MORAL INSTRUCTIONS OF A FATHER TO His Son, UPON HIS Departure for a long VOYAGE: OR, An Easie way to guide a Young Man towards all sorts of VIRTUES.

With an hundred MAXIMES, Chri­stian and Moral.

LONDON, Printed for W. Crook, at the Green Dra­gon without Temple-Bar, near Deve­reux Court, 1683.


TO THE RIGHT WORSHIPFUL Sir Thomas Grantham, Knt.


HAving accidentally met with a small French Ma­nual, newly printed in France; I found it fraught with such excellent Advice and uncommon In­structions, not only for all Young Men in general, but more especi­ally for a Young Person upon his going a great Voyage by Sea, that I esteem'd it well worthy (for the Benefit of our young [Page]Noblemen and Gentlemen eve­ry Day vying who shall go first to Sea,) to be render'd into our Tongue; and that it may have the more Credit and Reputation with those hopeful young Sea­men (or with any other that shall happen to peruse it,) I have been bold, Sir, to offer it up to you, to be protected by your Name, under whose Patro­nage and Protection my Father hath now put me, during your present Expedition to visit all the considerable Ports and Ha­vens in the East Indies; humbly begging you to take in good part this small Token of my great Respect towards you, You who [Page]have deserv'd the Respect of all Loyal English Men, and whom his Majesty hath so far respect­ed, as lately, Sir, to name you Commander of the best Merchant Ship that ever was built in England; and to con­fer the Honour of Knighthood upon you at the same time, as part of your Reward for the Signal Service you did his Ma­jesty and this Nation, not only in the Year 1676 at Virginia, by reducing to their Allegiance that rebellious Colony, who had ravaged all the Country, burnt the City of James-Town, and driven away the Governour, whom you re-settled in his [Page]Government; for which his Majesty (always bountiful to his faithful Servants) gratified you with a considerable Sum of Money; but also in 1678, for your in­comparable Valour, and admira­ble Success, against that po­tent Pirate Canary Admiral of Algier in the New Rose, who attack'd your sole Merchant Ship of but twenty two Guns, and for­ty Sea-men; with his Man of War of forty eight Guns, and six hundred Men; whom, after se­ven Hours Fight, you forced to stand away, with the loss of two hundred Men, there being kill'd of yours not above seven or eight; for which Service [Page] his Majesty was pleas'd to give you the best Medal and Chain that he ever yet bestow'd upon any Man: so that his Majesty accounts it a part of his Hap­piness that he hath such a Wise, Valiant, and Able Sea-man. And you cannot, Sir, but esteem your self exceedingly happy in the Favour and Service of such a Prince, who knows better than any other Prince in Eu­rope, and consequently in the World, how to value and re­ward the Merits of all brave Sea Commanders and Officers; who knows better than all his Royal Predecessors, that the chief Interest of England is to main­tain [Page]the Empire and Soveraignty of the British Seas, and for that Reason, hath made it his con­stant Business and Delight in Maritime Affairs, in Building, Rigging, Victualling, and Sailing of Ships; in understanding all our Ports, Harbours, Roads, Coasts, Seas, Flats, Sands, and above all, the best way of Naval Battels; in cherishing and en­couraging all ingenious and expert Men for building of Ships, for casting the best Guns, for making the best Tackle, &c. in favouring and encouraging all Young Noblemen and Gentle­men, who have any Desire to serve their King and Country at [Page]Sea; in providing for the Edu­cation of Youth in Navigation, and other Mathematical Scien­ces; in taking Care for poor maim'd Sea Souldiers and Ma­riners; and lastly, (to the great advantage of this Nation) in making choice of Captains for His Majesties Ships, who for Wisdom, Conduct, Courage, and other Abilities, excell all others in the World; such as the Right Honourable Lord, the Baron of Dartmouth, the Vice-Admiral Herbert, Sir Richard Haddock, Sir John Norborough, Sir John Berry, Sir John Wet­wang, Sir John Wybourn, and many more stout, able, experi­enc'd [Page]Commanders. Sir, it is but just that all the World should be sensible of the Benefits and Advantages which his Majesty hath brought with him into England, and that the Sea as well as the Land should rejoyce thereat. This Kingdom was never so rich, so potent, so glorious, nor every way so flourishing, nor so happy (maugre all the wicked Designs and Hellish Conspiracies of those ambitious, revengeful, muti­nous Spirits amongst us,) as in this Kings Reign, for above these twenty three Years; nor was there ever owing so much to any of our Princes as to this: the Consideration whereof is, I [Page]believe, the chief Motive which induceth you to quit a Country quiet Life and plentiful Estate, and at his Majesty's Desire, to under­take this long and long-lasting Voyage, which, Sir, I pray God to prosper, and encline you to continue your Favour to him who is both by Inclination and Obligation,

Your most Humble, most Devoted, and most Obedient Servant, Peregrin Clifford Chamberlayne.

Moral Instructions of a Fa­ther to his Son, upon his departure for a long Voy­age.

YOU earnestly intreated me, my Son, to agree to your desire of taking a Voyage into the East-Indies, and to be absent for some Years. I did so little expect such a Pro­posal from you, that it wholly surprized me, and I had several Reasons persuading me you could not be capable of making a Resolution of this nature. So many things ought to concur thereto, that at first Thoughts I imagined, that either the Youthful and Ardent Desires (inhe­rent in those of your Age) of travelling into Foreign Countries, had made you take up this Resolution; or that it was perhaps only to try that Paternal Affe­ction [Page 2]which has ever been towards you most indulgent. Whatever it be, it is convenient that I put you in mind how I have acted all along in this Affair, and you ought to approve of my Proceedings. You know that while I endeavoured to dissuade you from this Design, I did not onely make you recall to mind all those sweet and pleasant hours you have spent hitherto under the Roof of a loving Fa­ther, and rendred you sensible of the Cares and Toils you were to undergo during your whole Voyage, instead of that Tranquility which lay in your pow­er to enjoy: But I also demonstrated to you, how many several Reasons did ob­lige you not to abandon me; yet seeing you esteemed these Reasons of too little force to make you change your Reso­lution, I oppos'd it by the consideration of the great Hazards in your Passage: In order thereunto I laid before you the danger of Shipwrack, Pirats, and Incon­veniencies both infinite and unavoidable in such a long Voyage, principally to a Young Man bred so tenderly, and edu­cated with that Care as you have bin. All this was not sufficient to dissuade [Page 3]you, so that I was forced at length to yield to your request, whereto the assu­rance you gave me did not a little con­tribute, that the impatience of becom­ing more worthy of my singular Care in your Education, did prompt you to this, besides your mentioning what Joy you should conceive to share the Pains I take to increase your Fortune. The Protesta­tions of this truth made to me in private, and reiterated in the presence of our Re­lations, who I was willing should be wit­nesses of my Carriage towards you in an Affair of this importance, prevented my making use of an absolute Authority, (given to me as a Father) to force you to comply with my Will; and that for three Reasons, which I shall the more gladly impart to you, because I am presua­ded the knowledg of them will excite you to acknowledge my Kindness.

The first is, That altho many Fathers will admit of no Limits in Filial Obedi­ence, and their claim thereto being of Divine Right, yet I can say I never took such advantage over you by this Right, as to use it in it's utmost Rigour: Of this I have given you more than one [Page 4]Proof, and you may remember, that as often as your Conduct brought upon you my Correction, in the greatest and most lawful Causes I had of being incen­sed, I always allayed the heat of those Provocations, caused through your In­discretion, with the Fondness of a tender Father. You know I have Contracted the Bounds of your obedience, and ex­tended those of my Kindness to whatsoe­ver you could pretend; and in putting you in mind of your Duty, by these words of St. Paul; Children, obey your Parents in all things, for this is well-pleasing unto the Lord; I was exhorted to mine, by the words following: Fathers, provoke not your Children to Anger, least they be discouraged.

The second Reason, which obliged me not to withstand absolutely your Inten­tions, was to avoid the Reproaches which you might reflect upon me hereafter, that my refusal had bin an Obstacle to your Fortune.

And the last was, the Fear I had lest you should have made use of that very refusal for a Pretext to justifie ever after all defects in your Proceedings.

These Reasons, my Son, were the Cause of my complying so easily with your re­quest. I could have wished you would have altered your Intentions, to please me; but seeing that you could not con­form to my Sentiments, and that you still persist in your design, after having implored the Almighty to grant you his Grace, and to Shower down the most precious of his Blessings upon your Soul, your Person, and your Actions, I think it is absolutely necessary, (for to satisfie my Inclination and Duty) not to let you go without some peculiar Instructions, which may be as a Guide to your Manners, and which most certainly will be con­vincing Proofs of my Kindness, as also inexhaustible Springs of future happiness, in your Conversation both Spiritual and Civil, if you will apply your self to them, which I exhort and command you to do. However let what will happen, these Instructions will remain as so many irre­fragable Witnesses, how zealously I en­deavoured to do my Duty, if unhapily you should be wanting in yours.

By telling you, my dear Son, that these Instructions which I am about to give [Page 6]you, are the Effects of my Inclination and Duty, I have inverted that order which Reason requires: I should rather have said, these Effects proceeded from my Duty and Inclination, and so have preferred Duty before Inclination, because the first is governed by Reason, whereas the latter is but an Incitement of Nature, who is not seldom blinded by those ten­der Impulses which Proximity of Blood inspires. But I was overcome by a Weak­ness, common to most Fathers, which I do not stick to confess, to the intent you may be perswaded, that in this following Discourse I rather fell into a great Indul­gence, than that I maintained a Severity too Austere.

'Tis also not without some Mystery, my Son, that in wishing you the Blessings of God, I would have them applied to your Soul, your Person, and your Actions. The order of these Words is one of the Duties whereon I shall give you some In­structions, which I enjoyn you to observe and practice. I divide it into three parts, Spiritual, Personal, and Civil Duties: the first shall teach you your Duty to God; the second, your Duty to your self; and the [Page 7]last shall instruct you in your Duty to your Neighbour. If I should go about to treat of this Matter to an extent as great as it's Importance, I ought, instead of a few Pages I intend for you, to write several Volumes: but this being wide of my Design, as also far above my Abilities, I shall rest satisfied in being as concise as this matter can possibly allow. God grant through his Grace, that I may be inspi­red with Arguments, both so clear and strong, as to equalize the greatness of my Enterprize; and that through his Good­ness, he may encline you to put them in Practice for his Glory, for your Salvati­on, for my Satisfaction, and for your Profit and Advancement.

Of Spiritual Duties.

YOU learned in your Childhood, my Son, that God created you to know him, and to serve him. These two Obligations which bind you from your Birth, have Relation to the two chief Fa­culties of the Soul. The Knowledge of God belongs to the Ʋnderstanding, and the Service of him to the Will; but the Light [Page 8]of our Understanding has too narrow li­mits ever to arrive to the perfect Know­ledge of his Divinity, and the Will of Man is too perverse to be capable of ser­ving him as we ought. These Impedi­ments which grow out of the abundance of our Corruption, must nevertheless not discourage us; A bruised Reed God shall not break, and smoaking Flax shall he not quench: He fulfils his Power in our Weaknesses; he supplies our Wants; he helps our Infirmities; and he, knowing that of our selves we cannot ascend to him, out of his Divine Goodness is plea­sed to come down to us. He not only makes use of his Word and his Works to imprint in our Minds some kind of Idea of his Greatness, which we may not wholly conceive; but also, through the Communication of his Holy Spirit he corrects our Inclinations; and when he has made them to will what naturally they would not, he also forces them to act it by a sweet sort of Violence which we cannot resist.

My Son, read this Word, and that as often as possibly you may; but read it with great Respect and Attention: 'Tis the [Page 9]Voice of God: This Reason must oblige you to the Respect; and 'tis for your In­struction you read it: this should force you to the Attention I demand of you. Set apart some hours for this sacred Stu­dy, which on Sunday ought to be two at least, and one upon each other Day. Be careful that upon no account you ne­glect this Duty. The greatest of all Con­siderations is that of your Salvation: quit all others that you may not fail in this; and let not any interest or pleasure here upon Earth make you forget those Joys of Heaven. The World, and all worldly Desires pass away, but he whose Desire is the Will of God shall live eter­nally. This Will you may learn in his holy Word. Yet what will signifie the Knowledge of it, but to render your self more guilty, unless you use your utmost Endeavours to be conformable thereto? That Servant who knoweth the Will of his Master, and doth it not, shall be beaten with more Stripes than he who never knew it. Remember this with Fear and Trembling. However, all your Care would be in vain if God himself did not help you to bring to pass what he requires; [Page 10]therefore always beg that Grace of him. 'Tis a very great benefit that he permits us to speak to him; yet it is a benefit much greater, that not only he vouchsafes to let us speak to him in our Prayers, but also promiseth through his Mercy to hear us; Call upon me, saith he, in the Day of Trouble, and I will deliver thee. Implore him then, my Son, but let your Prayers ascend upon the Wings of Faith and Fer­vency; for God can no more love those who want Zeal, than those that mistrust his Goodness. Ask earnestly of him that he accomplish in you, by his Vertue om­nipotent, whatsoever he commands; and be not weary of performing so holy an Exercise. Beseech him earnestly to direct your ways, that you may follow after him. Implore him incessantly, that he would raise you from that Sepulchre of Sins wherein you lye buried. These are they, who by their Prayers storm the Kingdom of Heaven, and take it by force. Follow the Example of Jacob, who by a holy Importunity gained a Blessing from God. Without such a Blessing, all your Labour, Care, and Diligence, will be em­ployed in vain. Except the Lord build the [Page 11]House they labour in vain that build it. Be­gin and end the Day with Prayer, and be constant in your Morning and Evening Sacrifice. If you hope to obtain what you ask of God, let your Heart pray rather than your Lips; with a devout Zeal, and not for Fashion-sake. Begin your Pray­ers with Joy and Gladness, go through with them cheerfully, and do not end them without a sorrowful Reluctancy that you must leave off. But above all, let this Beginning, this Continuance, and this End, be without any wandering of your Mind. Frighten away those Birds which come to trouble your Sacrifice; that is, put far from you those Thoughts which may be the least hinderance to your De­votion. To pray to God without Atten­tion, instead of pleasing doth offend him; it is a Sacriledge rather than an Offering. Our being seldom disposed for heavenly things renders this Attention difficult. Yet it is most certain, that from thence we have most reason to derive the Success of our Prayers; for God cannot grant our Requests unless he hear us, and how should we expect to have those Prayers heard which we our selves do not hear? [Page 12]Upon this very Account, God may apply to us what he said in time past to the Jews; This People draw near me with their Mouth, and with their Lips do honour me, but have removed their Hearts far from me. Judge therefore, my Son, if we have not great reason to search diligently after the Means which will bring us to this Attention.

I have here set down some few Rules or Means, the Practice whereof I take to be very advantageous, and consequently not to be neglected.

We may pray to God in all Places, but all Places are not equally proper for this Duty. When thou prayest, saith our Saviour, enter into thy Closet, and when thou hast shut thy Door, pray to thy Father which is in secret. This Advice which the Saviour of the World gives concerning Prayer, teacheth us that we must retire our selves when we Pray, and must be so far from making our Prayers the Subject of Humane Applause, that we must pray secretly; which not only our Divine Master did confirm by his own Example, but also before he gave his Apostles that Counsel of withdrawing in private, he told them: When ye pray, be not as the [Page 13]Hypocrites are: For they love to pray stand­ing in the Synagogues, and in the corners of the Streets, that they may be seen of Men. Observe these Maxims, and when you would offer up your Prayers, let it be in Private; for going to an Exercise which obligeth you to fly the World, let not any thing that is worldly accom­pany you at that time. Do not imitate the Example of Rachel, who leaving her Fathers House carried with her those Images, which were the Object of his Idolatry. Follow rather that of Elijah, who, when he drew near to God, in the Chariot wherein he was carried from this World, let fall his Mantle, that he might have no Earthly thing with him. Draw not nigh hither. Put off thy Shooes from off thy Feet, for the place whereon thou stan­dest is holy Ground, said the Eternal to Moses, when he spake to him out of the burning Bush. This Voice is also direct­ed to you. When at any time you have a mind to pray, the place you choose out for that purpose you must suppose to be sanctified with the presence of God. Put off then your Shooes, that it may not be defiled; that is, relinquish all your [Page 14]Thoughts which savour of the World or the Flesh. Depart from Sodom, with­out looking behind you; and having disposed things in this order, fall down upon your Knees before you begin your Devotion, spare some small time to think upon the infinite Greatness of him you are about to implore, and to consider your own extream Meanness. If such a Meditati­on as this is serious, it must of Necessity redouble your Zeal, and render you more fit to approach the Divine Majesty. One great Reason why our Mind is too often alienated at Prayer is, the Diversity of Objects which our Eyes meet with, there­fore to prevent this great inconvenience, I think it Necessary to keep them shut. This Advice, my Son, is not of the least Moment, fail not to try it, and then make use of it according as you find it succeed.

I do not prescribe you the use of any particular Prayers; your Discretion ought to make choice of such as are suitable to the Subject which occasions your Prayers. However I think it will not be amiss, that all the Requests you make to God be com­prised in this one, that of his Love. This is the way to have all; for he who has [Page 15] God with him can want nothing. Solomon asked of him only Wisdom, and God said to him, Because that thou hast asked this thing, and that thou hast not asked for thy self long Life; neither hast asked Riches; nor the Life of thine Enemies; but hast asked for thy self Ʋnderstanding: It shall be given thee; and I will give thee that which thou hast not asked, both Riches and Ho­nour. Plato, although a Pagan, may be an Example to many Christians to teach them for what things they ought to pray. It was his custom in his Prayers to say thus: O God grant me those things that are good, when I ask them not, and deny me, when I ask for those things that are evil. God often favours us by not hearing our Prayers, and sometimes punisheth us by granting our requests, when we pray for that which is pernicious to our welfare; as we common­ly do, for as our Lord JESUS CHRIST said, we often know not what we ask.

Physicians order those who have a weak Stomach, to eat little and often. If it be hard for you to keep up your Attention, (which is the Soul of Prayer,) do you after the same manner, and following the Coun­sel of our Blessed Saviour, when you pray, [Page 16] use not vain repetitions as the Heathen do; for they think they shall be heard for their much speaking. If therefore your Prayers must be short, let them be the more fre­quent, but chiefly, I shall once again ex­hort you to this; Let neither your Zeal nor your Faith be wanting.

My Son, if you remember, I said we might pray to God in all Places, though all places were not equally Proper for this Exercise; Yet if we consider Prayer to be (as we must not doubt) a darting forth of our Soul towards God, to unite it with his Holy Spirit; why cannot we do this every Hour, if not every Moment in the Day, wheresoever we are, at home or abroad? And why cannot we often turn our Hearts to God, though in the midst of our most important Affairs, and in walking, whe­ther it be in the City, or in the Country? To do thus, is to pray to him. The Heart of Man is a moving Closet, a Place of Retirement; a holy Solitude, where we may enter every Moment, and from thence send such fervent (though short) Ejaculations as shall penetrate Heaven, and be more acceptable to God, than those long Prayers which too often want At­tention. [Page 17]These Ejaculations are without doubt what the Evangelist means, when he exhorts us to pray always. And why, my Son, should you not observe this good Custom, of praying to God, and praising him in your Bed, whensoever you happen to awake, since Prayer is so much the principal part of Divine Worship, that the Scripture comprehends thereby all Religi­ous Duties.

This, my Son, is the chiefest of what I had to say to you concerning Prayer in particular: But take notice you cannot pray to God without putting your Trust in him, neither can you put your trust in God without loving him. Love him then if you expect his Love. Fear him if you desire to be wise; for the Fear of the Lord is the beginning of Wisdom. This fear, as Solomon said, is to hate and avoid all evil, and consequently to do good. If you fear God, you will love him, and if you love him, you will keep his Com­mandements: my Son, you know all those Commandements; let nothing then be an Obstacle to your Practice of them.

God is a Spirit, and the Truth, and he will be worshipped in Spirit and Truth. This [Page 18]Religion, wherein (through his goodness) you was born, for the full and perfect Knowledge whereof, I have throughly cultivated your Understanding; This, I say, is the only natural Worship which he requires. Adhere to this Worship, and you will find it more advantageous to you, than the Star was to those Shepherds whom it guided to Bethlehem; for that only led them to JESUS CHRIST in his lowest E­state, whereas this Worship shall conduct you to him in his Glory. This Divine Savi­our of the World, speaking of himself to St. Thomas, said, I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life. And 'tis the only way through which we must go to the Father. Stray not from it, my Son, whatsoever may be­fall you: For instead of Springs which you will find in this Way, flowing with living Water, every where out of it you shall meet with puddles of Water both impure and loathsome. You cannot go out of this Path wherein you have entred with­out departing from God, and consequent­ly from all those Joys whereof he is the Center. Let neither Wealth, Honour, nor Pleasure lead you aside; and though you suffer the most rigorous Persecutions, yet [Page 19]be not disheartned. Esteem it as a great Honour to bear the Cross after your Sa­viour; it would be an honourable Re­proach to you, to have your Body mark­ed and bruised for the sake of Christ. This is the way, through which all the Martyrs have passed, to enter into those heavenly Joys. If God should call you to such Proofs, turn not away, for the least Thron falling from our Saviour's Crown upon your Head, will affix thereto a Crown of Glory: If therefore you happen to suffer for Christs sake, be not ashamed, but ra­ther praise and glorifie God for it.

Sickness, Loss of Persons dear to us, Loss of Goods, Wealth, and an infinite number more of unwelcome Accidents, compose generally the Series of our Life. My Son, do not think you can avoid them. The Afflictions of this World are most certain Characters of the Children of God, wherewith he corrects those he loves, as a Father useth a rod to chastise the Child whom he tenderly cherisheth. 'Tis true the Flesh takes no delight in being chastised, neither are we to hearken to Fleshly Sentiments when we would put in practice what is necessary to our Salvati­on. [Page 20]If it is God's good Pleasure you should undergo Afflictions, of what nature, or how sharp soever, murmur not. Take heed when you suffer, it be not deserved­ly: And remember in your sufferings, though exceeding great, that they can­not be equal to the Glory, which will be your reward hereafter. These afflictions (which if the right use be made of them immediately pass away) will produce in your Mind the Brightness of that trans­cendent Glory. Moral Philosophy teach­eth us, that Vices of all sorts spring from Passions disorder'd, whereas from regu­lated Passions do proceed all Vertues; And Christian Divinity doth verifie by experience, that afflictions, which in Reprobates occasion nothing but Despair, are to the Faithful so many inexhaustible Fountains of Joy.

The Rods which God makes use of to punish the Wicked, are like that of Mo­ses, which turned into a Serpent; and those wherewith he chastiseth his Chil­dren, have a resemblance to that of Aaron, which brought forth Flowers and Fruit. Make good use of them, My Son; Kiss those Rods wherewith he corrects you; [Page 21]adore the secret Vertue in them, and, e­ven in the most Severe Chastisements, ac­knowledge his Divine Goodness in rai­sing you out of that heavy Sleep wherein Sin may have cast you. If they are more sharp than Flesh could wish for, believe that it is for your good to be thus afflicted for a little time, that the trial of your Faith being much more precious than of Gold that perisheth, tho it be tried with Fire, might be found unto Praise, and Honour, and Glo­ry, at the appearing of JESUS CHRIST.

My Son, you ought to have observed, that I have reduced under four Heads all the Duties of a Spiritual Life; viz: Reading the Word of God with Attention; frequent and ardent Prayers; a constant Perseverence in the Faith; and a perfect and entire Resignation to the Will of God, tho he expose you to be tried by the most bitter Calamities. If you had still remained with me, I should have given you these very Instructions, the two first whereof I have bin very careful in ma­king you practice as soon as your Age would permit it: Therefore I could not but think them more necessary to you when you are from me, and chiefly in [Page 22]a Country, where, far from having the Comfort of a publick Exercise of your Religion, you will scarce ever see an Example of the least Piety; which ought the rather to oblige you to practise most exactly the Advice I have now given you. I do exhort you to it by the Bowels of Mercy of our Lord and Saviour; I require it of you by the Care you ought to have of your Salvation; and I do en­treat you to do it by that Complaisance which I have reason to expect from your Gratitude. If you follow this Counsel, you will render to God what is due to him, you will accomplish the demands of your Father; and thereby you may discharge that Duty you owe to your self; wherein I shall instruct you in the second Discourse, which, according to the me­thod I prescribed, must treat of Personal Duties.

Of Personal Duties.

I Have been more concise in the first Part, which treats of your Duty to­wards God, than I shall be in this, which concerns your Duty to your self, or in the [Page 23]next following, which comprehends your Duty to your Neighbour: and 'tis no hard matter to justifie my Proceedings in this Point: I have followed the Example of God himself; for, of the Ten Command­ments, whereof his Law is composed, there are but four which have immediate Re­gard to his Service, whereas there are six to guide us in our Duty towards our Neigh­bour. There is no Nation so ignorant or brutish but believeth in some God, and at the same time prepares a form of Worship whereby to shew their Obedience; so true it is that the Belief of a God doth imply a Duty of serving him not to be dispensed with: and this is so absolutely necessary, that altho some Men might be so irre­ligious as not to acknowledge it, they must nevertheless be convinced of it in their Conscience. Your Mind, my Son, is replenished with this Knowledge, let it then pass from thence into your Will; and with those Lights, wherewith it hath pleased God to enlighten your Under­standing, rectifie whatsoever is amiss in your Affections. Discharge your self of the Duties that are inseparably joyned to your Knowledge of God; that is, to fear, [Page 24]to love, and to serve him. I do not que­stion but you would have done this tho I had not exhorted you to it; which will be a matter of great Comfort in my Sor­row for your Absence. Ʋpon this Belief I abridg'd my Thoughts, and suppressed much of what I could have said upon this Subject, which being so abundant, would have render'd this Discourse at least as long as both those which are to follow.

To being with our second Subject, which is, concerning your Duty to your self, I think it very convenient to put you in mind of that moral Dialogue which in your tender Years I made for your Instru­ctions; wherein you may have remem­ber'd that I treated of Christian Vertues, which are, Faith, Charity, and Hope; which three, guide us in our Duty to God: Faith makes us submit to him in all Things, Charity makes us cleave to him at all Times, and Hope carrieth us to him to all Eternity. You ought also to re­member that there are Moral Vertues; viz: Prudence, Fortiude, Temperance, and Justice: These are to teach us our Duty to our selves, as also our Duty to our Neigh­bours. The first of these four Vertues is [Page 25]like a Salt to season the other three: For­titude and Temperance have a relation to each individual Person; and Justice is the Bonds of Humane Society, without which Men must live together like Wolves, not being capable of any Con­verse for the Publick Good, which, next to the glorifying of God, ought to be our chief Aim: So that in this second Arti­cle of Instructions which, my Son, I do now lay down before you, I must speak but of the three first Vertues; Prudence, Temperance, and Fortitude. Prudence ought to be the Rule of your Actions and Con­duct. Temperance will instruct you how to govern your self in Prosperity, that you may not be poisoned with it's delicious Pleasures: And Fortitude will so guide you, that you shall not be overcome with the Bitterness of Adversity. I will reduce all I have to say to you to as few words as I can (altho the Subject be very copious) that you may only receive the Pith and Juyce of it, whereby you may be nou­rished without being overcharged.

Man was born for Society, and I may say, without that Society Vertue would [Page 26]have no Followers, Man's Life would be unpleasant, and in this World there would be no Content. God, after he had created Man, said it was not good that he should be alone: Therefore through his extraordinary Goodness, he made him a Help meet for him, and formed a Person with whom he might live in Society. Now this Society is nothing else but a reciprocal Communication made be­tween divers Persons, who by mutual Services to one another endeavour to ren­der their Lives as pleasant as they can, and to avoid vexatious Cares and Sor­row. According to the Humor of the Persons which make up this Society, it will be good or evil; for, as Solomon saith, He that walketh with wise men shall be wise; but a Companion of Fools shall be destroyed. Evil Communication corrupts good Manners; therefore, my Son, you ought diligently to take heed in the choice of those Persons with whom you design to be acquainted. Hearken not to Nature herein, who (following her In­clination to what is evil) might lead you into bad Company; be rather attentive to true Piety, which will tell you, Enter [Page 27]not into the Path of the Wicked, and go not in the way of evil Men. Consult Prudence, and she will teach you to choose your Friends, which is a thing of the highest consequence; because we acquire gene­rally the Habits and Passions of those whom we frequent: This was so well known to our Fore-fathers, that they did not scruple to pass their Judgment upon any Man when they were once acquaint­ed with the Temper of his Companions; according to this old Saying of theirs, Tell me what Company you keep and I will tell you what you are. Frequent then, my Son, as much as you are able, Persons of Honour and Integrity, or at least those who are esteemed such; and out of this Company choose one of the most vertu­ous whom you must endeavour to make your particular Friend. Let not this sin­gle Expression of one Friend surprise you, for it is not an easie matter to obtain ma­ny true Friends; nay, I take a true Friend to be a thing almost as rare in Humane Society, as the Philosophers Stone is in Chymistry. Several People have made it their business all their Life-time to find a true Friend, and yet at last have missed [Page 28]their Aim. Use your utmost Endeavours to procure one; you will be happy if you can bring it to pass: Do not spare Com­plaisance, Respect, or any Service, pro­vided you do not descend to what is low and infamous; which cannot be, if you choose a vertuous Person, as I have pre­scribed you, to bind your self with, in a tender, sincere, and strict Friendship. Kindness must be repayed with Kindness: If you would be beloved, love. It is most certain, that a Correspondence of Humours contributs extremely to our being beloved; therefore if you desire the Friendship of a Man of Honour and Vertue, imitate his Vertue and that will facilitate your Desire. When you have acquired this Friendship, be careful to avoid whatsoever may occasion the loss of it. Be before hand with him if you can, in Services, and in kind Respects towards him: If you have convincing Proofs that he hath given you his Heart, and if you have likewise yielded yours up to him, with-hold not your Purse from him in his Necessity. If unhappily your Friendship upon any occasion should wax cold, and that out of Prudence you [Page 29]must part with him, let it not be a sud­den Rupture, but retire by degrees. There is scarce any thing so just and fre­quent an Obstacle to the procuring or preserving of Friendship, as Pride: This Sin was the cause that the first Angels were transferred from Heaven to Hell, and became the first Devils. Take great care not to be tainted with it; and if you ex­pect the Love of those with whom you keep Company, be humble towards all. When Pride cometh then cometh Shame: but with the Lowly is Wisdom, saith the Wise Man: God scorneth the Scorners; but he giveth Grace unto the Lowly. Every one that is proud in Heart is an Abomination to the Lord. The Proud have this misfortune to displease every Body but themselves. 'Tis impossible that a vain Man should love to be blamed, and 'tis almost as impossible for a Man to be a Reasonable Creature while he hateth Reproof. So­lomon assures us of it, in saying, Whoso lo­veth Instruction loveth Knowledge: but he that hateth Reproof is brutish. Poverty and Shame shall be to him that refuseth Instru­ction; but he that regardeth Reproof shall be honoured. If you desire to be respected [Page 30]make your self worthy of Respect; this must be done not only by shunning Pride; avoid also Covetousness, Gluttony, Sloth, Ʋncleanness, Anger, and Envy; these are the Vices against which all the World cries out, and which nevertheless reign in all Parts of the World. In the same Order as they are mentioned I will lay down their respective Reasons which should provoke your Hatred of them.

Covetousness is the Root of all Evil, and as St. Paul said to Timothy, it causeth Men to err from the Faith. It makes them fall into Temptation, into the Snares of the Devil, and into several inordinate and unsatiable Desires, which at length plunge them into the Abyss of Damnation. Our blessed Apostle did not rest satisfied with this dreadful Description, but in his Epi­stle to the Colossians calleth it Idolatry; because it cannot possess any Heart with­out first expelling from thence all Fear of God, and setting up in the Room the Love of the World and of Riches. Take heed, and beware of Covetousness, said our Saviour Christ, in St. Luke; for a Man's Life consisteth not in the abundance of the things which he possesseth. Covetousness [Page 31]takes all opportunities to heap up Riches; and tho the means are most unlawful, yet to her they always seem commendable enough: I say, her Design is to lay up Riches; for the covetous Man takes good heed not to make any use of them. He lives all his Life-time Poor, to have the Satisfaction of dying Rich; and instead of making them a Cause of his Salvation, through his prudent management of them and Contribution, they become through an ill use the Occasion of his Dam­nation.

Before I proceed to speak of the other Vices, (whose Deformities I purpose to discover to you to stir up your dislike of them) I must put you in mind, that how great soever is Mans Inclination to Evil, yet he endeavours to hide that Vice to which he is inclined, under the Mask of some Vertue that has a resemblance with it. This Example shall serve for all the rest. The Covetous, tho he be deeply en­gaged in that sordid Passion, cannot but acknowledge the Vileness of it, yet in himself he makes it pass for an honest Thriftiness; this he first persuades himself to believe, and then his Neighbours. All [Page 32]that are much tainted with any Vice, fol­low the same Rule for their Justification: Of this, my Son, I have given you no­tice, that you may avoid the falling in­to so unreasonable a Conduct; and that so you may not be reduced to cover a vici­ous Inclination with the Veil of what is tru­ly Vertuous.

After having given you this Advice, (which I thought expedient to be done) I shall speak of Gluttony, as it follows next in course after Covetousness. These two in their Means are something contrary, but their Effects do resemble much. The Covetous picks up all things to increase Riches that are pernicious to him; and the Glutton lets all fly to procure those Pleasures which must be prejudicial to his Happiness. The first, to content his raking Desire, will abstain from what is necessary; and the other, to satisfie his Sensual Appetite, will not abstain from what is superfluous. One locks up his Reason in his Chest with his Gold and Silver; and t'other drowns it in Wine and Dainties. What can be hoped from such a Man? God ordained us to eat that we might live, and the Glutton ima­gines [Page 33]that he lives only to eat; whereof he is so fully persuaded, that it is impos­sible for him to apply himself with plea­sure to any Duty which is requisite in a civil Society; nay, how can he do it with Pleasure, he that knoweth no other Pleasure than that of the Taste, whose Kitchen is his Church, and who of his Belly makes his God. Avoid then this Sin, whose Effects are so pernicious; and in following my Counsel you will obey the Command of the Holy Scripture, viz. Be not amongst Wine-bibbers, amongst rio­tous eaters of Flesh: For the Drunkard and the Glutton shall come to Poverty; and drowsi­ness shall clothe a Man with Rags. The Spirit of God joyns Sleep with Gluttony, to shew us, that it is impossible to be a Glutton without being slothful. The hea­viness of Meats communicates it self to the Stomach, and the heaviness of the Stomach reacheth the very Brain: No wonder then that by these several hea­vinesses the Soul becomes heavy, and less apt to perform the Functions to which she is designed. The Slothful Person has but just the Sense and Motion of a Man; and of that he hath so little, that there [Page 34]is not much difference between him and a Statue. This never stirs but when he is carried; and he never acts without being spurred forwards. The slowness of all his Actions both Spiritual and Cor­poreal, is a sort of Lethargy both of Soul and Body, whereof he would not be cu­red tho it might be done, because his delight is in a slothful Ease; and the thoughts of a moderate Labour, which is a pleasure to others, to him is a tor­ment. St. Paul may cry out long enough to him, that he who will not work must not eat: there must be something more ri­gorous than the bare Exhortation of the Apostle; for Necessity it self (tho a thing so prevailing) can scarce rouse him out of that Idleness, whose sweets are more sensible to him than all the Advantages that might accrue from an honest Employment. He doth not act with more Zeal for his Interest in Hea­ven than for that upon Earth; whereby you may judge, that if he is not a good Citizen, he is as ill a Christian; and you may believe that as the Glutton has not made Temperance a guide to his Actions, so neither has the Sluggard consulted [Page 35] Fortitude to govern his. One of the chief Motives of your Voyage (as you pro­tested to me) was, that you might in­crease your Fortune through your own means; but you see Sloth cannot con­tribute to a Design so honest and rea­sonable. He becometh poor that dealeth with a slack Hand; but the hand of the Diligent maketh rich. If you would have me believe your Intentions to be sin­cere, be diligent; and therefore in the first place, do your utmost endeavours to master that great sweetness and plea­sure which you find in Sleep. Never stay to be importuned to follow your Em­ployment; yet if you must be called up­on, let it be done by your own Honour, which leading you every Morning to your Business, may also keep you to it the greatest part of the Day, with an as­siduity worthy of Praise. You need not wonder, my Son, that I do encounter so obstinately this Sin of Sloth with all the Arms that the Kindness I bear to you can lend me: I am incited thereto not only by that Reason I have already told you, but also because it is the Path to another deadly Sin, whereto we are naturally ve­ry [Page 36]much enclined; to wit, Ʋncleanness, the most foul of any Sin, which changeth our Bodies that ought to be the Temples of the Holy Ghost into stinking Jakes. I will describe it to you in few Words, not to keep you long upon the consideration of what is so loathsom, the Name whereof St. Paul would not have to be pronoun­ced among Christians, and which he terms the blackest of Sins, because, saith he, every Sin which a Man doth is without the Body; but he that committeth Fornica­tion sinneth against his own Body.

I would have you observe, my Son, that from these two last Vices Ʋnclean­ness proceeds, as I intimated to you above: 'Tis begot by Gluttony, and hatched by Idleness. It will not seem strange to you that such evil Parents engender so wicked a Child. It has it's Inclination from the Authors of its Birth, and even improves their noxious Qualities; for this Vice alone procures us more mischief than both the others together. In Gluttony and Sloth, our Bodies suffer before our Minds; but Ʋncleanness seises and prevails upon our Minds before it subdues our Bodies; and having made it self Master of that which [Page 37]was given for our Guide, it hurrieth us along to dishonest, and shameful Desires, by a Tyranny both absolute and inevita­ble, altho in the fulfilling of those Desires we meet our utter Destruction. This Ene­my is so much the more dangerous, see­ing that the means wherewith it useth to destroy us are Pleasure and Delight, which lead us aside from Vertue, and strangle us in their Embraces. By their Cunning they seduce us; they charm us with their Complaisance; and so straight­ly engage us to them, that of our selves 'tis impossible we should break the Chains wherewith they fasten us. They are so many Dalila's who lull us asleep, that they may first deprive us of our Strength, and then tumble us into the bottomless Pit of all Vices. They draw us and en­tice us to our everlasting Ruin, if we do not prevent them by a serious Repen­tance, which if too late, might be in vain. Shun then such Guides under whose Conduct the Event will be so un­happy. Fly from them with more speed than you would from Robbers on the High-way; for these will be contented with your Money and Clothes, but the [Page 38]others aim directly at your Soul and Bo­dy. My Son, you may observe these Di­rections with much more ease, if you do but consider, that all Pleasures taking advantage of our weakness, fasten us to them with a promise of the sweetest Satis­factions, which at last prove to be but bitter Sorrows. In this they are like La­ban, who perceiving Jacob's Affection, engaged him to serve seven Years for beautiful Rachel, and when that term was expired gave him only ill-favoured Leah. These Directions, I say, you may more easily follow, if you will diligently observe how filthy, base, and infamous are these very Pleasures which our Ʋn­cleanness makes use of to seduce us; how soon they pass away; what Mischiefs at­tend them; and lastly, the Pains we must undergo to all Eternity, for those Plea­sures that lasted but one Hour, or perhaps but one Moment. Temperance will make you avoid these Dangers, if you take its Advice, and after that it has demonstra­ted to you that whilst they command you they are full of danger; it will make you also confess that they are innocent and harmless when you can command them, and [Page 39]purge them from the Venom they con­tracted with the Impurity of their Birth; for having taken away all the Means whereby they might be hurtful to us, we may make them to be serviceable against their own Nature, to our honest and lawful Recreations.

There remains yet behind, my Son, the two Sins of Anger and Envy. The first of these casts a man into the greatest excess of Disorder. It drives from our Minds all manner of Reason; and as soon as ever it seizeth the Heart, it filleth it with Motions so violent and tempe­stuous, that it is very fitly termed a short Madness. Fury and Brutishness are the two chief Branches that spring from it: And I think you need but behold the Actions of a Man enflamed with Anger to acknowledge this Truth; they are so many irrefragable Proofs of it; for if his Words did not speak him a Man, there's no Body but would take him for some fierce Wild Beast. His Soul which is tos­sed to and fro with those violent and un­ruly Motions, doth express her Agitation so plain in the Features and Lineaments [Page 40]of his Countenance, that it is no hard matter to know by these outward Chara­cters what vexatious Disorders he under­goes within. By such innocent Means as these, a Learned Man in our time found what he had vainly searched after in all the Secrets of Philosophy; the way to di­minish the Inclination which one of his Disciples had towards this Vice, in whose vertuous Education he was very much concerned. He shewed him in the Coun­tenance of a Man agitated with this Pas­sion so great a change, and so vastly dif­ferent from what it was wont to be, that from the Effects running up to the Cause, it was not difficult for him to make him understand that a Stream so infected must needs proceed from a poison'd Spring; whereby he brought him to be so averse from this Vice, that it even diminished extremely the Inclination he had towards it. The Lacedaemonians did heretofore use the like device to make Drunken­ness odious to their Children: They made their Slaves drink to Excess, and then they were brought before them in that Condition, who seeing them reel and stagger, and act like Men depriv'd [Page 41]of their Senses, conceived so great a ha­tred for this loathsom Vice, that they would never after be reconciled to it. Do you, my Son, take the same Method to oppose and conquer that Passion of Anger, which is a sort of Drunkenness that assaults our Understanding and clouds our Reason with Fumes more dan­gerous than those of Wine, because they are of a longer continuance, and they produce more direful Effects. In a word, to give you an easie and infallible Re­medy against Anger, tho you have ne­ver so great Provocations thereto; pra­ctise the Advice of a great Person of this latter Age, who exhorts us to yield betimes to Reason, that which in a little while we cannot but yield to Time. To this wholsom Advice add Fortitude, that Heroick Vertue, and the support of the rest, whereof Prudence is the Guide, and it will not be difficult for you to succed.

Envy is the last Vice I have to mention, whose Picture I am going to draw. Of all Vices 'tis the most rampant. It inci­ted Man to a Crime which being direct­ed immediately against God and Nature, [Page 42]made him fail in his Duty to one and t'other; and in one Act made him com­mit Sacrilege and Murder, by stirring up Cain to deface the Image of God in the Person of his Brother whom he killed. 'Tis a Passion which after having poison'd the Mind, spreads also it's Poison all over the Body; which corrupts the whole Mass of Blood, and casteth its Venome through all the Veins; which renders the Countenance meager, ghastly, hideous, and which notwithstanding all Endeavours to lye hid, doth manifestly expose it self by disfiguring that Person whom it possess­eth: And we may very justly say, that if Anger is a Fire which enflames us, En­vy is one that dries us up, and carrieth along with it the Punishment of the En­vious, seeing that neither Night nor Day doth it suffer him to take any Rest. 'Tis like a Hecktick Fever which consumes a Mans Body by degrees, and which is dif­ficult to drive away, when through Neg­ligence one has suffer'd it to take Root. The Envious Man strikes directly at God. He derives his greatest Misery from the just distribution God makes of his Bene­fits to other men. Another's Calamity is [Page 43]his Joy. The good Health of his Neigh­bour diminisheth his own, and his Neigh­bour falling sick makes him well again. His Draughts are then sweetest when mingled with the bitter Tears of his Neighbour. His private Sorrows arise from the Satisfaction and Content of the Publick. He looks upon that Gain or Profit that doth not help fill up his Bags, to be a great loss to himself; and he is never happy but in the misery of those of his Acquaintance. The moderate Har­vest of another makes his own unaccepta­ble, tho it be abundant; and the greatest Prosperity in this World would be un­welcome to him, if he were forced to share some part of it with his Neighbours. You may easily perceive, my Son, that a Man of this Temper can have Peace with no body, and that generally he must be at War with God: judge thereby of the Tranquility of his Body and Soul. Others comprehend their Unhappiness within their own Calamities; but the Envious, besides their own peculiar Mis­fortunes, procure to themselves an infinite number from the good Fortune of others. Shun therefore this Vice which is so per­nicious [Page 44]and detestable, that it is impossi­ble for any one to be guilty of it without becoming both a Punishment to himself and his own Executioner. And be assu­red, that after it has furiously tormented in this Life those who are possessed with it, in the next it will lead them into that Place which Divine Justice has set apart for all those who have not a submissive regard to whatsoever is ordained by Pro­vidence.

The Description I have made to you of these Vices has been something longer than I should have imagined. God grant the Style may be not only so clear as to excite in you that Hatred which you ought to have against them, but also so persuasive as to encourage you in the Love and Practice of their opposite Ver­tues. There is not any thing can be throughly known until it be compared with its contrary; if therefore you have apprehended the Reasons which should move you to hate Pride, Covetousness, Gluttony, Sloth, Ʋncleanness, Anger, and Envy; you will easily be persuaded for the Welfare of your Soul and Body, to [Page 45]love Humility, a liberal Frugality, Sobrie­ty, Diligence, Chastity, Moderation, and Charity; and to possess these Vertues you must take your Measures from the Dictates of Prudence, Fortitude, and Temperance, whose Counsels cannot but be advanta­geous to you, if you will thereunto ac­quiesce. Among all the Benefits that you may receive from these Vertues, I would to God, my Son, they would inspire you with as much Love for Truth, as young People have Inclination for Lying. Have in Horror this Vice; and to do this easily, remember that JESUS CHRIST took upon him this Quality of True, on­ly to signifie to us that he loved those who loved the Truth: And why (think you) is the Devil termed in the Scripture the Father of Lies, unless it be to shew that all Lyars are his Children? The love of this Vice is an undeniable Character upon all those who practise it through In­clination, (and from this Inclination ac­quire a Habit) that they are the Children of the Devil. I know very well that they who are willing to excuse it, say, that a secret Shame which they have, to ac­knowledge themselves guilty of the Fault [Page 46]imputed to them, doth not seldom drive them against their Will into a Necessity of Lying. It is an ill President that Adam hath left to his Posterity: But what signifie all these Prevarications wherewith we dis­semble the Truth? They are but like so many Fig-leaves through which the Truth will be discerned in spight of all our Endeavours to the contrary. The Hopes of a more regular Conduct hereaf­ter doth somewhat comfort those who are concerned for their present Indiscretion; but daily Experience teacheth us, that when a Man has committed a Fault, and that he endeavours to evade it with a Lye, he is less sorry for being guilty than for being so reputed. I do not pretend, my Son, by exhorting you never to lye, to publish and declare whatever you know to be true; this in many Cases would be a great Imprudence; yet Lying is a Crime in all: the best way to avoid it is to speak little and live well. A Man needs not use Dissimulation if his Conduct is good; and he is always sincere in his Discourse that considers first what he is about to say, and then consults Prudence, the Definition whereof will convince you [Page 47]of it. 'Tis a Habit of the Understanding which prescribes to our Desires, means both honest and convenient to attain a favourable and happy End. You may easily perceive then, that how profitable soever are the Ends you propose to your self in your Undertakings, the means cannot be honourable if you make use of Deceit and Lying to compass them. Your Hatred towards this Vice will not only cause you to be more reserved in your Speech, it will render you also more cir­cumspect in all your Actions, and (by grafting Sincerity in your Heart) will make you abhor Detraction and Ca­lumny, two general Plagues, whence spring most of our Troubles, they being often the Cause of our Quarrels. Since­rity is always attended with Probity; and one and t'other are as absolutely necessa­ry in Pious Duties, as in those of Society. You cannot be a good Christian without being an honest Man, neither can you be an honest Man if you are deceitful. Dissimulation is a Sacrilege in Religion, and Lying is almost as great a Crime in Conversation.

My Son, whatsoever Profession you fol­low, let Vertue and Industry be your Guides, and not Pleasure and Idleness. The Idle and the Voluptuous, from Men are transformed into Beasts, and by a Metamorphosis so much the more shameful as that they willingly consent to it. My Son, if you would have your Affairs suc­ceed, never undertake what is above your Capacity, nor what you do not throughly understand. Moreover, let the means, whereby you intend to obtain your Ends, be most honest and just: yet how just soever those means are, and how exact your Knowledge in what you undertake, begin nothing till you have begged God's Blessing upon your Enter­prizes; your Cares and Industry, tho ne­ver so great, would be needless, and per­haps a hinderance to your Affairs, if this Blessing did not intervene and render them happy. If notwithstanding all these Precautions, Providence is not pleased that the Success should answer your De­sires, fail not however to praise his Holy Name, and submit to his Will with a re­spectful and implicite Faith; assuring your self that it had not so happened, if other­wise, [Page 49]it might have been better for his Glory, or your Salvation.

Take hold, with a judicious eagerness, of all favourable Opportunities which your Good Fortune offers you: They are rare now-a-days, and much searched after; be careful that you let them not slip when you meet any, lest when they are gone, you follow after them to no purpose.

Make good Use of your Time, for what you lose thereof can never be re­covered. New Gains may over and above supply old Losses, but the Loss of Time is irrecoverable.

By exhorting you to apply your self to your Business, I do not mean that you should give up your self so entirely to it, as to receive no Diversion. I am sensible that as the Body cannot long un­dergo Labour, so neither can the Mind be engaged in a moderate Study, if a rea­sonable Relaxation of their Functions yield not to both of them the Means to repair the Strength and Spirits which they lost. For this Reason I shall be so far from forbidding you Recreations, that I advise you to use them, nevertheless with this re­straint, [Page 50]to choose, as near as you can guess, such as are the most honest and inno­cent. I take those Diversions whereby the Body is moderately exercised to be the more proper of the two for a Christian and an Honest Man, than Gaming, which depends upon much Hazard. But as in this Case, Choice depends upon Inclina­tion, you would do well to make yours (as much as you can) subservient to your Duty, which will put you in mind that, let the Game be what it will, you ought to be very careful in this Occasion, not to render Principal what should be but Accessary. Let your Game therefore be a delightful Recreation, and not a vex­atious Trouble, such as might be occasi­oned by a great Loss, if you hazard any considerable Sums. Never put it to the venture to quit that with a Grudge which you began for your Diversion; and this cannot be, if you play but for Play-sake, that is, if you play but for a Small matter, and with the intent only to refresh your Spirits, which an Excess of Business and Study had tryed: How­ever let the Sum be never so inconside­rable for which you play, take heed it [Page 51]be with such as you know, that they may not first Cheat, and then Deride you.

Ignorance and Presumption have posses­sed the World almost from the Creation: Avoid both with Care. Seek therefore my Son, to be instructed, and be not ashamed to ask the Council of those who know more than your self. Be al­ways mistrustful of your own Parts, and never take it ill from those who give you their Advice, but rather receive it with all imaginable Sweetness and Respect, reserving only to your self the Freedom of following it, if you find it consonat to Reason and Prudence.

Love Reading; 'tis that which strength­ens the Judgment, enriches the Memory, and enlightens every Day more and more the Ʋnderstanding. 'Tis that which will teach us to express our selves in a Style sublime, tho both Smooth and Charming: so that we may say, 'tis that alone procures us all the Advantages necessary, either in Meditation or Con­verse. Yet do not read only to be ren­der'd more knowing, read chiefly to be­come [Page 52]better; and to that End make choice of good Books, applying your self most commonly to such as treat of Piety, in the reading whereof, set before you the Example of the Bee, which ga­there the sweet Dew out of Flowers to make Honey in it's due Season. Now to profit by this Example, observe that when you read, (whether they be Books of Devotion, Morality or History) you do not neglect the reducing under Heads in a Common-place, the excellent Notes and Observations that you will collect: that will ease very much your Memory, and in many occasions will save you the trouble (which must otherwise lie upon you) of searching after Expressions, where­of you may stand in Need.

Do not imploy your Time in reading Romances: They only heat the Imagina­tion, and not nourish the Understand­ing; for altho they represent Vertues in their highest Degree, nevertheless there lies a great deal of Venome hid under those lovely Flowers, especially for young People. You will do well to let alone the Reading of such Books, which [Page 53]are Snares so much the more difficult to avoid, as being in appearence not dange­rous, tho in reality they are much.

Take special heed, my Son, that the desire of Riches doth not force you up­on evil Means to obtain them, nor excite you to Actions Mercinary, Base and Unjust. Ʋse not divers Weights, and divers Measures; both of them are alike Abomination to the Lord. Better is a little with Righteousness, then great Revenues without Right. And remember, that God­lyness with Contentment is great Gain.

Shun Ambition, tho some only call it an Errour of great Minds. I always con­sider'd it as proceeding from Minds vain and defective. 'Tis a Monster most unsa­tiable, whose Designs are without Limits as well as his Hopes, and how successful soever is the Ambitious in his Enter­prizes, the Success doth rather puff up his Desires than content them. His Ad­vancement to an eminent Employment which he expected, discovers to him ano­ther more Eminent, without which his Happiness seems to be imperfect. As [Page 54]fast as his Honour and Grandure encrea­ses, his Hopes and Pretentions multiply: The whole World can scarce satisfie him: Like Pompey, he will have no Equal, much less can he endure a Superiour. His Life passeth in a perpetual Hurry of Body and Mind. Tranquility and Re­pose are Terrae incognitae to him; and it often happens, that the Care he has been at to place himself so high, serves to ren­der his fall the more irrecoverable. Come not therefore near a Road so dangerous, where instead of reposing your self you will find nothing but dreadful Precipices.

If any one spread an ill Report of you, and that it comes to your knowledge, ex­amine it impartially; and if you find your self guilty of that which is imputed to you, mend, and be thankful to him who did you this good Office. If you are blamed wrongfully shew no Anger or Displeasure; for Experience makes it manifest to us daily, that the Contempt of Calumny makes it die, whereas nothing but a Resentment can keep it alive.

A learned Man of these Times said, that all Vertues were swallowed up in Interest, like the Rivers in the Sea. Avoid, my Son, [Page 55]this selfish Humor, which aiming so much at our own Advantage, makes us forget what in Justice is due to others. Accommodate your Interest to Reason, and to that Law of Nature, which was an ancient Maxim among Pagans; Do not to others, what you would not that they should do unto you; or rather to this Christian Doctrine, do as you would be done by.

Be careful not to take Exceptions; of a Trifle do not make a Business of Mo­ment, no more then of a Business of Mo­ment a Trifle. Labour to be in Peace with all Men; and rather relinquish something of your Right, than to enter into a Contest with any one. What ano­ther in this Case would call, parting with his Possessions to satiate the Greediness of his Neighbour, do you consider as an In­strument to conserve the Tranquility of your Mind, and the Repose of your Body, which you ought to esteem be­yond all Wealth and Possessions.

Never put off to a Future Time, that which you can do at the Present. Do every thing in Order, avoiding all Confusion, and let this Order be seen as [Page 56]well in your Clothes, as in your Books; as well in your smallest Papers, as in your most considerable Affairs.

Regulate your Expences by your E­state, and if that Estate will permit, do not deny your self any thing that is Fitting, but have a Care you delight not in what is Superfluous, lest insensibly you become unable to provide for your self things absolutely Necessary.

Altho the Necessity of Clothing was one Consequence of the first Sin of Adam, there are not a few Persons that make it one of the chief Subjects of their Vani­ty, and one of the most painful Cares of their Life. Garments, which are only to preserve our Bodies from the injury of Weather, and which for this Reason ought to be ordain'd to no other Use, are least of all for that Use among those sort of People: They have them to satis­fie their immoderate Desires, as well as to shelter their Bodies from the Intempe­rance of the Seasons. This is a Weak­ness in either Sex, and 'tis Intolerable in both; however, 'tis much more to be con­demn'd in Men then in Women, be­cause most Women making their Merit [Page 57]consist in an exteriour Comeliness, you need not wonder if they seek to make themselves prized by the Magnificence of their Habits, and by the Beauty and Excellency of their Trimmings, where­as Men, who ought to be more reasona­ble, should despise (as below them) these vile sordid Means to make themselves be taken notice of; and only render themselves considerable by Vertue, and their Excellent Qualifications. To this I must exhort you with all earnestness; however, in the Order you observe for your Apparel, I would wish you to ad­vise with your own Estate, to consider what is decent, and chiefly to have re­gard to what is most reasonable. If you do this your Habit will be always far­thest from Extremes; you will be neat and not affected, well Clothed and not ex­travagant.

Be neither the first nor the last in fol­lowing the Mode; too much Compli­ance with all Fashions is ridiculous, as on the other side too be always thwart­ing the Mode, is to be obstinate and Fantastical. Shun alike both these ex­tremes, and by observing a Mean, let [Page 58]People rather applaud your Modesty than condemn your Conceitedness. Be esteem­ed rather for your personal Qualifications, than for your external Ornaments; in a Word, be more diligent in beautify­ing your Soul with good Qualities, than in adorning your Body with rich Ap­parel.

Whatsoever you speak, or whatsoever you write, let it be in Words few but comprehensive, so that much may be contained in a little; yet not withstand­ing you have free, smooth, and graceful Expressions in your Discourse, let it be a Pleasure to you when you are in Com­pany to hearken attentively to their Dis­course, and to answer them appositely and to the purpose, that you may gain their good Will and Affection: There­fore remember this, that Conversation is not like a Monarchical Government, where one has only a right to speak; but rather a kind of Democracy, where each Member has a Freedom of declaring their Minds in their turn.

Secrecy is the Soul of a Design, and not seldom the sole occasion of it's Success: The more important are your Designs, [Page 59]the greater ought your Care to be in concealing them from others; yet if they are never so inconsiderable, 'tis best to make no Body acquainted with them. Without this Precaution, me thinks you should be afraid lest it happen as it doth often to Mines, whose Effects terminate but in Smoak when once they have ta­ken Wind.

Fly from Idleness; 'tis a sort of Spiri­tual Lethargy, so much the more dange­rous, as that the End of it is generally the Beginning of some Disorder. Man was created to be always acting; and of ne­cessity he must always be employed; therefore if his Actions are not good, they infallibly tend to Evil: And Idle­ness has this Resemblance with Standing Waters, that if these breed Serpents t'other breeds Vices.

There are many People who are ex­treme eager to know what is done in their Neighbour's House, and at the same time are ignorant of most things that happen in their own. This Curiosity has always seem'd to me to be pityful and base, and unworthy of an honest Man: Therefore to avoid it, consider [Page 60]with your self that he into whose affairs you are prying is ether a Friend, or else is indifferent to you: If he is indifferent, what satisfaction can you propose by knowing what he aims at? And if he is your Friend, why would you search into a Secret, which his Silence signifies he has a Mind to keep from you?

It belongs only to Kings to say that he who cannot dissemble knows not how to reign. Dissimulation, tho sometimes a Vertue in a Soverain Prince, is always a Vice in the Subject. Yet there are some Cases wherein it is a part of Prudence not to publish and make known all we think. But upon such like Occasions as these, be so much reserved, that by your speaking you may not be taxed with Indiscretion, nor by your Silence with Dissimulation.

When you happen into Company where there are some that you don't know, be careful not to fall into that vulgar Errour of passing your Judgment upon the Merit of Persons by their rich Clothes, or the fine Style of their Discourse. These Appearances are very doubtful, and it is often mani­fested by Experience, that those Per­sons [Page 61]are not the most worthy because they are the best clothed, nor are the most Vertuous always the most eloquent: Therefore, my Son, in such a Case let not your Mind be anticipated; let your Judgment decide nothing without your Knowledge, and be sure you Penetrate beyond the outward Parts of a Man be­fore you judge well or ill of him.

Flattery is the same to the Mind as Poison is to the Body, with this only diffe­rence, that all People hate Poison, yet they all love Flattery. The passionate Love that every one bears toward it, is a sort of Leprosie which has infected all the Earth. You shall find it in Shepherds poor Cot­tages as well as in the Palaces of Kings. 'Tis true it reigns among Kings and Prin­ces with more Ostentation then among the People, which produceth Events so much the more pernicious, according to the Power of that Person whom it affects. Prosperity is the Mother of Flattery as Interest is the sole Object of Flatterers; and for this Reason alone there are more in the Courts of Princes than among pri­vate Families, who yet are not wholly exempt, the most miserable of all Men [Page 62]having at least one who keeps hin com­pany all his Life-time, and who becomes so Familiar to him, that insensibly he ushers in all forreign Flaterrers. My Son, I find that you eagerly expect to know the Name of this Flatterer; I will tell it you then: 'Tis Self-love; who introduces all our Errours, who corrupts our Judg­ment, darkens our Understanding; and lastly disfigures Truth so strangely that it is impossible for us to know her. Let therefore this Description I have given you of the Effects produced by Flattery, cause in you a mistrust as well of the Domestick as the Forreign Flatterrer; let this foreknowledg of them break all their Measures, and thereby preserve you from being enchanted with those poison'd sweets which being once instill'd into you, will infallibly carry it's Venom to your very Heart.

I am now, my Son, come to an Article delicate, important, and difficult to han­dle, which I would not willingly omit, that it might not be said I had passed over in Silence any thing that could con­tribute to your Instruction. 'Tis then concerning, how you must carry your [Page 63]self, if in unlucky and unexpected diffe­rences you are obliger to declare your self of any Party. If I went about to treat of this one Point to it's greatest Ex­tent, it would require a Volume much larger than the whole Treatise I design for you, which is contrary to the Purpose I intended, of rendring you rather an Honest than a Learned Man. 'Tis enough for you to observe these two or three Rules which I am going to give you. The Differences of this Nature are either publick or private; of which sort soever they are, 'tis best for you not to meddle if you can choose, unless you see apparently that you can be so happy as to contribute towards a Re-union. But if you cannot possibly stand Neuter, and that an unavoidable Necessity obligeth you to side with a Party; in that Case I earnestly exhort you to take this Coun­sel I now give you. If the Business in question be publick, and that the Prince's Interest is concerned, adhere immediate­ly without any manner of Scruple to his Party. You preserve God's Right in de­fending the lawful Authority of Kings, who are his Vicegerents; and the Holy [Page 64]Ghost has so interwoven the Interests of those that reign with the Interests of him by whom they reign, that he saith, Who­soever resisteth Power resisteth God. It is far better to dye for your Prince, than by usurping to reign in his Place. In this Case fail not to follow your Duty, without reflecting in the least upon what would be most for your Advantage; and venture all that you have in the World, if there is any Probability that it will produce advantageous Effects for the Royal Inte­rest. But if on the other side it is only a private Grudge or Animosity between some few; before you declare your self for either Party, consider impartially whose Cause is most just: which you may easily perceive; for without any doubt the Right is on their Side with whom the greatest Number of Persons of Ho­nour, Integrity, and Discretion take part. Espouse therefore that Cause: neverthe­less keep within the Bounds of Moderati­on, and be not too forward in meddling with their Affairs, especially when they proceed to Heat and Violence, and have no Hand in any Disorders or injurious Attempts, which they might possibly [Page 65]commit: But rather labour all you can to mollifie those passionate and turbulent Spirits, to allay their Heats, and to re­duce them to such a Temper of Mind as might prevent the evil Consequences which would infallibly follow from their Dis-union with the opposite Party. I am sensible that neither your Birth nor Me­rit can make a Party any whit the more considerable, but as Accidents may oc­cur wherein we shall be constrained (of what Quality soever we are) to declare our Intentions tho never so much against our Will: I thought in such a Rencoun­ter these Instructions would be not a lit­tle necessary.

One of the most pleasing Satisfactions that we can have in this World is to be in good Esteem and Reputation with those of our Acquaintance. This is all we can aim at; for therein is Honour, Profit, and Pleasure.

Be discreet and sincere in all your Words, honest and prudent in all your Actions, obliging and affable in all your Behaviour. Never construe ill what others say or do, unless they come to be publickly so censur'd.

Take great heed of being revengeful. Revenge pierceth and teareth the Heart that is filled therewith. The Grounds that make you desire Revenge are either just or injust; if injust, then you are in­just to desire it; and if just, then by en­deavouring to revenge your self you be­come injust; for you encroach upon the Prerogative of the King of Heaven, who hath said, Vengeance is mine.

To avoid Perjury or false Swearing, which amongst Men is scandalous, and abominable in the sight of God; I advise you to swear not at all. If you once get a Habit of speaking always Truth every one will easily believe you, without any need of affirming it with an Oath.

Among all Vices, there is none more base and yet more ordinary than Ingra­titude; this is the general Opinion and Complaint of the World: and if all those who thus complain were free from it, no body would use it; for every one complains thereof. The Ancients by a special Mystery have limited the Graces to the number of three, to intimate, that if one of them had received a good Turn from the other, the third was to return it [Page 67]to her. Make hereof a Law to your self, and an urgent Endeavour to follow this Lesson, and never to be ungrateful for any, at least considerable, Benefit recei­ved.

If you intend my Satisfaction, or your own Quiet, be careful never to become Surety for any Man, for any Cause what­soever. If your Friend hath need of you, serve him with your Purse and Advice, with all your Power and Interest; but keep your Liberty, and engage for no Man. If you have a mind to help a Friend in necessity, and that you are well able to do it, do it quickly; but if you are not well able, why will you bind your self to do it hereafter, when perhaps you shall be less able? Therefore be not bound for any unless you care not to be rid of your Money, your Quiet, and your Friend. In other things, my Son, I have been con­tented to advise you, to exhort and per­swade you; but herein I make use of all Authority which the Quality of Father gives me, and do absolutely forbid this thing. Take heed of refusing my Com­mand, as you will avoid the Punishment which your Disobedience shall justly de­serve.

Perhaps this may seem somewhat strange and hard to many Men; yet it is drawn from the Advice of a Great King, who was the wisest Man in the World, 22 Chap. of Prov. Be not thou one of them that strike Hands, or of them that are Sureties for Debts: If thou hast nothing to pay he may lawfully take thy Bed from under thee. My Son, by his Opinion I can justifie the Severity and Unkindness that some would impute to mine for ab­solutely forbidding you to become Sure­ty for any Man.

You depart hence, sufficiently ground­ed in the Truth of our Religion, being able to render a Reason of the Hope that is in you to all that shall ask it; which I would have you do upon all Occasions with Respect and Reverence, as St. Peter exhorts; yet following the Advice of St. Paul, avoid always all Disputes about Religion, for that rather makes more averse than perswades; and the earnest desire of confuting, or the fear of being vanquished, transports very moderate Men sometimes to dangerous Extremities: Hereby Charity is almost always wound­ed, and Truth never cleared, which makes [Page 69]appear that it may well be said at this time of Controversies, what the Apostle said heretofore of Fables and Genealogies, which are endless; that they beget rather vain and curious Questions than Godly Edi­fication, which consists in the true Faith the Foundation of Christian Vertues, as Charity is the Perfection, and Hope the Crown thereof: Whereof the first hath none but God for it's Object, the last aims only at our Selves, and the middlemost contains our Duty to God, to our Selves, and to our Neighbour; for by Charity we learn all the Duties of a Spiritual Life, as also of a Corporeal, which the Apostle St. Paul preferreth be­fore the other two Christian Vertues, where he saith, that there abideth Faith, Hope, and Charity, these three; but the greatest of these is Charity. God is Love, and he that dwelleth in Love, dwelleth in God, and God in him. The other Ver­tues draw us nearer unto God, but this renders us like unto him in some man­ner, seeing that he accounts it one of his chiefest Attributes, that of Charity; which is also the inexhaustible Spring of all the Benefits he bestows upon Man: So that, [Page 70] my Son, as often as you are charitable, you will imitate God in one of his most frequent Actions, who is never weary of doing good to us, tho we are so unwor­thy of it. Do good therefore to all, especial­ly to those who are of the Houshold of Faith: Yet make not that a Pretext to with­hold your Charity from all those who are not of the same Communion with you. All Men are your Brothers in God; which Quality alone should suffice to en­gage you to help them in their Need, to comfort them in their Afflictions, and chiefly to let your Assistance be as spee­dy and effectual as their Necessities are urgent. This will be an infallible Means to draw the Blessings of Heaven upon your Soul, your Person, and your Actions. He that giveth to the Poor lendeth to the Lord: But whoso stoppeth his Ears at the Cry of the Poor, he shall also cry himself, but shall not be heard, saith Solomon. You may therefore see what is generally the Fruits of Charity: However, let not Self-interest be the Motive which inclines you to be charitable; this Vertue would thereby lose its excellent Quality; and you might expect in vain the Effects of it, if you [Page 71]pretend to make a Bargain with God Al­mighty. 'Tis in Charity that all Christi­an Vertues terminate, and it shall be with the Description of this Divine Qua­lity that I will end this Chapter, which contains the Instructions that I was to give you about Personal Duties, after which there only remains, that I should say a Word or two concerning Civil Duties.

Of Civil Duties.

HItherto, my Son, I have represented unto you your Duty to God; as al­so what you owe to your self for his sake, seeing that in him we live, and move, and have our Being; and that all our Thoughts, Words, and Actions ought to tend to­wards God, as to their Center. It is now time I should make you consider what you owe to Mankind, to whom you are fasten'd with the Bonds of a Civil So­ciety.

For I would not have you imagine, that you was born for your self alone, there lieth an Obligation upon you of [Page 72]being a Help to your Neighbour. Soli­tariness is not natural to Man, nay, 'tis even contrary to the Will and Design of the Creator, who plac'd him in the World for Society-sake. Reason was gi­ven him to no other Purpose but to make use of it. He has Vertues; he ought to put them in practice: Which he cannot do but with those of his own kind, and in a civil Converse. In this Con­verse, I would have you use the subtlety of the Serpent, and yet act with the sim­plicity of the Dove. Be just and sincere, and have always in your Mind this ex­cellent Law of Nature which I cited once before; Do not to others, what you would not that others should do to you. This Law is not onely a Dictate of Nature, and receiv'd generally throughout the Universe; but God himself makes it a part of his Law, when he commands us to love our Neighbour as our self.

My Son, observe this, that God doth command you not onely to love your Neighbour, but to love him as your self, that is to say, as heartily, as sin­cerely, and with an Affection as ardent as is possible. This Obligation (as you [Page 73]may see) is of a great Extent; but the Goodness of God extends much farther: he relinquisheth part of his Right for our sakes; for tho he has required our Affe­ction entire to himself, yet he looseth that Obligation, and is willing we should have for one another part of that which he had demanded from us, and retain'd wholly for himself. Here he ceaseth his Jealousie, he that takes upon him so of­ten the Name of Jealous, and through an Excess of Love which he bears towards us, he is so far from being angry that our Neighbour has a share in our Affection, that he commands it, and is well pleas'd to create himself Rivals upon this Account. Man is not sensible enough of this Good­ness which is infinite, (as well as the Es­sence from whence it proceeds,) for of the three kinds of Affections prescribed to us by the Law of God, Man for the most part maintains that which has a Relation to himself, taking no Notice of the other two, and by an Excess of Self-love he fails in that which is due to God and his Neigh­bour, by which Vice he becomes in this World a Complice with the Devil, and therefore cannot but expect to share with [Page 74]him his Punishment in the next: There­fore to avoid this, love others as much as you would have them love you. To this Duty you ought to apply your self very much, as well for your Advantage as to render your Life sweet and pleasant. Who speaks Love, speaks Service, Esteem, Honour, in a Word, speaks all obliging Condescensions, which Mans Heart al­ways inspires for those Persons that are dear to him. My Son, all Men should be dear to you, and he whose House touch­eth yours is not more your Neighbour than he that dwelleth in another Country. Be officious towards all: Lose no Opportu­nity of serving any one. Add to the Courtesies you bestow, a Way altogether obliging in bestowing them, which en­creaseth their Merit; and though the Person be never so much unknown to you that demands any thing, if you are not in a Capacity of satisfying him, do not encrease his Discontent occasion'd by your Refusal, with harsh and unkind Lan­guage; but rather diminish his Trouble, by that which you should express in not being ca [...]able to content him. This Con­duct will not only gain Esteem, but also [Page 75]a general Love and Affection wheresoever you happen to be.

Great Persons are to us as the Flame of Candles are to Flies. We must have a great care of approaching them too fami­liarly, lest we run in danger of burning our selves. There is nothing so alluring (and yet so full of Deceit) as their pom­pous Equipage and their splendid Enter­tainments. My Son, be not dazled with it; and whether they derive their Great­ness from their Birth, or from their For­tune, let only their Vertue and Personal Merits guide those Sentiments of Respect and Veneration which you think is owing them. Among several Reasons which perswade me to give you this Advice, I will here lay down some of the most im­portant.

First of all, consider this as a Truth, that although among Great Persons there may be found some, whose Inclinations and Conduct answer exactly to their Cha­racter, the Number is infinitely the great­er that derogates from it. Remember that they are for the most part like the Trees in Forrests, which sometimes yield Shade, but very rarely any Fruit; unless it be [Page 76]like those Trees near the Dead Sea in the Holy Land, which proffer very fair Ap­ples to Passengers, but within side are nothing but Dust and Rottenness. Al­most all the Great ones entice us after the same manner, oblige and gain us with large Promises, and by an excess of Civility, whereby we are too often caught; and never undeceiv'd, till an unhappy Experience in our Necessities convinceth us how little Reason we have to relye upon the Hopes or Expectations of what they promise. Besides, if you should be so fortunate as to be favour'd by some Great Person, (which will scarce happen unless his own Interest forceth him to it) in a small time you will begin to perceive, that his Friendship has not only the false glittering of Glass, but also it's Brittleness; for generally the least Oversight makes them forget the greatest Service: There­fore, if you will be persuaded by me, make no Addresses to Great Persons or so much as come at them, unless you are obliged to it by a Duty not to be dis­pens'd with.

Behave your self with great Respect towards your Superiours, with civill [Page 77]Compliance among your equals, and always courteously towards your In­feriours.

Take heed how you speak ill of any one, especially in his Absence? there is nothing more unworthy of a Man of Honour; and you will be so far from living in Peace with others, (which is the chief end of Society,) that of Ne­cessity you will be at odds with all. If you have privately perceiv'd the vicious Inclinations of any Person of your Ac­quaintance, do not Publish, but rather forget them, after you have done your utmost Endeavour to cure him of his Faults.

One of the most considerable Services that we can render to a Neighbour is, to make him perceive the Errours of his Conduct: And to do this successfully, so that he may see 'tis the Advice of a Friend; let Prudence guide you, least he disdain your Counsel instead of pro­fiting thereby.

You would become ridiculous, if you should be stain'd with the same Vice which you reprove in another, and you will sooner pass for an impertinent Cen­surer [Page 78]than a sincere Friend: Take heed therefore to that, and mend that Fault in your self which you intend to cure in your Neighbour.

Avoid the Baseness of those who delight in raising false Reports; and hearken not to those who go about to scandalize others; If you do, you seek thereby an Occasion to fall out with your Neigh­bour; and if you your self create a Scan­dal upon him, it will be a sufficient Rea­son for his falling out with you.

Never praise to an Excess those of whom you speak, especially if they are present, for altho 'tis but what they de­serve, yet in their very Opinion you will be esteem'd a Flatterer, suspecting that the Intent of such excessive Com­mendations is more to exhibit the Ele­gancy of your Wit, than to manifest the Greatness of their Merit.

Civility and Complaisance are the Spi­rits that keep up Society, whosoever is void of these is a trouble to all the World; whereas he that can make use of them opportunely, may boldly flatter himself that his Company will be unacceptable [Page 79]to none. However, let Reason rule your Com [...]laisance; let it not condescend to what is criminal, nor yet to what is base. Stubbornness is not only a deadly Enemy to Complaisance, but it also acts for the most part contrary to Reason and Sence. A Person that is stubborn can never be so happy as to comply with others, where­by he falls into the Misfortune of being shun'd by all company, and at last be­comes a Burden to himself. Endeavour therefore to be complaisant with Pru­dence, and firm in your Resolutions with Justice.

Jeer No body, if you would not run the Hazard of being jeer'd in your turn, and rendering that Person whom you jeer, your Enemy: Not but that innocent jest­ing may be lawfully used in Conversa­tion; but the Abuse of it doth not seldom produce Quarrels and Animosities, which too often cool the most fervent Affecti­ons; and rarely do we see Raillery carry'd on without some sharp, and stinging Expressions.

Never put off till to morrow what you can do to day. Be exact towards all Men, and in all things, but principally [Page 80]in paying your Debts. Observe your measures so rightly, that the Presence of your Creditors may not be tedious to you; and be always more ready to per­suade every Man to take his Due, than they to ask it of you. In the mean time do not you exact with the utmost Seve­rity what is due to you: This would be contrary to the Religion of JESUS CHRIST, as also not consistent with that Civility and Condescension which we ow to one another.

How deform'd soever any Person may be in his Body, be sure that you have a great Care not to make it a Subject of Derision and Laughter; but rather render thanks to God, that he has bin pleas'd to favour you more then him. 'Tis out of his pure goodness that he has given you all those Advantages of Body and Mind which you possess; Why then should you boast of what has bin given you undeservedly? The more you have re­ceived, the more you have to answer for.

Here, my Son, I bring you another sort of Neighbour, your Domestick Ser­vant: I would not have you think, that [Page 81]his Quality can discharge you from your Duty towards him. The chiefest part of your Duty, is to let your Carriage to­wards him be mild and easie, whereby, mitigating the Discontent which his hard Fortune might have rais'd in him; he may be induc'd to serve you joyfully: which if you desire; recede so far from the Right of a Master as to come with­in the Bounds which Christianity pre­scribes, that is, consider him as a Bro­ther in God; behave your self towards him as such, and then you need not question but he will become sensible of your Kindness. St. Paul saith, forbear Threatning: How much more ought we to forbear Blows: Yet whensoever he gives you a just Cause of Anger, be not too apt to listen to those Reasons which condemn him; let him rather have cause to praise your Forbearance, than to com­plain of your Rigour. Seneca saith; if we intend to gain our Servants so far, as to make them be entirely devoted to our Service, we must behave our selves to­wards them with all Mildness and Fami­liarity. Make trial of this Counsel, and if (when all's done) your Servants become [Page 82]not more punctual in performing their Duty, (you having omitted no part of yours which might tend to their Satisfacti­on,) dismiss them quietly, without Anger and without Noise.

I cannot say, my Son, whether I have not forgot some considerable Point touch­ing your Duty to your Neighbour; how­ever, if it were so, I have this Comfort left, That if you do justly put in Pra­ctice my Instructions upon this Subject, your Neighbour will have no great Rea­son to complain of you. It would tho be a Cause sufficient for you to complain of me, if I should conclude these Instructi­ons design'd for the Conduct of your Life, without making you sensible that nothing in the World can so much faci­litate the Means to practise them, as fre­quent and serious Meditations on Death. I do confess, 'tis of all things the most terrible, especially if we behold it in our Worldly Thoughts; for then it is more pro­per to precipitate us into Despair than to inspire us with the Love of Vertue and Piety. But it is far from being so full of Terrour to those who behold it with the Eyes of Faith. This Divine Vertue, which [Page 83]is a true Character of a Christian, makes Death appear to us already conquer'd and disarm'd by the Second Adam, and sent by him himself, as a welcome Messen­ger to open our Prisons upon Earth, and introduce us into a Celestial and Glori­ous Liberty. 'Tis true, in a State so cor­rupt and imperfect wherein we now are, I believe it is a hard matter for the most Regenerate to suffer the Approaches of Death without some kind of Fear. But if once you can force your Weakness to admit of a Familiarity with Death; be­sides the Joy and Comfort you will reap from thence, it will change that familiar Habitude into a second Nature; and then instead of those vicious and corrupt Incli­nations wherein you are born according to the Flesh, it will inspire such as are truly vertuous, which will be the Signs as well as the Effects of your Spiritual Rege­neration. My Son, be sure you do not procrastinate this Meditation, under the Pretext that you are as yet very young. A Glass newly blown is not a Jot less brit­tle than one that has been made several Years. A new Ship may be split against the Rocks as soon as an old one: and how [Page 84]can you tell? Perhaps that very Minute which you employ to drive out of your Mind the Thoughts of Death, shall be your last in this World. Since therefore this Thing is of such moment, and yet so uncertain, be always prepar'd. Watch and pray, for ye know not at what Hour the Lord cometh. Repent the Day before you die; and as there is no Day in your Life which may not be that of your Death, let not so much as one slip with­out throughly Repenting. Live just as you will wish to have liv'd when you are at the Point of Death, that is to say, reli­giously, soberly, and justly. This will not only have some Resemblance with the three Blessings I mentioned at the begin­ning of this Treatise, upon your Soul, your Person, and your Actions; but also 'twill be a Testimony irrefragable that you have perform'd the three Duties which I prescrib'd to you; for you can­not live religiously, without doing your Duty towards God; nor soberly, without observing what is due to your self; nor justly, without discharging what you owe to your Neighbour. The Father of Grace and Mercy grant that you may fulfill my [Page 85]Directions as a good Christian, for the sake of his Glory, your Salvation, and the Edification of your Neighbour.

That you may consider and meditate upon these Instructions with more de­light, and render them more familiar and ready to your Memory, I have extra­cted the choicest Matter, and reduc'd it under Heads more compact; whereby it will make the deeper Impression upon your Mind. You will find it in the Maxims following, in all a hundred, which as ma­ny times would I have you read over, that you may be sensible how important they are, and consequently how necessa­ry the Practice of them. Believe this, my Son, that whatsoever you can expect from me besides, it cannot come near the Worth of these Instructions. God preserve you, prosper your Voyage, and bring you back in all Happiness. To conclude, my Son, let the Fear of God be the Star to lead and guide you in all your Ways; let it be the Center whereto all your Acti­ons tend; and let it be the sole Object of your Meditation.

Christian and Moral MAXIMES.

I. BE devout without Affectation: Be­ware of seeming so if you are not, for that is Hypocrisie; which being di­rectly against God, is a kind of Sacri­lege.

II. He that goes about to disguise him­self in the sight of God, takes Pains to cheat himself.

III. To pray to God without Attenti­on is to pray without Hope.

IV. He that prefers the Pleasures of his Body before the Salvation of his Soul, suffers a Man to be drowned whilst he runs to save his Cloak.

V. If you have not more care to adorn your Soul with vertuous Qualities than to adorn your Body with fine Cloaths, you offer to an Idol and abandon God.

VI. He that delights in his Sins makes his Pleasures his Executioner.

VII. An habitual Sin is a Serpent nou­rished in their own Bosome.

VIII. He that goes slowly in the pra­ctice of good Works runs swiftly in the way to Hell.

IX. If you would have God hear your Requests, do you hear the Prayers of the Needy.

X. He that is afraid to think of Death will run into Despair when Death comes.

XI. There is no better School for a good Life than the frequent meditating upon a Holy Death.

XII. A serious Meditation of Eternity will cause you to make good use of your Time, and will take away the greatest part of the bitterness of Death.

XIII. A Man is not fully convinced of the Importance of his own Salvation, when he knows his Sins and yet will de­fer his Repentance.

XIV. He that passeth his Life without Devotion shall not end it without De­spair.

XV. If in your Prosperity you will not hear the Voice of God, you may well fear, that in your Adversity he will not hear yours.

XVI. He that hath no fear of God in this Life may well fear his Judgments in the next Life.

XVII. Be obliging towards all men, familiar with a few, but be intimate with no more than one alone.

XVIII. He that takes Pleasure to keep Company with naughty men, is in Pain whilst he is among the good.

XIX. He that confides without Know­ledg, will repent not without Reason.

XX. He that begins a Business with­out Judgment need not wonder if it ends without Success.

XXI. That which you undertake a­bove your Strength must needs produce Effects below your Hopes.

XXII. In a glorious Undertaking, he that is discouraged by the bare Contem­plation of the Difficulties, neither under­stands the value of the Honour, nor doth he at all deserve it.

XXIII. If Haste in designing, and Slowness in executing, produce good Suc­cess, it is by more chance.

XXIV. If you make your Work a trouble to you, you will make your Du­ty a Punis [...]ment to you.

XXV. He that in a low Fortune hath too high Designs, undertakes with wax­en Wings to fly up to the Sun.

XXVI. He that falls by aspiring too high, needs not seek for any other Rea­son of his Fall than his own Extrava­gance.

XXVII. Those who shew themselves over-earnest and eager in small Busines­ses, declare their Unfitness for great ones.

XXVIII. If by Justice you are guided in the pursuit of Gain, Tranquillity shall accompany you in the enjoyment there­of.

XXIX. If with an envious Eye you look upon the Good of others, you will render your self unworthy to possess your own.

XXX. If the Soul be given to Man only for Action, and those who by con­tinual Sloth keep the Soul from Acting, they shew that the Soul in their Bodies is but like a little Salt to preserve their Bo­dies from putrifying.

XXXI. Pride is a swelling of the Spirit, which doth as much corrupt all the good qualifications of the proud [Page 90]Man, as the swelling of the Stomack al­ters the good humors of the Body.

XXXII. Altho Anger be but a short Madness, yet the Effects thereof many times prove long Follies.

XXXIII. Avoid great Meals if you will avoid long Sicknesses.

XXXIV. He that spoyls his health by Excesses and Disorder, hath no Rea­son to complain of the Excess of his Di­stempers.

XXXV. An able Cook is more to be feared in time of Health, than an igno­rant Physician in time of Sickness.

XXXVI. Temperance and Exercise are the best Cooks in the world.

XXXVII. The Fumes of Wine trou­bles the Brain, the Fumes of Pride trou­bles the Understanding, and the Fumes of one in Love troubles both.

XXXVIII. He that fills his Heart with the Love of Women, turns a Sanctuary appointed for the Holy Ghost into a Temple of Idols, the Worship whereof will lead to Hell.

XXXIX. Divine Love is a Torch to light us; but profane Love is one to blind us.

XL. Humane Love cannot have Bounds too straight; but if Divine Love be at all bounded it will be deficient.

XLI. Love is painted naked; not only to represent Impudence, but to advertise us, that usually it strips naked all those who follow it.

XLII. The Covetous Man spares things necessary to provide Superfluities for those who will never thank him for them.

XLIII. Those who in their Actings consult only self Love shall walk blind­fold, and have as many Falls as Steps.

XLIV. Who spends too much upon his Pleasures; deprives himself of the Means of providing for Necessaries.

XLV. If you submit your Judgment to your Pleasures, you will Burn your self with the Light which was given to di­rect you.

XLVI. He that consults not his Rea­son for his Pleasures, ought not to expect help in his pains.

XLVII. He that suffers himself to be governed by his Passions, abandons his Liberty to the Fancy of his Slaves.

XLVIII. Too great desire after things Superfluous oft throws a Man into ex­treme want of Necessaries.

XLIX. He that fills his Heart with his Passions leaves no room for Piety, and changes his condition of Christian into that of an Idolater.

L. Since Passions are the Diseases of the Soul, nothing but Temperance is fit to be the Physician.

LI. He that excessively delights in Play, must count that he shall dye in Poverty.

LII. Winning at Play is the Bait which Fortune makes use of to undo us.

LIII. Those who Play to recover what they have lost, add to the loss of their Money, the loss of their Reason, and of­ten times the loss of the rest of their Money.

LIV. Much Sleep and much Play fill the Stomach with Crudities, and the Purse with Wind.

LV. Think a little before you Speak, think more before you make a Pro­mise.

LVI. In divers affairs you may choose if you will make a Promise, but having made a Promise you cannot dispense therewith.

LVII. Never discourse of things where­of you are ignorant, and discourse but little of what you know, and whether you speak or are silent do all with dis­cretion.

LVIII. Jesting sometimes upholds Conversation but generally disunites the Jesters. They that desire to avoid quarrels and live in quiet let them avoid Jesting as a Snare.

LIX. If you do not easily bear with the failings of others you will render your own failings unsufferable.

LX. He that carelessly regards the misfortunes of other Men, ought not to think it strainge if others look upon his misfortunes without compassion.

LXI. If you think to oblige Men to be civil and courteous towards you, give them Example by your carriage towards them.

LXII. The Favors which you do to other Men place under your Feet, the Favours [Page 94]which others do to you place at your Heart.

LXIII. He that forgets favours recei­ved deserves no more.

LXIV. Be not slow in serving others if you would have them quick in doing Pleasures to you.

LXV. If you are not generous enough to prevent your Friend by good Turns, be not slow to requite his to you.

LXVI. A sincere Intention, although unprofitable, better repays a good Turn than a forced Acknowledgment.

LXVII. He that brags of a Favour that he hath done, doth much diminish the merit thereof; for by his Indiscretion he makes it appear, that he is divided betwixt his Vain-glory and his Friend.

LXVIII. He that gives to receive, of a generous Act (which is one of the most commendable Qualities of a man of Ho­nour) makes it to be one of the most dirty Trades in the World.

LXIX. If you take Pleasure in Lies, Truth will become a Pain to you.

LXX. He that excuseth his Fault by a Lye condemns himself two ways.

LXXI. If Lying be usual with you, you mistrust all that others tell you.

LXXII. He that makes use of Cun­ning and Lying to get his Neighbours Goods, imitates the Devil, who made use of both those Qualities to rob our first Parent of his Innocence.

LXXIII. The ill using of our Goods in this World will be one of the princi­pal and most just cause of our misery in the next.

LXXIV. He that is not content with a moderate Fortune, oft times takes great Pains to lessen it by endeavouring to aug­ment it.

LXXV. He that regulates his Desires by the necessities of Nature, aims but at a few things; but he that is led by his Lust gives no Bounds to his Desires.

LXXVI. Be not eager to know other Mens Secrets. Be very reserved in com­municating your own; you are no lon­ger Master of them so soon as you have imparted them to any Person; and your Example seems to justifie his Unfaithful­ness in discovering them to a third Per­son.

LXXVII. He that boasts of his good Qualities, loses the merit of them by his Pride; and he that hides his good Qua­lities, gives them a higher esteem by his Modesty.

LXXVIII. High Places make their Heads turn who have but weak Brains, and extraordinary Fortunes trouble the Spirit of those who have not good Judg­ments.

LXXIX. A Man hath need of great Constancy in Adversity, that he may not be wanting to himself, and of great Mo­deration in Prosperity, that he may not be wanting to others.

LXXX. Prosperity makes others know truly what we are, and Adversity makes us know who are our true Friends.

LXXXI. Those who haunt us for our Wealth are like Hawks that fly only for the Prey.

LXXXII. He that will not know his Friends in his Prosperity deserves to meet with none in his Misery.

LXXXIII. He that leans over-much on the Friendship of Great Persons, will find, sooner or later, that he leans upon a broken Reed.

LXXXIV. God by his extreme Boun­ty recompenses with extraordinary Fa­vours the least Duties which we render to him, but the most part of great Persons who are earthly Gods, make account that they have over rewarded our great­est Services by a few kind Words.

LXXXV. He that takes great care to preserve the friendship of great Men, shall know when he hath need of them, that he hath taken much pains to culti­vate Land that will prove barren.

LXXXVI. A Man who hath excel­lent Parts and great Learning yet makes no use thereof; is like a good Sword ne­ver drawn out of the Scabbard.

LXXXVII. He that advises others to be vertuous hath thereby the more rea­son to be so himself.

LXXXVIII. He that praises and com­mends only to please his complaisance, draws his judgment in question.

LXXXIX. The forwardlyness of a Man to advise others is oftner a mark of his Presumption then a proof of his Friend­ship.

XC. He that thinks it enough to be­wail our Evils when he can Cure them, [Page 98]is not toucht at the Heart, but sheds only Crocodiles tears.

XCI. In our great displeasures our first Tears may be just, the second may be handsome, but those after that are nei­ther reasonable nor honorable.

XCII. He that weeps only because he thinks he ought to weep may have tend­er Eyes and yet not toucht at the Heart.

XCIII. He that employes his Autho­rity to do ill things or to maintain them, cuts his Throat with his own Knife.

XCIV. Trust not Flatterers and great Talkers, both of them usually aim by the wind of their words to drive thy Mo­ney out of thy Purse.

XCV. Physicians by their Medicines oft Poyson our Bodies, and Flatterers al­ways Poyson our minds by their Dis­courses.

XCVI. He that makes use of a much studied Discourse to perswade us to an evil Design, employes a perfumed Pony­ard to stab us at the heart.

XCVII. The infection of the Pestilence is not so much to be feared for the Body as the Poyson of evil Company for the Mind.

XCVIII. If you desire to dye like a righteous Man, live as a Reprobate would wish to have lived when he comes to dye.

XCIX. He that by his extraordinary complaisance draws off his Friend from a bad Business by being Surety for him or bayling of him, usually draws himself in­to a worse Business, which at length will make him understand his own want of Judgment.

C. He that reads for his own instru­ction, and reads good matters without profiting thereby, hath the tast of the Mind as much depraved, as the bodily Tast is to a sick Man who sits at a well furnisht Table and not able to eat.

My Son, I having at the beginning of these Instructions made use of one of the Proverbs of Solomon, I will make use of another for the end. 3 Prov. 1, 2, 3, and 4 ver: My Son, forget not my Law, but let thine heart keep my Com­mandements, for length of Days, and long Life, and Peace shall they add to thee, so shalt thou find favour and good understand­ing in the sight of God and Man.


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