VILL. PROBLEMS Propounded to the CAVALIERS: FOR Conviction of their Consciences; With a Discovery of certain Plots and Conspiracies, Decla­red by Captain FRANCIS FREEMAN. WITH An Answer thereunto returned by Colonell FRANCIS WINDHAM. And a Reply to the said Answer.

These are Printed by the Originall Papers, and Published according to Order of Par­liament.

LONDON, Printed by BARNARD ALSOP dwelling in Grubstreet, 1646.

To Colonell Francis Windham, Governour of Dun­ster Castle, these present.


I Have sent you here inclosed this Manuscript of my poor weak labours, which is by way of Problems, containing in them eight particuler que­stions, with your Cavaliers own answers to each particuler question briefly handled by the Author; together with a briefe description of cer­tain Plots and Conspiracies which the Enemies of God have completted, con­trived, and conspired against the Church and People of God, to bring their wicked Designs to passe; and if so be I could with convenience have sent you the Kings Cabinet Letters taken at Naesby sight, it would have been a strong confirmation of this truth: I pray you to peruse these lines through out with a diligent carefulnesse, and weigh each particuler according to its severall weight, and conscionably practising all things herein c [...]ntained in your life and conversation, for the good of your poor soule, it will be a re dy means for the good and welfare both of soule and body for time to come, and in so doing I shall for ever remain

Yours to command, FRANCIS FREEMAN.

For Colonell Windham.


I Have made bold to write unto you, proposing certain several que­stions, with your own answers (as I suppose) to each particular question, upon what grounds you stand to maintain the true Pro­testant Religion, the Laws and Liberties of the Subject, and Priviled­ges of Parliament (as you say) and yet by your actions you seeke to destroy them all. The first question, what profession are you? Answ. A Gentleman, and a Souldier. The second, what Religion are you off? Ans. The Protestant Religion. The third question, who doe you fight for? An. For the King. The 4. question, Doth the King stand to main­tain the true Protestant Religion, the Laws of the Land, Liberties of the Subject, and Priviledges of Parliament? As. Yes, he doth so, wit­nesse all his Declarations, Proclamations, and Protestations. The fifth question, Why doth the King suffer all the Papists, and Irish Rebels (some who have been proclaimed traytors both by King and Parlia­ment) to joyn with him against his Parl. to destroy it? An. Because they are better Subjects then his Parliament are, who indeavour to deprive him of his Sinck-Ports, and all his shipping, and also his Pre­rogative Royall. The 6. question, But do all these things of right be­long unto the King only? An. Yes, they are all to be at his disposing for the good of his Kingdoms, or else I would not fight for him. The 7. question, but now I pray you tell me what you think of the Parlia­ment: what Religion are they off? An. I must confesse, that I think they are Protestants, but there are a great many Sects and Schismes among them, which makes them far worse then any Papist, or Irish Rebels; there is the Puritane, alias Round-head there is the Brownist, the Anabaptist, the Separatist, some Antinomians, and some Indepen­dants, and these are the men that seek to deprive the King of all His Rights and Priviledges, and raise up arms to fight against their King. The 8. question, But what do you think would be become of the Law if the Parl. should be destroyed? An. I think we should enjoy the same still, for our King have set forth many Declarations, wherein he hath made many gracious promises, and bound it by many Protestations, that we shall enjoy all our own with advantage, if we will but sticke [Page 2] close to him, and fight for him against those Parliament Rebels and Traytors, and that man is worse then a Rebell or a Traytor that will not take the word of a King, and believe his King: these and the like grounds, I suppose you have to fight for your King, which you so much deifie, that if it were possible you would set him in Gods throne, or above him, as you do in your heart, which doth appear plainly by your answer to some of these Questions, or else you fawn upon him for some by-sinister ends of your own to be great in the esteem of the world; but I shall by Gods blessing indeavour to give you certain e­vident Rules, in the handling of each particuler, that will demonstrate unto you, what grosse errours you have committed, what dangers you are in both soule and body, and a remedy how to avoid and escape these dangers. I shall handle them in order, and so make particuler application according to the times. I shall begin with the first an­swer, which is touching your profession: you say you are a Gentle­man and a Souldier. I answer, If you are so, then you are in a very good condition; but I must tell you, that all Souldiers are called Gentle­men Souldiers, and those are Gentlemen Souldiers in a more speciall manner that fights the Lords battell, he that fights under Christs ban­ner, he that fights against sinne and Sathan and to destroy the workes of the Divell, he that indeavours to beat down Popery, Superstition, Idolatry, and Tyrannie, he that endeavours to set up Christ in his heart, and regulates his life and conversation according to the Rules he hath prescribed in his Word, he that indeavours a Reformation, and loves the Brethren, which are the Members of Christ, & will joyn with them, and fight for them, to free them from wrong and oppres­sion, he that keepes himself free from plundering and spoyling the Countrey, and doing any wrong or injury to any man by his will, or the like: these are true properties of a Gentleman Souldier. I could wish Gentlemen Souldiers to be better advised, and not rashly goe to warre; but first look into their own heart, and see what grounds they have for it, and aske councell of God, for he is the God of warre; he taught Davids hands to warre, and his fingers to fight, and if you see your enterprises tends to Gods glory, then you may assure your selves of the victory by him, who is onely the Almighty, and can turne all flesh into dust with the breath of his mouth, and now I shall appeal to your own conscience to make particuler application, if it be so that Gentlemen Souldiers must be thus and thus qualified, what will bee become of all you Cavaliers? I would intreat you in the fear of the [Page 3] Lord to begin first with your self, and examine your own conscience, see by your actions whether your enterprises tends to Gods glory, or no; & then I presume your actions will be a shrode evidence against you (if you try your self by the touch-stone of the Sanctuary, & now I shall tell you, how true Gentility first came in, Gentility came in first by some heroick vertues by the sword, or by some extraordinary va­liant acts of Chivalry, or else by some extraordinary gifts of Learning, wherby they were had in high estimation above other men in respect of their qualifications & endowments; but most of your Gentlemen have bin so notoriously wicked along time, that they have cast a foul stain upon their Gentility, and at this present day, there lyes a staine upon their soules as black as Hell it self; besides there have bin many Generations, since Gentility first came in, and so consequently many bastards; for all Cavaliers do but do the Divels drudgery they doe the works of the Divell; [ye are of your Father the Divell, & the Lusts of your Father ye will do] Iohn 8.44. Now certainly if the Divel be their Father, they must of necessity be bastards, and so I come to the second particuler; You say you are of the Protestant Religion. I answer, that the Protestant Religion, is a Christian Profession of the Gospell of Christ, according to the Word of God, wherein men did enter into a Covenant, and bound themselves both to God and Man each to other, protesting that they would stand to maintain the true Faith in Christ Jesus and him crucified, which they then professed, even to the hazard of their lives, lands, and personall estates; & hence it came to passe that so many godly and holy Patriarks, suffered martyrdome in the time of Q. Mary, and this protestation of theirs was in the nature of our Covenant that was lately set forth by the Honourable Court of Par­liament, and both for God and his Glory, for Gods hand shall be either for us, or against us, according to the performance of the duty, either by truth, or deceit: those godly men in their Protestation entred into an Oath, and into a Curse, Neh. 10.29. and so have we in our Cove­nant so that every one that taketh an oath, doth bind himself either to the performance, or to the punishment, Num. 30.2, 3. so that we make God our witnesse, our Party, and our Judge; besides we entred into a Covenant in our Baptisme, there we promised to forsake the Divel & all his works, &c. and Baptism is a Seal of the Covenant of Grace: but we have commited all manner of actual rebellions since that time all manner of sin & impiety, and now at this time here is a Nationall sin raigning amongst us, & it deservs a National judgment & punishment [Page 4] and when a Nation, or a People are a guilty of an extraordinary hei­nous sinne, it is both lawfull, and needfull for them to enter in a Co­venant, and to renew their Covenant, to bind themselvs against sinne, to forsake it in their own persons and to hinder & punish it in others, Esa 10.3. — 8. and this shall suffice for the second particuler.

I come now to the third you say you fight for the King, but because the fourth particuler have so neer a relation and dependencie on the third I shall therfore handle them, both jointly and severally; you say likewise that the King stands to maintain the true Protestant Religi­on the Laws of the Land, the Liberties of the Subject, and Priviledges of Parliament, and call all his Declarations, Proclamations, and Pro­testations to witnesse. I answer, Its true, there have bin many set forth in his Name, and signed with C. R. although he never knew of the publishing of them, therefore do not deceive your self: there are and have bin many evill Councellors about him, and a Porter keepes the Seal; besides, how can you say that you fight for the King, whereas the King himself fights to destroy his Kingdoms; Its true, you fight for him so far forth, as to help him do it. To proceed farther, suppose the King should offer violence to his own Person to destroy Himself (which God forbid he should) would you help further him in it? Cer­tainly you are in a most miserable condition as the case stands; but if it were lawfull for the King to go to warre against his Subjects, then it were lawfull for you to fight for him: but I shall make it evident­ly appear, that you fight cleerly against him, against God himself, his Church and People, against your self, & against the whole Kingdom and State.

First, you fight against the King, in striving to set up an Arbitrary Government, which no Earthly King can have (unlesse of Subjects we should become Slaves as they are in France) but the King of Kings who sits in Heaven, and seeth all things here below, and is present in all places, and disposeth of all things according to his own will and pleasure; but if it were possible that our King could be present in all places as the King of Kings is, then he might claime and chal [...]enge an Arbitrary Government to himself, and govern his People according to his own will, and we as Subjects would obey him according to the French fashion.

Secondly, you fight against God, and against Christ; nay you fight against all the members of Christ; for all those which make a profes­sion of Christ, and indeavour to regulate their lives and conversations [Page 5] according to the gospell of Christ you doe not onely hate their per­son, but their very profession. Thirdly, you fight not onely against you selfe, but against the whole Kingdome and state; for you fight to destroy the law by which every men ought to possesse and injoy that which he had successive [...]y from his predecessors, or purchast with his owne money. 4, You fight against the Parliament, which the King himselfe both by law and oath is bound to maintayne, besides all this although you Cavileeres have stole away the Kings Person from his Parliament, yet his Power is their with them still: for the King is subject to his inferiour Courts of Justice, much more is he subject to his high Court of Parliament, which commands all other inferiour Courts; for if the Kings Writ be issued out of his inferiour Courts of Justice, and put in due execution, although he be a hundred, or two hundred miles off, yet the Law goes on in as full force and power as if he himself were personally present, and the King himself ought to be with his Parliament, in which he ought to joyn with them in the or­dination and establishment of Lawes. Thus you see, you fight against God, and against Christ and all his Members, you fight against your self, and against the whole Kingdom and State; you fight against the Law, and indeavour to destroy the Parliament the representative bo­dy of the whole Kingdom, and so consequently you fight against the King: [But the Lord sits in Heaven and shall laugh, he will have you in derision] Psalm 1.2.4. He lets you alone, till the measure of your ini­quities be full, as it was with the Amorites, Gen. 15.26. Then the Lord will power forth the cup of his fury, and will destroy them ut­terly because you are so incensed and inraged against the Church & people of God, Isa 41.11. you shall be as nothing, and as a thing of naught, vers. 22. Now is not this a foolish madnesse for you, to rage & vent your malice against Gods people, and all in vain; for sayes the Prophet DAVID in the 2 Psal. 1. [Why do the heathen so furiously rage, and the people imagine a vaine thing] and in the next verse he saith [the Kings of the earth stand up, and the Rulers take counsell together against God and against Christ,] and although they stand up and take counsell together, and rage and rent their malice against the people of God, yet the Lord shall speake to them in his wrath, and vex them in his sore displeasure as in the 5 verse, and in the 10 verse, there the Prophet gives them wholesome instructions, and exhorteth them to repentance. [Be wise now therefore O ye Kings, be instru­cted ye Judges of the earth serue the Lord with feare; &c. and thus [Page] you may see plainly, that all you Cavaliers do fight against the King, and the King against himself & his Kingdoms: & now I shal shew you who you fight for, you fight for the Divel & the Pope, & Goring & his soldiers are of the Divels Life-guard (as his soldiers say themselvs) Go­ring is Captain, and the Divel is their General over that black Regi­ment, whose foul sins are as black as Hell it self; for you strive to set up Popery, Superstition, Idolatry, and Tyrannie, the Kingdom of An­tichrist above Christs Kingdom; you joyn with all the Papists in the Kingdome, both English, Dutch, French, Walloons, nay Irish Rebels too, who have had their hands imbrued in the blood of many thou­sand poor Protestants there, and yet these cursed Rebels must be cal­led his Maj. Catholike Subjects, and must fight for him against his best Subjects for the Protestant Religion too: O monstrous, horrid, and prodigeous prodegie, is there any man can be so sottishly ignorant as to believe it, I shall endeavour to cleer it by the testimony of many wicked Plots, Trecheries, and Conspiracies, which the Popish faction those wicked Enemies of God have used, conspired and contrived a­gainst the Church and People of God, in K. Iames his time, and ever since the beginning of this Kings Reign, to bring their wicked designs to passe: First, in K. Iames his Reign that desperate Powder-plot, ne­ver to be forgotten, wherof many of the Contrivers suffered for it as traytors and yet not many yeares after the Papists prevailed so farre with the King as to grant them a toleration of Religion, he being a timerous fearfull man granted their desires, it being done, they might the better contrive and work some other mischiefe: but that tolle­ration did not long continue, the King was better advised by his Councell; yet notwithstanding they would not leave their design so naked, & without hopes, but that they went again to the King & pre­vailed so farre with him as to grant a tolleration for all manner of Sports and Pastimes on the Sabbath day, dancing at May-poles, and the like fooleries; this continued till his dying day, and since revived by K. Charles, and thus came the sluce and fludgate to be opened to all manner of licentiousnesse and liberty, together with a strange wife, as if they were twins born at a birth: then the Bishops & rotten Cler­gie saw which way the King and Queen, and the young gallant Lords and Courtiers were inclined; then they began presently to fawn up­on them like so many puppie Dogs, and some pillowes under their elbowes; and make such flattering Sermons with so much quaint­nesse of wit, and flashes, as they termed it, that you should have them [Page] so hum'd up, as if they had been at the Black-Fryers, or the Cockpit at a St [...]ge-Play; but I must tell them, that such fawning Spannels, are far worse then dumb Dogs; but yet they grew more & more in fa­vour at Court, insomuch that godly and painfull conscientious Mini­sters were disfavoured & discountenanced, & many of them put to s [...] ­lence that could not endure their foolish superstitious sopperies, then there must be new Canons imposed on them for a Church-Govern­ment; the Communion Table must be turned Altar-wise forsooth, where you might see so much bowings, curchings, and cringings, as if they were going to dance an Antick; but yet they endeavoured to make the people believe, that Gods speciall pre [...]ents was there, and these actions were a part of Gods Worship, w [...]en alas they worshipt they knew not what like unto the woman of Samaria, Iohn 4. [where she told our Saviour Christ, that our Fathers worshipped in this Moun­tain and Ierusalem is the place where men ought to worship; but our Saviour Christ saith unto her, [woman believe me the hour cometh, when ye shall neither in this Mountain, nor at Ierusalem worship the Father; ye worship ye know not what;] but the houre cometh, and now is, when the true Worshippers shall worship the Father in Spirit and Truth: then after this they must have the new Oath, &c, that men should swear to that they know not, or if they refused it at their own perill be it and so many an honest man suffered deeply for it: then af­ter this began all the Monopolies that could be devised To back Pat­tents, and Soap Pattents, and the like and by this time the Court was grown to a mighty height of pride, Superstition and Idolatry; & some­times you might find the Bishop of Canterbury at White Hall to see a Masque or a Stage-Play on the Sabbath Day in the Afternoon inso­much that it was a great griefe to the godly to see Popery so coun­tenanced, & creep in by degrees, yet durst not speak against it, for fear of punishment in the high Commission Court, either by silencing or by suspention: But then it pleased God after a little while, our Bre­thren the Scots had a fellow-feeling of our miseries, & somwhat sen­sible of their own, what would follow after; then they began with their own Bishops, and presently took them off, of their Episcopall Digni­ties; then our Bishops began to stir & wince and presently must labor with the King to call a Parliament in all post-hast, certain Articles of Church-government must be propounded unto them, and a new book of Prayer sent, but the Scots refusing their Popish kind of Discipline, would not condiscend thereunto; then presently a Proclamation of [Page 8] Rebellion must go forth against them; the Parl. must be dissolved, an Army must be raised to stop this Rebellion all manner of unjust taxes & imposition must be laid upon the poor Subjects, as Coat and con­duct money, and the like; the unjust pressing of Train Souldiers, and buying and selling them by Deputy Lieutenants, and Popish Com­manders, like horses in Smithfield: then the King must go himselfe in Person into Scotland; the Nobility and Gentry must wait on him; the Bishops and rotten Clergy, whose war it was, must contribute large sums of mony to uphold their Hierarchy; hence it came to passe, that it was called Bellum Episcopale; but howsoever they found the Scots a stout and sturdy Nation, their cause being good they met us upon our English ground; then the Bishops found it not according to their ex­pectation, a treaty of Peace must be proclaimed, and a Pacification must be concluded the Scots received into his Maj. gracious favour, & called by this Epethite, our Brethren the Scots, then there must be a Parliament summoned, differences must be composed & reconciled, there must be an Act of Oblivion betwixt our Brethren the Scots & Us and the Kingdoms must be setled in peace & tranquility, but that the Lord had otherwise determined it: the Parliament began, & had not sate long, but presently the Rebellion in Ireland burst forth, their bloody Plots being contrived before-hand, & what they did they had good warrant for it under the Kings own Hand and Seal (as they said) but certainly it was signed with C. R. and it might very well be so, for a Porter kept the Seal as I said before, but it did not alwayes lye dor­ment with Endimion, but howsoever Delinquents must be punished here in England by the Parl. Straffords head must be cut off, Finch and Windebank must fly for it, an Act had passed for the continuance of this Parl. and for a tryannal Parliament under the Kings own Hand, signed with C. R. so that it could not be dissolved; after this, the King with his Cavaliers came to the Parl. to demand the five members & Kym­bolton as traytors, and proclaimed them so, but being crossed & disap­pointed of his purpose and resolution, he returned in much wrath to White-Hall, where the Queen was exceedingly vexed and troubled, being crost in her design; then the Bishops, with the Popish, Spanish, and French Factions, together with the Monopolists, and such as were not Parliament proof, seduced the King from his Parl. into the North Country, the Standard must be set up at Nottingham, the Commission of Array must bee put in execution in those Heathenish Northern Counties by the E. of Newcastle, and others of the like stamp; the Com­mission [Page 9] of Array must b [...] put in execution in the West Country by the Marquis of Hartford, & Hopton, such as had a kind of profession of Religion, having a forme of godlinesse, but denying the power therof, and they as the Divels Instruments set a work, drew on all their un­godly Tenants, & acquaintance, which were not grounded upon good principals, to be on that side; Rupert and Maurice must be Overseers of the ruines of their Unckles Kingdoms; they must see the ruines of those who gave them their first milk as it were, and have paid for the very breeding of them ever since they were born: Thus I have shew­ed you who you fight for, what sort of people you side withal, & how and where the King have raised his Armies; he hath got them from all parts of the Earth even among the very worst of the Sons of men, the very scum of the Earth (as it were a company of Dammee-boyes) such heathenish & ungodly wretches, as if he had rak'd Hell, & scum'd the Divel for them, and so from Bellum Episcapale, it was come to bee Bellum Regale: the Bishops stir'd up the Wales, and the King with his Monopo ists blowed them up into a flame. I had almost forgot the cessation of arms in Ireland (after the surrender of Bristol) a most di­vellish Plot, hatcht in the bottome of Hell it selfe, meerly to cut the throats of the rest of the Protestants, and do the like for us if they can; for the greatest Rebels that were in that grand Rebellion were sent for hither, and received into great favour, and called his Maj. Catho­like Subjects: then after the cessation of arms in Ireland, there must be a new Fast proclaimed here in England, as if all had been well in Ireland, but it was for nothing else but to blind the eyes of the world, to make them beleive it was out of pure zeal to the Protestant cause, and the publike good of his Maj. Kingdoms; but certainly your Fast was invented of your selves; Did you fast un [...]o me saith the Lord? doe I approve it? and when ye did eat, and when ye did drinke, did you not eat for your selves, and drink for your selves? Zach. 7.5, 6. you did abstain accor­ding to your own fantisies, and not after the prescript of the Law of God, nor yet looking upon the right object for which Fasting & Hu­miliation was ordained, and so I passe to the other particulers, which shall be very brief in the handling; because I know that any thing that hath a savour of Religion and Godlinesse will be very tedious to you Cavaliers, although Godlinesse is profitable to all things, it hath the promise of this life, and of that which is to come. I shall give you a hint of the particulers, and but a little touch them and so come to the application according to the Times, and so conclude. First, you say that [Page 10] Papists and Irish Rebels are better subjects to the King then the Par­liament are: and that the Parliament seek to deprive him of his Pre­rogative Royal his Sinck-Ports and Shipping, you say also, that they do of right belong to the King only, and are to be at his disposing, or else you would not fight for him; Furthermore, you do believe that the Parliament are Protestants, but because there are so many Sects and Schismes amongst them, that they are far worse then Papists and Irish Rebels for you say they raise up arms against the King & seek to deprive him of his rights and priviledges: And lastly, you do believe that if the Parliament should be destroyed, that you should enjoy the same Law still as before, and that you shall enjoy all your own with advantage, if you stick close to the King, and help him to destroy the Parliament rebels and traitors. Now if it be so, that the Parliament do seek to deprive the King of his Prerogative Royal his Sinck-Ports and Shipping as you say they do; then certainly they are worse then Papists and Irish Rebels, but the Parliament have alwayes strived to maintain him in all these, witnesse those many Petitions sent unto him in the North, with this gracious Epethite, Your sacred Majesty, &c. with many solicitations, and invitations, expressing much sorrow for his absence, with loyalty, obedience & fidelity towards him hum­bly praying his Sacred Majesty to return home unto them & forsake those wicked Councellours that they might receive condigne punish­ment according to their severall offences, ergo, the Parliament are his best Subjects; for his Sink-Ports and Shipping do not of right belong unto him only but to the whole Kindgdom and State in generall for their preservation from all forraign invasion; for if so be they did of right belong unto Him only, then he might joyn with those wicked Councellours that are about him (without the knowledge or advise of his good Councell) to let in the Turk or any forraign Enemy to invade his Kingdoms and would do it, rather then to be crost in their wills; for I am perswaded, that they had rather the Turk or the Pope should enjoy his Crown, then the Parliament, together with all his best Subjects, should enjoy their Laws, Liberties, and Priviledges; which doth evidently appeare by his entertaining so many Popish Rebels, and Traytors, and all to cut the throats of his poor Prote­stant Subjects, but certainly he have had many a free pardon and in­dulgence for these things, and those many Declarations, Proclama­tions, and Protestations, for of all that ever was yet set forth in his [Page 11] Name, there hath not been any performance at all in the least tittle, if it be so that you can tell me of any one Proclamation or Declara­tion that hath been performed on his part, then will I turn Cavaleer, and joyne with you to fight against the Parliament; and as for His Prerogative Royall so much talkt off, certainly it was ever maintai­ned by the Law, and what would become of it, if the Parliament should be destroyed; besides the glory of a King, is to governe His Kingdoms with his Subjects love; and Mercurius Problematicus will tell you, that the safest Armour for a King is his Subjects love, and a good head-piece and if he had had such Armour, he need not have set up his Standard, nor put the Commission of Array in execution, which was done contrary to Law, unlesse it had been against a forraign E­nemy; for what necessity was there for the execution thereof, when as the Parliament had made provision for the defence of the whole Kingdome, against any forraign Enemy, such was their provident care for the Kingdoms safety, but that the Lord had a scourage for his People for their sinnes, and made you Cavaliers to be the Executio­ners thereof, but it was to bring them more neere unto himselfe, and although you rob, plunder, and spoyle them of all their goods and good Name, yet they will be but afflictions unto them and will take away their sinne; for by this the Iniquity of Iacob shall bee purged, Isai 27.9. and this is all the fruit of it; nay sometimes the Lord sets wicked Kings to reign over his People &c.

But I hasten and this much I can assure you, that the Parliament have alwayes stood faithfully for the Vindication of the Kings Ho­nour, Crown and Dignity, for His Lawes, Rights, and Priviledges, for the Liberty of the Subject, and Priviledges of Parliament, as much as ever any PARLIAMENT did since the Kingdome ever Being.

And whereas you scandalize them by the Name of Schismaticks, Round-heads, Rebels, and Traytors, I can assure you they are Reli­gious, Godly, and Holy Patriarks, placed there by God him else for the Vindication of his own Honour and Glory: for they endeavour a Reformation, which is the main cause of your inveterate hatred and malice against them.

You cannot endure such a curb for your sins, and your old course of living, which you so often accustomed your selves unto, which makes all you Cavaliers to hate a Reformation, you are so opposite to the Doctrine of Christ; but commonly where God will have his Church, there the Divel will have his Chappel, and you Cavaliers are as In­struments and fellow-Labourers, set on work by him, against the Church and People of God; and although there are Errours in the Church now, (as there hath bin in the Apostles times) yet it is but er­rour in judgment & opinion, but we will agree in the Fundamentals, & it is somtimes necessary that there should be errours, that the truth may the better appear in its lustre and glory, & shine the more cleer­ly in its purity; besides, if the Parl. and their Armies are Rebels and Traytors to the King as you say they are, yet I am confident their Re­bellion is lawfull as the case stands; for if you do but look into the 2 of Kings 17.7. there you shal find that Hezekiah rebelled against the King of Ashur, and served him not, and yet he prospered in all things he took in hand, he put down the brazen Serpent, and destroyed their Idols, & this you may see cleerly in the text, that it was for their Ido­latry: Then how can you look to prosper in your Armies, where Ido­latry is set up, and so highly prised amongst you: but the Lord seeth your doings, and puts up all your iniquities in a Bag; and although you may prosper and flourish for a while, yet the Lord will suddenly cut you off: for the very prayers and supplications of his servants will ascend up unto Heaven, which will cause the Lord to make you de­stroy one another, as he did the Children of Moab and Ammon, 2 Chr. 20.23. certainly the Lord will be glorified in his own work, and will deliver his People out of your hands; so if you look into the 32. chap. of the same Book of Chron. there you shall find how Zenacharis King of Ashur came to war against Iudah & Ierusalem, and if you please to read the whole Chapter throughout, it will be worth your pains there you shal find how Zenacharis blasphemed God saying What God is be that can deliver his people out of my hands, and this is just the condition of you Cavaliers; for you will blaspheme the Name of God, & are so over-sweld with pride, that you think your selvs able to resist & over­come even God himself, and comparing foolish and vain Idols (which were invented and made by Man) to the living God, as in the 19. vers. of that chap. and in the 20. vers. there you shall see how Hezekiah and the Prophet Isaiah prayed unto the Lord against these things, and cryed unto Heaven; and in the 21. vers. there you shall finde the issue [Page 13] and successe they had by prayer, the Lord heard their prayers, for hee sent an Angel and destroyed all the valiant men, and the Princes, and the Captains of the Host of the King of Ashur, and what became of the King of Ashur and his mighty great Army, which contained in number one hundred fourscore and five thousand: why surely they came to nothing, for they destroyed one another, and the King himself returned with shame to his own Land, and as the text saith, when he came to the house of his God they that came out of his own bowels slew him there with the sword; intimating unto us, how prevalent and effectua l the prayers of the faithfull are with God, especially a­gainst such Tyrants, for where a Tyrant & an Idolator raigneth, there can be no peace and quietnesse; for the very plagues of God are al­wayes among such people: And thus you see how these Kingdomes are disquieted by Tyranny and Idolatry, and what distractions & di­stempers there are, and have bin even among Kings and Princes, and mighty men of this world and you your self have a share in the exer­cise of their cruelty, in upholding Idolatry and Tyranny against the people of God; and now by this time I have shewed unto you who you fight for, and what dangers you are in both soule and body; and now I come to shew you how to avoid & escape these dangers, which shall be by way of exhortation and admonition; let me now exhort and entreat you in the fear of the Lord to repentance and humiliation; humble your self before the Lord in dust and ashes come out from a­mong those cursed Crue of Infidels, whose tongues speakes nothing but blasphemy, & so long as thou continue there with them, thou can­not but participate of their filthy abominations and transgression, for if you do but conive and wink at other mens sins you are as guilty of the same sinne, without reproof, as if you your selves had personally committed it; therefore if you will avoid sin, and escape the danger therof, then you must shun the occasion of it, and consequently shake off such wicked company. David said [depart from me ye wicked, I will keep the Commandements of my God] intimating thereby, that he could not set himselfe to the performance of any holy duty as hee ought, so long as such wicked company were about him; yea, it hath been a grief to the godly to have bin in the company of ungodly per­sons, as Let living in Sodome, when he saw their filth and abominations it vexed his righteous soule; and this was it that made David bemone himself, and his estate and condition, when he was constrained to live among the uncircumcised people: [Woe is me, that I remain in Me­sech, [Page] and to dwell in the Tents of Kedar, my soule hath long dwelt a­mong those that be enemies to Peace. Now you see how careful these god [...]y men were to shun and avoid the lewd oompany of the wicked, and if you will imitate them in goodnesse, you must carefully labour to live in the practice of holinesse, and avoid the company of such Idolatrous Papists and Atheists as are amongst you.

Sir, I have wrote to you somwhat largely, and the truth of it is far more largely then I intended, but yet I hope it will not be labour in vain, but that it may please God to make me an Istrument of your conversion, if you will but carefully, diligently, & seriously read over this poor weak piece, and weigh every particuler according to its se­verall weight, and conscionably practice it in your li [...]e and conversa­tion, walking in newnesse of life, and obedience to the Gospel of Christ, with earnest and fervent prayers to the Almighty God of hea­ven, to create a new heart and renew a right spirit within you, and if we humble our selves, and turn from our wicked wayes then the Lord will be mercifull to us, and will heal our Land, 2 Chron 7.14. and if o­therwise, that we do not humble our selves, it will prove to be misery upon miseries and we shal [...] heap up wrath against the day of wrath; and so the Lord of his mercy direct your heart, and divert his Judg­ments from Us and give us patience to undergo these afflictions, and then the Lord in his due time will accomplish his own ends, and send us a happy and blessed peace, by a blessed Reformation. Now I would intreat you in the name of the Lord, and for your own soules healths sake, that you will take this my counsell and admonitions to shake of your wicked company, or if it be possible to reduce them to the obe­dience of the Parliament; but if there be any thing herein expressed whereof you make any scruple or doubt of the truth of it, I shall bee ready to give you more full and ample satisfaction, if you please to appoint the time and place, (God willing) I will give you a meeting, or any Cavalier whatsoever, there to use liberty of Conscience, and freedom of Spirit to dispute the point without any manner of wrong or violence, each to other, and that there may be nothing but reality intended betwixt us, let there be sufficient engagements to each and I shall for ever remain

Yours to command, FRANCIS FREEMAN.

For Mr. Francis Freeman in Dunster, these. Three — in Print.


I Have perused your Manuscript, and would willingly have tho­roughly weighed (as you drsire) your (as you well call them) poor weeak endevours: but truly they prov'd weightlesse, and however you please to stile them, more powerfull then ordinary, e­ven converting me from my selfe sometimes to Democritus, then to Heraclitus, and from him again to the former, making me smile, pity, and again laugh at your ignorance, impudency and folly, even in one and the same minute. I had thought to have concealed your shame in part, and not have hazarded the becoming equally ridicu­lous with you, in going about to blaze what your selfe have more then sufficiently already done; I would willingly have kept silence, and not answered a word: but finding by late speeches over the walls, that you take occasion thereby, to think wickedly, that I am even such a one as your self, and that your frivolons (what shall I call them) are unanswerable, and also hearkning to the wise mans ad­vice, who wills to answere a fool sometimes according to his folly, lest he be (over) wise in his own conceit: I have forc'd my selfe now (though unwillingly) to return answer unto some of your par­ticulars (to all were endlesse:) but (beleeve me) where to begin, what first to say, or what order to observe in answering so disorder­ly a peece, I well know, not: so great is your confusion, so imme­thodicall your proceeding, that I should bewray a great deal of in­discretion, should I endevour to tract you: but jacta est alea) we must on some way or other. At all adventure then, wee'l undertake your first, —you call it a Probleme, (you are well read in Aristotle, it seems, learn'd you nothing else thence but this specious appellati­on?)

Surely this needed no Oedipus, the meerest Davus in our Castle had been able enough to have shap'd you a ready answer thereunto: however (thanks to your charity) it seemes you will help, if not prevent us therein: for you answer in our names, a Gentleman and a Souldier; and we must take these two termes forsooth on your bankrupt credit, for convertible, and so naturally, or rather superna­turally joyn'd together, that it were impiety to sever them, as though all Souldiers were Gentlemen, and all Gentlemen Souldi­ers, — risum teneatis amici: A quaint device to Gentilize your [Page] Pedlar, Dishmaker, and the like, and to make the young Squire a Martialist. But Lord, how this fine military youth must be qualifi­ed, what precise rules he must follow, he must, and he must, he must not and he must again, (any thing I warrant you but fight for his King) but whence learnt you this? out of Alian the young Ar­tillery man, or your new Edenburgian, trow? Fie on't, are you not ashamed to dally thus, and confound things so foolishly together? speaking of a meere Souldier, simply considered as such, must we presently conceive him metamorphosed, & become a spiritual one? Was Hector, Alexander, Caesar, or any of the Othoman race, ever so? and yet they were Gentlemen, they were Souldiers, if we may con­fide in their Heraldry; were they acquainted with, did they observe these rules? But why trifle I thus, and wonder at nothing? The spi­rit we know, is at your command, the flesh your hand-maid, and you love copulation hugely: surely, you were at some conventicle when you thought on this; but did not you do the Divels drudgery then too? Speak tru [...]h, and shame the Divel, and never wrest any text of Scripture so prophanely, to put your bastards on him, but fa­ther them your selves a Gods name, they may prove babes of grace; ten to one but some of your holy sisters were their mothers, how­ever to the pure all things are pure, and your faith is strong, and can easily conceit what you would have bee, as though it were, e­ven as easily as his that first (I know not what to call it) turnd Quadrata rotundis. — But heark, Sir, should we be so bold with you, as to ask you the same question, What profession are you of? what would you answer, a—a—a, or as you do for us, a Gentle­man and a Souldier? Good truth, we can hardly beleeve you, not that our charity is pinion'd, but out of reverence to the truth, spea­king much otherwise in their actions: for truly (for all your late Bug-beares) you have shewd very little of the one, but farre lesse of the other since your sitting down before us: we could instance your incivill, inhumane, and treacherous dealing with — you know whom, contrary to faith given, contrary to all Law of Arms. But let that passe, the Generall no doubt, in due time, wil thank you for it; and we our selves may ere long peradventure make you re­quitall.

Your second question is, Of what Religion are you? and you an­swer for us (more then you can for your selves) The Protestant. Well, we acquiesce therewith, and seeing you have nothing to say against us therein, (which may be well scor'd up too) wee'l passe on [Page] in quiet, and not make an enemy where we find none, as you doe. Yet we cannot chuse here but smile at your weaknesse, or rather wilfulnesse, in going about hence so absurdly to countenance your rebellious covenant, and your quoting of the Prophet, Esra 10.3.8. to prove God knows what. Brother, brother, this was a great o­versight, and confirms clearly what upon good ground we gues'd before, that you pin your faith more closely on other mens quota­tions, and marginall notes, then on the Text it self.

But to let these things and the like passe, and to come to the grand question between us, viz. Whether yee be Rebels, or no? We confidently a verre ye are; and ye can but faintly, and as it were with blushes deny it: for if ye be so, ye say, ye are confident your rebellion is lawfull, the case standing as now it doth. And why so confident, forsooth? Why? because Ezechiah rebelled against the King of Assyria, ye say, and prospered. O ridiculous! Did ever any understanding man produce examples as rules or proofs of the law­fulnesse or unlawfulnesse of a thing in controversie? let me tell you Sir, I think none but your self. Examples may illustrate indeed, but proue nothing at all. But because you adde, As the case now standeth, pray, let us examine how it stands, and what compare, or disparity there is between yours and Ezechia's rebellion as you call it: Ye were (or should have been) subjects, so were ye born, I am sure, and enjoyd such wholsome lawes, such large priviledges, liberties, and immunities, as few subjects in any neighbouring Kingdome can boast the like. His Majestie, your onely and undoubted Sove­raign, such a Prince as Envy herselfe could not, till shee borrowed your tongues, tax with any personally addicted vice (humane infir­mity the best may have) such a one as went not about any way to al­ter either law or religion, to infringe your priviledges, or debar ye of any the least your just claim'd immunities, but endeavoured onely to preserve his own regall authority, defend his loyall subjects, and rule all accodring to the common and known lawes of the King­dome: and yet ye, because ye might not have your own wayes to innovate, and turn upside down all things both in Church & State, must needs rebell, rob him of his shipping, Ports, Castles, Cities, Towns, Lands, Revenues, and all, driving him out of doors, leaving him not so much as one of his own houses to put his head in, nay, and worse yet, persecuting him from place to place, endeavouring still, as much as in ye lies, not only to take the crown from his hea [...], but even his head from his shoulders too. And thus stands the case with you.

Let us look upon Ezechiah, good Ezechia, a t [...]ow sincere worshipper of the immortall God, (not likely then to run into so horrid a sin) a free absolute King himself (a condition somwhat incompatible with rebellion) legally succeeding his fore fathers in the throne, and no way subject (for ought I can find) to Senacharib, that hethe­nish, hellish tyrant, otherwise then the Lamb is to the Lion, or the weaker to the stronger. Yea, but he rebelled (say you) against him, the text is down-right, and seems plainly to imply, that he was his subject. He rebelled. But stay, Sir, all is not gold that glisters, you'l play at small game I see rather then sit out, when you c [...]nnot ex­plisitly prove, you wil implicitly beleeve, and (as one ready to sink) catch at any thing, though never so weak) [...]hat may but seem to up­hold your accursed rebellion. But tell me, friend are you so wel ac­quainted with the original, or have you so thoroughly conversed with the 72. and the learned train of orthodoxal expositers, that you can of your self, or from any joynt consent of theirs, assure me, that this word must needs be tied up so strictly, and rendred precisely thus, and no otherwise? I presume you wil not say so: for, Sir, I can assurre you, that language was free-born; and cannot endure such strict restrain; it will, it must have its libertie: and this word may be, nay and is, I have been informed, elswhere somewhat otherwise rendred. Me thinks you being so great a Marginalist, might have ob­served some such thing, & your charity have taught you the rule in such cases, to make the best construction, especially when so good a man is concerned in it Surely the holy Penman hereof meant nothing lesse, then to appeach his good King of that bewitched sinne here; for it is plain enough, he was not in the least kind guilty thereof. However, let this be taken notice of to your shame, that he guilty or not guilty (po­licy so requiring) acknowledgeth a fault, and submits to the tyrants pleasure, 2 Kings 18 14. (your good King could never find ye yet guil­ty of so much ingenuity or grace:) but I observe withall, that though he acknowledge an offence, (now offence may be taken when not justly given) yet he will not acknowledge himselfe a rebell; he saith indeed, I have offended, but addes not, in rebelling against thee, which he would assuredly have done, had he known himselfe guilty therein: fear may make him do much, but not so much, not acknowledge himselfe, rebell contrary to all truth. But when, I pray you, doth his supposed rebellion appear to you, by what circumstances is it manifested? For my part I know not, and I think he must be wiser then you that can tell me.

Tis true indeed that Ahaz his Father being vexed by Israel and Aram on the North, the Edomites and Philistines on the South, and so in soore distresse, intreated ayd of Tiglat Phileser the Assirian, and to the end he might the more readily obtaine it, sent him the silver and gold both of the Temple, and his Exchequer the Assyrian came, destroyed Rezin at Damascus, and so rid him of some of his feare: but his other enemies were not strong, so that Ahaz was little the better for what he did, nay far the worse, for besides those his former enemies, the Assyrian himselfe being become a new one, distresseth him, 2 Chron. 28.20. and helped him not, verse the 21. yet must p [...]ore Ahaz say nothing, but for feare of displeasing the Tyrant, give him more gold: Bu [...] what of all this? nay, suppose further, that the Lion saing he had done him a curtysie, and he not daring to den ieit, out of feare promise to give him a yeerly tribute in requitall, (which yet, neither the text, nor anie ancient histo­rian I have met with acknowledge) is Ezechia bound to performe it? would not you if you had been in his case have endeavoured to have shaken off such a Yoake? and yet have thought your selfe free enough from any the least blemish of rebellion? especially he being neither your native nor any way lawfull Prince: I believe you would: and why then do you call it rebellion in him? — But lets observe E­zechi [...]as proceedings: did he do as ye do? surely no, far otherwise: he confesseth an offence, submitteth himselfe, and payeth the fine im­posed on him: but the proud Tyrant, not contented therewith pro­ceeds further, sends a great hoast against Ierusal [...]m, and under colour of demanding hostages endeavours to insnare him and swallow up all: and what does Ezechia then? why he betakes himselfe in the first place to the weapons of the Church, Prayers and Teares, then prepares himselfe against the siege, and lastly that he might be sure to go in a right path, sends to the Prophet for his advice, and being incouraged by him sets up his resolution to stand upon his just defence, and expect the Salvation of the Lord: O that your party had but done thus: then had ye bin blamelesse, and neither Church nor State groan'd under the heavy pressures they now doe: but your Spirits were of another tem­per, as impatient of delay as any the least thwarting: yee must have all after your own wayward minds, and in your own time too. And if heaven smile not, you are confident hell will hy for Acheren in all post, the Witch of Endor must be consulted with (Rebellion and Witch­craft are neer a-kin) and that under a religious pretence of speaking with the Prophet, to know the will of the Lord. But what, will the [Page] father of lies tell truth? Yes sometimes, when he is forc'd to it: what comfort thence then? Small God wot, for yee: let Iezabel speak else, and cast forth her Probleme, Had Zimri peace that killed his ma­ster? O Sir Rebell, think on this, and tremble: take heed of a worse fire then he (conscious of his own demerits) fired himselfe in, 1 King. 16.18.

How can ye be thus wilfully, thus affectedly stupid and blinde? but Surdis Canimus; ye have set up your resolution, and it must stand: let the Charmer charme never so wisely, ye like the Adder stop your eares; yea though wisedome her selfe cry aloud, ye are resolved ye will not heare: 'tis bootlesse therefore for me, to use any more words: and the truth is, my patience wil hardly give me leave, if I would: — wee'l but review then the strength of your Argument, and conclude: it stands thus: E­zechiah rebelled and prosper'd, therefore we may lawfully rebell, therefore we shall assuredly prosper: O weaknesse! produce no­thing but an example, to prove the lawfulnesse of an act flatly for­bidden, and that but one singly, grounded upon one word, ambi­guous, admitting a more candide interpretation (which in such ca­ses is alwayes to be admitted) an example no way consonant to the businesse you aime at, but even di [...]-dia-paesôn differing, and making more against ye, then for ye! and can this make you so confident that your rebellion is lawfull? fie on't, fie on't, God o­pen your eyes, and turne your hearts: surely if your hands prove as weake as your heads: you'l gaine but little here: but I forget my selfe: yet nondum manuum de tabula, for taking notice of your kind expectative conclusion, I can not chuse but meet you in the same tract of Charity: — Let me intreat you therefore, in the Name of God, to lay aside all prejudicacie, to weigh things with a single heart: not to dote so much upon examples and presidents, but to make the divine precept the rule of your actions: — you cannot but know and acknowledge, that Kings (though wicked as Saul, though heathen as Cyrus, Esa. 45.1. are the Lords annoint­ed; by him they raigne, Prov. 8.15. In his hand are their hearts, and he turneth them as he pleaseth, Prov. 21.1. Take not too much then upon you, meddle not with Gods Prerogative: think on Abishai, and Davids neperdas to him, 1 Sam. 26.9. together, with his reason: Though that Saul were his, and the Churches e­nemy, though he had a faire opportunity, and as good a culler as could be imagined to cut him of, and though Abishai, were impor­tunate [Page] to have it done, yet David who best knew the will of the Lord herein, forbids it, with a neperdas, destroy him not: the Lords annointed must not be destroyed, no nor touched, 1 Chron 16.22. not a hand, not a finger to be moved against him, no nor a foote neither, Prov. 30.31. no rising, no stirring a foote against him: 'tis dangerously wicked, 'tis wickedly dangerous, so to do: the Lord will not hold him guiltlesse that doth so: think on Ioab, 1 Kings 2.28. the 2. Traytors Ester 2.23. Absolon 2 Sam. 18.14. Sheba 2 Sam. 20.22. and the like; and tell me did these prosper in their rebellion? surely no, but came all of them to untimely (though merited, ends, & no doubt so shall all such as tread in their steps: beware then in time, and take example now by others; least ye be made your selves hereafter examples unto others: 'tis high time for ye to returne into the right way, ye have stragled too long already, Salius è dimedia via &c. 'tis better late then never: be not ashamed to acknowledge an errour, when ye perceive your selves in it, 'tis no dishonour: St. Aug. got more credit by his re­tractations, then any other piece he wrote: and let not any by or wordly respect hinder ye, for what will it profit a man to gayne the whole World, with the glory thereof, and lose his owne Soule (as all such as go on in this accursedly cursed rebellion, are likely, without Gods great mercy, to do) thinke upon these things, seriously consider them, and it will not repent thee, God in his mercy, dirvert his judgements from us, and guide all our feete in the way of Peace.

Your Servant, Fran: Windham.

To the Governour of Dunster Castle, these present.


I Have received a Letter (as I suppose) signed with your owne hand; but composed by those two scandalous malignant priests of Baal, Adrie and King: pretending it to be an answer to that which I formerly sent you: when indeede there was no answer at all; but a most lamentable frothy peice of non-sence, as if your heads had been gvilly of a cup of muddy ale, a bundell of stuffe bumbasted together, with three or fowre mouth-fulls of Lattin, ta­ken upon trust by you without due examination: subscribed with [Page] your own hand; for which I shall hereafter chide you, and shall advise you to take better councell, and not to follow such blinde guides that shall build with one hand and destroy with the other, which argues abundance of imbecillity and weaknesse in you; I shall therefore set it forth in print, that the world may but judge of your folly, and the title of it shall be Three — in print: but what shall I say, but use the very same words of our Saviour Christ in the 15. of Matthew 14. And if the blind leade the blinde they both shall fall into the ditch. Truly you may justly be compared unto the false Prophets spoken of in the 5. of Ieremiah and the last verse, the Prophets Prophecy falsly: and the Priests beare rule by their meanes. and my people love to have it so: and what will ye do in the end thereof? surely your end will be miserable, unlesse it please God to give you grace speedily to repent and amend your life; for you wrest the Scriptures to your own perdition: not knowing the waies of God because they are spiritually discern'd, therefore let me advise you to cast those wicked scandalous Priests' over the walles; it may be a meanes to avert Gods judgements and somewhat abate the rage and furie of him that may yet prove to be.

Your friend, Francis Freeman.


There is no newes worth the vvriting, but that Hereford and Westchester are ta­ken, and Colonell Birch made Governour of Hereford, but I cannot as yet rightly inform you vvho is Governour of VVestchester, if I could I should gladly impart it unto you.

I have sent also a Catalogue of all those Parliament Rebels and Traytors, as you call them, vvhich are to be made

  • Dukes.
    • Northumberland
    • Essex.
    • Pembroke.
    • VVarwick.
  • Marquesses.
    • Salsbury
    • Manchester
  • Earles.
    • Say & Seale
    • Fairfax
    • VVharton.
    • Roberts.
    • Howard.
    • VVillowby
  • Viscount.
    • Densi [...]
    • Hollis.
  • Barons.
    • Generall Fairfax.
    • Lieutenant Generall Cromwel.
    • Sir VVilliam VValler.
    • Sir Henry Vane, Senior.

There is some other newes flying, but how true it is I know not: and that is, that Goring, Hopton, and Miller, are gone into France. But the next newes, God willing, I shall bring my selfe, and vve vvill have it all in a Diurnall.


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