As I get good by my sins, by being made thereby to take the more heed to my waies, so I get hurt by my graces, Ex remediis generat morbos superbia. Chry­solog. Serm. 7. by being proud of them. Bernard tells us of one who bewailing his own condition, said, He saw thirty vertues in another, whereof he had not one in himself; and peradventure saith Bernard, of all his thirty, he had not one like this mans humility. A man truly humble indeed attributeth and arrogateth nothing to himself, but ascribes all to God, Humilitas dum prodi­tur, perdi­tur. nor will he willingly lose this jewel of humility by pro­claiming he hath found it; for it is the great­est [Page 156]pride that may be, to be proud of not be­ing proud. Every one should see that his heart be not pufft up with spiritual graces; for what hast thou that thou hast not received? saith the Apostle. 1 Cor. 4.7. Thou hast not these graces, because by nature thou art better then others, for thou art a childe of wrath as well as others. Hierome saith of the Lady Paula, She was least that she might be greatest; by how much more she humbled her self, by so much the more by Christ she was exalted; Ephes. 2.3. Minima fuit ut esset maxima; quantò ma­gis se de­jociebat, tantò magis à Christo sublevabatur; latebat & non latebat. Hieron. Caetera vitia in peccatis, superbia bonis maximè timenda. August. ad Dioscor. Epist. 56. she lay hid, and yet she lay not hid: other vices in sins, but pride is most to be feared in Gods good gifts and graces.

CHAP. 24. Of the Odiousness of Pride.

SECT. 1.

PLato once said of moral vertue, that in it self it is so beautiful, that could a man see it in its proper colours, it would even ravish the eyes of the beholders, and make them fall in love with it: so I may say of sin (and espe­cially of this sin of Pride) that it is so ugly, that the vilest sinner in the world durst not commit it, did he behold the deformity and ugly visage thereof; Pride is a sin very odious both to God and man.

1. It is very loathsome in the eyes of God; it is one of those sins that Solomon sets down to be an abomination to him: Prov. 6.16, 17. Prov. 16.5. Every one that is proud in heart is an abomination to the Lord; and if the person be abominable, then all the services be abominable: God doth not vouch­safe so much as a favourable look towards proud persons: though the Lord be high, Ps. 138.6.yet he hath respect to the lowly, but the proud he know­eth a far off: he looks upon them with con­tempt, they stand at a great distance from God, and God from them; Prov. 3.34. surely he scorneth the scorners. Whensoever God seeth a proud man, he saith, Behold mine enemy! Isa. 66.2. To this man will I look saith God, that is poor, and of a [Page 158]contrite spirit, &c. i. e. to the man that is poor in spirit. God cannot look above him, for there is no superiour to him, nor look round about him, because there is none that is equal to him, (Father Son and Holy Ghost are but one God) but he looks downwards; and the lower and more humble any man is, the more the Lord regards him, Morlorat. in Luc. 1. saith Marlorat. deus humiles misericordiae suae oratores amat, fastidiosos justitiae praesumpto­res odit. God loveth the humble that sue to him for his mercy, but hateth the proud presumer on his righteousness, Luther in Psalm. 5. as Luther saith.

2, As it is odious to God, so also among men; there are none more hated and envied then proud persons, Chrysost. Orat. 65. Omnis ferè vitiosus diligit sibi similem. Solus superbus elatū odit. Innocen­tius. 2 Reg. 14.8, 9, 10. as Chrysostome speaks; men are apt to pitty the drunkards, and to envy the proud; and as one well observeth, 'tis a peculiar curse of God upon this sin of Pride; whereas one drunkard loveth ano­ther, and one swearer loveth another, &c. yet one proud man hateth another; they that would have all the honour and preheminence themselves, do swell with pride against the pride of others. Read the story of Amazias King of Judah to this purpose, who having slain the Edomites with a great slaughter, Superbia ab omnibus contemni­tur, quia superbus omnis est injustus, plus sibitribuens quam sibi debetur, & per consequens, aliis etiam derogat quod aliis debebatur. Keckerm. System. Ethic. lib. 2. sent to Jehoash King of Israel, saying, Come let us look one another in the face, i. e. let us fight with each other; as we say, when two Armies [Page 159]meet to fight, they face one another: but the King of Israel writes back to him in Parables deriding of his pride, with as great a pride: saying, The Thistle that was in Lebanon sent to the Cedar that was in Lebanon, saying, Give thy daughter to my son to wife; and there passed by a wild beast that was in Lebanon, and trod down the Thistle: Thou hast smitten Edom, and thy heart hath lifted thee up; glory of this, and tarry at home; for why shouldst thou medle to thy hurt, that thou shouldst fall, even thou and Judah with thee? Thus he wrote that Amaziah might understand his pride: The King of Israel took it in as much scorn to be challenged by the King of Judah, as the Cedar might think it an indignity to match his daughter with the Thistle: when Diogenes saw Plato delight in meat and curious beds, he got up upon them with his dirty feet, and said Calco Platonis fastum, I tread upon Plato's pride; but Plato replied, sed majori fastu, but with a greater pride: and Plato observing Diogenes walking with a thred-bare cloak full of holes, he said, he could see his pride through the holes of his cloak.

2. It is a sin that God resisteth. God re­sisteth the proud, Jam. 4.6. he sets himself in battel aray against the proud; it is not said in the whole Bible, that God resisteth any sinner but the proud. God may be said to resist the proud

1. By scattering their devices and con­founding their counsels: thus he is said to [Page 160] scatter the proud in the imaginations of their heart: Luke 1. Thus God dasht the devices of Achitophel against David, and Haman a­gainst the Jews. how did the Lord dash the devices of Nimrod, and those proud Babel-builders upon the face of the earth, that in the pride of their heart would have built a tower, whose top should reach to heaven, thereby to get them a name! Genes. 11. Thus the Lord scattered the devices of the proud Egyptians, when they boasted in their great power and glory, and vaunted when they pursued Israel, I will o­vertake them, I will divide the spoil, my lust shall be satisfied upon them: Ex. 18.11. But saith Jethro to Moses, In the thing wherein they dealt proudly, the Lord was above them.

2. By taking from them the things whereof they are proud; when the heart of man is too much set upon a childe, or any other thing, usually the Lord taketh it from us: when the daughters of Zion were proud of their beauty and bravery, Isa. 3.16, 17, 18. the Lord threatens to smite the Crown of their head with a scab, and discover their secret parts, and take away their bravery. And because idolatrous Israel did not know (saith the Lord) that I gave her corn and wine and oyl, and multiplyed her silver and gold which they prepared for Baal; therefore will I return, and take away my corn in the time thereof, and my wine in the season thereof, &c. Hos. 2.8, 9.

3. Romanorū est, Parcere subjectis, et debellare superbos. By punishing them with sore judge­ments. A wise heathen being demanded what God was doing in heaven, answered, that he did nothing but throw down the proud, and [Page 161]set up the humble. Herein the Lord declar­eth his Soveraignty: God puts Job to that which was Gods peculiar work; Deck thy self now with Majesty and excellency, and aray thy self with glory and beauty, Job 40.10, 11, 12.cast abroad the rage of thy wrath, and behold every one that is proud and abase him, look on every one that is proud and bring him low; it is Gods peculiar work to bind all the sons of pride. The day of the Lord of Hosts shall be on every one that is proud and lofty, Isa. 2.12.and upon every one that is lifted up and he shall be brought low. Behold the day cometh that shall burn as an oven, Malac. 4.1.and all the proud and all that do wickedly shall be stubble, and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the Lord of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch. This sin was that which threw the Angels out of heaven, aspiring, Ʋltor superbos sequi­tur à tergo deus. Pride was so ponderous in the Angels, that hea­ven could not hold it. Midleton. as some think, to be equal unto God. This sin was that which ejected our first Parents out of Paradise; therefore the Lord shut up their way to the tree of life with flaming Cherubims. When Pharaoh swells against the Lord, Who is the Lord, &c. the Lord staineth the pride of his glory. When Nebuchadnezzar proudly speaks, walking in his stately Palace of Babel, Dan. 4.30.Is not this great Babel that I have built by the might of my power, and for the honour of my Majesty? the same hour was he driven out from men to eat grass with the oxen: and when his under­standing and Kingdom are restored to him a­gain, [Page 162]he acknowledgeth that Gods works are truth, and his waies judgement, and those that walk in pride he is able to abase, Dan. 4.35. Pride was one of the sins of Sodom, Ezek. 16.49. [...]. Herodot. which pro­cured its great overthrow: when Sennacherib lifted up himself against the God of heaven, he sent an Angel that slew in one night of his army 185000. and he himself was slain by his own sons: and Herodotus saith, that this was left upon his Tomb, Whosoever thou art that seest me, Quem dies vidit veni­ens superbum, hunc dies vidit fugiens jacentem. Sen. in Thyest. learn to fear God. God spared Herod while he persecuted the Saints, yea when he slew James with the sword, and im­prisoned Peter; but an Angel immediately smote him, and wormes consumed him, when he waxed proud. If God touch the lofty mountains of pride, Prov. 29.23. he makes them smoak. A mans pride (that is, any mans pride) shall bring him low, saith the wise man: and he saith fur­ther, that pride (as an usher) goeth before de­struction, and an haughty spirit before a fall, Prov. He plenti­fully re­wardeth the proud doer. Ps. 31.23. Retribuet his qui a­bundanter faciunt su­perbiam. 16.18. And usually God abaseth proud persons by weak and base means, to let them see what things of nothing they be: thus Peter standing upon his valour and man-hood, was daunted by a poor maid; and proud Goliah overcome by a sling and a stone thrown out of the hand of a stripling: so the pride of Pharaoh is punished, not by Lions, Bears and Tygres, but with flies, lice, frogs, locusts, &c. And Herods pompe and glory is soon laid in the dust by a few wormes or lice: And to shew [Page 163]how God hates proud persons, he often throws them down by those that were by ma­ny degrees baser than themselves. [...]. Am­bros. Aug. Arnobius. débitè Ly­ranus. Many proud Tyrants have been laid aside, and those that have been unlikely have worne the Crown. How did God rent the Kingdom from Saul, and give it to David keeping his fathers sheep? Mordecai the despised Jew is advanced, and proud Haman is destroyed: when pride cometh, then cometh shame, Prov. 11.2.

SECT. 2.

Great reason there is why God should re­sist this sin of pride.

1. 2 Thes. 2.4 Because it is a sin that opposeth and re­sisteth God: as the wicked in his pride per­secuteth the poor, so in his pride he opposeth God, Psal. 10.4.

The man of sin is said to oppose or lift up himself above all that is called God or is wor­shipped.

1. Pride opposeth God as God: other sins are set, some against his mercy, some against his justice, some against his holiness, Cum omnia vitia fugi­ant à Deo, sola super­bia opponit se Dee. Gregor. others a­gainst his law; but this sets it self against God as God; it would un-God him if it were in its power: other sins deal with men like them­selves, or with the creature only; this sin is so high-spirited, and of such a stout stomack, as it sets self in open defiance against God himself; it doth as it were take up the bucklers against [Page 164]him, and challenge him the field: Now great is the folly of that man, that in pride resisteth God; for who hath hardened his heart against him and prospered? Job 9.4.

2. Pride invadeth Gods honour, it robs him of his glory; Xerxes grew so proud, that he contented not himself Cum Graecis tantum sed cum Diis bellare, and therefore sendeth four thousand armed men to Delphos, to race the Temple of Apollo, who presently were destroyed, to shew, ut quanto gravi­or offensa deorum esset, tanto infirmiores, immò nullas esse hominum vi­res. Justin. lib. 2. therefore the Lord sets himself in battle aray against the proud. If the Cedar took it scornfully to match his daughter with the Thistle; how much more will God take it in dis­dain, that sinful man should exalt himself against God, and deprive him of his glory? God will cause some wild beast or other to tread down this proud Thistle that would rob him of his honour and glory: God is very tender of his honour; he saith expressly, My glory will I not give to another: the Papists therefore do rob God of his glory, by giving to Angels and Saints a part of his glory; likewise all charm­ers, south-sayers, blasphemers, swearers, and sacrilegious persons: what makes sin to be sin, but because it dishonours God? God hath abased his glory to set his love upon us; why then should not we exalt his glory for his sake?

3. Pride sets it self to oppose the people of God, and therein pride would pull God out of his throne: therefore it is said, that the Lord would have war with Amalek from gene­ration to generation; Exod. 17.16. for he said, because the [Page 165]Lord had sworn he would have war with Ama­lek, &c. it is in the Hebrew, the hand upon the throne of Jah, that is of God; this is referred to Amalek, Quia ma­nus Hama­leki fuit contra soli­um Jah. Quia tam impiè pro­tervéque se gessit Hamalek tanquam solium dei subruiturus cum populo ejus vio­lentiâ suâ, et quamvis non provo­catus non potuit con­quiescere, quin po­pulum per­sequeretur indignissimè, & aciem extremam insestaret ejus; & quidem eo tempore quo populus ad spectandam dei gloriam erat convocatus: idcirco bellum [...] huic genti denunciat Deus, & populo suo inimicitias aeternas imperat. Vid Deut. 25.17. Junius. because the hand of Amalek is up­on or against the throne of the Lord, therefore Jehovah will have war with Amalek, because Amalek in acting against Israel the people of God (meant here by the throne of God) did lift up himself against God and his throne. Junius and Piscator read the words thus, be­cause the hand of Amalek was against the throne of God; they put in [Amalek] because Ama­lek attempted to lay his hand upon the throne of God; therefore wicked proud persons, whensoever they do act any thing against Gods people, they would in the pride of their hearts (if possible) throw down the throne and Kingdom of Jesus Christ, as is often times done among men; what is done against such a subject, is done against the Princes Crown and dignity; they that persecute the godly go a­bout to pick out Gods eye.

4. Pride makes a man to abuse all the mer­cies of God; the more mercies evil men taste, I said in my prospe­rity I shall never be moved Psa [...] the more pride doth bud forth. Pride is now budded forth, and grown as it were into a rod. It is said of the old Israelites, that they took strong Cities and a fat land, and possessed [Page 166]houses full of all goods, [...], Symmach. Bemithbi bethscalve­tha. Scalah significat salvumesse, & nomen Schalvah prosperita­tem. and wells digged, vine-yards, and olive-yards, and fruit-trees in abundance: So they did eat, and were filled and became fat, and delighted themselves in thy great goodness, i.e. in that goodness of thine manifested in the creature; not in God, in grace and holiness, Nehem. 9.25, 26. Nevertheless they were disobedient, and rebelled against thee: the more of these temporal blessings they had, the more they waxed proud. According to their pastures were they filled, and their heart was exalted, Aqua illa tanquam mel illi sa­puit. Stella in Luc. But I ra­ther take it, that he made the barrenest place fruit­ful to them. Je­surun that is, his cho­sen. Hierome. His rightful people. Calvin. Figuratively Israel was so called for his righteousness. Junius. Therefore God takes it the more ill, that he should offend in this manner, that should have been upright: he was fat, and covered with fatness. Some expound it, gross or fat in sin, but the word will not bear that interpretation: but noteth fatness in the best sense, as Pagnin observeth; the fat of the land, Gen 45.18. Pareus in Genes. i. e. the riches of the land, saith he. Wherefore rich men are called fat ones. Calvin. In Isa. 10.16. He kicked, a comparison from an unruly horse too well fed: like unruly beasts, the fatter they were, the more unruly. therefore have they forgotten me, saith God, Hos. 13.6. When the heart is lifted up with the creature, it forgets the Creatour. When Jesurun did eat the increase of the fields, and suckt hony out of the rock, and oil out of the flinty rock, butter of kine, and milk of sheep, with fat of lambs and rams of the breed of Bashan; and goats, with the fat of kidnies of wheat, &c. then Jesurun waxed fat and kicked: thou art waxed fat, thou art grown thick, thou art covered with fatness: then he forsook God which made him, and [Page 167]lightly esteemed the rock of his salvation, Deut. 32.15.

5. Pride makes a man slight all the judge­ments of God, to kick against the rod, and grow mad against his medicine, as Austin speaks. Of such the Lord complaineth, Jerem. 5.3. O Lord, thou hast smitten them, but they have not grieved: thou hast con­sumed them, but they have refused to receive correction: they have made their faces har­der then a rock, they have refused to return. When King Jehoram was brought into a great strait, the Prophet Elisha labours to convince him of those sins which had brought him into it; 2 Reg. 3.13 Get thee to the Prophets of thy Father, and to the Prophets of thy Mother; thereby intimating to him, that the wicked­ness of his Fathers house had brought him into these extremities: but Jehoram puts that off, and would not be convinced that they were any other then the accidents of war. Nay, said he, for God hath called these three Kings together to deliver them into the hand of Moab. Pride is such a sin that it remaineth after sore judgements of God executed upon the sons of pride. Pride hardeneth the heart, and then no­thing can work up­on it. Thus Daniel tells King Belshazzar: O thou King, the most high God gave Nebuchad­nezzar thy Father a Kingdom, and Majesty, and glory, and honour, &c. but when his heart was lifted up, and his mind hardened in pride, he was deposed from his King­ly throne, and they took his glory from him, [Page 168]and he was driven from the sons of men,Dan. 5 18, 22.and his heart was made like the beasts, &c. and thou his son, O Belshazzar, hast not humbled thy self, though thou knewest all this. There­fore saith the Lord, This is true humility to be able to rejoyce that Gods glory may be set forth in our shame, as that noble learned Earle wrote to his friend. Joh. Pic. Com. Mirand. Epist. ad Francis. Pic. Isa. 9.9, 10. All the people shall know, even Ephra­im, and the inhabitants of Samaria, that say in the pride and stoutness of heart, The bricks are fallen down, but we will build with hewen stones: the sycomores are cut down, but we will change them into cedars. God had humbled and pulled down those that were great, but they had a great deal of Grandeur; they would raise their hearts to a higher pitch of pride, than those that were thrown down before them. Calvin in Isa. 9.9. It is not the sin of one Nation alone, nor of one time alone, saith Calvin up­on that place. With how many stroaks hath God afflicted England for these many years past and yet more pride then ever!

CHAP. 25. Of the greatness of this sin of Pride.

SECT. 1.

1. THe greatness of this sin may be made manifest in respect of its original, the height of the place from whence it descended; it was born in heaven, Superbia in caelo nata est; sed velut immemor, qua via inde cecidit, [...] luc postea redire non potuit. Hugo. in the breasts of those Angels that kept not their first estate; therefore Hierome saith, that it is Natione caelestis, by nation heavenly; How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer son of the morning! For thou hast said in thy heart, I will ascend into heaven, Isa. 14.12, 13, 14, 15. I will exalt my throne above the stars of God, &c. I will ascend a­bove the heights of the clouds, I will be like the most High. Pride labouring to ascend into heaven, the Lord throws it down. Therefore, saith he, thou shalt be brought down to hell, &c.

2. It is an epidemical evil; it appeareth in all sorts of men and women whatsoever: ma­ny are prophane and proud of their pro­phaness, they glory in their shame, as the Apostle speaks; as it is said of Ephraim, Hos. 7.10. Isa. 3.9. the pride of Israel testifieth to his face, and they do not return to the Lord their God. The [...] countenance doth witness a­gainst [Page 170]them, Quidampro carnalibus, quidam pro spirituali­bus superbiunt, & est una superbia sub diver­so colore. Bernar. 1 Tim. 3.2, 3, 4. and they declare their sin as Sodom, they hide it not: the shew of their countenance did de­clare that they did glory in their shame: men think it a piece of bra­very that they are sermon-proof, and can stand out against all the threatnings of the word: and among professors of religion, and those that have a forme of goodness, Paul saith, that in the latter daies, there should be such as should be self-lovers, covetous, proud, boasters, blasphemers, despisers of those that are good; Women as well as men are given to pride; pride being cast out of heaven, and wandring upon earth, a woman took her in, and there she hath dwelt ever since. The shop of pride is the womans wardrope. traitours, heady, high minded, &c. O Lord, are not thine eyes upon the truth? thou hast stricken them, but they have not grieved, &c. therefore said I, surely these are poor, these are foolish, for they know not the way of the Lord, nor the judgement of their God, Jer. 5.4, 5. I will get me unto the great men, and will speak unto them, for they have known the way of the Lord, and the judgement of their God: but these have altoge­ther broken the yoke and burst the bonds, saith the Prophet. Aretius complaineth why Gospel-government could not be carried on among the Helvetian Churches, because the great men would not come under the yoke, Isa. 3.16. and the common people loved to live at liber­ty; hence it was that there was so little good done among them. Pride you see is an uni­versal general sin, that hath corrupted all e­states, [Page 171]and from which none are free: Pride being seated in the heart, cannot alwaies be discovered or discerned by the habit; it may as well be found in a poor country cottage, as in a sumptuous Princely Palace: under a lea­thern jerkin, as under a velvet jacket. Diogenes said of pride, It was a shepherd, and the vulgar were the sheep, which it carried from place to place even as it would. And where­as other sins are committed at some time, in some place, by some person, Non sit novitios, ac­cioche gonfiato di super­bia, not a novice lest he be pufft up with pride as a bladder pufft with wind. Nuo­vamente piantato ne la fede, ma ben instructo. Ital. Annot. in 1 Tim. 3.6. this may be committed both at the Court, in the City, Town and Coun­try, in the Church, Field and House, and wheresoever a man be, carrying his proud mind, haughty heart, and high spirit with him; Item at all times, by night or by day; nay how­soever a man be employed, whither he be so­litary and alone by himself, or whither in com­pany with others: one compareth pride unto death which spareth none, high nor low; pride hath more tricks and cunning to allure the hearts of men then other sins; yea this is a sin to which Ministers as well as others are subject; therefore the Apostle would not have a novice that is unmortified and unexperi­enced, enter into the Ministery, lest he be pufft up with pride, and fall into the condemnation of the devil: as the devil laboureth to infect all sorts of persons with the sin of pride, so espe­cially the Preachers of the Gospel: as appear­eth in that he raiseth a strife for precedency [Page 172]and superiority even among Christs own Disciples: Luk. 9.46. and they that are acquainted with Church histories, Superbia caelestes ap­petit mentes. know right well, that the precedencies of Bishops, and their Seas and Seats, hath been a point too much canvased in many Councels. And this old Sophister and pestilent Polititian the Devil, hath great rea­son to bestir himself to breed ambition and fa­ction among such persons.

1. Because they fall not alone, but like bla­zing stars draw tails after them, they draw many others after them. Gualt in Lu [...] Gualter expounds and applies the falling of the star into the bot­tomeless pit, obscuring the sun, and ingendring locusts, to the pride and apostacy of the Ro­man Church, and of the Pastors thereof, Rev. 9. and doubtless pride in the Ministery, will breed prophaness in the people.

2. Because while they intend this, they cannot attend their flocks, nor give attendance to reading, to exhortation, and to doctrine, as Paul adviseth Timothy: 1 Tim. 4.13. nay while they seek themselves, and their own things unmeasur­ably, they cannot truly seek the things of our Lord Jesus Christ; even as when the Shep­herds follow other things, their flocks must needs go to wrack: So when Pastors altoge­ther mind their own advancement on earth, they are not so industrious as they should be to bring their people to heaven. Pride is a King, and all other vices are attendants upon it.

3. Pride is the most stately, and the most costly sin: it sits like a Queen with a Crown upon its head, Isa. 28.1. It cometh like a [Page 173]King with a huge troop and train of atten­dants, and (as a King) requireth more charges to maintain it than other sins; therefore some persons will put themselves upon many incon­veniences to maintain their pride. One saith, that pride hath gotten a coach drawn with four horses, an ambitious desire of rule and dominion, love of proper praise, disobedience of all laws and governments, and contempt of others; the wheels of this coach are verbosity, and boasting, levity, and arrogancy: the coach-man is the spirit of pride; the lovers of honour and worldly vanities are those that ride in the coach; the horses are without bri­dles, the wheels without any stay; and those that are carried, are giddy weak and inconstant, full of motion and mutation.

4. It is a sin hardly rooted out where once it is seated: it plaies Rex, and will not easily be dispossest. Cum benè cunctaris, cum cuncta subacta pu­taris: Quae prius infe­stat, vincenda superbia restat. As great Princes do not easily suffer themselves to be dispossessed of those strong holds that they once set foot in: it is much more easie to avoid other sins; as drunkenness, luxury, theft, murder, and such gross sins, Sub hoste quem occidit, moritur, qui de culpâ quam superat elevatur. Gregor. then the sin of pride; and the devil thinks himself more sure of a man by pride, than by any other sin: for as an Archer, if he shoot a dear or any other beast in the foot, or leg, or side, is not sure of his game; but if he strike him in the heart, then he is his own: so Satan by other sins doth but [Page 174]slightly wound the soul; but by pride he gives it a deadly wound. Pride is the first sin that declareth its life and vigour in a child, and the last that dieth in a man: we read that Abi­milechs skull was broke by a piece of a milstone thrown down upon him by the hand of a wo­man; Judg 9.54. the man being ready to die, called out hastily to his armour-bearer, saying, Slay me, that men say not of me, A woman slew him. Note, saith Chrysostome on this place, Chrysost. in Judic. He dies under the hands of the enemy which he had slain, that is proud of the sin he hath overcome. the man was dying, but his pride would not die. As it is the first enemy that assaults the soul, so it is the last that quits the field; o­ther vices are mortified and subdu­ed, and forced to forsake the field before life forsakes our bodies; but pride alone holds out to the last; it is ultimus diaboli laque­us, the last snare of the devil, a stain hardly washt out; and many times it grows out of the ashes of other sins; when a man hath overcome all other sins, Inter omnia peccata, tu semper es prima, tu sem­per es ultima; nam om­ne peccatum te acceden­te committitur, te rece­dente dimittitur. Inno­cent. de contemptu mundi. lib. 2. cap. 31. yet then is he to buckle with this Giant of pride. As death is the last enemy, so pride is the last sin that shall be destroyed. Among all sins, saith Innocentius, speaking to pride, thou art the first, and thou alwaies art the last: and as the Israelites were de­livered, when the first-born of Egypt were slain, so we might hope the sooner to be de­livered from our other sins, if once we could be free and rid of this, which Mr. Dent calleth the Master-pock of the soul.

SECT. 2.

5. PRide is found in every sin, in every sin there is a spice of pride; in every sin there is found some contempt of God and his law: when we refuse to obey Gods commandments, doth it not proceed from pride? Nehem. 9.16, 17. they and our fathers dealt proudly, and hardned their necks, and hearkened not to thy commandments, and refused to obey, there is pride in disobedience. Agur when he makes his request to God for a middle estate, he sets down the fear of his own heart, what evils he might run into, Prov. 30.9. if God should give him abundance; lest I be full, Cartwr. in loc. and deny thee, and say, Who is the Lord? Mr. Cartwright saith, this seems to be so intolerable, Every contempt of God is pride: but e­very sin is a contempt of God: Ergo every sin is pride. Aug. lib. de nat. et gratiâ. that it scarce falls upon a Professor; this seems to be Pharaohs sin, Exod. 5.2. who said, Who is the Lord that I should obey his voice? yet holy Agur found some roots of this sin even in him­self; Lest I be full and deny thee, and say Who is the Lord? So likewise when men are impa­tient, and set themselves to controul the wis­dom and power of God, this is a great pride, and a charging of God with folly. Job is ac­quitted from this, being silent under the hand of God. Shall any man teach God knowledge, seeing he judgeth those that are high? Job. 21.22.one dies in his full strength, being wholly at ease and quiet: his brests are full of milk, and his bones [Page 176]are moistned with marrow;Peccatum superbiae committi­tur, cum quis prae­ceptum con­temnendo peccat. Aug super. Num. cap. 25. p. 242. Eccl. 7.10.and another dieth in the bitterness ef his soul, and never eateth with pleasure; they shall lie down alike in the dust, and the worms shall cover them. Job speaks of the different dispensations of Gods Providence towards men; now when we murmur against such passages of Providence, this is for a man to teach God knowledge. Therefore Solomon saith, Say not thou, what is the cause that the former daies were better than these? for thou dost not enquire wisely concerning this: you may see boyes sometimes stand upon their heads and hands, and toss up their heels against heaven; so do men like such children, toss their heels against heaven, when they kick and murmur at Gods providential dispensations.

SECT. 3.

6. PRide is the root of all evil.

1. It is the root of all heresies: Au­stin saith that pride is the mother of all heresies and hereticks, and that all doctrines of impiety do come forth from the root of pride. Superbia mater omnium haeresium & haeretico­rum. Omnes doctrinae impietatis de radice su­perbiae proveniunt. Au­gust. And Bernard saith, that in all hereticks, there was ever one intention, viz. a hunting after honour and glory from singularity of knowledge. The Gnosticks swel­led with Pride, that they knew all things, and therefore were so called, though many of them were notorious hereticks, and men of brutish lives. Simon Magus whom [Page 177]the Church-history calls the first author of all heresies, was very proud, giving out that him­self was some great one, to whom all gave heed from the least to the greatest, Omnibus haereticis unae semper suit intentio, sc. captare gloriam de sin­gularitate scientiae. Bern. in Cant Euseb. hist. lib. 2. cap. 13. saying This man is the great power of God; the same Simon was counted in Rome for a God, having his picture between two bridges on the river Tiber, with this inscription, Simoni deo sancto, to Simon the holy God. Pride and self-conceitedness is the root of all heresie. Suum cuique pulchrum, Scindentes & elati, & sibi placen­tes. Irenae­us, advers. haeres lib 4 Hos. 12.1. Habak. 2 5 every one thinks his goose to be a swan; proud men think themselves to be something when they are nothing. Naturalists do observe of the wolfe, that she liveth certain months of the wind; so proud men (like Ephraim) do feed on the wind, and follow after the east-wind of their own conceits: the proud man is as he that transgresseth by wine: Pride is a soul-drunkenness, an intemperance of the affections, Quanto amplius quis superbiâinvolvitur tan­to lucem veritatis minus intuetur. Anselm. de similit. cap. 98. when men are not wise to sobriety, then as drunkards fall into absurd and ridiculous acti­ons conceiting strange things of themselves; so proud persons fall into ridiculous and absurd opinions, being blown up with high conceits of their own wis­dom. Facies mea inflata non sinebat me videre. August. Pride suffers not a man to see or know himself: as Austin well knew, when he said, My swoln face suffereth me not to see: mean­ing his proud heart hindred him from looking into his own state: which is evident in this [Page 178]story of Simon the leper, and Mary Magda­len: of which one comments thus: the Physitian stood between two diseased persons, Hymeneus and Alexan­der made shipwrack of faith. Hymeneus was a preacher full of osten­tation, a striver about words to no profit, whose words did eat like a Gangrene. but one of the sick folke was sensible of that great sick­ness, the other was insensible of his estate, being ignorant of this thing, that he was far from his salvation, which senselesness came from his heart swoln with pride and conceit of his own worthiness. 1 Tim. 2.14, 16. And Baro­nius saith, Alexander was the Jew men­tioned, Act. 16.33 a forward man in the Apostles cause. Psal. 25.9. Baron. an­nal. Tom. 1. ad ann. 57. Nullum malum est, quod su­perbiae par sit; ex bo­mine facit daemonem, convitiatorem, maledicum, perjurum, mortis ac caedis cupi­dum. Superbus perpetuus est in tristibus, perpetuò indignatur, perpetuò maeret, nibil est, quod hanc animi ipsius passionem exaturare queat: quem­admodum enim avari, quantò plura acceperint, tanto pluribus egent; ita & arrogantes, quantò majore honore fruuntur, tantò cupiunt honorari ma­gis. Crescit enim illis ista animi passio. Passi verò finem non novit, sed tum primum cessat, quando laborantem occiderit. Chrysost. homil. 1. in 2. ad Thessalonic. Caput omnium morborum. Basil. Caput omnium peccatorum superbia. August. A proud man is al­waies looking after high things, exercising himself in things that are too wonderful for him; therefore (like the Philosopher staring at the stars) he stumbleth at a stone, and falls into the ditch of errour. God hideth heavenly mysteries from those that are wise and prudent in their own eyes, and revealeth them to hum­ble babes: those that God teacheth are meek and humble ones; whereas God doth not teach but resist the proud.

2. It is the root of all other sins: Initium peccati superbia, Pride is the beginning of sin, saith Petrarch; and the son of Syrach hath said as much before him, Ecclus. 10.4. it is the head of all vices, and the sink of all iniqui­ties, it is the center from which the lines of all vices are drawn.

1. It is the root of envy: one proud man would excel and go before all men; Sola mise­ria caret invidia. therefore he grieveth if any one be equal with him or compared unto him; and from hence ariseth envy. Because the women in their dances said, Saul had slain his thousands, 1 Sam. 18.7, 8, 9. and David his ten thousands; Saul was very wroth, and the saying displeased him, and he said, They have ascribed unto David ten thousands, Fools and beggers are never envied. and to me but thousands, and what can he have more but the Kingdom? And Saul eyed David from that day forward; that is, he cast an en­vious eye upon him. This temper seemed to be in Christs own Disciples; Luk. 9 49. Invidus non est ido­neus audi­tor. Aristot. His ears are not fit to his head Adams. for John cometh to Christ, and saith, Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name, and we forbad him, be­cause he followed not thee with us; now this was but an unreasonable reason of their pro­hibition; and it is a fault as well as a fashion of all Professions to advance themselves, and to keep others under: Austin saith, that Pride envies all superiours, because it cannot be equal to them; envies his inferiours, because it fears it should be equal to it; and equals, because they are equal to it: There cannot be a greater vexation to an envious man, than to see ano­ther do well by him; therefore Seneca wish­eth, that such persons had eyes and ears in all places, that they might even pine themselves [Page 180]away by repining at other mens well-fare; and Diogenes advised one to become good to be revenged of a proud man that was his ene­my. Envious persons would have all men cut to their scantling, and every bodies foot of the just length of their last: these are not unlike Procrustes or Gobryas, Invidia hominum vanorum asseclaest. Plut. Mor. 1. Luk. 7.38, 39. Quicquid laudabile est, invidiae materiam praebet. that cut every body to the just length of his bed. When Mary Mag­dalen (as it is conceived) had washt the feet of Christ with her tears, and wiped them with the hairs of her head, and kissed his feet, and anointed his feet with pretious ointment, Simon the Pharisee (in whose house he then was) envied at it; saying, This man, if he were a Prophet, would have known who and what manner of woman this is that toucheth him, for she is a sinner: hereby he sheweth his pride and hypocrisie, in thinking better of himself, and worser of others then there was just cause, thinking and speaking ill of her that was better then himself: If he had looked well upon himself, he needed not have sought out in this woman what he might have envied; he might have seen enough at home, quod lugeret, what he might have lamented, as Ber­nard speaks. Tis the humour of all envious proud persons to deal with sins, as it befel Moses's rod; Ex. 4.3, 4. being hurled from him it was a Serpent, but taken to him a rod again: so these men make their own sins small, and others great; therefore Christ reproveth him for it. Simon, saith he, I entred into thine house, thou gavest me no water for my feet: which [Page 181]was but an ordinary custome in entertainment, and of good use in those hot countries, to re­frigerate and cool them after their travel; That it was usual, Gen. 1 [...].4. appeareth by Abrahams enter­taining the three Angels, whom he thought to be men; Let a little water I pray you be brought, and wash your feet, Gen. 19.2. and rest your selves under this tree; the same Lot affordeth to the two Angels that come to his City: Gen. 24.32. the same Laban doth to Abrahams servant and those that were with him: thus an old man of Gibeah doth also to the Levite and his Concu­bine travelling from Bethlehem Judah to mount Ephraim: Jud. 19.21 This ordinary favour thou hast not afforded me, even to wash my feet with ordinary water; but she hath washed them with most sweet wa­ter drawn from the fountain of her heart and through the passages of her eyes; sorrow for her sins, Suetonius saith, that Tiberius caused his son Germanicus to be slain, lest he should succeed and prove better then himself; and the two eldest sons of Germa­nicus to be famished, because he thought they were by the peo­ple too much ho­noured. be­ing as it were the bucket to fetch out the same; and wiped them with the hairs of her head, a towel not artificially made by her, but natu­rally growing from her. Thou gav­est me no kiss at all, but she since my coming in hath given me many, for she hath kissed my very feet; mine head and best part thou anointedst not with oyl; but she hath anointed my feet with ointment: therefore seeing thou hast neither shewed pie­ty nor pity in washing and refreshing me, nor love and charity in kissing and embracing me, [Page 182]nor mirth and joy in annointing me; I may well conclude, that however thou speakest fair to me, yet I am never a whit wellcome to thee; and that this woman whom thou enviest (whatsoever thou thinkest of her) is much bet­ter then thy self. When Eldad and Medad prophecyed in the camp of Israel, Num. 11.28, 29. Joshua en­vied at it, and said, My Lord Moses, forbid them: but Moses was of another spirit: En­viest thou for my sake? saith he, would God that all the Lords people were Prophets, and that the Lord would put his Spirit upon every one of them. So Paul; so Christ be preached, quo­modocunque, Phil. 1.10. he rejoyced, though some preacht him out of envy, and said, he would joy: Obj. Doth not Christ envy salvation and the means thereof to the Scribes and Pharisees, when he thanks his Father for hiding the mysteries thereof from them? Matth 11.25 Ans. No, but because they refused, and so for their contempt are thus deservedly pun­isht, he thanks his Fa­ther for mingling mercy and justice to­gether, viz. justice up­on the proud, and shewing mercy to the humble. and John Baptist saith of Christ, He must encrease, but I must decrease; which some conceitedly say, was signified by Johns being born on Midsummerday, when the year was at highest and the day longest, and now shortning; and Christ born when the sun was at the lowest, and the daies at the shortest and lengthning. John Baptist la­bours to credit Christ among his Disciples, though with the loss of his own reputation; saying, that Christ must encrease, and he must decrease; and while he laboureth to credit Christ before a few, Christ credits him before a great multitude; therefore he said to the multitude concerning [Page 183] John, What went you out to see? A Prophet? yea I say unto you and more then a Prophet: for if it were a credit for Achilles (as Alexander the great sometime said of him) to have Homer the trumpeter of his praises; then what an honour was it for John Baptist to be commend­ed by Christ himself? Now as for envious per­sons one wittily saith, Lest God might seem to wrong them in sending them to heaven, where there are degrees of glory, as there are here of grace; therefore they shall go to hell, where they shall find no matter of envy, but all the objects of extream misery.

2. Pride is the root of censuring. Pride is like some severe School-master, who will be pleased with nothing but of his own doing; Curiosum genus homi­num ad cognoscendam vitam alienam, desidio­sum ad corrigendam su­am. August in Confes. and therefore it is alwaies censuring the actions of others; of such Austin speaks, There is a sort of men that are very curious to pry into other mens lives, but very slug­gish to correct their own. Diotrephes loved to have the preheminence among others; therefore saith John, He prateth against us with malitious words, 3 John 9.10. Rash censuring proceeds from pride; such men think by how much more they depress the good name of others, My bre­thren, be not many Masters, Jam. 3.1. non siate molti censori, be not many Judges, or censurers so others, Ital. Annot. in loc. by so much the more they advance their own reputation: I am not as other men are, nor as this Publican, said [Page 184]the proud Pharisee. Both Jesus Christ, him­self, and John Baptist cannot escape the cen­sures of the proud Pharisees; therefore Christ compareth them to foolish and froward chil­dren sitting in the market-place (as peradven­ture the manner of that country then was) and crying one to another, saying, We have piped to you, and ye have not danced to our pipe; and we have mourned to you, and you have not lamented, or born your part therein; so sullen and surly have you been, as you have thought scorn either to accompany us or to comfort us; Imperoche ei reprende un vitio molto usato tra gle huomini: quando ci ascuno condanna seve­ramente gli altri per­mittendo in tanto à se stesso ogni cosa. Ibid. to such peevish brats our Saviour compareth these Scribes and Pharisees, Luk. 7.32. and gives the reason of this com­parison, ver. 33, 34. for saith he, John Baptist came neither eating bread nor drinking wine, i.e. not pampering his pallat, nor pleasing his flesh either with delicate and dainty fare, or with costly and curious apparel, having used such abstinence and austerity, that he might seem ra­ther an Angel then a man; As Goats in touch­ing the sweet Al­mond-tree with their tongues make it turn bit­ter; so proud cersorious persons have venome in their hearts, in their tongues, in their breath, in their eyes, as hath the Basiliske. and what hath he gotten by this behaviour but rash and unjust censuring? you say he hath a devil, or some familiar spirit, which makes him able to do this: on the other side, concerning my self, you say, The Son of man is come eating and drinking, and behold a glutton and a wine­bibber, [Page 185]a friend of Publicans and sinners. The Son of man is come, and eats and drinks, and keeps company with great sinners for their conversion, knowing that he may make them better; but they cannot make him worse, he being free from corruption, and therefore not capable of contagion; and yet cannot he escape your censure: thus you are neither well full nor fasting, as the Proverb saith, and you will not be brought to any good, either by austerity or familiarity. Hence I may note, that 'tis an hard matter for a Minister so to carry himself, but he shall have a hole pickt in his coat; let a Minister live a retired life, and be very studious, and use few words, he shall be said to be proud and stately; let him be but modestly and moderately merry in good sort in company, they will censure him to be of a gossiping disposition; Superbi aliorum vitia in oculis habent, sua ve­rò à tergo ponunt. Seneca. let him in his preaching shew variety of reading, he shall be taxed with vain glory: let him keep himself close to the Word of God, and ap­ply matters plainly to the consci­ences of his hearers, Such men are like the Lamiae in Seneca's E­pistles, that put their eyes in their heads when they went a­broad, and lockt them up at home. he shall be counted a dry fellow, and not worth the hearing the second time. But for such as are possessed with this pride, that see nothing that they like, and take not offence at, they had need drink as much as they can of the wine of charity, and that would free them from these humours that make them of so per­verse a spirit.

3. Pride is the cause of disdain; hence it cometh to pass that men do scorn and disdain at others; disdain is either in word or in actions.

1. In word: Asaph speaking of those that were prosperous in the world, Ps. 73.6, 9. saith that pride compasseth them about as a chain; they speak loftily, they set their mouth against the hea­vens, and their tongue walketh thorow the earth; and they say, How doth God know! is there knowledge in the most high? and David saith, The Jews are charged for speaking stout words against God, Malac. 3.13. for de­nying the providence of God. The proud have had me greatly in derision: yet have I not declined from thy Law, Psal. 119.51. and ver. 85. The proud have digged pits for me, and have forged a lie against me. Of this kind of disdain, our Saviour speaks, Mat. 5.22. Whosoever shall say to his brother Racha, shall be in danger of the councel; but whosoever shall say, thou fool, shall be in dan­ger of hell fire, i.e. whosoever shall not only be angry with his brother without a cause, as in the former part of the verse, but also ex­presseth the pride and wrath of his heart, by some disdainful gesture or expression, shall be in danger of the council, Omnes de­spicere su­perbiae est. Plutar. Mor. 1. i. e. of an higher degree and greater measure of torment: but he that shall say, thou fool, asse or ideot, shal­low-brain and cockwit, in contempt of his brothers weakness, shall be in danger of hell fire; i.e. shall undergo the greatest and high­est degree of punishment. Hereby our Savi­our [Page 187]alludeth to the Jewish customes, who had three sorts of Courts to censure and punish se­veral sorts of offences and offendors.

1. One held by three men in every village, where smaller matters were decided and de­termined, or the wrong doers censured and punished: or (as some say) it was debated, an aliquis esset damnandus, whither some one were to be condemned?

2. The second held by twenty three, in e­very of their Cities, Quo sup­plicii gene­re damna­tus esset puniendus. before whom were brought matters of an higher nature, and by whom se­vere punishments were inflicted, and by whom it was determined, with what kind of punish­ment the condemned person was to be punished, not much unlike our quarter-Ses­sions.

3. The third and last was held at Jerusalem only, and that by seventy two Judges, who had only the greatest matters of all brought before them, from whose sentence there might be no appeal; Qu. Curtius reports of Alexander the great, that espying an old souldier stiffe in fol­lowing him in the cold winter, himself arose and made him sit in his seat by the fire, saying he would re­spect not their for­tunes, but ages. being not unlike our general Assizes, or high Court of Parliament. In a word, Christ teacheth us hereby, that as there be degrees of sins on earth, so there shall be divers de­grees of punishments in hell: here by judgement, council and hell fire, are meant eternal torments, though in a lesser and greater measure; and that the sorest punishments are provided for proud and disdainful persons.

Jesus spake a parable unto certaein men that trusted in themselves, Superbire quasi super ire. Isidor. Etimolog. and despised others; He that idolizeth himself, is apt to disdain at o­thers: men are apt to think meanly of others that are inferiour to themselves in birth, gifts, parts, estate, &c. Whoso despiseth the poor, de­spiseth his Maker, Prov. 17.5. God made him an object of pity, not of disdain.

2. There is disdain in actions: Great was the disdain of the Jews and Samaritans one towards another, as may appear, John 4.9. where a woman of Samaria refuseth to do a very small favour to our Saviour Christ eo nomine because he was a Jew; Unde enim insultandi ferocia? unde superci­liosa austeritas? nisi quod se quisquam effe­rendo alios fastuosè & fastidiosè despicit? & absit arrogantia, & om­nes mutuè modestissimi erimus. Calvin. for asking her but a lit­tle water to drink, she denies it him, and thinks she doth well in so doing; for she tells him that the Jews and Samaritans meddle not or have nothing to do one with ano­ther: such like are they that unjustly separate from our publick assemblies, like those in the Prophet, that say, Stand by thy self, come not neer to me, for I am holier then thou, Isa. 65.5. Whence cometh that fierce insulting over o­thers? whence is that supercilious austerity? whence is it that men so proudly and disdain­fully despise others, saith Calvin, is it not by extolling themselves? let arrogancy be far from us, and we shall carry our selves modestly one towards another. When Trajan was cen­sured for making the imperial Majesty of too easie an access: Why, ought not I, said he, be [Page 189]such an Emperour to private men, as I would have an Emperour be to me, if I were a private person?

SECT. 4.

4. PRide is the cause of covetousness; whence came covetousness, racking of rents, biting usury, &c. but from pride in one kind or other; it is like fire which never ceas­eth climbing up, so long as there is any thing above it, till it hath spoiled all: the proud man is said to enlarge his desires after the earth as hell, and is as death, and cannot be satisfied, but gathereth unto him all Nations, and heapeth unto him all people, Habak. 2.5.

Object. The Apostle saith, that covetousness is the root of all evil, 1 Tim. 6.10. how then can pride be the root of covetousness?

Answ. That both the one and the other may be understood to be rightly spoken, sige­nera peccatorum singulorum, non singula gene­rum utraquelocutione includi intelli­gantur; for there are some men, Nonnulli sunt, qui ex cupiditate fiunt superbi: & aliqui ex superbia fiunt cupidi. Lumb. sentent. distinct. 42. who from covetousness become proud, and some from pride become covet­ous. There is a man, saith Austin, who would not be a lover of mony, unless by this he thought to be more excellent; therefore he coveteth riches that he may excel: here covetousness springs from pride; and there is another, who would not love to excel, [Page 190]unless he thought by this to get greater riches. Therefore it appeareth, that covetousness sometimes springs from pride, and sometimes pride from covetousness; and therefore of each is it rightly said, that it is the root of all evil.

5. Pride is the cause of division and con­tention. Prov. 13.10. Euseb. Eccles. hist. cap. 10. Pride is the great incendiary of the world: only by pride cometh contention, saith Solomon. Eusebius sheweth, that when the Emperours began to favour the Christians, then they began to fall out and disagree a­mong themselves: Plenty and prosperity do usually make men proud, and pride engender­eth strife and contention: He that is of a proud heart stirreth up strife. Prov. 28.25. Prov. 21.24. Proud and haughty scorner is his name, who dealeth in proud wrath. When the wind crosseth the stream, the waters rage; so a proud heart is apt to rage when any thing crosseth it. When proud Haman saw Mordecai bowed not, Esther 3.5, 6. nor did him reverence; then was Haman full of wrath, and he thought scorn to lay hands on Mor­decai alone, for they had shewed him the people of Mordecai: When Peter Martyr was dead, Bullinger wrote to Zanchy to come to Tigure, and succeed him; he tells him it was their Churches chiefest care to have a quiet spirit­ed man. Hen. Bulling. ad Zanch. inter Zanch. Epist. lib. 2. Epist. 6. where­fore Haman sought to destroy all the Jews that were in the Kingdom of Ahasuerus: from this root it was that there arose a strife and reason­ing among the Disciples of Christ, who should be greatest of them: Marke and Luke say, the conten­tion was only which of them should [Page 191]be the greatest, or chiefest, expressing no place: but that must be supplied, out of Mat­thew, Matth. 18.1. who addeth, that the question was, Who should be greatest in the Kingdom of heaven? Now these words by divers, be diversly expounded: Some under­standing by Kingdom of heaven a glorious estate, which the Disciples dreamed of, and thought their Master should have here on earth, after his resurrection, where he should raign as King, and they accompany him as Princes, Dukes, and great Lords; and where­of they think that Zebedees wife spake, puting up her petition in the behalf of her two sons, James and John, Mat. 20.21 that the one of them might sit at Christs right-hand, and the other at his left-hand in his Kingdom; and that they were of this mind, seemeth to appear, Act. 1.6. A quiet spirit is in the sight of God of great price. 1 Pet. 3.4. where between the resurrection and ascension, they ask their Master, Whither at that time he would restore the Kingdom to Israel? which is expounded of a temporal Kingdom: of this opinion is Musculus, Melancton, Marlorate, Calvin, and others of our modern Divines. And it is most certain, that by Kingdom of heaven is meant sometime the state of grace in this life, Rom. 14.17.

Others understand it of the Kingdom of glory in the world to come; as Chrysostome, Chrysost. homil. in Math. who reproveth the people of his time, because they came short of the defects and imper­fections of the Disciples, in whom he saith, though it were a fault to contend and strive on [Page 192]earth, Bees will not abide where Eccho's are; nor will the Spirit of God dwell with contenti­ous persons. who should have the highest place in heaven, where shall be no pride, ambition, nor emulation; yet he saith, it was a greater fault for them only to seek and strive to be great on earth, scarce ever thinking of hea­ven: from this root it was, that the Corinthi­ans ran into Schisms and parties; one was for Paul, another for Apollos, a third for Cephas, a fourth is above all Ordinances and Ministers, he is for Christ himself. 1 Cor. 4.6. Concord on earth is Gods mu­sick in heaven. Now saith the Apo­stle, These things brethren, In have transferred in a figure to my self and to Apollo for your sakes, that ye might learn in us, not to think of men above that which is written, that no one of you be puffed up for one against ano­ther: they were pufft up like bladders full of wind, while these divisions were among them.

6. From this root of pride it is that men do blaspheme the truths of God that are cleerly laid down in the Word: The Pope blasphem­ously arro­gateth to himself one of Gods peculiar preroga­tives; for so saith the wis­dom of God, Prov. 4. By me Kings raign; which he usurpeth, Ecce nos constituti sumus super gentes & regna! Bulla Pii Quinti pontific. these three sins are joyned together, Boasters, Proud, Blasphem­ers, 2 Tim. 3.2. and ver 5. having a form of godliness, but denying the power of it: this is to be referred to all that went before; men shall be lovers of their own selves, having a form of godliness; covetous, having a form of godliness; boasters, proud, blasphemers, having [Page 193]a form of godliness, &c. the two first make way for the last; when men are boasters, ascri­bing that to themselves which they have not, and conceit that they are of higher parts and gifts then they are, then they are proud, and shew their pride, when they appear in their own eyes and in the eyes of others bigger then they are; the opinion of others more holy and more judicious then themselves they re­gard not, that at last they come to be blas­phemers: When men will believe no more then what they see reason for, at last they come to blaspheme those truths that they first owned; hence arise all those gross blasphemies that are among us: The Socinians deny the Trinity; reason cannot comprehend this mystery, therefore they set their wits a work to deflour Scripture: and the union of the divine and humane natures in the person of the Son of God, because it is cross to reason, therefore they blaspheme this truth: Christ saith, Be­lieve me, that I am in the Father, and the Fa­ther in me; now they will not believe it, be­cause they cannot comprehend it; and then God leaves them to their own reason, and the pride of their own hearts, to blaspheme those high and sacred truths which they should em­brace.

7. Superbus ac saevus do­minus, qui serviisse patrem su­um parum meminit. Plin. Pride is the root of cruelty towards o­thers; and this may be seen commonly in those that have risen from a mean to an high estate in the world, that they have soon forgotten the rock from whence they were hewen, and [Page 194]have proved very proud and supercilious, as Pliny saith of Largius the Lacedemonian, that he was a haughty and cruel Master, and one that forgat his father to have been a servant. We have a Proverb, Set a begger on horse­back, and he will ride a gallop; to set a man of low degree in high place, 'tis like strong drink to a weak head, Asperius nihil est hu­mili cum surgit in al­tum. it will make him giddy: well did Agur reckon this among the things which disquiet the earth, which the earth could not bear; a servant when he reigneth, and an hand-maid heire to her mistress, Prov. 30.22, 23. A proud and cruel wretch was one Messala a Proconsul of Asia under Augustus the Emperour, Seneca lib. 2 de ira­cap. 5. of whom Seneca saith, that having beheaded three hundred men in one day, he strutted among their dead corpses, applauding himself, and crying out, O rem re­giam, O royal and Kingly deed! Seneca likewise reporteth of Cneius Piso, a proud, Theodorus Tutor to Ti­berius foretold the cruel disposition of his scholar, calling him often Clay soaked in blood. Suetonius. mad-brain'd and hasty General of the Roman army, that having made a law, that if two men went from his camp together, and returned single, he that came with­out his fellow should be slain, pre­supposing and presuming that he had slain his fellow: it fell out that two of his souldiers went out in a dark night, one upon some oc­casion being parted from the other they could not find one another again; whereupon he commanded him that was returned without his [Page 195]fellow to be slain, and gave order to his Cen­turion to see the execution, which which they are going about, Seneca lib. de ira c. 16 the other cometh and shew­eth himself safe; whereupon the Centurion staid the execution, and carried him to Piso to plead his innocency, and beg his pardon, which he would by no means grant, but caused them all three to be executed; Periere tres ob unius innocentiam; et tria cri­mina fecit, quia nullam invenit. Sen. de ira. the first because he was condemned, and he would not revoke or reverse his sentence: the second, because he gave occasion that his fellow was condemned; and the Centurion for not exe­cuting his Generals commands; which gave occasion to Seneca to say upon that cruel act, Three perished for the innocency of one; and three crimes he committed, because he found not any. Sueton, in vit. Calig.Caligula boasted how many men he had con­demned and seen executed, while the Empress his wife fetcht a nap in an afternoon: he com­mended in his own nature nothing more, or almost so much, as [...] (to use his own word) unremoveable rigour: he it was that wisht the people of Rome had but one neck, that he might cut them off at one blow. But the judgements of God have often surprized proud and cruel Tyrants. Procopius tells us of one Theodorick sometime King of the Gothes, that in his pride having villanously slain two Noble Romans, Symmachus & Boetius. Procopius lib. 1 de bello Go­thico. that bloody deed was still boiling in his heart, and the thoughts of it would give him no rest, nor suffer him to be quiet; and one time, having a fishes head set [Page 196]upon his table among other dishes, he pre­sently conceiteth it to be the head of one of them, the eyes his eyes, the teeth his teeth, Theodoret tells us, that a certain Christian Captain was so bold with Valens the Em­perour, as to tell him, that he was unfortu­nate in his wars, be­cause of his pride and cruelty, and some no­torious abuses offered to Gods Messengers and Ministers. Theo­doret. Eccles. hist. lib. 4. and so falling into a fit of frenzy he died destracted of his wits. So likewise Philo the Jew reporteth of one Flaccus, that having used all kind of cruelty to the poor Jews, and being afterwards banisht by Caligula, in his exile, he thought every man that he saw to intend some harme to him; therefore if he saw any come toward him softly, he thought he had some plot a­gainst him; if he came hastily, then he thought he came with a commission to dis­patch him; if any spake him fair, he thought they flattered him, and meant to deceive him; if any spake roughly to him, he thought they scorned and contemned him: these and such like be the conceits of guilty consciences, who still suppose even bushes and trees to be men, and men to be devils sent to torment them. It is reported of Constantine that good Em­perour, that he was a man of an humble and tender spirit; for being troubled with the leprosie, and desiring much to be cured of it, if it were possible; Male sem­per aegrota­re quam tali remedio convalesce­re. King on Jonah. and being told by his Phy­sitians, that he could not but by having his body bathed in the warm blood of infants, he returned this answer beseeming his profession, I had rather alwaies to be sick, then to recover my health by such a remedy: I have read like­wise [Page 197]of Augustus Caesar, who being on a time invited to a supper by one Pollio a noble Orator of Rome, who had a servant that brake a curi­ous chrystal cup, for which fact Pollio con­demned him to be thrown into a fish-pond to feed his Lampreys, which Caesar un­derstanding, dashed the decree, Of all Nations, the Spaniards are reported to be the most cruel, out of their pride cal­ling themselves the sons of God, that the poor Indians may the more reverence them. Hist. novi orbis. and controuled him that made it; say­ing that the life of a man was more to be regarded then all the cups of chrystal, and fish-ponds in the world. And such was a certain Empress, who coming to her hus­band, and finding him condemning of men, as he plaid at Chess, en­treated him either to give over his game, or give no sentence; for the men he passed sen­tence upon, were not like those that he plaid with. So Eusebius saith of Constantine, that being necessarily enforced to fight with Infi­dels, yet he took the best order that he could, Euseb. lib. 2. cap. 13. Cambyses the second King of Persia find­ing Sysan­nes for mo­ny to have corrupted justice, he caused him to be flayed, and his skin to cover the Tribunal, and set his son Ottanes in his place, and bad him, Patris exuvias intueri, & juste judicare; a notable example of justice on a cruel oppressour. Chronic. Carion. lib. 2. p. 214. that there might be but little blood shed, and therefore he propounded rewards to such as could take them alive. The Anabaptists in Germany were of another spirit; for had they once forged a device in their fantastical brains, they would execute it, though it cost many lawful Magistrates their lives for it; and what [Page 198]might be their ground? Some revelation and suggestion from the spirit: but what spirit? surely not the spirit of truth, but some lying spirit, such as possessed and inspired Ahabs false Prophets. Great is the pride and in­solency of some Masters towards their ser­vants; not considering that they also have a Master in heaven, to whom they must be ac­comptable. Some gather from that parable put forth by our Saviour, Luke 17.7, 8. (Which of you having a servant ploughing or feeding of cattel, will say unto him by and by, when he is come from the field, Go and sit down to meat, and will not rather say unto him, Make ready wherewith I may sup, and gird thy self and serve me, till I have eaten and drunken; and afterward thou shalt eat and drink? doth he thank that servant, because he did the things that were commanded him? I trow not) Some I say, gather from thence, that Masters may usurp and insult over their servants, and think that therefore they may make them work hard all the day, and wait upon them at night in needless and unne­cessary attendance: But God in his law pro­videth against oppressing of servants; he pro­videth rest for oxen and asses, much more for men and women; Hos. 6.6. Aut manu capti in bello, aut are empti, vel à morte redempti. and tells us by his Prophet, that he will in some cases dispence with his own service, and have mercy rather then sacrifice: and besides, these servants here spoken of, were not such as we now have: but were ei­ther such as were taken in war, or bought with [Page 199]money, or redeemed from death, and there­fore owed more service to their Masters then ours do: and yet even they must not be wronged; for doubtless though it were a corrupt custome, yet it was very unlawful, to make servants slaves, and to impose more up­on them then they were able to endure, cruelty being an abomination and crying sin before the Lord.

CHAP. 26. Of the Prognosticks of Pride.

SECT. I.

MAny are the mischiefs and dangers that Pride threatens to the souls of men; therefore I think it not amiss to set before you some of the sad issues of this soul murdering Hydra.

1. It threatens the decay of gifts. The rea­son of man is blasted by pride; man in the pride of his heart affected to be like unto God, Festus slandered Paul, that much learning had made him mad: so it might have done, if Paul had been as proud of his learning, as Festus was of his honour. and he became below a man, even like the brute beasts that perish. Proud persons are usually such as run mad; when Nebuchadnez­zar [Page 200]was pufft up with pride, Inquinat egregios adjuncta superbia mores. he lost the use of his reason, and was driven out from men, and turned a grazing with the oxen. Parts and gifts are blasted, when a man grows proud of them; when man grows proud of his gifts, he forgets the giver, and returneth the glory of them to himself: Mr. Hieron in Psal. 51. No vessel so safe to pre­serve the gifts of God in, as a box of sobriety lined with humility, saith a judicious Divine of ours: God will take away his Ornaments, if (like little children) we begin to look and point where we be gay; Si tibi gratia, si sapien­tia, formaque detur: Sola superbia destruit omnia, si comitetur. and here you may see the matter whereon pride worketh; it is con­trary to all other vices; for whereas they are conversant about evil things, pride is still upon the abuse of good things: for one man is proud of his wit, another of his memo­ry, another of his learning and knowledge, &c. all which are good things in themselves, and might be well used; but by pride are so a­bused and spoiled, as they serve to little or no purpose: nay, were a man endued with never so many moral vertues, viz. if he were as wise as Solomon and Lycurgus, as temperate as So­crates or Cato, as just as Aristides, as valiant as Alexander the great, or Julius Caesar, if pride be joyned with it, it spoileth all; yea Bernard saith, Petrac. de remed. utri­usquè for­tunae. that if pride had been joyned with Maries virginity it would have tainted it; and Petrarch saith, that though a man were virtutum omnium alis evectus, lifted upon the wings of all vertues, yet sola superbia bona [Page 201]omnia corrumperet, pride alone would spoil all the good gifts of God, and make them of little account.

2. Pride threatens the decay of grace; no grace can lodge and flourish in a proud heart. God giveth grace to the humble, but takes it away from the proud. Ut superbia est orige omnium criminum, ita & ruina cunctarum virtutum. Hect. Pintus in Ezek. 15. Superbus instar inanis rami se erigit in sub­lime, nòn animae utilita­tèm quaerens, sed vani­tatem. Hector. Pintus in Ezek. cap. 2. One observeth that pride is the greatest thief in the world; for whereas covetousness takes away pity to the poor; luxury, chastity; and anger, patience, &c. Pride takes away humility which is the root and foundation of all graces: great spoils doth the devil carry a­way from the field of pride, that he careth not what a man have, so he can make him proud. A proud man with all grace (if that were possible) is worse then an humble man with all sin, if it were possible, saith Chry­sostome: according to the measure of humility is the measure of other grace in the heart: humility empties the soul for God to fill it; it empties it of temporal things, and then it must needs be filled with spiritual blessings: the Church is Lilium con­vallium, a lilly of the vallies. The showers of heaven run from the lofty moun­tains into the low vallies, Humilitas intelligen­tiae lumen aperit, su­perbia ope­rit. Gregor. soaking them and making them very fruitful: the mountains are dry, hard, barren, cold, full of dangerous precipices: so the proud are full of the dryness of indevotion, their hearts are hardened, they [Page 202]are barren and unfruitful in good works, they are subject to the precipices of sin and destru­ction; they have no soakings from the Spirit of God, and therefore are in a withering and decaying condition: a proud heart is a cold and dead heart: the mountains of Gilboa are accursed; but blessed are the poor in spirit, Matth. Humilitas cordis hu­mani receptaculum gra­tiae Divinae. Bernard. 5.3. The humble man is a valley sweetly planted and watered, saith Dr. Hall; he is watered with constant dews from heaven, his heart is made tender by the Word as Josiahs was, he is fruitful in every grace and good work. A proud heart pufft up with self-con­ceitedness of grace and goodness enough (though it have none) can receive none; proud men are like the Cedars, that are high, fair, and flourishing, but never bearing fruit. God gives good gra­ces, and the devil lay­eth in wait to destroy them. Aug. ad Monach. Humility opens the eye of the understanding, pride puts a vail upon it. The humility of mans heart is the receptacle of Gods grace, saith devout Bernard: and Macarius saith, it will make a man even spiritually cove­tous of the graces of gods Spirit; wherein the richer we are, the poorer we shall seem to our selves; and the more we have already, the more we shall still desire, which is a commend­able covetousness, Matth. 5.6. as our Saviour assureth us. Pride is a sin that doth expose the soul to a dreadful curse from God; Ps. 119.21 Thou hast rebuked the proud which are cursed (saith David) which do erre from thy Law; pride makes men erre [Page 203]from Gods commandements, and this pulleth down a curse upon them, The world calls the proud hap­py, Malach. 3.17. but God saith they are cursed. so that they become like the barren fig-tree cursed by our Saviour, and then no fruit is to be found upon them any more. It is reported of one Dydimus, that he should make this answer to one Alexander a Jewish Priest, desiring some grace, for a fashion at least, Non habes vas quo recipias, God is ready to bestow it upon thee, but thou hast not where to receive and keep it.

3. Pride bereaves a man of all true peace and comfort; no true peace can lodge in a proud heart; for every proud man is at defi­ance with God; and how can that man have peace in himself that is at war with God? learn of me saith Christ, to be meek and lowly in heart, and you shall find rest to your souls; therefore peace and rest cannot be to the proud in heart: A proud man like the clouds is tost with every blast and tempest; he hath no rest in his windy spirit, his heart is still in fear, he is like a wave of the sea, tossed to and fro: Pride cuts off the comforts of the soul; he that walks most humbly, walks most comfortably; as God dwells with humble souls, so when they lie low before him, Isa. 57.15. and are even dead to sense, God will revive the spirit of the humble; pride and vain-glory are spiritual spiders; if they enter into our hearts, and we do not hunt them out again, as the Bees do the corpo­ral spiders out of their hives, we shall soon see the store-house of our conscience to be much troubled and perplexed. I have read [Page 204]of Bernard having preacht an eloquent ser­mon at a great festival, Sicut de fonte terre­no & de corporali fluvio non potest ali­quis bibere, nisi volue­rit se incli­nare: ita & de vivo fonte Chri­sto & san­cti spiritus fluvio, ne­mo aquam vivam hau­rire poterit, nisi se hu­militer in­clinare vo­luerit, propter illud quod scriptum est, Deus superbis resistit. Caesarius hom. 30. before a great con­course of people, the people extol him, but he walketh very dejectedly: the next day he preacheth a very powerful Sermon, plain and full of profitable matter, his sincere hearers went away satisfied; but those that before ap­plauded him were dumb and silent: but him­self was much cheered in spirit; and being askt, why he was so sad when he was so much admired, and so pleasant when not applauded; he returned this answer: Heri Bernardum, hodie Christum praedicavi: yesterday I preach­ed Bernard, and to day I preacht Jesus Christ: those Ministers and people shall have most comfort, that are most sincere and most humble.

4. Pride bereaves a man of God himself which is the chiefest good; Dolium nisi undi (que) sit pice illi­tum, & nullas ha­beat ruinas, vinum non potest con­tinere; sic cor nisi hu­militate muniatur, & nullas habeat vitiorum ruinas, Dei non potest esse domi­cilium. Sanct. Isaias Abbas. orat. 12. de vino. Invidia aufert mihi proximum, ira meipsum, superbia Deum. Hugo de S. Vi­ctore. God is said to dwell with the humble: Though the Lord be high, yet he hath respect to the lowly, Psal. 138.6. Thus saith the high and lofty one that inhabiteth eternity, whose name is holy; I dwell in the high and holy place, with him also that is of a contrite and humble spirit, Isa. 57.15. God hath but two dwelling places, one in the highest hea­vens, [Page 205]the other in the lowest and humblest hearts; an humble and contrite soul, hath a heart and spirit beaten to powder, as the word properly noteth, and with such a one will the Lord dwell: As a vessel unless it be every where smeered with pitch, and have no de­caies, it cannot contain the wine put into it: so if the heart be not fenced with humility, and have no ruining vices, it cannot be the habitation of God: Hence Hugo saith very aptly, that envy takes away my neighbour, anger my self, and Pride takes away God from me.

SECT. 2.

5. PRide spoileth all the good that a man doth: Pride (like wicked Pharaoh who commanded the Egyptian Mid­wives to kill the male-children of the Hebrews, Superbia & vana gloria insidiosissime & blan­dissimae bestiae, & tan­quam serpentes optimis actionibus obrepere so­lent. Chrysost. the first day of their birth) destroys every good duty done by us, if humility be wanting to the doing of them. Pride and vain-glory be like flattering beasts, and the very bane of our best actions, if they be mingled with them, creeping into them like serpents, as Chrysostome speaks: yea Austin saith, that other vices are conversant about sins and unlawful things that should not be done, but these will be busied about vertues and good works which ought to be done. And Chemnitius tells us, that whereas other vices vexant servos Diaboli, do vex the ser­vants [Page 206]of the Devil, that pride and vain-glory vexant servos Dei, do vex the servants of God, as well as others. To feed the hungry, Caetera vitia versantur circa peccata & illicita quae fieri non debent; haec circa virtutes & bona opera versantur quae fie­ri debent. August. to give drink to the thirsty, to clothe the naked, to visit the stranger, defend the fa­therless and widow, be good works; but if we be proud of them, and boast of them, they are marred in doing, and we lose the glory of them, be­cause we glory of them. Bonaventure saith that proud persons, doing good deeds, and bragging of them, be like a foolish hen, laying an egg, and then chackling, whereby she loseth it, and hath it taken from her. So proud per­sons by boasting of their good works lose the reward of them, as our Saviour saith, Matth. 6.2. The Pharisee said, he was no extor­tioner, no unjust person, no dishonest dealer, no adulterer, he fasted twice in the week, he paid his tithes duly and truly: these were good things, Sicut humilitas omnia vitia enervat, virtutes colligit & roborat; sic superbia omnes destruit & annihilat. Gregor. but he should have staid till some body else had spoken of them, therefore he went not away justified: Hence Gregory draws this conclusion, As humility weakeneth all vices, and gathereth together and strengtheneth vertues; So pride destroys and annihilateth all vertues and vertuous acti­ons. Pride is most to be feared in deeds well done, saith Austin. Superbia maxime timenda in recte factis.

1. Consider that as the Sorcerers of Egypt [Page 207]did many miracles that Moses did; so repro­bates and the children of the devil may in pride, vain-glory, and hypocrisie counterfeit many outward good works for the matter that the children of God do through grace.

2. What good soever we do, its Gods gift that we do it, and through his grace that we are enabled to perform it.

3. When we have done all we can, we come far short of perfection, and what the law requires of us, and what in duty we are bound to do, Luk. 17.10. therefore little reason have we to be proud of any good that we do: Upon this ground it is that our Saviour re­quireth, that all our good actions be done in secret: therefore saith he, when thou dost alms, Mat. 6.3. let not thy left-hand know what thy right-hand doth. Luther saith, the meaning is, Luther in loc. Per dextram bonam volun­tatem, & per sinistram appetitum humanae lau­dis. August. take not so much from some unjustly and wrongful­ly, that so thou maist seem bounti­ful in relieving others liberally; make not many poor, and think to make God Almighty amends by keeping of a few: but that's not likely to be the meaning of the place; Austin understands by the right-hand, the right purpose of the heart and mind, and by the left-hand an inordinate desire of the praise of men. But I think they are most agreeable to our Saviours meaning, who make the words an Hyperbole, telling us, that we must not make Father, Mother, wife, child, or any friend as near and dear to us as our left-hand [Page 208]to our right, acquainted with any thing that we do, thereby fishing for, or hunting af­ter any praise from them, or desiring to be extolled by them: nay so far must we be from blowing and blazing our fame abroad, and be­ing our selves, or desiring others to be trum­petters of our praise; as (if it were possible) we should conceal whatever might be like to puffe us up, and make us proud even from our selves, forgetting (as the Proverb saith) good turnes done of us, and remembring only good turns done to us.

Now our Saviour having directed to a right course in almes-giving, doth also the like in praying; when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypocrites are, that pray in the cor­ners of the streets, and standing in the Syna­gogues, that they may be seen of men: But when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, &c. Matth. 6.4, 5.

Object. But is it then not lawful to pray in publick may some say?

Answ. God forbid we should so say or think: we have both the commandement of God, Levit. 23.8. Joel 1.14. Joel 2.15, 16. Matth. 18.20. 1 Tim. 2.8. Psal. 103.22. and the practice of the godly to the con­trary, Psal. 26.8. 2 Chron. 28.5. and for publick prayer there must be a publick place by Gods own ordinance; and it is more po­werful then private prayer, as the supplica­tion of a County, Incorporation, and Com­mon-wealth, then of a few, like many brands [Page 209]and coals together that give the greater heat: Non cupi­entes sancti esse, sed videri. Gregor. the thing found fault with then, was not the matter or action of praying in publick, but the manner or end, affection or affectation ra­ther to be seen of men and praised by men, not desiring to be holy, but to seem so, and to be called so, as Gregory saith. Therefore saith our Saviour, When thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and shut thy door upon thee, &c. i. e. approve thy self to God, and so carry the matter, as it may (if thou canst) be hid from the world: for as a man may pray in secret in an open place, as the Publican, Luke 18. So a man may pray for ostentation in a secret place, even under many locks, and with many doors shut upon him, if he withdraw himself, to the end he may be seen and observed. Therefore Austin writing to certain Eremites, whom he stileth brethren in the wilderness, August, Ad fratres in eremo. Claude osti­um, hoc est, noli sermo­ne clamare nec diffundere orationem tuam, nec jactare per populos sed in secreto tuo ora securus, ut te in secreto possit audire, quoniam videt & audit universa. August. Ambros. Hieron. Chemnit. bids them come out of those solitary places, and come into towns and Cities, yea even to the Court, rather then be proud of being in a wilderness.

Object. But may not a man glory in the good works done by him? doth not the A­postle say, Let every man prove his own work, and then shall he have rejoycing in himself alone, and not in another, Gal. 6.4.

Answ. The Apostle layeth down a remedy [Page 210]against self-love, and over-weening conceit of our selves, and it stands in proving and ex­amining a mans own work by it self, without comparing it with another mans: Whereof he renders this reason, Then shall he have re­joycing in himself alone, and not in another. There is a double ground of glorying; one out of a mans self, the other in a mans self.

1. Out of himself, in God alone, Jerem. 9.23. He that gloryeth, let him glory in the Lord, 1 Cor. 1.31.

2. In himself, viz. in the comfortable te­stimony of a good conscience, 2 Cor. 1.12. The one is glorying before God, the other before men; the one of justification, the other of holy conversation for the time past, and constant resolution for the time to come; the one in the testimony of our own conscience, the other in the testimony of Gods Spirit, witnessing with our spirits, that we are the sons of God, Rom. 8.16. the first not here meant, 1 Cor. 1.29.

Object. This glorying in a mans self is vain­glory, and a branch of pride.

Answ. It differs from vain-glory in two things.

  • In the Foundation.
  • In the End.

1. Vain-glory hath for its ground and foundation, our own vertues, gifts, works, considered as they come from our selves, not from God: whereas this true glorying, is [Page 211]grounded upon them as they are fruits of re­generation, and proceeding from justification by Christ, and reconciliation with God.

2. They differ in the end: vain-glory tend­ing to the advancing of our selves, in an o­pinion of our own proper desert; this true glo­rying aimeth at Gods glory alone, acknow­ledging that all the good that we have, and all the good that we do, to come from God alone, rejoycing in our good works, not as causes, but as fruits of our justification: so that if the question be, whether we be justified by them or not; we must then disclaim them, and tread them under our feet, and account them as dung, as Paul did, Phil. 3.7, 8, 9, 10.

SECT. 3.

6. PRide will make a man unfit for society with others: Pride is a great enemy to union; therefore it is that there are so many sad separations of men one from another in these divided times. It is very hard for men of proud spirits long to accord and unite to­gether. Melanct. Comment. in Prov. 13.10. Melancton compareth proud men to mountains, and saith, concerning such men there was wont to be this Proverb, Duo montes non miscentur. Two mountains will not mix together: Humble persons are very sociable, they can converse together with an unequal respect of age, parts, sex, or degree: Hum­ble men, like the Bees, love a sociable life; who [Page 212]as Ambrose observeth, are included and in­closed in one hive, and shut up with one door. Proud persons cannot cope together; a proud man envieth his superiors, because they be above him; he scorneth his inferiors, because they be beneath him, and labours to keep them down, lest they over-take him; and he studi­eth to supplant and undermine his equals, lest they out-strip and excell him: therefore that our Saviour might correct this humour among his own Disciples, he took a little child, and set him in the midst of them, Matth. 18.2, 3. saying, Ʋnless ye be­come as little children, ye shall not enter into the Kingdom of God. Children are humble and meek-spirited, they envy not, they disdain not, they exalt not themselves one above another; the children of a Prince will be familiar and play with the child of a peasant; they equal themselves one to another, till they be told their places, and made proud by being ob­served. So must not Christians strive for pre­cedency and superiority above their brethren. Thus David saith, that his heart was not haughty, &c. nor walked in matters too high for him: but saith he, I have behaved and quieted my self as a child, Psal. 131.1, 2. Servus ser­vorum dei.as a child that is wean­ed of his mother; my soul is even as a weaned child. The Pope indeed is stiled by a most lowly title, The servant of the servants of God, though he be nothing less; but had we hearts truly humble, we should learn the Apo­stles lesson, and serve one another in love. The Romans therefore painted humility in the [Page 213]form of a serving-man, wearing black gar­ments, his head hanging down, and a staffe in his hand, to represent the several good conditions of humility, and of the humble man.

1. He thinks meanly of himself, albeit most noble and excellent.

2. He ever thinks himself bound to run the way of Gods Commandments; this is ex­pressed by the staffe in his hand.

3. The black-garments express him to be one of Sions mourners, like the poor Publican lamenting his sins, standing afar off, as not worthy to lift up his eyes to heaven.

4. To signifie that himself was created to serve God and others; and this the picture expressed, by being in the form of a serving­man.

7. Pride threatens ruine and destruction to to a mans children, house and fa­mily. The Hebrews call the generation of children the building up the house: and Pride throws down this building. The Lord will destroy the house of the proud, saith Solomon, Prov. 15.25. though (like Lucifer) he set his nest among the stars, yet pride will unnest him, and throw him down. Thus God brought ruine upon the house of Valois; those proud persecutors of the French Protestants. So likewise Maximinus the Roman Emperour, having made a decree against the Christians, and being in the act of persecuting them, he perished in an insurrection and mutiny of his souldiers, who hated him for his pride and [Page 214]cruelty, and killed not only himself, but his son also, crying out, That there should not a whelp escape of so bad a breed. Proud Pa­rents are the greatest enemies to their chil­dren, that possibly can be, making them liable to Gods wrath and curse. When good He­zekiah grew proud of his treasures, Quae servare poterat occultata, praedae red­didit obnoxia ostentata, M S. Isa. 39.6, 7. and shewed them to the Embassa­dours of the King of Babylon: the Prophet tells him from the Lord; that the daies should come, that all that was in his house, and all that his Fathers had laid up in store to that day, should be car­ried to Babylon; and that his sons which he should beget, should be taken away by them; and be Eunuchs in the Palace of the King of Babylon; his house and posterity should be ruined for his pride.

8. It will make a man nothing? though a proud man think himself something, yet he is nothing, Gal. 6.3.

Object. Are men nothing, were they not created in the Image of God, in holiness and righteousness?

Answ. Paul speaks not of men, as they were in the state of innocency, Perche se alcuno si stima esser qualche cosa, essen­do egli niente inganna se stesso con la sua fan­tasia. Ital. but as they are in the state of corruption and apostacy; and therefore now man is not what he may imagine himself to be; and if he think him­self to be something, when he is nothing, he deceiveth himself. The Italian translator renders it thus: If any man deem [Page 215]himself to be something, he being nothing, de­ceiveth himself with his own fancy. The pride of thy heart hath deceived thee, saith the Lord to Edom. Obad. ver. 3. The proud man thinks he hath substances when he hath but shadows; as they that think themselves Prin­ces, when they be but Peasants, Isa. 29.8. and base per­sons; or like such as dream they be at feasts, and waking are hungry: men are usually deceived two waies.

  • By others.
  • Or by themselves.

1. By others: as by flatterers, so they are deceived occasionally.

2. By themselves; and so they are deceived truly and properly. For he that deceiveth himself may well please himself, but tis in his errour; for indeed he deceiveth himself in his imagination, as James tells us, Jam. 1.22, 26. Every proud man at the last shall have no more to speak in his own defence, but that which an Apocryphal writer speaks of the damned, Wisd. 5. Plutarch in vit. Alex. What hath pride profited us? Thus Plutarch re­ports of Alexander, that being in India, he caused his soldiers to make and leave behinde them, bits and snaffles, and horse-shooes of a huge bigness, and huge spears, massy shields, big helmets, long swords, and other furniture for horse and man answerable, that he might be thought some Giant; whereby thinking to deceive others, he chiefly deceived himself; and surely, this spiritual guile is the worst of [Page 216]all the rest, whereby while men deceive others in the profession, they deceive themselves of their salvation.

CHAP. 27. Of the Cure of Pride: the first direction.

I Am now come to the cure of this danger­ous and desparate malady, and here should I consult with the wisest and most experienced about the cure thereof; I doubt it would be to little purpose, because scarce a man can be found, that hath an experimental knowledge of the cure of it in himself: therefore I shall gather some receipts out of the Scriptures, which may prove most likely for the curing of this disease.

Direct. 1. Set before you the condition of your bodies and souls, and therein you will find matter sufficient to abate your pride.

1. Concerning our bodies; the considera­tion of the matter whereof they were made, Homo ab bumo. should make us low and humble in our own eyes. Its reported of Agathocles, that being advanced to the Kingdom of Cicily, Cur non humillimus cū sis humi limus? though we have diversam ve­stem, yet we have ean­dem cutem. and yet but a Potters son, he would not be served at his meals in plate, but in earthen vessels; whereby he might be put in minde of two things: first, of his beginning and pedigree from whence he came, but from the [Page 217]potters shop, of mean parentage; and second­ly of his end, that he should one day fail, and could not last long, but himself and high estate was subject to casualty; yea perhaps he might come to ruine suddenly, as an earthen vessel is sometime broken ere any body be aware: Thus we see, he being an Heathen, used these considerations to humble him: It is a foul shame for Christians to come herein behind him: now to humble us we need but meditate on the matter whereof we were made, viz. not gold or silver, the purest of mettals, Non dicit Deus Ada­mo, è pul­vere es, sed pulvis es. Musculus. nor yet of fire, aire, or water, the more pure ele­ments; but for the most part, of earth, the grossest and basest of them all, the very bed and bread of the Serpent; why then should base earth be proud? Abraham made better use of this consideration, even checking himself, Gen. 18.27. Job 13.12. and craving pardon for his boldness to speak unto God, being but dust and ashes: and holy Job counselleth his friends not to think too well of themselves, and too ill of him; for saith he, Mr. Weems saith, that the body of man is made not of the heart of the earth, which is rich in mettals; nor of the soil of the earth, which is rich in fruits, nor of the sand of the earth which is good for ballast: but of the dust, the most unprofitable thing. Your remembrances are like to ashes, and your bodies to bodies of clay; In a word! as we were not made of gold or silver the purest of met­tals, no more were we made of brass, iron, or steel, the toughest of mettals, and the most lasting; but of the earth, yea the dust of the earth, which is presently blown away with e­very blast of wind: and as soon are the [Page 218]youngest and strongest of us swept away from the places of our habitations, so that they shall know us no more, if the breath of God once blow upon us; for we dwell but in houses of clay, and our foundation is in the dust, Job 4.19. Why then should we pamper our selves with all the dainties and delicates of flesh, fowl, and fish, that the earth, aire, and sea may afford us; when we our selves must ere long (and we know not how soon) become a service and second course for the worms? or why should we with Diotrephes, and such ambitious aspiring spirits labour to be above others while we live, Willegesi, Willegesi, recole unde veneris. Becolcerus in anno. 1011. that must be laid level with the earth, nay lower then the upper part of the earth when we are dead. I have read of Willegesius, who being the son of a Carpenter, and after­wards Bishop of Mentz, had this written in his bed chamber with great letters, Willegesius, Willegesius, remember whence thou camest. The greatest will have no cause to be proud, if he remember whence he came, even from the dust.

2. Consider that every man in the world is born a poor, naked, helpless creature, and born to labour and trouble. Naked came I out of my mothers womb, Job 1.21. saith Job; and this one thought well taken in, and fully digested, will lay pride in the dust; And here I might shew you how nature, which shews her self a mother to other creatures, is but as it were a step-mo­ther unto man, denying him many of those natural helps wherewith they are endowed, [Page 219]sending him forth weak and weaponless, want­ing that natural instinct to feed himself, Dentetime­tur aper, defendunt cornua tau­rum. when he is brought forth, and those natural instru­ments to defend himself, when he is brought up: the very first voice and noise that man uttereth, is weeping and crying, being as it were a Prophet and Prognosticator of his suc­ceeding misery; he cometh forth weeping in­to a vally of tears, seeming to be grieved, that he is a man, and not some other creature, ashamed because naked; to weep because he is born to labour not to honour, Qui natus non est in dolore, putet se natum non esse ad laborem; la­bor est in Actione, Dolor est in passione; & quid non eis grave, quibus vivere labor est? Bern. for this is the common condition of all Adams posterity: In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread till thou return to the ground, Gen. 3.19. As it was laid upon Eve and all her daughters to conceive in sor­row, so was it laid upon Adam and all his sons to live by labour: Therefore Bernard saith well to this purpose: He that is not born in sorrow, let him think that he is not born to labour; there is labour in action, grief in passion or suffering, and what is not grievous to those to whom life it self is a la­bour? why then should we paint our backs with gorgeous apparel, seeing we were but made of a piece of earth, from whence we came naked, and whither we must go again naked as Job saith? and why should any man be proud of his possessions, and inheritances, when as he is born to nothing but the bread of affliction and the waters of adversity?

3. The consideration of the manifold pains, weaknesses, sicknesses, and infirmities of the body, should much abate our pride. God takes away health and strength many times from his dearest children, as from Hezekiah, 2 Kings 20.1. from David, Psal. 41.8. and from Lazarus whom Jesus loved, Joh. 11.3. God many times brings diseases upon our bo­dies to cure the disease of pride. Gregor. praefat. in Moral. Gregory tells us, that while he was expounding the tragical history of Job, that he was afflicted with continual feavers; yet this good he thereby gathered, that it so fell out, that by Gods Providence, himself being sick and wounded, should expound wounded Job; these strokes upon his body made him the bet­ter to understand, and with words the better to express the mind of wounded Job.

God opens the ears of men, and sealeth their instruction: he is chastened also with pain upon his bed, and the multitude of his bones with strong pain; and the end that God aim­eth at is, that he may withdraw man from his purpose, Job 33.16, 17, 19, 20. and hide pride from man: bodily weaknesses many times bring down the pride and stoutness of our hearts.

4. The frequent and serious consideration of death, to which the body is also subject, is of great force to pull down pride, and keep the spirit very humble. Death is the humble mans university; no man would be proud of bodily strength or beauty, did he frequently think of death; this would make the stoutest [Page 221]to strike sail, and cast down their proud crests in the midst of their greatest jollity. O thou who art dust and ashes, why dost thou wax proud? remember whence thou art and be ashamed, where thou art and la­ment, whither thou art going, Quid superbis pulvis & cinis? memento un­de es & erubesce; ubi es, & ingemisce; quo iturus es, & perhor­resce. Bern. One cried to Johannes Eleemosynarius being made Patriarch, Perfice sepulchrum, perfice se­pulchrum. and tremble for fear, saith Bernard. Let us constantly remember our end, and we shall not do amiss. Let the meditation of the death of the body be to us, as Philips Page, as Josephs Sepulchre in his garden, a place of pleasure. Facile contemnit omnia, qui assidue cogitat se moriturum; that man easily despiseth all things, who daily thinketh that he shall die. This use Paul makes of it: seeing we brought nothing into this world, and can carry nothing out; having food and raiment, let us be therewith content, 1 Tim. 6.7, 8. Let us not proudly aspire after great things here, because shortly we must die and leave all behind us. Agnoscat homo se esse mortalem, & franget elationem. Aug.

2. Let us consider the state and condition of our souls, and hence we may fetch matter enough to keep down our pride. Man was made an excellent creature, made in the image of God, in knowledge, righteousness and holi­ness; but this image of God in man is by his fall much weakened, and he that was by crea­tion the noblest creature on earth, is now be­come a vagabond on earth, a child of wrath, [Page 222]an enemy to God: if we will view our selves in the glass of Gods law, Rom. 7. we shall see our own vileness and deformity, and that in us, that is, in our flesh there dwells no good thing; that there is nothing but vanity in our minds, re­bellion in our wills, ataxy in our affections, transgression in our lives, that all our best righteousness is as filthy rags, that our souls are the very proper subjects of misery, our hearts the very center of fears and sorrows, and our minds the hives and receptacles of swarms of thorny and distracting cares, which make man a slave to his passions, disturbe his peace, and make the best of his earthly com­forts to be but splendid vanities and golden delusions; the consideration hereof, and the miserable estate we are liable to, will drive us out of love and liking with our selves; yea make us with Job, Job 42.6. to abhor our selves, and re­pent in dust and ashes; It is reported of Gre­gory Nazianzen, Dr. Abbot on Jonah. that when any thing fell out prosperously to him, whereby he feared that pride might seize upon him or get footing in him, Quando pavo pedes subito in­spicit, sta­tim remittit animum & circulum pennarum. Etsi enim habet homo, propter quod exultet; si tamen inspererit suam originem & vitae suae conditiones, statim remittet, &c. Franzius. that he would presently set himself to read over the Lamentations of Jeremiah; and whensoever the like befals any of us, or when­soever we feel our selves tickled with the itch­ing humour of self-love, or self-liking, in regard of our outward gifts or inward graces, let us enter into a serious meditation of our [Page 223]foulest sins, and reigning deformities, that so we may nip this sin of pride in the bud, and kill the serpent in the shell: when the Peacock spreads his circled train, turning to the one side, and to the other, he struts it bravely, but at last (as it were reflecting on his hoarse and hideous voice, and casting his eyes on his black feet) he goes sneaking away and lets fall his fair fan of feathers: so when we are apt to be pufft up with pride by reason of any thing we have, and enjoy, or of any thing we have done or suffered; let us consider the infinite temp­tations and weaknesses, Quomodo superbiat qui secum semper sen­tinam por­tat? Hieron and sinful imperfecti­ons, that continually attend upon, and accom­pany even our best actions, and we shall find matter enough to empty us of our high and windy conceits. Bees flying in the aire do bal­last their wings with little stones, lest the wind blow them away; so when we are apt to be blown away with the wind of pride, let our minds be ballasted with the thoughts of our sins.

CHAP. 28. The second Direction.

Direct. 2. LOok up to God, and thou wilt see enough in him to pull down thy pride.

  • Gods greatness.
  • Gods holiness.
  • Gods goodness.

1. Consider the greatness of God, and the superiority of God above man, and the power that he hath over man: Ps. 95.3, 6. the Lord is a great God, and a great King above all gods, there­fore let us worship and bow down, and kneel before the Lord our Maker, saith the Psalmist: If man could do according to his will, and God would do according to his power, Gen. 6.6, 7 who could stand? I will destroy man from the face of the earth, saith the Lord: The Original word is, as Pareus hath it, Pareus in loc. I will steep him as a man steeps a piece of earth in water, till it turn to dirt, for man is but clay, and forgets his Maker, and his matter; none but God can reduce man to his first principles, and original matter whereof he was made; there is no dust so high, but this great God is able to give it a steeping; God is alwaies provided of a rod for his children, and of an ax and sword for his enemies; though [Page 225]he doth not alwaies smite, yet he is ever ready; Psal. 7.13. he hath prepared instruments of death; his bow is bent and his arrows are upon the string; therefore when thou walkest in the ruffe of thy pride, God can stretch out his Almighty arm, and let fly a deadly arrow that may wound thy soul for ever. Therefore when thou beginnest at any time to be pufft up, think who thou art, and who God is; when thou thinkest thou art something, look upon the greatness of the most high God, and then thou wilt see thou art just nothing.

2. Consider the holiness of God, and then look upon thine own sinfulness and vileness, and thou wilt see little cause to be proud. Bishop Hooper said at the stake, Lord, thou art heaven, I am hell; Thou art Justice, I am sin, was Luther also wont to say. Gods holiness will shew us our sinful spots and defilements. When the Prophet saw a glorious vision of the Lord, Isa. 6.3, 5. and heard the Seraphims proclaim the thrice holy name of God, he cries out imme­diately, Wo is me, for I am undone, because I am a man of unclean lips. How shall I that am altogether unclean stand before this holy Lord God? The pride of man must needs fall down before the holiness of God.

3. Consider the goodness of God; and that will abate our pride. When David sent Messengers to Abigail, 1 Sam. 25.41. to assure her he would be her husband, this maketh Abigail low in our own eyes: Let me, saith she, be a servant to wash the feet of the servants of my Lord; [Page 226]shall David honour me to make me his wife, who am scarce worthy to be one of his ser­vants? So the consideration of Gods great goodness to man, is a special means to humble him before the Lord. What am I, O Lord, that thou shouldst set thy heart upon me, Create me after thine Image, Redeem me by the blood of thy Son, provide Heaven and Glory for me? the consideration of such fa­vours will make him have low thoughts of himself, and not quarrel with God, when God bestows great mercies upon others. This was Jonahs fault: God had delivered him and his companions in the ship, from the fury of two merciless elements, viz. the air and waters, both which seemed to have conspired their destruction, but are restrained by the over­ruling power of God; the Lord apprehends Jonah, arrests him, and safely delivereth him into his prison; yet he is so far from being crushed or torn in pieces by the devouring jaws of that cruel monster, as he's not once touched by his teeth; and he is safely kept there forth-coming amidst many dangers in that dark dungeon, viz. First from being choked by the noisome vapours of the fishes entrals: Secondly, from being digested, con­cocted, and turned to his nourishment by the continual boiling heat of his stomack; and lastly, he is not cast out into the sea to shift for himself, and sink or swim as we say, but he is safely landed and set on shore; and not only is he delivered, but a whole City consisting of [Page 227]millions of people (by his Sermon brought to repentance,) delivered from some strange vengeance which otherwise had seized upon them: Jon. 4.1. but Jonah was very much displeased at it, and falls to expostulating the business with God himself: and though God dealeth with him Socratice, and spurs him a question, saying, Dost thou well to be angry? to which question he's not able to make any reasonable answer: yet Jonahs heart swells against God for sparing Niniveh. Pride, self-love, and ambition, and standing too much upon his reputation made him thus to do; and rather then he would be discredited and thought a false Prophet, he would have Niniveh destroyed, Eccl. 41.17. and all the people thereof perish: the son of Syrach tells us its a foul shame to tell a lie before a Prince and men of authority, as he thought he had done; but he should have done well to have staid among them, and rejoyced with them, that God had been pleased to bestow such a blessing upon his preaching, and his gratious pardon upon the place.

CHAP. 29. The third Direction.

Direct. 3. LEt one Christian labour to ex­ercise love towards another. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thy self: [Page 228] Austin saith, Voluit deus unicum he­minem in principio formare, à quo omnes procederent ut tanquam fratres om­nes inter se invicem amarent. Aug. Si fratres sumus in quantum homines, quanto ma­gis in quan­tum Chri­stiani? August. Sanctior est copula cordium quam corporum. Lumb. senten. lib. 3. distinct. 29. God would form one man in the beginning, from whom all men should pro­ceed, that all might mutually love one another as brethren: the son of Syrach urgeth this very argument, saying, every beast loveth his like, and every Christian should love another: we see it verified in Wolves, Lions, Tigers, &c. and shall they agree, and men disagree? we may observe it, that the very dogs that live together in an house will not ordinarily fight one with another, but one for another; and shall men agree worse then dogs in a family? its nothing but pride that makes men swell thus one against another; and we have not only the bond of nature, but of grace to bind us to this duty.

This is the command of the Lord Jesus, and the badge and livery whereby we may be known to the world to be the Disciples of him who is the most admirable pattern of humility and lowliness.

Divers reasons why we should love one another as our selves, may be taken from the similitude of the members of the natural body, where the Apostle tells us, that as the body being but one, 1 Cor. 12.12. hath many members, so we be­ing many, are all members of the same mystical body of Christ.

1. The more noble and honourable mem­bers despise not the less honourable, and those [Page 229]that are appointed to more base offices: as for instance, the head, though it self be covered, and carried aloft, doth not contemn the feet, though they travel and trudge to carry the whole body about: no more ought the rich in gifts, parts or estate, despise the poor; Mal. 2.10. for they be their fellow members, made of the same mat­ter, by the same Maker. The rich Angels in heaven despise not the poor Saints on earth, but are ready to perform the duties of love un­to them, as appeareth by their carrying the soul of the poor beggar into Abrahams bosom; Luk. 16.22 and so ought it to be on earth, as James speak­eth; Jac. 2.1, 2. not having the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ with respect of persons.

2. As the more noble contemn not the less noble, no more do the less noble envy the more noble; and so it should be among us; for as the hands and the feet grudge not that them­selves are used and employed as instruments to feed and defend the head and heart, no more must subjects and servants, and men of meaner condition envy their superiors, and Masters the places that God hath allotted them, but content themselves with their own, and be faithful and painful in them, as King David willed Ziba and his sons and servants to do for his Masters son Mephibosheth, 2 Sam. 9.10.

3. If one member fail in performance of some duty, whereby another catcheth hurt, the other doth not in a rage run upon it and hurt it again; as for example; if the foot [Page 230]chance to slip, and so the head catch a knock, it doth not presently perswade the hand to heat the foot; or if the teeth bite the tongue, this were to seek the ruine and destruction of the whole body: no more ought we in our mad mood furiously to rush one upon another, when we have been unawares hurt one by another.

4. When one member is hurt, the whole body feels it, and fares the worse for it; as for example; a thorn in the foot grieveth the head, yea the very heart; so ought we to have a sympathy and fellow-feeling of the hurt of one another, as Christ our head hath of us all, as is evident by that speech he useth to Paul before his conversion, saying, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? Act. 9.4. signifying to us that the hurt that was done to his members on earth, even reached him their head in heaven.

5. What good parts soever any of the members be endued with, they hoard not up, nor reserve to themselves as Monopolies, but impart and employ them for the good and benefit of the whole body, and the meanest member thereof; if a toe or a finger be but fore, the eye looketh, the head deviseth how to help it, and if they be not able to do it themselves by their own skill, then they seek out to others, and the tongue will play the Orator, and entreat, yea rather then fail, and not have it, the hand will play the Almoner and reward; thus should we be willing to [Page 231]afford our mutual help one to another, and so we would if we were once perswaded of the necessity of this duty, that we ought to love our neighbour as our self; but pride and self-love do so blind the eyes of men, that they will not learn this lesson; 1 Gor. 13.4. Charity suffereth long and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not it self, is not puffed up, saith the Apostle.

CHAP. 30. The fourth, fifth and sixth Directions.

Direct. 4. SUbmit thy self to the Word, let it have its efficacy and opera­tion upon thy soul: pride cannot stand before the Word, when it cometh in power upon the heart; the Word is a hammer that breaks a heart of rock in pieces. Christ compareth the Gospel or Kingdom of God to leaven, Luk. 13.21 which a woman took and hid in three mea­sures of meal till the whole was leavened. The Word like leaven altereth the persons upon whom it worketh, and makes them become like unto it: this woman here may fignifie the wisdom of Gods Spirit working in, and with faithful and painful dispensers of the mysteries of the Kingdom, or their care and conscience, pains and diligence; the three measures or pecks of meal it seems was an ordinary leaven­ing in an ordinary family: Gen. 18. [...]. Sarah leavened so [Page 232]much to entertain the Angels: some think by the three measures of meal, are meant the three powers and faculties of mans soul, all which the Word of God moderateth and tem­pereth, Pliny saith, that for five hundred & eighty years together, the custom at Rome was for women altogether to be employed about this business, and that they had no men ba­kers. viz. concupiscibilem, irasci­bilem, & rationalem, the concupi­scible, the irascible, and the rational: the concupiscible, that it may not lust after things unlawful and vain, as David praies, Lord encline my heart to thy testimonies, not to co­vetousness; the irascible, that it may not boil above measure, and violently break forth beyond its bounds; Tu domine argum ata­re, ego mi­rabor; tu disputa, ego credam. Aug. and also the rational, casting down imaginations or proud reasonings, and every high thing that exalts it self against the knowledge of God, subduing the pride of reason to the obedience of faith, 2 Cor. 10.5. Thus Austin: Lord do thou dispute, I will wonder: do thou debate the matter, I will believe: and if thou wilt not willingly yeild to the Word, it will overcome thee, whether thou wilt or no: we read of the Synagogue of the proud Libertines and others that disputed with Stephen, Act. 6.9, 10 that they were not able to resist the wisdom and the spirit by which he spake. So the Apostle Paul, though he had many enemies, as the Priests of the Jews, and the Philosophers of the Gentiles, yet he made invia pervia; where he could not find way, he made way by this engine of the Word: what a rufling did proud Arius keep in the Eastern Church for a while? but as Constantine re­porteth, [Page 233]Porteth, the glistering truth of the Gospel did overcome the Arians. Moses his rod did de­vour the rods of Egypt, and the nearer Dagon came to the Ark, the greater was his fall.

Direct. 5. Cum super­bia tentat, cogita me­liores. Ber. When thou art apt to swell with the thoughts of thy own excellencies, think not only on thine inferiors, but upon thine equals, and superiors; when we compare our selves with others that are above us, as the heavens above the earth, whose gifts and graces do as far excel and exceed ours, as the bright sun-shine doth the dimm candle light, we cannot but be ashamed, and acknowledge that there is no cause why we should magnifie our selves above others, and vilifie, yea nullifie others in comparison of our selves, but that we should esteem of others better then our selves: this will make us lay down all vain opinions of our selves, and to judge our selves from a right knowledge of our selves, the least and lowest of all others. It is a speech of one of the Antients, August. They that are in the view of the world better then others, must in their own hearts esteem themselves inferior to others: Rom. 12.10 this will teach us in honour to prefer one ano­ther. 2 Pet. 3 15 Alios ple­runque imitari no­lumus, quia nos ipsos meliores credimus. Greg. Peter and Paul had been at some differ­ence, yet notwithstanding Peter honoureth him with his title and testimony of beloved brother; and Paul looks not altogether at his own honour, but is also careful of the honour of inferiour Preachers, as Sylvanus, Timothy, &c. therefore he joyneth their names with his own in some of his Apostolical Epistles to the Churches.

Direct. 6. Set before you the examples of the godly that were men renowned for their humility. Gen. 32.10 Humble Jacob saith to God, I am less then all the mercies and truth which thou hast shewed to thy servant. Luk. 1. And the blessed Virgin calleth her self an handmaid of the Lord, not worthy to be regarded. The poor prodigal saith, I am not worthy to be called thy son: and John Baptist saith, he was not worthy to untie the lachet of Christs shoo. Paul saith he was chief among sinners, Ephes. 3.8. and less then a Saint, less then the least, yea less then the least of all Saints; and not worthy to be called an Apostle: and the Centurion saith to Christ, I am not worthy that thou shouldest come under my roof; Luk. 5.8. and Peter when he saw a miracle that Christ wrought, he fell down at Jesus knees, saying, Depart from me, O Lord, for I am a sinful man.

Object. But you will say, This request of Peter seems very strange: for to whom shall sinners go but to their Saviour, and whom can they desire to have come to them, and be with them rather then he that only hath eternal life? this was in a manner the suit of the Devils, Matth. 8.29. What have we to do with thee, Jesus thou Son of God? &c. Now it may seem strange that Peter a pillar in the Church should utter such a speech contrary to what he had said, John 6.68.

Respon. You must not think, though the words sound almost the same, that the sense is any thing alike; the devils out of servile fear [Page 235]and malice thinking Christ to be come to tor­ture and torment them (as he did even then make a beginning to unroost and dislodge them) desire his absence: but Peter on the other side, not through distrust or despair of his salvation, or weariness of Christs company (which doubtless was most welcome to him) but out of a feeling of his own frailty and un­worthiness, uttered these speeches, thereby signifying not his weariness, but unworthiness of Christs company, and therefore maketh this modest request. 2 Sam. 7.18. Thus David saith of himself in humility, who am I O Lord, and what is my Fathers house, that thou hast brought me hi­therto, that is, advanced me to this Crown and Kingdom?

Hence we may observe a difference between the presence of God, and earthly Princes, viz. that men grow proud to be admitted into their presence, and think it the only grace and fa­vour can be done them; Rex meus me semper habebat in oculis. and therefore the bragging Souldier in the Comedy could vaunt­ingly say, My King had me alwaies in his eyes: and Haman thought no man in the Kingdom so highly in favour, or so likely to be honoured as himself, because he had been laely graced at a banquet by the King and Queen; but when men come into the presence of God, it fareth otherwise, it maketh them exceeding humble, as Job in Gods presence abhorreth himself, and repents even in dust and ashes. When Rebecca came towards Isaac, Gen. 24.64, 65. and saw him, she lighted from her Camel, and vailed [Page 236]her self; and when the Spouse of Christ com­eth before Christ her husband, she casteth off all confidence of her own righteousness, and desireth to be shrowded and vailed under the mantle-covering of Christs righteousness im­puted to her: thus you see the better any men are, the meaner they think of themselves: now these great examples are registred in Scripture for our imitation; therefore whensoever your hearts are apt to swell with pride, check them and chide them for this disorder, by sending them to the examples of the most eminent Saints, to whose humility the Scripture gives so large a testimony. And let me advise you further to converse frequently with humble men; this is effectual to expell pride: As So­lomon saith, He that walks with the wise shall be wise, so he that converseth with the hum­ble shall learn humility: The humble sheep will flock together: humble men can converse together without censuring, quarreling, or disdaining, and get much by conversing with others, whereas the proud care not for com­munion, and if they converse with any, it is only with such as do excell; if they sit at the feet of any, it must be at the feet only of some Gamaliel.

CHAP. 31. The seventh Direction.

Direct. 7. ABove all, take the Lord Jesus for your pattern: Learn of me, saith he, for I am meek and lowly in heart, Matth. 11.29. Hierom having read the holy life and pious death of Hillarion, folding up the book said, Well! Hillarion shall be the champion whom I will imi­tate. Discite à me; non ad Patriarchas, non ad prophetas vos ego mitto, sed me vobis exemplum, me formam humilitatis exhibeo. Inviderunt mihi altitudinem quam habeo apud patrem, An­gelus & Faemina; ille potentiae, illa scientiae: vos autem aemulamini charismata meliora; di­scite à me, quia mitis sum & humilis corde. Bernard. Epist. How much rather should we say so of Christ, He is the pattern that I will follow. Christ is the Lilly of the valley, Cant. 2.1. Christs ex­ample may serve instead of all. Walk by Christs humility, saith Austin, if thou wilt come to his eternity. Christ saith Learn of me; I do not send you to the Patriarchs or Pro­phets, but I set my self before you as a pattern of humility for you to follow. He saith not Learn of me how I made the heavens, and the stars, and laid the foundations of the earth, and laid the measures thereof: he doth not say Imi­tate me in my fourty days fast, in my walking upon the waters, stilling the winds, healing the sick, raising the dead; in a word, not in any of my miraculous, but in all my moral actions, especially in humility. So likewise [Page 238] Joh. 13. having washed his Disciples feet, he told them he did it not in officium, for any du­ty he owed them; but in amorem, out of love he bare to them, & in exemplum, teaching them by his carriage towards them, how they ought to carry themselves one towards ano­ther: His argument is very strong and forci­ble; for if he, their Lord and Master, had shewed himself so kind and humble towards them his servants and inferiors, much more ought they to do the like to their fellows and e­quals: now as they that intend to write or draw a picture fair, must first look upon their copy, and view their pattern, and then labour and endeavour to follow it: so let us first take a view and survey of the humility of Christ, and then endeavour to conform our selves there­unto. The humility of Christ is the medicione of mans pride, saith Austin.

1. His humility appeared in taking our na­ture upon him; in taking our nature, not in changing his own, Naturam nastram su­scipiendo, non suam mutando, Homo deo accessit, non autem deus à se re­cessit; & verbum ca­ro factum est, non deposita sed seposita majestate, instar solis sub umbra ad tempus latentis, & se mundo non ostendentis. August. saith a Father; man came unto God, but God departed not from him­self; and the Word was made flesh, not by put­ting away, but by laying aside his Majesty, like the sun that for a time lies hid under a cloud, not shewing himself to the world; and such, and so great was his love towards us, that though he were equal with God, and might so have re­mained & continued, yet he even seemed to strip [Page 239]himself of his own glory, and appear only in our infirmity; for he did not cast away the nature of God, when he took upon him the nature of man; sed mansit quoderat, & tamen assumpsit quod non erat; Phil. 2.7, 8. Zanch. in loc. that did abide which was, and yet he assumed that which was not; and whereas the Apostle saith, that he was made in the likeness of men, or found in fashi­on as a man; that is, as learned Zanchy ex­pounds the words, in his whole nature, Christ a great ex­ample of humility in his birth. body and soul, being like to us in all things, sin only excepted, Heb. 4.15. Now the great humili­ty of God manifest in the flesh will appear, if we consider his birth, his life and his death. There are many circumstances in his birth to set forth his humility to us.

1. In making choice of a poor and humble mother; one that was of a mean and low estate, as she her self confesseth, Luk. 1.48. Her mean estate appeareth in divers things.

1. In her marriage with Joseph a Carpenter, an handy-crafts man, a man of a low and mean calling.

2. By their travelling without a hand-maid, or any servant to attend them.

3. By her offering at her purification: she offereth not a lamb for a burnt-offering, and a turtle dove for a sin-offering, Luk. 2.24. as was required of the wealthier sort, Levit. 12.6. but two Turtles only, or a pair of Pigeons, which was indifferent by the law. Maldonat. Yea Maldonate the Jesuits conceit is, that they were only a pair of young Pigeons, as being of less pains to [Page 240]find, and less price to pay for; whence ap­peareth the poverty of Joseph and Mary: for however Chemnitius conceiteth, Chemnit. that there­fore the typical Lamb was not offered, because the true Lamb of God that takes away the sins of the world was present. Calvin. Joh. 1.29. yet Cal­vin and all other Protestant writers that I have seen, do make their poverty the reason thereof. Therefore the Popish painters are much de­ceived, setting out Mary still in rich attire, like a Lady of great state and pomp, thus feed­ing the peoples ears with fables, and their eyes with bables.

2. Consider the time of his birth. 1. He was born in the winter, Cujus in arbitrio tempus erat, nasciturus tempus ele­git molesti­us. Aretius. the sharpest season of the year. He in whose power time was, being to be born, chose the most grievous, saith Bishop Babington; and in the night, to shew, as Aretius noteth, that he being the Sun of righ­teousness, would by the warmth of his grace, thaw those that lay even frozen and key-cold in the dregs of their sins, and by the bright beams of his Gospel, enlighten those that sate in darkness and in the shadow of death.

2. He was born in a time when the Scepter was departed from Judah, and the Jews put under tribute by the Romans, when Augustus Caesar sent a decree that all the world should be taxed, i e. all the Countries and Provinces within his dominions, viz. the inhabitants of all their Cities and Villages should assemble themselves to their head City, and there have their names taken, Suetonius. that according to their [Page 241]estates, a tax might be set upon them, to be yearly paid to his treasury and coffers; and herein also appeared his humility in being born under the tyranny of Octavianus. Consider the place of his birth, it was not at Jerusalem the principal City of the land, Mic. 5.2. but at Bethle­hem a little City of David: the bread of life will be born in Bethlehem, which signifies the house of bread, a place little among the thou­sands of Judah, as the Prophet Michah term­eth it. But he might have been born at some Aldermans house in this poor City, and have had the best respect it could afford; no such matter; they must buy their welcome, and lodge in an Inn; Well! there they might be well respected for their money, and have con­venient lodging — It will not be had; they either came too late, or else carry not that port as they may think to gain enough by them; their chambers are either taken up, or at least­wise reserved for better guests; he was born in an Inn to shew himself a stranger on earth, and that we ought still so to behave our selves, 1 Pet. 2.11. as strangers and Pilgrims upon earth. But in what room of this Inn? even in a stable; the other rooms are otherwise appointed; and in that stable both the Asses provender, He that was the bread of life, is laid in a man­ger as the food of beasts, and the spotless body of this Lamb of God, were alike entertained in a manger. Men by sin had made themselves unfit for the society of Angels, and became like the beasts that perish; therefore he seeks us among beasts; this was a sign given by the Angel to the Shepherds; Ye shall find [Page 242]the child swadled and laid in a manger, Luk. 2.12. This sufficiently confuteth all legends, that talk of his being born in a cave not far from Bethlehem, where they say, many mira­cles appeared to Joseph: Chemmit. harmon. part. 1. p. 274. but these are but false and fabulous; howbeit they have been re­ceived, and too much credited by too many of the Antients, as Chemnitius sheweth.

4. The fourth circumstance of his humility at his birth, was the divulging of his birth, to a few base and mean Shepherds: and here we may see a manifest difference between the wis­dom of God, and the wisdom of the world; for whom do the great men in the world joyn in friendship to them, and make of their coun­cils, and employ in their affairs? Surely no Shepherds, and Neate-herds, and husbandmen, whom their rude education and mean breed­ing utterly debarreth of all such favours: to whom do great men send their Embassadours with news of state? not to mean men, but to their neighbour Princes; peradventure Hus­bandmen at plough, and Shepherds in the field may see a post as he passeth to the Court before the King himself, but not any Nobleman shall be made privy to his business, till he come to the King to whom he is sent; and the news shall be stale, before it come to the ears of the vulgar and common people: But Christ takes not this course; he doth not send his Angel immediately to the Emperours Court, nor to Herod, Pontius Pilat, and the Pharisees, and Scribes, or any of the chief estates of the No­bility, [Page 243]that so they reporting it again might have added the greater credit to it; this in worldly wisdom should have seemed a course most convenient, but Gods waies are not ours: the Angel was sent to these ragged messengers, to declare the birth of the Messiah unto, rather then to the great ones of the world, to shew the humility of him that was sent to save the world, and therein to be an example of humility to us.

CHAP. 32. Christ a great example of humility in his life.

2. CHrists great humility appeared in his life, if we consider him In a private condition, or In his publick condition.

1. If we consider him in a private conditi­on, his humility is manifest.

1. In his tender years, by his subjection to Joseph and Mary, Luke 2.52. Veneraba­tur matrens cujus ipse; erat pater; colebat nu­tritium quem & ip se nutri­verat. Hieren. yet this was not a subjection of necessity, but of humility, as Ambrose saith: in that he that was God was subject to man, it was for our example: he gave reverence to his mother whose Father himself was; he honoured him that gave him nourishment, whom he himself had nourished: yea we read not that he shewed himself any more abroad after his disputing with the Do­ctours at twelve years old, till he was thirty [Page 244]years old and began to preach, being eighteen years after.

2. In following a mean trade or calling: we must not think he was idle, but wrought with Joseph to help get his own and their living. Hillary thought he wrought upon the trade of a Smith. Hugo thought that they were Masons; but Justin Martyr and Basil say they were Carpenters, and for this we have Scripture; so we have not for the other; Matth. 13.35. Those that were equal with Christ in years, but whom he far surpassed in wisdom, when they see themselves in such sort out-stripped of him, say of him in scorn, Is not this the Carpenters son? and Marke 6.3. Is not this the Carpenter, Dr. Jer. Tailor on the life of Christ. the son of Mary? Some say he was called the Carpenters son while Joseph lived; but when Joseph died, which was before the publick manifestation of Jesus unto Israel, then he wrought in that trade alone by himself, and was called no more the Carpenters son, but the Carpenter himself, as before was said by his own Country-men. Christ out of his great humility, took this mean calling upon him, to leave us an example in this kind, to shun idleness, and to live in some law­ful calling; Joseph and Mary were of the blood Royal, and nobly born; yet things being as they were with them, they held it no shame to bring up their son to a mechanical trade: the old Patriarchs notwithstanding they were petty Kings, yet brought they up their Chil­dren either in keeping Cattle, or tilling the [Page 245]ground: Solon made a law, that that Father could challenge no reverence or duty from his son, that had not brought him up in some calling, whereby he might live and maintain himself; and among the Athenians and E­gyptians the fashion was that every year every man should appear before the Governours, and shew by what means he got his living, and all idle persons were banisht: and among the Massalians, they would admit none into their Cities, but such as had trades to live by, and maintain themselves. What shame can it be for any man to be skilful in some Art? Art is no burden, Ars non gravat ar­tisicem. but even a commendation and commodity to the Artificer: this Cato knew, therefore he gives this wise Counsel,

Si tibi sint nati, nec opes, tunc artibus illos
Instrue, quo possint inopem defendere vitam.
If thou no wealth nor riches hast
upon thy Children to bestow:
Instruct them in some Art or Trade,
from whence a livelyhood may flow.

And this may be any mans case; for wealth may fail, had he never so much.

2. Consider Christ in his publick and mini­sterial employment, and therein also his great humility will appear.

1. In assuming to himself humble titles:

  • The title of the Son of man.
  • The title of a servant.

1. The title of the son of man: that is the name by which he usually stileth himself, say­ing Whom say ye, that I the son of man am? the son of man came to save and seek that which was lost: he that vouchsafed to take upon him our nature, intituleth himself also by our name.

2. The title of a servant; and not only so, but the condition of a servant; he was

  • A servant to God,
  • A servant to man.

1. A servant to God. Behold my servant whom I have chosen, Isa. 53.11. He came to do such a piece of service, as all the Angels in Heaven, and men on earth were never able to have performed; the greatest work must be done by the greatest servant.

2. To man also he was a servant: for our sakes it was that he made himself of no repu­tation, and took upon him the form of a ser­vant: It had been much for him to have taken upon him the form of a King; considering what an estate he left for it, it had been an uneven exchange; but he doth much more; of Lord of all, he becomes a servant to all: as he came into the world without pomp, so he carrieth himself in the world without pride. The whole life of Christ was nothing but a service to others; therefore he saith to his Disciples, when some of them affected a preheminence above the rest; Mat 20.28 Whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant, even as the son of man came not to be ministred unto, but to mini­ster, [Page 247]&c. None sent for Christ but he came unto them; none had any need of him but he attended them; he visited the sick, toucht un­clean leapers, and served his Disciples, even to the washing of their feet, Joh. 13.5. yea such was his humility, that he washeth the feet of him that betraied him: he was a great servant to us; he did our work and suffered our punishment. Upon the consideration of this great example of humility, Guericus a holy man cries out, Vicisti Do­mine, vici­sti superbi­am means. Thou hast overcome, O Lord, thou hast overcome my Pride; this example hath mastered me; I deliver my self up into thy hands, never to re­ceive liberty or exaltation, but in the conditi­on of thy humblest servant.

2. His humility appeared further in making choice of an humble society and company of attendants; what were his Disciples but a company of poor fishermen? he makes no choice of great Kings, or wise Senators, or elo­quent Orators to blazen his glory, or to be the trumpeters of his fame, but poor fishermen, men of a mean calling, and of low esteem in the world: the men that he conversed with were poor Publicans and the inferior sort of people, preaching much oftner in the Syna­gogues of little villages, then in the Temple of Jerusalem; and it was one part of the answer that he willed John Baptists Disciples return to their Master, Luk. 7.22. that the poor had the Gospel preached unto them.

3. His poverty also shews his great humili­ty, though he were the Lord of glory, and the [Page 248]King of heaven, yet he laid aside his glory; though he were rich, yet he became poor, 2 Cor. 8.9. when he was come to his own finding as it were, and had a family to look unto, viz. his twelve Apostles, he had not an house to put his head into: The Foxes saith he, Luk. 9.58. have holes, and the birds of the air have nests, but the son of man hath not where to lay his head: Luke 8.3. he lived much upon the benevo­lence of many which ministred unto him of their substance: he had not an horse of his own to ride upon, and therefore we read that in his travels he either went on foot, or was very meanly mounted, viz. upon an Ass, and that but borrowed, Matth. 21. according to the Prophecy, Zech. 9.9. nay he had not at all times money to pay scot and lot; There­fore Peter must go fish for money, before they can pay their tribute: nor hath he a house of his own to eat the Passeover in with his Disci­ples, Marke 12. nor money in his own purse to provide it at his own cost, Mat. 17.27 Pauperta­tem assump­sit, & di­vitias nòn amisit, sed tantum ab­scondit. In­tus dives erat, for is tantum pauper, la­tens Deus in divitiis, patens homo in paupertate, & simul in uno Deus & Homo, dives & pauper. Gorran. but must borrow and be beholden to others: nor a Tombe of his own to be buried in, but is fain to be laid in Josephs of Arimathea, Matth. 27. Now he became thus poor to sanctifie poverty to us, and make it the more tolerable by his bearing of it. When Souldiers see their Captains par­take with them in their labours and travels, and to suffer hunger, and cold, and thirst alike [Page 249]with them, it works much upon them, and is a strong argument to perswade them to pati­ence and humility. I have read of Alexander the great, that in his travels, he came to such huge mountains of snow, as none of his com­pany durst adventure over, which when he saw, he alighted from his horse, and went over the tops of them, which his company espying, some for love, and some for shame, all follow­ed him. What encouragement then may it be to Christians in poverty to see Christ their Captain so exceeding poor, that was Lord of all the riches of the world? may not every poor Christian say to himself, as he to his Disciples, Joh. 15.20. The servant is not a­bove his Master. The old Heathen Philoso­phers could comfort themselves to think that nature was contented with very little, and it was not much that they wanted; and shall not Christians comfort themselves to think that all treasures are hid and laid up for them in Christ their Head? the Popes unholy holiness that stiles himself the servant of Gods servants, advanceth himself above all his Lieutenants: But seeing Christ (his Master as he saith) was so poor, it is strange he cometh to be so rich; and seeing Christs Kingdom was not of this world, as himself confesseth, I wonder whence Peter had such a large Patrimony to leave to his successours.

Besides, such was the humility of Christ, that he rejected honour when it was offered him, John 6.15. hiding himself when he was sought to be made [Page 250]a King; he that saith My Kingdom is not of this world, refuseth the offer of an earthly Kingdom.

4. His moderation in all his gestures and carriage, shews his great humility. Though Christ were a Prince, yet when he was born he was lapt in homely clouts; and lest this might be imputed to the poverty of his Parents during his minority, when he was a man, he wore a seamless coat; yea in his time, it was thought that it was the prerogative only of great personages in Princes Courts to wear soft raiment. Likewise we may truly say, that he was a mourner all his daies; for though he had facultatem ridendi, as every man hath, yet we never read that he laught, but he wept often, and that not for himself; in him there was no cause of tears; he wept for the hard­ness of the peoples hearts, Non propter destructio­nem domo­rum, sed perditionem animarum. Marke 3.5. and wept over Jerusalem, Luke 19.41. not so much for the destruction of their houses, as the perdition of their souls: Shall Jesus weep for us, and shall not we weep for our selves and for our children, and for the dishonours done to so pitiful a Saviour? His humility likewise was discovered by the words that he spake, the people wondring at the gratious words that came out of his mouth: his words were but few; he ever spake very sparingly, and all his words were without ostentation or affectation, and in his answers he was very concise, and full to the purpose in all kinds, as appeareth by his behaviour and carriage, both standing at [Page 251]the bar to be judged by the High-Priest, Mat. 26.63, 64. and his sitting at bench to judge the woman taken in adultery, Joh. 8.6, 7.

5. The miracles that he wrought, and the works that he did do in a most lively manner, set forth his humility to us; When he healed the sick, cleansed the lepers, opened the eyes of the blind, he charged most of them that they should tell it to no man; Mat. 9.30. lest any thing should be ascribed to him, as if he were ambitious of vain-glory, Luk 5.14. therefore he attributeth all to his Father: The words that I speak unto you, I speak not of my self; And the works that he did he disowneth: but the Father that dwel­leth in me, he doth the works, Joh. 14.10.

Quest. Notwithstanding Christ charged the leper that was cleansed, Luke 5. that he should tell it to no man: Marke tells us, that he pre­sently published the matter, Mark. 1.45 which caused such a throng and press about our Saviour, as he could not openly enter into the Cities, and follow his function. Here a question may be propounded, whither this leper did well or ill in this fact? David saith, Ps. 107.32 Let men exalt the Lord in the congregation of the people, and praise him in the assembly of the Elders: Isa. 12.4. and the Prophet Isaiah bids us proclaim his name, and declare his doings among the people; and when our Saviour had dispossessed a man of a Legion of devils, he bade him to go home, and shew the matter to his friends, what great things the Lord had done for him, and how he had compassion on him, Marke 5.19. And it is like this man meant no more.

Answ. A particular precept coming in place, dispenseth with the general rule. And further I answer, that a good intention cannot excuse a bad action, as is disobedience, 1 Sam. 15.22, 23. we may guess at many reasons why Christ bids him to tell it to no man.

1. Because there is as Solomon saith, a time for all things; and the time that he would have this manifested was not yet come, as he told his mother, John 2.4.

2. Non erat necesse ut scrmone jaciaret, quod corpo­re praefere­bat. Hieron in loc. There was no need in words to publish what his cleansed body (being as it were all turned to tongue) evidently declared.

3. It was absurd and preposterous he should boast of his cleansing, before he was judged clean; therefore in the next words, he is bid to go and shew himself to the Priest; and if then he judged him clean, he might declare it to whom he listed: this he was to do.

1. To confirm the truth of the miracle, they seeing it to be no phantastical delusion, but a true cleansing.

2. That he might enjoy the benefit of his cure, and be again admitted into the society of other men, which must not be till the Priest judged him clean, Levit. 14. Here then you see that Christ in the Sermons that he preacht, and in the miracles that he wrought, sought not his own glory, but the glory of him that sent him. And how humble was he in his pra­ctice, taking little Children to him, shewing that he that received a little child in his name received him?

CHAP. 33. Christ a notable example of humility in his sufferings and death.

THe sufferings of Christ, were either such as he endured in the course of his life, or those that he sustained at or near the time of his death; in all which you may see his great humility.

For the first, his whole life from his birth to his death, from his cradle to his coffin was no­thing else but a Tragedy, yea as it were one long continued act of suffering.

To begin with his infancy, he's no sooner born into the world, but cruel King Herod goes about to bereave him of his life, which that he might the better effect, he cunningly enquired the place of his birth, and having learnt for the general that it was at Bethlehem, he la­boured to learn in what house there, pretend­ing Religion that he would worship him, when he intended nothing but treachery and his destruction: and being defeated of this his cruel purpose by God himself, he makes a most merciless massacre of all the infants males of Bethlehem under two years old, Praeslat Herodis esse suem quam filiū. yea and (as some say) of one of his own sons that was nursed there, where-upon it grew into a Pro­verb, That it was better be Herods swine then his son: thus the Lord of life is fain to fly be­fore [Page 254]he can go, to escape death. Afterwards, he that was the Lord of Glory lived in an estate of contempt, reproach, and ignominy. Nay more then this, he cannot be let alone, or suf­fered to be quiet and sleep in a whole skin as we say, even in this poor and mean estate of his: but he's assaulted at all sides. First, by the devil himself, Matth. 4. who most strong­ly sets upon him with three hot encounters as hoping to prevail upon him, because he was weak with his long fasting; but his skill failed him. Then the Master of Fense himself being foiled, he sets his Imps and instruments to work upon him, and that in divers sorts and kinds.

First, they persecute him with their tongues, reviling him, and railing upon him, giving him most taunting terms, calling him a drunkard, and a glutton, a friend of Publicans and sin­ners; that he was an Impostor, Cheater, and Deceiver of the people, yea that he was mad, and had a Devil, and cast out Devils by Belze­bub: nor are they content with prating against him, but they will also practise against him.

First, without any open violence they con­vent him before their Consistory, and bring him coram in their Ecclesiastical Court, excom­municating and accursing both himself and all his followers, or that did but confess him, or profess themselves to believe on him: likewise they call a Council against him, John 7 49. John 9.22. Joh. 11.47. as if he had been an arch-heretick. Nay further, they even proceed to use violence towards him, [Page 255] Luke 4.29. where his unkind Country-men go about to tumble him down headlong from a steep hill. Item, John 7.45. the High-Priests and Pharisees send their officers for him: nay more, they even go about to stone him, John 10.31. Moreover treacherous Judas be­comes of his servant to attend him, a Serjeant to apprehend and attach him, of his purse­bearer a pursevant, and he is hired thereto with a very base bribe, and that not offered, but asked; not paid, but only promised as is conceived, Matth. 26.15. They carry and recarry him from Annas to Caiaphas, from Herod to Pilate, from place to place; and when Herod would have acquitted him, they still cry out against him, and continue accusing him, yea even prefer a murtherer before him: and having prevailed with Pilate, they shew him no pitty, but execute him with all mercy­less cruelty and rigorous extremity, making him to carry his own Cross as long as he is able to stand under it, John 19.17. Being come to the place of his execution, they hang him be­tween two Thieves and notorious malefa­ctours, as if he had been a Master of mis-rule, and ring-leader in routs and riots, Matth. 27.38. Luke 23.33. Thus our Lord Jesus hum­bled himself and became obedient unto death, even the death of the Cross, as the Apostle speaks, Phil. 2.8, 9. Such was his humility, that though he were the God of Angels, yet by his sufferings he was made lower then the An­gels, Heb. 2.9. Nor do his enemies content [Page 256]themselves to put him to a most painful and shameful death, but also they add affliction to him in the manner of it.

1. By mocking him at his arraignment, and mocking him on the Cross, contrary to all humanity and civility, to mock a man in misery.

2. Being in the midst of his agony and ex­tremity of pain, and crying out of thirst, John. 19.28. they mingle him such a potion as would rather encrease then asswage his thirst, Matth. 27.34. which some think would entoxicate a man, and make him lose the use of his reason. But great was his humility and patience to endure such contradiction of sinners against himself. Heb. 12.3.

3. They put a Crown of thornes upon his head, drove nails into his hands and feet, and thrust a spear into his side.

But as one saith, The pain of his body, was but the body of his pain; D. Plaiser. the sorrow of his soul was the soul of his sorrow, when he cryed out, My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me? Hae non voces desperan­tis, aut diffidentis (De­um enim vocat suum) sed cum tristissima ten­tatione luctantis. Bucan Com. loc. But all this while we must know he despaired not; for these were not the words of a man, despairing or distrusting, for he cal­leth God his God. We must not think that the Godhead had wholly separated and withdrawn it self from the man­hood, but it was quaedam derelictio, ubi nulla fuit in tanta necessitate virtutis exhibitio, nulla Majestatis ostentio. Bernard. A certain deser­tion, [Page 257]where there was no exhibition of strength, no shew of Majesty in so great a necessity.

Now as this shews his great humility, so also his abundant love towards us; for all this was for us; he had no sin, and therefore could not have been toucht with the punishments of sin, as were all those miseries that he un­derwent. This Paul saith for the general, that he that knew no sin, was made sin for us, 2 Cor. 5.21. and in particular, he being rich, became poor for our sakes, that we through his poverty might be made rich, 2 Cor. 8.9. His humility was to procure our glory; he became weak, Isa. 53.4, 5. Humility is so hard a lesson to get into the heart, that Christ was fain to come down, from heaven in his own person to teach it. Adams. that we might become strong; he was bound in swadling bands to loose the bands of our sins; he is clad in clouts and mean rags, to deck us with the rich robes of his righteous­ness; he was born among beasts, to advance us to the society of Angels; he was born under the tyranny of Augustus, to deliver us from the tyranny of Satan; he came down from heaven to earth, to lift us up from earth to heaven; he would be taxed and have his name taken on earth, that we might be free Citizens, Quel mede­simo affetto sia in vol, che fu an­cora in Christo Je­su. Ital. and have our names written in heaven: In a word! he became the son of man, that we might become the sons of God, Gal. 4.4, 5. He suffered death to redeem us to life, Rom. 4.25. Therefore let us learn of him to be meek and humble. Let the same [Page 258]mind be in us that was in Christ Jesus; let the consideration of the great humility of Jesus dismount us from all high thoughts of our selves. Phil. 2.5. The heart of man is a proud piece of flesh; men stand upon their terms, and think scorn to abase themselves to do good to others: But did we think seriously of the great abasement of Christ, our pride would down. Shall Christ our Prince and Master humble himself, and shall we exalt our selves? what intolerable impudence is it, that where the King of glory made himself of no reputati­on, there a silly worm should swell with pride? Shall God be abased, and shall man be proud? certainly that mans heart is harder then a rock, whom this high example cannot move to humility.

CHAP. 34. An exhortation to humility: The conclusion of the whole work.

LET every one now look into his own heart, and see what pride is there, and when we have found it out, let us labour to humble our selves for it; as good Hezekiah did, of whom we read, 2 Chron. 32.25. that his heart was lifted up; and ver. 26. it is added: Notwithstanding Hezekiah humbled himself for the pride of his heart: Let Magi­strates, Ministers, and all true Christians ex­ceedingly [Page 259]humble themselves for the pride of their hearts; and let every faithful soul weep in secret places for the great pride of this Na­tion, lest after all our glorious shews the Lord lay us aside as vessels wherein is no pleasure: oh take heed of being lifted up with pride, when God is staining the pride of all glory, and marring the pride of England, as he threatned to mar the pride of Judah, and the great pride of Jerusalem. Jer. 13.9. 'Tis dangerous for a Mariner to have his top-sails up in a violent storm; oh pull down your top-sails, Psal. 78.5. lift not up your horn on high; lest God pull you down, and you be sunk without recovery; The Lord humble us, that he may exalt us in due time. You may be too high, but can never be too humble. But this is not enough, there must be humility as well as humiliation: a man may be humbled, and yet not be an humble man: Gods judgements humbled Pharaoh several times, but his heart was not humble, it remain­ed as hard as ever. So Ahab was humbled; he rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his flesh, and fasted and lay in sackcloth, and went softly; his very pace was altered: so that God himself takes notice of it: for, saith he to the Prophet: 1 Reg. 21.29. Seest thou how Ahab hum­bleth himself before me? yet all this while Ahab was not humble; for in the next Chap­ter you read, that he will go up to Ramoth-Gilead to battel, let God say what he will to the contrary. Poverty and misery may break a proud mans stomack, but not his heart; he may [Page 260]be as stubborn against God as ever; inwardly proud, though outwardly humbled. There is an humility likewise that is not good; a coun­terfeit humility, when a man is only externally and complementally humble, his speeches, his gestures, his carriage, are humble, but his heart is full of pride. This was Absaloms humility, who rose up early and stood beside the way of the gate, 2 Sam. 15.2, 3, 4, 5. Adoravit vulgus. &c. And it was so, that when any man came nigh to him, to do him obeysance, he put forth his hand, and took him, and kissed him: why was Absalom thus humble? was it not to get applause from the people, and to steal away the hearts of the men of Israel, and in the end to set up himself in the throne of David his Father? A proud man like the Lion, coucheth and humbleth himself, that the poor may fall into his strong paws, Psal. 10.10. as one renders that place. This is called by one Vulpina humilitas, the Foxes humility. One compareth these to the little venemous serpent Cerastes, which to allure the birds to come unto it, that she may feed on them, counterfeits her self to be dead: So these proud counterfeits, seem to be very lowly and officious, putting their hands under your very feet, when as their hearts are full of pride and covetousness: Pride in it self is very odious, therefore it labours to shrowd and palliate it self under the mask of humility.

There is another kind of outward humility, a voluntary humility, that is, of such as vow voluntary poverty, and seem to renounce and [Page 261]relinquish the world, and betake themselves to a Monastical and Eremetical kind of life; such as these have no warrant for it; that I can find; our Saviour indeed pronounceth a blessing upon the poor; not on those that are outward­ly poor in estate, Matth. 5.3. but on those that are poor in spirit, that have mean thoughts of themselves, from which these men are far enough, placing an opinion of merit in these courses: Nor are they truly poor; for howbeit they have the possession of nothing, yet they enjoy and have the command of more then they that have lands and livings, large rents and revenues: of such kind of Cattel, Albertus Duke of Saxo­ny said, that he had three wonders in one City; meaning three Monasteries; whereof the Friars of one had Children, but no Wives: Non mag­num est sua, sed se re­linquere. Ferus in Matth. 5. The Friars of the second had store of Corne, but no land: And the third had store of mo­ney, and no rent or other apparent means to raise it: It is a greater matter for a man to relinquish himself, then to relinquish his goods, which indeed is the part of him that is poor in spirit.

But true humility is a grace seated in the mind or heart, whereby a man from a right knowledge of himself walks humbly with God and man.

1. It will make a man disclaim all his own worth and excellencies in Gods presence; it will make a man willing to be debased, that God may be glorified; 2 Sam. 6.14, 20, 21. it will make men of honour, to lay aside their own honour to [Page 262]honour God; as David when he laid aside his Princely robe, and put on a linnen Ephod, and daunced before the Ark of the Lord, though his wife Michal upbraided him with it as a thing too low and base for his dignity; yet saith he, it was before the Lord, and therefore if I have been vile, I will yet be more vile then thus, and will be base in mine own sight. There­fore one saith, he is more astonisht at Davids dauncing, Gregor. then at Davids fighting: for in fighting he overcame but his enemy, but in dauncing he overcame himself.

Humility makes a man zealous in serving God, and yet when he hath done what he can, he accounts all as nothing: though he hath done much, yet humility saith I have done no­thing. Luk. 17.10. That of our Saviour is the humble mans posie, When I have done all that was commanded me, yet am I but an unprofitable servant: The hum­ble man knows, though af­flictions are sharp and bitter arrows, yet they are shot from a lo­ving hand, and there­fore to be endured. 1 Sam. 15.26. I have done that which was my duty to do. Many pretend to be Gods servants, but the humble man alone is the man that can be content to serve God in a mean place or low calling. The humble man is wise to so­briety, not daring to rifle Gods Cabinet, or too curiously to search for things too high and too wonderful for him.

The humble man quietly bears the yoke, and is very sensible of the hand of God when it is upon him, and cannot complain of Gods dispensation towards him. If the Lord say (saith humble David) I have no delight in thee; behold here I am, let him do to me [Page 263]as seemeth good unto him: He lays his hand upon his mouth when the Lord smites him, be­cause tis his doing.

2. The humble man thinks meanly of him­self: Christ calls the woman of Canaan a dog: How doth she digest this bitter pill? she saith, truth Lord! yet even the dogs eat the crumbs which fall from their Masters table; as if she had said, seeing I am no better then a dog, I shall be contented to be served like a dog: Matth. 15.26, 27. I desire not to sit at table with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, nor to be fed either before the Children or with the Children; a scrap or crumb will serve me a poor Gentile, I desire not a loaf, but a crumb of bread: I leave thy great mercies and great miracles for thy own country-men, thy peculiar people the Jews: but Lord, I beseech thee shew one mercy to me a poor Gentile, do one little miracle for my sake, cast out one devil out of my poor daugh­ter; spare one crumb of mercy upon me a poor Canaanite: Accedens ad Christum, canis vocatur; discedens à Christo, mulier voca­tur: ipsa mu [...]vit af­fectum; ipse mutavit vocabulum. August. If I be a dog; I am thy dog; and as a dog will be sometimes impudent, and not cease bawling till he get something: so will I be importunate, and not cease begging, till thou hear me, and heal my daughter: Now see what the issue was, Jesus answered her, O woman, great is thy faith. Coming to Christ she is called a dog, and departing from Christ she is called wo­man: she shewing her self by her faith and humility to be no Canaanite, but a true [Page 264] Israelite, he ceaseth to call her dog, and calls her woman; she changeth her affection, and he changeth his denomination.

3. The humble man thinks highly of others, in lowliness of mind, Phil. 2.3. esteeming others better then himself: Humility will make a man very officious and serviceable to others: When there arose a strife among Christs Disciples who should be the greatest: his argument is, that they must not be like Pagan Princes, Stultè & perperam regnum vobis fingitis; alia vobis med tanda est ratio, si mihi operamsi­delem impendere cupi­tis, &c. Sit haec vestia magnitudo, excellentia & dignitas, fratribus vos submitterc: Calvin in Matth. 20. who often tyrannize, usurp, and abuse their authority over the poor people, not considering what in equity and conscience they may do, but what by their prero­gatives and extremity of Law they can do, Matth. 20.25, 26. he tells them they must do otherwise, and not strive to advance themselves by ruling, but to excell and exceed one another by serving and obeying: let this be your greatness, and dignity, and pri­macy, to submit your selves one to another in love: The greater any man is, the more ought he to humble himself in all things: Honos and Onus must not be divided: and they that are in places either in the Church or Commonwealth, must labour not so much Praeesse as Prodesse, Acts 20.28. 1 Corinth. 3.5. 1 Corinth. 4.1. There is no place for Pride or Ambition nei­ther in Christs Spiritual Kingdom on earth, [Page 265]nor in his Eternal Kingdom in Heaven. Hinc Prin­cipes di­cuntur Nedivim, Pagnin. 1 Sam. 2.8. viz. A largiendo, & [...]: & Reges Aegypti dicti sunt Pharaones, i. e. populi vindices, & Rex Gerar Abimelech. i. e. Rex Pater meus, & inter Graecos [...], & inter Latines reges, duces, imperatores, to put them in mind how to carry themselves in their government towards their people: non alium in finem vectigalia, stipendia, seu tributa illis penduntur, nise ut ad sumptus honoris splendori necessarios sufficiant, Calvin in Harm. Evang.

Humility will make a man patiently bear and put up much contempt and reproach from others, which they cast upon him: he that de­spiseth no man but himself, regards not the contempt that others pour upon him: every cross word or reproach gives the proud heart a deep wound, whereas the humble soul can bear reproach without regret. He despiseth contempt, that affects no vain-glory; he ac­counts it his greatest honour (with the Apo­stles) to be dishonoured for Christ, Act. 5.41. and to suffer shame for Jesus sake.

Humility makes a man not greedy of praise from others, nor take content in it when others praise him: the humble man thinks so meanly of himself, that he desires none should think or speak highly of him: Cum lauda­tur adfaci­em, flagella­tur in cor­de. Chrys. 2 Cor. 3.1. he dares not commend himself, nor chaunt out his own praises; he had rather his works then his tongue should praise him: and as Chrysostom saith; when he is praised to his face, he is prickt to the heart: The humble man will si­lence his own vertues and excellencies, and seeks to keep them as secret as his thoughts, if [Page 266]he could, lest any man should think or speak of him beyond what he seeth in him, or heareth of him.

The humble man hath humble vestures, and humble gestures, Deck your selves in­wardly in lowliness of mind. Geneuens. in 1 Pet. 5.5. humble carriage towards, and an humble conversation with others; his heart is not haughty, nor are his eyes lofty; he speaks not proudly, his words are humble; he walks humbly in that station wherein God hath placed him, prosperity doth not puff him up; Adversity makes and keeps him very low and humble: The humble man rejoyceth at his brothers well-fare: The humble shall hear it, Humilitatem insinuate. vulg. lat. in sinu habete. Gloss. interlin. But the Original word signi­fies to deck and adorn. and be glad, Psal. 34.2. Let every man therefore labour to put on humbleness of mind, Col. 3.12. and to be cloathed with hu­mility, 1 Pet. 5.5. put it on as Kings put on their Robes and Crowns, and as Souldiers put on their Armour, Ephes. 6.11. and we shall find it, & ornamentum & muni­mentum, both clothes to cover us and keep us warm, and a corslet to defend us, it will be both ornament, honour, and armour to us: As garments do adorn the body, so doth hu­mility the mind much more; For as a fair woman hath not a better or­nament then modesty, so hath not a great man a better garment then humility. as the body being naked and stript of ap­parel is unhandsome and unseemly to men, so a soul not clothed with humility is odious in the sight of God, Angels, and men. By putting on humbleness of mind, the Apo­stle meaneth, that Christians should exercise [Page 267]and use this grace every day more and more: we put on and pull off our apparel every day, but having once put on humbleness of mind, we must never put it off again; our apparel is the worse for wearing, but humility doth grow and encrease by being used: God giveth grace upon grace to the humble soul; where humili­ty is, he giveth more grace. Humility is a grace of inestimable value; it is rarely found among men of honour and greatness; but it is a choice grace where ever it is: and there­fore as that Rhetoritian being askt what was the chiefest thing in eloquence, answered, Pro­nuntiation; and being thrice askt, did still an­swer the same: so of all the graces of a Chri­stian, if you ask never so often which is the chiefest; I answer still, humility is the chief of all. The humble soul is dear to God; God looks upon him with great respect, and thinks nothing too good for him. The Lord stops his ears against the prayers of proud men: Elihu tells us, There they cry, Job 35.12, 13. but none giveth answer, because of the pride of evil men; surely God will not hear vanity, nor will the Almighty regard it. A proud man is too full in himself to receive any thing at the hands of God: the cry of the humble beggar is soonest heard. This poor man cried, and the Lord heard and saved him out of all his troubles, Psal. 34.6. God heareth the very desires of the humble, Psal. 10.17.

Humility establisheth a Christian in all dis­asters: the deeper the tree is rooted in the [Page 268]earth, the stronger it stands against the fury of the winds: and the lower a man is rooted in humility, the more he is established, standing firm against all troubles and temptations; hu­mility resisteth the greatest evils, and over­cometh the greatest difficulties. Humility puts a Christian into a serene and calm temper; no storms, no tempests, no disasters can dis­compose his spirit; such things may stick on the body, Excelsa est patria, hu­milis est via. Aug. Super Johan. Mat. 18.4. but cannot stick on the mind of an hum­ble man: Besides, God will save the humble person, or him that is not haughty, him that hath low eyes, as it is in the Hebrew, Job 22.29. Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the Kingdom of heaven, Matth. 5.3. and our Saviour saith, Whosoever humbleth himself as a little Child, the same shall be greatest in the Kingdom of heaven. God doth not reward any according to the places and dignities which they hold under him, but according to the humility with which they manage them: the high and lofty one doth here dwell with the humble soul; Isa. 57.15. and the humble Christian shall dwell with him in the high and holy place for ever. The eight Beatitudes, Matth 5. are like the steps of Jacobs ladder, reaching from earth to heaven, whereof the first step is humility, called there poverty of spirit. What comfort may this minister to every poor Christian? What though we were left poor, and born to nothing? or though we be fallen to decay by ill success in the world, and brought to no­thing as Job? yea though our cala­mities bring contempt upon us, so as we be even troden under foot, [Page 269]and trampled upon by the Nimrods of the earth? yet if we can possess our souls in pa­tience, and be rich in grace, and poor in spirit; then however we be Nobodies on earth, yet shall we be great Nobles in Heaven, Isa. 23.8. even greater then the Merchants of Tyrus, who were honourable personages, and no less then Princes and Peers of the Land. The least of Gods little ones in heaven shall have greater honour, being sons and heirs to a King, Rom. 8.14, 17. 1 Joh. 3.1. and brethren to a King, Heb. 2.17. Qui exaltat se per su­perbiam, humiliabitur per poenam; & qui hu­miliat se per peccate­rum confessionem, exal­tabitur per gloriae remu­nerationem. Lyra in Luc. 14. yea they shall all be Kings, Rev. 20.6. and in token of this royal estate and Majesty, they shall have Palms and Scepters in their hands, and Crowns on their heads, even Crowns of gold, Rev. 7.9. Rev. 4.4. On the other side how effectual would it be to pull down the pride of men, did they consider that Pride is that which hath ruined many persons, families and Nations, and the rock against which many have been split and suffered ship­wrack: how foolish then is that man that sees the wofull wrack that Pride hath everywhere made, that yet will adventure to hoise up his sails, and run his soul upon that dangerous rock? Let no man then think himself safe, where so many have miscarried, and never any yet escaped. I conclude with that of Solomon: Better it is to be of an humble spirit with the lowly, then to divide the spoil with the proud, Prov. 16.19.

Humilitas in paupere grata est, in divite gloriosa: humilitas inter inimicos blanda; su­perbia verò inter amicos ingrata; blanda & officiosa semper est humilitas, in amicitiis grata, in contumeliis otiosa; non extollitur prosperis, non mutatur adversis, non extorquet servitium, non requirit voces adulantium, nisi quam se lau­datione novit indignum. Valerius Episcop. in quodam sermone.

Sola, quae non solet gloriari, non novit praesu­mere, contendere non consuevit, gratiam inven­tura est in oculis pietatis humilitas; non contendit judicio, non praetendit justitiam quae vere hu­milis est. Bern. in Epist. 45.

FINIS.

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