CHRIST TEMPTED: THE DIVEL CONQUERED. OR, A short and plain EXPOSITION on a part of the fourth Chapter St. MATTHEW'S Gospel. TOGETHER With two Sermons Preached before the University at Oxford, some years since.

By JOHN GUMBLEDEN, B. D. and Chaplain to the Right Honourable the EARL of Leicester.

Jam. 5.7.

Resist the Divel, and he will flie from you.

1 Pet. 5.9.

Whom resist stedfast in the faith.

Ideo tentatur Christus, ne vincatur à Tentatore Christia­nus. August. enarratio in Psal. 90. Concio Secunda. C.

LONDON, Printed for Simon Miller, at the Star in St. Paul's Church-yard, 1657.

TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE his singular good LORD & PATRON ROBERT EARL of Leicester, VISCOUNT LISLE, LORD SIDNEY of Pensehurst, &c. Grace and Peace from the God of Peace.

My Noble LORD,

THat which Solomon saith, Eccles. 12.12. Of making many books there is no end; I suppose doth nothing at all concern me; for I have not made many books; and he that begins late, may soon [Page]end; especially being too too far remote from those useful helps of voluminous Writers, many books; yet this have I made, and humbly present unto your Lordship, is a Testimonial of my thank­fulnesse, for your Lordship's manifold and Noble favours exhibited unto me. Now such as my sacred Profession is, such also is the Matter and Subject of this I present, Theological. An Ex­position it is (such as it is) of what happened in the Wildernesse, and other Places, between our Saviour and Satan; Preached at first for the instruction of my Parochial Cure; but since, as touching the more difficult points, some­what enlarged for publique view. Many will see it; but my most humble suit is, that none may own it but your Lordship. The Author acknowledgeth, that, under God, be liveth by your Lordship's Pa­tronage; [Page] may this Book also, in another sense, live so too. I am,

My Noble LORD,
Your Honours most obliged Servant and Chaplain, JOHN GUMBLEDEN.

Courteous Reader, these Books following are Printed and sold by Simon Miller, at the Star in St. Paul's Church-yard.

Large Folio.

LUther's Colloquium Mensal.

Small Folio.

THe Civil Wars of Spain in the Reign of Charls the fifth, Emperor of Germany, and King of that Nation, wherein our late unhappy differences are parallel'd in many parti­culars.

A general History of Scot­land, from the year 767. to the death of King James, con­taining the principal Revolu­tions and transactions of Church and State, with Poli­tical observations and refle­ctions upon the same: By David Hume of Godscroft.

The History of this Iron Age.

Doctor Lightfoot his Harmo­ny on the New Testament.

In Quarto large.

BArklay his Argenis Transla­ted by Sir Robert le Grise Knight.

Quarto small.

THe Harmonious Confessions of Faith of all the Christi­an Reformed Churches, which truly professe the doctrine of the Gospel, practised in all the chief Kingdoms and Provin­ces of Europe; wherein all that seemingly contradict are plainly reconciled: Now published by Authority. In­tended chiefly to confirm the strong, and instruct the weak, in whatever is necessary to Salvation, in 4.

Abraham's faith; or the good old Religion, proving the Doctrine of the Church of England to be the only true faith of God's Elect: By J. Nicolson Minister of the Gospel.

The Anatomy of Mortality: By George Strode.

Aynsworth on the Canticles. Paul Bayne, his Diocesans Trial.

The supreame power of Christian States and Magistra­cy, vindicated from the inso­lent pretences of Guilielmus Apollonius: By E. Grall.

A Treatise of Civil Policy; being a clear decision of 43. Queries, concerning preroga­tive right and priveledge in reference to the supream Prince [Page]and the people: By Samuel Rutherford, professor of Divi­nity of S. Andrews in Scotland.

Politick and Military ob­servations of Civil and Mili­tary Government, containing the birth, increase, decay of Monarchies, the carriage of Princes and Magistrates.

Mr. Pinchin his meritorious price of man's redemption cleared.

Astrology, Theologized, shewing what nature and in­fluence the Stars and Planets have over men, and how the same may be diverted and avoided.


THe Reconciler of the Bible, wherein above 2000. seem­ing contradictions are fully and plainly reconciled.

A view of the Jewish Reli­gion, with their Rites, Cu­stomes, and Ceremonies.

Ed. Waterhouse Esq his dis­course of piety and charity.

A view and defence of the Reformation of the Church of England, very useful in these times.

Mr. Peter du Moulin, his An­tidote against Popery; pub­lished on purpose to prevent the delusions of the Priests and Jesuits, who are now very busie amongst us.

Herbet's Devotions; or a Companion for a Christian, containing Meditations and Prayers, useful upon all occasi­ons.

Mr. Knowles, his Rudiments of the Hebrew Tongce.

A Book of scheams, or figures of Heaven, ready set for every four minutes of time, and very useful for all Astrologers.

Florus Anglicus, or an exact Hi­story of England, from the reign of William the Conqueror, to the death of the late King.

Lingua; or the combat of the Tongue and the five Senses for supe­riority: A serious Comedy.

The Spirits Touchstone; being a clear discovery how a man may cer­tainly know whether he be truly taught by the Spirit of God or not.

The Poor Man's Physitian and Chyrurgeon.


Doctor Smith's practice of Phy­sick.

The Grammer War.

Posselius Apothegms.

Fasciculus Florum.

Crashaw's Visions.

Helvicus Colloquies.

The Christian Souldier, his com­bat with the three arch enemies of mankind, the world, the flesh, and the divel.

Drexelius School of patience.

In 24.

THe New Testament.

The third part of the Bible.


THe Ball.


Martyr'd Souldier.


To the Reader.

Courteous Reader,

THe Subject of this following Exposition (as you see) is the Divels tempting, and our Saviours conquering. Now, in this [...], or, single conflict, neither the one, nor the other, had each his se­cond: no, not while the Combat continued: but, our Saviour had the Angels Mar. 1.13. to minister unto him, when the duell was ended.

Again, when the Divel had ended all the temptation, he departed from him for a season; Luke 4.13. And but for a sea­son; for though at this time he were sent away with no better farewell then this, Get thee hence Satan Mat. 4.10.; yet, he soon returned, and afterwards by his wicked Instruments, as subtilly as before by himselfe openly, he sets on him again; began another battell against him another way; especially some few daies before his death; mustring up from time to time, such voluntiers, Omne pecca­tum est volun­tarium. such as he found most inclinable amongst the malicious and incredulous Jewes, to engage with him in this quarrell against our Saviour: to the end, that by his united forces, he might (if possible) at last prevaile, who at first was too weak to doe it single and by himself. And not strong enough neither to doe it to purpose joyntly by them; not any waies able to conquer our Saviour; not, though for a time, to kill Mat. 26.4. him, the chief Priests, the Scribes, the El­ders of the people, with Caiaphas, prevailed. Judas betraying him, false witnesse accusing him; Pontius Pilate condemning him, the souldiers crucifying him; yet, [Page] all together too weak, to subdue, and conquer him, who rose again the third day from the dead; and the Divel afterwards, never in his own person assaulted him any more; who, at first, after he had tempted him, de­parted from him, for a season; but, our Saviour will never depart from his Church, and Chosen; not, while they are Militant here on earth: Lo, I am with you al­ways, even to the end of the Mat. 28.20. world; and, there is no cause to fear his departing from us, when we are tri­umphant in Heaven: where neither rust, nor moth doth corrupt, Mat. 6.20. and where thieves do not break through, and steal: nor, Satan break through, to tempt, and destroy. But, I will not say too much by way of Preface, least the Gate become wider then the City: the Introduction, larger then the Exposition. In brief here, I say but this: or, rather the Apostle saith it, 2 Tim. 2.3. Be thou careful, as a good souldier of Jesus Christ, to fight the good fight of 1 Tim 6.12. faith, against Satan; and then, in, and, by the power of thy victorious Saviour, thou shalt ob­tain the victory over Satan; which is the dayly prayer of him, for thee, who faithfully believeth, by the same power, to be made partaker with thee, of the same vi­ctory. Amen.

Thine, to accompany thee in the Way to Heaven. JOHN GUMBLEDEN.

CHRIST TEMPTED; the Divell conquered. OR, A Short and plain Exposition on a part of the fourth Chapter of St. Matthews Gospel.

In the first Chapter of this Gospel, the Evangelist speaketh chiefly of the Genealogie, and Birth of Christ. In the second, of the swise men that came from the East to Jerusalem, to worship him; and of his speedy flight by night into Egypt, for feare of Herod, after they had worshipped him. In the third, of the preaching and Office of John the Bap­tist the forerunner of Christ, who baptized him in Jordan, being then about the age of thirty yeers, Luke 3.21, 23.

But, in this fourth Chapter (a part whereof we have now be­fore us) the Evangelist from the first to the twelfth verse begin­neth to treat of that which immediately followed afterwards; after our Saviour was but then newly baptized of John: this.

Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the Wilderness, to be tempted of the divel, v. 1. and when he had fasted fourty daies, and fourty nights, he was afterwards an hungred, v. 2. and this we may properly call the preparation or introduction to the whole following narration, both touching the single combat between Satan tempting, and our Saviour conquering. The whole then being thus divided in generall, into an Introduction, v. 1, 2. and a narration, in the nine following verses, comprehending there­in the happy issue of all on our Saviours part, in respect of his conquest; and the Angels ministring unto him, to congratulate his victory; we will examine the words in order, beginning vers 1. [Page 2]where there is mention both of the Spirit's work, who led up Je­sus into the wilderness: and also of the Divels work, who after­wards tempted Jesus in the wilderness. See! different Agents, and as different Actions: yet, all relating to one and the same Subject; even to Jesus led up of the good Spirit into the wilderness; and to the same Jesus, to be tempted of the evil spirit, in the wilderness.

But perhaps, at the first hearing, this may seem strange unto you, that the Saviour of the world should be tempted by the de­stroyer of the world; yet, if we rightly consider the first promise made by God, to man, of a Redeemer, to save man, strange it is not; and, the promise in sense, is this: The Seed of the woman shall bruise the Serpents a head; giving power, notwithstanding, even by the samo promise, to the same serpent, to bruise the heel of the womans seed; But, who properly was the womans seed? Sure­ly, the Son of God, that promised seed; who, in the fulness of time, was made man, of Gen. 3.15. Gal. 4.4. woman, by the powerful overshadowing of the holy Luke 1.35. ghost, according to his Fathers purpose and inten­tion when he first promised him, under the name of the seed of the woman: and, by the Serpent, who doubteth but that the Divel is meant? who at that time, used the serpent, both as his Active, and Passive Instrument, to beguile the woman, there being none of the beasts of the field found so fit, as the serpent was, to express to the life, the craftie subtilties of Gen. 3.1. Satan; that old Reu. 12.9. serpent, who is still suffered to Tempt, but not suffered to overcome. Suffered, by many, both outward, and inward Tryals, and Temptations, to bruise the heel of the womans seed, of Christ, in his members; which is still acknowledged to be a real tempting of Christ, even by Christ himself. Saul, Saul why persecutest thou me? Acts 9.4. Satan, Satan why temptest thou me? but, denyed it is, to be any Conquering, on Satans part, either of Christ, or his members (the faithful) the womans seed also, by any of those temptations: God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted, above that you are 1 Cor. 10.13 able; that is, not so far to be tempted by Satan, as to be over­come by Satan. So that it is no new thing, to hear of the Divels malice, either against Christ, or, against Christians: or, of the 1 Pet. 5.8. lyon; and that Lyon of the tribe of Juda. Revel. 5.5. of the battel between Michael, and the Rev. 12.7. Dragon: Or, of the wily, and subtile practices of the Divel, that Rev 9.11. Apollyon, that destroyer of the world, against the Son of God, [Page 3]made man, that Saviour, and Redeemer of the world: no new thing at all; onely, to be malitious, proper it is to Satan: but, to be victorius, both for himself, and us, most proper it is to our Saviour; for God, who said to the serpent, I will put enmity be­tween thee, and the woman, and between thy seed, and her Gen. 3.15. seed, never said, that the serpent, the Divel, should bruise the head, and, finally prevail against the womans seed: never said it; will never suffer it; and, if we had no other proof from the holy Text, to confirm us in the full assurance thereof; yet this Combate here be­tween Christ, and the Divel, partly, in the wilderness, v. 4. partly, in the holy City, on the pinacle of the Temple, v. 7. and partly, on an exceeding high mountain, v. 10. (our Saviour in each place prevailing against Satan) is abundantly sufficient, to strengthen our saith, and confidence in this sacred truth; but, as yet, we are no farther then the Introduction, the Gate, and entrance into both; both, to the Combate, and the Victory. Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness, to be tempted of the Divel v. 1. In which words, the Circumstances considerable are four; and that, either concerning

The Person, that was Tempted: 'twas Jesus; or,

The Person, of whom he was tempted: 'twas the Divel; or,

The place, where he was tempted: 'twas in the wildernesse.

Led up thither, to that end, of the Spirit. Or,

The time, when he was tempted: Then, these are the circum­stances, in words, not much; but, in matter, much. We go on in order: And

First, The Person, that was tempted, was Jesus; by Interpre­tation, a Matth. 1.21. Saviour; not, a typical, but a real: not a Joshua, the son of Nun, to lead the people into the land of Canaan, and there, by lot, divide their earthly possessions among them; but, a Jesus, the son of God, able to conduct his people, his Flock, his Church (whom he saveth from their sins) safely, through all the boisterous stormes, and tempests, and temptations, raised against them, by those three grand Enemies of mankind, the World, the Flesh, the Divel on earth, to that heavenly Canaan, to the haven of eternal rest, to the full possession of everlasting glory, in the Kingdome of Heaven; this is the work of Jesus; this, at all times, to save his John 10.27, 28. people: yet, at this time, such was the con­dition of Jesus, that was tempted. Who is Immanuel, God [Page 4]with Esay 7.14. Matth. 1.2, 3. us. God manifested in the flesh, 1 Tim. 3.16. in whom the fulness of the Godhead dwelleth bodily. Col. 2.9. He, that but a little be­fore was baptized by John in Jordan, Matth. 3.16. who know­ing the Worthinesse and Dignity of the Person, judged himself altogether unworthy to do it, untill, by his Masters command, suffer it to be so now, v. 15. the servant condescended, and imme­diately became obedient to that command. He, to whom the Heavens were opened; He, on whom the Spirit of God, the Holy Ghost, descended like a Dove, after he was baptized, to Initiate and Consecrate him for the effectuall execution of his Propheticall office: He, who by his Fathers voyce from Heaven, was publickly declared at Jordan to be his beloved Sonne in whom he was well pleased, v. 17. which the Divel afterwards so much excepted against, v. 3, 6. Lo! twas this Jesus that was tempted. Who, though he were a Saviour, the Sonne of God, the sonne of man, [...], God & man, & that in one person; though at the time of his Baptism, and afterwards, so highly honoured, that even the Heavens were opened unto him, Mat. 3.16. then a present figure of his future glorious Ascention into Heaven, foretold by Psal: 24.7, 9. Augustin. & Titleman. in locum. Da­vid, Lift up your heads O ye gates, and be ye lift up ye everlasting doors, and the King of glory shall come in. Though the Spirit of God descended and remained on him, to the end that by that Sign John might know him, and teach others also to know him, Behold the Lamb of God that taketh away the sinnes of the World; John 1.29, 32, 34, 36. Nay, though the Father had acknowledged him for his own onely naturall Son, God of God: yet none of all these high and incomparable Prerogatives could any waies exempt him at this time from being tempted; and that, for us tempted. Now the reason why for us at any time he suffered himselfe to be tempted, the Apostle renders, Heb. 2.18. this, even to shew, that having suffered being tempted, he is able to succour them that are Hand ignara mali, miseris succurrere disco. tempted. And again, We have not an high Priest which can­not be touched with the feeling of our infirmities, but was in all points tempted as we are, yet without sin: knowing that we, who are fraile and sinfull men, want his succour in every tempta­tion; not able of our selves without his strength to stand, even against the least blast of any temptation. But our comfort is, that we have such an High Priest, who touched with the feeling of our infirmities, was tempted, that we tempted, might not be over­come.

2. This Jesus was tempted of the Divel. And now chiefly as touching our Saviour, who at this time, cloathed with humane flesh, became a publique Person, did that enmity which God threatned to put between the serpent and the womans seed, Gen. 3.15. be­gins to break forth, and operate effectually. Too too much familiarity had there been before, while man stood in a slippery place, between the woman and the serpent: the one (as it were by way of Dialogue) mutually entertaining conference with the other. The serpent said unto the woman; lo! he begins the Discourse, Gen. 3.1, 4. and the woman said unto the serpent, v. 2. she continues it. Not wise enough either to understand the subtilty of Satan, or to prevent the sequel of his temptation: which proved ominous to the womans seed; for, after the wo­man (by the serpents, by the Divels motion) had tasted the for­bidden fruit; and the man obeyed the voyce of his wife, Gen. 3.6. immediately (as a punishment of that sinne) was this familia­rity turned into enmity; and from thenceforth was the sharpest and keenest edge of this irreconcileable enmity, turned (on the Divels part) with all violence, against Christ and his Church; against his Church even from the fall of man, by a long, long series of temptations, to the worlds end. Against Christ himselfe (his Church in the mean time being never freed from the sting of that enmity) turned it was from the time of his Birth (that manifest proof of his Incarnation) to the very houre of his death. For the Divel (from whom our Saviours miraculous conception by the Holy Ghost, in that his mother, the Virgin Mary was e­spoused unto Matth. 1.18. Joseph, was purposely concealed, Ignat. citant. Haymo. Homil. in vigilia Na­tivit. Domint. lest he should at­tempt to destroy the blessed Infant in the womb) knowing, that he was born at Bethleem of Judea, and called by the name of the King of the Jews, (which no doubt he understood well e­nough by the Discourse that passed between the chief Priests, the Scribes of the people, the wise men that came from the East to Jeru­salem, on the one part. and Herod the King, on the other part, touching this matter Math. 2 1, 2 4, 5, 7..) Soon after his Birth, mindfull of that enmity that was between them, covertly sought the young childs life, under the persecution and bloody massacre of Herod: Matth. 2.13. ap­pearing at first in form of a serpent, Gen. 3.1. but then in the form of a Tyrant, whose cruelty Joseph wisely declined by fly­ing into Egypt with the young child, Matth. 2.14.22. untill the death of Herod. [Page 6]And by his turning aside into the parts of Galilee, after his return thence, when Archelaus, not much inferior to his Father in cru­elty, Joseph. Anti­quit. Judaic. lib. 17. c. 11, 15. reigned in Judaea, in the room of Herod; and for this cause also, not in vain neither, was Mary espoused to Joseph, in that, by vertue of this espousal, he (and none but he) was ap­pointed of God, Mat. 2.13. by his Angel, to be an Assistant, together with Mary, to preserve (during his minority) the life of her Son, her first-born Son, that being yet but young and tender, he might not fall into the merciless hands either of the Divel or Herod: And hitherto our Saviour (a Minor yet) more capable of being killed then of being tempted, escaping the on [...]; was not as yet assaulted with the other; all things being calm and quiet, for the space of twenty three years at the least, Bellarm. Chronolog. pars prior, p. 35. even from the time of his return out of Egypt, untill he was thirty years of age, Luke 3.23. Baptized of John, and set apart for the Office of that only Mediator between God and 1 Tim. 2.5. Man: But then the Scene was changed, and that old enmity (for a time as it were buried in silence) breaking forth again, he was tempted of the Divel, That Calumniator, as his name imports; Graeci [...] appellant, nos criminato­rem vocamus: quod crimina, in quae ipse illi­cit, ad Deum deferat, Lact. Institu. divin. lib. 2. cap. 9. that Accuser of men to God, even of those sins which he himself first by his temptations hath allured man to commit against God; that (if possible) he might always keep that enmity on foot, both in Earth and Heaven: But we are speaking of this Accuser's tempting our Saviour; whom not­withstanding he could not justly accuse, no not of the least evill.

And here by the way (that we may leave nothing materiall unexamined) we may fitly distinguish of this word (to tempt) which in holy Scripture is capable of a double sense; and that either good, which belongs to God; or bad which belongs to Satan Alia est ten­tatio deceptio­nis, alia proba­tionis. Secun­dum illam ten­tat diabolus, secundum hanc tentat Deus. August, Epistol. 146. A. 23.; as it belongs to God, it signifies by some high and great experiment, to try and prove us; to examine our faith, and love, and filial obedience towards him; as plain it is in the case of Abraham, when God tempted, Gen. 22.1. that is, proved and examined his faith, and obedience; whether at his command (though unpleasing to flesh and blood) he would offer up his son Isaac, his only son, for a burnt-offering, or not; thus God tempted (proved) Abraham; and there was no evill in it: but when (to tempt) becomes the Divels work, as now here it was, in respect of our Saviour, and oftentimes is in respect of us, then it signifies [Page 7]craftily to allure unto sin, with a purpose to deceive, and devoure the Party tempted, and enticed unto sin; and in this sense, was our Saviour tempted of the Divel: tempted, enticed he was to sin against his father; although (as the event of the three distinct following temptations will manifest) in vaine tempted he was (who knew no 1 Pet. 2.22. sin,) to sin against his Father; in the mean time, hear what St. James Jam. saith, in vindication of God, in this case, but, in no wise acquitting Satan, who by tempting, and enticing, alwaies cooperates with man in the sin of man. Thus, let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of God: for, God cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth he any man: not unto sin; No, but every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and is enticed; then, when lust hath conceived, it bringeth forth sin: and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death. Do not erre, my beloved brethren; do not erre in charging God with your sin, which is wholy, chargeable on your selves, on your own lusts; and on the Cherisher and Fomenter of those lusts, Satan.

3. The Place, where our Saviour was Tempted of the Divel, was the Wilderness See! John the Baptist, who was sent be­fore, to prepare the way of the Mat. 3.13. Lord, came Preaching in the wil­derness; but, the Divel came tempting in the wilderness. Diffe­rent Persons, different Actions. Idem, qua idem, semper facit idem: it being as natural to the Divel to curse and tempt; as to the Baptist to bless and preach. Lo! here is bitter water, and sweet: but not out of one and the same fountain; though (probably) both in one and the same place; both, in one and the same wilderness; there sweetness flows from John while he preached; there bitterness flows from Satan while he tempted; John (that they might be saved) earnestly required faith and Mat. 3.8. repentance, of the Jews; but, the Divel, to satisfie his own curio­sity, saucily required micracles of Jesus; and that, in the wilder­ness, v. 3. a solitary place and desolate; where he was with the wild beasts, Mark 1.13. where none were present at that time, but, our Saviour himself, single, and the Divel: as, in another case, none were present in the field, Gen. 4.8. when Abel was slain, but he himself and Cain, who was of that wicked Joh. 3.12. one Abel, and Cain, alnoe in the field: our Saviour, and the Divel, alone in the wilderness: in the wilderness of Mat. 3.1. Judea; there, John began to preach; there, the Divel began to tempt. [Page 8]God appointing one, and the same place for both; both, for the scean of his Son's Triumph, and also for the ciruit of his fore-run­ners Ministry; although, some doubt, whether it were the same wilderness, or not.

But, though some doubt there may be of that, yet, of this (that our Saviours tempting in the wilderness, was not a matter casual, or accidental, guided by the hand of chance, or fortune [...]; but fore-ordeined, and appointed by the un-erring Providence of God, both touching the Person tempted, and the place, where he was tempted) there can be no doubt at all; for 'tis plaine in the Text, that Jesus was led up of the Spirit into the wilderness, v. 1. up, from Jordan, where he was baptized, led he was to some higher place; and that, by the Spirit (as the impulsive cause;) by his own Spirit, by the Holy Ghost, led he was to that place: that it might appear, that this whole business (of our Saviours being tempted of the Divel in the wilderness) was wisely guided onely of God, and not at all left carelesly, either to theJesus ductus est in desertum a Spiritu, non a Diabolo, ut esset potestas dei, non esset potestas i­nimici, Chryso­log. de jejun. & tentat. Christi, Serm. 11. power, or to the preposterous disposing of Satan. No: but, as it is Luke 4.1. Jesus, being full of the Holy Ghost, returned from Jordan, and was led by the Spirit, even by that Spirit, by the Holy Ghost, wherewith he was filled, led he was into the wilderness: and, thither he was led up of the Spirit (the good Spirit) to be tempted of the Divel; and, as willing he was now, to be tempted there (no waies seeking to decline the furious strokes, of the Divels enmity a­gainst him) as afterwards he was to be crucified at Golgotha; Led, then, as a Lamb to the Isa. 53.7. slaughter; as a Lamb; without resi­stance, without reluctancy: and, led now of the Spirit, into the wilderness, as one of himself, not at all unwilling to liasten to the appointed place for his so much desired Ducitur, non invitus, aut captus, sed vo­luntate pugnan­di, Hieronym in locum. Combate with Satan. St. Mark cap. 1. v. 12, expresseth it by another word, saying, the Spirit driveth him into the wilderness. See! led up he was of the Spirit, in one [...]. place; who driveth [...]. him, in another; and both, very significant; Lod, as one very willing of himself; dri­ven, as one made more willing by the Spirit, to make more then ordinary speed into the wilderness, there to be tempted of the Di­vel: or, if you will, the whole, in short, may be represented unto you, thus; Our Saviour, but then Baptized, and (in re­spect of his manhood) filled with the Holy Ghost; filled then, and, from thence forth, after a more extraordinary manner, then before, [Page 9]presently (at that time, neither regarding Bethleem, where he was born, Mat. 2.1. nor Nazareth, where he was brought up, v 23.) without any delay at all, prepar'd himself by the vehe­ment, by the driving motion of the Spirit within him, to encoun­ter with the Divel in the wilderness. A dark resemblance of whose most ready, and prompt forwardness in this, we have in that undaunted resolution of Paul, in another, case, Acts 21.11, 13. who by no means would be disswaded from going to Jerusalem, although he were foretold by Agabus, that he should there un­dergoe many tryals, and temptations, as it came to pass. Such is the powerful, and efficacious working of God's holy Spirit, that he leadeth nay, he driveth those whom he hath in a proportio­nable measure filled to undertake, without fear, without fain­ting, hard things and difficult. To instance in some few cases. Steven, full of the holy Ghost, sharply rebuked his false Accusers, though many in number, not fearing either their face, or fury, Acts 7. So Eliah full of the same spirit, was not affraid, boldly to rebuke Ahab the King, for his Idolatry, and1 Kings 18. prophaness,; and, who hath not heard how boldly John the Baptist, a mon sent of God, John 1.6. preached against theMark 6.18. incest of Herod? or, if there were any touch of fear in these, who were meer men; yet, in this case, there could be none at all in our Saviour; who (full of the holy Ghost, and fuller then they) set his face, his heart to­wards the wilderness: thirsting (as the Hart doth aftar the water brooks, Psal 42.1.) with a longing desire, to enter the lists, to grapple (as it were) hand to hand, and, —pes pede vincius, to gain, but not give any ground to Satan. A lively Type whereof we have in that confident boldness of David against Goliah,1 Sam. 17.45.Thou commest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield; but I come to thee in the Name of the Lord of Hosts: in whose Name, and Spirit, our Saviour now prepar'd himself with much alacrity to expose himself to the utmost malice of the Divel, who was then ready to tempt him in the wilderness; a soli­tary, and desert place, and there (even in the wilderness, and in no other place) would our Saviour be tempted: and that, for many reasons.

First, That the Divel (even by the permission of our Saviour) having the advantage of place, for the then intended Combate be­tween them, his overthrow at the last might be the greater; and, [Page 10]that he deemeth a wilderness, a desert place, more advantageous for his purpose, then any other; appeareth, in that he more de­lighteth in such places then in any other; as, in dry places, such as desarts are, Mat. 12.43. in Mountains, and Tombes; the one, not much inhabited, the other, not much frequented, Mark 5.5. And, what he most delighteth in, may easily be granted to be (even in his own judgement, whose property it is, subtilly and secretly to tempt) most advantageous for him; in such a place he took his first advantage against Eve, Gen. 3. and, ever after (hoping for the like success) he most delighted in such places, where there is no outward help, no succour, no comfort neer at hand (as there is in Societies) either for a time to hinder, or, wholy to frustrate his malicious designes; and machinations. Wherefore, what he most delighted in, as making most for his own advantage, is here of purpose granted him; even the wilder­ness, a desart place, to tempt our Saviour in; that, the greater his advantage was, in respect of the place, the greater his disadvan­tage, and disgrace might be, in respect of the event; And there­fore that it might appear, that the Divel, to his own shame, was a great looser, even when confident he was, by reason of the ad­vantage granted, that he should become a Gainer, our Saviour would be tempted in the wilderness.

Secondly, That being for a time thus wholy secluded, and separated from the light and society of men, not known yet but to few, nor, what was done and heard at Jordan concerning him, not yet divulged to many, he might afterwards, with the greater Solemnity, enter on his Ministry, as one immediately sent from God, and not chosen out of the Ʋulgar, or sent from men. Ra­rum praeclarum, the more rare any thing is, the more precious. The more rare an eminent Person is, and the less frequent with the Multitude, the more he will be reverenced and esteemed.

Thirdly, That, in the time of this his retirement, having no aboad at all in any Citie, full of people, and fuller of sin: but, being far remote from all company of men, and from the noyse, and tumults and troubles of the unquiet world, he might, by prayer, and fasting, and other pious Acts of devotion, the better prepare himself for the work of God, his heavenly Father's busi­ness; and, for his own, so much desired, victory. Sometimes, to be alone, is a most excellent help not to be alone; Nunquam [Page 11]minus solus quam cum solus, I am never less then when I am most alone.

Fourthly, That the whole honour of his victory over Satan, might redound to himself alone, without any relation at all to any of the creatures. As afterwards, a little before his death, All his Disciples forsook him, and Mat. 26.56. fled; and, in God's intention, for that end, they all forsook him and fled, that none might ima­gine that man had any share with his Son, in the Redemption of man; he trod the wine-press of his Father's wrath alone, and of all the people there was none with Isa. 63.3. him; And therefore; all the glory and honour due to the Redeemer, was, in respect of any creature, wholy to be ascribed to himself alone. So it is here: none assi­sted our Saviour in conquering Satan; and therefore none ought to partake with him in the honour of that Conquest, his alone the victory was; and, that the honour thereof might be wholy his also, he would be tempted in the wilderness. And,

5ly, There also tempted he would be, rather then in any other place, even to manifest thereby, that there was no place fitter then that to Conquer the Divel Aquin. tert. pars Serm. q. 41. Artic. 2. in, who before had conquered man in the Garden, in Paradise; both were desart and solitary places: both Paradise, and the Wilderness. Paradise, where the first A­dam was alone, when the serpent, the Divel, by the woman, tem­pted and conquered him. The Wilderness, where the second A­dam was alone, when he conquered Satan. Solitary places both: and, the one was rightly chosen to Conquer the Divel in, who in the other had been a Conqueror.

Nullus ubi (que) potest faelici ludere dextra.

No mans game,
Is still the same.

Thus hitherto. I. Jesus was led up of the Spirit; of the Holy Ghost.

2. Led up he was by him into the wilderness.

3. Into the wilderness there to be tempted of the Divel. And, there to be tempted the rather, that the Divel, where he had the most advantage, might, to his own greater shame, have the least success, having now to deal with one, who would be tempted in [Page 12]the wilderness; that having secluded himself from the society of men, and, alone, prepared himself by prayer and fasting for the work of God, he might have the whole honour of his own victory over the Divel: whom he left not unrequited neither, but con­quered him in the wilderness, who before had conquered man in Paradise; As I have done, so God hath rewarded me, Judg. 1.7.

4. The Time, when our Saviour was tempted in the wilderness, is pointed at in the first word of the Text. (Then) that word relating to those immediately before, cap. 3. v. 16, 17. Then; Even so soon as he was Baptized of John in Jordan; and (as man) inrolled into the Family of God. Then; So soon as the holy Ghost had descended on him, like a Dove, in testimony of his innocency. Then; So soon as he was publikely declared from Heaven, to be that Son of God; and therefore, that second Person of the most glorious Trinity (under the veile of humane flesh) never so cleerly revealed before to the sonns of men; even Then, the Divel (fuller of wrath, fearing he should lose his Kingdome, then Herod was, after he heard of his Mar. 2.3. Birth, for fear he should presently loose his) sets upon our Saviour, with a resolute purpose to deceive him by Temptations; before he was baptized, we read not at all that he was at any time tempted: no; for, while with Joseph, and Mary his Mother, he led a private life at Naza­reth inMat. 2.23. Galilee, where he fixed for many yeers, after his safe return out of Egypt, the Divel (as knowing as he is) could not distinguish him at all from another, from an ordinary Person: no; but (Then) immediately, after the publicke solemnity of his Inauguration to his Prophetical Office was fully ended at Jordan, then was there special notice taken of him, by that evil spirit, by that diligent Observer both of Persons, Words, and Actions; and, that he might not lose so fit an opportunity to bring forth what he then began to conceive, even a burthen of Temptations, he the more narrowly watched which way his motion tended, and (if I may so speak) diligently waited on him (though in a bad sense, and to a bad end) till he found him in a fit capacity (all things as yet being but in preparation) to be Tempted in the Wilderness. Then; even after the Heavens had been opened unto him, v. 16. in testimony that he came down from Heaven, as afterwards he testi­fied of himself, John 3.13. though for a time, most willing he was now to become the Object of the Divels temptations, on earth.

Lo! thus it was with our Saviour Christ: and, thus also it is with Christians; the one was Tempted of the Divel, the other is not exempted from the like condition. Wherefore, that of our Saviour to his Apostles, is, by way of allusion, fitly appliable here; the Disciple is not above his Master, nor, the servant above his Mat. 10.24. Lord. And, If they (meaning the stiff-necked, and malicious Jews) if they have persecuted me, they will also persecute John 15.20. you; 'Tis an Argument from the greater to the less; and, the Apostles afterwards were sensible of the strength and weight of it, by more then ordinary experience, in themselves. So if the Divel durst so early (even almost when he was but then come out of the water) tempt our Saviour; surely he will make no scruple at all, at any time, to tempt those who faithfully believe in that Saviour: it being as an uncontrouled Maxim [...] in his school, that none at any time displease him, until they first begin to serve and please God. But then, even so soon as we have given up our names to Christ, so soon as we begin to have any opening of the Heavens unto us, any heavenly grace, any measure of faith, any degree of repentance in us, any descending of God's holy Spirit upon us, to enlighten the darkness of our hearts, the dimness of our understandings, to re­form the crooked perversness of our wills, even then, presently, we daily more and more become the Butt, at which all the fiery darts of Satan are furiouslyDiabolus semper primor­dia boni pulsat; saencta in ipso ortu festinat extinguere, Chryoslog. de jejeun. & tent. Christi Serm. 11. shot; as Saul in his furious mood cast his javelin at David, 1 Sam. 18.11. and, They that will live godly in Christ Jesus, shall suffer persecution, 1 Tim. 3.12. shall be subject to Temptation; Neither is this done without the Provi­dence of a good God, who would have it to be so; And that 1. To try us, whether we will be patient and faithful unto him, or not, even when we are under the pressures, and (by his per­mission, for our good) troden down for a time, in the Wine press of Satan, as Job was. 2. That, knowing our own weak and frail condition, we might the sooner be moved to flee unto him for help, and succour, in the time of our fiery tryal, in the day of our calamity. 3. That we might learn, with thankful hearts, to give him the whole glory, who, from time to time, out of his great love and mercy unto us, hath sent us such or such a mighty Deliverance. Who, 4. In suffering us for a time to be tempted, doth thereby intend, for the promotion of our Spiritual state, to conform us daily more and more to the Image of his Son; and, [Page 14]to the example of his sufferings, who was tempted of the Divel; and, his members cannot expect any better usage. 'Tis not then (as to that point in particular) 'tis not Apocryphal, which is written by the wise man, Eccles. 2.1. My son, if thou come to serve the Lord, prepare thy beart for temptation: because the one is alwaies in separably accompanied with the other; the true ser­vice and worship of God, alwaies attended on in the Faithful and penitent Person with the temptation of Satan. So we find it here in the Original; and, in the Copie, truly transcribed, we can­not find it otherwise. The Original is, that then as soon as Jesus was baptized and declared to be the Son of God, pres;ently, in a manner, he was tempted of the Divel. The Copie is, that then also he tempteth us, even so soon as we begin to fight under the banner of Jesus, as the Sons of God. So soon as we begin to depart out of Egypt from the bondage and slavery of sin, to­wards the land of Canaan, to the end that we might serve the Lord, then he followeth after us as furiously as Pharaoh did after the Israelites, Exodus 14.9. with Horses and Chariots, an Army of Temptations. But blessed be our God, who hath taught us a way, if not wholy to be freed from, while we live in this Taberna­cle of flesh, yet, wholy to resist, and break the violent force of all his Temptations; and, that way is by1 Pet. 5.9. 1 Joh. 5.4. faith; by true faith in Christ crucified, who for our sakes was tempted of the Divel; that we (not left destitute, and alone, without heavenly grace, and assistance to strengthen us in our several Tryals, for the is with us) might by him be delivered from the power, from the poyson, of all his Temptations; and, thanks be unto God, who hath given us the victory through our Lord Jesus 1 Cor. 15.57. Christ. And, thus far for the first part of the Preparation or Introduction to the following com­bate; with the particular circumstances, of Persons, Place, and Time, belonging thereunto, ver. 1.

The Second followeth. And, when he had fasted forty daies, and forty nights, he was afterwards an hungred, v. 2. We heard before in the first part, of Jesus, of the Spirit, of the Divel, the matter then spoken of belonging properly unto them. But now, in this Second part of the preparation to advance against Sa­tan, the whole matter concerneth Jesus himself alone: relating either to his fasting or to his hunger: and both in the wilderness; thither he was led by the Spirit to be tempted; and, being there, [Page 15]he now thus prepares himself to be tempted, & afterwards to be­come a conqueror judgeing it the best way for himself, who came into the world to satisfie God's wrath for mans sin of disobedi­ence, committed by eating, Gen. 3.6. to pull down the Divels pride, even by humility, by abstinence, by fasting, and hunger; if we should look back again to Jordan, there we should hear of better tydings; but, as there is a time to Eccles. 3.4. laugh, so also there is a time to weep; can the children of the bride-chamber mourn, as long as the Bridegroom is with them? but, The daies will come when the Bridegroom shall be taken from them, and then shall they Mat. 5.15. fast; and, such a time was our Saviour now fallen on; the bridegroom was taken from him: or, at least for a time, was turned aside; no ope­ning of the heavens to him, now; no visible de scending of the Spirit of God upon him, now; no vioce heard from Heaven, now; rather nothing but desolatenss in respect of the place; nothing but long fasting in respect of the Person, solitary and alone; and though it were not so hard with him at this time, as it was upon the Cross when (the Godhead with drawing all heavenly comfort for a time from the manhood) he cryed out, my God, my God, why hast thou forsaken Mat. 27.45. me? yet hard enough it was with him at this time; notwithstanding though his condirion were now much changed from what it was not long since at Jordan; yet most willing he was to drink of this Cup; and the Apostle with rela­tion to all his sufferings, gives the reason why he was so willing to drink of it: this; Jesus, for the joy that was set before him, endured the Cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of Heb. 12.2. God.. But it was not come to that yet; not to sitting, not to resting from all his labours, from all his suf­ferings; nor to that, John 17.1. Father, the hour is come glorifie thy Son; or, 2.4.5. I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do. And now O Father glorifie me with thine own self no finishing yet ino glorifying yet but suffering rather: and though the time of his death was not then at hand; yet the time of his Tempting was; and necessary it was (in this his preparation both for his tempting and conquering) that his fasting and his hunger should immedi­ately go before it as a bait to catch Satan: who then presumeth most to prevail in Tempting, when he seeth us in the lowest and weakest condition of resisting his Temptations. And when he had fasted forty dayes, and forty nights he was afterwards an [Page 16]hungred, verse 2. In which words we will note two things.

1. The Continuance of our Saviour's fasting.

2. The effect or Consequence of his fasting; and both, before he was Tempted.

First, The Continuance of his fasting was for the whole space of forty daies, and forty nights; not current, but compleat. The Text is plain, and needs no other Key to open it but it self.

Obj. 2. Two Evangelists, Mark 1.13. and Luke 4.2. mention not the nights at all of our Saviour's fasting, but onely the forty daies; may we not then affirm that he was comfoted with some relief and sustenance all those nights?

Answ. No; because, by a Synecdoche membri, a part being put for the whole, they comprehend within that Accompt, even the nights also: our Saviour (no doubt) spending all that time of his fasting (knowing that the Divel was as busie in the night as in the day) in beavenly meditations, in devout prayers and supplications to his Father, to strengthen him when the time of his Tryal should come, when the Tempter should come; who (he well knew) was already in the Wilderness watching and obser­ving both his works and waies, as the Serpent was in Paradise before he tempted the woman observing first her gesture and be­haviour, and which was the best way to assault her before he askt his Tempting Question, Yea, hath God said? Gen. 3.1.

Obj. 2. It appears by St. Luke's words, ck. 4.2. that our Saviour was tempted of the Divel all those forty daies which St. Matthew speaketh of; or at least that he was tempted long before the time of his fasting ended.

Answ. It is but an appearance; and there is light enough even in the Text, and Mark 1.13. (rightly read) to dispel the mists, or the mistakes rather of any that shall but imagine it; for, the Text, v. 2.3. setteth down plainly and in order. 1. Our Sa­viours fasting forty daies, and forty nights. 2. His hunger, after his so long fasting.3. His Tempting, after both; the one im­mediately following the other, and in the same order as they are there mentioned; as it is also Luke 4.2, 3. In those forty daies he did eat nothing: and when they were ended, he aftewards hungred: and the Divel said unto him; an Argument undeniable (because the Texts positively affirm it) that our Saviour's Tem­pting [Page 17]followed both his fasting and his hunger, and was not any waies a Concomitant or coaetaneous with the one, nor an Antece­dent of the other; not a Concomitant with his fasting; for, the forty daies and forty nights were fully ended before he was an hungred; nor an Antecedent of his hunger; for, thereupon the Divel took the first occasion of his Tempting: as after he had fa­sted so long a time, he was an hungred, v. 2. and after he was an hungred, then the Tempter came unto him, and said, v. 3. then, and not before. So that when St. Mark saith, 1.13. that he was there (in the wilderness) forty daies tempted of the Divel: and St. Luke 4.2. being forty daies tempted of the Divel: they do not mean that our Saviour was tempted either all or any of those daies wherein he fasted: no; and that the Comma in the Ori­ginal, [...]. Mark 1.13. between the time of his fasting, and the time of his tempting makes plain and manifest; and so should our Translation be pointed with the Comma, after forty daies: thus he was there in the wilderness forty daies, tempted of Satan. Thus also is that of St. Luke to be understood, as Interpreters rightly observe upon the Ari. Montan. Piscat. Schol. place, ch. 4.2. reconciling the seeming d [...]fference of one, by the plain words of another Evangelist. And because this of St. Matthew is the plainest, it is also for that reason the fittest to interpret the Two others meaning, as it fully doth; And the true meaning is, that our Saviour was not tempted of the Divel until he had fasted full forty daies, and forty nights.

Lo! a Fast it was, supernatural and miraculous; yet meer men I confess, have done the like, as Exod. 34.28. Moses, and 1 King. 19.8. Elias; though not by the strength of meer men: no; neither did our Saviour; who after his long fasting was not at all changed in his natural constitution all that time, but was stilas strong and vigorous as he was forty daies before, when he departed so speedily from Jordan into the wilderness; so was Moses, and Elias by the power of God: but our Saviour by his Father's, and by his own power; all fasted so long; Moses Exo. 34.28 when he was sent of God from the Mount to deliver the renewed Tables of the Law unto the people; Elias 1 King. 19.8. when he was appointed of God to restore again true Reli­gion, very much corrupted, and in a manner decayed in his days; and our Saviour immediately before he was to enter publikely on his Ministry. So that we may easily conjecture, that for one and the same reason they all fasted so long; and the reason [Page 18]was, that each of them, in their several times and ages of the world (as Moses under the Law, Elias in the time of the Prophets, and our Saviour under the Gospel) bringing their Message immediately from Heaven, confirmed by their extraordinary fasting, might (as some extraordinary Persons) be the more honoured among the people, and their Message the more willingly received and obeyed; when they should plainly perceive, that the God of Nature (as a means to procure more awful and reverent Authority, both unto themselves and doctrine) had given them power so far to ex­ceed the ordinary bounds of nature, as to fast forty daies, and forty nights, without any intermission; which was the full continuance of our Saviour's fasting.

Secondly, The Effect or Consequence of his fasting was, that after he had abstained from all manner of food so long a time, he was afterwards an hungred, v. 2. which we do not read at all either of Moses or Elias after their long fasting; we do not read it, because no Pen-man of the holy Ghost hath recorded it; nei­ther was there the same reason to mention their hunger (meer men) after their fasting, as there was particularly, our Saviours (God & Man) after his fasting; and the reasons why our Saviours hunger, in particular, is here mentioned may be two. 1. To mani­fest to all succeeding Ages, that he that was very God (the Person here to be tempted) was very man also: it being incident unto Man also, and not unto God to be hungry. 2. To note, that though the Divel, even then, were prepared to Tempt, yet the occasion thereof (to a good end) was first offered unto him by our Saviour; and offered unto him by his Permittitur esurive corpus, ut Diabolo ten­tandi tribuatur occasio, Hieron. in locum. Chry­solog. de jejun. & tent. Christi, Serm. 11. hunger, after he bad fasted forty daies and forty nights; neither doth this derogate from the wisdom of our Saviour to give the first occasion, and (as it were) provoke Satan to empty out the fowlest dregs of all his malicious envity against him; but rather it doth magnifie it to all that shall rightly consider, that when in seeming he was weakest, and at the lowest ebbe, yet even then, he was able to Conquer Satan: to whom he therefore gave the occasion of Tempting him by his hunger, that (knowing he would soon swallow the bait, and greedily accept the occasion offered) he might the more victori­ously Triumph over him, who thought himself secure enough, after he had gained so fit an opportunity to Tempt him, when he was an hungred.

We have now done with the Preparation to this combate on our Saviours part; who was led up of the Spirit into the wilderness, to be tempted of the Divel; And when he had fasted forty daies and forty nights, he was afterwards an hungred, v. 1.2. In the Narra­tion which comes next, and sets before us the whole matter, we will consider, 1. The several Conflicts between the Divel, and our Saviour. 2. The happy issue of all, on our Saviours part. The particular Conflicts with the particular repulses given to Sa­tan, are distinctly, and in Order, Three; and in three distinct places. The first, in the wilderness, v. 3, 4. The second, on a pinacle of the Temple, v. 5, 6, 7. The third, on an exceeding high mountain, v. 8, 9, 10. and the blessed success of all, on our Saviours part, v. 11. We begin with the first Conflict, thus.

And when the Tempter came unto him; he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread, v. 3.

But he answered, and said, It is written, man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God, v. 4.

Let us well weigh the words: and happily, from each, we may enlarge our short Meditations.

And when the Tempter came unto him, he said, v. 3. Lo! now the first Battel begins; and that on the Divels part: though the occasion (for a further end then the Divel then took notice of) was first offered on our Saviours part: to whom the Tempter then confidently came, when he observed that he was an hungred.

The Tempter called the Divel, v. 1. that Accuser of the Revel. 12.10. Brethren; and Satan, v. 10. that Adversary of mankind. The [...] Tempter; by a kind of supereminency, as being that Fountain, that Original of all motions to evil, of all Temptations to sin. The Tempter, one that engrosseth (as it were) into his own hands the Monopoly of all Temptations, forged first in the Shop of Hell, and oftentimes so subtilly presented unto men, as if they were the good motions of an Angel of light; The consideration whereof moved Paul, careful of their Spiritual state, to write unto the Thessalonians after this1 Thes. 3.2.5. manner, I sent Timotheus our Brother, and Minister of God, and fellow-labourer in the Gospel of Christ, to know your faith, lest by some means the Tempter hath tempted you. Who, he well knew, would not be backward to tempt them, that was so forward here to tempt our Saviour.

The Tempter came unto him. Came; a motion which as it out­wardly manifested no speedy pace, so also in appearance, no hellish purpose. He came, as if no evil had been intended, even when nothing else but evil was intended; as Accessit ten­tantis dolo, non obsequentis af­fectu. Chrysol. ubi supra. Joab with a treache­rous intention came to Amasa, 2 Sam. 30, 9, 10, or rather as the Serpent with a fraudulent intention came to Eve, Gen. 3.

The Tempter came unto him; We may imagine as not without subtiltie, so not without impudency and boldness enough; as, When the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, Satan came also amonst Job 1.6. them; came boldly, came impudently. And surely, he had not yet learnt any better manners when he came so subtilly to assault, and so maliciously to disgorge the worst of all his venome against our Saviour; who easily foresaw all his malicious practises; and therefore strongly arm'd himself, both against him and them.

The Tempter came unto him; but whence he came, before he thus subtilly and (if you will) impudently came unto our Saviour in the wilderness, whether from Jordan, covertly following him from place to place, or from compassing the earth, as in Job's Job case; or from the bottomless pit, released for a time, that ere long he might return thither again with the greater horror; or from either of the Regions of the aire, that to his own advantage who is the Prince of the power of the Ephes. 2. 2. aire, the Battel might be fought within the Confines, at least, of his own Kingdome; we will not curiously enquire, we cannot positively determine: though (probably) having been present at Jordan (for in what place is he not?) and observed all the Solemnity performed there; and knowing that our Saviour immediately after his Baptisme, was led up of the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted; (a work pe­culiarly belonging unto him) he thence (if not in our Saviours company, yet not far behind him) sets forward for the wilder­ness also; and not willing to neglect so fair an occasion offered him, as now there was by our Saviours hunger, he approacheth neerer and neerer unto Jesus, and begins his first Temptation in the wilderness.

The Tempter came unto him; but in what form, whether of man or beast, is not here expressed: though probably, in the form of man he came unto Piscat. Schol. in locum. him; yet not altogether too wise in that, since he had better success (then now he was likely to have) when at [Page 21]first he appeared in the form of a serpent, Gen. 3. but perhaps he would not appear twice in one, and the same form, lest his double dealing should the sooner be discovered: which notwithstanding in what form soever he appears was now discovered, and preven­ted by our Saviour.

And when the Tempter came unto him, he said; What? can Divels (bad Angels) speak? it seemes they can. And thus it is; they, who (compared with man) have no bodies at all of their Zanc. de sim­plicitat. Ange­lorum, cap. 4. own, though (compared with God) the Case, perhaps, may be other­wise have notwithstanding a Tongue, wh [...]n (as now this Divel did) they assume the body of another; whether of man or beast: as here the Tempter, the Divel said; 'twas he that spake to the woman, by the mouth of the Gen. 3.1. Serpent, as the good Angel did afterwards to Balaam, by the mouth of his Num. 22.22.28. Ass; 'Twas he that entred into the Oracle at Delphos, and other places; and thence gave vocal and articulate, though uncertain Answers, to particu­lar persons and their Delrio. dis. quisit. Magic­lib. 4. ca. 2. q. 2. demands; as to Philip, the Father of A­lexander the great, concerning his next and immediate Qu. Curtius. lib. 1. p. 8. Suc­cessor; to Phyrrus King of Epirus, touching his so much desired victory over the Romanes; to Augustus Caesar, demanding what the state of his Empire should be, when he was dead; though at that time, his deceitful practices that way, began to vanish and have an end. I might enlarge this in sundry other particulars; but when I have spent all my store, all is to prove no more but this; that the Divel, who hath no body of his own, hath at least a borrowed tongue to speak, when for a time, he assumeth the body of another: as 'tis demonstrated here. The Tempter came unto our Saviour, and said. Where he maketh use both of his feet and tongue, the integral parts of some other Creature. He came: he said: then beginning first to make use of his Tongue, when he first began at this time to make use of his Tempting; that was his own work; but the Tongue wherewith he spake, was that Creatures, whose body he had then assumed: fitly framing the Organs of speech in another to express the meaning of his own purpose.

And when the Tempter came unto him, he said: If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread; As if he had said; thou wast not long since declared at Jordan to be the Son of God, which I make a doubt of; but if it be so, make it [Page 22]appear unto me by some miracle; and the miracle I require for the confirmation of it, is this: Command that these stones be made bread. See! both diffidently spoken, and impudently spoken; diffidently, If thou be the Son of God; impudently, Command that these stones be made bread. Lo! this was the Divels suit; nay, this was the Divels sauciness: and therein, his subtle policy, resol­ving thereby to remove and withdraw our Saviour (when he saw him hungry) from his Filial confidence in the All-sufficient providence of his Father; The Sum the first Tem­ptation. and to perswade him to doubt, both of his Care, and also of his power to relieve him: and there­upon to make use of unlawful means to relieve himself; He said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread. [...], say but the word onely, and it shall be done; such a per­swasion (it seems) the Divel had of the great power of the Son of God, although he doubted (if thou be) whether he whom he then tempted were that Person or not; he doubted; yet surely, more out of malice then out of ignorance; for, he could not but know, that even that very Person whom he then tempted to a di­strustfulness in his Father's Providence, was that very Son of God; And this he could not but know; and that 1. By what was written of him in the Prophets; as, Behold, a Virgin shall conceive, and bear a Son, and shall call his Name Isa. 7.14. Emanuel. Wonderful enough it was, that a Virgin should bear a son: more wonderful, that this Son should be Emanuel, God with Mat. 1.23. us; which being revealed in the Prophets, could not be concealed, from Satan; nor the place of his Birth; and thou Mich. 5.2. Bethleem Ephratah, &c. both being fulfilled some thirty yeers before this Tempter came unto him, and said; for a Virgin did bear a Son, even Emanuel, God with us from the very day of his Birth; and at Bethleem she did bear that Luk. 2.4, 5, 7. Son; which the Divel knew, when his instru­ment Herod slew all the young children Mar. 2.16. there for this one young Child's sake: who had he been first destroyed, the rest had not been destroyed. Herod sent forth others about this business; the Divel sent forth Herod; knowing that the Son of God was even then Incarnate; although he knew not well where to find him, being but then an Infant, nor of what Virgin he was born; that being concealed from him, even by the Espousals of Joseph and Mary. But now 2. finding him in the Wilderness, grown up both to the full Age and stature of man, he could not but know, [Page 23]that this was he, of whom the Father some forty daies before, testified from Heaven, that this was his beloved m Son; Mar. 3.17. a true saying, and worthy of all acceptation, though it were of no credit at all with Satan, who here subtilly pretends ignorance, rather pravae dispositionis, then purae negationis (If thou be the Son of God) and nothing will satisfie him in this matter, but a mira­cle wrought by our Saviour (and that upon this motion too) as a more manifest demonstration of his Deity. Impudent Satan! why requirest thou a Miracle? knowest thou not that miracles are ex­traordinarily wrought rather to Fidei sunt praestanda sig­na, non dolis; Credentidanda sunt, non Ten­tant. Chrysolog de jejun. & tentat. Christi Serm. 11. confirm the faith of those that believe in Jesus, then to gratifie such as defie and abhor the sa­ving Name of Jesus? and yet requirest thou a Miracle, who hast no faith at all to believe in him who is the Author of it, and of whom thou requirest it? Impudent Satan! or, thinkest thou that the Son of God will become obedient unto thee, and turn stones into bread to gratifie thee, whereas (in respect of any want in himself) there was no need at all of such a Miracle? no need at all; for, he that is the bread of life, as he witnesseth of him­selt, Joh. 6.48, could not want Verè panis, non indiget pa­ne, Chrysol. ubi supra, Serm. 11. bread, though he were hungry; he that had a Provident Father to provide for him, could not want sufficient sustenance; no, not in the Wilderness; nay, he that could turn stones into bread (as thou thy self rightly suppo­sest, or else, why requiredst thou such a Miracle of him? unless thou didst it by way of Ironie, of Taunt, and Scoffe, If thou be —) even he was able also to turn want into plenty, emptiness into ful­ness; as able to doe this then as afterwards, to turn water into Joh. 2.9. wine; nay, as able as of stones to raise up children unto Math. 3.9. Abra­ham; able to doe that, able to doe this if there had been cause; but in this particular case, plain it is, that there was no cause at all; and to doe it, when there was no cause to doe it, had been (doubting of his watchful care and providence over him) to offend his Father (which he would not doe) by using unlaw­ful means and unwarantable, so long as there was any other way to relieve himself; and therefore, Satan, thy so much desired provision to be procured for him by a Miracle in testimony of his Deity, (which at this time wanted no such testimony) was not at all necessary, since there was every way enough provided for him by his Father without it; and thou temptest him in vain to grant that which there was no cause to grant; not­withstanding, [Page 24]he were every way most powerful to doe what thou requiredst.

But what wilt thou infer thence? wilt thou Conclude (as thine own words, If th [...]u be—seem to imply) that the Person whom thou temptest is not the Son of God, because at thy command, he will not distrust in God, and turn stones into bread? shall not the Lord Jehovah be God, unless Baal subscribe unto it? must, If thou be the Son of God, be resolved preposterously into, thou art not the Son of God, if Satans demand be not granted, and his curiosity satisfied? Monstrous! whereas, to have done what the Divel demanded, had been altogether to derogate from the glory of the Son of God; for whom it was as improper in any thing to become obedient unto Satan (such was the Case here) as most proper it was for him in every thing to continue constant in his Filial obedience unto his Father, as he did; for, not at all regarding what Satan should judge of him, for not com­plying with him, he utterly refused to obey his voice: and none of his Charms, none of his Temptations, none of his Baits, none of his fair words (in his sense, capable of a fowl Construction) could any waies prevail with him; or remove and unrivet him (which was so much desired by the Divel) from his unshaken Confidence and assurance in his Father's providence: who (he was perswaded) was able to provide for his Son in this his hunger, e­ven without his own particular assistance (which had been to doubt of his Father's providence) by turning stones into bread. Lo! this was the Divels motion, If thou be the Son of God, com­mand that these stones be made bread. Command; the work to be done was left wholy unto our Saviour; yet upon pain if he did it not, to be declared, not to be the Son of God by Satan; a strong, a violent Temptation; yet, easily repelled by our Savi­ours reply to Satan and his insolency▪ He answered, and said, it is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God, v. 4.

It is written; the Divel begins subtilly, with (If) a doubtful speech, as he delivers it; but surely, not doubtful as he understood it; but our Saviour Answers plainly and positively: It is written; and that Deut. 8.3. where Moses (as an Argument to perswade them to be daily more and more obedient) puts the Israelites in mind of God's great goodness and favour unto them, who fed [Page 25]them extraordinarily forty yeers in the Wilderness; and that with bread, with Manna from Heaven, even in the time of their extreamest want, and when they were wholy distitute of ordi­nary food and sustenance: such was God's care of them; which our Saviour here in his greatest hunger (knowing that the hand of his Father's providence was not yet shortned) appropriates, and applies to his own Case, in particular. He was now in the wilderness; though it be not expressed here, whether in the same wilderness or not; there he was hungry, and no ordinary means then neer at hand to relieve him; yet though he expected not Manna, he well knew that his Father was able to satiate his hun­ger, either with or without means; and this was his Solace, his Contentation, this, Deus providebit, my God will provide for me one way or other, even in the wilderness; wherefore, confident and constant in this perswasion, he would not by any means be enticed by the Tempting Divel (even though he was an hungred) to use any unlawful waies to provide food for himself; which in Satans judgement he wanted, but not in his own; who was not ignorant that there were other waies, either to satisfie or sustain his hunger without turning stones into bread; and of these means he speaketh here, when (as a reproach to Satan) he saith, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.

It is written; Lo! this, even the Word of God, that Ephes. 6.17. Sword of the Spirit, this was the weapon wherewith our Saviour once now, v. 4. and twice afterwards, v, 7, 10. foyled and conquered Satan; It is written; and this Action of our Saviour in thus repelling the Divel by his Father's word, must alwaies be our imitation; for, surely the same Sword, the same Word hath the same power still a­gainst the same Adversary, though it be now weilded by us, far weaker Combatants; who though we are weak in faith, yet by his power, that is the stronger man, we shall be enabled to resist the strong man Mat. 12.29. and all his Temptations; for, as it is our Comfort, so also it is our Conquest too, that our Saviour hath gotten the victory over Satan; because (to use the words of the Apostle, E­phes. 6.14, 15, &c.) we being girt about with truth, with the te­stimony of a good conscience; having on the breast-plate of righteousness, manifested by an holy and a sanctified life, holiness to the Exod. 29.36. Lord; shod with the preparation of the Gospel of peace, [Page 26]which bringeth glad tydings of peace to us in Christ, who is our Ephes 2.14.peace, the power whereof, being the power of God unto Salva­tion to every one that Rom. 1.16. believeth, treadeth Satan under foot; and having faith for our shield against all the fiery darts of that evil one; Salvation, the assured hope of Salvation by Jesus Christ, for our helmet; the Word of God, the promises of God, made to all penitent sinners in his holy Word, faithfully belie­ved and feelingly applyed, for our Sword; we also in him shall get and keep the victory.

It is written; and written, that man shall not live by bread a­lone; shall not live; Now there is a Threefold life. 1. Of Na­ture. 2. Of Grace 3. Of Glory. The first onely is here meant; the life of Nature; and the meaning is, that Man shall not live, shall not preserve his natural life by bread alone, by ordinary food, alone, whereof bread is the principal; no, but there is another way to preserve it, even by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. Lo! this is our Saviours Text, and for that reason, with all diligence to be hearkned to; that his Father's pro­mise included therein, of providing sustenance for us (as it was in the Case of 1 Kin. 19.5, 6. Eliah) even when we see no visible way to provide, it may be a solace and comfort unto us, in the time of our greatest streights and scarcity; I say, this is our Saviours Text: and the powerful, and life-preserving Word mentioned therein, which proceedeth out of the mouth of God, whereby Man shall live, even when he wanteth the common and ordinary means to pre­serve his life, is his Will, his Decree, his purpose, his secret ap­pointment to preserve mans life by some extraordinary way, thus or thus; besides that of his ordinary word and providence. See it illustrated in several particulars thus; Sometimes God's Will and Decree is, that Man shall live, and yet, not by ordinary means. So the Israelites in the desert were preserved forty yeers together with Deut. 8.3. Manna; and therewith they fared so well, even by the immediate providence of God, without any ordinary food, that the consideration thereof caused the citing of this Text by our Saviour, against Satan. Sometimes God's word and purpose is, that men shall live against means, and contrary to the ordinary course of nature; as Daniel in the Lyons Den, chap. 6 and the three Children in the fiery Furnace, chap. 3. Sometimes his Will and appointment is, that men shall live for a time without any [Page 27]means at all; as Moses in Mount Exo. 34.28. Sinai; Elias in Mount 1 King. 19.8 Horeb; and our Saviour at this time, forty daies and forty nights in the Wilderness; of which extraordinary and miraculous Word procee­ding out of the mouth of God, for the preservation of mans life, the Divel here (it seems when maliciously he tempted our Saviour hungry, to turn stones into bread) pretended himself altogether ignorant, or at least, subtily concealed his knowledge of it.

But whether he were wholy ignorant of that, or not, let it be left (if you will) as a thing doubtful and uncertain; yet of this, ignorant he could not be; of this that our Saviours repul­sive Answer here was every way directly Opposite to his Tempta­tion; and such as the Answer was, such also the Person was; every way Opposite to Satan; there is no fellowship between light and darkness; no Communion between God and 2 Cor. 6.14, 15.Belial; and as tou­ching our Saviours Answer to the Divel, herein stands the Oppo­sition; Command (said the Divel) that these stones be made bread; Why? to refresh thy self in this time of hunger; I need no refresh­ing by such means; Not? how then wilt thou live? It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone; not by ordinary means alone; how then shall he live? by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God; as by his Will, by his Decree, by his secret appoint­ment, & oftentimes to man unknown; but is there any such word that proceedeth out of his mouth, that proceedeth out of his heart, as if it were spoken with his mouth, for the preservation of man's life, besides his ordinary word? there is; and by that word shall I Verè vivit in verbo Dei, ver­bum Dei, Chyr­solog, ubi supra, Serm. 13. live: by some extraordinary way or other shall my life be preserved, though without bread; and I may not, I will not submit to thy subtle perswasion Command that these stones be made bread; which includes much danger in it. 1. A Compli­ance with thee. 2. A Distrustful diffidence (which subtilly thou temptest me unto) of my Father's Care and providence over me. 3. A Diminution both of his, and mine own glory: as if I were not the Son of God, unless I produced more then needful te­stimonies thereof before Satan; wherefore away with thy, If thou be—command—the nature of stones (though I can) I will not alter; I want not bread, not ordinary food, though I am hungry; or if I doe, I know where to have it, and not be behol­ding at all to thee, for thy seeming double-diligent care of me; but there is another that taketh care of me indeed, and him will [Page 28]I trust; even my God, my Father; It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God, shall man live.

Which, when the Divel heard, highly enraged no doubt pre­sently (whether out of discontent, that at first he had thus lost the field; or out of an implacable desire of revenge for that loss, or both; not convinced, even when he was convinced, not satisfied, as he pretended, that, that Person whom he Tempted was the Son of God, even when there was no just cause to be dissatisfied, ha­ving evidence enough from what was written of him in the Pro­phets, and from what he had heard at Jordan) he cunningly (not altogether unlike the twisting of the Foxes tayls together by Judg. 15.4. Sampson) links and joins a Second to his First Temptation: ma­king (as it were) the end of the one, the un-interrupted beginning of the other; so swift he was in his motion, in his Temptation; but by their fruits ye shall know Mar. 7.16.them; Men do not gather grapes of thornes, or figs of thistles; nay we cannot gather here either grapes, or figs, but fruit of a more sowre tast; and whether it were an Apple or a Pear, or some other kind of fruit the first woman tasted, Gen. 3. surely it had a far better relish as to the mouth of the eater, though not to the soul, then this second Temptation; wherein the Divel (who had required a Miracle before some­what answerable to the hardness of his own heart, by turning stones into bread) peaeposterously proceedeth now from a pretended ig­norance of the Deity of the Son of God, even to an injurious dealing with the Person of the Son of God, not yet openly acknowledging him to be so; nor judgeing him worthy to keep his station in the wilderness, whither he was led up of the Spirit (though he kept his ground still, maugre all his hellish machinations) but transporting him thence, he exalted him (probably, as an Object of publike scorn) to the pinacle of the Temple; there to be solli­cited to a rash confidence in his Father's Protection, whom hither to he could by no means remove from his Filial Confidence in his Providence; and though St. Luke chap. 4.9, &c. name this tem­ptation in the third and last place, not so much observing the order of August. de co [...]ens. Evan­gelist. lib. 2. ca. 16. Time, when it was done, as the certainty of Fact, that it was done; yet manifest it is, that St. Matthew here names it in the right place, when he makes it the Second and not the Third, not the last Temptation; for, when the Divel was finally [Page 29]conquered, he departed from our Saviour, v. 11. but as yet he departed not: an Argument, that as yet he was not finally Con­quered; and that an Argument that this was not the Third (there being but Three in all) but the Second Temptation: men­tioned, v. 5, 6, 7, wherein is plainly declared how our Saviour was assaulted again, and how the Divel also was repulsed again; Thus;

Then the Divel taketh him up into the holy City, and setteth him on a pinacle of the Temple, v. 5. And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thy self down: for it is written, he shall give his Angels charge concerning thee, and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone, v. 6. Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God, v. 7. Which words, with each Circumstance therein, easily admit of a particular Examination; As, Then the Divel taketh him up, v. 5.

Then; surely the Divel is a good observer of time; or rather of opportunity: not willing to neglect any occasion that makes for his own Advantage and our ruine; he knew which was the fit­test time to tempt the woman, Gen. 3. and the fittest opportunity to stir up Herod to seek our Saviours life, Mat. 2. even when he was but then in swadling clothes: when the Sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, then Satan also (though uninvi­ted) will come amongst Job 1.6. them no place will he unfrequent no company will he avoid, as to mean too intrude himself into their counsels, no not though the Lord command Joshua the high Priest to stand before his Zechar. 3.1.Angel; and no time neither will he omit to effect his wicked purposes.

Then; even so soon as he was overcome in one, presently he begins another Battel; yet not (Roman like) giving warning of the day thereof, before the day; nor giving notice of the very Instant of his Assault, either by sound of Drum or Trumpet, or other vocal Instrument; No; he that in all Ages hath taught Scribes and Pharisees, Hypocrites, to sound a Trumpet before Mat. 6.2, 6, 16. them, either when they give Almes or Fast, or Pray, that they may be seen of men, that they may receive glory of men and lose their re­ward with God left that way of managing, and imploying the stock of their own Hypocrisie to themselves still, knowing how to play the Hypocrite and manage his own work another way; [Page 30]even sleighly, subtilly, craftily, without any noyse or stir at all; playing the part of the Serpent still, whose pace and motion was hardly descernable in the Garden: and that when our Saviour was but newly become a Conqueror; supposing perhaps, that though he knew at that time how to Conquer, yet he knew not how to use the victory.

Then; which further notes the insatiable and implacable ma­lice of Satan against Christ, and his members; having great wrath against them, because he knoweth that he hath but a short Rev. 12.12. time: adding to the measure of the one, what he perceives is wanting in the Continuance of the other; alwaies walking about like a roaring Lyon seeking whom he may i Pet. 5.8. devour; that is his end (such is his enmity against us) even by a continned series of Temptations to devour us; whose wrath and malice against us, is without end; from whose soul-destroying darts good Lord de­liver us.

Thus the Time (you see) when this second Assault began, was immediately after the first was ended. Then; Consider next both the Place where, and also the manner how this hapned; for the Place where 'twas in the holy City, and there on a pinacle of the Temple; but the manner how the Tempter dealt with our Sa­viour before he brought him thither, was this; he taketh him up; Lo! he that before was led up of he Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted, was now conveyed thence to an higher place by the Divel to the same end; the place of our Saviour's Tryal was changed, but the Tempter was still the same. Coelum, non animum— a change there was in the heighth, but no change at all in the depth, in the deep policy of Satan, who taketh him up: conveyeth our Saviour at his pleasure through the ayre from one place to another.

But surely he did not, he could not doe this, without power first obtained of God to doe it; No: for though his power be very great, as the Sacred Texts intimates, when it calls him a Isa. 27.1. Dragon; a roaring Lyon, 1 Pet. 5.8. a strong man Mat. 12.29.armed; a Ruler of the darkness of this Ephes. 6.12. world: yet that power (how great soever it be) is first derived from God, from his power, from his Grant and permission; or else, why did he aske leave of God at one time to tempt Job 1.11, 12. Job? or, why did he not at ano­ther time enter into the Herd of swine without our Saviour's Mat. 8.31.32. [Page 31]leave? an Argument that he is alwaies at God's beck; and that he can doe no more then he permits and suffers Daemonum of­ficium est nuti­bus Dei servi­re, nec quic­quam nisi jus­sum facere. Lactant. divin. Instit. l. 2. c. 17. him; 'twas I confess in another Case (and as touching Criminal matters) that our Saviour said to Pilate (boasting of his power either to Crucifie or release him) thou couldest have no power at all against me, except it were given thee from above, John 19.10, 11. yet it is most true also, even in this: Satan could have had no power to move and remove our Saviour's Sacred body from place to place, from the Wilderness to the holy City; from the holy City, a lower, to the pinacle of the Temple, an higher place; no such power could he have had, but from above, by Divine permission and con­cession; and by vertue of that permission (the Father wisely orde­ring it to be so, for the glory of his Son when he should return a Conqueror) the Divel taketh him up; our Saviour in the mean time, being of himself most willing to be tempted of the Divel anywhere, that the Divel by him for us might be Conquered everywhere; it was for his own glory and our good that this was done, suffered to be done, though done by the Divel, who taketh him up.

Yet surely not after an usual and ordinary way; nor transpor­ted he him leasurely and by degrees, step by step: no; for that was not at all agreeable to the Divels hungry and hasty pursuit of his prey, nor any waies answerable at this time to his eager desire (having been but lately Conquered) of obtaining a Trium­phant victory.

Omnis long a mora est nobis quae gaudia differt; neither was it, or could this be done in a vision; for, then the Divels perswasion to our Saviour afterwards, v. 6. cast thy self down, could have been no Temptation at all; but he taketh him up: that is, in my judgement (though I leave it to a more skilful Oedipus to resolve shall I say, or rather dissolve this aenigma) our Saviour being thus taken up into the ayre, the proper Seat of Satans principa­litie, Ephes. 2, 2. (uncertain whether by the locks of his head as Ezekiel Ezek. 8.3. was, or otherwise) the Divel carried him speedily to the place appointed for his fresh and renewed Onset; which he might doe, even by the power already granted and received from above; a power to move and remove the bodies of men Zanch. de vi & potent. Dae­monum. lib. 4. cap. 10. upwards and downwards, or otherwise as he pleaseth from one place to another; and that with more speed then ordinary; [Page 32]this (no doubt) the Divel hath power to do; and that by vertue of God's Commission; nay, of God's Calvin. In­stitut. lib. 1. cap. 17. Sect. 11. Command, on whom his de­rivative power properly dependeth; and having such a power once granted him, he soon made use of it, and taketh him up.

And into the holy City he taketh him up; even into Jerusalem, Luk. 4.9 called the Daughter of Mat. 21.9. Zion; Tell ye the Daughter of Zion, be­hold, thy King cometh unto thee meck; so tell ye the daughter of Zion, tell ye Jerusalem, behold, thy King cometh unto thee meek still; and so meek, that for the finishing of his glorious Conquest, he was content patiently to be carried, even by an unholy hand into the holy City; Called Mat. 27.53. holy, even for distinctions sake, to put a difference be­tween this and the unholy Cities of the Gentiles, wherein nothing but Idols were worshipped and adored; as Molech among the 1 Kings 11.7, 33. Ammonites; Chemosh among the Moabites; Ashtaroth among the Sidonians; Diana among the Act. 19.17, 18. Ephesians; and other in other places. Whereas here at Jerusalem from time to time, the holy and true God was onely worshipped, though not truly; who had appointed that his Name, his honour should there peculiarly King. 11.36. dwel; there was the Temple, the place of his Solemn and holy Worship; there was Moses Chair; the Law and the Prophets were by the Scribes and Pharisees solemnly read and expounded Mat. 23.2. there; and there also God ordained that his first Christian Church should be planted; and that from thence in following Ages, his holy Gospel, his holy Religion should be propagated as it was to other Nations: as the Prophet Isiah foretold should come to pass; Saying, out of Zion shall go forth the Law, and the Word of the Lord from Isa. 2.3. Jerusalem; and for this reason called it was now the holy City: because even at that time (though much corrupted both in life and doctrine) it was still the place of the publike worship of the holy God; retaining even then the Adjunct of (holy) because God was not altogether destitute, even at that time, of an holy Church there; the place keeping its denomination from the better (though the lesser) part.

Now after the Divel had thus conveyed our Saviour from the Wilderness to Jerusalem the holy City, he there setteth him on a pinacle of the Temple, v. 5. on a Pinacle without, not in any place within the Timple; no; 'tis the outside and shew of Religion and Devotion onely that he is most taken with. Holy places, properly so called from their relation to the holy service of God [Page 33]therein, he liketh not; though holy Water, holy Reliques, holy Cross, &c. names of his own invention, he most esteemeth and ap­proveth of; well enough content that Scribes and Pharisees, Hy­pocrites, should have onely an outward shew and form of godliness; but if they will please him, they must deny the power and inward effect of it; who not willing to stay long in the holy City (even for the very Name it had of holy) but onely in Transitu, passing through it speedily, as a Post passeth by; nor bringing our Savi­our within the Temple, much less within the holy of holies, setteth him without on a pinacle of the Temple, the place of his Second Tryal; on a pinacle; on one of the Battlements of that part of the Temple, made at first to keep such from danger of falling, as afterwards should at any time occasionally be imployed there; notwithstanding though those pinacles, those Battlements were made for such a use, yet the Divel purposely placeth our Saviour not at the bottome to preserve himself, but at the top of one of these, that being in such a posture, he might be in the greater danger of falling: or at least, that he might be the fitter subject for his Temptation to work upon; whose desire it was that he might fall, if not to endanger himself, yet to obey him, which was also to endanger himself; and both no doubt, the Divel sought, even obedience to himself, danger to our Saviour, when (placing him on the pinacle of the Temple) he said unto him, If thou be the Son of God cast thy self down, v. 6.

Lo! thus the Divel began his First, v. 3. and thus also he begins his Second Temptation, even with the very same words; nothing at all changed in respect of the syllables; nor no more altered in respect of the sense: If thou be the Son of God; What shall I say? surely Satan is no good Grammarian, that knoweth not how to vary his phrase: nor no good Rhetorician neither, that cannot tel how to change his Proeme; but a great Favourer he alwaies was, and still is, of Tautologie; of vain and empty repetitions; If thou be the Son of God; (If) see! he dares not positively deny it; neither will he absolutely confess it; Anceps sermo est, saith In locum, Ca­non. 3. St. Hillary, 'tis a doubtful speech, and full of much fallacy: and in­deed proper for none but for an Arrian, or an Ebionite, or an Eunomian, or a Turk, or a Divel; whereas none can truly, none should wilfully doubt of, or any waies impugne the Deity of our Saviour: it being no better then a fragment of the Divels [Page 34]doctrine: and that no better then an Atheistical derision of him, who (God and man in one Person, as the sacred Oracle Mat. 16.16. Acts 20.28. Rom. 9.5. 1 Tim. 3.16. 1 Joh. 5.20. testifies) laughs his scorners to scorn, even though they joyntly band them­selves together against him, with the Divel, who in all Ages hath taught others to deny, what he himself here seemingly did but doubt of. Such were those Antichrists of whom St. John 1. Joh. spake; there being many, even in his daies (so soon had the envious man sowen his tares) who would not confess that Jesus was the Son of God; against whom the Apostle opposeth this truth of truths to confute them, and to instruct us: We have seer, and do testifie that the Father sent the Son, to be the Saviour of the 1 Joh. 4.14. World; we have seen it: we do testifie it; which the Divels Disciples would not believe then, will not believe now; nor did he himself openly acknowledge it, saying, If thou be the Son of God; If thou be, let me (at least now) who have failed hitherto, let me see some manifest testimony, some evident sign thereof; and there can be no harm; no danger in this, to prove thy self to be (If thou be) the Son of God. Thus and thus did the Divel insinu­ate himself into our Saviour, then on the pinacle of the Temple; thither by his power he brought him: and there (expecting to see some notable proof of his Deity) he tempted him, saying, If thou be the Son of God, cast thy self down from this pinacle: cast thy self Diabolus ce­cidit, & stanti invidet. Augu. in prim. Epist. 3. vox Diaboli quae semper omnes cadere deorsum desiderat. Hie­ronym. in Text. down. Lo! such as he himself is, such is the motion: it being most agreeable to his nature, who cannot stand himself, to tempt others to fall: cast thy self down from this pinacle; this was the Divels Counsel to our Saviour: Evil counsel being alwaies the worst to the evil [...]. Counsellor, as this was to Satan: whose purpose was thereby to kindle in our Saviour both an ambitious desire of vain glory, and also a rash, vain, and supine neglect of his Fa­ther's protection over him; whereas both were altogether incon­sistent with the most pure and spotless nature of the Son of God; either to be touched with an Affection or Affectation of vain glory, The Sum of the second Temptation. by casting himself headlong down from so steep a place; that if he remained unbruised and unmangled after such a fall as that, all the beholders might crown him with a Plaudite, and admiring, adore him as some Person extraordinary; Or, to be carried about (as many are with every wind of Ephes. 4.14. doctrine) with an inconsiderate and supine carelessness of the Protection of his Father; upon which ground, though the Divel tempted him to [Page 35]both (even to be careless of his Father's Protection, and also to be ambitious of the emptie applause of men) yet would our Saviour become guilty of neither; knowing that if he would have any benefit by the protection of his Father, he ought not to attempt any thing by such means as were not lawful nor subordinate there­unto; But this (rashly to cast himself down from the pinacle of the Temple, and that at Satans suit) this was not lawful, nor any waies agreeable to his Father's Will; though most agreeable it was to Satans: whose voice was, Cast thy self down, and make no scruple at all of offending thy Father. So he tempted our Saviour; so he tempteth us; perswading us to lay aside all fear of God, and obey him: and oft-times he prevaileth with us, who could not at all prevail with our Saviour, but his cast thy self down, vanished into nothing.

But why did not the Divel himself (our Saviour being then in his power, though, not at his command) why did he not take the whole managing of this matter into his own hands? surely, because his malice as wrathful as it is, and his power as great as it is, is a limited and a restrained power and malice, as to Christ and his members; thus far shalt thou go and no farther. God confining him within such and such bounds, which he may not, which he cannot pass: as Solomon did, railing and cursing 1 King. 2.37. Shimei; So that he is not able to doe more then God permits him to doe; and God permits him onely to Tempt (as far as he sees it convenient for the good and Salvation of his Church and Chosen) but not to cast Persuadere potest, praecipi­tate non potest, Hieronym. ubi supra. down: not to destroy; 'twas so in Job's Case; The Lord said unto Satan, behold, he is thine hand, but save his life; 'twas so here; the Tempter had power granted him from above, onely to say unto our Saviour, by way of perswasion and sollicitation, Cast thy self down; but by way of any Coactive vio­lence, or praecipitation, actually to cast him down from the pinacle of the Temple, no power, no permission, no command had he obtained; no, none at all; notwithstanding the limited and bounded power which he had received, he makes use of, even to the utter­most; and though he were not able to constrain our Saviour by way of compulsion, yet he ceaseth not importunately to sollicite him by way of a perswasive insinuation, Cast thy self down from this pinacle; nay in imitation of our Saviour, v. 4. he farther backs his fruitless suit, with a reason, and that out of Scripture too, [Page 36]though untruly alledged; and therefore not at all prevalent with our Saviour; saying, For it is written, He shall give his Angels charge concerning thee, and in their hands shall they bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone, v. 6.

It is written; namely, Psal, 91.11, 12. but more is there written then is here alledged by Satan; and to far better purpose, if we compare both Texts together: both what is written by the Psalmist there; and what is out of him alledged by Satan here; That of the Psalmist is whole and intire: thus; For he shall give his Angels charge over thee, to keep thee in all thy waies: they shall bear thee in their hands, that thou hurt not thy foot against a stone; The sense; so tender and careful shall the Angels of God be over thee (even as a tender Mother is over a Child whom shee leadeth in her hand, or beareth in her armes) that no hurtful danger shall befall thee; no stone, no overweighty Temptation, but such as thou art able to bear, shall overwhelme thee; which is a promise of God's peculiar watchfulness and protection by his Angels both over the Head and his Members: both over Christ while he was on Earth; and also over the whole body of the Faithful, so long as they are on Earth. But this of the Divel here, is maimed and wants one of its integral limbs and parts: thus; For it is written, saith Satan, He shall give his Angels charge over thee; and so far (to give the Divel his due) is the Text rightly Cited; But then with a purpose to deceive, he wholy leaves out the following words, these (to keep thee in all thy waies) which are (as it were) the Pole on which the whole sense of this Scirpture turneth; and on which the promise of God's Fatherly protection over us (whe­ther in lesser or in greater dangers) is wholy grounded; who hath promised indeed, to keep us safe under his wings, and to hide us from danger under his feathers, Psal 91. v. 4. from the snare of the fowler, and from the noysome pestilence, v. 3. from the terrour by night, and from the arrow that flieth by day, v. 5. But all is Con­ditionally, and no farther then we are alwaies careful to regulate all our Actions, acording to the rule of his promise; which is (in all our waies) in all the good and honest ways of our lawful Callings, to the glory of God, and the good one of another, as fellow-members of one and the same mystical body of Christ, to use all such lawful means to protect and defend our selves, as God hath appointed; who permits us not at all to tempt him, by flying to [Page 37]extraordinary, when ordinary means are neer at hand; and may not, must not (if we will be safe) be neglected and contemned; so far hath God promised to give his Angels charge over us, but no farther: no otherwise; But if men will rashly and wilfully go out of their waies, which God hath appointed them to walkin; and once out, continue obstinately to use unlawful means, for the ac­complishing of this or that; surely such men tempt God (which our Saviour would not doe) and are out of the pale of his prote­ction; which our Saviour well knew, and therefore would not be moved (even though he were moved) to cast himself down from the pinacle of the Temple; because he knew that was none of his waies; not to fall down thence by a violent, no, but rather to descend down thence by a Natural motion: and that leasurely by steps and by degrees; that was his right way as the Case now stood, though that crooked Isa. 27.1. serpent the Divel, by concealing the substance of his alledged Text, attempted to lead him out of that, into his own way; but his fraud was espied, his Text was exa­mined, and his Temptation as powerfully repelled in this, as in his first Assault; Nay, we may truly say, that his fraud also was here farther detected, not onely in concealing part of this Text, which made wholy for our Saviour, who would not be tempted to go out of his waies; but also in his not alledging the whole fol­lowing Text, v. 13. which made so directly against himself, on the behalf of our Saviour; a Person ordained to subdue him, as the concealed Text (the sense whereof was well known to Satan) imports; and the concealed Text which made so plainly against himself was this; Thou shalt go upon the Lyon, and the Adder, the young Lyon, and the Dragon, shalt thou tread under thy feet. Where there is no promise made to the Pope to trample upon the Emperour (as Alexander the third, abusing this Text, did upon the neck of Frederick the first, sirnamed Baleus de Act. Roman. Pontificum, lib. 5. in vita Alex­andri tertii. Barbarossa) No; but for our Saviour Christ to trample upon Satan, with whom he had to doe; This Lyon, this Adder, this Dragon, being none other mystically but the Divel Tittleman in locum, Hilar. Canon. 3. Hie­ronym. in Matt. 4. himself, full of wrath, full of venome, full of poyson, to be Conquered by our Saviour; who will tread him shortly under his feet, Rom. 16.20 and did now sufficiently trample on him, when he answered him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God, v. 7.

It is written again; once had our Saviour beat off the Divel [Page 38]before, v. 4. with It is written; namely, Deut. 8.3. and once also in imitation of our Saviour, had the Divel alledged, or rather misalledged Scripture, v. 6. mangling and perverting the true and genuine sense thereof, by concealing what therein was most Material and Considerable: this, to keep thee in all thy waies; which was written also, Psal. 91. v. 11. but not alledged by Satan; but our Saviour in his reply here (It is written again) pointeth at both; both at his own true alledging of Scripture in his first, and also at the Divels false dealing in not truly al­ledging it in this his second Conflict; and because he would deal with him now again as he had done before; that is, Conquer him with his Father's word, He saith, (putting him in mind to how little purpose it was to contest with him any more, who had the strongest weapon, though the Divel pretended Scripture too) It is written again: and by thy false dealing, thou canst not, thou shalt not prevail against me; Our Saviour in this his reply here not opposing Scripture to Scripture, as if the one only (that al­ledged by himselfe) had been true, and the other (that al­ledged by Satan, as much as remained of it) had been false: no; but following that rule which afterwards he taught St. John, believe not every 1 John 4.1. spirit (not the doctrine of every one that enti­tleth it to the spirit) but try the Spirits, try their doctrines whe­ther they be of God, he only Confuted the abuse of Scripture by Falsas de Scripturis Dia­boli sagittas, veris Scriptu­rarum frangit clypeis. Hiero­nym. in locum. Scripture; For the Divel as 'tis plain, to his own advantage, had most impudently abused it, by misalledging it (as Heretiques, his disciples often doe) but our Saviour confuted that abuse, and rectified that error, by righthly interpreting it; and he rightly interpreted that Scripture, when (rightly concluding, that to cast himself down from the pinacle of the Temple, which was none of his waies, was to tempt God, who had promised to keep him only in all his waies, which the Divel left out) He answered, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God: and in vain thou temptest me to tempt him; in sense thus much; Thou that Tempest me (no good Textuary) though thou judgest thy thy self strong enough to Oppose me, and finally prevail against me with thy too too short weapon, with a piece of a Text, yet I am stronger then thou, and as able now as before, v. 4▪ by Citing a whole Text, according to its true sense and meaning, which thou hast not done, to foyl and repel thee; and thus I doe it; It is [Page 39]written again; thou mightest have been satisfied at first, but since thou wilt not, my Father's Word shall again defend me, and again offend thee: It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.

It is written, Deut. 6.16. where Moses exhorting the Israe­lites to obey their God, begins his Exhórtation with, Hear O Israel, v. 3.4. and (not to speak of other particulars) in this also, he commands them to hear him even in this, Ye shall not tempt the Lord your God. Which our Saviour here (the number only changed) aptly alledgeth against the Divel perswading him (by casting himself down from the pinacle of the Temple) to tempt God; which Moses forbade the Israelites; and our Saviour took it for granted, that it was also forbidden him. But the better to understand the Text, let us enquire a little into the meaning of these words (to Tempt God) Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God; thus; a Negative precept you see it is; and such Precepts are alwaies Praecepta ne­gativa obligant semper, & ad semper. Obligatory, alwaies binding, and to all times, unless God himself command the contrary; As, Thou shalt not kill, Exod. 20.13. and no man but by divine dispensa­tion (as in the case of Abrabam, whom God commanded to sa­crifice his Gen. 22.2. son) can at any time be released from the exact keeping of that Negative Commandement. But our Saviour here had received no such dispensation, as might any waies ab­solve him from his Obedience to his Father; and therefore he would not, by any perswasion of Satan, suffer himself to be drawn away from his Filial obedience to his Father; knowing that the same law that did bind the Israelites, though they often trans­gressed it, did also oblige him, and he would at no time transgress it; but resolutely answered Satan, with relation to himself, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. Now (to come to the point we treat of) to tempt God, is, out of rashness or unbelief, and the like, to make Tryal and Tentare est periculum fa­cere, experi­menta quaerere, &c. Pet. Mart. loc. com. class 1. c. 8. Sect. 17. & class 3. ca. 4. Sect. 54. experiment, by such means as we ought not, either of his power, or his justice, or his wisdome, or his Fatherly protection over us. The latter whereof is properly the Tempting here meant in the Text; Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God; that is (as in this particular Case) thou shalt not rashly and out of unbelief, question his power, thou shalt not make tryal by any unlawful means, whether he be able to protect thee, or not, even when thou hast wilfully exceeded the bounds, within [Page 40]which he hath promised to protect thee; or, if thou doest, thou temptest him, thou sinnest against him; which I may not doe, saith our Saviour; But because we are now speaking of Tem­pting God, who by man is tempted several waies, let us a little expatiate in this matter, and then again descend in order to this particular tempting here mentioned in the Text. We say then, that God, by sinful man, naturally exorbitant, and of himself not to be kept within the bounds of modesty and moderation, is Tempted divers waies. As,

First, In respect of his Power. And so he is tempted, when inconsiderate men (impatient to wait Gods leisure) doe, out of diffidence and unbelief, appoint either the Time, when he shall help them; or the Place, where he shall help them; or the man­ner, how he shall help them: leaving in the mean time (as it were) nothing to his immediate power; (who is a present help in trouble) but what best suits with their own folly. So the Israelites tempted God in the wilderness, when in the time of their greatest thirst, they made tryall of his power, whether he were able to give them Water, or not: chiding with Moses, saying, Give us Water that we may drink, Exod. 17.2. To whom Moses replyed, Why chide you with me? wherefore do you tempt the Lord? In memory of whose chiding with God, and Moses, after the Lord had manifested his powerful presence among them, by giving them water out of the Rock, he called the name of that place, Massah, v. 7. and Numb. 20.2, 3, 4, 13. Meribah, that is, Chiding or Conten­tion, because of the chiding of the Children of Israel, and because they tempted the Lord, saying, Is the Lord among us, or not? To which manner of tempting the Lord our God, this in the Text cited by our Saviour, out of Deut. 6.16. hath relation: Ye shall not tempt the Lord your God, as ye tempted him in Massah; And with such a kind of tempting God also in respect of his power, the Governours of the Inhabitants of Bethulia were upbraided by Judith, for making an Oath between God and them, that they would deliver up the Citie to the Assyrians, unless God within five daies did give them Water; a Judith. 8.9, 10, 11, 12. to whom she said, Who are you that have tempted God this day?

Secondly, In respect of his Justice. And so he is tempted, when wicked men, who run on securely in the un-interrupted course of their sins, doe by their obstinacy and impenitency, make [Page 41]a needless tryall to their own woe, whether God be a just God, and whether in his justice he will punish them, or not. Whereas 'tis known, that in the hand of the Lord there is a Psalm 75.9, 10. Cup, and the Wine is red: it is full mixt, and he poureth out of the same: as for the dregs thereof, all the ungodly of the earth shall drink them, and suck them out; and in this sense, the Lord himself complaineth against the Israelites, Numb. 14.22. saying, They have tempted me these ten times; and by their re-iterated sins have they so often tempted me; Wherefore I cannot but in justice punish them; at least, with a privation of the promised land; as afterwards they found true by experience. Surely, they shall not see the land, which I sware unto their Fathers, saith the Lord; Neither shall any of them that provoked (tempted) me, see it, v. 23. So that plain it is, that God is even then also tempted, when the Execution of his severe justice, which will inevitably follow incorrigible sinners, is not at all feared or regarded.

Thirdly, In respect of his Wisdome. And so he is tempted, when vain-glorious men (as if they were wiser then the All-wise God) strive to have that in point of Ceremonious and outward shadows continued, which he (who ties not himself at all times, to the same Rites and Ceremonies) hath appointed (at least, by degrees) at such or such a time, to be discontinued and abolished. A cleer Example whereof, we have in that sharp Contention which arose between the Pharisees and Peter, with others, tou­ching Circumcision and other rites of the Ceremonial law of Moses, which in the judgement of Peter and the rest of the Apostles (whose judgement in that Case, was the judgement even of God himself) were at that time fit to be made Null and Cancelled, Act. 15. thus; Certain men, which came down from Judea, taught the Brethren, and said, Except ye be Circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye cannot be saved, v. 1. which Paul and Barnabas in Opi­nion dissenting from them, and vehemently disputing against them, oppose and deny, v. 2. willing to have that Question deter­mined; but not willing to meddle therein of themselves, with­out the unanimous consent of the Apostles and Elders, v. 2. who being rightly informed by them, of the true state of the Contro­versie in Question; as, that Circumcision was urged by certain of Judea, as a Ceremony most necessary to Salvation, v. 1. and that the keeping of the whole law of Moses, not only the Morall, [Page 42]but also the Ceremonial law was urged by certain of the Sect of the Pharisees which believed, v. 5. as necessary also for the attaining of the same end, they came together to consider of this matter, v. 6. and thus assembled together in Council, to consider of this mat­ter; Peter by whose mouth it was appointed of God that the Gen­tiles should hear the Word of God and believe, v. 7. after much disputing, said unto them, Why tempt ye God, to put a yoke upon the necks of the Disciples, which neither our Fathers, nor we were able to bear? v. 10. In sense; Why thus tempt ye God, by urging Circumcision now and other Ceremonies (once indeed commanded by the law of Moses, but now abolished) why urge ye this as a thing absolutely necessary for the attaining of eternal life? which in its own nature, was never so necessary; for, v. 11. our Fathers, and we are saved no other way, but by the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ; more cleerly revealed now to us in the Gospel, then in former Ages, to our Fathers under the Law: see! that yoke, those Ceremonies in Question, were then (under the law) enjoy­ned even to believers; But now under the Gospel, 'twas thought fit by the Apostles themselves, as most agreeable to the wisdome of God, to take that yoke from off the Disciples necks; wherefore at such a time as that, when the substance, when Christ was exhi­bited, I say at such a time as that, to quarrell about shadows, as those that came down from Judea did, Act. 15.1. imposing cir­cumcision, as necessary to salvation; whereas Paul saith, If ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you Gal. 5.2. nothing: and not yielding to take off that yoke now, newly Antiquated; and therefore now useless Ceremonies of the Law, which before his comming in the flesh, was onely our Schoolmaster to bring us unto Gal. 3.24. Christ, what was this? but sleightly to undervalue and presumtuously to call in question the manifold wisdome of Ephes. 3.10. God, preferring their own, before his; which (by reason of distinct times, requiring a distinct dispensation) was to be manifested one way to the Jews, another way to the Gentiles; the Jews before the comming of Christ, must, according to the wisdome of God, be subject to many rites and Ceremonies (that yoke whereof St. Peter speaketh) but the converted Gentiles, after his comming, must not: must not be any longer under the Paedagogie and Ritual discipline of the ceremonial Law; wherefore Peter here, in the name, and with the consent of the whole Colledge of the Apostles and Elders, [Page 43]rightly charged those with the sin of tempting God, who in this case (highly extolling their own judgement) would not admit of any abolition of those old Ceremonies, though abolished, they were according to the manifold wisdom of God.

Fourthly, In respect of his Fatherly protection over us. And so he is oftentimes tempted, when careless men, altogether negli­gent of the ordinary and appointed means, doe, when there is no cause at all, presumptuously try, whether God will protect and pre­serve them, or not, without such or such ordinary means some other extraordinary way: nothing at all regarding the undeni­able truth of that approved Qui destinat ad finem, desti­nat ad media. Maxime, that God who ordaineth to the end, ordaineth to the means also, which lead to that end. For instance; when Hezekiah was sick unto death, the Lord sent his Prophet Isaiah unto him, and his Message was to tell him, that he should recover of that 2 King. 20.1, 5, 7. sickness; True; but not unless he used the means appointed of God for his recovery; which was, to lay a bunch of figs upon his boil: which done as was appointed, he soon recovered as was promised; but had the means of his reco­very been carelesly neglected, his boil had not been healed; nor he himself restored to his former strength. Again, Paul being in great danger of Shipwrack, in his voyage to Rome, was comfor­ted by an Angel, appearing to him by night, saying, Paul, God hath given thee all them that sayl with thee in the Ship; hath given them (their lives) unto thee; and for thy sake, not one of them shall be drowned; not if they use the means appointed to save their lives: and that means was, to abide in the Act. 27.22, 23, 31. Ship; as Paul himself (after he had conferred with the Angel) said to the Cen­turion, and to the Souldiers, Except these abide in the Ship, ye can­not be saved; which being punctually observed, not one of them perished in the waters; But had they not abode in the Ship (the means of their safety) they could not have promised unto themselves, any the least hope of safety; because, when the means and second causes are rashly neglected, the end, ordinarily, can never be attained; Witness that peevish Jew, who fallen into an unclean place, and refusing to be taken out thence on the Sabbath day (whereas it was lawful to pull an Oxe, or an Asse out of a pit on that Luke 14.5. Periculum a­nimae pellit Sabbatum. day) by that his wilfull tempting God, in neglecting the ordinary means to preserve his life, he lost it before the next day. As many others also doe, even by their [Page 44]own presumptuousness and careless neglect of all good means or­dained to save their lives. And such are they who either ob­stinately refuse the present and proper help of the Physician, in time of sickness; or, that will not (when they are to take a journey) be any waies perswaded, prudently to decline, and avoid this or that imminent and present danger, likely to fall upon them by the way; knowing that Theeves are there, and as dangerous Companions there, &c. foolishly disputing against themselves thus and thus; If God hath ordained that I shall re­cover of this sickness, there is no need of Physick; if not, all that the Physician can doe, is in vain; therefore I will not at all meddle with any of his Diets, with any of his Potions. And again. If it be the good pleasure of God to preserve my life any longer, I shall be safe, even among Theeves; if not, all my pro­vidence, all my industry will avail me nothing; therefore I will adventure to pass, even through the midst of them; thou wilt; more forward then wise; thou wilt; but know, that in thus peevishly following thine own will, thou thereby temptest God, and dost not at all obey his will, who hath given thee an understanding to discern between good and evil; and a will to chuse the good, and refuse the evil: Now 'tis good and acceptable unto God, to make use of the Physitian as a means under God to prolong thy life; and that of our Saviour, which is meant spiritu­ally, may be applied corporally also; this, Matth. 9.12. they that be whole need not a Physitian, but they that are sick; where our Saviour grants that they that need a Physitian, may lawfully use him; but they that are sick need him: Neither was Asa blamed because he sought to the Physitians, but because he sought not to the Lord, but only to the Physitians; putting his whole trust in the one (in man) for his recovery, and none at all in the other (in God) therefore was he 2 Chro. 16.12. blamed. Wherefore that counsel of the wise man is not wilfully to be despised; Honour a Physitian with the honour due unto him, for the uses which you may have of Ecclus 38.1. him: An argu­ment that in time of sickness, it is a lawful means, even appointed of God himself, for our recovery to use the Physitian; and none but such as tempt God, will obstinately refuse his medicines when there is present need of them, and when they may be had; yet still with this care, with this caveat, that we seek chiefly unto God (who giveth the blessing) both before and also when we [Page 45]seek unto the Physitian; 'tis good also in times of danger, to use all lawful means under and subordinate to the providence of our good God, to escape that danger; or else why did David wisely decline the fury of 1 Sam. 18.11. Saul? or why did our Saviour himself, until his hour was come, decline the layings in wait of the Scribes and John 5.13. Pharisees? or why was Paul, to the end that he might escape his hands, let down by the wall in a basket, when the Governour under Aretas the King sought to apprehend 2 Cor. 11.32.33. him? or when the Jews at an other time took counsel to kill Acts 9.24, 25. him? was it not to prove even by example, that whosoever will attain the end, must not carelesly neglect the means; must not despise the middle, or second causes, subordinate to that end? or if they do, the effect thereof will be dishonour to God, and danger una­voydable to themselves. Behold, so it is in temporal things; God is tempted, and the end is not attained, when the means leading to that end are wilfully neglected. Surely 'tis so also in spiritual things: Now faith, repentance, and the preaching of the holy Gospel, are spiritual and heavenly means ordained of God, to bring us to the end, even to eternal life; and therefore 'tis a blasphemous speech of some, who say, If it be the good pleasure of God to save me, to bring me to Heaven, I shall be saved, though in the mean time I be altogether carelesse of the means whereby he will do it: Not so, O man, whosoever thou art, not so; for if thou wilt be saved, that which John the Baptist so earnestly required of the unbelieving Jews, is also required of thee; to repent and believe the Mark 1.14. Gospel; because most true it is, that God who created thee without thee, will never save thee without Qui creavit te sine te, non salvabit te sine te. August. thee; with­out thine own faith, without thine own repentance, when thou art come to years, and in a capacity of both; Believe and thou shalt be saved; eternal life is the gift of God, through Jesus Christ our Lord, Rom. 6.23. True, but that life shall be given to none but to those only that run, and wrestle, and strive and fight to obtain that eternal prize; these being the means appointed of God to obtain it; so run that ye may 1 Cor. 9.24. obtain; we have not digressed in all this; no; yet 'tis time to look back again to the rock from whence all this is hewen; 'tis this, God is tempted seve­ral ways; as when a needless, nay a sinful experiment is made, 1. Of his power. 2. Of his Justice. 3. Of his Wisedom. 4. Of his Fatherly protection over us; and in this latter sense, is our [Page 46] Saviour's answer here to be understood; for to the Divel per­swading him to cast himself down from the pinacle of the Temple, v. 5. No, saith he in sense, that lawfully I cannot do: Why? Because there is another ordinary way to go down, and not (rashly neglecting my Father's provident care over me) to cast my self down, and that ordinary way, those ordinary means must I use, which he hath appointed to preserve me; otherwise I shall be guilty of tempting him, by trying whether he will so preserve me or not, when I am wilfully gone out of my ways; but that I may not do neither; for it is written: and his word shall be my guide in all my ways; and his word is, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God, v. 7. Thus our Saviour answered, and thus also was the Divel, even in this his second assault, most shame­fully repulsed.

Notwithstanding, he soon begins a Qui audit do­minum deum tuum, tamen adhuc tentare non desinit. Chrysolog. de tentati. & je­junio Christi, Serm. 13. third.

Again the Divel taketh him up into an exceeding high Mountain, and sheweth him all the Kingdomes of the world, and the glory of them, v. 8.

And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me, v. 9.

Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve, verse 10.

Lo! Here is much more of impudency in this, then in the two other temptations; and that by the same Tempter, against the same Saviour: For before v. 3, 6. it was but, if thou be the Son of God; but now it is v. 9. If thou wilt fall down and worship me: Satan rather increaseth then decreaseth in his malice; The sum of the third and last Tempta­tion. whose attempts were now high and lofty; and his aim in this third and last temptation, was to fill our Saviour's heart with a covetous desire of worldly glory, and vast possessions; to the end that thereby he might draw him away from the true worship of the true God; knowing well enough that covetuousness is Col. 3.5. Idolatry; and if he could but once perswade him to covet all the Kingdoms of the world; the way he saw was then fairly opened to perswade him also to fall down and worship him, which was the chief end of his temptation; for the archieving whereof, his limited power was now stretched even to the highest Tota potesta­tis commovetur ambitio. Hilar, in Locum. Can. 3. pitch, far higher then the pinacle of the Temple; though with no better successe [Page 47]then when he was on the pinacle, not so high as this exceeding high mountain; or when he was in the wilderness, a lower place; the attempts of a Divel, can no where thrive against a Saviour; for though a threefold cord, as Solomon speaketh, be not quickly Eccles. 4.12. broken; not commonly, and by a weak arm; yet if it be of the Divels hoisting, left to our Saviour's unhoisting, it is quickly broken: As Sampson Judg. 16.9, 12. quickly brake the withes, and new ropes of the Philistines; being in that a type of our Saviour in his; whose two-edged Heb. 4.12. sword, (it is written) was far sharper, effe­ctually to cut asunder this subtilly-wreathed temptation of Satan (the product of his two first) then the sword of Alexander the great was to cleave asunder the Gordian Quint. Curti. lib. 3. p. 25, 26. knot; refusing now, not only the Kingdom of Asia, which that Alexander then coveted, and was now boldly offered unto him by the Divel, inclusively in the bundle of the whole, but also, all the Kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them: He refuseth them all, and will not agree to fall away from his God, by falling down to Satan; and this is the sum both of the Divels proposal, and our Saviour's refusall.

Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus.

And though he were now in the top of an exceeding high mountain (probably in the highest region of his own dominion) yet there was he once more overtopped, overmatched, and his lofty attempts confounded by our Saviour. But we will search more narrowly into the Text, and thence give you several obser­vations: Thus,

Again the Divel taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, v. 8. Again; which noteth that this bad angel, who had been too too busie in tempting before, was as busie still; Finis alterius mali, gradus est futuri; proceeding from one evill to another: Again; in continual motion he was, imitating therein the good Angels, though to a bad end: Again; from the Wilderness to the holy City; from the holy City, to the Pinacle of the Temple; from the Pinacle of the Temple, to an exceeding high mountain: And all this adoe, all this stir, all this moving from place to place, was again to tempt our Saviour: But we will not believe that he thus moved up and down all this time in any other then an oblique motion; 'tis his nature always to be excentrick and [Page 48] irregular, being the cause of all irregularity amongst us; yet we find him in 1 Pet. 5.8. Peter, going, walking about; and in Job 2.2. Job, com­passing the earth; that is, compassing men in everywhere, on every side, that he might catch them in his net: compassing, not leaving any corner of the Earth unsearcht for his prey, the cause of his going about, of his going to and fro, and walking up and down in the Earth, rather then by any circular motion, to at­tempt any thing, which had so much not only of impudency, but also of obliquitie and irregularitie in it.

Again the Divel taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain. Taketh him up; and brought him thither through the ayre, as once he had brought him before from the wilderness to the pinacle of the Temple; And though our Saviour did never follow him whi­thersoever he went; yet at this time, he yielded his body to be carried by him whithersoever he would: not refusing to be taken up into an exceeding high mountain. Now Goegraphers make mention of many such, as Ʋbi in excel­sissimam exur­git sublimita­tem Caucasus. Solin. polyhist. ca. 41. Taurus, which arising from the In­dian Sea, and running along in a continued ridge of hills through many Countries, hath several names, as Imaus, Parae­pamisus, &c. and where it ascendeth to its greatest height, Cau­casus; the Pyrenaean hills, betwixt Spain and France; The Alpes; the hill Atlas, the top whereof cannot be seen; Olympus, whose head reacheth above the clouds;—nubes excedit Olympus; And Tenerif, in the Canaries, which is famous for the highest mountain in the known world. But whether our Saviour were taken up into any one of these, is not here written; and there­fore because the particular mountain is not at all specified, suffici­ent it shall be for us to know onely that it was a Mountain, an exceeding high mountain, into which the Divel now taketh him up; And thither he taketh our Saviour up (probably) for three reasons.

First, To publish and manifest unto men his own natural pride and ambition, being as willing to be known to be a Divel, as that he was one; who ever since his irrecoverable fall (his pride at first causing it) alwaies desireth to be high still, exceeding high, though it be to his own disadvantage as now it was; and as it was before to our first Parents, who out of that pride which he had infused into their hearts, affected an equality, as he himself had done, even with God himself, Gen. 3. So that what is spoken [Page 49]properly of the King of Babylon, may by way of allusion fitly be applyed here; This, How art thou fallen from Heaven O Lucifer, son of the morning? Thou hast said in thy heart, I will ascend into Heaven, I will be like the most Isa. 14.12, 13. High. Lo! 'twas the ambitious haughtiness of a man, there, to Ascend; But 'tis the exceeding high haughtiness of a Divel, here: even of that Lucifer, that coun­terfeit Angel of light, who (by his pride, being fallen himself) tempts men to become proud and ambitious, lofty and high-minded, that when they are at the highest pitch of their ambition, the like may befall them, as was once threatned to Mat. 11.23. Capernaum; thou that art exalted to Heaven; exalted, by pride: Shalt be cast down to Hell; cast down, by punishment; As it fared with the Divel himself, who not keeping his first estate, but leaving his own habitation, Jude v. 6. though he were cast even as low as Hell, yet (as a manifest testimony of his own natural pride) he aspired still to be on high; and this may be one reason, why he now taketh up our Saviour into an exceeding high mountain.

Secondly, That wicked men once knowing him to be the God of this 2 Cor. 4.4. world (as he is to them, ruling in the hearts of the children of disobedience) and perceiving that he could imitate even the true God himself, in many of his works and waies, might the sooner be deceived by him. Thus, God himself long be­fore, and sent up Moses into Mount Deut. 32.49. Nebo, that thence he might shew him at once all the promised land of Canaan; and the Divel now (not ignorant thereof) in imitation of that Act of God, takes up our Saviour into an exceeding high mountain, that thence he also (as a God) might shew him at once all the King­doms of the world; but after what manner, we will enquire after­wards; only 'tis this we are yet speaking of: this, that the end why the Divel oftentimes imitateth the works of the true God, either by himself, as here he did, or by his instruments, is to de­ceive men, and perswade them the more to obey him and imi­tate his works of darkness, to their own ruine. For instance: the Magicians of Pharaoh, the Divels instruments, turned rods into Serpents, and water into Exo. 7.11, 22. blood; in imitation of Moses and Aaron, God's instruments, who had done the like to convince Pharaoh, if it had been possible, and make him understand himself: But the Divels end, by the work of these Magicians (imitating good men, though a bad way) was more and more to deceive and [Page 50]harden Pharaoh (too too much confiding in his Sorcerers, be­cause they had done such miracles) and he attained his end there. He doth the like still; and desireth still to attain the same end, even (by imitating the works of God, to the dishonour of God) to harden the hearts of men and deceive them. And thus surely he dealt here; his work was wonderful, but his inten­tion was deceitful: nothing at all for the honour of God, but rather to perswade men, to admire and adore him for their God, who in this Case had power to doe as much to Jesus, as God himself had done once to Moses; God sent up the one into Mount Nebo to view all the land of Canaan; the Divel in imita­tion thereof (to magnifie his power amongst the sons of men, too too much inclinable by his allurements, to magnifie him, and thereby destroy themselves) taketh up the other into an exceeding high mountain, to shew him all the Kingdoms of the world.

Thirdly, That by his presence there, he might not only defile that place, but also as much as in him was, discountenance and disgrace all those memorable works, which oftentimes, even by the appointment of God himself, without his assistance, have been done since and before, on several other high mountains, though perhaps none of them on that mountain. As the Arke of Noah rested on Mount Gen. 8.2. Ararat; and it was at first resolv'd, and afterwards proposed by the Angel to righteous Lot, that when Sodome was to be destroyed, it was most safe and secure for him to flie into the Gen. 19.17, 18. mountains. Abraham in faith sacrifi­ced his son Isaac on Mount Gen. 22.2. Moriah: a Type that the Son of God (whom the Divel now Tempted) should afterwards be sacri­ficed on Mount Calvary, the same mountain as he Luke. 23.33. was. Solomon's Temple was built also on Mouns Moriah, 2 Chron. 3.1. even on the same Mount where Isaac should have been sacrificed, and where our Saviour Christ was actually Crucified, or very neer unto it; called long before, the threshing floor of 2 Sam. 24.18, 25. 1 Chro. 21.18, 19. 2 Chro 3.1. Ornan, or Araunah the Jebusite, where David built an Altar to the Lord. The Law was given in Mount Exod 19.20. Sinai; and the sound of the Gospel went out from Mount Zion, Act. 2. as was foretold by the Isa. 2.3. Mich. 4.2. Prophets. Nay, our Saviour Christ himself, not long after his tempting preached on a Mat. 5.1. Mount; and after that, was transfigured on a Mat. 17.12. Mount; and last of all, Ascended into Heaven from a Mount, even from the Mount of Olives, neer Bethany, and not far from Act. 1.12. Jerusalem. Lo! many re­markable [Page 51]things and mystical, have been done from time to time on several mountains; and of that the Divel was not ignorant; who (doubtless) was the more willing now to tempt our Saviour on a mountain, that both by his presence there, he might then defile that place, and also that by his practise there, he might disgrace the works of God, that at any time had been done before, or should be done afterwards in such or such places: But howsoever it was, whether 1. For the manifestation of his own natural pride and loftinesse: Or 2. From his emulation, to imitate the works of God, that thereby he might the better de­ceive men: Or 3. From the envy and spite he had within him, prompting him to discountenance and reproach the works of God done at any time in such and such places; howsoever it was, and what other end soever he had in so doing, manifest enough it is from the Text, that the Divel in this his third assault, took up our Saviour into an exceeding high mountain.

And when he had taken him up thither, he sheweth him all the Kingdomes of the world, and the glory of them, v. 8. And that, as S. Luke saith, in a moment of Luke 4.5. time; in the least point of time; which Paul, in another case, calleth the twinckling of an 1 Cor. 15.52. eye; which circumstance rightly weighed, makes it appear more then probable, that all this here, as touching this latter tempta­tion, was done in a Marlor. in Locum. a Vision; the Divel, in a moment of time, presenting, or rather representing all those glorious objects, not to the eyes outwardly, but inwardly to the mind and understand­ing of our Saviour: for otherwise, and after any other manner then in a vision, it was not possible for our Saviour, as man, in uno nunc, in an instant, in a moment of time, and uno intuitu, at one view, actually to behold all the Kingdomes of the world; not possible to do it in so short a time, with the eyes of his body; but in a vision, with the eyes of his imagination possible it was; as Peter in a vision saw at once all manner of four-footed beasts of the earth, and wild beasts, and creeping things, and fowls of the air, in a vessel descending from Heaven, as it had been a great sheet, knit at the four Acts 10.11▪ 10. corners: And possible it was also for Satan thus to represent the forms and portraiture of all those King­domes, to the imagination of our Saviour, as man, in a vision; but as he was God, the Divel had nothing at all to do with him; which is supposed to be the true reason, why S. John, who in [Page 52]his Gospel speaketh principally of our Saviour as Haymo. homil. Domin. prim. Quadrages. God, maketh no mention at all of any of his temptations, which were incident unto him only as man: Besides, all the Kingdomes of the world, and the glory of them, are comprehended within the circumference of two Hemispheres; the one whereof is always above, the other always beneath us; insomuch that if a man were placed in the body of the Sun, and could thence, having strong and un-impedited Opticks, behold the Earth, yet could he not at once see above half thereof; much lesse could he see so much from any mountain, though it were exceeding high. Wherefore when the Texts say, That the Divel shewed our Saviour all the Kingdomes of the world, in a moment of time, this seems to me to be meant after no other manner, then only in a vision; wherein at once (as in an exact Map of the whole universe) all these things were by the Divel set before the ima­gination and understanding of our Saviour, to contemplate on; giving him sufficient time afterwards (no doubt) more leisurely to take a further view of them all, and of the glory of them, which at first, in a moment of time, were shewed unto him in a vision; and that after he had been actually and locally transported by the Divel from the Pinacle of the Temple, to an exceeding high mountain: Or (if you will) let it be otherwise, if any sufficient reason can be yielded by any, how it could be otherwise then only in a vision; though whether it were so or so, is not at all positively determinable from the Text; yet this is thence positively determinable, this, that the Divels temptation, perswading him to covetousness and ambition, took not at all in any wise with our Saviour, As the Serpents did with the woman, Gen. 3. or as the woman's did again with the man, too too credulous and uxo­rious, who had grace enough given him in his Creation (if he would) to resist it; although it was both his and our unhap­pinesse, that willingly he yielded to the voice of his wife, to his wifes temptation: But no such yielding, no such compliance was there here: no; for whether this representation of the worlds beauty were made either to our Saviour's eye, that was not at all delighted with; or to his heart, neither was that any ways affected with all the Kingdomes of the world; notwithstand­ing all these seemed so glorious to Satan, although there were no reason for it; for all are but things meerly transitory; and [Page 53]in respect of that which is divine and heavenly, fit to have no other inscription engraven upon them, then that indelible character of Eccles. 1.1, 2. Solomon written (if I may so speak) on both sides (like the Tragedy of Scriptus & in tergo, nec dum finitus Orestes. Orestes) vanity of vanities, on one side; and vanity of vanities, on the other side; and round about again, all is vanity: All; whether it be the Kingdomes of the world, or the clory of them. But the Divel here was of another judgement, altogether dissenting from that of Solomon; probably because he knew that Solomon himself had much gold brought him from 1 Kings Ophir, hoording it up and delighting in it; the Divel, I say, was of another judgement; and therefore sets a far higher price upon his usurped possessions, then the price of vanity; not willing at all to part either with glory or Kingdomes, without far more then a sufficient recompence; He saith unto him; and what he required by way of recompence for his liberal gift, now to be tendered unto him, the Text tells us thus, All these things will I give thee; by way of compact will I give thee, If thou wilt fall down and worship me, v. 9. if thou wilt; by way of compensation. Surely too too great a retribution for a gift, though in appearance great. But,

He saith unto him. Lo! our Saviour once suffered not the divels to speaks, because they knew Mark 1.34. him; but here he suffered this Divel to speak thrice, because he tempted him; it being necessary that words should now mutually passe between them as interpreters of the mind, of the meaning of each; there is a time to keep Eccles. 3.7. silence, and a time to speak: And this was now the Divel's time; who after his two former repulses, having liberty again to speak, changeth his words indeed in speaking, but not at all his malice in tempting; and because he changeth his usual words, let it be granted that he had now forgotten to say unto our Saviour any more, If thou be the Son of God; being sufficiently convinced (no doubt) that he was so, by his own answer unto him, v. 7. It is written, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God: Meaning that as he himself might not tempt his Father, so neither might the Divel tempt him, who was the Lord his Hilar. in lo­cum. Chrysolog. Serm. 13. God; not as he was a Divel, no, but as he was a creature; and therefore the Son of God, which that other unclean spirit acknow­ledged expresly, Mark 1.24. and surely was not now doubted of by this unclean spirit here, although in words he would [Page 54]not acknowledge it; and because not doubted of, it was not urged any more; notwithstanding, though this Temptation (perhaps, for that reason, because the Divel in that point was already fully satisfied) begins not as the other Two, with If thou be the Son of God: yet still with mischief enough it begins, intended against the Son of God; He saith unto him, all these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me.

O Munificent Malefactor! behold! the Church of Rome hath works of Supererogation, works not commanded, but only coun­selled: works of more perfection then God's Commandments; So they Pilkint. pa­rallel. Contro­vers. 34. speak; a treasury; surely, of rich, of righteous merits, heaped up and pressed together, for the benefit both of quick and Hyper. Metho. Theolog. lib. 2. dead: yet willing they are not, to empty that treasury all at once; or in one Age: being more thristy in disposing of those meritorious works, then so; Meritorious, both for the doers of them themselves (if there be any such) and also for others, who want of their own. But lo ! the Divel here on a suddain is become a profuse Prodigal; willingly content to part with all, even at once, provided he may find one that will too too dearly purchase all at once. Yet somewhat wiser he was, in this offered, then Judas was in that his contracted bargain, who sold his Ma­ster for thirty pieces of Mat. 26.15. silver; whereas the Condition proposed here, required a far higher rate: if not in paying down ready money, yet in falling down, which to Satan was far more accep­table; All these things, all the Kingdomes of the World, all the pomp and glory of them, will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me. O Munificent Malefactor! But Satan, who shall Ca­pitulate and Treat with thee in this business? our Saviour Jesus Christ would not, v. 10. neither will any that are Christ's; wherefore let some Idolatrous Alexander, who thirsted after the Conquest of the whole World; or some covetous Extortioners and biting Vsurers, culld out of the corruptest mass of mankind, making a Wedge of Gold their god, let such or such propose one Question to thee, and let them receive thy positive Answer there­unto, before too too inconsiderately they Seal to thy hard Con­dition; and the Question is, Satan, canst thou warrant this thy bountiful and beyond all measure, most liberal gift: if any will agree to accept it on thy Condition, canst thou warrant it? Yes, I can; For, All the power, and the glory of all [Page 55]the Kingdoms of the World, is delivered unto me; and to whomsoe­ver I will, I give Luke 4.5.6. it. Note; All delivered unto me; that's well; and that is warrant enough indeed, to dispose of thy Kingdoms at thy pleasure, if what thou saiest be true; But 'tis not true Satan, what thou saiest 'tis not; for God himself hath the peculiar claim, and right in that Donation, and in the dis­posal of all those Dan. Kingdoms, which thou so proudly boasteth of; and he hath never given it unto thee: no more then Con­stantine the great did give those large Territories to the See of Rome, commonly called Peter's Patrimony; But what means this that follows in thy pretended Warrant? To whomsoever I will, I give it, Luke 4.6. What means this, I give it? whereas properly that can be no free gift at all, which is bought; and bought at so dear a price too, as this must be; If thou wilt fall down and worship me; for that was thy Condition, proposed to our Luke 4.7. Saviour; All shall be thine, If thou wilt worship me: or, as it is in the Text, all these things will I give thee, on that Condition; that is, If thou wilt become an Idolater and Adore me, as some excellent Crea­ture, All shall be thine, and not otherwise. So that even meer worldlings, who could be well content with such a purchase, as thou in seeming offerest (all the Kingdoms of the world) even such may easily see, that thy warrant becomes no warrant at all: because what is not thine own, thou hast no power at all to dispose of to another; and thy gift becomes as no gift, if it must be bought at so dear a rate; The result is this: thou canst pro­mise fairly indeed, with a purpose to deceive, witness thy first promise to our then Innocent Parents; Ye shall be as Gen. 3.5. Gods; but thou canst not perform what thou promisest; So that all these things given and warranted, become void and as nothing, because nothing can be performed; and therefore 'tis easie to foresee and foretell, that thou shalt hardly find a Chapman; and if not with men, think not with such huge promises to deceive the Son of God; neither boast thou, that thy Condition proposed, was a Condition accepted of; No, no; for that Condition (though proposed) is void and null, where on both sides there is not a mutual consent of Parties to agree and subscribe unto it; But here was no such consent on our Saviours part; no, none at all; and most impudent thou went to offer unto him all the Kingdoms of the world, whose Kingdome is not of this Joh. 18.35. world; to offer unto God, boldly, [Page 56]and as in thine own right, the things that were God's by a most peculiar right; and to condition with the Son of God, to fall down and worship thee, who on any condition cannot fall; most impudent thou wert; though in all humility he descended, and came down from Heaven to save the world, and all that believe in him; far more prizing the conversion of one lost sheep, of one sinner that hath gone astray, and the salvation of one of his elect, that shall never perish, then all the Kingdomes of the world, and the glory of them. Wherefore in vain hast thou tendered thy transitory and mutable Kingdomes to him that is the immortal and eternal 1 Tim. 1.17. King. In vain hast thou offered thy condition, too too much savouring of destruction, to him that is a Saviour (though not thine) and the Author of salvation to all true be­lievers. Well, but did not thy conscience accuse thee, when thou thus temptedst our Saviour to commit Idolatry? fall down and worship me; who hath taught us here below, that Idolaters shall not inherit the Kingdome of 1 Gor. 6. 9. God; as if thou hadst had a purpose (had it been in thy power) to exclude him thence; surely, if it did not, yet his answer could not but smite and terrifie thee, when he sent thee away from his presence with a most wrathful word; and as dreadful as that shall be to all goats, to all repro­bates at the last day, Go ye cursed into everlasting fire, prepared for the divel and his Mat. 25.41. angels: and his answer a witnesse with how much disdain and indignation he rejected both thee, and thy condition, is recorded here, v. 10. Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence Satan; for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.

Then saith Jesus unto him: Then; See! no sooner was our Saviour tempted, even this third time, If thou wilt fall down and worship me; but as soon also was both the Tempter and his temptation rejected, even this third time; our Saviour not willing to entertain any long discourse with him, in any of his temptations. Then 'twas not for the advantage of the woman, to be too too familiar with the Serpent, Gen. 3. 'Tis dangerous for any to be too too familiar with Satan; or to have any long con­ference and communication with him; only when he tempts us, we may speak unto him as our Saviour here did, by way of repulse with indignation, yet not by way of any the least friend­ly compliance, with delight and contentation.

Then saith Jesus unto him; and this he saith, Get thee hence Satan. Lo! thrice did our Saviour here vouchsafe an answer to the Divel; yet no signs of wrath were there in the other two, but only in this last answer to the Divel; and necessary it was that he should be sent away in fury now, who hitherto would not be answered with mildness; when Lenitives cannot prevail, Corrosives must be applied. It is written, v. 4. and again, It is written, v. 7. words of mildeness both, without any the least mixture of any bitter reprehension: But here v. 10. before it comes so far as this, It is written, these words (of fury) are in­terposed; these, Get thee hence Satan: Or as it is Luke 4.8. Get thee behind me Satan: This our Saviour said unto the Tempter; who also upon another occasion, said once the like to Mat. 16.21, 22, 23. Peter, when out of his preposterous zeal, he disswaded him from suffe­ring many things at Jerusalem, tending to the glory of God, and man's salvation: He turned and said unto Peter, Get thee behind me Satan, thou art an offence unto me; for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men: 'Tis thy will that I should be possessed of an earthly Kingdome; but my will is by my suffering death (from which thou disswadest me) to procure for all that shall believe in me an heavenly; and therefore in that thou art of another judgement, counselling me, be it far from thee Mat. 16.22.Lord; this shall not be unto thee; therein thou art like unto Satan; that adversary of mandkind, always envying their happinesse in a Crucified Redeemer; Get thee be­hind me Satan; and know that with much detestation I abhor thy humane counsel; Thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men. See! so willing was our Saviour to suffer for man's redemption, that he was highly offended with any that should any ways attempt to hinder him from suffering for man's redemption; and therefore Peter, guilty of that hainous crime, as our Saviour understood it, was more sharply reprehended for but counselling him not to suffer, then he was for denying him with cursing and swearing, after he was be­trayed by Judas, the first degree of his suffering, Matth. 26. then only the crowing of the Cock put him in mind of his denial and Tergiversation, v. 74, 75. but now 'tis our Saviour himself that sharply checks him for his most unwelcome counsel and presumption: He said unto Peter, Get thee behind me Satan; [Page 58]In sense thus much, do not thou presume to go before and direct me what I shall do; nay, that I shall not suffer; but get thee behind me; be wiser in time to come, and follow thou me willingly in all things, obeying my will, as I do my Hieronym. & Erasmus in locum. Father's; Get thee behind me Satan. His offence (it seems) was very hainous and superlative, that deserved so tart and so severe a reprehension; but Peter was reestablished and reconciled again unto his Saviour: Whereas Satan here was sent away with so much fury, and with such a word of dismission, that he could never be capable of any favourable re-admission: Jesus saith unto him, not only Get thee behind me, but also Get thee hence Satan: Whereas Peter still remained with his Saviour, although at that time (out of weakness, not rightly understanding that it behoved him thus and thus to suffer; which the Divel knew, and malitiously sought to hinder) he had highly provoked and offended his Saviour.

But 'tis the Divel we are now speaking of, and our Saviour's wrathful indignation against him, Get thee hence Satan. The re­buke of Peter was very sharp against the hypocrisie and covetous­nesse of Simon Magus; Thy heart is not right in the sight of God; thou art in the gall of bitterness, and in the bond of Acts 8.20, 21, 22, 23. iniquity. Paul's rebuke was sharper against Elimas the Sorcerer; O full of all subtilty and all mischief; thou child of the Divel, thou enemy of all Acts 13.10. righteousness. But this rebuke of our Saviour here against Satan was far sharper, and more piercing then all: Not so mild as that of God himself, at another time, and in another case, who said unto him, The Lord rebuke thee, O Satan, even the Lord that hath chosen Jerusalem rebuke Zechar. 3.2. thee. But full of the highest indignation he said unto him, Get thee hence, get thee behind me Satan. Behind me; Not suffering him to obtain so much favour as to be set at his left hand; which for a short time shall be granted even to all reprobates, at the day of Mat 25.33. judgement; but Satan here obtains not so much as that; no, because his torment one day shall be far greater then the torment of all reprobates; and the reason is, because the Seducer is far more Culpable then the Seduced; and the punishment shall then be proportioned to the quality both of the sin and sinners; all are prejudged to an eternal punishment; because if they had lived on earth for ever, they would all have sinned against the eternal God for [Page 59]ever; yet not all prejudged to the same degree of eternal pu­nishment, intensively; not; for easier it shall be in the day of judgement for impenitent men, then for monstrously maliticious Divels; though no ease at all can there be for unbelieving, and therefore unpardoned men, continually tormented with Divels.

Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence Satan. And then began our Saviour to be thus wrathfully incensed, when his Fa­ther's glory began first to be questioned; for 'twas not so when the Divel tempted him after his long fasting, to distrust and diffidence in his Father's Providence, v. 3, 4. nor was it so when he tempted him to vain-glory, by casting himself down from the pinacle of the Temple, v. 5, 6, 7. Satan received then, no rebuke at all from our Saviour; No; and the reason was, because in those Two Temptations, the injury was more properly, and more immedi­ately done unto himself; and therefore he could without any indignation at all, patiently bear, and sleight that; But when he saw that the Divel had appropriated unto himself, the honour that was peculiarly due unto God; All these things will I give thee: tempting him to become an Idolater, and so fall away from his God, from his Father; If thou wilt fall down & worship me, v. 9. then his patient meekness was much moved, his wrath was very much kindled, and his fury exasperated to the highest; to teach us, to bear with all patience and long suffering, our own wrongs and injuries; But to be more zealous alwaies in God's cause, then our own; as our Saviour here Aquin. 3. pars Sum. q. 41. Concl. 4. was: who justly provoked by the wrong done unto his Father, most sharply reproved the Divel that had done that wrong unto his Father; saying, Get thee hence Satan, bold, impudent, malitious, exceeding sinful Satan, Get thee hence; I detest thy self, I abhor thy gift; neither am I at all in the least beholding unto thee, in that thou madest the first offer thereof unto me; who will none of thy promises, none of thy Kingdomes, none of thy glory, none of thy power: as Abram said to the King of Gen 14.22, 23. Sodome, I have lift up my hand unto the Lord, the most high God, the possessour of Heaven and Earth, That I will not take from a thred, even to a shoo-latchet; and that I will not take any thing that is thine, lest thou shouldest say, I have made Abram rich. So our Saviour, to his and his Father's ma­litious Adversary, Satan here. I will not accept of any thing [Page 60]thou offerest me; of any thing thou falsly callest thine, or, if it were properly thine own, I abhor and detest both it and thee; Therefore away with thy Kingdoms, away with thy promises, away with thy gift, away with thy condition, away with thy self: Get thee hence, get thee behind me Satan.

Yet (though wrathfully and justly moved thereunto) our Saviour did not thus with indignation dismiss and send away Satan without a special Warrant from his Father's word to doe it; he did not; but as twice before, v. 4. 7. So now again, v. 10. he strongly opposeth his false suggestions, with full power and authority from the Word of truth; and his authority is, It is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. Note; (him only) which positively concludes, that the Divels motion was but in vain, If thou wilt fall down; and wholy excluded him from what he so much desired, even from all manner of religious Worship and Adoration, as not at all due unto him; his proposal conditionally, If thou wilt fall down, being answered here in sense, with our Saviour's flat denial, positively; I will not fall down and worship thee; thou wilt not; Why? for it is written; and one word of my Father's writing is more available to keep me in his fear, then all that thou canst either say or doe, to remove me from it. Thy Ifs and thy Conditions, which are nothing else but the forerunners of thy Temptations, shall never take at all with me; and though thou wilt not alledge a Text rightly, when it makes for me, against thy self, witness thy false dealing with me on the pinacle of the Temple; yet I do rightly alledge here what makes for my self, and wholy against thee: It is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve; Him only; and I may not fall down before thee; this is my Father's Word, this is my Father's will, to keep his own Worship entire unto himself; and so will I keep it, and Worship him only. Thus and thus did our Saviour Answer Satan; partly rebuking his bold impudency, with Get thee hence: and partly denying his suit, with It is written; and this his denial (from which we may, we will, open our way to a further discourse) briefly includes in it Two things. 1. A most just claiming of all Religious worship, as peculiarly due unto God onely. And 2. as just a disclaiming from, and a disavowing of any such worship, as due to any creature on any specious pretences [Page 61]whatsoever, according to the Rule of Affirmative Precepts, which alwaies include in them their Negatives; as on the con­trary, the Negatives alwaies include their Affirmatives; Now the Precept here is Affirmative; Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve; therefore the Negative thereof must needs be, thou shalt not religiously worship any of the Crea­tures; no, not the Divel. Let us then weigh the words im­partially; knowing that we can have no better Argument to defend the Cause of God, then that which is immediately drawn, as this is, from the written Word of God; which is that touchstone to distinguish between counterfeit Gold and true; that Rule, to discern between streight and crooked; that Ballance, wherein falshood is overpoysed by truth; and such a Ballance, such a Rule, such a Touchstone, is this Word here of our Saviour; It is written.

But, Where is it written? Answ. Deut. where God's command to the people by the mouth of Moses, is, Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, and serve him; words aequipollent in sense, though (I confess) somewhat fuller in the Sentence, as it is here in the Text, cited by our Saviour; and if aequivalent they be, and aequipollent in sense, that is sufficient; Now that the sense is one and the same, in both, will evidently appear, by compa­ring both Texts together. Thus,

Moses saith, Thou shalt fear Timebis.the Lord thy God. Our Saviour saith, Thou shalt worship [...].the Lord thy God. Where worship, is put in stead of fear.

Again, Moses saith, And him shalt thou Ipsi servies.serve. But our Sa­viour saith, And him onely [...], Illi soli servies.shalt thou serve; Where this word (onely) is more according to the letters, then is in Moses; Yet in sense, not more then is in Moses; the sound, indeed, vari­eth somewhat, but not the substance, not the meaning; for our Saviour, who is the best Expositor of his own law, having an oc­casion here to urge this Text against the Divel, who tempted him unto Idolatry, concludes thence two things; and prepares his way to the following Conclusions, either by exchanging one word for another (for properly, an absolute changing it is not) or, by supplying the seeming want of one word with another; and then whether we read it as Moses doth, Thou shalt fear; or as our Saviour doth, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God; the sense is [Page 62]still full, and to fear God is not forbidden; when in one place we are commanded to worship him; nor to worship him, when in another place we are commanded to fear him: No; because when the one is but mentioned, the other also presently is included; like Relatives and Correlatives; posito uno, ponitur & alterum; as name but a Father, and you have said enough to include the name of a Son also; and (to go on in order) upon this ground it is, that our Saviour here pur­posely exchanging one word for another, as Timebis, thou shalt fear, for Adorabis, thou shalt worship; positively concludeth according to the true meaning of each Text.

First, That whensoever we come to serve the Lord our God (as we ought) religiously, piously, devoutly, we must bring both with us; both fear and worship; both the inward fear and awe of our heart, and also an humble, lowly, and reverent gesture of our body, as an outward testimony of that inward fear; it being most plain from the compared Texts, that in God's service, worship and fear must always go together, the outward with the inward; the humiliation of the body, with the humility of the soul; the bowing, prostrating and humbling of the body, when we present our selves before our God, by prayer, supplication, thanksgiving, &c. with the filial fear of the heart; which though sometimes it includeth the whole service of Isa. 29.13. Mat. 15.8. God, to be performed by the inner man; yet doth it not at any time exclude the inseparable concomitant thereof, even that outward adoration and religious worship to be performed separately by the body, in that service which is due unto God only; it doth not, and there can be no stronger argument to confirm the truth of this position, then this of our Saviour here, saying, Thou shalt worship, (which belongs to the body) instead of Thou shalt fear, which belongs to the soul: meaning, that God requires both at once; utterly denying unto the Divel all adoration, and prostration of his body, which he required, because even that also (as well as the fear of the heart) was due unto his Father only; which even the Divel himself seemed to acknowledge, when he so much desired to obtain it of his Son. Wherefore in this case of fearing and serving, and worshipping the Lord our God: the body cannot say to the soul, I have no need of thee; neither can the soul say unto the body, I have no need of thee; no more [Page 63]then the eye can say to the hand, or the head to the foot, I have no need of 1 Cor. 12.21. thee: Because our Saviour here saith cleer enough to each, that God to compleat his whole service, hath need of each, hath need of both. I have need of thee, and I have need of thee, for the manifestation of the obedience of the whole man towards me; when he invocates, and calls upon me; when he offers the sacrifice of praise, prayer, and thanksgiving unto me, that his obedience and prayers, and praises, and thanksgivings may be true and reall, and acceptable before me; I have need of thee, the inward fear of the heart; and I have need also of thee, the outward humble posture and reverent gesture of the body: The body in this case, being to the soul as the tongue is to the mind, each the true Interpreter unto others of one anothers meaning; for we cannot judge rightly of the inward, but only by the outward man; whose gesture if it be not humble and reverent when he cometh to serve the Lord, the eye of him that seeth in secret (besides what men see) discovers thereby (if he did not know it otherwise) that his heart is not rightly pre­pared for his service; who requires the [...], the outward worship, veneration and adoration, performed by the body, as the Introduction to, and expression of the inward fear and acceptable sacrifice of the heart: O come let us worship and bow down, let us kneel before the Lord our Maker, is the pious expression of those who out of a religious fear came to serve the Psal. 95.6. Lord; where the latter explains the former words; as, will you know what it is to worship? it is to bow or fall down, and kneel; that outward posture of the body, being the Index of the souls inward bowing and kneeling, and humbling it self in God's sight; but if he be wilfully and obstinately denied the one, he nothing at all regardeth the other; who will be glorified joyntly, both with our body and our spirit, or else he esteem himself not at all glorified with either; which (though many men will not) the Divel himself, who here tempted our Saviour only to fall down and worship him, as some excellent creature, well knew and understood; and therefore he made it his whole work here to deprive God of it, and gain unto himself first the adora­tion of the body; and he did it the rather because knowing that God little or nothing at all valueth the one, if he be denied the other, he doubted not but by degrees he should gain [Page 64]unto himself the fear of the heart also; attempting to do it by taking away from God that which is peculiarly due unto him in his own service, outward adoration. And surely this, and only this was the direct way to do it; for take away one from God, and you take away both; take away outward worship, and you are in the next way to take away inward fear too; because such is the heart of man, deceitful above all things, that surely it is not, neither indeed can it be rightly intent to the service and fear of God inwardly, when there is no care at all taken outwardly to expresse it, but only by a posture slovenly and irreverent; which though it be not directly a falling down to Satan, which is here forbidden; yet is it a direct denying of that which is properly due unto God, and here commanded; Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God: Religious worship always pre­supposing inward fear; and that in the service of God, always requiring outward and reverent adoration. So we preach, and so we rightly conclude even from the Text; because our Saviour therein rightly interptreteth, thou shalt fear, by thou shalt worship the Lord thy God: And I cannot apprehend what other meaning or purpose he should have by thus exchanging one word for another, but only to let all men know that the inward fear which is due to the Lord our God, ought not by any to be sepa­rated and disjoynted from his outward worship, from bowing, falling down, and kneeling, when we offer the sacrifice of our hearts to the Lord our God.

Secondly, Our Saviour here, by supplying the seeming want of one word with another; as him shalt thou serve, with him (only) shalt thou serve; rightly concludeth farther that that (and none but that) was the true meaning of Moses; although in that place, Deut. 6.13. it was not expresly written by the pen of Moses; neither is this supplementary word of our Saviour (if I may so call it) any reall addition at all to the Text of Moses; no, but rather a true Exposition it is of that Text, which the [...]. Greek version (or if you will Animadversion) afterwards took special notice of; whence our Saviour himself cites this, and approveth of it as the genuine sense of Moses; as indeed it was: For he that commands, v. 13. Thou shalt serve the Lord thy God; and immediately v. 14. forbids, Ye shall not go after other gods, of the gods of the people round about you: What doth he but command [Page 65]in sense (and that is Scripture, which is the true sense of the Scripture) Thou shalt serve the Lord thy God only: which is fully expressed in the like case, 1 Sam. 7.3. If you do return unto the Lord with all your hearts, then put away the strange gods, and Ashtaroth from among you, and prepare your hearts unto the Lord, and serve him only. You cannot, you may not serve God and Idols; God and Mammon; but God only must you serve, and not Mammon, not Idols; nothing in Competition, nothing in Opposition with God, must so far withdraw us from our duty, as to rob him of his peculiar honour, who is a jealous God, and will not that what is properly his own, should be given to any other; Impatiens consortis erit; but all the fear, piety, and devotion of our hearts; and all the Religious worship, and reve­rence of our bodies; all our service, whether in outward expressi­on or inward affection; all is due to the Lord our God only; and surely there is good reason for it, because all that we have, either for the preservation of our bodies, or for the salvation of our souls, all is originally from him only; for what hast thou that thou hast not 1 Cor. 4.7. received? and if received, as we have all things corporal, all things spiritual, all things temporal, all things eternal from the Lord our God, 'tis but just that with the whole man we should fear, and religiously worship the Lord our God, and serve him only; 'tis but just.

Thus hitherto the meaning of this Text here cited by our Saviour, against Satan, is plainly opened, even to the Conviction of Satan; and we see that thou shalt worship, is not without good cause written in the place of thou shalt fear; neither is this word (only) a superfluous word, but such as neither Text can stand without it; the one wanting the word, but not the sense; the other rightly retaining both word and sense: Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve: which is our Saviour's final answer to Satan, directly opposite to his Condition, If thou wilt fall down and worship me; and such an answer it is, that it justly claims all religious worship, as pro­perly and peculiarly due unto his Father only; and he might not presume by any means, to give any part thereof to Satan; the claiming of it as properly due to God, being a disavowing of it as any ways due to any creature; which when the Divel heard, he replied no more: This Get thee hence Satan, was enough to [Page 66] confound him: but this It is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord; thy God, and him only shalt thou serve, was enough to conquer him and as before v. 4, 7. fully convinced, he had nothing more to say against the Deity of the Son of God; so now fully satisfied (no doubt) by this answer of our Saviour, that all religious worship was due to God only, and none at all to creatures (and therefore none at all to him) he dares say no more for any fur­ther promoting of Idolatry between himself and the Son of God; and that he was fully satisfied in this point, acknowledging that what our Saviour said was true, we conclude from his own deep silence here, from his own not replying any more.

Yet this is more then the Church of Rome will acknowledge, and willingly subscribe unto; though they cannot but know, that our Saviour in the Text determineth the Question positively against them; for he who to vindicate his Father's honour, said to the Divel, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve: surely never meant that any creature, how excellent soever, whether Angels or men; whether Martyrs or Saints departed, &c. should any ways be sharers with him in his own peculiar right of religious worship and adoration; never meant it, but the clean contrary; and so the Angel rightly understood it, though they will not; for when he saw John fall at his feet to worship him, he forbad him, saying, See thou do it not; I am thy fellow-servant, and of thy brethren, that have the testi­mony of Jesus; worship Rev. God: Thereby both correcting the error of John, who offered that worship unto him which was not his due; and also directing him to offer it to him only to whom it was peculiarly due; worship [...]. God: not me, not an Angel. And Paul erred not, when he justly condemned the worshiping of Col. 2.18. Angels; and if Angels may not be worshipped with religious adoration, much lesse may men, whether living or dead. Not living men, no; for when Cornelius met Peter, and fell down at his feet and worshipped him, he took him up, saying, Stand up, I my self also am a Act. 10.25, 26. man. A strong Argument that no man living is worthy of any religious adoration. The like we may conclude also in this case, from that discreet and modest carriage of Paul and Barnabas, Acts 14. thus after Paul had wrought a Miracle at Lystra, on a man that was a creeple from his mothers womb, v. 8, 9, 10. the superstitious people of that place [Page 67]would haxe sacrificed unto them, v. 13. which when the Apostles, Barnabas, and Paul heard of, v. 14, 15. They rent their cloaths, and ran in amongst the people, crying out, and said, Sirs, Why doe you these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and preach unto you, that you should turn from these vanities, unto the living God; From these vanities; utterly refusing from them any Religious adoration; knowing that the Master's due was not to be ascribed unto the Servant; nor the peculiar right of the Creator unto the Creature; And if living men, and such as are present with us (though of never so great Eminency, though Apostles, and Apostolical men, such as Peter, and Barnabas were) if such are not capable of Religious worship, much less are dead men and Saints departed, who are absent from us, and cannot help us; whom we then sufficiently honour, and as much as God himself requireth of us, 1. When we remember them with all Christian reverence, as the Instruments while they lived of his August. de Civ. Dei lib. 8. cap. 27. glory. 2. When we thankfully bless God for them, and for the benefits he vouchsafed by them unto his Church. 3. When we imitate their vertues, their repentance, their faith, their love, their humility, their meekness, their patience, &c. wherein they excelled; But Christian Religion, saith De vera re­lig. cap. 55. Austin rightly, tea­cheth us not, in any wise, to worship dead men.

Notwithstanding, though we have express Deut. 10.20. Matth. 4.10. Scripture (as this we now speak of) & therein also several Examples against them, in this Case; yet the Romish Church (refusing to be guided by either) regards not at all, either what the Angel said to John, or Peter to Cornelius, or Paul and Barnabas, to those Idolatrous peo­ple at Lystra or God himself to the people, by the mouth of Moses, or what our Saviour here said to the Divel; It is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him onely shalt thou serve. A Text strong enough (were not men wilfully obstinate) to over­throw all Popish Idolatry in this Case, upheld and underpropped only with certain weak and unwarrantable distinctions, repug­nant to the Word of God, and forged in their own braines for the promoting of their own Cause; And if I should tell them plainly, that in this, they are more malapert then Satan was, I need not go far for evidence cleer enough to prove it; for after the Divel had once heard what our Saviour said as touching this matter, in point of Religious worship, wholy denied unto [Page 68] Creatures, he (though insolent enough before) immediately ceased to reply any more; but these, though they daily hear it, yet they still reply; and (too too much relying on their own Inventions) affirm still, that some kind of Worship and Adoration is properly due to Saints and Martyrs departed: nay, even to their very Reliques, &c. which (say what they can) will be found to be Religious worship, proper unto God Quem sanctis cultum defe­runt Papistae, nihil reipsa differre a Dei cultupalam est. Calvin. Institu. lib. 1. c. 12. S. 2. onely, and al­together disavowed in the Text, as any ways due to any Creature. Lo! this is their doctrine; this is one point of their Religion; and upon this ground, they Invocate and call upon dead Saints, who cannot hear them; and expect help and succour from such who in time of need cannot relieve them; Or, if they could, are not at all to be adored by them; And did but those glorious Spi­rits now know what were done on Earth, they would still refuse such Adoration, as Peter, and Paul, and Barnabas did, while they were on Earth.

Now that the Papists maintain such forbidden Religious wor­ship and adoration, as due to Creatures, thereby to uphold their Invocation of Saints, is more then manifest even from their own writings, and by their own practice answerable thereunto; for it is the positive conclusion of Controvers. lib. 1. ca. 13. de sanctor. beatit. Bellarmine, that to the holy Angels and Saints in Heaven is due (though less then divine, yet) more then Civil, or humane honour and worship; And if the Jesuite had not otherwhere fully explained Idem, ibid. ca. 12. himself, yet plain it is by this, that (to make his own assertion the more plausible) he distinguisheth of three sorts or kinds of Worship. 1. Divine. 2. Lesse then Divine yet more then Civil. 3. Civil or Humane. The first in shew, he reserves for God. The second, for Angels and Saints in Heaven. The third (the Civil or Humane) he maketh use of, as an Argument to uphold the second, which he calleth more then Civil; Thus; men civilly honour one another while they live Idem, ibid. cap. 12. on Earth: therefore Saints in Heaven must be honoured with more then that; No, nor with so much as that, as it any ways rela­teth to religious worship; Although we deny not, but that with a pious and precious commemoration of them and their vertues, they ought always to be honoured of us, even now they are in Hea­ven; This we grant and allow, a pious commemoration of them, but no adoration at all of the Saints in Heaven, do we allow; neither may we, under what name soever it be subtilly couched, [Page 69]to ensnare and entice men unto Idolatry; besides, an Argument thus drawn from Civil worship, which is meerly humane, to esta­blish that which is meerly divine (as all Religious worship is, not admitting of magis and minus, more and less, though the Jesuite without any warrant from the Word of truth, mince and part it into minorem divino, less then Ʋbi supra. Divine; and majorem civili, more then Civil) will not hold at all in Christ's School.

But let us hear the Jesuites distinction, together with what the Fautors thereof say first, in their own Termes: and then see whe­ther it hath any weight at all in it, or not, to grant that worship to any Creature, which our Saviour here, disputing against Sa­tan, absolutely denyes to all. Now their Terms are these; Latria, Doulia, and Bel. ubi supra. Joan. de Com­bis, Compend. Theol. lib 1. c. 58. Boskhi. Ara Coeli Con­ci. 22. Lodovic. Ʋives in Au­gust. lib. 10. de Civit. Dei, c. 1. Hyperdoulia. The first, the Latria, or Divine worship, they pretend, they reserve unto God onely; but in that they give any Religious worship at all to Creatures (as by their distinction it appears they doe) it is neither against sound reason, nor sacred Religion, to say (how fair soever their pretences be) that they reserve none at all to God: who must have all, or else he accepts of none; All, whole and entire unto himself, or else he hath none at all unto himself.

The second, the Doulia or Saint-worship, they reserve onely for Creatures: granting that to Saints which by our Saviour was here deny'd to Satan; wheras in the word of God, there is no difference at all between the one and the other, between the Latria and the Differentia Latriae & Dou­liae & nulla est. Par. in cap. 1. ad Roma. v. 9. Fest. Hom. dis­put. 35. adver. sus Pontifici. Thes. 1. Doulia; as will appear afterwards; And because among holy Creatures, the humanity of our Saviour doth singularly excel, for that it is inseparably united to the Person of the Word; and fur­ther, because the Mother of God ( [...]) the blessed Virgin far exceedeth other Saints; this Doulia or Saint-worship, they subdivide again into Doulia, properly so called, as common to all Saints; and Hyperdoulia, more then Creature or Saint-wor­ship, peculiar only to the blessed Virgin, and the humane Na­ture of Christ. Lo! these are the rotten branches of their own distinction, as touching Religious worship; and to whom in their judgement it belongeth; The Latria being seemingly given to God; the Doulia evidently given to Saints; and the Hyperdoulia really given to the blessed Virgin, and the humane Nature of our Saviour.

The Third is Civil and humane worship, proper only unto [Page 70]men alive; as to Parents, to Magistrates, to Wise men, to Learned men, &c. whom we ought civilly to honour, either for their rela­tion excellent gifts and vertues imitable by us; or for their bounty and goodnesse unto us: Such was the honour and reve­rence that Abraham gave the the Sons of Heth, in testimony of his thankfulnesse for their kindnesse towards him, in granting him a parcel of ground to bury his dead in; He stood up, and bowed himself to the people of the Gen. 23.7, 12. Land: incurvavit se. Such meeting, after they had been deprived for the space of twenty years at the least, of each others company, Gen. 3 i. 38. He bowed himself unto the ground seven times, until he came neer unto his Gen. 33.3. brother. And such also was the honour Joseph's brethren gave unto him, when they fell down before his face, and said, Behold, we are thy Gen. 50.18. servants: All civil worship, warrantable and ap­provable, all; provided that it be not any way sowred with the Jesuites Bellar. ubi supra. ca. 11. leaven; who thence falslly concludeth, that even creatures (the point in controversie) are capable of religious worship (for such it is they give them under the name of Doulia) because Abraham bowed to the people of the Land where he then was; Jacob to Esau; and his brethren to Joseph: Un­justly therein condemning Calvin, whose Orthodox judgement was, that the actions of all these were but testimonies of Civil honour, reverence, and deportment, far from the guilt of any religious Institut. lib. 1. cap. 12. Sect. 3.adoration; civil worship, then in testimony of such honour, reverence, and thankefulness as is due to such or such rightly managed, this is every way justly allowable, and not at all condemned in the Text; wherefore laying aside that (as not altogether pertinent to our present purpose) let us re-assume and view again the other part of the Jesuits distinction, fairly set forth under the name of Latria, Doulia, and Hyper­doulia; and consider what colour or shew of truth it carries with it: Surely none at all, it being invented and maintained meerly to give the Angels and Saints in Heaven, more then their due, as you have heard; and in the mean time to rob the God of Heaven of his whole due, in point of religious worship and adoration; for if we give part of this honour to Saints, and part unto himself, as the Church of Rome doth, he esteems it [Page 71]as if we gave him none at all: My son, give me thy Prov. 23.29. heart; thy whole heart: So my son, worship the Lord thy God, and worship him only: but if thou worship Saints with the Doulia, which (though the Jesuite would have it so) is no ways proper unto them; thou canst not at all rightly worship God with the Latria; thou canst not, because both are his due (though the Jesuite will not grant it) both the Doulia and the Latria: and hence it is that this distinction of the Romane party (though in favour as they pretend of Saints and Angels) is not without just cause by many of our modern and judicious Divines, quite exploded, and rightly branded with the name of a Juell against Harding of adoration of Images, Artic. 14. p. 381. simple, a counterfeit and Fulke in his defence of the English Translations of the Bible, ca. 19. p. 185. bold, a vain, Par. in cap. 12. ad Roman. dub. tert. p. 1230. an idle, and an halting Boys on the Gospel, for the first Sunday in Lent. Calvin. institut. lib. 1. ca. 12. Sect. 2. distinction; and that justly too, chiefly for two reasons.

First, Because it hath not, no not the least foundation at all (as it is made a distinction) in the holy word of Pet. Martyr. loc. com. class. 2. ca. 5. Sect. 13. God; neither was it ever heard of, either in the Apostles time, or among the Greek and Latine Fathers in the Primitive Church, until almost four hundred years after Christ; for (before the Romane faction was hatched) invented it was first by St. Augustine, who flourished in the fourth Century; a man better ver'st in the Latin then in the Greek Idem ibid. Sect. 12. Perk. problem. against worshiping of Saints. Fulke on the Rhe­mish Testa­ment, Mat. 4.10. Tongue; yet indeed by him it was not, in that sense as now it is made use of in the Church of Rome, to give the Doulia unto Saints: no; for that Father gave both unto God; to the Lord God; which they do not: the Latria he gave unto him as God; the Doulia, as Qu. 94 super Exod. Lord; to one and the same God both; and according to, his distinction, to Saints nothing: using it only to distinguish between religious worship, proper only unto the Lord our De Civitat. dei lib. 10. ca. 1. God; and between civil worship, proper only unto men, not so much as dreaming then that any could suppose that religious worship was communicable unto creatures: No, the Christian world was not so soon infe­cted with that Idolatry; neither was this word (Doulia) abused then (as now it is) to Patronize it.

Secondly, That this distinction is but an halting one, appears also for another reason, and that is, because these two words, [...], and [...] (about which the whole controversie ariseth) [Page 72]are words used oftentimes promiscuously, not only in Prophane writers; but also in the holy Scripture, to signifie one and the same, and not different things; there being only a verbal, not any reall, not any substantial difference at all between them, no more then there is between two Synonymas, as gladius and ensis; both signifying a Fest Homm. disput. 35. Thes. 1. Par. in cap. 1. ad Rom. v. 9. & in cap. 12. dub. 3. sword; and if there be none other then a verbal difference between them, only in pronuntiation, not in signification, each or both expressing but one and the same thing, but one and the same religious worship, which is due unto the Lord our God only; then surely it cannot be, that any reall distinction should be raised from them; no not though the Church (as the Jesuite Bellarm. ubi supra. ca. 14. granteth, meaning the Romish Church) divide and distinguish them; for no power hath man to put that asunder, which God inseparably hath joyned together.

Now that these two words do promiscuously, and interchange­ably signifie one and the same thing; and that 1. In prophane writers, the Jesuite himself Ʋbi supra. confesseth, with others out of Suidas, Xenophon, Valla, Lodovic. Vi­ves in August. lib. 10 ca. 1. de Civitate Dei Pet. Martyr. ubi supra. Sect. 13. Muscul. loc. com. de cul­tú Dei. Sect. 1. Pare. in cap. 12. ad Roman. Dub. 3. p. 1232. Perk. problem. p. 530. of wor­shipping of Saints. Phavorinus. Nay 2. That even in the holy Scriptures also they are so used, sometimes the one, sometimes the other, and each mutually for one and the same religious worship, due unto God only, is most plain and manifest in both Testaments.

First, In the Old: and that in many places; we will name but few; Thus; Ye shall serve the Lord your God, saith Moses; Ye shall Exod. 23.25. serve: which the Greek Interpreters, from the Hebrew word (Abad or Avad, which signifies to Par. ubi su­pra. p. 1231. serve) render, [...] Again, Thou shalt serve the Lord thy Deut. 6.13. God: [...], and They put away the strange Gods from among them, and served the Lord; Judg. 10.16. [...]. Again, the other word ( [...]) is also used in the same sense, notwithstanding the same word (Abad) be the Originall as before; as, You shall serve the Deut. 13.4. Lord; [...], Serve the Lord with all your heart, 1 Sam. 12.20. [...] and serve the Lord with Psal. 2.11. fear; rendred also by the same word, [...]: Now if one and the same Hebrew word (Abad) be rightly rendred by the Greek Translators, sometimes by [...], and sometimes by [...]; Nay, by the latter oftner then by the former, as touching that Service and Worship which is proper only unto God, an Argument undeniable certainly [Page 73]it is, that as these words, whether it be the Latria, or the Doulia, signifie both but one and the same thing; so also, that one and the same Worship meant thereby, is to be given to none other but to God only, and cannot by any means be communicable unto Creatures; Nay, even in the Books Apochryphal, which the Papists so much magnifie, the same word (their Doulia) whereby they express their Saint, or creature-worship, is appropriated unto none but only unto God; as, O Lord, Let every Creature serve Judith. 16.17. thee; [...]; And my Son, If thou coms to serve the Ecclus 2.1. Lord [...].

Secondly, The same is confirmed also in the New Testament; as Luke 2.36, 37. Anna the Prophetess served God; [...]. And saith Paul, After the way which they call Heresie, so worship I the God of my Acts 24.4. Fathers; [...]. So to the Israelites belongs the service of Rom. 9.4. God, [...]; turn but the leaf, and presently you shall find another word of the same sense, expressing the same thing; as Act. 20.18, 19. I have been with you at all seasons, serving the Lord; [...]. And he that in these things serveth Rom. 14.18. Christ; [...]. And again, ye serve the Lord Col. 3.24. Christ; [...]. Besides Paul oftentimes calling himself the servant of Jesus Rom. 1.1. Phil. 1.1. Christ, expresseth it by [...]. 'Tis enough, the words though two in sound, are but one in sense; and therefore by this frivolous and unwarrantable distinction, there can be no sure ground to entitle the Angels and Saints in Heaven to reli­gious worship and adoration, God's peculiar due, to whom (as you have heard) both the Latria and the Doulia properly be­longeth; and if that which is meant by both (both signifying but one and the same thing) be due unto God only, just cause there is that this distinction (that being thereby distinguished, which in God's word is not distinguishable) should be utterly rejected and exploded, as it is.

Neither is that other term of theirs (namely the Hyperdoulia, or more then Saint-worship) worthy of any better acceptance; for though under a plausible pretence, invented it was at first, even to honour the humanity of our Saviour, and the person of his Mother, the blessed Virgin Mary, with religious adoration; yet in vain invented it was under that pretence, and to that end: In vain, because the humane nature of Christ, simply considered in it self, and without any relation at all to his Deity, is not [Page 74]God, but a meer Aquin. summ. 3. pars. q. 25. Conclu. 1. creature; and therefore not to be worshipped, not with the Latria, or God-worship, as the Jesuite and his party themselves confesse out of Pet. Lum­bard. 8. Intent. lib. 3. Distinct. 9. A.B. Alfons. [...] Castro lib. 2. advers. hares. in verbo, Ado­ratio. Aquin. ubi supra. con­clus. 2. Damascene: No, nor with the Hyperdoulia neither; for the rule is, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God: but the humane nature of Christ is not God; yet considered as it is united by an Hypostatical and personal union to his Deity, then with relation to whole Christ, God and man, God manifested in the flesh; then as it so subsisteth indi­visibly in one and the same person (without whom it never subsisted) it is (we confesse) to be worshipped with one and the same divine adoration, that is properly due unto the same divine person: So (as God and man in one person) his Disciples wor­shipped him, after his [...] Mat. 28.17. resurrection: So the wise men also that came from the East worshipped him, Mat. 2.2, 11. Guided they were to Jerusalem by a star, in respect of their journey; but surely guided they were by the holy Spirit of God, in respect of their judgement: apprehending (no doubt) some­what divine in him, which is the object of religious worship, due to God only; as preheminency is of civil worship, due unto man: [...]; they fell down and worshipped him; him, whole Christ; but his manhood, single and apart, surely neither worshipped; neither his Disciples, nor the Wise men: And as for his blessed Mother, that pure Virgin, the last men­tion we hear of her in holy Scripture, was that of her Son unto her concerning John, Woman, behold thy John 19.26. Son; woman, blessed she was among women, even by the Angel's Luke 1.28. testimony, while she was on Earth; and no doubt is most blessed among Saints now she is in Heaven: Yet because she is a creature, she is not to be honoured with divine adoration: she is not; So Epiphanius fully concerning this Lib. 3. Haeres cap. 79. cited by Perkins in his Reformed Catholick, and by De Pilking­ton in his Pa­rallela. Contr. 7. matter; Let none (saith he) adore Mary, who is holy and honoured, yet not to adoration: And God would not have the Angels to be adored, much less the blessed Virgin; whom her Son a little before his death, called woman, that none too too much admiring her holiness, might fall into Heresie and Idolatry. Whereof that the Church of Rome is wilfully guilty, both their vain distinction of Doulia, Saint-worship; and Hyper­doulia, more then Saint-worship: and their practical doctrine thereupon makes clear and evident. But let us return again to our Saviour's answer here to the Divel tempting him, to fall [Page 75]down and worship him; No, saith our Saviour, for, It is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve, v. 9.10. Which (let the Divel, or any whom he hath de­luded say what they will) positively excludes all creatures, how eminent soever, from any, even the least claim to religious worship and adoration; and (as a learned writer De Fulke on the Rhe­mish Testa­ment. Luke 4.8. saith) may as rightly be alledged against the Church of Antichrist, for adoring creatures; as it was by our Saviour, against the Divel himself; who required nothing of him, but only the [...] a falling down unto him, and that not as unto God, but as to some excellent Calvin, In­stitut. lib. 1. cap. 12. Sect. 3. creature; and consequently nothing else re­quired he of him, but that doulia (a term then not invented) which the Papists now so boldly give unto Saints and Angels; yet even that was utterly denied unto him by our Saviour: Neither was any more offered to the Angel by John; or to Peter by Idem ibid. Cornelius; or to Paul and Barnabas, by the super­stitious multitude at Lystra; yet neither the one nor the other would any ways accept of what was offered, because they well understood that God's due only; a falling down, and worshipping, was not at all, under any pretence whatsoever, due unto them, who were but creatures; and because not due, though offered it was unto them, yet was it not accepted by them; though Satan (not ignorant that it was not due unto him, even for that reason, because he was a creature) impudently required it, and would as willingly have accepted it, had not our Saviour with indignation rejected him, and made him understand, that it was not due unto him; saying, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.

Lo! thus was Satan again repulsed by our Saviour, with It is written; and thus repulsed again, then he leaveth him, v. 10. And 'twas high time to leave him then, when he found it not safe for himself to tempt any more; either to turn stones into bread; or to cast himself down from the Pinacle of the Temple; or to fall down and worship him: which as it was of all the last, so was it of all the most impudentest temptation: Like the Natural motion, which is the most vehement in the end. Then the Divel leaveth him: That is, then he ceased to tempt any longer, because he clearly perceived that it was but in vain to tempt him any longer; pugnat non August in 1 Epist. Johan. cap. 2. expugnat; knowing that [Page 76]his labour was but lost to strive with him, who in every Temp­tation was too mighty for him. Then he leaveth him; or as it is Luke 4.13. When the Divel had ended all the Temptation, he departed from our Saviour for a season. Lo! He leaveth him; he departed from him: Words they are (we confesse) noting a Cessation on the Divels part, in respect of his tempting; but no way doth it note any slow pace in respect of his departing, after he had ended the Temptation: No; for if his motion be fitly compared unto flying, when he is resisted by a Saint, as St. James saith, Resist the Divel, and he will flee from you, 4.7. He will flee; much more (no doubt) did he now flee, when he was resisted by a Saviour; as 'twas time for Cataline to flee, when he was rebuked by the Senate; abiit, excessit, erupit, evasit. Solinus relateth strange things of the swiftness of one Philippides, and Philonides, two in favour with Alexander the great, for their hasty speed in Polyhist. cap. 6. p. 53. running: But 'tis no strange thing to hear that Satan is swifter then all. I beheld Satan, saith our Saviour, after his Gospel began to be preached, I beheld him as lightning fall from Luke 10.18. Heaven: As lightning; now lightning, we know is as soon vanished as seen; and as soon was Satan here vanished, as sharply reprehended; Get thee hence Satan. Yet probably in this his great haste, after he had left our Saviour, he stayed in this place, and that place, to salute some by the way, that ac­quainting them with his ill successe, in the fore-mentioned Temptations, and with his desire of revenge for that ill successe, he might subtilly infuse his poyson into their hearts, as he did, and make them fit instruments to assist him another way, and at another time, who then left our Saviour, and departed from him but for a season. And such as he then saluted by the way, notwithstanding his great speed (we will suppose) were besides many other, the malitious Jews, the proud Scribes and Pharisees, the chief Priest, and Elders of the people, Judas, the false witnesses, Herod, Caiphas, Pontius Pilate, with the scoffing and bloudy Souldiers; who (within three years afterwards) instigated thereunto (as his Seconds) by the malice of the now raging Divel, so furiously assaulted our Saviour (not by tempting, but by conspiring against him, by betraying him, by reviling him, by s [...]itting on him, by buffeting him, by scourging him, by condemning him) that at last they [Page 77]brought him to his death; which in their purpose was wholly to cut him out of the Land of the living, and utterly destroy him; but in God's purpose it was far otherwise, even to raise him from death again, and highly exalt him, as he did by his glorious re­surrection: whereby he was declared to be the Son of Rom 1.4. God; and the conqueror of Satan: and farther Gods purpose also herein was (though neither the Divel, nor the obstinate Jews, who had no share nor part therein, would acknowledge it) even that his Son's grief and sorrows should procure our joy; that his wounds and bruises, and stripes, should procure our healing; that his sufferings, should promote his Churches salvation; and that his death should become their life; as it Moritur Chri­stus, non ut per­dat brevem vitam, sed ut conferat sem­piternam, &c. Fulgent. Serm. de Epiphan. p. 656. & ca. 8. de Incarnat. & gratia Chrifti, p. 715. did. So that even in this also, Satan and all his Hell-infected Instruments, had the total overthrow, and were wholly frustrated of their wicked designs and purposes, when our Saviour, both for himself and chosen, obtained a Triumphant victory over Hell and them. But we are speaking now of the Divels behaviour, after he had been thrice conquered by our Saviour (before he entred on his Ministry) both in the Wilderness, on the Pinacle of the Temple, and on an exceeding high Mountain; thus when he found him­self too too weak to prevail against him (not willing to desist, until he was out of all hope of victory) then he leaveth him.

Then; And (had we no other proof for it, yet) this leaving, and departing then, in respect of Satan, was a manifest sign that our Saviour then had obtained a signal victory over Precedit Tentatio, ut se­quatur victoria Hieron. in Mat. 4. v. 11. Satan; besides what he gained afterwards by his death and resurrection. When that bloudy Battel was fought between Caesar and Pompey, in the Thessalian (Pharsalian fields) one Cornelius (a man skilful in Heathenish Divination) though at that time far remote from either Army, said, even on that very day that the Battel was fought between them, that he saw the miserable state of the whole Camp on both sides; and that (after sundry hot, violent, and bloudly assaults on each side) some yielded, some fled, some were wounded, and many slain; suddenly crying out at last (as it came to passe) that Caesar was the Subito ex­clamavit, Cae­sarem vicisse. Aul. Gell. Noct. Attic. lib. 15. cap. 18. Conqueror. But there was no need of any such divination here, to foretell who should get the victory: No; for even the departing of Satan from our Saviour, and his leaving him, was a sufficient argument that he was then triumphantly conquered by him: And this happy victory [Page 78]of our Saviour over Satan, was the blessed event and issue of his three-fold Conflict and continued Combate with Satan, which then had an end; when Conquered by him, he departed from him; that being then fulfilled which our Saviour said of him­self afterwards, The prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing in John 14.30. me: no power over me. And what Caesar once said of his own speedy victories, veni, vidi, vici; I came, I saw, I Sueton. in vita C.J. Cae­saris. cap. 18. over­came; may far more truly be said here of our Saviour's against Satan; for 'tis plain, that by the powerful motion of the holy Spirit, he came into the Wilderness, and to other places, there he saw his, and our Adversary, Satan, and there (in every place) he soon conquered him whom he saw; and being most victoriously conquered, then he leaveth him. God grant that he may also always leave us, who care no more for his company, then our Saviour here did, when he said unto him, Get thee hence Satan; Get thee hence; dictum, factum; and he leaveth him; Exit. And at this time, in respect of his Tempting, we will speak no more of Satan; who so soon as he was departed from our Saviour, Behold, Angels came and ministred unto him, v. 11.

Angels mi­nister to our Saviour. Behold! And indeed wonderful strange it is, to consider what a change here is wrought on a suddain; but even now, though not under the power, yet under the temptation he was of Satan; but lo! presently exempted and delivered he was from all the malice and Temptation of Satan; and delivered, Behold, Angels came and ministred unto him.

Behold! Surely 'tis worth a noting, that though heaviness may endure for a night, yet joy cometh in the Psal. 30.5. morning: Though the rain descend, the floods come, the winds blow, yet er'e long a calm will come; though Satan for a time be let loose, and suffered to tempt us, yet the time will come when the violence of his Temptations shall be abated, and have an end.—Deus dabit his quoque finem: As here it besel our Saviour; whose case is the case of his whole Church; the Divel roareth and rageth against both, but he shall prevail against neither; The gates of Hell shall not prevail against Matth. 16.18. them: but in our greatest extre­mities, in our greatest agonies, in our greatest Temptations, heavenly assistance, heavenly help and comfort shall come, when there is most need, most want of it, as here; the Divel having left our Saviour, Behold, Angels came and ministred unto him. [Page 79]Behold! to him they ministred, who before had fasted forty days and forty nights in the Wilderness, and afterwards was an hungred. To him that was there with the wilde Mark 1.13. beasts, solitary and alone, destitute for a time of all humane help and company. To him that was there tempted of the Divel: To him that was carried from the Wilderness to the Pinacle of the Temple at Jerusalem; and from thence to an exceeding high Mountain: carried from one place to another, and that by Satan; who tempted him 1. To doubt of his Father's all-sufficient providence over him. 2. Rashly to neglect the ordinary means, subordinate to his pro­mised protection. 3. Flatly to deny his Father, and Idolize him; fall down and worship me. Behold! at last, Angels came and ministred unto him; who for a time was then, and would be wholly deprived of their wonted Ministry.

Angels came: Not earthly, but heavenly creatures: Spirits immaterial and Hook. Eccl. polit. lib. 1. Sect. 4. p. 9. Skeib. ler. Metaphys. de Angelis. lib. 2. cap. 4. titul. 2. ex Damas­ceno. intellectual; the glorious Inhabitants of those sacred Palaces, where nothing but light and immortality; no shadow of matter for tears, discontentments, griefs and un­comfortable passions to work upon; but all joy, tranquility and peace, even for ever and ever do dwell.

Angels came: The good Angels; here, as without number, so without name; who came not to minister to our Saviour, till the bad Angell, that Rev. 9.11. Abadon was gone; more detesting at that time to be there where the Divell was, then John the Evangelist did to be in the same Bath wherein the Heretick Iren. advers. haeres. lib. 3. cap. 3. C. Cerinthus was.

Angels came: Angels, in the plural number. Lo! One bad Angell was suffered to tempt our Saviour; but many good Angels were sent to minister unto him. Whence our comfort is, that they be more that are with us, then they that be against us; as Elisha sometimes said to his trembling servant, in another 2 Kings 6.15, 16. Case.

Angels came: And probably they were the very same, who not long before pitched their Tents round about him, when he was solemnly baptized of John in Jordan; that was their office then, to minister unto him when he was baptized; but no mini­string unto him, by them would God now suffer, while he was tempted; and in each Temptation became victorious. And the reason might be, least that glorious victory obtained over the [Page 80]Divel (which was wholly his own) might by men, be in part ascribed unto them; had they at that time, while the Duell continued, ministred unto him. As Moses, when he wrote what God created in the beginning, Gen. 1. would not so much as mention the creation of Angels, least men should conceive that he had used their ministry in the production of his omnipotent works in the beginning: for that cause the creation of Angels is concealed there, and the ministry of Angels for a time suspended here. For that cause; that our Creator might not be robbed of his glory by a misconstruction of the one; nor our Redeemer robbed of his, by a misinterpretation of the other. But now when the Temp­tation was fully ended, and the Conquest on our Saviour's part fully obtained (there being not the least ground at all left, why any creature should presume to engross any part of the honour of that victory, as due unto themselves) now those glorious Spirits were commanded to do him service again, as they had done before; and commanded they obey. Behold, Angels came and ministred unto him.

Angels ministred unto him: Ministred not onely food and sustenance unto him (if they did that) after his long-fasting, as was done by the hand of an Angel to 1 Kings 19.5, 6. Elias, in the like case; but (no doubt) they also ministred comfort unto him; and there was cause for it, because (as man) he was then in most need of comfort, even when he was but newly escaped from the snares and temptations of Satan; and cause there was for Angels then (men were not fit to do it) to minister comfort unto him; as at another time one of that heavenly host did; when being in a great agony; an Angel most opportunely appeared unto him from Luke 22.43. Heaven, strengthning him: Nay, I see no cause why I may not also safely affirm, that part of this Angelical service and ministry was spent at that time in congratulating his late and happy victory; and in singing an Eucharistical [...] a song of praise and thanksgiving to his Father, for delivering his Son from the Temptations of Satan. When the Israelites had escaped out of the hands of Pharaoh and the Egyptians, there was joy and thanksgiving for that; Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the Lord, and Exod. 15.1. said, &c. At another time, when they were delivered from the Tyranny of Ja [...]in King of Canaan, and Sisera, the Captain of his Host, [Page 81] Judg. 4. there was joy and thanksgiving for that; Then sang Deborah, and Barak the son of Ali [...]am, on that day, saying, Praise ye the Lord, for the avenging of Judg. 5.1, 2, &c. Israel. When David (after the death of his son Absalon) was delivered from the hands of all his enemies round about him, there was also joy and thanksgiving for that; And David spake unto the Lord the words of this song, in the day that the Lord had delivered him out of the hands of all his enemies, and cut of the hands of 2 Sam. 22.1, &c. Saul. And can we think that our Saviour was delivered out of the hands of Satan, a far more potent Adversary, then either Saul or Sisera, or Jabin, or Pharaoh, or all? can we conceive (I say) that this was done without an Eucharistical song of praise and thanksgiving unto God? Surely no, it was not; and who were so fit to do it as Angels, that holy and heavenly Quire? who in multitudes together, magnified the Father for the birth of his Son; saying, Glory be to God on Luke 2.13. high: All heavenly Hallelu-jah's being most properly set to their melodious voice; which is, Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of hosts; the whole earth is full of his Isa. 6.3. glory: And John in his vision, heard the Angels about the Throne, cry out with a loud voice, saying, Worthy is the Lamb to receive honour and glory, and Rev. 5.11, 12. praise Lo! the work of praise and thanksgiving all; and all at other times performed by the holy Angels. Therefore David putting them in mind, not of their duty, which they always remember, but of the constant and continual delight they have in praising God, which they never forget, saith, O praise the Lord, ye Angels of Psal. 103.10. his; which they continually do; and then in particular did, when h [...]re (praising God for Satans over­throw, and our Saviour's victory) they came and ministred unto him.

They ministred unto him; And therein they did but that for which they were Created; even to be ministring Spirits: to be God's messengers from Heaven to Fa [...]th; and again from Earth to Heaven, between him and his Church, before his Son's Incar­nation; afterwards between him and his Son (the head pre­supposeth the body also) whole he was here on Earth; and now (our Saviour being bodily absent, and the Angels having no more to do for him on Earth in this matter, as touching his own Person) Ministring Spirits, they still are, and shall be between [Page 82]God and his Angels mi­nister unto Saints. Saints, so long as they shall remain here, even to the worlds end, as it hath been ever, even from the beginning; surely so it is; and that it is so the Apostle plainly proves, saying, They are all ministring Spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of Heb. 1.14. salvation. Lo! the Angels work is to minister, as here they did to our Saviour, and still do to us: Lo! they themselves are the Sons of God by Job 38.7. creation: and 'tis most proper for such to take care of, and diligently watch over those that are his sons by grace and adoption; which (that their ministry may never cease) they carefully do, and will do; and that both while they live; when they die; and also after they are dead: While we live, the holy Angels are appointed to protect and defend us, both from corporal and spiritual dangers; The Angel of the Lord tarrieth round about them that fear him, and delivereth Psal. 34.7. them. When we die, they shall carry our souls, as they did the soul of Lazarus into Abrahams bosome, into Luke 16.22. heavens; and at the last day, when the general resurrection shall come (though our bodies have long before been resolved into their first principles) the son of man shall send his Angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his Elect from the four winds, from one end of Heaven, to Matth. 24.31. another: So sacred are even their very ashes unto him; and the dead in Christ (in the faith of Christ) shall rise Thes. 4.16. first, that they first may be glorified both in soul and body, before the reprobates be in both eternally punished. Lo! God never forgets his Church, those that shall be heirs of salvation; God never forgets them; not in their life; not in their death; no, nor after death neither; and therefore the holy Angels shall never forget their office; which is to minister for the spiritual and eternal good of all those that shall be saved; and that they shall never cease to minister unto us, an argument it is, in that they here came, and ministred unto our Saviour; their diligent attendance on the head, while he was on earth, is our full assurance, that they will never fail to take care of the body while it is on earth: Mystically the body is the Church; the whole company of all true believers through the whole world; Christ alone is their head; the Angels really came and ministred unto him; and assuredly they will come, and upon all occasions (as God shall see it best for us and our salvation) as really minister unto us, till we shall all be like them in heaven.

But'tis now time to make an end; and well may the lamp fail, when the oyl is spent; the Temptation is ended; and the Exposition is ended; the sum whereof is briefly this; our Saviour (led up of the Spirit into the Wildernesse) was thrice tempted of the Divel, after he had fasted forty days and forty nights; and the Divel likewise was as often conquered by our Saviour, with the sword of the Spirit, It is written; and thus conquered, he leaveth him; but not until our Saviour with indignation sent him away; Get thee hence Satan: And thus in fury dismissed and speedily gone, the good Angels (not willing at all to defile themselves with the Divels company) came and ministred unto him: Ministred comfort unto our Saviour, who so lately had so many conflicts with Satan; and their ministring unto him, concludes by an argument drawn from the greater to the lesse, that they are also appointed of God, to minister unto us; and that they are appointed of God to minister unto us, unto those that shall be heirs of salvation, is most true, and comfortable.

First, Most true it is, or else the Book of truth hath failed me, for do but ask the Question, whether this doctrine be true or not, and presently God's word will resolve us to the full, in the Affirmative: As, who delivered righteous Lot from the rage and fury of the vicious Sodomites? Gen. 19.15, 16. Angels. Who brought the welcome message to Abraham, that Sarah his Wife should bear a son; that message including a promise of a Saviour; and that promise manifesting God's favour to Abraham? Gen. 18.10. Angels. Who comforted Jacob when he fled from the face of his brother Esau? Gen. 32.1, 2, &c. Angels. Who restrained the natural heat of the fire, when Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego were in the furnace, seven times more hot then it was wont to Dan. 3.19, 28. be? Who shut the hungry Lions mouths when Daniel was in the Den? God by his Dan. 6.22. Angel. Who warned Joseph in a dream to take the young child (Jesus) and his mother, and flee into Egypt from the cruelty of Herod? An Matth. 2.13. Angel: who at that time, even in that also, ministred unto our Saviour; as many Angels now did, when he was newly released from Satan. Who opened the prison doors, and brought forth all the Apostles at one time, persecuted for preaching in the name of Acts 5.19. Jesus? Who delivered Peter out of the hands of Acts 12.7. Herod? Who comforted Paul [Page 84]with a promise of secure safety in his dangerous voyage to Rome, at another time? An Angel: The Lord by an Acts 27.23. Angel. Now as there is the same God still, so (no doubt) when there is cause, there is the same ministry of Angels still, commanded by the same God to guard and protect us; a truth which none but a Divell will impugne, can deny.

Secondly, Most comfortable it is; and to those only that shall be heirs of salvation, most comfortable it is; 'twas so to Abraham, who had the happinesse to receive Angels into his Gen. 18.5, &c. house; 'twas so to Lot, who also had the same happinesse, Gen. 193. 'twas so to Manoah the Father of Judg. 13.15. Sampson; 'twas a comfort unto them that they received Angel into their houses, knowing they were such as bare good will unto them; and that they were (God appointing it to be so) and would be their Guardians to protect them, in any time of trouble; the consideration whereof should also be a comfort unto us; who (though we now receive them not into our houses visibly, as they did) yet if we truly serve the Lord our God, we have a promise that we shall never be left destitute of their help and protection, as they never were; He shall give his Angels charge over Psal. 91.11. thee; and they who by God's appointment have a particular charge over us, will never fail (when God sendeth them forth) to be watchfully present with us, though to the outward eye not discernable. Some put their trust in Chariots, and some in horses, but we will remember the name of the Lord our Psal. 20.7. God. We will remember him with joy and thankefulnesse, with all comfort and cheerfulness; because he never forgetteth us; but as he instructeth us by his word, sanctifieth us by his spirit, saveth us by his Son; so also in the way to that end, he most powerfully defends us, and most graciously ministers unto us, by his holy Angels; whereof we reioyce. Jacob in his dream saw them ascending and Gen. 28.12. descending; that right motion noting what their dayly office is, even always to come down from God to man; and (when their work is done on earth) to return from man again to God in Heaven; and all for the good of man; and who hears of this, and is not comforted with this? When the wise men that came from the East, saw the Star Stand [...]ver the house where the young Child was, they rejoyced with exceeding great Matth. 2.10. joy. And surely if we rightly consider that the Angels [Page 85]of God, commanded to watch over us, all our life long, and keep us in all our ways, stand oftentimes (though now invisible) over our house, nay, in our house, if we belong unto him, we also have just cause to rejoyce with exceeding great joy; all is but this; God hath several ways to bring us unto himself; one whereof is, by the ministry of Angels; who as their duty was came and ministred unto our Saviour; and as their office is, will in all times of need minister unto us; and because all is for our good, all should also be for our comfort: But above all, let all be for the glory of God, the Creator of Angels; to whom let us always give praise, both with heart and tongue, even in the Angels own words of thanksgiving, Glory be to God in the Luke 2.14. highest; who though he hath made us lower then the Angels, yet (when we want it, and he seeth it most expedient for us) hath vouchsafed us for our comfort the never failing service of Angels. But more of this in the Sermon following.

A Prayer.

O My blessed Saviour, who sufferedst thy self to be tempted of the Divel, but not to be conquered; suffer not me, poor sinner, to be conquered, when I am tempted. I do not (because I may not, neither is it thy will I should) pray wholly to be exempted from all manner of temptations, but that I may not be led into temptation, not be left destitute of thy divine help in it, and that I may not be tempted above what I am able to bear, but that where mine own strength faileth me, (as it doth, O Lord, I confess, in every temptation) thy assisting, thy sanctifying grace may always support me and my sinful weaknesse; for this I pray, Lord, hear my voice; thou, O Jesus, conqueredst Satan for me, that I might have the benefit of thy victory: wherefore grant I beseech thee, that what thou hast gained for me, I may keep, and be ever truly thankeful unto thee, for what of thine own infinite love unto me, thou hast gained for me; who in my self, am too weak to contest with Satan, unlesse thou be present with me by thy grace, by thy Spirit, by thy power to rebuke and overcome sin. O let not my Lord be angry, and I will speak but this once; And, O most merciful Saviour, my humble Petition is, that thine holy Angels may be commanded to guard me, to protect me, to minister unto me while I live, and while I am within the danger of Satan; and when I die. to carry my soul into those eternal joyes, which thou hast prepared for all that love thee. Amen, Amen.


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