PUBLICK GOOD Without Private INTEREST: OR, A Compendious Remonstrance of the present sad State and Condition of the English Colonie in VIRGINEA.

WITH A Modest DECLARATION of the severall Causes (so far as by the Rules of Right, Reason, and Religious Obser­vation may be Collected) why it hath not prospered better hitherto

AS ALSO, A Submissive suggestion of the most prudentiall probable wayes, and meanes, both Divine and Civill (that the inexpert Remembrancer could for the present recall to minde) for its happyer improvement and advancement for the future.

Humbly presented to His Highness the Lord Protectour, By a Person zealously devoted, To the more effectual propagating of the Gosp [...]l in that Nation, and to the inlargement of the Honour and Benefit, both of the said Colonie, and this whole Nation, from whence they have been transplanted.

Qui sibi soliim se natum putat,
secum solus semper vivat,
Hoc solum habent homines cum deo commune,
Aliis bene facere Synes.
To do good, and to communicate, forget not:
for with such sacrifices, God is well pleased,
Heb. 13. v. 16.

LONDON, Printed for Henry Marsh, and are to be sold at the Crown in S. Paul's Church-yard. 1657.

To his Highness, the Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
The humble Petition of Lionel Gatford. B.D.

Most humbly sheweth.

WHereas your Petitioner, upon your High­ness gracious dispensation for the exer­cising of his Ministeral function &c. (a favour never to be forgotten by him or his) did indeavour the procuring ad­mission into a setled Cure of souls, but was denied it by some Commissioners clayming authority under you. Your Petitioner (being willing to interpret that act of theirs, as well as all things else that happens to him from men in the most charitable sense he can, and knowing Gods hand to rule and over-rule, as he pleaseth in the most seemingly accidentals amongst mortals) began thereupon to consider with himself; whether God might not in his mercy design him, to what some men, in too much unkindness had doo­med him, viz. to some more Apostolical way of prea­ching, either from house to house, here in his native Country, or (if he had but the Apostles gift of tongues) throughout the whole world habitable a­broad. For he could not think, that God had cal­led [Page]him to be a minister of the Gospel, and inabled him im in some poor measure for it, and honoured him with so long continuance and good success in it (to the praise of his grace only be it spoken) to that end, that, when he had so long served him, as a pub­like teacher of men, he should at the last, end his dayes in the privat teaching of Children; though he undervalues not that his present imployment by preferring that other before it; nor will he receed from it (God inabling and your Highness permitting him) till he have educated those that are or shall be committed to his care and tuition, if their friends shall require it. Whereupon your Petitioner casting about and making inquiry, in what Country or Na­tion he might do God most service; poor neglected despised Virginea, and the English Colonie there, with the adjacent heathen inhabitants of the same continent, came often and often into his thoughts; and his bowels yerned towards them; especially, after that he had understood, from some men of ho­nour & honesty, their present sad state & condition, and the fair hopes and probabilities of doing God and them very much service there. Onely the prime [...], whereby he conceives, he may most pru­dentially judge of the likelyhood of his success in undertaking ought for the good and benefit of that people, will be your Highness assisting or not assi­sting in the information of what is already experi­mentally found to be the grand hindrances of that co­lonie's prospering amongst themselves, & the main impediments of the Gospel's fart har propagating both amongst themselves and amongst their neigh­bouring Indians, and are here with humbly presented [Page]unto you: For unless those things complained of in this Remonstrance be redressed and the Government (as is therein humbly desired) be put into good hands, skilfull to mannage it; and such a publick profession of Religion, both for Doctrine and wor­ship, be established, and such a fence of discipline set about it, as that both those, who would remove from hence thither, may before hand know what Religion they may there enjoy, and when they come thither be assured to enjoy it; and the Heathen also thereunto adjoyning, may from the very eternal order and beauty thereof, as well as for the unani­mous, constant profession and practise of it amongst those of the Colonie, be fairely united and sweetly drawn to the same Christian communion and fel­lowship with them; it cannot be expected, that ei­ther your Petitioner, or any other, how zealously af­fected soever they are to the advancement of Gods glory, and the propagation of the Gospel of Christ should leave their preaching and other Ministration here in their own native Country that so much needs them, though they should be allowed to preach no where but in bonds and fetters, or in caves and other hiding places, (which they fear not, so long as your Highness shall retain the Soveraign power solely in your own hands) and go into Virgi­nea to labour there in utter impossibilities, or to be thrust out from labouring, when any probabilities of doing good should be offered them, only upon the di­stast or suggestion of any turbulent or vicious persons that shall complain of them to a Governour, as indis­creet and vicious as themselves. If a preacher had Saint Pauls immediate call to bear Christ's name be­fore [Page]the Gentiles, as well as Gods own Israel, or were otherwise as well assured, of the like call; all seeming impossibilities of doing good, and all af­frighting fears of suffering evill would soon vanish, and he would account it honour sufficient to suffer for Christ, where his preaching of Christ, should be rejected or rendered succesless. But, where a Prea­cher is to conclude his call to any people, as well from the door of hope, that is opened to him for his glorifying God, and doing good to men, as from Christs inward knocking at the door of his heart by the motions of his holy Spirit (not discern­able from the impulse of his own Spirit, but by the concurrence of Scriptural exhortations and perswa­sions, or clear deductions from thence, tending to the same ends without any by ends of his own) there it would be deservedly reputed little less than mad­ness for any to undertake t [...]e preaching Christ to the Heathen, when the wicked lives and unjust per­fidious, cruel, bloody practises of those, that call themselves Christians, and profess the same faith with that Preacher, lye in the door, and barr up the way against his entering into them and their open­ing unto him: and it would be more possible for him to remove Mountains, than any to remove that im­pediment of scandel, unless your Highness set to your helping hand, and reform by your power and authority, derived to some pious prudent, upright Governour under you, as well as the Ministers of the Colonie indeavour it, by their faithfull preach­ing and holy conversation.

May it therefore please your Highness, in compassion of [Page]that great Colonie, and in commiseration of so many thousand souls, both Christian and Heathen, as that Colonie and continent, wherein they are seated, abounds with, to vouchsafe your best skill, and to ex­ercise your utmost power (for the work needs and de­serves both) for the effecting that great and glori­ous design, the preservation of that English Colonie from suddain temporal ruine, and the saving both them and their neibouring Indians from eternal perdition; the sole and soul desire of your unworthy Petitioner, & the only crime of his insuing Remon­strance. And your Petitioner which thousands of thousands more shall incessantly pray for your High­ness &c.

TO THE Candid Reader.

HE that sets himself to do any good, Luke 14. especially for the publick, must not only set down first and count the cost, whether he have suffi­cient to finish his work, least, after he hath laid the foundation, and is not able to finish it, all that behold it begin to mock him, saying, This man began to build but was not able to finish: but he must be sure also to arm himself both against himself and what his own flesh and blood shall object, and against the Devil & all Devilish men, and what those wicked Spirits can suggest or belch forth, for the hindering or retarding him in his work; least otherwise he be fowly foyled in his undertaking it, or fall off shamefully and disgracefully from it, before he have perfected it; and so both lose his Crown, which is promised only to him that overcommeth, Rev. cap. 2. and 3. and pull scorn and contempt upon himself for his weakness and apostacie, and render the work it self for the more difficult and dreadfull to others, that would happily otherwise have laboured suc­cessfully in it. Now for the cost of this present undertaking its easi to be valued, so far as it yet concerns me: For all that I undertake, is but the representing of the present sad [Page]condition of the English Colonie in Virginea, with the ra­tional causes thereof, and the probable means of its relief and redress, unto one, that is known to have sufficiency both of skill and power, and what else is requisite for effecting and accomplishing what is humbly desired of him, or soberly intimated to him. And although this cost me somewhat more, both in expence of time and labour, for the composing and framing both the Petition and the Re­monstrance than to merit the ambitious time-crack of be­ing autoschediastical or extempore (for I dare not present ought to man, that cost me nothing) yet it cost me so little, that I think it not worth the computing. For some Plan­ters in and Traders to Virginea, that are of known credit and reputation, furnished me with the collections, and o­ther Persons of honour undertook the procuring both them and my Petition access to his Highness; and if I have, or can thereby but lay the foundation of an happy reformation of that declining Plantation, the honour of proceeding so far, will, in my account and in the estimate of all honest men, much outweigh the scoffs and mocks of all Sanballats or Tobiahs that shall malign the finishing of the building. And I hope God will stirr up the Spirits of some zealous Haggais and Zachariahs to incite and incourage some noble Heroick Zerubbabels and Joshuas to perfect what shall be left unfinished by those worthies, whom I, that am less than the least of the Lords Prophets, and unworthy to be called a Prophet, have called upon and incited to ap­pear in this honourable and pious work. And for what mine own flesh and blood could object against this un­dertaking, though the objections were many and seeming­ly strong (especially when they were backed by others, that would have made me believe, they love me as well as I can my self) yet God (to the glory of his grace be it spoken) ina­bled [Page]me either to remove or leap over them all: and I was, and am confident, that seeing I do not in this work seek my self, but the glory of God, and the good of so many soules, if I should chance to lose my self in it, I should finde my self and that both infinitely comforted in that loss, and super­abundantly recompenced for it. The chief thing then, that remaines to be done by me, is the arming my self, or rather the daily supplicating of God to arm me, against the fiery darts, that Satan and his complices, wicked men, shall cast at me to beat me off from this work, or to affright me in it. And (praised be the Lord) I have been so acquainted with their envy and detraction, the two prime poysonous bar­bed arrowes of their Hellish quiver, in some other under­takings, that God hath honoured me with, and carried me through; that I onely so far fear them and the rest of that invenomed sheaf, as to betake me to the armour which the Lord of hosts hath counselled me to make use of against them, and to apply me to those holy means which he hath prescribed both for the getting that armour and the girting it on, as also for the exercising and managing it to the best advantage. I know that envy and detraction are as constant attendants upon every good action of note and eminency especially, as the devill himself is a diligent ma­licous observer of it; that to eat out the very heart of it, if its venemous tooth can reuch it; and this to grangrene some of the more exteriour usefull comely parts of it, if the vi­tals escape its poyson. But if God please to preserve the undertaker, and to prosper his undertaking; let the Red Dragon himself cast forth a whole flood of poyson after him and that which he travails with, he can no more hurt him or hinder his effecting what he undertakes, than he could the woman cloathed with the sun, and her bringing forth her man-child. Rev. 12. [...] And for my part, seeing envy makes the [Page]best workes the object of her malignity, I shall be so far from being troubled at the envy of any, that I wish from my heart the work may but prove worthy of such Spirits envy: And for detraction, if there be so much good in the work, as is capable of mens detracting from it, so that God may have the glory of that good from those that have any goodness in them, let as many wicked ones, as please, glory in that their own shame: I shall repute it no shame to me, to have all the glory of all the good taken from me, when there is not the least due to me: and it will be honour sufficient, as well as comfort to me, that I have done any thing whereby God may be glorified on my behalf. Yet be­cause I would not willingly give the least occasion to any to sin so highly against God and their own soules, I shall do my indeavour to prevent all such folly, so far as a faithfull account of my appearing and proceeding in the business may do it.

Ʋpon what grounds I undertook this work, I have de­clared to him with whom I dare not dissemble: And what incouragements I have had, both from God and good men, to go on with it (so far at the least as to make tryal how it will be relished or disgested by those who have power either to crush it or crown it) are fitter for mine own breast to re­tain, than for this, or any other paper to publish. This every one, that knowes me, will I hope believe, that certain­ly I had some friends of worth and credit who furnished me with the particulars of this Remonstrance (as I before hin­ted) or else being a stranger to Virginea and the affaires thereof, I neither could have known them, nor would have rceived any information concerning them upon trust, much less have presumed the presenting them to his Highness: And the truth is, There is not one particular mentioned by me, to which I cannot produce a sufficient testimonie for [Page]the confirmation thereof, by such a number of witnesses as the Lord himself approves for the establishing of every truth: And for the most they are so well known to every Planter there and trader thither (especially those that trade in their own persons) as that he must have very little ae­quaintance with either, or give little faith to both, that shall doubt thereof, farther than to enquire of them which all unsatisfied persons are desired to do. And whereas you will find some very fowl acts particularised, and yet the actors or committors not named; charge that, if you please, upon my charity, who though I had their names given me, (as there was reason I should) and that by those that are neither affraid nor ashamed to have their names known, if it shall be required by any that have authority so to do; Yet I thought it my duty to silence them; that so the Persons that are guilty of those horrid crimes, may be the sooner invited to repent of them, when they shall see, that upon their repen­ting, as God hath promised their transgressions shall not be mentioned unto them by him, nor ought to be by others, so there is the best course taken by me, that I could, that they themselvs shall never be upbraided with them; as knowing, that often times the open disgracing men for some fowl facts makes them the more impudent in those sins, and the more obdurat against all perswasions to turn from them.

As also, that this discovering their sins and yet covering their names may assure them, that it is the detestation of those crying crimes, not any hatred of their persons, that occasioned this complaint: and therefore, if, upon the tel­ling that such and such sins are committed by some, they find themselves to be the men that committed them, (as tis desi­red they may) there will be no need to say to any of them as Nathan sometimes was constreined to say to David, Thou art the man: and if themselves then please but to confess [Page]with David one by one, I have sinned against the Lord: I shall intercede with the Lord so far as I am able, that he would please to say to their soules, one by one again, what Nathan said to David, The Lord hath put away thy sin: and if they shall be thus ashamed of what they have done, tis all the shame is wished them for so doing. But, because by those wicked deeds, they have given great occa­sion to the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme, let them be­ware, lest if they do escape the judgement of men, the severe judgments of God do not seize upon them in some remarka­ble manner, here in this life, for others to take warning thereby, and for the taking of those enemies of the Lord from their farthar blaspheming thereat.

Besides, if all this will not quiet some Spirits, that shall find themselves concerned in this Remonstrance, as concei­ving that the publishing of such particular crimes will cause an inquisition to be made by many after the particular names of those that committed them; (as indeed all men are generally too inquisitive after other mens sins, & too bu­sie in proclaiming them) or it may be, his Highness himself may, upon the information of such crimes heing commited, command the names of those that commited them to be gi­ven in to him, that justice may proceed against them; Let such know, that if any private men shall inquire of me the names of those whose particular crimes are complained of in the following Remonstrance; I can (through his grace who sets a watch before my mouth and keeps the door of my lips) commond my tongue silence as well as my pen, but I have no power over the tongues of other men farther than to beseech them to be as carefull of preserving others good names, as of their own; and that care of others will in­crease and inlarge the honour of their own: and where any deserve to have their names stink and rot, that they would [Page]suffer them so to do, without their raking too much in the noi­som filth & loathsome putridness & putre of them. But, if his Highness command me to give him, or any deputed by him, either any or all their names; that so judgement may be executed upon some of those Zimris and Achans, those Colonie-destroying offendors, to the better appeasing of Gods wrath gone out against that Colonie, and for the more happy prevention of the like provocation by others, I fear the displeasure both of God and his Highness too much to disobey that command. And if their names or persons do suffer thereby, they may blame themselves, who were so audaciously wicked as to do that to others without blushing at it, which now they are ashamed or afraid to hear of, from others, with so much as being named to have done it; and take it ill to have those detestable acts of theirs but mentio­ned before one that hath power to punish them, which they never stuck at to perpetrate before him, that hath power to damn them for them. But I forget my self and the work in hand too much, in labouring thus long to satisfy those that are enemies to both. Apologies to such do but raise more jealousies, and sharp rebukes are fitter charms for such Spi­rits than soft answers.

There are indeed some persons of honour and integrity yet living, that had the unhappiness to be Governours when some of those horrid facts were commited by some of the Planters; And so they might in justice be charged upon their account (so far as the not prohibiting, oppugning, and punishing them could contract the guilt of them) should not I be so just as to give others that fair account thereof, which I received from those who abhor to justifie the wick­ed or condemn the righteous. Most true it is what Salust saith, That in cujus manu est ut prohibeat, jubet agi, si non prohibet admitti, In whose power it is to prohibit [Page]a crime, he commands it to be done, if he do not prohibit the doing it: or, as Seneca expresseth it, qui n on ve­tat peccare cum possit, jubet, He bids a man to sin, that does not forbid him when be may: And he, that does not withstand a wicked man in his wickedness, or punish him severely for it, if he have power, does both animat him in his wickedness, and incourage others to do the like: and is thereby as really guilty of that wickedness, as if himself had committed it. But tis as true, (say their compurgators) that those worthies, (whose innocency alone I desire to vin­dicate, leaving all unworthy Governours to answer for themselves) had not that just power of prohibiting, oppug­ning, and punishing iniquity and the actors thereof, at least not that due liberty of exercising their power, that men of their place and authority should have: but were so limited and bound up, by the over-straightness of their investors, that armed them with that power, or by the dissenting of their assistants, that should have stood by them, and acted with them, in the execution thereof; or by the insolency and tumultuousness of those upon whom justice should have been executed, That, although they abhorred & abominated those barbarous acts, and the wicked contrivers and actors of them; yet they were constrained, for the better preservation of the publik peace and safety of the Plantati­on, as well as their own persons and subsistance, to forbear that forcible withstanding, and judicial punishing them, that they should, and otherwise would have practised and proceeded in. Such is the inseparable unhaippiness and mischief that constantly attends both the Governours and Governed, where the power of the Governors depends upon the favour and pleasure of the people, or is manacled and fettered by any Plebeian Tribunes, or over-awed by any insulting Ephori. Nevertheless, that the resplendent emi­nencies [Page]of those Governours, or my high esteem of their vouchers, may not so mislead me, as that whilest I am willing to excuse them from the guilt of others sins I should unwitingly pull upon my self the guilt of theirs, I humbly beseech those Governours, that as they desire to ap­pear just before men, so they would much more labour to acquit themselves before God. And therefore if they know ought by themselves (as they needs must) more than others can charge them with, they would not rest upon any mans justification of their actions, much less presume them there­upon justifyable before God; but earnestly and humbly beg of God his gracious pardon for what he knowes they have failed in or been guilty of, either by their omitting or neg­lecting to exercise that power, that he had put into their hands, or by their otherwise partaking with others in their sins, as well as for all their other transgressions; and that will not onely comfort their soules and quiet their Spirits against all that have been or shall be objected against them; but also add very much to their honour amongst all good men and exceedingly indear them to God himself the fountain of all true comfort honour and goodness.

Then for those friends of mine which pretend to be friends also to the work it self, but not to my under taking it, though I love their reproofes better thā I do others praises; yet I would not willingly deserve that favour from them. It may be (& the truth is I have been told as much by some, that I believe cordially love me) they may fear that my appearing in this business may be reputed by some that wish me well somewhat improper and a little Heterogeneal to my professon as a Mi­nister; but to such my humble request is, that they would consider both my profession and this work a little better.

If the shewing a people their transgressions and their sins by my pen, when my voice, though lifted up like a trumpet [Page]cannot reach their eares; or if the shewing those transgres­sions and sins to others, that have hands long enough to reach and correct them, when they can neither be first shewn to themselves, or if they were, would certainly be to very little or no purpose, as to their amendment.

If when wrath is gone out against a people, the calling upon others that have power to help pacify that wrath by executing wrath upon those that provoked it; when the party that so calls upon others hath neither power nor com­mission to do it himself.

If to give a people warning when they are hastening to ruin and destruction, and the supplicating others to con­tribute their utmost for the preventing it, if it be possible.

If the seeking after, not one sheep, but a whole flock, that are gone astray, and in danger to be lost for ever; and the desire to bring home to the same fold with them and after them, millions of souls more, that never yet were of that fold, but have promises from the great Shep­heard that they shall one day be brought into it.

If the complaining of poor injured, oppressed, inslaved Christian servants, under most unjust, cruel, tyrannical, un­christian Masters, to such as have more power over those Masters, than they have over their servants, though both must remember that themselves have another Master in heaven, to whom they must give account both of themselves and of their servants.

If the putting in minde those that are within the pale of the Church to walk honestly towards them that are with­out, and to let their light of holy conversation so shine be­fore those especially that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, as to invite and allure them to love the same light that they profess to walk in, and to embrace that true light which came to be their light, and lighteth every man, with all the light he hath.

In a word, if the trusting in God, who hath the hearts of all men in his hands to turn as he please, and so hoping that his Highness heart will be inclined by that God to this great and glorious work, upon his right understanding it; and that somewhat the more, because he knows, that he that supplicates his assistance therein, never sought any great things for himself, and abhorrs to beg ought of him for others, but what he believes upon good grounds to be just and honourable for him to condescend to; If these and the like acts and crimes to these, be reputed as unbecoming me, or unbeseeming my Ministerial function, I must confess tis my desire (not to say ambition) to serve God by my Mi­nistry in these waies which are reputed unbecoming and un­beseeming. And if God in his mercy do but approve of me and my Ministry, or rather my execution of that holy office (for the office it self hath God for its institutor, and and will assuredly find him its protector and defender as well as avenger) I do no farther regard mans approving or disapproving either, than to give no just occasion to any by any offence in my life to be offended at the exercise of my Ministry, nor any just cause to any by the exercise of my Ministry to be offended with my person.

And as in my preaching the gospel, I have carefully and faithfully indeavoured with that great exemplar of Prea­chers Saint Paul, 1 Epist. Thes. cap. 2. v. 3, 4. to speak nothing of deceit or impuritie, or guile; but, as I have been allowed of God to be put in trust with the Gospel, Act. 24.16. so I have spoken, not as pleasing men but God, which tryeth our hearts: So I have, with the same holy Apostle, in all things else, and in this particular business in hand, exercised my self to have allwaies a con­science void of offence toward God and toward man. But if I have unwittingly said or done ought that does justly offend any sober knowing man, (as who lives and does not [Page]in many things offend both against God and man) I shall upon my knowledge of it meekly acknowledge it, and hum­bly crave Gods and his pardon of it: as I shall also freely forgive any, that shall through weakness or ignorance take an offence at me or at any of my words or actions, when there is no offence given. Wherefore I earnestly beseech you that are my friends, and all others, that are friends to the publick good of others, that, Phil. 2. if there be any Consolation in Christ to be wished by you unto me, if any comfort of love, to be expected by me from you, if any fellowship of the Spirit betwixt you and me, if any bowels of mercy towards that poor Colonie which I appear for, and towards those miserable heathen Indians, that I long after, yom would, instead of quarrelling me, or this my undertaking, fulfil my joy, conceived at the hope of succed­ing in this great work, and be like minded with me to­wards it, having the same love both to the reforming and purging those Church members of Christ, the English Chri­stians, and to the incorporating into Christs Church the Heathen aliens, their Indian neighbours. And so being of one accord and of one mind, let nothing be done by any of us through strife or vain glory; but in lowliness of minde, let us each esteem other better than themselves, and look not every man on his own things, but every man also on the things of others: And thus the same minde will be in us, which was also in Christ Iesus; and we shall in him conquer all oppositions, difficulties, and seeming impossibilities; yea & be more than conquerours through him that loveth us. To whom with the Father and Holy Spirit be all the Glory and honour of this and all other my actions and undertakings.

A compendious Remonstrance of the present sad state and condition of the English Colony in Virginea.

THat Virginea is a most fertile soil, and aboun­ding with allmost all things necessary and usefull for man, even above the most of nati­ons; and that it is capable of producing any thing to introduce trading to and from all other parts of the world; and would, if well imployed and improved by the Planters, ex­ceedingly advance the Manufacture of this Nation, by taking off from hence and consuming there, very great quantities of all sorts yearly, in regard of the multitude of its inhabitants, both Plan­ters and Natives; That it is also a Country, which (by the rea­son of the vastness thereof, and the Natives former readiness to part with such portions of their right and interest therein, unto the English, upon very reasonable terms, as they can upon all just occasions fairly desire, and to live with them and amongst them, so far as they may in wisedom and prudence be admitted) may, in all probability, afford very peaceable, pleasurable, pro­sitable, and every way comfortable habitation and other requi­sites, for the greatest Colonie that ever yet the sun shone upon; And above all other advantages, that the Native people thereof are very inclinable (at least did profess so to be, till they were much scandalized by the wicked lives, and very much abused and oppressed by the unjust dealings of the Planters) to receive and embrace the Gospel, and to submit to the English government, [Page 2]are all things so well known to your Highness, or may soon be, by what hath been already published by som that have lived amongst them, and will be farther attested by others that doe most constantly reside there, and are ready and willing to give your Highness a more particular assurance thereof, if they be required so to doe, That it would be superfluous, as well as too too tedious to give you any farther relation thereof. But that a Colonie, Planted in such a Country 60 yeares since or more, and that by Christians, and those of the same Nation and profession of faith with us, should in all this time make so litle, very litle profit or benefit of such a land, in respect of what it would yield, if well husbanded; and be so far from increasing the trade thither and from thence, that at this present it is much worse than it was many years since; and (which is a grand shame and dishonour both to our Nation and to our Religion) instead of converting or civilizing any one of the Natvesi, so as to re­tain that civility or profession of Christianity in due perseve­rance, they give them all too just occasion to be scandalized at the very name of Christianity, and to abhor and detest their Government, as well as manners. This your humble Remon­strant presumes is neither known to your Highness, nor will scarce be credited by you at the first hearing: But if your High­ness will vouchsafe to make a strict inquiry into, and examina­tion of such particulars, as may evince and evidence the truth of all those foul errors, gross miscarriages, and crying crimes, whereby the said Plantation is brought, not only to a very low and despicable condition, but very neer its period and utter ruine; Your humble Remonstrant will, upon your command, furnish your Highness to your full satisfaction; as he doth for the present suggest some of the cheifest of them; and begs your pardon for presuming to offer with them his own submissive conceptions for their redress.

The Errors, miscariages, & crimes, whereby, not only the good and prosperity of the Colonie or Plantation in Virginea is retarded and hindred, but the Colonie or Plantation it self is very likely to be speedily ruined, may be reduced to these four heads.
  • 1. The Errors committed by those that transmit persons over into the Colonie
  • [Page 3]2. The miscariages of the Planters there, both towards the Indians, and amongst themselves especially, in their Planting and setling.
  • 3. The injuries and overfights chargeable upon the Traders thither.
  • 4. The great neglect and contempt of Gods ordinances, wor­ship and service, throughout the whole Plantation.

I. The Errors committed by those that transmit persons over thither are principally these.

1. They seldome make choise of good sufficient Governors; who, as they ought to be able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetcousness; so they ought to be men of more than ordinary publick Spirits, preferring the publick good of the Plantation before their own gain or privat interest; & such as have travelled and been used to trade and commerce with o­ther Nations, as well as in their own; whereby having knowledge of the commodities and profits of several Countries, they may be able to introduce the planting of such in that Colonie as the foil and climat is most proper for, and the trading therein with other Nations will bring most advantage by. And though there have been some Governours transmitted thither so qualified in the most and cheifest qualifications, yet they have been so very few, and their refidence there of so small continuance, that either they wanted time to work any reformation amongst them, that was considerable, or else other inexperienced, indis­creet, careless, covetous Governors soon pulled down, or suffered to ruine, what any knowing, prudent, carefull, generous Go­vernour had builded, or at least layd the foundation of.

2. The Ministers and publick dispensers of the Gospel, which are sent into that Plantation, are, for the most part, not only far short of those qualifications required in Ministers 1 Tim. 3. and Tit. 1. but men of opposite qualities and tempers, such as either by their loose lives, and un-Gospel-becoming conversa­tion, or by their known weakness, and unsufficiency of under­standing and parts, do not only not gain or win upon those that are without, the Indian heathen, but cause to go more astray, and lose, many, very many of those that pretend to be within, the English Christians.

3. The people that are sent to inhabit in that Colonie, are the most of them the very scum and off-scouring of our Nation, vagrants, or condemned persons, or such others, as by the loos­ness and viciousness of their lives have disabled themselves to subfist any longer in this Nation; and when they come thither, either know not how, or will not betake themselves to any so­ber industrious course of living. And, if they chance to get ought to maintain them in their licentiousness and wickedness, fall to practising their old abominable practices there, as much or more than ever they did heer. So that if they come to be ru­lers or officers in the said Colonie, whereby they are rendered more conspicuous in their true colours, their idleness and other­wise evil examples do not only corrupt and taint others of the same Colonie but cause the very Heathen to loath both them and the very profession of Christianity for their sakes. And can any Colonie expect to prosper, or to obtain any blessings from God upon themselves and their Plantation, when they sin more against God and do more provoke his wrath and indignation, than those heathen whom the Lord removed out of the same parts of that Land, and gave it them to possess? No, 'tis to be feared, that as it will be more tollerable for those heathens in the day of judgement, than for them; so some more intollerable judgments will likewise without speedy repentance ere they are aware, be inflicted on them in the day of Gods visiting their i­niquities, than ever those Heathen felt, whom God Cast out be­fore them. And it must be Gods infinite mercy to this sinfull Nation, if, besides our other crying fins, This our sending out such from amongst us, that so dishonour Gods name amongst those Heathen, and cause them to blaspheme it, and his Gospel to be a reproach to them (far beyond what could have been done by them, had they been kept and punished heer, as they ought to have been) do not so inflame and increase the fiery wrath and indignation of God against us, as that he therefore cause too many of us to be cast forth or led forth captives into some heath­enish, barbarous or Idolatrous Nation to be a curse and a re­proach amongst them.

4. That very many Children and servants sent into that Plan­tation, that were violently taken away, or cheatingly duckoy­ed [Page 5]without the consent or knowledge of their Parents or Masters by some praestigious Plagiaries (commonly called Spirits) into some private places, or ships, and there sold to be transported; and then resold there to be slaves or servants to those that will give most for them. A practice proper for Spirits, namely the Spirits of Devils, but to be abhorred and abominated of all men that know either what men are, or whose originally they are, (even his that made them) or what their relations are, either natural, civil, or Christian. A practice condemned by the very Heathen, and a Law called Lex plagiaria, made by them against it. And if it should be tollerated, or connived at by Christians, and known so to be of the Heathen, Let it never be expected that any of those Heathen should turn Christians. For they may well conclude, That they that will take by force or fraud those that are Christians either children from their Parents, or ser­vants from their Masters or any of any relation from their friends and relations, and sell them for slaves or servants to others, will never make any conscience or scruple at all, either of taking a­way by force, or surreptitiously stealing, or otherwise unjustly possessing or selling those Heathen themselves, or their children, servants, goods, lands, or ought else they can lay their hands on. And if they should become Christians, they are foretaught by sufficient examples, that their being Christians would be no securitie or protection to them or theirs. And how this diabo­lical practise does, in this and many other respects, cry unto God for vengeance in the cries, and moanes, and complaints, and lamentations, made by those poor inslaved children and servants and by all their Parents, friends and relations, may be more ea­fily gessed at than expressed; and may, in probability, be enough of it self, to pull a curse and vengeance upon the whole Planta­tion. Amos 2. v: 6. Joel 3. v: 6, 7, 8.

II. The Miscariges of the Planters towards the Indians, and a­mongst themselves, are chiefly these.

Towards the Indians.

1. The Planters generally keep neither their word nor their faith with the Indians; whereas the Indians very seldome or [Page 6]never break their word or faith with them. Thus iniquity is not only folly, but sometimes a vary contradiction to it self, as well as to reason; for some that call themselves believers, are re­al infidels, and prove themselves so to be, and worse, when some that are real infidels, prove themselves to have more faith than such hypocritical believers. And it would be found presump­tion, not faith or charity, in any, to believe or hope, that such dishonourers of the Christian faith, should ever prevail with the poor unbelieving Indians to believe Gods word or his promi­ses, declared to be his by them whose word and promise they have just cause not to believe. Or if God should make such fowl falls of such false Christians to be an occasion to his own raising up those unbelieving Indians, & bringing them to Christ, as he did the falling of the Jewes to be the riches of the gentiles, Rom. 11. tis to be feared such a calling in of those Indians, would be the utter casting off of those Christians; which the Lord of his mercy forbid. And for the Indians fidelity to the English, take that for a memorable testimony amongst many, and indeed it may stand for many: when the Masacre was made by the indians upon the English in that Colonie, They assaulted, no persons, nor invaded any man: offessions or goods, that they knew had bought their lands of them, & covenanted with them, for them and made good their covenants.

2. The Planters have taken the Indians goods from them by force when the Indians have come peaceably to trade with them. An act to be detested of all that love peace and truth, much more of those that have any desire of the propagating of the Gospel of peace and truth amongst those with whom they trade.

3. The Planters have turned some of the Indians out of their places of abode and subsistence, after that the Indians have sub­mitted to the Colonie, and to their Government, and have taken up their own lands after the custome used by the Colonie; As they did otherwise also very unchristianly requite the ser­vice which one of the Indian Kings did them in fighting against other Indians, that were presumed to be enemies to the English and to draw towards them to do them mischief. For that when the said King desirous to shew his fidelity to the English, if not in obedience to some of their Commanders orders, did ad­venture [Page 7]too far with his own Indians in the pursute of those o­ther Indians, and thereby loft his life in that action, as some re­port (though others thought him to be taken alive by the ene­mies. His wife and children (that were by him at his expiring, recommended to the care of the English (as some of his servants have given out) or, to be sure, ought to have been taken into their special care whether so recommended or not, and might have been such an advantage either of reducing that whole fa­mily with their friends & allies to the embracing the Christian faith, or at least such an endearing them to the English, as they have never or seldome had the opportunity of) were so far from receiving the favour and kind usage merited by their father, that they were wholly neglected and exposed to shift for themselves. And though it be alleged by some, as to the former part of this grievance, that that portion of Lands, which was taken from the sayd King before his death by an English Colonel, was acknow­ledged openly in Courtto be with the consent of the said King, & that hee was satisfied for it; Yet tis generally believed, & by some stoutly asserted, that the sayd King was affrighted and threatened into that acknowledgement, by the said Colonel.

4. The Planters have by their several and frequent acts of in­justice and cruelty exercised upon the Indians, in invading their rights and assaulting their persons, made the Indians in a man­ner to despair of ever living peaceably by them, or having any fair converse or commerce with them, as by their not suffering the Indians to hunt in those woods, or to fish in those rivers, wherein they challenge a right, and are believed by divers sober and discreet men of the Colonie to have a right as well as them­selves; as also by not permitting the Indians, though single, or but two or three in a company, to approach neer to any of the habitations of the English (unless it be of some few of the bet­ter sort and rank, who have more civility and humanity, and know better how to improve that advantage) And, if any of the Indians do chance to come into any of their Plantations, and are taken, the English oftentimesty them alive to trees and burn them to ashes, or else otherwise murder them, without shewing any cause, farther than the pretending that the Judians are not to be trusted, though (as I but now said) in their faithfulness and [Page 8]firmness to their promises they much surpass the English.

5. The Planters did lately, viz. Anno 1656, (when a nume­rous people of the Indians, more remote from the Colonie, came down to treat with the English about setling of a Peace, and with­all a liberty of trade with them) most perfidiously and barba­rously (after a declaration of their desires and intention) mur­ther five of their Kings, that came in expectation of a better re­ception) and brought much Beaver with them to begin the in­tercourse of the commerce. This unparallel'd hellish treachery and antichristian perfidy more to be detested than any heathenish inhumanity, cannot but stink most abominably in the nosethrils o [...] as many Indians as shall be infested with the least sent of it, even to their perpetual abhorring and abandoning of the very sight and name of an English man, till some new generation of a better extract shall be transplanted amongst them; as also cry in­cessantly in the eares of the Almighty for his avenging those bloods upon those English, who made their calling themselves his their prime advantage of betraying those poor wretches lives into their bloody hands; and by their murthering their bodies did (as much as in them lay) slay also their very soules and sa­crifice them to the Devil; as they have likewise by that com­plicated iniquity, (unless the detestation thereof, by the rest of that Colonie and this Nation, be openly manifested in the sight of the surviving Indians in some exemplarie punishment of those murtherers) beaten off many thousands of thousands of soules from embracing that faith which would save them.

6. To justify all these and many other of their matchless ini­quities and impieties, especially their rapines, murthers, and all sorts of cruelties exercised upon the poor Indians; some of the Planters, having usurped the office of publike preachers, have Proclaimed from their speaking-places, That the Planters are the Saints, that have just right to whatsoever the Indians call theirs; & may, when they have opportunity and power, turn the Indians out of all their lands and estates, & take them into their own possession. So far have they extended that opinion dominium fundatur in gratiae, and so much have they abused, that Apostoli­cal compellation of Saints, in those parts: your Highness can­not but know the danger of their conjunction in these.

Amongst themselves.

1. The Planters, some of them, have not only dealt unjustly and inhumanely with the poor heathen Indians; but to the far­ther dishonour of this Nation, and the greater scandal of our re­ligion professed by them, they did lately commit a most hainous outrage, and bloody fact upon some of their own English Na­tion, that had seated themselves in Mary-land; & that not upon a suddain provoked boyling of their own blood, but, (so far as circumstances could demonstrate their intention) out of a Cain-like thirsting after their brethrens blood, and a sordid coveting of their estates; and what less can the Indians from thence infere, than, that if the English invade each others possessions, and shed each others bloods for them, surely the poor contem­ned Indians cannot hope for either justice or mercy from them; and therefore why should they scruple the cutting of their throats or driving them out from amongst them, who so little scruple the cutting each others or any others throats, and the turning them out from cohabiting in the same country with them?

2. The Planters (out of covetous desire to take up great Tracts of land) disperse themselves very far from each other in the Country, and usually take up more land by an hundred parts, than they are able to manure or till, or make any use of: ren­dering themselves thereby both useless to one another, & the more unserviceable to the publick; besides the exposing themselves to be cut off the more easily by the Indians, when they shall take that occasion, which is too often given them, as well as under­stand this advantage.

3. The Planters observe no just order in taking up their pro­portions of land, but run up, one after another, all along by the rivers sides; whereby they not onely prejudice others, that come after them, in their Planting and seating themselves; but do ve­ry much discourage them from planting and setling themselves at all; because they cannot have any tollerable convenience of the Rivers.

4. The Planters doe generally regard the planting of no­thing but Tobacco; and that they plant so excessively, that they cannot (confidering their number of servants) make it up as it should be. And too many will not give it the dne making that they might; and do, for the most of them, pack it so falsly [Page 10]and cheatingly; that the Traders thither, finding themselves so abused & cousened by them, and that, upon their complaining ther of no justice is done them, (because most commonly the par­ties guilty are the judges) are very much disheartned and dis­couraged from trading any longer with them. And if the Plan­ters themselves do at any time bring, or send over upon their own account, any considerable quantities thereof, it proves u­sually so bad, and of so little worth, that all charges defrayed, they can scarce get more by it than their labour for their pains: whereas when some of them, that have been carefull to have their tobacco well made, and as well pact up, have brought over of the same, six hundred pounds have been offered to one of them for one yeares profit of his plantation.

5. The Planters do seldome imploy their mindes and parts a­bout ought save the procuring a present subsistence and lively­hood, and the purchasing of strong waters, or some other such heating liquors, as may inflame their Spirits, and intoxicate their braines; and so continue their old accustomed debaucheries contracted in England.

6. The Planters in the generality, doe most basely cheat, and unjustly deal with all that trade with them, in case ei­ther themselves, or any that come into those parts to trade with them, happen to die there, or have any estates there when they die: For that all the estate that is found in the deceased's hands (be it whose it will be) is apprised by certain apprisers at half its worth: And the apprisers for their paines take in a manner what they please; and the rest of the estate is put into the hands of any that claim any interest therein, under a pretence to keep it for the true proprietors; who seldome get ought thereof, upon their demanding it, but are inforced, for the most part, to spend the full value thereof, and sometimes if they will not bear that abuse, twice as much as its value, before they can re­cover ought. And usually they lose both the principal estate, and all the charges expended for the regaining it. Which pra­ctice alone, if not speedily remedied, will deterr all traders from adventuring thither, and destroy all trade there, and so ruine the Colonie.

7. The Planters, many of them doe very much abuse and op­press their poor servants, by not allowing them that lodging [Page 11]and food which is meet, causing many of them either to ly all the time of their servitude in ash heape, or otherwise to kennel up and down like dogs, where they can find room; scarce fee­ding them fo well as our scornfull servants here in England feed our dogs; though men of honesty and conscience do discharge their consciences there in the good use of their servants, as the like do here.

8. The Planters suffer much, and complain exccessively of the heavy and unequal taxes laid upon them, which taxes in a great part are pretended to be imposed for the levying and rai­sing of force to secure the Colony and defend them against their enemies; when as they are spent and imbezled by the officers or largesses of the assemblies of the Colony in intemperate drink­ing, and other riotous and luxurious practices, so industry and temperance are discouraged, and idleness and licentiousness are maintained, if not countenanced; which cannot but soon overthrow the best of Plantations.

9. The Planters do exceedingly miscarry in not setling head Townes in each County, that the people of that County, and all others that desire to trade with them, might be drawn to­gether, and manage their trading in some certain places; and not run up and down from house to house; especially when the houses are at so great a distance from each other, as there they are, and not above two houses together in any County except in James Town.

The Injuries and oversights chargeable upon the traders to Virginea are more discernably these.

1. The Traders do very much Injurie to the Plantation in Vir­ginea by not victualing their ships sufficiently for the passengers wch they transport; in so much that many of the passengers are all most famished, before they reach thither, though the passage be otherwise fair and within convenient time: and many dy soon after they arrive there; which brings an ill report upon the Country, as though that killed them; when their death is to be attributed to their ill usage and diet at sea, arising from the wretched covetousness of those that set forth ships for the trans­porting of passengers, meerly for gain, and that gotten chiefly [Page 12]by pinching and starving the carcases of their poor passengers. Now, if they that are slain by the sword are better than they that are slain with hunger, Lam 4. v. 9. Then surely they that kill men by starving them, deserve more to be hanged, than they who kill men by the sword, or otherwise quickly dispatch them. Be­sides, the starving of men designed for a place, where men are far more precious than they are here, and may, through Gods inabling them, prove much more serviceable both to God and man than here they can be, aggravates that iniquity not a litle.

2. Another wickedness, which some traders thither have pra­ctised upon their passengers (scarce ever heard of before, much less practised by any that call them selves Christians) is this, When a storm or tempest hath happened at sea in their passage from hence thither, or they have otherwise miscarried, through the default of the Master or Pilot of the ship, so that their pas­sage hath been tedious and dissicult; Some of those Masters have laid all the blame upon some of their passengers; and not onely accused them for witches, but executed some of them as witches, by their own authority, and without any legal trial and convi­ction. Now if heathen mariners in a desperate death-threatning tempest at sea, (after that they knew that it was ray sed for one of their passengers sakes, and was acknowledged so to be by that passenger himself, and were desired by him to cast him over­board, and promised thereupon a cessation of the storm) were notwithstanding both unwilling & afraid to cast him over, left themselves should lose their lives for casting away his; or that his innocent blood might be otherwise required of them, and revenged on them, Jonah 1. How will their tender heartedness and fear of shedding the blood of one innocent passenger (as they reputed him) rise up in judgement against the hard-heart­edness and deep blood-guiltiness of those Christian mariners (undeservedly so called) who upon a small tempest or other miscarriage at sea, or out of a covetous desire only to gain a little the more by their passengers, rashly and impiously impute the cause of that tempest or miscarriage to some of their passen­gers; and thereupon, both accuse, judge, and execute them without any examination, trial or conviction of them; or without the least legal power to doe either unto them; not allowing them so much mercy as Jonah had from the merciless waters, nor [Page 13]affording them so much bowels of compassion, or liberty of Gods miraculous preservation, as Jonah found in the belly of Hell?

3. The Traders do very much abuse and cheat those of the Plantation, by imposing one shilling per Hogshead upon all the Tobacco that comes from thence; and without the payment thereof, will not take their Goods aboord; which is done up­on the pretence of defraying the charge of destroying the To­bacco planted in England. And this hath been practised two or three years last past; whereas they have not this last year de­stroyed the said Tobacco, nor satisfied those whom they for­merly imployed in that service for some years before, but keep the Moneys so raised and collected by them, in their own hands, to a very considerable sum. And although the destroying To­bacco planted in England, will not much benefit the Plantati­on in Virginea, because the less Tobacco they plant there, the more of other better Commodities might be there planted and traded in, to their greater profit and advantage: yet the not suffering any Tobacco to be planted in England, but fetching it from other parts of America, will much advance our English Navigation, and increase the Customes and Excize here at home.

4. There is one thing more, that is found by experience to have hindred the English Colony in Virginea very much in re­spect of the Traders thither; which your humble Remonstrant is very tender of mentioning, because it reflects too much upon a late revived Law of this Nation; and therefore it shall be only propounded to your Highness better consideration, to examine and judge, whether the Planters in Virginea do suffer more thereby, or the Merchants of England gain more: and so whe­ther it be not more for our Nations honour and profit to conti­nue it, than it would be for that Plantations advantage to take it off. Or whether there may not be some expedient found out for the easing of that Plantation in particular, without open­ing a door to a worse grievance or inconvenience to this whole Nation in general. The thing complained of by the Planters, is the prohibiting of Foreigners to trade thither. By which pro­hibition sa they). the English Traders thither will have the [Page 14]Tobaco at their own rates, and sell their own goods and com­modities transported thither at their own prices insomuch that whereas, when the Dutch traded thither, the Planters bought shoos at 12. l. of Tobacco; since they were prohibited, the En­glish made them to pay 50. l. of Tobacco for the like: and so in proportion for other commodities. And then, if any of the Plantation sent Tobacco hither, they had the fraight thereof for 4. l. per Tun, but upon the prohibition of the Dutch they sometimes paid 14. l. per Tun, and most constantly 8. l. or 9. l. per Tun. And whereas the Dutch would then give the Planters 3. d. per pound for their Tobacco, and give good bills of Ex­change for it, (which Tobacco would yield them 6 d. and 7. d. per pound; and so the Merchant was inabled to pay fraight, ex­cise, and customes, and get tollerable gaines) since that, the Tobacco, for the most part of it, will not yield above an half penny per pound there; and when it comes to England, it will scarce pay the fraight and custome, by reason of the want of that vent which it formerly had, before the Dutch planted Tobacco in their own territories; which they did not till that prohibi­tion. So that by this means (say the Planters) the Plantation is in a manner ruined, at least soon will be, if there be not a prudent and timely prevention thereof, as your Highness also suffers also not a little in your customes and excise, and the tra­ders themselves by their trading. The redressing of all which, if possible, without worse prejudice to That Plantation or this Nation, is a worke worth the undertaking and skill of the best and most prudent of both Nations, and the sole aim of your Re­monstrants presenting it to your Highness.

IV. The great neglect of Gods ordinances, worship, and ser­vice throughout the whole Plantation may be ascribed to these original and some far other additional causes.

1. The Ministers of Virginea, too many of them, are very car [...]less and negligent in dispensing Gods word and sacraments, at also indecent and slovenly in their manner of dispensing them. [Page 15]And as their carelesness & neglect of dispensing Gods Ordinances occasion the people of the Colonie to disregard and disisteem them; so their slovenly and indecent dispensing them, cause both them and the Heathen to scorn and contemn them.

2. There are not a few of the Ministers, whose wicked and prophane lives cause the worship and service of God, not only to be slighted, but to be little less than abhorred, when they of­ficiate therein; As there are also divers, whose insufficiency and inability to stop the mouthes of gain-sayers, occasion too many of the people of all sorts to open wide their rude, prophane, blas­phemous mouthes both against themselves and all others of their holy function; as also against their very office it selfe, and those holy Ordinances about which it is conversant. And thus (as the prophet Jeremie sometimes complained cap: 23.) From the Pro­phets—is prophaness gone forth into all the Land. And the true original causes of both these miscariages in those Ministers is this, The greatest part of them are such as went over thither not out of any designe or desire to do God and that Plantation, much less the poor heathen thereto adjoyning any service by their Ministery; but out of some by aimes and ends of their own, being indeed such, as were ashamed, or affraid, to live any long­er here in this Nation; or at the least such as sought only to get something for themselves, having little hopes in these daies espe­cially, from the consciousness of their own unworthiness, to procure any preferment or tollerable subsistence here: and ac­cordingly they now live and practice there.

3. Those Ministers, That are religious and laborious, such as are worthy of double honour, both because of their labouring in the word and doctrine, as also because of their being true shining lights before the people in their holy exemplarie lives and conversations, have scarce that single honour paid them that they deserve, from the most; and are dishonoured and despised by too many. Which though it should not, yet it does too much discourage and dishearten them in the work of the Gospel. And 'tis but justice in God, that where men sow sparingly, they should reap sparingly: and where the people grutch to allow Gods Ministers temporal things, for their inriching them with spiritual; God may therefore most justly, in a proportionable ana­logie [Page 16]of punishment, withold his conferring of spirituals by such instruments upon such ungratefull receivers, till they have learnt by the want of them, how to value and esteem them better. For as the despising of Gods Ministers is the despising of God him­self; so the undervaluing of them and their Ministration is the undervaluing of God himself, and what he confers upon men by them.

4. The Governours of that Colonie have been, divers of them, too remiss and slack both in punnishing and removing unwor­thy Ministers, and in incouraging and countenancing those of worth. As not long since, there was an instance given of both. When one that had taken upon him the office of a preacher being accused for committing of Sodomie, and convicted if not of the fact, yet of the intent and attempt, was onely cau­sed to stand in some publick place for a small time with a paper in his hat, with his crime written therein. When on the other side, in the year 1655. other eminent, able preachers indeed, were for no crime (unless for their being of a different judge­ment, in our late unhappy differneces here amongst us, from some in power there amongst them, or for their eminencie of a­bilities and parts, as well as excellency of lives above others, or at the most but for some zealous imprudency) turned out of their imployments and Livelyhood.

Thus Having shewn your Highness some of the chief causes of the Epidemical distempers and maladies, under which the poor Plantation in Virginea grones and labours, even to the consumption of her Spirits, and her being ready in a manner to give up the Ghost, the cure is half made, especially if your High­ness please to become their Aesculapius, and take them into your own hands, and exercise your own skill in correcting and purg­ing out those peccant and corrupt humors, which have been presented to you: But because your Remonstrant knowes well, that your Highness delights, in all incounters, to be rather in the reserve for relief in extremity, than to command in the lighter velitations or skirmishes; he is therefore emboldened (with your Highness favor first supplicated) to adventure his own weak suggestions, for the leading on men of more solid judge­ [...] to deliver their opinions; and so to reserve the honour as [Page 17]wel as art of conquering all difficulties to your self, for the pre­serving and restoring of that Languishing and dying Colonie.

The most therapeutical and healing medicines, and most pre­serving antidotes, that your humble Remonstrant conceives to be most effectual for the curing of the present distempers in Virgi­nea, and for the preventing their return upon that Colonie for the future, are these.

1. That Ministers of holy and religious exemplarie lives and conversations, and well furnished with known and proved abi­lities, both for teaching and governing, be fairely treated with, and by all good means and waies invited, perswaded, and incou­raged to undertake that great work of the Lord in dispensing his Gospel and the precious mysteries thereof in that Nation; An undertaking of so much honour and glory to God, and of so much credit and comfort to the undertakers, as that there is not any visible in the whole world of more, or of more probability of an happy success: because they may thereby not only recall & reclaim many of their own country-men and fellow Christians that have fouly erred and gon astray; but also bring into Christs flock and fold not a few of the long lost Heathen. And if good Simeon could sing such a cheerfull nunc dimittis at the first seing and imbracing him, that was (and therefore because he was) a light to lighten the Gentiles, and the Glory of his people Israel Luke 1. with what inconceivable, as well as ineffable chear­fullness and exultation of Spirits, may all those resigne up their Spirits into Gods hands, who have not only seen and embraced for some considerable time, the same Light themselves; but been honoured with being the instruments of the Gentiles seing and embracing that Light, as well as of Gods own straying Israel returning unto it? (I mean his mystical Israel; though I also highly honour the probable conjectures of my reverend and ancient acquaintance and true friend in adversity as well as pros­perity, Mr. Thomas Thorowgood; that those Indians at the least some of them, in America, descended originally from the literal Israel of God,) And if they which turn many to righteousness shall shine as the stares for ever and ever, Dan. 12. where is there the whole world thorow, the like probability, or possibility for Ministers to render themselves capable of that promised reward [Page 18]that there is in that Plantation, and in the rest of the adjoyning parts of that vast continent; whereof that Plantation is an hope­full door of entrance? Some pious, soul-seeking Ministers in New England (which is upon the same Continent) have in very few yeares (as is by divers from thence certified) made a very fair ingress into that worke, more, even far more than all the Ministers in Virginea have done in four times as long continu­ance of succession, & upon many times more seasonable opportu­nities. The Lord of that vineyard recompence the acceptableness and fruites of their laboures into their bosomes, and inable them and their successors to make a proportionable progress in that honourable and comfortable work; and send the like labourers into his vineyard in Virginea.

2. That such a Governour be forthwith chosen and sent over as may incourage pious and religious men both Ministers and others, to remove thither with him or after him; such a Gover­nour as was before described in the complaint of the want of such a one. And that he be armed with such power and authority, as is meet, for the reclaiming and regulating such a Plantation. Particularly, that he have power derived unto him to make and constitute (with the consent of such persons of the Colonie, as the said Colonie shall choose for their representatives) such lawes and ordinances, as may be mast suitable to, & agreeable with the temper of the place and people, and the good and benefit of the whole Plantation; not forgetting the having an ey and respect therein unto the Heathen, so far as they may concern them upon any occasion: that so when they shall hear them, or have cause to try the common equity and justice of them, they may be induced to say of them, in some resemblance to those lawes which God gave to his Colonie in Canaan, as the Nations about him said of those. Surely this Nation is a wise and understand­ing people; For what Nation is there that hath statutes and judg­ments so righteous &c? And the Establishing of such lawes, and then their due obedience to them, and through observance of them amogst themselves, will be no small perswasion to those Heathen, both to submit to their Government and to embrace the same prossession of faith with them. Or, if that power of making or constituting lawes be thought too absolute and in­dependent [Page 19]for the Governour and people of that Colony to be intrusted with; That the said Governour, and such representa­tives, agreeing upon such Laws between themselves, do first present them, to the supream power of this Nation, by one or two or more of them; and then, after they have received his stamp and impression of approbation, testified under the broad Seal of England, that they be of full force and power to oblige all the Inhabitants of the said Colony, to observe and yield o­bedience unto them. As also that the said Governour, have full leave and liberty to depute such other subordinate inferiour Magistrates and Officers in the Country, as he shall find to be fit and able, and that all such Magistrates and Officers, be re­sponsible to him when he shall require any account from them, as himself shall be to the Supream power of this Nation.

3. That there be more care taken for the future, that persons of better manners, and of more honesty and piety be transplan­ted thither; both for the honour of our Nation, and of our Re­ligion, as well as for the procuring a blessing upon that Planta­tion, and the averting those curses, which those wicked and ungodly wretches, heretofore planted there, have in part pulled upon it already; and do for their sakes farther threaten it. As also that it be made felony, without benefit of Clergy, for any to steal, and otherwise to insnare, any children or servants; and to sell or proffer to sell them here, or to send, or to at­tempt, or apparently design, to send them out of this Nation to any forein parts to be sold, without particular express licence first obtained from the Supream power of this Nation, and the knowledge and consent of their Parents, and friends of neerest relation.

4. That those Planters, who have murdered their own fel­low-Planters in Mary Land, or murdered and otherwise inju­red, and abused the poor Indians, be severely and speedily pu­nished, to the full satisfaction of both Planters and Indians, and to the vindicating of the honour of our Religion, and of the justice of our Nation, and to the deterring of all wicked per­sons from the like barbarous practises. And for the future, that the Laws for securing mens lives and estates; and for the pre­serving of peace and justice, be more sharp and severe, and [Page 20]more strictly executed; especially for the securing the Indians in their lives and estates, and for the English living more peace­ably, and dealing more justly with them.

5. That the Planters be otherwise regulated and ordered, both in the settling themselves, and in the planting of Tobacco; and in other husbanding and mannaging of their Plantations, as the Governour and his Assistants, chosen out of several Coun­ties by the free Inhabitants thereof, shall from time to time, for the benefit of the publick, as well as the good of the proprietors, prescribe and order.

6. That there be such free trade allowed unto all that shall trade thither, as may be for the advancement of that Plantati­on, and not prejudicial to the Navigation and Trade of this Nation; which would be a work worthy of the most prudent of Law-Givers, and the wisest of Counsellors, and without free trade allowed to that Plantation, all their trade there will scarce keep them from starving.

7. That there be special care taken here, That the ships wch trade thither from this Nation, be well victualled with good provisi­on, such as will be sufficient for the Passengers that are to be transported therein, (above what they that belong to the ship lay in for themselves) according to the full extent of time where­in they use ordinarily to pass; something also being superadded for extraordinary casualties of hindrance. And when they ar­rive there, That some of the Plantation be impowred by the Governour and his Assistants, to examine, upon complaint made, whether the said provisions, so laid in, were expended, as was ordered. And if it shall appear by sufficient testimony, that any Passengers were abused or wronged in their allowance, or otherwise, that thereupon there be a severe mulct or other punishment inflicted upon him or them that are found guilty: the one moiety thereof (if it be a pecuniary punishment) to be given to the person or persons so wronged and abused, and the other to be disposed of by the Governrur for the publick.

8. That there be certain Officers appointed in the Plantation by the Governour, for the examining the soundness, and other qualities of Tobacco and other Commodities, growing and a­rising from that Plantation; and of the just measures and [Page 21]weights, and the true packing up of all such commodities. And what shall be found good and marchantable to be admitted to sale; but what shall not be so, if it be offered to sale, to be for­feited; and the persons attempting to cheat Traders therewith to be otherwise punished, as the Govenour and his Assistants shall see cause to appoint.

9. That there be some head townes built in each County, where the Trade of that County may be Constantly managed, and the publick transactions of all affaires be, as often as need shall require, heard & determined, and so registred and recorded. And that there be one chief Town or City so seated as that all ships, both English and soreiners, that Trade to that Plantation may conveniently repair unto it, and there discharge, if not all, yet at the least one third part of their lading; and there make due entrie both in and and out, and not to depart the County till they have their dispatch signed by the partie deputed by the Governour for that purpose.

10. That in that City, and in each head Town of each Coun­ty, as also in all other places needfull and convenient there be erected fair and well-built Churches for the people of God to assemble in together to worship and serve him publikely, and to communicate of his holy ordinances solemnly and unanimously & that they be decently beautifyed & adorned both for the ho­nour of our Religion and for the better inviting and alluring and attracting of the poor Heathen unto them, and to the per­formance of those religious offices and duties, that shall be re­verently and devoutly practised in them; all superstitious and Idolatrous deckings and trimmings being abominated; And that there be alo pubick Schools erected for the educating both of the English & of the Indians Children in good learning and in the true Christian Religion.

11. That there be a certain coyn made current amongst them of the Planattion; that so the business of Trade and commerce a­mongst themselvs may be transacted with much less trouble and difficultie, than now it is, by reason of the bukness of Tobac­co, the onely thing yet used instead of coyn in that Colonie.

12. That Forts be built and maintained in all meet places, both for the keeping off all forein invasion, and for the pre­venting [Page 22]or supressing any insurrection, that may happen to be made by the Indians.

13. That a small Pinnace be set forth and imployed to disco­ver the south coast of Virginea that the Navigation may be more safe; whereas now for want of knowing that coast, many ships miscarry in their passage thither. And that every year some se­lect number of able, discreet, well-armed men, may also be sent out by Land to discover the inland Country, and the nature and secrets thereof: and where one company leaves off one year, there another company, with two or thre of the former for their guides, to begin the next, and so to go on till they have discovered as much as is possible. And of what importance and advantage this would be to this Nation, as well as to that Co­lonie, men skilled in Navigation, and that wish well to such no­ble attempts, especially such renouned Heroes as have adventu­red their persons in them, will soon inform you.

14. In the last place (which will actuate and give life and motion and promotion to all the rest; and without which all other attempts and indeavors for the good and prosperity of that Colonie, and whatsoever else can be designed by the most pious and publick Spirits that are concerning any particulars mentioned, will prove vain and ineffectual.) As the great Lord of heaven and earth must be constantly and incessantly supplica­ted for his direction, assistance, and blessing upon what shall be undertaken in this great and honourable worke; so the Gover­nour of that Plantation must be assisted, supported, and incou­raged by a comfortable and honourable allowance, that so he may spend his time wholly (save what he spends in the more immediate worship and service of God, and in the refreshing and recreating his toiled body and Spirits) in and for the pub­lick good of that Colonie. And that allowance need not to be taken out of any stock or treasure of this Nation; but may be raised and leavied upon foreiners trading in that Country, and out of those moneys which the English already use to pay wil­lingly, and is by consent of the Colonie laid upon the inha­bitants that come to take up land there. All which or the greatest part thereof hath been imbezled by inferiour unworthy men; and would amount to a very considerable revenue, sufficient to [Page 23]maintain the Governour in all his necessarie expences about the Government, and afford an overplus for the raising of forces in time of need against the enemies thereof, and for the doing of many other publick workes, and in a few years afford some­thing to the publick treasure of this Nation: and yet all the o­ther taxes and impositions, under which the people of the Co­lonie now groan, might be taken off, which must not other­wise be hoped for or expected.

All those informations and intimations of the present sad state and condition of the English Colonir in Virginea, and of the true causes thereof; as also of the several and probably-suc­cesfull meanes and waies for curing all or the most of her dan­gerous distempers, are humbly presented unto your Highness serious consideration; As the preventing its hastening ruine is devoutly recommended to Gods gracious mercy and to your compassionate care. And if the ingenuity of the Indian natives, & the excellency of the Country, superadded to all the other ar­guments, may any way invite and quicken your Highness in the indeavouring its reformation and preservation; be pleased to admit of some few instances of both, for those many, which might be given, and have been published by others, of each.

For testimonie of their ingenuity, suffer me, after so much tyring your patience, to recreate you with two or three tragi­comical stories, and no fictions.

When the English complained to one of the neighbouring Indian Kings, that some of his Indians had taken away some of their Hoggs; He assured them, that it was contrarie to his will and command; but they might well forbear the aggravating that fact so much as they did; for that many of the English had oftentimes killed and carried away divers of his Deer. And when the English replyed, that their hoggs were all marked, so that the Indians might know them to be theirs, which they could not his deer. He presently answered, Tis true indeed, none of my deer are marked, and by that you may know them to be mine: and when you meet with any that are marked, you may do with them what you please; for they are none of mine.

At another time there were twelve of the Indians murthered by the English. For which bloody fact, the King of those In­dians [Page 25]desired of the English, Roanoke and wam­pampege are a kind of beads current a­mongst the Indi­ans for money, and is as their sil­ver and gold. that justice might be executed up­on the persons that were guilty. The English yielded thereunto, but, said the English, the satisfaction shall be made according to your Indian custome by giving so much Roanoke and Wam­pampege for each mans life such a quantity. The Indian king told them, that he expected such justice to be done and such pu­nishment to be inflicted upon those murderers, as the English used to inflict upon the like amongst themselves. But seeing that would not be granted; he required that then according to the Indian custome, so many in number of the English, as there were Indians slain, should bring that Roanoke and Wampam­page and tender it to him: which when they did, The Indian King, to fright them into a deeper sense of that their injustice, told them, that he would now slay eleven of them, and send back again by the twelfth, so much Roanoke and Wampampege proportionably as they had sent for the like number, that they had slain.

Another time, there were three Indians (whereof two were of great power and honour amongst them) that were accused for attempting to poyson the Governour of the English or otherwise to assasine him, And the Governour, upon the discovery thereof required of their King, that their three heads, which were in that conspiracy, should be forthwith sent unto him, for the expiating that high offence; or else he and his people would re­venge it upon the said King and his people. The King being unwilling, if not affraid, by reason of the power, and as some say alliance of two of them, to execute justice in that rigour upon them all; cut of the head of one of the three, and sent it to the English Governour by the other two. The Governour being not satisfied therewith, sent those two with other messengers to their King to know the reason, why he sent him but one of those heads, when he required all three. To which the King returned this answer. That he had sent all the three heads, that the Governour demanded to be sent; And if the Governour were pleased to return two of them back again, it was to be a­scribed to his goodness and mercy and not to be imputed to any failing in him who had performed what was required.

There is one story more, which I may not omit, because it [Page 25]savours not onely of wit but of more true Wisdom and Religi­on, than is usually found in multitudes that call themselves Christians; and that is this. When some of the English were imployed about building an house, and some other work, for an Indian King, he being by covenant to provide victuals for them, did accordingly constantly provide for them, what was necessary, the whole six daies of the week through; but when the Lords day came, and he saw the English forbear to work, and falling to sporting and playing, he commanded that no victuals should be allowed them: which when the English com­plained of, they had this answer returned them; That the King would allow them no victuals on that day, because on that day they did him no work. To which, when the English re­plyed; That that day was a day set a part to serve God in, and not a day to labour, or work in; It was told them again from the King; That if he did see them serve God on that day, they should have what is necessary allowed them; but he was sure that they could not serve God by sporting and playing.

Thus may you see, That although Wisdom (as the son of Sirach brings her in speaking of her self, Ecclus. 24.) had for a long time her dwelling in Jacob, and her inheritance in Israel, ver. 8. And so took root in an honourable people, even in the portion of the Lords inheritance, and there grew and was ex­alted, and stretched out her branches and cast forth a sweet smell, ver. 13, 14, 15, 16. And after that was transplanted, as the people and inheritance of the Lord was removed, or a new people and portion chosen, and they cast out: Yet those Nations, that were not, or yet are not, the Lords people, ever­more did, and to this day do, partake of Wisdoms fruits; and in every Nation and People she got a possession, ver. 6. (as we call a small portion of ground taken as the earnest or seasin of the whole) in the souls of many. And that earnest or seasin may in due time, (through the Law-Givers mercy and favour) intitle her to and invest her in all the rest, when for the full compleating of that Prophecy, Isa. 11.9. The earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the Sea.

Then for the excellency of the Country, If your Highness [Page 26]can but believe, in these faithless times, either what sundry men of different faith in other matters, have, as it were with one soul, written concerning this; or what divers of approved faith are ready with one voice or mouth farther to attest; You may, beyond all doubting, be assured, That the Climate of Virginea is healthfull, the Land exceeding fruitfull, yielding great plen­ty of whatsoever corn or grain is sown in it, and of all other fruits that are planted in it, and affording very great increase of all sorts of cattel that breed in it, or that it is stockt withall. The Woods, which are very vast, abound with Deer, and o­ther beasts, whose carcases, or skins, or both, are very usefull and profitable. The Rivers are infinitely stored with all sorts of excellent Fish, and water-Fowls; as the dry Land is with other fowls. The bowels of the earth are fraught with admirable Mines of Iron, Lead, Copper, and (as some say) Silver: And for the upper parts thereof, besides what it sends forth natural­ly, which is much variety of delightfull and usefull commodi­ties, It would, with a little labour and industry in planting, and keeping it, be made extraordinary rich in the production of Silk, Wine, Currants, Rasins, Flaxe, and almost any thing that any other Country yields. O that it might but once bear (as tis said of Canaan, Wisdom 12.7.) a worthy Colony of Gods children; And then Canaan it self could scarce ever have been said to have excelled it. Which that it may do, shall be the earnest and incessant prayer of him, who daily prays that the Lord would incline, and move your Highness heart to contri­bute your best assistance to this great work, tending so much to the glory of God, the propagation of the Gospel, the good and comfort of many thousands of souls in that vast Continent, this Nations honour, and your Highness highest renown.

Your Highness humble Remonstrant, L. G.

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