A DISPLAY OF HERALDRIE: MANIFESTING A more easie access to the knowledge ther­of then hath hitherto been published by any, through the benefit of METHOD; Wherein it is now reduced by the Study and Industry of

JOHN GUILLIM late Pursuivant at ARMES.

Interlaced with much variety of History, suitable to the severall Occasions or Subjects.

The fourth Edition.

Corrected and much enlarged by the Author himselfe in his life time: Together with his own Addition of explaining the tearms of Haw­king and Hunting, for the use and delight of GENTLEMEN.

And now to this fourth Edition are added about three hundred new Coats and Bearings of eminent Families, in their proper Sections, never before inserted.

As also a true Register of the Blazons of all the Knights of the Garter, from the first Installment to the last: And also of all the Baronets from their first Creation to the last.

Faithfully collested by FRANCIS NOVVER Arms-Painter (and Student in Heraldry) in Bartholomew Lane, London.

Quod quisque privatim accipit, tenetur in communem usum depromere. Ʋnius labor multorum laborem allevat.

LONDON, Printed by T. R. for Jacob Blome, 1660.


HAving attempted an Addition of some hundreds of Coats to the following Dis­course or Display of Heraldry, more through the importunity, and for the advantage of the Printer (not so conscious of my insufficien­cies as my self) then prompted by any inclina­tions of my own: who though a great doter on, yet can ill spare so much time where the sole re­turn is the reputation of having by affection elected the Profession I pretend to, not by chance fal'n on it; I thought it might be expected I should apo­logize, according to forme, for my Selfe and the Presse: For the latter I shall give Billa vera, for the former I will justifie the Blazonry, though I know it sometimes wave the common road; I may through inanimadversion have sayd too little of some Families, but (I think) too much of none; there are three onely in the Book I could wish omit­ted, and twice that number inserted. It may be ob­jected the Book was as usefull before, but I am sure much more delightfull now, the major part of the former Coats being namelesse, and some such as were never borne (or will be) or of extinct Families: Not but there are also divers Presidents of bearing in [Page] this Edition that were omitted in the former. To be briefe, if any person thinke I have abated any thing of his due right, let him suspend his judge­ment, and command my attendance, and I shall endeavour to evince. As I am not incapable of rea­son, no man shall sooner acknowledge his errors,

Your humble Servant, FRANCIS NOWER.

LENVOY TO THE AUTHOR BY WILLIAM SEGAR. Garter, Principall King of Armes.

KInd freind and fellow, since it is your will,
I should my verdict give of this your skill;
I say your Art was never so displai'd,
Better compos'd, nor Ground-work truer laid,
To raise a Fabrick to your lasting name.
Your painfull study, curious search, and care,
In turning over Books both known and rare;
Your great Expenses and your little Gains,
To countervaile a Guerdon for your pains,
Doth make your Merit to exceed your Fame.
But let me tell you, this will be the harme,
In Arming others, you Your self disarme;
Our Art is now Anatomized so,
As who knowes not, what we our selves do know?
Our Corne in others Mill is ill apaid.
Bees suck the Flowers, others eat their Hony,
Poor digge the Mines, Rich men have the Mony;
Sheep beare the fleece, others weare the Wooll,
And some plant Vines, and some the Grapes do pull;
Sic vos non vobis, may to us be said.
We blazon Armes, and some esteem them not,
We write of Honour, others do it blot,
We uphold Honour, others pluck us down,
Burying themselves in base Oblivion:
Such are the effects of our defective Age.
Peevish Precisenesse, loves no Heraldry,
Crosses in Armes, they hold Idolatry:
All Funeral's pompe, and Honour but a vaunt,
Made Honour onely by the Honorant;
Shortly no difference 'twixt the Lord and Page.
Honours Recusants do so multiply,
As Armes, the Ensigns of Nobility,
Must be laid down; they are too glorious,
Plain, idleshewes, and superstitious:
Plebeian basenesse doth them so esteem.
Degrees in bloud, the steps of pride and scorne,
All Adams children, none are Gentle born:
Degrees of state, titles of Ceremony:
Brethren in Christ, greatnesse is Tyranny:
O impure Purity that so doth deem!
Well gentle Guillims, you have done your part,
I would Reward might follow your desert,
As Shadowes follow bodies in the Sun:
Shadowes (alas) are not substantiall,
Shadowes and Rewards, prove nothing at all,
For being both pursu'd, away they run.

John St. George to the Author.

THough Indian Ants, that scrape in Mines of Gold,
Dare not for Treasure make exchange with death,
Yet braver minds for honour dare be bold,
Couragiously to sacrifice their breath;
A precious Gem is Armes, the subject of thy pen:
Which as a Diamond when thou didst find,
Rude, and uncut, to bring the same to shape,
And Lustre fit, thy Purse, thy Pen, thy Mind
Did all conspire this Work to undertake:
Which now perform'd, let Goldsmiths judge the price,
Till Aesops Cock and Indian Ants be wise:
And thy Guerdon seem not worth a mite,
To such base Prisers, deem it not the lesse,
For higher spirits will judge thereof aright:
And they at last too late will all confesse,
That Gold and earthly Pleasures do bewitch;
But Grace and Honour onely make men Rich.

TO The the Right Honourable and truly Noble (my very good Lord) WILLIAM Marquess and Earle of Hertford, Viscount Beau­champ, and Lord Seymour, and one of the Honourable Privy Councell to the late King CHARLES.

My Lord,

MY Grand-Father RICHARD ADAMS did in his life time think it a principal happiness that he was numbred in the Register of those who had the honour to serve your Lordship; nor did his ser­vice rest in a naked expression only, but was also practicall; for he was a most af­fectionate lover and sincere honourer of your Lordship, as being indeed oblig'd unto it, by those many important fa­vours you continually showr'd upon him. To exhibit to the world some te­stimony [Page] of my gratefull acknowledge­ment for those signall engagements; I have by the fourth Impression of this well accepted Treatise of Heraldry, gained an opportunity to insert your Honors Coat, as a pattern of the At­chievment of a Marquess of ENGLAND, and do devote the whole VVorke to your Lordships Patronage, wherein I hope I shall not in any wise diminish or obscure the lustre of your thrice noble Family, it having been my endeavour and designe, to improve, if it were pos­sible, the estimate of it; which is still the chiefestaym and onely intention of,

My Lord,
The most obliged to your Name and House, RICH: BLOME.

To his neerest and dearest Kinsman, John Guillim, Pursevant of Arms Tho. Guillim wisheth his own best wishes.

THis large display of thy Mysterious Art,
Each where displays such Lustre, Labour, Learning,
To every one that can with due discerning
Survey thy Volume over every part;
As there is none, Noble or Gentle heart,
(And onely such this subject is concerning)
That can deny thee (thine own vertues earning)
The praise and praise of thy divine desert,
If any Criticks currishly repining,
Bark at thy Light, their furie is thy foile,
For, more we praise such Lamps so publike shining,
And ever pray they never fail of Oyle.
So fare thou (Cosin) for this Work of thine,
Which with thy Name, shall now eternize mine.

To my worthy Friend, Master Guillim, on his present Work.

AS in a curious Lant-schape, oft we see
Nature, so follow'd, as we think it's she,
Trees, Rivers, Hills, Towers, Valleys, Country-farms
Higher or lower plac'd; so here are Arms.
Of which the severall Blazons, Ranks and Rites,
Now first explain'd by their due shades and lights,
In perfect method, wrought with Precepts, Laws,
Examples, and distinctions, for each cause,
Guillims elaborate hand hath with such spright
Inform'd, as every part hath life and light.
But when the whole together I behold,
So Fair, so Rich, so Even, so Manifold,
Of all the Books, we say, ere born with us,
Not one can boast a Nobler Genius.
Anthony Gibson.

To my deservedly beloved and worthy Friend and Country-man, Mr. John Guillim, touching his Display of the Honorable Art of Armory.

THy Name, thy Countrey, and thy matchless Art,
Incites my Muse to raise her Arms of Power,
With praises to lay open thy desert,
To make it all-devouring Time devour.
[Page]But (oh) a small Reward it is to get
But Fame, too Cheap for that which cost so dear,
As Time, and Pains, and Cost; and all three great:
Yet that's the most, the most do look for here,
Thou hast reduc'd an Art (much like our Law)
Ʋnmethodiz'd, to such a Method now,
That the whole Art, that was before but raw,
Is made most ripe in Rules, the same to know:
Here all the Terms by which the Art is known,
And the least Particle of each least part,
Are so Anatomiz'd, and strictly shown,
That All may see the Soul of all this Art.
Here, all the Bearings, both of Beasts and Birds,
Of Fish, Flies, Flowers, Stone, and each Minerall,
Of Planets, Stars, and all, that All afford,
Are made by Art, appear most naturall.
So that this Work, did ransack Heaven and Earth,
Yea Natures bulk it self, or all that is
In Nature hid, before this Book had birth.
To shew this Art by them, and them by this:
Then Natures Secretary we may justly stile
Thy searching Spirit, or else we may,
Plinius Secundus call thee; sith (the while,
Rare Herald) thou dost Natures Arms Display;
So that we cannot hold him Generous,
(If squar'd by Rules of Generosity,)
That will not have this Book (composed thus)
To understand Himself, and It thereby.
For, here by Arms (as sometimes Ships at Sea)
Is seen how Houses grapple, but for Peace;
(Yet being joyned) distinguisht so they be,
That we may see them (severall) piece by piece.
For the whole Body to these Arms thou hast,
So clearly purg'd from sad Obscurity,
That now this Art in FRONT may well be plac'd
Of Arts that shine in Perspicuity,
And if before, the same seem'd most abstruse;
Now, hast thou (for WALES glory, and thine own
Rare BRITAIN) made it facile for our use.
Sith unconfusedly the same is shown:
Then, all that honour Arms must honour Thee,
That hast made Arms from all confusion Free.
JOHN DAVEIS of Hereford.

To his worthy and well-deserving Friend, Master J. Guillim.

FAin would I praise thee as thy worth requires,
But (ah) I cannot, sith my power decayes;
I want the Muses aid, and sacred Fires
To offer up my love unto thy Praise:
For, thou by Arms, as here doth well appear,
Deserv'st more praise than Papers Arms can bear.

In Authorem, Gulielmi Belcheri Eulogium.

ARmorum primus Winkynthewordeus artem
Protulit, & ternis linguis lustravit eandem:
Accedit Leighus: concordat perbenè Boswel,
Armorioque suo veri dignatur Honoris,
Clarorum Clypeis & Cristis ornat: eamque
Pulchrè Nobilitat, Generis Blazonia, Ferni:
Armorum proprium docuit Wirleius & usum.
At tua prae reliquis, Guillime, hinc gloria crescit,
Quòd tu cuncta simul, reliqui quae singula, praestas,
Et quae confusè reliqui, facis ordine primus,
Hinc tibi laus, inter laudatos, prima manebit,
Nobiliumque choro; (reliquos contemne) placebis.
G. B.


HOW difficult a thing it is to produce forme, out of things shapelesse and deformed, and to prescribe limits to things confused, there is none but may easily perceive, if he shall take but a sleight view of the Chaos-like contemperation of things, not onely diverse, but re­pugnant in Nature, hitherto concorporated in the generous professi­on of Heraldry: as the forms of the pure Celestiall bodies, mixt with grosse Ter­restrials; Earthly Animals, with Watery; Savage beasts, with Tame; Whole-footed beasts, with Divided; Reptiles, with things Gressible; Fowles of prey, with Home-bred; these again, with River Fowles; Aery Insecta, with Earthly; also things Naturall, with Artificiall; Arts Liberall, with Me­chanicall, Military, with Rusticall; and Rustick with Civill. Which confused mixture hath not a little discouraged many persons (otherwise well affected to the study of Armory) and impaired the estimation of the profession. For redresse whereof, my self (though unablest of many) have done my best, in this my Display of Heraldry, to dissolve this deformed lump, distributing, and digesting each par­ticular thereof into his peculiar rank; wherein, albeit the issue of my enterprise be not answerable to the height of my desires, yet do I assure my self my labour herein will not be altogether fruitlesse, forasmuch as hereby I have broken the Ice, and made way to some after-comers of greater gifts, and riper judgment, that may give a fairer body to this my delineated rough draught, or shadow of a new framed me­thod. For if men of greatest skill have failed to give absolute form to their works, notwithstanding their best endeavours, with little reason may such perfection be ex­pected from me, whose Talent is so small, as that I am forced to build wholly upon other mens foundations: and therefore may be thought to have undertaken an idle task, in writing of things formerly handled, and published by persons of more suffici­ency and greater judgment. Notwithstanding, who knoweth not, that as every man hath his proper conceit and invention, so hath he his severall drift and purpose, so as diverse men writing of one self Argument, do handle the same diversly? Which being so, what letteth that every of us, writing in a diverse kind, may not without offence to other, use our uttermost endeavours to give unto this, erst unshapely and disproportionable, profession of Heraldry, a true Symmetria and proportionable correspondence of each part to other? In as much (if I be not deceived) both they and my self do all ayme at one mark, which is, so to adorne and beautifie this Sci­ence, as that it being purged from her wonted deformities, may become more plausible to many, and be favourably entertained of all; which could not be otherwise better effected, than by dissolving of this Chaos-like or confused Lump, and dissevering of each particular thereof from other, and disposing them under their peculiar heads, which is the full scope of these my Travels. Now to the end I might the better ac­complish [Page] this Task, after I had carefully collected the chief Grounds, Principles, Rules and Observations, that Ger. Leigh, Boswel, Ferne, Bara, Chassaneus, and other best approved Authors in their several Works have written touching the rudiments and first principles of Armory; then did I seriously bethink my self for the orderly distribution of those their dispersed Notes and Observations so by me collected, and digesting of them into some form of Method, or at the least into some Methodicall resemblance, wherein I hope I have in some sort accomplished my desire, and have for thy better understanding and apprehension (gentle Reader) first distributed this Work into Sections, and those into Chapters, briefly shewing their severall substances and orderly connexions; and throughout the whole I have begun with the Genus of each kind, and severed them into their Species, which al­so are subdivided into Individuaes, annexing particular rules to each severall sort. Moreover I have added Definitions, Divisions, and Etymologies of the Artificiall terms, peculiarly pertaining to this Art, bestowed the chief grounds, Principles, Rules and Observations under their proper heads, and manifested their use by examples of speciall choice, whereby they receive not onely warrant, but also lively sense and vigor, in default whereof they would become destitute of all force, according to that saying of Aretius; Praecepta quantumvis bona & con­cinna, mortua sunt, nisi ipse auditor variis exemplis ea repraesentat. Finally, to the end that nothing should be wanting that might give thee full contentment, I have prefixed before every Section an Analogicall Table, briefly comprehending the substance of each subsequent Section, and that with such coherence that each of the said Tables answereth in a Relative respect of the one of them to the other; so as all of them do jump together in an universall coherence, as by their particular refe­rences doth manifestly appear, whereby I have brought to passe (though with long and difficult labour) that in this my Display of Heraldry, thou mayst easily find (bestowed according to Order) whatsoever thou desirest concerning the Principles of this Profession: So that thou in short time, and with much ease mayst reap not onely a profitable gleaning, but a plentifull Harvest of this my long and painfull Lucubrations. FAREWELL.

Nihil est inventum & perfectum simul.

THis first Section sheweth the Originall, be­ginning, and universality, diverse denomina­tions, composition and voluntary assumption of Armes and Ensigns; the originall discipline of them, the Equivocation of the Latine word Arma, and in what sense the same is to be understood and taken, the necessity and use of Armes and Ensigns; when and by whom they were first given for remunerations: their Sympathie with their Bearers, and their confor­mities with names; their Definition, Distribution, Bla­zon, Accidents, and Parts; their Diminutions or Abate­ments; together with many Precepts, Rules and Obser­vations, as well generall as particular, pertaining to blazon.

The Table of the First Section.

The skill of Armory consisteth in

  • Blazo­ning, wherein must be conside­red,
    • Accidents, which are both
      • Tincture, which consist­ed of
        • Colours, which are either
          • Generall, As when things are borne in their naturall colours:
          • and Speciall,
            • Single, As white and black.
            • and Mixt,
              • Exactly compounded of white and black, as Red. or
              • Declining more to the one than to the other, with red, as Yellow, Sanguine, Purpure, &c.
        • and Furres which consist either of
          • One colour, namely white, which is the Livits skin or furre.
          • or More than one,
            • Two onely which are ei­ther
              • with black, as
                • Black with white,
                  • Ermine, which is black upon white.
                  • Ermines, white upon black.
                • or Black with yellow,
                  • Ermynoys, black upon yellow, and
                  • Pean, Yellow upon Black.
              • or with­out black, as
                • Verrey, which is composed of white and blue, or of blue and white.
                • Which is Green with Yellow, or Yellow with Green.
            • or More than two,
              • Ermynytes, differing from Ermyne by a red haire added to each side of the spots.
              • and Vayre, which is of all colours, except Blue and Green.
      • and Differences, which are both
        • Ancient, As Bordures of all sorts.
        • And Moderne, as Files, Cressants, Mullets, Martlets, Annulets.
    • and Parts which are the
      • Esco­cheon; wherein we must observe the
        • Acci­dents, viz.
          • Points, of which some are
            • Middle, as the Fesse, Honour, and Nombrill Points.
            • Remote
              • Supe­rior,
                • Exact Middle point of the chief, and the two extremes thereof, viz. the Dexter and Sinister chief Points.
              • and Infe­rior,
                • Precise Middle Point of the Base of the Escocheon, and the two Extremes thereof, scil. the Dexter and Sinister Base Points.
          • and Rebate­ments which consist in
            • Diminu­tion, which are pla­ced
              • On the middle point, as the Delfe and the Inescocheon reversed.
              • or Else­where, and do occupy
                • Some one of the other points alone, as the Dexter point parted.
                • or More Points than one viz.
                  • Four, as a point in a point.
                  • or Fewer points than 4.
                    • Three, as Point Cham­pain, Point Plain, & Gore Si­nister.
                    • or Two, as a Gusset Dexter and Sini­ster.
            • and Reversing, which is a transposing or turn­ing upside down of the whole Esco­cheon.
        • and Kinds, whereof see the Table of the se­cond Section.
      • and Ornaments without the Escocheon, whereof see in the Table of the sixth Section.
  • and Marshal­ling, whereof hereafter in the sixth Se­ction.


WHosoever shall addresse himself to write of matters of Instruction, or of any other Argument of importance, it behoveth, that before he enter thereinto, he should resolutely determine with himself, in what order he will handle the same: So shall he best accomplish that he hath undertaken, and inform the understand­ing, and help the memory of the Reader. For so doth Chassaneus admonish us, saying:Cassan. Priusquam ad scientiam perveniatur, honum est, modum praescribere docendi & ordinem, quia per ordinem res intellectae magis delectant animos, mentes nutriunt, sensus magis illuminant, & memoriam reddunt clariorem. Such order and course of writing doth also procure in the reader a facility of apprehension, as Erasmus noteth, saying; Facilius discimus quae congruo dicuntur ordine, quam quae sparsim & confusim.

What Order is, S. Augustine doth inform us, saying,Definition of order. Aug. de civit. Dei. Order two­fold. Cas. Dialect. Ordo est parium dispari­umque rerum distributio. This order is twofold; the one of Nature, the other of Discipline: The order of Nature (as Doctor Casius noteth) is a progressi­on from simples to things compound: contrariwise, the order of Discipline is a proceeding from things compound to simples. As touching the order that I have prefixed to my self in this Display of Heraldry, you shall under­stand, that forasmuch as the handling of one of these alone, sufficeth not to the effecting of my intended Method, I must of force make use of them both in some sort according to their distinct kinds.Order in this Work obser­ved. Wherein albeit the order of Nature in right should have the precedence, as the more worthy, quia Natura regitur ab intelligentia non errante: nevertheless, in regard my principal pur­pose tendeth to the prescribing of a form of Discipline, whereunto these to­kens which we call Arms must be reduced, and therein to manifest rather their location than their generation, their use than their essence, their sha­dow than their substance; I am constrained to prefer the latter (which ser­veth [Page 2] directly for my purpose) before the former, which tendeth thereto but collaterally: whose dignity notwithstanding I purpose regardfully to observe, when I shall come to the distribution of things Naturall in their proper places.

Digression.But before I enter my Method, I hold it expedient (though I do some­what digress) by way of introduction to the better conceiving and under­standing of that which shall be herein handled, briefly to offer to the con­sideration of the judicious Reader, some few things of necessary note, touching the Subject of this Work: Such are those ensigns or marks which we call Arms in English,Equivocation of the word Arma. and in Latine, Arma; which being a word of equi­vocation or ambiguity, needeth some explication; Digredi enim quand [...] (que) licet ex causa, non autem divagari: for so it is very requisite, to the end it may be certainly known in what sense this word is to be here taken, quia discenti ponenda sunt vera & certa.

Instruments naturall.It is therefore to be observed that this word Arma in Latine is sometimes taken for very naturall instruments, and in this sense doth Doctor Casius use the same, where he saith, Arma belluis natura dedit, ut Leoni dentes, Ser­penti aculeum, Instruments Mechanicall. &c. Sometimes it is taken for all manner of instruments per­taining to Mechanicall Trades, as Arma Rusticorum, Rastra, Ligones, & hujus­modi. Also Arma Coquinaria, lebes, patella, tripus, ol [...]a, &c. And Virg. Aeneid. 5. speaking of the necessaries pertaining to shipping, saith, ‘Colligere arma jubet, validisque incumbere remis.’

Instruments Military.Sometimes it is taken for all sorts of warlike instruments; and in this sense doth Doctor Casius take it, saying, At hominibus arma indùstria finxit, eoque finxit, ut pro imperio rationis eis uteretur. But this word Arma here meant is not understood in any of these significations, but must be taken in a meta­phoricall sense,Metaphoricall sense. for that they do assume a borrowed name (by way of figure called Metonymia subjecti) from the Shields, Targets, Banners, Military Cas­socks, and other Martiall Instruments, whereupon they were ingraven, em­bossed, embroidered or depicted: which kinds of furnitures and habili­ments are peculiar unto martiall men, and professed souldiers, to whom onely it pertaineth to bear Armour; which even at this day we do usu­ally call by the name of Arms. And of them in Process of time did these en­signs or marks receive their denomination, and were called Arma, in En­glish Arms, as Abra. Fra. noteth, saying, Arma appellantur, quod olim solis mi­litibus data fuerunt, qui arma gerere solent. Nam cum ista sit gloria armis, ut in­strumentis comparata, placuit ipsam quoque mercedem arma appellare.

Claudius Fauchet saith, that Arms have their appellation or denomination, be­cause Military men bare their devices, or Inventions depicted upon their Coat-Armours, and in and upon their shields: Claudius Fauchet.

Arms were called Symbola, which signifieth signs, tokens, or marks, given in time of hostility, or of Civill Tumults, by Captains to their Souldiers, or by the authors of Rebellion to their pernicious associates and confederates, for distinguishing of particular persons, as well among themselves, as from their Enemies; for the better avoiding of such inconveniencies (as I shall presently shew when I come to speak of them, and use of Arms.)

These Armoriall notes (so much in use with us at this day) are oftentimes called Insignia, which name, as Aldronandus supposeth, proceeded of the bar­renness of the Latine tongue, his words are these, Insignium nomen ex linguae Latinae videtur fluxisse inopia; & certe vix alium vocabulum huc magis quadrat quod haec praecipue virtutis & gentilitatis sive nota sive signum sit.

[Page 3]How far the extent of this word Insignia, or Ensignes, doth dilate it self, we may perceive by this, that it compriseth generally all Signes, Markes, and Tokens of honour, due to well-deserving persons, either in respect of their Government, Learning, Wisdome, Magnanimity, &c. These albeit they have no government annexed to them, yet have they in them much honour and estimation, as were those Pontificall Ornaments, and Ensigns, wherewith Simeon the high Priest was adorned and furnished at such time as he went to meet Alexander, by means whereof his fury was appeased. In the like sort did Pope Leo attire himself when he went to meet Attylia the Scythian Prince; who having subdued the Country of Hungary, and destroy­ed Aqui leia in Italy, came forwards to Rome with like intent. So also did Pope Benedict mitigate the fury of Totila, as if there lurked some secret force and majesty in the very Ornaments and Ensigns.

Of the number of these Ensigns, are those notes, marks and shapes of Animals, that martiall men used to adorne the Crests of their Helmets with­all, to make themselves more eminent in the field: and to the end there might be better notice taken of their valorous actions when they encoun­tered their enemies in Battell: or should draw on their forces to fight. Whereof we shall have cause to speak hereafter in place more convenient, when we shall come to treat of them particularly.

The use of these was yet extended farther than the adorning of Shields and Helmets onely: For Ships also, and other Navigable Vessels, were also garnished and beautified in their fore-decks, yea, and that in very ancient time, for the distinguishing of one ship from another; as we may see, Acts 28.11. Where Paul saith, he went in a Ship whose badge was Castor and Pol­lux. Also the fore-deck of Europa that was carryed away, had a form of a Bull painted thereon, which gave occasion to the Fable: That a Bull had stollen away Europa. Neither did the Ancients onely use this, but it hath been a received custom in all Ages sithence, and yet continued with us un­to this day. Hereof it cometh that we give the Ships the names of the things that are depicted upon them, as the Bull, Bear, Lyon, Tygar, &c.

Arms then as they are here meant, according to their originall and first use, may be thus defined: Arms are tokens or resemblances signifying some act or quality of the Bearer. Or thus, These Signs called Arms are nothing else but Demonstrations and Testimonies of Nobility, and of Worthy prowes­full exploits performed in Martiall services, especially if they be ancient, and bestowed by a Noble and renowned Prince: and this is according to their use in the time of Alexander the Great, and since untill of later times:3. Difinition of them. But according to their modern (I mean since the time of Charles the fourth) and present use, Arms may be said to be Hieroglyphicall, or Enigmaticall Symboles or Signs, testifying and▪ demonstrating the Nobility or Gentry, ac­quired by the vertue and good service performed by their Bearer or some of his Ancestors, either in martiall exploits abroad; or by their learning and wisdom which they attained to, by spending their bodies and spirits in continuall study, to make themselves fit for the patronage and defence of the Weal-publick at home.

How great the dignity and estimation of Arms ever hath been, and yet is, we may easily conceive by this, that they do delight the beholders, and greatly grace and beautifie the places wherin they are erected; so also they do occasion their spectators to make serious inquisition, whose they are, who is the owner of the house wherein they are set up, of what family their [Page 4] Bearer is descended; and who were his next, and who is his remote pa­rents or ancestors.

Armes, exter­nall demon­strations of the mind.It is very probable that these Signs, which we call Arms, at this day, how­soever in former Ages they have been named (whether Emblems or Pictures graven, painted or embossed, or notes representing some secret or hidden Mystery; as Hieroglyphicks, or Enigmaticall, or hidden conceits) they were externall notes of the inward disposition of the mind, manifesting in some sort the naturall qualities of their Bearers, yet so as they were hidden from the vulgar sort, and known to the judicious, onely experimented in the knowledge of the naturall vertues and dispositions of bodies Celestiall, of A­nimals and of Vegetables, &c.

Armes, ab­stracts of Na­ture.These in their begining and first institution, were not bestowed upon vul­gar persons, neither were their intendments fitted for common capacity, but such as were extracted out of the bowels, & very intrals of nature, and were neither obscure to the learned, nor over-familiar to the common sort.

Their confor­mity with Names.Between Arms and Names there is a certain conformity, so that as it is a thing unlawfull for a man (but upon great occasion) to change his name; Sic neque arma (saith Chass.) mutare licet, nisi magna & honorifica causa acces­serit; and another saith, A nominibus ad arma bonum deducitur Argumentum.

There are sometimes Arms borne that may seem to have been devised (in their first institution) according to the Sirnames of the Bearers, as a Bear for Ʋrsonne, three Castles for Castleton, three Conies for Conesby, &c. Whether these be either better or more ancient than other Arms, it is a question of more difficulty to be resolved, than commodious if it were known.

If there were two distinct families of one Sirname, yet bearing severall Coat-Armours, it is no consequence that they are originally issued from the same Ancestors; for their agreement of their Sirnames may be said to be a probability, but yet it is no proof that they are both extracted from the same Ancestors, unlesse there be withall a resemblance of their Coat-Armours, which are the expresse notes of distinction.

In case where there are two families, diverse in name, and issued from severall parents; and both of them do bear one and the selfesame Coat-Armour, and the name of one of them is agreeable to the Coat-Armour, and the other dissonant from the same; The same being in question, to whe­ther of them this Coat doth properly appertain: it may be probably con­jectured, that he is interessed in the Coat-Armour whose appellation is a­greeable therewith; rather than his, whose name hath no conformity with it. For names were instituted for differencing of each person from other severally, according to the saying, Sicut nomina inventa sunt ad cognoscendos homines: Ita Arma & insignia ad recognoscendum homines sunt inventa.

If two men of severall Families shall bear one Coat-Armour, and have their abode in one Country or Territory; and one of them can produce no more proof, why he doth arrogate the propriety thereof, than the other can: In such case the cause shall be questioned before the Soveraign, or be­fore such as do from him derive their authority, for the hearing, exami­ning and determining cases of this nature; Otherwise if either of them can prove that his Ancestors received the same of the Kings gift, as a remune­ration for service done, the Arms shall be adjudged to be his.

The sympathy of Arms with their Bearers.Also there is between these Arms and their Bearers, a kind of Sympathy or naturall participation of qualities, in so much as who so dishonourably or unreverently useth the Arms of any man, seemeth to have offered indigni­ty [Page 5] to the person of their Bearer (so according to some Authors) their owner shall right himself against such an offender, or wrong-doer, Actione injuriarum.

As touching the antiquity of these signs which we call Arms, The Antiqui­ty of Arms and Ensigns Armoriall. Diodorus Siculus maketh mention, that Osyris surnamed Jupiter the just, son to Cham the cursed son of Noah, called of the Gentiles Janus, being banished from the blessed Tents of Shem and Japhet; by reason of the curse fallen upon his father, was constrained to seek some remote place wherein he might settle himself, his children, and people: for which purpose he assembled a great army, and appointed Hercules his eldest son Captain. And in this so ancient an expedition of wars, as well Osyris himself, as Hercules, Macedon, and Annu­bis his sons, and others, did paint certain signs upon their shields, bucklers, and other weapons; which signs were after called Arms: As for example, Osy­ris bare a Scepter royall, insigned on the top with an Eye: Hercules a Lyon rampant holding a Battle-axe: Macedon a Wolf, and Annubis a Dog. And we find in Homer and in Virgil, that the Heroes had their signs or marks, where­by their persons were distinctly known, and discerned in Battell, as well as their Kings and commons had their publick Ensigns: For the Athenians bare the Owle; The Persians an Ancher or Sagitary stamped in their coynes: The Romans bare an Eagle, Minotaure, and sundry other shapes, which (according to Pliny) they bare in Battell unto the time of Marius, who bare in his En­sign an Eagle, Argent: figured and embossed, Sus une haute longue, as may be seen in ancient Medals, and chiefly in which is found this word, Allocutio.

Paulus Emilius saith, That anciently the French Kings did beare, Argent,The ancient Arms of the French Kings. three Diadems, Gules. Others say, they bare three Toads, Sable, in a field, Vert, alias Sinople, which cannot be good Armory, as the Masters of that Mystery do hold, because of Colour upon Colour.

Whence they received those Arms it is not certainly known, unless they had them from the Romans.

But their opinion is more probable who by the Blazon of the Shield of France, would shew that the first Frankes consist of Sicum'bri (a people of Germany, inhabiting the Marches of Frizeland, towards Holland, Zeland and Gelderland) gave unto them, Azure, which resembleth the water (which be­ing calme, representeth the colours of the Heavens) and therein three flower de Lis, Or, which do grow plentifully in those Marches, and do flourish in May and June.

Others affirme, that the same was sent by an Angell from Heaven to Clo­vis, the first Christian King of France.

But Gregory of Towers in his History mentioned no such thing, neither doth it appear that they bear those Arms before the time of King Pippine, but after the time of Lewis Le Crosse: at which time it seemeth that Armories began to become hereditary, and were transferred from Father to Son in each Family.

In the first assumption of these Signs, every man did take to himself some such Beast, Bird, Fish, Serpent, or other creature as he thought best fitting his estate, or whose nature and quality did in some sort quadrate with his own, or whereunto himself was in some respect in quality like or wished to be resembled unto. Ex iis quibus quisque maxime delectatur qualis etiam sit ipse cognoscitur. The reason is, for that no man is delighted but with things that are like himself. Therefore wherein any man is specially delighted, himself also is found to be in quality much like unto them.

[Page 6] Zanchius de immortalitate Animarum 133. Whereof it cometh that our souls, albeit they are naturally delighted with things that please, and de­light the Externall senses, yet shall we find that by how much the mind is more generous and noble, by so much the more doth it apprehend a more solid delight in things pertaining to the inward faculties, than in such as pertain to the exteriour senses; As we may see in those Arts wherein the Phantasie is chiefly exercised: whereby they receive a greater contentment of things pertaining to the mind, that is to say, as well Morall, as Naturall, and Supernaturall Philosophy. For like as our exterior senses are delighted with corporall, and corruptible things, so in like manner are our minds affected to things Spirituall and eternall, and are wonderfully delighted in them, by reason of the Sympathy of their naturall qualities. Similitudo non currit quatuor pedibus (ut aiunt in Scholis) Many things may be like, yet no­thing like in all points or respects.

Use of Arms, universall.As their institution is not new, but very ancient, derived almost from the beginning of the World, so their use was not limited, or restrained to some few particular Nations, Kingdoms and Countries, but most largely spread all the World over, in so much, as there is no Nation, Country or people, so savage or barbarous, but that they have their particular Signs, whereby they may particularly and distinctly be known and discerned from others. As in Example.

The Nati­ons of the

  • Israelites
  • Scythians
  • Egyptians
  • Phrygians
  • Thracians
  • Romans
  • Persians

bare for their Ensigns

  • The Hebrew letter Tau,
  • A Thunderbolt,
  • An Oxe.
  • A Swine.
  • Mars.
  • An Eagle.
  • Bow, and Arrowes.

Corali a Savage people of Pontus, bare two Wheeles.

Anciently Arms borne in Shields and Targets.And Plutarch in the life of Marius saith, That the Cymbrians, a people in­habiting the parts of Denmark, Norway, and the Almaynes, which in those dayes were cruell, and barbarous, neverthelesse had their Shields adorned with the forms and shapes of savage and cruell beasts, as also their Targets and other Military Instruments suted accordingly, and that in such multi­tudes, and in such glorious and glistering manner, that they dazeled the eyes of the beholders.

Arms gene­rally used for particular di­stinction.Neither were these Signs peculiarly restrained unto Nations, Countries, and Provinces, but they were so universall, as that there were no Tribe, par­ticular person or family, but had their Armoriall Signs, or Notes, whereby they were not onely distinctly known and discerned from other forrain Tribes and Families, but also apparently discerned (amongst themselves) one from another, by means of interposition of some minute or small diffe­rences, which after-comers were forced to devise for the preservation of Common peace and unity, when the multitude of Bearers (through long tract of time) encreased excessively.

Shields divers­ly adorned. Achilles had his Shield beautifully adorned with great variety of things Celestiall, as the motion of the Sun, Moon, Stars, Planets, and other the Celestiall Spheres, the Scituation of the Earth, & the adjacent Islands, the Seas, with the ebbing and flowing thereof, &c. wherof I shall have better occasion offered to speak more at large hereafter. Also Amphiaraus (as Pindarus the Theban Poet affirmeth) in his expedition to Thebes, bare in his Shield, a painted Dragon. [Page 7] Capaneus one of the seven Captains that besieged Thebes, bare the manifold headed Hydra, that Hercules fought withall, as Statius the Neapolitan Poet re­porteth. Polynices a Sphinx. Agamemnon in the Trojan Wars bare in his Shield a Lyon, with this Epigram, Terror hic est hominum, & qui hunc gerit est Aga­memnon.

Ʋlysses bare a Dolphin, and a Typhon breathing out flames of fire: First producti­on of Arms rough and rude. Perseus Medusaes head: Antiochus a Lyon, with a white wand: Theseus an Oxe: Seleucus a Bull, Augustus a Sphynx, with infinite others which I purposely over-pass.

These signs or tokens were in their first production rough-hewen (as I may term them) and rude, as also those other notes or signs that we now call Badges or Cognizances: so as they may be said to have been rather painted Emblems, than exquisite tokens of honour, or absolute signs or badges: in the time of their first Institution they received divers denominations, As Signs, Ensigns, Tokens, Marks, Cognizances, &c. But when in after-Ages, they had been polished and refined, then were these Tokens or Signs,Diverse Deno­minations of Arms. that had been formerly (after a rude fashion) handled together, more carefully distinguished, so as those which we now call Crests or Cognizances, worne upon the Helmets of Military persons in the field, were distinctly known from those that were borne in Shields and Targets, which we now call Arms in English, and in Latine Arma. Men of ancient times devised, and invented many things ingeniously, and with great care and consideration, but fini­shed them not, but recommended them to posterity, to be by them brought to perfection, according to that saying, Invenit antiquitas, posteri perfecerunt; neither doth this derogate ought from the studious, and Industry of the an­cient, neither is this any indignity unto them; Non erubescat antiquitas (saith Chassaneus) si quid melius horum quae ipsa tradidit, Novitas adinvenit: for no­thing is devised and perfected at an instant, but it is continuance of time, and much labour and industry that brings it to perfection.

These Signs, Marks, Notes, Ensigns or whatsoever else you please to name them, are not all of one sort, for some of them may be applyed to peace, and others to military use; and of each of these there are divers kinds or sorts: For some of them are expresse notes of government and authority or jurisdiction, others have no authority at all annexed to them.

Like as there is an absolute authority or jurisdiction royall, free from all limitation, and another said to be a mixt government; yea, and that as well in civill policy, as in Ecclesiasticall jurisdiction: so are also the ensigns seve­rall, as well those that pertain to the City, or Common-wealth, as also those that belong to Ecclesiasticall government.

Those Ensigns that are remote or exempted from government and au­thority are diverse, according to the diversity of conceits of the first insti­tutors or devisers of them. For some of them are in manner Vulgar, and Common, and such as may fall to the lot of a person of mean condition: others again of more subtile and deep invention; exquisite, beautifull and honorable, and are remunerations or rewards of some noble exploits, of meer Divine wits, or of some rare or excellent vertue, as a recompense of memorable and worthy deserts.

I know some are of opinion that these tokens or signs,Opinion of some concer­ning the Anti­quity of Arms. which we do call Arms, were utterly unknown to the ancient Greeks and Romans; and their memory not to be found with their Nations: They do confesse that the Romans did make the same use of their Images that we do at this day by our Arms, viz. to produce them for testimonies of their generous race.

[Page 8] Another opi­nion.Some other are of opinion, that they were excogitated and brought in use by Charles the Great, and the Lombards, and some again do suppose, they began in the time of Frederick Barbarossa, but the contrary appeareth by Authenticall proof, as I have even now shewed: well may their opinion stand with reason, that do hold, that the discipline of Arms in the reign (or rather) during the imperiall government of Theodosius, and in the time of Charles the Great, was brought to some kind of perfection, and withall more generally propagated and dispersed, according to that saying of Abra. Franc. Corolo potentissimo Imperante haec & distinctius explicata fuisse, & fre­quentius usurpata elucessit.

The principall end for which these signs were first taken up, and put in use, was, that they might serve for notes and marks to distinguish tribes, fa­milies and particular person, each from other: but this was not their onely use, for that they served also to notifie, to the ingenious beholder of them, (after some sort) the naturall quality, and disposition of their Bearers; and so behovefull was this invention thought to be, and their use so reasonable as that they have been entertained of all succeeding posterities, among all Nations, and continued (even to this day) without any immutation or alte­ration of their primary institution. These Armoriall Ensigns thus ingeniously devised had a further use; for they served also for the more commodious distribution of Nations, Tribes, and Families, into Regiments and Bands; as also for assembling, conducting, and governing of them in martiall expe­ditions, and distinguishing (as I have shewed) of particular persons in wars, as well amongst themselves as from their enemies; because it often falleth out by reason of the likenesse of Armour and Weapons, of Disclipine of War, and of Language and Voice (in default of such signs) that much trea­chery is wrought, and many men after battell or skirmish do make their retreat to the troops of the Enemy, to the danger of their surprise, or losse of life: So then it is clear that this is one use of these Notes, or Marks of di­stinction called Arms, that if a man shall meet and encounter us, we do forth­with discover by the note or mark that he beareth, whether he be friend or enemy; and for some of those uses and ends which I have formerly shew­ed, These Armoriall Ensigns have received approbation in the highest de­gree, even from the mouth of God himself (who, when he prescribed unto Moses and Aaron a form of ordering and conducting the Israelites in their passage towards the Land of the promise, did expresly command the use of Armoriall signs, saying, Filii Israelis quisquis juxta vexillum suum cum signis secundum domum Majorum suorum castra habento:) which order he required to be observed, not onely in the conduction of them in their journey, but also in the pitching and raising of their Camp.

In which precept we may observe, that God maketh mention of two sorts of Ensigns; the one generall, the other particular; and that these lat­ter were no lesse needfull than the former; for the orderly governing and conducting of so huge and populous a multitude as the Israelites were, in a journey so long, and withall subject to infinite dangers. The first sort of these Ensigns, God calleth Vexilla, that is to say, Standards or Banners, which served for the conduction of their severall Regiments. For the Israelites consisted of twelve Tribes which were divided into four Regiments; that is, to wit, three Tribes to each Regiment, of which every one had a parti­cular Standard, which as they differed in colour one from another, so did they doubtlesse comprehend in them severall and distinct forms.

[Page 9]Here may arise a twofold question concerning these Standards before mentioned; the one, what colour each of them were? the other,Question. what forms and shapes were depicted in them? As to the colour, Lyra upon the second of Numbers, saith, Qualia sunt ista vexilla in Textu non habetur, Resolution. Lyra upon Num. 2. sed d [...]c [...]nta­liqui Hebraei quod vexillum cujuslibet Tribus, erat similis colori lapidis positi in rationali, in quo inscriptum erat nomen ipsius Reuben, & sic de aliis.

And as to their severall forms,Martinus Bor­haus, Num. 2. Formes borne in Standards. Martinus Borhaus in his Commentary up­on the same place, hath this saying, Tradunt veteres in Rubenis vexillo Man­doragoram depictam fuisse, quam ille in agro collectam matri Liae atiu [...]erat: In Jehudae Leonem, cui illum benedicendo pater Jacobus contulerat. In Ephraim vexillo, Bovis species. In Danis vexillo, serpentis Imago, qui serpenti & colubro a Jacobo comparatus erat, fiat Dan coluber in via. And in conclusion he saith, Sit fides penes Authores.

This sort of Ensigne according to Calepine, is called, Vexillum quasi par­vum velum, & accipitur (saith he) pro signo quo in exercitu vel classe Imperatores utuntur. The use of these Standards doe consist herein, that they being borne aloft upon a long pole or staffe apparant to every mans view, the Souldi­ers may be thereby directed (upon all occasions of service) and by the sight of them may be dissevered and united at all times, as the necessity of the service shall require. Of this use, Lyra upon the second of Numbers saith, Vexilla in perticis elevantur, Lyra. Num. 2. ut ad eorum aspectum bellatores dividantur & uni­antur: For like as a Ship is guided in the surging Seas by the Sterne or Ruther, even so are the Souldiers ordered in their Martiall exploits by their Standard or Ensigne.

The other sorts of Ensignes, 2 Sort. God calleth Signa secundum domum Majorum suo [...]um: whereby is meant (if I be not deceived) the particular Ensignes or Tok [...]ns of each particular Family, and of the particular persons of each Fa­mily. For so doe I understand that exposition of Lyra upon the same place,Lyra. Signa propria sunt in vestibus & scutis, quibus bellatores mutuo se cognoscunt, & suos ab Adversariis distinguun [...].

But here we must put a difference between these words, Arma & Insig­nia, and we must seperate those things that are proper to Armes from such as pertain to Ensign [...]s.

Armes therefore being taken in the largest sense (as I have hitherto in this Discourse used the word) may be said to be either Publick or Pri­vate.

Such are said to be publick Armes, as have some Soveraign Authority or Jurisdiction annexed to them.

Of the first sort are such Armes as are borne by Emperours, Kings, and absolute Princes, and free Estates, having Soveraign authority and power within their severall Empires, and Kingdoms, and Territories. These in pro­priety of speech cannot be aptly said to be the Armes of their Stock or Family, whereof they are descended, but doe rather represent the nature of Ensignes than of Armes, in regard of the publick authority to them an­nexed; As also in respect that whosoever shall succeed them in those su­pream governments shall bear the same Armes as the expresse notes and testimonies of such their severall jurisdictions, though they be extracted from Aliens, or forrain Families. For so neither is the Eagle the peculiar Armes of the house of Austria, nor the Lions of the Family of Plantagenet, nor the Flowers de Lis of the house of Valoys. And these Armes or Ensignes may no man else bear, or yet mark his goods withall, unlesse it be that in [Page 10] token of loyalty he will set up the Kings Armes in his house, and place his own Armes underneath. And there are certain Ensignes of dignity and office which every man having the same dignity or office may lawfully bear as the Ensignes of a Proconsull, the Ensignes of a Bishop. And these are peculiar to those onely that have the exercising of such dignity or office, if any other shall usurp the bearing or use of them, he incurreth the crime of forgery. Private Armes are such as are proper to private Persons, whether they be numbred in ranck of the greater Nobility, as Dukes, Marquesses, Earles, Vis­counts and Barons, having no Soveraign or absolute power: or of the lesser Nobility or Gentry, Knights, Esquires and Gentlemen; neither yet are they Ensignes of any ordinary dignity, but peculiar to their Family, and may be infinitely transferred to their posterity.

For Armes or Armoriall tokens, pertaining to some particular Family, doe descend to every peculiar person extracted from the same Agnation, whether they be heirs to their father or Grandfather, or not. Sometimes the Bearers of these do so greatly multiply, as that they are constrained for distinction sake, to annex some apposition over and above their paternall Coat to them descended, for differencing the persons. Quod licitum est, si­cut nomini addere praenomen, which they may no lesse lawfully doe, than to adde a Christian name to a Surname, to distinguish two Children issu­ed from one parent.

These Armes are sometimes composed of naturall things, as of some kind of Celestiall bodies, viz. of the Sun, Moon, Stars, &c. Sometimes of four footed Beasts, or of Birds, or of Serpents, or of Fishes, or some other Reptiles, or else of some kind of Vegetables, as Trees, Shrubs, Flowers, Fruits, Leaves, &c. Or else of some solid things, as Castles, Towers, Mountains, &c. Or of things pertaining to Arts Liberall, or trades Mechanicall▪ &c. Some­times again they are compact of none of these, but doe consist onely of the variations of simple Colours, counter-changed by occasion of trans­verse, perpendicular, or whatsoever other Line used in Coat-Armour, whether the same be Streight, Crooked, Bunched, &c. Whereby passing through the Escocheon, either traverse, oblique, or direct, the colours be­come transmuted, or counter-changed; of all which I have occasion to speak hereafter in their particular places.

Armes a token of propriety.If question happen to arise touching the right of some desolate place, or ruinated building, if in digging up the ruines, or taking up of the founda­tion thereof, there be found any known Coat-Armour; the questioned place shall be adjudged to appertain to that Family, to whom that Coat-Armour belongeth.

Arms defaced.If any man be attainted or convicted of Treason, for betraying his Coun­try, or of Heresie, to the end he should be branded with a greater note of infamy, his Armes are rased, broken down and utterly defaced.

Armes int [...]r­red with the Corpes.Sometimes it falleth out that if a noble Family be extinguished by the death of the last of the same (deceasing without issue) whereby the bearing of the Armes proper to that Lineage is from thenceforth abo­lished: The Armes are interred in the grave, together with the corps of the defunct.

Opinion of some concer­ning the Antiquity of Arms.After long tract of time, these tokens which we call Armes became remunerations for service, and were bestowed by Emperours, Kings, and Princes, and their Generalls and chief Commanders in the field up­on Martiall men, whose valorous merits (even in justice) required due [Page 11] recompence of honour answerable unto their worthy acts, the remem­brance whereof could not better be preserved and derived unto posteri­ty, than by these kindes of honourable rewards. The first we read of, that made this use of them, was Alexander the Great, being moved thereunto by the perswasion of Aristotle his Schoole-master: who having observed his magnificent mind in rewarding his Souldiers to the full of their deserts, did at length prevaile with him so much, as that he caused him to turn the Current of his bounty another way, and to recompence his Souldiers with these markes, or tokens of honour; which he bestowed on them as hereditary testimonies of their glorious merits. In later Ages Charles the fourth the Emperour, gave Armes also unto learned men, and such as had performed any memorable service, or excellent work, therefore Bartholus, being a most expert man in the Lawes, and one of the Councell of the said Charles the fourth, received in reward for his Armes from the said Emperour, this Coat-Armour, viz. Or, a Lion rampant his taile forked, Gules, which afterward descended successively to his children and poste­rity. But Bartholus (though he were a most singular and perfect Civilian) because he was unexperienced in Martiall discipline, durst not at first assume the bearing of those Armes: But afterwards upon better advise he bare them, knowing how unfit it was to refuse a reward given by so po­tent an Emperour. And this was a noble institution of Charles the fourth, that not onely the skilfull professors of the Civill Lawes, but the learned proficients, and the judicious students, in other Arts and Professions, might receive remuneration for their vertues, Honos enim alit Artes, omnesque in­cendun [...]ur ad studia gloria. Abr. Fra. pa. 76. And without all doubt there is great reason that Armes should be distributed unto men, renowned for their learning & wisdome, who with expence, even of their lives & spirits in continuall study, to enable themselves to be fit for to serve the Weal-publick at home, by magistracy, and civill government, wherein they may no lesse merit reward of their Prince at home, by their politick managing of civill affaires; than the Martiall man abroad, with his brandished slaughtering sword, sithence they oftentimes in their civill government, doe prescribe limits to Martiall affaires also, how farre they shall extend their power, according to that saying of Cicero; Offici. 1. Parva sunt foris Ar­ma, nisi est consilium domi. And this is the cause that Armes are given for re­muneration in later times, as well to learned and religious men, as to Mar­tiall men; yet not so much for their valour, as for their wisdome, and to honour them withall, according to the saying of a certain Author, Arma dantur v [...]ris religiosis, non propter strenuitatem, sed propter honorem, quia hono­rabile est Arma portare; ut Doctor in legibus vigin [...]i annis per legem Armo­rum fiet miles, non tamen propter ejus strenuitatem, sed propter ejus digni­tatem.

The examples of these two Great Potentates before mentioned in re­munerating their well meriting Souldiers, faithfull servants, and vertuous and learned subjects, with these Signes, or Symbols called Armes, the one, viz. Alexander the Great, for service done in wars; The other, namely Charles the fourth, for politick managing of Civill affaires by learning and wisdome at home, have been immitated by divers Emperors, Kings, and Princes, of succeeding ages, using therein the ministery of the Office of Heralds; as subordinate officers thereunto appointed and authorized, re­serving alwayes to themselves the supream Jurisdiction of judging and [Page 12] remunerating persons according to their deserts; but using the ministery of the Heralds, as for sundry other uses of great importance in a State, so also for the inventing and devising of congruent tokens of honour, an­swerable to the merits of those that shall receive the same: to doe which although there is a power seeming absolute, committed to them by the Soveraign, yet the same is restrained into a power ordinary, which is to devise with discretion Armes, correspondent to the desert of the person, that shall be thought worthy to have these honourable badges or tokens of honour bestowed upon him.

Now sithence we have had cause here in this Chapter to make menti­on of a Herald, it shall not be amisse to shew what this word is, and his naturall signification.

Here-heaulte, by abbreviation (as Verstegan noteth) Herault, as also He­rauld, doth rightly signifie the Champion of the Army; and growing to be a Name of Office, he that in the Army hath the speciall charge to de­nounce Wars, or to challenge to Battell, or Combat: in which sense our name of Heraulte approacheth neerest to Fecialis in Latine.


SO much of such notes as are necessary to be observed for the better understanding of these things that shall be hereafter delivered, touching the subject of this work. Now we proceed to the practick exercise of these Armoriall tokens, which pertain to the function of Heralds, and is termed Armory, Definition of Armory. and may be thus defined: Armory is an Art rightly prescribing the true knowledge and use of Armes.

Now like as in things naturall the effects doe evermore immediately en­sue their causes, even so division which is a demonstration of the extent and power of things, must by immediate consequence follow definition, which doth express the nature of the thing defined. Division is a distribution of things common, Of Division and Use. into things particular or lesse common. The use thereof con­sisteth herein, that by the assistance of this division, words of large intend­ment and signification, are reduced to their definite and determinate sense and meaning, that so the mind of the learner be not misled through the ambiguity of words, either of manifold or uncertain interpretations. Moreover it serveth to illuminate the understanding of the learner, and to make him more capable of such things as are delivered, Ea enim quae di­visim traduntur facilius intelliguntur.

The practise hereof shall be manifested in the distribution of the skill of Armory, with all the parts and complements thereof throughout this whole work.

Distribution.This skill of Armo­ry consisteth of

  • Blazoning, and
  • Marshalling.

Albeit I doe here make mention of the Marshalling, or conjoyning of di­verse Armes in one Shield, or Escocheon; nevertheless, sithence it is far be­sides my purpose, (for the present to have further to doe with them, (in this place) than onely to nominate them, for distributions sake) I will re­serve this kind, of Marshalling, or conjoyning of the Armes of distinct Fa­milies in one Escocheon, unto a more convenient time and place, peculiarly destinated to that purpose, and I will proceed to the explication of those [Page 13] things which doe concern the first member of this distribution, viz. Bla­zoning.

Blazon is taken,Definition of Blazon. either strictly for an explication of Armes in apt and sig­nificant terms, or else, it is taken largely for a display of the vertues of the Bearers of Armes: in which sense Chassaneus defineth the same in this manner, Blazonia est quasi alicujus vera laudatio sub quibusdam signis, secun­dum prudentiam, justitiam, fortitudinem & temperantiam. A certain French Armorist saith, that to Blazon is to express what the shapes, kindes, and colour of things born in Armes are, together with their apt significations.

Like as definitions are forerunners of divisions,Of a rule. even so divisions also have precedence of rules. To speak properly of a rule: It may be said to be a­ny straight or levell thing, whereby lines are drawn in a direct and even form. In resemblance whereof, we here understand it, to be a briefe pre­cept or instruction for knowing or doing of things aright, as witnesseth Calepine, saying, Regula per translationem dicitur, brevis rerum praeceptio, that is to say, a compendious or ready instruction of matters.

Rules are taken for brief documents prescribed for the delivery, or ap­prehension of some Art or Science, by these the wits and inventions of men are much comforted and quickened, according to that saying of Se­neca, Ingenii vis praeceptis alitur & crescit, non aliter quam scintilla flatu levi adjuta, novasque persuasiones adjicit innatas, & depravatas corrigit. The force of wit is nourished and augmented by Rules or Precepts; like as a spark is kindled with a soft and gentle fire, and doe adde new inducements and perswasions to those that are already apprehended, and correcteth such as are depraved and vicious.

It followeth therefore, by due order of consequence,Rules of Bla­zon in genere. that I should annex such rules as are peculiar to blazon in genere. For other particular rules must be reserved to more proper places.

The aptest rules for this place, are these immediately following: In Bla­zoning Rule 1 you must use an advised deliberation before you enter thereunto, for having once begun, to recall the same, doth argue an unconsiderate forwardnesse meriting just reprehension.

The more compendious your Blazon is, by so much is it holden the more Rule 2 commendable, Quia quod brevius est semper delectabilius habetur. Therefore you must shun multiplicity of impertinent words in your Blazon, Frustra enim fit per plura quod fieri potest per pauciora. But herein you must observe this Caution, that whilst you labour to be compendious, you omit no­thing materiall or necessary to be expressed: for as the one doth eclipse the understanding, so the other is offensive to memory, as Aristotle noteth, saying, Omnis sermo, si sit brevior quam oportet, obscurat intellectum, si autem longior, difficile erit retentioni.

You must take speciall heed to words in Blazon, for a different form of Rule 3 Blazoning maketh the Armes cease to be the same; Diversitas enim nomi­nis inducet diversitatem rei, in tantum quod nomina sunt significativa rerum.

You must not be too full of conceits in Blazon, nor over-forward in Rule 4 speech.

You must use no iteration or repetition of words, in Blazoning of one Rule 5 Coat:

Especially of any of these four words, viz.

  • Of.
  • Or.
  • And.
  • With.

For the doubling of any of these, is counted a great fault, insomuch as the offender herein is deemed unworthy to Blazon a Coat-Armour.

[Page 14] Rule 6 In Blazoning you must have regard of the things that are borne in Armes: as also whereunto they may be resembled, whether they be naturall or artificiall, and so to commend them accordingly.

Rule 7 In the Blazoning of any Coat, you must evermore observe this speciall rule. First to begin with the Field, and then proceed to the blazon of the Charge, if any be. Moreover if the Field be occupied with sundry things, whether the same be of one or diverse kindes: you must first nominate that which lyeth next and immediately upon the Field, and then blazon that which is more remote from the same. What Field and Charge are, shall be shewed in their proper places; interim oportet discentem credere.

Preposterous Blazons Chassan [...]us holdeth, that where the Chiefe of an Escocheon is of one colour or metall, or more, you should blazon the chief first; but I hold it more consonant to reason, to begin with the Field (because of the priority there­of in nature, as also in respect that it is the continent) rather than with the Charge, which is the thing contained, and so consequently last in nature. Nevertheless the French Armorists for the most part doe blazon the Charge first, and the Field after, which is a course meerly repugnant to nature: by whose prescript order, the place must have precedence of the thing placed, and the continent of the thing contained: wherefore our Heralds manner of blazon is more agreeable to reason than theirs. There be divers forms of blazon: A certain Dutchman who lived in the time of King Henry the fifth,Selected Kinds of Bla­zoning. used to blaze Armes by the principall parts of mans body, as Ab. Fra. writeth, pag. 63. Malorques a French man made use of flowers for this purpose: Faucon an English man, who lived in the time of King Ed­ward the third, performed it by the dayes of the week; but in former times their predecessors used onely these three kinds following: first, or Metals and Colours, secondly, by precious Stones, and thirdly, by the the celestiall Planets. Out of which sundry forms, I have made choice of these three last which are most ancient and necessary, in respect that these above all other doe best fit my purpose; which is, to apply to each particular state of Gentry, a blazon correspondent. As for example, to Gentlemen having no title of dignity, blazon by Metals and colours: to persons ennoblished by the Soveraign, by precious Stones: and to Em­perors, Monarchs, Kings and Princes, blazon by Planets.

Rule 8 The two last of these three selected formes are not to be used in the blazoning of the Coat-Armours of Gentlemen that are not advanced to some degree of Nobility, unlesse they be rarely qualified, or of speciall desert.

These selected formes of blazon, doe seem to imply a necessity of their invention; to the end that as well by Blazon; as by degree, Noble men might be distinguished from Gentlemen; and persons of majesty, from those of noble linage, that so a due Decorum may be observed in each de­gree, according to the dignity of their persons: for that it is a thing un­fitting, either to handle a mean argument in a lofty stile, or a stately ar­gument in a mean.


Distribution.SO much of the definition and generall rules of blazon. Now will I pro­ceed to the distribution thereof.

[Page 15]The principall means of teaching, and the chief part of Method con­sisteth in distinction, therefore in the explanation or unfolding of this fa­brick of Armes or Armoriall signes, I will use some manifest kind of distri­bution.

The blazon of Armes consisteth in their

  • Accidents, and
  • Parts.

I call those notes or marks, Accidents of Armes, Accidents of Armes what? that have no inherent qua­lity or participation of the subsistence or Essence of them, but may be an­nexed unto them, or taken from them, their substance still remaining; for so doth Porphyrius define the same, saying Accidens potest adesse & abesse sine subjecti interitu. Accidents may be said to be cousin germans to nothing: For so after a sort doth Aristotle reckon of them, saying, Accidens videtur esse propinquum non enti, Metaph. 6. For they have no being of themselves, but as they are in things of being, or annexed to them. As the same Au­thor further noteth, Metaph. 7. Accidentia non sunt entia, nisi quia sunt entis.

Accidents and formes doe agree in this point, that both the one and the other of them being separated from the substance, yet is not the substance thereby altered from that it was, but remaineth still the same; which oc­casioned many men to think that forms were accidents. These cannot al­ter the matter or substance because they are not of the main, but come upon the by, as it were. Nihil enim transmutat materiam, nisi sit in materia.

Accidents are in the subject, as passio in patiente, according to that say­ing, Accidens ut est in subjecto, non idem est in subjecto, sed ut est passio ejus, est sibi idem.

Such accidents as are here meant are these, viz.

  • Tincture, and
  • Differences.

Tincture is a variable hew of Armes, Tincture. and is common as well to Differen­ces of Armes, as to the Armes themselves.

And the same is di­stributed into

  • Colours, and
  • Furres.

Colour, may be said to be an externall die,Colours. wherewith any thing is co­loured or stained, or else it may be said to be the glosse of a body beauti­fied with light.

And the colour here mentioned is both

  • Generall, and
  • Speciall.

By generall Colour, Colour gene­rall. I understand the proper and naturall colour of each particular thing, whether the same be Naturall or Artificiall, of what kind soever that are depicted and set forth in their externall and proper beau­ty. In this respect all colours whatsoever (without exception) may seem to pertain to this Art, for so much as there is nothing in this world sub­jected to the sight of man, but either is, or aptly may be borne in Armes; so spacious and generall is the scope of Armory. In blazoning of things borne in their naturall or proper colour,Blazon of things proper. you shall onely term them to be borne proper, which is a blazon sufficient for things of that kind, and well fitting their property or nature, for there are no terms of blazon al­lowed to things borne after that sort.

By speciall colours, I mean such colours,Speciall co­lours. as by a certain peculiar pro­priety (as it were) doe belong to this Art of Armory.

These are both

  • Simple, and
  • Mixt.

Simple colours are those,Simple co­lours what. whose existence is of such absolute perfection [Page 16] (in their kind) as that they need not the participation of any other co­lour to make them absolute, but doe communicate their naturall quali­ties to all other colours, to make them perfect, in which respect they are called elementa coloris, as shall be shewed hereafter.

And those are

  • White, and
  • Black.

Elements of colours.To these in right belongeth the first place amongst colours, because in the order of nature they were before all other colours: Priora enim sunt compositis incomposita: and are of A [...]ist [...]l [...] called Elementa colorum, saying, Albus & niger sunt elementa colorum mediorum. Onely White and Black are accounted simple colours, b [...]cause all other colours whatsoever are rai­sed either of an equall or unequall mixture or composition of these two, which are (as I may term them) their common parents. These are said to be the common parents of all other colours, in respect they have their ori­ginall being from these, either in an equall or disproportionable mixture. Therefore I will begin with them, and so proceed to the rest that we call colores Medii, in respect of their participation of both. Now forasmuch as practise is the scope of Doctrines, (to the end those things that are, or shall be delivered, may be the better conceived or borne in memory) I have thought good to manifest them by particular examples of ocular demon­stration, in the plainest manner that I can devise, Quia qua [...]is est rerum de­monstratio, talis futura est hominum scientia.

Examples and demonstrations are of great power and efficacie to illu­strate and bring things to light, wherein brevity, the prop and aide of me­mory and sweet companion of facility, is higly commended, as Farnesius noteth, saying, Nihil est ad res illuminandas illustrius exemplis, in quibus bre­vitas adjutrix memoriae, facilitatis socia, semper est commendata.

White defined.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

White is a colour that consisteth of very much light; as it is of Scrihoneus defined; Albedo est color simplex in corpore tenuiore multa lumin [...]sitate constans: to which black is contrary.Note. Note, as colours may be resem­bled to things of greatest Nobility or reputation, so is their worthiness accounted of accordingly.

Resemblance of white.The colour White is resembled to the light, and the dignity thereof reckoned more worthy than the black, by how much the light and the day is of more esteem than darknesse and the night, where­unto black is likened. Furthermore white is accounted more worthy than black, Dignity. in respect of the more worthy use thereof. For men in ancient time were accustomed to note things well and laudably performed (and estee­med worthy to be kept in memory) with white, and contrariwise what­soever was holden reproachfull or dishonorable, was noted with black, as the Poet noteth, saying,

Quae laudanda sorent, & quae culpanda vicissim,
Illa prius creta, mox haec carbone notasti.

Moreover white challengeth the precedency of black (according to Ʋp­ton) in respect of the priority of time, for that it was in nature before black, which is a deprivation thereof.Precedency. Like as darknesse, whereunto black is re­sembled, is an exemption of light, Omnis enim privatio praesupponit habitum. Finally, Ʋpton preferreth white before black, in regard that white is more easily discerned and furthest seen in the Field.

[Page 17]This colour is most commonly taken in Blazon for the metall Silver, and is termed Argent, wheresoever the same is found, either in Field or Charge. This Metall representeth Water, which (next to the Aire) is the noblest of all the Elements, and in Armory it is termed Argent, for that it approacheth neer to the Luminary Bodies. To this Metall is given the se­cond place next to Gold, in regard that the Armory cannot be good, that hath not in it either Gold, or Silver: It also for another cause bare the resemblance of Water, which scowreth, clenseth, and putteth away all filth and uncleanness: For in Blazon it betokeneth innoceney, cleannesse of life and chastity; amongst complexions it is likened to fleame, as for the esteem of this Metal Silver, we may observe in all Ages that Emperours, Kings, and Princes had and yet have their vessels of chief use of Silver; As for the abundance of this Metall, you may read 2 Chron. 9. How every man brought unto Salomon presents, being vessels of Silver and vessels of Gold, and Raiment and Armour, and sweet Odors, Horses and Mules from year to year. And the King gave Silver in Jerusalem as stones, &c. Such was the plentifull abundance of this Metall in the dayes of Salomon. In composition of Armes, it is accounted a fault worthy blame to blazon this otherwise than Argent, but in doubling of Mantles it is not so taken: for therein it is not under­stood to be a Metall, but the Skin or Furre of a little beast called a Litu­it, so named (as I conceive) Lithuania, now called Luten, a part of Sarmatia confining upon Polonia. this Furre hath been heretofore much used by the ancient Matrons of the honorable Citie of London, even by those that were of the chiefest account, who ware the same in a kind of Bonnet called corruptly a Lettice cap.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

Black is a colour contrary to White, having little participation of light, and is of Scribonius thus defi­ned, Nigredo est color in corpore crassiore exiguae lumi­nositatis particeps. Wherby it is apparant that black is of lesse perfection than white. For what thing so­ever there is that hath in it either light or heat, or else a life, either Animall or vegetable, the same be­ing once extinct, the thing it self becometh forth­with black, which is said to be the colour of hor­ror and destruction; for which respect mourning garments are made of that colour, that doth most significantly represent the horrour of death and corruption, Farnes. 3. 104. this colour is called in blazon Sable, of the Latine word Sabulum, which signifieth, grosse, sand or gravel, in respect of the heavy and earthy substance, wherein it aboun­deth above all others. And this colour is reputed farre inferiour in dig­nity to white, and is likened to darkensse, called in Latine Tenebrae, eo quod teneant, id est, impediant oculos, & visum prohibeant. Note that the rest of those speciall colours before mentioned, besides white and black are called colores medii, for that they have their primary Essence from these, either by an equall or uneven concorporation or mixture of these two together: and in regard of these two extreams from which they have their being, cannot properly be called colores, nisi per participationem.

Now as touching Colores medii, or mixed colours; Colores medii. it is to be understood that they are raised by the contemperation or mixture of the two Simples formerly handled, as may appear by the Definition of Scribonius, who saith, Mixtus color est, qui ex Simplicium contemperatione producitur.

[Page 18]All mixt or midling Colours, that we call Colores medii, are reckoned more Noble, or Ignoble, by participation; that is to say, as they doe partake more or lesse of the nobility of white, which is resembled to light, or of black, which hath a resemblance of darknesse, or deprivation of light.

Of these according to Scribonius, some are

  • Exactly compounded of both Simples.
  • Declining more to the one than to the other, in an unequal proportion.

Red exactly compounded.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

That Colour which is said to be exactly compounded, doth participate of the two Simples indifferently in a just proportion, as Red; which Scribonius thus defi­neth: Rubedo est color aequali simul Alb [...]dinis & Nigredi­nis combinatione constans. Amongst Colours (next af­ter Metals) this Colour, V [...]rmilion, or Red hath the prime place: forasmuch as it representeth the fire which of all other elements is the most lightsome, and approacheth nearest to the quality and vertue of the Sun. In regard wherof it was ordained, that none should bear this Colour, (which betokeneth noblenesse of courage, and va­lourous magnanimity) but persons of honourable birth and ranck, and men of speciall desert. This colour inciteth courage and magnanimity in persons, that do grapple together in single or publick sight. We read that when those that strengthened their Battels with Elephants, when they would provoke them to fight they produced before them res [...]mblances of this martiall Colour, as the blood of Grapes and of M [...]lberies. This C [...]our is likened to the precious Rubie, amongst vertues it is compared to magnani­mity, or boldnesse of courage. And amongst the complexions, it is resem­bled to Choler. In Armory it is called, Gules.


[example of blazon or coat of arms]

This Colour is bright Yellow, which is compounded of much White, and a little Red, as if you should take two parts of White, and but one of Red. This colour in Armes is blazed by the name of Or, which is as much to say as Aurum, which is Gold: and it is commonly called Gold Yellow, because it doth lively represent that most excellent Metall, the possession whereof inchan­teth the hearts of fools, and the colour whereof blind­eth the eies of the wise Of the excellency of this Me­tall, H [...]siodus hath this saying: Aurum est in corporibu [...] si­cut Sol inter stellas. Dignity of Gold. And therefore such is the worthinesse of this Colour which doth resemble it, that (as Christine de Pice holdeth) none ought to bear the same in Armes, but Emperours and Kings, and such as be of the Blood Royall, though indeed it be in use more common. And as this Metall exceedeth all other in value, purity, and finenesse, so ought the Bearer (as much as in him lyeth) endeavour to surpasse all other in Prowess and Vertue.


[example of blazon or coat of arms]

This Colour is Green, which consisteth of more Black and of less Red, as appeareth by the Definition; Viridis est color Nigredine copiosiore, & Rubedine minore con­temperatus. This color is blazoned Vert, and is called in Latine Viridis, à vigore, in regard of the strength, fresh­ness and liveliness thereof; and therefore best resem­bleth youth, in that most vegetables, so long as they flourish are beautified with this verdue:

[Page 19]

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

Blew is a Colour which consisteth of much Red, Blew. and of little White, and doth represent the colour of the Skie in a clear Sun-shining day. This in Blazon is termed Azure. Coeruleus color, à Coelo dictus est, Definition. quod tanquam so­lers & diligens nescit otiari. Farnes. 2. 18.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

Purpure is a Colour that consisteth of much Red, Purpure. and of a small quantity of Black, and is thus defined: Pur­pureus color est, qui à multa Rubedine, & pauciore Nigre­dine commiscetur. Cossaneus having formerly handled those former six Colours, viz. White, Black, Red, Yellow, Green and Blew, saith, That of them all (being com­pounded and mixed together according to propor­tion) this Purpure Colour is raised. This Colour usually hath no other name in Blazon.

Purpure Colour hath some resemblance of a withered Red-Rose, which after long gathering, the glorious lustre thereof fading, it becometh somewhat blackish, as if it were a proportionable commixture of Red and Black together. This Colour hath his Denomination, of a certain Fish called in Latine Purpara, a kind of shell-fish, whereof in times past, great store have been found near to that famous City of Tyrus, scituated next to the Sea coast in the Country of Phoenicia: this kind of fish hath in the mouth of it an excellent and precious liquor, or juyce, of singular use in dying of cloathes, the invention and use whereof was first found out by the Tyrians, for which cause this Colour is called Tyrius Color. They must be taken alive, and that chiefly in the Spring season, at which time this juyce is most plentifull in them, at other seasons it is more scarce: They are gathered alive, and cast together on a heap, that so by their con­tinuall motion they may vent out this rich liquor, together with their spi­rit, which done in some near place or other provided for the clean keeping thereof, it is taken up and spared for necessary purposes. This Colour in an­cient time was of that precious esteem, as that none but Kings and Prin­ces, and their favorites might wear the same, as we may see, Dan. 5.16. Now if thou canst read the writing, and shew me the interpretation thereof, thou shalt be cloathed with Purple, and shalt have a chain of gold about thy neck. Also. 1 Macchab. 10.20. And Alexander sent Jonathan a Purple Robe, and a Crown of gold; And again, When his accusers saw his honour as it was proclaimed, and that he was cloathed in Purple, they fled all away. Hereof (perhaps) it cometh that this Colour is found of so rare use in armoriall signes. Moreover it is said; And the King commanded that they should take off the garment of Jonathan, and cloath him in Purple, and so they did, 1 Macchab. 10.62.

[Page 20] Tawny.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

Tawny (saith Leigh) is a Colour of worship, and of some Hera [...]ds it is called Bruske, and is most com­monly borne of French Gentlemen, but very few doe bear it in England. In Blazon it is known by the name of Tenne. It is (saith he) the surest colour that is (of so bright a hew being compounded) for it is made of two bright Colours, which are Red and Yel­low: neither shall you have any Colour so made a­mong all that may be devised; and not to be stai­nand.


[example of blazon or coat of arms]

The last of the seven mixed Colours, we doe com­monly call Murrey, but in Blazon, Sanguine, and is (as most truly saith Leigh) a Princely Colour, being indeed one of the Colours appertaining of ancient time to the Prince of Wales. It is a Colour of great estimation, and very stately, and is in use in certain Robes of the Knights of the Bath. Some Heralds of approved judg­ment, doe hardly admit these two last mentioned for Col [...]urs of Fields, in regard they are reckoned Stainand Colours. Yet some Coats of Armes there are, and those of reverend antiquity, whose Fields are of those colours, for which respect they have been allowed for colours of Fields, as Sir John Ferne in his Glory of Generosity noteth. This kind of bearing, Leigh doth instance in two English Gentlemen of ancient Houses, that have of long time Borne Tawny in their Armes: the one of them he nameth Hounzaker, and the other Finers.

I have purposely, for the avoiding of prolixity, omitted here to speak of the Elements, vertues and complexions which every one of these Me­tals and colours are respectively resembled unto, because Ferne in his Bla­zon of Gentry hath a large discourse of the same subject, to which I refer the Reader.


HItherto of Colours and Metals: Now of Furs, according to the series and course of our distribution before delivered, pag. 15.

Furres. Furres (used in Armes) are taken for the Skins of certain beasts, stripped from the bodies, and artificially trimmed, for the furring, dou­bling, or lining of Robes and Garments, serving as well for state and mag­nificence, as for wholesome and necessary use. And these thus trimmed and imployed, are called in Latine pellicei, à pellendo, of driving away, (quite contrary in sense,Why called Pellicei. though like in sound, to pellices à pellicendo, for drawing all to them) because they doe repell and resist the extremities of cold, and preserve the bodies that are covered with them, in good tem­perature.

Use.These are used as well in doublings of the Mantles pertaining to Coat-Armours, as in the Coat-Armours themselves.

Furres do consist either of

  • One colour alone, or
  • More colours than one.

[Page 21]

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

That Furre that consisteth of one colour alone,White Furre. is White, which in doubling is taken for the Lituits skin, before spoken of, pag. 17. An example whereof we have in this Escocheon. Some perhaps will expect that in the handling of these Furres, I should pursue the order of Gerard Leigh, who giveth the preheminence of place unto Ermyne, for the dignity and riches there­of: but that form suteth neither with the Method that I have prefixed to my self; nor yet with the or­der of Nature, which ever preferreth Simples before Compounds, because of their priority in time: for as Aristotle saith,Order of disci­pline. Priora sunt compositis incomposita: which order, as it is of all other the most rea­sonable, certain, and infallible; so doe I endeavour by all means to con­form my self in these my poor labours thereunto: Natura enim regitur ab intelligentia non errante. Note that this,Doublings what. and all other the examples follow­ing throughout this Chapter (as they are here placed) must be understood to be doublings or linings of Robes, or Mantles of State, or other Garments, wherein (according to Leigh) they all have one generall name, and are cal­led Doublings: but in Escoch [...]ons they are called by nine proper and severall names. What those Mantles are, shall be shewed hereafter when I shall come to the handling of the second Member of Division before made.White furre blazoned in doublings. In the blazoning of Armes, this Colour is evermore termed Argent, unlesse it be in the description of the Armes of one that is Reus Laesae Majestatis: but being a doubling, it is no offence (saith Christine de Pice) to call it White, Rules for dou­blings. because therein it is to be understood onely as a Furre or Skin.

Furres consisting of more than one Colour, are either of

  • Two Colours, or
  • More than two.

Such Furres as are compounded of two Colours only, are sor­ted either

  • with Black, and are ei­ther
    • Black mixt with White, as or
      • Ermyne, and
      • Ermynes.
    • Black mixt with Yellow, as
      • Emynois, and
      • Pean.
  • or without Black: such are, accord­ing to Leigh,
    • Verrey,scz. A. and B.
    • and Verrey, Or, and Vert,

Knowledge is no way better or more readily attained than by demon­stration: Scire enim est per demonstrationem intelligere, Ermyne Rule. saith Aristotle. I will therefore give you particular example of their severall Bearings.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

Ermyne is a Furre consisting of White distinguished with black spots. You must blazon this by the name of Ermyne, and not Argent powdred with Sable. This is the skin of a little beast, less than a Squirrill (saith Leigh) that hath his being in the Woods of the Land of Armeniae, whereof he taketh his name. The taile thereof is of a thumbs length, which is of co­lour brown, The Egyptians did propose this little Beast for an Hieroglyphick of Chastity, Farnes. Lib. 2. fo. 15. So greatly is this little Beast affected unto [Page 22] cleannesse, as that she had rather expose her self to the hazard of being killed or taken by the Hunters, then she would pollute her Coat with the filth of the bird-lime laid before the entrance of the cave to take her at her going in. Leigh in the former part of his Accidence, fol. 132. seemeth therein to contradict himself, in that he affirmeth Ermyne to be no Colour, but a Compound with a Metall, and serveth as Metall onely. For mine own part, I doe not see in doubling of Mantles it should be reckoned a Metall, for that all doublings or linings of Robes and Garments, though perhaps not al­together, yet chiefely are ordained for the repelling of cold and weathers drift: to which use Metals are most unfit, as King Dionysius declared, when coming into a Church where the Images were attired in most rich golden Robes, he took them away, saying, Such Garments were too cold for Winter, and too heavy for Summer. A fair pretence to cloak his Sacrile­gious Avarice. Order for the wearing of Ermyne. The same Author in his said Accidence, fol. 75. making mention of this Furre, taketh occasion to commend a late prescribed order for the distribution of this rich and rare Furre, according to the dignity of the persons to whom the wearing thereof is allowed, which is this; That an Emperour, a King or a Prince may have the pouldering in their appa­rell as thick set together as they please: a Duke may have in his Mantles cape, onely four Raungs or Ranks of them: a Marquesse three Raungs and a half: an Earle a Cape of three Raungs onely. In some Coats these are num­bred, but then they extend not to the number of ten. These rowes or rancks before named are of some Authors called Timbers of Ermyne: for no man under the degree of a Baron or a Knight of the most honourable or­der of the Garter, may have his Mantle doubled with Ermyne.

Doublings Ermyne.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

This is that other Furre, before mentioned, to con­sist of a mixture of white and black, and hath some re­semblance of the former: but differeth in this; that where that is composed of white powdered with black; contrariwise this is black, powdered with white. But neither in that,Rule. nor in this, shall you make any mention in blazon of any such mixtures, but onely use the name appropriated to either of them, which doth sufficiently express the manner of their compo­sition to the understanding of those that are but meanly skilled in blazon; Ermynes. the names peculiarly allotted to this Furre is Er­mynes.

Master Boswell is of this opinion, that Ermyne and Ermynes ought never to be sorted in Armes with the metall of their colour, because (saith he) they are but Furres, and have no proper blazon with any metall. Yet doth he particularly blazon the Coat of Walcot, fol. 106. in the Atchievement of the Right Honourable Lord, Sir William Cecil, Knight, late Lord Treasurer of England, where he might fitly have taken exception against such bearing, if he could have produced any good ground for warranting such his opi­nion; in default whereof he there passeth the same over with silence, knowing that Antiquity and Custome (which hath the vigour of a law, where there is no law written) are powerfull in things of this nature: he secretly relinquisheth his opinion, forasmuch as it is manifest, that not onely Walcot but Kingsmell, and many others, both ancient and modern, hath used such bearing without contradiction.

[Page 23]

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

Of those Furres before mentioned, that are com­pounded of yellow and black, this is the first, and is tearmed in blazon, Ermynois, Ermynois. whose ground or field is yellow, and the Pouldrings black, though this be rich in Armes (saith Leigh) yet in doubling it is not so rich. Of the use of this Furre, Bara maketh mention in his book entituled, Le Blazon des Armoiries, pag. 14. and Edel. H [...]ryssen in his book entituled Le Jardyn d'armo­ries, in the Arme of Leefwelt.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

This is that other Furre composed of the same co­lours, but disposed in a contrary manner to the for­mer; for whereas that consisteth of yellow powde­red with black, this is black powdered with yellow; and in blazon is tearmed Pean.

There are other sorts of Furs or Doublings consisting also of two onely colours, Other Furres. which as they are much dif­ferent in form, so doe they also receive a diverse bla­zon, from these before specified; which are these that follow, and their like.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Verrey, Or and Azure, by the name of Claude de Rochford, somtime Constable of France. In Coats of this sort of bearing, in case where it may be holden doubtfull whether should have the precedence,Rule. the Colour or the Metall, the Metall must have the prehe­minence as the more worthy. The Frenchmen, from whom we do borrow our terms of blazon, do call all sorts of Doublings or Furres of this form, by the name of Vayre; perhaps, Quia ex diversis coloribus altenatim variantur. To this sort of bearing, there are no other terms of blazon allowed. If your vaire doth consist of Argent and Azure, you must in blazon thereof, say onely, he beareth vaire, and it sufficeth: but if it be composed of any other colours, then you must say,Robes of estate furred after this manner. he beareth vaire of these or those colours. The Latine blazoners making mention of this sort of bearing, doe thus describe them, Portat arma variata ex pellibus albis & cae­ruleis, accounting them for skins of little beasts. For that in ancient times they were used for linings of Robes, and Mantles of Senators, Consuls, Alex. Gen. Dier. Empe­rours and Kings, and thereupon are skilfully tearmed doublings. Of this use of them, Alex. ab Alex. Genial. dierum, lib. 5. fol. 285. saith, Legimus Cali­gulam depictas penulas induisse.

Sometimes it was permitted to men grown to years, to use a kind of short cloak called Penula, in time of wars, though it were in substance but sleight and thin: For Alexander Severus the Emperour, in favour of aged men, did grant them a priviledge for wearing of this kind of garments: Wolf. Lazius, lib. 8. The garments of the Tribune of the people, and of the Plebeian sect, was most commonly this Penula before mentioned, like as al­so was Sagum, which was a souldiers Cloak, or Cassock, and Endormis which was an hairy garment much like an Irish mantle, and hood. These were apt garments for repelling of cold; These were not habits beseeming an Emperour or chief Commander to wear: nevertheless we read that Caligu­la ware oftentime, Depictas penulas, Alex. lib. 5. Amongst the rest this is to [Page 24] be observed, that Consuls were habited sometimes, in Coat-Armours, cal­led Paludamenta, and sometimes in Kirtles called Trabeae, which was a kind of garment worn by Kings under their Mantles of State. So that they were sometimes said to be Trabeati, & somtimes to be Paludati, according to these severall habits. Also the Lictores were Officers that usually attended these Consuls, and were like unto Sergeants, or Ministers appointed to inflict cor­porall punishment upon offenders, and were most commonly in number twelve. These also attended the Consull to the wars, invested also with Coat-Armour.

Concerning those Depictae penulae formerly mentioned, they are said to have been in use with Emperours of later ages, that were addicted to wan­tonness and delicacie, whereof Tranquillus, in Caligula, writeth in this man­ner, Vestitu, calceatuque & caetero habitu, neque patrio, neque anili, ac ne virili quidem, ac denique non humano semper usus est: saepe depictas gemmatasque Pe­nulas indutus. Wolf. Lazius in Comment. Reip. lib. 8. 857. If you observe the proportion of this vaire, you shall easily discern the very shape of the case or skin of little beasts, in them; for so did ancient Governors and Princes of the world (saith Sir John Ferne in Lac. Nob. pag. 86.) line their pom­pous Robes, with furre of divers colours, sowing one skin to another after the plainest fashion. There is yet another kind of furs much differing from all other the furres before expressed, not onely in shape, but in name also, as in example.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

This sort of furre or doubling, was (as Leigh noteth) of some old Heralds called varry cuppy, and varry tassa, which (saith he) is as much to say, as a Furre of cups, but himself calleth it Meire, for so he reckoneth it well blazoned, and very ancient, and a Spanish coat. But I hold it better blazoned, Potent counterpotent, for the resemblance it hath of the heads of crowches, Potent coun­ter-potent. which Chaucer calleth Potents, Quia potentiam tribuunt infir­mis, as appeareth in his description of old age in the Romcant of the Rose.

So old she was that she ne went
A foot, but it were by potent.
Potent what.

So much of furs consisting of two colours, onely: now of such as are com­posed of more than two colours, according to the division before delive­red.

Such are these and their like, Viz.

  • Ermynites
  • Vaire of many colours.


[example of blazon or coat of arms]

This at the first sight may seem to be all one with the second Furre, before in this Chapter expressed, but differeth in this, that herein is added one haire of Red on each side of every of these Poulderings. And as this differeth little in shape, and shew from that second Furre named Ermyne; so doth it not much differ from the same in name, that being called Ermyne, and this Ermynites.

The other Furre that is composed of more than two colours, is formed of four severall colours at the least, as in example.

[Page 25]

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

This differeth much from all the other furs, Vaire. and (according to Leigh) must be blazoned vaire; this is composed of four distinct colours, viz. Argent, Gule, Or, and Sable. Here I will note unto you,Rule generall. a generall rule that you must carefully observe, not onely in the blazoning of these furs, but generally of all Coat-Armours, viz. that you describe them so particular­ly and plainly, as who so heareth your blazon, may be able to trick or expresse the forme and true por­trature thereof, together with the manner of bea­ring, no lesse perfectly, than if he had done it by some pattern thereof laid before him.

Although I have here in the Blazon of this kind of Fur, as also in the Table of this first Section, put a difference between these three words, vaire, verrey, and varrey, in ascribing to every one of these a particular property in the Blazon of Furs differing in Metals and Colours; in which I must confesse, I have followed Leigh; yet I doe for my own part rather agree with Sir John Ferne, who in the 86. pag. of his Book intituled Lacye [...] Nobility, writeth, That there is no other blazon allowed to a Doubling or Fur of this nature, than onely vaire, or variated, for which word variated I have observed, that our English Blazoners use verrey; from the French mascu­line participle, vaire; and Sir John Ferne there further saith, That these differences of termes verrey, varrey and vaire, are meer phantasies of Leigh his Blazon; and newly by him devised, without any authority of Writer to infer the same; and that before Leigh his time, all Authors had called this sort of Fur or Doubling, Vaire: And if it be varied, or composed of Argent and Azure, then it is so called, and no Colours named: but if it consist of any other Co­lour, then it is blazed, Vaire, of such and such Colours. And I shall hereaf­ter in this my present Edition, alwayes blazon a Fur of this nature, of what Metall and Colours soever composed, yea, although it consist of two Me­tals and two Colours, vaire or verrey, alwayes naming the Metall and Colour, except it consisteth of Argent and Azure: and thus concluding the Chap­ter of Tinctures, being the first kind of Accidents of Armes, I will now goe on to the second sort.


HAving hitherto handled the first part of the distribution before deli­vered touching the Accidents, viz. Tincture: I will now go forward to handle that other member of the same, namely, Differences; shewing first what Differences are; and so proceed in order to the Division of them.

But before I proceed to the definition and division of them, it is not unnecessary to observe, That Armes may be resembled to Arithmeticall numbers, for like as in numbers, the addition, or substraction of an uni­ty, maketh the said number to receive a diverse forme, from that it hath before; in like manner the apposition to, or exemption of any one thing from the Coat-Armour, be it either difference, or whatsoever else, the Coat-Armour is not the same; but varieth from that it was before. This variation (occasioned by the addition, or exemption of some adventi­tious [Page 26] thing) neverthelesse altereth not the substance of the Coat-Ar­mour; but maketh the same to differ in forme onely from that it was before, for these adventitious Appositions are of the nature of Accidents, whose property is Adesse & abesse sine subjecti corruptione; as I have for­merly shewed out of Porphyrus, p. 16.

Differences have no existence of themselves, but are of the quality of Adjectives, which need the aide and support of some substantive, to be annexed to them, and were devised, for the distinguishing of Coat-Ar­mour, of particular persons, of one and the same Family, each from other among themselves, according to that saying of Cass. Differentiae sunt quae­dam accidentia per se non existentia, quae inducunt diversitatem separativam, per quam dignoscuntur talia Arma, in qu bus sunt inserta, ab armis alterius. But I will proceed to the definition and division of Differences.

Differences are extraordinary additaments, whereby Bearers of the same Coat-Armour are distinguished each from others, and their nearnesse to the principall Bearer is demonstrated.

Of Differences some are

  • Ancient.
  • Modern.

Those I call Ancient differences, that were used in ancient time for the distinguishing, not onely of one Nation or Tribe from another; but also to note a diversity between particular persons also, descended out of one Fami­ly, and from the same Parents. Such are bordures and imborduring of all sorts. The Bordures that were annexed unto Coat-Armours, in the begin­ning were plain, and (in all likelihood) were of some one of the colours or metals before spoken of: But afterwards in processe of time (by reason of the multiplication of persons and of Families) men were constrained to devise other sorts of bordures; to induce a variety, whereby each particu­lar person might be distinctly known, and differenced ab omnibus & singu­lis ejusdem domus & familiae. Of these there are divers formes, as by these examples following may appear.


[example of blazon or coat of arms]

The first devised Bordures were borne plain, after the manner of this, which is thus blazoned. He beareth Argent,Rule. a bordure Gules. Here you shall not need to mention the plainnesse of the bordure: for when you say a bordure of this or that colour or metall, and no more, then it is alwayes understood to be plain, albeit the same be not so expressed. But if it have any other form than plain, in such case, you must not omit to make ex­press mention of the fashion thereof.

The plain bordure, used for differing of Coat-Ar­mour is resembled to those Fimbria's, or Bordures, that Almighty God by the mouth of his servant Moses commanded the Israelites to wear about the skirts of their Garments, to put in mind of their duties touching their observation of his precepts; In respect that the people were yet rude, and unexercised in obedience, therefore was this ordinance prescribed unto them; As Saint Hierom noteth in these words. Rudi adhuc populo, & hominibus ad obedientiam insuetis, per Moysen, imperatur a Domino: ut in fig­num memoriae quod praecepta Domini recordentur, per singulas vestimentorum fimbrias habeant cum cocco Hyacinthini coloris Insignia, ut etiam casu huc il­lucque respicientibus oculis, mandatorum Coelestium memoria nascatur. Of these Bordures were the Pharisees reproved by Christ, because they [Page 27] perverted the use thereof, by wearing them, not for the putting of them in mind of the observation of Gods precepts, but for a bravery, and their own vain ostentation, and to the end they would seem more strict and se­vere observers of Gods precepts than others were.

The content of the Bordures, (saith Leigh) is the fifth part of the Field. Rule. The content of a bordure. Also it is to be observed, that when the Field and the Circumference or Tract, about the same, drawn (as in this example) be both of one metal, co­lour or furre, then shall you not term it a bordure, but you shall say, that he beareth such metall, colour, or furre, imbordured. Leigh reckoneth this sort of imborduring, here spoken of, to be of the number of differences of bre­thren; but Bartol (saith he) hath committed the distribution thereof to the Heraulds.

Before I proceed to the Compound bordures above specified,Simple bor­dures. I will give some few examples of other severall formes of simple bordures; (Quia sim­pli i [...] p [...]iora fuerunt compositis,) as followeth.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a bordure ingrailed, argent; This word ingrailed, is derived from the Latine word In­gredior, which signifieth to enter, or goe in; Quia ista sinea ex qua conficitur Bordura, C [...]mpum plus aequo ingre­diatur: or else it is derived of Gradu [...], which signifieth a step or degree, and therefore it is called a bordure in­grailed, Quia (as Ʋpton noteth) ejus color gradatim in­fertur in campum Armorum.

The next sort of Bordure that I will note unto you,Bordures in­vecked. is a bordure invecked, and the same is formed as appear­eth in this next Escocheon.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

This bordure is formed meerly contrary to the last precedent, and is blazoned in this manner. He beareth Or, a border invecked, Gules. As the former doth di­late it self by way of incroaching into the Field, con­trariwise this doth contract it self by inversion of the points into it self; in regard whereof (it seemeth) it receiveth his denomination, and is called Invecked, of the Latine word Inveho, which signifieth, To car­ry in, Quia ipsa linea gibbosa, in borduram plus aequo in­vehatur.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

This bordure differeth in form from both the other,Dent border. and is thus blazoned; he beareth, Gules, a bordure in­dented, Argent. Mr. Wyrly, in his Book intituled,Wyrly. The true use of Armes, treating of the honourable life, and languishing death of Sir John de Gralhye, Capitoll de Buz, and one of the Knights elected at the first foun­dation of the Garter, by that victorious King Edward the third, doth therein make mention of one Sir Per­ducas Dalbreth, to whom this Coat-armour did properly appertain, and describeth the same in this manner.

Sir Perducas Dalbreth to the French return'd,

Who Guly shield about his neck did fling
Wrapt with dent bordure silver shining.

This bordure is said to be indented, because it seemeth to be composed (as it were) of teeth, whereof the same hath a resemblance as well in pro­perty [Page 28] as in form: for teeth (especially those of beasts of ravenous kind, or of prey) have that part of their teeth next to their gums, broad and strong and their points sharp after the manner above specified;Isiodor. and they are cal­led in Latine dentes à demendo (as Isiodorus noteth) which signifieth to take away or diminish, Quia a [...]iquid de cibis s [...]mper demu [...]t. In the same manner also doe every of these I [...]dentings, entring into the Field, lessen and take away some part of them as they goe.

Note.Note that all sorts of bordu es are subject to charging with things, as well Artificial, as Natura [...]l; as by examples following, in part shall appear; wherein I purpose not to be curious, either in their number, or yet in their order; but as they shall come to hand, so will I set them down in their proper places.

Hitherto of bordures simple, now of such as are compounded, as fol­loweth,

Bordure countercom­poned.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a bordure countercomponed, Or, and Gules, which is as much to say, as compounded of these two Colours counterly placed. Note that Countercompony consisteth evermore of two tracts only and no more. Note further, that the manner of differencing of Coat-Armours by bordure is very ancient, but if you re­spect their particular formes and charge, they are not so.

Bordure pur­flewe of vaire, Rule.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a bordure perflewe, Verrey. Note here that, this term perflewe, is common to all the Furs before handled, so often as they are used in bordures. Therefore whensoever you shall find a bordure of any of these severall kinds, you must (for the more cer­tainty of the blazon) express by name of what sort of Furres the same is, if there be a peculiar name appro­priate thereunto. Otherwise if it be one of those kinds, that have no certain name, whereby it may be di­stinctly known from the rest; or if it be so, that the bordure be composed of some such of the Furres as doe comprehend under one name, divers and distinct Colours, then must you of necessity particu­larly name the Colours whereof every such bordure is so composed, except it consisteth of Argent and Azure, as this doth, and then it sufficeth to call it onely verrey; as in this example I have done.

Bordure checkie.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Bordure checkie, Or, and Azure. Albeit this hath a near resemblance of counter-com­pony before handled, yet is it not the same, for that never exceedeth two tracts or panes, and this is never lesse than of three: therefore you must take speciall heed to the number of the Tracts in Blazon, else may you easily erre in mistaking the one for the other. And this Rule holdeth not alone in Bordures, but also in Bends, Fesses, Bars, &c. borne after those man­ners.

Sometimes you shall find the Bordures cha [...]ged with things living, as in these examples.

[Page 29]

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Argent, a Bordure, Azure, charged with Enaluron of Martlets, to the number of eight, Or: In your blazoning of bordures of this kind of bearing, you must mention what sort of Fowle or Bird your bordure is charged withall, for that this term serveth generally for all kinds of bordures charged with things of this kind.

A like bordure did Jasper Earle of Pembroke bear,Iasper Earle of Pembroke. Bordure Ena­luron of Mart­lets. that was half-brother to King Henry the Sixth, and was created Duke of Bedford, by that most prudent Prince King Henry the Seventh.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Azure, a bordure, Gules, Enurny of eight Li­oncels passant, Or. Otherwise thus. He beareth Azure,Hamlyne plan­tagenet, base brother to King Henry the second. a Bordure, Gules, charged with eight Lioncels passant, Or: Such a bordure is set forth for Hamlyne Plantagenet that was base-brother to King Henry the Second. This term Enurny is proper to all bordures charged with any beasts, whose kinds, must be specially observed, and expressed in blazon, for the more certainty thereof.

Sometimes you shall find two of these sorts of bor­dures before handled, commixt in one, as in these next examples following.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, a bordure quarterly, as followeth:Examples of Bordures charged with living and ve­getable things. Hen. Courtney Earle of Devon, and Marquess of Exceter. Th first Gules, enur [...]y of three Lioncels passant guardant, Or. The second, Azure, verdoy, of as many Flowers de Lis, Or. The third as the second: The fourth as the first. Such a bordure did Henry Courtney, Earle of Devon, and Marquesse of Exceter, bear, (who lived in the time of King Henry the Eighth) environing the Royall Armes of England, which he received as an augmen­tation of Honour. And this Coat-Armour may also be thus shortly blazoned, Argent, a bordure quarterly England and France.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Gules, a bordure, quarterly composed of purflewe, Ermyne, and Counter-compony, Or, and Azure,Hen. Fitz-roy Duke of Rich­mond. Such a Bordure did Henry Fitz-roy bear, who was Duke of Richmond and Somerset, as also Earle of Nottingham. He was base son unto King Henry the Eighth. Some­times you shall find Bordures charged with leaves or flowers, and other vegetables, as in example.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Sable, a bordure, Or,Bordure ver­doy. charged with Ver­doy, of Trefoiles, slipped to the number of 8. proper. Note that this term Verdoy is appropried to all bordures charged with leaves, flowers, fruits, and other the like vegetables. Wherefore, to make your blazon more cer­tain, it behoveth, that you should expresly mention what kind of vegetable the bordure is charged with­all.

[Page 30] Bordure char­ged with things inani­mate.Otherwhiles you shall have bordures charged with other sorts of things inanimate, or without life, as in this next example.

Richard Plan­t [...]genet King of the Romans.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a bordure, Sable, charged with Entoyre of 8. Besants. Such a bordure did Richard Plantagenet, King of the Romans, and Earle of Cornwall bear, that was Son unto King John, and Brother to King Henry the third. Note, that this term Entoyre is proper to all bordures charged with dead things: Entoyre. Note. therefore you must name what kind of Entoyre the bordure is charged with, whether with Roundles, Crescents, Mullets, Annulets, or whatsoever other dead thing. A Beisaunte, or (as some call them) a Talent, is taken for a Massive Plate or Bul­lion of Gold, containing (according to Leigh) of Troy weight, 104 l. and two ounces, and is in value 3750 l. sterling, and had for the most part no similitude or representation upon it (as some hold) but only fashioned round and smooth, as if it were fitted and prepared to receive some kind of stamp But others are of opinion, that they were stamped, and that they were called bezants (or rather bizants) of bizantium, the place where they were anciently coyned. Note, that whensoever you shall find any Bezants or Talents borne in Armes, you shall not need to make mention of their colour in blazoning of them, because they be evermore understood to be Gold.

Bordure gobo­nated.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

Sometimes you shall find bordures gobonated of two colours, as in this next example. He beareth Ermyne, a bordure gobonated, Or and Sable: and such a bearing is so tearmed, because it is divided in such sorts, as if it were cut into small Gobbets.

As this Bordure is gobonated, so shall you find Bor­dures, either Bendy, or Bendwaies, or charged with Bends, as in this next Escocheon in part may appear.

Bordure Ben­dy.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Gules, a bordure, Sable, charged with three Bends, Argent. I give it this blazon in respect that the Sable doth surmount the Argent, and stand­eth (as it were) instead of a Field, but if they both were of even peeces, then should I have tearmed it a bodure-bendee or bend-waies, of so many pieces Ar­gent and Sable, or Sable and Argent, as it should happen.

There resteth yet one example more of bordurings, which I have here placed, to the end the same may serve instead of many particular demonstrations, otherwise requisite for the full understanding of the manifold severall sorts of diapering, that may be used in bordures, as in example.

[Page 31]

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent a Bordure, Gules Diapered, Bordure dia­pered. Note. Entoy­re, Enurny, Enaluron, Verdoy, &c. Note, that you may have diaper of any two, three or more of these, or any other their like, in one bordure, and that not onely bordures, but also Fields of Coat-armours, are found diapered. That Field or bordure is properly said to be diapered, which being fretted all over, hath something quick or dead, appearing within the Frets. And albeit things having life and sense, or their parts, may be borne diapered, yet Plants, Fruits, Leaves, Flowers, and other Vegetables, are (in the opinion of some Armorists) judged to be more fit for such kind of bearing.

This kind of bearing diaper in coat-armour, is sometimes seen in Coats of France, and Belgia, but very rare or never in England, as Sir John Ferne no­teth. Diaper (saith he) is known of every man to be a fantasticall work of knots, within which are wrought the signes or formes of things either quick or dead, according to the invention of the work-master, as it is well known in Ypres, Bruges, and some Cities of Heynault. In the blazon of such Coats you must first name the colour or metall of the Field.

As touching their first severall Charges imposed upon these bordures a­fore-handled, I should not (I acknowledge) have made mention of them at all in this place (the order of my Method respected) sed propter necessita­tem nonnunquam recedendum est à regulis. But the occasion offered to treat of the differences of bordures in this place, enforced me to make untimely mention of those Charges, to the intent I might yeeld some satisfaction to the Reader touching these variable formes, which I could no way better perform than by demonstrative examples: Exempla enim ponimus, ut sentiant addiscentes.

Notwithstanding, that I take here onely mentioned a bordure and im­borduring, for Ancient differences, yet I doe not thereupon conclude,Ancien diffe­rences, their first use Anti­quated. that Antiquity was not acquainted with any other than these; but the reason that I doe not particularly here discourse at large of those other Ancient differences, is, because the use of divers of them now, as differences, is an­tiquated, and some of them are now used, as Ordinaries, or some other Charge of the Field; which I shall afterward handle, but not here, because it sutes not with my intended method; others of those Ancient ones are still in use, as differences; but to demonstrate some other younger bro­ther than anciently they did, and therefore now tearmed modern, by changing of their first use. Let it therefore suffice onely to name some of those first sort here mentioned as Orles, Cotizes, Bends, &c. Which how they then were disposed of, in the Terminall, Collaterall and Fixall Coat-Armours, I refer you to Sir John Ferne and others, who have writ plen­tifully of them; In those elder times also, the variation of Metall or Colour, Transposition of Charge, yea, sometime change of the Charge, or of part of the Charge, transmutation of Metall into Furre, and such like, were used for distinctions of Families, as you may observe in divers Authors, and in the Coat-Armours of younger branches of many Ancient Families.


Modern diffe­rences.HItherto of the ancient manner of differencing Coat-Armours: Next, such as we call modern differences, come in order to be handled. I call those modern differences, that are of a latter institution, and put in use sithence the invention of bordures. Such are these that follow, and their like, viz. the File, Crescent, Mullet, Martlet, Annulet, Flower de-lis, &c.

Files what.What these Files are, I cannot certainly avouch, because I find that di­vers Authors, and those very judiciall in matters of this kind, doe diversly judge of them,Opinion of Upton. according to their severall conceits. Ʋpton, a man much commended for his skill in blazon, and of some Armorists supposed to have been the first that made observation of their use (but they are therein much deceived, for that such use was made of them many ages before Ʋp­tons time) calleth them Points, such as men usually fasten their garments withall, and saith, they may be borne either even or odde, to the number of nine.Of Budaeus. Budaeus, an ancient Writer, affirmeth them to be Tongs, and that they may not be borne but odde. Of Alciatus. Alciatus in his Parergon nameth them Plaitez or Plaits of garments. Bartolus calleth them Candles. Some other Au­thors call them Files, Of Bartolus. and others Lambeaux or Labels. In this so great un­certainty, I forbear to determine any thing, seeing those so learned can­not certainly resolve among themselves what they are. Onely con­cerning their diverse manner of bearing, these examples following will give light: wherein I will begin with their single bearing, and so will I proceed to their compound use.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Argent, a File, with one Labell, Gules. This form of bearing is found in the Chappell of the Castle of Camphire, alias Trevior, in Zeland. Such is the dignity of the File, as that the Heraulds in their sound discre­tion, have caused many poor decayed Gentlemen, and persons newly risen, to lay aside the bearing there­of, because of the dignity of the same, being such, as the Son of an Emperour cannot bear a difference of higher esteem, during the life of his Father.

Upton. Ʋpton saith, that Files are not borne for Armes, but for differences of Armes: Tales lingulae sive labellae (saith he) non dicuntur pro­prie signa, sed differentiae signorum. Nevertheless in practice it falleth out o­therwise, as in this Coat here expressed, and others following may be seen. For we find that Labels are borne both single and manifold without any o­ther manner of Charge; so that it is clear, that they are borne sometimes for Armes, and not alwayes for Differences of Armes, as by the second Escocheon following, more plainly appeareth.


[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Azure, a File of three Lambeaux, Ar­gent: this, saith Leigh, is the first of the nine Differen­ces of brethren, and serveth for the heir or eldest son, the Father living. Honorius saith, that one of the Labels betokeneth his father, the other his mother, and the middlemost signifieth himself.

[Page 33]

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, a File of five points, or Lambeaux, Azure: this seemeth to me a perfect Coat of it self, for I find the same anciently set up in a glasse-window, in the Church of Estington in the County of Glocester, and is borne by the name of Henlington. Whence may ap­pear that this File is borne as a Charge sometimes, and not for a Difference of Coat-Armour alwayes.Leigh. The file of five Lambeaux, saith Leigh, is the difference of the Heir whilst the Grandfather liveth, but his Grandfa­ther being deceased, then he leaveth this, and taketh that of three, which was his fathers Difference. But herein his Rule faileth; for that they have been anciently borne with five points for the Difference of the Eldest son, in the time of King Edward the first, as appeareth by di­vers Seals, and other good authentick proofs of Antiquity.

Note, that as the Burdures before mentioned, so also these Files are of­tentimes charged with things as well quick as dead, whereof I will give you some few examples in thse next Escocheons.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, a File of three Lambeaux, Azure, each charged with as Many Flewers de-lis, Or. Such a File did Henry the fourth, Duke of Lancaster bear (over the Armes of England) who was Son to Henry, Henry Duke of Lancaster. Earle of Lan­caster, whose Father was Edmund surnamed Crookback, that was first Earle of Lancaster, and Son to King Henry the third.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Azure, a File of three Lambeaux, Argent, each charged on the dexter side of the foot thereof with a canton, Gules.Lionel Planta­genet. A like File did Lionel Plantagenet bear (who was third Son unto King Edward the third) o­ver the Armes of France and England, saving that those Cantons, were placed in the highest part of his Labels aforesaid.

The Labell of the Heire apparent (saith Wyrley) is sel­dom transferred unto the second brother, The Labell transferred upon occasion Wyrley. but when the Inheritance goeth to the daughters of the Eldest brother: in which case, it was permitted unto him, to bear the File as heir male of his family, and as one that remained in expectancy of the Inheritance, if the issue of his Neeces should fail. Note, that the second brother, Rule. might not intrude himself into the absolute Signes of his family, the Inheritance being in his Neeces or Kinswomen. Hugh de Hastings, being a second brother, and his po­sterity did bear a Labell for their difference upon the like occasion, and for the reasons here mentioned.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Vert; a File of three points parted perpale, Gules and Argent, on the first six towers, Or, and the second as many Lionceaux rampant, purpure.Edward Plan­tagenet Duke of Aubemarle. Such a File was borne by Edward Plantagenet son and heir to Ed­mund of Langly, Duke of Yorke, which Edward lived in the time of King Richard the second; by whom he was created Duke of Aubemarle, and was slain in the battell of Agincourt in the time of King Henry the fifth.

[Page 34] Robert D'ar­tois.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, a File of three Lambeaux, Gules, each charged with as many towers, Or. Such a File did Robert D'artois bear, who guided King Edward the third in all his wars against the French. This Robert was a Frenchman, and was thought to have been the first that moved King Edward the third to make his challenge to the Crown of France. Many more exam­ples might be given of the divers manners of bearing and charging of Files, but these here expressed may suffice to inform the Reader that they are no less sub­ject to Charges than the bordures before expressed: as also to move him to take a more strict observation of them, as they shall come to hand.

Forasmuch as it hath been anciently questioned (and for ought that I could ever see, resteth as yet undecided) by Bartholus, Budaeus, and other Ju­dicious persons of their times; whether Files, or Labels should be borne with even points, or odde; some holding that they could not be borne but odde, others maintaining they might be used indifferently as well even as odde. In my former Impression I followed the stronger opinion, and in all the precedent examples have produced patterns of unequall points. Ne­verthelesse not so resting satisfied, I have sithence endeavoured to examine their use (the faithfullest interpreter of things doubtfull) to which end I took occasion to peruse certain Miscellanean notes of Seals, which I had ga­thered long agoe: by which Seals it appeared, they had been anciently used to be borne as well even as odde, whereupon (out of my desire to clear all doubts, and to make every thing as perspicuous, and manifold as I could) I resolved to cut such Seals as came to my hands, for the better approba­tion of this my assertion, and content of the Reader, and withall to set them down according to order of even bearing, viz. 2. 4. 6. &c. before I would conclude this Chapter of files. As in example.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

Sigillum hoc appendit Chartae cujusdam Joh. ap Howell de Monnemoth fact. Christianae Ball. continenti quoddam escam­bium unius Curtilagii, in vico vocato Mowkentstreet, &c. Dat. Anno Regni Regis Edvar. III. 32.

This piece of Evidence resteth amongst the writings or deeds of George Thorpe of Wanneswell, Esquire, and one of his Majesties Gent. Pensioners, whose residence is in the Parish of Barckley in the County of Gloucester.

An example of a file with four points, followeth in this next Escocheon.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, two cheverons, Gules, on a quarter of the second, a File of four points of the first. This Coat was amongst others taken out of an old Masse-book at Gos­worth, in the County of Chester, wherein they were found fair Limmed many years agoe. As appeareth by a Book of visitation of that Shire, remaining in my own hands, extant to be seen: which visitation was made by William Flower, alias Norrey, King of Armes of the North part beyond the River of Trent, who was associated and accompanied therein, with Robert Glo­ver, Somerset Herauld, his Marshall, Anno. Dom. 1580.

This Coat might have been more aptly placed hereafter in the second [Page 35] Section, amongst Ordinaries of diverse kinds, borne one upon another; But that I desired to place all my Labels of even points together without interruption, though I digressed somewhat therein by giving way to ne­cessity, albeit with breach of Rule and Order; Nonnunquam enim propter excellentiam seu necessitatem receditur à Regulis. This form of bearing of Files with four points, is also warranted by Rowles of great Antiquity; As appeareth by the Coat of Sir Thomas Leyhourne, that bare, Azure, six Li­onceux Rampant, Or, a File of four points, Gules, which I doe here passe over, as well for brevity, as for impertinency thereof to this place, in respect of the Lions the principall charge thereof. Note here a strange bearing of a File.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

This Seal was affixed unto a certain deed of one Wil­liam de Curli, as appeareth by a Transcript thereof in my Book of Seals, the effect whereof is brief, as follow­eth in these words.

Will. de C. fil. Will. de Curli, &c. pro Salute Antecess. &c. terr. in Territorio de Langle. 20. Henr. 3. Teste Hug. le Poer. Vicecom. Warwick. Henr. de Napford, Roberto de Clop­ton milit. This example serveth to confirm my former assertion; that Files are not onely borne for differen­ces, but sometimes for the onely Charge of the Coat-Armour, as appea­reth by the Coat of Henlington, whereof I have given Example, elsewhere: and herein we may observe, a rare form of position thereof, in bend Sinister.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

I have seen a like File of three points borne dexter-waies in Bend, for the onely Charge of the Field, as in this Escocheon, which may receive this blazon, He bea­reth, Argent, a File of three points in bend, Sable. This Coat-Armour belonged to one Morien an Alien born, buryed in Saint Maries Church in Oxenford.

For the shunning of multiplicity of Examples, I will give an instance of a Coat-Armour, comprehending both sorts of Files, viz. even and odde points, which for that it is simple, and unmixt with any Ordinary or Common Charge, may serve instead of all. As in example.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Or, Three files borne barwaies, Gules; The first having five points, the second four, the last Triple poin­ted, here I am constrained to say, Triple pointed, lest by the iteration of the word Three, I should break the Rule given pag. 13. This is as I take it a Dutch Coat, borne by the name of Liskirk, quasi lis Ecclesia.

Now if any man will demand of me, why I doe spend my oyle and travell in things of so small moment? To such I answer, that so long as I travell to find out the truth, I reckon my travell well bestowed, though the matter be of never so small importance, Suave enim est in minimis e­tiam vera scire.

There is yet another form of bearing of files, diverse from these before mentioned, which albeit, the same be not in use with us, but seemeth to be a Nationall Custom peculiar to the Kingdome of France: Neverthelesse sithence I have undertaken to treat amongst things of the use of Blazoning Coat-Armour, I would not willingly omit any forme of bearing, or o­ther remarkable thing, that might make either my self or the Reader more [Page 36] expert in the use of Blazon. This forme of bearing files which I will now shew you, is not distant some little space from the upper part of the Chief (after the most usuall fashion) but groweth immediatly out of the Chief it self.

Pet. Matthew of the life and death of H. 4. King of France.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Azure, a file issuing out of the Chiefe without any intermission at all; And is thus blazoned in French; I port D'azure Ʋng file de Gules, movant du Chiefe. These Armoriall differences are (in France) ob­served upon the Robes of honourable Persons issued out of Princely Families amongst themselves; such Robes (I mean) as are given them, either at the marri­ages, and funerals of Kings and Queens. As for exam­ple; It hath been noted that the Lambeaux, Gules, up­on the Mantles of Orleance, have been adorned with Flowers de Lis. The Lambeaux of Arthois with Castles, Or. Those of Anjou moving out of the Chiefe, only Gules.

In like sort divers other noble Houses of France, viz. of Valois, of berry, and of Allencon, have Bordures either plain or engrailed, or charged with Rey­sants, those of Ever [...]ux bastons, Or, and Argent, and they of Burbon bastons, Gules.

Here may rise a question, not unworthy our observation, viz Whether like as the eldest brother is preferred before the second, so the son of the eldest brother, shall in like sort be preferred, or take place before his Ʋncle? And this hath been holden a great and difficult question a long season; un­till at length O ho the Emperour of Germany, being at Trevere with his Barons this matter was there questioned, he ordained that the cause should be de­cided by Combat, wherin the Nephew hardly obtained the victory, which because it was deemed to have proceeded by the secret Judgment of God, it was decreed that from thenceforth the Nephew should be preferred be­fore the Ʋncle. Of this mind are Nich. Boerius, Lucas de Penna, and John de Montoleno; that the Nephew should take place.

The like question hath risen in France between the second daughter, and the son of the elder sister, as well in Avionin a city of Narbone in France, as in other parts therof,Chassa in Cata­logo suo de Glor. which remained long undetermined. At length it was finally adjudged in the Court of Parliament (holden at Paris) for the Nephewes, for whom also it was likewise decreed in the City of Avinon.

If any man shall demand of me, how it commeth to pass that the Dimi­nutions or Differences of Armes before mentioned, are so diversly borne, not only in forrain Countries, but also in one selfe Nation: Or why there is not one set forme observed in the use of them with all Nations? I an­swer, that, it is not possible, because of the infinite actions of men, which are no lesse infinitely subject to mutabilitie, and therefore can by no meanes be reduced to a set forme of bearing universally, according to that saying of an uncertaine Author, Res sunt i [...]finitae, infiniteque mutabiles, id­circo praecepto generali comprehendi non possunt.

Besides these Differences before mentioned, other sorts of modern differences were devised for the distinguishing of brethren and persons issued out of one Family, which for the reach they extend unto, doe more manifestly ex­presse, and (as it were) point out with the finger, how far their severall bea­rers are distant in degree from their originall ancesters; as also, how each of them standeth in degree one to another among themselves; as by the examples ensuing may appeare.

[Page 37]

The First House.
The Second House.
The Third House.
The Fourth House.
The Fifth House.
The Sixth House.

To these single differences expressed in the first of these Rancks doth Gerard Leigh adde three other to make up the number of nine; which Number he laboured much to make compleat throughout all his book. The forme of which three, are these: viz. the Rose, the Crosse Molin, and the Double Cater-foile.

[emblems of degrees of separation]

[Page 38] Observation in bearing of Armes.It hath been evermore one observation with Nations in bearing of Armes, that as every particular family (saith Sir Iohn Ferne) did bear Armes, different in substance from those of other families, so those that are descended of the selfesame blood, should likewise beare the Armes of that house and Family whereof they are descended, in a different manner each from other, (not in substance but in accidents) for the distinguishing of their Line of Agnation. And the apposition of these Differences, albeit they seeme to make some alteration in the Coate-Armours, wherunto they are annexed, yet is the same but meerely Accidentall, the substance still remaining as it was before; the nature of these Appositions being such as is of all other Acci­dents, Ʋt possunt abesse, & adesse sine subjecti interitu.

Differences called Diminu­tiones Armo­rum, and why.And these differences annexed to Coat-Armours are of some Authours termed (& that not improperly) Diminutiones armorum, in respect they doe derogate from the dignity of the Armes whereto they are added, as ex­presly manifesting them to be of lesse esteem than those from which they are derived: Multiplicitas enim individuorum, in eadem specie diminutionem arguit. Occasion of invention of Differences. But doubtlesse, the conceit of Apposition of these differences to Coat-armours was grounded upon the necessity (the common Parent of all in­ventions) aswell that thereby all confused bearing of armes might be avoi­ded; as also that the prerogative of the eldest son should be preserved in­violable. And for this cause hath the eldest of every noble and generous Family,Use of diffe­rences. his peculiar manner of sole and plain bearing, which he will in no case permit any other man to use, though he be of the same Family and Sirname,Lyra in Genes. 49. but with addition of some kind of Difference, because the sole bearing of Armes pertaineth onely to the first begotten: In primogenito e­nim (saith Lyra) tanquam in capite, stat, & remanet splendor geniturae.

Tremelius in Genes. 49. Dignity of the first begotten.As touching the dignity of the first begotten, Tremelius in his Annotations upon the 49 of Genesis maketh mention of two chief Prerogatives, due un­to Reuben, had he not defiled his Fathers Bed; the one of Honour, where­by he had his Brethren in Subjection unto him; the other of Strength, by reason of his double portion of inheritance.Chassa. Conolu. 76. part. 1. And Chassaneus saith, Ea quae ac­quiruntur Primogenito, acquiruntur titulo universali, item acquiruntur ut consti­tuto in dignitate. For these respects the Armes of the Family ought to re­maine entire to the Eldest, because the second, third, and fourth begotten Sons, cannot arrogate to themselves any such Prerogative, and there­fore may not bear their Coat but with Difference.

Another use of differences.Furthermore, these differences here spoken of, are of some Authors called Doctrinae Armorum; and that very aptly, in regard that by the apposition of them to Coat-Armours, our understanding (upon sight of them) is infor­med from what Line of Consanguinity the Bearer of such difference doth abstract himselfe; whether from the Line ascending, descending, or colla­terall, as also in what degree he standeth; as, whether he be the second, third, or fourth begotten child of such a Parent. And such apposition is no lesse lawfull, than is the addition of names of Baptisme unto the Sirname of the Family: Sicut enim nomina inventa sunt ad cognoscendos homines, ita arma vel insignia ad familias & personas distinguendas singulatim.

A further use of differences.There is yet a further use of these differences, in that they serve to pre­vent and avoid dissentions, debates, challenges, combats, and slaughters. For as to all Brethren there is but one sirname allowed, yet for difference, that one of them may be discerned from another, there is added unto each Brother a praenomen, or name of Baptisme; so is it necessary, that sithence [Page 39] the Coat-Armour of the Ancestor is competible to all the children (as the mark of the family, whereof they are descended) that a difference should be added to the Coat-Armour of every brother, to mark and limit out to all mens sight the diversity of their Birth and Line whereupon they depend, that so all occasion of challenge may be prevented, when each man know­eth not onely his place of precedence, but also his nearnesse and place of title to the Inheritance.

Whereas I have formerly among the examples of bordures, Differences of Bloud-Royall more eminent, and why. The first rea­son. used demon­strations of differences in the blood-royall, of some of the younger sons of Kings; I hold it fit before I conclude this Tract of differences, to give a lit­tle touch of the necessity why these should be more eminent than those of ordinary use, with persons of inferior estate. First, in regard that if the Coat-Armour of others should have too near a conformity and resem­blance with the Soveraign Ensignes, the vulgar sort perhaps might (in some cases or pretences) be seduced to follow such a one as were not their King, to the great disturbance of the State, and no lesse perill to the per­son of their lawfull Soveraign. And not onely is it so in Coats pertaining to the blood-royall, but also in other inferiour callings: for in ancient time (saith Wyrly) when men could not sufficiently distingush their Coat-Armours by changing their devices into other colours, for the number of leaders, that many times were of one house or family; then were they forced to vary their markes by the said additions. And very seldome should you see in those times, Crescents, Mollets, or such small things borne for a difference: or if any such were, they were made so large, that they might easily be discerned by the distance of forty foot. Furthermore, the Soveraign estate and dignity being compared with the quality of any Sub­ject, the difference will be found so great between them, and the one so far surmounting the other of them, as that reason it self willeth that so great a difference should be put between the Royall Ensignes and the Armes of a Subject, as there is between their estates and degrees, sith those Ensigns are the marks of their worthinesse and esteem.

For these and other respects, it hath been, and yet still is in use,Honorable Ordinaries, used for diffe­rences. that in addition of differences to the Armes of Kings younger children, the skilfull Heralds have given some of the Honourable Ordinaries, for more apparent distinctions, as a F [...]sse, Chief, Bend, Pile, Bordure, and such like, as we may manifestly see in divers ancient Coats borne by such noble Personages as have descended from the collaterall lines of the Kings of England, France, Scotland, &c.

Concerning those modern differences before expressed in the form of six rancks, page 36. viz. Crescents, Mollets, Martlets, &c. Crescents, Mollets, &c. notwithstanding their institution was ingenious, yet hath tract of time discovered their use to be dangerous, especially in Martiall affaires, by reason of their dark­ness and unapparent formes, occasioned by imposition of one difference upon another: the perill whereof hath not a little extenuated their esti­mation. Nevertheless, their invention is not therefore to be condemned, in as much as the events have not fallen out answerable to the intention of their first Deviser: Neither can it be therefore justly said to be done without ground of reason, as a certain Author noteth: Si finis in intellectu operantis sit rationabilis, etiamsi non sequatur quod intenditur, non idcireo dici­tur irrationabiliter operari.

Here it is to be observed,Note. No differences for daughters. that differences doe in no wayes appertain un­to [Page 40] Sisters, for that they are reputed to be separated and divided from the Family whereof they are descended, in as much as when they are once married, they doe lose their own surname, and doe receive their denomi­nation from the Family whereof their Husbands are descended. And so much doth the word Soror notifie unto us, as Sosinus saith: Soror est quasi seorsim nata, & à familia separata.

Armes of Daughters. Why Daugh­ters are not allowed dif­ferences.To Daughters it is permitted to bear the Armes of their Father, even as the elder brother doth after his Fathers decease, without any scandall or challenge of their elder brother, for that to daughters never were any diffe­rences allowed, and that for three causes: First, because their Coats are never, or very seldome advanced in the Field, forasmuch as to that sex war is reputed odious. Secondly, for that the Coat-Armour is no longer borne by them than during their life, for the same extendeth not to their Issue. Lastly, because so long as Issue continueth of any of the Brethrens Lines, they are debarred from the inheritance. Yet in some cases they shall bear the Coat-Armour to them and their heirs, as in example. If all the issue of the Brethren happen to become extinct, then the Daughters shall Inherit the Land of their Ancestor. In which case, they may therewithall assume his Coat-Armour, and bear the same by themselves and their heirs for ever. But betwixt those Sisters be allowed no differences or badges of Pedegrees: the reason whereof is, for that sithence by them the Name of the House cannot be preserved; therefore they are admitted to the Inheritance equally, and are adjudged but one Heir to all intents and purposes, in Lawes as well Martiall as Civill, without any eminent prerogative either of Honour or Possesion, betwixt Elder and Younger.


SO much of the Accidents of Armes. viz. Tincture and Differences, compre­hended in the first part of our premised distribution.

Now of the second member thereof, viz. Parts of Armes.

The parts of Armes are the

  • Escocheon.
  • Ornaments without the Escocheon.

An Escocheon is the form or representation of a Shield of what kind so­ever, and is so called of the Latine word Scutum, which hath the same sig­nification: whence also an Esquire or Page takes his name, of Scutiger, signi­fying primarily a Target bearer. And the Target is not unaptly deduced from the Latine word tergus, a beasts hide, whereof at first Shields were made, whereupon Pliny saith, Tergus ad scuta galeasque impenetrabile, An impene­trable hide fit to make a Shield. And the Poet Statius,

—caesis clypeos vestire juvencis:
With bullocks hides they clad their Shields.

Whence Virgil calls Ajax his Buckler, Septemplex, for the seven-fold dou­blings of leather:Camden, Brit­tan. as elsewhere he describes a Target-duo taurea terga: made of two Oxe hides. But the clearest star of our Profession, Mr. Claren­ceaux takes it from the British word Tarian, and that from the French Thi­reos, which Pausanius saith, is the Buckler in use amongst the old Gaules. If any here should ask me, why then Escocheons should be used in Heraldry, sith other men are invested with Ensignes of honour, besides Martiall men; I answer them, that as to Military men that token is proper for reward of [Page 41] that kind of service; so if others by their Vertues, Arts, or Actions, Escocheon, an Hieroglyphike of defence. advance either the honour or the welfare of their Countrey, their service is as be­hoovefull as the others, and themselves as Defenders or Preservers of their Countries peace and happiness (as I have formerly shewed) deserve like­wise the reward of the Escocheon, being the Hieroglyphick or Emblem of de­fence and preserving. In which respect that good Prophet Eliah was cal­led The Chariots and Horsemen of Israel. And by the Civill Law (Imp. in L. Advoc. C. de Advoc.) an Advocate is sayd to be Miles, a martiall man, and to have the same prerogatives, in that they doe civium vitam & patri­monium defendere, defend the life and livelihood of the Subjects. Advocate termed Miles. Touching the divers formes of Shields, I will not here speak; every Country almost ha­ving their diverse makings: amongst which, the smallest were in use a­mongst our old Britans, as being most manageable; & the greatest amongst the Romans and Grecians, as may appear by Alexander, who being to passe a river, used his Sheild for his Boat, and his Spear for his Ruther to guide him­self over. And it was ever held more dishonorable for a man to lose his Buckler, than his sword in field, because it is more praise-worthy to defend a friend, than to hurt a foe, as a Noble Generall once said: Mallem unum Ci­vem, &c. I had rather save one good Subject, than kill an hundred enemies.

The Accidents in this Escocheon are

  • Points.
  • Abatements.

Points are certaine places in an Escocheon diversly named according to their severall Positions.

Whereof some are

  • Middle.
  • Remote.

The Middle Points are those that have their location in, or neere to, the Center of the Escocheon.

Such are these; viz. the

  • Honour
  • Fesse
  • Nombrill


The Fesse Point is the exact Center of the Escocheon. Fesse, Honour, and Nombrill Points. The Honour Point is the next above the same in a direct line. The Nombril is next underneath the Fesse Point, answering in a like distance from the Fesse Point, as Gerard Leigh hath set them downe.

Remote Points are those that have their situation naturally in places fur­ther distant from the center of the Escochon. Remote Points.

Of these some are

  • Superiour.
  • Inferiour.

The Superiour Remote Points are those that have their being in the upper part of the Escocheon.

Of these there are

  • Middle,
  • Extremes.

The Superior Middle Point doth occupie the precise Middest of the chiefe, betweene the two extremes. The two Superior extream Points do possesse the corners of the Chiefe part of the Escocheon.

And are termed

  • Dexter,
  • Sinister.

The Superior Dexter Point hath his beginning near unto the right corner of the Escocheon in the chiefe thereof. The Superior Sinister point is placed neere the Left Angle of the chiefe, in opposition to the Dexter chiefe; wher­unto, as also to the Middle chiefe Point, it answereth in a direct line.

[Page 42]The inferior Points do occupy the Base of the Escocheon, and thereof have their denomination, and are called Inferior, because they are seated in the lower parts thereof.

Of these also there are both

  • Middle,
  • Remote.

Note, That each of these do answer in opposition unto the several Su­perior chief Points above mentioned, in a direct line, insomuch as by them the location of these might be easily conceived without any further descri­ption of them, quia posito uno contrariorum, ponitur & alter. Neverthelesse, because those things that are delivered dividedly, are best conceived and understood, I will particularize these as I have done the former, beginning with the Middle Point.

The Middle Base Point doth occupy the exact Middest of the Base of the Escocheon, and answereth perpendicularly to the Middle Superior and Infe­rior Points. And in like sort doe both the Inferior Base Extreams answer in

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

an equi-distant proportion to the Extreams of the Su­perior Points placed in the Corner of the Escocheon. That Extream Base Point, on the right hand is na­med the Dexter Base Point, and that on the left hand is the Sinister Base. And for the better explana­tion of that which hath been here delivered touch­ing the Points of an Escocheon; I have here (because examples adde light) expressed the same by manifest demonstrations, placing severall letters upon every of the said Points, according to the description before mentioned.Preheminence in nomination and location. As there is preheminence in the priority of nomination of things, so is there also in their locall distribution: wherefore you must have respect unto the points of an Escocheon, for therein also consisteth a dignity, in as much as one point or place of the Escocheon, is more worthy than another, whereunto you must have regard in blazoning, Quia à dig­nioribus semper est incipiendum. What those points of an Escocheon are, ap­peareth in the last precedent Escocheon; and here made more manifest; as in example.

  • A Signifieth Dexter Chief Point.
  • B Signifieth Precise Middle Chief Point.
  • C Signifieth Sinister Chief Point.
  • D Signifieth Honour Point.
  • E Signifieth Fesse Point.
  • F Signifieth Nombrill Point.
  • G Signifieth Dexter Base Point.
  • H Signifieth Exact Middle Base Point.
  • I Signifieth Sinister Base Point.

Note the ne­cessity of the knowledge of these points.The knowledge of these Points is very requisite in respect, that when divers of these Points are occupied with sundry things of different kinds (as oftentimes it falleth out in some Escocheons) you may be able thereby to assigne unto each Point his apt and peculiar name, according to the dig­nity of his place. For no man can perfectly Blazon any such Coat, unlesse he doth rightly understand the particular Points of the Escocheon.


WE come now from points, the first part in our partition of Accidents of an Escocheon, to the second part, which is Abatements. Abatements. An Abate­ment is an accidentall mark annexed to Coat-Armour,Abatement what. denoting some un­gentleman-like, dishonourable, or disloyall demeanour, quality, or stain in the Bearer, whereby the dignity of the Coat-Armour is greatly a­based.

Abatements doe consist in

  • Diminution.
  • Reversing.

Diminution is a blemishing or defacing of some particular point or points, of the Escocheon,Diminution what. by reason of the imposition of some stainand co­lour thereupon. Note that all these marks of diminution, in the Escoche­ons next following, must be evermore of some one of the stainand colours, viz. Tawny, or Murrey, and must in no wise be of Metall, Note the Tinctures of Di­minutions. neither must they be Charged in any case, for so should they be additions of worship.

These are placed on

  • The Middle.
  • Some other part of the Escocheon.

Such as are placed in the Middle are expressed in these next two Esco­cheons following, whereof the first is a Delfe, as in this example.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Delfe, Tenne. A Delfe for revocation of challenge. To him that revo­keth his own Challenge (as we call it) eating his word, (saith Leigh) is this abatement given in token thereof. Note.Note, that whensoever you shall find two or more of them in one Escocheon, you shall not reckon of them as signes of Abatement, but of Honour; and in like man­ner, if either they be of Metall, or Charged upon; and so is it also in some other Abatements, which either by their number or colours, doe change their quality and become Charges of perfect bearing.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, an Escocheon reversed, Sanguine. Escocheon re­versed for de­flouring either maid or widow This is that other abatement that occupieth the Mid­dle point of the Escocheon, and is given unto him that discourteously intreateth either Maid or Widow a­gainst their will; or to such an one as flyeth from his Soveraigns Banner: he shall bear his Armes after this sort untill such time as he have done some valiant exploit, worthy to be noted by the Heralds; upon whose true report, it may please the Soveraign to re­store him to his former Bearing; which admission must be done in no lesse private Assembly than in the Mustering of a Camp.

Such Diminutions as are placed upon some other part of the Esco­cheon,

Doe occupy

  • One point alone.
  • More than one.

That which occupieth one alone, is called a Dexter point parted, an ex­ample whereof you may see in this next Escocheon.

[Page 44] Point dexter parted for too much boasting.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a point Dexter parted, Tenne: this Diminution is due unto him that overmuch boa­steth himselfe of his Martiall acts. If a man doe per­forme any praise-worthy Action, the self deed will sufficiently commend him though he hold his peace; and therefore Seneca lib. 2. de Beneficijs, doth repre­hend this kinde of vaine boasting; Res loquatur (saith he) nobis tacentibus, Let our deeds speake, let our tongues be silent: or if we will needs have verball praise, let us seek it by the direction of that wise King, Laudet te alius, & non os tuum, aliena labia non lingua tua. Let another man be thy Trumpeter, and not thine owne mouth. For indeed, that marke wherewith Judicio Virgil brandeth Drances, doth seldome deceive, Lin­gua melior, sed frigida bello Dextera, Whose tongue is quickest to speak, his arme in fight is weak. And albeit a man be truely valiant in deeds of Arms, yet Laus in ore proprio sordescit, It is ungentlemanlike to boast of it, Plutarch writes of young Marius, that his talk and gesture was so stout, that he got the name of Martis filius, the sonne of Mars; but when it came to the proofe, he was so farre from what he seemed, that he gained a new name of Veneris filius, the sonne of Venus.

Such Diminutions as doe occupy more then one point of the Escocheon,

Doe comprehend,

  • Foure points.
  • Lesse then foure.

That diminution of the former sort, is this which you see in this Esco­cheon, and is due to him that is slothfull in the warres.

Point in point for sloath in warre.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a Point in Point, Sanguine, Herein you may see in part how necessary it is to know the Points of the Escocheon before expressed. Inasmuch as this one Abatement compriseth these foure Points, viz. the Honour, together with the dexter and sinister, and the exact base points. For it is very manifest that the one of these Arch-lines hath his being from the dexter, and the other from the sinister base points, and doe meet in an acute Angle in the Honour point, an­swering perpendicularly to the precise base point. In former ages this vice was chastised by another kind of punishment, saith Chassaneus, Quando Miles se male gesserit in bello, potest Iudex scutum suum per­forari facere, Piercing of the Shield a pu­nishment for Cowardize. ut hoc exemplo alij Milites in praelio sint fortiores: If a Souldier demean himself not well in fight, the Judge Martiall may cause his Escoche­on to be pierced, to teach others by this chastisement, to be more valorous But contrariwise it is honourable for a man of Arms, to have blowes appear in his Bukler, given by his foes; as is memorable in our ancient Countryman Scaeva (the principal man who taught Julius Caesar the way to conquer Bri­tain) whose valour Caesar hath eternized with this acknowledgement, that it was he alone who saved the fortification against Pompey at Dyrrachium, where Caesar perused his Buckler, and found 230. holes pierced in it. And therefore because the dastard dares not come so neere the Enemy, to beare his strokes on his shield, he must be content to take this piercing of some of his owne side in Armes.

Those Diminutions that doe comprehend fewer than foure,

Are either, of

  • Three,
  • Two.

[Page 45]Such are said to comprehend three points, whose lines doe bound so ma­ny within their limits, as in example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, Point Champain, Tenne. Point Cham­pain for killing of a Prisoner. This is the first of those Diminutions, that doe comprehend three points, and is formed of one Arch-line, which taketh his beginning from the Dexter base (and including the middlemost) and endeth in the Sinister base point. This is due unto him that killeth his Prisoner, (hum­bly submitting himself) with his own hands, though in extream need it is allowed by the Law of Armes, rather to kill, then to hazzard himself to be slain;Froysard. Alwaies (saith Sir John Froysard) by right Arms of a man ought to grieve his enemy, and good company of Armes is mercy to Knights and Souldiers.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a plain point Sanguine.Point plaine or lying. This Abate­ment comprehendeth the same points that the last precedent doth, but differeth from the same herein, that the former is framed of an Arch-line, and this of a Right-line. This Abatement is due to him that telleth lies, or other false tales, to his Soveraign. For if light eares incline to light lips, harme ensueth; and war is then easily begun but hardly allaid again, when mis­report and light credence meet together.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Goare Sinister, Tenne. A goare for Cowardize. This Abatement consisteth of two Arch-lines drawn from the Sinister chiefe, and bottome of the Escocheon, and meeting in a sharp Angle in the Fesse Point. This is the third and last of the Abatements, that occupieth three points of the Escocheon, and is due to him that is a coward to his enemy. For we must conceive that Gores and likewise Gussets are things in use among women, especially Sempsters, & therfore are fit notes of cow­ards and womanish dipositions. But as for the Dexter Goare, we must otherwise esteem of it; for (saith Leigh) though it be of Stain and colour, yet is it exempted out of the number of abatements,Leigh. and it is a good Coat for a Gentlewoman; many of which sex are so far from the stain of Cowardize, as they will not turn their backs to men of grea­test valour; but like the valiant Penthesilea, Audetque viris concurrere virgo, The damosell faire dares meet the stoutest man; saith Virg. 1. Aeneid. But if there be both Dexter and Sinister (saith he) it is too bad to be borne, for although it be charged, yet doth it dishonour the thing that is thereupon.

That Abatement that comprehendeth onely two points of the Escocheon is called a Gusset, Gusset. and is formed of a Traverse line drawn either from the Dexter or Sinister chief point of the Escocheon tending to the Honour point, and descending from thence perpendicularly to the extream base parts of the Escocheon; as in this next example appeareth, wherein are expressed both the Dexter and Sinister Gores.

[Page 46]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, 2. Gussets, Sanguine. In Abating (saith Leigh) there is but one Gusset: and he that is too much devoted to the smock, shall weare the Gusset on the right side; but he that committeth Ido­latry to Bacchus, the Gusset on the left side, shall be his reward. If he be faulty in both, then he shall beare both, as in the Escocheon present. Such a Coat as this I finde borne by the name of Coningham, saving that the field is Sable, and the Gussets Argent, and therefore not to be taken to be of this kinde, according to the rule touching the Delfe.

Hitherto of such Abatements as doe abase the estimation of the Coat̄ar­m u [...] whereunto they are annexed, in some parts or points of them onely, being the first sort of Abatements, whereof we prmised to speake.

Reversed Coates for Treason. Reversing what.Now followeth the last, and worst of all the rest, which is a Coat-Armour rev [...]rsed. Reversing is a preposterous manner of location of a Coat-armour, by tur­ning of the whole Escocheon upside downe, contrary to the usuall forme of bearing, after this manner.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth light blew, 4. Mollets, yellow. 2. in the Fesse, and as many in the Chiefe. This forme of bearing is pe­culiar to a Traitor, such an one (saith Leigh) was he that owed these Armes, whose name was Sir Armery of Pavy, a Lombard born, an unworthy Captain of Ca­lice, and Traitor to King Edward the third, in selling the same to Sir G ffrey Charney for 20000. Crowns. To this kind of bearing is this forme of B [...]zon (beginning at the Base first) peculiar, and to no other, in respect that as this Escocheon standeth, the Base Point is the high [...]st part thereof. By this inglorious subversion of the Escocheon, the dignity thereof is not blemished only in some points, as the former, but is essentially annihilated in the whole. In all other Crimes, though Capitall, the punishment transcendeth not the person of the Offender, Qu [...]a nullum de [...]ic [...]um patris innocenti filio poena est (saith Chassaneus) the innocent son shall not bear the punishment of the fathers offence. Crimen Laesae Majestatis. But in this which we call Cri­men Laesae Majestatis, or high treason (being an offence so horrible and de­testable before God and Man) it is far otherwise, for herein as well the children of the Offenders, as the Traitors themselves, shall participate of the heavy vengeance due to so great an impiety, although not in that deep measure that the father doth; and that by the imitation of the di­vine Justice; that so men might be deterred, not only from the actuall committing,See Num. 16 & Num. 27.1, 2, 3. but also from the confederation and concealment of an of­fence so highly displeasing God, and abhorring Nature. For when a fact is committed or intended against the person of him that swayeth the Sove­raign State (wherein he representeth the image of the divine government) it is not so much offensive against the person of the Prince, as it is against the Majesty of the Eternall God, whose Image he beareth. And the welfare of the Subjects depending on the safety of the Soveraign, the danger inten­ded to the one, hath in it a guilt of endamaging the lives of millions.

Punishment of Treason by the Law of Armes.As touching persons convicted of High Treason in the Justice of the Law of Armes, for the further coertion of so hainous a fact as Treason is, and for a further punishment both of the Traitor and of his whole Progeny; it is to [Page 47] be observed, that if a Gentleman of Coat-armour hath issue divers Sons, and committeth Treason, he hath forfeited his Coat-armour for ever, neither may his issue bear the same, Quia eorum memoria d [...]strui debet. For that the memory of them may utterly be exstinguished. For sithence it is held they may be lawfully killed, seeing they are said to be enemies to the King and Peo­ple, much more is it lawfull to prohibit to their Heirs, together with the inheritance, their Armes also, and stile of Gentry: in so much as some are of opinion, that the son loseth Jura Sepulchrorum, the rights and ceremonies of Buriall accustomed to G [...]ntry. And of Mar [...]us M [...]nlius (who was condem­ned of Treason against the Roman State) we find a Law, that none should ever bear that name. A notable example whereof we saw of late on the instrument or that devillish Parricide on the late puissant King of France, for the obliterating of the name and memory of such a villain out of that Kingdome.Statut. Hyler. Fol. 175. And in Ireland such Traitors as are convicted by the Acts and Ordinances of the high Court of Parliament, are by force thereof adjudg­ed to suffer dammage in their name, state, preheminence, dignities and ho­nour to them due in fore-passed times. As in all their Offices, Lor ships, Castles M nnors, and in all their Hereditaments whatsoever: Moreover that th [...]y shall sustain corruption of their blood and family, and both him­self and his posterity are (by force of such conviction and Judgment) dis­abled to demand, receive or recover of any man by descent from any of their Ancestors, either lineall or collaterall; neither are the Children of persons so convicted, permitted to make their Pedegree, or to derive themselves from such Parents.

Finally, if such an one were invested with any honourable dignity, the Lawes adjudg not onely his Coat-armour to be razed, and his Shield reversed, but also his Spear trunked, his spurs hewen from his heeles, his horse docked, his sword to be broken upon his helmet, his Crest divided, his Statues pulled down, his blood corrupted, and his body to death, (nisi speciali Regis rescripto intervenerit gratia, without the Kings speciall pardon) his Family at an end, his possessions taken away (and for a greater terror) given to some other Fami­ly, whose profitable service to the King and State may better deserve it.Hainousnesse of Treason. So loathsome is this offence to Nobility, that she cannot suffer the Markes of him that hath offended in so high a degree, to possesse any place with her Ensigns; but that the same shall be without all reverence defaced, and spur­ned into some base place: so that by such his degradation, he receiveth far greater shame and ignominy, than ever he received honour by his ad­vancement; according to the old Proverbe,

Turpius ejicitur, quam non admittitur hospes▪
The shame is lesse ne'r to attain,
Than having won to lose again.
The end of the first Section.

Tum Dignum operae pretium venit, cum inter se congruunt Praecepta & Expe­rimenta.

THE second Section maketh mention of the severall Kinds of Escocheons: Also, what Field and Charge are: The severall kinds of Charges, and their Common Accidents: Of Lines, with their divers Forms and Properties: The Making, and divers manner of Bearing of Ordinaries; and their Subdivisions: Together with divers Notes, Rules, and Observations to them particularly belonging.

The Table of the Second Section.

  • Kindes, which are of
    • Some one Tincture, as when a Coat-Armour consisteth of any one of the Metals, Colours, or Furres onely.
    • More Tinctures than one, wherein must be conside­red the
      • Field, which hath Tincture
        • Predominating: of which form of bearing, there be manifold examples in and throughout the second, third, and fourth Sections.
        • Not Predominating: whereof there are divers examples in the fifth Se­ction.
      • Charge, which is
        • Proper, which are called Or­dinaries. Wherein note their
          • Making, which consisteth of lines: wherein observe their
            • Accidents which are their
              • Rightnesse, as when they are evenly carri­ed throughout the Field.
              • Crooked­ness, whereof some are
                • Bunched forme, as in lines Engrailed, Invecked, Wa­ved, &c.
                • cornered,
                  • Rect-Anguled, as in Coats Em­battelled, Cre­nelle, &c.
                  • Acute-anguled, as in Indenting and Dancette.
            • Kindes,
              • Single, which of it selfe maketh a Chiefe.
              • Manifold, viz.
                • Twofold, whereof are for­med these Ordinaries following, viz. a Pale, Bend, Fesse, Gyron, Can­ton, Quarter-Pile, &c.
                • More then twofold, which doe constitute a Crosse, Saltire, Inescocheon, and Orle.
          • Manner of bearing which is
            • Simple, compre­hending
              • One sort, whereof some are
                • Single, as when a Cross, Bend, Pale, Pile, Fesse, or other Ordinary is borne alone, without any other Apposition or Imposition.
                • Mani­fold, as when more of the same kind are borne
                  • One upon another, as a Crosse upon a Cross, a Saltire upon a Saltire, &c.
                  • One be­sides a­nother, as a
                    • Pallet
                    • Bend
                    • Pale
                    • a Pallet
                    • 2 Cotizes
                    • 2 Endor­ses.
              • Divers sorts borne in like man­ner,
                • One upon another,
                  • Barres
                  • Cheuron
                  • Escocheon
                  up­on a
                  • Cheuron.
                  • Pile.
                  • Saltire.
                • One be­sides ano­ther,
                  • Saltire
                  • Escocheon
                  • Cheuron
                  be­sides a
                  • Chiefe.
                  • Crosse.
                  • Chiefe.
            • Compound, as having in them some kind of mixture, by reason of apposition, or imposition of Common Charges unto or upon these Ordinaries.
        • Common, whereof see the Table of the third Section, at this mark, 69.


HAving formerly handled in the first Section the Common Accidents of an Escocheon, viz. Points and Abatements: Severall kinds of Escocheons. Now will I proceed to shew their severall kinds.

Escocheons are either of

  • One Tincture.
  • More than one.

Those Escocheons are said to be of one Tincture that have onely some one Metall, Colour, or Furre, appearing in the Shield of any Nobl [...]man, Escocheons of one Tincture. or Gentleman. Concerning this forme of bearing, it hath been holden of some Writers a matter doubtfull, whether one Metall, Colour or Furre borne a­lone in a Shield be ancient or honourable: Sir John Ferne affirmeth, such Bearing to be false Armes, and not worth the receiving, except in some speciall cases; being perhaps thereunto induced, because it was reckoned among the Romans a thing reproachfull to bear a naked Shield without any Portraicture, in regard it was an usuall thing with men of valour and courage to have their Shields painted.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

White Shields were accustomed to be bestowed up­on such as were Novices in Martiall affaires, White Shields. or (as we commonly call them) Freshwater Souldiers, to the end they might in future time merit to have them garni­shed with the titles and testimonies of their valo­rous deserts, untill which time such Shields were reckoned inglorious:Virgil▪ as Virgil noteth in his Aeneidos lib. 11.

Ense levis nudo, parmaque inglorius alba:
Quick he was with naked Sword,
But white Shield did no praise afford.

Contrariwise, Leigh reckoneth such unportraicted bearing to be good, and withall very ancient, grounding his assertion (if I be not deceived) upon the 1 Kings 10.16. where it is said, that King Salomon made 200 Targets of beaten gold, and that 600 Sheckles of gold went to a Target; as also that he made 300. Shields of beaten gold, and that three pound of gold went to one Shield.

Also we read, that Simon, the High Priest of the Jewes, sent Numenius with a Shield of great value to the Roman state, to confirme the league of friendship between them, as appeareth in 1 Macchab. 14.24. in these words; After this Simon sent Numenius to Rome, with a great Shield of gold of a thousand pound weight, to confirme the friendship with them: And in the letter of Lucius the Consull mention is againe made of the thousand pound weight of this golden Shield, 1 Macchab. 15, 16, 17, 18.

[Page 50] Golden Shields.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

That these Shields were void of Portraictures, it may be probably conjectured, in that there is no mention of any; for otherwise, such might have been the curiousnesse and excellency of their workmanship, as that it might have been prised above the worth of the gold it self: an example whereof, Ovid in M ta­mor. lib. 2. giveth, where describing the glorious beauty of the Palace of the Sun, he saith,

Argentei bifores radiabant lumine valvae,
Materiam superabat opus; nam Mulciber ille, &c.
The two leaved silver gates bright raies did cast,
Rich stuffe, but Vulcans Art therein surpast.

Alex. Severus Impe.Furthermore we read that Alex. Severus the Emperour had certain gol­den Shields, whose Bearers were named Chrysoaspides, the golden Shield Bea­rers. And as touching the Bearers of Shields made of clean Silver, we read that Alex. Alex. Macedo. Macedo had such, whose Bearers were named Argiroaspides, Sil­ver-Shield Bearers, which manner of bearing (saith Alex. ab Alex.) they borrowed of the Samnites. Neither is there any mention that these were garnished with any Emb [...]ssements, Graving, or Portraictures.

Shields of Colours.Now to prove, that not onely Metals, but Colours also have been anci­ently borne alone in Shields: I will note unto you the words of the Pro­phet N hum, Chap. 2. where it is said Clypeus potentum ejus rubricatus, bellato­res coccinati, &c. The Shield of the mighty ones were red, &c. alluding to their bloudy fights.

We also find that the Grecians used Russet Shields; the people of Lu­cania in Italy, scituated between Calabria and Apulia, had their Shields wrought of Osiers, or twigges, and covered over with leather. It was the manner of the Scythians, Medes and Persians, to have their Shields of Red colour, to the end that the effusion of their blood should not easily be dis­covered (when they received any wound) either to the discouragement of themselves, or animating of their enemies. Moreover, these Nations used Scarlet and Red colours i [...] their Military garments, and Shields, to the end they might thereby strike the greater terror and astonishment into the hearts of their enemies.

Eumenius de la Brect.

[example of blazon or coat of arms]

Of this sort of Bearing, I find in a note worthy of credit, amongst the Coat-Armours of many Noble Personages, Only Furres. borne in Shields. and valorous gentlemen, that did attend the person of King Edward the first (in his Expediti­on that he made into the parts of Scotland to the siege of Kalavero [...]k) that one Eumenius de la Brect, did bear in his Shield onely, Gules. Finally, that Furres also have been alone in Shields (without any Charge) as well as Metals and colours (besides the Coat Armour of the Duke of Britain) I could produce many exam­ples even to this day; were not the use hereof so vulgar, as that it is al­together impertinent to give instance therein.

[Page 51]

[blazon or coat of arms]

You have received a Rule before pag. 23. and 25. how you ought to Blazon a Furre of this sort. This kind of bearing of a Furre without any other Charge in the Field, is both ancient and good, saith Leigh. And this kind of Furre is much in use with persons Nobly descended, and gentlemen of good reputa­tion have long borne the same, as Ferrars of Chart­ley, Beauchamp, Somerset, Marmion, Staunton, and o­thers.

Yet will I note unto you three Coat-Armours consisting of Furres, for their beauty and rarity, and those of no vulgar bearing, as you may see in these next Escocheons following.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Varey, a Chief, Or, by the name of Tich­borne, of Tichborne in the County of Southampton, at this time dignified with the title of Baronet.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth verrey, Ermyne and Gules, by the name of Gresly of Drakelow in the County of Darby. Some­times you may Observe in this kind of bearing, the Metall part charged with some other thing than Er­mine, viz. with Drops or such like. Of this Family is the honourable Sir Thomas Gresly of Drakelow Baro­net now living, 1658.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Gules, a Fesse between two Cheverons Vaire, which is the Coat of the ancient Family of Good-yere of Hadley in the County of Middlesex. Hythrope in Com. Oxford, and P [...]ulsworth in Warwick-shire.


FRom Shields or Escocheons consisting of one Tincture onely,Shields of ma­ny Tinctures. we come to such as have more Tinctures than one. Such Escocheon is that, wherein divers colours are represented to our sight.

Of this some have Tincture

  • Predominating,
  • Not Predominating.

Tincture is said to be predominate, when some one metall, colour, or fur, Tincture pre­dominate is [Page 52] spread or (at least) understood to be spread all over the Superficies or Sur­face of the Escocheon, which we usually call the Field thereof. In such Es­cocheons as have in them more Tinctures than one (as is usuall with the greatest number of them.

We must observe the

  • Field,
  • Charge.

Field what.The Field is the whole Surface (if I may so call it) of the Shield overspread with some Metall, Colour or Furre, and comprehendeth in it the charge, if it hath any. Look how many Metals, Colours and Furs there are before named, so many severall Fields of Armes there be. In Blazoning of any Armes, you must (according to the Rule given, pag. 14.) first expresse the Metall, Colour or Furre of the Field, saying, He beareth, Or, Argent, Gules, &c. or thus, The Field is Or, Argent, Gules, &c. but you must not name this word Field, when you use these words, He beareth; saying, He beareth a Field, Or, Argent, Gules, &c. but you shall onely name the Metall, Colour, or Furre; thus, The Field is, Or, Argent, Gules, &c. or, He beareth, Or, Argent, Gules, &c. and then proceed to the Blazon of the Charge, if there be any. The first Metall, Colour or Fur, that you begin to Blazon withall, is alwayes understood among our English Blazoners to be the Field. Rule 2. Also in Blazoning of Armes composed of Field and Charge, if there be severall charges, whereof the one lyeth nearer to the Field than the other, after you have nominated the Metall, Colour or Furre of the Field then must you proceed to the immediate charge that lyeth next to the Field, and after to that which is more remote.

Tinctures of Field what.Whereas I have formerly made mention of the Tinctures or Colours, when I speak of the Tinctures or colours of Fields, I understand thereby, those speciall colours before named, which as by a certain peculiar right be­longeth to the Art-armoriall, utterly excluding all those that are named generall or proper colours, as altogether unfit for Fields of Coat-Armours.


THese Fields are the parts of Armes, containing: Charges, which are the parts contained, are next to be considered.

A Charge, is that thing whatsoever that doth occupy the Field, and is in the same as Contentum in Continente, whether it be Sensitive or Vegetable, Naturall of Artificiall, and is placed, either throughout all the Superfi­cies of the Escocheon, or else in some speciall part of the same.

The common accidents of Charges are

  • Adumbration, or Transparency.
  • Transmutation, or Counter-Changing.

Adumbration or Transparency, is a clear exemption of the substance of the Charge, or thing borne, in such sort, as that there remaineth nothing there­of to be discerned, but the naked and bare proportion of the outward li­neaments thereof, or the outward Tract, Purfle, or shadow of a thing; and such kind of bearing is by better Heralds than Gramarians, tearmed transpa­rent, quasi transparens, because the Field being (as it were) on the further side of the Charge, or underneath the same, yet the Tincture and Colour thereof sheweth clean thorough the Charge, and that no lesse clearly than as if it were thorough a glasse.

Rule.In Blazoning of Coat-armour of this kind, you shall say that the owner [Page 53] thereof beareth this beast, bird, tree, &c. umbrated; for that by reason of the exemption of the substance thereof, which was intended to be the Charge, it affordeth no other representation than the simple shadow thereof, which in Latine is called umbra, and thereof is it tearmed umbrated. And the Portracting out of any thing umbrated, is nothing else but a sleight and single draught or Purfle, traced out with a Pensill, Protracting of things umbriated. expressing to the view a vacant forme of a thing deprived of all substance, which must be done with some unperfect or obscure colour, as Black or Tawny, unlesse the Field be of the same Colour.

Such bearing hath undergone the sharp censure of those that judged it to have been occasioned by reason of some ungentlemanlike or unthrifty quality, in regard that the same representeth a shadow void of substance. Opinions of bearing um­brated. O­thers are of opinion that their owners were such, whose Progenitors in fore­passed times have borne the same essentially and compleatly according to the true use of bearing; but forasmuch as their patrimony and possessions were much impaired, or utterly wasted; their Nephews and Kinsmen seeing themselves deprived of their Inheritance, and yet living in hope, that in fu­ture time the same may (by some unexpected accident) revert unto them­selves or to their posterities (laying aside all ordinary differences) chose ra­ther to bear their Arms umbrated, that whensoever either that inheritance or any other high fortunes should light on their family, they might again resume the wonted substance to such their umbrated forme, and so reduce their Armes to their ancient bearing. And it is deemed a farre better course (upon such occasion) to beare the Armes of their Proginitors, umbrated, than utterly to reject the same whereby it might (within a few descents) be doubted much, if not denied, that they were descended from such a Fa­mily.

Whatsoever is borne with Armes umbrated, Rule. must not be charged in any case: In Blazoning you must never nominate the colour of such tract of the thing that is umbrated, Rule. because they doe onely bear a shew of that they are not, that is to say, of a Charge; and therefore is the colour of such Adrum­bration esteemed unworthy to be named in Blazon. As touching the distri­bution of Charges, it is to be observed, that

All Charges of Arms are either

  • Proper, or
    distribution of Charges.
  • Common.

Those Charges are said to be Proper, which by a certain property do pe­culiarly belong to this Art, and are of ordinary use therein,Proper Charges. in regard wher­of, they are called Ordinaries: and they have also the title of Honourable Or­dinaries, in that the Coat-armour is much honored therby,Ordinaries, and why so called. forasmuch as they are oftentimes given by Emperors, Kings and Princes, as Additions of Honour unto the Coat-armours of persons of desert, for some speciall service already past, or upon hope of some future worthy merit. Moreover (as Leigh sheweth) they are also called, most worthy partitions, Most worthy partitions and why so called. in respect that albeit the Field be charged in divers parts thereof, whether with things of one or of divers kinds, yet is every of them as effectuall as if it were only one by the Soveraignty of these partitions being interposed between them.

In these we must consider their

  • Making,
  • Manner of bearing.

The making of Ordinaries consisteth of Lines diversly composed.Their making. Lines therefore are the matter wherof these Ordinaries are formed, and according to the divers Tracts and formes of Lines, they doe receive a divers shape [Page 54] and variation of Names. For this cause, Lines must be duly considered, and especially their properties: in speaking whereof, I must crave pardon of Euclydes Artists, if I trace not in their steps and definitions, but use such descriptons as shall be fittest for our practise.

The Properties of those Lines are their

  • Rightnesse.
  • Crookednesse.

Duae sunt lineae ex quibus figurae omnes componuntur, linea recta, & linea cur­va, Zanch. Lib. 3. Cap. 422.

Consisting of Rightnesse, Crookednesse. Rightnesse is a property of a Line whereby it is carryed levelly or equally throughout the Escocheon, without either rising or falling. Crookednesse is a property of a Line meerly contrary to Rightnesse, in that it is carryed une­venly throughout the Escocheon, with rising and falling.

Rule.In Blazoning of Ordinaries formed of straight lines, you must only name the Ordinary, without making mention of the straightnesse of the Line where­of the same is composed: but if the same be made of any of the manifold sorts of crooked Lines, the form of such crookednesse must be especially men­tioned; as by Examples shall be plain hereafter in their proper places.

These Honourable Or­dinaries before men­tioned (according to Leigh) are in number nine, viz.

  • Crosse,
  • Chiefe,
  • Pale,
  • Bend,
  • Fesse,
  • Escocheon,
  • Cheuron,
  • Saltire,
  • Barre,

whose Con­tent is

  • 5. Part of the Escocheon un­charged, & charged the 3.
  • 3. Part.
  • 3. Part.
  • 5. Part uncharged, and charged the 3.
  • 3. Part.
  • 5. Part.
  • 5. Part according to Leigh: the 3. according to Chas.
  • 5. Part uncharged, & char­ged the 3 part thereof.
  • 5. Part.

Lines crook­ed.As touching the properties of a Crooked Line, it is to be observed, that

A Crooked Line is

  • Bunched
  • Cornered.

Bunched.A Bunched Line is that which is carried with round reflections or bowings up and down, making divers hollow Crooks or Furrows, by reason of the sun­dry bendings to and fro, as by these examples next following may appear.

Of these some are

  • Invecked,
  • Ingrailed,
  • Waved,
  • Nebulae,

As in example,

  • [bunched line]
  • [bunched line]
  • [bunched line]
  • [bunched line]

Cornered.A Corner Line is framed of sundry lines meeting together corner-wise.

  • Of corner­ed Lines, some are
    • Rect-anguled: so called of their right corners or angles, and are for­med after this manner,
      [corner line]
    • Acute-anguled: so na­med because their corners or angles are acute, or sharp; and these we call
      • Indented, after this manner,
        [corner line]
      • Daunsette, which are formed after this sort,
        [corner line]

[Page 55]Note, That these two last mentioned sorts of Lines, viz.Note. Indented and Daunsette, are both one, secundum quale, but not secundum quantum: for their forme is all one, but in quantity they differ much, in that the one is much wider and deeper than the other. Of all these severall sorts of Lines, ex­amples shall be given hereafter, as occasion shall arise.


HAving spoken of the properties of Lines, so much as serves for our in­tended purpose; let us next take a view of the severall kindes of those Lines, as far forth as they have use in Heraldry. Severall kinds of lines.

For they are used

  • Single,
  • Manifold.

Of both which kinds and forms are all the Honourable Ordinaries com­posed,Single lines. as we shall shew hereafter. And first for the Single Lines and their use, it is to be understood, that one single line doth make that sort of Or­dinary which we name a Chiefe. A Chief. A Chiefe is an Ordinary determined by some one of the severall forms of Lines aforesayd, added to the Chief part of the Escocheon, as in example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Chiefe, Argent, by the name of Woorkesh. When I say, that a Chiefe is determined by one line, I mean not, that one single Line is of it selfe a compleat Chiefe, but that the bounds and pro­portion of such an Ordinary is designed out and limi­ted by such a single Line: for otherwise, to speake more properly, a Chiefe containeth in depth the third part of the Field; and the same may be diminished, Signification. but in no case divided into halves. The Cheefe beto­keneth a Senator or honourable Personage borrowed from the Greeks, and is a word signifying a Head, in which sense we call Capitaneus (so named of Caput the Head) a Chiefetaine: though he spake wittily, who derived the name of a Captaine, à capiendo & tenendo, of ta­king and then holding: For,

Non minor est virtus, quam quaerere, parta tueri:
No smaller praise is in it,
To hold a Fort, than win it.

And as the head is the chief part in a man, so the chief in the Escocheon should be a reward of such onely, whose high merits have procured them chiefe place, esteeme, or love amongst men.Rule. This Ordinary in our example you see is formed of a streight Line: you must therefore in the Blazon thereof, onely name the kind of Ordinary (as before we admonished) ma­king no mention at all of the straightnesse of the line: but if the same, or any other Ordinary be framed of any other forme than straight, then must you expresly mention the forme of the line whereof such Ordinary is com­posed, be it Bend, Cheuron, Fesse, Saltire, &c. shewing the same to be either Invecked, Ingrailed, Wavay, Indented, &c.

[Page 56]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Or, a Chief, Gules, by the Name of Lum­ley, and is the bearing of that worthy Gentleman Sir Martin Lumley, Baronet, Son of Sir Martin Lumley Knight and Baronet, son of Sir Martin Lumley Knight, Lord Mayor of London, 1623.

Chiefe Cre­nelle.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Gules, a Chief Crenelle, Argent; by the name of Ryncester. This term is derived of the French word Crene, which signifieth the dent or notch in the horne of a bow, or such other thing. There is a kind of bearing much like unto this in shew, but yet farre different from it in kind: therefore good deliberati­on must be used, lest being carryed away with a de­ceivable appearance, we do utterly mistake the truth of things in Blazoning.

Their formes. Chiefes are made of all those severall formes of lines before mentioned, as well as other Charges, as by the examples of Bordures before handled may in part appear, and shall be more fully shewed here­after in other kinds.

Chiefe char­ged.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Tenne, a Chief, Or, charged with a Sha­pourneth, Ermyne. This tearm Shapournet (if I mistake not) is derived from th [...] French word Chaperon, which signifieth a Hood, whereof this is a Diminutive, and beareth a resemblance. Leigh seemeth to take this form of bearing to be a kind of partition, and for that cause doth extend the dividing line (as in this Esco­cheon) to the extremities of the Chief; for which cause I have inserted the same (although untimely) in this place, which otherwise I would have reserved to some other. For mine own part, I take the same to be rather a Charge to the Chief, than a portion thereof, distinguished from the same only by a conceited line of partition, never heretofore heard of: which moved me to shorten the head of the rising line, whereby the middle part hath the more resemblance of a Chaperon or Hood, in respect that it is made large below, and so ascending with a comely narrownesse to the top of the Chiefe: and if the Chief be the Head, as before we said, what place can be fitter for the Hood to be on, than the Head?

A Chief (saith Sir John Ferne) may be honoured of another, as an Addi­tion to the former, as in Examples:

Chiefe sur­mounted of another.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Gules, a Chief, Argent, surmounted of an­other, Or. This is accounted good Armory, and signi­fieth a double reward given by the Soveraign. So well may a Gentleman deserve in giving counsell to his So­veraign, that he may be twice rewarded for the same, as was the Bearer hereof a French Counsellour, which when it hapneth, must be placed in this manner: Those Additions of honour that are given in reward for Counsell or wise actions are thought to be placed [Page 57] most fitly on the chief part or head of the Escocheon, Quia à Capite edenda est omnis ratio, Because all reason proceedeth from the brain. That contrariwise a Chief may be also diminished, this next example may teach us.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Or, a Chief, Azure,A Fillet. a Fillet in the nether part thereof, Argent. Some perhaps strictly obser­ving the forme of my undertaken Method, will con­ceive that this Coat might have been more fitly pla­ced hereafter among such Ordinaries as are made of a twofold line. Neverthelesse, though it may seem to be of the number of those, yet in very deed, one line be­ing added to the lower part of the Chief, doth consti­tute a Fillet, whose Content must be the fourth part of the Chief, and must be placed properly and naturally in the precise lowest part thereof. For a twofold respect was the name of Fillet given it; the one in regard of the thing whereunto it is resembled, by reason of the length and narrowness thereof,So named for two respects. and the other because of the place wherein it is bestowed. For as the Fillet is shaped long and narrow for the more commodious use of women in trussing up of their haire, as also for the fastning of their Head-tires, and restraining of their haire from scattering about their browes; so is this very aptly placed on the Chief, which is the head of the Escocheon, and doth confine and encompass the uttermost borders of the same. This Head-tire being taken from wo­men, may well fit an uxorious or luxurious person, or such an one as in mat­ters of importance is overswaied by a woman:Fillet to home fitting. which doth not a little extenuate and impaire their dignity or estimation amongst those of gra­ver sort; for that they are deemed to have their head fixed upon the shoulders of others, and those of the weaker sex.


HItherto hath our Pencill drawn out to your view, a single line, Manifold Lines. which doth create an Ordinary, or some other of the Charges last mentioned: it resteth, that I shew what a Manifold line is, and the use thereof according to the project of our prefixed method. I call that a Manifold line, when as more than one Line are required to the perfecting of an Ordinary.

Manifold lines are

  • Twofold,
  • More than twofold.

Twofold lines I understand to be there, where is constituted an Ordinary of two lines. Of which kind of Ordinaries are these onely, viz. The Pale, Bend, Fesse, Bar, Quarter, Canton, and their like, as shall appear by example in their severall places, first of a Pale.

A Pale is an Ordinary consisting of two lines drawn perpendiculary from the Top to the base of the Escocheon, comprehending the third part of the Escocheon. The content of the Pale must not be inlarged▪ [...]hether it be charged or not.

[Page 58] Pale.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Gules, a Pale, Or: which Coat was borne very anciently by Hugh de Grandemesnill Lord of Kinkley in Leicester Shire, and Lord High Steward of England, in the time of King Henry the first.

This Ordinary is subdivided into

  • Pallet,
  • Endorse.

Pallet.A Pallet is the moyety or one halfe of the Pale, and thereof receiveth his name of Diminution, as being a Demy or little Pale. And an Endorse is the fourth part of a Pallet. Leigh. Example of each ensueth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Azure, a Pallet, Argent. The Pallet is never charged with any thing, either quick or dead, neither may it be parted in any case into two, as some Armorists doe hold: but that it may be parted into four, Leigh. Leigh maketh no question; for he giveth an ex­ample of the bearing of the fourth part thereof, which he tearmeth an Endorse; as in this next Escocheon ap­peareth: But Sir John Ferne saith, it containeth the eighth part of the Pale, which in effect is all one with the fourth part of the Pallet.


[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, an Endorse, Gules. This Endorse (saith Leigh) is not used but when a Pale is between two of them. But Sir John Ferne saith, he was very confident and bold to set down such Rules of Blazon. Ferne. And that an Endorse may very well be borne in any Coat-Armour between Birds, Fishes, Fowles, Beasts, &c. But then (saith he) it sheweth that the same Coat hath been sometimes two Coats of Armes, Endorse may be borne a­lone. and after conjoyned within one Escocheon, for some Mystery or secret of Armes. And for the approbation of such bea­ring, Instance of such bearing. he giveth an instance of an Escocheon of pretence, or Engislet, (so he tearmeth it) borne over these four Coats, viz. of Austria, Burgundy, Sieile and Flanders; which is, Or, an Endorse between a Lyon saliant, and an Eagle displaied. Gules.

Now from the Pale, and the severall Subdivisions thereof, let us come to the bend, and the distinct parts of the same. A bend is an Ordinary consi­sting also of twofold Lines drawn overthwart the Escocheon, from the Dex­ter chief to the Sinister base point, of the same, so that the exact point of the Dexter and Sinicter corners thereof, may answer to the precise Middest of those equidistant Lines, whereof the bend is made, as in example.


[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a bend, Sable. Which Armes were an­ciently borne by Peter de Mololacu or Mawley, a noble Baron of this Kingdom; in the time of King Edward the 3. The bend containeth in bredth the first part of the Field, Content. as it is uncharged; but if it be charged, then shall it con­tain the third part thereof. Of all the Ordinaries there is none divided like this, as by example shall hereafter appear.

[Page 59]The Bend seemeth to have his Denomination from the French word Ben­der, Denominati­on. which signifieth to stretch forth, because it is extended betwixt those opposite points of the Escocheon, viz. the Dexter chief, and the Sinister base. Yet in ancient Rolls I find the Bend drawn somewhat Archwise, or after the resemblance of the Bent of a Bow. Notwithstanding,Representati­on of a scaling ladder. according to some Armorists, it doth represent a Ladder set aslope on this manner, to scale the Walles of any Castle or City, as shall be shewed hereafter, and betokeneth the Bearer to have been one of the first that mounted upon the enemies walls. This Bend drawn from the right side to the left, is called a bend dex­ter; but you shall also find a bend exactly drawn like to this on the con­trary side, having his beginning from the left corner of the chief, and his termination in the Dexter base point of the Escocheon, Bend Sinister. Rule. for which cause it is named a Bend Sinister, as in example hereafter shall illustrate. In Blazoning of bends, if the same be Dexter, you shall onely say, he bears a bend, not using the word Dexter; but if it be drawn from the Sinister chief to the Dexter base, then you must in blazon by no means omit the word Sinister.

Note that the bend, and divers other Ordinaries following,Voiding what. are subject to exemption or voiding. Voiding (as earst we shewed) is the exemption of some part of the inward substance of things voidable, by occasion whereof the Field is transparent through the charge, leaving onely the outward edges, bearing the colour and quantity of the charge, as appeareth in this next Es­cocheon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermyne, a bend voided, Gules, Bend Voided. by the name of Ireton. Note that if the void part of the bend, were of a different metall, colour or furre, from the Field, then should you tearm the same, a bend bordu­red, Gules (according to the opinion of some Armo­rists:) but I am of opinion that it were better blazon­ed, a bend of such and such metall, colour or furre, edged. For this difference doe I put between them, that when it is blazoned edged, it must be understood, to be an edge or hemme, running along the sides onely; but if it were tearmed in blazon bordured, then must it be conceived that the bend is invironed round, as well the ends as the edges.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The late Right Honourable Henry Earle of Sussex, Henry Earle of Sussex. Viscount Fitz-water, Lord of Egremont, Burnell and Botatoart, Engrailed. Knight of the most noble order of the Gar­ter, beareth, Pearl, a bend ingrailed, Diamond. This Ordinary is composed of divers other of the formes of Lines, before mentioned, as sundry other of the Ordinaries are, as by these next, and other subse­quent examples in their due places shall appear.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, a Bend engrailed, Gules, which is the Coat-Armour of that right ancient and worthy Family of Colepepper of Kent, now existing in the Per­sons of one Baron, two Baronets, and severall Knights and Gentlemen of much worth and esteem.

[Page 60] Wavey.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Bend, Wavey, Sable. This Coat-armour peratineth to Sir Henry Wallop of Farleigh Wal­lop in the County of Southampton Knight. This is tear­med Wavey, or waved, in respect it beareth a Repre­sentation of the Swelling Wave or Billow of the Sea, which being tossed by contrary flawes of wind doe rise and fall after this manner: and this also by some is called unde, of the Latine word unda.

This forme of bearing may put us in mind of the manifold (and those inevitable, yet profitable) affli­ctions, which doe attend this mortall state of ours, for so hath God or­dained that they should be means to win and bring us to himselfe, there­fore must we receive them patiently, as the evident tokens of Gods great love and mercy.Eccl. 2.4, 5, 6. As the Preacher admonisheth us, saying, Whatsoever cometh unto thee receive it patiently, and be patient in the change of thine afflictions, for as Gold and Silver is tryed in the fire, even so are men acceptable in the furnace of adversity. Beleive in God and he will help thee, order thy way aright, and trust in him, hold fast his feare, and grow old therein.


[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Bend Crenelle, Argent, by the name of Walleyes: what Crenelle is I have before shew­ed. After this manner, Souldiers in default of scaling Ladders, used to nick or score a piece of Timber with their Swords (for want of better Tooles) and so found means to ascend the walls, and surprise the enemies.


[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Sable, a Bend, Flory, Argent, by the Name of Highlord or Helord, and is the Coat-Armour of Highlord of Moreden in Surrey Gent. and of Tho. Highlord of London Merchant.

Parts of a Bend.The parts of a bend are

  • Such as are duduced from it.
  • Bendelet.

Such as are derived from a bend doe containe

  • Halfe.
  • Lesse then halfe.
[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Azure, three Bendlets, Argent, a Chief, Ermine. This is the Coat of Sir William Martin of Woodford in the County of Essex Knight.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, a Bend between two Mullets, Sable, pierced, this is the Coat of Walter Pell Esquire, Merchant Adventurer of London.

[Page 61]That which containeth half the bend is called a Gartier, Gartier. whereof you have here an example in this Escocheon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Or, a Gartier, Gules.Derivation of a Gartier. This is derived ei­ther from the French word Jartier, or else from the Norman word Gartier, both which are the same that we call in English a Gartier, the forme whereof this Charge doth represent. It is a name of Honourable esteem in English Heraldry, and it gave beginning to the most renowned order of Knight wood, of which Colledge and Society have been more Kings and Princes, and Princely Peeres, than of all the Knightly orders be­sides in Christendome. This containeth half the bend in bignesse.

Such as doe contain lesse than half the Bend, are

  • Cost,
  • Riband:

Both which be exemplified in these next Escocheons.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Gules, a Cost, Or.Cost what, and the content thereof. The content of this is the fourth part of the Bend, and halfe the Gartier, and is sometime called a Cotise, and also a Batune (as Leigh noteth:) But Bara maketh a Cotise and the Ba­tune two distinct things. This word Cost or Cotise is derived from the Latine word Costa, Why named a Cost. which signifieth a Rib, either of man or beast. And Farnesius saith, Costae a custodiendo sunt dictae. Farn. 1.45. When one of these is borne alone, as in this Escocheon, then shall you tearm it in Blazon a Cost; but if they be borne by couples in any Coat (which is never, saith Leigh, but when a Bend is placed between two of them) then you may name them Cotises, as in Example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a Bend, verrey,Bend verrey. between two Cotises or Costs, Gules. This Coat pertaineth to Sir Edmund Boyer of Camberwell in the County of Surrey Knight. Not unfittly are these so tearmed Costs or Cotises, in re­spect they are placed upon each side of the Bend, and doe inclose the same, as the ribs of man or of beast doe bound and defend their intrailes. And concer­ning such Charges or Fields composed of verrey. I refer you (for the avoiding of needlesse repetition) to the Rules before delivered. Note, that as well the Sub­divisions of Ordinaries, as the Ordinaries themselves are formed of the se­verall sorts of lines before expressed, as may be gathered out of Ʋpton, Notes. whose opinion you shall hear when we come to speak of Batunes.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Or, a Riband, Gules.Riband what, and the con­tent thereof. This is that other Subdivsion that is derived from a bend, and doth con­tain the eighth part therof. The Name accordeth well with the forme and quantity of the same, in that it is long and narrow, which is the right shape of a Riband.

Thus much may suffice touching the Benddexter, Bend Sinister what. & the Subdivision thereof: let us now consider the Bend sinister, and how the same is subdivided. A Bend Sinister is an Ordinary consisting of a twofold line, drawn tra­verse the Escocheon, from the Sinister chief corner to the Dexter base point; and differeth (as we said) from the Dexter Bend onely in this, that it is placed on the opposite part of the Escocheon, as in example.

[Page 62] Rule.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, a Bend sinister, Vert. You may perhaps sometimes finde this Bend borne joyntly with the Bend dexter in one Escocheon, which to look up­on are much like unto a Saltire. In Coats of such bea­ring, you must carefully observe which of them lyeth next to the Field, and that must be first named. And this Rule holdeth not alone herein, but also in all o­ther Coat-armours formed of divers charges, whereof the one lieth nearer to the Field than the other, accor­ding to the sixth Rule of Blazon formerly given.

The Bend sinister is subdivided into a

  • Scarpe.
  • Batune.

Scarpe what.A Scarpe (as Leigh noteth) is that kind of ornament (much in use with Commanders in the Field) which we do usually call a Scarfe, as may be gathered by the derivation therof from the French word Escharpe, signify­ing that ornament which usually is worn by Martiall men after the same manner from the left shoulder overthwart the body, and so under the arme on the right side, as in Example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, a Scarpe, Azure. You need not in Blazon thereof make any mention of this word Si­nister, because it is never borne otherwise than thus. Notwithstanding this Charge hath some resemblance of the common Note of Illegitimation; yet it is not the same, neither hath it any such signification, for that it agreeth not with the Content thereof, nor with the manner of bearing the same, as is plaine by this next Escocheon.

Batune what.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He bearth Or, a Batune, Gules. This word Batune is derived from the French word Baston, which signi­fieth a wand or a cudgell. The French men do usually bear their Batune (as it were) couped after this man­ner; Whereof I do better allow than of that forme which is commonly used among us in England, be­cause the same being so borne, doth better resemble the shape or form of a Cudgell or Batune. And though this hath the forme and quantity of a Cost, yet it dif­fereth from the same, in that the Cost is extended to the extremities of the Escocheon, Note of illegi­timation. whereas the Batune shell be Couped, and touch no part of the same, as by this Escocheon appeareth. This is the proper and most usuall note of Illegitimation (perhaps for the affinitie betwixt Baston and Bastards; or else for that bastards lost the priviledge of freemen, and so were subject to the servile stroke:) and it containeth the fourth part of the bend sinister; and being thus borne, differeth from all the subdivisions of the Ordinaries before manifested sufficiently, what conformity soever any of them may seeme to have therewith. This Marke was devised both to restraine men truly generous,The use of this marke. from the filthy staine of this base (but com­mon) sinne, when they consider, that such accusation to themselves, and shame to their issue, shall never be severed from their Coat-Armour, which should be the blazon of their honour. For let the spuriours birth have ne­ver so noble a father, yet he is base-borne; and base will be ever the first [Page 63] syllable in a Bastards name, till by his owne Vertues hee hath washed off the staines of his Fathers vice, as many high spirits have done;Leigh. who though so borne, have attained to the highest pitch of glory. Every bastard may have his batune of what colour he will, but not of metall, Legitimation of Bastards. which is for the bastards of Princes. At the first, bastards were prohibited to beare the Armes of their reputed fathers. Then (saith Sir Iohn Ferne in his Glory of Generositie) they did by suit obtaine a toleration from Soveraignes and Kings, to be made le­gitimate, and to be matriculated by the Kings Grant, as children lawfully born; which Grant did enable them to be capable of many immunities and prerogatives which others lawfully begotten do enjoy: and so by such legitimation they are discharged of all those dishonours which in for­mer time they were subject unto, and were acquitted from the staine of their bastardy, Excepto quod ex tali legitimatione non admittebantur ad Jura Sanguinis cum aliis filiis: Except only, that they had not the right of blood and inheritance thereby; to participate with the lawfull inheritance of their Father, as appeareth Judg. 11. And when the Womans children were come to age, they thrust out Jepthah, saying, Thou shalt not inherit in our Fathers house, for thou art the son of a strange Woman. By pretence of these legitimations, they bear the Coat-Armour of their reputed Ancestors, with a sign of bastardy, now commonly known to every man, by reason of frequent use: which Mark (as some do hold) neither they nor their children shall ever remove or lay aside, Ne sordes per errorem inter praecipuos reputentur; Least the fruits of lust should by error gain the estimation of Generosity.

It is not lawfull for those that are base born to usurp the Armes of their reputed Fathers, unlesse it be branded with certain notes or marks pro­per to men illegitimate, devised of set purpose to separate and distinguish them from such as proceed from lawfull Matrimony. Moreover it is often questioned, whether such as be illegitimated (by Act of Parliament, or whatsoever other means) may bear, or assume the bearing of the Arms of their reputed Fathers? Some are of opinion they may: Others do hold the contrary, unlesse they do bear them with the apposition of some of the before mentioned notes appropriated to the quality of their illegiti­mate generation and procreation. By legitimate issue, is not to be under­stood legitimate onely, that is to say, such as be adopted Children: For there is in such but a bare imitation of nature, of such we have no use in this Land of Adoption or Arrogation. But of such as are both naturall and legitimate; naturall so termed, Quia naturaliter generati; legitimate, Ex Legitima parentum conjunctione approbata per Leges. Such as are otherwise be­gotten are bastards, and the issue of an unlawfull bed.

Consanguinity, is a bond or link of persons descended of the same stocke, derived from Carnall propagation: So called, Consanguinitas, quasi sangui­nis unitas, viz. the unity or community of blood.

To discern priority or nearenesse in blood, two things must be regarded principally; viz. Linea and Gradus, the line is that, that gathereth together the persons containing their degrees, and distinguishing them in their numbers. This is called Collectio personarum. The other, viz. Gradus, shew­eth the state or condition of the distant persons, how near they be, or how far distant asunder (in themselves) from their common Stock, or either from other. This is called, Habitudo distantium personarum. Et dicetur Gradus, ad similitudinem sclarum graduum, sive locorum proclivium; quia ita gradimur, de proximo ad proximum.

[Page 64]This before mentioned Line is threefold, viz.

  • Ascending,
  • Descending,
  • Collaterall.

The Ascending Line is, from me to my Father, Grandfather, and so up­wards.

The Descending Line is, from me to my Son, Nephew, his Son, down­wards.

The Collaterall Line is placed on either side.

This Line also is twofold, viz.

  • Equall,
  • Ʋnequall.

The equall collaterall is that, where equally the persons differ from their Common Stock: as Brothers and Sisters be equally distant from their Fa­ther; As also Brothers and Sisters children from their Grandfather.

The unequall collaterall is, where one precedeth another: Such are bro­thers, and their brothers and sisters children.

Affinity is (after the lawes) personarum proximitas proveniens ex justis nup­tiis; A nearness of persons proceeding from lawfull marriage. So called Af­finitas, quasi duorum ad unum finem unitas; A union or consolidation of two that be of divers Kindreds by marriage or other copulation conjoyned.

By this, Affinity is contracted two manner of waies, viz.


  • Lawfull Marriage,
  • Ʋnlawfull Knowledge.

The first is thus contracted; My brother and I are Consanguine in the first degree, He taketh a Wife, her they call, personam additam personae per carnis copulam. This is the first kind of Affinity (contracted by means of my brother) viz. between his Wife and me, and the first degree; for thus they be the kindred and degrees) discerned in Affinity, viz. by the persons that be in consanguinity, or blood, either nearer or farther off. As for example.

My brother is in the first degree to me in consanguinity; his wife in Affi­nity: My brorhers son in the second, his Nephew in the third, his Ne­phewes son in the fourth. They in consanguinity: their Wives in the same degrees, second, third, or fourth unto me, but they in Affinity.

Note that they attain not (in me) by their addition, that that I have at­tained (by blood) in the persons to whom they be added. For herein, that is to say, in Attinency we be distinguished in Consanguinity and Affinity. To make it plain. My brother is my Consanguine, his Wife my Affine, onely they retain and participate with me the degree, whether it be first, second, third or fourth; that I have with the persons that they be car­nally known by, the which they alter not.

Consequently, they shall be every person in Consanguinity to my wife, in Affinity to me, in what degree in the one, in that degree in the other. But alwaies in the first kind, be they Brother, Sister, Nephew, Neece, &c. But to return to our Batune. Ʋpton calleth this baston or batune, a Fissure: and making mention of the variable formes thereof, saith, Istae Fissurae tot modis variantur, quot modis fiunt bendae: These Fissures have as many varieties of formes as the bends have.

Severall formes of Fissure.For there are of them (saith he)

  • Planae,
  • Ingrediatae,
  • Invectae,
  • Fusilatae,
  • Gobonatae.

  • Plain.
  • Ingrailed.
  • Invecked.
  • Fusile.
  • Gobonated.

[Page 65]And (he saith) it is commonly called a Fissure (which is a cut or rent) pro eo quod findit Arma paterna in duas partes; quia ipse basterdus finditur & di­viditur à patrimonio patris sui: in that it cuts or rents the Coat-armour in twain, because the bastard is cut off from his fathers Inheritance. In some Countries they used to distinguish these from the lawfull begotten, by setting of two letters upon their garments, S. and P. quasi, Sine Patre, without Father.

Cui pater est populus, pater est huic nullis & omnis.
Brats are priviledg'd above any:
We have but one Sire; they have many.

And perhaps S. P. did signifie Situs Populo, the Sanne of the People. Signification of the letters S.P. Chas­saneus saith, that bastards are not capable of their Fathers patrimony, ei­ther by law or custome, Quia filius Ancillae non erat haeres cum filio Liberae: The servants child must not part stakes with her Mistresses. Leigh is of opinion, that the lawfull son of a bastard shall change his Fathers Mark to the right side, observing still the quantity thereof: for so I doe understand him, in respect that he addeth immediately, that the same may at the pleasure of the Prince be inlarged, or broken after this manner.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Bend, double Dauncette, Sundry notes of bastardy. Ar­gent, by the name of Lorks. This (saith Leigh) shall ne­ver be called other than a bend, after it is thus parted: but bastards (saith he) have sundry other marks, eve­ry one according to their unlawfull begettings; which with hundreds of others are the Secrets of Heralds.

Besides those bearings bendwise above demonstrated,Bendlet. we mentioned another by the name of a bendlet, which hath greater resemblance with a bend than a­ny of the rest, and by the name it may seem to be some subdivision of the bend. It hath yet no certain quantity, but contain­eth evermore a sixth part of the Field, (according to the observation of Leigh) whereof you have an example in this next Escocheon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Argent, a bendlet, Gules.Difference of the bend and bendlet. Two manner of waies doth this charge differ from the bend: the one, that the bend containeth the fifth part of the Field un­charged, and the third part thereof charged. And this is limited to the sixth part of the Field, which it may not exceed. Secondly, it is distinguished from the bend, se­cundum locationem, in place, in as much as the bend is so placed, as that the corner of the Escocheon doth answer to the just middle of the same, between the upper and nether lines thereof: but the bendlet beginneth in the exact corner of the point of the Escocheon; so as the lower line is distant from the corner thereof the full breadth of the bendlet.


OUR prefixed order doth now call upon me to bend my course from bends, with the parts and subdivisions thereof,Fesse and con­tent thereof. and to proceed to the Fesse, which challengeth the next place. The Fesse is an Ordinary, form­ed of a twofold line, drawn overthwart the breadth of the Escocheon; in [Page 66] the midst where of is the very center of the Shield. And it containeth the third part of the Field, and may not be diminished, albeit the French He­ralds doe blazon three barres gemels, for a fesse of six peeces.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Vaire, Or, and Vert, a Fesse, Gules, by the name of Duffield. This word Fesse is a French word; and doth signifie the Loines of a man. This Ordinary hath been anciently taken for the same that we cal Baltheum militare, or Cingulum honoris, a belt of honour: because it divideth the Field into two equall parts, it selfe occupying the middle betweene both; even as the Girdle environeth the middle part of a man, and resteth upon his Loines.

This Girdle of honour may seeme to have beene in ancient time given by Emperours, and Kings, and their Generals of the Field unto Souldiers, for reward of some speciall service performed by them: and it is not improbable, that such a reward it was that the General of Davids Army, Ioab, would have given the Messenger that brought him newes that Absalom was hanged by the haire of the head in an Oke, if he had slain him, where Ioab saith,2 Sam. 18.11. Why hast thou not killed him, that so I might have rewarded thy service with ten Shekles of Silver, and a girdle (or an arming Belt?) For some translate it Cingulum, some Baltheum. Amongst the Macedonians, it was ordained by a Military law (saith Alex. ab Alex.) that the Souldier that had not killed an Enemy, Non Militari Cingulo, sed capistro cingeretur; should not be girt with an Arming girdle, but with a halter. And not without reason is a man adorned with a Military girdle, signifying he must be alwaies in a readiness to undergoe the businesse of the weal publike; for the more speedy performance of which charge; he should have his garments close girt unto his body, that the loosenesse of them should give no impediment to the execution of his assumpted charge and enjoyned services. And these tokens of Chiva [...]ry were so highly esteemed in ancient times,St. Ambrose. that Saint Ambrose saith, in his age Duces, & Principes, omnes etiam militantes, operosis cingulis au­ro [...]u gente pretiosi [...], ambiunt, &c. Great Captains, Princes, and Martiall men, de­light to wear their Belts curiously wrought, and glittering with gold, &c.

As the bestowing of this Military Girdle, was reputed very honourable, because none were to receive it but men of merit, so also was it ever ac­counted most dishonourable for any just cause to be again deprived of the dignity thereof; neither should such an one be restored thereunto, but up­on very singular and especiall desert, as Ferettus noteth, where he saith, Au­gustus laudabiliter militarem disciplinam gessit severissi [...]e: Augustus Im­perat. & privatos militari Cingulo nunquam restituit, nisi illos prae caeteris virtutum merita insignirent: Au­gustus the Emperor got much honor by the severity of his Military Discipline: for if a man were once deprived of his Arming girdle, he never would restore it unless he performed some excellent service above all others. Notwithstanding, there is also one kind of putting off the Belt, of no lesse honour, than the putting on of it; yea much more glorious it is, in that it is the end and perfection of the other; and that is, when the victory is atchieved, victory being the end of Arming, as peace is of Battle. To which purpose is that saying, 1 Reg. 20.11. Ne jactet se qui se accingit, ut qui discingit: Let not him boast who girds himself as he that doth ungird: meaning we must not triumph (as the saying is) be­fore the victory; but it being once attained, it is the honour of a generous mind, to put off his Belt, and not to sanguine his blade with cold blood. [Page 67] For those Gallants, who in times and places of peace, are still drawing their swords, like warriours, in times and places of warre, prove (for the most part) p [...]ceabler and calmer then they should be.

But if a Knight be disarmed of his Military girdle by his demerits and of­fence, he is therewithall deprived of all Military priviledges, like as it fareth with a Captain, who (if he happen to lose his Ensigns, is disabled to advance any other in the Field, untill he hath either regained the same, or by his valor extorted some other from the enemy. Which kind of deprivation of Knights and M [...]rtiall men for any notable transgression, was of frequent use in times past, and in some places is continued unto this day with grea­ter severity and much more infamy than in former times. Depositio Cingu­lorum & Balth [...]orum (saith Wolfgan. Wolfgangus Lazius.) Lazius quod genus poenae proprio seorsim vocabulo discinctura & recinctura vocabatur, manet hodie ad huc in ordine E­questri, majori quam olim ignominia. Quo ritu (ut nos dicimus) Equites [...]urati degradantur. The depriving of the Belt (which was wont to be tearmed, the di­scincture or ungirding) is at this day still in use amongst Knights, and with more ignominy than was in ancient times: which is nothing else but that which we call degrading of a Knight. If any aske me how this comes about that such Degradation of a Knight, is more infamous than of old: I answer, it is because it is more rare, and therefore more remarkable. If again, you aske why it is more rare than of old: I answer, it is because it is more infamous, and therefore Princes more unwillingly to inflict it. Howsoever, the truth is, that base and unknightly actions and qualites, deserve a base and unknight­ly chastisement.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, two Cheurons, Gules: this is the Coat of that eminent and ancient Family of Mounson. Of which are worthy Ornaments Willi­am Viscount Mounson, and Sir John Mounson of Carleton in Lincolnshire Baronet, son and heir of Sir Thomas Mounson created Baronet, 29. of June, 1611.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, four Cheu­rons, Gules, which is the bearing of Sir Henry Every son of Sir Simon Every or Ivory of Eggington in Com. Derb. Baronet, so created May 26. 1641.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, three Cheurons, Gules, a Labell of three points, Azure, by the name of Barington, and is the Coat of that worthy Gentle­man Sir John Barington of Barington Hall in Essex, Knight and Baronet.

[Page 68]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, a Cheuron, and in the Dexter point a Trefoyle Sable, which with a Crescent for a difference of a second brother is the Coat of that grave Citizen Sir Thomas Foot Knight, Lord Mayor of London, 1651.

Fesse Dauncet.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Or, a Fesse Dauncette, Sable. These Armes pertain to the worthy Gentleman Sir Thomas Vava­sour, who in the Reign of King James was Knight Mar­shall of his then Majesties house-hold, and of the vierge thereto appertaining. Whose Family anciently had the addition Le to the name, as being the Kings Valva­sores, being in times past a degree not much inferiour to a Baron, and given to their Family ex Regio munere, as M. Cambden noteth in York-shire, speaking of Hasel­wood, being the ancient inheritance of the said Family.

Cheuron what.So much of a Fesse: now of a Cheuron. A Cheuron is an Ordinary, formed of a twofold line Spirewise or Pyramidall; the Foundation being in the Dexter, and Sinister base points of the Escocheon, and the Acute angle of the Spire near the top of the Escocheon: as in example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Topaz, a Cheuron, Ruby. This Coat pertaineth to the Honourable and Ancient Family of Stafford, now Barons, and somtimes Earles of Stafford, and Dukes of Buckingham. This Ordinary is resembled to a paire of Bargecouples or Rafters, such as Carpenters doe set on the highest part of the house,Ancient form of bearing thereof. for bearing of the roof thereof; and betokeneth the atchieving of some businesse of moment, or the finishing of some Chargable and memorable work. This was anciently the usuall forme of bearing of the Cheuron, as appea­reth by many Scales and Monuments yet extant, and is most agreeable to reason, that as it representeth the Roof of an house (though I am not igno­rant that Leigh saith, it was in old times the attire for the heads of Women Priests) so accordingly it should be extended to the highest part of the Es­cocheon, though far different is the bearing thereof in these dayes. In which respect it were fit that common Painters, the common disorderers of these tokens of honour, were better looked unto; who both in former ages, and much more in these daies, have greatly corrupted these honourable signs, by adding their new fantasticall inventions; that so they might make the things borne in Coat-Armour more perspicuous to the view, or because they would be thought to be well overseen in Heraldry. Idle inventi­ons of Pain­ters. For indeed they want the eye of judgment, to see and discerne that such is the excellency of these honourable tokens, that the least alteration either by augmentati­on, diminution, transposition, or whatsoever other means, doth occasion a change in them so great, as that they thereby differ from themselves, not onely in their accidentall, but also in their substantiall parts, and cease to be any longer the same they were before, and their owners are debarred to [Page 69] challenge any propriety or interest in them, in respect of such alteration. Modica alteratio in membro principali magnam alterationem facit (saith the Philosopher) A little alteration makes a great alteration in a principall part. As the least spot in the Eye, which is the worthiest part of the face, doth more disfigure the same, than ten times so much in any other member of the whole body.

The Content of the Cheuron is the fifth part of the Field (according to Leigh: Content of a Cheuron.) but Chassaneus reckoneth the same amongst those Ordinaries that do occupy the third part of the Field. You may have two cheurons in one Field (saith Leigh) but not above; and if they exceed that number,Note. then shall you call them cheuronwaies. But I suppose they might be tearmed much better cheuronels, that is to say, Minute or small cheurons; for so is their Blazon more certain. This charge following, and the subdivisions thereof; are diversly borne, as well in respect of the divers location, Cheuron re­versed. as of the variable form thereof; for sometimes it is borne on chief, otherwhiles on base, sometimes Enarched, sometimes Reversed, sometimes Fretted, &c. as hereafter by examples appeareth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He b [...]areth, Or, a Cheuron in chief, Azure.Cheuron in chief. Note that the lower part of this cheuron is far above the ordinary place of a single cheuron; for it is pitched as high as the Nombrill of the Escocheon, whereas others have their rising from or near above the dexter and sinister base points. The Ancestors of this bearer (saith Leigh) have borne the same otherwaies, which was for some good purpose removed, although it were better after the common manner of bearing. Accidents of an Escocheon. There are divers Acci­dents incident unto this Ordinary, viz. Transposition, as in this last Escocheon, Couping, Voiding and Reversing. Of all which I pur­pose to give severall examples in their proper places.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermyne, a Cheuron, couped; Cheuron Couped. Sable, by the name of Iones. What couping is, I have before shewed, whereunto (for shunning needlesse repeti­tion) I referre you.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Cheuron engrailed, voided, Or,Cheuron En­grailed. by the name of Dudley. What voiding is, I have shew­ed before. In the blazoning of Coat-Armours of this kinde, I meane of Charges voided, you shall not neede to make any mention of the colour of the exempted part thereof, saying, that it is voided of the Field: for if you say, voided, onely, it is ever understood that the field sheweth thorow the middle part of the charge voided. If the middle part of this cheuron were of a different metall, colour, or furre, from the Field, then should you Blazon it thus: A Cheuron, engrailed, surmounted of another, of such or such colour.

[Page 70]The Subdivisions of this Ordinary are

  • Cheuronell,
  • Couple-close.

Cheuronell what.A Cheuronell is a diminutive of a Cheuron, and signifieth a minute or small Cheuron, and containeth halfe the quantity of the Cheuron, as for example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a cheuronell, Vert Of these (saith Leigh) you may have no more than three in a Field, except partition. The. other Subdivision of the cheuron is called a couple close. A couple-close is a subor­dinate charge derived from a cheuron, and formed of two lines erected cheuronwaies.

Couple-close what, and the content there­of.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Vert, a couple-close, Argent. This con­taineth the fourth of the cheuron, and is not borne but by Paires, except there be a cheuron betweene them. Well doth the name of this charge, agree with the use thereof, which is not onely to be borne by couples for the most part, but also to have a cheuron between them which they inclose on each side.

Barre.The next in order to the Cheuron is the Barre. A Barre is composed of two equi distant lines drawne overthwart the Escocheon, after the manner of the Fesse before mentioned, as in this next Escocheon appeareth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

This Ordinary differeth from the Fesse, not onely in that it containeth the fifth part of the Field, wher­as the Fesse occupieth the third part thereof, but also that the Fesse is limited to one certaine place of the Escocheon to wit, the Exact Center or Fesse Point there­of, whereas the Bar is not tryed to any prescript place, but may be transferred unto sundry parts of the Escocheon. But if there be but one onely Bar in the Escocheon, then must the same occupy the place of the Fesse, as appeareth in this Escocheon. This Charge is of more estimation than is well considered of many that bear the same. If you have two Bars in the Field, they must be so placed, as that thereby the Field of the Escocheon may be divided into five equall parts; so shall each of them receive their just quantity.

Subdivision.A Bar is subdivided into a

  • Closet.
  • Barulet.

A Closet is a Charge abstracted from a Bar, and consisteth also of two e­quidistant lines drawn overthwart the Escocheon, as in Example.

[Page 71]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a Closet, Sanguine.Content of a Closet. This containeth half the Barre, and of these there may be five in one Field, and are very good Armory. The other Subdivi­sion of a Barre, is called a Barulet, which (after the opi­nion of Leigh) cannot be borne dividedly, but must be borne by couples, unlesse they be parted with a Barre, whereof you have an example in this next Escoche­on.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Azure, two Barres, Or. This is the Coat of that eminent ancient Family of Burdet, which flourishes at this day in the persons of Sir Fran. Burdet of Bramcot in Warwick-shire Baronet, and Robert Bur­det of London Merchant, sons of Sir Thomas Turdet of Bramcot created Baronet, Feb. 25. 1618. which Sir Francis Burdet married, Jane daughter of Sir John Walter Knight, Lord chief Baron of the Exchequer.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Barulet, Argent.Barulet what it containeth. The Content of the Barulet is the fourth part of the Barre, whereof is a derivative, as by the name of Diminution imposed thereupon doth manifestly appear. Barulets (saith Ʋpton) are diversly borne in Armes, viz. Plain, En­grailed, &c. whereunto good heed must be taken in Blazon.

Hitherto of a barre: Now of a Gyronne: A Gyronne what. A Gyronne is an Ordinary consisting of two straight lines drawn from divers parts of the Escocheon, and meeting in an Acute-angle in the Fesse point of the same.Signification of a Gyronne. A Gyronne (as one saith) is the same that we call in Latine Gremium, which signifieth a Lappe, and is the space between the thighes: and thence perchance doe we call the Groyne; which name, whether it be given to this charge, because it determines in gremio, in the very lappe or midst of the Escocheon, or because it hath a ben­ding like the thigh and leg together, I cannot define. Gyrons are borne di­versly, viz. single, by couples, of six, of eight, of ten, and of twelve, as shall ap­pear hereafter,Forme of making thereof. where I shall speak of Armes having no Tincture predomi­nating. For the making this Ordinary, behold this next Escocheon, where you shall find one single Gyronne alone, which doth best expresse the man­ner thereof, as in example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sanguine, Single Gy­ronne. one Gyronne issuing from the Chief Dexter point, Or If these two lines whereof this Ordinary is framed, were drawn throughout to the Extremities of the Escocheon, then would they consti­tute two Gyrons, as in this next Escocheon appeareth. But if this Gyronne had stood in Fesse in the Dexter part, and the Gyronne Argent, then were it the se­cond Coat of the Lord de Wolfo of Swesia, whose daughter was married to the Marquesse of Northamp­ton, and after to Gorge.

[Page 72] Two Gyronnes.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, two Gyrons, Gules. You need not say, meeting in Point, the one from the dexter Chiefe, the other in the Sinister base, because they do evermore meet in the Fesse Point, be they never so many. Here you see, that as two lines drawn, the one bendwaies from the dexter corner of the chief part of the Escocheon, and resting on the Fesse point, and the other drawn Fesse­waies overthwart the Escocheon, and meeting with the same in the said Fesse point, do make one Gyron: so do the same drawne throughout produce two Gyrons.

A Canton what.So much of a Gyron: Now of a Canton and Quarter: A Canton is an Ordi­nary framed of two streight lines, the one drawn perpendicularly from the Chief, and the other transverse from the side of the Escocheon, and meet­ing therewith in an acute Angle, neer to the corner of the Escocheon, as in this next appeareth.

Whereof so named.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermyne, a Canton, Argent, charged with a Cheuron, Gules, by the name of Middleton. This Or­dinary is termed a Canton, because it occupieth but a Corner or Cantell of the Escocheon. Some Armorists do hold, that the Canton is a Reward given to Gentlemen, Esquires and Knights, for service done by them, and not to a Baron. Some others notwithstanding are of a different opinion, that a Canton may well beseem an Earle or a Baron receiving the same at his Soveraignes hand; yet in the Quarter to be preferred in dignity before the same:Preheminence of certaine Ordinaries. Note Base Squires how made. Rule. and before them both, Sir John Ferne preferreth the Es­cocheon of Pretence, which he calleth an Engislet or Fessy Target. Note that a Canton parted traverswaies, whether it be from the Dexter corner, or From the Sinister, doth make two base Squires. And if the Canton be placed in the Dexter corner of the Escocheon, you must in blazon onely name it a Canton, not making any mention of the locall situation thereof: but if it be pla­ced on the contrary side, then must you in Blazon ad this word Sinister; as he beareth a Canton Sinister. Canton Sini­ster. The Sinister Canton is all one with the Dexter in form, in quantity, and in estimation, but differeth from the same both in regard of the locall position thereof (by reason that it is placed in the sini­ster corner of the Escocheon) as also in that it is not of so frequent use.

Quarter what.Hitherto of a Canton, now of a Quarter. The Quarter is an Ordinary of like composition with the Canton, and holdeth the same places, and hath great resemblance thereof; insomuch as the same Rules and Observations, that doe serve for the one, may be attributed to the other, Quia similium similis est ratio: of like things the reason is alike. The only difference between them is,Difference of a quarter and Canton. that the Canton keepeth only a cantle or small portion of the Cor­ner of the Escocheon, and the quarter comprehendeth the full fourth part of the Escocheon, as in example.


[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Verrey, Argent & Sable, a Quarter, Gules, by the name of Estanton. The quarter a reward for ser­vice. Albeit that (according to Leigh) the Quarter is for the most part given by Empe­rours and Kings to a Baron (at least) for some speciall or acceptable service done by him; yet doe we find the same bestowed upon persons of meaner dignity for like occasion. Contrariwise, the canton (being recei­ved at the Soveraigns hand) may beseem the dignity of a Baron or an Earle, as aforesaid.

[Page 73]Having spoken of the Canton and Quarters, as much as for this present is requisite; I will reserve some other their adjuncts to a more conveni­ent place. And will now speak of a Pile, shewing some variable examples of the diverse bearing thereof.

A Pile is an Ordinary consisting of a twofold line formed after the manner of a Wedge; that is to say broad at the upper end,A Pile what. and so lessening by de­grees throughout with a comely narrownesse and Taper-growth, meeting together at the lower end in an Acute-angle, as in this next Escocheon ap­peareth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, a Pile, Gules.Use of the Pile. This Coat pertain­ed to the right worthy and valiant Knight Sir John Chandos, Baron of Saint Saviours, le Viscount in France, great Senescal of Poictow, high Constable of Aquitain. All given him by King Edward the third, who also made him one of the Founders of the most noble Or­der of the Garter. In all fortifications and buildings, in case the ground be distrusted to be unsure & de­ceivable: Men are accustomed to build upon Piles, and by them to force an infallible, and permanent foundation

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Pile, Ermyne, which was the Coat of Sir Peter Wich, Knighted 1626. sometime Ambas­sadour at Constantinople for the late King Charles, and is the bearing of Nathaniel Wich, now President to the In­dies, and severall other worthy Gentlemen and Mer­chants.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a Pile Engrailed, Sable, by the name of Waterhouse, and is the bearing of that Ingenious Gentleman and great lover of Antiquity and Heral­dry, Edward Waterhouse of Greneford in Com. Mid. Esquire, who is lineally descended from Sir Gilbert Waterhouse, of Kirton in Low-Linsey in Lincolnshire: temps Hen. 3. of which family are divers worthy and well bred Gentlemen now extant.

Sometimes you shall find three of these in a Field, as in this next example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Or, three Piles, Sir Guy Bryan. meeting near in the Base of the Escocheon, Azure. This Coat was borne by Sir Guy Bryon Knight, one of the Noble Knights of the most honorable order of the Garter, in the time of King Edward the third: and he was also a chief mean unto the said King for obtaining the Charter of Pri­viledge and freedome of his Majesties Forrest of Deane, in the County of Glocester, for the benefit of the Inha­bitants of the same Forrest.

Sometimes you shall find this Ordinary borne,Note. tran­sposed or reversed, contrary to the usuall forme of their bearing, viz. with their points upward, which naturally ought to be downewards, being suppo­sed [Page 74] to be a piece of Timber, whose nether part is sharpened, to the end it maybe more commodiously driven into the ground; as in example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, three Piles, one issuing out of the Chief between the two others transposed or reversed, Sable, by the name of Hullets. The Pile is an ancient Addition to Armory, and is a thing that maketh all foundations to be firm and perfect, especially in Wa­ter-works.

Rule.When there is but one Pile in the Field, it must con­taine the third part of the same at the Chief. This Or­dinary is diversly formed, and borne, as in these next Escocheons appeareth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, a Triple Pile, Flory on the tops, issuing out of the Sinister base, in Bend, towards the Dexter corner, Sable, This sort of bearing of the Pile, hath a resemblance of so many Piles driven into some water-worke, and by long tract of time, incorporated at their heads, by reason of an extraordinary weight imposed upon them, which gave impediment of their growth in height.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Pile in Bend, issuing out of the Dexter corner of the Escocheon, Sable, Cotised, In­grailed, Gules. I have made speciall choice of this Coat-armour, (out of the glory of Generos.) as well for the rarenesse thereof, as for that I find the same there commended for faire Armory, and good in regard of the variety thereof for Blazoners to look upon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Pile waved, issuing out of the Dexter corner of the Escocheon, Bendwaies, Or, by the name of Aldam. As this Pile waved issueth out of the Dexter, so also may the same be borne from the Sini­ster chief point. Moreover you shall find them borne in Pale, and sometimes issuing out of the Base with the point thereof transposed, which I leave to obser­vation.

Now the bearing of Waves, or of things waved, may well fit those that are tryed in the furnace of Afflictions, which are the badges and the testimonies of our election in Christ, who suffered for us; the just for the unjust, to bring us unto God. Therefore we should bear our afflictions gladly, forasmuch as if we suffer with Christ, we shall also be glorified with him. For so doth the Apostle ad­monish us, saying; That no man should be moved with these afflictions, for ye your selves know that we are appointed thereunto, 1 Thess. 3.3. And againe, thou therefore suffer affliction as a good soldier of Christ, 2 Tim. 2.3.

So much of Piles and their variety, as well of Forme, as of Location. There rest yet some other sorts of Ordinaries, that are composed of a twofold line not hitherto spoken of.

[Page 75]Such are these, viz

  • Flasque.
  • Flanch.
  • Voider.

In some mens conceit perhaps these Ordinaries last mentioned might have been more fitly placed amongst such as are before handled, and are composed of a single line, (of which number these may be well reckoned, if we consider them each one apart by themselves:) but forasmuch as none of them are borne single, but alwayes by couples; for conveniency I have chosen rather to sort them with these that are formed of a Twofold Line; and first of a Flasque.

A Flasque is an Ordinary, consisting of one Arch Line, A Flasque what. drawn somewhat distant from the corners of the Chief, and meanly swelling by degrees un­till you come towards the middest of the Escocheon, and from thence again decreasing with a like comely descent unto the Sinister base points, as in example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Or, two Flasques, Azure.A Flasque what kind of reward. This Reward (saith Leigh) is to be given by a King for vertue and learning, and especially for service in Ambassage: for therein may a Gentleman deserve aswell of his Sove­raign, as the Knight that serveth him in the Field. This is called an Arch line of the Latine word Arcus, that signifieth a Bow, which being bent hath a mode­rate bowing, void of excesse of tuberosity. This word Flasque is derived, either from the French word Fleschier, or from the Latine word Flecto, which sig­nifieth to bend or bow.

The next in order is the Flanch, which is an Ordinary formed of an Arch line, taking his beginning from the corner of the chief, and from thence compassing orderly with a swelling embossement untill it come near to the Nombrill of the Escocheon, and thence proportionably declining to the Sinister base point, as in this next Escocheon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Ermyne, two Flanches, Vert. This (saith Leigh) is one degree under the aforsaid Flasque, yet it is commendable Armory. Note. This word Flanch (as some doe hold) is derived from the French word flans, which signifieth the flank, of man or beast, that includeth the small guts, because that part stouteth out, cum tumore quodam, as it were a blown bladder. Sometimes you may find this Ordinary made of some other form of Lines than plain, which when it shall happen, you must in the blazon thereof make speciall mention of the form of Line whereof it is composed.

Last of all in our Ordinaries, cometh the Voider; Voider what. consisting of one Arch Line moderately bowing from the corner of the chief by degrees towards the Nombrill of the Escocheon; and from thence in like sort declining un­till it come unto the Sinister base, and hath a more near resemblance of the bent of a Bow than the Flanch hath, in that it riseth not with so deep a com­passe, as in example.

[Page 76] Reward for a Woman.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Tenne, two Voiders, Or. This is the Re­Ward of a Gentlewoman for service by her done to the Prince; but when the Voider should be of one of the nine furres or Doublings. Such Reward (saith Leigh) might the Dutches of Montfort have given to her Gen­tlewoman, who served her most diligently, not onely while she kept the Town of Hanybot, but also when she rode armed into the Field and scared the French men from the siege thereof. These are called Voiders, either because of the shallownesse wherein they doe resemble the accustomed voiding Plates with narrow brims used at Tables,Voiders why so called. or else of the French word voire, which signifieth a looking Glasse or Mirror (which in ancient times were commonly made in that bulging form) especially considering they are given to Gentlewomen in recompence of service, unto whom such gifts are most acceptable; and withall implying that Gentlewomen so well deserving, should be mirrors and patterns to others of their sex, wherein to behold both their duties, and the due reward of ver­tues. His counsell was so very behovefull, who advised all Gentlewomen of­ten to look on Glasses; that so, if they saw themselves beautifull, they might be stirred up to make their minds as faire by vertue as their faces were by nature: but if deformed, they might make amends for their out­ward deformity, with their interne pulchr [...]ude and gracious qualities. And those that are proud of their beauty, should consider, that their own hue is as brittle as the Glasse wherein they see it; and that they carry on their shoulders nothing but a Skull wrapt in skinne, which one day will be loath­some to be looked on.


Ordinaries of lines more than two fold.HAving shewed the manner and making of such Ordinaries as are com­posed of a twofold Line: we will now proceed to that other member of the Distribution before delivered, which maketh mention of Ordinaries, consisting of Lines more than twofold; and will shew how they also are made.

Such Ordinaries doe consist of Lines

  • Threefold,
  • Fourfold.

Those that are formed of a threefold line, are the Inescocheon and the Orle. The Inescocheon is an Ordinary formed of a threefold line, Inescocheon what. representing the shape of the Escocheon, as in example.

Inescocheon named Esco­cheon of Pre­tence.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermyne, an Inescocheon, Gules, by the name of Hulgreve: This name of Inescocheon, is pro­per onely to those that are borne in this place, for if the same were borne in any other place, than upon the Fesse point of the Shield, you should tearm the same then an Escocheon; and not an Inescocheon: so must you also, if there be more than one in the field. This Escocheon is sometimes tearmed an Escocheon of Pre­tence, as shall appear heareafter.Note. This Ordinary con­taineth the fifth part of the field (saith Leigh, but his demonstration denoteth the third part) and may not be diminished; and albeit it be subject to some alteration, by reason of the different forms of [Page 77] Lines before specified, yet keepeth still one set forme of an Escocheon, as we shall see by and by.

The next in rank of this kind is the Orle, Composition of an Orle. which is an Ordinary composed of a threefold line duplicated, admitting a transparency of the field, throughout the intermost Area or space therein inclosed. This hath the forme of an Inescocheon, but hath not the solid substance thereof, being evermore voided, as in these following Examples appeareth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, an Orle, Azure,Derivation. by the name of Ber­tram, Lord of Bothall. This word Orle seemeth to be derived from the French word Oreiller, which signifi­eth a Pillow, and is attributed to this Ordinary, be­cause the same being of a different tincture from the Field, and formed only of a double tract, in regard of the transparency of the Field within, and the surroun­ding thereof without, it receiveth the resemblance of an embossed substance, as if it were raised like a Pil­low above the Field. Ʋpton tearmeth it in Latine,Upton. Tra­ctus which signifieth a Trace, or Traile, because the field is seen both within and without it; and the Traile it self is drawn thereupon in a different colour. If this were flored (saith Leigh) then must it be called a Tressure, which must contain the fifth part of the Field. And if two of these be in an Escocheon, you must tearm them a double tressure. Chassaneus saith, that the Orle is some­times formed of many pieces, and that they are borne to the number of six. As touching the doubling of this plain Orle, I will not here give Example, for that I purpose to present to your view a Threefold Orle or Tract, which doth include the twofold, as in this next Escocheon appeareth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Or, an Orle of three pieces, Sable.Orle of three pieces. That this Ordinary is borne of many Tracts, it appeareth by this Example, taken out of Ʋpton for the Readers satisfaction, where it is said, Sunt insuper alii qui habent istum Tractum triplicatum & quadruplicatum, ut nuper in Armis Episcopi Coenomanensis, qui portavit pro Armis unum tractum triplicatum de nigro, in campo aureo: Some beare the Orle tripled and quadrupled, as the late Bishop of Maine, who bare a tripled Orle, Sable, in a field, Or. This Ordinary is born diversly, according to the se­verall formes of Lines, before handled, as may appeare in the Examples en­suing.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent,Orle Engrai­led. an Orle Engrailed on the inner side, Gules. I found this forme of bearing observed by an uncertain Author, whom at first I supposed to have either unskilfully taken, or negligently mi­staken the Trick thereof; but after I had found in Ʋpton, that in Blazoning of an Orle Engrailed, he Bla­zoned the same, An Orle engrailed on both sides, I took more speciall notice of this kind of bearing, for that such a form of Blazon (proceeding from a man so ju­dicious in this kind) seemed covertly to imply a di­stinction of that from this form of bearing. And because diversa juxta se ap­posita magis eluces [...]unt, things differing give light each to other, I will here pro­duce the Coat it self, and the Blason thereof, as I find it set down by Ʋpton.

[Page 78]

[blazon or coat of arms]

Il port (saith he) de Gules ung trace engrailee, de chas­cun cost d'Or. And in Latine thus: Qui habet ista Ar­ma, portat unum tractum ex utra (que) parte ingradatum, de Auro in campo rubro. Note. He beareth an Orle engrailed on both sides, Or, in a field, Gules. And no doubt by heedfull observation you may finde these Orles in like sort borne Invecked, Similium enim similis est ratio; for like things have the reason and respect. Note, that divers Charges, as well artificiall as naturall, are born Orle­wayes, or in Orle; as likewise in form of Crosse, Bend, Cheuron, Saltire, &c. the examples whereof I must passe over, untill a fit place be offered to handle Charges of those kinds. Concerning the bearing of Orles, composed of the sundry sorts of Furs, I hold it needlesse to use ex­amples to expresse them to the view, for that by consideration of the ma­nifold sorts of severall Ordinaries before expressed, their divers manner of bearing may be easily conceived: and therefore I will leave them to ob­servation.

Ordinaries of four-fold lines.Hitherto have we considered the making of such Ordinaries as are com­posed of a threefold Line: Our order calleth me now to speak of such Ordinaries as do require a fourfold Line for the effecting of them.

Of this sort is the

  • Crosse,
  • Saltire.

Crosse.The Cross is an Ordinary composed of a fourfold Line, whereof two are perpendicular, and the other two are transverse, for so we must conceive of them, though they are not drawn throughout, but meet by couples in four acute Angles neer about the f [...]sse point of the Escocheon; to look upon (if they were couped, as they are sometimes found) like to four Carpenters Squares; as the example following will demonstrate. This Ordinary is cal­led crux à cruciando, or à cruciatu, because of the unspeakable torture and torment which they do suffer,Crux dicitur a cruciatu, in regard of the unspeakeable torture it gave to the execu­ted thereupon. who undergo this kind of death. The con­tent of the Crosse is not the same alwaies; for when it is not charged, then it hath only the fifth part of the field; but if it be charged, then must it contain the third part thereof. To give you particular examples of all the different formes of bearing of the Crosse, were as needless as endless, considering the variety set down by other Authors; I will therefore con­tent my selfe with these ensuing.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Azure, a Crosse, Or: This Coat-Ar­mour pertaineth to the right worshipfull Family of Shelton, Shelton. in the County of Norfolk, whence descended that Honourable vertuous Lady, Mary Shelton, who was many years of the most Honourable Bedchamber of that Glorious Queen Elizabeth; and was also wife to the right worshipfull Sir John Scudamore, of Home Lacie in the County of Hereford Knight, Standard-bea­rer to her Majesties honorable band of Gentlemen Pen­sioners. This Ordinary is oftentimes diversly named, ac­cording to the diversity of Lines whereof it is composed: for as is the form of Lines whereof it is made, so is the denomination thereof. In the ancientest Institution of the bearing of the Crosse (without all controversie) it had this form;Content of the Crosse. which is taken to be the true shape of the Crosse, where­upon our blessed Saviour Christ Jesus suffered; whose godly observation [Page 79] and use was in great esteeme in the Primitive Church; though in later times it hath been dishonourably entertained by two opposed kinds of fantast­icks; the one, who so superstitiously dote on it, that they adore it like their God: the other, who so unchristianly detest it, that they slander the most godly and ancient use thereof, in our first initiating unto Christ, as if it were some devillish Idoll. But the true Souldiers of such a Captain need not to be ashamed to beare their Generalls ensigne. And this bearing was first bestowed on such as had performed, or at least undertaken, some service for Christ and Christian Profession: and therefore being duly conferred, I hold it the most honourable charg to be found in Heraldrie. But the forme and bearing hereof (as well as the cheurons formerly spoken of) hath been also depraved through the inconsiderate handling of common Painters. For which cause I have caused this precedent crosse onley to be cut after this fashion, in the rest I have ensued the vulgar manner of bearing now used, chusing rather to sway with the multitude in matters of smal importance, than that I would seeme to affect I know not what singularity; Nemo e­nim errantem arguit, qui cum multis errat. This manner of bearing of the pa­tible cross is warranted by Rolls of greatest Antiquitity, and is most conso­nant to reason, that the stem thereof should be much longer than the cross part, by how much it was requisite that the same was to be deeply fixed in the ground: So then if we shall compare this ancient bearing, with that of modern times, we shall find this to be naturall; and that adulterate.

Crosses do receive manifold varieties of Denomination, Divers deno­minations of Crosses. according to the multiplicity of their different shapes, and variable properties of lines whereof they are formed.

The bearing of the crosse, is the expresse note or badge of a Christian that he bear the same according to the prescript rule and will of his Lord and Master. For as Barth. saith, Insignia ad voluntatem Domini sunt portanda, & non alias.

All Crosses may signifie unto us tribulations and afflictions, which (how burthensome soever they may seem to the flesh) yet is there much comfort to be found in them, to those that make a right use of them, and do under­goe the burthen of them chearfully, and without recalcitration. For it is the property of Worldlings that have been dandled (as I may say) in for­tunes lappe, and pampered with worldly delights, to forget both God and themselves, and in their fulness to spurn and kick up the heel; According to that saying of Moses in his Song that he made a little before his death; But he that should have been upright, when he waxed fat, spurned with his heel; He was fat, he was gross, he was laden with fatness, therefore he forsook God that made him, and regarded not the strong God of his Salvation; Deut. 30.15.

Sithence then our Lord and Master (for our sakes) did willingly take up­on him this grievous, and almost unsupportable burthen, why should we then, that would be counted his professed Souldiers and Servants shrink thereat; Especially sithence by the Discipline of the Crosse, we are brought to the true knowledge of God, his Omnipotency, Wisdome, Justice, Mer­cy, and all other his divine Attributes, and of our own miserable and dam­nable estate, through our adherent and inherent corruption of sins as well Actuall, as Originall.

A like form of bearing of this, is that Cross which we find borne in the Shield of S. George; but diversly from this, both in Metall and Colour which of some Armorists of Ʋptons time, (as himself noteth in his discourse of [Page 80] Armes) received in those dayes a very strange and absurd kind of Blazon, which he there setteth downe after this manner; the Shield, Gules, four Quarters, Argent: whose reason herein (saith he) I doe not allow, for that by such manner of Blazon, the bearing of a plaine Crosse shall never be knowne. Moreover, herein also may we observe the Blazon hereof to be erroneous, in that they say, foure Quarters: which are indeed but so many Cantons; else should they all foure meet in the Center of the Escocheon. This Ordinary is subject to voiding and couping, as these examples following shew.

Alphonsus K. of Aragon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Crosse voided, Azur. Panormitan writeth of Alphonsus King of Aragon, (what time he besieged Putcoli, a city by the Sea side in Campania) that resorting daily to the Seashore, for his recreation, up­on a time he chanced to finde the corps of a man of Genea in Italy, that had been cast out of a Galley; and thereupon alighting speedily from his horse, caused all others that were neer him to light; and comman­ded some to dig the Grave, whilst others covered the naked Corps: and he himselfe with his own hands did make a Cross of wood, which he sticked fast at the head of the man so in­terred; to testifie that all Christian offices may beseem the greatest Kings; and that whatever death we die, it is not material, so we live to Christ So great is the Resemblance oftentimes of things born in Coat-Armour: which yet in their Existence, are much differing, that a man well seen in Heraldry, may easily commit an error in the blazoning of them, as by comparing of this Coat-Armour with the next will manifestly appear: wherefore you must use an advised deliberation in blazoning, especially of Armes of neer Resemblance.

Crosse Fim­briated.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a crosse Patee, Sable, Fimbriated, Gules. The reason wherefore this Cross is called Patee, I will presently shew you, when I come to speak of the Shield of Cadwallader. This approacheth neer to the former in respect of the double tract thereof; yet doth it much differ from the same in substance, forasmuch as the charge of that is a twofold crosse, viz. one sur­mounted of another, and this a single crosse bordured, or invironed with a hem or edge. Moreover, that this is not a cross of Gules, surmounted of another, Sable, it is cleer, because the edge that goeth about this cross is much narrower than is the space between those two crosses. Besides, it cannot stand with the Rules of good Armory, to bear colour upon colour, or metall upon metall. This is called a crosse Fimbriated, of the Latine word Fimbria, which sig­nifieth an edge, welt, or hem, for a Garment, and is to be understood to be of the same thickness with it, and not to lie either upon or underneath.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Cheuron between ten Cros­ses, Formee, Argent, and is the Coat of the Right Honourable George Lord Barkley, descended in a di­rect male line from Robert Fitzharding, a second son of the bloud Royal of Denmark, whose son Maurice Barkley was Father of Thomas, and he of Maurice, Fa­ther of a second Thomas, called by writ to Parliament the two and twentieth of Edw. the first.

[Page 81]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermine, a cross ingrailed, Gules,Crosse En­grailed. by the name of Norwood of Lekhampton in the County of Glo­cester. As this cross is formed of bunched lines, so are there others that are composed of sundry other sorts of lines before shewed, as experience will informe you, and as you may in part see by the example fol­lowing.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a crosse wavey, voided, Sable,Crosse wavey. by the name of Duckenfield in Devonshire. In Coats of such bearing, you shall not need to say in the blazon of them, that the charge (whatsoever the same be) is [...]oided of the field: because when you say only voi­ded and no more, it is alwaies understood to be voi­ded of the field.

Of all other sorts of crosses the cross waved is a more speciall note of tribulation, in regard it represen­teth the turbulent Waves or surges of the Seas, occasion [...]d by some turbulent gust or flaw of boystrous winds or storms, causing a success of surging billowes: notifying unto us consequent af­flictions and troubles following immediately one upon anothers [...]eck, which the children of God must sustain with a constant resolution, Fol­lowing therein the instruction of Eccl. 2.1. My son, if thou wilt come [...]nto the service of God, stand fast in Righteousness and fear, and prepare thy soul unto tem­ptation. And again, Settle thy heart and be patient, bow down thine ear, and re­ceive the words of understanding, and shrink not away when thou art assayled, but wait upon God patiently; Joyne thy self unto him and depart not away, that thou mayest be increased at thy last end, Vers. 3.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Sable, a Crosse, Engrailed, Or, in the first quarter a Mullet, Argent. Tirone, viz. Argent, a Sinister hand coupe, Gules, which is the Coat of that Noble Gentleman Sir Thomas Peyton, son of Sir Samuell of Knolton now first Baronet of Kent. And of Algernoon Peyton of Donington in the Isle of Ely Esquire, son of Sir John, second brother to Sir Thomas Father of Sir Sa­muel.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Azure, Crusily, a Crosse molline, Or, voided throughout by the name of Knolles, and was the Coat of Sir William Knolles Baron, Viscount Wallingford, and Earl of Banbury, &c.

[Page 82] Crosse Patee Fitched.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a crosse patee fitched in the foote, Gules. This Coat was borne by Galfride de Scuda­more that lived in the time of King Henry the second; it is termed fitched of the Latine word figo, which signifieth to fasten or make sure, because by the means of the sharpness added to the foot thereof, it becom­eth more apt to be fastned any where. There is an­other sort of fitching of crosses that have the whole fourth part sigetive, as in this next Escocheon.

Crosse Patee on three parts, and Fitched on the fourth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The field is Jupiter, a crosse Patee on three parts, and fitched on the f [...]urth, Sol. This (saith Gerard Leigh) was the Shield of blessed Cadwallader last King of Bri­taine; who slew Lothaire King of Kent, and Ethelwold King of South-Saxons. I confess in tearming this kind of crosse, a crosse Patee, I differ from Leigh who calleth it formy: But Chassaneus blazons it Patee, and giveth this reason thereof, Quia extremitates ejus sunt patu­lae, because his ends are broad and opened, Chass. fol. 28. Bara is of the same opinion, Bara le blazon des Arm. 67. and with these agree many of our Blazoners.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He bears Sable, a Crosse potent, Or, by the name of Allen, and is borne by Sir George Allen Baronet, by the decease of Sir Edmund Allen his Nephew with­out issue male. Thomas Allen also of London Alder­man, and John Allen of Grayes-Inne Esquire, that hopefull and ingenious Professor of the Law, are Ornamentall Branches of this Family.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The field is Jupiter, a crosse potent fitched, Sol. This kind of crosse was borne by Etheldred King of the West Saxons, who lived, Anno Salutis, 946.

What a potent is I have formerly shewed in the first Section, p. 24 It may also be blazoned a crosse crowchee, for the resemblance that it hath of a Crowche, which Chau­cer calleth a potent, which is properly sigetive: For were it that the overthwart or crosse part hereof should be exempted, then would the middle part shew it self to be a perfect Crowche, used for the stay and sustentation of feeble and aged persons. Like as old Age is a blessing of God, so contrariwise it is a token of his heavy displeasure, to be cut off before a man shall attain thereto: As appeareth by that saying of God unto E [...]i the Priest, Behold, the dayes come, that I will cut off thine Arme, and the Arme of thy fathers house, that there shall not be an old man in thine house, 1. Sam. 2.31. And again, and there shall not be an old man in thy house for ever, Ver. 32. And further, And all the mul­titude of thine house shall dye when they be men, Ver. 33. Moreover it is said in the Prophet Zach. Zach. 8.4. on the contrary part, Thus saith the Lord of Hostes, There shall yet old men and old women dwel in the [...]reets of Jerusalem; and every man with his Staffe in his hand for very Age: Whereby is meant, that God would preserve them in life, so long as nature might sustain them.

[Page 83]

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Jupiter, a crosse patonce Sol. You may read in Leigh his accidents of Armory, pag. 59. that, King Egbert did beare in battell a crosse of this forme or fashion in his left hand, and in his Azure-coloured banner likewise. Here you may observe how this cross patonce differeth from the crosse patee, (demonstrated before in the Shield of Cadwallader) and also from the crosse Flourey or Flurtee, which I shall presently shew you in Penthars Coat-Armour.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Azure, a Crosse patee, Or, by the name of Ward, of Kent, London, &c. I know some will quar­rell at my blazoning this Crosse thus, and not either Flory or Patonce which they do weakly surmise to be two different bearings,Crosse voided and Couping. Piercing what. whereas it is manifest by ob­servations of old Seals, Monuments, &c. that it was the Fancy or Error of the Painter or Carver to make the points expand open, or patere, or more erect as is found by hourely experience: now for calling it Patee which is a title given to a Crosse of another forme, as may be seen in the Coate of Scudamore and Cadwallader, immediately before there appear to me great reason to adhear to the o­pinion of Leigh, and not to expunge the word Formee quite, for what is said of that Crosse may better fit this, extremitates ejus sunt patulae, his ends broad and opened, that Crosse being broad formed, but not opened.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Ermine, a Crosse, Raguly, Gules, a Can­ton, Ermines, which is the bearing of that worthy and accomplished Gentleman John Laurence now Sheriff of London, 1658.

Whereas I have formerly made mention of Voiding in the Chapter of bends, and of one other Accident, namely Couping in the Chapter of Fesses, I will now expresse them both in one example in this Escocheon following.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, a crosse voided and couped, Sable, by the name of Woodnoth.

There is another Accident whereunto this Ordinary is subject, that is to say Piercing. Piercing is a Penetrati­on or Perforation of things that are of solid substance: and it is threefold:

That is to say

  • Round.
  • Losengwaies.
  • Quadrate.

[Page 84]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Gules, a Fesse between three Crossets, Fitchee, Or, by the Name of Gore, of which Family are the two Sir John Gores of Hertfordshire, Sir Willi­am Gore of Ireland Baronet, William Gore of Moreden in Surrey Esquire chosen Alderman, Gerrard Gore of Tottenham, and his Brother Robert Gore of London, Merchant Adventurer, Gerad Gore late chosen Al­derman, and divers other persons of Worth and Reputation.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He bears Azure, a Fesse, Dauncette, Ermine, be­tween six Crossets, Argent, which is the Coat of Bar­nardiston of Suffolk, a very Ancient and Knightly Family now flourishing in the Persons of Sir Thomas Barnardiston Knight, Nathaniell, Samuell Pelethiah, Wil­liam and Arthur, Barnardiston, Merchants, of the Le­vant, Sons of Sir Nathaniell Barnardiston late deceased, Knighted at Therbald, December 1618.

Round Pier­cing.As touching Round Piercing, you have an example in this next follow­ing Escocheon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Crosse couped, Pierced, Or, by the name of Grill. If this Round in the middest were of a­ny other colour than of the Field, then should you ac­count the same to be a Charge to the Crosse where­fore good heed must be taken in blazoning of Coats of this kind, and chiefly of the Orbicular form in the middest of the Charge; to the end that you may know when to take the same for a Piercing, and when for a Charge.

Crosse Moline Losenge pier­ced.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Azure, a Crosse Molinge Pierced Lo­sengewaies, Or. This is the second forme of Piercing before mentioned, and the Coat was borne by Ri­chard de Molineux of Lancaster, that lived in the time of King Richard the second. Concerning this Crosse Moline, (Leigh saith) that if it stood Saltire-waies, then should you call it Ferre de Molin, that is to say, a Mill Rinde, or the Inke of a Mill: which to me seemeth a very Paradox, that Transposition (being a thing meerly accidentall) should give a new deno­mination, to the thing transposed, and consequently alter the essence thereof: Quia novum nomen dat novum esse rei, where are new names, new things are supposed to be. It were a thing worthy of admiration, that Ac­cidents should have such power in them; for Aristotle Physicorum 1. saith, Accidentia possunt miraculose, & non alias mutare subjectum: Accidents change not the subject but by Miracle. Addition doubtlesse and Substraction, are of greater force than Transmutation or Location, yet is there no such power in them as that they can alter the essence of any thing, Quia augmentum vel diminutio (saith Chassaneus) circa accidentia contractuum non reponunt [Page 85] contractum in diverso esse, neque per ea intelligitur ab eo in substantialibus re­cessus: the adding or diminishing of Accidents makes not the thing lose the na­ture of his being.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Crosse Moline, Quarter-pierced, Crosse Moline quarter-pier­ced. Or. This Coat was borne by Thomas Molyneux of Haughton, in the County of Notting. that lived in the time of King Henry the fourth. Leigh in blazoning of this form of Crosse, maketh no mention at all of the Piercing thereof, perhaps because it resembleth the Inke of a Mill, which is evermore Pierced. This is termed Quarter peirced, quasi, Quadrate peirced, for that the piercing is square as a Trencher.

So much of the Crosse, with the Accidents thereof:A Saltire what. Now of that other Ordinary that is framed also of a four-fold line, that is to say, a Saltire. A Saltire is an Ordinary consisting of a fourfold line, wherof two are drawn from the Dexter chief towards the Sinister base corners, and the other from the Sinister chief towards the Dexter base points, and do meet about the middest by couples in Acute-angles. I know the learned Geometer will find many more lines here than I doe mention: but (as I said of lines in the Crosse) this our description agreeth best with Heralds, and our pur­pose.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Saltire, Argent,The use of a Saltire. by the name of Aston. In old time (saith Leigh) this was made of the hight of a man, and was driven full of Pinnes, the use whereof was, to scale the walls therewith, to which end the Pinnes served commodiously. In those daies (saith he) the walles of townes were but low, as appear­eth by the walles of Rome, which Remus easily lea­ped over: and the walles of Winchester, which were overlooked by Colebrand the Chieftaine of the Danes, who was slaine by Guy Earle of Warwick, who was Champion for King Athelstane.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, a Saltier, Gules by the name of Gerard, of which Family is that true noble Gentleman the Lord Gerard Baron of Gerards Bromley in the Coun­ty of Stafford, and also Sir Gilbert Gerard of Harrow Hill in Middlesex.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, a Saltier, Azure, in Chief three Ermines, by the name of Williams, of London, and is borne by William Williams of London Merchant of the Levant, a person of eminent note and Reputati­on; and by Daniel Williams his Brother, as also by John Williams and William Williams, and a third Bro­ther, all Merchants of London.

[Page 86] A Saltire verrey.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Saltire, Verrey, by the name of Willington. This Ordinary is limited to the fifth part of the Field, the same not being charged, but if it be charged, then shall it contain the third part there­of. This charge also varieth his name in Blazon, accor­ding to the diverse formes of Lines, whereof the same is composed; for that it is no lesse diversly made in respect of the lineaments thereof, than the Crosse be­fore handled.


Divers bearing of Ordinaries.HAving hitherto shewed at large the severall forms of making of such Charges as we call honourable Ordinaries: Order requireth that I should now shew their diverse manner of Bearing, according to our prefixed Di­stribution.

These are borne

  • Simple,
  • Compound.

Those are said to be borne Simple. when onely Ordinaries do appear in the field.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Ermine, a Saltier, Engrailed, Sable, by the Name of Ingoldesby, and was the Coat of Sir Ri­chard Ingoldesby late of Lethenborough in Buckingham­shire Knight, who by Elizabeth Daughter of Sir Oliver Cormwell of Hinchingbrook, in the County of Hunting­ton, Knight of the Bath, hath left a Noble and hope­full Progeny.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth parted per pales, Ermine and Ermines, a Saltire ingrailed, counter-changed by the names of Latton, of Kingston in the County of Berks, a person of good worth and quality.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth parted per pale, Argent and Vert, a Sal­tier counterchanged, and a Canton, Ermine, by the Name of Hunt, and is the Coat of that ingenious Gen­tleman Richard Hunt of Rumford in the County of Essex.

[Page 87]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Gyrony of four, Argent and Gules, a Saltire between as many Croslets, all counter-chan­ged, this is the Coat of Sir Roger Twisden of East Peck­ham in Kent, Knight and Baronet, a worthy Gentle­man and judicious Antiquary; as well appears to those whose studies are that way inclined: nor lesse eminent and celebrated for his understanding in the Lawes is his Brother Thomas Twisden Esquire, Serje­ant at Law, Sons of Sir William Twisden, Knighted May the 11. 1603. created Baronet June 29. 1611. by Ann Finch Daughter of Elizabeth, Countesse of Winchelsey, by whom he had also William, John and Francis, Elizabeth wife of Sir Hugh Cholmley Knight and Baronet, and Anne married to Christopher Yelverton Knight and Baronet, which Family aforesaid by marriage of the Daugh­ter and heir of Chelmington of Chelmington in Chart. magna, there seated themselves many Ages agoe, though since removed to Roydon Hall in East Peckham, by marrying Elizabeth Daughter and Heir of Thomas Roydon Esquire then Proprietor.

These Ordinaries comprehend

  • One sort.
  • Divers sorts.

Ordinaries are said to be of one sort, Ordinaries of one sort what. when only one kind of them is borne in the Field without mixture of any other.

Whose bearing is

  • Single,
  • Manifold.

By single bearing I understand some one Ordinary borne alone in the Es­cocheon: Single bearing what. such are these precedent examples before handled.

By Manifold bearing of Ordinaries, Manifold bea­ring what. I mean the bearing of divers Ordi­naries of the same kind, whether the same be borne of themselves alone, or else conjunctly with some of their Subdivisions.

Which forme of bearing is twofold, viz

  • One upon another.
  • One besides another.

What is meant by the bearing of Ordinaries of one kind, one upon ano­ther, may be easily conceived by these four Escocheons next following.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermine, a crosse, Gules, surmounted of another, Argent, by the name of Malton. Amongst the crosses formerly exemplified, I have given an ex­ample of one much like to this in shew, but yet much differing from the same, as you will easily find by comparing them together: for in the former the field sheweth thorough the innermost parts thereof, but in this it is farre otherwise; forasmuch as herein are two crosses, whereof that which lyeth next the Field is, Gules, and the other that is placed upon the same is Argent; so as in this it can by no means be conceived to be of that kind before handled, for then should the Ermines appear in the inner part thereof, as well as in the rest of the Field, then might you boldly call the same a crosse voided, as that formerly handled.

[Page 88]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Vert, a crosse couped, Argent, charged with another, Gules. This example doth more appa­rantly expresse the double charge shewed in the last precedent Escocheon, for that the crosse that lieth next the field is made more spacious than the former: and withall it doth inform our understanding, that there is great difference betweene the bearing of this, and of the Crosse fimbriated, herein, that in the crosse fimbri­ated the edges thereof doe occupy the least portion thereof, and in this the surmounting Crosse hath the least part of the same. This therefore cannot by any means de understood to be a Crosse fimbriated, for so should the gard or edge thereof be larger than the thing that is said to be guarded, which were a very absurd affir­mation.

Saltire Char­ged.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Saltire, Or, charged with ano­ther, Vert, by the name of Andrewes. What hath been formerly said in the last precedent example touching the Cross, doth hold also in this and other like bearings: for in things having a conformity or resemblance one of another, the same reason holdeth in the one as in the other: where contrariwise, of things having no resemblance or likeness, the reason is diverse.Saltire what use thereof. This Engine (as Leigh noteth) in old time was of the height of a man, and was borne of such as used to scale the walls of Cities or Towns (which then were but low) and it was driven full of pins fit for that purpose. Ʋpton saith, it was an En­gine to catch wild beasts, and therefore bestowed upon rich and covetous persons, that willingly will not depart from their substance.

Ordinnaries borne one be­sides another.Proceed we now to examples of Ordinaries of the same kind borne one besides another: such are these next following, and their like.

Three Pallets.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Argent, three Pallets, Gules. This Coat appertaineth to the ancient Family of Berchem, Lord of Berchem in Brabant near Antwerpe. And as there are Ordinaries of this kind borne in straight lines, so are they also borne in lines unde, as in example. The bea­ring of Piles, Pales, Bends, Barres, and their extracted parts, was called of old Heralds, Restriall, in respect of their strength and solid substance, which is able to abide the stresse and force of any triall they shall be put unto.

Pallets waved.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Pallets Wave, Gules, by the name of Downs of Debnam, Suffolke. Note, that such Ordinaries, as either of themselves, or else by rea­son of some charge imposed upon them, do challenge the third part of the Field, are exempted from this kind of bearing one besides another, because of such the Field can contain but one of them at once. But their Derivatives or Subdivisions may well be sorted with them in the same Escoheon; as a Pale between Two Endorses, a Bend between two Cotises, and such like of the same kind, as in example.

[Page 89]

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Azure, a Bend Ingrailed, Argent, Co­tissed, Or. This Coat-Armour pertaineth to the wor­thy Family of Fortescue of Devon. As these Cotisses are borne plain, so shall you finde them varied after the divers formes of lines before expressed, as in these ex­amples following may in part be seene: and Vptons assertion (before delivered) touching their diversitie of shapes approved as by practice the diligent obser­ver shall easily peceive.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Sable, a Bend, Argent, between two Co­tisses dauncette, Or, by the name of Clopton, albeit these Cotisses may seeme to be of a divers kind from the Bend wherewith they are sorted: yet is it otherwise inas­much as they are subdivisions abstracted from the Bend, as hath beene before shewed. Now I will shew you Bends borne one besides the other.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Argent, two bends, Gules. This Coat-Armour I finde in an Ancient Manuscript, of Collection of Englishmens Armes in Metall and Colours, with the Blazon in French, of the time of our Henry the Sixt, as it is apparent by the Character of the letter: over which Coat-Armour is there written the bearers name, viz. Mounsieur John Haget; from whom Master Barthol­mew Haget, late Consull of Aleppo, deriveth his descent. This booke at this present remaineth in the custody of a worthy friend of mine, a curious Collector and carefull preserver of such ancient monuments.

[blazon or coat of arms]

Or, two Bendlets, Azure, by the name of Doyly, a Family of very great antiquity, and divers hundreds of years agoe Barons of Parliament; for Robert Lord Oy­ley or d'Oyley came into England with the Conqueror and founded the Castle of Oxford within five years of the Conquest, whose Son Robert the second Lord D'-Oiley was Constable to King Henry the first, and foun­ded the Abbey of Osney.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Azure, three Croslets, Fitchee between two Bendlets, Or, being the Coat of Sir Norton Knatch­hull of Marsham Hatch in the County of Kent Knight and Baronet, a Gentleman of much worth and wise­dome, and generally beloved in his Country.

[Page 90]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, three Bends wavey, Azure. This is the ancient Paternall Coat-Armour belonging to Wilbraham of Ch [...]shire, as appeares by divers Records in the Office of Armes, and elsewhere. The chiefe of which name is Sir Richard Wilbraham of Woodhey Knight and Baronet, lineally descended from Sir Ri­chard Wilbraham Knight, who lived in the Raigne of King Henry the third, and was high Sheriffe of the aforesaid County in the beginning of King Ed­ward the first. From which Family of Wilbraham of Woodhey descended Sir Roger Wilbraham Knight, lately one of the Ma­sters of Requests in Ordinary to King Iames, and Surveyor of his Majesties Court of Wards and Liveries; who at Nantwich (the place of his birth) and elsewhere, hath by his charitable Acts left pious Monuments of his name and memory. Master Boswell in his Workes of Armory observeth that the Bearer of such Bends as these, or of the like Coat-Armour may be thought to have done some great enterprise upon the Seas worthy of perpetuall commendation. As for Ordinaries of other sorts borne likewise one be­sides another of the same kind, behold these next Examples.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Azure, three Barres waved, Argent, by the name of Samford. To the end I may make plaine (by demonstration) the use of the severall formes of Lines before expressed; I made choise of this Coat-Armour; to exemplifie the third sort of Bunched lines there men­tioned. This kind of bearing may put us in minde, that like as in a tempestuous storme, the seas being trou­bled, do raise their waves one immediatly upon ano­ther: So likewise hath God ordained that one trouble should succeede an other to keep his chosen in conti­nuall exercise, and may have manifold experiments of his gracious provi­dence and fatherly care, in preserving of them in all their troubles, and giveth them a comfortable event, and happy end of all their afflictions: As appeareth. Iob 5.19. He shall deliver thee in six troubles, and in the seventh the evill shall not touch thee. It is a blessed thing to be under Gods correction, as witnesseth Iob 5.17. Behold, blessed is the man whom God correcteth, therefore refuse not thou the chastisement of the Almighty: for he maketh the wound and bindeth it up, he smiteth and his hands make whole, Vers 18. Againe, he delive­reth the poore in affliction; and openeth their Eare in trouble, Io [...] 36.15. By af­flictions God moveth the hearts of his children to feele their sinnes, that they may come to him by repentance, as he did Manasseh. And if they be bound in fetters and tied with cords of affliction, (Iob 36.8.) Then will he shew them their worke, and their transgressions that they have exceeded, Verse 9. Behold God exalteth by his power, what teacher is like unto him? Verse 22. Affliction bringeth us to knowledge and acknowledging of our sinnes, as we may see, Deuter. 31.17.

[Page 91]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, three Barres Dauncette, Gules,Dauncette. by the name of Delamare. This example serveth to in­forme our understanding of the use of that sort of A­cute anguled Ordinaries, that in Blazon we terme by the name of Dauncette; and is in shape like to that other sort of Acute anguled Line, which is there named In­dented, but differeth from the same onely in quantitie, wherein these doe exceede those, as deing more spa­ciously drawn than they.

Now from Ordinaries of the same kind borne one upon another, and one besides another, with their extracted Subdivsions, Ordinaries of divers kinds. proceede we to Ordinaries of divers kinds, and their Diminitives abstracted from them, eftsoones found likewise borne both one upon another, and one besides another: Such are these next following and their like.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, on a Cheuron, Argent,Cheuron with Barres Gemelles. three Barres Gemelles, Sable, by the name of Throkmorton of Gloucester shire. These are termed in Blazon Barres Ge­melles, of the Latine word Gemellus, which signifieth a Twin, or children of one birth, as Gemelli fratres, brothers of one birth, for like as these are twins of a birth, so are those in like sort borne by couples.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Pile, Argent,Pile and Cheuron. surmounted of a Cheuron, Gules, by the name of Dyxton. This Coat is found in the Abby Church of Cirencester in the County of Gloucester; and it serveth fitly to exemplifie a Rule formerly delivered touching the usuall Blazoning of distinct things borne in one Escocheon; viz. that the Charge lying next and immediatly upon the Field, shall be first nominated, and then things more re­mote.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, on a Satire Engrailed, Argent,Saltire and In­escocheon. an Inescocheon, Or, charged with a Crosse, Gules, by the name of Morris. It may be of some conceived that there is false Armory in this Coat, in respect of the Escocheon, Or, placed upon the Saltire, Argent, which is Metall upon Metall, a kinde of bearing (as also colour upon colour) utterly condemned for false Armorie: but such kind of falsitie is evermore meant of metall upon metall, or colour upon colour, placed in one self-same Escocheon: but here are severall Sheilds, and those pertaining to distinct Families, and therefore not to be holden for false Armorie.

[Page 92] Pale and bor­dure.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, on a Pale, Sable; three Crosses Pa­tee, Or, within a Bordure Engrailed, of the second, by the name of Crowch of Alswike in the County of Hartford. Here you may observe that when you are to Blazon an Escocheon wherein are borne a Pale and a Bodure, that you must mention the Pale before the Bordure.

Fesse and can­ton.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Argent, a Fesse and Canton, Gules. This Coat-Armour pertained to the honourable Family of Woodvile, created Earle Rivers in the time of King Ed­ward the Fourth, who was also L. Treasurer of England: from whom many worthy persons of high calling are descended. As touching Ordinaries of divers kindes borne one upon another, you must observe, that if they be both of one metall, colour, or Furre, their parts contingent are not severed by purfle, for that by their formes it may be easily conceived what Ordinaries they are, notwithstanding the defect of the purfle.

Barres and canton.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, two Barres and a Canton, Ar­gent, by the name of Deane, of Tatton in the County of Hereford. As to the omission of purfle last before mentioned, the Rule there given holdeth not alone in that, but also in these and all other Coats of like bearing, I mean such as have in them a Canton or Quarter borne joyntly (as in these) with some other Ordinary of the same metall, colour, or fur, now I will adde one example of the joynt bearing of a Canton with three Bars, as in this next Escocheon appeareth.

Three Barres, and canton.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Bars and a Canton, Gules, by the name of Fuller. Many more examples of Coat-armours of like sort of bearing could I produce, were it not that I hold these few sufficient to inform the understanding of studious Armorists, that as well Or­dinaries of divers kinds, as those of the same kind, are found born one upon another; & withal to occasion them to prie more narrowly into these curious and nice manners of bearing, which numbers of them do sleightly passe over, as if they held them unworthy of more than ordinary observation. But here the Bars are cut too little.

Bend and Chief.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Bend and Chief; Or. This is a Coat of rare bearing, which I find cut in stone in the Abby Church of Westminster, in the North part there­of. The conjoyning of these two Ordinaries doth constitute (on the left side thereof) the forme of a Gyronne; and the Ordinaries themselves thus united, do resemble the form of the Arithmeticall figure of Seven turned backwards.

Now for Ordinaries of divers kinds borne one be­sides another, you shall have these Examples ensuing.

[Page 93]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a Fesse between two Cheurons, Sable; This Coat-armour was borne by Sir John Lisle Knight, one of the first founders of the most Noble Order of the Garter, as appeareth by his Plate whereon these armes are enameled, and yet remaining in his Stall in the Quier in the Chappel of Saint George at Winsore. Which Sir John Lisle was Lord of the Mannor of Wilbraham in the County of Cambridge, of which said Mannor Wil­liam Lisle Esquire is at this day Seised. A Gentleman, to whom the Studious in our ancient Saxon tongue are much obliged, for the clear light he hath given therein by his great travell and pains.

Robert Lisle, who was a Baron in the times of King Edward the second, and Edward the third, bore the same Coat-Armour. And diverse Anti­ent and Eminent Nobles of this Kingdome do rightfully quarter these Armes, being descended from the heirs generall of the Family of Lisle.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Crosse, Argent,Crosse and Escocheon Dexter. in the Dexter Quarter, an Escocheon, Or, charged with three Cheu­ronels of the first, by the name of Saint Owen; which Family either for affection, or for some Lands which they anciently held of the house of Clare, may seem to have assumed the Armes of the said Clare in the dexter point of the Field; which forme of bearing is of very rare use.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Crosse-floury, Gules, in the Si­nister quarter, an Escocheon, Sable, charged with a cross of the first; by the name of Penthar. This Coat I have also inserted here, because of the variety and rarity of it, being of no lesse rarenesse than the former, and seldome seen to be borne by any: in Blason of which I break not the Rule formerly given, by twice re­peating the word cross, because it is in the Eseocheon by it selfe.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Topaz, a Saltire and chief, Ruby; Saltire and the Chief. and is the Armes of Thomas Bruce Lord of Kinloss in Scotland, Earl of Elgin, and Lord Bruce of Worleton in the Coun­ty of Yorke, Persons of much worth, and great Lovers of Arts and Sciences. These Armes sometime belonged to the old Bruses of Anandale, and also to the Earles of Carict; out of which House this▪ right honourable Lord derived his descent.

[Page 94] Barres and Chiefe inden­ted.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, two barres and a chiefe indented, Or, by the name of Hare; and as I take it, derived from the ancient Armes of Harecourt, and is the Coat of Sir Ralph Hare of Stow Bardolph in Com. Norf. and also of the Lord Hare, Baron Colrane, a Family of no mean account, whose Coat-Armour it is if the chief were a­way. In this Escocheon you may observe in some part, the variable shape of chiefs, occasioned by reason of divers formes of lines (before shewed) whereof they are composed. The rest, time and diligent observation will make plain.

Cheuronels and Chiefe.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Azure, three cheuronels, brased in the base of the Escocheon, and a chief, Or. This Coat Ar­mour pertaineth to the honourable Family of Fitz-Hugh, sometimes ancient Barons of the North parts of this Land; of whom the right honourable the Earl of Pembrook is heir, and writeth himself,Earle of Pen­brooke. amongst his other titles, Lord Fitz Hugh, and also quartereth the Coat. These are tearmed in Blazon Ch [...]uronels, in respect they are abstracted from cheurons, whereof they have not alone the shape, but also a borrowed name of diminution, as if you should call them minute, or small cheu­rons.

The end of the Second Section.

Naturalia, sunt specula eorum quae non viden [...]ur.

THis third Section beginneth to treat of such Charges of Coat-Armours as are called Common Charges, whereof some be Naturall and meerly formall; such are Angels and Spirits: and o­thers are both Formall and Materiall: as the Sun, Moon, Stars, as also such Natures as are Sublunar, whether they be living after a sort, as all kinds of Minerals, or that they live perfectly, as all man­ner of Vegetables, and Sensitive Creatures, with their Generall and Particular Notes, Rules, Precepts and Observations.

The Table of the Third Section.

  • Common Charges whereof some are
    • Naturall,
      • For­mall,
        • As all kinds of spirits, which albeit they are Incorporeall Essences; yet in respect that some of them have had assumpted bodies, as those that appeared to Abraham, Lot, &c. they have been borne in Armes according to such their assumpted shapes.
      • Ma­teri­all.
        • Simple
          • Constant
            • Heavens.
            • Starres.
              • Fixed.
              • Wandring: as the Sun, Moon, Comets, &c.
          • Inconstant, as the Elements, Islands, Mountains, Fountains, &c.
        • Mixt.
          • Brute as Meteors
            • Fiery, as the Mullet, or falling Star, Lightening, &c.
            • Watery, as Clouds, Rain-bowes▪ and their like.
          • Living,
            • After some sort, as Metals, or Minerals,
              • Liquefiable, as Gold, Silver, &c.
              • Not Liquefiable, as Stones
                • Precious, as the Diamond, Saphire, Escarbuncle, Ruby, &c.
                • Base, as all sorts of stones of vulgar use, and im­ployment.
            • Perfectly,
              • Plants and other ve­getives that grow upon a
                • Stump
                  • Simple, that doe grow upon one body or stemme, as all kind of trees with their limbs, leaves and other parts.
                  • Manifold, as Shrubs of all sorts, whose leaves, flowers and fruits are of more frequent use of bearing in Armes, than is their whole bearing.
                • Stalke: Such are all kindes of herbs and their parts, viz. their leaves and flowers.
              • Sensible Creatures.
                • Cōmon parts
                  • Contained, whereof onely bloud is of use in Armes.
                  • Contai­ning.
                    • Adjuncts, scil. their
                      • Support as the bones.
                      • Covering, which is their Skinne.
                    • Their A­nimall parts de­stinated to
                      • Sense and Motion together, as the Braine, whose excrement, viz. teares, are onely of use in Ar­mory.
                      • Motion alone, the use whereof in Armes is the heart.
                • Kinds which are
                  • unrea­sonable, such are Animal,
                    • Terre­stiall that live
                      • Upon the earth, & are
                        • Four footed and do produce
                          • Living crea­tures
                            • Whole footed, as the Ele­phant, Horse, Mule, Asse, &c.
                            • Di­versly clovē viz.
                              • In two, as Harts, Goats, &c.
                              • Into many parts as Lions Bears, Wolves, &c.
                          • Egges of which some have
                            • Four-feet, as the Tor­tois, Frog, Lizard, Cro­codile, &c. More than four feet, as the Scor­pion, Ante, Grashopper, &c.
                        • Creeping, or rather gliding, as Snakes Snailes, Blind-wormes, &c.
                      • Above the earth, having their feet.
                        • Whole and plain, and are called Pal­mipedes, as the Swan, Goose, Ducks, and other like river Foules Divided, as Eagles, Hawkes, and all Birds of prey, and domesticall Foules.
                    • Wate­ry whose cove­rings,
                      • Soft of which some are
                        • Skinned, as Lampreis, Eeles, Congers, and such like.
                        • Scaled, as the Dolphin, Barhell, Carp, Bream, Roch, &c.
                      • Hard, which are
                        • Crusted, as Lobsters, Crabs, Crevices, Prawns, Shrimps, &c.
                        • Shelled, as Escalops, Oysters, Periwin­kles, Muskles, &c.
                  • Reasonable, which is Man.
    • Artificiall, whereof see the Table of the fourth Secti­on, at this Character, C.


HAving performed the task w [...]ich our proposed Order imposed on us, touching Proper Ch [...]rges, together with their making, and divers manner of Bearing: the same orderly Progression now calleth us to the handling of common charges, mentioned in the second member of the same distribution. Common Charges what. By Common charges I mean all such other charges hereafter following as are not hitherto handled.

Whether they be

  • Naturall,
  • Artificiall.

Things Naturall (according to Philosophers) are Essences by themselvs subsisting.Zanch. lib. 1. de operibus. p. 55. Res naturalis est essentia per se subsistens. Manifold, and in man­ner infinite are these things Naturall, as Zanchius noteth, saying, Multae sunt, & prope infinitae, non [...]am res, quam rerum species, in Coelis, in Aere, in Terris, in Aquis: therefore it is not to be expected, that I should in exemplifying of them, pass through all the particulars of them; but onely touch super­ficially some of their chiefest, selected out of that innumerable variety, whereby I may manifest in what rankes, and under what heads, each pecu­liar thing must be bestowed, according to their severall kinds, and so re­deem them from all former confused mixture.

Of things Naturall, some are

  • Formall,
  • Materiall.

Formall na­tures.The formal Nature is most simple and pure, and consisteth of the propri­ety of its own form, without any body at all: of which sort are Spirits, which (according to Scribonius) are Essentiae formatae rationales & immorta­les, Essences perfectly formed, reasonable and immortall: I say, perfectly formed, to distinguish them from the soules of men, whose forming is not perfect in it selfe, but is for the informing and perfecting of the body and the whole Man.

Amongst such Formes are numbred

  • Angels,
  • Cherubims.

Etymologie of the word Angell. Angels (in the opinion of most men) are incorporeal essences of a spiritual Nature, void of all materiall substance▪ Angelus in Latine, is the same that Nuntius is, that is to say, a Messenger; and the same is a name of Office, and not of Nature, as S. Augustine noteth upon Psalme 104. saying, Quaeris nomen hujus naturae? Spiritus est. Quaeris officium? Angelus est. Will you know the nature of it? It is a Spirit. Will you know the office of it? It is an Angell or Messenger. Ministers Gods messen­gers. The like may we finde (saith he) in man: Nomen naturae Ho­mo, officij Miles: nomen naturae Vir, officij Praetor: To be a man, is a name of nature; to be a Souldier or Pretor, is a name of office. Angels are M ssengers, by whom God hath manifested his will and power to his Elect in Christ Iesus: In which respect also, the Ministers of God are called in Scriptures Gods An­gels, and therefore to be honoured as his Embassadours and Messengers; and [Page 97] their doctrine is Evangelium, the good Angelicall Message of life eternall with the Angels in Heaven.

All Angels are of like sprituall substance, of like intelligent facultie, of like will and choice; In fine all of them created a like good, and in nature perfect. Neverthelesse, as all men by nature and naturall dignity are alike, but by accident some of them are of more esteeme and worthinesse than others: So it is also with Angels, inasmuch as some of them (if we give cre­dit to Philosophers) are appointed to attend the motion of the Heavens, others to expresse the rage of Devils, as appeareth Iob 8. Others have charge of preservation of Kingdomes, and to keepe under the rage of Ty­rants, as is manifest Daniel 20. Some have charge of some particular Church, others of Apostles and Pastours, and others of private persons, Psal. 91. And all of them are by Scripture said to be Ministring Spirits.

Of this diversitie of functions, and severall administrations, it is thought (because some of these offices are of higher imployment than others are) that some of them are simply called Angels, some Archangles, some Vertues, some Dominations, as Saint Hierome expresly sheweth.

And albeit these heavenly Spirits be in their owne nature void of all corpo­real or material substance, yet is it certain, when it pleased God so to im­ploy them, they had assumpted bodies for the time, to the end they might the more effectually accomplish the service that God had injoyned them. Such bodies had the three Angels that appeared to Abraham, Gen. 18.Assumpted Bodies. Such bodies also had the two Angels that came unto Lot, Genes. 19. And as God gave them bodies for that time, so did he give them also the faculties an­swerable to such bodies: viz. to walke, talk, eate, drink, and such like. These bodies and bodily faculties were given them, to the end they might more familiarly converse and discourse with the godly, to whom they were sent, and the better perform the charge injoyned them, insomuch as they did unfainedly eate and drink, as Zanchius noteth; whereby they did the better conceal their proper nature, untill such time as they should make known unto men what they were indeed. Hereupon it seemeth the An­cients of forepassed ages have used the bearing of Angels in Coat-Armours, according to those bodily shapes and habits wherein they appeared unto men, as in example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Jupiter, an Angell volant in bend, Angell volant. poin­ting to the Heavens with his right hand, and with his left to the Earth, habited in a Roabe close girt, Sol: having an escrole issuing from his mouth, containing these four Letters: G. I. E. D. The Letters do signi­fie the words uttered by the multitude of heavenly Souldiers that did accompany the Angell which brought unto the Shepheards the most joyfull tidings of the birth of our biessed Saviour Jesus Christ, praising God, and saying, Gloria in excelsis Deo, & in terra pax: Glory to God on high, and on earth peace. This Coat may well beseem any Ambassador or bringer of happy newes. especially such as first plant Religion both in preserving and propagating the purity of Religion, than any o­ther of the World.

[Page 98] Angell stan­ding.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Mars, an Angell standing direct, with his hands conjoyned, and elevated upon his brest; habited in a long Roabe close girt, Luna: his wings dis­plaied, as prepared to flie, Sol. Amongst the Coat-Ar­mours of such as were assembled at the Councel of Constance, Anno Domini 1413. I find this Coat, borne by the name of Brangor de Cervisia. Furthermore, a­mongst the persons there assembled, I find that the King of Arabia bare for his Coat an Arch-angel, cou­ped at the brest, the wings displaied, and insigned in the forehead with a crosse. And that Gideon Episcopus Pellicastrensis did bear an Angel issuing out of the base of the Escocheon, with his hands conjoyned, and elevated on his brest, the wings displaied for readinesse of flight.

Angels knee­ling.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Luna, upon a cheuron Saturne, three An­gels kneeling, habited in long Robes close girt; with their hands conjoyned, and elevated as aforesaid, and their wings displaied. Sol. This Coat is said to be borne Maellock Krwm of Wales. And indeed this forme of kneeling well fitteth the Angels, to shew their con­tinuall adoring of their Almighty King; in whose chamber of Presence they dayly wait: but that we should kneele to them, that themselves condmne in the Apocalyps: and Saint Paul expressly forbiddeth Angell-worship. And indeed a madnesse it is, when Christ commands us to pray; O Our Father, that any should teach us to pray, O my Angel. After Angels Cherubims (whose use in Armory is lesse frequent) are to be han­dled.Bearing Che­rubims. Of these I find two examples of severall bearing; the one out of Hier. Bara, expressing the sole bearing of a Cherub; another out of Leigh, of a Che­rub borne upon an Ordinary: to which I have thought fit to add a Coat of name, for a more manifest proof of their use in Arms, as also to shew that they are borne aswell with Ordinaries between them, as upon Ordina­ries.

Cherub, Sol.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Jupiter, a Cherub having three paire of wings, whereof the uppermost and nethermost are coun­terly crossed, and the middlemost displaied, Luna. As to the forms of those Cherubims that covered the Arke; it is of some holden, that they had the similitude of certain birds, such as never any man hath seen; but that Moses saw in his most blessed Vision such shapes upon the Throne of God. But Joseph Lib. Antiq. Ju­daic. 8. saith, Hae cherubicae effigies quanam specie fue­rint nemo vel conjicere potest vel eloqui: Of what shape these Cherubims were, no mortall man can conjecture or utter.

Cherubim up­on an Ordi­nary.

[blazon or coat of arms]

This and the following Esco­cheon are tran­sposed. He beareth Luna, on a chief, Jupiter, a cherub dis­plaied, Sol. The Cherubims were portraicted with wings before the place where the Israelites prayed, to shew how speedily they went about the Lords busi­nesse. Cherubim (according to Zanchius, Lib. 2. de Nominibus Angelorum) is not the name of any order of Angels, or celestial Hierarchie (as others would have it) but such as may well agree with all Angels; [Page 99] neither doth that name alwayes signifie their nature, or ordinary office, but for a certain reason, even so long as they do appear to be such, as by those names they are signified to be. And it is to be observed, that Cherub betokeneth the singular number, and Cherubim the plurall number.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Sable, a Cheuron between three Cheru­bims, Or. This Coat pertained to the right worthy Gentleman, Sir Thomas Chaloner Knight, sometimes Go­vernour to the most high and mighty Prince Henry, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall and Rothsay, and Earl of Chester. In our division we distinguished these from Angels, because by most they are taken for a distinct order above ordinary Angels, taking that name from the fulnesse or abundance of divine and mysticall science. Thus have you Examples of Cherubims borne, not onely Sole, but also upon and with Ordinaries.


FRom things naturall that are mearly formal, Of naturall and materiall things. Materiall de­fined. we come to such as are Na­turall and Materiall. Those are said to be Essences Material, that do con­sist of a Body subjected to motion and alteration; Natura materiata est essen­tia in corpore motui obnoxio subsistens, A Material nature is an Essence subsi­sting in a body subject to motion.

These are

  • Simple,
  • Mixt.

Simple, are certain Orbicular or round bodies, or bodily Essences, originally consisting of an unmixted matter.

Of these some are

  • Constant.
  • Inconstant.

Those are said to be Constant natures which in respect of their perfection are of most lasting continuance; such are the Celestial Globes and the Stars. Constant na­tures.

The heavenly Sphears or Globes, are

  • Ʋnmoveable.
  • Moveable.

The Ʋnmoveable is holden to be that uttermost Sphear that glistereth so gloriously as that it dazeleth the sharpest sight of man,Immoveable. and is called Coelum Empyreum, the fiery Heaven: whereof we shall be better able to judge and speak, when God shall bring us thither, and yet our Star-gazers will take upon them to talk so confidently and particularly of those incomprehen­sible bodies, as if they had been there and surveyed every corner thereof. This celestiall Globe (according to Scribonius) is the Mansion place and Pal­lace of all the Heavenly Natures; wherein the Angels and other the Blessed of God, do with endless joy behold the presence of Almighty God face to face. To this place (according to the same Author) were Enoch, Elias and Paul rapt up before their deaths.

But now for more orderly progression herein forasmuch as we have oc­casion here offered to speak of a Sphear, we will first shew what a Sphear is, and so proceed to the rest.

A Sphear is a figure or body exactly round of all parts,Sphear what. Sphericall forme perfect­est. and void of all angles and corners. The Sphericall or round forme is of all other the most perfect, as also the most beautifull capable and fit for motion, in as [Page 100] much as it is voide of all corners, which might give impediment to mo­ving, therefore is this forme most agreable to the Heavens and Celestiall bodies, which are evermore in continuall and restless motion. It was re­quisite, that the perfectest body (such as the heavens are) should re­ceive the perfectest form, which is the orbicular or round figure. Figura Sphaerica (saith Arist. Lib. de Coelo & mundo) est omnium figurarum nobilior.

The motion of the Heavens is the most sincere and unlaboured of all motions, Movetur enim sine labore, & fatigatione, Arist. de Coelo 2. As also it is said in Eccl. 16.26. The Lord hath set his Works in good Order from the be­ginning, and part of them he sundred from the other, when he first made them. He hath garnished his works for ever, and their beginning so long as they shall en­dure: they are not hungry, nor wearied in their labours, nor cease from their Of­fices, Ver. 27. Again, None of them hindreth another, neither was any of them dis­obedient to his words, Ver. 28. He buildeth his Sphears in the Heaven, and hath laid the foundations of the Globe of Elements in the earth: he calleth the waters of the Sea, and powreth them out upon the open earth; the LORD is his name, Amos 9.6.

The matter whereof the Heavens are composed, hath in it this naturall property, Not to be moved violently, neither yet naturally to rest. As the same Author testifieth in these words, Natura materiae Coeli est innata, non movere violenter & non quiescere naturaliter, Lib. de coelo: without intermis­sion is the motion of the Heavens. Therefore are high and noble Spirits resembled to the celestiall bodies, according to Lipsius, A [...]ti ae [...]her [...]ique ani­mi, ut ipse aether, semper gaudent motu: Men of ethereall or heavenly spirits cannot be idle, but are evermore in action, and exercise of things commen­dable and vertuous, being thereto moved, and quickened by an honest and free disposition and affection of the will and desire of the mind: Omnia e­nim honesta opera (saith Seneca) voluntas inchoat, occasio perficit. But vertue hardly receiveth her due merit at all seasons. Neverthelesse, Saepe honora­ta est virtus, etiam ubi eam fefellit exitus.

The circular motion receiveth beginning in it self, and hath the smoo­thest passage: for in all other forms you shall find Angles, either more or lesse, which do give impediments to motion, whereby they give occasion of some stay or rest (as I have said before.) Therefore it behoveth, that the sincerest body should be fitted with the simplest form and motion. In this kind of motions of the Heavens, is signified the very eternity of God, wherein there is neither beginning nor ending to be found; and therefore it is rightly said by the Apostle, The invisible things of God, are conceived and understood by his creatures: as also his everlasting power and divine essence, whereof his visible works are the expresse Characters.

Mercurius Trismegistus in his description of God, resembleth him to a Sphear, saying, Deus est Sphaera, qui ratione sapientiaque comprehenditur, cujus centrum est ubique, circumferentia vero nusquam, &c. God is a Sphear that is apprehended by reason, whose center is every where, and his circumfe­rence no where. For God hath neither beginning nor ending, he wants be­ginning because he was not made by any; but was himself the Creator of all things: and he is void of ending, by reason that he had no beginning: Nam quicquid finitur, in sua principia resolvitur, Whatsoever hath an end, the same is resolved into that it was at the first.

Substance of the Heavens.As touching the substance of the Heavens, Scribonius saith, that it is Cor­pus constans ex aqua, in firmissimam essentiam instar pellis extensae concamera­tum. [Page 101] It is a body (sath he) co [...]sting of Water, in the most solid substance thereof spread out v [...]uit-w [...]e like a skin.

Though it may seem to th [...]e (Courteous Reader) that I doe undertake a needlesse labour is manifesting that the glorious Heavens and Earth, were formed and framed by the most powerfull God, a thing so frequent in the sacred Scriptures, and also so clear, as that no man can doubt there­of: yet give me leave for my own particular, who do labor to apprehend every occasion, to publish the glory of the Eternall and Omnipotent God (which is the [...] and principall end of our Creation) especially sithence the order of my Method requireth the same; and that bonum aliquod soe­pius repetitum delecta [...]; Give me leave, I say, in this my latter impression, to reprove my selfe for my too much neglected duty in my former: that so, though very late, yet at the last, I may prefer the glory of God before the order of Method.

The Moveable Sphear of the Heavens is the Firmament. Moveable Fir­mament. The Firmament is that continuall moving Heaven, which with his swift Revolution swayeth all the Inferior Orbes, and is called in Latine Firmamentum (according to Scri­bonius) à firmitate, that is, of the stability thereof; meaning (as I conceive) either the durable subsisting of it, or else the unmoveableness of the two Poles, Artick and Antartick: otherwise, one selfesame thing cannot be said to be moveable and constant, but in a divers respect; even as an Iron wheele in a Clock, though still in motion, yet both in respect of the metalline solidity, and of the sure fastning to the Axell, it may be said to be Firme and Ʋn­moveable. If any man bear a representation of the Heavens, in his Coat-Ar­mour, whether the same have the likenesse of a Solid or Armill Sphear, they must be reduced to this head: of this kind did the famous Archimedes choose for his Device, who before his death, commanded that a Sphear should be ingraven on his Sepulchre. And such a bearing is honourable for any great professor of Astronomy, not such witlesse wizards and fortune tellers as usually deceive the world with their idle predictions, but those noble spirits, whose Eagle-eyes search out the true natures, revolutions and pro­perties of those Supernall Essences.

The regardfull consideration of the Heavens and the Ornaments thereof, together with their certain and orderly motions, should mightily move and provoke us to raise up our thoughts, from the love and contemplation of base and earthly objects (whereon we usually dote) to the admiration of his unspeakable power and love of his incomprehensible goodn [...]sse, who made such a wonderfull Architecture; first, to serve for our use in this life, and afterward, to be our blessed Palace and Mansion in a better life. For though all creatures demonstrate the wisedome of their wonderfull workmaster, yet the Heavens, especially declare his glory, and the firmament his handy­work▪ which made the godly King David, to rise out of his bed in the night, to behold the Heavens, and thereby to call to mind the perversi­ty of Man, which never keeps the course that God prescribeth, whereas those bodies though void of sense, yet from their first creation never fal­tered in their endlesse journies.

Now sithence I have demonstrated, and laid open unto you what a Sphear is, the form, perfection, dignity, property, motion, substance thereof, and the like; I will now shew unto you, an Example of a Shield, illustrated with manifold variety of Celestiall bodies, &c. Which will be very ne­cessary and commodious to be inserted in this place.

[Page 102]

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Or, a Spheare, Azure, beautified and re­plenished with manifold variety of Celestiall bodies, en­vironing the Terrestriall Globe, All proper.

These were the Ornaments wherewith the Shild of that famous and valiant Grecian Captain Achilles was illustrated and garnished: Which he caused to be en­graven therein, to the end that the mind of the behol­ders of them might be raised thereby to a considerate contemplation and meditation of the admirable pow­er and wisedome of the Omnipotent Creator of them: which Duty whosoever performeth, he accomplisheth the summe and effect of all true Nobility.

This Shield did Vulcan garnish with variety of starres of manifold kinds, and added thereto the skilfull feates and practises aswell of Peace as of Warres, and all their rights and Offices; omitting (in a manner) nothing pertaining to the well governing of the assemblies and societies of men.

By this invention did he labor to manifest unto us that there is no shield more powerfull to rest the vehement and violent assaults of adverse for­tune; than for a man to be furnished throughout with the compleat Ar­mour of cardinall vertues, so shall he be fitted and prepared to sustaine whatsoever brunt, or forcible encounter shall assaile him.

If we shall compare this Shield of Achilles, thus garnished and furnished with manifold varieties of things, both Celestiall and Terrestriall, with those Coat-Armours that consist of Lyons, Griffons, Eagles, and such other Ani­mals, or ravenous creatures; we shall find that to be more available to chase away and foil all passionate perturbations of the mind, occasioned by the concurrence of some sudden and unexpected danger, than any, or all of these together can be: by how much that compriseth a mixture of cala­mities and comforts together. For as the Globe of the earth doth represent unto us the dreadfull and dismall dangers that attend our mortall state, by reason of the manifold mutability of things Sublunar, to the daunting (of­tentimes) of the most valiant: so contrariwise, the Celestiall forms do re­present unto us an Antidote or preservative against all dangerous events and Accidents, when we call to mind that those Celestiall powers, or ra­ther Gods power in them, is able to divert or mitigate in a moment all harmefull events and dangers whatsoever, be they never so deadly. For these Celestiall bodies are Gods mighty and strong Army, wherewith he oftentimes discomfiteth and subdueth his enemies, and such as seek the spoil and destruction of his chosen people. As we may see Judg. 5.20. They fought from heaven, Judg. 5. even the Stars in their courses fought against Sisera. The Sun staied his course at the prayer of Josuah,Iosuah 10. 10.12. And the Sun abode, and the Moon stood still, untill the people avenged themselves upon their enemies, ver. 13. And there was no day like that before it, nor after it, that the Lord harkned to the voice of man, Ecclesiast. 1.5. for the Lord fought for Israel. And again, Eccl. 46.4 Stood not the Sun still by his means, and one Day was as long as two, ver. 14.

By these visible forms we should be incited and provoked (upon their view) to invocate the most powerfull God, for his aid and deliverance, when we find our selves any way distressed or beset with perils by the ex­ample of Jos. He called unto the most high governor, when the Enemies pressed upon him on every side, and the mighty Lord heard him, & fought for him with Hail-stones, and with mighty power. So should we receive [Page 103] like comfort in all distresses, as Josuah did. Thus should their view put us evermore in mind, to raise our thoughts to Godward, and take every occasion to glorifie him, by invocating him for his aide; and say with the Kingly Prophet David, I [...] my Eyes to the Hils from whence cometh my help, &c. So should we evermore in all distresses find the comfort of his ever-ready and never failing promise and providence: For in all things, O Lord, thou hast magnified and glorified thy people, And hast not despised to assist them in every time and place, Wisedome 29.21.Wisedome 29.21.

These kinds of Coat-Armours are so much more noble and excellent, than these that we receive by descent from our Progenitors (as remune­rations of their vertuous demerits) by how much they have in them store of Art, witty Invention, and of efficacy to admonish and put us in mind to persist in the performance of our Duties.

This manner of adorning of Shields doth Aldrovandus commend above all other garnishings, saying, Nihil aeque atque Philosophia, ab omnibus adversis tuctur, nihil ejus explicatu aptius est ad scutum exornandum & honestius. There is nothing that doth so safely protect a man against the damage of adverse Fortune, as Philosophy doth, neither is there any thing more fit and seem­ly to beautifie a Shield withall than the explanation thereof.

Emblems, Hi [...]roglyphicks, and Ensignes of noble Families, inasmuch as they do instruct our eyes unto vertue, they cannot be defaced or blemi­shed without great wickedness: The reason thereof doth Farnesius give in these words, Cum virtutum imaginibus tantum debemus, quantum mutis praeceptoribus: Si illae tamen mutae dici possunt, qui in silentio omni Doctrina sunt verbosiora. Of all the things that are (saith Cicero) there is nothing in the world that is better, nothing more excellent, nothing more beautifull and glorious to behold; and not only that there is, but that nothing can be thought or imagined to be of more surpassing beauty than the world; whereunto Lipsius annexeth this addition, examine the universa­lity thereof, consider the great and small parts thereof, and you shall find them composed and compacted in such orderly sort, as that they cannot possibly be bettered for use, or more glorious to behold. The considerati­on whereof moved King David to break forth in admiration.

The Sphericall figure is of all other forms the fairest, the most capable, and the simplest, and comprehendeth all other forms: In a Sphericall Line the end is all one with the beginning, therefore it doth aptly agree with the noblest and perfectest Body, such as the Heavens are.

There is nothing that more apparently expresseth the Sphericall or round Form of the Heavens than doth the Sun by his Circular motion;Ecclesiast. 46. The Sun, saith Salomon, Eccl. 1.5. riseth and goeth down, and draweth to his place where he riseth.

To the most simple body, the simplest motion is due, as also the simplest form and shape.

Those things are said to be moved without labour, which are moved without any intermission or rest, or any appetite or desire of rest: such is the motion of the Heavens, because they are Circular or round: in the Circular motion there is no rest at all.

That the world is Orbicular or round it is manifest by the infallible testi­mony of the Prophet David, Psa. 89. The Heavens are thine, the earth also is thine, thou hast laid the foundation of the round world, and all they that dwell therein, Psa. 24.1. The Orbicular form that we observe to be in Celestial bo­dies is to them natural, but Accidental to the Elements. According to that [Page 104] saying, Figura Sphaerica in Coelestibus essentialiter, in Elementis vero acciden­taliter. Arist. 1. de Coelo.

A Star (which is next to be considered after the Heavens) is a permanent and constant Essence, & the more condensate or compacted part of the Sphear, wherein it is fixed, for the illuminating of inferior bodies: for albeit it be an usuall distinction, that of Stars some are fixed, and some are Planetary or w [...]ndring, yet they are indeed all fixed alike, and setled in one certain part of the Sphear, but in respect of our eye, and in reference of their motions one of another, they have a divers aspect, and so have gotten a divers name. It is holden that the fixed Stars are discerned by their sparkling or twinck­ling, by reason that our sight being bound as it were by the forciblenesse of their resplendent raies, our eyes do become wavering and trembling in beholding them; and for this cause ought all Stars to be made with their raies or points waved, as in example.

Starres of six points.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Star, Argent, by the name of Ingleby. If this Star were borne Or, which is his pro­per colour, it would adde much more grace unto it, especially in regard of the Azury-Field, the proper co­lour of the Heavens, wherein Stars have their naturall mansion. For a Star, saith Farnesius, is a Mysticall Cha­racter, or Figure of God, to whom all worship and re­ligion doth properly appertain; for like as Stars are called in Latine, Stellae, à stando, because they be ever­more fixed in the Firmament: so there is nothing more constant or of more perpetuity than God, whose sacred Will is the Regular di­rection of all things whatsoever; and therefore may it be said not unfitly that they signifie God and Religion, or otherwise some eminent quality shi­ning above the ruder sort of men, as a Star in the obscurity of the night.

Now the chiefest, but not the sole end of the Creation of Stars, was not alone to give light, and with their influence to be assisting to the Sun, and Moon, in their procreation, production, and fructification of the Seeds, Sets, Plants and Herbs committed to the Earth; but also to the designation and foreshewing of times and seasons, like as the Sun and Moon were, as shall be shewed in place convenient hereafter. As for example, The rising of the Star Arcturus, placed near to the Bear, called Ʋrsa Major, or the greater Bear denoteth unto us the presence of the Spring.

This Star sheweth it self after the expiration of January and February, as a manifest note of the beginning of the Spring, when the Sun entreth the signe of Aries.

The rising of the Pleiades or seven Stars do demonstrate unto us that the Harvest season is at hand; and so forth of others. We may read hereof Job 38. where he speaketh of the influence of these and of other Stars.

The most part of all the Stars are as it were publishers and proclaimers to admonish us what we ought to do in each season concerning the things serving for the use of this present life.

Stars are Gods Instruments whereby he worketh the effects of his pro­vidence in these inferiour bodies; Instrumenta autem utitur Artifex pro suo Arbitrio, An Artificer useth his Tool at his pleasure and to serve his wil. In vain therefore are the predictions of them that take upon them to foretell of things contingent, and that shall come to passe in future time, and will confidently affirm what good or evill fortune shall befall a man: A thing that [Page 105] onely known to the secret will of God, and resteth in his divine provi­dence to dispose thereof at his good pleasure. As appeareth, Prov. 20.24.

As to the number of points whereof a star consisteth, we must observe, they must never be fewer than six; but when the same is formed of more, then must you in blazoning of them expresse their certain number: for sometimes you shall find a star formed of sixteen points, as in this next ex­ample shall appear.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a star of sixteen points, Gules,Starre of six­teen points. by the name of Delahay. The field of a Coat-Armour (as some men do hold) being Argent or white doth signifie Literature, and the charge surmounting the same being Gules or Red, which is an Imperiall Co­lour, and is sometimes, per Synecdochen, taken (as the thing signified) for the sign it self that is thereby re­presented: And white, being a token of Justice (is in such a Case) surmounted of Red, which is proper to fortitude, betokeneth, as they do conceit it, Learning, which giveth place to Armes; and not Armes to Learning. This did the Poets secretly expresse, when they preferred Pallas to be the Governesse of Learning, and Mars being a man, to the managing of martiall affaires; whom they would have to receive the denomination of Mars, A magni­tudine Artis.

The excellency of the Stars is highly commended, Eccl. 43.9. where speaking of the glorious beauty of their order and constellations, it is said, that it is a Camp pitched on high, shining in the firmament of Heaven. The beauty of the Heavens are the glorious Stars, and the Ornament that shineth in the high places of the Lord. By the commandment of the Holy one they continue in their order, and fail not in their watch. And the particular Stars (saith Da­vid) God calleth by their names; as likewise doth patient Job remember the titles of severall constellations.

Stars are sometime found pierced, and other whiles charged: Piercing what. for the dif­ference of which two forms of bearing, you have had a rule formerly de­livered. Moreover, it is a rule infallible,Starres ever­more pierced round. that the piercing of Stars must be evermore round; for the piercing square, and Losenge-waies are repugnant to the nature of Stars. Here I will give you a generall observation, touching Bearing of Ordinaries and common charges together.

That in the mixt bea­ring of Ordinaries and common Charges toge­ther, all common Char­ges may be and are borne In, upon, or with

  • Chiefe,
  • Pale,
  • Bend,
  • Fesse,
  • Cheuron,
  • Bar,
  • Gyronne,
  • Crosse.
  • Saltire,
  • Orle.

or one common Charge,Rule. in, upon, or with another.

This Generall rule I have thought good to set downe in this place,The use of the generall rule. here being my first entrance into the handling of common charges, and where their mixt bearing with Ordinaries is first mentioned, to the end that the same may serve as the sterne of a Ship to direct your understanding, tou­ching such interposed bearing of any of the Common charges with Ordina­ries; [Page 106] because I labour to shun all idle iterations, and multiplicity of un­profitable examples, tending to one and the same end. This form of bea­ring shall you find dispersedly, yet not confusedly, exemplifyed in this work, that will give approbation to the generality of this note, which doth not warrant this form of bearing alone in these, but also generally in all other Coat-Armours of like kind. Of these severall forms of bearing, I have chosen some particular examples, as in these next Escocheons, and others shall follow in their proper places.

Star of eight points.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Star of eight points, between two Flanches, Ermyne, on a Canton, Argent, a Sinister hand, Couped at the wrist, Gules. This is the Coat-Armour of Sir John Hobart, of Blicklinge in the Coun­ty of Norfolke, Knight and Baronet. Stars are num­bred amongst the Hoste of Heaven, for that it plea­seth GOD sometimes to execute his vengeance up­on the wicked,Stars why cal­led Gods Ar­my. with no lesse dreadful destruction by them than by Numerous and militant Armies, as ap­peareth by the place of Scripture, by me formerly cited, Judges, 5. As touching the colour of Stars, I hold it sufficient to name them onely when they be borne properly, and in their naturall colour, which is, Or; but if they be of any other colour, then the same must be named: as for the Canton thus charged, it being an augmentation or remuneration given by our late Dread Soveraign King James, to such as his Majesty advanced to the dignity of Baron (it being an Order and degree by him directed,) One of which number was Sir Henry Hobart, Knight and Baronet, and late Lord chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas; Father to this Sir John Hobart. I shall have better occasion to speak thereof in the sixt Section, and second Chapter. When I come to treat of such Armoriall Signs, as by the Soveraigns favour are sometimes assigned for Augmentations.

Indented Chief.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermyne, on a Chief Indented, Gules, three Stars by the name of Escourte, When you find any ordinary charged upon (the Field having no other charge, as in this example) you must reckon their charging to be a dignity unto them, forasmuch as they are deemed to be thereby greatly honoured.Ordinaries when, and why called Honou­rable. In regard whereof they are called Honourable Ordinaries: like as this Chief is charged, so shall you find the Bend, Cheuron, Fesse, Saltire, Bar, and all other the before mentioned Ordinaries, charged upon, as be­fore we observed, and hereafter shall appear.

A Canton.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, three Stars, a Canton, Ermyne, by the name of Leverton. Here I do name three Stars, as if the Canton were away,Why blazoned three Stars. Star not reba­ted. as well to the end that the manner of their position may be perfectly un­derstood by such blazon, as also to shew that the Can­ton doth not rebate the Star in the Dexter point, but onely doth surmount the same.

[Page 107]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, an Escocheon, Argent,Escocheon within an orle. between eight Stars in Orle. This Coat is borne by Sir John Chamberlen of Priestbury in the County of Glouc. Knight. These Stars are said to be borne in Orle or Orle-waies; but they cannot be properly said to be an Orle of Stars, because they have no connexion to fasten them together, but are borne severally and apart one from another.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Diamond, Pole Arctick, & Antarctick. a Fesse wavey between the two Pole Stars, Arctick and Antarctick, Pearle. Such was the worth of this most generous and renowned Knight, Sir Francis Drake, sometime of Plimmouth, as that his merits do require that his Coat-Armour should be expressed in that selected manner of Bla­zoning, that is fitting to noble personages, in respect of his noble courage and high attempts atchieved, whereby he merited to be reckoned the honour of our Nation and of Navall profession, in as much as he cutting thorough the Magellanike Straits, An. Dom. 1577. within the com­passe of three years he encompassed the whole World; whereof his Ship laid up in a Dock near Detford, will long time remain as a most worthy monument. Of these his travels a Poet hath thus sung:

Drake, pererrati novit quem terminus orbis,
Qemque semel Mundi vidit uterque Polus;
Si taceant homines, facient te Sydera notum:
Sol nescit comitis non memor esse sui.
The worlds survaied bounds, brave Drake, on thee did gaze;
Both North and Southern Poles, have seen thy manly face;
If thanklesse men conceal, thy praise the Stars will blaze:
The Sun his fellow-travellers worth will duly grace.
[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Azure, ten Stars, Or, I take it granted that it is needlesse here to mention the placing of them, this being the best and most usuall forme; This is the Coat of Sir Thomas Alston of Woodhall or Odhill in Bedford-shire Baronet, and Sir John his Brother Knight, as also of that eminent Physitian Docter Edward Al­ston.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Fesse between three Stars, A Fesse be­tween three Stars. Gules, by the name of Everard. The three Stars ex­pressed in this Escocheon, may put us in mind of that threefold path of Religious passage unto the Hea­venly Canaan, viz. Moderation and sobriety, towards our selves, Piety towards God, and Justice towards men.

The Stars may signifie unto us,Ordinaries called most worthy partiti­ons. a hopefull successe and happy event, in the turbulent time of Tempe­stuous flawes and turmoiles of this present life.

[Page 108]Like as in the Winter season the Starres shine more clear and resplendent than in the Summer time; even so is the glory and vertue of a generous and magnanimous spirit more evidently discerned in a shattered and broken estate, than in prosperity.

Whensoever there is a separation of common charges borne in Coat-Armours, by reason of the Interposition of some of the before mentioned Ordinaries, then are they not termed Ordinaries, but most worthy Partitions; and they are such (saith Leigh) as though the common charge annexed do occupy more than one point of the Escocheon, yet every of them is in as great effect as though it were one onely thing by the reason of Soveraignty of the same Partition interposed.

Thus I have given you a taste of the Particular and Variable manner of bearing of Ordinaries, commixt with common charges, according to the Ge­nerall rule formerly given. As for example, that common charges are borne with Ordinaries, you may see in the first and third of these six Escocheons: that they be borne upon Ordinaries, it is manifest by the second Escocheon: that they are parted by Ordinaries interposed betweene them, it appear­eth by these last Escocheons: that they are borne in forme of Ordinaries, or Ordinary wayes it is clear by the fourth Escocheon. Note. Note, that albeit I have here set downe but one example of each of these particular forms of bear­ing, yet must you hold that in every of these severall sorts there are di­vers other particular kinds of composition of Coat-Armours, as shall ap­peare hereafter at large unto the diligent observer. Furthermore, where­as I have given onely two examples of Common charges borne with Ordi­naries, one example of Ordinaries charged upon, one of Ordinaries interposed, and one of common charges borne Ordinary-waies, or in forme of Ordinaries; you must understand by the first sort, all common charges whatsoever, borne with a Pale, Bend, Fesse, Cheueron, or any other of the Ordinaries before named in any sort: by the second, all sorts of Ordinaries charged upon, with any kind of common charge: by the third, an interposition of whatsoever sort of Ordinary betweene common charges: lastly by the fourth, you must under­stand all sorts of common charges born in forme, or after the manner of a Crosse, Saltire, Pale, Bend, Fesse, or of any other of the said Ordinaries. These have I here handled briefly, because I must of necessity deale more copi­ously, in each particular of them in places better fitting thereunto.


THus farre of such Starres which we called fixed: Now of those Planets whose shapes are of most use in Heraldry; The aspect of the Planets is lesse to the view. I meane those two glorious Lights, the one for the Day, the other for the Night: for, as for the other five planets, because their aspect is lesse to the view, therefore they cannot easily admit a different form from the fixed Stars. The Sun is the very fountain of Light, and (as some Philosophers think) of Heat also; and all the splendor which the Moone hath, it borroweth from the Sun, and therefore as the Sun goeth further off, or neerer to her, so her light doth increase or diminish.The borrow­ed light of the Moon. Con­formity of pla­nets with Pla­nets. And betweene both these and the Stars there is a great confor­mity, in respect of their sparkling and resplendent beames, which are in appearance more evident, and in operation more effectuall, or at least more palpably discerned in these, by reason of their neerenesse unto us, [Page 109] than of those that are from us so far remote. But herein they are unlike, that the beautifull and blazing brightnesse of these is oftentimes subject to the passion of darkning or eclipsing. Of whose glistering, eclipsing and variety of forms, we have bearing, these and other like examples follow­ing.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Sun in his glory, The Sun in his glory. by the name of S. Cleere. To expresse the colour of the Sun being thus borne, I hold it needlesse: for who knoweth not that the chiefest glory and highest commendation that may be given to the Sun doth consist in this, that he is beautified with the brightnesse of his proper beames: which cannot be better expressed than by the colour Gold, or Gold-yellow. But if it be borne of any other than this, which is his natural colour, then must the same be expresly mentioned, as in due place shall appear. The Sun is called in Latine Sol, according to some Authors, vel quia solus ex omnibus sideribus est tantus, vel quia quum est exortus, obscuratis a­liis solus apparet: for that only he is so great, or for that when he is risen, he so darkneth all the rest with his splendor, as that he alone appeareth in Heaven, as a Monarch in his Kingdome. Of the glory and excellency of the Sun, it is said, Eccl. 42.16. The Sun that shineth, looketh on all things, and all the works thereof are full of the glory of the Lord. And again, Eccl. 43.2. The Sun also, The forcible power of the Sun. a marvellous instrument, when he appeareth, declareth at his going out the work of the most high. At noon it burneth the Country, and who may abide for the heat thereof? ver. 3. The Sun burneth the Mountains three times more than he that keepeth a fur­nace with continual heat. It casteth out the fiery vapours, and with the shining beams blindeth the eyes. Great is the Lord that made it, and by his commandment he causeth it to run hastily. And if we consider how many foggy mists it dis­pelleth, how many noysome vapours it consumeth, and how all creatures are overcome with the heat thereof, we shall find that King David did ve­ry aptly compare it to a Giant (for strength) refreshed with wine (for the heat) to run his course, for his swift motion.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a chief, Argent, on the lower part thereof a cloud, the Suns resplendent Raies there­out issuing, Proper, by the name of Lesone of Whit­field in Northampton-shire. The former example where­in the Sun is borne, doth represent a visible form of a corporeal shape of a body, from which these Raies or beams here demonstrated may be apparently seen to issue; And these are as it were strained through a Cloud. Sometime one Raie or beame of this glorious Planet is borne in Coat-Armour, without any other charge, as in this next example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, one ray of the Sun, issuing out of the dexter corner of the Escocheon Bend-waies, proper by the name of Aldam. Here I do not in the blazon make any mention of the three points or lines which are on either side of the Raie, for in Nature they have no essence, but proceed from the weaknesse of the Eye, which is not able to behold so glorious an object as the Sun.

[Page 110] Occasion of the Suns E­clipse.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a Sunne eclipsed, Sable. If this colour were not accidentall in respect of the eclipse of the Sun, the same should not have been named. The Suns eclipse is occasioned by the Interposition of the Moone, which though it be farre lesse in quantity, yet comming be­twixt us and the Body of the Sun, it doth divert the Beames thereof, and debarreth us of the sight of them, even as the interposition of our hand, or any other small body, before our eyes, doth debarre us from the sight of some greater Mountaine. For to thinke that the Sun doth lose his light by the Eclipse, as doth a candle being extinct, procedeth out of meere rustick ignorance: as the like errour is in those, who thinke the Sunne loseth his light, or goeth to bed every night, wher­as it doth onely remove it selfe from our Horizon, to inlighten other Countries situated in other parts of the world. As was well expressed by Secundus the Philosopher, who being demanded by Adrian the Emperour, what the Sunne was, taking his Tables in hand, wrote in this manner, Sol est Coeli oculus, caloris circuitus, splendor sine occasu, dici ornatus, horarum distri­butor: It is the eye of heaven, the Circuit of heat, a shining without decay, the dayes Ornament, the houres distributer. The most miraculous eclipse of the Sunne that ever was, happened then when that Sun of Righteousnesse, the Sonne of God, was on the Crosse, when all the earth was so benighted at noone-day, that Dionysius Areopagita a Heathen Athenian cried out, Either the world was at an end, or the Maker of it was suffering some great agonie. The Starres and Planets hitherto spoken of do shine alike, or after one manner. Now others there are which shine after a divers sort: such are the Moone, and Comets, which we call Blazing Starres. Neither are we ignorant, that in proper speech, and truth of Philosophie, Comets are not Stars, but Meteors: yet the Vulgar opinion, and the received name and shape used in Heraldrie, may warrant me for thus ranking them amongst the Stars. But as touching the Moone, her light is meerely reflective, as the brightnesse of a Looking-glasse against the Sun; and in respect that her substance is very unequall, as in some parts of thicker substance, and in some parts thinner, therefore she is unequally inlightned by the Sun-beams, which maketh the weak eye, and weaker judgment, to fancy a face of a man in the Moon: whence we have gotten the fashion of representing the Moon with a face. But why the Sun should have the like, I wote not, unlesse it be that he should not be outfaced by the Moon being his inferiour. The most wise and pro­vident God, before the creation of his other works, did first create the Light, to teach man to lay the first foundation of all his actions in the light of true knowledge, thereby to direct his wayes aright, and that his doings be not reproved as works of darknesse: especially sith God would not suf­fer the Night it self to be so wrapt in darknesse, but that the Moon and stars should somewhat illuminate it. And according to the divers appari­tions of the Moon, hath she her divers denominations in Heraldry; as her Increment, in her increase; her Complement when she is at Full; her Decremen [...], in her Waning; and her detriment, in her Change and Eclipse. And accor­ding to these varieties, is she also diversly borne in Coat-Armour, as the examples following will shew.

[Page 111]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Gules, an Incressant, Or,Entry of the Moon into her first quar­ter. by the name of Deseus. This is the state of the Moon from her entrance into her first Quarter, which is most usually the seventh day after the change, unto her full. In which time she is more and more illuminated, untill she hath filled her Circle. This word Incressant signi­fieth the Moons Increment, or increasing estate, and it may fitly represent the rising fortunes of some hope­full spark illightned and honoured by the gracious aspect and beams of his Soveraign, who is the bright Sun, and fountain of all the light of glorious Nobility, and may confer the Raies of his grace on whom it best pleaseth him.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermyne, three Incressants, Gules. This Coat pertaineth to the Family of the Symmes of Daventree in the County of Northampton.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azre,Complement of the Moon what. a Moon in her Complement (which is as much to say, as the Moon illustrated with her full light) proper. Here you need not to name the colour of the Moon, for the reason before delivered in the first example of the Sun.Proper colour of the Moon. The proper colour of the Moon we in Heraldry take to be Argent, both for the weaknesse of the light, and also for distinction betwixt the blazoning of it and the Sun; and therefore when we blazon by Planets, we name Gold Sol, and Silver Luna. Concerning the use of the Moon, it is said,Use of the Moon. Eccl. 43.6. The Moon also hath he made to appear according to her season, that it should be a declaration of the Time, and a sign for the World, Verse 7. The Feasts are appointed by the Moon, the light thereof diminisheth unto the end, ver. 8. The Moon is called after the name thereof, and groweth wonderfully in her changing. The Moon is the Mistresse by which all moist, The Moon Mistresse of mutability. mutable and uncon­stant things are ruled; as Mulier, Mare, Flumina, Fontes: a Woman, and the Sea, Rivers, and Fountains: the ebbing and flowing of the Sea following the motions of the Moon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Azure, a Moon decressant, Proper,The Moon in her decrement. by the name of Delaluna. This is the state of the Waning Moon, when she declineth from her-Full, and draw­eth to her last Quarter, which is accomplished most commonly the seventh day after she hath attained the Full, and receiveth a diminution of her light, to the wasting of the one half thereof; and from the said seventh day after her Full, she diminisheth conti­nually more and more, untill she become again (as many honest men are) corniculata, sharp-horned, and suffereth continually diminution unto the instant of her Change; and diffe­reth [Page 112] from her prime state after the Change, onely in this, that the first (repre­sented by the first of these Examples) is turned to the right hand of the Escocheon, and this other to the left. And hitherto I have proposed examples of her naturall aspects, you shall now see her accidentall forme, as in example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Moon in her detriment or Eclipse, The Moone in her detriment. Sable: the Moon is Eclipsed onely at such time as she is at her full state: and diametrically opposite unto the Sunne; when by interposition of the Earth betweene them, she seemeth to our sight for the time to be deprived of her light, through the shadow of the grosse body of the Earth. This is a passive forme of the Moon; and such her Passions are called in La­tine, Labores Lunae, the throwes or pangs of the Moone. In former time the old Germans thought the Moon was in a Trance, and used to shout and make a noise with Basons, to wake her: or else they supposed she was angry with them,Passive formes of the Moone. and therefore they how­led till she looked cheerefully on them againe. Of this mutable state of the Moon, thus writeth the Poet:

Nec par aut eadem nocturnae forma Dianae,
Esse potest usquam, semper hodierna s [...]quente:
Dame Cynthia imitates the Dames of our Nation;
Every day she attires her selfe in a new fashion.

Witty morall.Which occasioned a witty Morall related by Plutarch (as I thinke) how on a time the Moon sent for a Taylor to make her a Gown, but he could ne­ver fit her, for it was ever either too little, or too bigge for her; which was not the Tailors fault but her owne inconstancie: so impossible a thing it is to fit the humours of one that is fickle and unstable.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He Beareth, Or, thre Starres issuant from as many Cressants, Gules, by the name of Bateman, and was borne by Robert Bateman Esquier, Chamberlaine of London, who left a hopefull and flourishing issue, viz. Richard Batemam, William Bateman, Anthony Bateman, now Sheriff of London, 1658. and Thomas Bateman, all Merchants and Members of that noble City.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, on a Fesse indented, Azure, three Stars, Argent, a Canton, of the second, charged with a Sun in glory by the name of Thompson, being thus borne by William Thompson now Alderman of London, Colonel George Thompson, and Maurice Thompson Esq Governour of the East-India Company, sons of Robert Thompson of Wotton in Hertfordshire, Gentlemen of much worth and quality.

Sometimes you shall finde all these severall kinds of Lights before ex­pressed, borne together in one Escocheon, as in example.

[Page 113]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, the Sun, the Full Moon, Sun, Moon, and seven Stars. and the seven Stars, Or, the two first in Chief, and the last of orbicular forme in base. It is said that this Coat-Armour pertained to Johannes de fontibus, sixth Bishop of Ely; who had that (after a sort) in his Escocheon which Joseph had in his dream, Gen. 37.9. where the Sun, Moon, and eleven Stars did do him reverence; sig­nifying, his Father, Mother, and eleven Brethren. For as in Scripture, so in Heathenish devotions also, the Sun and Moon were accounted the Male and Fe­male, and sometimes Man and Wife; and as the Moon hath all her light from the Sun, so hath the Wife from the Husband; and as the Moon is ever lighter on that side which looks towards the Sun, so should the wife stu­dy to be fairest in her husbands eye. And many wives in their husbands ab­sence do truly imitate the Moon in this, that they are lightest when their Sun is farthest from them. Howsoever this marriage betwixt Sun and Moon was made up, it is certain that once the Banes were forbidden; as appeareth by one, who speaking of Queen Maries dayes, and of her Mar­riage relateth, how when the Sun went first a woing to the Lady Moon,Holinsheds Chron. in Q. Mary. all Nations (especially those of hot Countries) preferred a petition to Jupiter, to hinder the Nuptials; alleadging, that there then being but one Sun, yet he scorched and burned all, but if he should marry, and get other Suns, the heat would so increase, as all must needs perish: whereupon Jupiter, stay­ed the match for that time; or at least, was so propitious, that no issue came of the conjunction of those fiery flames. The severall states of the Moon increasing and decreasing before handled, are now very rare in bearings and in manner antiquated: inasmuch as in these dayes, not onely their shapes, but their very names also are extinct, and instead of them we have another new coined form, having neither the name, shape, nor yet so much as the shadow of the former remaining, as may be seen in the next Escocheon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, three Cressants, Gules, by the name of Butuillaine of Northampton-shire. Comets. At this day we take no notice of any other form, either of the increasing or decreasing Moon, but onely of this depra­ved shape, which corrupt custome hath rashly hatched, as a form much differing from those before exem­plified, if not meerely repugnant to Nature. The pa­tricians of Rome used to wear the badge of the Moon, on their shooes: as these Cressants are, sometimes the sole Charge of the Field, as in this last Escocheon; so they are also borne upon the honourable Ordinaries as in this next ex­ample.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Ermyne, on a Chief, Sable, three Cres­sants, Or, by the name of Preston of Suffolk as appea­reth in diverse ancient Books remaining in the Of­fice of Armes. Concerning the chief and furs demon­strated in this Coat-Armour, I have elsewhere at large spoken of them in their proper places.

[Page 114]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Azure, a Crescent Argent; This is the Coat of Lucas Lucy of London Merchant, and Ri­chard Lucy his Brother, a Gentleman of much worth and credit in this City.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Azure, three Crescents, Or, and is the Coat-Armour of the ancient Family of Rider, originally of the North, of which Family is that discreetly accomplisht Gentleman Captain William Rider of London Merchant.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, on a Chief, Sable, three Crescents, Argent, by the name of Harvey, and is the Coat-Ar­mour of Master John Harvy of Antwerpe, Daniel Harvy of Combe Nevill in Surrey, Eliab Harvy of London, and Michael Harvy, Esquires, Sons of four of those seven Harvies Brethren, so eminent some years since in and about this City, the eldest of which was that pro­foundly learned Doctor William Harvy, the second Thomas Father of John above mentioned, the third John a member of the Parliament the third of Novem­ber, 1640. the fourth Daniel father of Daniel above mentioned, late high Sheriff of Surrey, who hath to wife the Daughter of Edward Lord Mounta­gue of Boughton. The fifth Brother is Eliab Harvy of Broadstreet London Esquire, the onely surviving of the seven, Father of Eliab abovesaid, which latter a while since married Elizabeth Daughter of Sir Thomas Whitmore of Aply in Shropshire, Knight and Baronet, not long after his Sister Mistresse Mary Harvy had been marryed to Sir William Whitmore Ba­ronet, son of the said Sir Thomas. The sixth and seventh of these brethren were Matthew and Michaell Harvy twins, whereof the former dyed with­out issue, as also did the first and third; But Michaell (whose widow is re­married to William Steele Chancellour of Ireland) had issue Michael afore­said, who hath late marryed the Daughter of William Ʋnderwood Sheriff of London, 1652. which Family is a hopefull and spreading Ornament to this Kingdome.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, two Bars in Chief, three Crescents, Gules, by the name of Nowers.

[Page 115]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Sable, a Crosse engrailed between four Crescents, Argent, borne by Robert Barnham of Kent Esquire, eldest Son of Sir Francis Barnham descended from Stephen Barnham of Southwick in the County of Southampton, of whom it is thus remembred; Hic Stephanus Barnham oriundus erat ab Waltero Barnham, Capitali Baroni de Scaccario Domini Regis Temopre R. 2. militi.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, three Crescents parted paly wavy, Gules, Azure, by the name of Haynes, which Family is not a little splendid by the actions of two persons of it, Father and Son, whose conduct and management in their commands, at Jamaica, where the noble Colonel unfortunately though honourably fell, and lately at Dunkirke by the Son, may not sleep in Oblivion.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, a Fesse, between three Cres­cents, Sable, this is the Coat of that accomplished Gentleman Sir Henry Lee Baronet (who marryed Anne Daughter of Sir John Danvers of Dautsey) and was Son of Sir Henry Son of another Sir Henry Lee of Quarenden in Buckinghamshire, created Baronet June 29. 1611. whose widow was secondly marryed to the Earle of Sussex, and thirdly to Robert Earle of Warwick.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, a Cheuron, Gules, between three Crescents, Sable, by the name of Withers, of which Family is Master Withers of Wandesworth now living in good account and estimation; this is borne also by Captain George Withers wel known and much celebrated for his Britains Remembrancer, and other Poems.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Azure, a Star issuant from between the Hornes of a Cressent, Argent, this is the Coat of the ancient Family of Minshall of Cheshire; of which is Sir Richard Minshall Knight, a great incourager of Arts and Industry.

[Page 116]The other sort of Stars, that do shine after a diverse sort, are those that we call comets or Blazing-stars, whose Form is commonly as in this next Escocheon is represented.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Blazing-star, or Comet strea­ming in Bend, Comets. proper. The Comet is not of an orbicu­lar shape, as other the celestiall natures are; but doth protract his light in length like to a beard, or rather dilate it in the midst like a hairy bush, and growing thence Taperwise, after the manner of a Fox-tail, and it doth contract his substance or matter from a slimy exhalation, and hath not his being from the creation, neither is it numbred amongst the things naturall, mentioned in the History of Genesis, but is Aliquid praeter naturam; and yet placed with the heavenly bodies, because they seem to us to be of that kind. They are supposed to prognosticate dreadfull and horrible events of things to come: whereupon Lucan saith,

Ignota obscurae viderunt sydera noctes,
Ardentemque polum flammis, coeloque volantes
Obliquas per inane faces, crinemque timendi
Sideris, & terris minitantem Regna Cometam.
In sable nights new stars of uncouth sight,
And fearfull flames all o're the Heavens appear,
With fiery Drakes, and Blazing bearded light,
Which fright the World, and Kingdomes threat with fear.


Inconstant natures.SO much of the first Member of the distribution before delivered, viz. of Constant essences, which are onely those Celestial creatures, which being void of this corrupt mixture that is found in all creatures Sublunar, have a priviledge by divine appointment from the mutability, whereto all things under the Moon are subject. Now come we to that other member thereof,Inconstant na­tures what. namely, such as are Inconstant natures, so far forth as there is use of them in Armes. Inconstant natures are bodily Essences of small continuance by reason of their ignoble or base substance, such are the four Elements, viz. Fire, Aire, Water, and Earth.

Fire, Winters treasure: Water, Sommers pleasure:
But the Earth and Aire, none can ever spare.

Elements what. Elements are simple essences of small stability, and the wombe of all mixt things (as Scribonius noteth) and according to some Authors called Ele­menta ab alendo, of nourishing; but Saint Hierom calleth Elementa, quasi E­levamenta, for their proportionable mixture in the composition of the bo­dies sublunar, whereby they are made fit for motion: of these Elements these examples next following have a representation.

[Page 117]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, seven Firebrands Flammant, Profitable use of fire. and Scintill [...], Proper. Some Writers do affirme that none of the Mechanicall trades were found out by men be­fore they had fire, which being at the last obtained, and the use thereof known, from thenceforth were produced all manner of Arts behovefull for mans use, and through assistance of fire, they did dayly put in practise some new invention and experimentall proof, whereby they attained their perfection of skill. Yet if we weigh the ma­nifold mischiefs that sometimes come by fire, we might doubt, whether the good or the hurt thereby insuing be greater. For both fire and water are good servants, but unruly masters.

Fire in the Scriptures is often taken for a speciall token of Gods favour, and that he is pleased with the Sacrifices that are done unto him; as when he answereth (as it were by Fire) like as we read Judges 6.21. Then the An­gell of the Lord put out the end of his staffe th [...]t he held in his hand, and touched the flesh and unleavened bread, and there arose up Fire out of the stones, and con­sumed the flesh and unleavened bread, &c. And as when Eliah contended with the Prophets of Baal touching the manifestation of the true God; Then the Fire of the Lord fell, and consumed the burnt Offerings, and the wood, and the stones, and the dust, and licked up the water that was in the trench, 1 Kings 18.38. And again, when Solomon had made an end of praying, Fire came down from Heaven and consumed the burnt offerings, and the Sacrifices, and the glory of the Lord filled the House, 2 Chro. 7.1.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Cheuron, Sable,Whereupon this Coat was given. between three flames of Fire, Proper. This Coat standeth in the Church of Barkley in the County of Glocester, in a win­dow on the South side of the same.

The Cheuron being (as we before have said) a me­moriall and token of building, it may seem the He­ralds were not well advised to put Flames of fire so near it: but it is no inforced conjecture, to suppose that this Coat-Armour was first given to him who had restored some publick edifice, which Fire had consumed. This next ensuing hath also a resemblance with it.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Cheuron voided, Azure, between three flames of Fire, Proper, by the name of Welles. Ma­ny Coat-Armours seeme to allude to the bearers name, but surely this is not so, this hot Element having little affinity with that watery mansion. Fire betokeneth zeal, and every Sacrifice was offered with Fire, to shew with what zeal we should burn, that come to offer prayer or praise and thanks to the Lord:Fire what it signifieth. the Holy Ghost also descended upon the Apostles in Fire, to shew the fervency of them upon whom it rested. But as here this painted fire yeelds little heat,Hypocriticall zeal. so doth an Hypocrites coloured zeal; and many now adaies might bear such painted Fire upon an Escocheon of Pretence for their Device.

[Page 118]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, two Billets Raguled, and Truncked placed Saltire-wayes, the Sinister surmounted of the Dexter, Azure, inflamed on their tops, Proper. This is a Dutch Coat, and is borne by the name of Shurstab. Not unfitly is the force of counsell shadowed under the Fire of Prometheus, Force of Counsell. because that as Fire, so counsell doth give light to the darkest obscurity of things.

A Bend be­tween six Fountains.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Diamond, a bend, Topaz, betweene six Fountaines, proper, borne by the L. Sturton. These six Fountaines are borne in signification of six springs, whereof the River of Sture in Wiltshire, hath his begin­ning, and passeth along to Sturton the seat of that Bar­onie. And to this head are referred, Spaciosa Maria, Vada Speciosa, Fluvij lati, Fontes Grati: The sp [...]ious Seas, the beuteous Shallowes, Rivers spreading, Foun­taines pleasing. The Sea is the Riches of a Kingdome, and a faire River is the Riches of a Citie: and there­fore their Waves are held good bearing for one that hath done service upon either.

Fresh and sweet Waters are reckoned amongst Gods peculiar blessings promised to the observers of his Lawes, and those of chiefest ranke; For the Lord thy God bringeth thee into a good land, a land in the which are Rivers of Waters, Fountaines and depths that spring cut of the Valleyes and mountaines, Levit. 26.7.

A Rock what.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a Rocke, Sable, by the name of Securades. A Rocke signifieth safetie, refuge, or protection, as Psal. 31. Thou art my rocke and my fort [...] [...] For he that resteth under the defence of the Almighty, is like a Castle of strength situated upon an inaccessible Rocke, whereto none can approach to doe hurt. I have set this as a patterne of the earth, as being one princi­pall parcell thereof, and withall to represent the stabi­lity of the earth, which God hath so fixed that it cannot be removed.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Or, a Mountain, Azure, inflamed, Proper.A Mountain enflamed. This Coat pertaineth to the Family of Mack­loide, Lord of the Isles of Skey and Lewes in Scotland. Here you see are two elements borne together, the earthy and fiery. Aetna is like this, or else this like Aet­na, it being a Hill in Sicily, which uncessantly casteth forth flames of fire, whereto the envious man may be fitly compared, who still disgorgeth his furious malice against others, but it inwardly eateth out Brimstone like his own bowels. One writeth of this Hill Aetna that on the one part it keepeth Snow all the year long, and on the other it ever burneth, like those who can breath hot and cold out of one mouth.

[Page 119]

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Argent, fieteene Ilands, Fifteene Ilands. diversly colou­red. This Coat-Armour pertaineth to the King of Spaine in respect of certaine Ilands of that number within his Dominions. And amongst these examples of earthy bearing I have produced the bearing of a Mountaine (a heavie bearing, but much in use among the Germans:) Hillockes and Turfes might I adde, which may sooner be conceived by the undestanding, than delineated by my Pencell. Touching the Element of the Aire, I have represented no shape, for to doe that were as wise an attempt, as to weigh the winde in a ballance: yet some have expressed the boi­sterous motions thereof by a mans face, with swollen and puft Cheekes, Witches of Norway. whence issueth as much winde as out of the Witches bottles of Norway, who will sell any winde that a Merchant will aske for: if they sold wines out of bottles, I should sooner believe them, and I thinke the Buyers should be lesse cozened.


HAving shewed by particular examples the bearing of simple essences, Natures of mixt kind. or (at the least) of such things as have a mutuall participation of qualities with them; I will now proceed to the handling of the next member of the Distribution, which comprehendeth Essences, or Natures of Mixt kindes.

Such are

  • Brute, or without life.
  • Living.

By Brute natures I understand all Essences whatsoever of mixt kinde that are meerely void of life. Such are Meteors, Meteors un­perfect. which are unperfect kindes of mixture, which by their strang apparitions doe move their beholders to an admiration, and these are called Corpora sublimia, Corpora subli­mia. because they are in­gendred aloft in the Aierie Region. The matter whereof these Meteors are ingendred, is a certain attracted fume drawne up on high by the operation of the Sunne and Starres.

This fume or smoake is

  • Vapour.
  • Exhalation.

Vapour is a moist kinde of fume extracted chiefely out of the water, and therefore is easily dissolved againe thereinto, and hence are watery Meators. Vapour what. Exhalation is a drier kinde of fume, attracted up from the earth and apt to be inflamed, and they are fierie Meteors. There are also other Meteors formed of a mixture of both these fumes.

Fierie Meteors are formes consisting of hot Exhalations attracted into the Aiery Region, having a hot quality, which at length breaketh into a Fire. Fierie meteors what.

And of these are

  • Simple.
  • Mixt.

Simple firie Meteors are of divers sorts and different forms whereof there is little use in Coat-Armour, except of the falling Starre, Meteors of divers sorts. which of Blazoners is termed a Mullet; which is an Exhalation inflamed above in the Aire, and stricken back with a Cloud, wherby it is forced to runne downwards in such sort, that to the ignorant a Starre seemeth to fall. There is oftentimes found upon the earth a certaine gelly fallen from above, and dispersed in­to divers points, which of many is taken to be the substance of the [Page 120] falling Star or Mullet. Divers bea­ring of Mul­lets. Note that such Mullets borne in Coat-Armour, are now most usually of five points, but anciently you shall finde them borne of six points, as in the next Escocheon.

And so I have seene them in divers very Old Rolles, in the Custody of that worthy Kight Sir Richard Saint George, now Clarenceaux King of Armes, whose industrious travell in the carefull Collection of such Anti­quities, and his free communicating of the same to the studious in that way, merits much.

Mullets of 6. Points.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermine, a Mullet of sixe points, pierced, Gules, be the name Hassenhull. These kindes of Me­teors have an apparance of Starres, but in existence they are nothing lesse; for they are (saith Bekenhab) certaine Impressions of the Aire, appearing for a time, and in time doe vanish away, because they be of na­ture fluxible, and nothing permanent. Concerning the bearing of Mullets of five points, behold these ex­amples.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He bears Argent, three Mullets, pierced, Sable, by the name of Wollaston, and was the Coat-Armour of the late deceased Sir John Wollaston Knight, sometime Lord Mayor of London.

Of five Points.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, six Mullets, three, two, and one, Or, by the name of Welsh. In Blazoning of Mullets of, this forme, you shall not neede to make mention of their points, because it is the usuall forme of Bearing, but if they doe consist of more than five points, then must you specially observe their number, as in the former Escocheon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ruby, on a Chiefe, Pearl, two Mullets, Diamond. I give this selected form of Blazoning to this present Coat-Armour, because it appertained to that Honoured and right worthy Knight, Sir Nicolas Bacon, Lord Keeper of the great Seale of England, in the Reigne of our late Queene Elizabeth of blessed me­mory, to whom he was a Privy Counsellour, and for his wisedome, Learning, and Integrity by her ad­vanced to that high place of Lord Keeper. His eldest Son Sir Nicolas Bacon, was the first Baronet that our late Soveraign King James of ever blessed memory, made by Letters Pa­tents under the great Seal of this Kingdome: And Sir Francis Bacon, one of his younger Sons, was Lord Keeper, and afterward Lord Chancellor of [Page 121] England, in the reign of the said King, who created him in the year of Grace, 1617, Baron of Verulam, and in the year following viscount of Saint Albans, and is the Coat-Armour of Francis and Nathaniel Bacon Brothers and Masters of Requests to his Highnesse Richard Lord Protector, and descended from the aforesaid Family of the Bacons of Redgrave in the County of Suffolke where it flourishes to this day.

Though the falling Starre it selfe is but the Embleme of the inconstancy of high fortunes, and unsure footing of Ambitious Aspirers, which may shine for a time, but in a moment fall headlong from the Heaven of their high hopes; yet the Mullet in Heraldry hath a more noble signification,Noble signifi­cation of Mul­let. it being supposed to represent some divine quality, bestowed from above, wherby men do shine in vertue, Learning and works of piety, like bright Stars on the earth, and these are Stellae dimissae è coelo, Starres let downe from Heaven by God; not Stellae dejectae, throwne downe, as those which the Taile of the Dragon threw downe, which are Apostatates from God and their Religion; nor yet cadentes stellae, falling starres, such as the stroke of Justice and their owne demerits casts downe from the hight of their honours.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He bears Argent, on a Chief, Gules, two Mullets, Or, by the name of Saint-John, and is the bearing of the Right Honourable the Earl of Bullingbrook, Lord Saint-John of Bletso, of Sir Walter Saint-John of Lydyard Tregos in Wiltshire and Battersey in Surrey Baronet, and of Oliver Saint-John Lord chief Justice of the eommon Pleas, all descended from John a second Son of John Lord Saint-John of Basing, 28 Ed. 1. the elder issue male being extinct by the match with Paulet, thereby Lord Saint-John of Basing, since Marquesse of Win­chester.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, on a Crosse, Argent, five Mullets, Rule prescri­bed by Leigh. pierced, Sable, by the name of Randall of Ailesford in the County of Kent. Sometimes the round in the middest of the Mullet is not of the colour of the Field, and then you must not take it for a piercing, but for a Charge of other signification. Gerrard Leigh seemeth to prescribe this General Rule touching Mullets; that if the same doe consist of even points, they must be cal­led Rowels, meaning (as I conceive) Rowels of Spurres. But he might more aptly have applyed the same in particular unto mullets pierced, in respect of their neerer resemblance of such Rowels than those that are not pierced. Some are of opinion, that all mullets, whether they consist of five or six points, pierced, or unpierced are Rowels of Spurres,Divers opini­ons concer­ning Mullets. with this difference that those which are unpierced, are Rowels not fully finished or made up by their maker, and their reason is, because that in old French or Norman Languages, this word mollette signifieth a Rowell of a Spurre; as appeareth in an ancient French Manuscript remaining in the Office of Armes, where the Author there treating of the compleat Ar­mour of a Combatant a Cape a pee, according to his degree, he there speak­ing of the Harnesse or Armour of the Leg, useth these words concerning Spurs;—Et ungz esperous d'ores qui seront atachiez a une cordellette autour de la jambe affin que la mollette ne tourne dessoubz le pie. The French is old,M.S▪ Nt. 18. fol. 135. b. and [Page 122] according to the Orthography of those times, which I, as precisely as I can, have shewed you. Others think that the Heralds have borrowed this word used by them in blazon from a kind of fish so called, not that which is most usually known by the name of mullet, but another not much unlike in shape to that thing which is used in Armory; and as I am informed is often found upon the Sands at the ebbing of the Sea; and is in Kent now by the vulgar people, propter similitudinem called a Taylors bottome or a Five-finger, and in ancient time it was for the like cause known by the name of a mullet; the forme whereof I have procured, according to the best description that I could gain from such as have seen and well known this kind of fish presented unto your view here in the Margent.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And I find in a very ancient Rolle now in the cu­stody of the before mentioned worthy Knight Sir Richard, St. George, Clarenceaux, in the Blazon of Gil­bert Hausarts Coat-Armour, those which we now in Heraldry blaze by the name of Mullets there to be tearmed Esteiles, I think it is meant Estoeles; yet are not their points, which are five, there waved; but in this variety of opinions I leave every man to follow what in his judgment he shall approve to be best and most probable.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Ermine, on a Fesse, Sable, three Mullets, Or, by the name of Lister, of which Family were Sir William, Sir Matthew, and Sir Martin Lister, and many other Gentlemen of worth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, on a Fesse, Sable, three Mullets of six points, Or, by the name of Grimston, and is the Coat-Armour of that learned Gentleman Sir Harbotle Grimston of Bradfield in Essex Baronet, second son, and at length heir of Sir Harbotle Grimston of the same place, Knighted 1603. created Baronet 1612.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, two Bars, Sable, each charged with three Mullets of six points, Or, by the name of Hopton. As they are born upon Ordinaries, so shall you find them commixt with other common Charges, as also oftentimes sorted with Ordinaries interposed between them, one example whereof I will now pre­sently shew you, which for the rarity of the form of the Ordinary is worth your observation.

[Page 123]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Cheuron Rompee, between three Mullets, Or, by the name of Sault. This Cheuron in Bla­zon is called Rompee, or rather Rompu, from the French verbe Rompre, derived from the Latine Rumpo, Rum­pere, to break. Thus have you examples of the divers bearing of these simple meteors: to wit, the bearing of them sole, unpierced, pierced, some of five points, and others of six.

So much of simple fiery Meteors, so far forth as there is use of them in Coat-Armour:Meteors mixt. Fiery Meteors what. Now of such Mete­ors as are of mixt kind, according to the distribution before delivered in the next precedent. These are fiery meteors bred of an exhalation some­what more grosse and impure than those before specified, by reason of a more thick and slimy vapour whereof they be ingendered.

Meteors of this kind are

  • Thunder.
  • Lightning.

Thunder is an inflamed Exhalation, which by his powerfull force brea­keth thorough the Clouds violently, with great noise and terrour.Thunder what. The forcible power thereof is rather apprehended by the eare, than subjected to the sight: neverthelesse, the ancient times have devised a certain ima­ginarie forme whereby they would expresse the forcible power thereof, as also of the lightning.

Thunder is supposed to be ingendered two manner of wayes, viz. When either a hot or drie vapour is inclosed in a cold and moist Cloud, and being unable to contain it self therein, by reason of the contrariety, it laboureth by all means to find a vent, and so striving by all means to get passage, it maketh way with great vehemency and horror of sound: such as a Glow­ing Gadd of Iron, or any other fiery matter maketh, when water is infused thereupon in abundance, or that it is therein drenched, it maketh a furi­ous and murmuring sound. Such is that weak and feeble sort of thunder; that seemeth to be ingendered in some region of the Aire far remote from us, yeelding onely (for a small time) a kind of turbulent noise or murmuring.

Or else it is ingendred in a more violent manner, to wit, when this in­closed drie and combustible matter, being inflamed in the Clouds of con­trary qualities, doth break out with vehemency, then doth it yeeld a ter­rible and forcible sound, not unlike a great piece of Ordnance when it is over-charged. And this sound thus ingendered is called Thunder.

This sort of sound is used oftentimes Metaphorically, as when God threatneth his Judgments against sin, he is said to thunder them out. In this sence doth Petrarch use the same, saying, Deus ideo tonat in Coelis, ut tu in terras bene vivas, quodque amore debueras, saltem metu facias. For unlesse God loved man he would never threaten him, but rather punish him; forasmuch as man doth evermore minister many and those greivous oc­casions of execution of Gods Judgments.

Lightning is a vehement eruption of an inflamed exhalation, Lightning what. proceeding from Thunder; which though it is in time after the Thunder, yet is first re­presented to our senses, by reason that our sight is far more subtill and ap­prehensive than is our hearing. And in regard that Thunder and Lightning do both proceed from one self-cause, they have in such their imaginary fiction conjoyned them both under the Form, after this manner.

[Page 124] Thunderbolt.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Azure, Jupiters Thunderbolt in Pale, Or, Inflamed at both ends, Proper, shafted [...]alti [...]e waies, and winged Fesse-waies, Argent. Chassaneus descri­bing the Ensignes of sundry Nations, noteth this for the Ensigne of the Scythians: and in the Glory of G [...] ­nerosity it is said, that Tomyris Queen of Scythia did bear the same in this manner. The bearing of Light­ning betokeneth the effecting of some weight [...] busi­nesse with much celerity and foreceab [...]esse; b [...]use in all ages this hath been reputed the most quick, for­cible and terrible dart, wherewith the Almighty striketh where himselfe pleaseth: which the Heathen religiously acknowledged, though he there­upon infers an irreligious conclusion, saying,

Si quoties peccent homines, sua fulmina mittat
Jupiter, exiguo tempore inermis erit:
If God should Thunder-strike still when he sin doth see,
His shafts would soon be spent, and arme un-arm'd would be.
His inference had been truer thus:
If God should Thunder-strike still when he sin doth see,
All men would soon be spent, yet God still arm'd should be.

Hitherto of Fiery meteors, now of such as be watery. Watery meteors are cer­tain cold and moist vapours, Meteors wate­rie. copiously attracted by the powerfull operati­on of the heavenly bodies into the Aire, and there transmutated into their severall formes. Of these there are divers sorts, whereof Clouds are most usually borne in Coat-Armour. A Cloud is a Grosse vapour, attracted into the middle Region of the Aire, A cloud what. and there thickned, by reason of the coldnesse of the place having in it store of matter apt to ingender water. A Cloud (ac­cording to Zan.) is a most thick vapour, attracted from the waters by the heat of the Sun, unto the middle Region of the Aire, and there thickned by the coldnesse thereof, and so continueth untill it be again dissolved by the Suns heat, and so converted into rain, and doth distill down in drops. Zanch. de meteoris aqueis, 483. The Clouds are said to be Gods chariots, as we may see Psal. 104. He layeth the beams of his Chambers in he waters, and maketh the Clouds his Chariot, and walketh upon the wings of the winds. The Clouds are Gods instruments wherein he containeth and retaineth at his pleasure, the showers of Rain as in Bottles: as we may see Job 38.37. Who can number the clouds by Wisedome? Or who can cause to cease the bottles of Heaven?

The Clouds are resembled to a Spunge replenished with Water, and God with the hand of his providence wringeth the Spunge moderately, not pressing out all the moisture thereof at once, but leasurely, and by little and little after a gentle and soaking manner.Coined form of Clouds. No pencill can make a true representation of Clouds, because every instant and moment of time, doth adde unto them some kind of alteration, whereby it differeth from that it was late before: neverthelesse, former times have coined (of these al­so) a conceited forme, as in these next Escocheons may be seen.

[Page 125]

[blazon or coat of arms]

This Coat-Armour, is Barre Nebule, of eight peeces, Topaz and Diamond; and pertaineth to the Honourable Family of Charles Late Earle of Devon, and Lord Mont­joy, Lieutenant governour of Ireland, Great Master of the Artillerie of England, Captaine of Portsmouth, Knight of the most noble Order of the Garter, and of his Majesties most honourable privie Councell. The bearing of Cloudes in Armes (saith Ʋpton) doth import some Excellencie in their Bearer.

In the Cloudes hath the Raine-Bow his temporarie residence, and therefore next let us cast our eyes on it.

[blazon or coat of arms]

A Raine-Bow is a divers coloured Arch or Bow, Rainbow what. for­med in a hollow, thin, and unequall Cloud, by the re­flexion of the Beames of the opposite Sunne. The cause of the rare use of the Raine-Bow in Coate-Armour, perhaps may be for that the colours thereof cannot be aptly counterfeited, as witnesseth Aristotle, Meteor. Lib. 3. saying,Difficult re­presenting of the Rainbow. Soli colores Iridis non possunt fieri à Picto­ribus: whereby it seemeth of all other the hardest thing to imitate. The naturall colours of the Raine-Bow (according to Scribonius) are Red, Greene, Blew, and Yellow. The Field hereof is, Argent, Issuant out of two Petit Clouds in Fesse, Azure, a Rainbow, in the Nombrill point a Star, proper. The Rainbow is a token of Gods Covenant made with Noah, and in him with all people;The Rainbow a token of Gods Cove­nant. as appeareth, Genesis 9.13. I have set my Bow in the Clouds, and it shall be for a signe of the Covenant between me and the Earth, &c. As touching the Beauty of the Rainbow, it is said, Eccles. 43.11. Look upon the Rainbow, and praise him that made it: very beautifull is it in the brightnesse thereof; it compasseth the Heaven about with a circle, and the hand most high hath bended it, Ibid. 12. And indeed worthily is he to be so praised, who when he could have made a Bow to destroy us, rather chose to make his Bow to assure us, he would not destroy us. A noble president,A president for Nobles. to teach Nobles to use their strength and their weapons rather to preserve and help,Farnesius. then to overthrow or hurt those who are under their power. Farne­sius saith, that the Rainbow appearing in the South, betokeneth Rain; in the West, it fore-sheweth Thunder; and in the East, prognosticates faire Weather.


HItherto have we prosecuted our intendment,Things living what. touching things of mixt nature, which are brute of livelesse: now proceed we to the conside­ration of things of Mixt nature having life. Mixt Natures that are living are corporeall Essences, endued with a vegetable Soul; Soul taken in the largest signification. for here we use this word Soul, as also the word Life, in his largest signification. A vegetable Soul is a faculty or power that giveth life unto bodies.

Whereby they do live

  • After a sort, or
  • Perfectly.

Such as do live after a sort, or lesse perfectly, are all sorts of Metals; which [Page 126] because they are supposed to grow and increase in the earth, we will (for our present use) ascribe life unto them.Metals what. Metals are bodies imperfectly li­ving, and are decocted in the veins of the Earth.

Of these some are naturally

  • Liquefiable.
  • Not Liquefiable, or lesse Liquefiable.

Liquefiable.The Liquefiable are Gold, Silver, Copper, Tin, Lead, and other of like kind.

Not Liquefi­ble.The not or hardly Liquefiable are

  • Precious.
  • Brittle.

Stones.Those that are altogether Hard are Stones of all sorts. Stones are bred of a waterish moisture, and of an oylie kind of Earth firmely compacted together.

Of Stones, some are

  • Precious.
  • Base.

Precious Stones. Stones precious are of that sort that we call in Latine Gemmae; which are of estimation either for that they are rarely to be gotten, or for some ver­tue fancied to be in them, or for that they are such as wherewith mans eye is wonderfully delighted by reason of their purenesse and beautifull transparent substance. Of which kind are the Diamond, Topaz, Escarbuncle, Emerald, Ruby, and such like. Of which sorts, twelve of chiefest note were appointed by God himself to be used in the principall ornament of the High Priest, Escarbuncle of most use in Armes. when he appeared before the Lord, presenting therein the Names of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, to shew how precious in his sight is the People and Nation which serveth him, as himselfe prescribeth. But of all these severall kinds, the Escarbuncle is of most use in Armes, and is borne as in these next Escocheons appeareth.

Escarbuncle of eight staves.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Ruby, a Chief Pearle, over all an Escar­buncle, of eight staves, or raies, pommette & florette, To­paz. This Coat-Armour pertained anciently to the Earls of Anjou, from whom came Geffrey Plantagenet Earl of Aniou, Geffrey Planta­genet. that married Maud the Empresse, daugh­ter to Henry the first, King of England. This Stone is called in Latine Carbunculus, which signifieth a little Cole, because it sparkleth like fire, and casteth forth as it were fiery raies. There is another kind of but fi­ery Carbuncle, which Chirurgeons can best handle, one of those of the Lapidaries, is more to be desired than ten of the other.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, two Bars, Azure, over all an Es­carbuncle, of eight raies, Gules, Pommette & Florette, Or. This Coat is cut in stone upon the Church-porch dore of Magnotsfield in the County of Glocester, and is borne by the name of Blount. Blount. As there is in all kinds of Mi­nerals, a vegetable life, even so and much more (saith Zanchius) is it judged that Stones have this life, yea, and that they have a passive capacity of Sicknesse, of Age, Passive capaci­ty of Minerals. and also of Death. Whether this be so or not, sure it is a pretty device, to advance their estimation with those who already too much dote on them; insomuch, as it was said of the Roman Empresses, that some of them did weare whole Kingdomes at their Eares, so now many a one hang whole Mannours on their sleeves.

Stones base.So much of Precious Stones: now of those which are Base; such we esteem all those to be, which both for their ordinary and base imployments, and also for that they are easily to be had of all men, are of small estimation; as are these next following, with their like.

[Page 127]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Vert, three Flint stones, Argent,Flint-stonè. by the name of Flint. This Coate is quartered by the Right Honourable the Earle of Cumberland. The Flintstone is an ancient Embleme or token used by great persons. Iohannes Digionius Earle of Flanders gave for his De­vice, Ignitabulum Silicem feriens, Digionius Earl of Flanders. a Steele and a Flint stone, which well agreed with his disposition. This Earle was taken Prisoner by Bajazeth the Turke, and when he should have beene put to the sword, a Phy­siognomer, much esteemed by the Turke, perswaded him to let him goe free, saying, he foresaw in him,Censure of a Physiogno­mer. that when he came home, he would set a great part of Christendome in a cumbustion; as indeed he did, by reason of the murther of Lewes, brother to the French King, Charles the sixth; which his murder, the Franciscane Friers did as impiously defend, by the examples of Zimri killed by Phinees, Holofernes by Judith, Franciscane Friers. Sisera by Jael, and the Aegyptians by Moses. As the like examples are still produced by the traiterous Parricides of Kings and Princes, set on work y the Grandfather of such holy Treasons. The said Earles son, Philippus Bonus, was Founder of the Order of the Golden Fleece, which hangeth at a col­ler made with the formes of the said Steeles and Flint stones;Steeles. which or­der the King of Spain still upholdeth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, three Milstones, Argent, by the name of Milveton. Three Mil­stones. The Milstone representeth unto us the mutuall converse of humane Society; because Milstones are never occupied single, but by couples; and each standeth in need of the others help, for the performance of the work whereunto they are ordained. Hereupon our mutuall amities and assistances are tearmed in Latine, Necessitudines Amicitiae, because every man standeth in need of some fast and assured friend,Whereto re­sembled. by whose counsell and advice he may be supported for the better compassing of whatsoever affaires of importance he shall undertake. Of all the rare Stones before mentioned, in my judgment men have cause to esteem the Milstone (though here we have placed it amongst baser stones) the most precious Stone of all others;Needfull use thereof. yet I would be loth to wish any Lady to wear it at her Eare.

So much of Metals or Minerals (for I use the word in the largest sense) that are hard and not Liquefiable;Minerals used in the largest sense. there are other also which we recko­ned to be hardly Liquefiable, in respect of their brittle nature; such are Alome, Salt, Amber, Chalk, &c. but there is no use of them in Armes. Because in this Chapter, I have spoken of Precious stones, divers of which are of use in Heraldry, for Blazoning of the Coat-Armours of Nobili­ty (as my self have often occasion to do in sundry parts of this Work) before I proceed further I will set down those severall stones, as they answer to their severall metals and colours; together with the Pla­nets also, which I use onely in the Atchievements of Kings and great Princes.

[Page 128]Selected Formes of Bla­zon before mentioned

  • Metall and Colours.
    • 1 Or.
    • 2 Argent.
    • 3 Gules.
    • 4 Azure.
    • 5 Sable.
    • 6 Vert.
    • 7. Purpure.
    • 8 Tenne.
    • 9 Sanguine.
  • Precious Stones.
    • 1 Topaz.
    • 2 Pearl.
    • 3 Ruby.
    • 4 Saphire.
    • 5 Diamond.
    • 6 Emerald.
    • 7 Amethyst.
    • 8 Jacynthe.
    • 9 Sardonyx.
  • Planets.
    • 1 Sol.
    • 2 Luna.
    • 3 Mars.
    • 4 Jupiter.
    • 5 Saturne.
    • 6 Venus.
    • 7 Mercury.
    • 8 Dragons head.
    • 9 Dragons taile.


SO much touching examples of such Natures, as do live after a sort: in the next place succeed those things, which do live perfectly or properly; such Natures are those as have in them expresse and manifest tokens of a living soul.

Of this kind, some are

  • Vegetable.
  • Sensitive.

Forasmuch as I am now to treat of vegetable Animals, and of their par­ticular kinds; I must excuse my self in two things before I enter into the Exemplifying of them: The one, that there is no cause that any man should expect at my hands an expresse demonstration of each particular species of them: And that I should run through and display their mani­fold and almost innumerable kinds, for that would be a tedious travell and (besides) an infinite and unnecessary charge and cost, and withall far wide from the project of my prefixed purpose. The other thing (and the same more pertinent to that I do intend) is, That in handling of vegetables and Sensitives, I purpose onely to distribute their severall ranks of Distri­bution, according to their Order to them prescribed by Nature, which to ex­presse is my chiefest drift, and the principall scope that I do aime at.

Of the perfect sort of Creatures there are many kinds, whereof some are of more perfection and more worthy than others, according to their more excellent kind of life, or worthinesse of soul.

Of these the lesse perfect sort of bodies were first created; and then such as were of more perfection. Plants are more worthy than Metals, and A­nimals of more reckoning than Plants: therefore were these first created, and those afterwards.

Of Animals wherewith God did adorne the Aire, the Waters and the Earth, there are divers kinds, whereof some were more worthy than others; in the Creation of these did God observe the same order.

Between the Creation of Plants and Animals, it pleased God in his un­searchable wisedome, to interpose the Creation of the Stars wherewith he beautified the Heavens, he did it to this end; to give us to understand, that albeit the Sun with his light and motion together with the Stars do concur in the generation of Plants and Animals, neverthelesse their genera­tion is not to be attributed simply to the influence and power of these Ce­lestiall bodies; but onely to the Omnipotency of God, inasmuch as by his powerfull Word he commanded the Earth to produce all sorts of Plants and their fruits, before the Stars were created.

[Page 129]From the most fertile and pleasant Garden of Eden, unto the most bar­ren and desolate Wildernesse, may we see and behold the great and won­derfull Works of God, and take occasion to extoll his Omnipotency, Wisdome and Mercy. As we may observe, Esay 41.19. I will set in the Wildernesse the Cedar, the Shittah tree, and the Myrre tree, and the Pine tree; and I will set in the Wildernesse the Firre tree, the Elme, and the Box together. Therefore let them see and know, and let them consider and understand together, that the hand of the Lord hath done this, and that the Holy one of Israel hath created it, Verse 20. Hence we may gather that there is no object so mean that presenteth it self to our view, but will minister some just occasion to glorifie God.

Men are accustomed to attribute the propagation of these, either to the influence of nature, or to the travell and industry of man; but these were produced before any other of like kind could be found upon the face of the Earth, whereof it might be imagined they might receive being; for as yet there had never fallen any raine to fructifie the Earth, whereby it might produce green herbs, nor as yet was Man created, that might ma­nure and till the ground for that purpose: therefore neither were they produced naturally, or of their own accord, nor yet by the Art, Skill, or industry of Man, but by the immediate Word and commandment of God.

The reason that moved Moses to give an instance of Plants and Herbs, how that they were produced by the vertue and power of Gods word onely, and not naturally, or by the skill and industry of man; neither yet of A­nimals, nor of any other of the infinite number of things created (Genesis 1.11.) was this, because the generation of Plants and Herbs might be much more doubted of, than the originall of other things.

Of the first springing of Trees in the Creation Moses saith, Et germinare fecerat Jehova Elohim è terra omnem arborem concupiscibilem, id est, visu, & bonam ad escam; which words do comprehend all the desireable qualities of fruit trees▪ for in them we expect that their fruits should be either de­lightfull to the Eye, or that they should be fit for food and wholesome, and that they be also fragrant and sweet smelling: For the fruits of Trees, the better they be, the more odoriferous they are.

That the Trees, wherewith Paradise was planted, had all these qualities, it is manifest by the words of Moses, in that he saith, Concupiscibilem ad vi­sum, & bonam ad escam: whereby we gather that the sight is delighted with things beautifull and glorious, the smell with sweet and pleasant savours, and the palate with things of sweet and pleasant taste. And none of these are in themselves evill; for such was the constitution of Adam before he transgressed, that he might have delighted himself in them all without offence; and to that end did God create them, that he should use them with thanksgiving.

Moses describeth unto us two principall qualities of the Garden of Pa­radise, whereby he layeth before us the pleasantnesse of the scituation thereof, and also the beauty and fertility of the soil: The first of these qualities was that it was replenished with all sorts of Trees, not onely most pleasant and delightfull to the Eye, but also most pleasant to the taste; for that they produced the best and sweetest fruits. The other quality was, that the whole circumference of the Garden of Paradise was surrounded and invironed with a River, being distributed into four heads, which did highly beautifie the same, and made it most pleasant to the view.

[Page 130]In this description Moses maketh mention of two Trees of speciall qua­lities, that were planted in the middest of Paradise: The one named the Tree of Life, the other the Tree of Knowledge of good and evill.

The first of these had a vivificant power in it self, the fruit whereof was ordained to this end; That being eaten it would enable a Man never to feel sicknesse, feeblenesse, old Age, or Death: but should evermore continue in the same state of strength and agility of body: This was the efficacy and power that was given to this Tree; whereof it was never yet deprived. Therefore was this quality after a sort naturall there­unto.

For this cause was there a Cherub set at the entrance of Paradise, to keep out such as would enter the same, and eate of the fruit of the Tree of Life; that he should not alwayes live that kind of life.

How behovefull the knowledge of the vertues and operations of Trees, Plants, Herbs and other vegetables are for the extolling and manifesting the Omnipotency, Wisdome, Mercy, loving favour, and fatherly providence of our most gracious God towards sinfull Man, is, in that he hath created for the behoof and use of man, as well touching his necessary food and rayment, as for recreation and delight; we may evidently perceive by So­lomons industrious investigation of the vertues and operations of all sorts of vegetables, for (besides other his admirable qualities wherewith he was richly endued) he had surpassing knowledge in the vertues, operations and qualities of herbs and other vegetables, insomuch as he was able to reason, discourse, and dispute, not onely of Beasts, Fowles, creeping things and fishes, but of Trees also and Plants, from the Cedar in Lebanon, to the Hyssope that springeth out of the Wall, that is, from the highest and tallest tree to the smallest shrub and lowest herbe. Thus we see the knowledge and skill in naturall Philosophy to be holden in great estimation in all Ages, in­somuch as it hath been reckoned a study well befitting the dignity of a King, yea of Solomon who was the wisest King that ever was, and a Type of our Saviour Christ. But to returne to the vegetable.

Such are said to be vegetable as have in them a lively power of growing, budding, leafing, blossoming, and fructifying, as Trees, Plants, Herbs, Grasse, &c. and of these some grow on Trunks or solid bodies, some upon flexible Stalks: some again grow upon a single Stemme, as commonly all Trees do, some upon manifold Stemmes, as Shrubs, Roses, &c.

Trees what. Trees are certain Plants, springing from a root with a single Trunk or Stemme (for the most part) shooting up in height, and delineated with lims, sprigs or branches. Of these Trees some are more proper to hot Coun­tries, as the Frankincense tree to Arabia; the Balsamum, Myrrhe, Mace, and Nutmeg trees, as also the Pepper trees, and such like, which chiefly grow in India, the Plane tree in Aegypt and Arabia; the Pomegranate in Africa, &c. which I purposely passe over, and will onely give examples of other sorts to us better known,Examples of fruits better known to us. whether they be Trees fruitfull or barren. In giving examples whereof I purpose not to observe any precise order, but to mingle then pel-mel one with another, because I hold such curious sor­ting them, better fitting a professor or Physick or some Herbalist, than an Armorist; to whom it sufficeth to shew superficially, that these, and their severall parts, are borne in Coat-Armour, aswell simply of themselves, as also with things of different nature, as in the examples following may ap­peare.

[Page 131]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Or, on a Mount in base, An Ooak. an Oake acor­ned, Proper, by the name of Wood. Almighty God, what time by his powerfull word he did enable the Earth to fructifie, and produce Herbs and Trees with their variable fruits, said, Let the earth bud forth according to his kind, the bud of Herb that seedeth seed, the fruitfull Tree which beareth fruit according to his kind, which hath seed in it self upon the earth; and it was so: Genes. 1.24. whereby (saith Zanchius) we are admoni­shed that they should be preserved and nourished in the earth unto the time of seed for our necessary use, for that they profit little untill they be come unto their full ripenesse. The Oake is of the strongest sort of Trees, and therefore may best challenge the first place.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, on a Mount in a Base, a Pine Apple tree, fructed, Proper, by the name of Pine. Pine Apple Tree. There is a difference between the production of seed of Trees and of Herbs, aswell for the pro­pagation as for the preservation of their seve­rall kinds, for the Herbs do produce their seed in their stalkes without fruit; and the Trees do produce theirs in their fruit.

It is holden of some that the Pine Tree is a re­presentation of Death, forasmuch as the same being once felled, or cut down by the ground, the root thereof is said never to sprout or spring any more.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, on a Mount in Base, a Peare tree, Peare Tree. fructed, Proper, by the name of Pyrton, As God for the necessary sustenance of Man, ordained manifold varieties of nourishment, so likewise many sorts were created not onely for mans necessity, but also for his delight, both to Eye and taste; as too well appeared by the first woman, whose rash affection in this kind, all her Posterity hath since rued. But with­all God teacheth us by these dumb instructors, that man should not be fruitlesse, lest he become thereby f [...]ll onely fit for burning.

Those proposed examples are of whole bearing of Trees: Now of their parts, viz. their Leaves, Fruits, Slips, &c. promiscuously, as in example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules,Trunke. the Stemme or Trunk of a Tree Eradicated, or Mooted up by the roots, as also Cou­ped in Pale, sprouting out two branches, Argent, by the name of Borough, alias Stockden, of Borough in Leicester shire. Branches must needs wither which have neither shelter from above nor nourishment from beneath: being therein like that Roman Embas­sage, where the one Embassador had a giddy head, and the other gouty feet, whereof one said, that it had neither head nor foot.

[Page 132] [...]ee Oaken [...]ps.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Cheuron, Ermine, between three Oaken slips, acorned, Proper, by the name of Amades of Plymouth. By the words formerly noted to be extracted out of Gen. 1.24. Let the earth bud forth, &c. we do gather (saith Zanchius) a diverse manner of conserving of the severall kinds of Herbs and Trees by propagation (through the production of their Seeds whereby their particular sorts are preserved) the one that do bring forth their seed in their stalks without fruit, and Trees do produce their seed in their fruit.

Sterved bran­ches.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three sterved branches, slipped, Sable, by the name of Blackstock. This Example is of different nature from all the former, those bearing the signes of their vegetation and life, but this being mortified and unvested of the verdour which some­times it had; which is the condition of all mortall men, whose most flourishing estate must have a change, their beauty turned to baldnesse and withe­red wrinkles, and they leave all their riches, or their riches, leave them: this is the end o [...] [...] Tree, an [...] fruits of our worldly estate; but the fruits of holinesse will [...] perish, and the righteous man shall be as the tree planted by the Waters of life. Other Escoche­ons of the same kind ensue.

Limbe of a tree.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Bend of the limbe of a Tree, Raguled and Trunked, Argent, by the name of Pen­ruddock. That which I spake of before touching the Bend Crenelle, fitted by Art for the scaling of a Wal, the same seemeth to be here naturally found. At the first approach of King William and Conq [...]r, the green boughs of trees, borne by Souldiers▪ [...]ed for an excellent Stratagem of defence; and as helpfull an instrument of offence to the enemy may this trunked tree be, when other helps are wan [...]ng to the besiegers.


[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Stocks or Stumps [...]f Trees, Couped and Eradicated, Sable, by the name o [...] Retowre. If the top or boughes be cut off, yet the Root standing there is hope of a new growth: but when the Root is pluckt up, there remaineth no hope of re­viving. And therefore that was a fearfull warning, Now is the Axe put to the Root; which should quicken us to the bearing of good fruits, lest otherwise we mean to bear that dreadfull stroke, and the issue of that terrible commination.

[Page 133]

[blazon or coat of arms]

H [...] [...]eareth, Azure, three Laurel leaves slipped, Or, This is the paternall Coat-Armour of Sir Richard Leveson of Lilleshall in the County of Salop who was made Knight of the Bath at the Coronation of our Soveraign Lord King Charles. That the Laurell was in ancient times, thought to be a remedy against poyson, lightning, &c. and in war used as a token of peace and quietnesse, you may at your leasure read in Master Bossewell his book of Coats and Crests.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Topaz, five fig-leaves in Saltire, Emerald.Fig-leaves. This Coat appertaineth to the Count Feria of Spain. The Fig-leaves are the ancientest wearing that is, being the first cloathing of our first transgressing Parents. And I­raeneus saith, that they used not the Leaves of any o­ther Tree, to shew the torture and anguish of Repen­tance, signified by the roughness and sharpness where­with this sort of leaf is beset. Our Saviour Christ liked not to see Fig-leaves without Fruit, and therefore cur­sed the Tree: and accursed will their condition be, the growth of whose Faith and Religion is in shew, and not in substance of fruitfull works.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Ermine, two bars, Sable,Elmen leaves. each char­ged with five Elmen leaves, Or, by the name of Elmes of Lilford in the County of Northampton. It is suppo­sed that there is great love, and a naturall Sympathy be­twixt the Elme Tree and the Vine, because the Vine ne­ver prospereth better than when it groweth by the Elme, whereas the Elme it self is of all Trees the most barren. So should those who have few good parts in themselves, yet at least cherish and support such, as Nature and Art have enabled to produce better fruits of their industry.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, Three Woodbine leaves pendant, Woodbine leaves. Azure. This Coat-Armour pertaineth to the Family of Gamboa in Spain. Sometimes you shall have these Leaves borne bend-waies, as in this next Escocheon. The Woodbine is a loving and amorous plant, which em­braceth all that it growes near unto; but without hurting of that which it loveth: and is therein con­trary to the Ivy (which is a Type of lust, rather than of love) for it hurteth that which it most embraceth. Sometimes you shall find Leaves of sundry sorts of Trees borne Ordinary waies, as in example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Woodbine leaves Bend-waies, Proper, 2. and 1. by the name of Theme. These Leaves are all one with those in the last precedent Es­cochon in shape, but different from them in the man­ner of their position, in that those are borne with their points downwards, and these naturally or up­wards. Other whiles they are borne in forme of o­ther Ordinaries, as by example shall hereafter be [Page 134] made plaine. Moreover you shall finde them sometimes borne with Or­dinaries betwene them, as in this next Escocheon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a Cheuron, Gules, betweene three Nettle Leaves, Nettle leaves. Proper, by the name of Malherbe, De­von. The Nettle is of so tetchie and froward a nature, that no man may meddle with it, as many testy-natured men are. One writes, that a little Girle being stung by a Nettle in her fathers Garden, complained to him that there was such a curst Herbe in his Gar­den, as that it was worse than a Dog, for it would bite them of their owne house. Her Father answered her, that it was the nature of it to be unpartiall, and friend or foe were all alike to it. Yet this property it hath, that the har­der you presse it the lesse it will sting.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Sable, three Wallnut-leaves, Or, be­tween two Bendlets, Argent, by the name of Waller, and is the Coat-Armour of Sir William Waller of Winchester Castle in Hampshire and Groombridge in Kent, Sir Hardress Waller Major Generall of Ireland, and Edward Waller of Beconsfield Esquire, all descen­ded from Richard Waller of Groombridge Esquire, who at the battell of Angencourt took prisoner the Duke of Orleans, to signalize which action the Fa­mily have ever since borne hanging on their anci­ent Crest (viz. a Wallnut tree) the Armes of France with a Labell; this Coat with his due difference belongs to Richard Waller Merchant Adven­turer of London.

Holly leaves.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Holly Leaves pendent, Pro­per, by the name of Inwine. Note that when leaves are borne after this manner, viz. pendent, you must tell in what fashion they are borne: but if their points onely be upwards, then it sufficeth to say Leaves, because it is their most naturall and proper way when they are in full vigor. Now I will shew you an example, where three leaves are borne Bar-wayes.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Holly leaves, Barwaies, two and one, their stalkes towardes the Dexter part of the Escocheon, Borne bar­wayes. Proper, by the name of Arnest, Devon. These seeme to have beene, (as still they are) much used in Adorning the Temples an [...] Sacred places; es­pecially at the most solemne time of our Saviours Na­tivity, and thence to have taken that Holy name. There is a kinde of Holly that is void of these Prickles and of gentler nature, and therefore called Free-holly, which in my opinion is the best Holly; and so it was in his, who saith, that charity (the daughter of true holinesse) is gentle and hurteth not, but rather suffereth all things: farre unlike to those Hedge-hogge holy-ones, whose sharpe censures and bitter words pierce thorow all those who con­verse with them.

[Page 135]

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The Field is, Argent, a Pomegranat, in Pale, slipped, Pomegranats. Proper. These Armes do pertain to the City and Country of Granata, within the Dominions of the King of Spain, scituated by the Mediterranean Sea. This fruit is holden to be of profitable use in Phy­sick, for the qualifying and allaying of the scorching heat of burning Agues, for which end the juyce thereof is reckoned to have a very soveraigne vertue.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, three Peares, Or,Peares. by the name of Stukeley, Devon. This fruit, as other, was ordai­ned for the comfort of man: but as the Devill made use of the Apple to the destruction of man, so did the Divils Imps use the Peare to a wicked end, when the Monkes of Swinsted inviting King John to a Banquet, poisoned him in a dish of Peares, though others write it was in a Cup of Ale.

Concerning the fruits of Trees, Prohibition of the Tree. God in the begin­ning gave unto Man a free scope to use them with­out restraint, onely the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of good and evill ex­cepted, whereof he was prohibited the eating upon pain to dye the Death whensoever he should taste thereof. In this prohibition God would, that he should not so much respect the fruit of the Tree, as the Soveraign autho­rity of him that forbade the eating thereof, yea, this chiefly and princi­pally first, and secondly, the fruit because of the interdiction.

The end for which God did prohibit Adam the eating of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of good and evill, was, that notwithstanding God had gi­ven him a Soveraign jurisdiction on earth, yet was he not so absolute a governour and commander, but that he had a Lord Paramount to whose hests he was simply and with all reverence to obey, and that he should know that God his Creator was above him, whose will should be unto him the Rule of all Justice, and whereunto he should conforme all his actions, counsels, and cogitations, that he should evermore have an awfull eye unto him, and alwayes hope in him, glorifie, fear, reverence, and love him. The end I say, was this; That Adam should know both God, and himself: God as his true creator, himself to be his creature; God, to be his Lord; him­self, his servant; God a most bountifull and magnificent giver of all good blessings; himself, Gods foster-child, and such a one as must acknowledge that whatsoever he possesseth, proceedeth from Gods free bounty and mercy; and therefore should render under him continuall praise and thanks for the same, from the ground and bottome of his heart.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Gules, a Cheuron, Ermine, between 3 Pine Apples, erected, Or, by the name of Pine. A Cheuron between three Pine Apples. The Pine tree was in much request in ancient times, for ador­ning of walks about Mansion houses; according to that of the Poet:

Fraxinus in sylvis pulcherrima, Pinus in hortis,
Populus in fluviis, Abies in montibus albis:
The Ash in Woods makes fairest shew;
The Pine in Orchards nigh;
By Rivers best is Poplars hew,
The Firre on Mountains high.

[Page 136] Three Mul­beries.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, three Mulberies, their Stalks trun­ked, Proper. The Mulbery tree is an Hieroglyphick of Wisdome, whose property is to speake and to do all things in opportune season: And it is reputed (as I may say) the wisest of all [...]rees, in regard it never sprowteth, nor buddeth, untill such time as all ex­tremity of cold Winter season be clearly past and gone. This Fruit hath a Purple blushing colour, in the the one resembling the Judges attire who attempted Susanna, Susanna in the other that hue of their face which should have been in them, if they had been so gracious to blush at their fault, as they were hasty to commit it. A greater sin in them than in o­thers, because they were to punish others for the like offences: but it is no rare thing to see the great Offenders hang the little.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, on a Bend, Sable, three Clusters of Grapes, Argent. This Coat appertaineth to Sir Edmound de Maroley Knight of the County of Yorke. He lived in the time of Edward the First. How profitable the mo­derate use of the juyce of the Grape may be to man, is as manifest, as the inconvenience that doth attend the too much bibbing of the same is odious.

Apple called Pomum.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Bar, Argent, three Apples e­rected in Base, or by the name of Harlewin, Devon. An Apple is called in Latine Pomum, which is a gene­rall word for all sorts of eatable fruits, insomuch as Plin. lib. 15. cap. 22. comprehendeth Nuts also un­der this name, albeit the same is most commonly ta­ken for this sort of fruit. If we desire to have Apples to continue longer upon the trees then their accu­stomed season of ripening, Slow ripning how procured. we may effect the same by wreathing of the boughes and platting them toge­ther one in another; as Farnesius noteth, saying, Praeter naturae tempus, ex arbore pendebunt Poma, si ramusculos contorqueri jusserimus: whereof he yeel­deth this reason, that by means of such wreathing and platting, the hu­mour is more slowly concocted or digested, so that they cannot ripen with that maturity, as those which are not hindred of their naturall pas­sage and action. Hereby we learn, that Art worketh forcibly in things meerely vegetable;Force of Art. how much more effectuall and powerfull is educa­tion (which is reckoned a second nature) in forming and reforming the conditions and inclinations of men?


Plants grow­ing on a manifold stalke.HItherto of Plants growing upon a simple body or Stemme with their common parts. Now of such as grow upon a manifold stalk or ten­der sprigs, as Flowers, Herbs, and such like, as in example.

[Page 137]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermine, a Rose, Sole bearing of a Rose. Gules Barbed and See­ded, Proper, by the name of Beverley. Amongst Flow­ers of ancient time, the Rose was holden in chiefest e­stimation, as appeareth in Scholiis Epist. St. Hieron. de vit. Hilar. where it is said, Rosis apud Priscos prima gloria fuit inter flores. The Portracture or resemblance of a Rose, may signifie unto us some kind of good en­vironed or beset on all sides with evils, as that is with prickles, which may give us notice how our pleasures and delights are bejet with bitternesse and sharpnesse. Here I do blazon this Rose Gules, because the word Proper fit­teth not this flower: for if I should blazon it a Rose Proper, it could not be understood of what colour the same were, forasmuch as White and Crimson are as proper to Roses as Red. Therefore for the more certainty I have blazoned it Gules.

[blazon or coat of arms]

Or, a Cheuron between three Roses, Gules, by the name of Byshe, an eminent Ornament to which Family is Edward Byshe Esquire Garter principall King of Armes.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Roses, Gules, on a Chief, of the second as many of the Field, by the name of Caesar of Bennington in the County of Hart­ford, and of this Family were Sir Julius and Sir Charles Caesar, both Masters of the Rolles.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Lion Rampant, Gules, on a Chief, Sable, three Roses of the Field, this is the Coat of the Honourable Sir Francis Russell of Chippenham in the County of Cambridge Baronet, who hath issue William Russell Esquire, and other Sons and Daugh­ters, of which Elizabeth is wife of Henry Cromwell se­cond son of Oliver late Protector of England, which Sir Francis was Son of Sir William Russell, Knighted 1615. created Baronet 1628. many years Treasurer of the Navy-Royall.

[Page 138] A Rose upon a Canton.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, on a Canton, Gules, a Rose, Or, Barbed, Proper, by the name of Bradston of Win­terborne in the County of Glocester. This beautifull and fragrant flower doth lively represent unto us the momentary and fickle state of mans life, the frailty and inconstancy whereof is such,Whereunto re­sembled. as that we are no sooner born into the world, but presently we begin to leave it; and as the delectable beauty and redo­lent smell of this pleasant flower doth suddenly fade and perish; even so mans life, his beauty, his strength and worldly estate, are so weak, so mutable, and so momentary, as that oftentimes in the same day wherein he flourisheth in his chiefest jollity, his beauty consumeth, his body decayeth, and his vitall breath de­parteth, and thus he leaveth his life as if he had never been. Of this sud­den fading of the Rose a certain Poet writeth in this manner.

Mirabar celerem fugitiva aetate rapinam,
Et dum nascuntur consenuisse Rosas.
Quam long a una dies, aetas tam longa Rosarum,
Quas pubescentes juncta senecta premit.
As fades the blushing Rose, so speeds,
our flowry youth away:
It growes, it blowes, it speeds, it sheds,
her beauty in one day.

Fruit bearing plants of ma­nifold stalks.Of such Plants that grow upon a manifold body or stalke, there are some other sorts that do bear fruits, as in part may by this next example appeare.

Hurt berries.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Cheuron, Gules, between three Hurts, by the name of Baskervile, in the County of Hereford. These (saith Leigh) appeare light-blew, and come of some violent stroke. But if I mistake not, he is far wide from the matter, in that he likeneth these rundles unto vibices or hurts in a mans body proceeding of a stripe; whereas they are indeed a kind of fruit or small round berry, of colour betwixt Black and Blew, growing upon a manifold stalke, a­bout a foot high, and are found most commonly in Forrests and Woodland grounds; in some places they are called Wind-berries; and in others Hurts, or Hurtle-berries. They have their time when Straw­berries are in season. The near resemblance of their names caused Leigh to mistake the one for the other.


Of such as grow on a single stalke.THus much of Vegetables, growing either on a single or manifold Stemme or Body. Now of such as grow upon a bending Stalke, such are Herbs of all sorts. And of these some are Nutritive, others lesse Nu­tritive: the first sort are in ordinary use of diet, such are both those which produce Graine, and those serve for seasoning of the Pot, Salades, and the like. Such as do produce Graine are these, and their like, Wheat, Rie, Producing Graine. Beans, Pease, Barley, Spelt, Oates, &c. Of these such are most usuall in [Page 139] Coat-Armour as are accustomed to be bound up in Sheafs, as Wheat, Rie, Commin, &c. As in part by these next examples may appear.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, Issuant out of a Mount, in Base, Wheat stalkes three Wheat stalkes, Bladed and Eared, all Proper. This is a Venetian Coat-Armour, and pertaineth to the Fa­mily of Garzoni. And here we see a Mount borne, which we before mentioned, as a bearing of the na­ture of one of the four Elements. As before we ho­honoured the Milstone with the name of the chief of precious stones, so may we justly give precedence to this Plant above all other in the world; no one kind of food being so necessary for preservation of mans life as this, which therefore the Scripture calls the staffe of bread, because it upholds the very being of mankind. For which cause, as the Heathens ac­counted Ceres and others, as gods for inventing means to increase Corne; so are those to be held Enemies to mankind, whosoever through covetousness overthrow Tillage, as by Inclosures, and depopulations of Villages, &c. And how inestimable a blessing Corne is, may by this be conceived, that no Country is said to have a Famine, so long as it hath Corne, though all o­ther things be scarce: but if all other things abound, and Corne be wanting, that one want bringeth both the name and the heavy punishment of a Famine.

Among the manifold blessings promised by God to the observers of his Lawes, plenty of Corne is reckoned one of the chiefest, Levit. 26.3. If ye walk in my Statutes, and keep my commandments, and do them; then will I give you rain in due season, and the Land shall yeeld her increase, and the Trees of the field shall yeeld their fruit, and your threshing shall reach unto the Vintage, and the Vintage shall reach unto the sowing time: and you shall eate your bread to the full, and dwell in your land safely. And again, Deuter. 8.7. For the Lord thy God bringeth thee into a good Land, a Land of brooks of Water, of Fountains and depths that spring out of Valleys and Hils; A Land of Wheat and Barley, and Vines and Fig-trees, and Pomgranates; A Land of Oyle Olive and Honey; a Land wherein thou shalt eate bread without scarcenesse, thou shalt not lack any thing in it. A Land whose stones are Iron, and out of whose Hils thou mayst digge brasse.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, three Eares of Ginny Wheat, Wheat stalks. Couped and bladed, Or, by the name of Grandgorge. This is a kind of Grain not much inferiour to our Wheat for use, but for multiplication, beauty and large­nesse much beyond it: and of this, most undoubted­ly true is the saying of our Saviour, that one Grain bringeth forth fifty, yea an hundred fold: and such should be the increases of Gods graces in us, which are not put into us there to dye utterly, but to increase to our own good, and the givers glory. Saint Paul makes an excellent argument here to satisfie a very naturall man, touching the Resurrection of the dead, which is no more unpossible than for dead corne to sprout out of the earth, much more flourishing, yea, and more a­bundant then it was cast in.

[Page 140]

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He beareth, Gules, on a Bend, Argent, three Rie stalks, Sable, by the name of Rye, or Reye. Were it that these stalkes had beene borne in their proper kinde,Three Rie stalkes. it would have beautified the Coate greatly, and made the same much more commendable for bearing, by how much sweet and kindly ripened Corne is more valuable and to be desired, than that which is blasted and mildewd: that being a speciall blessing of God, and this the expresse and manifest tokens of Gods heavy wrath inflicted upon us for our sins. As appeareth in the Prophet Amos. 4.9. I have smitten you with blasting and Mildew, &c. And likewise in Haggai the second, the same words are used.Amos 4. Hag 2.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Ermyne, two Flaunches, Azure, each charged with three Eares of Wheat, couped, Or, by the name of Greyby of Northampton shire. it maketh not a little to the commenda [...]ion of this graine, that it is taken in the Scriptures for the faithfull where it is said, Which hath his Fa [...]me in his hand, and will make cleane his floore, and gather his Wheate into his Gar­ner, &c.

These sorts of Graine are most usually borne in Coate-Armour bound up in sheafes, and banded of the same Metall or Co­lour; A Garbe of Wheate. yet shall you finde their band sometimes of a diverse Metall or Colour from them.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Azure, a Garbe, Or, This Coate-Armour pertaineth to the ancient Family of Grav [...]nor of Che­shire, whose name was anciently written Grosvenour, or Grosvenor, as it is at this day. They beare this Garbe from their Ancestors who were of consanguinity to the ancient Earles of Chester, as it is proved in the Re­cord of that famous suite betwixt Sir Richard Scroope plantiff, and Sir Robert Grosvenour defendant for their Armes in Anno 12. Regis Richardt Secundi. For with William the Conquerour came Hugh Lupus his Nephew, and with the said Hugh Lupus came one Gilbert le Grosvenour Nephew to the said Hugh, who was Ancestor to the said Sir Robert Grosvenour: from whom is Lineally descended Sir Richard Grosvenor of Eaton in the County Palatine of Chester, Knight and Baronet, Heire Male of that Family. Of which Family is also that accomplished Gentleman Colonel Gravenor. A like unto this is borne by Holmeshed, saving that the band of that Garbe is Vert. There is a kind of wretched Cormorants, whose Garbes are so fast bound that the poore curseth their mercilesse hearts: and such an one was Hatto Abbot of Fulda, Munst. Cos­mograph. who suffered Rats rather to eat up his Corn, then he would help the wants of the poore; but his punishment was answerable thereun­to; for the Rats devoured him, though he garded himselfe in a Castle pur­posely built in the midst of the River Rehene, which is there this day to be seen.

[Page 141]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, three Garbes, Or, by the name of Preston. This Coat-Armour is quartered by the wor­they Family of Hennage of Lincolnshire, for John Hen­nage of Hainton in the County of Lincolne married Elizabeth the Daughter and heir of Iohn Preston. Here you may observe that I mention not the bands of Garbes because they differ not in Metall or Colour from the Garbes. Sometimes you shall finde these Garbes borne with an Ordinarie interposed betweene them, as in this next example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Pearle,Cheuron be­tween Garbes. a Cheuron betweene three Garbes, Ruby. This Coate-Armour pertaineth to the right honourable Edmund Earle of Mulgrave, Baron Sheffield of Butterwicke, and Knight of the most Noble order of the Garter. An Escoheon like unto this (but of different Colour and Metall, viz. the Field, Saphire, a Cheuron between three Garbes, Topaz, as here next followeth) was borne by Sir Christopher Hatton late Lord Chancellor of England, Councellour to that Peerelesse Queen Elizabeth of immortall memorie: a Coat well befitting his Magnificencie and bounteous Hospitality, wherein he hath scarce had any Rivall ever since.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Cheuron between three Garbes, Or, by the name of Hatton, this is the Coat of that right worthy Gentleman and excellent An­tiquary Sir Christopher Hatton Knight of the Bath, Baron of Kirby in Northamptonshire, and also of Sir Thomas Hatton of Long Stanton in the County of Cam­bridge, Knight and Baronet, lately deceased. Of — Hatton, of London Merchant.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Cheuron, engrailed, Ermine, between three Garbes, Or, by the name of Hill of Somerset-shire, a very ancient Family there, of which is Roger Hill, one of the Barons of the Exchequer.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Or, on a Fesse, Azure,Garbe upon a Fesse. three Garbes of the first, by the name of Vernon. This is an ancient Family of Cheshire, and descended of the worthy Stemme of Vernons that were Barons of Shipbrooke, and do beare these Garbes for a difference from the elder House that did beare, Or, onely a Fesse, Azure. And the reason of the bearing of their Garbes was, for that they would make knowne that they were descended from the said Barons of Shipbrooke, who anciently held of the Earles of Chester.

[Page 142]

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He beareth, Azure, a Fesse betweene three Garbes, Or, by the name of Le-white of Bromham in Wiltshire. The Garbe, signifieth in Heraldrie plentie, or abun­dance, and that the first Bearer did deserve well for his Hospitality.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Fesse Dauncette, between six Garbes, Fesse dauncet­tie between Garbs. Or, by the name of Rayncowrt. Leigh calleth i [...] a Sheafe of Wheat; but though it were of Rie, Barley, or Comine, or whatsoever it were (saith he) it is suf­ficient to call it a Garb (which is a Freneh or rather Teutonicke word, signifying a Sheafe) telling the Colour or Metall whereof it is. As to their sole and diverse bearing upon, and with Ordinaries betweene them, these few examples may suffice for the present. O­thers shall follow in their places.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Beane Coddes Barrewayes, two and one, Bean Cods. Proper, by the name of Hardbeane. The Beane in ancient times amongst the Grecians, was of great authority, for by it they made all the Ma­gistrates of their Common-Weales, which were chosen by casting in of Beanes in stead of giving of Voices or Suffrages. But Pythagoras taught his Scholars to hate the Beane above all other Vegetables; meaning per­chance, that they should shunne the bearing of any Office: though others give other reasons of that his doctrine: Some write, that the flowers of the Beanes, though very pleasing to the smell, yet are very hurtfull to weake braines; and that therefore in the time of their flowring, there are more foolish than at other times; meaning belike those, who then distill these flowers to make themselves faire therewith.

To this Head must be referred all other sorts of Nutritive Herbes borne in Coat-Armour, Reference. whether they produce Graine in Eare, Cod or Huske; or that they be Herbes for the Pot, or Sallads, as Betonie Spinage, Coleworts, Lettice, Purslain, Leeks, Scallions, &c. All which I leave to observation, because I labour by all means to pass thorough this vast Sea of the infinite varieties of Nature, with what convenient brevity I may, because Quod brevius est, semper delectabilius habetur; in such things as these, The shorter the sweeter.


Herbs lesse nutritive.NExt after Herbs Nutritive, let us take a taste of Herbs lesse Nutritive, which are either Coronary or Physicall. Coronary Herbs are such as in respect of their odoriferous smell have been of long time, and yet are used for decking and trimming of the body, or adorning of houses, or other pleasurable use for eye or sent: as also in respect of [Page 143] their beautifull shape and colour, were most commonly bestowed in making of Crowns and Garlands; of which uses they received their name of Coro­nary. Amongst which, we may reckon the Rose before expressed, to be one of the chiefest, as also Violets of all sorts, Glove-Gilloflowers, Sweet Mar­joram, Rosemary, White Daffadill, Spikenard, Rose Campion, Daisies, &c. But of all other, the Flower de lis is of most esteem,Estimation of the Flower de-lis. having been from the first Bearing, the Charge of a Regall Escocheon, originally borne by the French Kings, though tract of time hath made the Bearing of them more vulgar: even as Purple was in ancient times a wearing onely for Princes, which now hath lost that prerogative through custome. Out of these several kinds I have selected some few Examples, as in the Escocheons following appears.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Saphire, a Flower de lis, Pearle, by the name of Digby, of which Family there are many wor­thy accomplisht branches, as George Earle of Bristol, and the Lord Sherburne his son, Sir Kenelme, and John Digby Esquire his son (who married that excellent Lady the Lady Katharine Daughter of Henry Howard late Earle of Arundell) the Lord Digby of Geshull, &c.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He bears, Vert, a Flower de lis, Argent, by the name of Fowke or Foulke, an ancient and spreading Family, of which a deserving Ornament is Thomas Foulke now Alderman of London.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermine, a Flower de lis, on a Chief, Sable, a Mullet, Or, by the name of Gaire, and was borne by Sir John Gaire, late Alderman and Mayor of London, who left issue male John Gaire Esquire, since deceased, and Robert Gaire a hope­full Gentleman.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or,Cheuron be­tween three Flowers de lis. a Cheuron between three Flowers de Lis, Sable. This Coat-Armour pertaineth to the very worshipfull Sir Thomas Fanshaw Knight of the Bath, his Majesties Remembrancer of his Highnes Court of Exchequer. This Flower is in Latine called Iris, for that it somewhat resembleth the colour of the Rain­bow. Some of the French confound this with the Lily; as he did, who doubting the validity of the Salike-Law to debarre the Females from the Crown of [Page 144] France, would make it sure out of a stronger Law; because (forsooth) Lilia non laborant, neque nent; the Lillies neither labour, nor spin: which rea­son excludes as well a Laborious Hercules, as a spinning Omphale.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Argent, on a Cheuron, Gules, between three flowers de lis, Sables, an Inescocheon of the first, charged with a sinister hand couped at the wrist as the second. This is the Coat-armour of that Noble Knight and Baronet, Sir Basill Dixwell of Folkston in Kent de­ceased. Whose reall expressions of true love and af­fection to his native Country deserves commemoration; and is now borne by the honourable John Dixwell Esquire, a member of this Parliament, and one of the Counsell of State, Nephew to the said Sir Basill. Here I name of the first, and as the second, to avoid iteration of the same words, according to the rule formerly given.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Fesse wavy between three Flowers de lis, Or, by the name of Hicks, which is the Coat of Sir William Hicks of Beverston in Glocestershire, Knight and Baronet, now of Essex, and was also the bearing of Sir Baptist Hicks Knight and Baronet, Vis­count Campden in Glocestershire, a munificent Bene­factour to that Town, and also to severall places in Middlesex.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, on a Cheuron engrailed, between six crosses Patee-Fitchee, Cheuron char­ged upon. Or, three flowers de lis, Azure, each charged on the top with a Plate, by the name of Smith of Nybley in the county of Glocester. The Plate is the representation of Silver Bullion fitted for the stamp, and therefore need not have other Blazon than its own name. Armorists hold that this bearing of Sable, and Or, answers to Diamond joyned with Gold, whereof each giveth honour to the other; and it may well beseem a Bearer, whose sober and well composed conditions are accompanied with the lustre of shining vertues.

Bend interpo­sed.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Bend, Argent, between six Flowers de lis, Or, by the name of Redmere. This Coat-Armour have I added in regard of the variety of bearing hereof from those before handled, inas­much as in this one Escocheon, is comprehended the full number contained in both the former; as also to make known in what manner, these or other Char­ges of like Bearing must be placed, the same being borne entire: But if they were strowed, or (as I may better term it) Seminated all over the Field; then were it not a bend between, but upon, or over them; forasmuch as in such bearing onely the halves of many of them, or some greater or lesser portion of them would appear aswell under the Bend, as in the limits or edges of the Escocheon.

[Page 145]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, on a Crosse, Sable, five flowers de lis, of the first: This Coat-Armour in the time of King Henry the fourth, appertained unto Robert le-Neve of Tivetishall in the County of Norfolke (as appeareth by Seals of old Deeds and ancient Rolles of Armes) from whom are descended those of that surname now remaining at Aslactun, Witchingham, and other places in the said County. If this Crosse were seminated all over with Flowers de lis, shewing upon the sides or edges thereof but the halves of some of them, then it should be blazoned Semie de flowers de lis: And the like is to be observed when they be so borne upon any other Ordinary, or Charge.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, on a Saltire, Sable, five flowers de li, Or: This Coat-armour pertaineth to Sir Tho­mas Hawkins of Nash in Kent, Knight. I have inserted this Escocheon not onely to shew you that this flower is borne upon this kind of Ordinary, but also to give demonstration that the Saltire charged containeth the third part of the field, according to the rule for­merly given.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Fesse, Engrailed, between three Flowers de lis, Argent, by the name of Ashfield, of which is now Sir Richard Ashfield of Netherhall in Suffolk Baro­net, son of Sir John Ashfield of the same place, created Baronet July 27. 1626.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, three Flowers de lis, Argent, a Chief, Vaire, by the name of Palmes of York-shire, and elsewhere.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, six Flowers de lis, Azure, a Chief, Or, being (with the Armes of Ʋlster) the Atchievement of the honourable Sir Wil­liam Paston of Oxnead in the County of Norfolk Knight and Baronet, a great Patron and Promo­ter of Arts and Ingenuity.

[Page 146] [...]olledge of Winchester.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Sable, three Lillies slipped, their stalks, seeds, blades and leaves, Argent. These Armes pertain to the Colledge of Winchester, founded by the renow­ned Architect, William Wickham, Bishop of Winton, who contrived those many and most curious Castles and other buildings of King Edward the third: and besides this goodly Colledge of Winton, built another magnificent Colledge (called the New Colledge) in the Ʋniversity of Oxford: two such absolute Foundations as never any King of this Land did the like. This Wickham having finished the Castle of Windsor, caused to be inscribed on the Wall of the Round Tower, This made Wickham; which caused such as were envious of his high favour, to suggest unto the King, that he arroga­ted all the honour of that great Work to himself: but he pleasantly sa­tisfied the King, saying, that he wrote not, Wickham made this; but, This made Wickham; because by his service in these Works he had gained his Soveraigns Princely favour.

Treefoiles slipped.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Fesse Nebule, between three treefoiles slipped, Gules. This Coat pertaineh to George Thorpe of Wanswell in the County of Glocester, Esquire, one of the honourable band of his Majesties Gentlemen Pensioners. The Treefoile is accounted the Husbandmans Almanack, because when it shutteth in the leaves, it fore-telleth raine;The husband­mans calender. and therefore the Fesse Nebule, re­presenting the rainy clouds, is not unaptly joyned with it. This Leafe being grassie, some may marvell I should reckon it amongst the Coronaries: but they must know, that in ancient Roman times, amongst other sorts of Crowns the Graminea corona, or Grassie Crown, was of very high honour to the Wearer.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Cheuron, between three Treefoiles, Or, which is the Coat of that worthy Merchant John Lewis Esquire, of an ancient Family of that name in York-shire.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, on a Cheuron, Azure, be­tween three Treefoiles, Parted per Pale, Gules, and Vert, as many Bezants, being the Coat of Sir Henry Row of Shakelwell, of Colonel Owen Row, &c.

[Page 147]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, two Cheurons, between three Treefoyles, Sable, which is the Coat of Sir Thomas Ab­dy of Felphall in Essex, Knight and Baronet, and Ro­bert Abdy of London Merchant, and John Abdy, sons of Anthony Abdy sometime Alderman of London.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, three Quaterfoyles, Ar­gent, which is the Coat of Sir Francis Vincent, of Stoke Dabernon in Surrey, Baronet; of which Family is also William Vincent Esquire, Alderman of Lon­don, Sheriff 1659.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Cheuron, Sable,Columbines slipped. between three Columbines slipped, Proper, by the name of Hall of Coventrie. The Columbine is pleasing to the eye, as well in respect of the seemly (and not vulgar) shape, as in regard of the Azurie colour thereof; and is holden to be very medicinable for the disolving of impostumations or swellings in the throat.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Bend, Or, in the sinister Chief a Cinquefoyle, Ermine, this is the Coat of Sir Erasmus de la Fountaine of London Knight, whose Lady is Sister to the right honourable Baptist, Viscount Camden.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Cheuron, Sable, in the dex­ter point a Cinquefoyle, Gules, and is the Coat of Al­derman Ricard of London.

[Page 148]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Cheuron, Ermine, between three Cinquefoyles, Or, being the Coat of the ho­nourable John Thurloe Secretary of State.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Cheuron between ten Cinque­foiles, The Cinque­foile. four, two, one, two, and one, Argent. This Coat-Armour pertaineth to the worshipful Family of Bark­ley of Wymundham, which descended out of the right noble progeny of the Lord Barkley. This Coat is of an usuall kind of Blazon, and therefore I held it the fitter to be here inserted, as a pattern for all such Coat-Armours, whose Charges are marshalled in this or­der. The Cinquefoile is an Herbe wholesome for ma­ny good uses, and is of ancient bearing in Escocheons. The number of the leaves answer to the five senses in a man, and he that can conquer his affections,Resemblance thereof. and master his senses (which sensuall and vicious men are wholy addicted unto) he may worthily and with honour bear the Cinquefoile, as the signe of his fivefold victory over a stronger Enemy than that three headed monster Cerberus.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Gilloflowers slipped, Pro­per,Gilloflowers slipped. by the name of Jorney. These kinds of flowers for beauty, variety of colour, and pleasant redolencie, may be compared with the choisest attires of the garden: yet because such daintinesse and affected adornings better befit Ladies and Gentlewomen; than Knights and men of valour, whose worth must be tried in the Field, not under a Rose-bed, or in a Garden plot, there­fore the ancient Generous made choise rather of such Herbs as grew in the Fields, as the Cinquefoile, Tree­foile, &c.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent a Cheuron, Gules, between three blew Bottles, Blew Bottles. slipped, proper, by the name of Chor­ley of Chorley, an ancient Family in the County Pala­tine of Lancaster. These few examples may suffice, to shew that all others of like kind (which I for brevi­ty sake voluntarily passe over) are to be reduced un­to this head of Coronary-Herbs; from which we will now proceed to the Physicall, whose chief and more frequent use consisteth in asswaging or curing of ma­ladies and diseases: And of these, some are Aromaticall, which for the most part, in respect of their familiar and pleasing nature, do serve for the corroborating & comforting of the inward parts of mans bo­dy, and for that purpose are oft used in meats; of which sort, are Saffron, Ginger, and such like: other are meerly Medicinall, and such as a man (were it not for necessity) would wish rather to wear in his Escocheon, than in his [Page 149] belly. Examples of which kinds I will willingly passe over, onely as it were pointing out with the finger, unto what head they must be redu­ced, if any such be borne in Armes. Of the Plants, Trees, Fruits and Herbs be­fore mentioned, some are forrein, and some Domesticall, Of Plants, Trees, &c. some grow in Mountains, some in Marish and Fenny grounds, some by the Rivers, some by Sea-coast. Concerning their causes, natures and effects, Phylosophers, Physiti­ans and Herbalists do seriously dispute; and doubtlesse they are the ad­mirable work of the most Omnipotent God, who hath sent as many kinds of Medicines, as of Maladies, that as by the one we may see our own wretchednesse, so by the other, we might magnifie his goodnesse towards man, on whom he hath bestowed, Fruit for Meat, and Leaves for Medicine.


HAving hitherto handled that part of our distribution which com­prehendeth things Vegetable; proceed we now to the other,Things Sensi­tive. concer­ning things senstive, which are all sorts of Animals or Creatures indued with senses. The senses, as likewise the sensitive soul, are things in them­selves not visible, and therefore estranged from the Heralds uses: but because they reside in Bodies of differing parts and qualities from any o­ther before mentioned; therefore in handling of these sensitive Crea­tures, I hold it requisite to begin with their parts (for of them the whole is raised) and these are either the parts contained, or containing, or sustaining.

But sithence we are now to speak of things Sensitive and amongst them) first of Terrestial Animals and their parts; it shall not be imperti­nent to produce some few causes amongst many, why these Terrestial A­nimals and Man were created in one day, viz. the sixth day.

First, because God had appointed the Earth to be the joynt habita­tion of Man and Beast together. Secondly, in respect of the near resem­blance both of bodily parts and naturall properties that these Terrestri­als have of Man, in respect either of Fowles or of Fishes. Lastly, for that very many of them were to serve for mans ease and necessary use: as Ox­en to till the ground, Horses for his ease in travell, Dogs to be watchfull keepers of his House, and others for other his necessary and domesticall uses.

There is no Animal but hath at the least these parts, viz. Head, where­withall to receive food, and wherein their senses have their residence; a Belly, to receive and concoct his meat: intrals, whereby to eject the sup­perfluities or excrements of aliment; members also, serving for the use, and exercise of the Senses, and others ordained for motion from place to place; for without these members he cannot receive food or nutriment, neither feel, nor move: Therefore there is neither labouring beast, or beast of savage kind, domesticall reptiles, or other, that can be with these bodily parts.

By the name of Soul, and Life, wherewith all sorts of Animals are endu­ed from God: Moses teacheth us,Natural bloud▪ or supplemen­tall Humour. that there is no living Creature to be found that hath not either true and natural bloud, or at the least some kind of hot humour that is to it instead of bloud, Anima enim cujusque Ani­malis in sanguine est, as Moses teacheth, Leviticus 17. and in sundry [Page 150] other places. And in the common received opinion of all men, In humido & calido consistit vita.

That which is spoken of divers kindes of Insecta, that there is no bloud to be found in them, it is to be understood to be meant of true perfect and naturall bloud, but of necessitie they must have in stead thereof some kind of humour in them, that hath the qualitie of bloud, viz. that is both hot and moist, as aforesaid, else can they not live.

Concerning Animals in generall, it is not to be doubted but that all sorts of them, as well those of savage and ravenous kind, as those of domisticall and labouring kind, as also venemous Serpents, of themselves and of their owne nature, were themselves good, and might be good to others, and profitable for mans use; forasmuch as it is said, Et vidit Elohim quod bo­num: But in that they are now become noisome, and painefull to man, that is per Accidens; for this is occasioned by the sinne and transgression of Man, whereby all things became accursed for his sake.

The utilitie or benefit that commeth to Man by these Terrestriall Animals is twofold; the one, pertaining to the body, the other, to the Soule. The corporall benefit that commeth to man by them, who knoweth not? For daily experience sheweth us how beneficiall the use of Horses, Oxen, Kine, Calves, Sheep, and other sorts of Beast and Cattel of all sorts, are for the service of Man: whereof some serve us for food, some for rayment, some for carriage, some for tillage, and other for divers other uses. Of this use of them Moses saith, That God hath subjected all things to man; Omnia subjecisti sub pedibus ejus, &c. And made him Ruler over the Fishes of the Sea, the Fouls of the ayre, and the Beasts of the Land: whereby he giveth us to understand, that all sorts of Animals were created for the divers uses of man, and each one of them ordained to a severall end. But their spiri­tuall use is far more noble and excellent, by how much the soule surpas­seth the body in dignity and worthiness.

And their use consisteth not alone in this, that by the consideration of them we are led to the knowledg of God, and of his wisedome, power and goodnesse (for this use hath all things else that are created) as appeareth Rom. 1. and elsewhere: But also that in these Animals God hath propo­sed to us such notable examples of imitation, in respect of vices to be es­chewed; that the sacred Scriptures excepted, there is no morall pre­cepts can better instruct us than these Animals do, which are daily in our view, and of which we have daily use: amongst these we may produce some examples of Fishes and Foules, but many more may we gather from Terrestriall Animals. And to the end we should shunne the ignorance of things,Psal. 32. such especially as are celestiall, David, the kingly Prophet, propos­eth to us for examples, the Horse and Mule saying, Non eritis sicut Equus & Mulus in quibus non est intellectus.

Like as naturall Philosophy consisteth in other things, so doth it chiefely in the knowledg of Animals, viz. in the understanding of their wisedome, natures and properties, which knowledge hath beene approved by God himselfe from the beginning, and not onely approved but also ordained, and given to Adam; for Moses saith, God brought these Animals unto Adam to the end that he should advisedly view and consider them. To the end that Adam should give them names answerable to their shapes, natures, proportion, and qualities. And that the imposition of these names should not be casually or at adventure (for God abhoreth all disorder and [Page 151] confusion) but deliberately and according to reason: So as every thing might be aptly distinguished from other, by their particular names, and according to their severall natures and dispositions: And that for our be­nefit; That we hearing their names, and understanding their significati­ons may be led to the understanding of their naturall properties, for which Etymologie, or true interpretation and derivation of words is very behovefull and of great use.

The Parts contained are Humours and Spirits, whereof onely the first is used in Coat-armours, wherein are represented sometimes Drops of bloud, Humors. and sometimes Tears, which both are naturally Humors contained, though in Armory they are supposed no longer to be contained, but shed forth. The Bearing of this Humour, Bloud, Bloud. is understood to be evermore borne Drop-meale (as I may so term it) or by Drops. Which manner of bearing is in Blazon termed Gutte, of the Latine word Guttae, which signifieth a Drop of any thing that is either by Nature liquid, or liquefied by Art. These Drops do receive a different manner of Blazon according unto their diffe­rent colour, or diversity of the substance, whereof they do consist; as by example shall appear.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, Gutte de Sang. Drops of bloud. by the name of Lemming. These Drops are seldome borne of them­selves alone, but rather upon or with some other kind of Charge, either ordinary or extraordinary, or else dividedly, by means of the interposition of some of the lines of Partition hereafter to be handled. These are termed Guttae de Sang. Quia ex guttis san­guinis constant; Because they signifie Drops of Bloud; wherein the life consisteth. And if the bloud of those who boast of their Generous bloud should once drop forth of their veines, no difference should appear betwixt it and the meanest mans bloud; unlesse perhaps it be in this, that usually it is more corrupt and vitiated, whereas in the poorer sort it is more healthfull and pure. Which should teach such great ones not to prize their bloud at too high a rate. But rather to excell others in vertues, since they cannot surpasse in that humor, which is alike in all: and if they look in the first originals of both sorts, they shall find that Adam was the first Ancestor of the Poore, as well as of the Mighty, and so the one of them as anciently de­scended as the other.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, Gutte de Sang. a Crosse, Gules,Gutte de Sang. by the name of Fitz. of Fitzford in the County of Devon. This is the most principall and predominant humor whereby the life of all Animals, is nourished and continued, and whose defect bringeth present death. For the life of all flesh is his bloud, it is joyned with his life: Therefore I said unto the Children of Is­rael, Ye shall eat the bloud of no flesh, for the life of all flesh is the bloud thereof, whosoever eateth shall be cut off.

[Page 152]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, Gutte de Larmes, or de Lar­mettes, a Cheuron voided, Sable, by the name of St. Maure. This is that other humor before mentioned: and this bearing is called Gutte de Larmes, Quia ex La­crymatum guttis constant, because they represent Drops of Teares falling, these Gutte, are alwayes under­stood to be of colour blew.

Gutte de Larmes.In blazoning of Coat-armours charged with drops, you must evermore consider the substance whereof they are, and to give them a denomination accordingly; so shall you not need to name their colour at all, forasmuch as by their sub­stance their colours are easily conceived, whereof I will give you some few examples in these Escocheons next following; which albeit they may seem to be unduly bestowed with these, yet in respect of their uniforme manner of bearing, to wit, by drops (as the former) I have chosen rather to sort them together with these; than to bestow them confusedly under seve­rall heads.

A Turnip, proper.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Turnip, Proper, a chiefe, Or, Gutte de Larmes. This is a wholesome root, and yeeld­eth great reliefe to the poore, and prospereth best in an hot sandy ground, and may signifie a person of good disposition, whose vertuous demeanour flourisheth most prosperously even in that soile where the scorching heat of Envy most aboundeth. This differeth much in nature from that whereof it is said, And that there should not be among you any roote that bringeth forth Gall and wormewood.

Gutte de Eau.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, Gutte de Eau, a Canton, Ermyne, by the name of Dannet. This word Eau is a French word, and signifieth the same that Aqua doth in Latine: which is as much to say, He beareth drops of water: if he should blazon it in English, the proper colour thereof is Argent. This had been a worthy Escocheon for a Souldier of that Christian Legion cal­led Fulminatrix, at whose prayers in a great drouth, God poured downe raine in the sight of the Heathen, as Eusebius testifieth; and yet they were no Fresh-wa­ter Souldiers, but were as ready to have embrued their Escocheons with drops of bloud, as to have thus sprinkled them with drops of Rain.

Gutte de Poix.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, Gutte de Poix, a Chief Nebule, Gules, by the name of Roydenhall. This word Poix is a French word, and is the same that we call Pitch in English. Yet among our English Blazoners these co­lours and drops are termed Gutte de Sable. This Coate serveth aptly to give warrantize of the bearing of chiefes, consisting of some of the bunched loines before mentioned in the first Section. There are Ordinaries framed of sundry other former sorts of lines, before expressed in the first Section, which I leave to the stricter observation of the curious searchers of those things.

[Page 153]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Crosse ingrailed, Sable,Gutte de Or. charged with Gutte de Or, by the name of Milke field. These drops may be understood to be drops, either fusible or molten, as Gold, either molten in fire, or otherwise liquefied, whereby it may be distilled dropmeale.

Note, that if such kind of Drops be Or,Note. then shall they be taken as representations of fusible or liquid gold: if they be Vert, then shall they be taken to be drops or oyle Olive, as herafter shall appeare, when I shall speake of Coate-Armours, whose fields have no Tincture predomina­ting. Bloud what. But to returne to the humour of bloud (from which we have upon occasion hitherto digressed) it is infallible that there is no Animal or living creature but hath in it, either bloud or some other kind of hot humor in quality like thereunto, as I have said before.

These humors before mentioned,Humors di­vided. in respect of their most and fluent na­ture, doe stand in need of some other thing to containe them: and such containing parts, are either the outmost includer which is the skinne (of which we have already spoken in the first Section, where wee treated of Furres) or the whole body it selfe, with the severall members and parts thereof; all which because they need their supporters; those we will first speake of, and and so descend unto the whole bearings and parts.Covering.

But I will first shew you an example of the bearing of dead mens sculls, and then proceed to the supporting parts.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, on a Cheuron, Gules, three dead mens sculls of the first, by the name of Bolter: Support. this kind of bearing may serve to put both the proper owner of this Coate-Armour, Bones. and also the serious spectators of the the same in mind of the mortality of their bodies and last end.

Parts of support whereof we have use in Armes, are those solid substances which sustain the body, viz. the Bones, whereby the body is not onely under­propped, but also carryed from place to place, by help of their ligatures and Sinewes. Of the use of these in Coat-armour, you shall have examples in these Escocheons next following.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable Shin-bone in Pale, surmounted of another in Crosse, Argent, by the name of Baynes. A Shin-bone surmounted of another. I do give this form of blazon hereunto, because the first lyeth neerer to the Field than the other doth, for they cannot be properly said to be a Crosse of bones, because they be not incorporated one with another, but are dividedly severed by interposing the purflings.

[Page 154] Two shinne bones Saltire-wayes.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, two Shinne bones Saltire wayes, the Sinister surmounted of the dexter, by the name of Newton of Derbyshire. To this Coate-Armour I give the blazon in the former, for the reason before delive­red. Concerning bones, Iesus Syrach recording the fame and vertues of Iosua, Caleb and Samuel, saith; Let their bones flourish out of their place, and their names by succession remain in them that are most famous of their children, Eccles. 46.12. And though they seeme like the withered bones in Ezechiels vision, yet shall they revive againe by vertue and power of him who died on the Crosse, and of whom it was said, Not a bone of him shall be broken. Thus in briefe you see the use of these parts of support.


IN following the tract which our Method first chalked out unto us, we are at length come to such Blazons as doe present to the eyes those sensitive things which we called the Containing, because they are the mansion, in which not onely the bloud and spirits, but also the bones (which we named the parts sustaining) are inclosed.Definition of Animals. These are Animals or living creatures, with their parts and members. An Animal is any substance con­sisting both of a Body fitted for diverse functions, and of a Soul giving Life, Sense, and Motion.

Animals (saith Zanchius) especially such as do produce a living creature, have a more near resemblance of Man, both as touching the parts of their Bodies, as also concerning the faculties of their mind, and subtilty, and quickness of wit: for their bodies also do consist (like as ours do) of flesh, sinews, Arteries, bones, gristles and skin, &c. In like sort they have head, neck, breasts, back, a chine or back-bone, thighes, legs and feet: As also heart, lights, liver, spleen, guts, and other inward parts as we have; furthermore they do participate with us in our Actions, as to eat, drink, sleep, watch and move: Albeit in many other things they are much un­like us.

In the handling of Animals, it might be a scruple, whether the bearing of such creatures whole should have precedence in their bearing before their parts, and also in what rank and order the severall kinds of creatures are to be marshalled by us, that thereby the dignity of their bearing may be best conceived; because th [...] dignity of those things that are borne in Coat-armour, being truly known, and duly considered, doth not a little illustrate the worthinesse of the Bearers, in the displaying of their Ensignes: for ta­king away these scruples, I hold it requisite before I proceed to give Ex­amples, first to set down certain Notes by way of introduction to that which followeth, shewing how the dignity of these Animals, hereafter to be handled, is to be accounted of, either in a relative respect of things of distinct Natures compared one to another, or in a comparative reference of Animals of the same kind each to other.

This dignity cannot be better understood, than by taking a considerate view of that Order, Dignity of Animals how understood. which the Author of all Order, and the most wise and powerfull Disposer of all things, did observe, not onely in the creation [Page 155] of the celestial, but also of the elementary parts of the World, with their se­verall Ornaments, wherein be observed a continuall progression from things of lesse perfection, to things more perfect. For was there not a Chaos, without form and void, before it came to that admirable beauty whereof it is said, Loe, it was very good? In the Celestial, the Sun (the glory thereof) was made after the Firmament, and the Night was before the Day. In the inferi­our bodies, the vegetables, as Trees, Order of God in Nature. were made before sensitive and living crea­tures: and amongst these, the Fishes (which have neither breath nor voice, and therefore imperfecter) were before the Foules: and both of them before terrestrial creatures; and all of all sorts before Man, made after Gods Image, for whose service all other things were made, as he was made for Gods Service. Moreover, in the creation of Man, the Body was before the Soul, which yet is a thing incomparably of more perfection.

By this rude draught of God and Natures admirable Method, Divers ends of Art and Na­ture. you may conceive the natural dignity of those creatures, as often as they shall occur in Armorie. But as Art hath not alwayes the same end which Nature hath (be­cause the one intendeth the being, the other the knowing of things) so is not the Method of both alwayes alike in attaining their ends: for Natures processe is à simplicibus ad composita, from the single parts to the whole, where­as Art descendeth from the compounds to the simples: in imitation where­of, we shall in this our progresse, follow this course; that first every whole bearing of any Animal shall precede, and then such parts and members thereof [...]s usually are borne;Whole bearing needfull to be first known. for so every one that first hath seen the whole, will discerne the parts the better, whereas he that seeth a part (ha­ving never seen the whole) knoweth not whereof it is a part. And in Coat-armour the whole bearing of Animals is most worthy,Whole bearing better than the parts of Ani­mals. yet is not the bearing of parts to be misliked, but if we consider both the one and the other re­spectively, then doth the whole bearing far surmount the parts in honour and dignity.

Neither must we here precisely esteem the worth of every bearing by this order of Nature,Twofold dig­nity. because Art doth sometimes stamp a peculiar note of dignity; for some particular respect, as for some especiall use, quality, or action in the things. And this Dignity or Nobility may have a twofold re­lation; the one, betwixt Animals of divers kinds, as a Lyon and a Spaniel, a Woolfe and a Lambe; the other, betwixt things of one kind, as whelps of one litter, whereof yet one may be nobler than the other; as the one will run to the Chase, the other to the Pottage Pot. And forasmuch as the living things before mentioned, as well vegetable as sensitive, have their peculiar vertues worthy imitation, as also their particular vices to be es­chewed, and that it is a chief glory to Gentlemen of Coat-Armour, to have their vertues displaied under the types and forms of such things as they bear, it is to be wished that each one of them would considerately examine the commendable properties of such significant tokens as they do bear, and do his best to manifest to the world that he hath the like in him­self: for it is rather a dishonour than a praise for a man to bear a Lyon on his Shield, if he bear a Sheep in his Heart, or a Goose in his Brain: being therein like those Ships which bear the names of Dreadnought, Victory, and the like, though sometimes it speed with them contrary to their Titles. A true generous mind will endeavour that for his selfe-vertues he may be esteemed, and not insist onely upon the fame and merits of his Progeni­tors, the praise whereof is due to them, and not to him.

[Page 156]
Nam genus, & proavos, & quae non fecimus ipsi,
Vix ea nostra voco,
—Ovid. Met. Lib. 13. Verse 140.
Great Birth, and bloud, and Ancestors high worth,
Call them not thine, but what thy self bringst forth.

And now we will proceed to some particular precepts, concerning things Sensitive borne in Coat-Armour. Wherein first observe, that all sorts of Ani­mals borne in Armes, or Ensignes, must in Blazoning be interpreted in the best sense, that is according to their most Generous and noble Qualities, and so to the greatest honour of their Bearers. For example; the Fox is full of wit, Rule. 1. and withall given wholly to Filching for his prey: If then this be the Charge of an Escocheon; we must conceive the quality represented, to be his wit and cunning, but not his Pilfering and Stealing, and so of all other. All Beasts of Savage and fierce nature, must be figured & set forth in their most noble and fierce action; as a Lyon erected bolt upright, his Mouth wide open, his clawes extended (as if he were prepared to rent and teare;) for with his Teeth and Clawes he doth exercise his fiercenesse: In this form he is said to possesse his Vigor and Courage: and being thus formed he is said to be Rampand. Action doth the Prophet David approve to be proper to a Lyon, Psal. 22. Where describing the cruelty of the wicked towards him, he saith, They raged upon me with their mouths, as it were a Ramping and Roaring Lyon. A Leopard or Wolfe, must be portraied going (as it were) Pedetentim, step by step; which forme of action (saith Chassaneus) fitteth their naturall dispo­sition, and is tearmed Passant: All sorts of placable or Gentle-nature, must be set forth according to the most noble and kindly action of every of them as a Horse running or vaulting, a Greyhound coursing, a Deere tripping, a Lambe going, with a smooth and easie pace, &c.

And concerning the true placing of Animals of whatsoever kinds in Ar­mory according to order,True placing of Animals. Art and the propriety of their nature; The use of the thing whereupon they are to be placed or depicted, must be first con­sidered of, and so must they be placed accordingly; whether they be borne bolt upright, passant, or tripping, or howsoever.

As if they be to be placed in Banners they must be so placed as that it be agreeable to the naturall quality of the thing that is borne,In Banners. Ars enim imi­tatur naturam in quantum potest: therefore sithence it is proper for a Banner to be carryed upon a staffe, according to the use thereof the staffe doth proceed, and the Banner cometh after: Therefore ought the face to look towards the staffe, that is, directly forwards. So is it likewise in every o­ther thing whose parts are distinguished per Ante, & Post; in such the fore­part of the thing borne shall be placed towards the staffe: otherwise it would seem retrograde or going backwards, which were monstrous to behold.

Head onely borne how to be placed.If a man do bear onely the head of some Animal (then most commonly) the forepart thereof cannot aptly regard the staffe, but is borne sidewayes chiefly being full faced, whether it be the head of Ram, Bull, &c.

As touching the orderly placing of the feet of Animals, this is a generall Rule, that the right foot must be placed formost, Quia dextra pars est prin­cipium motus. And withall it is the most noble part in regard it is the stron­ger and more Active, and therefore thus to describe them, is to set them forth in their commendablest fashion; for Dispositio laudatissima Animalis est, ut in omnibus dispositionibus, suis sit secundum cursum naturae: that is the best disposition of every creature, which is most agreeable to nature.

[Page 157]But here you must observe, that in a Banner, Naturall and Accidentall bearing. that which is made for the one side, will seem to be the left foot on the contraryside, but that chanceth by accident. And therefore the side next to him that beareth the Banner must be chiefly respected, that the same be formed right in regard of him; like as it is in writing, that side next to the writer is according to order, whereas if we turn the paper, all falleth out after a preposterous fashion. Therefore we must chiefly respect the side next the Bearer, let the rest fall out as it shall.

Armes are sometimes depicted or embroidered upon the Garments of Men, and chiefly upon the uppermost vesture of Military persons: Espe­cially Emperours, Kings, and their Generals, and other Commanders in Milita­ry services, used to cast over their Armou [...]s a kind of short habit, as a Jacket, Mandylian, or such like, whereupon their Armes were richly beautified and curiously wrought. To the end, that in time of service, their Souldiers who could not be directed by the eare (by reason of the far distance that was oftentimes upon occasion between them and their commander) they might by their eye be instructed according to the necessity of the present service, and might by occular observation of their commander (being so eminently clad) know and discerne their fit times and opportunities of marching, making a stand, assailing, retiring, and other their like duties, whereupon this kind of short garment was called a Coat-armour, because it was worn aloft upon their Armour. And it was called Paludamentum, quia ex eo gestans tale vestimentum palam fiebat omnibus. Such was the Coat-armour of Alexander that he left in Elymais in the Country of Persia, whereof men­tion is made, where it is said,1 Macca. 16.1. Now when King Antiochus travelled through the high Countries, he heard that Elymais in the country of Persia was a City greatly renowned for riches, silver and gold. And that there was in it a very rich Temple, Coat-armour of Alexander. wherein were coverings of Gold, Coat-armours and harnesse, which Alexander, King of Macedonia the son of Philip that raigned first in Grecia, had left there.

For proof that Emperours used to wear Coat-armours, it shall be to good purpose to produce the verball testimony of Baysius; speaking in these words, Fertur eo die Crassum non purpure, ut Romanorum Imperatorum mos erat, paludamento ad Milites processisse, sed pallio nigro.

And further the same Author saith, Paludamentum vero fuisse Imperato­rum planum fit ex Tranquillo in Caesare, Coat-armour of Emperours qui Alexandriae circa oppugnationem pontis, eruptione hostium subita compulsus in scapham, pluribus eodem praecipi­tantibus cum desiliisset in mare, nando per ducentos passus evasit ad proximam navem elata laeva, ne Libelli, quos tenebat, madefierent, paludamentum mordicus trahens ne spolio potiretur hostis.

Of all creatures apt to generation and corruption Animals are most wor­thy. All Beasts have a naturall, and greedy desire for the supply of their wants, insomuch as for the attaining thereof, they do rore, bellow, bray, and cry out exceedingly.

All Beasts of Savage and harmfull kind, are naturally armed with some thing wherewith they may hurt a man, for which they are reckoned dan­gerous to be shunned. As the Boare, with Tuskes, the Lyon with Tallans, the Stag with Hornes, the Serpent with Poyson, &c.

Notwithstanding that the Bearing of things properly (whether vegetable or sensitive) is specially commended,Note. yet must not such peculiar commen­dation be extended to derogate from the dignity of other Bearings, as if they were of no esteem, in regard they be not borne property: for there are [Page 158] as good and honourable intendments in these as in them, data p [...]ritate gestantium, if they be as ancient as the former; and their Bearers of equall estate and dignitie; which is not the least respect that must be holden in the esteem of Coat-Armour, A chief re­spect. Quia Arma nobilitatem sumunt à persona gestantis: Armes are honoured by the Bearers. And sometimes the variation from the pro­perty may be of purpose to prevent some other quality, which may be no lesse honourable than the proper. Besides, it is one thing to beare a living creature in colour or in action diverse from Nature; and another, to beare him repugnant or contrarie to Nature; Note. for the former may be borne com­mendably, but this latter sort of Bearing is holden desgracefull, or rather is condemned for false Armes, and therefore not worthy of Bearing. In the Blazoning of things borne in their naturall Colour, whether the same be celestiall, except the Sunne, Moone and Stars, or sublunar, it sufficeth to say, He beareth this Comet, Meteor, Beast, Birde, Fish, Fowle, Plant, Tree, Herbe, Flower. &c. Proper, without naming of any Colour, for by proper, is evermore understood his naturall colours, and for the Sun and Stars when they be of the colour of the Metall, Or, which is their naturall colour, it sufficeth to say a Sun, or Star, without adding the word proper, or Or. And so it is of the Moone, when she is Argent, which in Heraldrie is holden her proper colour.

Rule. 2. Generall ob­servation.As touching the Dignity of things borne in Coat-armour, I have alrea­dy shewed how the same is to be reckoned in the Order of Nature, but if it be considered according to vulgar estimation, then we must hold this for an observation that seldome faileth, that sith every particular Empire, Kingdome and Nation have their distinct Ensigns of their Soveraign juris­diction, look what Beast, Bird, Fish, Fowle, Serpent, &c. he that swayeth the Soveraignty doth bear for his Royall Ensign in each particular Nati­on, the same is accounted there to be of greatest dignity. So is the Bearing of the Lyon chiefly esteemed with us in England, because he is borne by his Majesty, for the Royall Ensign of his Highness Imperiall Soveraignty over us: So is the Bearing of the Eagle esteemed amongst the Germans: and in like sort the Flowers de lis, amongst the French-men. Four-footed Beasts, whether they be borne Proper, or Discoloured (that is to say, va­rying from their Naturall colour) are to be esteemed more worthy of Bearing in Coat-armour than either Fishes or Fowles are, in regard they do contain in them more worthy and commendable Significations of No­bility. Amongst things Sensitive, the Males are of more worthy bearing than the Females. Some men perhaps will tax me of inconsideration, in not treading the usuall steps of Armorists in the handling of these sensible creatures, for that I do not prefer the Lyon (in respect of his regall Sove­raignty) before all other terrestrials. For clearing of my self in this point, I must plead, that the project of my prescript method hath tyed me to another forme, and doth enforce me to prefer other Beasts in place, before those which otherwise are preferred in dignity. And albeit I cannot say there was any priority of time in the Creation of Beasts, because God spake the word and it was done, he commanded and they were created; neverthe­lesse in regard of discipline, there is a priority to be observed; wherein those things that do promise us a more easie access to the distinct know­ledge and understanding of the succeeding documents,Priority to be observed. ought to have the precedence.

The Authors prefixed order.The order that I prefix to my self in treating of these Beasts, shall con­cur [Page 159] with the Table of this present Section, as first to set down Animals of all sorts living upon the Earth: Secondly, such as live above the Earth, as Foules: Thirdly, Watery Creatures: and lastly, Man. And because of the first sort, some are Gressible, having feet, and some creeping or gliding as Serpents: we will begin with the Gressible; and first with such beasts as have their feet solid or Undivided, or (as I may tearm them) Inarticu­late; that is to say, without toes; then will I proceed to such as have their feet cleft in two, and lastly to Beasts that have their feet divided in­to many.


HAving delivered divers Rules and Observations concerning living things and their parts in genere, Use of demonstrations. I will now annex such examples as may demonstrate these severall sorts of bearing, forasmuch as demon­strations give life and light to ambiguous and doubtfull Precepts, as Ari­stotle Ethic. 7. noteth, saying, Demonstrationes sunt perfectiores & nobiliores, quando inducuntur post orationes dubitab [...]les: Demonstrations are ever best, af­ter doubtfull passages. Of these briefly, as in the next Escocheon.Bearing of beasts, of whom bor­rowed. The in­vention of Armes wherein Beasts or their parts are borne, are borrowed (saith Sir John Ferne) from the Hunnes, Hungarians, Scythians and Saxons, cruell and most fierce Nations, who therefore delighted in the bearing of Beasts of like nature in their Armes, as Lyons, Bears, Wolves, Hyenes, and such like; which fashion likewise came into these our Countries when those barbarous people over-ran with conquest the West part of Europe. Now to the end that the Rules, and Observations formerly set down, may receive both life and warrant by Presidents, I will now exemplifie them in their order. And first of whole-footed Beasts with their Members.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, an Elephant passant, Argent, Tusked, Or, by the name of Elphinston. Concerning these Armes that are formed of Beasts, it is to be ob­served, that generally those are reputed more noble which do consist of whole Beasts, than are those that are formed of their parts: yet sometimes the parts may be given for some such speciall services as may be no lesse honourable than the whole bearing. The Elephant is a Beast of great Strength, but greater Wit, and greatest Ambition;Pride of the Elephant. insomuch that some have written of them, that if you praise them, they will kill themselves with labor; and if you commend another above them, they will break their hearts with emulation. The beast is so proud of his strength, that he never bowes himself to any (neither indeed can he) and when he is once down (as it usually is with proud Great ones) he cannot rise up a­gain.Elehpants how provoked to fight. It was the manner of such as used the force of Elephants (in set Bat­tels) to provoke them to fight by laying before them things of Scarlet or Crimson Colour to make them more furious: as we may see, 1 Mac. 6.34. And to provoke the Elephants for to fight, 1 Mac. 6.34. they shewed them the bloud of Grapes and Mulberries. Furthermore they were placed in the strength and heart of the battell, as in the same Chapter appeareth, where it is said, And they set the beasts according to their ranges, so that by every Elephant there stood a [Page 160] thousand men armed with coats of maile, and Helmets of brasse upon their heads; and unto every Beast were ordained five hundred Horsemen of the best, Verse 35. Which were ready at all times wheresoever the beast was: and whithersoever the beast went, they went also and departed not from him, verse 36. The hugenesse and incomparable strength of this beast,The incompa­rable strength of the Ele­phant. may be conceived by this, that he bare thirty two fighting men in strong Towers of wood fastened up­on his back. As we may see expresly set down in the same Chapter in these words: And upon them were strong Towers of wood that covered every beast, which were fastned thereon with instruments: and upon every one were thirty two men that fought in them, and the Indian that ruled him, Ver. 37.

Three Ele­phants heads.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth Parted per Pale, Sable, and Argent, three Elephants heads counter-changes, by the name of Saunders, a Family of good Eminence in Northampton­shire, Buckingham, London, &c.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a Fesse, Gules, between three Elephants heads, Erased, Sable, and is borne by the name of Fountaine, and is the Coat-Armour of John Fountaine Esquire, Serjeant at Law, and now one of the Commissioners of the great Seal of Eng­land, 1659.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, on a Fesse, between three Ele­phants heads, Erased, Argent, as many Mullets of the first, by the name of Pratte. When any part is thus borne with ligges, like pieces of the flesh or skin, depending, it is termed erasing, of the Latine word erade, to scrape or rent off, or of the French, Arrasher, the same signification. This being the first place of such bearing, I thought good here to observe that this Erasing and Couping are the two common acci­dents of parts borne. Couping is when a part is cut off smooth, as in this next example.

A proboscide of an Ele­phant.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Purpure, the Proboscide, Trunke, or Snout of an Elephant, in Pale, Couped, Flexed and Re­flexed, after the form of a Roman S, Or. Bara, Pag. 147. setteth down this for the Coat of Cyneus King of Scythia, where also he noteth that Idomenes King of Thessaly, the sonne of Deucalion did beare, Gules, a Proboscide of an Elephant after this manner, Argent. The Elephant hath great strength in this part, and useth it for his Hand, and all other uses of agility, wherein Nature hath recompensed the unaptnesse [Page 161] of his legs, which other beasts do use to such services. The Roman H stories, do relate of an Elephant of a huge greatnesse carryed in a shew about Rome, which (as it passed by) a little boy pryed in his Proboscis, therewith being enraged he cast up the child a great height, but received him again on his Snowt, and laid him down gently without any hurt, as if the beast had considered, that for a childish fault, a childish fright were revenge e­nough.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Fesse, A Fesse be­tween three Horses. between three Horses pas­sant, Argent, by the name of Stamp. A horse erected boult upright, may be termed enraged, but his no­blest action, is expressed in a Saliant form. This of all beasts for mans uses, is a most noble and behovefull, either in Peace or War. And sith his service and cou­rage in the Field is so eminent, it may be marvelled why the Lyon should be esteemed a more honourable bearing. But the reason is, because the Horses service and strength is principally by help of his Rider, whereas the Lyons is his own: and if the Horse be not mounted, he fights averse, turning his heeles to his adversary, but the Lyon encounters affront, which is more manly. It is observed of the Horse (as also of other whole-footed beasts) that their Legs are at the first as long as ever they will be: and therefore young Foales scratch their Eares with their hinder foot, which after they cannot do, because their Legs do grow onely in bignesse, but not in length, Plin. lib. 11. cap. 48.

The Horse is a beast naturally stubborne, fierce, hauty, proud and inso­lent, and of all beasts there is none that vanteth more after victory obtai­ned, or dejected if he be vanquished, none more prone in battell or desi­rous of revenge.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Horse head couped, Argent,A Horse head couped. by the name of Marshe. The neighing of the Horse is a token of his great courage, as appeareth, Job 29. Hast thou given the Horse strength, or covered his neck with neighing? Whose fiercenesse also he singularly descri­beth thus: He swalloweth the ground for fierceness and rage, and he believeth not that it is the noise of the Trum­pet. He saith among the Trumpets Ha, Ha; He smelleth the battell a far off, and the noise of the Captains and shoutings.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermyne, on a Canton, Sable,A Horse head couped on a Canton, Er­mine. Job 39. a Horse-head, Couped, Argent, with a Bit and Rains, Gules, by the name of Brixton. The undantable courage of the horse, Job in the fore-cited Chapter doth por­tray most lively, saying: Hast thou made him affraid as the Grashopper? His strong neighing is fearfull. He diggeth the valley, and rejoyceth in his strength, and go­eth forth to meet the Harnessed man. He moketh at fear and is not affraid, and turneth not back from the sword: Though the quiver rattle against him, the glittering Spear and the Shield. To govern him, no lesse needfull is the Bit and Rains some­times to hold him in, than is the Spur to put him forward: and therefore David likens an unruly man, to a horse, which thou must keep in with bit and bridle, lest he fall upon thee.

[Page 162] Three Asses passant.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Fesse, betweene three Asses Passant, Sable, by the name of Askewe. The Asse is the lively Embleme of patience, whom therefore our blessed Saviour (being Patience and humility it selfe) honored with his owne riding: which have made some to fancy ever since that time, that the blacke line on the ridge of all Asses backes, thwarted with the like over both the Shoulders, is stampt on them as the Marke of his Crosse whereon he was to shew his pati­ence by suffering for us.

An Asse head erased.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, an Asse head Erased, Sable, by the name Hocknell of Cheshire. In the second of the Kings we read that Benhadad King of Aram, did beset the Citie of Samaria with his Host, and laid so straight siege thereunto, as that an Asses head (which as it seemeth was reckoned amongst things of least esteeme) was valued at fourescore pieces of Silver. Which perhaps gave occasion to the old Proverbe: Asini caput ne laves Nitro: Wash not an Asses head with Niter; which is a matter white like salt and full of holes as a Spunge: whereby we are admonished not to bestow our time, charge, and travell in matters of small moment: and not (as we say in our English proverbe) make more adoe about the broth than the meat is worth.

A Mule pas­sant.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Mule passant, Argent, by the name of Moile. The generation of Mules seemeth to be the invention of Anah the sonne of Zibeon. For it is said, Genesis 36. This was Anah that found Mules in the wildernesse, as he fed his Father Zibeons Asses. Who not contented with those kinds of beasts which God had created, found out the monsterous generation of Mules betweene an Asse and a Mare. A Mule depicted passant; hath his chiefest grace.


AFter Beasts whole footed, succeed those, who are cloven-footed, whether into two parts or more.Beasts whole footed. And first, for those which have their feet divided into two parts onely, they are for the most part Armed with hornes, as the following examples shall illustrate. And by the way this must be noted, that these horned beasts, besides that their members are borne Cou­ped, and Erased, (like other beasts) have also their heads borne Trunked: Which of some Armorists is blazoned Cahossed of the word Cabo, which in the Spanish Language doth signifie a head, which forme of blazon giveth us to understand that it is the head of some such beast, borne sole, and of it selfe, having no part of the neck thereto adherent; an accident that sel­dome befalleth beasts of other kinds, which most usually are borne with the neck conjoyned. Which forme or bearing you shall hereafter see in due place.

[Page 163]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, on a bend, Sable, three Calves, A bend with three Calves. Or, by the name of Veale. If these Calves live to weare Hornes which differ either in Metall or in colour from the rest of the body, then must there be speciall men­tion of such difference in blazoning, as you shall see in the next example. Pliny saith, that Nature seemed to sport her self in making such varietie of hornes of beasts, as so many severall kindes of weapons, where­with they come armed into the Field; for in some she hath made knagged and branched, as in the Red and Fallow deere; In other plaine and uniforme without Tines, as in Spitters, a kind of Stags which thereupon are called in Latine Subulones, and that their hornes are like to the blade of a Shoomakers Awle; but of all other, the hornes of the Bull may most properly be called his Armes, they being of so piercing and violent a stroke, as hardly can be resisted.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermyne, a Bull passant, Gules,A Bul passant. Armed and unguled, Or, by the name of Bevill. The Bull is the ringleader amongst ruther beasts, and through hope of his increase of breed, he is priviledged to range in all pastures with free ingresse and egresse. The Bull being gelt changeth both his nature and name, and is called an Oxe. The Athenians to signifie their gratefulnesse for the laborious travell of the Oxe, did stampe the similitude of an Oxe upon a cer­tain coine which they called Didrachma, which piece contained two Drachmaes, which maketh of our money little more than Elevenpence halfepenny. Whereupon this Proverbe was grounded, Per lin­guam bos inambulat: The Oxe walketh up and downe with the tongue. Reproving thereby the dishonesty of those Advocates (that having received bribes of the adverse part) doe from thenceforth seeke to pervert and poison the cause of their Client, either by betraying of his cause to his Adversary, or else by not pleading, or by covenous pleading, utterly to defeat his Cly­ents right. Ab his & similibus serva nos Domine.

The bearing of a Bull or the head thereof, is a note of valour or magna­nimity, where contrariwise the bearing of an Oxe, or the head thereof, deno­teth faintness of courage, as Ʋpton noteth, that their first bearers were either gelt persons, or such as had some notable defect in the generative parts, as that thereby they became altogether unfit for procreation.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Bulls head erased, Sable, by the name of Carselack. The Bulls head may signifie a man inraged with desire of revenge, whom nothing can satisfie but the utter spoile and ruine of his ad­versarie. The strength of the head and the Necke of a Bull is very great, and his forehead seemeth to be made for fright, insomuch as hee is of some thought to be named Taurus à torvitate, in respect of his sterne and gastly looke: his hornes are strong and sharpe, wherewith he tosseth great and weighty beasts into the aire, and receiveth them againe, doubling their elevation with renew­ed rage and strength, untill they be utterly confounded.

[Page 164] Cheuron be­tween three Bulls heads couped.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Luna, a Cheuron, Mars, between three Bulls heads, Couped, Saturne, Armed, Sol. This Coate-Armour pertaineth to the Right Noble Family of Tho­mas Bulleine Lord Hoo and Hastings, Vicount Rochford, who was created Earle of Wiltshire, and of Ormond, by the renowned King of famous memorie Henry the Eighth, who married the vertuous and beautious Lady Anne, daughter of the same Earle, and Mother to the most Glorious Queene Elizabeth: the memorie of whose long, most prosperous and flourishing Go­vernment, be blessed and eternized to all future posterities.

Bulls heads trunked.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Cheueron between three Bulls Heads trunked or cabossed, Argent. Armed, Or, by the name of Baynham. Bara a good French Armorist useth neither of these words at all; but blazoneth it a Bulles head onely: because any head thus borne, is under­stood to be so cut of, as no part of the necke be ap­pendant to the same.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Goate, passant, Argent, by the name of Baker. The Goat is not so hardy as politicke, therefore that Martiall man which useth more policy than valour in atchieving a victory, may very aptly beare for his Coate-Armour this Beast.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, on a Fesse, counter Battilee be­tween three Goats passant, Argent, as many Pellets, and is borne by the name of Man, of which Family is many worthy Gentlemen in this City. And there are of this name that vary the Pellets to Torteuxes. Now I will shew you an Example of the bearing the heads of this beast.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermyne, a Goats head Erased, Gules, Attired, Or, by the name of Gotley: by this Blazon you may observe how you ought to terme the hornes of a Goat in Armory, when you find they differ in met­tall or Colour from the beast, or that particular part of the beast which is borne. The Philosophers write, that the bloud of a Goate will mollifie the Diamond.

[Page 165]

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Azure, a Fesse, wavee, between three Goats heads erased, Argent, and is borne by the name of Sedley, of which Family are Sir Charles Sedley of Southfleet, and Sir John Sedley of Saint Cleers in Ightam in Kent, Baronets, of Hartford-shire also, and Norfolke.

Sithence we are now come to treat of beasts of the Forrests, I hold it fit to speak somewhat in my first entry of their Numbers, Names, Qualities, Royalties, Armings, Footings, Degrees of age, &c. according as they are termed of skilfull Forresters and Woodmen. And first of their kinds.

Of Beasts of the Forrest, some are Beasts of

  • Venery.
  • Chase.

Of Beasts of Venery there are five kinds, viz. the

  • Hart.
  • Hynde.
  • Hare.
  • Boare.
  • Wolfe.

As old Woodmen have anci­ently ter­med them.

These have been accounted properly Wild Beasts of the Forrest, or beasts of Venery. These beasts are also called Sylvestres (Scil.) beasts of the Wood or Forrest, because they do haunt the Woods more than the Plaines.

Proper Names, Seasons, Degrees and Ages of Beasts of the Forrest and of Chase.

Wherefore you shall understand that the

  • First
  • Second
  • Third
  • Fourth
  • Fifth
  • Sixth.

years, you shall call them

  • Hind or Calfe.
  • Brockett.
  • Spayade.
  • Staggarde.
  • Stagge.
  • Hart.

But here by the way we must observe that some ancient Writers do re­port, that in times past Forresters were wont to call him a Stag at the fourth year, and not a Staggard, as we do now; and at the fifth year they called him a great Stag: And so they were wont to distinguish his severall ages by these words, Stag and great Stag.

The knowledge of the Ordure or excrements of every beast of Venery and chase is necessary to be observed, because their ordures are a princi­pall note whereby good Forresters and Woodmen do know and observe the place of their haunt and feeding, and also their estate. And therefore it is a thing highly to be observed, for that a Forrester or Woodman in making his reports shall be constrained to rehearse the same.

The Ordure of a

  • Hart 1
  • Hare 2
  • Boare 3
  • Fox and 4
  • all Vermine

is tearmed

  • 1 Fumets or fimashing of all Deere.
  • 2 Crottelles or Crotizing.
  • 3 Lesses.
  • 4 Fiantes.

Terme of footing or treading of all beasts of Venery and Chase.

[Page 166]That of a

  • Hart
  • Buck and all
  • Fallow Deere
  • Beare

is termed

  • Slot.
  • View.
  • Tract or
  • Treading.

That of an Hare is termed accor­ding to her seve­rall courses, for when she keepeth In plain fields, and chaseth about to de­ceive the Hounds: Beateth the plaine High-way where you may yet per­ceive her footing, it is said she

  • [...]
  • Pricke [...].

Termes of the Tayle.

That of a

  • 1 Hart
  • 2 Buck, Roe, or a­ny other Deere
  • 3 Boare
  • 4 Fox
  • 5 Wolfe
  • 6 Hare and Coney

is termed his

  • 1 Tayle.
  • 2 Single.
  • 3 Wreath.
  • 4 Bush, or holy water sprinkle.
  • 5 Sterne.
  • 6 Scutte.

The fat of all sorts of Deere is called Sueete. Also it may be very well said, This Deere was a high Deeres Greace.

The fat of a

  • Roe
  • Boare and
  • Hare.

is termed

  • Bevy Greace.
  • Greace.

You shall say that a

  • Hart
  • Buck
  • Roe
  • Hare
  • Conie
  • Fox

  • Harboureth.
  • Lodgeth.
  • Beddeth.
  • Seateth or Formeth.
  • Sitteth.
  • Kenneleth.

You shall say a

  • Deere
  • Hare
  • Fox

  • is broken.
  • Cased.
  • Ʋncased.

You shall say

  • Dislodge
  • Start
  • Ʋnkennel
  • Rowse
  • Bowlt


  • Buck.
  • Hare.
  • Fox.
  • Hart.
  • Cony.

You shall say

  • 1 Hart or Buck
  • 2 Roe
  • 3 Boare
  • 4 Hart or Conie
  • 5 Fox
  • 6 Wolfe.

goeth to his the

  • 1 Rule.
  • 2 Tourne.
  • 3 Brymme.
  • 4 Buck.
  • 5 Clicketting.
  • 6 Match, or to his Make.

Termes excogitated and used by Forresters;

You shall say, a

  • Hart
  • Buck
  • Roe
  • Hare & Conie
  • Fox
  • Wolfe.

  • Belloweth.
  • Growneth.
  • Belleth.
  • Beateth, or Tappeth.
  • Barketh.
  • Howleth.

You shall say, a

  • Litter of Cubs.
  • Nest of Rabbets.

[Page 167]Skilfull Forresters and good Woodmen.

Do use to say, a

  • Heard
  • Heard
  • Bevy
  • Sounder
  • Kowte
  • Riches
  • Brace, or Lease
  • Brace, or Lease
  • Brace, or Lease
  • Couple


  • Harts.
  • All manner of Deere.
  • Roes.
  • Swyne.
  • Wolves.
  • Marternes.
  • Bucks.
  • Foxes.
  • Hares.
  • Rabbets or Conies.

These are apt termes of Hunting pertaining both to Beasts of Venery and of Chase.

Whereas some men are of opinion that a Stag of what age soever he be, shall not be called a Hart, untill the King or Queen have hunted him,Stagge when properly cal­led an Hart. that is not so: for after the fifth year of his Age, you shall no more call him a Stag but a Hart. So then at six years old he is called a Hart. Now if the King or Queen do hunt or chase him, and he escape away alive,Hart Royall, when so na­med. then after such hunting or chasing, he is called a Hart Royall.

Note that if this Hart be by the King or Queen so hunted or chased that he be forced out of the Forrest, so far, that it is unlike that he will of him­self return thitherto again, and then the King or Queen giveth him over, either for that he is weary, or because he cannot recover him; for that such a Hart hath shewed the King pastime for his delight, and is also (as Budeus noteth) Eximius Cervus, a goodly Hart, and for that the King would have him return to the Forrest again; he causeth open proclamation to be made in all Towns and Villages near to the place where the same Hart so remaineth. That no manner of person or persons shall kill, hurt,Hart Royall proclaimed. hunt or chase him, but that he may safely return to the Forrest again from whence he came. And then ever after such a Hart is called a Hart Royall proclay­med.

So that there are three sorts of Harts, viz.

  • Hart.
    Harts of three sorts.
  • Hart Royall, and
  • Hart Royall proclaimed.

A Hinde hath these degrees.

  • First
  • Second
  • Third

year is called, a

  • Calfe.
  • Brockets sister.
  • Hynde.

Good Forresters have observed that when a Hart hath past his sixth year, he is generally to be called a Hart of Tenne. And afterwards according to the increase of this head.

Whether he be

  • Crochod,
  • Palmed, or
  • Crowned.

When he breaketh heard and draweth to the Thickets or Coverts, The Forresters or Woodmen do say, he taketh his hold.

Forasmuch as it may oftentimes fall out as well in Coat-armours as in Badges, that the Attires of Deer both Red and Fallow may be borne bendy, barry, or otherwise Counter-coloured, I have thought it for the more apt [Page 168] blazon of them, to annex such propriety of termes, as the skilfullest For­resters or Woodmen do attribute unto their severall kinds, so there may be a fit correspondence of Artificiall termes as well Woodman-like as Armo­riall: Adding withall their formes and shapes of their severall attires, for the better and reddier conceiving of their particular parts, and fit ap­plication of each particular terme to his proper part, by the help of the Alphabeticall letters that I have for that purpose annexed to each part.

[diagram of left, right and facing antlered deer labelling their various parts]

[deer's antlered head]
Skilfull Woodmen descri­bing the head of a Hart, do call the
a Round Rolle next the Headb Main hornc Lowest Antlierd Next above thereuntoe Next above thatf Upper part of all
Bur.Beam.Browanteliers.Bezanteliers.Royall.Surroyall Top.

And in a Bucks head they say,

  • Bur. c
  • Beam. b
  • Braunch. d
  • Advancers. e
  • Palme. a
  • Spellers.

And though every Gentleman is not an Armorist, or a skilfull Woodman, yet it is not well beseeming men of a generous race to have a superficiall skill in either of these professions, forasmuch as they both (especially the former) do well beseem the dignity of a Gentleman, the one tending to the delight and recreation of the mind, and the other to the health, solace, and exercise of the body. That so in their mutuall converse, they may be able to deliver their minds in fit termes in either kind, and not in speeches, [Page 169] either vulgar or obsolete. For which cause I here set down the termes ap­propried (by skilfull Forresters and Woodmen) to beasts of Chase, according to their severall names, seasons, degrees, and ages, like as I have formerly done of beasts of Venery, as in example.

Of Beasts of Chase, the Buck is the first,

And is ter­med the
year, a
Fawne.Pricket.Sorel.Sore.Buck of the first head.Buck, or great Buck.

Next to the Buck is the Doe, being accounted the second beast of Chase.

And is termed the
year, a
Fawne.Prickets sister.Doe.

¶ The third Beast of Chase is a Fox, which albeit he be said to be Poli­tick and of much subtilty, yet is the variety of terms of a Fox very scarce.

For in the
First yearSecond
he is cal­led a

Afterwards an old Fox, or the like.

The Martern, or Marton (as some old Forresters or Woodmen do terme them) being the fourth Beast of Chase, hath these termes.

He is cal­led the
year, a
Martern Cub.Martern.

¶ The fifth and last Beast of Chase is the Roe, whose proper terms per­taining to chase are these.

He is said to be the
year, a
Kydde.Gyrle.Hein use.Roe Buck of the first head.Farre Roe Buck.

These Beasts of Chase do make their abode all the day time in the Fields, Fallow Deere more fearfull than hurtfull. and upon the Hills and high Mountains, where they may see round a­bout them afar off, for preventing their danger: for these are more ti­merous of their own safety, than dangerous and harmfull to men. And in the night time when men be at rest, and all things quiet, then do they make their repaire to the Corn fields and Meadowes for food and relief, for which respect they are called Campesties, because they do haunt the Field and Champion grounds, more than the Woods, and thick coverts or thickets; as we do most usually observe them.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, on a Mount, Proper,Stag on a Mount. a Stag lodged, Gules, by the name of Harthill. The Stag is a goodly beast, full of state in his gate and view, and (amongst Beasts of Chase) reputed the chief for prin­cipall game and exercise: it is observed of him, that finding himself fat, he ever lodgeth and sculketh in secret places, to avoid chasing, as knowing himself worth following, and worth killing (as was said of the great Stagge at Killingworth) but most utfit for flying.

[Page 170] A Stag stan­ding.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Stag standing at Gaze, Argent, attired and unguled, Or, by the name of Jones of Mon­mouthshire. The Stag which erst you saw lodged, you now see standing, as listening to the approach of any danger. And nature having denied this beast other se­curities, yet hath indued him with two excellent fa­vours above others; the one, exceeding quicknesse of hearing, to foreknow his hazards, and so the sooner to prevent them, (for which cause, the Stag amongst the Emblemes of the five senses, representeth the Hea­ring;) the other exceeding speed of foot, to flie from the danger when it approacheth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Stag Tripping, Proper, attired and Ʋnguled, A Stag trip­ping. Or, by the name of Holme. The Hart born in Armes (saith Ʋpton) betokeneth sometimes one skilfull in Musicke, or such an one as taketh a fe­licity and delight in harmony: Also, a man that is wise & politicke, and well foreseeth his times and op­portunities: A man unwilling to assail the Enemie rashly, but rather desirous to stand on his own guard honestly, than to annoy another wrongfully.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Vert, a Stag springing forwards, Or, by the name of Gilstand. A Stag spring­ing. Pliny saith, that horns are so mollified with waxe whilst they are yet growing upon the heads of the beasts, that they may be made capable of sundry impressions, and are made divisible into many parts: but Nature needed not this device, neither can Art forme a fashion of more stately decen­cie, than she hath done on the Stag. All hornes in a manner be hollow, save that towards the pointed tippe they be solid and massie. Onely Deer, both red and fal­low, have them solid throughout.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Buck Passant, and Chief in­dented, Or, by the name of Humble or Ʋmble, as it was entred in the Visitation of London, 1634. for George Humble Esquire; as may appear by severall Mo­numentall Ensignes in Saint Mary Wolnoth Church in Lumbard-street, where divers of the Family lye in­terd, and in which the chief Branch is now Inhabi­tant.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Stag in his full course, Or, pursued hotly by a Brace of Dogs, A Stag in his full course, pursued by a brace of dogs. Argent, all Bend­waies and at randome, by the name of Yardly. Though horns be assigned to the Stag, Buck, and other like Beasts, for weapons, both offensive and defensive, yet do they seldome use them to those ends; [...]ing therein like many Gallants well attired and Armed, but it is more for shew than for use, when it comes to proofe. So David speaks of some, who carrying [Page 171] bowes turned their backes; as having Armes, but wanting hearts. And it may be, the Hart hath his name (as Mons à movendo,) for being heartlesse: but sure it is, that all the Armour in the Tower is not enough to Arme a Da­stards heart.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Vert, a Fesse, betwene three Buckes, in full course, Or, by the name of Robertson. Three Bucks in full course. This kind of Deer is called Cervus Palmatus, for the resemblance that his hornes have with the hand and fingers. This Beast reposeth his safetie chiefely in flight, wherein hee is uery swift in case of pursuit: his colour most commonly Sandie, with a black strake along his backe; their Sides and Belly spotted with White, which spots they lose through age: their Females are more varia­ble in colour; as being sometimes all white.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Vert, a Cheuron Argent, between three Robucks in full course, Or, by the name of Robert­son. Three Ro­bucks in full course. Although this Beast as a coward flieth with his weapons, yet two times there are when hee dares turne head on his foe: the one is when it is for his life, as when he is chased out of breath, and his strength so spent, that he cannot by flight escape; Despera [...]io facit auda­cem: he is more than a coward that will not fight when he sees his case desperate: and therefore it is a gene­rall rule in good policie never to put them to the ut­most exigent and extremity, with whome we desire to prevaile, according to the old English Proverbe, Compell a coward to fight, and he will kill the Di­vell: which was the cause that the Romans landing in this Kingdome, English Pro­verbe. burnt their owne Navy, thereby to enforce the Army to be resolute, by despair­ing of any escape or return by Sea again. The other time of the Stags courage is for his Love, at which time he will fight to the death with his Rivall or hinderer of his hot desire.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, three Bucks tripping, Or,Three Bucks tripping. by the name of Green, and is the paternall Coat of John Green of Boys-Hall in Navestocke in the County of Essex, Ser­geant at Law, and one of the Judges of the Shrieves Court London, lately deceased, father of John Green Esq who succeeded him in the said place, and is at present Recorded of the said City. The Buck is a wor­thy beast, & hath a degree and measure of all the pro­perties of the Stag, but cometh far short of his stateli­ness and boldness, (for there are degrees of courage e­ven among Cowards.) And Nature hath made his horne rather broad, for a defensive buckler, than sharp as the Stags for the thrust. Their best quality is, that they are sociable, and love to keep together in Heards; Sociablenesse of fallow Deer. which is the property of all harmless and peaceable creatures, which are of comfort and courage onely in company; whereas all beasts and birds of prey are given to wander solitary, neglecting societies: and that made the Philosopher say, that a solitarie and unsociable man, was either a Saint, or a Devill.

[Page 172] Stags at gaze.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Fesse Azure, between three Stagges standing at gaze or gardant, Gules, by the name of Robertson. Sometimes the femals both of Red and Fallow Deere, to wit, Hindes and Does, as well as Stags, and Buckes, are borne in Coat-Armour: but such bea­ring is holden lesse commendable than that of Males, Female Deere borne. because Masculinum dignius est Feminino, as Aristotle witnesseth, Topic. 1. the Male is ever nobler than the Female. Arist. Top. 1. To prove that Females are borne also, I have (out of many examples) selected one of rare bearing, here next following.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, two Hindes counter-tripping in Fesse, Hindes coun­ter-tripping. Argent, by the name of Cottingham. Pliny in his Naturall History, Lib. 9. writeth, that among all sorts of Beasts, the Males are more stomackfull, and of greater courage than the Females, excepting in Pan­thers and Beares: and that those parts that Nature hath bestowed upon Beasts, Plin. lib. 9. to serve them (as it were) in stead of Weapons, as Teeth, Hornes, Stings, and other such like, she hath given them especially un­to the Males, as to those that are both better and stronger, and hath left the Females altogether disarmed: whereof Martiall writeth in this manner.

Dente timetur Aper; defendunt cornua Cervum:
Imbelles Damae, quid nisi praeda sumus?
The Boares Tusks him protect; the Hart trusts to his Horne:
We harmelesse armelesse Hindes for prey are left forlorne.

Stags heads couped.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Stags Heads Couped, Sa­ble, by the name of Rigmaiden. Some Authors are of opinion, that the attires of Gentlewomens Heads, were first found out and devised, by occasion of the fight of the Horns of this Beast, because they are seemly to behold,Attires of Gentlewo­men. and do become the beast right­well, and that Nature bestowed Hornes on them, more for Ornament than for Assault, appeares by this; that they repose their safety, rather in their Speedie footmanship, than in the strength of their Heads: The Tines of the Stags Head do increase Yearly, untill he hath accomplished the full number of Seven Years, and then decreaseth again.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Diamond, three Stags heads Cabossed, Pearl, attired Topaz, and is the Coat of the Right Honourable William Marquess and Earle of Nawcastle, Viscount Mansfield, and Lord Ogle, &c. And of the Right Honourable William Covendish Earle of Devon­shire, and Baron of Hardwick.

[Page 173]

[blazon or coat of arms]

The field is, Gules, three Stags heads trunked, Or,Three Stags heads trunk­ed. Ar­med or Attired, Argent. This Coat is borne by the name of Faldo in the County of Bedford, where there are diverse Gentlemen of that name yet remaining, and some of them yet owners of the said Mannor (as I take it.) For two respects I have inserted this Coat; The one in regard that the Attires are of a different Metall from the heads, which is not usuall: The o­ther to shew that Sir John Ferne in his book entitu­led the Blazon of Gentry, pag. 240. setteth down for the Armoriall Ensigns of this Family, a Coat of device, which he supposeth to have been invented by some of the Ancestors thereof. Which (as he saith) was very ancient, yet no Coat of Armes, as indeed it is not, but a meer fantastick device: which being so, he had done much better to have expressed the true Paternall Coat of that Family, as it is here expressed, rather than the adulterate or counterfeit Coat, which neither relish­eth of true Armory, nor yet of any sharpnesse of ingenious device or in­vention.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, three Bucks heads Couped, Or, by the name of Deering. Three Bucks heads couped. The bearing of the head of any living thing, betokeneth Jurisdiction and Autho­rity to administer Justice, and to execute Lawes; for the greatest esteem of the head in Coat-armour, is in respect of the more noble use thereof; for by it is the whole body governed and directed, and is cal­led in Latine Caput: Quia capiat omnes sensus, and he that is a head should be sure to have all his Senses a­bout him, as the head hath.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, on a Fesse, Sable, three Stags heads Erased, Or, by the name of Bradford, Three Stags heads erased. Sir John Ferne in Lacies Nobility saith, that the head of any beast borne Erased, as this is, is one of the best manner of bearings. The heads of such horned beasts were wont to be held Sacred to Apollo and Diana; perchance be­cause Diana signified the Moon, which is her selfe a horned Creature, and Apollo for being a good Bowman, deserved the hornes for his reward.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Bend, Engrailed, Azure, be­tween two Bucks heads Cabossed, Sable, and is the Coat of the Right Honourable Robert Needham, Viscount Kilmurrey, and also of Sir Robert Needham of Lambeth Knight.

[Page 174]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Bucks head, trunked or Cabos­sed, Bucks head trunked. Gules, by the name of Trye. Of all the parts or members of Beasts, Birds, or other living things, the bearing of the head (next to the whole bearing) is re­ckoned most honourable, for that it signifieth that the owner of such Coat-Armour feared not to stand to the face of his enemie.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Bucks head Cabossed, between two flanches, Or, by the name of Parker of North Moul­ton in the County of Devon. This Coat-armour seem­eth to have some congruity with the name of the bea­rer, it being a name borrowed from the Office, which it is probable the first Ancestor of this Family held, viz. a Park keeper, which in old English was called Parker, who by office hath the charge of the beast whose head is borne in this Escocheon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Lyon Passant, Gules, between two Bars, Sable, charged with three Bezants in Chief, the like number of Bucks heads Cabossed, of the third. This is the Coat of that ingenious Gentleman Philip Parker Esquire, and Calthrope Parker of London Merchant, sons of Sir Philip Parker of Arington Hall in Suffolk Knight, of which Family is also the Right Ho­nourable the Lord Morley and Mounteagle.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three rain Deeres heads, Trun­ked or Cabossed, Three Rain-Deeres heads. Sable, by the name of Bowet. If you should have occasion to make mention of the hornes of any sort of Deere, by reason that they be of a different Metal or Colour from their bodies, you must terme them Attired. If upon like occasion you shall speak of their Clawes, you must say they be unguled, of the La­tine word ungula, which signifieth the Hoof or Clawes of a beast.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Cheuron between three Attires of a Stag, fixed to the scalpe, Argent, by the name of Cockes. The Stag doth mew his head every year, un­lesse he be castrated or gelt whilest his head is in his prime: for in such case he never meweth his head, nei­ther doth his beame Burre, or Tynes augment, or di­minish any more, but continue still in the same state wherein they were at the time of his castration.

Forresters and Hunters do call this yearly mewing of their heads, the beauty of their wildnesse, and not the mewing of their Horns as the Latinists do term it.

[Page 175]These having mewed their heads do betake themselves to the thick brakes and coverts to hide them, as well knowing they are disarmed of their na­turall weapons. And therefore do never willingly shew themselves abroad in the day times, untill the Spring that they begin to bud, and burgeon, to­ward their renovation of force.

Hornes do betoken strength and fortitude, inasmuch as God hath be­stowed them upon beasts to be unto them Instruments, or Weapons, as well offensive as defensive. As we may probably gather by that which is spoken by the Prophet David, Psal. 75.12.Psal. 75.12. All the hornes of the ungodly will I break, but the hornes of the righteous shall be exalted.

[blazon or coat of arms]

This Field is, Sol, three Attires of a Stag, borne Paly, Three attires of a Stag. Barry, Saturne. This Coat-Armour pertaineth to the renowned Family of the most High Puissant and No­ble Prince Frederick, late Duke of Wirtemberge, and of Tec. Count of Mountbleiard, Lord of Heydenheib, &c. and Knight of the most noble Order of the Garter. The Stags having cast their Hornes do skulke in secret and desolate places, because they find themselves disar­med and destitute of their former strength, which maketh them more carefull of their safety, as Aelia­nus noteth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, an Ʋnicorne Seiant, Sable,An Unicorne Seiant. Ar­med, and Ʋnguled, Or, by the name of Harling. The Ʋnicorne hath his name of his one Horn on his fore­head. There is another Beast of an huge strength and greatnesse, which hath but one Horn, but that is grow­ing on his Snout, whence he is called Rinoceros, and both are named Monoceros, or one Horned: it hath been much questioned amongst Naturalists, which it is that is properly called the Ʋnicorne: and some have made doubt whether there be any such Beast as this, or no. But the great esteem of his Horne (in many places to be seen) may take away that needlesse scruple.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, an Ʋnicorne tripping, Argent,An Unicorne tripping. Armed and unguled, Or, by the name of Musterton. Touching the invincible nature of this beast, Job saith, Wilt thou trust him, because his strength is great, and cast thy labour unto him? Wilt thou believe him, that he will bring home thy seed, and gather it into thy barne? And his vertue is no lesse famoused than his strength, in that his Horne is supposed to be the most powerfull Anti­dote against poison. Insomuch as the generall conceit is, that the wild beasts of the Wildernesse, use not to drink of the Pooles, for fear of venemous Serpents there breeding, before the Ʋnicorne hath stirred it with his Horn. Howsoever it be, this Charge may very well be a representation both of strength or courage, and also of virtuous dispositions and ability to do good; for to have strength of body, without the gifts and good qualities of the mind, is but the property of an Oxe; but where both concur, that may truly be called manlinesse: and that these two should consort together, the Ancients did signifie, when they made this one word, Virtus, to imply, both the strength of body, and vertue of the mind.

[Page 176]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, three Ʋnicornes in Pale, Current, Argent,Three Uni­cornes cur­rent. Armed, Or, by the name of Farrington. It seemeth by a question moved by Farnesius, that the Ʋnicorne is never taken alive; and the reason being demanded, it is answered, that the greatnesse of his mind is such, that he choseth rather to die than to be taken alive: wherein (saith he) the Ʋnicorne and the valiant minded Souldier are alike, which both contemne death, and rather than they will be com­pelled to undergoe any base servitude or bondage, they will lose their lives.

Three Uni­cornes heads couped▪

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, three Ʋnicorns heads Couped, Argent, by the name of Shelley. The Ʋnicorne is an untameable beast by nature, as may be gathered by the words of Job, chap. 39. Will the Ʋnicorne serve thee, or will he tarry by thy crib? Canst thou binde the Ʋnicorn with his band to labour in the furrow, or will he plow the vallies after thee?

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Camel passant, Argent, by the name of Camel. This Coat-Armour standeth in Bury Pomeroy Church in the County of Devon. This beast farre surpasseth the horse in swiftnesse, in travell, to whom he is a hatefull enemie. After all these cloven footed beasts, I will adde one more, no way inferiour in stomack, and absolute resolution to any of the for­mer.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Boare passant, Gules, Armed, Or,A Boare pas­sant. by the name of Trewarthen. The Boare though he wanteth hornes is no way defective in his Armour, nay he is beyond those formerly exemplified, and is counted the most absolute Champion amongst beasts, for that he hath both weapons to wound his foe, which are his strong and sharp Tusks, and also his Target to defend himself, for which he useth of­ten to rub his shoulders and sides against Trees, there­by to harden them against the stroke of his adversa­ry; and the Shield of a Boare well managed, is a good Buckler against that cruell Enemy called Hunger.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Boares heads couped, Sa­ble,Three Boares heads couped. Armed, Or, by the name of Cradock. The Boare is so cruell and stomackfull in his fight, that he foa­meth all the while for rage, and against the time of any encounter he often whetteth his tusks to make them the more piercing. The Boare hath been much honoured by being the crest of an Earle, which seem­eth to be given to the House of Vere, because Verres is the name of a Boare in Latine.

[Page 177]The bearing of the Boare in Armes betokeneth a man of a bold spirit, skil­full, politick in Warlike feats, and one of that high resolution that he will rather die valorously in the Field, than he will secure himself by ignominious flight. He is called in Latine Aper (according to Farnesius) ab asperitate, be­cause he is so sharp and fierce in conflict with his foe. And this is a speciall property in a Souldier, that he be fierce in the encountring his Enemy, and he bear the shock or burnt of the conflict with a noble and magnanimi­ous Courage; Miles enim dura & aspera perfringit animi & virium robore.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, three Boares heads erected and erased, Sable, Armed, Or, by the name of Boothe: here those which are young Students in Armory may learn to be carefull in observing the manner of the position of the charge of the Field, by comparing these two last Coat-Armours together, admitting that they neither of them differ in Metal nor Colour, and that the Boares heads in both Escocheons were couped or erased, yet the very manner of the position of them were sufficient difference to vary one Coat-armour from the other.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, three Cups, Or, out of each a Boares head erected, Argent, and is the Coat of that truly noble Gentleman the Honourable Sir Robert Bolles Baronet, son of Sir John Bolles of Scampton i [...] the County of Lincoln, created Baronet 24. June [...] [...] who was son of Sir George Bolles Knight, [...] from Alane de Swinshead, Lord of the Manne [...] [...] hall in Swinshead, and from thence his Prog [...] so surnamed.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Cheuron between 6 Rams, accosted Counter-tripping, two, two, and two, by the name of Har­man of Rendlesham in the County of Suffolk. The chief­est strength of the Ram consisteth in his head.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Cheuron be­tween three Rams heads couped, Ar­gent, by the name of Ramsey of Hitcham in the County of Buck­ingham, of which Family was A­dam Ramsey, Esquire for the body to King Richard the second. The Ram is the Captain of the whole flock, I shall not need to mention the great profit that is brought to this Kingdom by the winter garment of this beast.

[blazon or coat of arms]

This is the Coat of Sir Thomas Bendish of Steeple Bumsted in Essex Baronet, Embassador for many years to the Grand Signeur from the King and Parliament of Eng­land, son of Sir Thomas Bendish created Baronet 29. of June 1611. and is thus blazoned, Argent, a Cheuron, Sable, between three Rams heads Erased, Azure, Armed, Or, Ʋster.

[Page 178]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, three holy Lambes, staffe, crosse, and banner, Argent, by the name of Rowe of Lamerton in the County of Devon. The Holy Lambe is a Tipycall representation of our blessed Saviour: who is under­stood by divers to be that Lambe mentioned in the A­pocalyps of Saint John: and all the Christian Churches acknowledge him for that Lambe of God that taketh away the sins of the World. This kind of bearing may well befit a brave resolute spirit who undertaketh a war for Christs cause.


Beasts having many Clawes.HItherto of such beasts as we call Animalia biscula, which have their feet parted onely into two clawes: the next part of our distribution, containeth those which are called Multifida, which have many clawes; of which sort, are not onely Lyons, Beares, Wolves, and others of fierce and ravenous kinde, that live by Prey and spoyle: but such also as are of timorous nature, whose chiefest safety consisteth rather in swiftnesse of foot, than in any other m [...]anes, as Foxes, Hares, Conies, and others of lesse harm [...]full kinde, whereof I will give particular examples: but first I will [...]er unto your [...]eed [...]ull observation, certaine notes as well of generall, as o [...] particular use, concerning beasts of this kind; not forgetting (by the way) such rules and observations▪ as have been already commended to your regard, that especially, touching mixt bearing of Ordinaries, and common charges, which must serve for a regular direction throughout our whole Worke. And in delivery of these Observations and Examples, I hold it fit to begin with Beasts of fierce nature; and first, with the Lyon reckoned the King of beasts: Dignioribus enim digniora loca sunt danda, Highest person highest place.

Some French Armorists are of opinion that the Lyon should never be made Gardant or full faced, Opini [...] of [...] French Arm [...]ts. affirming that to be proper to the Leopard; wherein they offer great indignity to that royall beast, in that they will not admit him (saith Ʋpton) to shew his full face, the sight whereof doth terrifie and astonish all the beasts of the field; and wherein consisteth his chiefest majesty, and therefore may not be denyed that prerogative, Quia omnia Animalia debent depingi & designari in suo ferociori actu, ex illis enim actibus, Rul [...] generall. magis vigorem suum ostendunt. All Beasts should be set forth in their most generous action, for therein they shew their chiefest vigor. As con­cerning the true Note whereby the Leopard is distinguished from the Lyon, Ʋpton lib. de Armis, writeth thus, Cognoscitur Leopardus à Leone, quia Leopar­dus ubi (que) deping [...]ur habens naturaliter maculas nigras, Difference be­tweene the Lyon and Leopard. cum grosso capite, & est Animal planum non hispidum: Leo vero habet unum colorem continuum, cum pectore hispi [...], cum certis jubis in cauda. The Leopard is portraied with black spots and a great head, and no where shaggie: whereas the Lyon is one co­lour, shaggy brested, with a certain [...]uft of haire in his traine. So that it is e­vident that the Leopard is notably distinguisht both in shape and colour, and not by his full faced countenance as they dream. Moreover, Ʋpton saith, that he had often observed Leopards borne by diverse noble men, as well half faced as gardant.

[Page 179]It is observed that the generous nature of the Lyon, is discerned by his plentifull shaggy locks that do cover his neck and shoulders, which are infal­lible tokens of his noble courage, especially if those his locks be crisped and curled, and short withall. Such Lyons were those whereof Saint Hirome ma­keth mention, In vita Pauli cremitae, saying, Talia in anima voluente, ecce duo Leones ex interioris Eremi parte currentes, volantibus per colla jubis ferebantur: Two Lyons came running with their shaggie looks wavering about their shoulders. Moreover the thicknesse of the Lyons Mane, Lyons snaggy Locks. is a testimony of his generous birth, and by the same he is distinguished from the degenerate and Bastard race of Leopards, begotten between the Adulterous Lyonesse and the Parde, which are naturally deprived of this noble mark; and not one­ly so, but they are also bereft of that bold and invincible courage, that the generous sort of Lyons have. For these respects, the degenerate brood of Lyons are called in Latine, Imbelles Leones, that is, Heartlesse or Cowardly Lyons; whereas the true Lyon is termed in Latine, Generosus Leo, Cowardly Ly­ons which. Quia ge­nerosum est quod à natura sua non degeneravit: That is generous which degene­rateth not from his kind: by which reason, a man of noble discent, and igno­ble conditions, is not truly generous, because he degenerateth from the ver­tues of his Ancestors.

Lyons, Bears, Wolves, and other Beasts of ravening kind, Rule 1. when they are borne in Armes feeding, you must term them in Blazon, Raping, and tell whereon. To all beasts of prey, Nature hath assigned teeth and tallons of crooked shape, and therewithall of great sharpnesse, to the end they may strongly seaze upon and detain their Prey, and speedily rend and divide the same. And therefore in Blazoning of beasts of this kind, you must not omit to mention their Teeth and Tallons, which are their onely Ar­mour: Rule 2. for by them they are distinguished from those tame and harm­lesse beasts, that have their Teeth knocked out, and their Nailes pared so near to the quick, as that they can neither bite nor scratch with much harme. Those Teeth and Tallons are for the most part in Coat-armours made of a different colour from the bodies of the Beasts: and therefore in Blazoning of Beasts of this kinde, when you speake of their Teeth or Tallons, you shall say they are thus or thus Armed. So likewise if you please to speake of their Tongues, you shall say they are thus or thus Langued.

To beare a Lyon or whatsoever Animal in a diverse colour from his kindly or naturall colour, as to bare a blew, green, red, purple Lyon, Bear, Bearing of Beasts in a di­verse Colour from that which is na­turall, whence taken. &c. or whatsoever other colour different from that which is Natural unto him; is not a bearing reproachfull, though disagreeing to his nature, if we con­sider of the occasion of their primary constitution: for that the custom of such bearing seemeth to have proceeded from eminent persons, who ha­biting themselves either for their sports of Hunting, or for military servi­ces (as best fitted their fantasies) would withall sute their Armours and habiliments with Colours answerable to their habits, with the shapes and portraitures of forged and counterfeit Animals.

Or else perhaps by occasion of some civill tumults, as that between the Guelphi and the Gibelini in Italy, they perhaps of each faction bearing Ly­ons, Beares, and Wolves, or other Animals, to avoid confusion, and to the end the one of them should not be entrapped by the other of the contra­ry faction, when they were intermixed one with another, and that their valorous actions might be more particularly discerned from the other, they distinguished themselves by different and unlike coloured garments, [Page 180] that so each Governour and Leader might know those that were of his owne faction.

The like may we observe to have beene of late yeares used amongst our selves, when private factions have sprung amongst us; one sort was knowne from others of the contrary faction by a Carnation R [...]band, worne about, or in his hat: or by a Crimson feather, or other thing, the contrary faction wearing like thing, but in a different colour, or fashion.

Property of Beasts of Ra­pine.The Lyon (saith Ʋpton) passing thorow stony places, doth contract his Tallons within his flesh, and so walketh on his feet, as if he had no Tallons at all, keeping them exceeding choisely, lest he should dull and blunt their sharpenesse, and so become lesse able to attach and rend his prey. And this property seemeth not to be peculiar to a Lyon, but common to all beasts of Rapine: as Pliny ascribeth the same property to Leopards, Panthers, and such other, as well as to the Lyon.

Defective pro­duction of beasts of ra­pine. Na­tures fore­sight herein.Not onely Lyons, but also all other beasts of ravenous kind, (according to Bekenhawb) do bring forth their young in some part defective, as Lyons do produce their whelps dead, Dogges bring them forth blind▪ Beares defor­med and shapelesse, &c. For Nature would not that they should atta [...] per­fection in the wombe, in regard of the safety of their Damme, least in their production they should spoyl and rent her wombe by their teeth and t [...]llons.

Other more particular Rules there are concerning the divers kinds and peculiar actions of beasts of Rapine, which shall follow in their more conve­nient places. In the meane time, let us proceed to Examples that may give life and approbation to those premised Rules: Praecepta enim quantumvis bona & concinna, mortua sunt, nisi ipse auditor variis exemplis ea percipiat: Good and fit precepts, are but dead, unlesse examples give them life. Of which opinion was Leo the Tenth, when he sayd.

Plus valent exempla quam praecepta,
Et melius docemur vita quam verbo.
Examples are more forcible than Precepts,
And our lives teach more than our words.
[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Iupiter, a Lyon Dormant, Sol. the He­brew Rabbies (saith Leigh) writing upon the second of Numbers, Lyon dormant Standard of the [...]be of Judah. do assigne to the Tribe of Judah, a Lyon af­ter this manner; alluding belike unto that blessing that Jacob (a little before his death) did pronounce upon Judah, saying; He shall lye downe and couch as a Lyon; Judah seemeth to sleep. who dares stirre him up? Wherein one noteth, that Jacob seemeth to allude to that diminution, which hapned at such time as the more part of the People of that Tribe did fall away unto Jeroboam: Tunc enim (saith he) Rex Judae similis esse coepit Leoni dormienti; neque enim erectis jubis timorem suum late effudit, sed quodam modo occubuit in spelunca. Latuit tamen quaedam occulta virtus sub illo sopore, &c. The King of Judah was then like a sleeping Lyon, which did not shew his rage with his erected Shag; but did as it were lurke in his Den, yet so as he lost not his Strength in his sleep, neither durst any the most adventurous to rowse him. This may be true of the King of Judah; but surely the Lyon of the Tribe of Judah, doth nei­ther slumber nor sleep, though he seemeth to sleep; neither doth their venge­ance sleep who dare provoke him. It is reported that the Lyon sleepeth with his eyes open, so should Governours do, whose Vigilancy should shew it self, when others are most at rest and secure.

[Page 181]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a Lyon couchant. The Lyon cou­ching after this manner, must not be deemed to have been compelled thereunto, but that he hath so setled himself of his own accord; for it is contrary to his Magnanimous nature to couch by any chastisement, or to be corrected in himself; but if a Whelp or some other beast be beaten or chastised in his sight, he thereupon humbleth himself after this manner: But as touching himself he must be overcome with Gen­tlenesse, and so is he easiest wonne. Generosus enim a­nimus facilius ducitur quam trahitur: The generous mind you may easier lead than draw. So when the children of Princes offend, their Pages are whipt before them; and the Persians, if a Noble man offend, brought forth his Garment and beat it with wands.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Lyon Seiant, Argent. Though this form and gesture hath affinity with the former, yet the difference is easie to be observed, by compa­ring the manner of their reposing: and in these kinds the varieties of gestures, you may observe, that by degrees and steps I proceed from the most quiet, to the most fierce gesture and action.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Mars, a Lyon passant, Gardant, Sol.Lyon passant, gardant. This was the Coat-Armour of William Duke of A­quitane, and of Gwyan, one of the Peeres of France, whose Daughter and Heire named Eleanor, was mar­ryed to Henry the second King of England: by reason of which Match the Field and Charge being of the same Colour and Metall, that the then royall Ensigns of this Land were, and this Lyon of the like action that those were of; this Lyon was united with those two Lyons in one Shield: Sithence which time the Kings of England, have borne three Lyons Passant, Gardant, as hereafter shall appear.

A like Lyon in a Field, Azure, was borne by Lewellya aur Dorchock Lord of Yale in Wales, Ancestor to Gruffith of Bromfield ap Cadwgan, from whom is descended Edward Bromfield, Alderman of London.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, two Lyons Passant, Or, which was the Coat of Sir Robert Ducy, who had issue Sir Richard Ducy, Sir William Ducy Baronets successive­ly: Robert and Hugh Ducy: The said Sir Robert Ducy was Sheriff of London 1620. Lord Mayor 1630. Knighted July 5. 1631. Created Baronet November 28. 1629. and lyes buried in Saint Laurence Church by Guild-hall, London.

[Page 182] Three Lyon­cels passant, gardant.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Lioncels, passant, Gar­dant, in Pale bar-wayes, Langued and Armed, Gules. This Coat-armour pertained to that worthy Gentle­man Sir John Brograve, Knight, sometimes Attorney Generall of the Dutchy of Lancaster. In the Blazoning of Armes consisting of more Lyons in a Field than one,Reason. you must term them Lyoncels (according to Leigh) which is as much to say, as so many young or petite Lyons. The reason of this rule I take to be this, that inasmuch as the Lyon hath a Prerogative Royal over all Beasts, and cannot endure that any other should participate of the Field with him, Quia Principes nolunt pares, Princes will admit no fellowes, to the impeachment of their Soveraignty; therefore the bearing of divers Lyons in one Field must be understood of Lyons whelps, which as yet have not so great feeling of their own strength, or inbred noble courage, nor apprehensi­on of their ingenerated Royal Soveraignty over all beasts as Lyons have. But Leones adulti participationem non admittere solent: When they are of years, they will know their own worth. Note that this Rule must be understood with a certain limitation in some particular cases, Quia non est regula adeo generalis, quin admittit exceptionem in suo particulari: For this rule holdeth not in the Soveraigns Ensignes, where these beasts are said to be Lyons, propter dig­nitatem Regiae majestatis; next this rule hath no place in Coat-armours wherein any of the honourable Ordinances are interposed between these beasts, for by such interpositions of these Ordinaries (saith Leigh) every one of them is reckoned to be of as great dignity,Limitation of this rule. as if he were borne dividedly in so many severall Escocheons, and that in respect of the Soveraignty of the Ordinary so interposed; for which cause, they have the title of most worthy partitions. And so shall you reckon of all other Coat-armours consisting of things so divided.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermine, three Lyons Passant, in Pale, Gules, and is the Coat of Tobias Combe of Helmsted Bury in the County of Hartford Esquire, whose son and heir Richard was Knighted by Oliver late Pro­tector.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, three Lyons Passant, Argent, by the name of English of Kent, now existing in the persons of William, Henry, Thomas, and Edward, Bre­theren.

[Page 183]

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He beareth, Argent, on a Crosse, Gules, five Lioncels saliant, Or, by the name of Aud [...]n of Dorchester in the County of Dorset. The Prophet Esay d [...]scribeth the va­lorous courage of these kind of beast [...] [...]ugh young, where he saith, that as a Lyon or a L [...] [...] roareth upon his prey, against whom if a multitude of Shep­herds be called, he will not be affrayd [...] their voyce, neither will he humble himselfe at their noyse, so shall the Lord of Hosts come downe to sight for Mount Sion, and the Hill thereof, Esay 31.4.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, two Lyons Passant, Argent, by the name of L' Estrange, a Family of great Emi­nence and Antiquitity yet existing (and where I hope it long may) at Hunsta [...] in Norf [...]ke, a good­ly and pleasant Seat, not long since in the possession of Sir Hamond L' Estrange Knight, who left issue 3 hopefull and accomplisht G [...]ntleman Sir Nicholas L' Estrange Baronet, deceased: Hamond L' Estrange, and Roger L' Estrange, both living 16 [...]9. & a daugh­ter Eliz. married to S [...]l Spring of Pakenh [...]m in Suffolk Baronet, which Sir Nicholas left his estate and title to his eldest son Sir Hamond & he as yet in his flourishing spring to his brother Sir Nicholas.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, two lioncels counterpassant, Ar­gent, the uppermost towards the si [...]ister side of the Esco­cheon, both collared, Gules, by the name of Glegg of Gay­ton in the County of Chester: some blazoners have gi­ven another blazon to this Coat-Armour thus; Hee beareth, Sable, two lyoncels, the one passant, the other re­passant, Argent, both collared▪ Gules, but in mine opi­nion no man by this last blazon is able to tricke, or ex­presse the true portraiture and manner of the bearing of these lioncels; for it appeareth not by this Blazon, to­wards which part or side of the Escocheon their heads are placed, which is contrary to the Rule give chap. 4. Sect. 1. pag. [...]4. The Lyon and the Lio­nesse do never go one and the same way▪ either when they seeke their prey or when they go to fight; the skilfull and expert men render this reason for it, that these beasts stand so much upon their strength of body as that neither of them needeth the others helpe.

Now that Lyons and Lyoncels are borne in Armes, the first with inter­position of some of the Ordinaries, the other charged upon Ordinaries, the following examples will make it manifest, and in Blazoning of such Coat-Armours care must be taken to observe and remember, what concerning this point of their difference I have even now delivered.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Fesse, Wavey, between three Lyons passant, Or, Armed and langued, Gules. This is the Coat-Armour of John Hawes, or Hawys of London, who draweth his descent from William Hawys of Wal­sh [...]m of the Willowes in Suffolk, which William was seised of lands there, in the time of Edw. the third. The Lyon passing his ground leisurely, and as it were pedetentim, step by step; which kind of gate we usually do call [Page 184] passant; expresseth his most generous and noble action of Majestie, Clemen­cy and Circumspection.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, on a Fesse, Argent, three Lyoncels Passant, Gardant, Purpure. These Armes appertained to Arnold Oldsworth Esquire, late Keeper of the Hanaper of the High Court of Chancery. Such is the noble cou­rage and magnanimity of the Lyon, as that in his greatest rage and fury be never doth tyrannize over those that do prostrate themselves to his mercy: whereof a certain Author thus writeth:

Parcere prostratis scit nobilis ira leonis:
Tu queque fac simile, quisquis regnabis in orbe.
[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Lyon passant, Or, between three Griffons heads Erased, Argent, by the name of Box, and is borne by Henry Box of London Esquire.

[blazon or coat of arms]

Lyon passant parted per Pale.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, two Bars, Ermine in Chief, a Lyon Passant, parted per Pale, Or, and Argent, by the name of Hill of Hales in the County of Norfolke. This Lyon is different from the former Passants, in that he goeth directly forward, shewing in the Escocheon but half his face, whereby he is distinguished from the Gardant, which sheweth the whole face. This Lyon Pas­sant seemeth to goe with more confidence and resoluti­on, but the Gardant, with more vigilancy and circum­spection; which both being joyned, do make an abso­lute Commander.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermine, a Saltier and Chief, Gules, on the last a Lyon Passant, Or, Ʋlster, this is the Coat of Sir Michael Armine or Aermine of Osgodby in the County of Lincoln Baronet, brother and heir of Sir William, lately deceased, sons of Sir William Ar­mine, created Baronet No. 28. 1619. son of Sir Willi­am Armine, Knighted April 23. 1603. descended from Gilbert Aermine Lord of the Mannor of Newland upon Eyre in the County of York 1164.

Lyon Saliant how discerned.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a Lyon Saliant, Gules, by the name of Felbridge. The Proper forme of a Lyon Saliant, is when his right fore-foot answereth to the Dexter cor­ner of the Escochron, and his hindmost foot the sinister base point thereof. And he is termed Saliant, a sa­liendo; His gesture in prosecution. because when he doth prosecute his Prey, he pursueth the same leaping, which action he never useth when he is chased in fight (as Pliny noteth) but is onely Passant. And it is sometimes no disho­nour [Page 185] to go softly, or retire leasurely out of the Field, but to flye is a reproach; and therefore of all gestures I never find any Lyon Cur­rent.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The field is Ruby, a Lyon Rampand, Pearle.Lyon Ram­pand how known. This was the Paternal Coat-armour of Thomas Mowbray Duke of Norfolke in the time of King Richard the Se­cond: and now is quartered by that most Honou­rable and florishing Family of the Howards. As tou­ching the bearing of the Lyon after this manner, I hold that then he may be truely said to be Rampand, when he standeth so directly upright as that the Crowne of his Head doth answer to the Plant of his foote, whereupon he standeth in a perpendicular line, His gesture in seizing. and not by placing of the left foot, in the Dexter corner of the Escocheon, as Leigh would have it. As the former example sheweth the gesture of the Lyon pursuing his prey, so this sheweth his gesture in seizing on it when he hath attained it.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermine a Lyon Rampand, Azure, Crowned, Or, by the name of Mydhope. A Family of good note, which hath matched with divers o­ther Families of worthy reputation. As appeareth by the descent of that industrious Gentleman Ed­mund Mydhope (late Clerk of the Pleas in the Court of Exchequer within the Realme of Ireland) seen, perused and allowed by Master Norroy King of Armes, and ratified by the second part of a certain Lidgier Book, sometime belonging to the late dissolved Abbey of Furneis, containing a transcript of Deeds, concerning Lands given in Frank Almaine to the same Abbey, by divers Gentlemen of worthy Name and Reputation: Amongst which there is extant to be seen a Deed of certaine Lands given to the said Abbey by Roger de Mydhope, Son and Heire of Henry de Mydhope, whose Coat is faire limned in the first letter of the same Deed, in manner as the same is here bla­zoned; which Deed beareth date Anno Dom. 1290. As may be seen in the said Book.

[blazon or coat of arms]

Argent, a Lyon Rampant, Sable, by the name of Stapylton, a Family of great Eminence and Worth, whereof there have been two Knights of the Gar­ter, one whereof, Sir Miles, was one of the Founders being the eighth in order, beside King Edward, yet flourishing in York-shire at Wighill and Myton.

[Page 186]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Pearle, three Bars, Gemelles, Ruby, over all a Lyon Rampand, Diamond, his Supporters are two Lyons Rampand, Diamond, purfled, To­paz, and is the Atchievement of the right Honoura­ble Thomas Lord Fairfax, Baron, of Camroone in Scotland.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Lyon Rampant, Argent, over all a Bendlet, Gules, by the name of Church­hill of Grays-Inn, Counsellor at Law, Esquire.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, parted per-fesse, Sable, and Argent, a Lyon Rampant, counter-changed. This is the Coat of the Right Honourable Sir Richard Vaughan, Knight of the Bath, Earle of Carberie, &c. A great encourager of Vertue and Industry.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Lyon Rampand, the taile elevated and turned over the head, Sable. This is the Coat-armour of John Buxton of Tibenham in the coun­ty of Norfolke, Esquire. Although this manner of Bearing in respect of the taile is rarely used, yet it is very ancient, as appeareth by an old Table of the said Armes taken out of the Monastery of Bungey in Suffolk, having been before the dissolution of the Abbeyes there hanged up; for one Stiled Le Senes­chall Buxton, which table now remaineth in the cu­stody of the said Mr. John Buxton. Here Blazoners may please to observe how requisite it is to take advised consideration in what manner the taile of this beast is borne in signes Armoriall; but I shall presently in this Chapter have further occasion in the Coat-armour of Corke to treat more largely of this point.

[Page 187]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Lyon Rampand, Argent,A Lyon Ram­pand, a File of three points or Lambeaux. a File of three Lambeaux, Gules, each charged with as many Be­zants: This is the Coat-armour of the worthy Gen­tleman Thomas Covell, one of the Captains of the City of London: here I tell not the colour of the Bezants, because every Rundle in Armory (of which sort these Bezants are) hath his proper colour and name in Blazon, as shall hereafter be more particu­larly declared when I come to speak of Rundles in generall.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Or, a Lyon Rampand, parted per-fesse, A Lyon Ram­pand parted per-fesse. Azure, and Gules, armed and langued, Argent. This is the Coat-Armour of Ralph Sadlier of Standon in the County of Hartford, Esquire, Grandchild and heir male to Sir Ralph Sadlier, the last Knight Banneret that lived in England, a Grave Counsellor of State to King Henry the Eighth, King Edward the Sixth, and Queen Elizabeth. This kind of bearing of a Lyon parted per-fesse, appeareth in a very old Roll of Armes in co­lours, now in the custody of the before mentioned Sir Richard Saint George, Knight, Clarenceaux King of Armes; wherein is depicted this Coat-armour, viz. Argent, a Lyon Rampand, parted per-fesse, Gules and Sable, and superscribed in French in an ancient letter Joan de Lovetot.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Right Honourable William Lord Gray of Warke beareth this Coat, viz. Ruby, a Lyon Ram­pant within a Bordure Engrailed, Pearle.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Lyon Rampant, Argent, Crowned, Or, Bordered, as the second, Pellettee, by the name of Henley.

[Page 188]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Girony of foure, Or, and Azure, a Ly­on Rampant, counter-changed. This Coat may be blazoned thus, per Saltier, Or, and Azure, a Lyon Rampant counter-changed; This is the Coat of Ni­cholas Gold of London Merchant, a Member of the Par­liament begun 1659.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Diamond, a Lyon Rampant crowned, between three Croslets, Topaz, Armed, and Langu­ed, Ruby. This is the Coat of the Right Reverend Father in God Henry Lord Bishop of Chichester, Son of John King Lord Bishop of London.

Now I will shew unto you one other Lyon Rampand; which in regard of the Pale upon which he is charged is worth your observation.

Upon a Pale Radiant Ray­onee, a Lyon Rampand.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, upon a Pale Rediant raionee, Or, a Lyon Rampand, Gules, by the name of Colman of Brunt Ely in the County of Suffolk, had not the shining raies of this glistering Pale extraordinarily invited me to gaze upon the rarity of this bearing I should without respect of the Lyon rampand (of which kind you have had already great variety) being this rare Pales onely charge, omitted to have here demonstrated this Coat-armour, but I doubt not if the skilfull Artist in this way observe it well, he cannot but commend the in­vention of its first deviser.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Lyon Rampand between three Cressants, Sable, a Chief, Verrey. This is the Coat-armour of Thomas Wilkocks of Tottenham-High-crosse in the Coun­ty of Middlesex.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Lioncels Rampand, Gules, a Chief of the Second, by the name of Yelverton, a prin­cipall branch, of which Family is that worthy Gentle­man Sir Harvy Yelverton Baronet, Son and Heir of Chri­stopher Yelverton of Easton Manduit, in the County of Northampton, Knight and Baronet. The Lyon (saith Farnesius) is a lively Image of a good Souldier, who must be valiant of courage, strong of body, politick in counsell, and a foe to feare. Such an one was the most valiant Prince Richard the second, surnamed Ouer-d'­lion, [Page 189] whose renowned adventures, suted with all courage and politick care, gave him the eternall name of the Lyon heart. And now I will with your patience shew you an Escocheon wherein you shall find an Ordinary char­ged with three Lyoncels Rampand.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, on a Cheuron Engrailed, Argent,Three lyoncels Rampand on a Cheuron en­grailed. between three [...]refoiles slipped Ermynois, as many Lioncels Rampand, Sables, armed and langued, Gules, by the Name of Barliffe, Bariffe, or Beriffe; for I find the name variously written, which I note here to give a caveat to Gentlemen to be carefull to keep the Ancient and true Orthography of their Surnames, lest in time the differing variety thereof may call their descents and Armes into question; for it is utterly unlawfull by the law of Armes for one Gentleman to bear the Coat-Armour of another, they both being descended from severall Families, al­though their surnames be near agreeing, or the same.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Lyon Rampand, between three Crosses, formee, Or, by the name of Ayloffe of Essex, of which Family is Sir Benjamin Ayloffe Ba­ronet.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Lyon Rampant, Gules, be-three Trefoyles, Vert, and is the Coat of Sir Michael Livesey of East-church in the Isle of Shipey, in the Coun­ty of Kent Baronet.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Lyon Rampant, Sable, be­tween three Holly leaves, Proper, by the name of Sherman: of this Family are Samuel, John, and Ed­ward Sherman, sons of Samuel Sherman of Dedham in Essex, originally extracted from Yaxley in Suffolk, which Edward Sherman being of London Merchant, hath marryed Jane Daughter of John Wall of Brom­ley, by Jane Daughter and Heire of Sayer.

[Page 190]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, Crusily, a Lyon Rampant, Azure, Gules, Armed and Langued, and is borne by the name of Bonnell of Norfolk.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, Crusily, a Lyon Rampant, Argent, Armed and Langued, Gules, by the name of Kinardsley of Loxley in the County of Salop, which Family was of good note before and at the time of the Conquest a singular Ornament of which is at this time Clement Kinardsley of the Wardrobe.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, Semy de Cinquefoyles, a Lyon Rampant, Argent, by the name of Clifton, and is the Coat of Clifford Clifton Esquire, son of Sir Gervis Clif­ton Knight, created Baronet the two and twentieth of May 1611. (the first day that Honour was con­ferd) by Frances Daughter of Francis, fourth Earle of Cumberland: which Clifford Clifton marryed Frances, second Daughter of that Honourable Gentleman Sir Heneage Finch Knight.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Pearle, Semy de Cinquefoyles, Ruby, a Lyon Rampant, Diamond, by the name of Pier-point, of which Family the chief and most illustri­ous Ornament is the Right Honourable Henry Mar­quesse of Dorchester, a Peer of great Honour, Learn­ing and respect to learned men. Nor is that great Lover of this Art, and Incourager of other, his Bro­ther William Pierpoint Esquire to be forgotten.

In a very old Roll in my custody about the time of Henry the third, or Edward the first; I find one Sir Robert Pierpound doubtlesse of this Family, for his Armes are Argent, Semy de Roses (or thus, Argent, within an Orle of Roses) Gules a Lyon Rampant, Sable. Now that Roses for Cinquefoiles (& è contra) are promiscuously used, is very obvious: perhaps its sometimes Vitium pictoris.

[Page 191]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, two Lyoncels Rampand, Com­batant, Gules, Langued and Armed, Azure,Lyoncels ram­pand, comba­tant. by the name of Wycombe. Leigh saith, that these were two Lyons of sundry Regions, which of manhood must combate, onely for Government,The significa­tion thereof. for the Lyon is as desirous of mastery, as a couragious Prince is ambi­tious of Honour: which if it be in a just title and claime is a vertue in a King, and no way to be disli­ked: for it was a Royall Apothegme worthy that great King, Nemo me major, nisi qui Justior; I acknow­ledge no king greater than my self, but he that is Juster.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, two Lyoncels Rampand,Lyoncels ram­pant, endorsed. Endorsed, Or. This Coat (saith Leigh) was borne by Achilles the Grecian at the Siege of Troy: and Leigh takes it to be a combate intended between two valiant men, and they both keep appoint­ment and meet in the Field, but the Prince fa­vouring both parties, taketh the matter into his hands, and then turne they back to back, and so depart the Field, for their stout stomacks will not suffer them to goe both one way, be­cause it is counted an injury to hardinesse to goe first out of the Field.

There are yet other formes of bearing the Lyon, than are hitherto ex­pressed, as in these next Escocheons may be seen.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is Mars, a tricorporated Lyon,Lyon tricor­porated. issuing out of the three corners of the Escocheon, all meet­ing under one head in the Fesse paint, Sol, Langued and Armed Jupiter. A like Lyon did Edmund sur­named Crouch-back Earle of Lancaster, A like Lyon borne in de­vice. and Brother to Edward the first, bear in Device. As appeareth by the Seale of the same Edmund; the circumference of which Seal containeth this inscription, SIGIL­LUM ED MUNDI FILII REGIS ANGLIAE. Onely herein it differeth from this, that where the middlemost of the bodies in this is borne Rampand, and the other two descend from the corners of the Escocheon; contrari­wise in the Seale the two lowermost are borne Passant, and the third descended from above, and are all conjoyned in the Center of the said circumference. The like was borne in Device by one of the Ancestors of the Right Noble and Honourable late Lord Carew, Earle of Totnesse. But the Field of this was Topaz, and the Lyon Diamond; more-over the middlemost body of this was Rampand, and the other two after a sort Passant.

[Page 192]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, per Pale, Gules, and Azure, a Cheu­ron, Or, between three Lyons Rampant, Argent, by the name of Hoskins of Oxted in Surry, of which Family is also Edmund Hoskins of the Inner Tem­ple, Esquire.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Saphire, three Lyons Rampant, To­paz, Armed and Langued, Ruby. This is the Coat of the Right Honourable William Viscount Say and Seale, and of his truly noble sons the Lord John Fines, and the Lord Nathaniel Fines, one of his Highnesse Honourable Counsell, and Commissioner of the great Seal 1658.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Lyons Rampant, A­zure, which is the Coat of Mildmay of Essex, a flou­rishing and very worthy Family.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Topaz, on a Chief, Saphire, three Ly­ons Rampant of the first. This is the Coat of the right honourable John Lisle Commissioner of the great Seale of England 1658.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Bend Engrailed between six Lyons Rampand, Or. This is the Coat of Sir An­thony Ashley Cooper, Baronet, one of the Privy Counsell to his late Highnesse, a Gentleman of much worth and estimation in his Country.

[Page 193]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, on a Fesse indented, between three Billets, Azure, (each charged with a Lyon Rampant, as the Field) so many Bezants, this was the Coat-Armour of Henry Rolles, late Lord chief Justice of Eng­land, Sir Samuel Rolles, and John Rolles of London Mer­chant, Bretheren, which Henry Rolles left issue that worthy Gentleman Henry Rolles Esquire, living 1659.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, two Bars, Gemelles, in Chief a Lyon Passant, Or, which was the Coat of Sir Richard Sprignall of Highgate in the County of Middlesex, Ba­ronet, late deceased, Father of Sir Robert Sprignall Ba­ronet, living 1659.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a Bend, Compony, Ermine, and Sable, between two Lyons heads erased, Sable, on a Chief of the last, three Billets, Argent, and is the bearing of the Right Honorable William Steele, late Lord chief Baron of the Exchequer, and now Lord Chancellor of the Kingdome of Ireland.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, three Demy Lyons and a Chief indented, Gules. This is the Coat of Sir Thomas Fisher of Islington, Baronet, son of Sir Thomas Fisher Knight and Baronet, so created March 12. 1616.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a Demy Lyon Rampand, Gules,A demy Lyon Rampand. by the name of Mallory. There are certaine formes of bearing much like unto this at the first sight, but are diverse from it in bearing, and do receive a different forme of blazon, whereof good heed must be taken, Quia diversitas nominis denotat diversitates rei. The diversity of names doth manifest the diversity of things: in as much as names are significant demonstrations of things, and expresse notes of the differences.

[Page 194] A Lyon Issu­ant.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, on a chief, Or, a Lyon Rampand, issuant, Gules, Langued and Armed of the first, by the name of Markham. This Lyon is said to be Issuant, because he doth issue from out of the bottom of the Chief, and so must other things be blazoned which thus arise from the bottome thereof.

Lyon Jessant.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Chief, Gules, a Lyon Rampand, Jessant, his tail forked, Or, by the name of Hastang.

A Lyon Jessant borne in Coat-Armour, is where the Coat is first charged with a Chief, or other Ordinary, and after by some occasion some Animal is added thereunto, but is not subjected to the primary charge, but is borne over both the Field and Charge, and is therefore called a Lyon Jessant, à jacendo, because of such lying all over. Some Blazon this Coat Azure, a Chief, Gules, over all a Lyon Rampand, his tail for­ked, Or.

A Lyon na­issant.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, out of the midst of a Fesse, Sable, a Lyon Rampant, naissant, Gules, armed and langued, Azure. This Coat was borne by St. Hen. Emme, Kt. of the most Honorable order of the Garter, and chosen companion thereof by Ed. 3. when he did erect and establish the same. This Lyon is said to be Naissant, because he see­meth to issue out of the wombe of the Fesse, Quasi nunc esset in nascendo. This forme of Blazon, is peculiar to all living things, that shall be found issuing out of the midst of some Ordinary or common charge.

A Lyons head erased.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Lyons head erased, Gules, by the name of Govis. Concerning the dignity of this part of the body, and how the same is preferred be­fore all other the parts and members thereof. I have formerly made mention, as also of the commendable bearing of Members Erased.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Topaz, on a Chief, Diamond, three Lyons heads erased of the first, this was the Coat-Armour of Sir Thomas Richardson, Knight, late Lord Chief Justice of his Majesties Court of Kings Bench, who left issue Sir Thomas Richardson Knight, and he Thomas Richardson, Baron of Cramond in Scotland, now living 1659. I do here give this Coat-armour this kind of blazon by precious stones, in respect of that high place of Justice which its bearer executeth under his Ma­jesty.

[Page 195]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, a Cheuron, between three Lyons heads Erased, Argent, which is the bearing of the Right Honourable George Monke, one of the Ad­mirals of the Sea Forces, and now Generall of the Army in Scotland, duly deriving himself from an Il­lustrious Stem, his Ancestors having matcht with the Plantaginets more then once.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is, Azure, a Cheuron, Argent, between three Lyons heads erased, Ermine, crowned, Or, this is the Coat-Armour of Sir Paul Pinder of the City of London, Knight; whose bounteous piety manifest in many other charitable actions, was the yeare 1632. more conspicu­ous in the richly adorning and exquisite beautifying the Quire of Saint Pauls Church. Erasing is a violent rending of a member from the body, and may signifie some worthy and memorable act of the bearer, that hath severed the Head from the Shoulders of some no­torious, turbulent, or seditious person.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Lyons Head erased between three Croslets, Or, which is the Coat of Sir Francis Armitage of Kirkleces in the County of Yorke, created Baronet 15. December 1641.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He bears, Argent, on a Sable, three Lyons heads erased, of the field, Crowned, Or, this the paternall Coat of John Wroth Esquire, and Sir Henry Wroth his Brother, of Durants in Enfield in Middlesex, where that Family hath flourished many hundred years, and of whence are also descended John Wroth and Anthony Wroth, sons of Sir Peter Wroth of Blenden Hall in Bexley in Kent, deceased.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Fesse, Sable, between three Lyons Heads erased, Gules, which is the Coat of Sir William Farmer of Eston-Neston in the County of Northampton, Baronet.

[Page 196]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, two Lyons Pawes issuing out of the Dexter and Sinister base points, erected in forme of a Cheuron, Argent, Armed, Gules, by the name of Frampton. The fore-feet of the Lyon have five toes upon each foot, and the hinder feet but foure, whereby nature hath enabled him, for the more sure seizing and retaining his acquired prey, the Lyons Clawes are crooked and exceeding hard, with these he carveth and rendeth his prey, and for this pur­pose he keepeth them very choicely and tenderly, and is no lesse care­full to save them from blunting, than a good Souldier is to keep his Armour and Weapons from rust and bluntnesse, by the greatnesse and sharpnesse of the Lyons claw, we may easily conjecture how dan­gerous a thing it is for a man to encounter him, for wheresoever he seizeth, if he breake not the bones, yet he renteth away the flesh, so also may we give a near guesse, if not make a certaine demonstration of his proportion and bignesse, for so we read that Phydias the fa­mous Carver of great Images in Gold and in Ivory, upon the sight of a Lyons claw onely, did raise the whole proportion of his body, which gave occasion (as is supposed) of the Proverbe, Leonem ex ungue estimare; whereby is meant, that of one probable conjecture, a man may give a near guesse of the whole businesse.

[blazon or coat of arms]

Gules, three Lyons Gambes or Pawes, Erased, Argent, by the name of Newdigate of Warwick-shire, of which Family a worthy Ornament is Richard Newdigate Serjeant at Law, and one of the Justices of the upper Bench.

Two Lyons pawes erased, and surmount­ing each o­ther.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, two Lyons pawes Erased, in Saltire, the Dexter surmounted of the Sinister, Gules. That Lyons, Panthers, and Leopards do hide their clawes within their skin when they goe or run, it may seem a little miracle; for they do never extend them but when they offer to seize their prey, lest they should be blunted, and so become less servicea­ble for the apprehension, retention, and division of of their prey.

[Page 197]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, three Lyons pawes, Couped, Three Lyons pawes couped. and Erected, Argent, Armed, Gules, by the name of Ʋsher. Sometimes these pawes are found borne upon Or­dinaries, as in this next Escocheon, where there is a Ly­ons pawe borne upon a Canton. And you must observe, that albeit I do here use but one example for an in­stance, yet shall you by observation find them borne as well upon other Ordinaries as on this.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, on a Canton, Sable, a Lyons pawe erased in bend, Or, by the name of Bowtheby. A Lyons pawe on a Canton. This one Coat doth minister occasion of a twofold obser­vation; the one, that this member is borne upon Ordinaries: the other that it is borne after the man­ner or fashion of Ordinaries, as Cheuron-wayes, Crosse­wayes, Saltire-wayes, &c. As by the precedent exam­ples may appear.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, three Lyons tailes erected and e­rased, Argent, by the name of Corke. Three Lyons tailes erased. The Lyon hath great strength in his taile, the much motion whereof is a manifest token of anger: when he mindeth to assaile his enemy, he stirreth up himself by often beating of his back and sides with his taile, and thereby stirreth up his courage, to the end he do nothing faintly or cowardly. The Lyon when he is hunted, carefully provideth for his safety, labou­ring to frustrate the pursuite of the Hunters by sweeping out his foot-steps with his taile as he goeth, that no appearance of his track may be discovered, whereby they may know which way to make after him.

The Lyon beareth his Taile after a diverse manner, insomuch as we may thereby (if not certainly know, yet give a near guesse) what a moode he is in for the present, viz. whether he be furiously bent, or peaceable, or majestically affected. And these qualities are manifestly discerned by the Inversion, Eversion, or Extention, &c. of his Taile.

Here may rise a question, Whether the bearing of the Taile of the Lyon in any of these severall manners be a sufficient difference to prevent all causes of challenge?

For my own part (albeit I have not read or seen in Gerard Leigh, Boswell, Ferne, or any other Armoriall Writers the state of this question handled) I hold that they be differences sufficient to debar all chal­lenge: my reasons are these; first, Sufficit quod inter Arma mea & tua talis sit differentia, qua detur diversitas. And again, Nova forma dat novum esse rei: I hold them not onely to be differences, secundum quid; but simpli­citer, that is to say, absolute and essentiall differences. Furthermore, Data una dissimilitudine etiam paria judicabuntur diversa. Moreover expe­rience sheweth us, that the least addition or substraction in Armoriall signes maketh them cease to be the same that they were; Omnia Arma [Page 198] Arithmeticis figuris sunt simillima, quibus si quid addas vel subtrahas non rema­net eadem species, as I have formerly shewed. Finally, for approbation of these my opinions I will add this infallible assertion; Ea differunt quorum definitiones differunt.

These are my reasons that induce me to be of this opinion, that the di­verse manner of bearing of the Taile of the Lyon as aforesaid, are or may be (without exception) essentiall differences: which neverthelesse I referre to the Iudicious censure of the learned in this profession, who perhaps may convince me with more forceable grounds.

But because demonstration is the best of Arguments to convince the in­credulous, it is apparant that Buxtons Coat before mentioned differs not from that of Smeres, but only in the manner of the bearing of the tail, both of them being Argent, a Lyon Rampand, Sable, onely in Buxtones Coat the taile is elevated and turned over the head of the Lyon, as it more plainly ap­peares before in this present Chapter.

Now as touching particularizing of the before-mentioned assertion, I say that the Eversion of the taile of the Lyon is an expresse token of his placabilitie or tractablenesse, as contrariwise the Inversion of his taile is a note of his wrath and fury, especially if he doe beate the backe therewith, and doe roare withall: of this property of the Lyon Catullus maketh men­tion in these words.

Age, coede terga cauda tua, verbera pateant
Face, cunctá mugienti fremitu loca retonent.

The gate of a Lyon when he is passant is an apparant note of his juris­diction, and regall authoritie and Soveragnitie wherewith the extension of his taile doth fitly quadrate and agree: inasmuch as when hee hunteth after his prey, he roareth vehemently, whereat the Beasts being astonish­ed doe make a stand, whilest hee with his taile maketh a circle about them in the sand, which circle they dare not transgresse, which done out of them he maketh choise of his prey at his pleasure.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Field is party per Pale, Gules and Azure, a Tiger Passant, Argent. This was the paternall Coat-Armour, of that grave Citizen Iohn Mabb Chamberlaine of Lon­don in the time of Queene Elizabeth, Grandfather of Ralph Mab, at whose charges the second Edition was presented to the publike view. The Tiger may well take place next to the Lyon, it being a beast of great cruelty and incomparable swiftnesse, whence some thinke the River Tigris had its name.

A Tiger pas­sant.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Tiger Passant, Regardant, ga­zing in a mirrour or Looking-glass, all Proper. This Coat-Armour standeth in the Chancell of the Church of Thame, in Oxford-shire, in a Glasse window of the same Chancell, Impaled on the sinister side with the Coate-Armour properly pertaining to the Family of de Bardis. Near to this Escocheon is placed this in­scription, Hadrianus de Bardis Prebendarius istius [Page 199] Ecclesiae. Some report that those who rob the Tiger of her young, use a po­licy to detain their dam from following them, by casting sundry looking-glasses in the way, whereat she useth long to gaze, whether it be to behold her own beauty, or because when she seeth her shape in the glasse, she thinketh she seeth one of her young ones, and so they escape the swiftness of her pursuit. And thus are many deceived of the substance, whilst they are much busied about the shadowes.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Sable, a Beare Passant, Argent.A Beare pas­sant. It is written of the She Beare that she bringeth forth her young ones unperfect and deformed, like a lump of raw flesh, and licks it till it come to shape and perfection. The She-beare is most cruelly inraged against any that shall hurt her young, or despoile her of them: as the Scripture saith in setting forth the fierce anger of the Lord, that he will meet his adversaries, as a Beare robbed of her whelps. Which teacheth us how carefull Nature would have us to be of the welfare of our children, sith so cruell beasts are so tender hearted in this kind.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Beare Rampand, Sable, muz­led, Or, by the name of Barnard. The Countries that were reputed famous for the Cruelty of Beares were Lucania, and Ʋmbria in Italy, now called the Dutchy of Spoletum; and so in ancient times was our Island of Britaine; for Beares were carryed from hence to Rome for a shew, where they were holden in great admira­tion. The Beare by nature is a cruell beast, but this here demonstrated unto you, is (to prevent the mis­chief it might otherwise do, as you may observe) as it were bound to the good behaviour with a muzle: I must confesse I have often seen a Sable Beare Saliant, in a Field, Argent, borne by the name of Bernard.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Cheuron between three Beares heads erased, Sable, muzled, Or, by the name of Pen­narthe of Cornwall.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The Beare is reported to combate with the Bull; in which fight he useth no lesse policy than strength; as evidently may appeare out of Aristotle de Animalibus lib. 8. chap. 230.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Fesse between three Bears heads couped, Sable, musled, Or, which is the Coat of the Honourable Lord John Disborow, one of his Highnesse Privy Counsell, and Generall at Sea, and Major Generall of the West.

[Page 200] A Wolfe Sa­liant.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Wolfe Saliant, Argent, lan­gued and armed, Gules, by the name of Downe. Some such Ensigne did Macedon the son of Osyris (surna­med Jupiter the just, whose Father was Cham the Son of Noah) beare in his Shield at such time, as he together with divers of his Brethren and Kinsfolke, did warfare under the conduct of Osyris, as wit­nesseth Diodorus Siculus: Osyridem duo filii, virtute dispares, Anubis & Macedon, prosequuti sunt, uterque Armis usus est insignibus, aliquo animali haud ab eorum natura dissimili: nam Anubis Canem, Macedon Lupum, insigne Armorum tu­lit. Anubis (saith he) gave a Dog for his device on his Armes, and Macedon a Wolfe. This Coat-armour may serve to exemplifie that which I have formerly delivered, touching the Antiquity of Armes. The ancient Ro­mans also in their Military ensignes did beare the Wolfe, as appeareth by Vegelius Valturius, and others.

Two Wolves passant.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, two Wolves passant, Argent, by the name of Low. Ʋpton leaveth to the conside­ration of Heralds, whether the bearing of the Wolfe in Armes be not fit for such persons as in Parliament and places of great Assembly, are accustomed to wrangle and shew themselves contentious; and (quasi Johannes in opposito) to put on a resolute de­termination to be contrary to all others. For it is the Wolves nature when they assemble together to fall a howling. Some write that those who sud­denly look on a Wolfe, do lose their voice; it were fit, such wolvish and snarling persons, would look on themselves in a glasse, and so become silent.

Thus ending with the Wolfe, I will perclose this tract of beasts of fierce nature, comprehending all others of this kind, as Ounces, Lynxes, Hyenaes, Panthers, &c. under these before handled. Forasmuch as the greatest part of the generall Rules, as also of the sundry formes of bearing attributed unto Lyons and Wolves, may be aptly applyed to all, or the greatest part of other Beasts of like nature.


HAving given examples of Ravenous and Fierce kind, that by main force do prosecute and obtain their prey: I will now proceed to the hand­ling of beasts lesse Fell and harmfull; of which number some are Wilde and Savage, other are Domesticall and Sociable, as Dogs of all sorts, of which I will first intreat; because the Dog, whether it be for pleasure and Game in field, or for thrift and guard at home, deserveth a very high estimation, and of all Dogs, those of chase are most in use in Armory; whereof some prose­cute their prey speedily, others more leasurably; of the first sort is the Grey­hound, as in example.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Greyhound passant, Sable,Grey-hound Passant. by the name of Holford. Such Dogs as do pursue their Game with a more leasurely pace, are Hounds fitted for all sorts of Game: as Hart-hounds, Buck-hounds, Harriers, Otter-hounds, Bloud-hounds, &c. which are of some au­thors called Odorisequi canes, quia odoratu investigant, for following by the smell; and Cicero calleth them, Sagaces canes, because of their tender and quick sent; and both these and the Greyhound are called canes ve­natici, Dogs for the chase.

Note that it appeareth in an old Manuscript treating of blazon, that a Greyhound cannot properly be termed Rampand, for it is contrary to his kind to appear so fierce as the Author there writeth in his said book, now remaining in the custody of that worthy Knight, Sir William Seger, Garter, Principall King of Armes, whose great study and travell in this Heraldicall Art, hath by his own works already published, been sufficiently manifest.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, two Bars, Sable, charged with three Treefoyles of the Field in Chief, a Greyhound Currant of the second; this is the Coat of Sir William Palmer of Clarkenwell Knight, a Learned and Ingeni­ous Gentleman, who by Dorothy his Lady, a worthy Daughter of so noble a Father Sir John Brampston Knight, Lord chief Justice of the Kings Bench, hath an hopefull issue.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Talbot passant, Argent,Talbot Pas­sant. by the name of Borgoigne. It is a generall observation, that there is scarce any Vertue incident to a man, but there are singular Sparks & resemblances of the same in the sundry kinds of Dogs: For some are so couragious, as if they be in the encounter, you may cut off a Leg or any Lim before they will let go their Holdfast: in which kind the English Mastiffe hath highest praise; insomuch that Histories report, that the Romans took Mastiffes hence, to carry in their Armies instead of Souldiers: Some others have been so trusty and loving to their Masters, as being by error lost, they have refused meat, though it were to their death, [Page 202] till they saw their Masters againe. For their admirable Property in finding any thing that is lost, in fetching any thing they are injoyned, in pursuing any man by the sent of his Foote after he is Fled; it requireth a Naturalists large discourse, rather than the touch of an Heralds pencill.

Fesse Daun­cette and three Talbots.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a Fesse Dauncette, between three Talbots passant, Sable, by the name of Carrick. These kinde of dogges, are called in Latine, Canes sagaces, for the tendernesse of their sent, and quicknesse of smell­ing, because thereby they doe readily discover and finde out the Tracks, fourmes, and lodgings of beasts of chase, and of Savage kinde: which done they doe pro­secute their undertaken chase with open mouth, and continuall cry; that oftentimes through hot pursuite they do so tire it, as that it is either taken up by the Hunts men, or do become a prey to themselves.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, a Fesse, betweene three talbots Heads erased, Or, by the name of Burton of Lindley in the County of Leicester. To this head must bee refer­red all other Sorts of Dogges of Prosecution: As Beagles, Terriers, and such like, so called, Quia feras sub terra prosequuntur (for that they prosecute their prey un­der the Ground, as the others do above ground) also Land, and Water-spaniels, and such others. Now for the Wild or Savage sort of beasts, some do atchieve their Prey by Subtill meanes, as Foxes, Ferrets, Weasels, Cattes, &c. some by prudent Providence, as the Hedde-hogge, Squirrell, and such like. Others also there are, whose care is, not so much how to come by their prey, as that themselves become not a prey to others; as Hares, Conies, &c. Of these briefely, I will give some few examples, to shew to what head they are to be reduced, as followeth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, two Reynards, counter saliant in bend, the dexter surmounted of the Sinister-like, Gules, by the name of Kadrod-Hard of Wales. These are somewhat unlike Samsones Foxes, that were tyed together at the Tailes; and yet these two agree in Ali­quo tertio: They came into the Field, like two enemies, but they meant nothing less than to fight, and there­fore they passe by each other; like two crafty Law­yers, which came to the barre, as if they meant to fall out deadly about their Clients cause; but when they have done, and their Clients purses well spunged, they are better friends than ever they were, and laugh at those Geese, that will not beleeve them to be Foxes, till they (too late) finde themselves Fox-bitten.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Ermine, three Cats-a-mountain in Pale, Passant, Azure, this is the Coat of that worthy Citizen Thomas Adams Esquire, Lord Mayor of this City, 1646. yet living, 1659.

[Page 203]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Cat-a-mountains Pas­sant, in Pale, Sable, and is the Coat of Jonathan Keate of London, an Ingenious Gentleman, son of Gilbert Keate Esquire, deceased.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Cheuron, Azure, betweene three Squerrils Seiant, Gules, by the name of Lovell. A Cheuron between three Squerrils Seiant. This Beast hath his name Sciurus, or Scuitell, by reason of the largenesse of his Taile, which shadoweth all his body. And is therein like one, who carefully keeping the love and affection of his Followers and Retainers, is sure they will sticke to him, protect and shaddow him in time of need: To whom those Villaines (men­tioned in the Roman history) were much unlike, who betrayed their Proscribed Lords, flying to them for Shelter and secret Coverture: and such a one was the faithlesse Cartismandua, to whom our renowned British King Caractacus, flying to hide himselfe, till he might gather his forces together against the Romans, she betrayed him unto his foes, to the ruine of this Kingdome: that Infamous Queene had not Caudam Sciuri, a Squirels shadowing Tayle; but Caudam Draconis, Fiery and venemous.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The field is Parted per Fesse, Gules and A­zure, in the first Sixe whole Ermines, Ermyne, Couchant, three and three, This was the Coate-armour of a Bishop in the Kingdome of Scotland who lived Anno Dom. 1474. as I finde it in Master Garters (before mentioned) Manu­script. The Surname of this Bishop is not there set downe. I have inserted this Coat-armour, in regard of the raritie of the bearing of this Beast whole in an Escocheon, which is seldome so used: but the Skinne of this beast is of very frequent use in Armes, it being that furre in Blazon called Ermyne, of which I have for­merly treated in this book, Section 1. Chapter 4. I was as curious as I could in procuring this Escocheon to be cut like unto that which is depicted in that Manuscript, because I was desirous to demonstrate unto you the fash­ion of Escoheons of those times, I must confesse that I finde the Blazon there to differ from this of mine; for there he beginneth to Blazon the Base part of the field first, which manner of Blazon at this day is not approved of by English Blazoners.

To these must be added all other fourefooted beasts that are provident in acquiring their food, as the Hedghog, and such other. It resteth that I should now give example of the last sort of beasts, among them of Savage kinde before spoken of, which are those timerous and fearefull nature. Such are these that follow and their like.

[Page 204] Three Conies.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Conies, Sable, by the name of Strood. Conies are bred in most Countries, but in few are they so plentifull as in England. Amongst the Baleares they were so abundant, as that the people made sute to Augustus to grant them a military com­pany of Pioneers to destroy them. Of this little beast it seemeth that men first learned the Art of undermi­ning and subverting of Cities, Castles, and Towers, by the industry of Pioneers.

Three Conies in bordure Ingrailed.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Gules, three Conies Seiant, Argent a Sable, Bordure Ingrailed, by the name of Conisbie. Though nature hath not given these timorous kinds of beasts such craft or strength as to the former; yet are they not destitute of their succours, in that they have their strong Castles and habitations in the earth, and their food ever growing so nigh them, that they need not put themselves into danger except they list.Three Hares heads couped Nebule.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, on a Fesse Nebule, Sable, three Hares heads couped, Or, by the name of Harewell. The Hare is a simple creature, and reposeth all her safety in swiftnesse, wherein she useth many shifts to help her self withall, both to defend her self from the perill of the Hounds, and to frustrate the endeavours of the Huntsmen. She naturally feareth the Eagle, Hawke, Fox, and Wolfe, her naturall enemies. It is strange which some have written of Hares, that their nature is, for the self same to be sometimes Male, and sometimes Female. Such an one also (as Poets write) was Tiresias, of The­bes, who being a man, became a woman, and so continued seven years, and then returned again to his former shape. Afterward a great controversie rising betwixt Jupiter and Juno, whether the man or the woman were more insatiate of Venerie, or took most delight therein, he was chosen Arbiter in the matter, and gave the Garland to Juno and the Female Sex, as being invincible in the incounters of Venus.

Tortois pas­sant.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Vert, a Tortois passant, Argent, by the name of Gawdy. The shels of the Arcadian Tortoises, are very great, therefore out of them they do make Harps, whereof Mercury is said to be the Inventor, who finding a Tortois left upon the Rocks after the falling of the River Nilus, Harps how invented. the flesh being consumed, and the sinewes that remained dried up, he strake them with his hand, and they made a kind of Musical sound whereupon he framed it into a Harp, which caused others to imitate his practise, and to con­tinue the same unto this day.

[Page 205]

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, A Tortois erected, Or, by the name of Cooper: this Escocheon, I have caused to be in­serted in this Edition to manifest the various bearing of this Gressible Reptile in Armorie.

And hitherto we have handled such Terrestriall A­nimals onely, as are called Vivipara, because they do bring forth Living creatures; whereas the other Ter­restrials do bring forth Egs, and are therefore named Ovipara, of which sort we will speak in the next place.


THis other sort of four footed Egge-bearing Animals (as I may so terme them) notwithstanding that in many things they have no small re­semblance with man, aswell touching the faculties of the Vegetable soule, as also the parts of the body: yet are they farre more unlike us than those that bring forth a living Creature. And albeit that these Egge-breeding four footed Animals do consist of the same bodily parts that the Vivipara, or Ani­mal-producing doe, and of the foure humors that are answerable in qua­lity to the foure Elements, and have all parts as well internall as externall senses, and many other things wherein they doe communicate with the Vivipara; yet are there many other things wherein they differ not only from these, but also even amongst themselves one from another of them. For neither doe we finde in these that quicknesse of wit that we observe in others, neither like parts of strength of Body that the other have.

Like as man (especially in his soule) approacheth neer unto God in like­nesse; so, in like manner doe other Animals resemble man, wherein they doe participate with man in likenesse, after some sort, but in diverse de­grees, forasmuch as some of them have more and some lesse likenesse with us than others have.

There is not (saith Beda) amongst the Universall workes of nature, any one thing so little, or of so base esteeme, wherein a man cannot finde some divine thing worthy of admiration. No lesse (saith Farnesius) may we admire the force of a silly Flea, than the hugenesse and strength of an Elephant.

Not without reason doth the Husband man prognosticate the approach of some great shower of Raine by the croaking of Frogges, more frequent than usuall, whereupon he saith, that they doe cry for Raine. For this observation is grounded upon a Physicall reason, Omne enim simile gaudet suo simili, & suae naturae utili ac convenienti; Every like is delighted with his like, and with that which is commodious and agreeable to his nature; Sithence then that Frogges are exceedingly delighted with water, as with that which best agreeth with their nature, therefore when they doe ap­prehend a fore-sence of Raine, they doe rejoyce, and doe testifie their joy by singing after their manner.

Animals of base esteeme, and of no industry, have (for the most part) not onely foure but manifold Feet: whereby we are admonished that per­verse and evill diposed persons have multiplicities of affections, in respect that by the motion of the Feet our bodies are perduced from place to [Page 206] place; so doe our affections transfer us from one delight to another, ac­cording to that saying, Pes meus, affectus meus, eo feror, quocunque feror.

Though some perhaps may esteem these Egge bearing Animals unwor­thy the dignity of Coat-Armour: yet for my own part, I hold their bea­ring to be no lesse Honourable than many of those that in common estimati­on are reputed far more worthy; insomuch that they may well beseem the bearing of the greatest Potentate. For if it pleased the Soveraign King of Kings to use them as his speciall instruments to chastise the stubbornnesse of such as rebelled against his Ordinance, and to arme those his minute and weak creatures, with such an incredible boldnesse, as that they feared not the face or forces of men, but that the very Frogs entred the houses and chambers of the Aegyptians, upon the people, into their Ovens, and into their kneading Troughes; yea even into King Pharaohs Chamber, and upon his Bed: Moreover if God hath vouchsafed to give to the Grashopper, the Canker-worme, the Catterpiller, and the Palmer-worm, the honourable title of his huge great Army, why should we prize them at so low a rate, as that we should disdain to bear them in Coat-Armour? Sithence God saith by the Prophet Joel, I will render you the yeers which the Grashopper hath eaten, the Canker-worme, and the Catterpiller, and the Palmer-worm; my great Host which I sent among you.

It is therefore to be observed, that they also have their actions not to be omitted in Blazon, albeit not in that variable manner, nor yet so copi­ous as some others. And because they are far different from those former­merly handled, not onely in shape but also in the manner of their living, in their gate and actions, therefore must they receive a divers manner of Blazon. They are called in Latine Reptilia, or Creeping things; Quia rep­tant super terram; and here we must distinguish between those things, quae reptant, which Creep, as Frogs, Ants, &c. and those quae serpunt, which glide, as Snakes, which latter kind we shall speak of afterward.

But here we mention those Reptiles which are Gressible, such as by means of their feet, are able to go step by step from one place to another, so ter­med à gradiendo, which is proceeding by degrees; and hitherto also are re­ferred such as by skipping, mounting or leaping, raise their bodies above ground, and so alter their station, place or seat. Of which kinds, some have four feet, some have more. Such as have four feet only, are these that fol­low with their like.

I have omitted in my second Edition that Escocheon Sol, charged with three Toades erected, Saturne, which according to some Authors was the Coat Armour of the ancient Kings of France, because since my first E­dition I find great variety of opinions concerning this matter, of which I have given a touch in the first Chapter of the first Sect. page 5. And in liew thereof I do present you with the Ancient Coat-Armour of the same charge borne by a Family in this Kingdome.

Three toades.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Toades erected, Sable, by the name of Botereux of Cornwall, which Family long since there flourished, as you may read in lear­ned Camden. Toades and Frogs do communicate this naturall property, that when they sit, they hold their heads steady & without motion: which stately action Spencer in his Sheapheards Calender calleth the Lording of Frogs. The bearing of Toades (after the o­pinion of some Armorists) doth signifie a hasty Cho­lerick [Page 207] man, that is easily stirred up to anger, whereunto he is naturally prone of himself, having an inbred poison from his birth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, three Moules, Sable, their Snout, and feet, by the name of Nangothan or Mangotham, a Family, as I take it of Scotland. I could not well here term these Moules Proper, because there be many white Moules, which colour whether in them it is occasioned by age or not, I will not here dispute. The Moule in Latine is called Talpa, from the Greek word, [...], i. Caecus, Caecitas.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Argent, a Cheuron between three Moles or Wants, Sable, and is the Coat of Sir George Twisleton of Barley in Yorkshire Baronet, of which Fa­mily is also that of the same surname at Dartford in Kent, Colonel Twisleton and others.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Azure, three Hedg-hogs, Or, by the name of Abrahall. The Hed-hog signifieth a man ex­pert in gathering of substance, and one that provi­dently layeth hold upon profered opportunity, and so making Hay (as we say proverbially) whilst the Sun doth shine, preventeth future want.

Bara in his Book intituled, Les Blazones dez Armo­ries giveth an example of two Lizards, erected one a­gainst another (as if they were Combatand) and ter­meth them Rampand, a terme very unfitly applyed to Reptiles, to whom the terms of mounting, leaping, or skipping are much more proper. To this head must be reduced, Crocodyles, Salamanders, Ca­melions, Ewtes, Lizards, and whatsoever other Egge-bearing Reptile having onely four feet, as to their naturall and proper place. There resteth yet one other sort of this kind of Reptiles, which are diversly shaped from all the former, and are called in Latine Insecta Animalia, because that being divided in their body between their head and belly, their parts do seem so divided as if they hanged onely together by small strings; having no flesh, blood, sinewes, &c. And there are also insecta which flye,Insects that live upon the earth. but here we speak onely of Terrestrials, leaving the other to their due place; and because such bearing is rare, I am inforced (rather than to passe them over with silence) to use Coats of Device, for expressing their sundry formes, as in example.

[Page 208] A Spider in her web.

[blazon or coat of arms]

He beareth, Or, a Cobweb, in the Center thereof a Spi­der, proper. The Spider is borne free of the Weavers Company; she studieth not the Weavers Art, neither hath she the stuffe whereof she makes her thread from any where else, than out of her own wombe from whence she draweth it; whereof through the agility and nimblenesse of her feet, she weaveth ginnes, and dilateth, contracteth, and knitteth them in form of a Net. And with the threads that she draweth out of her body, she repaireth all rents and wracks of the same. Not unaptly is mans life resembled to a Spiders webbe, which is wrought with much care and diligence, and is suddenly marred with the least occurrent that may befall it. For that it is protracted with much care and diligence, and suddenly ended by swallowing of a Crum, or Haire, or some other lesser accident (if lesse may be.) In like manner Sophisticall Ar­guments are likened to Spiders webbes, for that they are framed with much Artificial cunning, and yet are fit for no use, but to intangle Flies and weak capacities. And to like purpose doth the Poet compare the execution of Lawes to Cobwebs, saying,

Lawes like Spiders webs are wrought,
Great Flies escape, and small are caught.

What under­stood by the Spider. Ʋpton saith, that he hath seen Spiders borne in Coat-armour by a certain Lombard. By the Spider we may understand a painfull and industrious person, occupied in some honest and necessary businesse, a man carefull of his pri­vate estate, and of good foresight in repairing of small decayes, and pre­venting of wracks. The Spider her self is poysonfull and deadly, yet is her web reckoned an Antidote against poyson, notwithstanding the same is ex­tracted out of her wombe. In like sort (saith Aelianus) out of the poyson­full contagion and infectious venome of sin and transgression, the Sove­raign powers do take occasion to extract and establish wholesome and pro­fitable lawes, Pro. 30.28. against such notorious crimes. Of