BY Castor Durante Da Gualdo, Physician and Citizen of ROME.

WHEREIN Is shewn how to preserve Health, and prolong Life.

ALSO The Nature of all sorts of Meats and Drinks, with the way to prevent all Hurt that attends the Use of either of them.

Translated out of Italian into English, By John Chamberlayne, Gent.


April 5. 1686.
Rob. Midgley.

London, Printed for William Crook, at the Green Dragon without Temple-Bar. 1686.

To the Worshipful, THOMAS CHAMBERLAYNE, of Oddington, in the County of Gloucester, Esq; is Hum­bly Dedicated this little Book, Entituled, The Treasure of Health.


HAving received much dun-e served Kindness from you, I cannot let slip the first occasion to publish my Gratitude and Respect to you, who not only by your Wisdom and Prudence in difficillimis tempori­bus, in the worst of Times, preserved unspotted and untainted your Reli­gion and Loyalty, but also by [Page] your Temperance, Moderation, and Sobriety, preserved your Health, and have prolonged your Life almost twenty Years beyond the usual Age of Man; and had happily practised the best Rules and Precepts in this small Treatise, long before it was extant in any Language. Now, that God would please to continue your Health, and as you were Born before the beginning of this Cen­tury, so to lengthen your Life at least to the beginning of the next, to the Comfort of your numerous Issue and Relations, the Benefit of your Neighbours, and Relief of the Poor, shall be the constant cor­dial Prayer of,

Dear Ʋncle,
Your most Affectionate and Humble Servant, John Chamberlayne.


HAving accidentally met with a small Treatise written in Italian, wherein is briefly discovered the Quality, Choice, Benefit, Hurt, and Remedy of all sorts of Edible Flesh, Fish, Fruits, Herbs, Grains, and Roots; of several sorts of Drinks, Sawces, &c. Moreover, of Air, Exercise, Rest, Sleep, Watching, Repletion and Ina­nition, Bathing, Rubbing, Venery, Passions, Affections, and Perturbations of the Mind, I judged that it might be acceptable and useful to my Compatriots or Country-men, to make the said Treatise speak English, to the end, that every one might know what Rule and Measure he ought to observe in his Diet, and manner of Living: For although Health is at our Births proposed to us from Heaven, yet there is also need of our con­stant [Page] Care and Diligence both t [...] procure and preserve it by our Diet, as well as to recover it by Physick when it is lost, whereof our Author hath largely treated in another Book, which perhaps hereafter may likewise be made English. I know well that there have been divers Books of this kind hereto­fore publish'd, but the Method hereof being different from all those, and some remark­able things here, not found else-where; also this Book being of a small price, the Reader will take in good part the honest Intentions of the Publisher hereof.


CHAP. I. Of Air.

THE Air above all things is necessary for the preservation of Health, and for the prolonging of our Life; for all Animals live, and stand in need of a continual refreshment of the [...]eart, the which is performed by the perpetual [...]rawing in the Air, whereby the Lungs are in a [...]ontinual motion, from the hour of our Birth, to [...]e hour of Death: All things else may be avoided [...]r some time except the Air, which no man can [Page 2] want one hour. Now Air compa [...]es us about on every side, and changes our Bodies more than any thing besides, because we dwell continually in it, and feed upon this dish every moment: And it may justly be affirmed, that the Air may be more beneficial and more hurtful, than eating and drink­ing. The chiefest way of preserving the Health, consisting therefore in the election of a good Air we ought to choose that which is most clear an [...] serene towards the East, not subject to dar [...] Clouds, nor corrupted with the stinking Vapour of Lakes, standing Pools, Marshes, Dunghils, Privies, Caverns, Quagmires, or where much Dust is for by reason of the dusty Air about the Garaman­tes, (now called Guanguara, a Countrey in Africa the Men can scarce arrive to the Age of forty year [...] And where the Air is naught, it consequently hap­pens that the Water is not good, the which nex [...] to the Air helps to corrupt our Bodies, togethe [...] with the Food, which in a thick and gross A [...] ought to be thin and subtil, as in a thin Air ought to be gross. That Air therefore is requisit [...] in the conservation of Health, which renders th [...] Days light and serene, pure and temperate [...] whereas on the contrary, the gross, thick, turb [...] ­lent, and infected, does destroy the Health. Th [...] naughty and unwholsom Air, is the cold and Nor­thern; as also the Southern; likewise the noctu [...] ­nal Air, especially under the Rays of the Moo [...] and in the open Air: And no less pernicious is th [...] windy, and tempestuous, corrupted with unwho [...] ­som Vapours, such as is the stinking Putrefactio [...] of dead Animals, and other nasty Smells; f [...] such Air hurts the Head, and offends the vital Sp [...] ­rits, and with its overmuch moisture and humid [...] ty [Page 3] it loosens the Joynts, and disposes them very much to receive all sort of Superfluities, as does the Air, which fetches a Vapour out of the Dust, and is infectious: Against which there is great need that we carefully defend our selves; for that en­tring into the Body, and obstructing the Passages, hinders the circulating of the animal Spirits. Choose therefore the temperate Air, which is the lucid, clear, and purest; for that does not only cause Health, but which is more, preserves it a long while, by purifying all the Spirits, and the Blood, chearing the Heart, and the Mind, strength­ens all the Actions, easeth Digestion, preserves [...]he Temperament, prolongs Life, retarding and [...]eeping off old Age. And on the contrary, the [...]ark and thick Air clouds the Heart, troubles the Mind, renders the Body heavy and unactive, hin­ [...]ers the Concoction, and hastens old Age. The [...]emperate Air is easily known, if presently after [...]un-set it grows cool, and if at Sun-rising it soon [...]rows hot: This Air agrees with all Ages, all Com­ [...]lexions, with all times, and all seasons; and not [...]nly the turbulent and windy Air is unwholsom, [...]ut that likewise which is always still and quiet. [...]herefore when the Air exceeds in any quality, it [...]ught to be allayed and corrected with its contra­ [...]y: And if that cannot be done by natural ways, [...]ought to be prepared artificially; so that if the [...]ir should be too hot and sultry, as it is in Sum­ [...]er, you should sprinkle the House with fresh [...]ater, or Vinegar; for the Vinegar with its cold­ [...]ess and dryness, qualifies the unwholsom Vapours [...] the Air, and hinders Putrefaction: And if they [...]row the Floor with Flowers and odoriferous [...]erbs, which have a moist and humid quality, as [Page 4] Violets, Roses, tops of young Oa [...]s, leaves of th [...] Vine, of Lettices, or Willows, Nenufars, or Wa­ter-Lillies, boughs of the Mastick tree, and othe [...] cool Leaves; and in the mean time you shoul [...] take care that none come into the Chambers th [...] strewed, for if there be a great many, with the [...] Breath they re-heat the Room: Besides this, l [...] the Chamber be full of odoriferous Fruits, as swe [...] smelling Apples, Pears, Quinces, Citrons and Li [...] ­mons. But if the Air should be too cold, yo [...] must avoid the Wind, chiefly the Northern, a [...] not go out of the House before Sun-rising; a [...] strew your Chamber with hot Herbs, as Mint, Pe­niroyal, Sage, Hysop, Laurel, Rosemary, Marjora [...] or else make a decoction of these Herbs with Clove [...] Cinamon, Mace, and such like, and sprinkle t [...] Chamber therewith; and perfume it also wi [...] some aromatical Smells, as Incense, Mastick, [...] ­namon, Ladanum, (a Gum made of the fat D [...] that is gathered from the Leaves of Lada) N [...] ­megs, rine of Citrons, Myrrh, Amber, Lignum [...] ­loes, Musk, and the sweet smelling Gum call'd St [...] ­rax; putting these things on lighted Charcoal; [...] else mix these Perfumes with liquid Storax, setti [...] it a little while over the Coals. These aromati [...] Odours have the vertue to open the Pores, wh [...] they are stopt, attenuate the gross Humours, a [...] is good against the cold and moist Vapours of t [...] Body. This Perfume may be made another w [...] if you take of all these things; to wit, Half ounce, or six drams of Roses, one dram of A [...] ­ber, of Musk half a scruple, of Behen Album, Sparling Poppy, or red Behen, ana two scrupl [...] of the Flowers of Nymphea, or River-Lillies, thr [...] drams of Ladanum, one dram of Mastick, Incen [...] [Page 5] ana two Drams; pound these, not too small, and set them over t [...] Coals. Besides this, to correct the bad quality of the Air, and to attenuate and dissolve the gross and slimy Humours of the Body, let there be always burning in the Chamber a good Fire of some Odoriferous Wood, as Lawrel, Rose­mary, Cypress, Juniper, Oak, Pine, Firr, the Latrix or Larch-Tree, Turpentine, and Tamarisk. Moreover, Night and Day smell to a Ball of Po­mander, composed of these following several In­gredients. Take of Saffron one Dram and a half, of the Oriental Amber half a Scruple, of Musk half a Dram, of Storax Calamita, (the Gum which proceeds from a sweet Cane in the Indies) and of Lawrel, ana one Scruple; these are alto­gether dissolved in Malmsey, and thereof is made a round Ball. One thing is worthy your Observa­tion and Remembrance, that is, that the Air in hot and moist Countries (as for Example, in Rome, &c.) is very destructive to the Health; the Air of the Vineyards is also little wholesom, unless when the Northern or Western Wind blows. Of Seasons, those are the best, which keeping their proper temperature, are equally either cold or hot; but the changeable and incertain Wea­ther is the worst of all. I must not likewise omit to tell you, that in the Summer, when the South Wind blows, as in those places which stand to­wards the North, are the least wholsome; as in the Winter, the Northern Wind blowing, those which look towards the South. If you desire to know the quality of the Air, and disposition of the Weather, at Night in the open Air put a dry Sponge, and if in the Morning you find it dry, you may assure your self the Air is dry; if wet, [Page 6] then conclude the Air is moist and damp. The like Experiment may be tryed [...]ith new Bread which being exposed to the Nocturnal Air as the former, if in the Morning you find it mouldy the Air is corrupted and putrefied; but if the Air be hot and dry, the Bread will remain withou [...] any change. The malignity of the Cold may b [...] corrected, by artificially causing a good and swee [...] Breath, viz. by keeping in your Mouth Treacle▪ Mithridate, also the Confection called Alcarmes, (a term of the Arabian Physicians, whereby they meant a Cordial made of certain little Scarle [...] Worms, of which also is Crimson made) rubbing the Teeth with this Antidote, which yet be­comes better by the addition of Zedoary, (a Roo [...] like Ginger growing in the East-Indies) an [...] chewing therewith Angelica; and this Dentifrice or Medicine to cleanse the Teeth, may be made if you take of Rosemary one Dram, of Myrrh Mastick, Bole-armoniack, Dragons-Blood, Burnt-Allom, ana half a Dram; of Cinnamon one Dram and a half, Rose Vinegar, Mastick-water, ana three Ounces, half a pound of Rain-water, of Honey three Ounces; boyl these together over a gentle fire, to the end that they may be well scummed; afterwards add thereto Bezoar (a kind of Pre­cious Stone very Cordial, being an excellent An­tidote to expel Poyson; by the Arabick Doctors it is called Badzahar, i. e. Alexipharmacon, a Re­medy for Poison) and as a [...] Unguent keep it in a glass Bottle. Of this take a spoonful every Morning fasting, holding it in your Mouth, and rubbing your Gums therewith, the which must b [...] afterwards w [...]ll washed and cleansed with Wa­ [...] distilled in a hot Bath, of white Salt, and Roch-Allom, [Page 7] ana three Ounces, and thereto may be added a little [...]stick-water: With this wash the Teeth, for these things cleanse the Mouth, cause good Breath, f [...]sten loose Teeth, flesh the Gums, heal the putrefied Flesh, and make the Teeth white. Besides all this, there is great heed to be taken in the choice of a House; see whether the Place and the Air be good or bad, wholesom or unwholsom to dwell in. The House therefore which you take, let it be seated in the highest place of the City; therein chuse your Apartment at least one pair of stairs high, and let it be very light, and so placed that it may always receive the Wind in the Summer, and the Sun in the Winter; and have Windows on all sides; that is, East, West, North, and South, if it may be, to the end, that no one Air may remain there long, which otherwise would putrefie and corrupt; and furthermore you ought to avoid not only lying in a Ground-Chamber, but also tarrying there long, for the highest are the most wholsom, where you breath the thinnest and purest Air; then you re­ceive this benefit, that dwelling in the highest and most open place of the House, preserves, and re­pairs the radical Moisture of the Body, and hin­ders Old Age; but to be in a dark, lower Room, or under the Ground, is very naught; for Life is maintained by the open Air and by Light, but in the shade a Man grows mouldy and corrupted. I must furthermore advertise you, that of Animals, Herbs, Fruit, Corn, and Wine, those are to be chosen that grow in high Ground, free from ill smells, putrefied by the Wind, and receive a tem­perate and sufficient warm [...]h of the Sun, where there be no stinking Lakes and Dung-hills to mo­lest [Page 8] them, for there the Fruits remain a long while uncorrupted; and this is [...]he only place whereon a man may securely fix to dwell in. 'Tis also commodious to have a Country House, where­to you may sometimes repair; for as the Country provides Food and Victuals for the City, and the City consumes it, so humane Life, by sometimes dwelling in the Country is prolonged, but by the Idleness of the City it is shortned: Likewise change of Air is sometimes very requisite and ne­cessary, though that change should not be made suddenly, but deliberately, and by little and little. And because to the rectifying the Air, the Clothes do in some measure contribute, defending the Body from it; for this purpose wear those Clothes that be warm and dry; in the Winter get a Suit of Lamb-skin, Fox-skin, of a Marten, or Ermin; and for a good warm pair of Shoes, take the skin of an Hare, which is very good against the weak­ness and infirmness of the Hams; or else that of a Fox, which strengthens all the Members: Some make their Clothes of Wool, Cotton, or Silk, for those that are made of Linnen are least of all warm. Cover well the Body by Night, especi­ally the Head, which is the Cell or Domicile of the rational Soul, from which are derived many indispositions, wherefore one must take great care, that the Head be neither too hot, nor too cold; and there be many that in the Night-time cover their Head close with warm Clothes; for whilest a Man sleeps, the natural heat retires to the in­ward parts, and the outward parts are deprived of their heat, whence they are easily offended by the external Cold; a [...]d likewise whilest a Man is awake, much heat, and many Spirits by the Ope­ration [Page 9] of the interiour and exteriour Faculties as­cend into th [...] Head, and by that means render it more hot: Therefore there is most need in the Day to keep it cool, but in the Night warm. One must also beware of being too much in the Sun, or near the Fire, and not to wash the Head too often, for these hot things open, dilate, and rarifie the parts of the Head, and more readily dispose it to receive a superfluous humidity. In the Winter 'twill not be unuseful to sprinkle your Clothes with this sort of Water: Take of Iris Florentina, or Flower-de-luce, Zedoary, Spikenard, ana one Ounce, Storax, Mastick, Cinnamon, Nutmegs, Cloves, ana half an Ounce, Juniper-berries three Drams, Behen, Amber, Musk, ana one Scruple: Distill all these things with Wine. In the Summer take of Rose-water four pounds, of the best Vi­negar one pound, of Red Roses one handful and a half, Camphire half a Dram, Musk seven Grains, Spice of Diambra, Flower-de-luce, ana one Ounce; pound all these, except the Spice, the Musk, and the Camphire, and dissolve them all in Rose-water, which being put into a Limbeck, cover it nine days under Horse-dung. You may also make use of this Powder to sprinkle on your Clothes, adding Rose-water. Take Red Roses, Violets, ana one Ounce, Peel or Rind of Citron, Solanum, or Night-shade, of Myrtle, Lignum-Aloes, ana one Ounce, Camphire, Amber, ana half a Scruple, Musk, Behen, ana five Grains, and make of this a thin Powder. 'Tis also good to carry Odori­ferous things in your Hand, in the Summer-time, a Sponge dipt in Rose-water, or Rose-vinegar, and smell to it often; or carry with you this Odo­riferous Ball: Take of Roses one Dram, Red Co­ral [Page 10] four Scruples, Water-Lillies one Dram and a half, Bole-armoniack one Dram, [...]orax Calamita one Dram and a half, Lignum-Aloes two Scruples, Mastick one Dram, L [...]danum two Drams, Amber, Musk, ana two Grains; these are pounded, and so made into a Ball. In the Winter carry a Sponge infus [...]d into Vinegar, wher [...]in steep Cloves and Ze­doary: Or else carry in your Hand this Ball of Amber. Take of Ladanum half an Ounce, Sto­rax Calamita two Drams, Bezoar, Mastick, ana one Dram, Cloves, Nutmegs, Crocus, Dyers-Grains, white Wax, Lignum-Aloes, ana one Scru­ple, Amber half a Scruple, Musk dissolved in Malmsey five Grains; make it into a Ball. Be­sides this, there is need of defending the Breast and Stom [...]k with Lamb-skin, or Hares, or with a Pillow of Feathers, seeing that the Stomack indis­posed, is the Mother of the Distemper: Besides the Clothes which are used for the Head and Stomack make an Odour of Saffron, Lignum-Aloes, an [...] Amber, for these things strengthen the Brain; bu [...] the Musk is to be left out, by reason of its to [...] great Evaporation, the hands are to be often covered with Gloves, in the Winter made of Fox-skin, in the Summer of Hares-skin, Kids, o [...] Lambs. The last thing, though not the least to b [...] observed, is, That with the greatest diligence an [...] care you avoid coldness of Hands or Feet, since that infinite Distempers are wont to proceed and flow from thence.

CHAP. II. Of Motion.

BEcause Motion is not only requisite to the pre­servation of the Health, but also very need­ful, towards a good habit of the Body; therefore after the Air, it remains to treat of Exercise, the which is a most powerful and prevalent thing to keep us in health, being that which purges and drives away the superfluous Humours of the Body, which are in such sort dissipated and dissolved, that there is no longer need of Physick, where this is not wanting. There be many sorts of Moti­on, and that is the best which is not violent, as Walking, but is a regular motion of the Body, as being most kindly, and most agreeable to the Members; but that Motion which is caused in a Coach, in a Ship, on Horse-back, or the like, is the least wholsom. Some Exercises are strong and wearisom, and others moderate, light and weak: The temperate Exercise is that which contributes much to the Health; for it corroborates the natu­ral Health, wasts the Superfluities, enlivens Youth, chears old Age, and hinders Fulness, fortifies the Senses, renders the Body light and agile, strength­ens the Nerves, and all the Joynts, for the exerci­sed Parts become more robust. This also consoli­dates the Members, aids Digestion, keeps the Pas­sages of the Body clear and open, so that the smoa­ky Vapours of the Spirits may find a better and more free issue, the which are the chiefest instru­ments [Page 12] in the conservation of hum [...]ne Life, being the reason that the Food finds an ea [...] concoction, digestion, and assimulation of Parts, and finally a cause of the evacuation and expurgation of all the Superfluities. The light Exercises are Fishing, Fowling, and such like Divertisements, which chear the Mind; and as moderate and temperate Exercise does wonderfully contribute to the Health, so overmuch Idleness is very pernicious. Rubbings are also exceeding useful, for they hin­der the Humours from falling into the Joynts; and doing it in the right time, that is, when the Super­fluities shall be evaporated from the inward Parts, it helps Digestion, recreates the Body, and opens the Pores, whereby the moist Humours, and Va­pours of the Body, obtain an easier passage: It al­so swiftly draws the Blood to the outward Parts; it thickens the subtil Bodies, and attenuates the gross, hardens the soft, and mollifies the hard, and fi [...]ally confirms the natural heat. The quan­tity of the Exercise reaches so far, as the Body can bear without growing too weary, that is, till you wax hot, having a fresh colour, and begin to sweat; which so soon as you perceive, change your Cloaths, and dry well all the Members, and put on other Cloaths, and if there be any need, lye a little in Bed, and rest your self, till you shall be refreshed, and recover new strength.

Now the time for Exercise is before Meals, ha­ving first evacuated the Excrements of the Belly, and of the Bladder; for it is usually very bad, and destructive to those who being but just risen from Table, with their Stomach charged, venture on any Exercise. And as Motion and Exercise per­formed before Meals, is a great preserver of [Page 13] Health, so if presently after Meals, 'tis the source and original [...] divers Infirmities: Therefore let all Exercise be afore Meat, to which there ought at least for some small time to succeed a profound and quiet rest, and remisness of the Body; though from this Rule are excepted the Rusticks and Hus­bandmen, who by a continual custom go to their Exercise, (and that without any hurt) as soon as the meat is out of their mouths; and herein is ve­rified the saying, That it is better to exercise the Body full than empty. After a violent Exercise, one ought to beware of catching cold; for the Mo­tion and Exercise having opened the Pores of the Body, the cold easily enters therein, bringing along with it Catarrhs, and divers other Infirmi­ties. Then in the morning having first gone to stool, the Friction or Rubbing is to follow, which must be performed on the extreamest or farthest Parts of the Body, beginning at the Knees, and proceed down to the ends of the Feet; then from the Thighs, bending at the Knees; then from the upper Ribs to the lower; then from the Shoulders down the Back; and lastly, from the Arms to the Hands: And this to be done with a Napkin or Towel, lightly rubbing your Body, till the skin wax something red. In old Men the motion of their superiour Members, as the Arms and the Shoulders, is most necessary, because it diverts and prohibits the Humours from falling into the lower Parts. And on the contrary, the rubbing Exercise of the Feet, or the washing them with Water alone, does accelerate and hasten the Gout in old Men: When it being requisite that they should sometimes wash their Feet, let them take weak Lye, wherein let there be boyled red Roses [Page 14] and a little Salt; in this let them wash their Feet, at such time as the Fits of the G [...]t be not upon them. Likewise it would be good for them to pull off their Shoos and Stockings themselves, with­out the help of their Servants, which things mo­derately exercise the Body, and stir up the Heat and Spirits. And by the way, I cannot but dis­approve of the binding the Stockings with the Garters; 'tis rather far more commodious and wholsom, to wear Drawers and Stockings of one entire piece; for binding the Legs hard, causes several pains, and hinders the Heat, Blood and Spirits, from circulating and descending into the Joynts, whence they are weakned, and apt to re­ceive divers Distempers. Furthermore, it is very profitable in Coughing, to spit, and cast out the Excrements of the Body: Besides this, before any Exercise, in the Morning as soon as you are up, rub well your Head, and comb it with an ivory Comb, from the Forehead upwards to the Crown, giving it at least forty Combs; then with a rough Cloath, or a Sponge, rubbing your Head, it dis­pels all the Superfluities which are there lodged; for thereby the Spirits are rarified, and the passages of the Head opened, and the smoaky Vapours are more freely evacuated: Which thing corroborates all the interior Faculties, that is, the thinking, the imaginative Vertues, and the Memory; and the use of a Comb does wonderfully restore the Sight, especially in the mean time looking in a Glass, the which excites all the animal Vertues, chiefly the Sight; and the combing the Head oftentimes a day, draws the Vapours to the upper Parts, and easily removes them from the Eyes; but in comb­ing, do not keep the Head too open. Then with [Page 15] another Comb, comb the Beard, the which cut often, because [...] chears, and causes a readiness of Mind. It is expedient likewise to sneeze, after this universal Evacuation, snuffing up into the Nose a little powder of Pepper, or other Snuff. Lastly, 'tis a necessary thing to wash the Face and Hands, according to this rhiming or Leonine Verse, ‘Si fore vis sanus, ablue saepe manus.’

The washing the Face refreshes a Man, and makes the Heat to retire by Antiparistasin, and then uniting it self, it becomes more strong. In the Winter wash with the decoction of Sage, or Rosemary, sometime steeped in Wine; in the Summer fresh Water is most agreeable, whereto add a little Rose water, with a little Soap, or ra­ther a perfumed Wash-ball. The Hands ought to be often washed, for they are the Instruments which keep clean the Organs, whereby the Super­fluities of the Brain issue forth, as are the Ears, the Eyes, and the Nostrils; and therefore is said,

Lotio post mensam tibi confert munera bina,
Mundificat palmas, & lumina reddit acuta.

But after Meals you should not wash the Hands with hot Water, for it breeds Worms in the Bel­ly; and the reason is this, because the hot Water does extract and draw forth the natural Heat, whence it happens, that digestion and concoction of the Food becomes imperfect, the which is a powerful occasion of the Worms. The Eyes also are to be washed with fresh Water, which cleanses them from all Gum and Filth; and putting the [Page 16] Eyes into cool fresh Water open, does wonder­fully clear and purifie the Eye- [...]ht, afterwards drying them with a very clean and perfum'd Tow­el. Take care also that your Teeth be very clean, which for want of well rubbing and cleansing, cause a naughty and stinking Breath, and the su­perfluities of the Teeth being mixed with the Food, does breed corruption, and renders it putri­fied: Besides which, the rotten Teeth do send to the Brain an infectious Vapour; and nothing is better to keep the Teeth white and clean, than to wash them twice a Month with Wine, wherein let there be boyled a Root of Tithymalus, or Spurge. And now to wash the Head sometimes, we ought not to take that old Italian Proverb or Sentence for our Guide, viz. Si lavano spesso le mani, raro i pie­di, et non mai il capo: That is, we must often wash our Hands, seldom our Feet, and never our Head. But that Maxim is not good; for washing the Head sometimes does greatly strengthen the Brain, especially if in the Winter-time you wash it with sweet Lye, wherein let there be boyled some Sage, Bettony, Staechas, or French-Lavender, Camomil, Myrrh, and a little odoriferous Wine; and use al­so Wash-balls made of the Soap of Venice, or Da­mascus, about two ounces of the Larch-tree, or Agaricon, (a kind of Mushroom growing upon high Teees of a white colour, very good for the Head) one ounce; of Ladanum, three drams, of Cloves and Spikenard, ana two scruples, with oyl of Myrtles, and with these Ingredients make a little Ball for your use. In the Summer boyl with your Lye dry Roses, and instead of the Soap, take the yelk of an Egg fresh and lukewarm. Having washed the Head, your next care must be to dry [Page 17] it as soon as you can with warm Cloaths, so that there remain [...] wetness or moisture, for the Brain is naturally most humid, and therefore Nature has given it so many vents and passages, whereby it may evacuate all the moist superfluities. More­over, when you have washed your Head, you should beware of exposing it too soon to the open Air, and therefore 'tis better to wash it in the Evening before Supper; but first of all you ought to seek God's assistance by Prayer, who is the most skilful Physician both of Body and Soul, and with­out his gracious and benign influence all Medi­cines are vain and useless. Then going abroad, begin some easie, pleasant Exercise, till you per­ceive a moderate sweat spread it self over all your Body; the most robust Exercise is rather to be performed in the Morning, than After-noon: And here it is worth your Observation, that as a temperate use of Exercise does mightily aid and contribute to the preservation of the Health, so over-much is very destructive to the Health; and so as Motion before Meals is very necessary and wholsom, so if done immediately after Meals, draws the Humours through all the parts of the Body, and the juice which remains as yet raw in the Stomack; whence proceed divers and sun­dry Infirmities.

After Dinner therefore no Exercise is conve­nient, but a quiet composure and stilness of the Body is most requisite, especially for one hour after Dinner, after which a little walking is not amiss, for the better digesting and jogging down the Victuals to the bottom of the Stomack. Lastly, those Exercises are best which are performed in the open Air, rather than in Houses; in the Sun, [Page 18] than in the Shade; and in the shade, either of a Wall, or of sweet smelling Arb [...]rs, are more beneficial, than under any roofed place. Those that by some Accident or other cannot walk, let them ride in a Horse-Litter, in a Coach, or Sedan, so that they may in some manner have exercised themselves before Meals; for by Idleness the Sto­mack is dulled and blunted, but by Motion it is enlivened, and receives a better Appetite to its Victuals. Therefore the Body being sufficiently exercised, repose your self, to the end that the perturbation ceasing, the Heat and the Blood are recreated (then you may venture to eat) which whilest they are in revolution, draw the crude Humours to the Bowels, which do thereby remain very much obstructed. Besides this, we ought not to neglect the Exercise of the Mind; for a [...] the Body with Exercise is rendred strong and ro­bust, so the Mind is nourished by Studies, and ac­quires fresh vigour, and many by a continual Ex­ercise of the Mind, have freed their Bodies from the greatest Distempers. The Exercises of the Mind are Speculation, Singing with Musical Instru­ments, applying your self to some Study, as Hi­story, Theology, &c. for these things delighting the Mind, feed it in such sort, that all the Virtues become more strong, and better enabled to resist and overcome Infirmities: And these Exercises performed at due times, that is, after a perfec [...] Concoction of your Victuals, both nourish and corroborate the Mind, and render the Memory quick and lasting; and hence proceeds that the Learned Men are most fit and apt to Govern in the Common-wealth. But if out of Season, it hinder [...] Digestion, heaping up and contracting many Su­perfluities, [Page 19] occasioning various Opilations, and oftentimes beg [...]ting putrid Fevers. And further­more, if Ol [...] Men should be continually-idle, with­out any Exercise, Old Age being it self a putre­faction, by adding putrefaction thereto, they be­come so much the more putrefied, withered, and dry; but by Exercise they may live a long time, whence it happens that we hear this grave Sentence in every ones mouth, That the study of Health con­sists in these things chiefly, viz. in not satiating or cloying ones self with Food, and in not being averse from Labour, and that Exercise, Food, Drink, Sleep, &c. ought all to be moderate.

CHAP. III. Of Rest.

AS an immoderate Exetcise does very much endamage the Health, so on the other side does Idleness and over-much Rest, which does not only offend the Body, but also weakens the Understanding; for whilest the Body is in Idleness and without Action, it collects many superfluities, whence afterwards infinite Distempers arise by Crudities, Obstructions, &c. Idleness consumes and corrupts the Strength, extinguishes the Na­tural Heat, and increases the Flegm in the Veins, fattens the Body, and weakens it. Also as by Exercise the Natural heat is increased, and the Concoction of the Food is facilitated, so by Idle­ness 'tis hindred and extinguished; and for this [Page 20] reason Idleness is numbred amongst the chief causes of cold Diseases; and the Poet knowing how hurtful to the Health is Idleness, says,

Cernis ut ignavum corrumpunt otia corpus.
Ʋt capiunt vitium, ni moveantur aquae.

And Idleness not only corrupts the Body, but is also a great cause of pernicious Thoughts, as the same Poet says:

Queritur Aegestus, quare sit factus adulter,
In promptu causa est, desidiosus erat.

However by moderate seasonable Repose the Body and Mind are recreated and refreshed; for,

Quod caret alterna requie durabile non est,
Haec reparat vires fessaque membra levat.

And Rest not only to the Body, but also to the Mind, is sometimes absolutely necessary, when they are tyred with Studies, Thoughts, or Actions; according to another Poet, ‘Otia Corpus alunt animus quoque pascitur illis.’ In brief, without Rest, the strength and vigour of the Mind, cannot long endure; whereas on the contrary, Rest and Repose does in a great mea­sure aid and contribute to the Speculation, and the profound Invention of Occult things. Rest is good after Meals, because the Victuals reside in the bottom of the Stomack well united and [Page 21] coagulated, [...]ich always happens after a good Digestion. And as to the Flegmatick, and those of a cold and moist Complexion, Motion is pro­fitable; so to the hot and cholerick, Rest is most necessary. Though it is true, that too much Rest, called Idleness, as is said before, is exceedingly destructive, both to the Body and Mind, but especially to the Mind; for it makes Men negli­gent, slothful, ignorant, oblivious, and forgetful, and renders them unfit for any Counsel, Office, or Charge in the Republick. Then the Idleness also of the Body makes Men fat, lazy, sluggards, weak, and of a pale Complexion, cools and ex­tinguishes their Natural Heat, increases Phlegm, and fills the Body with superfluities, begetting cold Infirmities, as the Gout both in the Hands and Feet, Catarrhs, Obstructions of the Bowels, Epilepsie, or Falling-Sickness, and pains of the Arteries; therefore when at any time you are necessitated to be in Idleness, and by some busi­ness or incumbrance you are forced to abstain from all manner of Exercise, you must instead thereof observe a slender Diet, and that Food which is most easie of Digestion, and Broths, which without any trouble or difficulty are di­gested, and distributed through all the Body, and cause a lubricity, or slipperiness in the Belly: And those that make use of this Method, are to be ad­vised, that they do not lye along, or lean on one side, but for the most part to sit upright, where­by their Victu [...]ls may better descend, and more easily be concocted: And to the end that they may the better preserve their Health, let them regu­late and conform their Diet to these Rules.

[Page 22]
Parce mero, Coenato parum, nec sit tibi vanum,
Surgere post epulas somnum fuge meridianum.

Now, the superfluous Rest is no small hurt to the Body, therefore I advise you, that this Rest be temperate, and not degenerate into a base sloath and laziness, to which in a small time some grie­vous Infirmity will succeed; whence we see those that are in Prison, loaded with Chains and Irons, so that they cannot move, always incur some Di­stemper; for their Body grows cold, whilest by the superfluous moisture the heat is suppressed, not being able freely to disperse it self through the Body, the passages not only for the heat being stopped and hindred, but also for the Victuals; whence proceeds the diminution of the strength, and the Members become lessened, and almost dryed up. And on the contrary, a temperate and moderate Exercise dissolves all the super­fluities, and opens the ways and passages, where­by the Natural heat may without intterruption diffuse and spread abroad it self. And therefore Hippocrates affirms, that a moderate Exercise is above all things most necessary to Phlegmaticks, and to those whose Constitution or Temper is cold and moist; but to hot and cholerick Per­sons, Rest (though not Idleness) is very fit and commodious: But besides this, all Learned Phy­sicians agree, that both Exercise and Rest, if mo­derate, is a special means to preserve the Health, and prolong the Life.

CHAP. IV. Of Sleep.

ALL Creatures by long fatigues and watch­ing do waste and consume themselves, and therefore stand in need of an alternate radical moistness, to supply the place of that which is spent, and to renew the weakned Spirits: Now, this is brought to pass by moderate sleeping, the commodity and good whereof is, that it re-heats and corroborates the Members, concocts the Hu­mours, augments the Natural Heat, fattens the Body, heals the Infirmities of the Mind, and mi­tigates and allays the troubles and sorrows of the Heart; for whilest we sleep, the faculties of the Mind rest and repose themselves, and Nature ope­rates more strongly. Sleep also facilitates the di­gestion of the Food, which lies in the Stomack, and not only concocts it there, but also distributes it through the parts of the Body; for the Natural heat concenters in the inward parts, whereby the Food is the better concocted. Lastly, sleep re­moves all lassitude and weariness, caused by over-much Watching, and therefore 'tis called a Rest from all Labour, and the peace of the Mind, as is manifested in these Verses:

Somne es tu rerum placidissime, somne Deorum
Pax animi, quem cura fugit, tu pectora lenis,
Curas passa graves, & multo victa labore.

[Page 24] But however we must avoid a to [...] prolix and su­perfluous sleep, which is no less pe [...]nicious, than the other good and commodious; for it chills and dries the Body, weakens the Natural heat, and breeds Phlegmatick Humours, whence afterwards proceeds much sloath and laziness, and it sends many Vapours to the Head, which are oftentimes the immediate cause of Rheums and Catarrhs, and is very destructive to gross and fat Bodies; in brief, 'tis neither good for the Body, nor the Mind, nor for Business; he who sleeps too much, is but half a Man, sleep rendring him in all points like a dead Man, except his digestion of the Food; for he neither sees, nor hears, nor speaks, nor understands, and is absolutely deprived of all Reason, the which for the time is a perfect death. Superfluous sleep moreover, both in sound and in­firm Bodies, does beget an Asthma, or shortness of Breath, and is the constant fore-runner and preparative to an Apoplexy, Palsie, Numbness, or Lethargy, and to a Fever; and besides those other incommodities which it brings along with it, it hinders the timely evacuation of the Excre­ments, causing them to remain longer in the Ves­sels, or Guts. Sleep ought to be taken at such time as the Stomack is free from all smoaky Food, the Vapours whereof arriving to the Brain, and finding it cold and thick, are congealed and made heavy; and then falling down, they obstruct the sensitive passages of the Members, just as the Rain is formed in the middle Region of the Air, by the Vapours from the Earth. Now, on the contrary, too much watching, and want of sleep, beget over-much heat in the Brain, and is the cause of the Anguish of the Mind, and of a bad [Page 25] Digestion of the Food; for by Watching the Na­tural heat, w [...]h is called the first or chiefest in­strument of the Soul, is weakned, and quits the concoction in the Stomack, leaving it imperfect. For the Soul serves the Body whilest we see and move; and being divided into many parts, is not free, but distributes some part of it self to all the Members and Senses of the Body; to the Hear­ing, to the Sight, to the Feeling, to the Taste, to the Walking, to the Working, and to every Fa­culty of the Body; whence being altogether ta­ken up, and employed by so many businesses, it leaves the Food in the Stomack; and hence pro­ceeds the Crudities, if Nature does not succour and prevent them by necessary sleep, the which is the Rest and sweet Repose of the Animal Fa­culties. Sleep is good for Phlegmetick Persons, because it concocts the crude Humours, whence afterwards is begot good Blood, whereby a Man becomes more warm, the Natural heat being in­creased by the plenty of Blood. Sleep moreover is very useful in Cholerick Persons, both as to the quiet of the Mind, and as to the correcting the Complexion of their Body. But it is most of all requisite in Melancholy Men, seeing that it is sleep alone can change their Distemper; for by sleep they acquire a competent stock of heat and moi­sture, things that are very contrary to their Com­plexion. But it is most of all hurtful to those of Sanguine Complexion. However, sleep in the day-time, and after Dinner, is to be avoided by [...]ll, unless when a Man is compelled thereto by a Custom and Habit, or that in the precedent Night [...]e has taken but small Rest, or when he perceives [...] kind of lassitude or weariness through all his [Page 26] Limbs; and in such cases he may have leave, and especially those who have a wea [...] Stomack, and cannot digest their Food; and then also they ought not to sleep with their Head declined, nor in a Bed, but in a Chair, with their Head lifted up, and then no longer than an hour. Now, the Diur­nal sleep in respect of the Nocturnal is always per­nicious, chiefly in the Dog-days; for then con­trary Operations arise in our Body, that the sleep retracts the heat to the inward parts, and the heat of the Air to the outward parts, and at such time the Brain is filled with many Vapours, which af­terwards being united and condensed into Water, descend to the inferiour parts, and increase the Rheum; and falling into divers parts of the Body▪ they are distinguished by several names, as is de­monstrated by these Verses:

Ad pectus si Rheuma fiuit, tunc dico Catarrhum,
Ad fauces Bronchos, ad nares dico Corizam.

And other evil Accidents do attend such an irre­gularity; therefore the Divine Providence has se [...] apart the Day for Business and Labour, and th [...] Night for Rest and Sleep; so that to sleep in th [...] Day-time is to invert the Order of Nature, an [...] disposes the Body to receive innumerable Infirmities; it begets Catarrhs, ill colour in the Face renders the Milt heavy, offends the Nerves causes Laziness, Imposthumes, and Fevers: An [...] besides, who would deprive themselves (by [...] kind of a voluntary Death) of the glorious ligh [...] of the Sun, and Day, which was created for Ma [...] to enjoy, to do whatsoever is requisite, to follo [...] his Affairs, &c. whereas the Night being dark [Page 27] obscure, and silent, is only fit for Sleep, both for the coolness [...] the Air, and also for the quiet and tranquility of the Body and Soul, for then no noise or rumours interrupt and disturb our Sleep; and therefore it is said;

Si vis incolumem, si vis te reddere sanum,
Curas tolle graves, somnum fuge meridianum,
Parce mero, coenato parum, nec sit tibi vanum,
Surgere post epulas, irasci crede profanum,
Nec mictum retine, nec comprime fortiter anum.

But if any necessity (as is said) compels a man to sleep in the day time, either by reason of night-watching, or to restore decayed strength, he may venture to sleep a little in the day-time, for the heat being withdrawn to the inward Parts, causes a better Concoction. But one may sleep in the long days sitting on a leather Chair, with the Head lifted up, but not bowed backwards or for­ward, but on one side, which thing causes less Evaporation to the Brain; but ft is not good to sleep in a soft and delicious Bed, nor perfumed with Musk, or Amber, or Lignum Aloes, because there is too much ado, especially when no good but rather hurt proceeds from thence, for it of­fends the Brain, and makes the Head heavy: One ought also to avoid the contrary extream, and not to sleep upon Boards, or other hard things, which will break some Vein in the Breast.

Note, That you ought not to sleep a-nights with the Head, Arms, or Feet uncovered, for the cold­ness of extream Parts of the Body are very hurt­ful, and destructive to the Brain. You must also take this Caveat along with you, that is, not to [Page 28] sleep in a Room whereto the R [...]s of the Moon have a free access, for there is sc [...]ce any thing more pernicious to the Head, and are a greater cause of Catarrhs, than if you should sleep in the open Air. Besides this, 'tis not good to sleep pre­sently after Food, but to tarry at least two hours [...]fter, and the longer the better, for thereby the Victuals will be the better concocted. 'Tis yet more pernicious to sleep immediately after Dinner than after Supper, for then a man is wakened out of his Sleep before that his Head can concoct, or dispose of the Vapours which arise from his Food. 'Tis furthermore noxious to sleep with an empty Stomach, because it weakens the force of the Bo­dy; and in sleeping you should not make too ma­ny turns, for it causes the corruption of the Victu­als in the Stomach, increases the Superfluities, and lastly, hinders the digestion of those matters, and the sending of them to their natural Places. So likewise sleeping with the Face upwards is greatly to be avoided, for it offends the Back and the Reins, hinders the Breathing, and is a Prepa­rative to the noxious distempers of the Nerves, or Sinews; for the Superfluities go to the nape of the Neck and Back-bone, and to the back-Parts, so that they cannot be purged out by the Nose, nor the Mouth, nor by the other usual means, though it is true, that when we be troubled with any pain or infirmity of the Reins, 'tis best to sleep on the Back. The manner of Sleeping, to the end that Victuals may better descend to the bottom of the Stomach, is to begin your Sleep on the right side, continuing so the space of two hours; then to turn your self on the left side for a longer space, which mightily aids Digestion; for then the Liver [Page 29] embraces the Victuals, as a Hen her Chickens, and lyes directly [...]der the Stomach, like a Fire un­der a Cauldron, and so is caused a more ready and better Digestion: Afterwards in the end of your Sleep, you must turn on the right side again, to the end that the Food may more easily descend from the Stomach to the Liver, and that the super­fluity of the first Digestion may find a more free passage to the Entrails. But when the Stomach is weak, the which you may know by the coldness which is perceived in its region, by all the sharp and sowr Humours, and by the Spittle after the Food, which is insipid, and without taste, then it is better to begin your Sleep lying on your Belly, for such Sleep corroborates the Face, the Breast, and the Digestion; though it is naught for them who are troubled with Rheums in the Eyes, be­cause it adds more Matter and Humours thereto: But at such time 'twill be better to apply to the Stomach a Pillow of soft Feathers and little, such as those of a Vulture; or instead of Feathers, you may fill the Pillow with the clippings of Scarlet. And amongst the things, which do mostly contri­bute to the expulsion of that coldness of the Sto­mach, is to hold embraced a fleshy Child, or a little fat Dog, which heating the Stomach do greatly aid Digestion. The quantity of Sleep ought to be taken till the Concoction in the Sto­mach is perfected, which may be known by the Urine, which when it looks clear as Water, d [...]es demonstrate that there remains some Crudity, or raw Juyce in the Veins, and therefore requires a longer Sleep; but when the Urine is of a Limmor, or bright yellow colour, it shews that the Juyce is fully concocted, and then that Sleep is sufficient.

But this time of Sleep is varied according to the diversity of the Complexions, of [...]e Age, and of the Time: For those that are of a hot Complexion, digest their Victuals quickly, and for such six hours Sleep is sufficient; but those of a cold Constitution, (the digestive faculty being but weak in them) stand in need of a longer Sleep: Whence six hours Sleep is enough for any young Man, but for old Men, eight or nine hours at least; and it is always better that the Sleep should rather be too long, than a superfluous and overmuch Waking, where­by the Brain is weakned, whence many flegma­tick Superfluities arise. And the Signs of a suffici­ent Sleep is a Lightness and Agility, which spreads it self over all the Body, and chiefly in the Brain, and the descent of the Food from the Stomach, and a desire to ease Nature, both of it and of the U­rine, and a cessation of the weariness, caused by the fore-past waking; whereas the contrary Signs, that is, a heaviness of the Body, and Belches, which savour of the Victuals, signifie that more Sleep is required, the other not being sufficient. And you must know in brief, that a moderate Sleep restores the animal Faculties, helps the con­coction of the Victuals, and of the crude Humours, causes a forgetfulness of Labour, and all sorrow­ful Thoughts, mitigates the grief of the Mind, moistens all the Members of the Body, restores all the wasted Faculties, augments the natural Heat, increases the radical Moisture, clarifies and strength­ens the Sight, takes away Weariness, refreshing the tired Bodies, and keeps back Fluxes and Rheums. But if took immoderately, it makes the Head heavy, troubles the Mind, weakens the Memory, and all the animal Faculties, makes the [Page 31] Body cold, multiplies Flegm, extinguishes the na­tural Heat, in [...]ces a Nauseating, makes the Face pale, and is hurtful to all flegmatick Distempers. Now when a man has taken but small Rest, and cannot sleep, let him at least take some repose with his Eyes shut, which may supply the place of Sleep, and is almost as effectual. 'Tis observable besides, That in old Men, whose Stomach is cold, and Liver hot, 'tis necessary to begin their Sleep on the left side, for so the Stomach is heated, and the Food better concocted, the Stomach being fo­mented by the Liver, and on the contrary, the Li­ver being cooled.

CHAP. V. Of Waking.

WAking is an intension, or rather an exten­sion of the Soul, and the faculties thereof, to all the Parts of the Body, which when it is mo­derate, stirs up and excites all the Senses, dispo­ses and orders the vital Faculties to their operati­on, expelling and driving forth all the superfluous Humours from the Body, but if immoderate and excessive, it begets Distempers in the Head, cor­rupts the temperature of the Brain, causes Mad­ness, kindles the Humours, excites sharp and acri­monious Infirmities, makes men look lean and hunger-starved, of a pale and thin Complexion, weakens the concoctive Faculties, dissolves the Spi­rits, [Page 32] fills the Head with Vapours, makes the Eyes hollow, increases Heat, and inflam [...] the Choler, hinders Digestion, and causes Crudities in the Sto­mach, because the natural Heat betakes it self to the outward Parts: And therefore let this be your Rule, that both Sleep and Waking be always mo­derate.

CHAP. VI. Of Fulness.

FRom the eating of Food are collected many Su­perfluities, of which a great part is spent and consumed, (as we have shewed in its place) by Exercise; it is necessary therefore by some arti­fice to drive the remnant out of the Body. Now these Superfluities be divers, according to the dif­ferent Places whence they proceed, as Spittle, Snot, Sweat, Urine, dregs of the Belly, and other sordities or filthiness of the Body, which if not driven out, are wont to beget many Infirmities, as Obstructions, Feavers, Pains, and Impostumes; for which reason we ought with all diligence to pro­cure their Evacuation, for all those Distempers which proceed from Fulness, are cured by Evacu­ation; as on the contrary, those which are deri­ved from Emptiness, are cured by Fulness. How­ever superfluous Evacuation is to be forbidden, for by it the natural Heat and the Spirits are dis­solved, for then their vertues are not powerful [Page 33] enough in their operations; and the emptiness of the Stomach c [...]ses the Epilepsie, or Falling-sick­ness. We must therefore chiefly advertise you, that the Superfluities and Excrements of the Belly, and the Urine, every day morning and evening, or at least once a day be evacuated, for it is very necessary for ones health to keep the Body loose; and this is most profitable in the pains of the Gout, Stone, or Gravel in the Kidneys. This is done either by Art or Nature, with common Glysters, or with Oyl alone, or with a Suppository of Honey or Salt, of Butter, or of Soap; and you must not suffer these Superfluities to remain too long in the Belly, for they are very destructive both to the Head, and to all the Body. Every time therefore that a man shall perceive any hea­viness in his Entrails, or in the Bladder, or in any other Place where the Superfluities are gathered together; and every time that he thinks there is a necessity thereof, let him suddenly excite Nature, and stir up a desire of sending it forth; for we see in many, that having for some time retained their Urine, they could not afterwards make Water, and have caused the Stone, Ruptures, &c. as like­wise the keeping back of the Excrements, or the Wind, have occasioned Cholick pains: And there­fore the Schola Salerni thus speaks thereof;

Nec mictum retine, nec comprime fortiter anum,
Quatuor ex vento veniunt in ventre retenta,
Spasmus Hydrops, Colica, & Vertigo, hoc res probat ipsa.

We ought with all our might to avoid the super­fluous repletion of Victuals and Drink, because [Page 34] they beget and foment many Evils, for from the overmuch Fulness, the natural faculties in the Sto­mach are weakned and oppressed, as on the con­trary being empty, it causes the Falling-sickness. The Vessels when they are too full of Meats and Drinks, are in great danger either that they burst, or at least the natural heat is thereby suffocated; and in fat and big Bodies, a moderate abstinence is very necessary; and therefore the Gluttons do not grow at all, because their Meat does not digest it self, whence the Body is not nourished: And therefore the Philosopher being asked, Why he did eat so little; answered, Ʋt vivam edo, non ut edam vivo: Or according to the Italian Proverb, which is,

Mangiar e ber per viver far mistiere,
Ma non gia viver per mangiare e bere.

That is, We do not live to eat, but eat to live. For how many men be there, who being superflu­ously full, are in the end choaked and killed there­by? and nothing is worse than overmuch stuffing or cramming ones self, in such time when things are all plentiful; and it is often seen, that many who in a dearth or scarcity wanting Victuals, when things grow cheap and abound, do presently kill themselves, by too greedily eating. If therefore at any time by a disordinate and irregular Appe­tite, you should chance to over-eat your self, and that you perceive a nauseating and heaviness in the Stomach, which is occasioned either by the quali­ty or quantity of the Food, then presently endea­vour to vomit it forth, the which cleanses the Sto­ [...]ach, and takes away the heaviness of the Head. [...]o less ought we to avoid too much abstinence [Page 35] from our Food; for as too much fulness suffocates the natural hea [...], so emptiness dissolves it, whence afterwards divers and sundry Infirmities proceed.

CHAP. VII. Of Baths.

BAthing is one kind of Evacuation; for being made of hot Water, they heat and moisten, take away all weariness, lessen the repletion or fulness of the Body, ease and mitigate the pains, mollifie, fatten, are good for Children, and for old persons before Meals, because they draw the nourishment to their Members, and corroborate them, and contribute to the dissipating their Super­fluities, and driving them forth; and the Excre­ments of old persons being salt, Bathing does tem­perate them. The bathing in Wine is good for the pains in the Joynts and Nerves, the Palsie, Tremblings. Bathing in Oyl does wonderfully contribute to the healing of the Spasmus, Cramp, (or convulsion of the Nerves) in old men; as al­so against Cholick pains, gravel in the Kidneys, and stoppages in the Urine. Coming out of the Bath, you must dry your self with a hot Towel in the Winter, afterwards anoint all the Body with the oyl of sweet Almonds, or of Anise, or Camo­mil, then pare the Nails, and shave the soles of your Feet. The Senses are also comforted and strengthned in a sweet smelling Bath, wherein may [Page 36] be boyled a sprig or two of Sage, and with this hot wash your Hands and Eyes onc [...] or twice a day: Old men ought also to be often chewing of Sage first washt in Wine, which to the Teeth and the Nerves is exceeding good. We must take heed too of staying too long in the Bath, for that weakens and dissolves the Strength, confounds the Intellect, causes Nauseating, Vomits, and the Syn­cope, or swooning Fits; whereas staying in no longer than is necessary, it opens the Pores of the Skin, draws the nourishment to all the Members, begets an Appetite, attenuates the gross Humours, diminishes the Repletion, dissolves Windiness, takes away Weariness, mitigates Pains, provokes Sleep, binds the Belly: 'Tis bad for fat men, for in them it collects the Humours, and afterwards attracting them to each part of the Body, causes Impostumes. In short, going to the Bath, re­member that:

Balnea, Vina, Venus corrumpunt corpora nostra,
Conservant eadem Balnea, Vina, Venus.
Siquis ad interitum properet, via trita patebit,
Huc iter accelerant Balnea, Vina, Venus.

CHAP. VIII. Of Rubbing.

FRictions or Rubbings are very useful for the con­servation of the Health, and chiefly for old men; and the operation and effects which proceed from thence are very great; for they hinder that the Humours do not fall into the Joynts, and help Digestion, and if performed in due time, (that is, having first eased the Body of its Excrements) chears the Body, opens the Pores, whereby the Superfluities are more easily evaporated, because it swiftly draws the Blood to the exterior Parts, thickens the slender Bodies, and attenuates the big, mollifies the hard, and hardens the soft, and finally kindles and corroborates the natural Heat, and excites the vital Faculties, whence the distri­bution and concoction of the Food is more easie and ready: And the Rubbing ought to be perform­ed until it shall become delightful and pleasant; and 'tis very convenient for old men in the Sum­mer and Autumn, if they first void the Excre­ments out of the Bladder and Belly; if old men by reason of their weakness or some occupation, cannot perform any Exercise, instead thereof let them use short and moderate Rubbing, as is said before.

It would be no hurt moreover, if at Spring, or in the fall of the Leaf, after the Equinox, with the counsel and advice of some learned and able Phy­sician, you purge your self of those Superfluities, [Page 38] which remaining behind, do often give one some annoyance in Summer or Winter.

CHAP. IX. Of Venery.

THE chief end of venereal Pleasures, and carnal Copulation, ought to be the procre­ation of Children, which likewise is to be per­formed with none but a lawful Consort, joyn­ed by holy Matrimony; and its use also ought to be moderate, and so it glads the Heart of man, stirs up the natural Heat, makes the Bo­dy light, mitigates the passions of the Mind, enlivens the Spirits and Senses: But the im­moderate Venery weakens the Stomach, the Head, all the Senses, the Sinews, the Joynts, and hastens Death.

Those who desire to live chastly without a Woman, let them have recourse to Fasting. Let us seriously consider, what a wonderful invention of Nature it is to conserve the Spe­cies, by Generation, or begetting of new Ani­mals, it being very reasonable that every one should give to another, that Life which he hath received from his Progenitor, and thereby obtain or procure, that his Child should render to his Father, when he is weak and old, that which the Child hath received from him, that is, nourishment and sustentation.

CHAP. X. Of the Accidents of the Mind.

THE Passions of the Mind have great power, and do much contribute to the changing of the Body, because they make a stirring and mo­tion in the Humours, and in the Spirits, and these motions immoderate and sudden are raised from the Center of the Body to the Circumference; as Anger, Joy, &c. or from the Circumference to the Center, as Fear, and the like, from whence proceed great motions of the Spirits; and there­fore we ought carefully to avoid such Passions, since it dries the Body, and alters it too much, troubling it, and changing it from its Natural Complexion; and therefore Plato calls these the Infirmities of the Mind, viz. Anger, Joy, Sor­row, Melancholy, Anxiety, or Anguish, Excla­mation, Fury, Violence, Brawling, Contention, Hatred, Envy, Perplexity, Fear, Shame, un­pleasant Thoughts, unbridled Desires, Boldness, Incontinence, Importunity, Iniquity, Ambition, Distrust, Hope, Despair, &c. All which Passions, besides the great hurt they do to the Body, do also very much offend the Mind; for Anger, and over-much Sorrow afflict the Spirits, dry the Bones, extenuate the Flesh, inflame and burn the Body, putting it into confusion out of its natural state; whence afterwards proceed many evils; as Catarrhs, and Fluxes in the Joynts, although these Passions when they are moderate, are some­times [Page 40] good for Men, and does not a little contri­bute to their Health. For Example, Anger ex­cites and increases the Natural heat, and often­times it is good to be Angry, to repair that Na­tural heat, and to collect the Blood in the Veins; and therefore in cold Infirmities Anger is to be stirred up, as on the contrary, in hot it is to be avoided. Besides this, the Passion of the Mind, to wit, Melancholy, weakens the Digestion, whereas Joy and Gladness fortifies it. And this is the chiefest and truest Reason why Men, more than all other Creatures are exposed to Crudities, because the Beasts and irrational Animals, although they eat to satiety, nevertheless do not hinder the Natural Virtue which concocts the Food; for the concoctive virtue and the appetitive is equal in them; but Men by their divers thoughts and perturbations of their Mind, divert this Virtue from its Operation; and though they eat mode­rately, yet they fall into Crudities, whence pro­ceed many Infirmities; and therefore a Man by all possible means to avoid the thoughts of sad and dolorous subjects, and all other things which may any wise disturb the Mind, and always to hope well of every thing; for to have a chearful Mind in all Infirmities is good, whereas the con­trary is as bad; neither is it good a long while to dwell upon Thoughts, for it is said, L' Imaginatione fa il caso. You must keep your self also from frequent weeping, from great fury, and from an appetite or desire of Revenge; for these things weaken the Brain, and hinder the digestion of the Matter; so also superfluous Fear weakens the Virtues: And all these Accidents of the Mind hin­der concoction, and alter the natural state of the [Page 41] Body. For Fear withdraws the Spirits and the Blood, attracting them inwardly to the Heart, whence the Members grow cold, the Body pale, causing tremblings, the Voice is interrupted, and the whole force of the Body is deficient; for Fear, whilest the Evil feared is expected, causes a beat­ing of the Heart, which causes a commotion of the Spirits, the which being moved, disturb all the Blood; whence afterwards are occasioned Crudities and Putrefactions. Anger is a vehement mover of Heat, which pours out it self in the outward parts with great violence; and therefore with Anger the Face looks red, and the Body is more apt to all Wickedness: Anger furthermore moves the Heart to Revenge, the which moved, easily inflames the Body, and dry it, and by its fervour all the Faculties of the Soul are confounded; and therefore 'tis said, Anger is an inflammation of the Blood about the Midriff, by reason of a desire of Revenge; and therefore those that be Angry, have a strong and big pulse, whereas the fearful have a small and weak, because the Heat returns inward. But in these cases, the Natural heat one while retires within, another while outwards, both one and the other of these Mo­tions discover themselves in shame, that first the heat retreats within, afterwards comes out, which not returning, causes fear, and not shame. If after those things which a Man suddenly suffers, if then he grows passionate, by little and little 'twill cause sorrow, which spoils and corrupts the Nature of Men, exte [...]uating, cooling, and dry­ing his Body, darkens the Spirits, obscures the Wit, and clouds the Judgment, weakens the Me­mory, and hinders the Reason; and often-times [Page 42] by these sudden motions of the Mind is caused sudden Death; for either the Faculties of the Mind (which consist in heat) are dissolved, or else are extinguished by too much cold: And there are many who have perished by over-much fea [...] and sorrow, which driving all the Blood and Spirit [...] to the Heart, suffocates the Heart, whereupon fol­lows immediate Death. And therefore Rutilius being denied the Consul-ship, which he earnestly sought after, suddenly expired: And the same thing happen'd to Marcus Lepidus, by a superfluous grief after the Divorce from his Wife. We read likewise that many by an excess of Joy have died, as also by sudden grief or fear, though never any by too much Anger. By a great and sudden Joy the Animal Spirits being loosned, are transported to the external parts, and dissolve themselves; and thence the Heart being forsaken and destitute of the Blood and Spirits, grows cold, whereby many, especially those that are very timerous and cowardly, have lost their Lives. Many others moreover, have died of shame, as is read of Ho­mer and Diodorus; for which cause these Passions of the Mind ought always to be used with a certain Mediocrity, or Moderateness; and chiefly Joy ought to be accompanied with a moderate Laugh­ing, which thing excites the Natural heat, tem­perates and purifies all the Animal Spirits, corrobo­rates the other Faculties, aids Digestion, clears and subtilates the Wit, and renders a Man able for all Businesses, preserves Youth, and finally prolongs the Life; and Joy is good for all Per­sons, except such as have need to become lean, because it fattens the Body, and multiplies the flesh and moisture. In short, nothing is more [Page 43] necessary for the conservation of the Heart, than to live gladly and merrily; not to trouble ones self, or be angry, always to have a good hope of Health, let all these things be done moderately, for Mediocrity ought always to be your aim; and therefore says Hippocrates, let your cares and fa­tigues, your eating and drinking, sleep, and Ve­nereal Pleasures, let all these things be moderate: for,

Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines,
Quos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum.

That Man therefore that loves his Health, let him delight in Gardens, frequent green and plea­sant places; let him converse with merry and jo­cond Friends, with Musick and Songs; for by these things the Spirits are restored, and as the force and strength of a Man is increased by good Victuals, Wine, sweet Smells, by Tranquility and Gladness, by flying of Cares and troublesome Affairs, which render a Man sad; and by fre­quenting the Company of merry Companions; so likewise it is good to hear Stories, Tales, and pleasant Discourses, and to read some delightful Subject; and in reading, great care is to be taken not to read with the Head in the Bosom, but lifted up, and to read with Spectacles or a Mag­nifying-Glass, which strengthens the sight. Be­sides this, it much contributes to mans delight to keep Singing-Birds. No less pleasant and whol­som is it to enjoy a sweet and clear Air, to walk sometimes in the Fields, to rise betimes in the Morning, than which there is nothing in the World that chears and glads the Heart of Man; [Page 44] and (as A [...]istotle witnesses) does wonderfully contribute to the Health, and to the Studies. Finally, in Trouble and Adversity let a Man de­fend himself from slackness and dejection of Mind; as likewise in Prosperity from an extream Joy, which knows no bounds; as the Lyrick Poet Ho­race does well advise us in these Verses:

Rebus angustis animosus atque
Fortis appare, sapienter idem
Contrahes vento nimium secundo
Turgida vela.
Aequam memento rebus in arduis
Servare vitam, non secus in bonis
Ab insolenti temperatam laetitiâ.

We ought therefore with all care well to com­pose our Mind, endeavouring with all our power to know the Truth, for this is the Ambrosia of the Gods, whereby the Mind is nourished; and by the frequency of good Studies to consolidate and establish the affectionate motions of the Mind, to the end, that sorrow and other ill Desires and Passions may be expelled and driven forth; for we ought not to suffer them to have so great pre­domination over our wills, that they shall be able to byass our Affections, and turn them out of the right way, and to destroy our Bodies; setting be­fore our selves therefore Philosophy, which is the Medicine of the Mind, to extirpate thence all Evils, let us be guided thereby, borrowing from thence such Rules that may render our Life happy and blessed.

CHAP. XI. Of Meat and Drink.

FInally, towards the preservation of the Health of Humane Bodies, Meat and Drink are the principal Instruments, because without it neither healthy nor unhealthy, distempered nor indistempered, are able to live; therefore there is no question but that the use of Food is abso­lutely necessary; for our Bodies being in a con­tinual Flux, which every hour, and every mo­ment of time does consume and dissolve the Spi­rits of the Body, and likewise the Humours and the solid parts, if another like substance instead of that which is dissolved, is not introduced, Death will in a short while follow thereupon; to supply which defect, the Almighty Creator of all things, by his great Benevolence has provided for Men Meats and Drinks; and to the end, that by Food may be restored all that which was wasted from the more dry substance; and with Drinks, all that was diminished from the Humid sub­stance. In Food therefore it is considered the goodness, the quantity, the custom, the choice, the order, the time, the nature, the place, and the Age.

First therefore the Goodness; and therefore that is good Food which is light, and of subtil Digestion, easily concocted, and in a short time descends from the Stomack, and is of good Juice; that Food is of good Juice which begets good [Page 46] Blood, and good Blood is that which is tempe­rate in the first Degree, not too thin nor too thick; not sharp nor biting, not bitter, not salt, nor sour: The good Food is that which is easily digested, and such are those that have a tender substance, and are easily dissolved, as Eggs, flesh of small Birds, to wit, of Pheasants, Hens, &c. but those Foods are of a difficult digestion which have a contrary substance, such as are Foods made of Paste or Dough, unleavened or hard Bread, Coleworts, Old Cheese, Beans, Lupins, Garlick, Onions, and the Entrails of Birds or Beasts, such things are to be avoided. Choose therefore those Foods which with their wholsom and laudable Juice restore the radical Moisture; or else let them not be gross and excrementious: For the Natural Heat, if weak, especially of Old Men, cannot digest Meats of an heavy and gross sub­stance; and on the other side, let not the Meat be weak, that is, of small Nourishment; for such cause a shortness and diminution of our Lives.

The Quantity of Foods is corrupted by the abundance of it; for so much Food ought to be taken, as the strength can conveniently bear; that is, whereby it may be restored, and not over-loaden or prest down, and that may be easily digested; for the Natural heat being weak and in­firm, it cannot be concocted, and thereupon fol­low many Distempers; and therefore 'tis said, those that eat large Meals ought not to be merry and jocond; for though they do not find the pu­nishment thereof at present, yet they can never long escape the danger. Let therefore the use of Foods be moderate; for as Gluttony is destructive, so an extraordinary abstinence is no less hurtful: [Page 47] He therefore that studies the preservation of his Health, let him never eat to satiety, but so, that after Dinner he may perceive some relicts of an Appetite remaining; for he that does otherwise, shall suffer all Acids, cholerick Fluxes above and below, a loathing of your Food, a loss of the Ap­petite, heaviness of the Head, pain of the Sto­mach, Obstructions of the Liver and the Milt, Dissentery, or Bloody-flux, and finally, Malignant Fevers.

And therefore it is better always to leave some­thing to Nature; for those which fill themselves too much, do greatly endanger their Lives, and thereby either the Natural heat is suffocated, or some Vein is broken; for from too much Food proceed several Infirmities, and from those Infir­mities Death.

Observe therefore in every thing, but especially in your Diet, this good and laudable Proverb, viz. Nequid nimis, Too much of one thing is good for nothing; which ought to be a Maxim not only for the Sick, but also for those that are in Health; and the former ought always to observe a strict Rule and Measure of their Diet, for different In­firmities require different measures of Food; for in long and Chronical Distempers there is need of a more hearty and large Diet, whereas a more slender is requisite in sharp and acute Distempers, or when the Disease shall be in its height and prime, it is good to use an harmless and least nourishing Food; but we ought always to observe how much the strength can bear, and how long it is able to subsist with this sort of Food.

The Quality of the Food, as well in Healthy as in Sick Persons, is known by the Complexion, the [Page 48] which in the former is to be preserved by Food of a like temperament; but in the latter, that is, in distempered People, Food of a contrary qua­lity is requisite; so that with a moist Complexion dry Meats do agree, and on the contrary, moist Foods with a dry temperament; and therefore moist Foods are convenient for those that are of a moist Constitution, as Children; or for those that are troubled with some dry Distemper, to wit, Fevers or Agues. Such Foods therefore are to be chosen, which according to the variety of each Complexion is convenient. Let those of a Sanguine Complexion avoid hot and moist Meats, and such as beget much Blood; let Cholerick Per­sons shun such Food as produces Choler, and so likewise the Phlegmatick and Melancholy Men, let them defend themselves from those things which beget the like Humours; and therefore the San­guine and Cholerick Men are to abstain from all sweet things, as Honey, Sugar, Butter, Oyl, Nuts, and the like; and rather to make use of Vinegar, Verjuice, the sour Juice of Limons, Citrons, and Pomegranats. Moreover, the Food ought not to exceed in any quality; for those which exceed in heat, dry up the Blood, as Sage, Pepper, Gar­lick, Nasturtium, or Water-cresses, and the like; and if that heat shall happen to be watry, as in Melons, it causes putrefaction; and if poisonous, as in the Mushromes, it often kills a Man; if moist, it putrefies, and opilates; and if the heat shall be dry, it consumes and weakens the Body. But if the Food is too cold, it mortifies and congeals, as Lettices, Purslain, and Cucumbers: The fat and oily Meats loosen the Belly, moisten and in­crease Flegm, makes over-much sleep, and hin­ders [Page 49] Digestion. Sweet Foods cause Obstructions, the bitter do not nourish at all, but dry the Blood; the salt heat and dry, opilate, and are hurtful to the Stomach; the sharp by their heat fill the Head, and disturb the Mind, as Leeks, Garlick, and salted Meats: The rough and astringent bind and obstruct, and beget melancholy Blood; the sharp causes Melancholy, hurt sinewy Members, and therefore do hasten Old Age.

The Use and Custom in our Diet is of great moment, whence the Ancients affirmed, that Ʋsus est altera Natura, Custom is a second Nature: Wherefore as in the Food it is good to have respect to the Temper; so it is no less necessary to observe the Custom, the which is one of the principal Roots and Foundations in the preservation of the Health, and in the continuation of Infirmities: But here you ought to take notice, that if such a Custom be naught, you ought by little and little to change it into a good one, but a sudden change is altogether to be avoided, as very dangerous; therefore it is good to accustom ones self to every thing, to the end that a sudden change may not in any wise be hurtful.

The Order also is to be observed in our Diet; whence Meats easie to digest, easie to go down, and the most tender, if they are taken after Meals, swim on top, and corrupt. The things of an easie Digestion are known by the fa [...]ility of eating them; and you may conclude them such which are quickly roasted.

Such there ought always to precede Food of a contrary quality; that is, of difficult Concoction: And if you have roast and boyled Meat together, begin with the boyled, as being the most easie to [Page 50] be digested; and the same is to be understood of soft Eggs and Milk. The things therefore of an easie digestion, are to be taken before hard, moist before dry, liquid before solid, and Laxa­tives before Astringents: All this is meant of a Stomach which is in no wise indisposed. The De­lectation likewise is to be considered; for by how much the more pleasing the Meat is, so much the more easily 'tis digested, and by the Stomach more willingly is received: But you must take notice, that you ought not at any time yield that unwhol­som Meat should be given to sick persons, but you may sometimes permit them to have a little of such Food as will hurt but little, and such whereof the badness may easily be corrected.

The time and season to take any Food, is when the Stomach is empty, having quite concocted the precedent Victual; and in the Morning, before the Air grows too hot; and in the Evening, when the Air begins to be less hot, but with limitation, that eight hours intervene betwixt one Meal and t'other: And in the Summer you must eat in cool Places, and be thinly cloathed, and free from Sweating, but in the Winter the contrary is best. Besides, when you perceive a good Appetite, it is not good long to defer eating; for the abstain­ing from Food when you are hungry, fills the Sto­mach with putrid Humours, because the Stomach at such time as it has an appetite, not receiving any nourishment wherewithal to sustain it, does attract the circumjacent Superfluities, filling it self with naughty Humours. The Sick in the time of their Fits ought not to eat any thing. 'Tis also necessa­ry to take notice of the time of the Year; for in the Winter, which is cold and moist, you ought [Page 51] to eat libera [...]y, and drink but little, but let the Wine be strong. In the Summer, which is hot and dry, little Food is sufficient, and very tem­perate. In the Spring you must eat a little less than in Winter, but drink a little more. So in Autumn eat a little more than in Summer, but drink less, and less Water with your Wine: And therefore to this purpose is said;

Temporibus Veris modicè prandere juberis,
Sed calor Aestatis dapibus nocet immoderatis,
Autumni fructus caveas ne sint tibi luctus,
De mensâ sume quantumvis tempore Brumae.

In Summer the Food is to be considered: To young Children moist Victuals best agree; but to young men, being hot and dry, the contrary Food is most convenient. For old men, such Food as heats is best, and moistens their solid Parts. More­over, Children should eat often, to render their natural Heat more strong; but old men seldom, their Heat being weak. Infants and Children re­quire more Nourishment; but a lesser quantity is sufficient for middle-aged and old Men, who can very easily undergo Fasting, but young Men hard­ly, and Children not at all, especially if they be lively and vigorous.

The Climate likewise, or Place of their Growth, is to be considered in Foods, viz. of Herbs, Fruits, and Flesh. For Muttons in Italy and Greece are not very good, but in France and Spain are more sweet, and more wholsom: On the contrary, the flesh of Veal and of Pidgeons are in Italy better than in France or Spain; and this proceeds either from a purer Air or sweeter Soyl in those Coun­treys.

And lastly, the Nature of each [...]ne, and the particular Propriety, is to be considered; and therefore it is necessary that the best Physician be a Philosopher, for some have loathed and abhorred Cheese, others Wine, others Garlick, &c. Some that are lean, and of an hot and dry Complexion, desire to eat two or three times a day; others that are fat and moist, are content with one Meal a day, for to those that have a fat and big Body, two Meals a day is very hurtful.

Besides all these things, it will not be amiss to observe in your Diet these following Instructions.

1. Eat not to Satiety, for if you should eat more Food than the Stomach is well able to bear, thence proceed infinite Crudities; and therefore it is bet­ter to abstain a little, than to cram your self too full; for as it is written, Gluttony kills more than the Sword; for the superfluous abundance of Vi­ctuals suffocates the natural Heat, as too great a plenty of Oyl puts out the flame of a Candle; and therefore it is good to rise from the Table with an Appetite, as it is bad to eat without an Appe­tite.

2. The great variety and diversity of Foods is to be avoided, because they beget many Distem­pers, especially if those Foods be of contrary qua­lities, for their Concoction is weakned and cor­rupted; and as the variety of Meats delights the Palate, so it hurts the Health; whence a wise man being asked, Why he contented himself with one only dish of Meat at Meals; replied, Because he would not make work for the Physician. So that one single Food at one time is sufficient and most wholesom, whereas the diversity of Tasts is hurt­ful, and the multitude of Viands most pernicious: [Page 53] And therefore our Ancestors lived much longer than we, because they never used but one simple sort of Food, that is, Bread and Flesh, whereas we using so great an abundance of all things, our Life is shortned, and exposed to so many Infirmi­ties. Do not we see the Horses, the Cows, and other irrational Creatures, how they are troubled but with few Diseases, only by a constant use of one and the same sort of Food? And therefore a great Philosopher coming into Italy, wondred at two things, That the Men eat twice a day, and that they never slept alone.

3. That being at the Table, you ought not to discourse much, to the end that the time may not be prolonged at the Table, and that the first Food may not disgest before the last, and so the parts of the Food become unequal, whence proceeds Corruption and Putrefaction.

4. That you do remain a little while, not ad­ding Victuals to Victuals, before the first be digested.

5. That the Food be well chewed, for that is ca [...]led the first Concoction, and is as it were an half Digestion; whereas an imperfect Chewing hin­ders and retards Digestion: One ought not there­fore to swallow it down whole, as the Gluttons do, but first chew it sufficiently, till it become very small, and then swallow it down.

6. That all hot Meat is better than cold, especi­ally in Winter, for the actual heat of the Food temperates and allays the coldness of the Drink; but you must not therefore eat the most hot. Hot Meats indeed do most please the Palate, for Hun­ger being a desire of hot and dry, we always covet hot Food, whereas Thirst being a desire of cold and moist, it requires cool things.

[Page 54]7. That in the Winter we use gross Meats, for at that time the natural Heat is more united in the inner Parts; but in the Summer the contrary hap­pens, and therefore at such time a light and slen­der Food is most convenient, the natural Heat be­ing then but weak.

8. That the quantity of the Meat be double to that of the Drink, the Bread twice as much as Eggs, thrice as much as Flesh, and four times as much as Fish, Herbs and Fruits.

9. That you do not use Broths too much at Meals, for it causes the Food to swim in the Sto­mach, loosning and taking away the Appetite, begets too much moisture, whence afterwards proceed divers Infirmities; whereas those which eat dry Meats, live much longer.

10. And lastly, Because in Meats and Drinks it is hard to perform every thing exactly, and never to mistake. Therefore let this be your general Rule, That if at any time you eat naughty Meat, it ought to be tempered and allayed by its con­trary.

What is to be done after Meals.

AFter eating always take some astringent thing, without drinking any thing, or at least but a little after it, as Pears, Medlars, Quinces, Cheese, or a glass of fresh Water; which things do as it were seal up the mouth of the Stomach, whereby the natural Heat becomes more strong, and hin­ders the Vapours from mounting up into the Head. Many take half a score Coriander-seeds sugred; others a piece of Marmalade of Quinces, which [Page 55] helps Dig [...]stion and the weakness of the Stomach: And after Meat it is good to walk a little, and moderately, and then to sit down; whence is said, ‘Post pransum stabis, aut gradu lento meabis.’

Which ought to be biggest, Dinner or Supper?

MAny affirm, that the Supper ought to be lar­ger than the Dinner, especially in Winter, since that the Natural heat strengthens it self in the Night; but the contrary ought to be practised in Summer, or if a Man be indisposed and infirm, then the Dinner is to be the largest, unless he be troubled with fits and accessions of the Ague: For that a large Supper is more wholsom, the reason they say is this; because the coldness of the Night recalls the Natural heat to the inward parts, whereby the Digestion and Concoction of the Food is much bettered; besides that, sleep does best of all concoct the Food, not only in the Stomach, but also through all the parts of the Body; but in waking we see the contrary hap­pen: For the Natural heat extending it self to the exteriour parts, leaves the interiour quite de­stitute, or at least, that which remains is very weak. To this Opinion our Use and Custom is altogether contrary, chiefly in those who are ex­posed to Catarrhs, and Phlegmatick Distempers; for at Night the Natural heat, weary and tired by the businesses of the Day, is not so strong and ro­bust as in the Morning; and at Night the Food of the Morning is not well concocted. The resolution of this doubt is, that the Supper ought to be light, especially for them whose Bodies are sub­ject [Page 56] to Night-Distempers, as Rheums, Defluxions, and the like; besides that, from a large Supper are created many evaporations in the Head, where­by it is not a little offended; and therefore if the Brain be any ways indisposed, a little Supper is sufficient, notwithstanding that there is a longer space of time betwixt Supper and Dinner, than betwixt Dinner and Supper; and therefore that at Night a greater quantity of Victuals will be con­cocted, because it is not the number of hours, but the working of the Faculties which concocts; which in the Morning by reason of sleep is stron­ger; and therefore at this time a larger propor­tion of Food is more agreeable than at Night; For,

Ex magnâ coenâ stomacho fit maxima poena,
Ʋt sis nocte levis, sit tibi coena brevis.
Coena levis vel coena brevis fit raro molesta
Magna nocet, Medicina docet, res est manifesta.

An Advertisement concerning Corn.

COrn is called by several Names, according to the several sorts thereof; viz. Maslin, Rye, Barley, Wheat, and Spelt, &c. The good are known by their Colour, Weight, Order, and Age; for the new and green Corn is too moist, and vis­cuous, and difficult to digest, and very windy. The old Corn is dry, and nourishes little.

CHAP. XIII. Of Maslin.

Name. IT is called in Latin, Far; in English, Maslin; made of Wheat and Rye, or Wheat and Barley.

Choice. The best Maslin is that which is fresh, and very clean.

Quality. It has the same quality as Wheat and Barley; but it is temperate in the first Degree.

Commodity. Maslin is of great Nourishment, and therefore eaten with Meat, it nourishes won­derfully, and fattens those that are lean, being more nourishing than Barley; and because it is of a gross nourishment, it is good against Fluxes and Catarrhs, as well as Rice; but boyled well in fat Broath, it softens the Body. The Romans used it to make Bread, and it would endure many Years.

Maslin is made of Wheat and Rye, putting it to steep in Water by little and little, afterwards beat it in a Mortar, and dry it in the Sun, where­by it thickly grinds, so that of one Grain are made four or five parts; and being dry, may be kept a long time, and is of good Nourishment, in such manner, that it corrects the vicious and naughty Humours of the Stomach.

Hurt. Being not well boyled and prepared it begets gross and slimy Humours, and is windy, and if eaten by those who have a weak Stomach, it hardly digests it self; and therefore it is not good for Old Men, and if used too often, it very [Page 58] much opilates and obstructs the Liver, and causes the Gravel in the Kidneys.

Remedy. The hurt of Maslin is corrected if it be well baked with Vinegar and Garlick; and if it be seasoned with Honey or Sugar, it loses its clamminess, and is easily digested; and being boyled in good Broth, it is an excellent Food for those that are in Health; and for Sick also, provided it be moderately eaten. In many places they make Cakes of it, which, if well seasoned, are pleasant to the taste, and of great and good Nourishment.

CHAP. XIV. Of Wheat.

Name. IN Latine it is called Triticum; in English, Wheat.

Kinds. There be many sorts of Wheat, named from their Country, their Colour, their Quality, their Shape, from the quantity of their Ears, and from their largeness.

Choice. The best Wheat is that which is through-ripe, thick, and hard, so that you can scarce break it with your Teeth; and that which grows in fat Ground, free from all mixture, full, heavy, smooth, clear, of a Golden colour, and is ripe in less than three Months time: That which is gathered in the Mountains is the best, especially in Italy, which surpasses all the rest.

Commodity. It nourishes greatly, and its nou­rishment is solid, and very much strengthens. [Page 59] The Flower of Wheat boyled in Milk or Water, with a little Butter, cures the hoarseness of the Throat, lessens Coughs, is good for those that spit Blood, heals the Ulcers in the Breast; and in Water with Honey, it mitigates internal Inflam­mations.

Hurt. It is a little hard and heavy Food to digest, breeds some gross and viscuous Humours; being not well baked, it begets Windiness, and the Stone in the Kidneys and Bladder, and mul­tiplies the Worms in the Belly.

Remedy. The few ill qualities of the Wheat are corrected, if it be well baked, and seasoned well with good Spices, whereby it becomes less windy, and is much more easily digested.

CHAP. XV. Of Barley.

Name. IN Latine it is called Hordeum; in Eng­lish, Barley.

Kinds. There be several sorts thereof, as may be seen by their Grain and Ears, different in shape, and largeness, and also in number of Grains.

Choice. The best Barley is that which is thick, weighty, smooth, white, betwixt old and new.

Qualities. Barley is cold and dry in the first degree; besides that, it has something of an astersive or cleansing Nature; its flower is more drying than Bean-flower, and it nourishes much less than Wheat.

Commodity. Barley nourishes, and easily con­verts it self into flesh, and is of great use in se­veral things of Physick; it opens the opilations of the Bladder by its abstersive faculty, and with its other qualities it allays the sharpness of the Humours. Barley-Cakes are of a moist and ab­stersive quality; it may fitly be given to feverish Persons, for it extinguishes their Thirst; it is very good for the pains and infirmities of the Breast, and an excellent Remedy in Hectick Fevers, be­cause it is of a good and large Nourishment; and though it be cold, 'tis nevertheless easie to be di­gested, and qualifies the Breast, facilitates spit­ting, lessens the Cough, and cleanses the Lungs. But those are mistaken, who desiring that it should be abstersive, throw away the decoction thereof, and instead of it mix th [...]rewith Chicken-broth; for this vertue goes away with its decoction; and when you have need of cleansing, boyl the Barley with its husk, but without that, it dries and re­freshes.

Hurt. Barley is windy, and Bread made there­of begets cold and gross Humours. Barley-broth soon grows sour; being windy, it does not at all agree with the Stomach.

Remedy. Barley-broth being carefully boyled together with Hyssop, Spikenard, or Cinnamon, is less windy, and more acceptable to the Stomach, and nourishes far better, especially if you add thereto a little Sugar.

CHAP. XVI. Of Rye.

Name. IN Latine, Secale; in English, Rye.

Choice. The biggest, fullest, and most heavy Rye is the best.

Qualities. It is by Nature hot and dry; it is hotter than Barley, yet not so hot as Wheat.

Commodity. Rye, of which Bread is made in some parts of this Kingdom, by reason of its de­licious sweetness and moisture, is frequently mixed with Wh [...]at.

Hurt. The Bread which is made thereof, is of an harder concoction than that of Wheat, and windy, causing griping pains.

Remedy. If mixed with Wheaten Bread, the one qualifies the malignities of tother.

CHAP. XVII. Of Oats.

Name. IN Latine, Avenae; in English, Oats.

Choice. The bright, long, and large Oats are esteemed the best.

Quality. They are almost of the same Nature with Rice, but cold and dry.

Commodity. They stop fluxes of the Belly, and loosness, and are very useful in Pottages and Broths, which may be given to sick or well.

Hurt. All their hurt is, they afford but little Nourishment.

Remedy. Ale made of Oat-meal, call'd Oat-Ale, is very good and wholesom.

CHAP. XVIII. Of Bread.

Name. IN Latin, Panis; in English, Bread; and it is so called, because it feeds and nou­rishes us; or else from the Greek word [...], be­cause it may be used with all sorts of Food, and is not insipid or disagreeing with their taste and sa­vour.

Kinds. By the substance, and several ways of baking it, the difference and variety of Bread is distinguished.

Choice. Bread made of good Wheat, well lea­vened, and well baked, with a little Salt, is the best.

Quality. 'Tis hot and dry in the first degree.

Commodity. Bread well made, nourishes strong­ly. Bread has three parts, that is, the thick Crust, the thin, and the Pith. The thin Crust is the best, of good solid nourishment, and very wholsom.

Fine white Bread is quickly digested.

Hurt. Bread that is not throughly baked, ill kneaded, and without Salt, is very hurtful and unwholsom, especially in smoaky Cities. Unlea­vened Bread and Cakes baked under the Ashes are naughty, for they cause Obstructions, and will [Page 63] not easily be digested. Bread that is made of Darnel and Cockle causes the Head-ach, hurts and dazles the Eye-sight. Bread of Spelt is hard to be digested.

Remedy. Bread will cause no hurt, if it be al­ways well kneaded, and moderately salted, and baked in an Oven not over-heated. These things take away any ill quality in the Bread.

Advertisements concerning all sorts of Pulse.

ALL sorts of Pulse are little grateful and sweet to the Taste, and therefore they are not used by all Nations: Not of any esteem among Persons of Quality, nor are they much eaten in Germany and Greece, for they are hardly digested either raw, boyled, or parched, and being eaten, they cause Pains in the Joynts, and the Gout; they are both windy, and inflative, or puffing, and there­fore they are not convenient by the Rules of Health, neither at the beginning, nor end of a Meal: Not at the beginning, for it causes the other Food which comes after, to rise in the Sto­mach; nor at the end, because it begets Melancho­ly and bad Sleeps, causing Windiness, and all that open the orifice of the Stomach, exhaling the Heat, and hinder Digestion: But using it sometimes, it is to be taken betwixt other Victuals, for thereby its malignity and naughty qualities are corrected.

CHAP. XIX. Of Vetches, or Pease.

Name. IN Latin, Cicer; in English, Chich-pease, or Vetches.

Kinds. These are red, black and white; the red sort is called Venereum, because more than the other two it excites Venery; the black, Cicer arie­tinum, because of the resemblance to a Rams-head.

Qualities. They are hot and dry in the first degree; the red are hotter than the white; they digest, cut, cleanse, and evacuate.

Choice. Those are the best which are large full, not hollow, nor worm-eaten; and the white serve better for Meat than Physick, but the others are more usual in Medicines, than as ordinary Food.

Commodity. Chich-pease are of a great Nourish­ment, apt to loosen the Belly, and provoke Urine, to beget Milk, and Seed, whence they excite Ve­nery, provoke the monthly Courses; and the Ci­cer arietinum more strongly provokes the Urine than all the rest, cleanses the Liver, removes the obstructions of the Milt, breaks the Stone, causes good Colour, contributes to the Lights, purges the Breast, clears the Voice, and facilitates Child-birth.

Hurt. Chich-pease do indeed nourish greatly, but they are windy, and if eaten fresh, or ill boyl­ed, beget many Superfluities in the Body, and in the Intestines, or inward Parts, and are hurtful and very pernicious to the Reins and the Bladder.

Remedy. They are less hurtful if they be steept in Water during the space of one whole night, to soften them, and boyling with them Rosemary, Sage, Garlick, and the Roots of Petro­selinum, or Stone-parsley, by some called wild Alexander; but you must rather use their Broth, than the Pease themselves, with boyled Wine mixed therewith, and Cinamon, but it must be eaten in a small quantity.

CHAP. XX. Of Beans.

Name. IN Latin, Faba; in English, Beans.

Choice. The Bean is that which is big and clear, shining, without Spots, and is not Worm-eaten.

Qualities. It is cold and dry in the first degree, but the green are cold and moist, and they are but little more than temperate in cooling and dry­ing; they bind, loosen, cleanse, fatten, and are windy: Beans are good at the cold time of the year for the Countreymen, and the fresh are good for those whose Stomach is hot.

Commodity. Beans are very nourishing, purge the Breast, and the Lungs, and therefore are good for the Cough, and make the Voice clear: The Decoction thereof being drunk, hinders the Stone in the Kidneys and Bladder; and the Bean by a certain propriety and quality thereof hinders the Distillations and Defluxions from falling into the Breast, which would cause great Coughs; it pro­vokes [Page 66] Sleep, and is good against the Megrims.

Hurt. It breeds soft and spongy Flesh, having the same effects in Flesh, as Corn in Pyes or Pud­dings; it swells the Body, begets cholick Distem­pers, troubles all the Senses, renders the Wit gross and stupid, causes turbulent Sleeps, and full of trouble. The green do cause very much Excre­ment, and nourish more lightly, hurt those which are troubled with Pains in the Head, beget Windi­ness, gross Humours and Obstructions.

Remedy. The French-bean is the most secure, and least windy. The Favetta, or Small-bean, much used by the Italians in Lent, fryed with Oyl, is least windy. Beans boyled with Salt, Ori­gan, and Fennel, is very good; as likewise if you boyl them with an Onion, or eat that raw with them: If you boyl them without their Husks, with Leeks, adding thereto Saffron, Pepper, Cina­mon, or Cummin; these things take away their Windiness, and do not puff up, but are more easi­ly digested. In short, they ought to be corrected with hot and attenuating things.

CHAP. XXI. Of Lupins.

Name. IN Latin 'tis called Lupinus; in English, Lupins, or Kidney-beans.

Kinds. There be two sorts of Lupins, Garden-Lupins, and wild, but these latter are not used in Food.

Choice. You must choose those which are found, large, and heavy.

Qualities. The Lupins are hot and dry in the second degree.

Commodity. The Lupins that are first boyled, and afterwards beaten in Water, nourish best; and thus eaten, they excite the Appetite, and take away the nauseating of the Stomach; they kill the Worms, open the obstructions of the Liver and Milt, and make one have a good Colour. The Bread is good wherewith the flower of Lupins and Beans is mixed, sweetning first the Lupins, and drying them in an Oven, afterwards pound­ing them; for this being added to the flower of Wheat, makes excellent Bread, easie to be digest­ed, and wholesom, if it be made and preserved well.

Hurt. They beget gross Nourishment, and are of themselves hard to be concocted, being of an hard and earthy Substance.

Remedy. First boyled, and afterwards beat in Water, they are less hurtful, especially eaten with Salt, or some Spice.

CHAP. XXII. Of Pease.

Name. IN Latin, Pisum; in English Pease.

Choice. The fresh and tender are the best, and not Worm eaten.

Qualities. The fresh are cold in the second de­gree, and dry in the first, and moist temperately: They dry something less than Beans, and refresh, nor are so windy as Beans, and have not much of an abstersive faculty.

Commodity. They beget good Nourishment, and they are eaten as the Beans, but they are diffe­rent in this, that Pease are not so windy or abster­sive, and therefore are not so easily evacuated out of the Body as Beans; but boyling Beets with them, they loosen the Body. The fresh or green Pease are very pleasant to the Taste, stir up the Appe­tite, cleanse the Breast, expel Coughs; they are good for an Asthma, and all the Distempers of the Breast: these fresh may be dryed in the shade, and eaten in Winter, for they are very agreeable to the Palate.

Hurt. They beget Windiness. The fresh Pease eaten with their Cods, are laxative, cause Sighs, and induce strange Thoughts; they do not digest very well; and are hurtful to those that have weak and loose Teeth.

Remedy. Let them be well boyled with Salt, and with much Oyl, afterwards sprinkling a little Pepper on them, and juyce of Orange, or other sharp Fruits; but oyl of sweet Almonds is the true sawce of Pease.


Name. IN Latin, Oriza; English, Rice.

Choice. The largest and whitest Rice is counted the best.

Qualities. It is hot in the first degree, and dry in the second; it is something costive, and more­over it stagnates, is abstersive, and has a kind of sharpness in it.

Commodity. Rice is boyled in fat Broth, whereby it nourishes sufficiently, and is pleasant to the Pa­late. It binds the Body, cures Fluxes, is a tem­perate Food, and it fattens a man; boyled with Milk, it is more nourishing: It is good for the Pains in the Stomach, and griping of the Guts, if it be boyled with Oyl or Butter; being seasoned with Almonds, and Milk, and Sugar, it increases the Seed, nourishes better, but it is gross and dif­ficult to be digested; given to Hens it will make them lay more Eggs. Of the flower of Rice, the white part of the flesh of Capons, milk of Al­monds, juice of Oranges and Sugar, hereof is made by the Italians a pleasant Food call'd Bianco mangiare, or White-meat.

Hurt. Rice being too long time used, causes Obstructions, and being windy, is hurtful to those that are troubled with Cholick pains.

Remedy. The badness of Rice is removed, if you first wash it, and infusing it into the decocti­on of wheaten Flower, after boyl it in fat Broth, or in Cows milk, or milk of sweet Almonds, put­ting thereto Sugar and Cinamon; it is good in the Winter for Labourers, and young men, but to old and flegmatick folks it is very hurtful.

Advertisements concerning Herbs.

ALL Herbs are of a slender Nourishment, and of a naughty subtil Juyce, and watery, ha­ving many Superfluities, and therefore in the choice of them observe well these following Rules.

[Page 70]I. That you eat but a small quantity of them; and that they may better nourish, use them boyl­ed in Broth.

II. That none but Lettice be eaten raw, and that also with Vinegar, to allay the boyling of the Blood, the heat of the Liver and Stomach.

III. In Winter use hot Herbs, in Summer cool, in Spring and Autumn temperate.

IV. That you do not eat Herbs which begin to put forth their Seed.

V. That Herbs be eaten at the beginning of Din­ner, since that almost all are laxative.

CHAP. XXIV. Of Sorrel.

Name. IN Latin, 'tis call'd Oxalis, and Acidula; in English, Sorrel.

Kinds. There be several sorts thereof, but Garden-Sorrel and wild are the chief.

Choice. The Garden-Sorrel is the best, and of the wild that which is not red, but all over green.

Qualities. It is cold and dry in the second de­gree.

Commodity. It is very pleasant in raw Sallads, mixt with other Herbs, for its smart and sharp taste which it has; it is very agreeable to the taste; it is very good in pestilential and burning Fevers, for it stifles the heat of the Choler, extin­guishes Thirst, resists Putrefaction, excites the Ap­petite, and stops Defluxions. In Summer Flesh and Fish are to be sawced with the juyce of Sorrel, [Page 71] instead of Vinegar, or Verjuice, or juyce of Oran­ges; and so Eggs, which renders them very plea­sant, and excites the Appetite. Many eat Sorrel raw with Bread; others use the decoction thereof either in Water, or in Broth, or Water of it di­stilled, or else the Syrup of its juyce. Sorrel takes away the nauseating and squeamishness of the Sto­mach; it is good for the Kidneys, breaking and ex­pelling thence the Stone and Gravel. The seeds of Sorrel drank in Wine, are an Antidote against Poyson, stops Rheums and Fluxes, frees and pre­serves one from the Plague.

Hurt. It nourishes little, binds the Body of those that use it too often, hurts melancholy per­sons, and sowrs the Stomach.

Remedy. Let it be eaten in a Sallad mixt with other Herbs, among which let there be Lettice, which is moist, Rue or Mint, which is hot; it ought to be used only in hot Seasons, and by young, cholerick, and sanguine men, and also in hot Distempers.

CHAP. XXV. Of Marjoram.

Name. IN Latin, Amaracus, and Sampsuchus; in English, Marjoram.

Qualities. 'Tis hot and dry in the third degree; its Faculties are to digest, to attenuate, to open, and to strengthen.

Commodity. The use of Marjoram is very good and necessary in Food, for it corroborates and [Page 72] cleans the Stomach, and mundifie it, expelling thence the Choler and Flegm; the smell thereof comforts the Brain, and it is very useful and effectual given to Dropsical Persons; and it is good to bring down Womens Monthly Courses.

Hurt. It is too sharp, whence it causes the boyling and inflammation of the Blood.

Remedy. It is to be used in a small quantity, and never in hot Food, but rather in such Meats as are of a cold quality, and windy, and which beget gross and slimy Humours.

CHAP. XXVI. Of Dill.

Name. IN Latine, Anetham; in English, the Herb Anise, or Dill.

Choice. The best is that which is fresh, and is not seeded.

Commodity. It is used for sawce with Meats, in Coleworts, in Fish, and other sort of Victuals; it has a pleasant taste, helps the Stomach to con­coct the Food, lessens the Hickets and sneezing, and mitigates the pains of the Body; increases Nurses Milk, dissolves the windiness, is good for the Nerves, and binds the Belly.

Hurt. The too frequent use thereof hurts the Eye-sight, dries up the Sperma or Seed, offends the Stomach, because it is a sharp Food, moves belching, begets gross Humours, is hard of Di­gestion, provokes nauseating, and offends the Reins.

Remedy. It must not be too much, nor too frequently u [...]ed with hot Food, but with Fish it may be securely used. Their bad Qualities may be allayed by mixing therewith Parsley, Bete, and Burrage, or Lettice.

CHAP. XXVII. Of Anise-seed.

Name. IN Latine, Anisum; in English, Anise-seed.

Choice. The first in goodness is that of Aegypt, which is the fresh and black.

Quality. It is hot and dry in the third degree, and of a subtil substance, sour, bitter, sharp, di­gestive, and dissolving windiness.

Commodity. This Seed cures a stinking Breath, renders the Mouth sweet, is good for Dropsical Persons, removes the Obstructions of the Liver, provokes Urine, and stops the white Fluxes of Women, mitigates Thirst; and the decoction thereof drunk, dissolves the windiness of the Body, is good for the Liver, Lungs, and Stomach, because it aids and strengthens digestion; it cures the pains of the Head, provokes Milk, breaks the Stone, helps the Nerves, and comforts the Brain, hindring the Vapours from rising up toward the Head; a little of this made into Comfits, is good after Dinner, and taken before Water, it rectifies it: it is very useful in Pies and Pasties

Hurt. It excites Lusts, and is unprofitable to the Stomach, unless when windy.

Remedy. It must be used moderately; Young, Cholerick, and Sanguine Men must abstain from it, especially in Summer.

CHAP. XXVIII. Of Asparagus.

Name. LAtine, Asparagus; English, Sparagus.

Choice. The Garden-Sparagus is better than the Wild; the fresh are to be eaten, and those which with their tops do not bend down.

Quality. Sparagus is abstersive, and tempe­rately hot and moist.

Commodity. It is quickly boyled; whence the Proverb, Citius quam Asparagus coquitur. It nou­rishes more than all other Herbs, is is good for the Stomach, purges the Breast, mollifies the Body provokes Urine, increases the Sperma genitale cleanses the Kidneys from the gravel, mitigates their pains, and likewise the Loyns.

Hurt. Being used in too great a quantity, i [...] offends the Stomach, induces nauseating, especially when it is eaten fresh, and by its bitterness it in­creases Choler, and makes the Urine stink, though it hath passed through all the Body. And lastly if much used by Women, it makes them Barren.

Remedy. Let it be boyled, and let the fir [...] Water wherein it was boyled be thrown away afterwards season it with Oyl, Salt, and Peppe [...] adding thereto Juice of Oranges or Vinegar; boyle [...] in Wine, it is very good: It does not agree wit [...] [Page 75] Cholerick, but Old Men, eaten in moderate quan­tity, and hot and well seasoned; it is more whol­som boyled in fat Broth.

CHAP. XXIX. Of Betony.

Name. IN Latine, Betonica; in English, Betony.

Choice. The best is that which grows on Sunny Hills, and is tender, being eaten boyled in Broths.

Qualities. It is hot and dry in the first degree, and cutting.

Commodity. The Betony is full of infinite ver­tues, whence comes the Italian Proverb, You have more goodness in you than the Betony. It is good for all the internal Passions of the Mind, in whatso­ever manner it be took. It is good for those who have took any poisonous thing; and it is very credible, that being used in Food, it pre­serves one from all those Evils and Distempers, which it has the faculty to heal; and it is good for the Jaundice, Paralitick, Phlegmatick, Epi­leptick, and Gouty Men. In short, its Decoction being eaten or drank, provokes Urine, breaks the Stone, and cures most Distempers.

Hurt. It is hard to be digested.

Remedy. It must be eaten together with the Flowers in good Broth, or the Decoction thereof, being boyled in Wine.

CHAP. XXX. Of Beets.

Name. LAtine, Beta; English, Beets.

Choice. The black is the best.

Qualities. Beets are hot and dry in the first degree.

Commodity. This eaten, is good against the Obstructions of the Liver, and of the Milt. The Roots eaten, take away the stinkingness of Gar­lick and Onions. The white boyled and eaten with raw Garlick, is good against the Worms in the Body, and is abstersive; the Roots pickled, serve instead of Sallade.

Hurt. It nourishes little, and is biting; it hurts the Stomach, by reason of the Sulphurous quality it has.

Remedy. Eaten with Burrage, or with Mustard and Vinegar 'tis less hurtful.

CHAP. XXXI. Of Burrage.

Name. IN Latine 'tis called Buglossum, Borrago, Corrago; in English, Borrage.

Choice. That is to be eaten which is took with its Flower.

Qualities. Burrage or Eugloss is hot and moist in the first degree.

Commodity. This Plant was called first Corrago quasi cor agens, quia cordis affectibus opituletur, be­cause it has a predominant quality over the Passions of the Heart: Whence being infused into Wine, it causes chearfulness of Mind, and wonderfully comforts the Heart, taking thence all Melancholy Thoughts, instead thereof introducing Joy and Gladness; it is of good Nourishment, and begets the best Humours; it is likewise very pleasant in Food: It is good for those that are in Health, and contributes very much to the recovery of those that are troubled with faintness and swoonding Fits. Its Flowers are used in Sallads; the Leaves are infused in Wine, and likewise the Flowers, to make a Cordial. Burrage is good for Melancholy Persons, clears the Blood and the Spirits, strengthens the Bowels, and mollifies the rugged­ness of the Breast.

Hurt. The Flowers are not easily digested, but the Leaves very readily: It hurts those that are troubled with Ulcers in the Mouth, because of its prickliness, otherwise it is good for all Ages, all Complexions, and all times.

Remedy. 'Tis to be boyled in Broth of good Flesh, or in Water, adding thereto an Egg. The Leaves are eaten in Sallads, first taki [...]g away their strings, whereby they are easier digested. Its [...]oughness is corrected by mixing therewith Beers or Spinage.

CHAP. XXXII. Of Capers.

Name. IN Latine they are called Capparis, in English, Capers.

Choice. Those that are pickled in Vinegar are better than such as are salted, because these latter are more hot.

Qualities. The salted are hot and dry in the second degree. They are astringent, attenuating, cutting, abstersive, and opening.

Commodity. Those that are kept in Brine or Pickle, well seasoned, and eaten, excite the Ap­petite, and remove the Obstructions of the Liver and Milt, provoke Urine, kill the Worms, heal the Hemorrhoids, and increase Copulation, being eaten with Salt, Vinegar, and Oyl. Those that are seasoned with Salt are good for the Gout, Sciatica, Splenatick, and Phlegmatick Persons. Those that make use of Capers, are seldom trou­bled with the Convulsion of the Nerves, or pains in the Milt.

Hurt. They cause Thirst, and are naught for the Stomach, although they stir up the Appetite; they trouble and swell the Belly, are of small Nourishment, and are more for Physick than Food.

Remedy. The raw are boyled in Water, after­wards eaten with Oyl and Vinegar. The salted ones are steept a little while in Water, and af­terwards eaten with Oyl and Vinegar.

CHAP. XXXIII. Of Artichoke.

Name. IN Latine 'tis Cinara, and Carduus Sa­tivus; in English, Artichoke.

Qualities. They are hot and dry in the second degree, and opening.

Choice. The Garden Artichokes are better than the Wild, and the tender are more wholesom than the hard.

Commodity. They are pleasant to the taste, and provoke Urine, but make it stink; they cause windiness, and remove Obstructions, and increase Copulation; by drinking the decoction of the Roots in Wine, as likewise by eating the Arti­chokes, the breath is purified and made sweet, and all evil smells and vapours of the Body are thereby taken away. The Artichokes are made white Artificially, by putting them under soft Mould in the ground at Autumn. They are eaten at the end of the Meals with Pepper and Salt, to seal up and corroborate the Stomach.

Hurt. Artichokes beget Melancholy Humours, are very windy, hurt the Head, make the Sto­mach heavy, and hinder digestion.

Remedy. Being boyled in Broth, and eaten with Pepper and Salt, at the end of Dinner, are less hurtful, and more pleasant to the Stomach.

CHAP. XXXIV. Of Cabbage.

Name. IN Latine, Brassica; in English, Cab­bage, Coleworts, or Cole-flowers.

Choice. The best are those which are long and tender, and growing in the top of the Plant, which has the Leaves open, and not close, and with the Dew on the top: The Cole-flowers are the best, as on the contrary, the Cabbages are the worst, and the frizled least hurtful.

Qualities. They are hot and dry in the first degree.

Commodity. Being eaten little boyled, they make the Body laxative and slippery; if they be much boyled, they bind the Body; they have a purgative Faculty: Being eaten raw before Sup­per with Vinegar, they prevent Drunkenness; being eaten after, they take away the noysomness of too much Drink, and the hurt of Wine. The Decoction thereof drunk (but not over-much boyled) are good for those that are grieved with a stoppage of the Urine: Coleworts are so much commended by some, as sufficient to cure all Di­stempers; they are good for pains in the Head, for dimness of the Eyes, contributes to Melancholy Persons, removes Obstructions of the Milt, Liver, Lungs, and all the rest of the Bowels.

Hurt. They hurt the Teeth, the Gums, the Eye-sight; they are of little Nourishment, but swell the Stomach, and cause stinking Breath, and beget Melancholy Humours, chiefly in Summer.

Remedy. They are less hurtful when they [...] boyled, throwing away the first Water, and p [...] ­sently putting them in some other hot wate [...] Or else let them be put into the Broth of ho [...] Meat, with Fennel, Pepper, Coriander-seed, or Cinnamon.

CHAP. XXXV. Of Cumin.

Name. IN Latine 'tis call'd Cuminum; in English, Cumin.

Choice. The Garden Cumin is much better than the Wild.

Qualities. The Seed, like Anise-seed, is hot in the third degree, and drying.

Commodity. It heats, binds, and dries; 'tis pleasant to the Mouth, and gives a good relish to the Victuals; it is good against windiness and pains of the Body, it cures the over-flowing of the Gall, the Vertigo, the Asthma, the biting of Serpents, the heat of the Urine, and the tremb­ling of the Body.

Hurt. 'Tis a sharp Food, and if used too of­ten, makes the face pale.

Remedy. It must be used sparingly, and only in Winter, and by those that are Phlegmatick and of a cold Complexion.

CHAP. XXXVI. Of Coriander.

Name. LAtine, Coriandrum; English, Corian­der.

Choice. The dry and ripe are to be chosen first, and those of Aegypt are the best.

Qualities. The green is cold, and ought not to be used in the Body, or eaten, but the ripe has a pleasant Odour. The dry is hot.

Commodity. It is very useful for the Stomach, because it represses and keeps down the venomous exhalations, which would ascend into the Head. Being drunk wi [...]h sweet Wine, it kills the Worms. It preserves t [...]e [...]lesh incorrupted. The Comfits of Coriander seed, eaten at the end of a Meal, does help the digestion of the Meat without keep­ing it in the Stomach, and fortifies the Head and the Br [...]in.

Hurt. The over-much use thereof offends the Head, obfuscates the Understa [...]ding, and disturbs the Mind Its J [...]ice drank is deadly Poyson, and those that drin [...] thereof, b [...]come either dumb or foolish, for it quite bereaves them of their Senses.

Remedy. I [...]s p [...]rnicious [...]ualities may be re­medied, by st [...]ping it one Night in Water, after­wards Can [...]yi [...]g these Co [...]iander-seeds with Sugar, whereby th [...] become not only not offe [...]sive, but they do ver [...] much contribute to the Health. Let th [...]se that [...]ave drunk the Juice thereof, take the [...] wder of Egg-shells with [...]rine, or Treacle with Wine.

CHAP. XXXVII. Of Tarragon.

Name. IN Latin, Dracunculus hortensis, in English, Tarragon.

Choice. The best is that which is fresh, tender, and that which grows in fruitful Gardens, and is sufficiently watered; and the Leaves that hang on the ground are not to be chosen, but the top and the most tender.

Qualities. 'Tis hot in the beginning of the third degree, and dry in the first.

Commodity. 'Tis the best Herb that is to make Sallads and Sawces, and it is used in cool Sallads instead of Rocket; it is cordial, causing a good Appetite, and increases Copulation, and wonder­fully comforts the Stomach, and the Head, cutting the Flegm. 'Tis a very aromatick Herb, and be­ing eaten, is an Antidote against the Plague, and other Corruptions; it cures the cold Pains of the Teeth and Gums, by washing them with its deco­ction made in White-wine.

Hurt. It heats the Liver, and attenuates the Blood.

Remedy. It is eaten with cold Herbs, as Endive, Lettice, and Borrage-flowers, but not by young sanguine and cholerick men, especially in Sum­mer; 'tis good for old men at all times.

CHAP. XXXVIII. Of Cichory.

Name. IN Latin, Cichoreum; in English, Cichory, or Succhory.

Choice. The most tender is the best, and the tops, and that which has a blue Flower, always turning to the Sun.

Qualities. Cichory is cold and dry in the se­cond degree, and the wild is more bitter, abster­sive and bindi [...]g.

Commodity. It contributes wonderfully to the Stomach, opens the obstructions of the Liver, and is the most powerful and effectual Remedy that can be to keep the Liver clean, and opens the pas­sages thereof very much. It is good for the Reins.

H [...]rt. It hurts those that are grieved with a weak Stomach, and cold, and the juyce which it begets, is of little and not good Nourishment, so that it is more commenda [...]le in Physick than in Food. It is [...]urtf [...]l to rheumatick men.

Re [...]edy. B [...]ing boyled in Water, and after­war [...]s eaten with Oyl and Vinegar, and Grapes in a Sal [...]ad, or [...]lse raw with Mint-vinegar, and mixt with Garlick, and other hot Herbs, it is less hurt­ful. 'Ti good in Summer for young men, and th [...]s that are of an hot Complexion, may use it at all ti [...]: [...]ut it is [...]ad for those that have a cold St [...]ach, and are subject to Catarrhs; and these therefore ought not to ea [...] it raw, but boyled in Broth of good wholesom Fl [...]sh.

CHAP. XXXIX. Of Endive.

Name. IN Latin, Endivia, and Intybus; in Eng­lish, Endive.

Choice. The Garden-Endive is the best, and most tender, but you must not tarry till it has a Stalk, or Milk in it; that which is put under ground, and made white, is the best.

Quality. It is cold and dry in the second de­gree, but the Garden-Endive is more cold and moist than the wild.

Commodity. It refreshes the Liver, and all the inflamed Members, quenches Thirst, provokes Urine, and in the Summer causes a good Appetite, removes the Obstructions, purges the Blood, cures the Itch, allays the burning of the Stomach; be­ing eaten boyled in Flesh-broth in the Summer-time, it refreshes all the Bowels.

Hurt. The use of Endive is not to be ap­proved of in those that have the Stomach cold; it hinders Digestion a [...] little, and offends paralitick and trembling persons.

Remedy. The white is to be eaten in Winter by those whose Stomachs are weak and cold, adding thereto Pepper, and Raisins of the Sun, or a little boyled Wine, the boyled is less hurtful than the raw; 'tis good for young, cholerick, and sanguine men. 'Tis eaten with Mint, Rocket, Tarragon, and other hot Herbs.

CHAP. XL. Of Fennel.

Name. IN Latin, Faeniculum, and Marathrum; in English, Fennel.

Choice. The sweet and Garden-Fennel is the best, but let it be fresh and tender.

Quality. The sweet is hot in the second degree, and dry in the first, and the wild heats and dryes more strongly.

Commodity. It very much provokes Urine, and Milk, and brings down the Flowers: It removes old Obstructions, purges the Reins, and wonder­fully contributes to the Eye-sight; but the dry must be used in a little quantity, for otherwise it will inflame the Liver, and hurt the Eyes; it pur­ges the Breast and the Brain.

Hurt. It is a sharp Food, hard of Digestion, and of a very bad Nourishment: It attenuates and inflames the Blood of such as be cholerick; it wea­kens and consumes the Body, and by the use there­of is begot Melancholy, so that it is more conveni­ent and wholesom in Physick than Food.

Remedy. The tender is the best, and it is to be eaten in a small quantity: The young Fennel which is boyled, is to be open, and put a little while in fresh Water, to take away its naughty and poysonous quality which the Serpents leave in it. It is good to rub the Eyes withal; but you must eat but little thereof, for in time it will breed the Stone, which as being opening carries gross mat­ters into the straight passages of the Urine, where [Page 87] they afterwards condense, and become Stones and Gravels.

CHAP. XLI. Of Sampier.

Name. IN Latin, Crithmum, and Faeniculum mari­num; in English, Sampier.

Choice. The green and sweet smelling is best for Pickle.

Quality. 'Tis hot and dry in the third degree, salt to the Taste, and something bitter, because of its drying and abstersive faculty.

Commodity. Pickled, it preserves the Stomach, Liver, and Reins.

Hurt. It inflames the Blood.

Remedy. 'Tis not good for young men in Sum­mer, but for old in Winter, and then but a small quantity thereof.

CHAP. XLII. Of Lettice.

Name. LAtin, Lactuca; English, Lettice.

Choice. The Monks and French Let­tice is the best, and withal tender, especially if it grows in fruitful Gardens: Those that begin to have Milk, are to be rejected; they must not be washed, but gently and tenderly cropped.

Quality. 'Tis cold and moist in the second de­gree.

Commodity. It is easie to be digested, and ex­ceeds in goodness all the other Herbs, because it breeds Milk, and quenches the burning Heat of the Stomach, provokes Sleep, and stagnates the Flux of the Seed: It allays the acrimony or sharp­ness of the Choler; it excites the Appetite, and takes away the loathing of the Stomach, and strengthens it; and in short, 'tis very good for ma­ny Distempers of the Body.

Hurt. The continual and superfluous use of Lettice obscures the Eye-sight, corrupts the Seed, weakens the natural Heat, and makes Women bar­ren, or at least if they bear Chi [...]d [...]en, it makes them stupid and foolish: It makes a man slow and lazy, and is hurtful to a cold Stomach, and there­fore is bad for old men.

Remedy. It is less hurtful boyled than raw, and is to be eaten with Mint, Tarragon, Rocket, Gar­lick, Onions, &c. and drink some good White-wine after it; but you must not eat it too often.

It must not be washed, for thereby is taken a­way one of its best Qualities, being upon the sur­face thereof, and causes that the Lettice weakens the Sight.


Name. IN Latin they are call'd Lupulus; in Eng­lish, Hops, and Hop-tops.

Choice. Those are best which spring from the [Page 89] Plant, without having any Leaves round about them, and whereof the Stalk is rough and tender.

Quality. They are hot and dry in the second de­gree, that is, the Hops; but the Hop-tops, which are in form like Sparagus, are very moist, they heat little, and dry less; therefore where we say, they are cool, we mean the Hop-tops only.

Commodity. They beget perfect Nourishment, and render the Humours equal, comfort and cleanse the Bowels, and more particularly the Blood, and make it clear and pure, separating it from the dregs, bringing them down, and purging Choler: Hops also do no less cleanse the Liver, not only re­move the Obstructions thereof, but also those of the Milt. The tops being eaten boyled, mollifie the Body, and the decoction of the Flowers is an Antidote for those that are poysoned, and cures the Itch. The Syrup thereof is excellent good for cholerick and pestilential Feavers.

Hurt. When it is gathered with the Leaves and hard Stalks, it is not easie to be digested, but is more windy than the tender, and of a worse juyce.

Remedy. Let them be eaten, boyled and sea­soned with Garlick and Vinegar, or with the juyce of Oranges and Pepper: They are good at all times, for all Ages and Complexions, especially boyled in good Broth.

CHAP. XLIV. Of Balm.

Name. IN Latin it is call'd Citrago, Melissa, Melis­sophyllum; in English, Balm, and Balm-gentle.

Choice. The most tender is the best, and that grows on pleasant Hills, and has the good smell of a Limmon.

Quality. Balm is hot and dry in the second de­gree.

Commodity. It comforts the Heart, and takes away the trembling thereof: It mollifies the Breast, and removes the obstructions of the Brain; it helps Digestion, and cures the Hiccoughs; heals the biting of venomous Creatures, and all flegma­tick and melancholy persons.

Hurt. It excites venereal Pleasures; it is win­dy, and of little nourishment.

Remedy. Being eaten in Sallads, it is to be mixt with cool Herbs, as Lettice, and the like.

CHAP. XLV. Of Mint.

Name. IN Latin, Mentha; in English, Mint.

Quality. Mint is hot in the third de­gree, and dry in the second.

Choice. That which is sowed in the Garden is [...]he best, and thereof only the tender tops.

Commodity. It is very pleasant to the Stomach, and comforts it, especially if it be cold; it strong­ly excites the Appetite, and hinders the Milk from staying in the Stomach, or in the Dugs; and there­fore those that love Milk, ought often to use Mint. Being used in Food, it kills the Worms; and for that effect, Mint may be given to Children, that is, one dram of its juyce, with half an ounce of Citron-water, or the syrup of Limmon-peel. It takes away the Hiccoughs, loathing and vomiting, and fortifies the Stomach: whence is said; ‘Nunquam lenta fuit stomacho succurrere menta.’

Hurt. 'Tis of small Nourishment, inflames the Liver and Stomach, attenuates the Blood; and be­cause it is a sharp Food, it stimulates Lust, where­by the Body becomes lean, feeble, and less lusty.

Remedy. If you eat but a little, and with other cool Herbs, it is less hurtful. 'Tis to be used in Winter by old flegmatick and melancholy men; but in Summer 'tis naught, especially for young cholerick men.

CHAP. XLVI. Of Parsley.

Name. IN Latin, Petroselinum; in English 'tis cal­led Parsley.

Choice. The tender is the best, which is not [Page 92] yet seeded, or in Flowers, whereby the Leaves smell the sweeter, and more pleasant to the taste.

Quality. Parsley is hot in the second degree, and dry in the third.

Commodity. It is very much used almost in all Food; it is put into salt Meats; and in short, it is used about most things of the Kitchin: Eaten raw, or boyled, it provokes Urine, Sweat, brings down womens Flowers, cleanses the Reins, the Liver, and the Matrice, and removes their Obstru­ctions, dissolves Windiness, is pleasant to the Sto­mach, and the Liver, and its concoction is good against the Coughs and Poysons. It has the same Qualities of the Coriander, and is most acceptable and grateful to the mouth of the Stomach, and mi­tigates its Heat, breaks the Stone in the Kidneys, and Bladder, removes the Obstructions, and helps the Coughs and all distempers of the Breast. The Roo [...] [...]eing roasie [...] under the Ashes, are eaten with Vinegar, Oyl, an [...] Salt, in a Sallad.

Hurt. It is of a difficult Digestion, and does not beget very good Humours, obfuscates the Eye-sight, and is oftentimes hurtful to the Head; but this is not that Parsley which hurts Epilepticks, but the ordinary Parsley.

Remedy. It is to be eaten raw, with other cool Herbs, as Lettice, Sorrel, and the like; it is not very bad, if eaten in a small quantity, and boyled in Broth. The Roots ought to be well boyled, first taking out of the middle their pithy sub­stance.

CHAP. XLVII. Of Burnet.

Name. IN Latine, Pimpinella, and Sanguisorba; in English, Burnet.

Choice. The Garden-Burnet is better than the Wild.

Quality. This Herb is hot and dry in the se­cond degree.

Commodity. It is used to be eat in Sallads, wherein it is very pleasant, by reason of the sweet smell it has, resembling a Melon; and this is that which is sowed in the Garden; the wild has the noysom and rank smell of a Goat, whence it is call'd Pimpinella hircina; and this is reduced under the sorts of Sassafras, for the great vertue and power which it has to cleanse the Reins and the Bladder, and to break and drive forth the Stone and Gravel of the Kidneys; it also provokes Urine, and removes the Obstructions of the Liver. The Garden-Burnet is a singular Remedy against the Plague, as likewise the Wild; and I remem­ber, that my Father (who besides his other Sciences, had no mean skill in Simples) told me often-times that in the last great Plague which so infested all Italy, that with the Decoction of Bur­net only, infused into Wine, and with Bole-armoniack, he preserved both himself and his Family in good Health. Burnet put in Wine, chears the Heart, and makes the Wine more plea­sant. It is also good against all the Passions of the Heart, and Faintness, it clears the Blood, and mul­tiplies [Page 94] the Vital Spirits, and is good for those that are Tisical.

Hurt. 'Tis hardly digested, makes costiveness, heats the Liver, and is of small Nourishment.

Remedy. A little of it may be eaten in cool Sallads; it is always good, chiefly for Old and Melancholick Men, when tender.

CHAP. XLVIII. Of Purslain.

Name. IN Latine, Portulaca; in English, 'tis cal­led Purslain.

Choice. The Garden Purslain is the best.

Quality. It is cold in the third degree, and moist in the second; it is binding and abstersive.

Commodity. It is eaten with great success by those that are troubled with the Bloody-flux, the over-much flowing of the Courses, or spitting of Blood. It is an excellent Remedy for the heat of the Stomach, it abates and restrains Lust, and eases the Teeth, when set on edge.

Hurt. By eating too often, and too much there­of, it is not a little hurtful, for then it is hard to be digested, weakens the Stomach, offends the Sight, and nourishes little, and badly; because it is cold, it takes away the Appetite, and diminishes the Seed and Venereal desires.

Remedy. You must eat little thereof, and that with Onions and hot Herbs, as Basil, Rocket, and Tarragon; 'tis to be eaten alone even by Young and Sanguine Men, not at all by Old.

CHAP. XLIX. Of Rosemary.

Name. IN Latine, Rosmaris, and Rosmarinum; in English, Rosemary.

Choice. The flower'd and tender is the best.

Qualities. It is hot and dry in the second de­gree: The Flowers are multiplying, degestive, cutting, abstersive, dissolving, opening, and strengthening.

Commodity. It heats the Stomach, stops Fluxes, 'tis good for shortness of Breath; taken with Honey, it is a Cordial for the Cough; and of its Flowers with Sugar is made a Conserve, to com­fort the Stomach, the Heart, and the Matrice.

Hurt. With its sharpness it exasperates the Throat.

Remedy. By eating it with Honey, all hurt is thence removed. In Lent the tender flower'd sprigs of the Rosemary being wetted and sprink­led with fine Flour and Sugar, are fryed with sweet Oyl, being pleasant to the Taste and Sto­mach, and rendred more wholsom with a little Pepper.

CHAP. L. Of Rocket.

Name. LAtine, Eruca; English, Rocket.

Choice. The best is the tender, Gar­den-Rocket, which is not in Flower nor Seed.

Qualities. It is hot in the second degree, and dry in the first; but the wild is more hot, and more dry, attenuates, opens, cuts, and is ab­stersive.

Commodity. It dissolves windiness, provokes Urine, helps Digestion, is most pleasant in Sal­lads, increases the Seed, gives strength and cou­rage, and augments the Milk.

Hurt. It excites Lust, offends the Head, and inflames the Blood.

Remedy. You must mix therewith the Leaves of Lettice, whereby it is made of an equal tempe­rament; or else put thereto Endive or Purslain: And it is better in cool times than hot. It is not to be eaten alone, but with cool Herbs.

CHAP. LI. Of Sage.

Name. LAtine, Salvia; English, Sage.

Choice. The Garden-Sage is better than the wild.

Qualities. It manifestly hea [...]s, and lightly dries and binds. 'Tis hot in the third degree, and dry in the second.

Commodity. Being eaten, it comforts the Sto­mach and the Head, is good against the Vertigo and Megrims: Wine tempered with the Decoction of this, or four or five fresh leaves eaten before Meals, is good against the bitings of Serpents, strengthens the inward parts, cures the Palsie and Epilepsie, provokes the Courses and the Urine, [Page 97] stops the white Fluxes of Women: The Powder of dryed Sage is excellent Sauce for Meats, and is very wholsom for the Body: It is good against all the cold Distempers of the Head and Joints; it makes barren Women fruitful, and its Decoction cures the itching of the Genitals: It is used in Pickle and Sauce, to excite the Appetite, espe­cially when the Stomach is full of crude and naughty Humours; being eaten by Women with Child, it will make them retain the Infant; it fortifies the Vital Spirits; the Conserve made of the Flowers with Sugar, has the same effects; and Mercury, when it is used in Oyntments, is always to be corrected with Sage.

Hurt. Put into Wine, it intoxicates; its smell causes the Head-ach, therefore 'tis to be avoided by those that are incommoded with Catarrhs; 'tis sometimes poisonous, for it is easily infected by Serpents and Toads with their venomous breath.

Remedy. 'Tis to be washed in Wine, and the Sage ought always to grow together with Rue, that it may not be infected by Venomous Creatures, which willingly shade themselves under Sage: It is not good for Young Men, nor in hot Seasons.

CHAP. LII. Of Mustard.

Name. LAtine, Senapi; English, Mustard.

Choice. The fresh is the best.

Qualities. 'Tis hot and dry in the fourth de­gree.

Commodity. Mustard made with its Seed, does wonderfully provoke the Appetite, but is some­times unpleasant, being biting: Of this Seed with Vinegar and Honey is made a Paste, and thereof little Balls, drying them in the Sun or Oven, and reserved for the use of Meats, mixing it with Vinegar, whereby 'tis very delightful to the Pa­late, and beneficial to the Stomach: Mustard is eaten to draw down the Phlegm from the Head; it cures all Defects and Diseases of the Milt, and corrects the poisonous qualities of Mushromes.

Hurt. Mustard is fuming, and with its Vapour it ascends into the Head, penetrating sometimes with displeasure the Nose and the Brain, and causes sneezing.

Remedy. When the Mustard by its biting Fa­culty offends the Nose, smell to your Bread, or draw in your Breath at the Nose; it is mixed with boyled Wine to correct its sharp quality.

CHAP. LIII. Of Spinage.

Name. LAtine, Spinachia; English, Spinage.

Choice. The tender Spinage growing in fruitful Ground, and oft watered, is the best.

Qualities. It is cold and moist in the first de­gree.

Commodity. It opens the Breast, cures the Cough, refreshes the Liver and Lungs, allays the burning Choler, loosens the Body, &c.

Hurt. It is of bad Nourishment, causes windi­ness, offends cold Stomachs, and taken in too great a quantity, it oppresses it.

Remedy. 'Tis to be fryed in its own Liquor, and afterwards seasoned with Salt, Pepper or Cinnamon, and Raisins, with Verjuice, or the juice of Oranges; and so eaten it is very whol­som.

CHAP. LIV. Of Water-cresses.

Name. IN Latine, Sium, Laver; in English, Wa­ter-cresses.

Choice. The tender, growing in clear Water, is best.

Qualities. 'Tis hot and dry, as you may know by its smell.

Commodity. Eaten in Sallads, boyl'd or raw, it breaks and drives forth the Stone and Gravel in the Kidneys and Bladder, provokes the Urine and the Courses, and also hastens the Birth; it is good against the Bloody-flux, against Dropsies, and the Mother; also it removes the Obstructions of the Liver.

Hurt. The raw is bad for the Stomach.

Remedy. 'Tis to be eaten boyled, or in a Sal­lad mixed with Lettice, Sorrel, and such like Herbs.

Advertisements concerning the Roots of Herbs.

WE have said enough concerning all the Herbs which are used with Meats; it re­mains now to treat of the Roots, where by the way you must take notice, that in the Spring and Summer their virtue disperses it self into the Leaves, Flowers, and Seeds; but at Autumn and Winter they are more strong and vigorous. Though it be true, that their use is more frequent in Physick than in Food; for they have almost all a naughty Juice, and are hard to be digested. Those Roots may be securely eaten which grow in the Garden, and are of a young, fresh, and ten­der Plant. The Roots have two parts, the skin and the wooden parts, and in some the peel is best: The outward part is more hot than the in­ward; so that in cold Roots, the out-side is the best; as in the hot Roots, the in-side; especially if they be not woody. Now, as to the length of them, the middle part is the best, except in those Plants which have a sweet Marrow near their buds, as we see in Gardens.

CHAP. LV. Of Garlick.

Name. IN Latine, Allium; in English, Garlick.

Choice. The fresh Garlick is the best, which is that which in Lent is eaten in Sallads; and the dry, which is laid up, having many buds.

Qualities. It is hot and dry in the fourth de­gree, and sharp; it is of a biting, digestive, open­ing, and cutting Faculty.

Commodity. Being eaten in Food, it is an An­tidote against all Poison; and therefore is called the Country-mans Treacle: It kills and drives the Worms out of the Body, provokes Urine, is good for the biting of Serpents, very useful for Drop­sical and Tisical Men, and makes the voice good. It corrects the hurt which the change of Air or Water may cause, and temperates the coldness and moistness of Sallads. Garlick is exceeding good for Sea-men, for it purifies the Air, cor­rupted with the stink of Tar and Pitch, and helps Sea-sick Persons.

The Agliata (a sort of Food amongst the Ita­lians) is made of Garlick, Nuts, Salt, and Bread, with two leaves of Sage; which is very pleasant to the Palat and Stomach, and excites the Ap­petite.

Hurt. It hurts the expulsive faculties, the Head, the Brain, and the Eye-sight; it causes thirst, is naught for big-bellied Women, renews old pains, dries up and burns the Blood, hurts the Em­rods, or Piles, and Women that give suck; it causes a noysom and stinking Breath. 'Tis a sharp Food, and offends the Liver, which is the princi­pal Foundation of the Health; and when the Gar­lick sprouts, it is more hurtful, for that is a sign of putrefaction.

Remedy. By boyling, it loses its malign qualities, but the vertues become more weak: The raw hurts less, if eat with Oyl and Vinegar. It is good for Old Men in Winter, but naught at all times for Young. The stinkingness thereof is corrected by [Page 102] eating after it raw Beans, Parsley, or a little Rue.

CHAP. LVI. Of Carrets.

Name. LAtine, Carota; English, Carret.

Choice. The red are the best, the great sweet ones, and those of Winter.

Quality. They are hot in the second degree, and moist in the first.

Commodity. The red and the white are well tasted, both pickled, and out of pickle; they provoke Milk, Womens Courses, and Urine, and open Obstructions.

Hurt. They nourish less than Turnips, neither are they so ea [...]ly digested; they cause windiness, &c.

Remedy. They are to be well boyled, and sea­soned with Vinegar, Oyl, and Mustard, or Cori­ander, or Pepper, and boyled in good Broth of Meat, they lose all their naughtiness.

CHAP. LVII. Of Onyon.

Name. LAtine, Caepe; in English, Onyon.

Choice. The biggest are the best, and such as grow in Marshy Ground, of much Juice, of a round shape.

Quality. It is hot in the third degree, and dry in the second.

Commodity. It corrects that hurt which the change of Water induces, causes a good Appetite, attenuates the Humours, makes a good colour, and increases the Seed.

Hurt. Being eaten raw, in a great quantity, it causes the Head-ach, inflames the Blood, dims the Sight, and hurts the Understanding; it increases Lust, opens the Emrods, and causes over-much sleep.

Remedy. If you boyl it, it loses the malign and naughty qualities, and becomes very good, espe­cially with Parsley. To eat it raw, it must be cut in pieces, and steept in fresh Water, whereby it becomes sweet It agrees with cold Constitutions, and cold Seasons, but is hurtful to the contrary.

CHAP. LVIII. Of Mushromes.

Name. LAtine, Fungus; English, Mushromes.

Choice. Those that grow in the Fields, called Spungy and Meadow-Mushromes, that look like the Yolks of Eggs, are the least hurtful.

Qualities. They are cold almost in the fourth degree, and moist in the second.

Commodity. They are pleasant to the Stomach; they stir up the Appetite, and drink up all the Sauce. The Mushromes then that grow upon the Rocks in the shade, being dryed and powder'd, and thereof taken the weight of a Scruple, with [Page 104] Wine and Broth, mitigate the Cholick pains, and Gravel, provoking Urine, and driving forth the Stone; but it is to be taken four hours before Meat.

Hurt. They cause stupidness, and the Apo­plexy, and suffocate.

Remedy. The pickled Mushromes are good enough, being cleansed and well boyled with sour Pears, Basil, Bread, Oyl, Salt, and Pepper. 'Tis good to eat but a little thereof, and to drink good Wine after it.

CHAP. LIX. Of Parsnips.

Name. IN Latine, Pastinaca; English, Parsnip.

Choice. The most tender, and such as grow in fruitful Grounds, are the best.

Qualities. They are very hot and abstersive.

Comm [...]dity. They are eaten boyled, and pre­pared divers ways, and they have the same vertue as Carrots; for they provoke the Courses and Urine, and remove Obstructions.

Hurt. They give but little, and that too, ill Nourishment; they are slowly digested, cause much windiness, stimulate Lust, excite the Itch, breeding bad Blood, and full of Superfluities.

Remedy. They lose their ill Qualities if they be soundly boyled, first taking away their wooden Marrow from within, and afterwards season them with Oyl, Vinegar, and Mustard; or else first boyl them, and afterwards fry them with Butter, [Page 105] and salt them. They are good in cold weather for young men, and for all Complexions, except old and flegmatick men. This following way is also good: Steep them first in two Waters, then in a third Water, with Lettice, Coriander, and Onions, adding after, Oyl, Vinegar, Pepper, and Honey, or boyled new Wine.

CHAP. LX. Of Leeks.

Name. IN Latin, Porrum; English, Leeks.

Choice. The best sort is that which grows in marshy places, and small.

Quality. They are hot in the third degree, and dry in the second.

Commodity. They provoke Urine, and the Courses, dissolve Windiness, incite Copulation, and boyled with Honey, purge and cleanse the Lungs, and eaten with Salt, clear the Stomach of Flegm; the Leaves boyled, and thereof a Plaister, made, cure the Emrods; roasted under the ashes and eaten, they qualifie the poysonous faculty of the Mushrooms; they are good against Drunken­ness, and mitigate the cholick Pains; they cure the Asthma, or shortness of Breath, drank with Water of Barley, or Honey; they expel the Cough, cause a good Voice, and make Women fruitful. The Heads boyled in two Waters, bind the Belly, and are good against the Tenesmus.

Hurt. Being eaten raw, they beget Windi­ness, offend the Head, cause frightful Dream [...], [Page 106] dim the Sight, burden the Stomach, and hurt the Ulcers of the Reins and Bladder. They cause the Head-ach, beget naughty Humours, and corrupt the Gums and the Teeth.

Remedy. By boyling them twice, and putting them in fresh Water, their Hurt is taken away: You must eat with them, Lettices, Endive, and Purslain; they are the [...]ood of Plow-men, and of those which labour much. They are to be eaten after all other Meat.

CHAP. LXI. Of Radishes.

Name. IN Latin, Raphanus, and Radix; in Eng­lish, Radish.

Choice. The best Radishes are the tender and sharp, which have been first nipt by the Frost, and those which have a black skin are the sweetest.

Quality. The Radishes are hot in the third de­gree, and dry in the second; they are digestive, cutting, abstersive, and rarifying.

Commodity. Eaten, they provoke the Urine, mollifie the Belly, expel the Stone and Gravel from the Kidneys and Bladder. Radishes are plea­sant to [...]he Stomach, cutting them to pieces, and putting them in Water, with Salt; they increase the Milk, and make the Drink relish: They are good against the poyson of Mushrooms; boyled, they are good against old Co [...]ghs, and eaten after other Food, they move the Body.

Hurt. They make the Body lean; they cause Windiness, and move stinking Belches: They are of a slow Digestion, offend the Head, breed Lice, hurt the Teeth, and the Eye-sight, increase the pains of the Sinews and Arteries, and do cause Hoarsness.

Remedy. Being well washed in Water, and af­terwards eaten with Sal [...] they become less hurt­ful. Eaten after Supper, they do not help Dige­stion, as many have thought, but the party that eats them, remains thereby prejudiced, though it is true, that Radishes agree best with them whose Stomach is hot, and not apt to beget Windiness after Suppe [...]: They are good in cold weather for young men, and those that labour much, but ve­ry unwholesom for others.

CHAP. LXII. Of Scallions.

Name. IN Latin, Ascalonia; in English they are called Scallions.

Choice. The red, hard, little, and sweet, are the best.

Quality. They are hot almost in the fourth de­gree, and dry in the second.

Commodity. They are very good to waken and excite the Appetite, which is weakned by a super­fluous Heat; they are good to make the Drink re­lish more savoury; they increase the Seed, and stimulate carnal Copulation.

Hurt. They cause Windiness, multiply the gross Humours, make the Head-ach; they pro­cure Thirst, and raise a desire to sleep, offend the Eye-sight, and make the Tongue rugged: And you must have a care of using them too often, for they hurt the Nerves, whence they are very hurt­ful to old and Epileptick men.

Remedy. They are first to be squeez'd well, and afterwards steept a little in Water, then sea­son them with Vinegar, Oyl and Salt, adding thereto a little Sage and Parsley; hereby they be­come more sweet and nourishing, less windy, and easier digested, but they require little boyling. They agree with hot Complexions.

CHAP. LXIII. Of Tartufoli.

Name. IN Latin, Tubera; in English, or rather Italian, Tartufoli; which because they are but lately known in England, it will not be a­miss to give a short description thereof. It is then a certain Excrescence within the ground, with­out any Root or Stalk, but always hid under ground; therefore to find it, the Italians lead a Hog in a string, who as soon as he smells them, (for the Tartufoli are of a strong smell) will stop, and dig with his Snout, and then he that leads the Hog, digs out the Tartufoli.

Choice. The male, that is, the black, are bet­t [...]r than the w [...]i [...]e, which are the female, as like­wise the thickest, and biggest, with a hard skin; [Page 109] let them be also fresh, not putrid, but of a good odour.

Quality. They are hot and dry in the second degree, and suck up all the sawce whereunto they are put.

Commodity. Being eaten both boyl'd and raw, they are pleasant to the taste, for they have the smell of Flesh: They excite venereal Desires, and multiply the Seed; they are of a gross Nourish­ment, though not bad; Chesnuts roasted under the ashes, afterwards cleansed, and boyled in a Skillet with Pepper, Oyl, the juyce of Oranges, with a little Salt, are very good eaten after, to qualifie the Tartufoli. The Tartufoli dryed, and put into a Chest or Trunk where Cloaths are, do impart to them no unpleasant odour.

Hurt. They are windy, melancholick, destru­ctive to the Nerves, Head, and Stomach: They cause bad Breath, and being used too often, beget Apoplexies, and Palsies, and are hard to be digest­ed; those that are sandy, are naught for the Teeth. Besides, there be some of them which suffocate, as the Mushrooms do, they cause pains of the Stone, stoppage of the Urine, and bring the Gout.

Remedy. They are to be washed with Wine and afterwards boyled in fat Broth with Cinamon; and let pure good Wine send them down; but they must be eaten at the end of the Meal.

Advertisements concerning Fruits.

ALthough Fruits are not to be reckoned a­mongst nourishing Food, seeing that their nourishment is but little, and that they are apt to breed putrified Blood, and are full of many Super­fluities, nevertheless they being used for other Commodi [...]ies and Benefits, in a manner physically, we conclude, that they must not be used too often, nor too much at once, for that which is taken phy­sically, and not for nourishment, ought to be used, in a small quantity, and seldom Now the first be­nefit which we receive from Fruit is, That they mitigate the Choler, extinguish the heat of Blood, refresh and moisten the Body. Therefore they are to be eaten before other Food, and you must drink after them Wine mixt with Water, to the end that they may pass the more readily to the Veins, and refresh, and therefore in Summer they best agree with cholerick and sanguine Complexi­ons. The second good is, That the [...] loosen the Belly; and therefore they are to be eaten in the beginning of the Meal, and you must presently eat other Food after them: But betwixt these Fruits and your Food, some small time ought to intervene; such are, Grapes, Figs, Plumbs, Mul­berries, Peaches, and Cherries. The third good is, That they bind the Belly; and to do that, they are to be eaten before Dinner, such as are, Cor­nels, Quinces, Service-berries, Medlars, &c. But they must not be eaten in a great quantity, because they are very difficult to be digested, and are of naughty nourishment. But in short, for the use of Fruits, take these following Rules.

[Page 111]I. That all Fruits are to be avoided by gouty folks, especially moist, watery, and viscuous Fruits, for they are full of Vapours.

II. That all fresh and moist Fruits are worse than the dry.

III. That the Fruits which are eaten after Meals, are better baked, roasted, or boyled, than raw.

IV. That the laxative Fruits which loosen the Belly, are to be eaten before Dinner, as the astrin­gent after.

V. That astringent Fruits taken before, bind the Belly; whereas, taken after, they loosen the Belly.

VI. That they whose Stomachs are cold and moist, should eat hot and dry Fruit; and so con­trariwise, whereby they hurt not.

VII. That you eat Fruit throughly ripe, except Mulberries, which are to be eaten before that by their maturity they become black, for then they are the Food of Spiders and Flyes, whereby they infect the Blood, and prepare it to putrefaction.

VIII. That different Fruits be not used at one Meal.

IX. That the best Fruit are the soundest; and those that are worm-eaten, beget continual Fevers, and such are known by their ill colour.

CHAP. LXIV. Of Citrons.

Name. IN Latin, Citrea mala, and mala Medica; in English, Ci [...]rons.

Choice. The best a [...]e full of Juyce, and heavy.

Quality. The Peel or Rind is hot and dry in the third degree; the Pulp is cool and moist in the first; the Juyce is cold and dry in the third de­gree; the Kernels are of the same temperament as the Peel.

Commodity. Its Peel eaten, and the decoction thereof, causes good Breath, and readily digests the Food; the Kernels are an Antidote against all sort of Poyson, especially the Bitings of Serpents, and provokes the Flowers, and kills the Worms of the Belly: Either of them eaten, are good a­gainst the Plague, corruption of the Air, and a­gainst all Poyson. The water of all the Citron di­stilled, is very sweet to the Taste, and mightily contributes to the Heart and Brain; and the con­serve of Citron is a wonderful Alexipharmacon a­gainst pestilential Fevers, for it extinguishes the Thirst, and the Fever, resists the concoction and putrefaction of the Humours. The water of its Flowers distilled, is very prevalent against the in­fection and contagion of the Air, and the spotted Fevers, for it is a great Cordial, strongly provokes Sweat, and lightly excites Vomiting. It is credi­bly reported, That in one of the Cities of Italy, there being two Persons condemned to die, and going to Execution, they by chance passed by a House where a man stood eating a Citron, who being moved with compassion, gave them one to comfort their hearts: Arriving afterwards at the Place of Execution, they were bitten by a Scorpi­on, without any hurt thence proceeding; at which every one was so astonished, that they caus­ed them to be led back again; and the next morn­ing (supposing this might arrive by means of the Citron) they gave one some Citron to eat, and [Page 113] the other none; then conducting them to the same Place, and both again being bitten by the Scorpion, he that had eaten none, died immedi­ately, and the other escaped: a manifest and cer­tain proof of the great vertue of Citron, and how excellent an Antidote it is against Poyson. The Peel preserved, is good for the foresaid things; and also the oyl extracted either from the Peel or Kernels, is very good to anoint the Pulses.

Hurt. They are slowly digested, troublesom to those who have hot Brains, and being eaten late, they cause the Vertigo.

Remedy. Violets, or Sugar of Violets, eaten af­ter them, qualifie their malignity; and being su­gared, they are good for every Body, and agree with all Ages and Complexions.

CHAP. LXV. Of Mulberries.

Name. LAtin, Mora; English, Mulberries.

Choice. The black, the gross, and the most ripe, are the best, and let them not be touched by Flyes and Spiders, and gather'd before the rising of the Sun.

Commodity. They lenifie the roughness of the Throat, quench the Thirst, and make the Body slippery, excite the Appetite, extinguish the Cho­ler; being eaten before Meat, they are quickly digested, but eaten after, they are as soon cor­rupted; which also happens, if they find in the Stomach any naughty Humours.

Hurt. They nourish very little, as do likewise the Pumpions; nevertheless they do not cause Vo­miting, neither are they disagreeing with the Sto­mach, as those are. They beget Windiness, and pains in the Stomach, and trouble it, especially if they find it full of naughty Humours, and they are easily corrupted.

Remedy. Being washed in Wine, they become less hurtful; those that eat the sowr Mulberries, must use therewith a little Sugar. They agree in hot weather with young men, especially if san­guine and cholerick, and with them whose Sto­machs are clear and free from all naughty Hu­mours.

CHAP. LXVI. Of Quinces.

Name. IN Latin, Cotonea mala, and Cydonia; in English, Quinces.

Choice. The Apple Quinces are better than the Pear-Quinces, for those are larger, these are little, plain, and channelled with yellow partitions, downy, odoriferous, and ought to be more ripe than the others. The third sort of Quinces, are those which are grafted the one within the other.

Quality. Quinces are cold in the first degree, and dry in the second.

Commodity. They are to be eaten in the last Course, for they seal up the Stomach, help Dige­stion, and move the Body, if they be eaten in a competent quantity; and if there be need to bind [Page 115] the Body, they are to be eaten before Meals, which thing secures the Head from Intoxica­ [...]ion: They are pleasant to the Taste, they waken the Appetite, cherish and comfort the Heart, fortifie the mouth of the Stomach, stagnate the Flux; they mend a spoyled Sto­mach, stop Vomiting, and keep the Vapours down, that they cannot ascend into the Head; and though in themselves they are astringent, yet by accidents they provoke Urine; being eaten raw, they are good against the Bloody-flux, and expel mortal Poyson: The Mar­malade of Quinces made with Honey or Sugar, is good both for sick and well per­sons.

Hurt. Eaten raw, they beget Windiness, cause pricking pains in the Belly, hurt the Nerves, and excite cholick Pains, are hard­ly digested, and smelling thereof often of­fends the Head; those that are kept for Win­ter, if they touch one another, are spoyl­ed.

Remedy. They are less hurtful, when ripe, and boyled in Honey; or else after they are baked, put much Sugar and Musk with them; but the best and readiest way is, to boyl them in a Pipkin closely covered, putting Coals both, atop and under.


Name. IN Latine, Ficus; English, Figs.

Choice. The white are the best, ne [...] the red, and last of all, the black; and those th [...] have a thin Rind, are more easily digested: The [...] are to be eaten without their skin, and the ripest and the most clean are the best.

Commodity. They nourish very much, purg [...] the Kidneys, expelling the Gravel, preserve fro [...] Poison, and nourish more than all other Fruits, take away thirst, cleanse the Breast, fatten, caus [...] good Colour, aid Copulation; and those that ar [...] throughly ripe are most wholsom. The dry ar [...] good for the Cough; tosted Figs are good applye [...] to aking Teeth, to draw away the Rheum. Fig [...] with Nuts, leaves of Rue, Salt, &c. eaten, pre­serve a Man from the Plague. They are good a [...] all times, especially in Autumn; they agree with all Complexions, and all Ages, except decrepid Men.

Hurt. If you eat many of them, they bege [...] windiness, offend the Stomach of those that ar [...] troubled with Cholick pains, and are full of Cru­dities; they hurt the ulcerated Reins, cause Thirst, and are naught for the Liver and Milt, and opi­late; they cause the Itch, and breed many Lice.

Remedy. When you eat the fresh, you must drink fresh Water after them, whereby they find an easier descent in the bottom of the Stomach, and temperates their heat; or else eating Pome­granats [Page 117] after them, or other Food sauced with [...]e juice of Oranges and Sorrel.

CHAP. LXVIII. Of Apples.

Name. IN Latine, Poma, and Mala; in English, Apples.

Choice. There be almost infinite sorts of Ap­ [...]les; but the best, are the sweet, great, and co­ [...]ured; and above all, such as are most ripe. [...]he Pippins challenge the superiority and pre­ [...]erence beyond all others; next to them, the [...]ear-mains, &c.

Qualities. The sweet Apples are hot in the [...]rst degree, and temperately moist; but the sharp [...]nd sour Apples are cold and dry.

Commodity. They notably comfort the Heart, [...]pen the Breast, ripen Flegm, make one spit, and [...]re good baked, for those who are in Health, if [...]heir Stomach be very weak, because they com­ [...]r it, and excite the Appetite; but then they [...]ust be roasted under the ashes, and eaten with [...]omfits made of Anise-seed; of these is made [...]he Syrup of Apples, which is a great Cordial, [...]nd is good against Melancholy Passions.

Hurt. They hurt them that have a weak Sto­ [...]ach, and those that are troubled with pains in [...]he Nerves, especially if eaten raw, and in a [...]reat quantity. They must be suffered to hang [...]n the Tree till they be throughly ripe, otherwise [...]hey are very pernicious, and of very bad nou­rishment: [Page 118] The sour and sharp Apples cause wi [...] ­diness and much Flegm, and make the Memor [...] short.

Remedy. Apples become very good by roastin [...] and eating them with Sugar, or else Cinnamo [...] or Sugar of Roses after them. The Pippins a [...] least hurtful. Apples may be kept all the Winte [...] in Hay, but let them not touch one another.

CHAP. LXIX. Of Medlars.

Name. LAtine, Mespilum; English, Medlars.

Choice. The best Medlars are t [...] biggest, which have Pulp enough, and little Stone [...] but let them be well ripened either in Hay, [...] hang'd up in the Air.

Qualities. Medlars are cold in the second de­gree, and dry in the first.

Commodity. They are pleasant to the taste comfort the Stomach and the Belly, mitigate th [...] heat of the Stomach, stop Fluxes, stay Vomitin [...] but provoke Urine. Their stones also be [...] to powder, and drank in White-wine, togeth [...] with a few Roots of Parsley boyl'd, do send o [...] the Stone and Gravel of the Kidneys: There b [...] found a sort of Medlars without any stones, whic [...] being grafted on a Quince-Tree, come to be [...] a notable largeness, and pleasant taste.

Hurt. They are slowly digested, and do like­wise hinder the digestion of other things; an [...] many burden the Stomach, breeding little, b [...] gross Nourishment.

Remedy. Eating after them pectoral things, as Violet-Sugar, Liquorish, Sugar-c [...]ndy, &c. they lose their hurt. They are good in Winter for young cholerick Persons, and such as have a strong Stomach.

CHAP. LXX. Of Nutmegs.

Name. IN Latine, Nux Myristica; in English, Nutmegs.

Choice. The best are the fresh, red, heavy, solid, fat, and full of moisture.

Qualities. They are hot and dry in the end of the second degree, and astringent.

Commodity. They make the breath sweet, in­crease the sight; held in the Mouth, they cure the Vertigo and Syncope, strengthen all the Bowels, and especially the mouth of the Stomach, the Liver, the Milt, and the Matrice; they provoke Urine, and stop Vomiting, excite the Appetite, consume the Windiness, cause Digestion, and are very good in Sauces for those that have a weak Stomach, and for a cold Liver, because it heats notably; to anoint your self with the Oyl of Nutmegs, is very good for the Stomach, and trembling Members.

Hurt. They cause inflammations of the Body, and therefore they ought not to be eaten by Young, Cholerick, and Sanguine Men, chiefly in hot Weather; but Old, Flegmatick, and Melan­cholick Persons may make use thereof in their [Page 20] Victuals, most securely and especially in Winter. They are moreover very hurtful to those that are troubled with Piles or Emrods, and those that are bound in the Body, because Nutmegs are very astringent.

Remedy. They are less hurtful, if used but a little at once, and mixed also with Ginger, which by its moistness qualifies and allays their dryness.

CHAP. LXXI. Of Pepper.

Name. IN Latine, Piper; in English, Pepper.

Choice. You must take care in choosing it, that the grains be not hollow, dry, and light; but fresh, heavy, and black; for then it is manifest that it is throughly ripe and good.

Qualities. Pepper is hot and dry in the end of the third degree.

Commodity. The white Pepper grows in one Plant, and the black in another; and there is as much difference between them, as there is be­tween the Vines which bear red Grapes, and those that bear white. Black Pepper helps Concoction, excites the Appetite, disperses Windiness, forti­fies the Stomach, and strongly heats the Nerves; draws, dissolves, and removes the dimness of the Eyes. It hastens Child birth, is good against the Cough, and all Distempers and Defections of the Breast; being beaten to powder, and masht with Raisins of the Sun, it draws down the Flegm from the Head, and preserves the Health.

Hurt. It hurts hot Complexions in Summer, and in hot Countries, inflames the Blood, and dries the Liver.

Remedy. It loses most part of its hurtful qua­lities by a moderate use thereof, and is most whol­som for Old Men that are Flegmatick, and full of Rheums, but in cold Weather, and eat with cold and moist Meats, but not too finely powder'd, but big, unless you desire it should penetrate into all the parts of the Body, then beat it very small.

CHAP. LXXII. Of Pears.

Name. IN Latine, Pyrum; in English, Pears.

Choice. Of these also, as of Apples, there be infinite sorts, but the best are, first, the sweet and well-ripe Muscadine; the second, the Icy Pear; the third, the Bergamot; the fourth, the Bon Chrestien; and the last, are Wardens, and hard Winter-Pears, which are good baked.

Qualities. Pears for the most part are cold in the first degree, and dry in the second.

C [...]mmodity. They are pleasant to the taste, excite the Appetite, strengthen the Stomach, and cause a more quick evacuation of the Excrements: The Bergamots are the most wholsom, they are good against the Poison of Mushromes and Snails; they make good Perry, and putting them into a Glass of Wine, if they sink to the bottom, they signifie that the Wine is pure and right, but swim­ing on the top, they discover that the Wine is [Page 122] mixed with Water, and falsified. Drying them in the Sun or Oven, first quartering them, and picking out their Kernels, they are very good in the Winter, put into Wine, or hot Water, and sprinkled with a little Sugar.

Hurt. Being eaten before Meals, they become very unwholsom, and naught for those that are troubled with Cholick pains, and windiness, be­cause they beget cold Blood, and augment the said Distempers: They are also no less pernicious to such as are grieved with the Gravel in the Kidneys, and difficulty of Urine; for the wild beget gross Humours, and the sour offend the Nerves, are naught for Epileptick folks, and those that are vexed with the Tenesmus.

Remedy. They are less hurtful, being eaten after all other Food, raw; but let them be fully ripe, or baked, with a good deal of Sugar, drink­ing after them good Wine; or else stew them in Wine with Sugar and Cinnamon, whereby they are easily digested, and do not offend the Sto­mach; but be sure you drink Wine after them: For, Sine vino sunt Pyra virus. They are good in Autumn and Winter for all, except very old and phlegmatick. Muscadine Pears are to be eaten before other Food, for otherwise they putrefie, and cause continual Fevers.

CHAP. LXXIII. Of Service-Berries.

Name. LAtine, Sorbum; in English, Service-ber­ries.

Choice. The best are the biggest, odoriferous, throughly ripe, without corruption, and which for some time have been hanged up in the Air, or ripened in the Hay.

Qualities. The Service-berries are astringent like the Medlars, but with a more weak effect. They are cold in the first, and dry [...]n the third degree.

Commodity. Being eaten [...] [...]re Meals, they stagnate all sort of Fluxe [...] [...] [...]en they are eaten after Meals, they c [...] [...] [...]th, com­fort the Stomach, and [...]op superfluous Vo­miting.

Hurt. They hinder Digestion, if eaten too much, burden the Stomach, bind the Body; and beget gross Humours.

Remedy. They are to be used rather in Me­dicines and Physick, than in Food; and after Medlars, the best thing that you can make use of, is to eat a few Beans, or as some say, a little Honey. They are good in Autumn and Winter for Young Men, and all that are of a Sanguin [...] Complexion; but it is requisite that they be eat [...] moderately, for otherwise they breed naug [...] Blood.

CHAP. LXXIV. Of Grapes.

Name. IN Latine, Ʋva; in English, Grapes.

Choice. The best are the white, ripe, and sweet Grapes, with a tender skin, and with­out stones.

Qualities. The ripe Grape is hot and moist in the first degree; the sour is cold and dry.

Commodity. It nourishes exceedingly, makes a Man quickly fat, as is seen in those that keep and look after the Vineyards; it refreshes the infla­med Liver, provokes Urine, increases the Vene­real Appetite: It is also very good for the Breast and Lungs, profitable to the Stomach, and all pains of the Entrails, to the Kidneys and Bladder. Those that have no stones are better than the rest, and excellent for the Cough.

Hurt. Grapes cause windiness, trouble the Belly, beget Cholick pains, bring Thirst, and make the Body swell, and torment the Milt; the sweet fatten the Liver which is sound, but hurt that which is hard; the sour nourish less, bind the Body, and increase Catarrhs; Grapes pre­served a long while, hurt the Bladder.

Remedy. Grapes eaten before Meals, are less hurtful; as also by eating with them Pomegranats, Oranges, and other sharp Food; the white Grape is less hurtful than the black; and if for a few days you hang them up, they lose their windiness, and become better.

CHAP. LXXV. Of Almonds.

Name. IN Latine, Amygdala; in English, Al­monds.

Choice. The best are the sweet and fresh, not spoiled by Age, and growing in hot places.

Qualities. The sweet Almonds are hot and moist in the first degree; the bitter Almonds are dry in the second degree, more abstersive, and opening, more strongly purging the passages of the Bowels, and attenuating the gross and viscu­ous Humours.

Commodity. The sweet Almonds nourish suf­ficiently, fatten the Body, help the Sight, mul­tiply the Seed, make spitting easie, purge the Breast, and cause sleep, augment the substance of the Brain, clear the passage of the Urine, re­move the obstructions of the Liver, Milt, and of all the Veins, make smooth the Throat, cleanse the Breast and the Lungs; their Oyl is good for Cholick pains, and the P [...]ssions of the Breast; the green are eaten in the beginning of the Spring, they excite the Appetite, and take away the loathing of Women great with Child: They are also eaten in Summer with a little Sugar, when the kernel is tender; and then they are soft and delicate. The bitter are a good Remedy against Drunkenness; before Meals you may eat [...]ix or seven of them; eaten, they are Poison to Foxes; and in all Physical uses they are better than the sweet: And whereas these latter are more delicious [Page 126] and pleasing, so the former are more whol­som.

Hurt. If you eat them when they are very dr [...], they are of a hard and slow digestion; re­maining a long time in the Stomach, they cause the Head-ach, and beget Choler.

Remedy. Let the Almonds be eaten in Summer, when they are as tender and soft as Milk; or else Almonds with the skin blancht, and a great deal of Sugar with them, which makes them digest quickly; those that are eaten with the skin, are very hardly digested; therefore let them be peeled and well cleans'd. They are good at all times, for all Ages and Complexions, but pre­pared with Sugar or Honey.

CHAP. LXXVI. Of Oranges.

Name. IN Latine, Aurea Mala; in English, Oran­ges.

Choice. The best are those that are very heavy, and fully ripe, with a smooth skin, and of a plea­sant and middle taste; for the sweet are too hot, and the sour too cold, which offend the Sto­mach.

Qualities. The Peel is hot and dry in the be­ginning of the third degree; the Pulp, that is, the substance of the Oranges, is cold and dry in second degree; the Kernels are hot and dry in the second degree: The sweet are temperately hot, and are good for the Breast; others are sour, [Page 127] which are cold in the first degree: others are of a middling taste, betwixt sweet and sour, which are cold and dry temperately.

Commodity. The sweet Oranges, eaten before Meals, are good for the Stomach at all times, and are pectoral; they are wholsom for Melancholick, and Rheumatick Persons, and take away Obstructi­ons: The sour Oranges quench the Thirst, and awaken the Appetite; their Juice sprinkled on roasted Meats, or fryed Fish, give them a plea­sant relish; with Sugar, they must be eaten before Meals, as China-Oranges. Others are neither sweet nor sour, and these are grateful to the Pa­late and Appetite; they are excellent good in Cholerick Fevers, they make the Throat smooth, and take away Thirst: The powder of their skin dryed, is very good to kill the Worms; and be­ing taken in Wine, preserves the Body from the Plague.

Hurt. The sour or Sevil-Oranges do strongly bind the Body, and cool the Stomach, contract the Breast and the Arteries; the sweet increase the Choler in burning Fevers.

Remedy. The hurt and malignity of the sour Oranges is easily repaired and mitigated, by using therewith Sugar, or eating after them their Peel candyed, which being thus eaten in a small quan­tity, are very good for the Stomach. The China-Oranges are good at all times for Old Men, and the sour in hot Weather, for Young, Cholerick, and Sanguine Men, and especially in Pestilential Fevers.

CHAP. LXXVII. Of Chestnuts.

Name. IN Latine, Castaneae; in English, Chest­nuts, and Marroons.

Choice. The best Chestnuts are the biggest, and therefore the Marroons are the best; and af­ter they are gathered, they are to be kept a long while, whereby they become more savoury and wholsom.

Qualities. Garden-Chestnuts as well as wild, are hot in the first degree, and dry in the second; they are also very astringent.

Commodity. Being windy, they provoke Co­pulation, they afford large and wholsom Nourish­ment; they cure the Flux, and mingled with Honey and Salt, they heal the bitings of Mad Dogs; when they are roasted under the Ashes, they stop Vomiting. In places where there is but little Corn, they dry them, and smoak them in the Chimney, afterwards they cleanse them; which thus prepared, serve instead of Bread. Chestnuts lightly roasted under the Ashes, after­wards boyled in a little Skillet, with Oyl and Salt, adding thereto Pepper, and the Juice of Oranges: And they are used for Tartufoli, or Testiculi Terrae, much eaten in Italy and Spain.

Hurt. Being eaten over-much in Food, they cause the Head-ach, bind the Body, are hard of Digestion, cause windiness, especially if eaten raw.

Remedy. They are less hurtful, if roasted on the Coals, and cover'd a little while under hot Ashes, and afterwards eaten with Pepper and Salt, or Sugar, which is good for cholerick, as with Ho­ney for flegmatick men: The boyl'd are better than the roasted, for they acquire a suffocant qua­lity from the smoak; they are good in cold wea­ther for all Ages and Complexions, provided they be well boyled, and taken in a small quantity, drinking good Wine after them.

CHAP. LXXVIII. Of Lemmons.

Name. IN Latin, Mala Limonia; in English, Limons.

Choice. The best are such as have the smell of a Citron, that are very ripe, and of a good colour, having been Stazati of the Trees.

Qualities. The little as well as the great are cold and dry in the second degree; but the biggest ex­cel the rest, both in Juyce, Peel, and Substance.

Commodity. They have the same vertue as the Citrons, but more weak: Their juyce excites the Appetite, stops Vomiting, cuts the gross Humours, and resists malignant Fevers, and kills the Worms; the juyce of the sowr Lemmons taken to the quan­tity of an ounce, and mixt with Malmsey, sends out the Gravel of the Kidneys; the little ones have the same effects, but more strongly. If they be cut in pieces, and eaten with Rose-water and Sugar, they cause a good Stomach, and give a [Page 130] pleasant relish to the Drink, and also break the Stone in the Bladder. They are also eaten instead of a Sallad, cut in pieces, with Water, Honey, and Vinegar, having the same Effects as is said be­fore.

Hurt. They are a great cooler of the Stomach, beget cholick Pains, and cause Leanness, breed melancholick Humours; for with their sharpness they bite the Stomach, nourish little, and strong­ly bind the Body.

Remedy. They are to be used in a small quan­tity, without the Peel, steept a little while in Wa­ter, then eaten with Sugar and Cinamon; they are not good for cold Stomachs; they are good in hot weather for young and cholerick, and are naught for old and flegmatick men.

CHAP. LXXIX. Of Pomegranats.

Name. IN Latin, Punica mala; in English, Pome­granats, from the many Grains which are therein contained.

Choice. The best are such as are large, ripe, and easie to be peeled, and the sowr, for they have juyce enough.

Qualities. The sweet are hot, and moist tempe­rately, and pleasant to the Stomach; the strong and sowr are cold in the second degree; and those of a middling taste and indifferent nature, are ve­ry dry.

Commodity. The sweet are good for the Sto­mach, the Breast, and the Cough, and increase venereal Desires; the sharp and sowr are good for the Liver and burning Fever; refresh, and cool the dryness of the Mouth, extinguish the Thirst, and moderate the i [...]at of the Stomach: Their Wine and Syrup is good for the same pur­pose; strongly quenches the Choler, and hin­ders the Superfluities from dispersing themselves through the Bowels, keeps down the Vapours from the Head, and provokes Urine. The Peel of Pomegranats dryed, is very good to be put in a Trunk amongst Linnen and Cloaths, for it gives them a sweet smell, and preserves them from Moths.

Hurt. The sweet Pomegranats cause Heat, and Windiness, and therefore their use is forbidden in Fevers; the sowr are enemies to the Breast, and offend the Teeth and the Gums.

Remedy. The one sort of Pomegranats qualifie the malignity of the other; and therefore the grains of the one and of the other are to be mixed together, whereby of two such Contrarieties is made one excellent Temperament; or else eating a little Sugar with the sowr; but after you have well suckt all the grains, you must spit them forth: The sweet are good in Winter for every one, but the sowr only in Summer, and then too for young cholerick men; but they are naught for old men, because they contract their Breasts. Their juyce is not to be eaten alone, but as sawce with Food; the middling sort are eaten after Meals with Sugar, or Salt, whereby are represt the Vapours which would ascend into the Head.

CHAP. LXXX. Of Filberds.

Name. IN Latin, Nux Avellana, ab Avello, a Town in Campania; in English, Fil­berd.

Choice. The Garden-Filberds are better than the wild; also the red, big, and not much cover­ed, full of moisture, which are not rotten, nor worm-eaten; the long ones are more pleasant to the taste than the round Filberds.

Qualities. The fresh are temperate in the first degree, but the dry are hot and dry, almost in the beginning of the second degree.

Commodity. They are more nourishing than Nuts, increase the Brain, and two or three of them eaten at the beginning of the Dinner, are good against the Pains and Gravel of the Kidneys; be­ing eaten with Rue and dry Figs to Breakfast, they preserve the Body from the Plague. The round are covered as the Corianders, are most pleasant and grateful to the Stomach.

Hurt. They are very hardly digested, yet are not at all disagreeing with the Liver; they cause Windiness, beget much Choler, and Pains in the Head, especially if you eat too great a quantity of them, and too often.

Remedy. You must eat such as are very fresh, and in the Summer steept in Water, with a little Sugar on them, and the dry only in Winter; young men, and such as labour, or have a strong Sto­mach, may eat them often. The sugred Filberds are least hurtful.

CHAP. LXXXI. Of Walnuts.

Name. IN Latin, Nux Juglans; in English, Nuts, or Walnuts.

Choice. The best Nuts are the big, long, ripe, and which are fresh, not old, nor corrupted with­in.

Qualities. The fresh and green are hot and dry in the first degree; the dry are hot in the third de­gree, and dry in the second, but with age and keeping they grow dry; and by how much the more dry they are, so much the more oyl they afford.

Commodity. They fasten loose Teeth, and eaten with Figs, Rue and Mandorle, they preserve a man from deadly Poyson; and are good against the Plague, but they must be eaten at Breakfast, and thus prepared: Take two dryed Nuts, and as ma­ny Figs, twenty leaves of Rue, a few grains of Salt; take all these, and beat them together into a lump, and of this every morning take a small quantity fasting, and it is a certain Antidote both again [...]t Poyson and the Plague. The same thing is no less expedient for the Bitings of mad Dogs, spreading a little thereof upon a Plaister, and applying it to the Sore; the green bark of the Nut may supply the place of Pepper in Meat. The use of Walnuts is very laudable and wholesom after that you have eaten any Fish, for they cut and take away the slimyness thereof; whence is said: [Page 134]Post pisces nuces, post carnem caseus adsit.’

They kill the Worms in the Belly; and pre­served with Sugar, or Honey, and Cloves, they become very pectoral, profitable for the Stomach, and the cold Bowels.

Hurt. They are called Nuces, quasi Noces, quia nocent, because they hurt the Throat, the Tongue, and the Palate; for being eaten in too great a quantity, chiefly the dry, excite the Cough, cause the Head-ach, beget Crudities, the Vertigo, and Thirst. The shade of a Nut-tree is very pernici­ous, for it sends forth a naughty Vapour and Ex­halation, which makes the Head heavy, and of­fends those that sleep under it, and with its destru­ctive odour penetrates the Brain; and therefore being planted near the High-way, she thus heavily complains, and bewails her hard lot, as the Poet describes it:

Nux ego juncta viae, cum sim sine crimine vitae,
A populo saxis praetereunte petor.

Remedy. Eating them fresh, but first steept in good Claret, and in a small quantity, and they are less hurtful; and though they are very old, yet that bad quality may be remedied, by soaking them one whole night in hot Water, and after­wards cleansing them: Garlick also takes away all malignity from them; those that are conserved with Sugar and Honey, become very good in cold weather, and warm the Stomach; the dry are good in Winter for old, flegmatick, and melancho­lick men, because they open the Breast. One [Page 135] Nut mixed in the Pottage-pot, make the Flesh quickly boyled; when the Nuts are fruitful, it signifies abundance of Corn.

CHAP. LXXXII. Of Pine-Kernels.

Name. IN Latin, Pini Nucleus; in English, the Kernels of a Pine-Apple.

Choice. The best are those Kernels which are taken off from Garden Pine-Apples, and especial­ly of the female Pine, for they are more savoury; but above all let them be sound and fresh.

Qualities. They are hot in the beginning of the second degree, and moist in the first.

Choice. Being eaten fresh in Foods, they nou­rish sufficiently, and that well too: They correct the moistness which would putrifie in the Broth; boyled with Honey or Sugar, they purge the Breast, provoke the Urine, restore Strength to the weak, cleanse the Reins and the Bladder of their Superfluities, are good for the heat and di­stillation of the Urine; they cure the Pains and Convulsions of the Nerves, and of the Sciatica, or Gout; they are profitable to the paralitick and stupid persons, and to those that are grieved with Tremblings; they cleanse the Lungs, and the Ul­cers thereof; they are very useful in the distem­pers and defects of the Breast, and do very much contribute to the Cure and Health of Tisical men.

Hurt. They are something hard of digestion, and afford a gross nourishment, and bite the Sto­mach, and when they are rancidi, they excite Lust, and fill the Head with Vapours.

Remedy. Steep them first in warm Water at least an hour, then let the flegmatick eat them with Honey, and the cholerick with Sugar.

CHAP. LXXXIII. Of Pistack-Nuts.

Name. IN Latin, Pistacium; in English, the Pi­stack-Nut.

Choice. The biggest are the best, of a smell something like Turpentine; let the Fruit be ga­thered from old Trees, but let it be fresh and green: These Nuts are better than Almonds.

Qualities. They are hot and dry in the second degree.

Commodity. They are wonderful good in awa­kening and exciting the venereal Desires; they remove the Obstructions of the Liver, and strength­en it, purge the Breast and the Kidneys, are use­ful for the Stomach, for they comfort it, and hinder nauseating; they attenuate the gross Hu­mours, are restorative, and therefore are put in­to Compositions which are made to fatten one; being drunk in Wine, they heal the Bitings of Serpents.

Hurt. They are hurtful to Children, and such as are of an hot Complexion, because they atte­nuate and inflame their Blood; they cause the Ver­tigo, [Page 137] and eaten in too great a quantity, burden the Stomach.

Remedy. They may be safely eaten at the be­ginning and end of a Meal, taking after them dry Grimosele, or Sugar of Roses; they are good in Winter for old and flegmatick, but naught for young, &c. They say, Pistack-Nuts are produ­ced, by grafting an Almond on a Willow-tree.

CHAP. LXXXIV. Of Carnation-Cherries.

Name. IN Latin, Cerasa austera; in English, Car­nation-Cherries.

Choice. The biggest and most ripe are the best.

Qualities. These Cherries are usual, and more proper to make Wine, being not pleasant to the taste when raw, as the sweet ones; they are sowr, and bind the Belly, cut the Flegm, refresh, dry and strengthen.

Commodity. They are grateful to the Stomach, for they extinguish the heat of the Choler, and cut the slimyness of Flegm, excite the Appetite, and are very good preserved with Sugar.

Hurt. They exasperate the Stomach with their sharpness.

Remedy. They are not good raw, unless with Sugar, or baked, and preserved in Glass-vessels, which is more wholesom than raw: They are ve­ry good against pestilential Fevers; they are good for those that are cholerick, but naught for old and flegmatick men.

CHAP. LXXXV. Of Apricots.

Name. IN Latin, Malum Armenium, because they were first brought from Armenia; in English, Apricots.

Choice. The largest, soft, ripe, of a good co­lour, are the best, and most sweet to the taste.

Qualities. This Fruit is cold and moist in the second degree.

Commodity. They are good for the Stomach, quench the Thirst, excite the Appetite, provoke Urine; their kernels kill the Worms; the infusion made of the dry, cures sharp Fevers; they are to be cut asunder, and dryed in the Sun, sprink­ling them with beaten Sugar.

Hurt. They are indeed pleasant to the Sto­mach, but they weaken it, and are more corrupt­ing than Peaches; they move the Flux of the Bel­ly, swelling and filling the Blood with watry Hu­mours, and dispose it to corruption: They are of very bad substance, convert themselves into Cho­ler, and putrifie quickly; they cause pestilential Fevers, and breed gross and viscuous Flegm in the Liver and Milt.

Remedy. They are to be eaten before all other Food, drinking good Wine after it, or Aniseed, or Meat well seasoned with Salt, or with Spice, or else a little old Cheese.

CHAP. LXXXVI. Of Cherries.

Name. IN Latin, Cerasa; in Engish they are cal­led Cherries.

Choice. The best Cherries are such as are of an hard substance: Let them be fully ripe; the watry Cherries are to be avoided, for they are cold, and do easily putrifie; the sowr Cherries are more wholsom.

Qualities. The sweet are cold and moist, but the Carnation or sowr Cherries are more cold.

Commodity. The sweet move the Body, and are easily concocted by the Stomach; being eaten in the Morning, they quench the Thirst, refresh and provoke the Appetite: The dry are astrin­gent, chiefly the slimy and viscuous, and are very pleasant to the Stomach, because they extinguish the burning heat of the Choler, and cut the viscosi­ty of the Flegm, and make a man have a good sto­mach to his Victuals, especially if they be boyled with a good quantity of Sugar upon them.

Hurt. The sweet are enemies to the Stomach, especially the watry, begetting in the Belly viscu­ous and putrid Humours, for they quickly putrifie, and swell the Stomach with the wind which they beget, if you eat too much of them.

Remedy. You must eat but few at once; and then immediately after them, take some Meat of an excellent substance, either salted or sharp: They must not be eaten as Food, but Physick, to quench the thirst and heat of those who labour in [Page 140] hot weather; and at such times they are good for young and cholerick, but naught for old and fleg­matick men.

CHAP. LXXXVII. Of Cornel-berries.

Name. IN Latin, Cornum; in English, Cornel-berries.

Choice. The biggest, and not too ripe, are the best.

Qualities. This Fruit has the quality of drying strongly, and they are also very astringent.

Commodity. They are an effectual Remedy a­gainst all Fluxes of the Belly, because they bind the Body: They are pickled green as the Olives, and of the ripe is made a Conserve with Sugar, and Honey, whereby they are good against the Bloody-flux, and strengthen the Body; and thus prepared, they may be given to feverish per­sons.

Hurt. They are of a small and bad Nourish­ment, and hard to be digested.

Remedy. They are to be eaten at second Course, a few only, and with Sugar.


Name. IN Latin, Dactylus, fructus Palmae; in English, Dates.

Choice. You must choose such as are sweet, [...]ipe, and that are very sound within.

Qualities. The Date contains no small heat in it [...]elf, especially when it is made sweet, whence [...]his Fruit is hot in the second degree, and moist [...]n the first.

Commodity. They are pleasant, fatten the Li­ [...]er, cure the Cough, and make the Body slip­ [...]ery.

Hurt. They breed Blood, which is soon [...]hanged into Choler: They hurt the Teeth, and [...]he Mouth, and make the Emrods come forth; [...]hey gripe the Stomach, and fill the Body with [...]aw and viscuous Humours, which cause Obstructi­ [...]ns, not only in the Liver, but also in the Milt, [...]o all the Bowels and Veins, whence proceed long [...]d terrible Fevers.

Remedy. They are less hurtful, being eaten [...]oyled, and preserved with Sugar, or else eaten [...]ter the raw, some sharp Food. They are good [...] no time, for no Age nor Complexion, unless, as said before, prepared with much Sugar, which [...]alifies them sufficiently.

CHAP. LXXXIX. Of Olives.

Name. IN Latin, Olea, & Oliva; in English Olives.

Choice. The best are those of Spain, big, wit [...] little stones, growing in warm Places; let the [...] be well pickled.

Qualities. This Fruit when it is throughly ripe is moderately hot, but when it is not ripe, it i [...] more cold and binding: They strengthen and bin [...] the Belly; those that are pickled, are hot in th [...] second degree, having a little of an astringent fa­culty.

Commodity. They purge the Stomach of Flegm [...] and the pickled excite the Appetite; and thei [...] Pickle is good to wash the Mouth withal, for i [...] binds the Gums, fastens loose Teeth; those tha [...] are pickled in Vinegar, quench the Choler, an [...] stop Vomiting.

Hurt. Pickled Olives afford but small Nouris [...] ­ment, and are of an hard digestion; the salted i [...] flame the Blood, and beget Choler, and hinde [...] Sleeping.

Remedy. They are to be eaten in a small qua [...] ­tity at once, and those that are pickled in Vineg [...] are better than the others, and that have goo [...] Pickle: They are good in cold weather for [...] Ages and Complexions; the Olives are to be eate [...] after the other Food, that they may strengthe [...] the Stomach, and help Digestion; but now the [...] eat them in the beginning, in the middle, an [...] [Page 143] end of a Meal, with Flesh, Fish and Eggs: but it is a very bad custom, for we ought to observe an order in our Food, especially if we consult our health and welfare.

CHAP. XC. Of Peaches.

Name. IN Latin, Mala Persica; in English, Peaches.

Choice. The best Peaches are the odoriferous, well-coloured, fully ripe, so that they come clear from the stone, and that have an excellent taste; the Nutmeg-Peaches are the best of all.

Qualities. Peaches are cold and moist in the se­cond degree; their Kernels are hot and dry.

Commodity. They are good for the Stomach, and make the Body slippery; those that come clear from the stone, and that are very ripe, ought to be eaten before Dinner, for they beget an appe­tite: But you must drink after them old and odori­ferous Wine; and therefore let them be steept in Wine, the which does not thereupon become im­poysoned, as having attracted to it self the poyson­ous quality; but it is rendred bad, for the Peaches which are spungy, having drawn out and extract­ed the spirits and quintessence of the Wine, that which remains behind, becomes flat and dead, lo­sing all its vertue.

Hurt. They loosen the Stomach, begetting Humours, which are quickly putrified and corrupt­ed, as being of a soft and watry nature, whence [Page 144] they do also breed much Windiness, and cause the Dropsie; whence some thinking to correct their malign Influences, do cleanse and steep them in Wine; but instead thereof commit a greater error, for their hurtful juyce is sooner transported to the Veins, and thereby becomes more hurtful.

Remedy Having eaten them with an empty Stomach, you must drink an odoriferous and aromatick Wine after them; but the Nutmeg-Peaches must be eaten after Meals, which re­freshes and seals up the mouth of the Stomach, as do likewise the dry. They are good in Sum­mer for young and cholerick, but naught for old and flegmatick men, and whose Stomach is weak; but roasted under the ashes, are a delicate Food, and most pleasant to the Sick; for they are good against the Passions of the Heart, and with their pleasant smell they take away a stinking Breath, which proceeds from the Stomach, and chear the Mind: The dry are more wholesom, and make the Stomach better, and stop Fluxes. The Kernels cure the Pains of the Body, kill the Worms, dissolve Windiness, cleanse and com­fort the Stomach, remove the Obstructions of the Liver, break the Stone in the Kidneys and Blad­der; and in short are very good to preserve the Health, if every morning you eat eight or ten of them, but two or three are enough for those that are troubled with an hot Liver.

CHAP. XCI. Of Plums.

Name. IN Latine, Pruna; in English, Plums. Of these are found infinite sorts.

Choice. The best and most commendable are the Damascene Plums, so called from Damascus, a City of Syria, where they grew.

Qualities. Plums are cold and moist: But of the several sorts of Plums, some are sweet, others are sharp and sour: They are cold in the begin­ning of the second degree, and moist in the end of the third.

Commodity. They purge the Choler, extin­guish Heat, take away Thirst, refresh and moisten the Body, whence their Juice boyled may serve to excite the Appetite, and to quench the thirst in Feverish Persons, and thereof is made an Electuary with Scamony, and without, to loosen the Belly, with the pulp or in-side of Damascene Plums and Manna: With the infusion of Sena, Polipodium, Anise-seed, and Cinnamon is made another excellent Electuary, whereof the quan­tity of half an Ounce being taken before Meals, does pleasantly loosen and make the Body slip­pery, and is grateful also to the Palate, as Mar­malade of Quinces.

Hurt. They are hurtful to those whose Sto­mach is cold and weak, to decrepid and phlegma­tick Men, and such as are troubled with Cholick pains.

Remedy. The hurt of Plums is remedied and corrected by eating Sugar with them at the first Course, or eating after them salt Meats, and drink­ing good Wine; they are very good for Young, Sanguine, and Cholerick Men, chiefly in Sum­mer.

CHAP. XCII. Of Cucumbers.

Name. IN Latine, Cucumer; in English, a Cu­cumber.

Choice. The best Cucumbers are such as are large, and fully ripe.

Quality. They are cold in the end of the se­cond degree, and moist in the third.

Commodity. The Cucumber is an excellent thing for the cooling and refreshment of those that are thirsty in Summer; for it qualifies the heat, and lessens the dryness of the Tongue; they are a good Remedy for the Reins and Bladder, provoke Urine, are very convenient for hot and dry Stomachs, r [...]store those that suffer indisposi­tions, by reason of over-much heat.

Hurt. The Cucumber used too often, is of very bad Nourishment; and if not quickly concocted by the Stomach, 'tis corrupted, and converted into Hu­mours little inferiour to deadly Poison. It di­minishes the Sperma genitale, and extinguishes the Venereal Appetite, begets slimy Flegm in the Sto­mach, the which despersing it self raw through the Veins, occasions long Fevers: Cucumbers in [Page 147] Flegmatick mens Stomachs causes nauseating, Cho­lick pains, and Hypochondriack Passions.

Remedy. It must not be eaten before Meals, for like Radishes, it rises in the Stomach; after Dinner it is less hurtful, and more easily digested. Cucumbers are naught for Old Men, and such as are of a cold and moist Complexion; and to qua­lifie it, let them eat a few Seeds of Anise: They are good for Young and Sanguine Men, and being boyled, are less hurtful.

CHAP. XCIII. Of Straw-berries.

Name. IN Latine, Fraga; in English, Straw-berries.

Choice. The best are the red, and through-ripe Straw-berries, large, of a pleasant Odour, and such as grow in the Garden, are better than the wild.

Qualities. They are cold in the first degree, and dry in the second.

Commodity. They are very pleasant to the taste, extinguish the heat and sharpness of the Blood, and refreshing the Liver, they quench the burning Choler, take away Thirst, provoke the Urine, and excite the Appetite. Their Wine dries up the fluxes and rheums of the Eyes, and clear the Sight, applyed to the Eyes, taking away the little Clouds of the Eyes, and cleanse the Eyes hurt by the Small-Pox. The Straw-berries do not receive any venomous quality from the Toads [Page 148] and Serpents, though they often tread upon and pass over them, as being of a very low growth; they stop Loosnesses and Flux of Women, and are good for the Milt; the Decoction of the Leaves and Roots drank, eases the inflammation of the Liver, and cleanses the Kidney and Blad­der; and the Water of Straw-berries distilled, stops the Bloody-flux in all parts.

Hurt. They are of little Nourishment, and are easily corrupted in the Stomach: Straw-berries are very hurtful to trembling and Paralitick Men, and those that are troubled with convulsions of the Nerves; their Wine intoxicates, they easily putrifie; whence those that eat many of them, fall often-times into Malignant Fevers.

Remedy. They must be first cleansed from their Leaves, and from all filth, afterwards put into good White-wine, and then eaten sprinkled with Sugar. They are convenient in hot Weather for Young Men, and for Cholerick and Sanguine Com­plexions, and strong Stomachs; they are to be eaten before other Food, and in a small quantity; as Cherries, Mulberries, and such other Fruits.

CHAP. XCIV. Of Melons.

Name. IN Latine, Pepo; in English, Melons, or Pompions.

Choice. You must choose such as are of an ex­quisite Odour and Taste, pleasant to the Palate, fresh, and ripe.

Qualities. Melons and Pompions are cold in the second degree; the Melons moist in the end of the second, the Pompions in the third.

Commodity. They are very refreshing, they cleanse the Body, provoke Urine, take away Thirst, stir up the Appetite. Those that eat of them, secure themselves from the Stone and Gra­vel; and therefore the Emperour Albinus was so much delighted with them, that in one Night he eat ten Melons of Ostia, and an hundred Peaches of Campania, which were counted the best of all others.

Hurt. They cause windiness, and the Belly-ach; and therefore such as are grieved with Cholick pains, ought to abstain from them, for they breed naughty Nourishment, easily converting them­selves into the same Humours that they find in the Stomach; and by reason of their coldness they are difficultly digested: They do moreover excite Vomiting, and Cholerick Fluxes; and be­ing corrupted, they beget Malignant, Spotted Fevers.

Remedy. They are not to be eaten, unless with an empty Stomach, because, as is said be­fore, they are changed into the same Humours they meet with in the Stomach. The eating of Melons is also good, if after them you eat old Cheese, salted Meats, and drink good Wine after them, but not very strong. They are good in hot sultry Weather, and agree with all Ages, ex­cept Decrepid, Flegmatick, and Cholerick Men, to whom they are very pernicious.

Advertisements concerning Flesh.

FLesh is more nourishing than all other Food; for being hot and moist, it is easily turned into Blood, and afford great Nourishment; con­cerning which it will be good to observe these fol­lowing Rules.

I. You must always take notice, That Flesh, Herbs, Fruits, Corn, and Wine are to be chosen in high and odoriferous places, such as are re­freshed with wholsom Winds, and recreated with the warm beams of the Sun, where there are no Ponds, Lakes, and standing Waters, for in such pl [...]ces they are quickly corrupted.

II. That the flesh of all those Creatures which live in Fens, Marshes, and standing Pools, be avoided; to wit, of Ducks and Geese.

III. The flesh of Creatures too Old, are naught, hard, dry, sinewy, of small Nourishment, and hard to be digested; whereas on the other side, such as are too Young do over-abound with moi­sture, and are full of superfluities, though more easily concocted in the Stomach.

IV. The flesh of the Male Animal is more hot and dry, and more easily digested than that of the Female, the which is more cold and moist, and for that cause less digestible; yet the flesh of the Female is better for feverish Persons than the other, because it is less hot and more moist; and therefore in Summer, to sick Persons you must give young Pullets, and not Cockerels.

[Page 151]V. All Female flesh begets worse Blood than the Male, except that of the She-Goat, which affords better Nourishment than that of the Male.

VI. Salted flesh is hurtful, begetting gross and melancholick Blood, and bad Juice; for it dries much, and nourishes little.

VII. Fat Meat is easily digested, yet breeds many superfluities, and therefore is of small nou­rishment, takes away the Appetite, hinders the Digestion, and makes the Stomach languish: The lean nourishes better, and begets fewer super­fluities; whence the middling betwixt both is more wholsom, because it breeds temperate Blood.

VIII. The flesh of Birds is more light, more dry, and more easily digested, than that of four-footed Beasts; and therefore more convenient and agreeable for those who are more given to the exercise of the Mind, than of the Body, for they are digested more easily than all the rest, and because they breed Blood which is clear, clean, and full of Spirits, and fit for the exercise of the Mind.

IX. The flesh of wild Creatures, and such as frequent the Woods, is better than that of tame; and the Blood which is bred by eating of them will have fewer superfluities, by reason of the much running, and exercise which they are ac­customed to, and because they live in a more dry Air, especially such as frequent the Mountains, and their flesh will keep longer uncorrupted; for they have less fat, and therefore beget fewer su­perfluities, nourish better, and breed a more sound Blood: But tame Creatures are more moist than wild, by reason of their little motion, and the moistness of the Air wherein they live.

[Page 152]X. In moist times and complexions the flesh that inclines to dryness is most convenient; and so on the contrary.

XI. The flesh of gelded Creatures is the best, as being most temperate; for 'tis hotter than the Female, and colder than the Male.

XII. The flesh of black Creatures is more light and sweet than that of the white.

XIII. The flesh which sticks to the Bone, is of best Nourishment; and the flesh of the right side is better than the left, and the fore-part is better than the hinder; for the fore-part is hotter, and more easily digested, but the hinder-part is colder, and more gross; the flesh which is near the Heart is better than the other farther off; for being strengthened by the heat of the Heart, 'tis more fit to nourish.

XIV. The flesh which is dry must be boyled, the moist roasted.

XV. Roasted flesh is fatter, of greater Nourish­ment, though more hardly digested than boyled, which though of less, yet is of better Nourish­ment, and therefore more wholsom; at Dinner boyled Meats are best, at Supper roasted, as be­ing of an harder digestion, and therefore better concocted in the Night-time. Fryed and broyled Meats beget nauseous Humours and Crudities in the Stomach, and are of a difficult digestion, though very nourishing.

CHAP. XCV. Of Lambs.

Name. IN Latine, Agnus; in English, a Lamb.

Choice. Let it be a Male of one Year, brought forth in Spring, and that hath fed on sweet Herbs; but the sucking Lambs flesh is too moist and slimy.

Qualities. The Lamb is moist in the second degree, and hot in the first; but the sucking-Lamb is moist in the third degree, and is very viscuous; but when 'tis a year old, though it abounds with moistness, yet being taken from Milk, the heat increases, and the moisture de­creases.

Commodity. It begets good nourishment, is easie to be digested, especially when fed with sweet Herbs; 'tis good against Melancholick Hu­mours, 'tis convenient in hot Weather, and in hot Countries; for those that are of a cholerick and adust Complexion, that which does not suck is more easily digested, breeding good and greater Nourishment.

Hurt. The flesh of a young sucking Lamb is too moist, waterish, slimy, and of gross Nourish­ment, and therefore very hurtful to Flegmatick and Old Men in cold Weather and Countries; they breed many viscuous Humours in the Sto­mach, because they have in themselves a super­fluous moistness, and so much the more, by how much the younger. This Food is not good for sick Men, especially for such as are troubled with [Page 154] the Falling-Sickness, and other Passions of the Brain and Nerves.

Remedy. You must not eat them before they be a Year old, but let them not have Copulation; they are to be roasted with Sage, Rosemary, Gar­lick, Cloves, and other hot things, which may dry up their moisture; and with this flesh the sauce ought to be such as is cutting and drying: Lambs flesh is always to be roasted or baked, not boyled.

CHAP. XCVI. Of Beef and Veal.

Name. IN Latine, Bos, Vitulus, & Taurus; in English, an Ox, Calf, and Bull.

Choice. The Ox ought to be young and fat, and that hath been put to the Plough: The Veal or Calf ought to be sucking of a Dam, which is fed in excellent Pasture.

Qualities. The flesh of an Ox or Cow is cold in the first degree, and dry in the second; but when it is very young, it has more moistness than the young fl [...]sh of other Animals, which by Nature are more dry.

Commodity. The Ox affords great Nourishment to those that labour much, and breed much Blood, and stops Cholerick Fluxes. Veal al [...]o nourishes greatly, begetting excellent Blood, and is easily dig [...]sted. The Field Veal is not near so good as the House sucking Veal.

Hurt. Cow Beef is very unwholsom, of bad Nourishment, of hard Digestion, breeds Heme­rodes and Melancholick Infirmities. Ox Beef is of a gross substance, but good for healthy and sound Bodies. The worst of all is Bull-Beef, which is a gross, hard, dry flesh, and of very ill Nourishment.

Remedy. The flesh of an Ox lying twenty four hours in Brine, and afterwards well boyled, is good. Veal is to be well roasted or baked.


Name. IN Latine, Haedus; in English, 'tis called a Kid.

Choice. The red and black are to be chosen; but let it be a sucking Kid, a Male, and not above six Months old.

Qualities. It is temperately hot until the second Month; its flesh is very good, neither too moist, nor too dry.

Commodity. It is of an excellent Nourishment, and very easily digested; it wonderfully contri­butes to the Health, and is very good both for sick and healthy Persons, and for such as labour much, and for studious Men.

Hurt. Kid is naught for Old and Decrepid folks, and such as have a weak, cold, and watry Stomach; and is very hurtful for all those that are grieved with pains of the Stone, and the Falling-sickness.

Remedy. Its hurt is remedied by roasting it well, especially those parts which are most humid, and eat it with Oranges, or else baking it with Pep­per and Salt; but the boyled is to be eaten cold, if at all.


Name. IN Latine, Dama; in English, a Buck or a Doe, or Fallow-Deer.

Choice. Of the Deer, let those that you choose be young, fat, and exercised enough, which dis­solves their naughty Humours, and purges the Blood from many superfluities, and makes them more easie to be digested; nevertheless they incline to Melancholy, as do almost all Wild Beasts.

Qualities. They are hot and dry in the second degree.

Commodity. They are of a great and good Nou­rishment; and in this they excel other wild flesh, they are good against the Palsie, Cholick pains, and make lean such as are too fat.

Hurt. They are hurtful to lean and slender folks, because they breed a sharp Blood, and cause Convulsions of the Nerves, especially if the Beast be old, for then it is more difficultly digested: 'Tis naughty flesh in hot Weather.

Remedy. When it is boyled, 'tis to be well sawced with Oyl or Butter, to the end that the flesh may become more moist, and more easily di­gested. At great Mens Tables they eat this flesh [Page 157] boyled, roasted, and baked in Pies, or great Pa­sties. 'Tis good in Winter for Old and Flegma­tick Men, but does not in any wise agree with Young and Cholerick folks. The Female of this Creature is one of the most fearful Creatures that is, and most weak, having no manner of Wea­pon or Defence to preserve her from Doggs and Wild Beasts, as she thus complains;

Dente timetur Aper, defendunt Cornua Cervum,
Imbelles Damae, quid nisi praeda sumus.

CHAP. XCIX. Of Wether.

Name. IN Latine, Vervex; in English, a We­ther.

Choice. The young Wethers of one years growth are to be chosen; for then their flesh is very good, and agreeable both with sick and healthy Persons: Let them feed on sweet Herbs, and so they will excell all Flesh.

Qualities. This flesh is temperately hot and moist.

Commodity. It breeds good Blood, because 'tis sweet, of a good nourishment, and easily di­gested; the Broth of Wether-Mutton is excellent, for it is very good against Melancholick Humours, and maintains the Body in an equal Tempera­ment: Let it be eaten boyled with Parsley, or else the hind-quarters roasted with Rosemary and Garlick, beaten together.

Hurt. When the flesh is Old 'tis hurtful; for it is drying, both by reason of the Age, and for want of its Stones; is of hard digestion, and less sweet and pleasant.

Remedy. Let the flesh be young, and boyled with opening and Cordial Herbs, or roasted as is shewed before: This flesh is good in all Seasons and Countries, and for all Ages and Complexions.

CHAP. C. Of Stags.

Name. IN Latine, Cervus; in English, a Stag.

Choice. The young and sucking is to be chosen, or else let it be gelded.

Qualities. The flesh is hot in the first degree, and dry in the second.

Commodity. The flesh of the young ones is a very laudable Food, and of good Nourishment. The Horns of a Stag burned drive away all Ve­nomous Creatures; and the Bone which is found in their Heart is very Cordlal, and a good Anti­dote against Poison, and therefore used in Treacle.

Hurt. This flesh breeds gross and melancho­lick Humours, hard of digestion, nourishes little, causes Palsies, Tremblings, and Quartan Agues.

Remedy. Boyling it together with the Heads of other gross Animals, or baking it in Pasties, but let it be young, or gelded, and it is not hurt­ful: 'Tis not to be eaten in Summer, chiefly by Old and Melancholick Men, in Winter more [Page 159] securely; for in Summer they feed on Vipers and Serpents. The Hanches are the best part.

CHAP. CI. Of the Wild and Tame Boar.

Name. IN Latine, Aper; in English, Boar, where­of is made Brawn.

Choice. The flesh of that Boar which has been long Corn-fed, is the best.

Qualities. It is hot and moist.

Commodity. Brawn made of the flesh of tame Boars, and young, is a delicate Meat, having not so much excrementitious moisture as Bacon or Pork.

Hurt. The hard and horny part is difficultly concocted.

Remedy. It must be well pickled in Brine, and the longer you keep it, the better it grows.

CHAP. CII. Of Rabbets.

Name. IN Latine, Cuniculus; in English, a Rabbet, or Coney. This Creature is very like a H [...]re, though less; by their continual digging their Berr [...]es under Ground, they have taught Men the w [...]y of Undermining; whence the Poet says,

[Page 160]
Gaudet in effossis habitare Cuniculus antris,
Demonstrat tacitas hostibus ille vias.

Choice. You must choose the young, fat Rab­bet; in Winter its flesh in the Night Air becomes tender: The old ones have an impure flesh, very unwholsom, and unpleasant to the taste.

Qualities. The Rabbet is cold in the beginning of the first degree, and dry in the second; though less dry than the Hare, and of better Nourish­ment.

Commodity. 'Tis of good and large Nourish­ment, consumes the superfluous moisture and flegm which it finds in the Stomach, and comforts it: This flesh is whiter, and much less dry than that of a Hare, and therefore nourishes better, and is more easily digested; provoking the Urine, and is good for such as are troubled with the Le­prosie.

Hurt. It is hurtful to Melancholick, and chiefly to Decrepid Persons, and in hot Weather; for it begets gross and very bad Nourishment, and this flesh is not very pleasant to the Palat.

Remedy. This flesh is less hurtful if boyled a little, and afterwards roasted, with odoriferous Herbs, Cloves, Nutmeg, or Cinnamon, and well larded.

CHAP. CIII. Of Hares.

Name. IN Latine, Lepus; so called from the lightness of its feet, and swiftness in running; which gift is bestowed on this Creature, instead of Weapons, whereby he may save him­self from other wild Beasts and the Hunters. In English, an Hare.

Choice. The best is the young Hare, caught by the Dogs after a long Chase, in Winter, the flesh hung out in a clear Night, becomes tender.

Qualities. The Hare is dry in the beginning of the third degree, and hot in the first.

Commodity. Young Hares are very sweet, and pleasant to the Stomach, boyled in Water and Wine with Sage; or roasted with Sage and Cloves, or else baked: They are good for such as are too fat, and desire to be lean; they cause a good co­lour and beauty in the Face; whence the Poet jesting, says,

Si quando Leporem mittis mihi, Gellia, dicis▪
Formosus septem Marce diebus eris
Si non mentiris, si verum Gellia narras,
Edisti nunquam Gellia tu Leporem.

The Blood of an Hare fryed and eaten, is good against the Dysentery, inward Imposthumes, and old Fluxes, breaks the Stone and Gravel in the Kidneys and Bladder, and drives it out; the [Page 162] Brains of a roasted Hare eaten, cures the trem­bling of the Members; and the same thing faci­litates the breeding of Teeth in Infants, and lessens the pains thereof. Bathing ones self in the Broth of an Hare, is very good against the Gout.

Hurt. It is hardly digested, breeds gross Blood, binds the Belly, induces waking, and troublesom Dreams; 'tis bad for melancholick and studious Persons, of small and bad nourishment.

Remedy. It becomes less hurtful, being well larded and roasted with Aromatick Spices. 'Tis not good, unless in Winter for Young and San­guine Men.

CHAP. CIV. Of Bacon or Pork.

Name. IN Latine, Porcus; in English, Bacon or Pork.

Choice. That is the best which is neither too little nor too old, but of a middle Age, and a Male gelt, and brought up in the Fields.

Qualities. 'Tis hot in the first degree, and moist in the second; but the sucking-pig is more moist, therefore not to be eat, because very hurtful.

Commodity. 'Tis of a large and commendable nourishment, maintains the Body slippery, and provokes Urine. Bacon, especially the Hams, are good to excite the Appetite, and to boyl with other flesh; for by its good taste it makes the Beer relish, and cuts Flegm.

Hurt. This flesh is hurtful to delicate Persons, and such as live in ease, causes the Sciatica and Gout, especially the flesh of a sucking-pig; and because it is too moist and viscuous, and of much Excrements, it putr [...]fies easily, and converts it self into the Humours which it finds in the Sto­mach, causes Flegm and Cholick-pains, the Stone in the Kidneys, and Obstructions in the Liver. The Sows have very bad flesh, and full of me­lancholick Humours, begetting gross nourishment; whence those that eat too much of this Food, abound with many Excrements. It gluts and loosens the Stomach, takes away the Appetite, provokes nauseating, and is easily turned into Choler.

Remedy. Pork is less hurtful, eaten in a small quantity, of a middle Age, and let the flesh be lean, but of a fat Beast, powdered, roasted with sweet-smelling Herbs; or else fryed with Salt, Fen­nel, or Sage, whereby it is more pleasant to the taste, and more wholsom, for it has not so many moist superfluities: This flesh is good in very cool Weather for Young Men that have not an hot Stomach, and for such as labour; but naught for Old and Idle folks.

Advertisements concerning the Parts of Beasts and Birds.

AMongst the Parts of Birds and Beasts, some are better than others; for all the extre­mities, as the Head, the Neck, the Feet, the Tail, in respect of the rest, are hard, of little and [Page 164] gross Nourishment, and hard to be digested; but better and more savoury are the Parts about the Wings, Back, and Breast.

The Parts of Animals.

I. The Head. LET the Head be of a temperate Creature, of a moderate Age and Complexion: That of a Kid is of better and greater Nourishment, pro­vokes Urine, loosens the Belly, and excites vene­real Desires; but eating too much thereof, it thickens the subtil Humours, and breeds gross; it burdens the Stomach, because it is not easily di­gested, and will hardly go down, unless eaten with strong Mustard, and other Aromatick things. The Head is hot in the first degree, and moist in the second, and in cold weather very good for young and cholerick men.

II. The Brain. ALL Brains hurt the Stomach, and induce Nauseating; are a flegmatick Food, of gross Nourishment, hard Digestion; but seasoned with Spices, and Aromatick things, it becomes better: The Brains of Birds, especially of wild Fowl, are very good, eaten with Orice, Pepper and Vinegar, to take away their moist Humours.

III. The Eyes. THE Eyes are eaten by very few People: They are of a watry Nature, composed of different Substances; they are viscuous, whence they are of an hard digestion, except above all the rest, the Eyes of a young Kid, or of a Calf.

IV. The Tongue. THE Tongue excels the other Parts in plea­sant Taste, and goodness of Aliment, and is also easily concocted.

V. The Neck. THE Neck of Birds are as the Hearts of Beasts, hard to be digested, but by reason of their often motion, they beget fewer Superfluities. The Necks of roasted Pidgeons are good for such as are in health, and for those also that have lost their Stomach.

VI. The Duggs. WHen the Duggs or Udders are full of Milk, they are very pleasant to gluttonous Folks, especially those of young Sows and Heifers; and if they are well digested, they afford good Nourish­ment; but if the Stomach is not able to concoct them, they breed crude and viscuous Humours.

VII. The Wings. THE Wings of Birds are of an excellent Nou­rishment, for they are without all Superflui­ties.

VIII. The Heart. THE Heart has a fibrous and hard Substance, whence it is not easily digested, but rightly seasoned; and if well digested once, it gives no small and good Nourishment.

IX. The Liver. THE Liver of all four-footed Creatures is very bad Food, for it is not easily digested it self, and hinders the digestion of other Food: It wea­ries and burdens the Stomach; but if the Beast be fed with dryed Figs before it is killed, and if it be a Male and young, its Liver is a delicate Food, nourishing the Body exceeding well; and is parti­cularly good for them who in the Dusk cannot see at all; such is that of the Goose fatned with Milk, or of a fat Hen. The hurt of the Liver is remo­ved by boyling it well, until the blood which is within it be consumed; and let it be boyled with Sage and Laurel, afterwards wrapped up with the Gizard, and when it is throughly boyled, let the sawce be the juyce of Oranges. The Livers of Hens and Capons are the best; that of a Kid is next; then that of a Goose; and lastly, the Liver of an Hog. The Liver is good at all times, for [Page 167] all Ages and Complexions, provided it be so qua­lified, as is said before.

X. The Lungs. THE Lights are so much more easily digested than the Liver or Milt, by how much they are more rare, but they nourish less, and breed Flegm.

XI. The Milt. THE Milt is very pleasant to the taste, by rea­son of a certain sharpness which it contains within it self, but is of a bad nourishment, and be­ing a receptacle of melancholick Humours, it makes those who eat too much of it, melancho­lick.

XII. The Kidneys. THE Kidneys nourish badly, digest worse, e­specially of old Creatures; but of young ones, and of those that suck, as young tender Pigs, and Kids, they are better.

XIII. The Tripe. THE Tripe is good for such as labour and tire their Bodies, for it is harder than the flesh of its Creature: It is cold and dry in the second de­gree; 'tis good for those that are troubled with great Heat in the Stomach and Belly, because it breeds cold Humours; it hurts them that have the [Page 168] Scurf, the Leprosie, and other melancholick Infir­mities. The best is that of a fat Beast, killed in the flower of its Age, well fed, and clean; let it be a long time boyling in fat Broath, with Mint and Spices enough; 'tis not good, unless in cold weather, for young men that work hard, of a strong Stomach, and hot Constitution. The Kids-Tripes challenge the Superiority; Calves-Tripes claim the next place; and Ox-Tripes the last.

XIV. The Spleen. THE Spleen, as it is the receptacle of gross me­lancholy Blood, affords little Nourishment, and is hardly concocted, therefore not fit for Food.

XV. The Bowels. THE Intestines affords not very good, but thick Aliment; and the Bowels of younger Quadru­peds, as Calves are of better juyce, and more easily concocted, than of old.

XVI. The Testicles. THE substance of the Testicles or Stones is like that of the Udder: They afford an excellent Nourishment to the Body, multiplying the Seed, and increasing Copulation; those of fatted Cocks and Cockrels are pleasant to the Taste, of an ex­cellent and great Nourishment; for 'tis said, Tan­tum nutriunt, quantum ponderant. The Stones of [Page 169] old Creatures are of a slow Digestion, do some­what press the Stomach; but first boyling them with Mountain Penny-royal and Salt, and after­wards frying them with fresh Butter, whereby they are less hurtful: They are good in cold wea­ther for all Ages and Complexions, except decre­pit and flegmatick men.

XVII. The Feet. THE Feet of Beasts are better than those of Birds, for by reason of their continual moti­on, they are more easily digested, but beget gross and viscuous Humours; they are to be eaten at first Course. The Feet of Birds are no good Food; but Kids, Lambs, Calves-Feet, and other young Creatures which run much, are good for chole­rick men, and such as have a thin Blood, cause Sleep, nourish much, soder the broken Veins in the Breast and Lungs, cure Tisical Distempers, and excite the Appetite, hurt those that are trou­bled with Wind, the Gout, Pains in the Joynts, and the Sciatica: They are good at all times for young and cholerick, though naught for old and gouty persons; but boyling them till they be soft, and then preparing them with Vinegar and Saf­fron, takes away all their ill.

CHAP. CV. Of Butter.

Name. IN Latin, Butyrum; in English, Butter.

Choice. The best is the fresh, and sweetest, free from all ill tastes.

Quality. 'Tis hot and moist in the first de­gree.

Commodity. Butter purges strongly, and eaten with Sugar or Honey, it ripens gross Catarrhs; for it extracts the Superfluities which are congested in the Breast and Lungs, cures the Asthma and Cough, mitigates Pains and Aches, especially eaten with Honey and bitter Almonds, it nourishes well and sufficiently.

Hurt. It loosens and weakens the Stomachs of such as use it too much, prepares the Body for the Itch, and Small-pox.

Remedy. Its hurt is remedied, by eating after it, strengthning, binding, and astringent Food, or Sugar of Roses; it is good at all times both for young and old, for it purges the Catarrhs, open­ing and cleansing the Breast.

CHAP. CVI. Of Cheese.

Name. LAtin, Caseus; English, Cheese.

Choice. The good Cheese is the fresh▪ made of temperate Milk, but let it be of a good Pasture.

Quality. The Fresh Cheese is cold and moist in the second degree, but the old is hot and dry.

Commodity. The Fresh mollifies and fattens the Body, is pleasant to the Taste, and not hurtful to the Stomach, and of all other Cheeses is most dige­stible, but let it not be hard Curd. The Cream Cheese is most wholesom, but it must be eaten the same day on which it was made. Cheese is only to be eaten, to shut up and close the mouth of the Stomach; and we must beware we eat not too much thereof, especially of old Cheese, which if eaten in too great a quantity, is very pernicious: And therefore this Rule is to be observed, viz.

Caseus est sanus, quem dat avara manus.

For thus only it may be eaten without hurt.

Hurt. The old is hardly digested; and there­fore is said, ‘Caseus est nequam quia digerit omnia se quam.’

It induces Thirst, inflames the Blood, causes the Stone, obstructs the Liver, digests slowly, e­specially if the Stomach be weak, and offends the Reins.

Remedy. Eating it with Nuts, Almonds, Pears, Apples, &c. it is less hurtful; it requires a strong Stomach to digest it, and therefore is only good for young men that labour.

CHAP. CVII. Of Milk.

Name. IN Latin, Lac; English, Milk.

Choice. The most precious Milk is the Womans; the second, Asses Milk; the third, Sheeps Milk; the fourth, Goats; and the last, Cows Milk.

Quality. 'Tis moist in the second degree, and as to the heat it is temperate. Milk is composed of three Substances; the first watry, called the Whey, which is cold and moist, nitrious and loosening: The second is fat, called Butter, and is temperate: The third is gross, whereof is made Cheese, and is viscuous and flegmatick.

Commodity. It increases the Brain, fattens the Body, is good for the Hectick Fever, takes away the heat of the Urine, nourishes sufficiently, makes the Body handsom, increases Lust, cures the Cough, opens the Breast, and restores the Tisi­cal men; drinking the quantity of three ounces with a little Sugar, not drink, nor eat, nor move, nor sleep, till it be digested.

Hurt. It hurts such as are troubled with Fe­vers, and Head-achs, and cholick Pains, soreness of the Eyes, and Catarrhs, the Stone, Obstructi­ons; is naught for the Teeth and Gums.

Remedy. It is less hurtful, if eaten in a small quantity; drink it with a little Salt, Sugar, or Ho­ney, that it may not curdle in the Stomach; drunk in the morning fasting, 'tis good for young and cholerick men, but bad for old.

CHAP. CVIII. Of Cream.

Name. IN Latin, Flos Lactis; in English, Cream.

Choice. The best is of that Milk from which the Butter has not been seperated; let it be fresh, and of an excellent Pasture.

Quality. 'Tis cold in the second degree, and temperately moist.

Commodity. It quenches Thirst, and the heat of the Stomach, and is very powerful to digest.

Hurt. It binds the Breast, sends naughty Va­pours into the Head, causing sometimes Suffocati­ons and Syncope; and as all Milk curdled, is sud­denly putrified, it forces down the Food raw from the Stomach, hardly digests it self, breeds the Stone and Liente [...]y, and is only good in hot wea­ther for young, &c.

Remedy. 'Tis to be eaten with Sugar, for the first Course.

CHAP. CIX. Of Whey.

Name. IN Latin, Serum; in English, Whey.

Choice. The fresh, made of the best Milk, is the most excellent.

Quality. 'Tis cold and dry in the first degree.

Commodity. 'Tis good for men of an hot Com­plexion, cures such as are troubled with a Flux of cholerick Humours, quenches Thirst, burning Choler, and provokes Sleep.

Hurt. It hurts the Stomach, especially a cold one, weakens the Nerves; and the salted is worse than the fresh, because it gives bad Nourishment, causes Thirst, binds the Belly, begets Windiness, increases the Gravel and Stone in the Kidneys, and ordinary Vessels, and is of an hard Digestion.

Remedy. 'Tis less hurtful, eaten fresh in the last Course with much Sugar; young cholerick men, and such as labour, may eat it at all times.

Advertisements concerning Birds.

THE different Nature of Birds is discerned from the Time, the Age, the Food, the Place, the Air, and from being gelded. You must therefore diligently observe these four things: And first,

The Time. Because at such Time as Birds couple, as well domestick as wild Fowl, they thereby grow lean, and feed little; the which is manifestly appa­rent in tame Fowl: Hens in the Winter after they are trod, do fatten sufficiently, and become tender; some Birds are better in Summer, at which time they eat the Corn; others in Autumn, because they eat Grapes, Figs, Apples, Berries, and such like Fruit; other Birds are more acceptable in Winter, as Thrushes, Black-birds, Wild-geese, Cranes, and all Water-fowl. Secondly,

The Victuals. For some feed on Flesh; as Eagles, Vultures, Kites; and others that have crooked Tallons, as feeding on Carrion, are not eaten by us; some live on Worms, but most eat Corn, as Pidgeons, Doves, Turtles, &c. In short, some are nourisht on Land, others in Rivers; some in Lakes, and others in the Sea; and there is no small number of Birds which feed on Herbs: And 'tis observable, that besides this, the flesh of wild Fowls have al­ways the taste of such things as the Birds feed on, as of Ants, of Worms, of Fish, of Slime, and of Mud. Thirdly,

The Place. Mountain-Fowl are always to be preferred be­fore the rest, before tame Fowl, and such as fre­quent Marshes, Fens, and Lakes: For according to the variety of the Place, the flesh is varied and [Page 176] changed; as sometimes to be dry, of few Ex­crements, and easily digested; or moist, full of Excrements, and of a difficult concoction, which does often happen in the same Bird. Besides, gelding or cutting a Fowl, makes it fat and sweet, as appears in the flesh of Capons. Fourthly, and Lastly,

The Age. For the flesh of young Birds is always better than that of old, which is hard, dry, and diffi­cultly digested, and of small nourishment. But now let us proceed in particular to the flesh of Birds which are used for Food.

CHAP. CX. Of Ducks.

Name. IN Latine, Anas; in English, a Duck.

Choice. The young, fat, tender, and wild Duck is the best.

Qualities. 'Tis hot and moist in the second degree.

Commodity. The Duck is the most hot of all the other tame Fowl; its Wings and Liver are the best, because they give a good and ready Nourishment. When it is fat it fattens, and causes a good Colour, clears the Voice, increases the Seed, kindles Lust, expels Windiness, and strengthens the Body; the Liver of a Duck is a delicate and whols m Food, cures the Hepatick Flux.

Hurt. 'Tis of an hard digestion, and gross nourishment; it inflames and makes Feverish such as are of an hot Complexion: The flesh is hard, of a bad and excrementious nourishment.

Remedy. The wild and young Ducks are least hurtful, and such as having been killed two days, are first made tender by hanging in the open Air, afterwards eaten roasted full of Odoriferous Herbs and Spices.

The Old Ducks are the worst, especially such as are brought up and frequent the Streets of the City, and are nourished with the filth and nasti­ness, drinking the stinking Water which runs down the Channels. The best are such as live in the open Air, whereby they become more wholsom and acceptable to the taste: The Duck is good in cold Weather, for hot Stomachs, and such as la­bour much.

CHAP. CXI. Of Capons.

Name. IN Latine, Capo; in English, 'tis called a Capon.

Choice. The best is the young, fat, and well-fed Capon, that is brought up in the open Air.

Qualities. The Capon is temperate in all Qua­lities.

Commodity. It nourishes better than all other Food, and greatly also, increases Lust; and for the daintiness of its flesh, goes beyond all others; for it begets perfect Blood, and equallises all the [Page 178] Humours, makes a good Brain, excites the Appe­tite, agrees with all Complexions; is good for the Sight, strengthens the Natural heat, but let it not be too fat.

Hurt. The superfluous and over-much eating thereof is very pernicious to idle and sedentany Persons, by reason of its copious Nourishment, and the great quantity of Blood which it breeds in the Body; and therefore 'tis no small cause of the Sciatica, and Gout, to which Disease 'tis credibly reported that the Capons are very apt, and subject to more than any other Fowl.

Remedy. You must eat but little thereof, and perform some large Exercise after it; 'tis good at all times, for all Ages and Complexions; and there­fore alluding to [...] goodness and usefulness, instead of Cap [...]ne, the Italians say, Qua pone, which sig­nifies, bring it here, set it before us.

CHAP. CXII. Of Pidgeons.

Name. IN Latine, Columba; in English, a Dove, or Pidgeon.

Choice. Such as live in Dove-houses and Towers are the best of all, especially when they leave their Nests, beginning to feed themselves, and are of an indifferent bigness.

Qu [...]lities. The tame Pidgeons are hot and moist in the [...]econd degree; the wild are more hot, and less moist.

Commodity. The Pidgeons, as well those that live in Houses, as those that build in Towers, af­ford good Nourishment, breed excellent Blood, are good for Old and Flegmatick Men, strengthen the Legs, cure the Palsie, increase the Heat in weak Men, stir up Venereal desires, purge the Reins, and are easily digested; using them in the Sickness-time, they preserve a Man from the Plague, provided he eat no other flesh. The wild are very good for pains in the Joynts and Limbs, and contribute much to the Eye-sight, which is weakned for want of Spirits, to tremblings, and augment the strength. Pidgeons split asunder in the middle, are very beneficial being applyed to dying mens Feet▪

Hurt. They are very unwholsom for hot Com­plexions, kindle and inflame the Blood, where­fore they do not agree with feverish Persons; they burden and make the Head heavy, especially the Heads of them: And the wild Pidgeons do the same, though much more, the which are of a difficult digestion, and are a great cause of Fe­vers.

Remedy. Taking away their Head, they are less hurtful; and likewise boyling them in fat Broth with Verjuice, Plums, Vinegar, and Corianders. They are good in Winter for Old and Flegmatick Men.

CHAP. CXIII. Of Pheasants.

Name. IN Latine, Phasianus; in English, Phea­sant; so called from Phasis, a River of Colchis, where these Birds resort in great mul­titudes.

Choice. The best Pheasants are the young, fat, and hunted ones.

Qualities. The flesh of a Pheasant is tempe­rate in all Qualities, and is of a middling sort, be­twixt a Patridge and a Capon.

Commodity. The flesh of this Bird is most agreeable with Humane Nature; 'tis the Food of great Lords and Princes, it comforts and strength­ens the Stomach, is of a great nourishment, fat­tens exceedingly; so that lean and slender Per­sons by the use of this Food in a short while ga­ther flesh: And so the Hectick Fevers, and Tisical Persons, as well as those that are in Health, find the benefit of this Food; it increases the Vigour, and all the Faculties, neither does it beget super­fluous moistness: In short, the flesh of a Pheasant is better than that of a Pullet, because 'tis more dry by the Air, by its Food, and by its greater Exercise.

Hurt. The superfluous use of Pheasants cause the Gout; but because the Phe [...]sants don't give solid nourishment, but breed thin Blood, there­fore 'tis no Food for Plough-men, and such as La­bour, for with such fat and viscuous Food is more agreeable.

Remedy. You must eat moderately thereof: Pheasant is good in Autumn and Winter, for all Ages and delicate Complexions.

CHAP. CXIV. Of Hens.

Name. IN Latine, Gallina; in English, an Hen.

Choice. The black Hen is the best with its Crest elevated, and double with red Gills, and let it be fat and young, and which has not yet laid Eggs. The wild Hens are much better than the tame.

Quality. The flesh of an Hen is temperate in all Qualities.

Commodity. It nourishes the Body wonder­fully, is easily digested, when it is tender, breeds good Blood; being a temperate flesh, does not convert it self into Choler or Flegm, excites the Appetite, increases the Understanding, clears the Voice, and it has a wonderful Propriety and Fa­culty, to temperate Humane Complexions. Cockerels have the same effects, but they are such as have not begun to crow, nor to tread the Hen; for their stones are of great nourishment, and when they are fat, are easily digested, and are good and convenient at all times, and for all Ages, especially in Summer Cockerels, or young Cocks boyled in Verjuice.

Hurt. Old Hens are of an hard digestion.

Remedy. You must keep them till they are tender, which makes them soon ready; and then [Page 182] drown them in Wine, afterward boyl them with a Figg, or Nut in their Belly.

CHAP. CXV. Of Cocks.

Name. IN Latine, Gallus; in English, a Cock.

Choice. In Physick the old Cocks are chosen.

Qualities. The flesh of a Cock is more dry than a Hen, and more hot and sulphureous.

Commodity. They are more useful in Physick than Food; for their Broth drank, dissolves Win­diness, is good for Cholick-pains, moves the Bo­dy, provokes Sleep and Lust.

Hurt. A Cock has hard flesh, and not easily digested.

Remedy. It must be made very tender.

CHAP. CXVI. Of Turky-Cocks.

Name. IN Latine, Gallus Africanus; because they were first brought out of Africa into Europe; though in English, they are called Turky-Cocks, as if they came from Asia.

Choice. The best Turky-Cocks are the young, and such as are fatned in the Fields, rather than about the House; killed in Winter, and made tender in the Night-Air.

Qualities. This Fowl is hot and moist in the second degree.

Commodity. For goodness, nourishment, and pleasant taste, the Turky-Pullets will not give place to our Hens or Pullets; for their flesh is the best and whitest, and excels all others in wholsomness; for tis more easily digested, nourishes better, and begets fewer superfluities, breeding good Blood, provided it be very tender, well roasted, baked, or boyled; it restores the weak, increases the Seed, and stirs up Carnal desires.

Hurt. It hurts such as are Idle, causing Ca­tarrhs, and the Gout.

Remedy. You must eat it but seldom, in a small quantity, and roasted with Spice.

CHAP. CXVII. Of Larks.

Name. IN Latine, Alauda, Corydalus, or Galerita; so called from a Crest it wears on its Head, and is the biggest sort; in English, a Lark.

Choice. The best Larks are the least, when they are fat.

Qualities. They are hot, and temperately moist.

Commodity. The Larks which in Autumn are found in great plenty, as likewise in Winter, if they be fat, do nourish well; and being eaten roasted, excite the Appetite, are easily digested, especially roasted with Sage and Lard, or boyled [Page 184] with divers sawces; but they must be throughly done, fat, young, &c. They are good in Autumn and Winter for all Complexions; and the crested Lark boyled in Broth cures the Colick, and its Ashes have the same effect.

Hurt. This Bird is without any hurt, only the old, which are hardly digested.

Remedy. The old Larks must be eaten with good sawce, and fresh.

CHAP. CXVIII. Of Black-Birds.

Name. IN Latine, Merula; English, Black-Bird.

Choice. The best are the fat, and such as are taken in cold Weather.

Qualities. The Black-Birds are hot, and dry in the beginning of the second degree, as the Thrushes.

Commodity. They nourish sufficiently, and when they are fat and young, their flesh is more esteemed of by many than that of a Thrush, though they are much deceived, for the latter is more sweet; nay, there are some so foolish, that they hate Black-Birds because they eat Worms and Grashoppers.

Hurt. Their flesh is of an hard digestion, espe­cially when they are old, and are naught for Old Men, and such as are troubled with the Megrims and Frensie.

Remedy. They are less hurtful boyl'd in Good fresh Broth, stuft with Parsley, and other open­ing Herbs.

CHAP. CXIX. Of Geese.

Name. IN Latine, Anser; in English, a Goose.

Choice. The best are the fattest, such as are brought up in the Fields, and near any Water. The best parts are the Wings and Liver.

Qualities. Geese are hot in the first degree, and moist in the second.

Commodity. The flesh of young Geese afford good nourishment, fattens those that are lean and meager. If you feed the Geese with Milk, their Liver is much more pleasant, digests and nou­rishes well and enough: The bottom of the feet of a Goose, roasted and fryed with the Comb of a Cock, are very pleasant to the taste. The flesh of Geese increases Seed, inflames Lust, and Car­nal dc [...]res, and renders the Voice more acute and clear. Geese are useful in many respects, that is, for the Quills, Feathers, Flesh, Fat, and Dung or Excrements.

Hurt. The flesh of a Goose is very hardly di­gested, has many superfluities, and is more hot than that of a Pidgeon; and therefore is not good for feverish Persons, chiefly if the Goose be old.

Remedy. The hurt of old Geese is removed by boyling them well; and the young ones are to be roasted with sweet-herbs, and Spices: The wild Geese are better than the tame; they are good in Winter for those that have a strong Stomach, and use much Exercise; whence they do not agree with Old Men.

CHAP. CXX. Of Plovers.

Name. IN Latine, Spardalus; in English, Plo­vers.

Choice. You must choose them young and tender; and take notice that the gray Plover is much better than the green.

Qualities. They do not exceed in any quality, but are temperate.

Commodity. They are an excellent and wholsom Food, are very easily digested, and afford a good nourishment.

Hurt. There is but one bad quality in them, which is, that they are of a Melancholy Juice.

Remedy. Let them be well roasted, but they must not be eaten by such as are of a Melancho­lick Nature, but by those of a different Consti­tution.

CHAP. CXXI. Of Eggs.

Name. IN Latine, Ovum; in English, an Egg.

Choice. The Eggs of a fat Hen, fed with Corn, and which are trod by the Cock, and layed fresh, are the best, and next to this is a Pheasants Egg; but those of a Goose or Duck are naught, because they have a strong smell, and are [Page 187] of an hard digestion; and therefore a young Hens Egg is beyond all, and let it be small, long, and fresh, because it demonstrates the strength of its heat: And to this end observe this Distich.

Regula Doctorum debet pro lege teneri,
Quod bona sunt ova, parvula, longa, nova.

Or this:

Ova recentia, vina rubentia, pinguia jura,
Cum similâ purâ, naturae sunt valitura.

Qualities. They are hot and moist temperately; for the White is cold, and the Yolk is hot, and both moist.

Commodity. Eggs are of a copious and ready nourishment; whence the Proverb, As full of mirth as an Egg is of meat. They are good for Old Men, and such as are in Health, increase the Seed, ex­cite Copulation, are good for Tisical Men, open the Breast, clear the Voice, especially the soft Eggs supt up, suckt with some Salt; those which are called poached, are the best, eaten with Salt, Spice, and Vinegar; boyled in their shell, the ex­halation of the Vapours are hindred. The hard Eggs are not easily digested, and the fryed Eggs much less.

Hurt. They hinder digestion, if you eat other Food immediately after them, they are easily turned into those Humours which they find in the Stomach.

Remedy. You must eat the fresh Eggs only, and of them only the Yolk; and between the Eggs and other Food let there be some interval of time, and let them not be eaten with Fish.

CHAP. CXXII. Of Sparrows.

Name. IN Latine, Passer; in English, a Spar­row.

Choice. You must choose the Sparrows that build in Towers or Mountains, in Autumn, that feed on Corn and Grapes, they are more fat, and breed good Juice. The Solitary Sparrow is the best.

Qualities. The Sparrow is hotter than all the other Birds, and its flesh is dry; and moreover, being so exceeding hot, 'tis accounted luxurious, and therefore does not out-live one Year.

Commodity. The young Sparrows afford good Nourishment, and aid Copulation: The Mountain Sparrows have a wonderful vertue against the Stone in the Kidneys and Bladder.

Hurt. The Sparrows are unpleasant to the Palate, by reason of their too much dryness; are of a difficult digestion, inflame, and beget naughty nourishment, that is Cholerick, and Melancholick, and excites Lust.

Remedy. They must be eaten in a small quan­tity; the Hen-Sparrows, and the young ones are the best; they must be eaten in Autumn.

CHAP. CXXIII. Of Peacocks.

Name. IN Latin, Pavo; in English, a Peacock, or Pea-Hen.

Choice. The best is that which is bred in a good Air, young and tender.

Quality. 'Tis hot in the second degree, and dry in the first.

Commodity. They nourish enough, chiefly such as have a hot Stomach, and toyl much.

Hurt. They are of an hard and slow Digestion, breed melancholick Blood, and bad Nourishment, hurting such as live in idleness. They spoyl Gar­dens.

Remedy. You must eat the young and tender, that has hung some days in the clear Air by the Neck, with a weight at its Feet, then roast it with Cloves, and such like.

CHAP. CXXIV. Of Partridges.

Name. IN Latin, Perdix; in English, a Par­tridge.

Choice. The young, tender, and male Partridge, is the best.

Quality. 'Tis hot in the first degree, and dry in the second.

Commodity. It breeds good and slender Nourish­ment, is easily digested, fattens, dryes the moist­ness of the Stomach▪ [...]nd contributes much to the preservation of the [...]ealth: The flesh is better, and more commendable than that of an Hen; it increases Lust, and will not corrupt in the Sto­mach; it cures those that are infected with the French Disease, the Epilepsie, if eaten a whole year together.

Hurt. The old Partridges are of a very hard substance, and of a bad taste, hurt melancholick men, and bind the Body.

Remedy. You must only eat the young Par­tridges, and the old ones are to be mortified, and made tender in the Winder, in the clear Air of the night.

CHAP. CXXV. Of Star [...]s.

Name. IN Lati [...], Sturnus; in English, a Stare, or Starling.

Choice. The young Starlings, made tender as the Partridge, are the best.

Quality. Its Flesh is temperate.

Commodity. The Effects which it produces, is not much unlike those of a Partridge, for it nou­rishes well; and they say, it also cures the Pox, continuing to eat every day through the year one Stare, and no more.

Hurt. The old Stares are of an hard digestion, breeding naughty and melancholick Humours.

Remedy. You must eat the young and tender with good Sawce.

CHAP. CXXVI. Of Quails.

Name. IN Latin, Coturnix; in English, Quails.

Choice. Those are to be chosen, that are nourish'd and bred in Places where there grows no Hellebore, which have been catcht by a Hawk, and let them be fat [...]nd tender.

Quality. They are hot in the first degree, and moist in the second.

Commodity. They are good for melancholick men, for their moisture temperates the moistness of this Humour; they are very nourishing, and pleasant to the taste.

Hurt. They are easily corrupted, and as some affirm, prepare the Body to Fevers, and cause the Cramp and Falling-sickness, wherewith this Bird is troubled; though some ho [...]d, that this is not meant of Quails, but some other Bird which is big­ger.

In short, you must not use this Fowl too often, because it breeds naughty Excrements, very easi­ly putrified; and these being fat, loosen the Sto­mach, take away the Appetite: Therefore if any one has a mind to eat them, let him choose the Quails that are young, and very fleshy, but let him avoid the too fat ones.

Remedy. By eating them [with Vinegar and Coriander-seed, you may mitigate and lessen their [Page 192] malignant qualities. You must eat them seldom, and in Autumn, when they have their Gizzard full of Corn, or breed them up in your House; they are not good for old and flegmatick men: In Autumn, as is said, they are less hurtful than at any other time of the year, and they must be dili­gently roasted, but not larded with Bacon Fat, but with the Fat of Veal, or such like: In Summer you must forbear them, for then they are very much extenuated by nourishing their young ones, and therefore easily beget Fevers.

CHAP. CXXVII Of Thrushes.

Name. IN Latin, Turdus; in English, A Thrush.

Choice. They are to be chosen in Win­ter, but let them be very fat, and such as are fed with Juniper and Myrtle-berries: Their Flesh is of a good taste, and very pleasant to the Palate, especially if fat, and roasted with a quick fire; they must not be drawed, or their Intrails taken out.

Quality. They are hot and dry in the begin­ning of the second degree.

Commodity. They nourish, if not much, at least very well, for they are easily digested; neither are they windy, at least the Mountain-Thrushes: They are very good both for sick, and those that are in health, because they breed good Blood, chiefly the fat ones.

Hurt. The old and lean Thrushes are of an hard Digestion, breed melancholick Humours, especially such as have a black Flesh, and hurt such as are troubled with the Megrims, and Frenzy.

Remedy. You must eat the fat, young, fresh, roasted with Sage, and larded, or else boyled in good Broth with Parsley and Raisins; they are good in cool weather for all Ages and Complexi­ons.

CHAP. CXXVIII. Of Turtles.

Name. IN Latin, Turtur; in English, a Turtle.

Choice. The best are the young Tur­tles, and fed some days in the House, whereby they acquire a little more juyce and moisture.

Quality. They are hot and dry in the second degree.

Commodity. They nourish excellently, are of a good savour, easily digested, fortifie the Stomach, increase Lust, purifie the Wit; roasted with Cloves, and juyce of Oranges, they are very good against the Dyssentery, and other Fluxes.

Hurt. Old Turtles are naught for cholerick and melancholick men, because they infect the Blood with the same Humours, being a dry Flesh, and of an hard Digestion.

Remedy. You must eat the young, and fat ones, and fed in the House some days with moist Food; and you must mortifie them two days in the clear [Page 194] Air; they are good in cold weather for old and flegmatick men.

Advertisements concerning Fish.

THE Fish in respect of Flesh are of a less nou­rishment, but gross, flegmatick, cold, and full of Superfluities; the old nourish more than the young, and those that live amongst Stones and Rocks are the best. Fish are of an hard Digestion, and the sign of their Indigestion is Thirst, seeing that they all cause Thirst, if they remain long time in the Stomach, nay sometimes they corrupt. Concerning Fish you may observe these following Rules:

I. That all Fish should be eaten hot, and not cold.

II. That you must not stuff your self too full of any sort of Fish, but eat less thereof than of Flesh.

III. That you must not eat them too often, and when you use them, they are to be eaten with Anise-seed, Fennel, and other Spices, whereby in some sort to dry up their moistness.

IV. That you do not eat Fish after great Labour and Exercise, for then they easily corrupt; nei­ther may you eat Fish after other Food: Those that have a weak Stomach, and full of bad Hu­mours, may eat no sort of Fish; therefore they may not be given to old men, and such as are not healthy, for they do rather diminish, than increase the natural Heat.

[Page 195]V. Fish and Flesh at the same Table are to be forbidden: Likewise Fish and Milk, or any thing belonging thereunto, for they breed many naugh­ty Distempers; no less inconvenient are Eggs.

VI. That great and viscuous Fish pickled and salted, are something better than fresh, and less hurtful, but let them not be too salt, for the Salt is very offensive to the Brain: The fresh Fish beget watry Flegm, soften the Nerves, and are only con­venient for hot Stomachs; the salted and seasoned Fish are not so moist, and therefore better; the dry are of a bad nourishment.

VII. You must also observe, that the clearer and deeper the Water is, the better are the Fish that are nourished therein.

VIII. That the maritime Fish are more whole­som than the fresh Water Fish, being more hot, and less moist, and their nourishment draws near to Flesh.

IX. Amongst the Sea and River-Fish, those are most commendable which live in rocky Places; next to these, in sandy Places, in sweet, clear, and running Waters, where there is no filth; but those Fish are naught which live in Pools, Lakes, Marshes, Fens, and in any still or muddy Water.

X. That amongst all the Fish, both in the Sea and Rivers, those which are not too big, are the best, and which have not an hard and dry Flesh, without any fatness or slimyness, or naughty taste, or smell, not viscuous, but crisp and tender, not apt to corrupt, but that will keep a long while, and such as have many Fins and Scales.

XI. Fish are cold and moist, and therefore naught for cold Complexions, though they in­crease the Milk, and Seed, and are very conveni­ent for cholerick men.

[Page 196]XII. The best way of dressing and preparing Fish, is to broyl it over the Goals, or Gridiron; to boyl it is the next way, and to fry it is the worst man­ner, especially for such as have a weak Stomach. The roasted Fish are better than the boyled, and the boyled better than the fryed; but you must take notice, that the roasted Fish must not be co­vered, to the end that their Vapours may be ex­haled.


Name. IN Latin, Anguilla; in English, an Eel.

Choice. You must choose such as at Spring are taken in the sandy Sea, and not mud­dy, and boyl them as soon as you have caught them; those of the clear Water are the best.

Quality. Eels are cold in the first degree, and dry in the second.

Commodity. 'Tis of a delicate taste, and good nourishment, and being salted, keeps a long time, and becomes very good for flegmatick Stomachs.

Hurt. It offends the Stomach, is of an hard di­gestion, for its Flesh is viscuous, and using it too often, breeds the Stone in the Kidneys and Blad­der, causes the Gout, and Convulsions of the Nerves, hurts all the Bowels, especially the Head; the salted Eels are naught for melancholick men, because they increase this Humour: In short, who­soever eats too much thereof, goes in danger of his life.

Remedy. They are less hurtful skinn'd fresh, throwing away the Head, and roasting the Tayl with Laurel, often sprinkling thereon powdered Sugar, fine Flower, and Cinamon. The little ones are eaten fryed with Pepper, and the juyce of Oranges.

CHAP. CXXX. Of Carps.

Name. IN Latin, Carpio; in English, a Carp.

Choice. Of Carps, the most fresh and sweet are the best.

Quality. This Fish is moderately hot, and moist in the beginning of the third degree.

Commodity. 'Tis the most noble of all the Fish, and of so pleasant and grateful a taste, that it is se­cond to none; it has a tender Flesh that nourishes well, in what manner soever it be eaten, whether boyled, roasted, or fryed: It is preserved sweet with the Leaves of Laurel, Myrtle, and Cedar.

Hurt. From the eating thereof accrues no hurt or damage to the Body, unless that its Flesh being so pure and tender, is easily corrupted.

Remedy. You must throw away its Scales and Guts, then put it into Salt for six hours, after­wards sprinkle it with Oyl, then sawce it with Vinegar, wherein let there be boyled, Saffron, Pepper, Cloves and Cinamon; 'tis good at all times, for all Ages and Complexions.

CHAP. CXXXI. Of Crabs.

Name. IN Latin, Cancer; in English, a Crab, or Crevise.

Choice. The best are those that frequent the Rivers, and other sweet Waters, such as are ten­der, and caught at Spring or Autumn, at Full Moon.

Quality. This Fish is cold in the second degree, and moist in the first.

Commodity. They are good for Tisical men, because they nourish exceedingly, provoke Urine, increase the Seed, cleanse the Kidneys; and they cure such as are bitten by a mad Dog, if you take their ashes, and dry the Crab in the Oven, where­of you must give the Party bitten some quantity for forty days, but you ought to cauterize the wounded place with Iron: And to take of the pow­der in Rosa canina, with Water, or Milk, fattens much, and therefore is good for Consumptive per­sons, and by its tenacity it hinders the colliquati­on of the Members, and cures the Ulcer in the Lungs.

Hurt. Its Flesh is something hard of digestion, whence it breeds gross and flegmatick Humours in such as eat too much thereof.

Remedy. It must be well roasted under live Coals, and afterwards eaten with Pepper, and with strong Vinegar; 'tis good in Summer for young and cholerick men of an hot Complexion.

CHAP. CXXXII. Of Lampreys.

Name. IN Latin, Lampetra, qu. Lambens petras; in English, a Lamprey.

Choice. Those that are taken in Rivers, at the Spring are the best, for then they are more hot, and the spinal Marrow is tender.

Quality. They are temperately hot, and moist in the first degree.

Commodity. They are of an excellent Nourish­ment, increases the Seed, is of a most delicious taste, and a very dainty Dish for the Table.

Hurt. It is not of an easie digestion, especially if not boyled, and seasoned well, is very bad and pernicious for the Gout, also for such as are griev­ed with Convulsions of the Nerves.

Remedy. Let them be steept or insused in Malmsey, or strong Wine, stopping the mouth with Nutmegs, and the holes with Cloves, boyl­ing them in a little Pipkin with Small nuts, Bread, Oyl, Spices, and Malmsey; 'tis good at all times for all Ages and Complexions, except decrepit persons.


Name. IN Latin, Lucius; in English, a Jack, or a Pike.

Choice. The best sort are they that live in Ri­vers, or else in Ponds, not muddy, but let them be large, fresh, and fat.

Quality. They are cold and moist in the second degree.

Commodity. This Fish is very nourishing; its Jaws burnt, and reduced to a Powder, and the weight of one dram drank in a good glass of Wine, break the Stone.

Hurt. 'Tis of an hard Digestion, bad Nou­rishment, burdens the Stomach, and increases Flegm.

Remedy. Being boyled together with sweet Herbs, and with Oyl, or else broyled on the Grid-iron with Orice-roots and Vinegar, 'tis good in Winter for young and cholerick men.

CHAP. CXXXIV. Of Oysters.

Name. IN Latin, Ostrea; in English, Oysters.

Choice. The best are those of the Lu­crine Lake, or those of England, but let them be fresh, and taken in a Month which has an R in it, and they must be eaten quickly.

Quality. They are hot in the first degree, and moist in the second.

Commodity. They waken and stir up the Appe­tite, increase the Seed, and move the Body.

Hurt. They increase the Flegm, and cause Obstructions.

Remedy. They are to be eaten with Pepper, Oyl, and Vinegar; they are then best roasted over the Coals; they are good in cool weather for young and cholerick men, of a strong Stomach.

CHAP. CXXXV. Of Sturgeon.

Name. IN Latin, Accipenser; in English, Sturgeon.

Choice. Those that are taken in Rivers are the best, for they become more fat and savou­ry than in the Sea.

Quality. Sturgeon is hot in the beginning of the first degree, and moist in the second.

Commodity. It nourishes sufficiently, increases the Seed, and refreshes the Blood, and is counted a dainty Dish, and holds the chiefest place. Of the Spawn or Row of this Fish salted, is made Ca­viare, which is eaten boyled or raw, to excite the Appetite, and to make the Drink relish.

Hurt. The Fat of this Fish breeds viscuous Hu­mours, and the fresher it is, the harder of digesti­on it becomes.

Remedy. It is less hurtful if you eat thereof the Joul, and the Belly only, and let it be boyled in Water and Vinegar, and so eaten.

CHAP. CXXXVI. Of Lobsters.

Name. IN Latine, Langusta; in English, Lob­sters.

Choice. Those of the River are better than the Sea-Lobsters.

Qualities. They are like Crabs, cold in the second degree, and moist in the first.

Commodity. They are good against Hectick Fe­vers, and Consumptions; they fatten, and with their tenacious moistness resist the dissolution of the solid Members, and with their coolness ex­pel the heat of the Body; they are very nourish­ing, and their Broth cures shortness of Breath.

Hurt. Lobsters breed cold and flegmatick Hu­mours, and are of a hard digestion.

Remedy. Broyling them like Crabs on the live Coals, and afterwards eating them with Pepper and Vinegar, they are more easily digested: They are good in hot Weather for Sanguine and Cho­lerick Complexions.


Name. IN Latine, Sardina et Sarda; in English, Sprats.

Choice. The best are such as are caught in Spring, in Sandy Seas.

Qualities. Sprats are cold in the beginning of the first degree, and moist in the end of the same.

Commodity. Being boyled as soon as ever they are took, and eaten, they give good nourishment, and a pleasant taste. The salted and pickled Sprats, or Anchoves excite the Appetite, cleanse the Breast from all its superfluities; and therefore such as are in good Health, may eat them mo­derately in the first Course.

Hurt. They are moist, and cause windiness, especially eating the back-bone of them.

Remedy. Boyling them in a little Pot, or lay­ing them over the Coals in a sheet of Paper, with Oyl and Parsley; or preserving them some few days with Salt and Orice-Roots, their hurt is there­by removed. They are good for all Ages and Complexions in Spring, provided you eat not too much of them.


Name. IN Latine, Tinca; in English, a Tench.

Choice. You must choose the Female, caught in Rivers, or in Ponds which are not mud­dy, at Autumn and Winter.

Qualities. This Fish is cold and moist in the second degree.

Commodity. It is very nourishing, but excre­mentitious. The Tenches cut in pieces along the back, and applyed to the Pulse, and soles of the Feet, mitigate and diminish the heat of the burn­ing Fever.

Hurt. It is of an hard digestion, nourishes badly, burdens the Stomach, especially such as live in Ponds, if eaten in the Dog-days.

Remedy. Baking them with Garlick, Sweet-herbs, and Spices, they become less hurtful. The Tench is a Food to be used in cold Weather, by Young and Cholerick Men, and of such as labour much.

CHAP. CXXXIX. Of Tortoises.

Name. IN Latine, Testudo, à testâ quâ tegitur; in English, a Tortoise.

Choice. The Land-Tortoises are better than those of the Water; big, full of Eggs, and fed with good food, before they be eaten.

Qualities. They are cold in the second degree, and temperately moist.

Commodity. They are very nourishing, and therefore are to be given last to Tisical and lean Persons. Their Blood drank is good for those that are troubled with the Falling-Sickness: Of the flesh of Tortoises baked, is made a Food for Sick Men, to refresh and restore them.

Hurt. They breed a gross and flegmatick Blood, make Men dull and sleepy, and are slowly di­gested.

Remedy. Let them be well boyled, throwing away the first and second Water, and well pre­pared with hot Herbs, Pepper, and Saffron, or Yolks of Eggs. They are good for young and Cholerick Men.

CHAP. CXL. Of the Tunny-Fish.

Name. IN Latine, Tucos; in English, the Tunny-Fish.

Choice. The young ones are the best, caught in the Month of September; and you ought to choose the lean ones rather than the fat.

Qualities. 'Tis cold and moist in the second de­gree.

Commodity. Its flesh heals the bitings of Mad Doggs. The Eggs are salted, and thereof is made Botarghe, which does very much excite the Appetite.

Hurt. It breeds much Excrements, is hardly digested, burdens the Stomach, and increases Flegm.

Remedy. It must be broyled fresh on the Grid-iron, with Salt and Coriander, sprinkling it con­tinually with Oyl and Vinegar, with a little Fen­nel, or a sprig of Rosemary.

CHAP. CXLI. Of Salmons.

Name. IN Latine, Salmo; in English, a Salmon.

Choice. Choose that which is young, sweet, and tender.

Qualities. Salmon is cold and moist in the first degree.

Commodity. This Fish is very pleasant to the Palate, being of a tender flesh, and very easily digested; it affords a good Juice, and is inferiour to none, nay, by some is accounted the best of Fish.

Hurt. When it is pickled in Salt, and hard­ned with Smoak, 'tis of an hard digestion.

Remedy. Let it be boyled, and afterwards pickled in Vinegar: Some broyl it fresh on the Grid-iron.

CHAP. CXLII. Of Soles, Plaice, and Turbet.

Name. IN Latine, Solea, Passer, & Rhombus; in English, Soles, Plaice, and Turbets.

Choice. The fresh are best, eaten as soon as taken.

Qualities. They are hotter than others, as be­ing Sea-fishes.

Commodity. These Fishes are highly commended amongst Sea-fish; for they have a delicate flesh, and are of an easie concoction; being white fleshed, they yield good Juice, plentiful Nourish­ment, and are not easily corrupted.

Hurt. Being dryed in the smoak, they are naught, and harder of concoction.

Remedy. You must eat good sawce with them, which will qualifie all their malignity.

CHAP. CXLIII. Of Gudgeons.

Name. IN Latine, Gobius; and in English, Gudge­ons.

Choice. They must be chosen out of clear Brooks, and boyled, or rather fryed alive.

Qualities. They are an harmless Food, and temperate in all Qualities.

Commodity. Gudgeons are the best amongst the small sort of Fish, and are a very whol­som Aliment, easie to be concocted, and remain not long in the Stomach, and are profitable both for Pleasure and Health, and may safely be given to sick Persons: Minnows, Dace, and other little Fish, are like these.

Hurt. They are soon corrupted, if eaten after things of an hard digestion.

Remedy. They must be eaten first.

CHAP. CXLIV. Of Perches.

Name. IN Latine, Perca; in English, Perch.

Choice. The biggest are the best.

Qualities. They are cold and moist, of a glu­tinous and slimy substance.

Commodity. They have a soft, moist, and ten­der flesh.

Hurt. They have a very excrementitious Juice, and nourish smally.

Remedy. They must not be mixed with several Meats.

CHAP. CXLV. Of Cod-Fish.

Name. IN Latine, Asellus; in English, Cod-fish.

Choice. Eat it whilest fresh and ten­der.

Qualities. 'Tis hot and dry.

Commodity. If fresh, 'tis of good Juice, and easie Concoction.

Hurt. When dry, it is not easily digested, and is of a gross nourishment.

Remedy. Such as labour much, may eat it.

CHAP. CXLVI. Of Barbels.

Name. IN Latine, Mullus Barbatus; in English, a Mullet, or Barbel.

Choice. The little ones are better than the great, and such as are caught in stony places, and not in muddy Ponds, or still Seas.

Qualities. They are hot in the first degree, and dry in the beginning of the second.

Commodity. They are very pleasant to the Pa­late, drowned or suffocated in Wine, and eaten, they extinguish the Venereal Appetites, and drink­ing the Wine, induces an odium, or averseness to all sorts of Wine after that. This Fish being ap­plyed to the biting of Venomous Creatures, heals it.

Hurt. Their flesh is hard, not easily digested; the Wine wherein they were suffocated, makes Men impotent, and Women steril; and eaten too oft, it hurts the Eye-sight.

Remedy. It must be broyled, and eaten with Oyl and the Juice of Oranges, or Vinegar, where­by it will keep many days, and become better. 'Tis good in hot Weather for Cholerick Men, for those that use much Exercise, and have a strong Stomach.

CHAP. CXLVII. Of Trouts.

Name. IN Latine, Trutta; in English, a Trout.

Choice. Let it be big, and bred in swift Waters.

Qualities. 'Tis cold in the beginning, and moist in the end of the first degree.

Commodity. The River-Trout nourishes well, breeding a cold Humour, which refreshes the Liver and Blood, and therefore good in burning Fevers. They increase the Seed, and are good in Summer for Young and Cholerick, but naught for Decrepid and Flegmatick Men.

Hurt. They are easily corrupted, and there­fore are to be eaten presently.

Remedy. Let them be boyled with half Water and half Vinegar, and eaten with some sharp sawce. And so we have done with the Fishes; next we will treat of Sawces and Spices; and first, of Vinegar.

CHAP. CXLVIII. Of Vinegar.

Name. IN Latine, Acetum; in English, Vinegar; from the French words Vin aigre, sharp Wine.

Choice. The best is that which is made of the [Page 211] most excellent Wine, wherein let there be in­fused some Roses, or Elder-flowers, and let it be old.

Quality. The Vinegar is cold in the second degree, in respect to the heat of the Wine; and so much the more, by how much the Wine is older, and more strong; but it has a certain heat, which it has acquired from putrefaction, though the coldness does overcome that heat in it: The Vinegar that is made of weak Wine is cold, but that which is made of old is hotter; but its piercing acuteness does not proceed from the heat, but from the cold, sharp, and subtil parts there­of (as is the North Wind.) It is moreover dry in the third degree.

Commodity. 'Tis cutting, digestive, and open­ing; 'tis very good to extinguish the heat of Choler, and Thirst, strengthens the Gums, ex­cites the Appetite, removes Obstructions, aids Digestion, and is good for hot and moist Sto­machs, weakens the Blood, the Choler, and re­sists Putrefaction; therefore in the time of the Plague, many used it, to preserve themselves.

Hurt. It breeds melancholick Humours, offends the Nerves and Sinews, hurts the Stomach and the Joynts, and is very bad for Women that are troubled with Fits of the Mother; is inconvenient for lean folks, pricks the Stomach and the Inte­stines, spoils the Eye-sight, diminishes the Senses, and lessens the Seed, weakens the Strength, offends the Breast, begets Coughs, and those that use it too much, grow old and withered immediately; therefore is not good for Ladies, for it causes wrinkles, &c.

Remedy. You must not use it at Breakfast, and always moderately; and let it not be too sharp: And boyl therewith Raisins, or else Anise-seed, or Parsley-seed, and Fennel. which things remove all hurt from it; and lastly, add thereto a little Sugar.

CHAP. CXLIX. Of Verjuice.

Name. IN Latine, Ʋva immatura, and the Liquor Omphacion; in English, Verjuice.

Choice. You must choose such as is not too sharp, but of a pleasant taste.

Qualities. 'Tis cold in the first degree, and dry in the second.

Commodity. 'Tis excellent good in Summer to temperate, and qualifie the heat of Blood, to quench the burning Choler, to stir up the Appe­tite; whence it does wonderfully contribute to young and cholerick Men, and to all hot Infir­mities.

Hurt. It strongly binds the Breast, begets Coughs, causes Convulsions of the Nerves, and is bad for Cholick-pains.

Remedy. The Malignity thereof is removed by using it together with flesh, especially with Pidge­ons, and other hot, sweet, and fat Meats; but if you eat it with Fish, you must also use hot Spices: 'Tis bad for Old and Flegmatick Men. You must not use it with Salt, for then it dries too much, and kindles Fevers.

CHAP. CL. Of Cloves.

Name. IN Latine, Cariophyllon; in English, Cloves.

Choice. The best are the fresh, of a pleasant smell, and sweet taste.

Qualities. They are hot and dry in the third degree.

Commodity. They comfort all the principal Members, the Heart, the Brain, the Liver, and the Stomach; they render the Food very sweet and pleasant, cause good Breath, provoke Urine, help Digestion, contribute much to the cold Di­stempers of the Body, stop Vomiting, cure nau­seating, and the Falling-sickness, Cramp, stupid Diseases, and stop Rheums and Fluxes.

Hurt. They offend the Bowels, excite Lust, bind the Body, and are hurtful to Cholerick Men in Summer; and using them too much, they make the Food bitter.

Remedy. You must use them in a moderate quantity, in cold Weather, in moist Food, and Flegmatick Complexions.

CHAP. CLI. Of Cinnamon.

Name. IN Latine, Cinamomum, & Cinamum; in English, Cinnamon.

Choice. The best is such as is not old, but fresh, odoriferous, of a sharp taste, and red colour.

Qualities. 'Tis hot and dry in the third de­gree.

Commodity. Using it often in Food, it is excel­lent good for the Stomach, and the cold Distem­pers thereof, dissolving the moistness and wind; it clears the sight hurt by Rheums, removes Ob­structions of the Liver, provokes Urine, causes Sleep, expels the windiness from the Body, lessens the pains in the Kidneys, is good against Coughs and Catarrhs, cleanses the Breast, dries up the moistness of the Head, makes sweet Breath, ex­cites Venereal desires, comforts the Heart: It has the property of Treacle, and it resists putre­faction.

Hurt. It is naught for Cholerick Men in Sum­mer, and in hot Countries; for it inflames the Bowels, and the Blood, it hurts Gouty folks; for being hot and opening, it prepares an easie passage for the Humours to penetrate the Feet and Joints.

Remedy. It must be used in cold Weather, mo­derately, by old and flegmatick Men, and such as have a weak Stomach.

CHAP. CLII. Of Saffron.

Name. IN Latine, Crocus; in English, Saffron.

Choice. The best is the fresh, and well coloured; the strings whereof are whitish, long, not brittle; which being washed, dies the Water, and has a pleasant smell.

Qualities. 'Tis hot in the second degree, and dry in the first.

Commodity. It comforts the Stomach and Bow­els, opens the Obstructions of the Liver, is good for the Milt, makes a good Colour, hinders Putre­faction, induces Sleep, excites Venery, glads the Heart, provokes the Courses, and the Urine, and facilitates Child-birth; but you must not take more than two Drams thereof at the farthest.

Hurt. It gets into the Head, causing pains and drowsiness, and obfuscates the Senses, causes Nau­seating, takes away the Appetite; and taken in too great a quantity, that is, three Drams, it be­comes Poison; for it causes sudden Death by Laugh­ter, and its smell hurts the Head.

Remedy. It may be taken a little at once, by Old, Melancholick, and Flegmatick Men in Win­ter.

CHAP. CLIII. Of Ginger.

Name. IN Latine, Gingiber; in English, Ginger.

Choice. You must take care that it be fresh, of a good smell, and of a sharp brisk taste; let it not be rotten, but sound, so that when you cut it, it may not fall to powder.

Qualities. When it is fresh, 'tis hot in the first degree, and moist in the third; but when dryed, 'tis dry in the second degree: It contains within it a certain moisture, whereby 'tis easily corrupted; Ginger moreover is resolving and cutting.

Commodity. It heats the Stomach, and the whole Body, consumes the Superfluities, dissolves Windiness, helps Digestion, is good for the Me­mory, wipes away Flegm, clears the Sight, and dries up the Humidities of the Head and Throat: Preserved with Honey, 'tis good for Old Men.

Hurt. It inflames the Liver; wherefore 'tis not good in hot Countries, in Summer, for hot Complexions.

Remedy. Use it moderately, or else can­dyed.

CHAP. CLIV. Of Honey.

Name. IN Latine, Mel; in English, Honey.

Choice. The best is that of the Spring, and Summer, though Aristotle praises the Au­tumnal Honey. That of the Winter is the worst; it ought to be white and clear.

Qualities. It is hot and dry in the second de­gree.

Commodity. Honey is abstersive and opening, provokes Urine, and cleanses its passages, is good for old and flegmatick Men, of a cold Complexion; it is a Pectoral Medicine, and is very convenient to preserve things; it is of a small, but very com­mendable nourishment. Democritus being asked how a Man might keep himself in Health? An­swered, by Oyl without, and Honey within. It heats the Stomach, moves the Body, resists Cor­ruption, and converts it self into good Blood.

Hurt. It breeds windiness in the Guts, is turned into Choler, obstructs the Liver and Milt, excites Fevers, and causes Cholick-pains, and eaten raw, makes Coughs: Although it be a Pectoral Medi­cine, yet it hurts the Head; and eaten immode­rately, it obfuscates the Intellect, and increases Choler.

Remedy. In boyling, you must always take away the scum thereof; or else eat it with Fruit, and other sharp Food: It must not be used but in cold Weather, and by old and flegmatick Men.

CHAP. CLV. Of Oyl.

Name. IN Latine, Oleum; in English, Oyl.

Choice. The Oyl of Olives is very sweet and commendable, and agreeable with Na­ture; but let it be sweet, and two years old at least, but not too old; let it be of ripe Olives. Oyl of sweet Almonds does challenge the second place.

Qualities. 'Tis hot and moist in the second degree.

Commodity. Drank once a day, it kills Worms, and sends them out, mollifies the Body, fattens, and increases the substance of the Liver; and drinking a good quantity thereof, is an excellent thing to make one vomit out any Poyson.

Hurt. If you eat too much thereof, it takes away the Appetite.

Remedy. You must eat it moderately, and sel­dom; and such as are healthy and nice Persons, may use Oyl of sweet Almonds, but let it be fresh.

CHAP. CLVI. Of Sugar.

Name. IN Latine, Saccharum; in English, Sugar.

Choice. The best is that they call Loaf-Sugar, the whitest, most heavy, and solid.

Qualities. Sugar is temperate, though some­thing inclining to hot, and is good in all sort of Food, except in Tripes; for being put thereon, it makes them stink like the Dung of an Ox newly made.

Commodity. It nourishes more than Honey, maintains the Body clean, and cleanses it from Flegm, mollifies the Breast, clears the Stomach, is good for the Kidneys, the Bladder, and the Eyes.

Hurt. It causes Thirst, and therefore when with thirst you perceive a bitterness in your mouth, you must not use Sugar, for then the Sto­mach is full of Choler, wherein the Sugar con­verts it self, and is very pernicious to the Stomach, and naught for men of an hot Complexion, as are the young and cholerick men.

Remedy. The Malignity of Sugar is qualified, by eating it with Pomegranats, or sour Oranges.

CHAP. CLVII. De Sappa.

Name. IN Latine, Sappa, and Defrutum; in Eng­lish, Wine and Water sodden together, till two third parts are boyled away.

Choice. New Wine of sweet Grapes is the best, and it is better, and more clear, if it be made of white rather than red Mustum.

Qualities. 'Tis hot in the second degree; for though by the Decoction it receives heat, yet this proceeds from the Natural heat: It is moist temperately.

Commodity. It nourishes strongly, keeps the Belly slippery, recalls the Pulse, and is good against the binding of the Breast, Distempers of the Lungs, Ulcers of the Reins and Bladder, and against Poyson.

Hurt. It is hard of digestion, and by its sweet­ness opilative; and therefore is altogether incon­venient for such as are troubled with Obstructions in the Liver and Milt: It is of a gross substance, and therefore windy, and naught for the Sto­mach.

Remedy. It must not be used for Food, but Sawce, and therewith put Pepper, and other Aro­matick things, in Winter; or else mix with it sharp and acid things, which cause an equal tem­perament.


Name. IN Latine, Sal; in English, Salt.

Choice. The best is the white, thick, and dry Salt.

Qualities. It is hot and dry in the second de­gree; astringent, purging, dissolving, and atte­nuating; and therefore is said, ‘Sal primò poni debet, primoque reponi.’

Amongst all Sawces it is most commendable, and without which no Food is good, because it is very necessary to preserve the Health, and is [Page 221] put into Food to render it more savoury; ac­cording to this Verse, ‘Name sapit esca male, quae datur absque Sale.’

Commodity. Salt is put into Victuals for three Reasons: First, that thereby the Food may de­scend more easily into the Stomach, it being of an heavy substance. Secondly, to make it more savoury. And thirdly, because it resists Poyson and Putrefaction; consuming by its dryness that moisture, whereby putrefaction might have been occasioned; it excites the Appetite, and dige­stive Faculty; it hinders the Stomach from nau­seating and loathing the received Food, dissolves, attenuates, and dries up the superfluous moistness, provokes the Entrails to evacuate their dreggs, and is therefore used in Clysters and Supposito­ries.

Hurt. Things too much salted, are acute, be­get Melancholy, and Vapours, offend the mouth of the Stomach, breed naughty Nourishment, dry up the Blood, weaken the Sight, diminish the Seed, cause Scabbiness, and Itch, Ring-worms, and other such Tumours and breakings out in the Face and Body, and stop the passages of the Urine.

Remedy. You must use it in a small quantity; and 'tis not good for such as as have the Breast streightned, or have salt Humours.

Finis Condimentorum.

CHAP. CLIX. Of Water.

Name. IN Latine, Aqua; in English, Water.

Choice. The best is the clear, pure, and subtil Water, free from all tastes; and that is the best, which being set on the fire, is easily heated, and taken thence, is soon cool: In the Summer let it be cool, in Winter warm; let it neither be salt nor bitter, nor taste of Mud, Brim­stone, &c. nor any Mineral Waters. Let its Foun­tain be situate towards the East, and run to the North: The Water which runs on pure Earth is better than such as runs upon Stones; you must take care that it be not heavy, nor burdensome to the Stomach, but light, and quickly digested. On the contrary, those Waters are naught which run from Marshy places, which have any ill smell, or participate of Minerals; as also are Snow-waters, and Ice dissolv'd; and likewise such as in Winter are cold, in Summer hot, for all such cool the Stomach, and obstruct the Milt.

Qualities. It is cold and moist.

Commodity. It is good for hot, fat, and fleshy Men, and mixt with Wine for such as use much Labour and Exercise. And though this does not nourish, yet it refreshes, and restores the strength, and is the conduct of the Food, excites the Ap­petite; and oportunely given in burning Fevers, it produces a joyful and happy success; for it is most contrary, and disagreeing with the Nature of Fevers, refreshing and moistening the Body: It [Page 223] does likewise very much contribute to Nightly Distempers.

Hurt. It is bad for such as are too hot, lean, and idle Men, and such as unaccustomed to drink it; such as have a weak Stomach, and are trou­bled with Convulsion of the Nerves. It hurts the Teeth, the Breast, and weak Entrails; the drinking of fresh Water is bad for Old Men; and those that use it too frequently, will inevitably fall into Old Age, and cold Infirmities.

Remedy. The Malignity of Water is corrected by beaten Pepper; and if you would drink it im­mediately, you must put therein Anise-seed; and for sick Men boyl therewith Cinnamon, and such like things: Else make Honey-water, or Methe­glin, which has great Vertues, takes away Thirst, cures the cold Infirmities of the Brain, Nerves, and Joints, is good against the Cough, cuts and expels gross Flegm from the Breast and Stomach, moves the Body and the Entrails, purges the Bow­els, and passages of the Urine, and therefore is good against Cholick-pains.

Advertisements in the Choice of Wines.

WIne is reckoned amongst Food, because every thing that nourishes is Food; and amongst all the Liquors we drink, Wine may just­ly claim the Superiority, for it is more wholesom, and by reason of its subtil and penetrating sub­stance, it mixes better with the Mass than does the Water, and other Drinks: Besides, that it is most pleasant and grateful to the Palate, it restores [Page 224] the radical Moisture, and chears the Heart. Wine is a most sweet Liquor, and an excellent restora­tive of all the Faculties, and is the most certain prop and maintenance of our Life; and therefore our Ancestors called the Tree Vitis, quasi Vita, as if it were the Tree of Life: But the use thereof is to be regulated by these twelve following Instructi­ons.

I. That when the Wine is strong and full of Spi­rits, you must always mix Water therewith, ei­ther simple Water, or else the decoction of Ani­seed, or prepared Coriander, and with it mingle so much Water, as may suffice to take away the Heat and Evaporation which gets into the Head: And because you may make a better mixture, and the hot parts of the Wine may be cooled, mix it an hour before you drink it; but if the Wine be small and waterish, do not mix it, for it moistens the Body too much, and causes Windiness in the Entrails, and intoxicates more easily; and there­fore such as have a weak Stomach should omit this.

II. That you never drink Wine after Dinner or Supper, until the concoction of the Food be end­ed, for then it helps Nourishment, penetrating more easily the Body, whereas at first it would hinder Digestion.

III. You must have a care that you do not drink Wine cooled with Snow, or icy Water; for it is very pernicious to the Brains, Sinews, Breast, Lungs, Stomach, to the Entrails, the Milt, Liver, Kidneys, Bladder, and causes Wind; whence it is no wonder, that such as use Wine in Snow or Ice, are troubled with Cholick pains, Infirmities of the Stomach, stoppage of Urine, and other [Page 225] pernicious Evils; whereas the ancient Gr [...]eks were wont to drink it hot, with good success.

IV. You must avoid drinking Wine fasting, be­cause it troubles the Understanding, induces the Cramp, is exceeding hurtful to the Brain and Nerves, fills the Head, whence proceed Catarrhs; which is seen by experience in the old Turks, who drinking no Wine, are n [...]t much troubled with Ca­tarrhs or Tooth-ach, whereas we who use it fre­quently, begin to perceive Rheums and Catarrhs in our Youth: Therefore when you find that the Wine has offended your Head, and causes Pains therein, immediately provoke Vomiting.

V. That it is not convenient after fresh and moist Fruit to drink a thin Wine, for the Wine being a good Penetrator, does presently induce and lay open a passage to the Members for the ma­lignity of this Fruit: But this is to be understood, if you drink a superfluous quantity thereof; but if you drink it moderately, it corrects the hurt of all such Food.

VI. If at the same Table, both small and strong Wine is used, begin with the small, reserving the strong for the last, which comforts the mouth of the Stomach, and helps Digestion.

VII. That by how much the Food is more cold and gross, so much the more need is there of strong Wine; but when the Food is more subtil, hot and digestible, let the Wine be weak; and therefore such as feed on Beef and Fish, are to drink stronger Wine than such as feed on Pul­lets, &c.

VIII. That such as use much Wine, ought not to eat much, for Wine serves instead of Meat and Drink, and therefore Nature cannot easily digest them both.

[Page 226]IX. Wine that is weakned with Water, is more wholesom and commendable than that which is naturally weak, for the latter more easily putri­fies.

X. That such as have a weak Brain, a hot Li­ver and Stomach, and dwell in sultry Countreys, ought to drink a little Wine, mixing Water there­with; but if cold, the more Wine and less Water will not be amiss.

XI. You must also observe the season of the Year; for in Winter, drink very sparingly, but strong Wine▪ in Summer, more largely, but small, and mixt with Water.

XII. You must moreover consider the Age; for as Wine is very bad for Children, so it is most proper for old men, seeing that it qualifies and al­lays their cold Complexion: And therefore Plato denies Wine to Children, gives young men leave to drink it moderately, and allows old men a more plentiful use thereof, saying, that Children before they are twenty two years old, ought not to drink any Wine, because that will add fire to their fire, and young men ought not to drink it strong, but well tempered.

The Qualifications of Good Wine.

GOod Wine ought to be clean, pure, and clear, inclining to a red, called Claret, or Cherry-colour; but let it be of stony and mountainous Pla­ces, situate towards the South: Let it be of an ex­cellent Odour, for such Wine increases the subtil Spirits, nourishes excellently, and breeds very good Blood; let it be of a pleasant Taste, but let [Page 227] it by no means be too sharp or sweet, but of a middle temper, for if too sweet, it inflames, ob­structs, and fills the Head, but the sharp or sowr Wine hurts the Nerves and Stomach, and begets Crudities.

Of Bad Wine.

THE gross, stinking, corrupted, flat Wines, are unpleasant to the Taste, and unwholesom; all which are to be avoided, for they cause the Head-ach, corrupt the Blood, breed melancholick Spirits, and in short, are destructive to the whole Body.

Of Watrish Wine.

THE weak and watrish Wines will not endure a great mixture of Water, nourish smally, do not heat much, and may therefore be safely gi­ven to feverish persons: They do not offend the Head, having few Vapours; they allay the Head-ach, caused by moistness, and the pains of the Stomach, that proceed from Heat.

Of Strong Wine.

FRom the aforesaid things, we may draw up this Conclusion, viz. That strong Wines do not at all contribute to the preservation of the Health; no more do Wines of Corsica, Malmsey, Muscadine, and the like, especially being fat and red, for they nourish too much.

The Effects of Good Wine moderately drank.

WIne, if used discreetly and moderately, does communicate innumerable Benefits both to the Body and Mind: For as to the Mind, it is rendred more secure and calm, the Spirits are strengthned, and dilate themselves, Joy and Gladness is augmented, sad and unpleasant Thoughts are banished; it clears the Understand­ing, excites the Wit, bridles Anger, takes away Melancholy, enlivens and encourages the Spirits, changes Vices into Vertues, makes an impious man pious, a covetous man liberal, a proud man hum­ble, a lazy man diligent and careful, a dull and heavy man facetious and witty. Then as to the Body; it is very nourishing, resists Putrefaction, helps Digestion, and breeds good Blood, cuts Flegm, dissolves Windiness, provokes Sleep, ex­cites the Appetite, fattens healthy men, restores consumptive men, opens Obstructions, concocts crude Humours, provokes Sleep, opens a passage for the Superfluities; whence Wine was justly cal­led by the Ancients, Theriaca magna, since that it heats all cold Tempers, and refreshes hot, as also it dryes the moist Tempers, and moistens the dry.

The Remedy of the Malignity of Wine.

TO correct the Malignity of the Wine, you must not eat sweet and opening things, but bitter and astringent: Whence Wormwood taken before, hinders Drunkenness; and the same effect have seven or eight bitter Almonds, or a Sallad of [Page 229] Lettice, and Kernels of Peach-stones before Meat, as Marmalade of Quinces, and such like, after Meat.

Of New Wine.

NEW Wine, called Mustum, is of a difficult Digestion, offends the Liver, and the En­trails, swells the Belly, by the Ebullition which it causes in the Body, whence arises Windiness; it provokes the Urine, induces the Dysentery, is of a gross Nourishment, &c. but one good quality it has, for it loosens the Belly.

Of Old Wine.

WHen the Wine is above four years old, it is hot and dry in the third degree, and the older it is, the more heat it acquires. The best is such as is odoriferous, something strong, full of Spirits, which is neither bitter nor sowr, but plea­sant to all the Senses, helping the expulsive Facul­ty, dissolving ill Humours; it is good for those that have raw Humours in the Veins, and in the other Vessels; it hurts their Sinews who use it too much; 'tis naught for Copulation, because it dryes up the Seed, disturbs the Understanding, offends the little skins of the Brain, and hinders Sleep; whence 'tis to be used for Physick, and not for Drink, unless you use it very moderately, and mixt with much Water: 'Tis naught for young and cholerick persons, but good for old men, especially in Winter.

Of Rough Wine.

THE Wines which are properly Rough, have so small a heat, that they scarce arrive to the first degree, and are dry in the second: They are good for the great Heat in quotidian Fevers, In­flammations of the Liver, and dryness of the Sto­mach; they refresh, take away Thirst, cure Fluxes, stop Vomiting, but let them not be too sharp or sowr, but moderately binding, subtil, and not of too high a colour; they are good for young men of an hot Stomach, and are naught for fleg­matick and old men, because they bind the Breast, beget Coughs, do neither nourish well, nor breed good Blood, and hinder Sweat.

Of Red Wine.

THE Red Wine is hot in the first degree, and as to the rest, temperate: The best is of a subtil substance, clear, and shining; it breeds ve­ry good Blood, nourishes well, takes away the Syncope, and makes Sleep pleasant; the gross bur­dens the Stomach, hurts the Liver and Milt, caus­ing Obstructions, and is slowly digested; the dark red is more nourishing, and more obstructing.

Of White Wine.

THE Wine of a Citron, or Limmon colour, is called White-wine: It is odoriferous and strong, hot in the beginning of the second degree, and dry in the first; it must not be kept longer than a year, for it will be too hot; let this Wine be clear, made of ripe Grapes, growing on Hills. It resists Poyson, and all Putrefaction, purges the Veins of corrupt Humours, gives a [...]ood Colour, [Page] increases the Strength, chears the Heart, corrobo­rates natural Heat, provokes Urine and Sweat, cau­ses Sleep, is good against the quartan and quotidian Ague; it comforts the Stomach, and being well tempered with Water, is good at all times for all Ages and Complexions, provided it be not too old.

Vinorum Finis.

CHAP. CLX. Of Ale and Beer.

Name. IN Latin, Cervisia; in English, Ale and Beer.

Choice. You must choose the clear, thin, and pure Ale.

Quality. Ale is hot and moist, Beer is cold and moist.

Commodity. Beer and Ale is the common and familiar Drink in England, and no doubt but pro­fitable and wholesom it is, as Experience shews; but the different Preparations, or brewing thereof, make no small difference in the Drinks: The diffe­rence of Waters of which it is made, is greatly to be considered, therefore according to their Na­tures you must judge of the Drink. Also the dif­ferent Corn or Grain is to be considered: As Drinks made of Wheat Malt nourish more; some people mix Wheat and Barley together; others mix some Oats with Barley for Malt; generally in Ale are used no Hops, or less Hops than in Beer, there­fore Ale is more nourishing, and loosens the Belly.

Hurt. All new Drink is very unwholesom, espe­cially if it be troubled, or thick, for it obstructs the Bowels, and breeds the Stone.

Remedy. If it be not too strong, but clear and thin, all hurt thereof is remedied, whereas the thick and muddy Ale is very unwholesom; for if

[Page 232]
Ale goes in thick, and comes out thi [...]
Then needs must leave some Dregs within.

Divers Ways to loosen the Body.

FRom eating d [...] proceed many Superfluities in our Bodies, part whereof are consumed by Exercise, and part r [...]main behind, which are to be expelled by Art: The Superfluities are diffe­rent, according to the diversity of places whence they proceed, such is Spittle, Snot, Sweat, Urine, the Excrements of the Belly, and other Filth and Dregs of the Body, which if not driven forth [...]oc­casion many Evils, as Obstructions, Fevers, Aches, and Imposthumes; and therefore with all diligence one ought to evacuate them, either by Nature, or by Art: By Nature, using moist and liquid Foods; By Art, taking some Clyster, in Summer made with oyl of Violets and Roses, in Winter with common Oyl, or of sweet Almonds; or else ma­king a Suppository of Butter, filling a leaden Pipe with Butter, and a little Salt: The other way is, To take half an ounce of flower of Cassia, a little before Meals, or else an ounce and a half of honey of Roses loosning, or else syrup of Roses, three hours before Dinner, once or twice a week. To this purpose, it will not be amiss before Dinner to eat half an ounce of Calabrian Manna, or to drink it in a little Broth: Or else (and it is a so­veraign Medicine likewise) dissolve Manna in Burrage-water, afterwards distil it i [...] a hot Bath, in a great Limbeck, whence proceeds a most clear and pure Water, whereof take one or two ounces, at night before Supper, or in the morning, six hours before Dinner.


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