Vnparalleld VARIETIES: Or, the Matchless Actions and Passions OF MANKIND. Displayed in near Four Hundred No­table Instances and Examples. Discovering the Transcendent Effects;

  • I. Of Love, Friendship, and Gratitude.
  • II. Of Magnanimity, Courage, and Fidelity.
  • III. Of Chastity, Temperance, and Humility.

And on the contrary the Tremendous Con­sequences,

  • IV. Of Hatred, Revenge, and Ingratitude.
  • V. Of Cowardice, Barbarity, and Treachery.
  • VI. Of Unchastity, Intemperance, and Ambition.

Imbellished with Proper Figures.

By R. B. Author of the History of the Wars of Eng. &c. Remarks of London, &c. Wonderful Prodigies, &c. Ad­mirable Curiosities in England, &c. Extraordinary Ad­ventures of famous Men, and Surprizing Miracles of Na­ture and Art, in the Heavens, Earth and Sea, &c.

London, Printed for Nath. Crouch, at his Shop at the Sign of the Bell in the Poultry. 1683.

Unparaleld Varieties
Iulius Caesar Slain in the Senate by Brutus, Cassius & others. Page. 15.

London Printed for Nath: Crouch.



IT is an usual saying, that Variety Delights, but especially in Histo­ry, and more it may be in this Age than in any other before, wherein a great ma­ny seem to scorn the dull heavy humor of their Ancestors, as they please to call it, (and therefore have not patience to read large Histories) admiring their own briskness, Ingenuity, and Wit, though much of it is altogether invisi­ble but only to themselves, and their own vain imaginations; However since the light French Airiness is now so modish, it may not be thought im­proper so far to comply therewith, as to present the Reader with this brief [Page] Compendium out of many great Vo­lumes of abundance of short delightful Relations, and Instances upon various Subjects, which may prevent both tedi­ousness and charge, and may likewise furnish the mind with apt matter both for Discourse and Instruction; in brief here they may, as in a Glass, discover the excellent rewards of Virtue, and the dreadful punishments of Vice in all Ages of the world, and thereby be persuaded to follow, and practise the one, that they may escape the unavoyda­ble consequences of the other; and if it have this admirable effect, I shall then reckon my time and pains well imploy­ed in writing of it, neither will the Reader repent of his in the Reading thereof.

R. B.

CHAP. I. The Transcendent Effects of Love, Friendship, and Gratitude, discovered in several Me­morable Examples.

LOve and Friendship are the chief Bonds of Humane Society, without which Mankind would be Wolves, and destrovers of each other; I shall therefore give some instan­ces of the extraordinary Effects thereof in all Ages, and that in the most large acceptation of it; as of the Passion of Love between different Sexes, the disquiets whereof have sometimes made deep impres­sions upon divers Persons, of the singular Love of some Husbands to their Wives, and Wives to their Husbands; of the Indulgence, and great Love of some Parents to their Children; and the reverence and Love of Chil­dren to their Parents; of the extraordinary Love of Brethren, and of many Servants to their Masters; of the signal Love of some Persons to Religion and Truth, and their hatred of Flattery and Falshood; the Love of several to Peace, Justice, and to their Country, toge­ther with the choicest instances of the most intire Friendship, and the grateful dispositions of some Persons, and what returns they have made of the benefits re­ceived; these shall be the particulars of this first Chap­ter, wherein the variety of the Relations, cannot but administer some profit, as well as delight, since they are collected from Authors of undoubted Authority and Credit; I shall therefore proceed in order, and first as to Humane Love, or that strictly called the Passion of Love.

I. Eginardus was Secretary of State to Charlemaign, Emperour, and King of France, and having placed his [Page]

The Emp. of Ger. Daughter caryes her Lover on her back to prevent Discovery Page .1.

[Page 2] Affections much higher than his Condition admitted, made love to one of his Daughters, who seeing this Man of a brave Spirit, and a grace suitable, thought him not too low for her whom merit had so eminently raised above his Birth; she affected him, and gave him free access to her Person, so far as to suffer him to have recourse unto her, to laugh, and sport in her Chamber on the Evenings, which ought to have been kept as a Sanctuary where Relicts are preserved; It happened on a Winters night, that Eginardus ever hastning his Approaches, and being negligent in his returns, had too much slackned his departure, in the mean time a [...]ow had fallen, which troubled them both; for when he thought to go forth, he feared to be known by his feet, & the Lady was unwilling that such prints of steps should be found at her door; they being much perplexed, Love which taketh the Diadem of Majesty from Queens, made her to do an Act for a Lover, very unusual for the Daughter of one of the greatest Men upon Earth, she took the Gentleman upon her shoulders, and carri­ed him all the length of the Court to his Chamber, he never setting foot to ground, that so the next day no impression might be seen of his footing; it fell out that Charlemaign watched at his Study this night, and hear­ing a noise, opened the Window, and perceived this pretty prank, at which he could not tell whether he were best to be angry, or to laugh; the next day in a great Assembly of Lords, and in the presence of his Daughter, and Eginardus, he asked what punishment that Servant might seem worthy of, who made use of a Kings Daughter, as of a Mule, and caused himself to be carried on her Shoulders in the midst of Winter, through Night, Snow, and all the sharpness of the Sea­sons; Every one gave his opinion, and not one but con­demned that insolent man to death; the Princess, and Secretary changed colour, thinking nothing remained for them, but to be flead alive; but the Emperour looking on his Secretary with a smooth brow, said, Eginardus, hadst thou loved the Princess my Daughter, thou [Page 3] oughtest to have come to her Father, the disposer of her Liber­ty, thou art worthy of death, and I give thee two lives at this present, take thy fair Portress in Marriage, fear God, and love one another; these Lovers thought they were in an in­stant drawn out of the depth of Hell to enjoy the grea­test happiness in the World. Causins Holy Court. Tom. 2.

II. Pyramus, a young Man of Babylon, was exceed­ingly in love with Thisbe, the Daughter of one that li­ved the very next House to his Father, nor was he less beloved by her; both Parents had discerned it, and for some Reasons kept them both up so streightly, that they were not suffered so much as to speak to one another, at last they found opportunity of discourse through the Chink of a Wall betwixt them, and appointed to meet together in a certain place without the City, Thisbe came first to the place appointed, but being terrified by a Lioness which passed by, she fled into a Cave near thereabouts, and in her flight had lost her Veil, which the Lioness tumbled to and fro with her bloody Mouth, and so left it; soon after Pyramus came also to the same place, and there finding the Vail which she used to wear, all bloody, he overhastily concluded, that she was torn in pieces by some wild Beast, and therefore slew himself with his own Sword under a Mulberry Tree, which was the place of their mutual agreement; Thisbe, when she thought the Lioness was gone past, left her Cave, with an earnest desire to meet her Lover, but finding him slain, overcome with grief and desire, she fell upon the same Sword, and died with him. Zuingli­us. p. 461.

III. Eurialus Count of Augusta, was a young man of extraordinary beauty, and during the stay of the Em­perour, Sigismund, King of Bohemia, and Hungary, at Si­enna, he cast his Eye upon Lucretia a Virgin of that place, and at first sight fell vehemently in love with her; the Virgin also, whom in respect of her admirable form, they called commonly the second Venus, was no less surpri­zed than himself at the same instant; in a short time they became better acquainted, but at the Emperors [Page 4] removal thence to Rome, when Eurialus was compelled to leave his Lady behind him, she was not able to endure his absence, but died under the impatience of it; Euri­alus at the hearing of her death, though he was some­what supported by the counsels, and consolations of his Friends, and thereby persuaded to live, yet from the time of her death, to the last day of his life, he was ne­ver known to laugh. Donatus Hist. Medit.

IV. Gobrias a Captain, when he had espied Rodanthe, a fair Captive Maid, he fell upon his knees before Mysti­lus the General, with tears, vows, and all the Rhetorick he could; & by the Scars he had formerly received, the good services he had done, or whatsoever else was dear unto him, he besought his General that he might have the fair Prisoner to his Wife, as a reward of his Valour; moreover he would forgive him all his Arrears, I ask, said he, no part of the booty, no other thing, but Rodanthe to be my Wife; and when he could not compass her by fair means, he fell to Treachery, force, and Villany, and at last set his life at stake, to accomplish his desire. Bur­tons Melancholy, part. 3.

V. Plutarch saith it was a custom remaining to his days, that Wives would wish so to be beloved of their Husbands, as Pieria was by Phrygius; this wish had its rise from the following History; of those Jonians that planted themselves in Miletum, some raised Sediti­on against the Sons of Neleus, and seated themselves in Myo; these received divers injuries from the Mil sians, who made war upon them for going away from them, but not so severely, as to exclude all commerce, so that upon some Festivals the Women had liberty to come from Myo to Miletum; Pythes was one of the Revolters, and understanding that a Feast was to be kept in Mile­tum to Diana, he sent his Wife and Daughter Pieria to obtain leave that he might be present at it; now of all the Sons of Neleus, Phrygius was the most powerful, he being inflamed with the love of Peria, thought of no­thing more than of doing something that might be ac­ceptable to her, and when she told him, that nothing [Page 5] could be more grateful to her, than to procure her liber­ty of coming often to Miletum, in the Company of many Virgins, he understood by that Speech, that Peace was desired, and Friendship sought with the Milesians; he therefore concluded the War; and thence was it that the names of these two Lovers were so dear to both People. Plutarch de virtute Mulier. p. 531.

VI. There was amongst the Grecians a Company of Souldiers, consisting of three hundred, that was called, The Holy Band, erected by Gorgidas, and chosen out of such as heartily loved one another, whereby it came to pass, that they could never be broken, nor overcome, for their love, and hearty affection would not suffer them to forsake one another, whatsoever danger hap­pened; but at the Battel of Cheronaea they were all slain, after the fight, King Philip taking view of the dead bo­dies, he stood still in that place, where all these three hundred men lay slain, thrust through with Pikes on their Breasts, whereat he much wondred, and being told that it was the Lovers Band, he sell a weeping, say­ing, Wo be to them that think these men did, or suffered any dishonest thing; Plutarch, in Pelopida.

VII. Leander was a young Man of Abidos, and was deeply in love with Hero, a beautiful Virgin of Sestos, these two Towns were opposite to each other, and the narrow Sea of the Hellespont lay betwixt them. Leander used divers nights to swim over the Hellespont to his Love, while she held up a Torch from a Tower, to be his direction in the night; but though this practice con­tinued long, yet at length Leander adventuring to per­form the same one night when the Sea was rough, and the waves high, was unfortunately drowned; his dead body was cast up at Seslos, where Hero from her Tower beheld it; but she not being able to outlive so great a loss, cast her self headlong from the top of it into the Sea, and there perished. Innumerable are the instances of the Effects both Tragical, and Comical, proceeding from this Humane Love, and every week almost produ­ceth some extraordinary Accidents proceeding there­from; [Page 6] let us therefore next relate some remarkable examples of Conjugal Love between Husbands and Wives.

VIII. One of the Neapolitans ('tis pity his name as well as his Country, is not remembred, saith Mr. Burton,) be­ing busily imployed in a Field near the Sea, and his Wife at some distance from him, the Woman was sei­zed upon by some Turkish Pyrates, who came on shoar to prey upon all they could find; upon his return not finding his Wife, and perceiving a Ship that lay at An­chor not far off, conjecturing the matter as it was, he threw himself into the Sea, and swam up to the Ship, then calling to the Captain, he told him, he was come to follow his Wife; he feared not the Barbarism of the Enemies of the Christian Faith, nor the miseries those Slaves endure that are thrust into places where they must [...]g at the Oar, his Love overcame all these; the M [...]ors were full of admiration at the carriage of the man, for they had seen some of his Countrymen, rather chuse death than to endure so hard a loss of their Liber [...]y, and at their return they told the whole of this story to the King of Tunis, who moved with the Relation of so great a Love gave him and his Wife their freedom, and the Man was made by his command one of the Soldiers of his Liseguard. Burtons Melancholy, Part 3.

IX. Philip King of France, Sirnamed The Good, the first Author of that greatness, whereunto the House of Burgundy did arrive, was about twenty three years of Age, when his Father John Duke of Burgundy was slain by the villany, and perfidiousness of Charles the Dau­phin; being informed of that unwelcome news, full of grief & anger as he was, he hasted into the Chamber of his Wife, who was the Dauphins Sister, O said he, my Michalea thy Brother, hath murdered my Father; She who was a true Lover of her Husband, streight broke forth into tears, and cries, and fearing, not without reason, that this accident would prove the occasion of a breach, she lamented, as one that refused all comfort, though her Husband used all kind of loving words to chear up [Page 7] her Spirits; Thou shalt be no less dear to me, said he, for this fault, which, though near related, is yet none of thine, and therefore take courage, and comfort thyself in an Husband that will be faithful, and constant to thee for ever; He performed what he said, he lived with her three years, treating her alwaies with his accustomed love, and the same re­spects; and although the very sight of her did daily re­new the memory of that wicked act of her Brother, and though which is more, she was Barren, a sufficient cause of divorce among Princes, yet he would not that any thing but death should dissolve the Matrimonial Bond that was betwixt them. Lipsius Monitor. lib. 2.

X. Darius the last King of the Persians, supposing that his Wife Statira was slain by Alexander, filled all the Camp with Lamentations, and Outcries; O Alexan­der, said he, Whom of thy Relations have I put to death, that thou shouldst thus retaliate my severities, thou hast hated me without any provocation on my part, but suppose thou hast Justice on thy side, shouldst thou manage the War against Wo­men? Thus he bewailed the supposed death of his Wife, but as soon as he heard she was not only preserved alive, but also treated by Alexander with the highest Honour, he then beseeched Heaven to render Alexander fortu­nate in all things, though he was his Enemy. Plutarch. in vit. Alex.

XI. Gratianus the Roman Emperor, was so great and known a Lover of his Wife, that his Enemies had hereby an occasion ministred to them to ensnare his life, which was on this manner; Maximus the Usurper, caused a report to be spread, that the Empress with cer­tain Troops was come to see her Husband, and to go with him into Italy, and sent a Messenger with counter­feit Letters to the Emperor, to give him advice there­of; after this, he sent one of his most subtle Captains, with order that he should put himself into an Horse­litter with some chosen Soldiers, and go to meet the Emperor, pretending himself to be the Empress, and so to surprize, and kill him; the cunning Captain per­formed his business, for at Lyons in France, the Empe­ror [Page 8] came forth to meet his Wife, and coming to the Horselitter, he was taken and killed. Imperial Hist, p. 344.

XII. Meleager challenged to himself the chief glory, and honour of slaying the Caledorian Boar, but this being denied him, he sate in his Chamber so angry, and dis­contented, that when the Enemy (who were the Cure­tes) were assaulting the City where he lived, he would not stir out to lend his Citizens the least of his assist­ance; the Elders, Magistrates, the chief of the City, and the Priests came to him with their humble suppli­cations, but he would not move; they propounded a great reward, he despised at once both it and them; his Father Oenaeus came to him, and imbracing his knees, endeavoured to make him relent, but all in vain; his Mother came, and tryed all ways, but was re­fused; his Sisters, and his most familiar Friends were sent to him, and begged he would not forsake them in their last extremity; but neither this way was his fierce mind to be wrought upon; in the mean time the Ene­my had broken into the City, and then came his Wife, called Cleopatra, trembling; O my dearest Love, said she, help us, or we are lost; the Enemy is already entred; the Hero was moved with this voice alone, and roused him­self at the apprehension of the danger of his beloved Wife; he armed himself, went forth, and left not, till he had repulsed the Enemy, and put the City into its wonted safety, and security. Camerarius Hist. Medit. Cent. 1.

XIII. Titus Gracchus loved his Wife Cornelia with that fervency, that when two Snakes were by chance found in his House, and that the Soothsayers had pro­nounced that they should not suffer them both to es­cape, but that one of them should be killed, affirming also that if the Male was let go, Cornelia should die first; on the other side that Gracchus should first expire, if the Female were let go, Dismiss then the Female said he, that so Cornelia may survive me who am at this time the El­der; It so fell out that he died soon after, leaving behind [Page 9] him many Sons, so entirely beloved by the Mother, and the memory of her Husband, so dear to her, that she refused the proffered Marriage with Ptolomy King of Aegypt; It seems the buried Ashes of her Husband lay so cold at her heart, that the splendor of a Diadem and all the pomp of a rich, and proffered Kingdom, were not able so to warm it, as to make it capable of recei­ving the impression of a new Love. Valerius Maximus, lib. 4.

XIV. Caligula the Emperour had Caesonia to Wife, and though she was not of remarkable beauty, nor of a just, but declining Age; though by another Husband she was already the Mother of three Daughters, yet being one both of Prodigious Luxury, and Lascivious­ness, he loved her with that ardency, and constancy, that he often shewed her to the Soldiers riding by him in her Armour, and to his Friends even naked. The day she was brought to Bed, he made her his Wife, pro­fessing that he was at once her Husband, and the Father of a Child by her; the Child, which was named Julia Drusilla, was by his order carried about to all the Tem­ples of the Gods; at last he laid it down in the lap of Minerva, and commended the Child to her Education, and Instruction, nor did he conclude the Child to be his, by any more certain sign than this, that even in her Infancy she had a cruelty so natural, that she would fly upon the Faces and Eyes of such Children as plaid with her, with her fingers, and nails. Suetonius Hist.

XV. M. Plautius, by the Command of the Senate of Rome, was to bring back a Navy of sixty Ships of the Confederates into Asia; he put ashore at Tarentum, and thither had Orestilla his Wife followed him, and there overcome with a Disease, she departed this life. Plautius having ordered all things for the celebration of the Fu­neral, she was laid upon the Pile to be burnt, as the Ro­man manner was; the last Offices to be performed, were to anoint the dead body, and to give it a valedictory, or farewel kiss, but betwixt these, the grieved Husband fell upon his own Sword, and died; his Friends took [Page 10] him up in his Gown and Shoes, as he was, and laying his Body by that of his Wives, burnt them both toge­ther; the Sepulcher of these Two is yet to be seen at Tarentum, and is called, The Tomb of the Two Lovers. Va­ler. Max. lib. 4.

XVI. And though the Female be the weaker Sex, yet such has been the fidelity, and incredible strength of affection in some, that they have oft-times perfor­med as great things as the most generous Men; they have despised death in the most dreadful shapes, and all sorts of difficulties (by an invincible Love to their Hus­hands) in the greatest extremity. Of which Histories are not silent; for we r [...]ad, that Eumenes burying the dead that had fallen in the Battel of Gabine against Anti­gonus, amongst others, there was found the Body of Ceteas, the Captain of those Troops that had come out of India; this man had two Wives, who accompanied him in the Wars, one which he had newly married, and an other whom he had married some years before, but both of them bore an intire love to him, for whereas the Laws of India require, that one Wife shall be burnt with her dead Husband, both these offered themselves to death, and strove with that ambition, as if it had been some glorious prize they sought after; before such Captains as were appointed their Judges, the younger Wife pleaded, That the other was with Child, and that therefore she could not have the benefit of that Law; The elder alledged, That whereas she was before the other in years, it was also fit that she should be before her in Honour, since it was customary in other things that the Elder should have place; The Judges, when they understood by Midwives, that the Elder was with Child, passed Judg­ment that the younger should be burnt, which done, she that had lost the cause departed, rending her Dia­dem, and tearing her Hair, as if some grievous calami­ty had befallen her; the other full of Joy at her Victory, went to the Funeral Fire, magnificently drest up by her Friends, and led along by her Kindred, as if to her Wedding; they all the way singing Hymns in her Prai­ses. [Page 11] When she drew near the fire, taking off her Orna­ments, she delivered them to her Friends and Servants, as tokens of Remembrance; they were a multitude of Rings, with variety of precious Stones, Chains, and Stars of Gold, &c. This done, she was by her Brother placed upon the combustible matter by the side of her Husband, and after the Army had thrice compassed the Funeral Pile, fire was put to it, and she without a word of complaint, finished her life in thell ames. Diod Sicu­lus, lib. 9.

XVII. Arria, the Wife of Cecinna Paetus, understan­ding that her Husband was condemned to die, and that he was permitted to chuse what manner of death liked him best, she went to him, and having exhorted him to depart this life couragiously, and bidding him farewel, gave her self a stab into the Breast, with a Knife she had hid for that purpose under her Cloaths; then drawing the Knife out of the wound, and reaching it to Paetus; she said, The wound I have made, Paetus, smarts not; but that only which thou art about to give thy self. Camer. Spare hours. Whereupon Martial hath an Epigram to this purpose.

When Arria to her Husband gave the Knife,
Which made the wound, whereby she lost her life,
This wound, dear Paetus, grieves me not, quoth she,
But that which thou must give thyself, grieves me.

XVIII. The Prince of the Province of Fingo, in the Kingdom of Japan in the East-Indies, hearing that a Gentleman of the Country had a very beautiful Wo­man to his Wife, got him dispatched; and having sent for the Widow some days after her Husbands death, ac­quainted her with his desires; she told him she had much reason to think her self happy in being honoured with the Friendship of so great a Prince, yet she was resolved to bite off her Tongue, and murder her self, if he offered her any violence; but if he would grant her the favour to spend one month in bewailing her [Page 12] Husband and then give her liberty to make an enter­tainment for the Relations of the Deceased to take her leave of them, he should find how much she was his Servant, and how far she would comply with his affecti­ons; it was easily granted, a very great Dinner was pro­vided, whither came all the Kindred of the deceased; the Gentlewoman perceiving the Prince began to be warm in his Wine, in hopes of enjoying her promise; she desired liberty to withdraw into an adjoyning Gal­lery to take the Air, but as soon as she was come into it, she cast her self headlong down in the presence of the Prince, and all her dead Husbands relations, and so put an end to her life. Mandelsloes Travels.

XIX. In the Reign of the Emperor Vespasian, there was a Rebellion in France, the chief Leader of which was Julius Sabinus; they being reduced, the Captain was sought after to be punished, but he had hid himself in a Vault, or Cave, which was the Monument of his Grand-father; he caused a report to be spread of his death, as if he had voluntarily poysoned himself, and the better to persuade men of the truth of it, he caused his House to be set on fire, as if his body had therein been burnt; he had a Wife, whose name was Eponina, she knew nothing of his safety, but bewailed his death, & would not be comforted; there were only two of his freed men, who were privy to it, they pitying their Lady, who was determined to die, and in order thereunto had abstained from all manner of meat for three days together, thereupon they declared her pur­pose to her Husband, and besought him to save her that loved him so well; it was granted, and she was told that her Sabinus lived; she came to him, where they li­ved with secrecy, and undiscovered for the space of nine years together, she conceived, and brought forth Children in that solitary Mansion; at last the place of their abode came to be known, they were taken, and brought to Rome, where Vespasian commanded they should be stain; Eponina producing, and shewing her Children; Behold O Caesar, said she, these I have brought [Page 13] forth, and brought up in a Monument, that thou mightest have more suppliants for our Lives. O cruel Vespasian, that could not be moved with such words as these; well, they were both led to death, and Eponina joyfully died with her Husband, who had been before buried with him for so many years together. Lipsius Monitor. lib. 2.

XX. Portia the Daughter of Cato, and Wise of Mar­cus Brutus, when she conjectured by the fleepless, and disturbed nights of her Husband, that he had conceived some great thing in his mind, and concealed it from her in suspition of her weakness; she to give her Husband an instance of her Constancy and Secrecy, made her self a deep wound in her Thigh with a Razor; upon which there followed a stream of blood, weakness; and a Feaver. When Brutus came home, sad at so unex­pected an accident, and all being withdrawn, Sit down Husband said she, I have something serious to discourse with you; when I married you, I came to your House as a Wife, not as a Mistress, or Whore, nor only as a Companion of your Bed, and Board, but of all prosperous and adverse things; I am Cato's Daughter, and reckon you that I am of that blood, what then, do I complain of you? Not at all, if I look at other matters, Conjugal Solemnities, good will, and this exter­nal love; but I look higher, and would have your Friendship al­so, and that is the only grief of my mind which torments me, that you have my fidelity in suspicion, for wherefore should you dissemble; do I not perceive the care you are in? Thae there is some secret, and great enterprize you are in agitation about? Why do you conceal it from me? If I can lend you no assistance, expect some comfort at least from me; for as to my secrecy I am able to ingage; consider not the rest of my Sex; I say again, that I am the Daughter of Cato, and I add thereunto that I am the Wife of Brutus, either nature, being from such a Father, or Conversation with such a Husband, will render me constant and invincible against all that is to be feared; why do I multi­ply words, I my self have made experiment of my self, and see this wound which of my own accord I have given my self, that I might know whether I could undergo with Courage any grief and torments, I now fully believe that I am able to bear them, [Page 14] to despise them, and I, my Brutus, can die with, and for my Hus­band; if therefore you are about any thing that is just and honourable, and worthy of us both, conceal it no longer, Brutus admiring the greatness of her mind, and surprized with the discovery of such great affection, lifting up his hands for joy, burst out into these expressions, O all ye Powers above, said he, be ye favourable, and propitious to my desires, and make me a Husband that is worthy of Portia; then he recited in order to her the Conspiracy for killing Ju­lius Caesar in the Senate House, and who were concer­ned therein; wherewith she was so far from being af­frighted, or disswading him from it, that she incoura­ged him to proceed; but the day on which they were to perform the Enterprize, she being in fear for Brutus, swooned away, and was scarcely recovered by him; at the last Brutus being overcome, and slain at Philippi, she determined to die, & when her Friends, who were ever with her to prevent it, deprived her of the opportunity and means, she at last snatched the burning Coals with her Hands out of the fire, and thrusting them into her mouth, she kept them there till she was choaked. Of this Conspiracy against Caesar, for the Readers better understanding it, I shall make a brief digression. Mar­cus Brutus (faith Plutarch) was descended from Junius Brutus, as great an enemy to Kings as he was to Tyrants; he was well beloved by Caesar, so that he gave order for his safety at the Battle of Pharsalia as for his own Son; he moved nothing but what was honest and ra­tional, so grave and constant he was; he carried what he moved, so resolved was he; after Caesar had past the Rulicon contrary to the Decree of the Senate, and had so overpowered them, that he was chosen perpetual Dictator, and had thereby taken away the liberty of the Commonwealth, Brutus, Cassius & some others conspired against him; Brutus hated the Tyranny, and Cassius the Tyrant; Brutus was incensed against Caesars Empire by his Ancestors Enterprize against Kings, and the Peo­ples expectation from him, for under their Images they writ, O that Brutus were a [...]ve; and before his face when [Page 15] he was Praetor, they said, Brutus is asleep. Cassius first sounded Brutus, who said, He would die, or Caesar should not be King; Cassius replied, Rome will not suffer thee to die; they look for Plays and Pastimes from other Praetors hands, but they expect Liberty at thine; then they procee­ded in their Design, and though many ill Omens might have hindred Caesar from going to the Senate that day, yet he resolved to go on; and being sate, Cimber one of the Conspirators, seems to Petition Caesar, and the rest seconded him, kissing Caesars hand, and then all falling upon him at once, they stabbed him with twenty three wounds, who when he saw Brutus, cryed out, what, and thou my Son? and so gave up the Ghost. Brutus would have satisfied the other Senators, but they fled; the o­ther Conspirators would have killed Mark Anthony, but Brutus refused it, because he said he was a Person prin­cipled for Liberty, though ingaged to the Tyrant. At first the multitude abhorred, and were amazed at the Fact, but afterwards they applauded it, when they saw that neither power nor spoil was the design, but honest Liberty, yea, the Senate entertained, secured, honoured & imployed them in several Provinces, particularly Brutus in Creet: who committed two Faults; first, in saving An­thony their close Enemy, and next in publishing Caesars popular will, and solemnizing his Funeral, at which Anthony, by his Speech, and shewing Caesars bloody Gar­ments, inraged the multitude so far, that Brutus and his Friends retired to Athens, for fear of Gaesars Soldi­ers, and there got as many Romans together, as he could prevail upon, with whom he resolved to try his For­tune, affirming, That he would either die, or live with Li­berty, and rid his Country of Bondage by Battle, or himself by death; Here Cassius met him with more Forces, and as they were about to pass their Army toward Rome, an horrible Spectacle is said to appear to Brutus; for in the dead of the night, when the Moon shined not very bright, and all the Army was in silence, a black Image of an huge and horrid Body appeared to Brutus, stan­ding silent by him, his Candle being almost out, and he [Page 16] sitting musing about the issue of the War, Brutus with an equal constancy both of mind and countenance, said, What Man or God art thou? The Spirit answered, I am thy evil Genius, and thou shalt see me again at Philippi; Brutus couragiously replied, I will see thee there then; so the Spirit disappeared, but as he had said, appeared to him again in those Fields of Philippi, where Brutus and Cassius soon after lost a great Battle against Anthony and Octavius, and their Army being utterly routed, Brutus passed the following melancholy night with some few others in the Woods and Rocks, where the same Spe­ctre appear'd again to him, and vanished without speaking a word; he then recollecting the loss of his Friends, pitying his Country more than himself, and applauding his own virtue more then his Enemies Con­quest, did what he looked upon to be neither offensive to Heaven, nor unworthy of a Man, for like Cato his Father in Law, his Friends refusing to do it, he killed himself with his own Sword. Plutarchs Lives. Of this great Person, hear what our incomparable Cowley sings.

EXcellent Brutus, of all Humane Race
The best, till Nature was improv'd by Grace.
Till men above themselves, faith raised more
Than Reasou above Beasts before.
Virtue was thy lifes center, and from thence
Did silently, and constantly dispense
The gentle vigorous influence,
To all the wide and fair circumference.
And all the parts upon it lean'd so easily,
Obey'd the mighty force so willingly,
That none could discord, or disorder see
In all their Contrariety.
Each had his Motion natural and free;
And th' whole no more mov'd than the whole World could be.
From thy strict rule some think that thoudidst swerve,
(Mistaken honest Men) in Caesars blood;
What Mercy could the Tyrants life deserve,
From him who kill'd Himself rather than serve?
Th' Heroick Exaltations of Good,
Are so far from Ʋnderstood.
We count them Vice; alass our sight's so ill,
That things which swiftest move, seem to stand still.
We look not upon Virtue in her height,
On her supream Idea, brave and bright,
In the Original Light;
But as her Beams reflected pass,
Through her own Nature, or ill Customs Glass.
And 'tis no wonder so,
If with dejected Eye,
In standing Pools we seek the Sky.
That Stars so high above, should seem to us below.
Can we stand by and see
Our Mother rob'd, and bound, and ravisht be,
Yet not to her assistance stir,
Pleas'd with the Strength and Beauty of the Ravisher?
Or shall we fear to kill him, if before
The Cancel'd name of Friend he bore?
Ingrateful Brutus do they call?
Ingrateful Caesar who could Rome inthrall!
An Act more barbarous, and unnatural,
(In th' exact Ballance of true Virtue try'd)
Than his Successor Nero's Parricide!
There's nought but Brutus could deserve,
That all men else should wish to serve,
And Caesars usurpt place to him should proffer;
None can defer't but be who would refuse the offer.
Ill Fate assum'd a Body thee t' affright,
And wrapt it self i'th terrors of the Night,
I'le meet thee at Philippi, said the Spright,
I'le meet thee there, saidst Thou,
With such a voice, and such a brow,
As put the trembling Ghost to sudden flight,
It vanish't as a Tapers Light,
Goes out when Spirits appear in sight;
One would have thought 't had heard the morning Crow.
Or seen her well appointed Star,
Come marching up the Eastern Hill afar.
Nor durst it in Philippi's Field appear.
But unseen attacqued thee there.
Had it presum'd in any shape thee to oppose,
Thou wouldst have forc'd it back upon thy Foes;
Or slain't like Caesar, though it be
A Conqueror, and a Monarch mightier far than He.
What joy can humane things to us afford,
When we see perish thus by odd events,
Ill men, and wretched Accidents?
The best Cause, and the best Man that ever drew a Sword.
When we see
The false Octavius, and wild Anthony,
Godlike Brutus, conquer thee?
What can we say but thine own Tragick Word,
That Virtue, which had worshipt been by thee,
As the most solid Good, and greatest Deity,
By this fatal proof became
An Idol only, and a Name?
Hold noble Brutus, and restrain
The bold voice of thy generous Disdain;
These mighty Gulphs are yet
Too deep for all thy Judgment, and thy Wit.
The Time's set forth already, which shall quell
Stiff Reason, when it offers to Rebel.
Which these great Secrets shall unseal,
And new Philosophies reveal.
A few years more, so soon hadst thou not dy'd,
Would have confounded Humane Virtues pride,
And shew'd thee a God Crucifi'd.

XXI. Conradus the Third, Emperour of Germany, be­sieged Guelphus Duke of Bavaria, in the City of Wensburg in Germany; the Women perceiving that the Town could not possibly hold out long, petitioned the Emperor that they might depart only with so much as each of them could carry on their backs; which the Emperor condescended to; expecting they would have loaden themselves with Silver and Gold; but they all came forth with every one her Husband on her back, whereat the Emperor was so moved, that he wept, re­ceived the Duke into his favour, gave all the men their Lives, and extolled the Women with deserved Praises. Bodin relates, that the Duke Laurence Medicis was resto­red to his health by the only reading this story, when he had long in vain expected it from the endeavours of his Physicians. Camerarius spare hours, p. 228.

XXII. Thus far as to excellent fruits of Conjugal Love; and yet we shall find that Paternal, or Fatherly Indulgence hath equalled, if not excelled them; for that natural affection which we bear toward them that pro­ceed from us, we have in common with other Creatures, the Poet hath expressed it to be in the nature of the most cruel of all other Beasts.

—The Tyger which most thirsts for blood,
Seeing her self rob'd of her tender brood;
Lyes down lamenting in her Scythian Den,
And licks the prints where her lost Whelps had lain.

Yet this affection reigns with greater power in the Souls of some than others, and the effects of it have [Page 20] been such, as cannot but detain us with some pleasure in the perusal of them. In 1541. Eckius Raschacius a German Captain, was at the Siege of Buda, whose Son, a valiant young Gentleman being got out of the Army without his Fathers knowledge, carried himself so va­liantly in a skirmish against the Turks in the sight of his Father, and the whole German Army, that he was high­ly commended of all men, and especially of his Father, who yet knew him not; & after a gallant fight, before he could clear himself, and make a retreat, he was incom­passed by his Enemies, and valiantly defending himself for some time, was at last unhappily slain; Raschacius ex­ceedingly moved for the death of so brave a man, but ignorant how near it concerned himself, turning about to the other Commanders, said; This gallant Gentleman, whatsoever he be, is worthy of everlasting commendations, and to be most honourably buried of any Person in the whole Army; as the rest of the Captains were with the like compas­sion approving his Speech, the dead body of the unfor­tunate Son being rescued, was presented to the misera­ble Father, which caused all that were there to shed Tears, but such a sudden and inward passion of grief surprized the aged sorrowful Father, and struck so to his heart, that after he had stood a while speechless, with his Eyes set in his head, he suddenly fell down dead. Turkish History.

XXIII. Mahomet the second, Emperour of the Turks, was no sooner possessed of his Fathers Throne, but like a young Tyrant, forgetring the Laws of Nature, he presently in Person himself was about to have mur­dered with his own hands his youngest Brother, then but eighteen months old, begotten on the fair Daugh­ter of Sponderbeius; which unnatural part, Moses one of his Bassas, and a man greatly in his favour, perceiving, requested him not to imbrue his own Royal hands in the blood of his Brother, but rather to commit the exe­cution thereof to some other, which thing Mahomet commanded him, the Author of that Counsel, forth­with to do; so Moses taking the Child from the Nurse, [Page 21] strangled it, with pouring water down the throat thereof. The young Lady understanding the death of her Child, as a Woman whom fury had made past fear, came and in her rage reviled the Tyrant to his very face, shamefully upbraiding him for his inhumane cruelty; when Mahomet to appease her fury, requested her to be content, for that it stood with the policy of his State, and willed her for her better contentment to ask whatsoever she pleased, & she should forthwith have it; but she desiring nothing more, but in some sort to be revenged, desired to have Moses the Executioner of her Son, delivered unto her bound, which when she had obtained, she presently struck him into the Breast with a Knite, crying in vain upon his unthankful Master for help, and proceeding in her cruel execution, cut an hole in his right side, and by piecemeal cut out his Liver, and cast it to the Dogs to eat, to that extremity did she resent the death of her beloved Son. Knowls Turkish Hist.

XXIV. Aegeus stood upon an high Rock, whence he might see a great way upon the Sea, in expectation of the return of his Son Theseus from Creet, having made him promise at his departure, That if all things went well with him, at his return his Ship should be set forth with Sails and streamers of a white colour, to express the Joyfulness of his return. The old man after his long watching, at last did discern the Ship making homewards, but it seems they had forgot to advance the white Colours as they had promised; when therefore Aegeus saw nothing but black, concluding that his Son had miscarried in his journey, and was dead, not able to endure the grief he had conceived thereof, he threw himself into the Sea, from the top of the Rock whereon he stood, and so died, Langii Polyanth. p. 848.

XXV. Solon was a Person famous throughout all Greece, as having given Laws to the Athenians; he being in his Travels, came to Miletum to converse with Thales, one of the wise men of Greece, these two walking to­gether upon the Market-place, one comes to Solon, and [Page 22] tells him, That his Son was dead; being afflicted with this unexpected, as well as unwelcome news, he fell to tearing of his beard, hair, and cloths, and fowling of his face in the dust; immediately a great confluence of People came about him, whom he entertained with howlings, and tears; when he had lain long on the ground, and delivered himself up to all manner of ex­pressions of grief, unworthy the Person he sustained, so renowned for gravity and wisdom, Thales bid him be of good courage, for the whole of the Relation was but a contrivance of his, who by this experiment had desi­red to try whether it was convenient for a wise man to marry, and have Children, as Solon had persuaded him to do; but that now he was sufficiently satisfied it was no way necessary, seeing he perceived that the loss of a Child might occasion a Person famous for wisdom to discover all the signs of a madman. Sabel. Exercit. lib. 3.

XXVI. Charles the Great, was so great a lover of his Sons and Daughters, that he never dined, and supt without them; he went no whither upon any Jour­ny, but he took them along with him, and when he was asked, why he did not marry his Daughters, and send his Children abroad to see the world, his reply was, That he was not able to bear their absence. Zuinglius Theat. vol. 1.

XXVII. Artobarzanes resigned the Kingdom of Cap­padocia to his Son in the presence of Pompey the Great; the Father had ascended the Tribunal of Pompey, and was invited to sit with him in the Royal Seat, but as soon as he observed his Son to sit with the Secretary in a lower place than his Fortune deserved, he could not endure to see him placed below himself, but descending from his Seat, he placed the Diadem upon his Sons Head and bid him go, and sit in that place from whence he was newly risen; at these words, tears fell from the Eyes of the young man, his body trembled, the Dia­dem fell from his Head, nor could he endure to go thither where he was commanded; and which is almost beyond all credit, he was glad who gave up his Crown, [Page 23] and he was sorrowful to whom it was given; nor had this glorious strife come to any end, unless Pompeys Au­thority had joined itself to the Fathers will, for he pro­nounced the Son a King, commanded him to take the Diadem, and compelled him to sit with him in the Throne. Valer. Maxim. p. 152.

XXVIII. Socrates was one day surprized by Alcibi­ades, childishly sporting with his Son Lamprochus, and when he was sufficiently derided by Alcibiades upon that account; You have not, said he, such reason as you imagine▪ to laugh so profusely at a Father playing with his Child, seeing you know nothing of that affection which Parents have for their Children; contain your self then till you come to be a Fa­ther your self when perhaps you will be found as ridiculous as I now seem to be. Lang. Polyan p. 847.

XXX. Agesilaus was above measure indulgent to his Children, and the Spartans reproached him, that for the love of his Son Archidamus, he had concerned him­self so far as to hinder a just Judgment, and by his in­tercession for the Malefactors had involved the City in the guilt of being injurious to Greece; he used also at home to ride upon an Hobby-horse with his little Children, and being once by a Friend of his found so doing, He intreated him not to discover that act of his to any man, till such time as he himself was become the Fa­ther of Children. Plutarchs Lives.

XXXI. And though it may be we may not find so many instances in History, of the Love, Reverence, and Piety of Children to their Parents, yet we read of some in all Ages, who have this way intituled them­selves to the promise of God, and have thereby had a kind of earnest given them of being worthy and pros­perous Persons, as may be seen in divers of the follow­ing Examples. Marcus Coriolanus having well deserved of the Commonwealth of Rome, was yet unjustly con­demned, whereupon he fled to the Volsci, at that time in Arms against Rome, and being made their chief Com­mander, he presently rendred himself very formidable to the Romans; Ambassadours were sent to appease him, [Page 24] but to no purpose, the Priests met him with intreaties in their Pontifical Vestments, but were also returned without effect; the Senate was astonished, the People trembled, as well the Men as the Women, bewailing the destruction that now was sure to fall upon them. Then Volumnia the Mother of Coriolanus, taking Volumnia his Wife along with her, and also his Children, went to the Camp of the Volsci, whom as soon as the Son saw, being one that was an intire lover of his Mother, he made hast to imbrace her; she angrily said, First, let me know before I suffer myself to be imbraced by you, whether I am come to a Son or an Enemy, and whether I am a Captive, or a Mother in your Camp? Much more she added after this manner with tears in her Eyes; he moved with the tears of his Mother, Wife and Children, imbracing his Mother, You have conquered, saith he, and my Country hath overcome my just anger, being prevailed upon by the intreaties of her, in whose Womb I was conceived. And so he freed the Roman Fields, and the Romans themselves from the sight and fear of those Enemies he had led against them. Plutarchs Lives. p. 230.

XXXII. There happened in Italy (sath Causin) as it of­ten happens, a great irruption of Mount Aetna, nowcalled Mount Gibel, it murmurs, burns, belches up flames, and throws out its fiery Entrails, making all the world to fly from it; it happened then, that in this violent, and horrible breach of flames, every one flying, and carrying away what they had most precious with them. Two Sons, the one called Anapias, the other Amphino­mus, careful of the wealth and goods of their Houses, reflected on their Father and Mother, both very old, who could not save themselves from the Fire by flight, and where shall we, said they, find a more precious Treasure than those who begat us? The one took up his Father on his Shoulders, the other his Mother, and so made pas­sage through the flames; it is an admirable thing (saith my Author) that Almighty God, in consideration of this Piety, though Pagans did a miracle, for the Monu­ments of all Antiquity witness, that the devouring flames, [Page 25] stayed at this spectacle, and the fire wasting, and broil­ing all about them, the way only through which these two Sons passed was tapestried with fresh verdure and greenness, and called afterward by Posterity, The Field of the Pious, in memory of this Accident. Causins Holy Court. Tom 1.

XXXIII. There were three Brothers, whoupon the death of the King their Father, fell out amongst them­selves about the Succession in the Kingdom, at last they agreed to stand to the judgment, and determination of a Neighbour King, to whom they fully referred the matter; he therefore commanded the dead body of the Father to be fetcht out of his Monument, and ordered, that each of them should shoot an Arrow at his heart, and he that hit it, or came the nearest to it, should suc­ceed; the Elder shot first, and his Arrow past through the Throat of his Father; the second Brother shot his Father into the Breast, but yet missed the heart, the youngest detesting this wickedness, I had rather, said he, yield all to my Brothers, and utterly resign up all my pretences to the Kingdom, than to treat the body of my Father with this Contumely; this saying of his considered, the King passed Sentence, That he alone was worthy of the Kingdom, as ha­ving given evidence how much he excelled his Brothers in Vir­tue, by the Piety he had shewed to the dead body of his Father. Leon. Theat. p. 278.

XXXIV. A Roman Praetor or Judge had sentenced to death a Woman of good birth for a Capital Crime, and had delivered her over to the Triumvir to be killed in Prison; the Jaylor that received her, moved with compassion, did not presently strangle her, but permit­ted her Daughter to come often to her, being first dili­gently searched, lest she should convey in any suste­nance to her, the Jaylor expecting that she should die of Famine; when therefore divers days had passed, wondring within himself what it might be that might occasion her to live so long, he one day set himself to observe her Daughter with greater curiosity, and then discovered how with the milk in her Breasts, she allay­ed [Page 26] the Famine of her Mother; the news of this strange spectacle of the Daughter, suckling her Mother, was by him carried to the Triumvir, and from him to the Praetor, who brought the cause to the Judgment of the Consul, who pardoned the Woman as to the Sentence of death passed upon her, and to preserve the memory of that act, where her Prison stood, they caused an Altar to be erected to Piety. Plinys Nat. Hist.

XXXV. When the City of Troy was taken, the Greeks did, as became gallant men; for, pitying the mis­fortune of their Captives, they caused it to be proclai­med, that every free Citizen had liberty to take a­long with him any one thing that he desired; Aeneas therefore neglecting all other things, carried out with him his Houshold Gods; the Greeks delighted with the Piety of the man, gave him a further permission to car­ry out with him any other thing from his House, where­upon he took upon his shoulders his Father, who was grown old and decrepit, and carried him forth; the Grecians were extreamly affected with this fight, and deed of his, and thereupon gave him all that was his own, confessing, that nature itself would not suffer them to be enemies, but Friends to such as preserved so great Piety toward Heaven, and so great a Reverence to their Parents. Aelian Var. Hist.

XXXVI. Otho the second Emperor of Germany, had a Son named Luitolphus, a valiant and haughty young man, who taking offence at his Fathers second Marriage, re­belled against him, being assisted by many considerable Persons; hereupon Otho raised a great Army to suppress them, but Luitolphus not finding himself able to en­counter his Father in the Field, betook himself to the City of Mentz, where his Father besieged him for the space of threescore days, and severely battered the Ci­ty, which yet was as valiantly defended against him; but at last the Besieged made a motion for Peace, where­upon a Truce was granted; during which, Luitolphus and his Partizan found an opportunity in the night to leave Mentz, and betake himself to Ratisbone; the Em­peror [Page 27] without one days delay, followed them to Ratis­bone, which was better fortified, and provided than Mentz, and so the Siege was more difficult and doubt­ful, and in the Assaults and Sallies, many brave men perished on each side; yet soon after Luitolphus sued to his Father for Peace and Pardon, which the Emperor at length, by the mediation of some Prelates limited to a certain time, wherein his Sons faults, and offences should be examined, and a Treaty should be held to conclude all matters; upon which Luitolphus surrendred the City, and absented himself from his Fathers pre­sence, till he saw the issue; but before the time prefixed was expired, the Emperor being hunting, Luitolphus ha­ving been convinced, and really sensible of his Fault, without any security from his Father, came before him in the Fields bare-headed, and bare-footed and kneel­ing at his Fathers feet, wept; the Father being amazed at this strange, and unexpected rencounter, stood still, and the Son at last recovering his Spirits, intreated him to have compassion on him, acknowledging his faults, and offences to have been very great, and rather deser­ving a thousand deaths, than any pardon, but being heartily sorry for the same, he like the Prodigal Son, presented himself before his Father, who had also a Father in Heaven, by whom he hoped to be forgiven; and if he would please to grant him his life, he would assure him to be ever after a Loyal and Obedient Son, who lived, and would continually live in a constant for­row for what was past, and if he intended to deal o­therwise with him, he yet desired him to remember, That he was his own flesh, and blood, and that though the of­fence were only his, yet the just Father must needs bear a part of the punishment inflicted upon the guilty Son, but that in shew­ing mercy, no inconvenience could ensue; and that if he should be inexorable, he should lose the most Obedient Son that ever Father had; having ended these, and many other words to the same effect, he with great humility prostrated himself upon the Earth, expecting his Fathers Sentence, either of Life or Death; this struck so great an impres­sion [Page 28] into the Emperors heart, to hear, and see his Son shew such humility, and to shed so many tears, that he could not forbear to do the like; and commanding him to arise from the ground, with joy mixed with tears, both from himself, and his Attendants, he immediately pardoned him, and restored him to his Grace, and Fa­therly love, and to the same Offices and Dignities he had before, and from thence forward the Son continu­ed constant in that Loyalty and Duty which he owed to his Father, and Soveraign Lord, so long as they lived together. Imperial. Hist. p. 423.

XXXVII. A Son of the Lord Montpensier, an Italian, going to Puzzuolo to visit the Sepulcher of his Father, was so overcharged with Passion, that after he had washed all the parts of his Monument with his lamen­table Tears, he fainted, and fell down dead upon the Sepulcher of his Father. Guichardine Ital. Hist. p. 261.

XXXVIII. Decimus; Emperor of Rome, had a pur­pose, and earnest desire to set the Crown upon the head of his Son Decius, out he utterly refused it, saying, I fear lest being made an Emperor, I should forget that I am a Son, I had rather be no Emperor, and a dutiful Son, than an Empe­ror, and such a Son as hath forsaken his due obedience; let then my Father bear the Rule, and let this be my Empire to obey with all humility whatsoever he shall command me; By this means the Solemnity was put off, and the young Man was not Crowned, unless you will say, that his signal Piety to­wards his Parent, was a more glorious Crown to him, than that which consisted of Gold and Jewels. Valer. Maxim. lib. 4.

XXXIX. In the Civil Wars of Rome, between Au­gustus, and Mark Anthony, as it often falls out, that Fathers, & Sons, & Brothers & Brothers take contrary part, so in that last Battel at Actium, where Augustus was Conque­ror, when the Prisoners, as the Custom is, were counted up, Metellus was brought to Octavianus, whose face, tho much changed by anxiety and imprisonment, was known by Metellus his Son, who had been on the contrary part; withtears therefore he runs into the imbraces of his [Page 29] Father, and then turning to Augustus; This thy Enemy, said he, hath deserved death, but I am worthy of some reward for the service I have done thee; I therefore beseech thee instead of that which is owing me, that thou wouldst preserve this man, and cause me to be killed in his stead; Augustus moved with this piety, though a great Enemy, gave to the Son the life of the Father. Lonic. Theat. 273.

XL. Demetrius the King of Asia, and Macedonia, was taken Prisoner in Battel by Seleucus King of Syria; after which Antigonus his Son was the quiet possessour of his Kingdom, yet did he change the Royal Purple into a mourning habit, and in continual tears sent abroad his Ambassadours to the Neighbouring Kings, that they would interpose in his Fathers behalf for the obtaining of his Liberty; he also sent to Seleucus, and promised him the Kingdom, and himself as an hostage and securi­ty, if he would free his Father from Prison; after he knew that his Father was dead, he set forth a great Na­vy, and went out to receive the body of the deceased, which by Seleucus was sent toward Macedonia; he recei­ved it with such mournful Solemnity, and so many tears, as turned all men into wonder and compassion, Antigonus stood in the Poop of a great Ship built for that purpose, cloathed in black, bewailing his dead Father; the Ashes were inclosed in a golden Urn, over which he stood, a continual, and disconsolate Spectator; he caused to be sung the Virtues, and Noble Atchievements of the deceased Prince, with voices form'd to Piety and La­mentation; the Rowers also in the Gallies, so ordered the stroaks of their Oars, that they kept time with the mournful voices of the others; in this manner the Navy came near to Corinth, so that the Rocks and Shores them­selves seemed to be moved to mourning. Plutarchs Lives. Thus far of Paternal, and Filial Love, let us pro­ceed to that between Brethren.

XLI. It is usually counted rare to see Brothers live together in mutual love and agreement with each o­ther, and it is likewise commonly observed; that their Animosities have been managed with greater rancour & [Page 30] bitterness, than if they had been the greatest Strangers; on the other side where this Fraternal Love has rightly seated it self in the Soul, it has appeared as real and vi­gorous as any other sort of Love whatsoever; of which there want not very remarkable Instances. In the year 1585. the Portugal Ship, called St. Jago, was cast away upon the Shallows near St. Lawrence, and towards the Coast of Mosambique; here it was that divers Persons had leapt into the great Boat to save their lives, and finding that it was overburdened, they chose a Captain, whom they swore to obey, who caused them to cast Lots, and such as the Lot fell upon to be cast overboard; there was one of those that in Portugal are called New Christians, who being allotted to be cast overboard in­to the Sea, had a younger Brother in the same Boat, that suddenly rose up, and desired the Captain that he would pardon, and make free his Brother, and let him supply his place; saying, My Brother is elder, and of better know­ledge in the World than I, and therefore more fit to live in the World, and to help my Sisters and Friends in their need, so that Thad rather die for him, than live without him; at which request they saved the elder Brother, and threw the younger at his own desire into the Sea, who swum at least six hours after the Boat; and though they held up their hands with naked Swords, willing him that he should not once come to touch the Boat; yet laying hold thereon, and having his hand half cut in two, he would not let go, so that in the end, they were constrai­ned to take him in again; both these Brethren I knew (saith my Author) and have been in company with them. Linschotens Voyages. p. 147.

XLII. When the Emperor Augustus had taken Adia­toriges, a Prince of Cappadocia, together with his Wife and Children in War, and had led them to Rome in Tri­umph, he gave order that the Father, & the elder of the Brothers should be slain. The designed Ministers of this Execution were come to the place of restraint, to this unfortunate Family, and there inquiring which of the Brethren was the eldest, there arose a vehement and [Page 31] earnest contention between the two young Princes, each of them affirming himself to be the Elder, that by his death he might preserve the life of the other; when they had long continued in this pious Emulation, the Mother at last, not without difficulty, persuaded her Son Dye­tentus, that he would permit his younger Brother to die in his stead, as hoping that by him she might be more probably maintained. Augustus was at length certified of this great example of Brotherly love, and not only lamented that act of his severity, but gave an honoura­ble support to the Mother, and her surviving Son. Hey­woods Hist. Women.

XLIII. Heliodorus the Brittain, had afterward the Sir­name of Pius upon this occasion; the People provoked with the Cruelty, and Avarice of Archigallus, had de­posed him, and raised Heliodorus to the Throne of his Brother; one time when the King went on hunting, he accidentally met with his Brother Archigallus in a Wood, whose altered visage, and ragged cloths, gave sufficient evidence of his afflicted condition; as soon as the King knew him, though he was not ignorant how he had sought his Restoration both by force and fraud, yet he lovingly imbraced him, and caused him privately to be conveyed into the City. The King pretended he was sick, and giving forth that he would dispose of the Affairs of the Realm by his last Will and Testament, he called his Nobles together, he then signified that he would confer in private with each of them singly, and as every man entered into his Chamber, he caused him to be laid hold on, threatning him with death, if he would not consent to the sparing of his Brother, and that he should resign the Throne and Kingdom to him, having by this means gained an universal assent, he then opened the business in the presence of them altogether, so that Archigallus was restored to the Kingdom, and he dying in few years, Heliodorus succeeded him with equal Justice and Glory. Fulgosus Examples, p. 634.

XLIV. There was a Soldier in the Camp of Pom­peius, who in the War with Sertorius, perceiving a Sol­dier [Page 32] on the other side to press hard upon him, he sought with him hand to hand, and having slain him, he went about to strip him of his Arms, which when he had done, he found it was his Brother, who had fallen under him, whereupon having a long time curst his unhappy Fate, he carried his dead Brother into the Camp, and having covered the Body with a precious Garment, he laid the Corps upon the Funeral Pile, and put fire to it; which done, he immediately drew the same Sword wherewith he had slain his Brother, and thrust it into his own Breast, and so falling prostrate upon the dead Body of his Brother, they were both burned together. Valerius Maximus, p. 146.

XLV. There was a report (though a false one) that Eumenes King of Asia, was slain by the fraud of Perseus, upon the news whereof, his Brother Attalus seized up­on the Crown, and married the Wife of his Brother, but being informed of Eumenes his return, he went forth to meet him, not without apprehensions of fear, in re­gard of what he had done in his absence; Eumenes made no shew of his displeasure, only whispered him in the Ear; That before he married another Mans Wife, he should besure her Husband was dead. This was all, and not long after dying, though by his Wife he had a Son of his own, yet he left the Kingdom to his Brother, together with the Queen his Wife. Attalus on the other side, that he might not be surpassed in Brotherly love, though he had many Children by his own Wife, yet he educa­ted that Son she had by Eumenes, to the hope of the Kingdom, and when he came of sufficient Age, freely resigned up all to him, and lived a private life many years after. Burtons Melancholy. p. 564.

XLVI. Darius King of Persia, being extreamly pro­voked by Crimes of an extraordinary nature, had pro­nounced Sentence of death upon Ithaphernes, his Chil­dren, and the whole Family of them at once; the Wife of Ithaphernes went to the Kings Pallace, and there all in tears, was so loud in her mournful Lamentations, that her cries coming to the Kings Ear, moved him in such [Page 33] manner to compassion, that the King sent her word, That with her own, he gave her the life of any single Person whom she would make choice of among the condemned; the Woman begged the life of her Brother; Darius wondred that she should rather ask his life; than that of her Husband, or any of her Children; and therefore asked her the reason; who replied, That since her Father was dead, she could never hope for a Brother more, if she should lose this, but that her self being but young as yet, might hope for another Hus­band, and other Children; Darius was moved with this answer, and being inclined to Brotherly love, as well as prudence, he gave her also the life of her eldest Son. Heywoods Hist. Women.

XLVII. Tiberius being at Ticinum, and hearing that his Brother Drusus lay sick in Germany, he immediately put himself on an hasty Journey to give him a visit; he passed the Alps, and the Rhine, and changing his Horse night and day, he travelled outright two hundred miles with only one Person in his Company as his Guide; Drusus though at that time labouring for life, being in­formed of his coming, commanded his Legions with their Ensigns to march out, and meet him, and to sa­lute him by the Title of Imperator, or Emperor; he orde­red a Praetorial Tent to be erected for him on the right hand of his own, and gave him the Confular, and Impe­rial name; at the same time yielding this honour to his Brother, and his Body to death. Valerius Maximus, p. 146.

XLVIII. Great was the love of Timolaeon the Corin­thian to his Brother, for when in a Battel with the Ar­gives, he saw his Brother fall down dead with the wounds he had received, he leaped over the dead body of his Brother, and with his Shield he protected the body as it lay; and though in this enterprize he was sore woun­ded himself, yet would he not retreat into any place of safety, till such time as he had seen the dead body of his Brother carried off from the Field. Fulgosus lib. 5.

XLIX. Neither has the extraordinary Love of Ser­vants toward their Masters, wanted great Examples, [Page 34] some of whom have discovered eminent Fidelity, and Virtue, so that Fortune may seem to have treated them injuriously, not to allot them as great advantages as their Masters they lived under; for we read, that the Servant of Ʋrbinius Panopion, knowing that the Soldiers commissioned to kill his Master, were come to his House at Reatina, changed cloths with him, and having put his Masters Ring upon his Finger, he sent him out at a post­ern door, but went himself to the Chamber, and threw himself upon the Bed, where he was slain in his Masters stead; Panopion by this means escaped; and afterwards when the times would permit it, erected a Noble Monu­ment, with a due inscription in memory of the true Fidelity of so good a Servant. Lipsius Monitor, p. 332.

L. The Hungarians had conspired against Sigismund, King of Hungary and Bohemia, but the Plot being disco­vered, the principal persons were all taken, brought to Buda, and there beheaded; Stephanus Contius was the chief of these Conspirators, who having thereupon lost his Head, Chioka his Esquire lamented the death of his Lord with such outcries, that the King took notice of him, and said unto him, I am now become thy Lord and Master, and it is in my power to do thee much more good than can be expected from that headless Trunk; To whom the young man replied; I will never be the Servant of a Bo­hemian Hog, I had rather be torn into a thousand pieces, than to desert a Master of so great Magnanimity as all the Bohe­mians together are not able to equal. And thereupon he vo­luntarily laid down his Head on the block, and had it severed from his Shoulders, that he might no longer survive his Master. Zuinglius Theat. p. 215.

LI. Grimoaldus, Duke of Benevento, was invited by Gondibert King of the Lombards to assist him against Par­tharis his Brother; he came accordingly, and having thrown out the one, he slew the other Brother he came to defend, and so made himself King of Lombardy, and when he knew that Partharis was retreated to Ca­lanus Duke of Bavaria, he wrought so, that he was ex­pelled from thence; Partharis not knowing whither to [Page 35] betake himself in safety, comes as a suppliant, and com­mits himself to the faith of Grimoaldus, but he observing that numbers of his Subjects flocked daily to visit him, and fearing lest by the favour of the People he should some time or other recover the Kingdom, not regarding his Oath, he resolved to make him away, and that he might perform it with less noise and tumult, he inten­ded first to make him drunk, and then send his Guards to cut his Throat, while he lay buried in Wine and sleep. This Counsel of his was not so privately carried, but that it came to the ear of Partharis, he therefore commands his Cup-bearer to give him Water constant­ly instead of Wine, lest his troubled head should prove unmindful of the danger he was in, nor could he ab­stain altogether from drinking, lest Grimoaldus his Spies should discover that he had intimation of his In­tentions; the better therefore to colour the matter, after large drinking he caused himself to be carried by his Servants into his Chamber, as if to sleep out his de­bauch; there he consults with Hunulphus his most faith­ful Servant, who thought it not safe to go forth, since the Servants of Grimoaldus stood watching at the Gate; but in regard necessity compelled, and that there was no other way of escape, he orders it thus, he covers his Head and Shoulders with the skin of a Bear, which was there by chance, after the manner of a Country Clown, and lays upon his back a Mattress, as if he was a Porter, to carry it away, and then with good blows of a Cudgel drove him out of the Chamber; by this Contrivance he passed unknown through the Guards, and accompanied with one Servant, got safe into France; about midnight the Guards came to kill Partharis, but were opposed by Hunulphus, who besought them not to disturb the rest of his Master now sleeping, but to suf­fer him to sleep out the large drinking he had that night; twice they were thus put back, but the third time they broke by force into the Chamber, and not finding Par­tharis, whom they had determined to kill, they inquire of Hunulphus what was become of him, who told them [Page 36] plainly he was fled, and confessed that himself was the contriver of his flight; Grimoaldus admiring his fideli­ty, who to save his Master, had cast himself into such manifest danger of his life, freed him from that punish­ment, that all cried he was worthy of, and with many promises allured him that from thenceforth he would change Masters, and serve him with the like fidelity as he had done the former. Dinoth. Memorab. p. 301.

LII. There was a Citizen of Rome condemned by the Sentence of the Triumvirate, who for fear of his life fled, and hid himself in a Cave of the Earth; one of his Servants observed the approach of them that came to murther him, and having thereupon advised him to retire to the lowest, and most secret part of the Cave, he himself put on his Masters Gown, pretending to the Pursuers, that he was the Person they sought after, be­ing desirous to save the life of his Patron, with the loss of his own; but one of his fellow Servants betrayed him in this officious Design, so that the Master was fetch­ed out of his hiding place and slain, when this was known to the People of Rome, they would not be satis­fied, till the betrayer of his Master was Crucified, and he that attempted to save him, was set at liberty. Di­noth. p. 293.

LIII. The Tyrians having maintained long Wars a­gainst the Persians were much weakned thereby, which occasioned their slaves, being many in number, to rise against their Masters, whom they put all to the Sword, together with their Children, and then seized upon their Houses, together with their Wives, whom they Marri­ed; only one of these slaves being more merciful than the rest, spared his Master Straton, and his Son, and hid them; the slaves having thus got possession of all, con­sulted together to chuse a King, and concluded that he who could first discern the Sun at his rising, should be King, whereupon the forementioned slave consulted with his Master about the business, who advised him, when others looked into the East, that he should look into the West, for which he was well scoffed at by his [Page 37] Companions; but presently he espied the Sun-beams shining upon the high Towers and Chimnies in the Ci­ty, and so challenged the Kingdom; his Companions would needs know who taught him his wit, at last he told them, whereupon fetching out old Straton, they gave him not only his life, but elected him their King, who having once been a Master, and free born, they thought was fittest to rule all the rest that were slaves. Justin. Hist. lib. 18.

LIV. Menenius was in the number of those that were condemned by the Triumvirate, and when a Servant of his perceived that his Masters House was inclosed with a company of Soldiers that came to kill him, he caused himself to be put into a Litter, wherein his Master u­sed to be carried, and ordered some of his fellow Ser­vants to carry him forth in it; the Soldiers supposing that it was Menenius himself, slew him there; where­upon looking no farther, his Master cloathed in a Ser­vants habit, had the means and opportunity to escape in­to Italy. Fulgosus Ex. lib. 8.

LV. These are the instances of such Servants, as no consideration whatsoever could move to disloyalty, or infidelity toward their Masters; such examples as these are few and rare, whereas the world is full of those of the contrary, of which I shall conclude with one in­stance, of a Servant who was not altogether of so vir­tuous an humour as the aforenamed. Lewis the Twelfth of France, going to Bayon, lay in a Village called Espernon, near Bordeaux; now upon the great Road between these two places, the Bayliff had built a very noble House; the King thought it very strange that in a Country so bare and barren as that was, and amongst Downs and Sands that would bear nothing, the Bayliff should build so fine a House, and at Supper was speaking of it to the Chamberlain of his Houshold; who made answer, that the Bayliff was a rich man, which the King not knowing how to believe, considering the wretched Country his House was seated in, he immediately sent for him, and said unto him these words, Come on Bayliff, [Page 38] and tell me why you did not build your fine House in some place where the Country was good and fruitful; Sir, answered the Bayliff, I was born in this Country, and find it very good for me; are you so rich, said the King, as they tell me you are; I am not poor, replied the other, I have, blessed be God, where­withal to live; the King then asked him how it was pos­sible he should grow so rich in so pitiful a barren Coun­try; why, very easily, replied the Bayliff; tell me which way then said the King, marry Sir, replied the other, because I have ever had more care to do my own business than that of my Masters, or my Neighbours; the Devil refuse me, said the King, (for that was alwaies his Oath) thy reason is very good for doing so, and rising betimes, thou couldst not chuse but thrive. Montluc. Comment.

LVI. Great hath been the love and strictness of some Persons in their Religion, as well Christians as Heathens, and their Reverence and regard toward it, and it had been highly commendable in the last, had their Devotions been better directed; in the mean time they shame us by being more zealous in their Super­stition, than we are in the true Religion. In the Reign of Honorius the Emperor, by the perfidiousness of Stilicon, Alaricus King of the Goths, was brought into Italy with a mighty Army, who set upon the City of Rome itself, and took it; and though he was a Man of blood, both by nature and custom, yet such a Reverence had he to Religion, that before he would permit his Soldiers the plunder of the City, by sound of Trumpet he caused his Edict to be proclaimed, That as well the Goods as Lives of all those should be safe, that had retreated into any of the Churches which were consecrated to the Apostles. Monsieur Heraults Discourses. p. 120.

LVII. Pansanias the King of Sparta, and at that time the General of all Greece, in that famous Battel of Pla­tea, where all the Graecian safety was disputed, when the Enemy drew on, and provoked him, he restrained, and kept in his Soldiers, till such time as the Gods being consulted by Sacrifice, had given incouragement to be­gin the Fight; this was somewhat long in the perfor­mance, [Page 39] so that in the mean time the Enemy interpre­ting this delay as an effect of fear, began to press hard upon him, so that many of the Greeks fell, yet would he not suffer in this extremity a single Javelin to be thrown against them, but multiplying the Sacrifices, he at last lift up his hands to Heaven, and prayed, That if the Fates had determined that the Graecians should not over­come, yet at least it might please Heaven that they might not die unrevenged, nor without performing some famous and memo­rable exploit upon their Enemies; He was heard, and straight the bowels of the Sacrifice promised him success; he marched out, and obtained the Victory; but what a Soul was that? how fixed and earnest in the Holy Rites of his Country? that chose rather to be butchered and slain, than to draw a Sword, while the Gods seemed unwilling. Herodotus Hist.

LVIII. The Aegyptians worshipped Dogs, the Indian Rat, the Cat, Hawk, Wolf, and Crocodile, as their Gods, and observed them with that kind of Religion and Vene­ration, that if any man whatsoever knowingly, or other­wise killed any of these, it was death to him without mercy; as a Roman Citizen found to his cost in the time of Diodorus Siculus, who writes it, and avouches himself to be a Spectator and witness of what follows; at such a time, saith he, as Ptolomeus, whom the Romans afterward restored to the Kingdom, was first of all stiled the Associate and Friend of the Senate, and People of Rome, there was a publick Rejoycing, and a mighty concourse of People; it happened that in a great croud, amongst others there were some Romans, and with them a Soldier, who by chance, and not willingly had killed a Cat, upon which there was presently a great cry, and a sudden fury and tumult arose; to pacify which, neither the ignorance of the miserable wretch, nor any Reverence of the Roman Name, no not the com­mand of the King himself, who had sent the chiefest of his Nobles to appease it, none of all these availed the poor man, but that he was immediately pull'd in pie­ces by a thousand hands, so that nothing of him was left [Page 40] either to bury, or to burn; so far had their Superstition, and Reverence, even for such a ridiculous Worship, transported these barbarous Souls. Lipsius Monitor. p. 10.

LIX. When Antiochus had besieged Jerusalem, at such time as the Feast of Tabernacles was to be celebrated, and the People of that City had besought him for a Truce of seven days, that they might securely attend upon that Solemnity, he not only granted, but faith­fully performed it, and likewise caused a Bull with guilded Horns, together with Incense and Perfumes, and divers Vessels of Gold to be conveyed to the Gates, and delivered into the hands of the Priests, and desired they might be offered unto God; the Jews were so exceed­ingly moved with this unexpected Benignity, that they yielded themselves, and all that they had to Antiochus. Lipsius Monit. p. 9.

LX. When Jerusalem was besieged by Pompey the Great, upon the day of their Sabbath, though the Jews saw the Romans busied in their preparations against them, and were ready to assault them, though they had advanced their Ensigns upon their Walls, though they had entred the City, and slew indifferently all they met, yet did this People make no resistance, but performed their usual Sacrifice as in time of Peace, and upon no account could be drawn to violate the rest of their Sab­bath, though for the preservation of their Lives and Estates. Josephus Hist. p. 567.

LXI. Pontius Pilate being sent by Tiberius to be Go­vernour over the Jews, caused in the night time the Statue of Caesar to be brought into Jerusalem covered, which thing within 3 days after caused a great Tumult among the Jews, for they who beheld it, were astoni­shed, and moved, as though now the Law of their Coun­try were prophaned, for they hold it not lawful for any Picture or Image to be brought into the City; at their Lamentation who were in the City, there were gathe­red together a great multitude out of the Fields adjoy­ning, and they went presently to Pilate then at Caesarea, beseeching him earnestly that the Images might be ta­ken [Page 41] away out of Jerusalem, and that the Law of their Country might remain inviolate, and when Pilate de­nied their Suit, they prostrated themselves before his House, and there remained lying upon their Faces for five days and nights, never moving; afterward Pilate sitting in his Tribunal, was very careful to call the Jews together before him, as if he would have there given them an answer, when upon the sudden a Company of Armed Soldiers, according to appointment, compassed the Jews about with a Tripple Rank; the Jews were hereat amazed, seeing that which they expected not, then Pilate told them, That unless they would receive the Images of Caesar, he would kill them all, and to that end made a sign to the Soldiers to draw their Swords; the Jews, as though they agreed thereto, fell all down at once, and offered their naked Necks to the stroke of the Sword, crying out, That they would rather lose their lives, than suffer their Religion to be prophaned; then Pilate admi­ring their constancy, and the strictness of that People in their Religion, presently commanded the Statues to be taken out of the City of Jerusalem. Josephus Hist. lib. 2.

LXII. When King Etheldred, and his Brother Alfred had encountred the Danes a whole day, being parted by the night▪ early the next morning the Battel was re­ [...]wed, and Alfred being in fight with the Danes, sent to his Brother to make all possible speed to help him, but he being in his Tent at his Devotions, refused to come till he had ended; having finished, he entred the Bat­tle, relieved the staggering Host, and had a glorious Victory over his Enemies. Malnsburys Chronicle, p. 23.

LXIII. Fulco Earl of Anjou in his old age, minding the welfare of his Soul, according to the Religion of those days went on Pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and having bound his Servants by Oath to do what he should re­quire, was by them drawn naked to Christs Sepulchre; the Pagans looking on, while one drew him with a wooden yoak put about his neck, the other whipt him on the naked back, he in the mean time saying, Receive O Lord a miserable Perjured and Runaway Servant, vouch­safe [Page 42] to receive my Soul O Lord Christ. Malmsoury, p. 23.

LXIV. When the Duke of Saxony made great Prepa­rations for War against a Pious and devout Bishop of Magdenburg, the Bishop not regarding his defence, appli­ed himself to his Episcopal Function in the visiting, and well governing of his Church; and when it was told him that the Duke was in his march against him, he re­plied; I will take care of the Reformation of my Churches, and leave unto God the care of my safety, the Duke had a Spy in the City, who hearing of this an­swer of the Bishops, gave his Master a speedy account thereof; the Duke having received this Information, did thereupon dismiss his Army, and left off his expe­dition, saying, He would not fight against him, who had God to fight for him. Chetwind Hist. Collect. p. 442.

LXV. Bishop Ridley offering to Preach before the Lady Mary (afterward Queen Mary) and receiving a re­pulse, was brought by Sir Thomas Wharton, her Servant into the Dining Room, and desired to drink, which when he had done, he paused a while, looking very sadly, and suddenly broke forth into these words; Surely I have done amiss; why so? quoth the Knight; because I have drank (saith he) in that place where Gods Word being offe­red, hath been refused; whereas if I had remembred my duty, I should have departed immediately, and shaken off the dust from my Shoes for a testmony against this House. These words were by this Bishop spoken with so much zeal and fervency, that some of the hearers afterward affir­med that the Hair on their Heads stood upright at them. Clarks Examp. 2 Vol. p. 762.

LXVI. The veracity likewise of some Persons, and their great love to Truth, and hatred of Flattery and Falshood, hath been very remarkable; The Emperor Constantius had besieged Beneventum, when Romualdus the Duke thereof, dispatched Geswaldus privately to Grimo­aldus, the King of Lombardy, the Dukes Father, to desire him to come with an Army to the assistance of his Son, which he obtained, and was sent away before by Grimo­aldus, to let his Son know, that he was coming with some [Page 43] Troops to his Aid; but in his return, by misfortune he fell amongst the Enemies, who being informed of the Auxiliary Forces that were upon their march were in hope to have Beneventum yielded to them before their arrival, if they could make Romualdus to despair of be­ing relieved; to this purpose they ordered Geswaldus to speak to them what they bid him, and led him to the Walls, but when he came thither, he declared the whole truth to the Besieged, and gave them to under­stand, that ere long Grimoaldus would be with them with a considerable Army; this cost Geswaldus his life, and the Imperialists raised their Siege the next day after. Fulgosus Ex. p. 425.

LXVII. The Duke of Ossuna as he passed by Barcelo­na, having got leave of his Majesty to release some Slaves, he went aboard the Cape Gally, and passing through the benches of Slaves, he asked divers of them what their offences were, every one excused himself, one saying, That he was put in out of malice, another by bri­bery of the Judge, but all of them unjustly; among the rest there was one little sturdy black Fellow, and the Duke asking him what he was in for, Sir, said he, I cannot de­ny but I am justly put in here, for I wanted Money, and so took a Purse hard by Tarragona, to keep me from starving; The Duke with a little staff he had in his Hand, gave him two or three blows upon the shoulders, saying, You Rogue what do you do among so many honest innocent men, get you gone out of their Company. So he was freed, and the rest remained there, still to tug at the Oar; Howels Letters. p. 32.

LXVIII. When I lived at Ʋtricht (saith Mr. Peach­man) the reply of that valiant Gentleman Colonel Ed­monds, was much spoken of, there came a Country man of his out of Scotland, who desiring to be entertained by him, told him, That my Lord his Father, and such Knights and Gentlemen, his Cosen and Kinsmen were in good health; Colonel Edmonds turning to his Friends then by, Gentlemen, saies he, believe not one word he says, my Father is but a poor Baker in Edenburgh, and works hard for his li­ving, [Page 44] whom this Knave would make a Lord, to curry favour with me, and make you believe I am a great man born, when there is no such matter. Peachmans Compleat Gentleman, p. 5.

LXVIX. It is said of Augustus Caesar, that after a long inquiry into all the parts of his Empire; he found but one man who was accounted never to have told a Lie, for which cause he was judged to be capable & worthy to be the chief Sacrificer in the Temple. Cornelius Ne­pos remembers of Titus Pomponius Atticus, a Knight of Rome, and familiar Friend to Tully, that he was never known to speak an untruth, neither but with great im­patience to hear one related; his uprightness was so re­markable, that not only private men made suit to him, that they might commit their whole Estate to his Trust, but even the Senate themselves besought him, that he would take the management of divers Offices into his Charge. Heraclides in his History of the Ab­bot Idur, speaks of him as a Person extreamly devoted to truth, and gives him this threefold commendation, That he was never known to tell a Lie, that he was never heard to speak ill of any man, and lastly, that he used not to speak at all, but when necessity required. Xenocrates the Philosopher was known to be a man of that Fidelity and Truth in speaking, that whereas no mans Testimo­ny might be taken in any cause, but upon Oath; yet the Athenians, among whom he lived, gave to him alone this priviledge, That his Evidence should be lawful and good without swearing. Laert. Vit. Philos.

LXX. One who was designed for an Agent and Am­bassadour, waited upon the knowing and experienced Lord Wentworth for some direction in his Conduct and Carriage, to whom he thus delivered himself, To secure your self, and serve your Country, you must at all times, and up­on alloccasions speak Truth, for, saith he, you will never be be­lieved, and by this means your speaking Truth will both secure your self, if you be questioned, and put those you deal with to a great loss, who will still act contrary to what you declare in all their inquiries and undertakings. Albertus the Popish Arch­bishop [Page 45] of Mentz, reading by chance in the Bible, one of his Council coming in, asked him, what his Highness did with that Book? The Archbishop answered; I know not what this Book is, but I am sure that all which is writ­ten therein is quite against us. Luther Coll. p. 11.

LXXI. When Aristobulus the Historian presented to Alexander the Great, a Book that he had writ of his Glorious Archievements, wherein he had flatteringly made him greater than he was; Alexander after he had read the Book, threw it into the River Hydaspis, and told the Author, That it were a good deed to throw him in after it, the same Prince did also chase a certain Philosopher out of his presence, because he had long lived with him, and yet never reproved him for any of his Vices and Faults. Maximilian the first, Emperor of Germany, though he might be desirous to be famous to Posterity for his Noble Actions and Atchievements, yet he was very averse, and afraid to be praised to his face; when therefore on a time divers eloquent and learned men did highly extol him with mighty praises in their Pane­gyricks, he commanded Cuspinianus to return them an answer extempore, and withal, take heed, said he, that you praise me not, for a mans own Praises from his own mouth car­ry but an evil savour with them; It is written of our Hen­ry 5. that he had something of Caesar in him, which Alexander the Great had not, that he would not be drunk; and something of Alexander the Great, that Caesar had not, that he would not be flattered. Cambdens Remains, p. 228.

LXXII. Pambo came to a learned man, and desired him to teach him some Psalm, who began to read unto him the 39th Psalm, and the first verse, I said I will look to my ways, that I not offend with my Tongue; Pambo shut the Book, and took his leave, saying, he would go learn that point, and having absented himself for some months, he was demanded by his Teacher when he would go forward, he answered, That he had not yet lear­ned his old Lesson, to speak in such a manner as not to offend with his Tongue. Sueton. Hist.

LXXIII. Some men have been also famous for being great Lovers, and Promoters of Peace, for though the frantick world hath generally made Darlings of such as have been clad in Steel, the destroyers of Cities, the suckers of Humane blood, and such as have imprinted the deepest scars upon the Face of the Universe, though these are the men it hath Crowned with Lawrels, ad­vanced to Thrones, and flattered with the misbecom­ing Titles of Hero's and Gods, while the Sons of Peace are remitted to the cold entertainment of their own Virtues, yet there have ever been some who have found so many Heavenly Beauties in the face of Peace, that they have been contented to love that sweet Virgin for her self, and to court her without the consideration of any Additional Dowry. For we read, that Otho the Em­peror, when he saw that he must either lay down the Empire, or else maintain himself in the possession there­of by the blood and slaughter of a number of Citizens, he determined with himself to die a voluntary death; and when his Friends and Soldiers desired him, that he would not so soon begin to despair of the event of the War, he replied, That his life to him, was not of that value as to occasion a Civil War for the defence of it; who can chuse but admire that such a Spirit as this should be found in an Heathen Prince, and he too not above thirty years of Age. Erasmus Apotheg.

LXXIV. The Inhabitants of the Islands of Borneo not far from the Molucca's in the East-Indies, live in such de­testation of War, and are so great lovers of Peace, that they hold their King in no other Veneration than that of a God, so long as he studies to preserve them in Peace; but if he discover inclinations to War, they ne­ver leave till he is fallen in Battel under the Arms of his Enemies; so soon as he is slain, they set upon the Enemy with all imaginable fierceness, as men that fight for their Liberty, and for such a King as will be a great lover of Peace; nor was there ever any King known a­mongst them that was the persuader, or Author of a War, but he was deserted by them, and suffered to fall [Page 47] under the Sword of the Enemy. Dinoth. Memor. p. 76.

LXXV. Constantius the Emperor observing such diffe­rences among the Fathers of the Church, called the Council of Nice, at which also himself was present; at this time divers little Books were brought to him, con­taining their mutual complaints and accusations of each other, all which he received as one that intended to read, and take cognizance of them all; but when he found he had received as many as were intended to be offered, he bound them up in one bundle, and prote­sting, That he had not so much as looked into any one of them, he burnt them all in the sight of the Fathers, giving them moreover a serious exhortation to Peace, and a cordial agreement among themselves. Chetwinds Hist. Coll. p. 42.

LXXVI. It is reported of Julius Caesar to his great commendation, that after the defeat of Pompey the Great, he had in his custody a Castle, wherein he found divers Letters, written by most of the Nobles of Rome under their own hands, which gave sufficient evidence to con­demn them, but he burnt them all, that no Monument might remain of a future Grudge, and that no man might be driven to extremities, or to break the Peace through any apprehensions, that he lived suspected, or should therefore be hated. Rogers Pen. Citizen. p. 70.

LXXVII. James King of Arragon, was a great Enemy to Contentions, and Contentious Lawyers, insomuch as having heard many complaints against Semenus Rada, a great Lawyer, who by his Quirks and Wiles had been injurious, as well as troublesome to many, he banished him his Kingdom, as a man that was not to be endured to live in a place, to the Peace of which he was so great an Enemy. Clarks Mirrour. p. 343. At Fez in Africa, they have neither Lawyers nor Advocates, but if there be any Controversy amongst them, both Parties, Plain­tiff, and Defendant come before the chief Judge, and all at once, without any further appeals, or pitiful de­lays the cause is heard and ended. Burtons Melancholy. Servius Sulpitius was an Heathen Lawyer, but an excel­lent [Page 48] Person; it is said of him, that he respected Equity and Peace in all that he did, and alwaies sought rather to compose differences; than to multiply Suits in Law. Clarks Examples, p. 344.

LXXVIII. It is noted of Phocion a most excellent Cap­tain of the Athenians, that although for his military a­bility and success, he was chosen forty and five times General of their Armies by universal approbation, yet he himself did ever persuade them to Peace. Flutarchs Lives. I read of the Sister of Edward the Third, King of England (saith Mr. Trenchfield) who was Married to David King of Scots, that she was familiarly called, Jane make peace, both for her earnest and successful endea­vours therein. Trenchfield Hist. Inproved. p. 67. Ser­torius the more he prospered and prevailed in his Wars in Spain, the more importunate he was with Metellus and Pompey (the Roman Generals that came against him) that laying down arms, they would give him leave to live in peace, and to return into Italy again, professing he preferred a private life there, before the Govern­ment of many Cities. Plutarch. Vit. Sert.

LXXIX. The lovers of Justice, and impartial Ad­ministrators thereof have been likewise famous in all Ages, and the Persons hereafter mentioned were great lovers, and observers of this excellent virtue, which is of so much advantage to mankind. Herkenbald, a Man mighty, noble, and famous, had no respect of Persons in Judgment, but condemned and punished with as great severity the rich, and his own Kindred, as the poor, and those whom he knew least in the world; being once very sick, and keeping his Bed, he heard a great bustle in a Chamber, next to that wherein he lay, and withal a Woman crying, and shrieking out; he in­quired of his Servants what the matter was; but they all concealed the Truth from him; at last one of his Pages being severely threatned by him, and told that he would cause his Eyes to be pulled out of his head, if he did not tell him plainly what all that stir was, told him in few words, My Lord, said he, your Nephew hath [Page 49] ravished a Maid, and that was the noise you heard; The Fact being examined, and plainly proved, Herkenbald condemned his dear Nephew to be hanged, till he should be dead, but the Officer who had the charge to execute the Sentence, seeming as if he had been very willing, and forward to do it, went presently, and gave the young man notice of all that had passed, wishing him to keep out of the way awhile, and some few hours after, he comes again to his sick Lord, and affirms contrary to truth, that he had put his sentence in Exe­cution, and that the young man was dead; about five days after the young Gentleman thinking his Unkle had forgotten all, came, and peeped in at his Chamber door; the Unkle having espied him, calls him by his name, and with fair words inticeth him to his Beds head, till he was within his reach, and then suddenly catching him by the locks with the left hand, and pul­ling him forcibly to him with his right hand, he gave him such a ready blow into the Throat with a Knife, that he died instantly; so great was the love that this Nobleman bore to Justice. Camerarius Meditat. p 468.

LXXX. Sir John Markham was Knighted by King Edward the Fourth, and by him made Lord Chief Justice of the Kings Bench; at which time one Sir Thomas Cook, late Lord Mayor of London, and Knight of the Bath, a man of a great Estate, was agreed upon to be accused of High Treason, and a Commission issued out to try him in Guildhall. The King himself, by private instructi­ons to the Judge, appeared so far in the cause, that Cook though he was never so innocent, must be found guilty, and if the Law were too short, the Judge must stretch it to the Kings purpose. The fault they laid to his charge, was for lending Monies to Queen Margaret, Wife to King Henry the sixth, the proof was the con­fession of one Hawkins, who was rack'd in the Tower; Sir Thomas Cook pleaded that Hawkins came indeed to request him to lend a Thousand Marks upon good secu­rity, but that understanding who it was for, he had sent him away with a refusal. The Judge declared that this [Page 50] proof reached not to a charge of High-Treason, and that Misprision of Treason was the highest it could a­mount to, and intimated to the Jury to be tender in matter of life, and discharging good consciences, upon which they found it accordingly only Misprision; for which the Judge was turned out of his Place, and lived privately the rest of his days, and gloried in this, That though the King could make him no Judge, yet he could not make him no upright Judge. Fullers H. State. p. 263.

LXXXI. Charles the bold Duke of Burgundy, and Earl of Flanders, had a Nobleman in special favour with him, to whom he had committed the Government of a Town in Zealand, where living in a great deal of ease, he fell in love with a Woman of a beautiful body, and a mind and manners no whit inferior; he passed and repassed by her door; and soon after grew bolder, en­tred into discourse with her, discovers his passion, and beseeches a compassionate resentment of it; he makes large promises, and uses all the ways by which he hoped to gain her; but all in vain, her Chastity was proof a­gainst all the batteries he could make; falling there­fore into despair, he studies to compass his design by Villany; he was, as we said, a Governour, and Duke Charles was busied in War, he causeth therefore the Husband of his Mistress to be accused of Treachery, and forthwith commits him to Prison, to the end that by Fears or Threats he might draw her to his pleasure, or at least rid himself of her Husband, the only Rival with him in his Loves; the Woman, as one that loved her Husband, goes to the Prison, and thence to the Gover­nour to entreat for him; and if she was able, to obtain his Liberty, Dost thou come O my Dear, to intreat me, said the Governour, you are certainly ignorant of the command you have over me; render me only a mutual affection, and I am ready to restore you your Husband, for we are both under a restraint, he is my Prisoner, and I am yours; ah, how easily may you give liberty to us both, why do you refuse? As a Lo­ver I beseech you, and as you tender my life; as the Governor I ask you, and as you tender the life of your Husband; both [Page 51] are at stake, and if I must perish, I will not fall alone; The Woman blushed at what she heard, and withal being in fear for her Husband, trembled, and looked pale; he perceiving she was moved, and supposing that some force should be used to her modesty, and being alone, he throws her on the Bed, & enjoys the Fruit which will shortly prove bitter to them both; the Woman departed confounded, and all in Tears, thinking of nothing but revenge; for he having obtained his desire, and ho­ping hereafter freely to enjoy her, took care that her Husband, who was his Rival, should be beheaded in the Jayl, and then ordered the Body to be put in a Coffin ready for burial; this done, he sent for her, and in a jesting manner, What, said he, do you seek for your Husband, you shal have him, and so pointing to the Prison, you shall find him there, take him alone with you; the Woman sus­pecting nothing, went thither, where she sees her mur­dered Husband, and is astonished, she falls upon the dead Corps, and having long lamented over it, she re­turns to the Governour with a fierce countenance, and spake thus, It is true, said she, you have restored me my Husband, I owe you thanks for the favour, and will pay you; he endeavours to pacify and appease her, but in vain; for hastning home, she calls her most faithful Friends about her, to whom she recounts all that had passed; they all agree that she should make her case known to the Duke, who amongst other his excellent Virtues, was a great lover of Justice; to him she went, was heard, and scarce believed; the Duke was angred and grieved that any of his Subjects, and in his Dominions should pre­sume so far, he commands her to withdraw into the next Room, till he sent for the Governour, who by chance was then at Court; being come, Do you, said the Duke, know this Woman? the man changed colour; Do you know, added he, the complaints she makes of you? They are sad ones, and such as I would not they should be true; he trembles, faul­ters in his Speech, says and unsays; but being urged home, he confesses all, frees the Woman from any fault, and casting himself at the Dukes feet, said, he placed all [Page 52] his refuge, and comfort in the grace and mercy of his Prince, and that he might the better obtain it, he offered to make amends for his unlawful Lust by a lawful Marri­age of the Person whom he had injured. The Duke, as if he seemed to incline to what he had said, and pre­tending to be somewhat milder, You Woman, said he, since it is gone thus far, are you willing to have this man for your Husband; she refuses, but fearing the Dukes dis­pleasure, and being told by the Courtiers that he was Noble, Rich, and in favour with his Prince, being over­come, at last she yields; the Duke causeth them both to joyn hands, and the Marriage to be lawfully made, which being done, You Mr. Bridegroom, said he, you must now grant me this, that if you die first without Children of your Body, that then this Wise of yours shall be the Heir of all that you have; he willingly consented; it is writ down by a Notary, and witness put to it; this done, the Duke turning to the Woman, Tell me, said he, is there now e­nough done for your satisfaction; there is, said she; but there is not to mine, said he; and sending the Woman away, he commanded the Governor to be led away to that very Prison in which the Husband was slain, and being be­headed, to be laid in a Coffin headless as he was; after which he sent the Woman thither, who was ignorant of what had passed, who being affrighted with this se­cond unthought of misfortune of two Husbands almost at one and the same time, lost by one and the same punishment, fell speedily sick, and in a short time died, having gained this only by her last Marriage, that she left her Children by her former Husband, very rich, by the addition of this new, and great Inheritance. Lipsius Monitor. p. 240.

LXXXII. King Lewis the Eleventh of France, min­ding to cajole the Court of Parliament at Paris, if they should refuse to publish certain new ordinances by him made; the Masters of that Court understanding the drift, went all to the King in their Robes, the King asked them what they would have, Sir, answered the Presi­dent or Speaker, we are come with a full purpose to lose our [Page 53] lives every one of us, rather than we will suffer that by our connivance any unjust ordinance should take place; The King amazed at this answer of the President, and at the con­stancy of the Parliament, gave them gracious enter­tainment, and commanded that the Edicts which he would have had published, should be cancelled in his presence, swearing, That from thence forward he would ne­ver make an Edict that should not be just and equitable. Ca­merarius Medit. p. 472.

LXXXIII. Mahomet the Second Emperor of the Turks, had a Son called Mustapha, whom he had desig­ned to succeed him in the Empire, who was otherwise a good Prince, but much subject to Lust; the young Prince was fallen in love with the Wife of Achmet Bassa, a Woman of excellent beauty; he had long endeavou­red to prevail with her by all sorts of allurements, but this way not succeeding, he resolved to obtain his will by surprize; and having gained knowledge of the time when the Woman went to bath her self, as the Turks of­ten do, he soon followed her with a few of his retinue, and there seized her naked as she was, and in despite of all the resistance she could make, had his will upon her; she tells her Husband, he tells the Emperor, and desires Justice; the Emperor at first seemed to take small notice of it, and soon after, though he had other Resolutions within himself, yet he rated the Bassa with sharp language; What, saies he, dost thou think it hand­some to complain thus grievously of my Son? Knowest thou not that both thy self, and this Wife of thine are my Slaves, and accordingly at my dispose? If therefore my Son has imbraced her; and followed the inclinations of his mind, he has but im­braced a Slave of mine, and having my approbation, he hath committed no fault at all; think of this, and go thy way, and leave the rest to my self; This he said in defence of his ab­solute Empire, but being unsatisfied in his mind, and vexed at the thing, he first sends for his Son, examines him touching the Fact, and he having confessed it, he dismissed him with outragious Language, and threat­nings; three days after, when paternal love to his Son, [Page 54] and Justice had striven in his Breast, love to Justice having gained the Superiority and Victory; he com­manded his Mutes to strangle his Son Mustapha with a Bowstring, that by his death he might make amends to injured, and violated Chastity. Turkish Hist. p. 411.

LXXXIV. King Henry the second of France, com­manded that an Italian Lacky should be put into Prison, without telling why; whereupon the Judges set him at liberty, having first delivered their opinion to the King; who again commanded, that he should be put to death, having as he said, taken him faulty in a foul and heinous Crime, which he would not have to be divulged; yet the Judges for all this would not condemn him, but set open the Prison doors to let him go forth; it is true, that the King caused him to be taken afterwards, and thrown into the River Seine, and drowned without any form of Law, to avoid Tumult, but the Judges would not condemn a Person where no proof was made that he was guilty; Camerarius Medit. p. 472.

LXXXV. Otho the first Emperor of Germany, being upon a Military expedition, a Woman threw her self at his feet, beseeching a just revenge according to the Laws, upon a Person who had committed a Rape upon her; the Emperor being in hast, referred the hearing of the cause till his return, But who then, replied the Woman, shall recall unto your Majesties mind the horrid inju­ry that hath been done to me? The Emperor looking up to a Church there by, This Church, saith he, shall be a witness betwixt me and thee, that I will do thee Justice; and so dis­missing her, he with his retinue set forward; at his re­turn, seeing the Church, he called to mind the Com­plaint, and caused the Woman to be summoned before him, who at her appearance thus bespake him, Dread Soveraign, the man of whom I heretofore complained, is now my Husband, I have since had a Child by him, and have forgi­ven him the injury; not so, said the Emperor, by the head of Otho he shall suffer for it, for a collusion among your selves doth not make void the Laws; And so he caused his head to be struck off. Lonic. Theat. p. 475.

LXXXVI. Chabot was Admiral to King Francis the first of France, a man most nobly descended, of great Valour, and in high favour with his Prince; but as in o­ther men the Passion of love grows cold, and wears out by time; so the Kings affection being changed to­ward the Admiral, had charged him with some Offen­ces which he had formerly committed. The Admiral presuming upon the great good Services he had done the King in Piemont, and in the defence of Marseilles a­gainst the Emperor, gave the King other language than became him, and desired nothing so much as a publick Tryal; hereupon the King gave commission to the Chan­cellor Poyet as President, and other Judges, upon an in­formation of the Kings Advocate, to question the Ad­mirals life, the Chancellor being an ambitious man, and of a large conscience, hoping to please the King, wrought so cunningly upon some of the Judges, threatned o­thers so severely, and drew in the rest with fair promi­ses, that though nothing could be proved against the Admiral worthy of the Kings displeasure, yet the Chan­cellor subscribed, and got others to subscribe to the for­feiture of his Estate, Offices, and Liberty, though not a­ble to prevail against his Life. But the King hating Fal­shood, and though to any that should bewail the Admi­rals Calamity, it might have been answered, that he was tryed according to his own desire, by the Laws of his Country, and the Judges of Parliament, yet, I say, the King made his Justice surmount his other Passions, and gave back the Admiral his Honour, his Offices, his Estate, his Liberty; and caused the wicked Poyet his Chancellor to be Indicted, Arraigned, Degraded, and Condemned Rawleighs Hist. World. p. 471.

LXXXVII, Totilas King of the Goths, was complai­ned to by a Calabrian, that one of his Lifeguard had ra­vished his Daughter; upon which the accused was im­mediately sent to Prison, the King resolving to punish him as the Fact deserved; but the Soldiers came about him, desiring that their Fellow-Soldier, a man of known Valour, might be delivered back to them. Upon which [Page 56] Totilas sharply reproved them. What would you have? said he; know you not that without Justice neither any Civil nor Military Government is able to subsist; do not you remem­ber what slaughters and Calamities the Nation of the Goths underwent through the injustice of Theodahadas? I am now your King, and in the maintenance of Justice we have regained our ancient Fortune and Glory; would you now lose all for the sake of one Villain? Look to your selves ye Soldiers, but for my part I proclaim it aloud (being careless of what shall happen thereupon) that I will not suffer it; and if you are resolved to do so, then first strike at me, behold a Body and a Breast ready for your stroke; The Soldiers were so moved at this Speech, that they deserted their Client; the King sent for the man from Prison, condemned him to death, and gave his Estate to the injured and violated Woman Lipsius Monit. p. 250.

LXXXVIII. In the Reign of King James. 1612. June 25. the Lord Sanquer a Nobleman of Scotland, having upon private revenge, suborned Robert Carlile to murther John Turner a Fencing Master, thought by his greatness to have carried it off; but the King respecting nothing so much as Justice, would not suffer Nobility to be a shelter to Villany, but according to the Law, upon June 29. the said Lord Sanquer having been Arraigned and Condemned by the name of John Creighton, Esquire, was executed before Westminster-Hall Gate, where he died very penitent. Bakers Chronicle, p. 464.

LXXXIX. The Chronicle of Alexandria, relateth an admirable passage of Theodorick King of the Romans; Juvenilis a Widow, made her complaint, that a Suit of hers in Court was drawn out for the space of 3 years, which might have been dispatched in few days. The King demanded who were her Judges, she named them, they were sent unto, and commanded to give all the speedy expedition that was possible to this Womans Cause, which they did, and in two days determined it to her good liking; which done, Theodorick called them again; they supposing it had been to applaud their excellent Justice now done, hastned thither full of joy, [Page 57] being come, the King asked of them, How cometh it to pass you have performed that in two days, which had not been done in three years? They answered, the recommendation of your Majesty made us finish it; How, replies the King, when I put you into Office, did I not consign all Pleas, and proceed­ings to you, and particularly those of Widdows? You deserve death so to have spun out a business in length three years space, which required but two days dispatch; and that instant he commanded the heads of all the Judges to be struck off. Causins Holy Court, p. 90.

XC. In the Reign of the Emperor Constantius, Acin­dinus the Praefect of Antioch, had a certain Person under custody for a pound of Gold to be paid into the Exche­quer, threatning him, That in case he paid it not by a certain day, he should aie the death. The man knew not where to have it, and now the fatal day drew near; he had a beautiful Wife, to whom a rich man in the City sent word, that for a nights lodging he would pay in the Gold. She acquaints her Husband, who for the safety of his life readily gave her leave; she renders her self up to the rich man, who at her departure, gave her on­ly a pound of Earth tyed up in a bag, instead of the promised Gold; she inraged at her injury, together with this cheat added thereto, complains to the Prae­fect, and declares to him the truth of the whole matter, who finding that his Threats of her Husband had brought her to these extremities, pronounced Sentence on this manner, The pound of Gold shall be paid out of the goods of Acindinus, (which was himself) the Prisoner shall be free, and the Woman shall be put into the possession of that Land from whence she received Earth instead of Gold Lonic. Theat. p. 476.

XCI. The Emperor Leo Armenus, going out of his Pallace; was informed by a mean Person, that a Senator had ravished his Wife, and that he had complained of his injury to the Praefect or Judge, but as yet could have no redress. The Emperor commanded that both the Praefect and the Senator should be sent for, and wait his [Page 58] return in his Pallace, together with their accuser; be­ing come back, he examined the matter, and finding it true as the man had represented, he displaced the Prae­fect from his Office, for his negligence, and punished the Crime of the Senator with death. Lipsius Monitor. p. 250.

XCII. King Turquin being banished Rome for the rape of Lucretia, Brutus, and Collatinus Husband to Lucretia, were chosen Consuls, and in the time of their Consul­ship, Tarquins Agents had corrupted two of the most ancient Families in Rome, the Aquilians who were Ne­phews to Collatine, and the Vitellians who were allied to Brutus, and two of his Sons were drawn into this Trea­son by them; the Conspiracy being at last discovered, the Consuls met in the publick place, and sent for the Conspirators, and there before all the People discove­red the Treason; the People being much amazed, hung down their heads, only some few of them, thinking to gratify Brutus moved that they might be banished; but Brutus calling his Sons by Name, asked them what they could answer for themselves, and when be­ing confounded, they held their peace, he said to the Serjeants, They are in your hands, do Justice; then did the Serjeants tear off their cloths, bound their hands, and whipt them with Rods; which sad spectacle moved the People to pity, so that they turned away their fa­ces; but the Father never looked off, nor changed his severe countenance, till at last they were laid flat on the ground, and had their heads struck off, then did Brutus depart, and left the Execution of the rest to his Fellow Consul, but Collatine shewed more favour to his Kindred, being solicited thereto by his Wife, and their Relations; Valerius a Nobleman of Rome, seeing this partiality, exclaimed against him for it, saying, That Brutus spared not his own Sons, but Collatine to please a few Women, was about to let manifest Traytors to their Country escape; Hereupon the People called for Brutus again, who being returned to his Seat, spake thus, For mine own Children, I judged them, and saw the Law executed upon them; but for these others, I leave them freely to the Judgment of [Page 59] the People; whereupon they all cried out, Execution, Execution, and accordingly their heads were presently struck off. Plutarchs Lives.

XCIII. The love of Queen Elizabeth to her People in general, and her tender care over the poor and op­pressed in particular, was admirable, and incomparable. Fler Ears were always open to their Complaints, and her Hands stretched forth to receive their Petitions; her manner was always to recommend their Causes to her Council and Judges, whom she used thus to charge, Have a care of my People, you have my Place; do you to them what I ought to do; they are my People, yet every one oppresseth them, and spoileth them without mercy; They cannot help themselves, nor revenge their own quarrel, see to them; I pray you see to them; for they are my charge, them therefore I charge you with, even as God hath committed them to me; I care not for my self; my life is not dear unto me; my care is for my people; if you knew the care I have for them, you might easily discern that I take no great Joy in wearing a Crown. Clarks Mirrour. p. 370.

XCIV. An English Merchant had sold a great quan­tity of Cloth to one of the Turks, the next year when the Merchant came again, the Turk told him, That he was mistaken in the measure of his Cloth, and that there was so much over-measure, as came to fifteen pounds more, and that he had put it into a bag, that it might be ready against he came next; the Merchant told him, that he had got enough by him, and said, much good may it do you; the Turk replied, Sir, take it, or else I will otherwise dispose of it, for it is none of mine.

XCV. When Sysamnes one of the chiefest of the Persian Judges, had given an unjust Judgment, Cambyses the King, caused him to be flead alive, and his skin to be hung over the Judgment Seat, and having bestowed the Office of the dead Father upon Otanes the Son, he willed him to remember, That the same partiality and in­justice would deserve the same punishment. Rawleigh's Hist. World. p. 37.

XCVI. Neither ought we to forget, nor conceal the [Page 60] names of those who have discovered such a signal Love to their Country, that they have not valued to redeem the lives of their Countrymen, and Fellow Citizens at the price of their own; of which the following relati­ons are very considerable instances. The Town of Ca­lice, during the Reign of Philip de Valois of France, being brought to those streights; that now there was no more hope left, either of Succours, or Victuals, John Lord of Vienna, who there commanded for the King, began to treat about the surrender of it, desiring, only that they might give it up with the safety of their Lives and goods; which conditions being offered to Edward the Third, King of England, who by the space of eleven months had straitly besieged it; he being exceedingly inraged that so small a Town should alone stand out a­gainst him so long, and withal calling to mind, that they had often galled his Subjects by Sea, he was so far from accepting their Petition, that contrariwise he resolved to put them all to the Sword, had he not been diverted from that Resolution by some grave Counsellors then a­bout him, who told him, That for having been faithful, and Loyal Subjects to their Soveraign, they deserved not to be so sharply dealt with; Whereupon King Edward changed his first parpose into some more clemency, promising to receive them to mercy upon condition, That six of the principle Townsmen, should present him the Keys of the Town bare-headed, and bare-footed, and with Halters about their Necks, and to leave their lives to his mercy; Hereof the Governor having notice, he presently goes into the Market-place, commanding the Bell to be tolled for assembling the People, who being met, he acquainted them with the Articles which he had received touch­ing the yielding up of the Town, and the assurance, of their lives, which could not be granted, but with the death of six of the Chief of them; with this news they were exceedingly cast down, and perplexed, when on a sudden there rises up one of their own Company called Stephen Petre, one of the richest, and most suffi­cient Men of the Town, who thus spake aloud to the [Page 61] Governour, Sir, I thank God for the Goods he hath bestowed upon me but more that he hath given me this present opportuni­ty to make it known, that I prize the lives of my Countrymen and Fellow-Citizens above my own; At the hearing of which Speech, and sight of his forwardness, one John Daire, and four others after him, made the like offers, not without abundance of Prayers and Tears from the common People, who saw them so freely, and readily sacrifice their Lives for the publick good; and instant­ly without more ado, they address themselves to the King of England with the Keys of the Town, with no other apprehension but to be put to death, to which, though they held themselves assured thereof, they went as cheerfully as if they had been going to a Wedding, yet it pleased God to turn the heart of the English King, and at the request of the Queen, and some of the Lords, they were all sent back again safe and sound. Daniels Hist. Engl. p. 240.

XCVII. When Charles the Seventh, King of France, marched toward Naples, they of the City of Florence set open their Gates to him, as supposing they should thereupon receive the less damage by him in their City and Territories adjoining; but the King being entred with his Army, demanded the Government of the City, and a sum of Money to secure their Liberties and Estates; in this strait, four of the principal Citizens were apppointed to transact and manage this affair with the Kings Ministers; amongst these was Petre Caponis, who having heard the rigorous terms of their compo­sition recited and read by the Kings principal Secreta­ry, he was so moved, that in the sight and presence of the King, he snatched the Paper out of his hands, and tore it in pieces, crying out, Now sound you your Trumpets, and we will ring our Bells; Charles astonished at the reso­lution of the man, desisted from his design, and there­upon it became a Proverb, Gallum (a Cock or a French­man) a Capo victum fuisse, The French Cock was overcome by a Capon. Zuinglius Theat. p. 256.

XCVIII. The Tartars in their invasion of China; [Page 62] were prosperous on all sides, and had set themselves down before the Walls of the renowned and vast City of Hunchen, the Metropolis of the Province of Chekiang, where the Emperor Lovangus was inclosed; Lovangus his Soldiers refused to fight till they had received their Arrears, which yet at this time he was not able to pay them; it was upon this occasion that his heart not able to bear such a desolation of the City and Subjects as he foresaw, he gave such an illustrious example of his hu­manity and tenderness to his People, as Europe scarce ever saw, for he mounted upon the City Walls, and calling to the Tartarian General, upon his Knees he beg­ged the life of his People, Spare not me, said he, I shall willingly be a Sacrifice for my Subjects. And having said this, he presently went out to the Tartars Army, and was by them taken, by which means this noble City was preserved, though with the destruction of the muti­nous Army, for the Tartars caused the City to shut the Gates against them, till they had cut in pieces all that were without, and then entred triumphantly into it, not using any force or violence to any. Martinius Hist. China. p. 281.

XCIX. In the year 393. from the building of Rome, whether by an Earthquake, or other means it is uncer­tain, but the Forum, or Market-place of Rome was open­ed, and almost half of it was fallen in to a very strange depth, great quantities of Earth were thrown into it, but in vain, for it could not be filled up; the Soothsayers therefore were consulted with, who pronounced, That the Romans should devote unto that place whatsoever it was, wherein they most excelled; Then Martius Curtius, a Per­son of admirable valour, affirming, That the Romans had nothing besides Arms and Virtue wherein they excelled, he devoted, and gave up his own life for the safety of his Country, and so armed on Horseback, and his Horse well accoutred, he rode into the gaping Gulf, which soon after closed itself upon him. Livys Hist. p. 122.

C. When the Graecians of Doris sought counsel from the Oracle for their success in the Wars against the [Page 63] Athenians, it was answered, That then undoubtedly they should prevail, and become Lords of that State, when they could obtain any victory against them, and yet preserve the A the­nian King living; Codrus the then King of Athens by some intelligence being informed of this answer, withdrew himself from his own Forces, and putting on the habit of a common Soldier, he entred the Camp of the Dorians, and killing the first he encountred, was him­self forthwith cut in pieces, falling a willing sacrifice to preserve the liberty of his Country. Rawleigh's Hist. World. p. 420.

CI. Cleomenes King of Sparta, being distressed by his Enemy Antigonus King of Macedon, sent to Ptolomy King of Aegypt for help, who promised it upon condition to have his Mother and Child in pledg of his Fidelity, Cleomenes was a long time ashamed to acquaint his Mo­ther with these conditions, and though he went often­times on purpose to let her understand it, yet when he came, he had not the heart to discover it to her; which she suspecting, asked his Friends if her Son had not something to say to her, whereupon he told her the business; when she heard it, she laughing, said, How comes it to pass thou hast concealed it so long, come, come, put me streight into a Ship, and send me whither thou wilt, that this body of mine may do some good unto my Country, before crooked Age consume it without profit; Cratisiclea, for so was her name, being ready to depart, took Cleomenes into the Temple of Neptune, imbracing and kissing him, and perceiving that his heart yearned for sorrow of her departure, O King of Sparta, said she, let no man for shame see when we come out of the Temple, that we have wept and dishonoured Sparta; whilst she was with Ptolomy, the Achaians sought to make peace with Cleomenes, but he durst not, because of his pledges which were with King Ptolomy, which she hearing of writ to him, That he should not spare to do any thing that might conduce to the honour and safety of his Country, though without the consent of King Ptolomy for fear of an old Woman, and a young Boy, Plutarchs Lives.

CII. Darius the Son of Hystaspis had sent Ambassa­dours [Page 64] to Sparta to demand of them Earth and Water, as a token of their Subjection to him, who were so in­raged thereat, that they took the Ambassadours, and cast some of them head-long into a Dangeon, others into Pits, and bid them take from thence the Earth and Water they came for; after which they had no prospe­rous Sacrifices, and having for a long time endured great calamities, they at last met in a full Assembly, wherein it was proposed, whether any would die, or venture their lives for the good of Sparta; upon which Sperthies, and Balis, who were of birth, and equal Estate with the best, freely offered themselves to undergo such punishment as Xerxes the Son of Darius, who then reigned, should inflict for the death of his Ambassa­dours. The Spartans sent them away as Persons haste­ning towards their death, being come to Susa, they they were admitted into the presence of Xerxes, where first they refused to adore him, and then told him, That the Spartans had sent them to suffer death in lieu of those Ambassadours whom they had put to death at Sparta, Xerxes replied, That he would not do as the Spartans had done, who by killing Ambassadours, had confounded the Laws of all Na­tions, that therefore he would not do what he had upbraided them with, nor would he by their death absolve the Spartans from their guilt. Herodotus lib. 7.

CIII. A Spartan Woman had five Sons in a Battel; which was fought near unto that City, and seeing one that came out of the Fight, she asked him how affairs went; All your five Sons are stain, said he; Ʋnhappy wretch, replied the Woman, I ask thee not of their Concerns, but of that of my Country; as to that all is well, said the Sol­dier, then said she, let them mourn that are miserable; for my part I esteem my self happy in the prosperity of my Country. Plutarchs Lives.

CIV. Sylla being overcome by Marius in a Battle, commanded all the Citizens of Praeneste to be slain, ex­cepting one only who was his intimate Friend; but he hearing the bloody Sentence pronounced against, the rest, stepped forth, and said; That he scorned to live by his fa­vour, [Page 65] who was the destroyer of his Country; and so went forth amongst the rest which were slain. Fulgoszlib. 5.

CV. Having thus discovered the effects of love in the extensive acceptation thereof, I shall next proceed to relate some of the choicest instances of the most intire Friendship, and because saithful Friends may seem in this Age to be gone on Pilgrimage (as Bishop M [...]rton says) we must therefore be content to borrow. Presi­dents from the Histories of former Ages. Titus Volum­nius, a Gentleman of Rome, was the friend of Marcus Lucullus; who was slain by the command of Mark Antho­ry because he had followed the Party of Brutus and Cas­sius, and though he had a sufficient time to provide for himself by flight, yet he remained by the body of his dead Friend, and lamented him with such abundance of sighs and tears, that particular notice was taken of him by the Officers; they therefore dragged him to Anthony, unto whose sight and presence he was no sooner come, but Command me Sir, said he, to be forthwith carried to the body of Lucullus, and to be thereslain, for I ought not to survive him, since I was the only Person who persuaded him to take that unfortunate side; He easily prevailed with An­tonius to grant his request, he was therefore led to the place he desired, where when he came, he kissed the right hand of Luculius, took up his head that was cut off, and put it into his Bosom, and then stretched out his own neck to receive the blow of the Executioner. Valer. Maxim. lib. 4.

CVI. Cambyses King of Persia, making War against the Aegyptians, overthrew them in a great Battel, and took the Royal City, and therein the King Psammenitus, and all his Family and Nobles after which, he kept him Prisoner in the Suburbs, and then caused the Daughters of the Nobility, and among them the Kings Daughter clothed in ragged Apparel to fetch water in Tankards from the River, which when their Parents saw, they all broke forth into grievous weeping, only. Psammenitus, with his Eyes fixed upon the ground, shewed no sign of sorrow. Then did Cambyses cause the Noblemens. Sons, [Page 64] [...] [Page 65] [...] [Page 66] and amongst them the Son of Psammenitus to be led to execution, tied together by the Necks with Ropes, & Bri­dles put into their mouths, hereupon their Parents again broke forth into grievous Lamentations; only Psammeni­tus stood quiet as before; but presently after, seeing an old man, his intimate Friend, begging in the Streets, he broke forth into grievous Lamentations, which Cambyses observing, sent to him to know what was the reason, that he when he saw his Daughter so abused, and his Son led to death, he mourned not, but now when he saw this poor man that was no kin to him begging, he made such heavy moan. To whom Psammenitus answered. My Domestick evils were greater than that I could express my sorrow for them, but the calamity of my Friend deserves my tears, for that now in his old age from an high estate, he is brought to such extream poverty. Herodotus Hist.

CVII. I think (saith Mr. Hakewell) that no former Histories of the Graecians or Romans can afford such a­nother example of constant and faithful Friendship as that betwixt Barbadicus, and Trivisanus, two Gentlemen of Venice, in memory whereof there is a large inscripti­on in Latine in that City, allowed by Authority in 1627. This example was held so strange, that several learned men have published Narratives thereof, one of which take as follows. Nicholas Barbadicus, and M. Trivisanus, two Patricians of Venice, of great reputation in respect of their own Virtues, the splendor of their Families, and the Dignities, and Offices they had honourably born in the Common-wealth; these two illustrious Per­sons from their Youth had contracted a Friendship with each other, a solid, and most intire one it was, carried on all along with the performance of mutual good Offi­ces, and kindness; at last it happened, that Trivisanus through extraordinary domestick expences, charges in Journies, indulgence in such pleasures as are common with the more generous sort of youth, and also by rea­son of some losses he had sustained, and other casualties of Humane life, was reduced to a condition most unworthy of his birth and blood; his debts being [Page 67] grown greater than his Fortunes, he was forsaken even by his own Brethren, yet then was he received into the House of his only Friend Barbadicus, who was a very noble and rich Person, and had before lent him four thousand Duckets gratis; which debt he forgave him as soon as he entred his House, he also paid for him two thousand more, which he had contracted with others, and after this, by an extraordinary and irrevocable act of his own, he made him Overseer, and Administrator of all his Goods moveable and immoveable, in such manner that he might dispose of them at his pleasure; nor was Barbadicus satisfied with this, but that he might provide for the benefit of his Friend, he leaves it in his Will, that though he had a Wife and Brother, yet Trivi­sanus should be his sole Executor, that he should have the whole power of disposing his Daughters in Marri­age, nor should he at any time be compelled to render an Account of his Trust, or of any thing pertaining to that Estate; he also bequeathed him a Legacy as large as his Estate would permit, without apparent prejudice to the Fortunes of his Children; Barbadicus was moved to do all this, because he perceived Trivisanus, as soon as he had entred his House, by a singular mo­desty of mind, of a prodigal of his own Estate, became sparing of anothers, and from that moment had left off all Gaming, and other such pleasures of youth, he had also betaken himself to the company and converse of learned and wise men, and by addicting himself to the perusal and study of the best Authors, had shewed him, that he would answer his liberality with sincerity, uprightness, and unblameable fidelity, which fidelity Barbadicus had often before, and also since this liberali­ty of his experienced in him his beloved and most con­stant Friend, when he alone defenced the life and ho­nour of Barbadicus in his greatest streights, and worst dangers, as well open as concealed, so that he openly professed to owe the safety of them both to Trivisanus; the whole City knows how he supported the innocency of his Friend in the salfe and devilish Calumnies that [Page 68] were raised upon him, and would not desert him in the worst of his Fortunes, though he was slandered for ta­king his part; while he did this, he not only interrupted the course of his preferments to the chiefest places of Honour in his Country, into which to the amazement of all men, he was in a most hopeful way; but he also for­feited and lost all those opportunities. It is also well known to all men, that he contracted great and dange­rous Enmities with some that had been aforetime his Companions, upon the sole score of this Friend of his; he despised all that extrinsick honour which depends upon the opinion of the brutish multitude, and at the last exposed his own life to frequent, and manifest haz­ards, as he would also yet do in any such occasion as should require it, and whereas Trivisanus hath lived and is yet alive, and through the incomparable expression of a grateful mind in Barbadicus, he lives with great splen­dour, and in great Authority. He is merciful to the af­flicted, courteous to his Friends, and is especially a most worthy Patron of all those that are virtuous; he is ho­nourably esteemed by the Daughters of his Friend, in such manner, as if he were their own Father; he is also chearfully received by his Wife, and truly honoured by her as her Brother as well because she is not igno­rant of his merits in respect of her Husband, as also for his excellent temper, and such other uncommon quali­ties, as render him worthy of the love and admiration of all men. Hakewils Apology. p. 439.

CVIII. Damon and Pythias had betwixt them so firm a Friendship that when Dyonisius the Tyrant of Syra­cuse had resolved the death of one of them, and that he only besought he might have liberty to go home to set his affairs in order; the other doubted not to be surety in the mean time to the Tyrant for his return the Ty­rant granted it, wondring what this new and strange accident would come to in the event, a day had passed, and he came not, then all began to condemn the rash­ness of the surety, but he told them, he doubted not of the constancy of his Friend, at the same hour as was [Page 69] agreed by Dionisius, came he that was condemned, thereby freeing the other; The Tyrant admiring the courage and fidelity of them both, remittted and for­gave their punishment, and intreated that he himself might be admitted as a third Person into the Society of so admirable a Friendship, Clarks Mirrour. p. 226.

CIX. Great was the confidence which Trajan the Emperor had in his friend Surra, it was told him one morning that Surra had conspired against him, he in the evening of the same day uninvited, went to his House, attended only by two Persons, he stayed, and supped with him, would needs be trimmed by his Barber, consulted his Physician about a disease in his Eyes, and caused him to look upon them; that night he was again told of the Conspiracy, he smiling said; he had that day made Tryal of the matter, and that if Surra had any evil design, he had put himself into his power; so that remaining without suspicion of his Friendship, not long after he made him Tribune, and the custom being to deliver a naked Sword to the Tri­bune, he gave him one, saying, I give you this to defend me if I rule well, if otherwise, to kill me. Fulgosus lib. 4.

CX. Lucilius was one of the Friends of Brutus, and a good man, who when Brutus was overthrown at Phi­lippi, perceiving a Troop of the Barbarians, who being careless in the pursuit of others, were with all speed fol­lowing hard after Brutus, he resolved to take off their eagerness with the hazard of his own life, and being left somewhat behind, he told them, that he was Brutus; they gave the more credit to him, because he desired to be presented to Anthony, who with great joy hastens to meet them, as many others did, to see Brutus, some pitying his misfortune, others thinking him unworthy of Glory, that for desire of life he would suffer himself to be made a prey to the Barbaria [...]s, when they drew nigh, Anthony, made a halt, as doubting in what manner he should receive Brutus, but Lucilius being brought be­fore him, with an undaunted mind spake thus; No man, Antonius, hath taken Marcus Brutus, nor shall ever any Ene­my [Page 70] take him, the Gods are more just than to permit fortune to trample upon so much virtue; he will be found to be alive, or at least dead in such manner as is worthy of him; but 'tis I that have imposed upon your Soldiers, and I am here ready to under­go all the severity I shall be adjudged to for it. All that were present were aftonished; Antonius turning to them that had brought him, You are displeased Fellow-Soldiers, said he, because you supppose you are deceived, but make account with your selves, that you have met with a more precious prize than that which you sought after, for whilst you sought for an Enemy, you have brought me a Friend; I am not resolved what I should do with Brutus alive, but I had rather obtain such Friends than Enemies; Having so said, he imbraced Lu­cilius, and then committed him to one of his Familiars, and afterward found him upon all occasions as firm and faithful to himself, as he had been to Brutus. Plutarchs Lives 1007.

CXI. One Menippus relates in Lucian, how that one day seeing a man comely, and of eminent condition, passing along in a Goach with a Woman extreamly un­handsome, he was much amazed, and said, he could not understand, why a man of prime Quality, and so brave a presence, should be seen to stir abroad in the company of a Monster; hereupon one that followed the Coach, overhearing him, said, Sir, you seem to wonder at what you now see, but if I tell you the causes and circum­stances thereof, you will much more admire; know this Gentle­man whom you see in the Coach, is called Zenothemis, and horn in the City of Marseilles, where he heretofore contracted a firm amity and Friendship with a Neighbour of his named Menecrates, who was at this time one of the chief men of the City, as well in Wealth as Dignities; but as all things in the world are exposed to the inconstancy of Fortune, it hap­pened that as it's thought, having given a false Senten [...]e, he was degraded of Honour, and all his Goods were confiscated; every man avoyded him as a Monster in this change of For­tune, but Zenothemis his good Friend, as if he had loved miseries, not men, more esteemed him in his adversity, than he had done in prosperity, and bringing him to his House, shewed [Page 71] him huge Treasures, conjured him to share them with him, since such were the Laws of Friendship; the other weeping for Joy to see himself thus entertained in such sharp necessities, said he was not so apprehensive of the want of worldly wealth; as of the burthen he had in a Daughter ripe for Marriage, and wil­ling enough, but blemished with deformities. She was, saith the History, but half a Woman, a body mishapen, lim­ping, and blear-eyed, a Face disfigured, and besides she had the falling sickness, with horrible Convulsions. Nevertheless this noble heart said unto him, Trouble not your self about the Marriage of your Daughter, for I will be her Husband, the other astonished at such goodness, God forbid, said he, that I should lay such a burthen upon you; No, no, replied the other, she shall be mine; and instantly he married her, making great Feasts at the Nuptial, be­ing married, he honoureth her with much regard, and makes it his glory to shew her in the best company, as a Trophy of his Friendship. In the end she brought him a Son, who restored his Grand-father to his Estate, and was the Honour of his Family. Gausins Holy Court. p. 47.

CXII. Eudamidas the Corinthian, had Araeteus the Corinthian, and Charixenus the Sycionian, for his Friends, they were both rich, whereas he was exceeding poor, he departing this life, left a Will, ridiculous perhaps to some, wherein was thus written; I Eudamidas give, and bequeath to Araeteus, my Mother to be kept and fostered in her old Age, as also my Daughter to Charixenus, to be Mar­ried with a Dowry as great as he can afford, but if any thing in the mean time happen to fall out to any of these men, my Will is that the other shall perform that which he should have done, had he lived. This Testament being read, they who knew the poverty of Eudamidas, but not his Friend­ship with these men, accounted it all as meer jest and sport, no man that was present, but departed laughing at the Legacies which Araeteus, and Charixenus were to receive; but these Executors, as soon as they heard it came, presently acknowledging and ratifying what was commanded in the Will; Charixenus died within five days after; Araeteus his excellent Successor took upon [Page 72] him both the one, and the others charge, kept the Mo­ther of Eudamidas, & as soon as might be he disposed of his Daughter in Marriage, and of five Talents which his Estate amounted to, he gave two of them as a Por­tion with his own Daughter, and two more with the Daughter of his Friend, and would needs have their Nuptials solemnized in one and the same day. Lonic. Theat. p. 425.

CXIII. Alexander the Great was so true a lover of Ephestion, that in his life-time he had him alwaies near him, made him acquainted with the nearest, and weigh­tiest of his secrets, and when he was dead, bewailed him with abundant Tears; he hanged up Glaucus his Phyfician for being absent when he took that which hastened his end; in token of heavy mourning, he cau­sed the Battlements of the City Walls to be pluckt down, and the Manes of Mules and Horses to be cut off, he bestowed ten thousand Talents on his Funeral, and that he might not want Attendants to wait upon him in the other world, he in superstitious Cruelty, caused some Thousands of men to be slain; even the whole Cassean Nation at once. Elian. Var. Hist. lib. 7.

CXIV. At Rome, saith Camerarius, there are to be seen these Verses ingraven about an Urn, or Tomb-stone.

Ʋrna brevis geminum, quamvis tenet ista cadaver,
Attamen in Coelo, Spiritus Ʋnus adest;
Viximus Ʋnanimes Luciusque & Flavius, idem,
Sensus, amor, studium, vita duobus erat.
Though both our Ashes this Urn doth inclose,
Yet as one Soul in Heaven we repose,
Lucius and Flavius living, had one mind,
One Will, one Love, and to one Course inclin'd.

CXV. Lastly, Let us give some examples of the grateful disposition of divers Persons. Gratitude is just­ly held to be the Mother of all other Virtues, seeing from this one Fountain many other streams do flow, [Page 73] as Reverence, and due respect to Masters and Gover­nours; Friendship among Men, Love to our Country, Piety to our Parents, and Religion toward God; as therefore the Ingrateful are every where hated, as be­ing suspected to be guilty of every other Vice; so on the contrary, Grateful Persons are esteemed of all men, as having by their Gratitude put in security as it were, that they are not without some measure of every other Virtue.

CXVI. There was a Merchant in Florence, whose name was Francis Frescobald, of a Noble Family, and liberal mind, who through a prosperous success in his Affairs, was grown up to an abundance of wealth; while he was at Florence, a young man presented himself to him, asking him an Alms for Gods sake; Frescobald beheld the ragged stripling, and in despight of his tatters, reading in his countenance some signifi­cations of Virtue, was moved with pity, and deman­ded his Country and name, I am, said he, of England, my name is Thomas Cromwell, my Father (meaning his Father in Law) is a poor man, a Clothshearer, I am strayed from my Country, and am now come into Italy with the French Army, who were overthrown at Gatylion, where I was Page to a Foot Soldler, odrrying af­ter him his Pike and Burganet; Frescobald partly in pity of his condition, and partly in love to the English Nation, amongst whom he had received some Civilities, took him into his House, made him his Guest, and at his de­parture gave him a Horse, new Apparel, and sixteen Duckets of Gold in his Purse; Cromwell giving him hearty thanks, returned into his Country, where in pro­cess of time he became in such favour with King Henry the Eighth, that he raised him to the dignity of Lord High Chancellor of England; In the mean time Fresbo­bald by several great losses was become poor, but re­membring that some English Merchants owed him fif­teen thousand Duckets, he came to London to seek after it, not thinking of what had passed betwixt Cromwell and him; but travelling earnestly about his business, he ac­cidentally [Page 74] met with the Lord Chancellor as he was ri­ding to Court; as soon as the Lord Cromwell saw him, he thought he should be the Merchant of Florence, of whose liberality he had tasted in times past, immediately he alights, imbraces him, and with a broken voice scarce refraining from Tears, he demanded if he were not Francis Frescobald the Florentine; yes Sir, said he, and your humble Servant; my Servant, said Cromwell, no, as you have not been my Servant in times past, so will I not now ac­count you any other than my great, and especial Friend, assu­ring you, that I have just reason to be sorry, that you knowing what I am (or at least what I should be) yet would not let me understand your arrival in this Country; had I known it, I would have certainly paid part of that debt which I confess I owe you, but thanks be to God that I have yet time; Well Sir, in conclusion you are heartily welcome, but having now weigh­ty affairs in my Princes Cause, you must excuse me that I can stay no longer with you; therefore at this time I take my leave, desiring you with the faithful mind of a Friend, that you for­get not to dine with me this day at my House; Frescoblad won­ders who this Lord should be, at last after some pause, he remembers him to be the same whom he had relieved at Florence, he therefore repairs to his House not a little rejoyced, and walking in the outward Court, attended his return; the Lord Cromwell came soon after, and was no sooner dismounted, but he again imbraced him with so friendly a countenance, as the Lord Admiral, and other Nobles then in his company much wondred at; he turning back, and holding Frescobald by the hand, Do you not wonder my Lords, said he, that I seem so glad to see this man, this is he by whose means I have attained to my present Degree; and therewith related all that had pas­sed betwixt them; then holding him still by the hand, he led him to the room where he dined, and seated him next to himself; the Lords being departed, he desired to know what occasion had brought him to London; Frescobald in few words truly opened his case to him; to which Cromwell returned; Things that are already past Mr. Frescobald, can by no power or policy of Man be recal­led, [Page 75] yet is not your sorrow so peculiar to your self, but that by the bond of mutual love, I am able to bear a part therein, where­by in this your distress you may receive some Consolation; it is fit I should repay some part of that debt wherein I stand bound to you, as it is the part of a thankful man to do, and I further promise you upon the word of a true Friend, that during this life, and state of mine, I will not fail to do for you in any thing wherein my Authority may prevail; Then taking him by the hand, he led him into a Chamber, and commanding all to depart, he locked the door; then opening a Chest, he first took out sixteen Duckets, and delivering them to Frescobald, My Friend, said he, here is your Money you lent me at my departure from Florence, here are ten more bestowed upon mine Apparel, with ten more you disbursed for the Horse I rode upon, but considering you are a Merchant, it does not seem honest to me to return your Money without some consideration for the long detaining of it, take you therefore these four Bags, in every of which is four hundred Duckets to receive and enjoy from the hand of your assured Friend; The modesty of Frescobald would have refused them, but Cromwell for­ced them upon him; this done, he caused him to give him the names of all his Debtors, and the Sums they owed; the List he delivered to one of his Servants and charged him to find out the men, if they were within any part of the Kingdom, and strictly to charge them to make payment within fifteen days, or else to abide the hazard of his displeasure; the Servant so well perfor­med the command of his Master, that in a very short time the whole Sum was paid in; during all this time, Frescobald lodged in the Lord Chancellors House, who gave him the entertainment he deserved; and oft-times persuaded him to continue in England, offering to lend him sixty Thousand Duckets for four years, if he would stay, and make his Bank in London, but he desired to return into his own Country, which he did with the great favour of the Lord Cromwell, and there richly ar­rived, but he enjoyed his wealth but a short time, for the first year after his return he died. Clarks Lives. p. 42.

CXVII. Not many years since in the Kingdom of [Page 76] Naples, a young Merchant named Oliverio, fell desperate­ly in love with the Countess of Castelnovo, and laid siege to her Chastity for a good while, and the Count going to his Country House, and taking his Countess and Fa­mily along with him, the Marquess being still more in­flamed, goes into the Country one day hard by, a Haw­king, and lets fly his Hawk into Count Castlenovo's Gar­den, where it chanced that he and his Countess were walking; the Marquess made bold to follow his Hawk. and the Count with very high Civilities did welcome him, and caused a Banquet to be presently provided, where he and his Lady entertained him; when he was gone, the Count began to commend him, telling his Wife, That he was one of the most hopeful Noblemen, and of the most excellent accomplishments of any in the whole Kingdom of Naples, These praises made such an impression in the Countess, that a little while after he gained her con­sent; so the time and place for their pleasure being ap­pointed, he was conveyed by a private way into her Chamber, where she being in Bed, and he undressing himself to go to her, she told him, That he was beholding to the Count her Husband for this favour, for she never heard him speak so much in the commendation of any man, as he had of him; Is it so, said the Marquess? then I should be the grea­test Villain in the world if I should abuse so noble a Friend; And such was his Gratitude, that he put on his Doublet again, and departed, but with much civility, in the very height and heat of Lust, though he had as commodious a juncture of time, as his heart could desire. Howels Hist. Naples. p. 61.

CXVIII. On the Town-house of Geneva, upon a Mar­ble Table, is written in Letters of Gold this grateful in­scription: Post Tenebras Lux, quam Anno Dom. 1535. profligata Romana Antichristi Tyrannide, &c. After Dark­ness Light, whereas Anno Dom. 1535. The Roman Tyran­ny of Antichrist was ejected, his Superstition abolished, the Holy Religion of Christ restored here in its proper purity, the Church by the singular goodness of God put-into better Order, the Enemy overcome and put to flight, and the City itself by a [Page 77] remarkable miracle did then obtain its former Liberty and Fre­dom; The Senate and People of Geneva have caused this Monument in perpetual memory thereof to be made and erected in this place, as also to leave a Testimony of their Thankfulness to God and Posterity. Clarks Mirrour. p. 236.

CXIX. Sir William Fitzwilliams the Elder, being a Merchant-Taylor, and Servant sometime to Cardinal Woolsey, was chosen Alderman of Broadstreet Ward in London. 1506. Going afterwards to dwell at Milton in Northamptonshire, after the Fall of the Cardinal his for­mer Master, he gave him kind entertainment there at his House in the Country; for which being called be­fore the King and demanded how he durst entertain so great an Enemy to the State, his answer was, That he had not contemptuously nor willfully done it, but only because he had been his Master, and partly the means of his greatest Fortunes. The King was extreamly well pleased with this answer, saying, That himself had sew such Servants, and then im­mediately Knighted him, and afterward made him one of his Privy-Council. Fullers Worthies. p. 298.

CXX. Rodericus Davalus was Lieutenant General of the Horse in Spain, 423. who together with some o­thers was accused of High-Treason, for writing Letters to Josephus King of the Moors, as one that had intended to have betrayed his Country into their hands; divers Copies of these Letters were produced, and the whole affair debated at the Council-Table, in the Crime of his Master was involved Nunnius Ferrerius, born at Corduba, and Steward of Davalus his House; but he stoutly de­sending himself and his Master, ceased not till he had shewed that the Letters were counterfeit, and that the Author of them was Johannes Garsias, of which he was convicted and condemned. He got himself clear of, but the other great Persons were condemned to per pe­tual banishment; here Ferrerius to support his Master in his wants, sold all those Goods of his which he had got in the fervice of his Master, and having thereby made up the Sum of Eight Thousand Crowns, he dis­posed it into Wicker Bottles, loaded an Ass with it, and [Page 78] caused his own Son in mean Apparel to drive the Ass, and sent it all privately to his Master Davalus. A Per­son certainly well worthy of being remembred by that illustrious Nation, and in his Posterity too, in case any of them are in being. Lipsius Monit. lib. 2.

CXXI. Thrioses was one of the Eunuchs to Statira, Wife to Darius, and taken at the same time with her by Alexander the Great; when she was dead in Travail, he stole out of the Camp, and went to Darius, informing him of the death of his Wife, and perceiving that he resented not her death so passionately, as he feared that her Chastity, together with her Sisters, and Daughter had been violated by Alexander, Thriotes with horrible Oaths vindicated the Chastity of Alexander; Then Da­rius turning to his Friends with his hands lift up to Hea­ven; O ye Gods of my Country, said he, and Presidents of Kingdoms. I beseech you in the first place, that the for tune of Persia may recover its former Grandeur, and that I may leave it in the same splendor I received it, and that I may render unto Alexander all that he hath performed in my adversity unto my dearest Pledges; but if that fatal time be come, wherein Hea­ven has decreed a Revolution upon us, and that the Kingdom of Persia must be overthrown, then I beg of you that no other among mortal men besides Alexander, may sit in the Throne of Cyrus. Q. Curtius. lib. 4.

CXXII. Agrippa being accused by Eutyches his Coach­man, of some words against the Emperor Tiberius, was by his order seized, and put to the Chain before the Pallace Gate, with other Criminals brought thither; it was hot weather, and Agrippa was extream thirsty, see­ing therefore Thaumastus, a Servant of Caligula's pass by with a Pitcher of water, he called him, and intreated that he might drink, which the other presented with great willingness when he had drank, Assure thyself, said A­gripoa, I will one day pay thee well for this glass of water thou hast given me, and if I get out of this Captivity I will make thee great; Tiberius died soon after, and Agrippa was freed by the favour of Caligula, and by the same favour was made King of Judea; then did he remember Thau­mastus, [Page 79] rewarding him with the place of the Controller of his House, such power hath a small kindness, if done to a grateful and generous Soul. Joseph. Antiq lib. 18.

CXXIII. Darius the Son of Hystaspis, being one of the Guard to Cambyses, in his expedition against Aegypt, was then of no extraordinary condition, who seeing Syloson, the Brother of Polycrates, walking in the Mar­ket place of Memphis in a glittering Cloak, he went to him, and as one taken with the Garment, desired to buy it of him; Syloson perceiving he was very desirous of it, told him he would not sell it him for any Mony, but said he, I will give it you on this condition, that you ne­ver part with it to any other; Darius received it upon this condition. In process of time Cambyses being dead, and the Magi being overcome by the seven Princes, Darius was made King. Syloson hearing this, comes to Susa, and sate in the entrance of the Pallace, saying, That he was one who deserved well of the King; This was told to Da­rius, who wondring who it was, he should be obliged to, commanded he should be admitted; Syloson was asked by an Interpreter who he was, and what he had done for the King, he tells the matter about the Cloak, and says, he was the Person who gave it; O thou most generous among men said Darius, art thou he then, who when I had no power gavest me that, which though small in it self, was yet as acceptable to me then, as greater things would be to me now? Know I will reward thee with such a huge quantity of Gold and Silver, that it shall never repent thee thou wast li­beral to Darius, the Son of Hystaspes; O King, said Sylo­son, give me neither Gold nor Silver, but when thou hast freed my Country of Samos, which is now held by a Servant of my dead Brother Polycrates, give me that without slaughter or plunder; Darius hearing this, sent an Army under the Conduct of Otanes, one of the seven Princes of Persia, commanding him that he should do for Syloson what he desired. Valer. Maxim. lib. 5.

CXXIV. The only Daughter of Peter Martyr, through the Riot and Prodigality of her debauched Husband be­ing brought to extream poverty; the Senate of Zurich, [Page 80] out of a grateful remembrance of her Fathers worth, supported her with a bountiful maintenance so long as she lived. Fullers Holy State. p. 86.

CHAP. II. The Transcendent Effects of Magnanimity, Courage, and Fidelity, discovered in seve­ral Remarkable Instances.

HAving thus displayed the Effects of Love, Friend­ship, and Gratitude let us now consider of three other excellent accomplishments, namely Magnanimity, Gourage and Fidelity, of which we may find many rare Examples in Histories; for some Persons have within them a Spirit so daring and couragious, that the sear, no, nor the presence of the greatest danger or disaster whatsoever is not able to shake their Constancy, where­in sometimes they have proved as successful, as others who have managed their Counsels with the greatest care and conduct they are able.

I. Henry Earl of Holsatia, Sirnamed Iron, because of his strength, being got into great favour with Edward the Third, King of England, by reason of his valour was envied by the Courtiers; whereupon they one day in the absence of the King, counselled the Queen, that forasmuch as the Earl was preserred before all the En­glish Nobility, she would make Tryal whether he was so Nobly born, as he gave out, by causing a Lyon to be let loose upon him, saying, That the Lyon would not so much as tou [...]h Henry, if he was Noble indeed. They got leave of the Queen to make this Tryal upon the Earl▪ He was used to rise before day, and to walk in the outward Court of the Castle, to take the fresh Air of the morning. The Lyon was let loose in the night, and the Earl having a Nightgown [Page] [Page]

A Polonian Souldier encounters & overcomes a Lyon. Page. [...]8 [...]

Amurath Emp Turks Killed by Cobelitz a Christian Souldier Page. 88

[Page 81] on cast over his shirt, with his Girdle and Sword, coming down Stairs into the Court, met there with the Lyon, bristling his hair, and roaring; he no­thing astonished, said with a slout voice, stand, stand you Dog; at these words the Lyon couched at his feet, to the great amazement of the Courtiers, who looked out of their holes to behold the issue of this business; the Earl laid hold of the Lyon, and shut him within his Cage, he likewise left his Nightcap upon the Lyons back, and so came forth, without so much as looking be­hind him. Now, said the Earl; calling to them that looked out of the Windows, let him amongst you all that standeth most upon his Pedigree, go and fetch my Nightcap; but they being ashamed, withdrew themselves. Camerar. Med. p. 118.

II. In the Court of Matthias King of Hungary, there was a Polonian Soldier in the Kings pay, who boasted much of his Valour, and who in a Bravado would often challenge the Hungarians to wrestle or skirmish with Sword or Pike, wherein he had alwaies the better. One day as he stood by a great Iron Cage, in which a Lyon was kept, the greatest, and fiercest that had been seen of a long time, he began to say to those that were in his Company, Which of you dares to take a piece of flesh out of this Lyons mouth when he is angry; none daring to undertake it, You shall see, added the Polonian, the proof of my speech. All that day following the Lyon had not any meat given him, the next day they threw him the four Quarters of a Sheep; the Lyon begins to grunt, to couch down at his Prey, and to eat greedily; herewith the Polonian enters his Gage, and locking the Lyon be­twixt his Legs, gives him a blow with his Fist upon the Jaw, crying, Hah you Dog, give me the flesh; The Lyon amazed at such a bold voice, let go his hold, shew­ing no other countenance, but casting his Eye after the Polonian, who carried the flesh away. Oamer. p. 118.

III. In the Reign of Tham, King of China, there was a Colao, an Officer not unlike our Duke, who having been Tutor to the King, was very powerful with him; and to [Page] [...] [Page 81] [...] [Page 82] preserve himself in his Grace and Favour, studied more to speak what would please the King, than to tell him, the truth for the good of his Estate: The Chineses for­bore not to speak of it amongst themselves, and to tax the flattery of this Coloa: One time some Captains of the Guard were discoursing this point at the Palace, when one of them being a little warmed with the dis­course, secretly withdrew himself, went into the Hall where the King was, and kneeling down upon his knees before him, the King asked what he would have; Leave, said he, to cut off the Head of a flattering Subject. And who is that, said the King? Such a one that stands there, replied the other. The King in a rage. What, said he, against my Master, darest thou to propound this, and in my presence too? Take him away, and strike off his Head. When they began to lay hands on him, he caught hold of a wooden Balle­ster; and as there were many pulling of him, and he hold­ing with a great deal of strength, it brake. By this time the Kings heat was over, he commands they should let him go, and gave order that the Ballester should be mended, and that they should not make a new one, that it might remain as a witness of the Fact▪ and a memorial of a Subject that was not afraid to advise his King what he ought to do. Hist. China. p. 109.

IV. Alexander the Great being in Cilicia was seized with a violent disease, so that when all other Physicians despaired of his Health, Philip the Acarnanian brought him a Potion, and told him, if he hoped to live he must take that. Alexander had newly received Letters from Parmenio, one of his Generals, wherein he advised him to repose no trust in Philip, for he was bribed by Dari­us to destroy him, with a mighty summ of Gold; Alex­ander held the Letters in one hand, and took the Potion in the other, and having drank it off, he shewed Phi­lip the contents of them, who though incensed at the slander cast upon him, yet advised Alexander to confide in his Art, and indeed he recovered him. Plutarch's Lives. p. 675.

V. Charles the Fifth Emperour of Germany, had his [Page 83] Forces and Camp at Ingolstadt, and was obmpassed a­bout with an huge number of confederated Enemies, yet would he not fight; whether because some Forces he expected were not yet come, or that he foresaw a safe and unbloudy Victory; in the mean time the Ene­my, who abounded with great Guns, thundred among his Tents in such a manner, that Six Thousand great shot were numbred in one day, so that the Tents were every where bored through, yea, the Emperours own Tent escaped not the fury of the Guns, Men were kil­led at his back, on each side of him, and yet the Em­perour changed not his place, no nor his carriage, nor his countenance; and when his Friends intreated him that he would spare himself, and all them in him, he smiling, bid them be of good courage, For no Emperour was ever killed with a great Gun. These things are short in the Relation, but so mighty to consider of, as to de­serve the memory and applause of Ages to come; The like Constancy and Gravity in all his Actions and Beha­viour, accompanied him throughout his whole Life. Lipsius Monit. p. 110.

VI. A Dutch Seaman being co [...]demned to death, his punishment was changed, and he was ordered to be left at St. Hellen's Island: This unhappy Person representing to himself the horrour of that uninhabited place, fell upon a resolution to attempt the strangest action that e­ver was heard of: There had that day been buried in the same Island an Officer of the Ship, the Seaman took up the Body out of the Coffin, & having made a kind of Rudder of the upper board, ventured himself to Sea in it; It hap­pened fortunately to him to be so great a calm, that the Ship lay immoveable within a League and half of the Island; His companions seeing so strange a Boat float upon the Waters, imagined they saw a Spirit, and were not a little startled at the Resolution of the man, who durst hazard himself upon that Element in three boards slightly nailed together, though he had no confidence, of finding or being received by those who had so lately sentered him to death; accordingly it was put to the [Page 84] Question whether he should be received or not; some would have the Sentence put in Execution, but at last Mercy prevailed, and he was taken aboard, and came afterward to Holland; where he lived in the Town of Horn, and related to many how miraculously God had delivered him. Mandelslo's Travels, p. 280.

VII. Phocion the Athenian was a man that stood with immoveable courage against the multitude, the Nobles, Fortune, and Death itself; there was once an Oracle recited at Athens, That there was amongst them one single man that ever dissented from the agreeing Opinions of all the rest; All the People were enraged, and enquired after that man, Now pray (said Phocion) leave off your en­quiry, I am the man you seek for; for not one thing of all that you do, did ever please me. Lipsius Monit. p. 96.

VIII. Some Men have been likewise very famous for Fortitude, and personal Valour, among whom, Charles the Fifth Emperour aforementioned, is very renowned in History, who was so active from his Youth, as few Princes can parallel him: For he made Nine Journeys into Germany, Seven into Italy, Ten to Flanders, Four to France, Two to England, and two expeditions into Africa: He made Eight Voyages on the Mediterranean Sea, and Three on the Ocean; what a multitude of va­liant Atchievements did he perform in these Expediti­ons! He sent away Solyman the great Turk weeping from before the Walls of Vienna, and so stopped that huge torrent of destraction that was like to have overwhelm­ed all Germany, and soon after the rest of Christendom: He made Barbarossa that formidable Pyrate, and his Dra­gon, the Admiral Gallion wherein he sailed, to fly be­fore him: What notable Conquests were those of Go­letta and Tunis, where the Roman Eagles had not flown since the time of Scipio and Hannibal; and had not the Emulations of some Christian Princes found him work at home, and diverted him, probably he had conquered and civilized all Barbary. In Europe he took the Duke of Cleve, with all his Towns and Territories: He quell'd the Duke of Saxony, the head of the Lutheran party: He [Page 85] imprisoned the Duke of Millain: He subdued and plun­dered Rome: He tamed the mutinous City of Gaunt, where he first breathed Air, and had been rockt in his Cradle: He pierced the very heart of France, forcing that King to fly to the Great Turk for help against him, whom he afterward took Prisoner, even on that day upon which he was born; yet touching this Action, as he himself confessed, though Charles had more of For­tune, yet K. Francis had got as much of Glory consider­ing all circumstances, being taken with a naked Sword in his hand, and amidst a throng of fighting Enemies all about him, weltting in blood; colours flying, and victo­ry fluttering on both sides with doubtful wings: The full discovery of the New World was made in his time, with the Mines of Peru: In fine, he had such a conti­nual Tide of good success, that it seems as if that Age was designed for his Glory; He fought Twenty pitcht Battles and made above Three Hundred Seiges; nor did he know what a repulse was, but only at Algier, Mar­seilles and Mite. Howels Hist. Naples.

IX. Godfrey of Bullion was brought up in that School of valour, the Court of Henry the Fourth, Empe­rour. Whilst he lived there, an intricate suit in Law happened between him and another Prince about the title to some Land; and because the Judges could not untie the knot, it was concluded the two Princes should cut it asunder with their Swords in a single combate; Godfrey declined the Fight as much as in him lay, as con­ceiving any private Title for Land, not ground enough for a Duel. Notwithstanding he yielded to the Tyran­ny of Custom, and after the manner of that Country en­tred the Lists; when at the first encounter his Sword brake, but he struck his Adversary down with the Hilt, yet saved his Life, and gained his own Inheritance. A­nother parallel Act of his valour was, when being Stan­dard bearer to the Emperour, he with the Imperial Ensign killed Rodulphus the King of Saxony in single fight, and fed the Eagle on the bowels of that Arch-Traitor. Fullers Hol. War. p. 44.

X. In the Reign of King William the Conqueror, a private Norwegian Soldier, himself alone upon a Bridge, resisted the whole Army of the English, slew forty of them, and maintained the place for divers hours to­gether, till one getting under the Bridge found means to thrust up a Spear into his Body, and so killed him. Bakers Chronicle. p. 45.

XI. Alexander the Great had besieged a City of the Oxydracae, and resolving to carry it by storm, had broke in at a Gate, and forced the Enemy to fly into the Castle; here while the rest of the Macedonians were busied in undermining the Walls, he not enduring delay, caught up a Ladder, and rearing it against the wall, and holding his shield over his head, began to mount it, all which he performed with that celerity, that before the Guard of the place had observed it, he had gained the top; the Enemy durst not approach to deal with him hand to hand, but at a distance threw Javelins and Darts at him, in such number that he was much oppres­sed by them; the Macedonians endeavoured to mount upon two Ladders they had advanced, but their number and weight that ascended, caused them to break under them; then was Alexander left destitute of any assistance, but scorning to retire by the way that he came, armed as he was, he leaped into the midst of his Enemies, and made a bold and couragious resistance; on his right hand he had a Tree that grew near the wall, and on the left the wall itself to keep him from being inviro­roned, and there he fought it with the stoutest of them; many a blow he received upon his Helmet and Shield; at last he had a wound under the Pap with an Arrow, with the pain of which he was struck to the ground; then the Indian that had given him the wound, care­lesly approaching too near him to strike him as he lay, received Alexanders Sword into his Bowels, and tumb­led down by his side. The King catching hold of a Bough that hung downward, again recovered his stan­ding, and then began to challenge the best of them to the Fight; in this posture he was found by Peucestes, [Page 87] who by this time had got over the wall, and after him a multitude of others, by which means the Castle was taken, and most of them put to the Sword. Justin. Hist. lib. 12.

XII. Sir Robert Knowls was born but of mean Pa­rentage, in the County of Chester, yet for his valiant be­haviour, was advanced from a common Soldier in the French Wars under King Edward the Third, to be a great Commander, and being sent General of an Army into France, in despight of all their power, he drove all the People before him like so many Sheep; destroying Towns, Castles, and Cities, in such a manner and num­ber, that long after in memory of this Act, their sharp Points, and Gable ends of overthrown Houses, and Minsters, were called Knowls his Miters; after which, intending to make himself as much beloved of his Country, as he was feared of Forreign Nations, he built the goodly fair Bridge of Rochester, over the River of Medway, with a Chappel, and a Chancery at the East end thereof. He founded also a Colledge with an Hos­pital adjoining thereto, in the Town of Pontfract in Yorkshire. He likewise built an Hospital in the City of Rome for the entertainment of English Travellers, and Pilgrims, which since is turned into a Seminary for our English Fugitives; he died at his Mannor of Scone-Thorp in Norfolk, in 1407. Clarks Mirrour. p. 217.

XIII. In a dangerous battel against the Danes, at a place called Longcarty, the Scots beginning to retreat, there was living hard by one Hay, a man of exceeding strength, and of an excellent Courage, who suddenly caught up an Ox Yoak, and together with his Sons, flew into the Battel, and so valiantly, and fortunately beha­ved himself, that what by frighting the Enemy, and in­couraging his Friends, he reinforced the Scots, who were ready to shrink and fly, and obtained for them a great and glorious Victory. The King, with the States of the Kingdom ascribed the Victory, and their own safety to his Valour, and Prowess; whereupon in that very place the most fruitful grounds were assigned to [Page 88] him, and to his Heirs for ever, who in testimony here­of have set over their Coat a Yoke for their Crest. Camb. Britt.

XIV. Gunhilda the Daughter of King Canutus, was Married to the Emperor Henry the Third, who being accused of Adultery, and none sound to defend her cause, at last an English Page, a meer Boy, and Dwarf, who for the littleness of his stature, was generally, and jestingly sirnamed Mimecan, this Champion adventured to maintain her innocency against a mighty Giantlike Combatant, who in the fight at one blow cutting the sinews of his Adversaries Legs, with another felled him to the ground, and then with his Sword taking his Head from his Sholders, he redeemed both the Empresses life and Honour. Bakers Chronicle. p. 17.

XV. In a bloody Fight betwen Amurath the Third, Emperor of the Turks, and Lazarus Despot of Servia, many thousands fell on both sides; but in conclusion the Turks had the Victory, and the Despot was slain; A­murath, after that great Victory, with some few others of his chief Captains, taking a view of the dead bodies, which without number lay on heaps on the Field like Mountains, a Christian Soldier sore wounded, and all gore blood seeing him, in a staggering manner, arose as if it had been from death out of a heap of slain men, and making toward him, for want of strength, fell down many times by the way as he came, as if he had been a drunken man; at length drawing nigh to him, when they that guarded the Kings Person, would have stayed him, he was by Amurath himself commanded to come nearer, supposing that he would have craved his life of him. This magnanimous half dead Christi­an pressing nearer to him, as if he would for honour sake have kist his feet, suddenly stabbed him in the bottom of his Belly, with a short dagger which he had under his Coat, of which wound that great King and Conqueror presently died; the name of this man was Miles Cobeletz, who shortly after was hewn in pieces. Turk. Hist.

XVI. King William the Second called Rufus, being reconciled to his Brother Robert, he assisted him to re­cover the Fort of Mount St. Michael, which their Bro­ther Henry did forcibly hold in Normandy; during which Siege, stragling one time alone upon the shoar, he was set upon by three Horsemen, who assaulted him so fiercely, that they drove him from his Saddle, and his Saddle from his Horse, but he catching up his Saddle, and with­al drawing out his Sword, defended himself till rescue came, and being afterward blamed for being so obsti­nate to defend his Saddle, It would have angred me, said he, to the very heart, that the Knaves should have bragged they had won the Saddle from me. Bakers Chron. p. 50.

XVII. George Castriot, or Scanderbeg, Prince of Epirus, was inspired with such a Spirit of valour by God, in de­fending his Country from the barbarous Turks, that in fighting against them for very eagerness of Spirit, his blood would usually burst out of his lips, and he struck with such violence, that he clave many of them asun­der from the head to the middle, and usually he cut off an Arm with Armour on, at one blow, and with his own hands he slew above two Thousand of them at several times; he was such a mirrour of Manhood, and so ter­rible to the Turks, that nine years after his death, as they passed through Lyssa, where his body lay buried, they digged up his bones with great devotion reckoning it some part of their happiness, if they might but see, or touch the same; and such as could get any part thereof, were it never so little, caused the same to be set, some in Silver, some in Gold to hang about their Necks, thinking that it would animate their Spirits with extraordinary vigour and courage. Clarks Mirrour. p. 225.

XVIII. The Athenians under the command of Militi­ades, had charged the Army of Darius at Marathon, so [...]ome, that they were inforced to run away to their Na­vy, at which time one Cynigyrus an Athenian, shewed in­comparable Valour, for being in pursuit of the Persians to their Ships, when some of them were putting off from the Shore, he caught hold of one of the Ships with [Page 90] his right hand, holding it till his hand was cut off; then did he lay hold of it with his left hand, till that also was cut off, and yet then he catched hold of it with his Teeth, nor did he leave, till such time as the fleeting breath had withdrawn itself from his body, and there­by disappointed the resolute intentions of his mind. Justin. Hist. lib. 2.

XIX. The Romans being ready to join Battel with the Albanes, that they might avoid bloodshed, they a­greed, that the Victory should be determined, three a­gainst three; now there were in each Camp three Bre­thren, born at one birth, of equal years, who were to be the Champions. The three Horatii for the Romans, and the three Curiatii for the Albanes; after a doubtful conflict, two of the Horatii being slain, the third pre­tending fear, ran away, and thereby drew his Adversa­ries asunder, who by reason of their wounds could not run with equal speed; which being perceived by him, he turned back, and slew them one by one in single fight, before they could join together, whereby the Victory fell to the Romans. Rawleigh's Hist. World.

XX. Great was the Courage of the Hollanders in the year 1570. when Haerlem was besieged by the Duke of Alva's Army. At this time the Citizens revived the ancient invention of Carrier Pidgeons, and a while before they were blocked up, they sent to the Prince of Oranges Fleet, and to the nearest Towns of their own Party, some of these Pidgeons, which afterward being dispatched away when necessity required, with Letters fastened under their Wings, remembring their several Masters Houses, they flew back to Haerlem, whereby they received intelligence; yet nothing was more admira­ble than the Townsmens valour, who notwithstanding they had lost three great Armies that came to relieve them, and had hardly any shelter within their, Walls; which were shot through in ten thousand three hundred and sixty places, yet would they not hear of any Trea­ty or Conditions; and when the Garrrison was brought to a small number, both day and night upon the Walls, [Page 91] they so performed the duties of many, that if at any time the Spaniards did but chance to appear never so little above their Trenches, they were in a moment ta­ken off with Musket Bullets, and those shot as for a Wager, from many parts at once; lastly, though they were inforced by Famine to eat Mice, old Shoes, and every nasty thing, yet they lost not their courage, re­solving to sally out, and rather to die fighting, than by yielding to mercy, to have their Throats cut like Beasts, which they had accordingly done, but that as they mar­ched out of the Port, their Wives and Children with pitiful shrieks and imbraces, stayed them; yet when they had yielded to mercy, that cruel Don Frederick, Son to the Duke of Alva, put to the Sword, hanged, and drowned nine hundred Soldiers, and four hundred of the principal Townsmen, which sad Spectacle continu­ed many days. Strada Wars of the Low Countries.

XXI. Upon April 20. 1656. Blake performed a most noble Exploit at the Canaries to the honour of the English Nation, not inferior to any Naval Atchievement of the ancient Greeks or Romans, of which the following Re­lation, written by an Eye-witness, gives an account. We were on Monday by break of day in the Offin of Sancta Cruz on the Isle of Tenariff, and as soon as it was light, we perceived by a signal from one of their Fri­gats abroad, that the Spanish West-India Fleet was in the Bay; whereupon after a short conference how to order the Attempt, and Prayers, we fell in among them, and by eight a clock were all at an Anchor, some under the Castle and Forts, and others by their Ships sides, as we could place our selves to keep clear of one another, and best annoy the Enemy; the Spaniards had there five or six Gallions, whereof were the Admiral, and Vice-Admiral with their Standards and Flags aloft, and other considerable Ships to the number of sixteen, some having Goods from the Indies, still aboard them, others had taken in Goods and Provisions to carry back thi­ther again, most of them were furnished with brass Ordnance, and their whole complement of Seamen [Page 92] and Soldiers were aboard; they were all close moared along the shoar, which lies like an half Moon, defended as far as the Ships rid by the Castle, and surrounded be­sides with six or seven Forts, and with almost a continu­ed line of Musqueteers, and great shot, as the ground between admitted, by which many of our men were slain, so that we resolved to make quick work, and in four hours time their men were beaten out, and all their Ships put ashoar, except the Admiral, and Vice-Admiral, who made the most considerable resistance; about two a clock the Vice-Admiral was set on fire, and the Admiral by some happy shot, or other accident, was suddenly blown up, having, as we perceived just before, many men on board her; by the evening all the rest of the sixteen were fired; except two, which sunk down right, and had little but their Masts appearing above Water; after which our Ships, by the blessing of Hea­ven, got safe off, for though some riding near the shoar; were sorely maimed, and did require to be warped off, others when we came to weigh Anchor, drove with the wind, which all the while did blow right into the Bay, and one of our best Frigats struck; though the enemy in the mean time supplied fresh men into the Forts, for those we had killed, and beaten out in the heat of the action, and continually plied upon us from thence, and also from the Castle, till about seven a Clock at night; yet notwithstanding all these disadvantages, every Ship and Vessel belonging to our Fleet, got clear off, neither had we above fifty men killed in this service, and one hundred and twenty wounded, and the damage to our Ships so small, that in two days we repaired them in­differently well for our present security, which we had no sooner done, but the wind turned to the South West, which is not usual in those Islands, and brought us in a short time to our former station: about a year before this, General Blake coming before Tunis, demanded re­paration for the Losses sustained from the Turkish Py­rates, and being answered with scorn by the Dey, or King of Tunis, who in a Bravado bid him look upon his [Page 93] Castles of Golleta, and Ferino, which defended the Town; Blake entred upon a valiant and resolute At­tempt, for he came boldly to Anchor with the Admiral, Vice-Admiral, and Rere-Admiral, within Musket shot of the Castle, though the shore was planted all along with great Guns, and never left till he had fired nine gallant Ships in the Port of Ferino, they being all that were there, and at length came off with great glory and renown, and little loss of his own side. Bakers Chronicle. p, 681.

XXII. Epaminondas with his Thebans, having given the Spartans a great overthrow at Leuctra, went present­ly to Lacedemon, and made an attempt upon the City it­self, at which time a valiant young man of Lacedemon, called Isadas, being neither defended with Armour nor Apparel, but being stark naked, and his body anointed with Oyl, with his Sword in his hand, did wonders both in the judgment of his Citizens, and of his very Enemies, of whom he slew all that he met, and yet never received any wound himself, and after the fight was ended, the Senate crowned him as a reward of his Valour, and then fined him a thousand Drachma's for exposing himself to such danger, without his Armour; this Epaminondas in another Battel that he fought against the Lacedemonians, and Arca­dians, was sorely wounded with a Dart, and being carried into his Tent, after the Battel was ended, the Chirurgions coming to him, told him, that when the Dart was drawn forth of his body, he must needs die; whereupon he called his Esquire to him, and asked him if he had not lost his Shield, he told him no, and with­al shewed it to him; then he asked him if his Army had got the Victory, they told him yea; Then, said he, it is now time for me to leave my life; and so bid them pull out the Dart, whereupon his Friends cryed out grie­vously, and one of them said to him, O Epaminondas, thou diest without Children, to whom he answered, No truly, for I shall leave two Daughters behind me, that is, my two great Victories at Leuctra, and this of Mantinea, and [Page 94] so the Dart being pluckt out, he gave up the Ghost. Plutarchs Lives.

XXIII. Neither ought we to forget that immovea­ble Christian Constancy, and Courage which has appea­red in some pious, and resolved Souls, for the true Faith and Religion in all Ages, of which Historians are not silent. The Emperor Trajan returning from the Parthian War, when he came to Antioch, he commanded a gra­tulatory Sacrifice to be made to the Heathen Gods for his good success, at which Ignatius was required to be present, but he even before Trajans face did justly, and truly reprove his Idolatry, for which cause he was deli­vered to ten Soldiers, by them to be carried to Rome, there to be cast to the wild Beasts; concerning which, himself thus writes; From Syria, till I came to Rome, I had a battel with Beasts, as well by Sea as by Land, night and day, being bound among ten Leopards (so he called those ten Soldiers) who the more kindness they received from me, the more cruel they were unto me; but now through exercise I am well acquainted with their injuries, and am taught every day more, and more, to bear the Cross of Christ; would to God I were once come to the Beasts that are prepared for me, and I wish that they may fall upon me with all their violence; whom also I will provoke without delay to devour me, and not to ab­stain from me, as they have from many before me. Pardon me I pray you, I know how much this will turn to my advantage, I am Gods Corn, and when the wild Beasts have ground me with their Teeth, I shall be his Whitebread; now I begin to be a Disciple of my Master Christ, I neither regard things visible; nor invisible, so I may gain Christ, let the fire, the Cross, the breaking of my Bones, quartering of my Members, crushing of all my Body, yea, and all the Torments that the Devil and Man can invent, fall upon me so I may enjoy my Lord Jesus Christ.

This Ignatius saw Christ in the flesh, being about 12 years old, when he was Crucified, and it is recorded that when he was a Child, our Saviour would take him up in his Arms, and shew him to his Disciples, it may be he was one of those little Children that were brought to Christ, that he should touch them, or that little Child [Page 95] whom Jesus took, and set in the midst of his Disciples, to teach them Humility; he saw Christ after his Resur­rection, as himself writes in one of his Epistles, Ego vero & post Resurrectionem, &c. Truly I did see him after his Resurrection in the flesh, and do believe that it is he, &c. He used to say, There is nothing better than the peace of a good conscience; that good and wicked men are like true and counterfeit money, the one seems good, & is not, the other both seems & is good; that the Lyons Teeth are but like a Mill, which though it bruiseth yet wasteth not the good Wheat, only prepares, & fits it to be made pure Bread; let me, saith he, be broken by them, so I may be made pure Manchet for Heaven; his usual saying was, My Love is Crucified, meaning either Christ the object of his Love, or that his affections were crucified to the world, he suffered Martyrdom in the eleventh year of Trajan at Rome. 111. Acts and Mon. Vol. 1.

XXIV. Polycarpus being brought before the Procon­sul Herod, he told him that he had wild Beasts to devour him, unless he recanted; Bring them forth, said Polycarp, for I have determined with my self not to repent, nor to turn from the better to worse; it is more fit for you to turn from evil to that which is just & good, I will said the Proconsul, tame thee with fire, since thou so little regardest wild Beasts. You threaten me, said Polycarp, with Fire, which lasts but for anhour, & is quickly quenched; but are ignorant of the everlasting Fire at the day of Judgment; & of those endless Torments which are reserved for the wicked; but why make you all these delays? Ap­point me to what death you please, I am ready to undergo it; When he was again urged to reproach our Blessed Savi­our, Polycarp answered, Fourscore and six years have I served Christ, neither hath he offended me in any thing, and how then can I revile my King, that hath thus kept me; when they brought him to the Fire, they would have nailed him to the stake, Nay, said he, let me alone as I am, for he that hath given me strength to come to this Fire, will also give me patience to persevere therein without your fastening me with Nails, Acts and Mon. Vol. 1.

XXV. Dyonisius the Areopagite, being brought before Sisimus the Praefect, because he refused to Worship their [Page 96] Idol Gods, was beaten with many and cruel blows, and threatned to be beheaded; to which he answered, You worship such Gods as will perish like dung upon the Earth, but as for me, come life, come death, I will worship none but the God of Heaven and Earth. Acts and Mon. Vol. 1.

XXVI. St. Origen, when he was but seventeen years old, his Father being carried to Prison, had such a fer­vent mind to suffer Martyrdom with him that he would have thrust himself into the Persecutors hands, had it not been for his Mother, who in the night time private­ly stole away his Cloths, and his very shirt also; where­upon more for shame to be seen naked, than for fear of death, he was forced to stay at home; yet he writ thus to his Father, Pray Sir, be sure you do not change your Reso­lution for my sake. Clarks Mar.

XXVII. Valence the Emperor, being an Arrian, sent Messengers to St. Basil, to persuade him to imbrace that Heresy, they gave him good words, and promised him great Preferment, if he would do it; but he an­swered, Alas Sir, these Speeches are fitter to catch little Children that look after such things, than such as me, who being taught, and instructed by the Holy Scriptures, had rather suffer a thousand deaths, than that one syllable, or tittle of Gods Word should be altered; the Governor being in a rage, threatned him with confiscation of his Goods, Torments, Banishment and Death; Basil replied, He need not fear Confiscation, that had nothing to lose; nor Banishment, to whom Heaven only is a Country; nor Torments, when his Body may be dashed in pieces by one blow; nor Death, which is the only way to set him at liberty, and I wish it would fall out so well on my side, that I might lay down this Carcase of mine in the Quarrel of Jesus Christ, and in the defence of his Truth. The Praefect told him that he was mad; I wish, said he, that I may be for ever thus mad. Clarks Examples.

XXVIII. The same Emperor Valence coming to the City of Edessa, perceived that the Christians did keep their Assemblies in the Fields, for their Churches were pulled down and demolished, whereat he was so inra­ged, that he gave the President Methodius a box on the [Page 97] Ear for suffering such their Meetings, commanding him to take a Band of Soldiers, and to scourge with Rods, and knock down with Clubs as many as he should find of them; this his order being proclaimed, there was a Christian Woman, who with a Child in her Arms, ran with all speed toward the place, and was got amongst the ranks of those Soldiers that were sent out against the Christians, and being by them asked whither she went, and what she would have? she told them, That she made such hast, lest she and her little Infant should come too late to be partakers of the Crown of Christ amongst the rest of those that were to suffer; When the Emp. heard this, he was confounded, desisted from his enterprize, and turned all his fury against the Priests and Clergy. Wanly Hist. Man. p. 214.

XXIX. St. Chrysostom stoutly rebuked the Empress Eudoxia for her Covetousness, telling her, That she would be called a second Jezabel, and when she sent him a threatning Message, Go▪ tell her, said he, I fear nothing but Sin; and when she confederating with his other Ene­mies had procured his banishment, as he went out of the City, he said, None of these things trouble me, for I said before within my self, if the Queen will, let her banish me, the Earth is the Lords, and the fulness thereof; if she will; let her saw me asunder, the Prophet Isaiah was so used; if she will, let her cast me into the Sea, I will remember Jonah; If she will, let her cast me into a burning fiery Furnace, or to the wild Beasts, the three Children, and Daniel were so dealt with; If she will, let her stone me, or cut off my head; I have St. Ste­phen, and John the Baptist for my blessed Companions; If she will, let her take away all my goods and substance naked came I out of my Mothers Womb, and naked shall I return thither, again; He was so beloved, that on a time when he was like to be silenced, the people cried out, we had better want the shining of the Sun, then the Preaching of Chry­sostom Clarks Lives. p. 78.

XXX. In the persecution of the Church under the Arrian Vandals, who committed all manner of Cruelties upon the true Christians, there were a great number [Page 98] condemned to be burnt in a Ship, to which they were accompanied by a multitude of their Brethren, being led like innocent Lambs to the Sacrifice, and looking upon their weighty Chains and Irons, wherewith they were loaded, as rare Jewels and Ornaments, they went with all cheerfulness and alacrity to the place of Exe­cution, even as though they had gone to a Banquet, singing praises, with one voice unto the Almighty, as they went along the Streets, saying; This is our desired day more joyful to us then any Festival, behold now is the accepted time, now is the day of Salvation, when for the faith of our Lord God we suffer death, that we may not lose the Gar­ment of Faith and Glory; The People likewise with one voice cried out, Fear not O Servants of God, neither dread the Threats of your Enemies, die for Christ, who died for us, that he might redeem us with the price of his saving blood. Amongst them was a little Boy, to whom a subtle Sedu­cer said, why hastest thou my pretty Boy unto death, let them go, they are mad, take my Counsel, and thou shalt not only have life, but great advancement in the Kings Court; to whom the Lad answered, You shall not get me from the fellowship of these Holy Men who bred me up, and with whom I have lived in the fear of God, and with whom I desire to die, and with whom I trust I shall obtain the Glory to come, and so being all put into the Ship, they were burnt together. Clarks Martyr.

XXXI. Among others who were terribly tormen­ted, they tortured Women, and especially Gentlewo­men stark naked, openly, without all shame, and par­ticularly a young Lady called Dyonisia, whom they saw bolder, and more beautiful than the rest, they first com­manded her to be stripped stark naked, and made rea­dy for the Cudgels, who spake stoutly to them, saying, I am assured of the love of God, vex me how you will, only my Womanhood disclose you not; But they with the greater rage set her naked upon an high place for a publick spectacle; then did they whip her, till the streams of blood, did flow all over her body, whereupon she boldly said, Ye Ministers of Satan, that which you do for my [Page 99] reproach, is to me an honour. And beholding her only Son that was young and tender, and seemed fearful of Tor­ments, checking him with a Motherly Authority, she so incouraged him, that he became more constant than before, to whom in the midst of his terrible Torments she said, Remember O my Child that we are Baptized in the name of the Holy Trinity, let us not lose the Garment of our Salvation, lest it be said, cast them into utter darkness, where is weeping, and wailing, and gnashing of Teeth; for that pain is to be dreaded that never endeth; and that life to be de­sired, that always lasteth, The Youth was so incouraged hereby, that he persevered patient in all his sufferings, till in the midst of his Torments he gave up the Ghost, and many by this Ladies Exhortations and Example, were converted to Christianity, and animated in their sufferings; Not long after Cyrillus the Arrian Bishop of Carthage, stirred up Hunrick the Tyrant against the Christians, telling him, That he could never expect to enjoy his Kingdom in peace, so long as he suffered any of them to live, hereupon he sent for seven eminent Christians to Car­thage, whom he first assaulted with flattery, and large promises of Honour, Riches, &c. if they would im­brace his Faith; but these Servants of Christ rejected all his offers, crying out, One Lord, one Faith, one Baptism; saying also, do with our Bodies what you please, torment them at your will, it is better for us to suffer these momentary pains, than to indure everlasting Torments. Before this, Hunrick sent his Commissioners to impose the following Oath upon them under the utmost penalty, You shall swear that after the death of our Lord the King, his Son Hilderick shall succeed him in the Kingdom, whereupon some cryed out, we are all Christians, and hold the Apostolical, and only True Faith, and seeing further into the subtlety of this Oath, refused it, other well meaning men offered to take it; whereupon they were divided asunder, and committed to custody, the names of both Parties, and of what Cities they were, being taken in writing, and soon after the King sent them this Message; As for you that would have taken the Oath, because you, contrary to the rule [Page 100] of the Gospel, which saith, swear not at all, would have sworr, the Kings Will is, that you shall never see your Churches, nor Houses more, but be banished into the Wilderness, and there shall till the ground; But to the refusers of the Oath he said, Because you desire not the Reign of our Lord the Kings Son, you shall therefore be immediately sent away to the Isle of Corse, there to hew Timber for the Ships. Clarks Martyr.

XXXII. In the eighth Primitive Persecution under Valerianus, Sixtus Bishop of Rome, with his six Deacons, were accused for being Christians, whereupon being brought to the place of Execution, they were all behea­ded, St. Lawrence also another Deacon following Sixtus as he went to Execution, complained that he might not suffer with him, but that he was secluded as the Son from the Father; to whom the Bishop answered, That within three days he should follow him, bidding him in the mean time to go home, and if he had any Treasures, to distribute them among the Poor; the Judge hearing mention of Treasures, supposing that Lawrence had great store in his Custody, commanded him to bring the same to him; Lawrence craved three days respite, promising then to declare where the Treasure might be had; in the mean time he caused a great number of poor Chri­stians to be gathered together, and when the day of his answer was come, the Persecutor strictly charged him to make good his promise; but valiant Lawrence stretch­ing out his Arms over the poor, said, These are the precious Treasures of the Church, these are the Treasures indeed; in which Christ hath his Mansion; But O what Tongue is a­ble to express the fury and madness of the Tyrants Heart! how he stamped, stared, raved like one out of his wits, his Eyes glowed like Fire, his Mouth foamed like a Boar, he grindeth his Teeth like an Hell-hound, and then he bellows out; Kindle the fire, make no spare of Wood, hath this Villain deluded the Emperor? Away with him, whip him with Scourges, jerk him with Rods, buffet him with Fists, brain him with Clubs; what doth the Traytor jest with the Emperor? Pinch him with fiery Tongs, gird him with burning Plates, bring out the strongest Chains and Pire­forks, [Page 101] and the grate of Iron, set it on the fire, bind the Rebel hand and foot, and when the grate is red hot, on with him, rost him, broyl him, toss him turn him, upon pain of our high dis­pleasure do every man his Office, O ye Tormentors; Immedi­ately his command was obeyed, and after many cruel Tortures, this meek Lamb was laid, I will not say upon a Bed of fiery Iron, but on a soft down Bed, so mighti­ly did God work for his Servant, and so miraculously did he temper this Element of Fire, that it was not a Bed of consuming pain, but of nourishing rest unto Lawrence, so that the Emperor, and not Lawrence seemed to be tormented, the one broyling in the flesh, the other burning in his heart; when this Triumphant Martyr had been pressed down with Fire-forks for a great while in the mighty Spirit of God he spake thus to the Tyrant.

This side is now roasted enough,
Turn up O Tyrant Great;
And try whether roasted or raw,
Thou thinkst it's better meat.

By the couragious Confession of this worthy and va­liant Deacon, a Roman Soldier was converted to the same Faith, and desired to be Baptized, whereupon he was called before the Judge, Scourged, and afterward be headed. Acts and Mon.

XXXIII. In the Arrian Persecution in Africa, there was one Saturus a Nobleman, eminent for Piety, whom the Tyrant much laboured to withdraw from the Chri­stian Profession; but he refusing, the King told him, that if he presently consented not, he should forfeit his House, his Lands, his Goods, and his Honours, that his Children and Servants should be sold, and his Wife should be given to his Camel-driver, or one of the basest of his Slaves; but when threats prevailed not, he was cast into Prison; and when his Lady heard her doom, she went to her Husband as he was praying, with her Garments rent, and her hair dishevel'd, her Children at her heels, and a sucking Infant in her Arms, and falling down at her Husbands feet, she took him about the Knees, saying, Have compassion. O my [Page 102] sweetest, of me thy poor Wife, and of these thy Children, look upon them, let them not be made Slaves, let not me be yoaked in so base a Marriage; consider that what thou art required to do, thou dost it not willingly, but art constrain'd thereunto, and therefore it will not be laid to thy charge; But this valiant Soldier of Christ answered her in the words of Job, Thou speakest like a foolish Woman, thou actest the Devils part; If thou truly lovedst thy Husband, thou wouldst never seek to draw him to sin, that may separate him from Christ, and expose him to the second death; know assuredly that I am resolved, as my Saviour Christ commands me, to forsake Wife, Children, House, Lands, &c. that so I may enjoy him, and be his Disciple. And accordingly he was despoiled of all, and turned out a begging, yea, all Persons were forbid to harbour or relieve him. Acts and Monum. Vol. 1.

XXXIV. St. Jerom discovered his Christian Resolu­tion by this Speech, If, said he, my Father stood weeping on his knees before me, and my Mother hanging on my neck behind, and all my Brethren, Sisters, Children, Kindred, and Kinsfolks howling on every side to retain me in a sinful life, I would fling my Mother to the ground, despise all my Kindred, run over my Father, and tread him under my feet, that I might run to Christ when he calleth me; After his Condemnation by the cruel Papists, he said, I after my death will leave a remorse in your Consciences, and a Nail in your hearts, and I here cite you all to answer to me before the high and just Judge within an hund­red years; when he was brought forth to Execution, they prepared a great and long paper, painted about with red Devils, which when he beheld, throwing away his Hood, he put on this Miter upon his head, saying, Our L. Jesus Christ when he suffered death for me, the most wretched Sinner did wear a Crown of Thorns upon his head, and I for his sake will willingly wear this Cap; As he went to his suffe­ring, he sang some Hyms, and coming to the place of Execution, he was bound to the stake, and so fire was set to him, which he endured with admirable valour; for standing at the stake bound, and the Executioner kindling the fire behind him, he bid him kindle it be­fore his face, For, said he, if I had been afraid of it, I had [Page 103] not come to this place, having had so many opportunities offered me to escape it; The whole City of Constance admired his Christian Courage, and Resolution. At his giving up the Ghost he said,

Hanc animam in flammis offero, Christe, tibi.

This Soul of mine in flames of fire,
O Christ I offer thee.

XXXV. Many Christians being assembled together in a Church Maximinus the Tyrant, Emp commanded it to be surrounded with armed Men, and set on fire, but first proclaimed, that whosoever desired life should come forth, and worship the Idols, whereupon one stepping up into a Window, answered in the name of all the rest; We are all Christians, and will do service to none but the true God; Upon which speech the fire was kindled, and there were burnt many Thousands of Men, Women, and Children. In Thebaide so many Christians were slain, that the Swords of the Tormentors grew blunt, and they were so tired, that they were fain to sit down, and rest them while others took their places, and yet the Mar­tyrs were no whit discouraged, but to the last gasp sung Psalms of Praise unto God. Acts and Mon. Vol. 1.

XXXVI. Theodosius the Great, a Christian Emperor, having in Aegypt abolished their Heathenish Sacrifice and Worship, upon pain of Confiscation and death; the People fearing that the omission of their accustomed Superstitions, would make the River Nilus (which they honoured as a God) keep in his streams, and not water the Land as formerly, they thereupon began to mutiny; whereupon the President writ to the Emperor, beseech­ing him for once to gratify the People, by conniving at their Superstition, to whom he Heroically answered; That it was better to continue faithful and constant to God, than to prefer the over flowing of Nilus, and the fertility of the Earth before Piety and Godliness; and that he had rather Ni­lus should never overflow, than that they should make it rise by Sacrifices and Inchantments. Sozomen.

XXXVII. Benevolus was offered preferment by Justi­na the Empress, an Arrian, if he would be an instrument [Page 104] of some vile service, What saith he, do you promise me an higher place for a reward of Iniquity, nay take this away, that I have already with all my heart, so that I may keep a good conscience. And thereupon he threw his Girdle at her feet, which was the Ensign of his Honour. Acts and Mon. Vol. 1.

XXXVIII. It is said of Luther, that he alone opposed all the world; he used to say; Let me be counted proud or passio­nate, so I be not found guilty of sinful silence, when the cause of God suffereth. Madness in this case is better than mildness; Moderation here is meer sottishness, yea, it is much worse. He being cited by an Herald of Arms to appear before the Coun. at Wormes, many of his Friends persuaded him not to adventure himself to such a present danger, to whom he answered, That he was resolved, and certainly determined to enter into Wormes, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, al­though he knew that there were as many Devils to resist him, as there were Tiles to cover the Houses in Wormes. His Chri­stian Courage was extraordinary, and therefore when Melancthon knowing the rage of the Papists, and the Em­perors threats to subvert the Gospel, was much troubled at it, & gave himself wholly up to grief, sighs, and tears, Luther writ thus to him, In private conflicts I am weak, and you are strong; but in publick conflicts you are found weak, and I strong [...]r; because I am assured that our cause is just and true; if we fall, Christ the Lord and Ruler of the world fal­leth with us; and suppose he fall, I had rather fall with Christ, than stand with Caesar, I extreamly dislike your excessive cares, with which you say you are almost consumed, that these reign so much in your heart, it is not from the greatness of your dangers, but from the greatness of your incredulity; if the cause be bad, let us recant it, and flie back, if it be good, why do we make God a Lyar, who hath made us these great promises, cast thy care upon the Lord, &c. Be of good comfort, I have o­vercome the world. If Christ be the Conqueror of the world; why should we fear it, as if it would overcome us? A man would fetch such sentences as these upon his knees from Rome to Jerusalem; be not afraid, be couragious and cheer­ful, sollicitous for nothing; the Lord is at hand to help us. [Page 105] When King Henry the Eighth of England had writ bit­terly against Luther; Let the Henries, says he, the Bishops, the Turk, and the Devil himself do what they can, we are Chil­dren of the Kingdom, worshipping, and waiting for that Sa­viour, whom they, and such as they spit upon and crucify; Eras­mus writes thus, If saith he, Luther commending the Kings good intention, had proceeded by strong Arguments without vio­lating Kingly Majesty in my judgment he had taken a better course for the defence of his cause, for what made Luther use these words in his Book, come hither my Lord Henry, and I will teach you; to this Luther replies, If any man, saith he, be offended at my sharpness against the King, let him know that in that Book I deal with senseless Monsters, who contem­ned my best and most modest writings, and by my Humility and Modesty were more hardned in their Errors; Besides I abstai­ned from bitterness and Lies, with which the Kings Book was stuffed, neither is it any wonder if I contemn and bite an earthly King, when as he feared not at all in his writings to blaspheme the King of Heaven, and to prophane his Truth with virulent Lies. When Luther came to die, the Will which he made concerning his Wife and Child, was as follows; O Lord God, I thank thee, that thou wouldst have me live a poor and indigent Person upon Earth, I have neither House nor Land, nor Possessions, nor Money to leave, thou Lord hast given me Wife and Children, them Lord I give back to thee, nourish, instruct, and keep them; O thou Father of Orphans, and Judge of the Widows, do to them as thou hast done to me. When he was ready to die, Justus Jonas, and Caelius said to him, O Reverend Father, do you die in the constant confessi­on of the Doctrine of Christ, which you have hither­to Preached; to which he answered, Yea, which was the last word he spake; He made this verse some time before his death;

Pestis eram vivus, moriens ero mors tua Papa.
I living stopt Romes breath.
And dead will be Romes death.

[Page 106] One saith of him, that Luther a poor Fryar should be able to stand against the Pope, was a great Miracle; that he should prevail against the Pope was a greater; and after all, to die in peace was the greatest of all. Clarks Mirror.

XXXIX. Mr. Woodman a Martyr in Queen Maries Reign, speaks thus of himself; When I have been in Pri­son wearing Bolts and Shackles, sometimes lying upon the bare ground, sometimes sitting in the Stocks, some times bound with Cords, that all my Body hath been swoln, and I like to have been overcome with pain; sometimes forced to lie about in the Woods, and Fields, wandring too and fro; sometimes brought before the Justices, Sheriffs, Lords, Doctors, and Bishops; sometimes called Dog, Devil, Heretick, Whoremonger, Traytor, Thief, De­ceiver, &c. yea, and they that did eat of my Bread, and should have been most my Friends by Nature, have betrayed me, yet for all this, I praise my Lord God that hath separated me from my Mothers Womb; all this that hath happened to me, hath been ea­sy, light, and most delightful, and more joyful Treasure than ever I possessed. Acts and Mon.

XL. Archbishop Cranmer by the wily subtilties, and large promises of the Papists, was drawn to subscribe to a Recantation, yet afterward by Gods great mercy he recovered again; and when he was at the stake, and the fire kindled about him, he stretched out his right hand wherewith he had subscribed, and held it so stedfastly, and unmoveably in the flame (saving that he once wiped his face with it) that all men saw his hand burned, before the fire touched his Body, he also being replenished by the Holy Spirit, did abide his burning with such constancy and stedfastness, that always stan­ding in the place, his body moved no more than the stake to which he was bound. Acts and Mon.

XLI. Henry Prince of Saxony, when his Brother George sent to him, that if he would forsake his Faith, and turn Papist, he would leave him his Heir, but he made him this Answer, Rather than I will do so, and de­ny my Saviour Jesus Christ, I and my Kate, each of us with a staff in our hands, will beg our bread out of his Countries, Luth. Colloq. p. 248.

XLII. Mr. James Bainham being at the stake, in the midst of the burning fire, his Legs and Arms being half consumed, spake thus to the standers by, O ye Papists, behold you look for Miracles, and here now you may see one; for in this fire I feel no more pain than if I were in a Bed of Down, and it is to me as a Bed of Roses. Acts and Mon.

XLIII. The Earl of Morton a Religious and Prudent man, who was sometimes Regent in Scotland in King James his Minority, when the King had taken the Go­vernment into his own hand, was falsly accused, and unjustly condemned by his crafty and malicious adver­saries; the morning before he suffered, Mr Lawson, and two or three other Ministers of Edenburgh came to vi­sit him, asking him how he had rested that night? To whom he answered, That of a long time he had not slept more soundly, now I am, said he, at the end of my Troubles. Some nights before my Tryal I was thinking what to answer for my self, and that kept me from sleep, but this night I had no such thoughts. When he came to the Scaffold, he exhor­ted the People to continue in the profession of the true Religion, and to maintain it to the utmost of their power, intreating them to assist him in their Prayers to God; then going couragiously to the block, he laid down his head, and cried aloud, Into thy hand O Lord I commit my Spirit, Lord Jesus receive my Soul. Which words he repeated, till his head was severed from his Shoul­ders. A. B. Spotswood. Hist. Scotland. p. 314.

XLIV. The Lord Henry Otto being condemned at Prague for the Protestant Religion, at the place of Exe­cution he said, I was lately troubled, but now I feel a won­derful refreshing in my heart; And lifting up his hands to Heaven, he added, I give thee thanks O most merciful Savi­our, who hast been pleased to fill me with so much comfort, O now I fear death no longer, I shall die with Joy. About the same time two Dutchmen were taken at Prague, and ac­cused by some Monks of Lutheranism, for which they were condemned to be burnt; as they went to the place of Execution, such gracious words proceeded out of their mouths as drew Tears from the Spectators Eyes; [Page 108] when they came to the stake, they exceedingly incou­raged each other, one of them saying, Since our Lord Christ hath suffered such grievous things for us, let us chearful­ly suffer for him, and rejoice that we have found so much favour with him, that we are accounted worthy to die for the Word of God; The other said; In the day of my Marriage I found not so much inward Joy as I now do; When the fire was put to them; they said with a loud voice, Lord Jesus thou in thy sufferings didst pray for thine Enemies, therefore we also do the like. Clarks Martyrol. p. 177.

XLV. In the year 1555. there was one Algerius a Stu­dent of Padua in Italy, a young man of excellent Lear­ning; who having attained to the knowledge of the Truth, ceased not by instruction and example to teach others; for which he was accused of Heresy to the Pope, by whose command he was cast into Prison at Venice, where he lay long, and during that time he wrote an excellent Letter to the afflicted Protestants, wherein among many other divine expressions, he thus writeth; I cannot but impart unto you some portion of my Delectations, and Joys which I feel and find; I have found Honey in the in­trails of a Lyon, who will believe that in this dark Dungeon I should find a Paradise of Pleasure? For in the place of sor­row and death dwells Tranquillity, and hope of life, in an infer­nal Cave I have joy of Soul, where others weep, I rejoice; where others tremble, there I find strength and boldness; all these things the sweet hand of the Almighty doth minister unto me; behold he that was once far from me, whom I could scarce feel before, I now see apparently; whom I once saw afar off, I behold now near at hand; whom once I hungred for, he now ap­proaches, and reaches his hand to me. He doth comfort me, and fills me with gladness; he drives away all sorrow, & strengthens, incourages, heals, refreshes, and advances me; O how good is the Lord? who suffers not his Servants to be tempted above their strength; O how easy and sweet is this yoak! Learn therefore how amiable, and merciful the Lord is, who visiteth his Ser­vants in temptation, and disdains, not to keep them company in such vile and stinking Dungeons. And in conclusion he sub­scribes his Letter, From the delectable Orchard of the Leo­nine Prison. Clarks Martyr. p. 270.

XLVI. Henry Voes, and John Esch, who had been some­times Augustine Fryers, being converted, they were con­demned for the Protestant Religion, for which they gave thanks to God their Heavenly Father, who of his great goodness had delivered them from the false and a­bominable Religion, making them Priests to himself, and receiving them to himself as a Sacrifice of a sweet sa­vour; they went joyfully to the place of execution, pro­testing that they died for the glory of God, and the Doctrine of the Gospel, as true Christians, and that it was the day which they had long desired; they joyful­ly imbraced the stake, and endured patiently the Tor­ments of the fire; singing Psalms, and rehearsing the Creed in Testimony of their Faith, when the fire was kindled at their Feet, one of them said, Methinks you do strew Roses under my feet. Clarks Martyr. p. 279.

XLVII. Peter Spengler a pious and learned Minister in Germany, being condemned to death, as he was going to Execution said, I shall be an acceptable Sacrifice to my Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath given me a quiet conscience, as knowing my self innocent from the Crimes objected against me; as for my death it is all one to me whether I die thus or no, for if you had let me alone, I must shortly have forsaken this skin, which already scarcely hangs to my Bones; I know that I am a mortal, and corruptible Worm, I have long desired my last day, and have oft prayed that I might be delivered out of this mortal body to be joined to my Saviour Jesus Christ. Ano­ther Godly Martyr in that Country feeling the violence of the flames, said, O what a small pain is this, if compa­red with the Glory to come? One Audebert a French Pro­testant, being condemned to be burnt; when she was brought forth to Execution, and had a Rope put about her, she called it her Wedding Girdle, wherewith she would be Married unto Christ, and being to be burned upon a Saturday, she said; On a Saturday I was first Married, and on a Saturday I shall be Married again; She much re­joyced when she was put into the Dung-cart, and shewed such patience & constancy in the fire, as made all the Spectators to wonder at it. Clarks Martyr. p. 320.

XLVIII. Mr. John Rogers, the first Martyr in Queen Maries days, the Lords day before his death, drank to Mr. Hooper, who lay in a Chamber beneath him, bidding the Messenger to commend him to him, and tell him, That there was never little Fellow would better stick to a Man than he would to him, supposing that they should be both burned together, though it fell out otherwise. Clarks Martyr. p. 489.

XLIX. Mr. Lawrence Saunders, whilst he was in Pri­son, writ thus to his Wife. I am merry, and trust through Gods mercy I shall be merry in spight of all the Devils in Hell. Riches I have none to endow you with, but the Treasure of tasting how sweet Christ is to hungry Consciences, whereof I do thank my Christ I feel my part, this I bequeath unto you, and to the rest of my beloved in Christ. And again, Oh what wor­thy thanks can be given to our gracious God, for his unmeasura­ble mercies so powerfully poured out upon us; and I most unwor­thy wretch cannot but bewail my great Ingratitude toward so gracious a God, and so loving a Father; I beseech you all as for my other sins, so especially for my sins of unthankfulness to crave pardon for me in your earnest prayers; to number Gods mercies in particular, were to number the drops of Water in the Sea, the Sands on the shore, and the Stars in Heaven; O my dear Wife and Friends, rejoice with me, I say rejoyce with Thanks­giving, for this my present promotion, in that I am made wor­thy to magnify my God, not only in my life, by my slow mouth, and uncircumcised lips, bearing witness to his Truth, but also by my blood to seal the same, to the glory of my God, and to the confir­ming of his True Church, I do profess to you that the comforts of my sweet Christ do drive from me the fears of death. Clarks Martyr. p. 509.

L. When Dr. Rowland Taylor was brought before Stephen Gardiner Lord Chancellor, he said to him, Art thou come thou Villain? How darest thou look me in the face for shame? Knowest thou not who I am? To whom Dr. Taylor answered with Courage; How dare you for shame look any Christian man in the face, seeing you have forsaken the Truth, denied our Saviour Christ, and his Word, and done contrary to your Oath and Writing? And if I should be afraid of your [Page 111] Lordly looks, why fear you not God the Lord of us all; As he was going to Hadly to be burnt, when he came with­in two miles of it, he desired to alight, and when he was down, he leapt, and fetcht a frisk or two, saying, God be praised I am now almost at my home, and have not a­bove two stiles to go over, and then I am even at my Fathers House. Clarks Martyr. p. 509.

LI. Bishop Ridly in a Letter to Mr. Bradford writes thus, Sir, blessed be God, notwithstanding our hard restraint, and the evil report raised of us, we are merry in God, and all our care is, and by Gods Grace shall be, to please and serve him, from whom we expect after these temporary, and momenta­ry miseries, to have eternal joy, and perpetual felicity, with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, &c. The night before he suffered, he said, Though my breakfast will be somewhat sharp and painful, yet I am sure my supper shall be more pleasant and sweet. Clarks Martyr. p. 521.

LII. Mr. Bradford said, I thank God more for this Prison, and dark Dungeon, than for any Pardon; yea than for any plea­sure that ever I had; for in it I find God my most sweet God alwaies, He also told a friend that lay with him in the same Bed in Prison, that even in the time of his Exa­mination before Stephen Gardiner, he was wonderfully comforted, not only in Spirit, but also in Body; for he received a certain Tast of the Holy Communion of Saints, whilst a most pleasant refreshing did issue from every part of the Body to the seat and place of the Heart, and from thence to all the parts again. Clar. Mar. p. 94.

LIII. Bishop Latimer being brought before the Privy Council, was there entertained with many scoffs and scorns, and from thence was sent Prisoner to the Tower, where God gave him such a valiant Spirit, that he did not only bear the terribleness of his Imprisonment with admirable patience, but he derided, and laughed to scorn all the doings and threats of his Enemies. Ibid. p. 528.

LIV. Mr. John Philpot having lain for some time in the Bishop of Londons Cole-house, the Bishop sent for [Page 112] him, and among other questions, asked him why they were so merry in Prison? Singing, saith he, and re­joicing in your naughtiness, as the Prophet speaks, where­as you should rather lament and be sad; Mr. Philpot answered, My Lord, the mirth that we make, is but in sing­ing certain Psalms, as we are commanded by St. Paul, to re­joice in the Lord, singing together Hymns, and Psalms; for we are in a dark, comfortless place, and therefore we thus sollace our selves; I trust therefore your Lordship will not be angry, seeing the Apostle saith, If any be of an upright heart, let him sing Psalms. And we to declare that we are of an up­right mind to God, though we are in misery, yet refresh our selves with such singing; After some other discourse, saith he, I was carried back to my Lords Cole-house, where I with my six Fellow-Prisoners do rouze together in the straw as cheerfully I thank God, as others do in the Beds of Down. And in a Letter to a Friend he thus writes; Commend me to Mr. Elsing and his Wife, and thank him for providing me some ease in my Prison, and tell him, that though my Lords Cole-house is very black, yet it is more to be desired of the Faithful than the Queens Pallace; the World wonders how we can be so merry under such extream miseries, but our God is Omnipotent, who turns misery into felicity; believe me, there is no such joy in the world as the People of God have under the Cross of Christ; I speak by experience, and therefore believe me, and fear nothing that the world can do unto you, for when they imprison our Bodies, they set our Souls at liberty to converse with God, when they cast us down, they lift us up; when they kill us, then do they send us to everlasting life; what greater glory can there be then to be made conformable to our Head Christ; and this is done by Affliction, O good God, what am I, upon whom thou shouldst bestow so great a mercy? This is the way, though it be narrow, which is full of the Peace of God and leadeth to eternal bliss; oh how my heart leapeth for Joy, that I am so near the apprehension thereof, God forgive me my unthankfulness, and unworthiness of so great Glory; I have so much Joy, that though I be in a place of darkness and mour­ning, yet I cannot lament; but both night and day am so full of Joy, as I never was so merry before, the Lords name be praised [Page 113] for ever; our Enemies do fret, fume, and gnash their Teeth at it; O pray instantly that this Joy may never be taken from us, for it passeth all the delights in this world, this is the peace of God that passeth all understanding; this peace the more his chosen are afflicted, the more they feel it, and therefore cannot fail nei­ther for fire nor water. Ibid. p. 534.

LV. Thus the Lyon of the Tribe of Juda puts into his Servants his own Spirit, from whence proceeds their transcendent zeal and courage for the Truth; from this Spirit it was that John Rabeck a French Protestant, being required to pronounce Jesu Maria, and to join them to­gether in one Prayer, answered, That if his Tongue should but offer to pronounce those words at their bidding, himself would bite it asunder with his Teeth. Another Martyr said, If every hair of my head were a man, I would suffer death in the Opinion, and Faith I am now in; This Spirit was in St. Athanasius, Ambrose, Favel, and that noble Army of Martyrs; one of them told the Persecutors, That they might pluck the Heart out of his Body, but could never pluck the Truth out of his Heart; another said, That the Heavens should sooner fall than he would turn, a third said, Can I die but once for Christ? Thus did they undervalue life, and despise death, through that Divine Valour wherewith they were inspired, though death in itself is the King of Terrours, and very dreadful to man naturally, as by the following Example is demonstrated, with which I shall conclude this particular.

LVI. A Christian King in Hungary being on a time very sad, his Brother a Jolly Courtier, would needs know of him what ailed him, O Brother said he, I have been a great sinner against God, and I know not how to die, nor to appear before God in Judgment. These, said his Bro­ther, are melancholy thoughts, and withal made a jest at them; the King replied nothing for the present; but the custom of the Country was, that if the Executioner came, and sounded a Trumpet before any mans door, he was presently to be led to Execution; the King in the dead time of the night, sends the Hangman to sound his Trumpet before his Brothers door, who hearing it, [Page 114] and seeing the Messenger of Death, flies pale, and trembling, into his Brothers presence, beseeching him to tell him wherein he had offended; O Brother, replied the King, you have never offended me; and is the sight of my Executioner so dreadful, and shall not I that have greatly, and grievously offended God, fear to be brought before the Judg­ment Seat of Christ. Clarks Mirrour. p. 138.

LVII. Thus far we have seen the excellent effects of Natural and Christian Magnanimity, Courage and Faith­fulness; there is yet another sort of Fidelity, which is exceeding Praise-worthy, which is the Faithfulness of some men to their Engagements; and the Trust repo­sed in them; the Syrians were looked upon as men of no Faith, and not fit to be trusted by any man, and that besides their curiosity in keeping their Gardens, they had scarce any thing in them that was commendable. The Greeks also laboured under this imputation, as be­ing as false as they were Luxurious and Voluptuous; It is strange, that those who were so covetous after all o­ther kinds of improvement and knowledge, should in the mean time neglect that, which sets a fuller value upon man, than a thousand other accomplishments, namely his fidelity to his Promise and Trust.

LVIII. Ferdinand the first King of Spain, left three Sons behind him, Sanctius, Alphonsus, and Garcius, a­mongst whom he had also divided his Kingdoms; but they lived not long in mutual Peace, for soon after the death of their Father, Sanctius, who was of a fierce, and violent disposition, made War upon his Brother Alphonsus, overcame, and took him Prisoner, and thrust him into a Monastery; constrained Religion lasts not long, and therefore he privately deserted his Cloyster, and in company only of one Earl, he fled for protecti­on to Almenon King of Toledo, who was a Moor, and an Enemy to the others Religion; but there had been Friendship and Peace betwixt him, and Ferdinand the Father of this distressed Prince, and upon this account he chose to commit himself unto his Faith, and was cheerfully received by him; he had not been long with [Page 115] him, when in the presence of the King, the hair of this Prince was observed to stand up an end, in such man­ner, that being several times stroked down by the hand, they still continued in their upright posture. The M [...]orish Sooth sayers interpreted this to be a Prodigy of ill sig­nification, and told the King, that this was the man that should be advanced to the Throne of Toledo, and there­upon persuaded to put him to death; the King would not do it, but preferred his Faith given, to the fear he might apprehend, and thought it sufficient to make him swear, that during his life he should not invade his Kingdom; a while after King Sanctius was slain by Con­spirators at Zamora, and his Sister Ʋratta being well af­fected to this her Brother, sent him a Messenger, with Letters to invite him to the Kingdom, advising him by some craft, with all speed to quit the Country of the Barbarians where he was; Alphonsus bearing a grateful mind, would not relinquish his Patron in this manner, but coming to Almenon, acquainted him with the mat­ter; And now, said he, noble Prince, compleat your Royal Fa­vours toward me, by sending me to my Kingdom, that as hi­therto I have had my life, so I may now also receive my Scepter by your generosity; The King imbraced him, and wished him all happiness, But, said he, you had lost both Crown and life if with an ungrateful mind you had fled without my knowledge; For I knew of the death of Sanctius, and I si­lently waited what course you would take, and had disposed upon the way, such as I should have returned you back from your flight, had it been attempted. But no more of this, all I shall require of you is, that during your life you shall be a true Friend to me and my elder Son Hissemus. And so sent him away with Money, and an honourable retinue; this Alphonsus did afterward take the City, and Kingdom of Toledo, but it was after the death of Almenon and his Son. Lipsius Mon p. 321.

LIX. Antaff King of some part of Ireland, warring against King Ethelstan, disguised himself like an Harper, and came into Ethelstans Tent, whence being gone, a Soldier that knew him, discovered it to the King, who [Page 116] being offended with the Soldier for not declaring it soo­ner, the Soldier made this answer; I once served Antaff under his pay as a Soldier, and gave him the same Faith I now give you, if then I should betray him, what trust could your Grace repose in my Truth; let him therefore die, but not by my Trechery, and let your care remove your Royal self from dan­ger, remove your Tent from the place where it stands, lest at unawares he set upon you. Which the King did, and the Bishop pitching in the same place, was that night with all his Retinue slain by Antaff, hoping to have surprized the King, and believing he had slain him, because he himself knew his Tent stood in that place. Speeds Chro­cle, p. 381.

LX. Henry, King of Arragon and Sicily, was deceased, and left John his Son, a Child of twenty two months of Age, behind him, intrusted to the care and fidelity of Ferdinand, the Brother of the deceased King, and Uncle to the Infant; he was a man of great virtue and merit, and therefore the Eyes of the Nobles and People were upon him, and not only in private discourses, but in the publick Assembly, he had the general voice, and mutual consent to be chosen King of Arragon, but he was still deaf to these proffers, alledging the right of his Infant Nephew, and the custom of the Country, which they were bound the rather to maintain, by how much the weaker the young Prince was to do it; yet he could not prevail, though the Assembly was adjourned for that time; they met again in hopes that having time to consider of it, he would now accept it, who being not ignorant of their purpose, had caused the little Child to be clothed in Royal Robes, and having hid him under his Garment, went and sate in the Assembly; then Pa­ralus, Master of the Horse, by common consent did a­gain ask him, Whom O Ferdinand is it your pleasure to have declared our King? He with a severe look & voice replied, Whom but John the Son of my Brother? and withal took forth the Child from under his Robe, and lifting him up upon his Shoulders, cryed out, God save King John, and commanding the Banners to be displayed, cast himself [Page 117] first to the ground before him and then all the rest mo­ved by his example did the like. Camer. Horae Subs. p. 154.

LXI. John the first K. of France was overthrown in Bat­tel, and made Prisoner by Edw. the Black Prince, and after­wards brought over into England; Here he remained four years, and was then suffered to return into France, upon certain conditions, which if he could make his Subjects submit to, he should be free, if otherwise, he gave his faith to return; he could not prevail to make them accept of the hard Terms that were offered, whereupon he returned into England, surrendred him­self up, and there died. Fulgosus ex. p. 44.

LXII. Flectius a Nobleman, was made Governor of the City, and Castle of Conimbria in Portugal, by King Sanctius, 1243. This Sanctius was too much swayed by his Wife Mencia, and over-addicted to some Court Minions and Favourites, by reason of which, there was a Conspiracy of the Nobles against him, and the mat­ter was so far gone, that they had got leave of Pope In­nocent to translate the Government of the Kingdom to Alphonsus the Brother of Sanctius; hereupon followed a War, the minds of most men were alienated from their natural Prince, but Flectius was still constant, in­during the Siege and Arms of Alphonsus, and the whole Nation, nor could he any way be persuaded, till he heard that Sanctius was dead in banishment at Toletum; for whom now should he fight, or preserve his Faith? they advised him therefore to follow Fortune, and to yield himself, and not change a just Praise, for the Title of a Desperado and a Madman; Flectius heard, but be­lieved them not, he therefore beg'd leave of Alphonsus, that he himself might go to Toletum, and satisfy himself. It was granted, and he there found that the King was in­deed dead & buried, and therefore that he might as well be free in his own conscience, as in the opinion of men; he opened the Sepulcher, and with sighs, and tears, he delivers the very Keys of Conimbria into the Kings hands, with these words; As long, O King, as I did judge thee to [Page 118] be alive, I endured all extremities; I fed upon Skins and Lea­ther, and quenched my thirst with Ʋrine; I repressed, or quieted the minds of the Citizens that were inclining to Sedition, and whatsoever could be expected from a faithful Man, and one sworn to thy interest, that I performed, and persisted in, only one thing remains, that having delivered the Keys of the City to thine own hands, I may return freed of my Oath, and to tell the Citizens their King is dead, God send thee well in another, and a better Kingdom. This said, he departed, acknow­ledged Alphonsus for his lawful Prince, and was ever after faithful to him. Lipsius Monit. p. 324.

LXIII. King John had made Hubert Burgh, Governor of Dover Castle, and when King Lewis of France came to take the Town, and found it difficult to be overcome by force, he sent to Hubert, whose Brother Thomas he had taken Prisoner a little before, that unless he would sur­render the Castle, he should presently see his Brother Thomas put to death with exquisite Torments before his Eyes; but this Threatning moved not Hubert at all, who more regarded his own Loyalty than his Brothers life; then Prince Lewis sent again, offering him a great sum of Money, neither did this move him, but he kept his Loyalty as faithfully, and inexpugnably as he did his Castle. Bakers Chron. p. 110.

LXIV. Sanctius King of Castile, had taken Tariffa from the Moors, but was doubtful of keeping it, by rea­son both of the Neithborhood of the Enemy, and the great cost it would put him to, there was with him at that time Alphonsus Guzman, a noble and rich Person, a great Man both in Peace and War; he of his own ac­cord offered to take the care of it, and to be at part of the charge himself, and the King in the mean time might attend other affairs. A while after the Kings Bro­ther John revolted to the Moors, and with some Forces of their's, suddenly sate down before Tariffa; the Besie­ged feared him not, but relyed upon their own, and their Governors valour, only one thing unhappily fell out, the Son, and only Son of Alphonsus was unfortu­nately taken by the Enemy in the Fields, him they [Page 119] shewed before the Walls, and threatned to put him to a cruel death, unless they speedily yielded the Town; the hearts of all men were moved, only that of Alphon­sus, who cried with a loud voice, that had they a hun­dred of his Sons in their power, he should not there­upon depart from his Faith and Loyalty; and saith he, Since you are so thirsty for blood, there is a Sword for you; throwing his own Sword over the Wall to them; away he went, and prepared himself to go to Dinner, when upon the sudden there was a confused noise, and cry that recalled him; he again repairs to the Wall, and asking the reason of their amazement, they told him, That his Son had been put to death with barbarous. Cruelty; Was that it then, replied he? I thought the City had been taken by the Enemy. And so with his former unconcernedness, and tranquillity, he returned again to his Wife, and his Dinner; the Enemies astonished at the greatness of his Spirit, departed the Siege, without any further attempt upon the place. Lipsius.

LXV. Boges the Persian was besieged in his City Eto­na, by Cimon, General of the Athenians, and when he was offered safely to depart into Asia, upon delivery of the City, he constantly refused it, lest he should be thought unfaithful to his Prince; being therefore resol­ved, he bore all the inconveniences of a Siege, till his Provisions being now almost utterly spent, and seeing there was no way to break forth, he made a great fire, and cast himself, and his whole Family into the flames of it, concluding he had not sufficiently acquitted him­self of his Trust to his Prince, unless he also laid down his life for his Cause. Herodot. p. 417.

LXVI. Liamgzus, the Conductor of the Rebel Thieves, had seized the Empire of China, taken the Me­tropolis Peking, and upon the death of the Emperor, had seated himself in the Imperial Throne; he displa­ced, and imprisoned what great Officers he pleased; amongst the rest, was one Ʋs, a venerable Person, whose Son Ʋsangueius led the Army of China, in the confines of Leatung, against the Tartars; the Tyrant threatned [Page 120] this old man with a cruel death, if by his Fatherly pow­er he did not reduce him with his whole Army to the acknowledgment of his Power, promising great rewards to them both, if he should prevail, wherefore the poor old man writ thus to his Son; Know my Son, that the Emperor Zunchinus, and the whole Family of Taimingus are perished; the Heavens have cast the Fortune of it upon Licungzus, we must observe the times, and by making a vir­tue of necessity; avoid his Tyranny, and experience his liberality; he promiseth to thee a Royal Dignity, if with the Army you sub­mit to his Dominion, and acknowledge him as Emperor, my life depends upon thy Answer, consider what thou owest to him that gave thee life. To which his Son Ʋsanguineus retur­ned this answer; He that is not faithful to his Soveraign, will never be so to me, and if you forget your duty and fidelity to your Emperor, no man will blame me, if I forget my duty and obedience to such a Father, I will rather die, than serve a Thief; And immediately he sent an Ambassador to call in the aid of the Tartars, to subdue this Usurper of the Empire. Hist. China. p. 277.

CHAP. III. The Transcendent Effects of Chastity, Tempe­rance, and Humility; discovered in divers notable Histories.

THere is no Vice whatever that is easy to overcome; but that of the Lust of the Flesh seems to have a peculiar difficulty in the Conquest of it, as being born with us, and which accompanies us all along from the Cradle to the Tomb for the most part; having so firm­ly fixed its roots within us, that not one of manyis able to prevail against it; by how much the more strong there­fore the Enemy is, and the more intimate and familiar he is with us, the more noble is the Victory, and the [Page 121] Conquest more glorious, which yet some in all Ages have attained, as may appear by the following instances.

I. Scipio had taken the City of New Carthage, where be­sides the rest of the Spoil, there were found a number of Boys & Girls, the Children of the Nobility; amongst the rest, one Virgin was brought & presented to Scipio, whose marvellous beauty had attracted the Eyes of all men whithersoever she went; it was supposed this would be no unacceptable Present to the young General, but he as soon as he looked upon her, said only thus; I would accept, and enjoy this Virgin, were I a private Person, and not in such command as I am, for the Commonwealth keeps my mind sufficiently imployed, yet I receive her as a kind pledg to be by me restored, and returned where reason and humanity shall persuade; Thereupon he asked the young Lady of what Country she was, what her Birth was, and who her Parents; by whom he understood, that she was a Princess, and contracted to Lucius a young Prince of her Nation; the General therefore sent both for him & her Parents, and when come, setting the Virgin Lady by him, he spake thus to her Spouse; As soon as this Vir­gin was by my Soldiers brought and presented unto me, I did willingly behold the excellency of her form, and I praised the o­ther accomplishments of her body and mind, for nature hath not brought us forth blind, and altogether ignorant of such things; love can reach even this breast of mine, but then it must be an honest one, and such as the time, and my affairs will permit, though therefore she is mine by the right of War, I am not desi­rous in the midst of Arms to be concerned in such matters, nor perhaps is it comely to detain from a valiant Person, one that is already contracted to him; I have learnt thus much from her, and have therefore sent for you, that I might see you, and that I (Heaven is my witness) a chast Man, might deliver this chast Virgin to you; she hath lived with me with that caution and reservedness, as if she had been with her own Parents; nor was it a Gift worthy either of my self or thee, if either force, or pri­vate fraud had been any diminution to her Virtue, receive her inviolate, and enjoy her, nor will we have any other recompence besides thy self, that is, to have a cordial respect to Scipio and [Page 122] the Romans; The young Prince was astonished for joy, the Parents fell down at the feet of Scipio, and laying there a considerable sum of Gold, offered it as her ran­som; but he bid the young Prince take it as part of her Dowry from himself, above that which her Parents should give; thus did he overcome at once his Lust, and his Covetousness, and by this one Noble Act of his, drew a great part of Spain to the side of the Romans, they striving with eagerness to be subject to a Person of so much Virtue. Valer. Maxim. p. 133.

II. St. Jerome gives a relation of a young man of in­vincible courage, who when by all sorts of threatnings, he was not to be frighted into Idolatry, and the Wor­ship of the Heathen Gods, his Enemies resolved upon another course; they brought him into a Garden flow­ing with all manner of sensual pleasures and delights, there they laid him in a Bed of Down, safely inwrapped in a Net of Silk amongst the Lilies and Roses, with the delicious murmur of the Rivulets, and the sweet whistling of the winds amongst the leaves, and then all departed, there was then immediately sent unto him a young, and most beautiful Strumpet, who used all the abominable tricks of her impure Art, and whorish Vil­lanies to draw him to her desire; the Youth now fea­ring that he should be conquered with Folly, who had triumphed over fury, resolutely bit off a piece of his own Tongue with his Teeth, spitting it in the face of the Whore, and so by the smart of his wound, extinguished the rebellion of his flesh. Burtons Melancholy. p. 451.

III. Euphrasia a Virgin, being seized by a Soldier, and perceiving her self reduced to that condition, that nei­ther her strongest resistance, nor tears could any longer defend her Chastity from an armed and hold Ravisher, she bids him forbear, and that she would redeem at a valuable rate what she could not obtain by all her in­treaties; she tells him, that she was skilled in Magick, and that she knew of a certain Ointment, with which, if he once anointed his Body, he should be proof either against Sword or Dart, and that she would impart this [Page] [Page]

A Young Man Strangly Preserves His Religion & Chastily. Page. 122.

Ioan ye Lascivious Q. of Naples hangs her husband K Andrew Page. 158

[Page 123] secret to him, which to that day she had kept private, upon this condition, that he would solemnly swear from henceforth not to offer any injury to her Virgin Mo­desty; the Soldier touched with the ambition of Mili­tary Glory, swore readily to do what she desired, she left him a while, and having melted some Wax, and other Ingredients, she anointed her neck and shoulders suffi­ciently with it, then coming to the young man, she said; That you may understand that I have not dealt deceitfully with you, I will extort a belief from you at the hazard of my own Person; Come Soldier, and with the utmost force you are able, strike with your Sword upon this neck of mine, that I have so well secured with this Medicament, and thou shalt soon be con­vinced how safe I have rendred my self with this Artifice; He whose Lust was almost extinguished by the servent desire he had to make Tryal, drew out his Sword, and with force enough, let drive at the place the Virgin had designed him, the Sword entered so far into her Throat, that with one and the same blow he cut off his hopes of enjoying the Virgin, and her fears of losing her Virginity. Strada Prolus. Acad. p. 117.

IV. Sophronia Romana, when she could no longer put off the importunity of the Prince Decius, who had be­fore obtained the consent of her Husband, desired some short time of retirement before she resigned up her self to him, and then with a Dagger which she had closely conveighed into her Garments, she stabled her self to death; of which Act, hear what the Poet says.

The Chast Sophronia knows not how to escape,
Th' inevitable danger of a Rape,
Cruel Sophronia draws her hasty Knife;
And would relieve her Chastity with Life.
Doubtful Sophronia knows not what to do,
She cannot keep the one, and t'other too,
Sophronia's in a strait; one Eye is fixt
O'th Seventh Commandment, t'other on the Sixth.
To what extreams is poor Sophronia driven.
Is not Sophronia left at Six and Seven?

[Page 124] Again,

Sophronia chuses rather to commit
Self-murder than by violence to submit.
Her ventur'd Honour to th' injurious Trust
Of the Eye sparkl [...]ng Tyrants furious Lust;
What means Sophronia? Dare her Conscience frame
To act a sin, but to prevent a shame?

V. Timoclea was a Lady of Thebes, and at the taking of it, was forcibly ravished by a Thracian Prince, and she revenged the injury after this manner; dissembling the extream hatred which she bore to the Ravisher, she told him, she knew a place wherein much Treasure, and store of Gold was concealed; she led him to an out place belonging to the House, where there was a deep Well; and while the overcovetous Thracian leaned over too look into it, she tripped up his Heels, and sent him to the bottom of it, with a quantity of stones after him to hinder his Resurrection from thence for ever to the world; being afterwards brought before Alexander the Great, and charged with the death of this Captain of his, she confessed the Fact, and when he asked who she was. I am, said she, the Sister of that Theagines who died fighting valiantly against thy Father in the Fields of Chaeronea, the generous Prince hearing her resolute answer, freely dismissed her without punishment. Plu­tarchs Lives. p. 670.

VI. There was a Maid called Lucia, who lived a Vir­gin among many others, and whose exquisite beauty was sought unto with vehement sollicitation by a pow­erful Lord, who having Command and Authority in his hands, sent Messengers to seize on this innocent Lamb, and whilst they were at the Gate, threatning to kill her, and set all on fire, if this poor Creature was not delive­red into their hands; the Virgin came forth, What is it, said she, you demand? I beseech you tell me whether there be any thing in my Power to purchase your Lord and Masters [Page 125] Love? Yes, answered they in a flouting manner, your Eyes have gained him, nor can he ever have any rest till he en­joy them; Well go then, said she, only suffer me to go to my Chamber, and I will give satisfaction in this point; The poor Virgin seeing her self between the Hammer and the Anvil, she spake to her Eyes, and said, How my Eyes are you then guilty? I know the reservedness and simplicity of your glances; nor have I in that kind any remorse of Consci­ence; but howsoever it be, you appear to me not innocent enough, since you have kindled fire in the heart of a man, whose hatred I have always more esteemed than his love; quench with your blood the flames you have raised? Whereupon with a hand piously cruel, she digged out her Eyes, and sent the torn Relicks, imbrued in her blood to him that sought her, adding, Behold what you love; he seized with horrour and astonishment, hastened to hide himself in a Monastery, where he remained the rest of his days. Causins Holy Court. p. 106.

VII. When King Demetrius was at Athens, there was a young Boy of so lovely a Countenance, that he was commonly called, Democles the Fair, whom Demetrius sent for, and courted with fair speeches, large promises, and great gifts, and at other times he sought to terrify him with Threats, and all that he might gain the abomina­ble use of his Body; but the chast Lad was proof a­gainst all these, and to avoid the importunity of the King, he resorted not to the publick places of exercise, or to the Baths with his Companions as before, but used to wash himself in private and alone, Demetrius was in­formed of it, and finding his time, rushed in upon him, being alone; the Boy perceiving he could not now a­void the lust of this Royal Ravisher, had such extream horrour at the apprehension of it, that he snatched off the cover of the Caldron where the water was boyling and leaping into it, soon choaked himself, chusing rather to die, than to outlive the violation of his Chastity Plut. Lives. p. 377.

VIII. Cyrus had taken Captive the Wife of Tigranes, Son to the King of Armenia, and then asked him at what [Page 126] price he would redeem his Wife? At the price of my life, said he, rather than she should live in servitude, Cyrus well pleased at that answer, gave liberty to his Wife, her Fa­ther, and the rest of the Captives, and when amongst them there was great discourse of the Virtues of Cyrus, some also extolling the compleat shape of his Body; And, said Tigranes to his Wife, did he not seem to thee very beautiful; Really said she, I did not look upon him; Ʋpon whom then, said he? Ʋpon him, replied she, that said he would redeem my Captivity at the price of his life. Burtons Melan. p. 563.

IX. Zenophon writes of Cyrus, that when Pantheae a most beautiful Lady was taken Captive by him, and was now about to be brought into his presence, he ex­presly forbid it, lest he should violate his own and her chastity, though but with his Eyes; & when Araspes, one of his familiar Friends, persuaded him to go to her Tent, and confer with her, alledging, That she was of in­comparable excellency, and a Lady worthy of a Kings Eye; Ʋpon that account, replied he, there is the greater reason that I should forbear, for should I now make her a visit while I am at leisure, she may peradventure, so order the matter, as to occasion my return to her when I have very much business. Lip­sius Mon. p. 369.

X. Acciolin a Tyrant of Padua in Italy, in 1253. surprized by Treason a little Neighbour City, called Bassian, at which surprizal Blanch Rubea was taken with her Sword in her hand, her Husband having been slain, fighting valiantly, she was disarmed, and dragged by violence before the Tyrant, who extreamly taken with her beauty, laboured both by promises and threatnings to corrupt her chast mind, but finding the fortress not to be overcome this way, he resolved to carry it by plain force; but Blanche made shift by some pretence to rid her self out of his hands; and recovering a Window, threw her self from thence headlong to the ground, where she lay weltring in her own blood; she was ta­ken up half dead, carried to a Bed, and carefully looked after; when some days were passed over, and she was [Page 127] perfectly recovered, she was again brought before Ac­ciolin, where she still continued in her chast resolution, but the shameless Villain caused her to be bound, and held so fast by certain Grooms, the furtherers of his Debaucheries, that notwithstanding all the resistance she could possibly make, he defiled the Body of this excellent Lady; a mortal grief seized upon her for this execrable outrage, yet having dissembled it some few days, she gained leave of her Friends to see the body of her Husband, being then all putrified; at her desire the Tomb-stone was lifted up, and Blanche discovering the body, suddenly fell down upon it, drawing after her the stay that held up the stone, by the fall whereof her head was so bruised, and crushed, that death soon fol­lowed, and she was laid in the same Tomb with her beloved Husband. Camer. Medit. p. 224.

XI. Under this head may be likewise comprehen­ded that Modesty and Shamesacedness that is in the nature of some Men, and Women, which is generally an argument of a Soul ingenuously and virtuously incli­ned, as we may collect from the following Examples, and we may also pitty those whose Fate had been kin­der, if their Faces had not been altogether so tender. Maximilian the first, Emperor of Germany, forbid ex­presly, that his naked body should be seen after he was dead; he was the Modestest of all Mortals, none of his Servants ever saw him obey the necessities of nature, nor but few Physicians his Urine. Camer. Medit. p. 160.

XII. The Milesian Virgins were in time past taken with a strange distemper, of which the cause could not then be found out, for all of them had a desire to die, and a furious longing to strangle themselves; many fini­shed their days this way in private; neither the Tears, nor Prayers of their Parents, nor the consolation of their Friends prevailed any thing; but being more subtle and witty than those who were set to watch them, they dayly thus died by their own hands; it was therefore thought, that this dreadful thing came to pass by the express will of Heaven, and was therefore [Page 128] greater than could be provided against by humane in­dustry; till at last, according to the advice of a wise Man, the Council published this Proclamation; That every Virgin which from henceforth should lay violent hands upon her self, should, dead as she was, be carried stark naked along the Market place; by which means they were not only restrained from killing themselves, but also their desire of dying was utterly extinguished, a strange thing, that those who trembled not at death, which is the most formidable of all things, should yet, (through an innate Modesty) not be able to conceive in their minds, much less endure a wrong and reproach to that modesty, though dead. Causins Holy Court. p. 42.

XIII. A young Gentlewoman of Japan in the East-Indies, being on her knees at the end of the Table, wai­ting on her Master in the apartment of the Women, and over-reaching her self to take a Flaggon that stood a little too far from her, she chanced to break wind back­wards, which she was so much ashamed of, that putting her Garment over her head, she would by no means shew her face afterward, but with an inraged violence, taking one of her Nipples of her Breasts into her mouth, she bit it off with such fury, that she died in the place. Mandelsloes Travels. p. 190.

XIV. In the same Country, 1639. there was a great Lord, who having had an exact search made for all the young handsome Damsels in his Province to be disposed into his Ladies Service, amongst the rest, there was one brought, whom he was so taken with, that he made her his Concubine; she was the Daughter of a poor Soldi­ers Widow, who hoping to make some advantage to her self by her Daughters Fortune, wrote her a large Letter, wherein she expressed her necessitous condition, and how she was forced to sue to her for relief; while the Daughter was reading this Letter, her Lord comes into the room, and she being ashamed to discover her Mothers poverty, endeavours to hide the Letter from him, yet could she not convey it away so, but that he perceived it; the disorder he observed in her counte­nance, [Page 129] made him suspect something of design, so that he pressed her to shew him the Letter, but the more importunate he was, the more unwilling was she to sa­tisfy him; and perceiving there was no way to avoid it, she thrust it into her mouth so hastily, that thinking to swall wit down, it choaked her; this so incensed the Lord, that he immediately commanded her Throat to be cut, whereby they only discovered the Mothers Poverty, and the Daughters Innocency; he was so mo­ved thereat, that he could not forbear expressing it by Tears, and it being not in his power to make any other demonstration of his affection to the deceased, he sent for the Mother, who was maintained (saith my Author) amongst his other Ladies at the time we spake of, with all imaginable respect. Mandelsloes Travels. p. 190.

XV. King Henry the sixth of England, was so modest, that when in a Christmas a shew of Women was pre­sented before him, with their naked Breasts laid out, he presently departed, saying, Fie, fie, for shame, forsooth you are to blame. Bakers Chron. p. 287.

XVI. A grave and learned Minister, and ordinary Preacher at Alcmar in Holland, one day as he walked in the Fields for his recreation, was suddenly taken with a lask or looseness, and thereupon compelled to retire to the next Ditch; but being surprized at una­wares by some Gentlewomen of his Parish wandring that way, he was so abashed, that he did never after shew his head in publick, or come into the Pulpit, but pined away with Melancholy; Burtons Melanch. p. 92.

XVII. Marcus Scaurus was termed, The delight and glory of his Country; He at such time as he heard the Cimorians beat the Romans at the River Athesis, and that his Son, who was a Roman Soldier, was flying toward the City, sent his Son word, That he should much more wil­lingly meet with his Bones after he had been killed in sight, than to see him guilty of such horrible Cowardice, as to fly, and therefore that if he had any kind of Modesty remaining in him, degenerate Son as he was, he should shun the sight of his displea­sed Father, for the memory of his own youth did admonish him [Page 130] what a kind of Son Marcus Scaurus should esteem of, or despise Upon this news from the Father, the Sons modesty was such, that not presuming to shew himself in his sight, he was constrained to be more valiant against himself than the Enemy, and slew himself with his own Sword. Val. Maxim. p. 154.

XVIII. Temperance and Sobriety is likewise a very commendable virtue, whether in meat, drink, or other things; and therefore when one of the Spartans was asked, why his Countrymen did use to eat and drink so very sparingly, he answered, It is because we had rather consult for others, than that others should do so for us; Sharply implying, that Luxurious, and Intemperate men were utterly indisposed, and unfit for Council, and that Tem­perance and Sobriety do usually produce most whol­som advice; indeed as all other virtues are obscured by the want of this, so both the body and mind are wonderfully improved by it.

XIX. When Pausanias had overcome Mardonius in Battel, and beheld the splendid Utensils, and Vessels of Gold and Silver belonging to the Barbarian, he comman­ded the Bakers and Cooks to prepare him such a Sup­per as they used for Mardonius; which when they had done, and Pausanias had viewed the Beds of Gold and Silver, the Tables, Dishes, and other magnificent prepa­rations to his amazement; he then ordered his Servants to prepare him such a Supper as was usual in Sparta, which was a course Treat with black Broth and the like; when they had done it, and the difference appeared to be very strange, he then sent for the Graecian Comman­ders, and shewed them both Suppers, and laughing, said, O ye Greeks, I have called you together for this purpose, that I might shew you the madness of the Median General; who when he lived such a life as this, must needs come to in­vade us who eat after this homely and mean manner. Cam. Med. p. 365.

XX. Augustus Caesar, the Master of the World, was a Person of a very sparing Diet, and as abstemious in his drinking, he would feed of course Bread, and small [Page 131] Fishes, Cheese made of Cows Milk, green Egs, and the like; he drank but a small quantity at once, and but thrice at one Supper, his Supper consisted generally of three, and when he desired to exceed, but of six Dish­es, he delighted most in Rhetian Wine, yet seldom drank in the day time, but instead of drink, he took a sop of Bread in cold water or a slice of Cucumber, or a young Lettice head, or else some new gathered sharp and tart Apples, that had a kind of Winish Liquor in them; thus lived this great Person after a fashion, that some Coblers and Botchers, would almost be loth to be obliged unto. Sueton. Hist. p. 102.

XXI. Alphonsus the elder King of Sicily, had sudden­ly drawn out his Forces to oppose the passage of Jaco­bus Candolus over the River Vulturnus; he had forced his Troops back again, but being necessitated to stay there all day with his Army unrefreshed, a Soldier to­ward evening brought him a piece of Bread, a Radish, and a piece of Cheese, a mighty present at that time; but Alphonsus commending the Soldiers liberality, re­fused his offer, and said, It was not seemly for him to feast, while his Army fasted. Fulgosus Exercit. p. 501.

XXII. Cato the younger, marching with his Army through the hot Sands of Lybia, when by the burning heats of the Sun, and their own labour, they were pres­sed with an immoderate thirst, a Soldier brought him his Helmet full of water, which with much difficulty he had found, that he might quench his thirst with it; but Cato poured out the water in the sight of all his Army, and seeing he had not enough for them all, he would not tast it alone; by this example of his Temperance and Tollerance, he taught his Soldiers the better to en­dure their hardship. Diodor. Siculus.

XXIII. The Thracians as they lived in a Country that abounded with all things, especially with good Wine, so they were a People somewhat too much ad­dicted to Luxury; now when Agesilaus marched with his Army through their Country, the Thracians in hon­our of him, sent him a present of Meal, Geese, Cakes [Page 132] made of Honey, and divers other things of great price, together with Junkets, and variety of sweet­mea [...]s; of all these, Agesilaus only accepted of the Meal, commanding that all the rest should be carried back a­gain by those who had brought them; but when they importuned him with earnest intreaties, that he would be pleased to accept them; he commanded that all those things should be distributed, and divided among the Helotes, that is, a sort of Slaves belonging to the Lacede­monians; and when some asked him the reason of that Action of his, he told them, That such kind of delicates were unseemly for Men who were addicted to the study of Vir­tue and Valour, and that those things which insnared servile natures and dispositions should be kept far off from Men of Freedom and liberal Education. Langi [...] Polyanthea. p. 460.

XXIV. The Kings of India used to dry the Bodies of their Ancestors, which done, they caused them to be hung up at the roof of their Pallace in precious Cords; they adorned them with Gold and Jewels of all sorts, and so preserved them with a care and reverence little short of veneration itself; of the like ridiculous super­stition are they guilty who make over-careful and cost­ly provisions for these bodies of theirs, which will ere long be breathless, and stinking Carkases; they are usu­ally Souls of an over-delicate, and voluptuous constitu­tion and temper, that are so delighted with this kind of Luxury, whereas the most worthy men, and Persons of the greatest improvements by reason and experience, have expressed such a Moderation and Temperance herein, as may almost seem a kind of carelesness, and neglect of themselves.

XXV. Rodulphus Emperor of Germany, did not at all differ from a private Person in his habit, and being at Mentz, he walked outone morning alone; the Air was cold and piercing, and therefore having observed a fire in a Bakers shop, he boldly went in, and began to warm himself; but the Woman of the House, judging of him only by his Apparel, after she had treated him with a more than sufficiency of ill language, began so to threa­ten [Page 133] him with scalding water, that he was constrained to depart: nor was he thus meanly accoutred upon ordinary days, but even in that great solemnity, when Ottacarus the King of Bohemia being overcome, was re­ceived by him to pay him homage upon his knees; the King of Bohemia came with a gallant and splendid re­tinue, his Attendants, and their Horses shone with Jew­els, Gold and Silk, and when the Emperor was advised by his Nobles to appear in his Imperial Robes, No, said he, the King of Bohemia hath often laughed at my Grey-Coat, and now my Grey-Coat shall laugh at him. Lipsius Monit. p. 357.

XXVI. There is now to be seen in the Chamber of Accounts of Lewis the Eleventh, King of France, in 1461. Two shillings for Fustian to new sleeve His Ma­jesties old Doublet, and three half pence for liquor to grease his Boots; I chuse rather to call it his Frugality than Covetousness, in as much as no man was more libe­ral of his Coin when occasion required, as Philip Con­vines, who writ his History, and was also of his Council doth frequently witness. Clarks Mirrour. p. 232.

XXVII. Mr. Herbert relates, that at the Reception of the English Lord Ambassador in the Court of Persia, the Potshaw, or Emperor of Persia, Abbas, sate upon two or three white silken shags, and though he was more beloved at home, more famous abroad, and more formidable to his Enemies than any of his Predecessors, yet he was seen at that time in a plain red Callico Coat, quilted with Cotton; as if he should have said, we might see his Dignity consisted in his parts and pru­dence, and that he did not endeavour to steal respect by borrowed colours, or rich Imbroideries. His Tur­bant was white and large, his wast was girded with a thong of Leather, and his Courtiers were but ordinari­ly attired. Herberts Travels. p. 170.

XXVIII. Alexander the Great, in his Habit and Ap­parel, differed very little from a private person, and when one day after much labour and sweat, he was a­bout to bath himself in the River Cydnus, he undressed [Page 134] himself in the sight of his Army, esteeming it a piece of Gallantry to shew that he was content with such ap­parel as was cheap, and easily procurable; as he was marching through some deserts in Persia, himself and his Army were in great streights for want of water, and one of his Soldiers having two of his Sons ready to die for Thirst, fearched about, and at last found a little water, with which he filled a leather Bottle, and so was running with it to his Sons; but by the way meeting Alexander, he filled out the water in a dish, and offered it to him, Alexander asked him whither he was carrying it? The man told him, To his Sons who were ready to die with Thirst; but, said he, Pray Sir do you drink it, for if my Sons die, I can get more: but if you die, we shall not have such another King; Alexander hearing this, gave him the water again, and bid him carry it to his Sons; at another time being in the like streights in the Deserts of Arabia, some of his Soldiers by chance found some muddy water, wherewith one of them fi [...]ing his Helmet, ran with it to Alexander; who took it, and thanked him for his diligence, but poured the water upon the ground, though he was exceeding thirsty, faying, If I alone should drink, it would make my Soldiers languish, and according­ly they seeing his Temperance, encouraged themselves by his Example, and marched forward. Quintus Cur­tius.

XXIX. Charles the fifth, Emperor of Germany, was very frugal, especially once, being to make a Royal en­trance into the City of Millain; there was great prepa­ration for his entertainment, the Houses and Streets were beautified and adorned; the Citizens dressed in their richest Ornaments, and a golden Canopy was pre­pared to be carried over his head, and great expectati­on there was to see a great and glorious Emperor; but when he entred the City, he came in a plain black cloth Cloak with an old Hat on his Head, so that they who saw him, not believing their Eyes, asked which was he, laughing at themselves for being so deceived in their expectations. Clarks Mirrour. p. 233.

XXX. Mr. Hollingsheld writes, that he knew an old Man, who told of the former times in England, and af­firmed, that if the Master of the House had a Matriss, a Flock-bed, and a sack of Chaff to rest his head on, he thought himself as well lodged as the Lord of the Town. For ordinarily they lay upon straw Pallets covered with Canvass, and a round log of Wood under their heads instead of a Bolster, saying, that soft Pillows were fit only for Women in Child-bed, and in a good Far­mers House, it was rare to find four pieces of Pewter; and it was counted a great matter that a Farmer should shew five shillings, or a Noble together in Silver. Clarks Mirrour. p. 1.

XXXI. Let us next remark the Affability, and Hu­mility of several Persons, and certainly the greatest Examples of Courtesy and Humility have been found amongst them that have been truly Great, and of the best merit, according to the advice of the Comedian.

When Fortune doth us most caress,
And higher still advance;
Then should we most our selves suppress,
As subject unto chance.

XXXII. Elizabeth was the Daughter of the King of Hungary, and was Married to Lewis Earl of Thuringia, yet in the midst of Riches and abundance, she affected Poverty, and Humility, sometimes when she remained at home with her Maids, she put on her meanest Ap­parel, saying, That she would never use any of her Ornament whatsoever, if it would please the good and merciful God to put her into such a condition, wherein she might freely dispose of her self, and live according to her own inclin [...]tion. When she went to Church, her manner was to place her self a­mongst the poorer sort of Women; after the Death of her Husband, she undertook a Pilgrimage, according to the Superstition of those times, wherein she gave to the poor and necessitous all that came to her hands to dispose of; she built an Hospital, wherein she made her [Page 136] self an Attendant upon the sick and poor, and when by her Father she was recalled into Hungary, she refused to go, preferring this manner of life before the enjoy­ment of a Kingdom. Zuinglius Theat. p. 85.

XXXIII. Trajan the Emperor, was a Person of such rare Affability, and Humility, that when his Soldiers were wounded in any Battle, he himself would go from Tent to Tent, to visit, and take care of them, and when Swaths and other Cloths were wanting to bind up their Wounds, he did not spare his own linnen, but tore them in pieces to make things necessary for the wounds of his Soldiers, and being reproved for his too much fa­miliarity with his Subjects, he answered, That he desired to be such an Emperor to his Subjects, as he would wish, if he himself were a private man. Imper. Hist. p. 144.

XXXIV. Upon the death of Pope Paul the Third, the Cardinals being divided about the Election, the Imperial party, which was the greatest, gave their Vote for Cardinal Pool, an Englishman, which being told him, he disabled himself, and wished them to chuse one that might be most for the Glory of God, and the good of the Church; upon this stop, some that were no Friends to Pool, and perhaps expected the place themselves, if he were put off, laid many things to his charge, and a­mongst others, that he was not without suspition of Lu­theranisme, nor without blemish of Incontinence; but he cleared himself so handsomely, that he was now more importuned to take the place than before, and there­fore one night, the Cardinals came to him being in Bed, and told him they came to adore him, which is a cir­cumstance of the new Popes Honour, but he being a­wakened out of his sleep, and acquainted with it, made answer, That this was not a work of darkness, and there­fore required them to forbear till next day, and then to do as God should put it into their minds; but the Italian Cardi­nals attributing this his Humility to a kind of stupidity and sloth in Pool, looked no more after him, but the next day chose Cardinal Montanus Pope, who was after­ward named Julius the Third. I have read of many [Page 137] that would have been Popes, but could not; I write this man one that could have been Pope, but would not. Loyd's State Worthies.

XXXV. Among other Virtues of the Lord Cromwell aforementioned, his Humility was admirable, of which, the following Relation is one instance. On a time as he was riding in his Coach with Archbishop Cranmer through Cheapside, he there espied a poor Woman of Hounsloe, to whom he was indebted for certain old Reckonings, to the value of forty shillings, he caused her to be called unto him, where questioning with her what her name was, and where she lived, and withal asking her whether he was not somewhat indebted to her, she said, yes, but she never durst call upon him for it, though now she stood in great need of it; He thereupon present­ly sent her to his House with one of his men, and when he came from the Court, he did not only discharge his debt, but gave her an yearly pension of four pound, and a Livery every year after, so long as she lived. Clarks Lives. p. 21.

XXXVI. In the Reign of Theodosius the Emperor there happened a great tumult in Thessalonica, a rich and, populous City of Macedonia, amongst the People against the Magistrates and Governors under the Emperor, and their Fury grew so great, that they slew them, which when Theodosius understood, he was so incensed against them, that he caused his Soldiers to put ten thousand of the common people to death, making no difference be­tween the guilty and innocent; St. Ambrose hearing of it, when the Emperor came to Church, as his manner was, Ambrose set himself at the Church door, and that his Repentance might be as publick as his Offence, he told the Emperor, That he should not enter there, making a learned Oration to him, wherein he opened his fault, and then Excommunicated him; all which the Empe­ror heard with great patience, and returning to his Pallace, he continued there eight months before he was Absolved, at the end whereof he said to one about him, Truly I will go and see what Pennance my Pastor will [Page 138] lay upon me for mine offence; and so he went to the Church door, where St. Ambrose was, and intreated him to ab­solve him; But what Repentance have you shew'd, said the Bishop, for so hainous an Offence? And with what Salve have you healed so mortal a wound? You, said the Emperor, are to in­struct, and shew me what I am to do, and you shall see I will accomplish what you shall prescribe; The Bishop seeing the Emp. Mildness and Humility, and judging it sufficient pen­nance, that he had been so long Excommunicated, cour­teously replied, Your Pennance Theodosius shall be this, that seeing in your hasty fury you committed such an horrid Mur­ther, you shall presently establish a Law, that no man whom you shall adjudge to die, shall be executed within thirty days after you have pronounced the Sentence; at the end of which time, you shall either ratify, or disannul your Sentence, as you shall see cause. The Emperor immediately caused this Law to be written, and proclaimed, which he ever after ob­served, and whereof much good ensued; and so being absolved, he came into the Church, prayed, and recei­ved the Sacrament, and ever after loved St. Ambrose very dearly, and used his Council in many matters, and for his Companies sake, he continued in Millain the remain­der of his life. Clarks Lives. p. 20.

XXXVII. It is reported by Gualter Mapes, an old Historian of ours, who lived four hundred years since, that King Edward the first of England, and Leoline Prince of Wales, being at an interview at, or near Aust upon Se­vern in Glocestershire, and the Prince being sent for, but refusing to come, the King would needs go over to him; which Leoline perceiving, went up to the Arms in water, and laying hold on the Kings Boat, would have carried the King out upon his Sholders, adding, That his Humili­ty and Wisdom had triumphed over his pride and folly; and thereupon was reconciled to him, and did his homage. Burtons Melanch. p. 307.

XXXVIII. After what manner Humility and Com­passion doth sometimes meet with unexpected rewards, methinks is prettily represented by Ʋrsinus Velius in the following Verses.

[Page 139]
A Fisher angling in a Brook,
With a strong line, and baited Hook!
When he for his wish'd Prey did pull.
It happen'd he brought up a Skull,
Of one before drown'd; which imprest
A Pious Motion in his Breast,
Thinks he, since I such leisure have,
Ʋpon it I'le bestow a Grave,
For what did unto it befal,
May chance to any of us all.
He takes it, wraps it in his Coat,
And bears it to a place remote,
To bury it, and then digs deep,
Because the Earth it safe should keep.
And lo! in digging he espies,
Where a great heap of Treasure lies.
For Heaven do's never prove ingrate,
To such as are Commiserate.

XXXIX. Alphonsus the most noble King of Arragon, Naples, and Sicily, as he passed through Campania, lighted by accident upon a Muleteer, whose Mule overladen with Corn, stuck in the Mire, nor was he able with all his strength to deliver her thence; the Muleteer besee­ched all that passed by to help him but in vain; at last the King himself dismounts from his Horse, and was so good an help to the poor man, that he freed his Beast; when he knew it was the King, falling on his knees, he begged his pardon, the King with courteous words dis­mist him; this may seem a thing of small moment, yet hereby several People of Campania became reconciled to the King. This same Prince being informed by his Vice-Roy at Naples, that in his absence one of those two mighty Ships which he had built, and which seemed like Mountains, by the negligence of the Seamen, had taken fire, and was burnt down; he told the Messenger, That he well knew that Ship, though great and magnificent, would yet after some years be corrupted, or perish by some, acci­dent [Page 140] or other, and that therefore the Vice-Roy, if he were wise, would bear that misfortune with an equal mind, as he himself did. By this may be discovered the humility, and patience likewise of this great Personage, which are both very excellent Accomplishments, but especially when they have been improved so far, as to repress our rising Passions in the midst of injurious Provocations, and under great losses, and injuries received, in bearing patiently reproofs from Inferiors, and likewise in sup­porting men in the midst of the most exquisite torments and hardships, of all which we have divers instances in History, and shall relate some of each particular.

XXXIX. Philip, King of Macedon, had one Nicanor, that went about rayling against him, whereupon his Courtiers, persuaded him to punish him severely for it, to whom Philip answered, Nicanor is none of the worst of my Subjects, I must rather therefore observe and see whether I have not committed any evil whereby I have gi­ven him cause to speak so evil of me; And making serious inquiry, he found, that there was a certain poor man, who had deserved well of him, to whom he had never given a reward, whereupon he made him large satis­faction, and the poor man did every where extol his goodness and bounty; then said Philip to his Attendants, You see my Friends, it is in our own power either to be spoken well or ill of. The Peleponesians, who had received many and great favours from King Philip, yet hated him, spoke evil of him, and when he came to the Olympick Games, hissed at him, whereupon his Friends stirred him up to revenge, but he mildly answered them, saying, If they do thus when I do them good, what would they do, if I should do them hurt. At another time the Athenians sending Ambassadors to request some favours of him, he enter­tained them courteously, and granted their requests, asking them if there were any thing else wherein he might gratify the Athenians, to which one of them an­swered, Yes truly, if thou wilt hang thy self This exceed­ingly inraged Philips Courtiers; but he without being moved, sent them away courteously, only bidding them [Page 141] tell the Athenians, That they who spake such things, were far weaker than those who could hear, and bear them patiently. He used to say, That he was beholding to the Athenian Orators, who by their reproaches made him better, whilst he was forced by his Actions to confute their slanders, and make them Lyars. As King Philip besieged the City of Methon, and was walking about to view the Walls, one shot an Ar­row at him from thence; whereby he put out his right Eye, which yet he took so patiently, that when the Citi­zens a few days after sent out to treat with him about the surrender, he gave them honourable terms, and af­ter they had put the City into his hands, took no re­venge on them for the loss of his Eye. In one Battle having taken a considerable number of Prisoners, he was himself in Person to see them sold; as he sate in his Chair, his Cloths were turned up, or tucked up higher than was decent or seemly, when one of the Prisoners, who was upon sale, cryed out unto him; Good my Lord, I beseech you parden me, and suffer me not to be sold amongst the rest, for I am a Friend of yours, and so I was to your Father before you; I pray thee, good Fellow, said Pri­lip, whence grew this great Friendship betwixt us; and how comes it about? Sir, said the Prisoner, I would gladly give you an account of that privately in your Ear; Then Philip commanded he should be brought unto him, who thus whispered in his Ear; Sir, I pray you let down your Maritle a little lower before, for sitting thus in the posture as you do, you discover that which is not meet to be seen; hereupon Philip spake aloud to his Officers, Let this man, said he, he set at liberty, for in truth he is one of our good Friends, and wisheth us well, though I either knew it not before, or at least had for­gotten it. A poor old Woman came to him one time, and desired him to take notice of her Cause, & when she had often interrupted him with her clamours in this man­ner, the King at last told her; he was not at leisure to hear her, No, said she, be not then at leisure to be King; Philip for some time considered of the Speech, and pre­sently he heard both her and others, that came with complaints to him. Plutarchs Morals.

XL. Pyrrhus King of Epirus, was advised to put an idle Fellow out of the City, who spake nothing but e­vil against him; he replied, It's better to keep him here still, speaking evil of us but to a few, but if we drive him away, he will speak evil of us every where; At another time several young men were brought to him, who in their drink spoke very vilely, and basely of him, Pyrrhus asked them whether the Complaint were true or not? It is true, said one of them, if it please your Grace, and had not our Wine failed us, we had spoken a great deal more, Pyrrhus laughing at this answer, dismissed them without punishment. Plutarchs Lives.

XLI. Antigonus the Successor of Alexander the Great, lay long sick of a lingering disease, and afterwards when he was recovered & well again, We have gotten no harm, said he, by this sickness, for it hath taught me not to be so proud by putting me in mind that I am but a mortal man. Antigonus once in Winter time was driven to incamp in a place destitute of all provisions necessary for the life of man, by occasion whereof, certain Soldiers not knowing that he was so nigh unto them, spake very pre­sumptuously of him, and reviled him to purpose; but he opening the Cloth or Curtain of his Pavillion with his walking Staff, If, said he, you go not farther off to rail at me; I will make you to repent it, and so withdrew him­self. Plutarchs Morals.

XLII. King Robert was one of the greatest Kings of France, on a time he surprized a Rogue, who had cut a­way half of his Cloak furred with Ermines, to whom, yet so taken, and in an Act so insufferably presumptu­ous, he did no further evil, but only said mildly to him, Save thy self, and leave the rest of my Cloak for another who may have need of it. Causins H. Cour.

XLIII. Casimer King of Poland, intending to divert himself, called a Knight, one of his Domestick Servants to him, inviting him to play with him at Dice; they did so, and Fortune was favourable one while to one, and then to the other, so that having spent much time in gai­ning little upon each other, and it being grown far in [Page 143] the night, it was agreed to set the whole sum in contro­versy upon one single cast of the Dice, Casimer proved the more fortunate, and drew all the mony to him; the Knight displeased, and incensed at his bad fortune, in the heat of his impatience falls upon the King, and with his fist strikes him over the mouth, It is a capital Crime for the Servant to strike his Lord, and the same also his Prince; but though all present were inraged at this un­sufferable action, yet he escaped by the benefit of the night, though not so, but that he was seized in the morning, brought back, and set in the presence of Casi­mer to receive his Sentence; he having well weighed the matter, brake into this wise Speech, My Friends, this man is less guilty than my self, nay, whatever is ill done, is on my part; Heat, and sudden Passion, which sometimes over­sways even wise men, did transport him, and moved both his mind, and hand to do as he did. But why did I give the cause? Why unmindful of my place, and dignity, did I play with him as my equal; And therefore, says he to the Knight, take not only my Pardon, but my Thanks too, for by a profitable correcti­on thou hast taught me, that hereafter I should do nothing which is unworthy of a Prince, but retain my self in the just limits of decency and gravity; Having said this, he freely dismissed him. Lipsius Monit.

XLIV. Frederick was made Bishop of Ʋtricht, and at the Feast, the Emperor Lodovicus Pius sitting at his right hand, admonished him, that being mindful of the profession he had newly taken upon him, he would deal justly, and as in the sight of God, in the way of his vo­cation, without respect of Persons; Your Majesty gives me good advice, said the Bishop, but will you please to tell me, whether I had best begin with this Fish upon my Trencher, at the Head or the Tail? At the head, said the Emperor, for that is the more Noble part; Then Sir, said the Bish­op, in the first place, do you renounce that Incestuous Marriage you have contracted with Judith; the Emperor took this reprehension so well, that he dismissed her accordingly. Polybius, p. 223.

XLV. Alexander the Great having taken a famous Py­rate, [Page 144] and being about to condemn him to death, asked him, Why dost thou trouble the Seas? And why said he, dost thou trouble the whole world? I with one ship seek my Adven­tures, and therefore am called a Pyrate, thou with a great Ar­my warrest against Nations, and therefore art called an Empe­ror; so that there is no difference betwixt us, but in the name. Alexander was so well pleased with this his freedom of Speech, that in consideration of what he had said, he dismissed him, without inflicting any punishment upon him. Chetwind. Hist. Collect.

XLVI. There came a young man to Rome, who in the opinion of all men, exceedingly resembled Au­gustus Caesar the Emperor, whereof he being informed, sent for him; being in presence, he asked him, if his Mother had never been at Rome; the Stranger answe­red, No, but his Father had; the Emperor took patiently this sharp reply, and sent him away without harm. Po­lythron. p. 147.

XLVII. Marcus Antonius Pius, the Emperor, used to take well the free and merry Jests of his Friends, even such as seemed to be uttered with too great a freedom and liberty; coming once to the House of Omulus his Friend, and beholding there at his entrance divers Pil­lars of Porphry, he inquired whence they were brought? Omulus told him, That it became him that set his foot into another mans House, to be both deaf and dumb; He meant he should not be curious and inquisitive. The Emperor was delighted with this freedom, so far was he from resenting it in such a manner as some others would have done. Wanly Hist. Man. p. 204.

XLVIII. Such has been the invincible patience of some men, that the incredible strength of their minds hath not only prevailed over the weakness of their flesh, but reduced it to a temper capable of induring as much as if it had been of Brass, or something, that if possi­ble is yet more insensible. Of such a temper Janus Au­ceps, a wicked Person seem'd to be, who dwelt in a lone house by the highway side without the East-gate of the City of Copenhagen in Denmark; this man in the night [Page 145] had murdered divers Persons, and knocked them on the head with an Ax, at last he was discovered, taken, and condemned to a terrible death; he was drawn upon a sledge through the City, he had pieces of flesh pluck­ed off from his Body with burning Pincers; his Legs and Arms were broken, his Tongue was pulled out of his Mouth, thongs of his skin were cut out of his back, his breast was opened by the speedy hand of the Exe­cutioner, his heart was pulled out, and thrown at his face; all this the stout-hearted man bore with an invincible courage; and when his heart lay panting by his side; in the midst of such torments as he yet underwent, he mo­ved his head, and looked upon the By-standers with a frowning aspect, and seemed with curiosity to contem­plate his own heart, till such time as his Head was cut off. Bartholin. Anat.

XLIX. William Collingborn Esq being condemned for making this Rhime on King Richard the Third,

The Cat, the Rat, and Lovel the Dog,
Rule all England under a Hog;

Alluding to Catesby, Ratcliff, and Lovel, the three great Favourites of Richard, in whose arms there was pictured a Hog; the poor Gentleman was put to a most cruel death, for being hanged, and cut down alive, his bowels ript out, and cast into the fire, when the Exe­cutioner put his hand into the bulk of his body, to pull out his heart, he said, Lord Jesus! yet more trouble, and so died to the great sorrow of much people. Fabians Chro. p. 519.

L. When we were come within sight of Buda in Hungary (saith Busbequius) there came by the command of the Turkish Bassa some of his Family to meet us with divers great Officers; but in the first place a Troop of young men on Horseback, made us turn our Eyes to them, because of the Novelty of their Equipage, which was thus; upon their bare heads, most of which were shaven, they had cut a long line in the skin, in which [Page 146] wound they had stuck Feathers of all kinds, and they were dewed with drops of blood, yet dissembling the pain, they rid with as much mirth and cheerfulness, as if they had been void of all sense; just before me, there walked some on foot, one of these went with his naked arms on his side, in each of which he carried a Knife, which he had thrust through his Arms, just above the Elbow; another walked naked from his Navel upward, with the skin of both his Loins, so cut above and be­low, that he carried a Club, which stuck therein, as if it had hung at his Girdle, another had fastened a Horse­shoe with divers nails upon the crown of his Head, but that was done a long while, the nails being so grown in the flesh, that the Shoe was made fast; in this pomp we entred Buda, and were brought into the Bassa's Pal­lace, in the Court of which stood these generous con­temners of Pain; as I chanced to cast my Eye that way, What think you of these men, said the Bassa; Well enough, said I, but that they use their flesh in such a manner as I would not use my Cloths, being desirous to keep them whole; The Bassa smiled at this answer, and dismissed us. Busbe­quius Epist. p. 226.

LI. There is a notable example of tolerance, which happened in our times, in a certain Burgundian, who was the Murderer of the Prince of Orange; this man, though he was scourged with rods of Iron; though his flesh was torn off with red hot, and burning Pincers, yet he gave not so much as a single sigh or groan, nay, fur­ther, when part of a broken Scaffold fell upon the head of one that stood by as a Spectator, this burned Villain in the midst of all his Torments laughed at the Accident; although not long before, the same man had wept when he saw the curls of his hair cut off Wanly Hist. Man, p. 206.

LII. It was also an Example of great patience in this kind, which Strabo mentions in his Geography, that Zarmonochaga, the Ambassadour from the Indian King, having finished his negotiation with Augustus Caesar, ac­cording to his own mind, and having sent an account [Page 147] thereof to his Master, because he would have no fur­ther trouble for the remaining part of his life (after the manner of the Indians) he burnt himself alive, preser­ving all the while the countenance of a man that smiled. Fulgosus Ex. p. 348.

LIII. Most eminent was the example of Hieronimus Olgiatus, a Citizen of Millain, who was one of those four that did assassinate Galeacius Sforza, Duke of Mil­lain; being taken, he was thrust into Prison, and put to bitter Tortures; now although he was not above two and twenty years of Age, and of such a delicacy and softness in his habit of body, that was more like to that of a Virgin than a man; though he was never ac­customed to the bearing of Arms, by which it is usual for men to acquire vigour and strength; yet being faste­ned to that Rope upon which he was tormented, he seemed as if he sate upon some Tribunal, and free from any expression of grief, with a clear voice, and an un­daunted mind, he commended the Exploit of himself, and his Companions; nor did he ever shew the least sign of Repentance; in the times of the intermissions of his Torments, both in Prose and Verse, he celebra­ted the Praises of his Confederates; being at last brought to the place of Execution, beholding Carolus and Fran­cion two of his Associates, to stand as if they were al­most dead for fear; he exhorted them to be couragi­ous, and requested the Executioners that they would begin with him, that his Fellow-sufferers might learn patience by his Example; being therefore laid naked, and at full length upon the Hurdle, and his Feet and Arms fast bound down to it, when others that stood by, were terrified with the shew and horrour of that death that was prepared for him, he with specious words, and as­sured voice, extolled the gallantry of their Action, and appeared unconcerned with that cruel kind of death he was speedily to undergo; yea, when by the Executioners knife he was cut from the shoulder to the middle of the breast, he neither changed his Countenance, nor his voice, but with a Prayer to God [...] ended his life. Fulgo. Ex. p. 365.

CHAP. IV. The Tremendous Consequences of Hatred, Re­venge, and Ingratitude: Displayed in many memorable Histories.

HItherto we have discovered only the light side of the Cloud, by shewing the extraordinary effects of Love, Friendship, Magnanimity, Courage, Fidelity, Chasti­ty, Temperance, and Humility; Let us now consider a little the dark side thereof, by giving an account of the dread­ful consequences of the contrary Vices, that is, Hatred, Revenge, and Ingratitude, which three will suffice to give some considerable instances in this Chapter, wherein I shall observe the same method as in the former, and therefore shall insist, first, of the extream Hatred in some Persons toward others; for as amongst the kinds of living Creatures, there are certain Enmities and Dissentions, whereof there is no apparent reason to be given; as of that betwixt the Spider and the Serpent, the Ant and Weasel, and the like; so amongst Men, implacable Hatreds are conceived many times upon undiscernible, but most times upon unjustifiable grounds.

I. When Sigismund, Marquess of Brandenburg, had ob­tained the Kingdom of Hungary, in right of his Wife, it then appeared what a mortal hatred there was be­twixt the Hungarians and Bohemians, for when Sigismund commanded Stephanus Konth (and with him twenty more Hungarian Knights) to be taken, and brought him in Chains, as Persons that had delivered the obedience they owed him; not one of all those would name or honour him in the least as their King; and before ei­ther they or their Servants would change their minds, [Page 149] they were desirous to lose their heads. Pulgosus p. 1189.

2. Timon the Athenian, had the Sirname of Manhater, he was once very rich, but through his liberality, and overgreat bounty, he was reduced to extream poverty; in which condition he had large experience of the ma­lice and ingratitude of such as he had formerly been helpful to; he therefore fell into a vehement hatred of all mankind, he was glad of their misfortunes, and pro­moted the Ruine of all men as far as he might with his own safety; when the People in honour of Alcibiades, attended on him home, as they used, when he had ob­tained a Cause; Timon would not, as he was wont to others, turn aside out of the way, but would meet him on pur­pose, and use to say to him, Go on my Son, and prosper, for thou shalt one day plague all these People with some signal Ca­lamity, which accordingly happened some years after; he built him an House in the Fields, that he might shun the converse of men; he admitted to him only one Apemantus, a Person much of his own humour, and he saying to him; Is not this a fine Supper? It would, said he, be much better if thou wert absent; This Timon gave order his Sepulcher should be placed behind a Dunghill, and this to be his Epitaph.

Hic sumpost vitam miseramque inopemque sepultus.
Nomen non quaeras Dii te Lector male perdant.
Here now I lie after my wretched fall,
Ask not my Name, the Gods confound you all.

III. Hyppolitus was also of the same Complexion, as he expresses himself in Euripides, and Seneca; if you will have a tast of his language, that in Seneca sounds to this purpose;

—I hate, stie, curse, detest them all,
Cail't Reason, Nature, Madness, as you please,
In a true Hatred of them there's some ease,
[Page 150]
First shall the water kindly dwell with fire,
Dread Gulphs shall be the Mariners desire,
Out of the West shall be the break of day;
And cruel Wolves with tender Lamb-skins play,
Before a Woman gain my conquer'd mind,
To quit this hatred, and to grow more kind.

IV. Gualter Earl of Brenne, had married the eldest Daughter of Tancred King of Sicily, and as Heir of the Kingdom, went out with four hundred Horse, to take possession thereof; by the help of these, and a mar­vellous felicity, he had recovered a great part of it; but at the last he was overcome, and taken Prisoner by Theo­baldus Germanus, at the City Sarna; upon the third day after, the Conqueror offered him his liberty, and resto­ration to his Kingdom, upon condition he would con­firm to Theobaldus what he was possessed of therein, but he, in an unconceivable hatred to him that had made him his Prisoner, replied, That he should ever scorn to re­ceive these, or greater offers from so base a hand as his; Theo­baldus had reason to resent this affront, and therefore told him, He would make him repent his so great insolence; at which Gualter inflamed with a greater fury, tore his Cloths, and broke the swathings and ligatures of his wounds, crying out, That he would live no longer, since he was fallen into the hands of such a man that treated him with Threats; upon which he tore open his wounds, and thrust his own hands into his Bowels; and after that, re­solvedly refusing all food, and ways of cure, he forci­bly drove out his furious Soul from his Body, and left only one Daughter behind him, who might have been happier, had she not had a Beast to her Father. Fulgosus. p. 1182.

V. Who can sufficiently declare the mighty hatred which Pope Boniface the Eighth bore toward the Gi­belline Faction? It is the custom that upon Ash-Wednesday, the Pope sprinkles some Ashes upon the heads of the chief Prelates of the Church, and at the doing of it, u­sed to say, Remember thou art Ashes, and that into Ashes thou [Page 151] shalt return; When therefore the forementioned Pope came to perform this to Porchetus Spinola, Archbishop of Genoa and suspected him to be a favourer of the Gibel­lines, he cast the Ashes not on his head, but into his Eyes, and perversely changed the use of the former words into these, Remember thou art a Gibelline, and that with the Gibellines thou shalt return into Ashes. B. Reynolds on the Passions.

VI. Calvin was so odious to the Papists, that they would not name him, hence in their Spanish Expurgato­ry Index. p. 204. they give this direction, Let the name of Calvin be suppressed and instead of it put, Studiosus qui­dam, a certain Student, or Schollar; and one of their Pro­selites went from Mentz to Rome, to change his Christian name of Calvinus into the adopted name of Baronius. Chetwinds Collect. p. 90.

VII. This passion of Hatred, Malice, Anger, Wrath, and Envy is a very dangerous disease where­ever it prevails, and like the mischievous evil Spirit in the Gospel, it casts us into all kind of dangers, and frequently hurries us into the Cham­bers of Death itself; The Sarmatian Ambassadors cast themselves at the Feet of Valentinian the first, Em­peror of Rome, imploring Peace; he observing the mean­ness of their Apparel, demanded if all their Nation were such as they; who replied, It was their Custom to send to him such as were the most Noble, and best accoutred amongst them; Upon hearing which, he in a rage cried out, It was his mi [...]fortune, that while he reigned, such a base and sor­did Nation as theirs, could not be content with their own bounds and limits; and then as one struck with a Dart, he lost both his voice and strength, and in a deadly sweat fell down to the Earth; he was taken up, and carried into his Chamber, where he was seized with a violent hick­up, and gnashing of Teeth, of which he soon after di­ed in the 55th year of his Age. Zuinglius.

VIII. In 1418. Wenceslaus King of Bohemia, being highly incensed against his Cup-bearer, for that know­ing of a Tumult raised by the Hussites in Prague, under [Page 152] Zisea their Leader, he had concealed it, drew his Dag­ger with intention to stab him; but the Nobles who attended, laying hands on the King, took away his Dag­ger, that he might not pollute his Royal hands with the blood of his Servant; while he was thus in their hands, the King through extream Anger, fell into an Apoplexy, whereof he died in few days. Donatus Hist. p. 188.

IX. Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, being spent with the pains of the Gout, and taken with the Palsey in both his legs, lay at Vienna, and on Palm-Sunday in­quiring for some fresh Figs of Italy for the second course, finding that they were already eaten up by the Courtiers, he fell into such a rage, as brought him into a Feaver, whereof he died the day following. Zuing­lius.

X. Charles the sixth, King of France, being highly dis­pleased with the Duke of Brittain, upon some suspici­ons of him, was so bent upon Revenge, that unmindful of all other things, his Passion suffered him not to eat or sleep; he would not hear the Dukes Ambassadours that came to declare his Innocency; but in the midst of Summer he set forth out of the City with his Forces, a­bout high noon in a hot sultry day with a light Hat upon his Head, contrary to the advice of his Commanders and Physicians; he leaped upon his Horse, and bid them follow him that loved him; he had scarce gone a mile from the City, when his mind was disturbed, and distracted, and he in a fury drew his Sword, slew some, and wounded others that attended him, till such time as being weary, and spent with thus laying about him, he fell from his Horse; he was taken up, and carried back in the Arms of Men into the City for dead; where af­ter many days, when at first he neither knew himself nor any about him, he began by degrees to recover, but his mind was not so well restored, but that he had some­times some symptoms of a Relapse; and at several inter­vals discovered his distemper, so that the Government of the Kingdom was committed to his Uncles. Zuing­lius.

XI. Marcus Sabinus came to live at Rome, at such time as Numa Pompilius was elected King thereof; when Nu­ma was dead, he hoped to be chosen by the People to succeed him; but finding that Hostilius was prefer'd be­fore him, he resented the matter with that passion and indignation, that his life growing irksome unto him, he laid violent hands upon himself, and so went disconten­ted out of the world; of what strange fury was this man possessed? what flames, what ruines, what slaughter, and bloodshed of the Roman People can we imagine could satisfy the anger and revenge of this man? who when he was able to do nothing against the People of Rome, proceeded so sharply, and so bitterly against himself, as to resolve not to live at all; because, accord­ing to his mind he might not live a King. Fulgosus.

XII. Amurath the second Emperor of the Turks, ha­ving long besieged the City of Croia in Hungary, and as­saulted it in vain, and being no way able, either by force or flattery to bring the valiant Scanderbeg to Terms of submission and agreement, and being angry that his Presents and Propositions were refused, he resolved to make a terrible assault upon Croia from all Quarters, but this by the Courage of the Christian Soldiers, proving a greater loss to him than any before, not being able to behold the endless slaughter of his men, he gave over the assault, and returned into his Camp, as if he had been a man half frantick, or distracted of his Wits, and there sate down in his Tent all that day, full of melan­choly passions, sometimes violently plucking his hoary beard, and white locks, complaining of his hard and disastrous Fortune, that he had lived so long to see those days of disgrace, wherein all his former glory, and tri­umphant Victories were obscured by this one base Town; his Bassa's, and grave Counsellors by long dis­courses sought to comfort him, but dark and heavy con­ceits had so overwhelmed the melancholy old Tyrant, that nothing could content his inraged mind, or revive his dying Spirits; so that the little remainder of natural heat, which was left in his aged Body, was now opprest, [Page 154] and almost extinguished, and he became sick for pure anger and grief; and feeling his sickness dayly to in­crease, so that he could no longer live, lying upon a Pal­let in his Pavilion, he sadly complained to his Bassa's, That the Destinies had blemished all the former course of his life with such an obscure death, that he who had so often resisted the fury of the Hungarians, and almost brought to nought the Pride of the Graecians, together with their Name, should now be inforced to give up the Ghost under the walls of an obscure Castle, and that in the sight of his contemptible Enemy; short­ly after he became speechless, and striving with the pangs of death half a day, he then expired, in 1450. Turkish Hist. p. 330.

XIII. To proceed in the method of the former part, let us next consider that unnatural hatred which has been found among the nearest Relations, and first, of the Hatred of Husbands to their Wives; for there are some brutish, and evil natured men, who by pretences of Generosity, Love and Virtue inveagle the hearts of poor innocent Virgins, till they are become the Masters of their Fortunes and Honour, which done, death itself is more desirable than that bitterness and indignity they are wont to treat them with.

XIV. Periander the Corinthian, in a high fit of passion trod his Wife under foot, and although she was at that time with Child with a Boy, yet he never desisted from his injurious treatment of her, till such time as he had killed her upon the place; afterward when he was come to himself, and was sensible that what he had done, was through the false Accusations of his Concubines, he cau­sed them all to be burnt alive, and banished his Son out of his Kingdom, upon no other occasion, but that he lamented the death of his Mother with Tears and Out­cries. Wanly Hist Man. p. 372.

XV. Amalasuntha had Married Theodabitus, and there­by made him her Husband, and the King of the Goths at the same time, but upon this Condition, That he should take an Oath that he would rest contented with the Title of a King, and leave all matters of Government to her sole dispose; [Page 155] But no sooner was he accepted as King, but he forgot his Wife and Benefactress, he recalled her Enemies from Banishment, and put many of her Friends and Relati­ons to death; he banished her into an Island, and set a strong Guard upon her; at last he thought himself not sufficiently safe, so long as Amalasuntha was alive, and thereupon he dispatched several of his wicked Instru­ments to the place of her Exile, with order to put her to death, who finding her in a Bath, gave her no fur­ther time, but strangled her there. Zuinglius Theat.

XVI. Mrs. Joyce Lewis being questioned for her pro­fessing the Protestant Religion in Queen Maries Reign, was cited to appear before the Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, who after Examination, gave her a months time to consider of it, taking a Bond of her Husband at the months end to bring her thither again; when the time was near expired, many Friends advised him ra­ther to forfeit his Bonds, than to cast her into the fire; but he churlishly answered, That he would lose nothing for her sake; and so delivering her up, she was condemned, and burned. Clarks Martyr. p. 191.

XVII. Arsinoe the Widdow of Lysimachus, was after­ward Married to her own Brother Ptolomy (according to the Custom of that Country) she received him into her City Cassandrea; but he presently seizing upon the Castle, there he slew her two Sons which he had by Ly­simachus, one being sixteen years old, and the other but three, and in their Mothers Arms; at which, she ren­ding her Cloths, and tearing her hair; was by his Com­mand halled out of the Gates of the City, with two Servants only to attend her, and sent into banishment to the Isle of Samothracia; but shortly after, this barbarous Wretch was overthrown in a Battel against the Gauls, and himself being taken, was by them torn in pieces. A. B. Ʋshers Annals.

XVIII. Some Wives have likewise been unnatural in their hatred to their Husbands, and have deported themselves so ill toward them, that they have not only tormented the Lives, but hastened the death of their [Page 156] too indulgent Husbands. We read that Alborinus, King of the Lumbards, having slain the King of the Gepidae, made a drinking Cup of his Skull, Rosamond the Daugh­ter of that King he had taken to Wife, and being one day very merry at Verona, he forced her to drink out of that detested Cup; which she so stomached, that she promised Helmichild a Courtier, that if he would aid her in killing the King, she would give him both her self, and the Kingdom of Lumbardy. This he consented to, and performed, after which, they were both so hated, that they were constrained to fly to Ravenna, unto the pro­tection of Longinus, who persuaded her to dispatch Hel­michild out of the way, and to take him for her Husband, to which she willingly agreed. Helmichild coming out of the Bath, called for drink, and she gave him a strong poyson; when he had drunk half of it, and found by the strong operation how the matter went, he compel­led her to drink the rest, and so both died together. Heylin Cosmog. p. 64.

XIX. Among those who were persecuted, and mise­rably imprisoned for the Profession of the Protestant Religion in the Reign of Queen Mary, there was one John Fetty, a Religious Man, living in Clerkenwell in Lon­don, who was complained of to the Parson of the Parish by his own Wife, because he came not to Church, nor would partake of their Idolatrous Services; whereupon the Parson caused the Constables to apprehend him, but it pleased God that his unnatural Wife immediate­ly fell mad upon it, and the Constables were so far mo­ved with pity, that they let him go home to look to his Wife and Children, who otherwise were like to perish; this good man forgetting this unkind, and wicked Act of his Wife, was very careful of her, and so cherished, and provided for her that through Gods mercy she was well amended, and in about three weeks recovered her wits again, yet such was the power of the Devil in this wicked and malicious womans heart, that so soon as she was recovered, not regarding her Husbands kindness, she again accused him, whereby he was apprehended, [Page 157] and cast into Lollards Tower, where he was put into the tormenting stocks with a dish of water, and a stone in it set by him, to shew what favour he should receive at their hands. There he lay for many days, sometimes hang­ing by one leg and one arm, and somtimes by another, and at other times by both. At last one of his Children of about eight or nine years old came to the Bishops House, to see if he could get leave to speak with his Father, and one of the Bishops Chaplains meeting with the Boy, asked him, what he looked for? The Child answered, That he came to see his Father who was in Lollards Tower; why said the Priest, thy Father is an Heretick; the Boy being of a bold and quick Spirit, and well educated by his Father, answered, My Father is no Heretick but you are an Heretick, for you have Balaams Mark on you. With that the Priest took him by the hand, and led him into the Bishops House, where amongst them, they stripped the Child naked and cruelly whipt him till he was all over gore blood; then Cluny the Bishops Sumner, put­ting on his shirt, and carrying his Coat on his arm, led him to the Prison with the blood dropping at his heels to his Father. At his coming in the Boy fell on his knees, and craved his Fathers blessing; the Father be­ing full of grief to see his Child thus cruelly dealt with, said, Alas William who hath done this? The Boy answer­ed, As I was coming to see you, a Priest with Balaams Mark took me into the Bishops House where I have been thus used. Hereupon Cluny violently plucked him from his Father, and carried him back to the Bishops House where they kept him three days; and then bloody Bonner intend­ing to appease the poor man for the usage of his Child, sent for him out of Lollards Tower to his Chamber; whilst this John Fetty, was standing there with the Bish­op, he spied a great pair of black Beads, hanging by his Bed and thereupon said to him, My Lord I think the Hangman is not far off, for the Halter, pointing, to the Beads, is here already; this much inraged the Bishop, yet Fetty spying also a Crucifix standing in the Window said, My Lord what is that; the Bishop answered, It was [Page 158] Christ; was he handled, said Fetty, so cruelly as he is here pictured, Yes, said Bonner, that he was; and even so cruelly, said Fetty, do you handle such as come before you, for you are to Gods People even as Caiaphas was to Christ; the Bishop was so inraged at this that he swore he would burn him, or else spend all that he had to his Gown, yet afterward bethinking himself of the danger that the Child was in by reason of their cruel usage of him, he discharged him, bidding him go home, and take his Child with him, which he accordingly did, with an heavy heart for his poor Boy who within fourteen days after dyed. Book Martyrs, vol. 3.

20. Joan Grand-Child to Robert King of Naples by Charles his Son succeeded his Grand Father in the King­dom of Naples and Sicily. 1343. A woman of a beauti­ful body, and rare indowments of nature, she was first Married to her Cousen Andrew, a Prince of Royal Extra­ction, and of a sweet and loving disposition; but he be­ing not able to satisfy her wantonness, she kept com­pany with leud Persons, at last she grew weary of him, complaining of his insufficiency; and caused him to be hung and strangled upon a beam in the night-time in the City of Aversa, and then threw out his body into a Garden, where it lay some days unburied; It is said that this Andrew on a day coming into the Queens Chamber, and finding her twisting a thick string of Silk and Silver, demanded of her for what purpose she made it, she answered, To hang you in; which he then little believed, the rather because those who intend such mischief, use not to speak of it before hand, but it seems she was as good as her word. Fullers H. state. p. 348.

21. Bithricus King of the West Saxons Married Ethel­burga, Daughter of Offa King of Mercia, by whom after he had reigned seventeen years, he was poysoned, and buried at Warham; upon which occasion it was ordained by the nobles, that from thenceforth the Kings Wives should not be called Queens nor be suffered to sit with them in place of Estate; this Ethelburga fled into France with infinite Treasure, where offering a mighty [Page 159] Sum of her Gold to Charles King of France, he put her to her choice, whether she would have him or his Son to her Husband, she chose the Son by reason, as she said, That he was the youngest; then said Charles, hadst thou cho­sen me thou shouldest have had my Son, but now thoushalt neither have him nor me; and then sent her into a Monastery to be made a Nun where she continued an Abbess for some years, but afterwards being found to have com­mitted Adultery with a Lay-man, she was cast out of the Monastery, and ended her life in poverty and much misery; Stows Chronicle. p. 77.

22. When Alexander the great had determined to invade the Dacae, where he knew Spitamenes was, who not only had revolted himself, but had also drawn divers others into the society of his Rebellion, and had at sometimes overthrown some of Alexanders Captains, there fell out one thing Remarkable; the Wife of Spita­menes upon whom he extreamly doted, when by her Feminine Flatteries she was not able to perswade her Husband to make tryal of the victors Clemency, and to endeavour to appease Alexander, whom he could not avoid nor escape, she set upon her husband, when be­ing intoxicated with wine he lay fast a sleep, and draw­ing a sword that she had concealed under her Gar­ments, she cut off his head delivering it to a Servant who was accessary thereunto, and with him only in her Company, as she was, with her Garments besprinkled with his blood, she went directly to Alexanders Camp, and sent word that there was one there, to inform him of something that he was concerned to know from her; when she was admitted she desired the Servant might come in; who shewed the head of Spitamenes, to those that searched what he carried wrapt up in his Garment, when the King knew this, though he looked upon it as a considerable peace of service to him, that a Rene­gado and a Traytor was dispatched, yet had he a hor­ror of the fact, that she should insnare his life, who had well deserved at her hands, who was her husband, and Parent of the Children that they had betwixt them; [Page 160] and therefore considering the wickedness of the Fact, overweighed any pretended merit from himself he sent her word, That she should forthwith depart his Camp, lest she should infect the Greeks with the Barbarity of her Example. Wanly Hist. Man. p. 374.

XXIII. Fulvius understanding that he was condem­ned by the Triumviri, betook himself to his Wife, hoping to be hid, and some way kept private by her in this time of his extremity; he might the rather expect her fidelity in this thing, because that of a slave he had made her a Free-woman, and received her to his Bed; but he found a deadly Enemy instead of a Friend, for she suspecting that he was in love with another Woman, did her self accuse, and discover him to the Triumviri, by whose order he died in a miserable manner. Fulgosus Exercit. p. 609.

XXIV. The noble Pittacus, so famous for his Valour, and as much renowned for his Wisdom and Justice, feasted upon a time certain of his Friends, who were strangers; his Wife coming in at the midst of Dinner, being angry at something else, overthrew the Table, and tumbled down all the Provision under foot; now when his Guests were wonderfully dismayed, & abashed there­at; Pittacus undisturbed at the matter, turned to them & said; There is not one of us all but he hath his Cross, and one thing or other wherewith to exercise his patience, and for my own part this is the only thing that checketh my felicity, for were it not for this shrew my Wife, I were the happiest man in the world; So that of me, these verses may be verified;

This Man, who while he walks the Street,
Or publick place is happy thought,
No sooner sets in House his Feet,
But wo is him, and not for nought,
His Wife him rules, and that's a spight,
She scolds, she fights from noon to night.

Here likewise what Mr. Francis Quarles says of this matter, describing a loving Husband and Wife.

They were so one, that none could justly say,
Which of them rul'd, or whether did obey;
[Page 161]
He rul'd, because she would obey; yet she,
In so obeying, rul'd as well as he.
What lik't him best, it need no other cause
To like her too, but only his Applause.

But on the contrary.

Ill thrives that hapless Family that shews
A Cock that's silent, and a Hen that Crows;
I know not which live more unnatural Lives,
Obeying Husbands, or Commanding Wives.

XXV. We are next to consider the rigorous severi­ty of some Parents to their Children, and what unnatu­ral hatred others have shewed toward them, for though every thing is carried on by a natural instinct to pre­serve itself in its own being, and the Monsters of the Sea draw out the Breast, and give suck to their young Ones; yet the Extraordinary severities of some Parents to their Children, may assure us that there are greater Monsters upon the Land, then are to be found in the bottom of the Deep; and if some of these may extenuate their Inhumanities by I know not what virtues or pretences, yet the barbarities of the rest must be wholly imputable to their savage Nature, and the bloodiness of their dispo­sition.

XXVI. Artaxerxes King of Persia, had fifty Sons by his several Concubines, one called Darius, he made King in his own life-time, contrary to the Custom of that Nation, who having sollicited his Father to give him Aspatia his beautiful Concubine, and being denied by him, he stirred up all the rest of his Brothers to join with him in a Conspiracy against the old King, it was not carried so privately, but that the design came to Ar­taxerxes ear, who so incensed thereat, that casting off all Humanity, as well as Fatherly affection, not conten­ted with Prisons or Exile, he caused them all at once to be put to death; and thus by his own hand, he brought a woful desolation into his House, which was so lately replenished by so numerous an Off-spring. Sabel. Exem. p. 132.

XXVII. Ptolomy Phiscon having fetched his eldest Son out of Cyrene, he put him to death, lest the Alexandrians should set him up King against him; whereupon the People pluckt down his Statue, and his Images. And Ptolomy supposing that this was done by the instigation of his Sister, and Wife Cleopatra; and not well knowing how to be revenged any other way, he commanded his Son Memphitis (who was an ingenious and hopeful Child, and whom he had by her) to be slain before his Eyes, and cutting off his head, hands, and feet, put them into a Chest close covered with a Soldiers Coat, and gave it to one of his Servants to carry it to Alexandria, and to present it to Cleopatra, at the Festival of her Nativity, when she was in the height of her Jollity; this was a sad and grievous Spectacle, not to the Queen only, but to the whole City, and it struck such a damp upon their merry meeting, that the Court on a sudden was overcast with a general sadness; and the Nobles turning their Festival into a Funeral shewed the mangled Limbs to the People, to let them see what themselves were to expect from their King, who had thus murthered his own Child. A. B. Ʋshers Annal. p. 494.

28. In the reign of Queen Mary, there was one Juli­us Palmer a Religious man, and afterward a Martyr for the Protestant Profession who being driven from the Town of Redding in Barkshire where he taught School, went to Evesham where his Mother dwelt, hoping to obtain a Legacy which his Father had left him in her hands, his Mother hearing before hand what was the occasion of his coming; when upon his knees he asked her Blessing, she said, Thou shalt have Christs curse and mine where-ever thou goest; He being amazed at this heavy greeting, paused a while, and then said; Oh Mother your curse you may give me, which God knows I never deserved, but Gods curse you cannot give me, for he hath already blessed me; Nay, said she, thou wentest out of Gods blessing, when thou wast banished out of Oxford for an Heretick, and now for the like knavery art driven out of reading; Alas Mother, said he, you are misinformed, I resigned my places of mine own ac­cord, [Page 163] and Heretick I am none, for I stand not stubbornly against any truth, but defend it to my power, well said she I am sure thou dost not believe as thy Father did, and as I do, nor as our fore-Fathers did; but as thou art taught by the new Law in King Edwards days which is damnable Heresy; indeed said he, I do so believe, but it is not Heresy, but the truth, and not new, but as ancient as Christ and his Apostles; well, said she, get thee out of my house and sight, and ne're take me for thy Mother more; as for money, I have none for thee, thy Fa­ther bequeathed no Legacies to Hereticks; Faggots I have to burn thee, and more thou gettest not at my hands; Mr. Pal­mer for her cursings, returned blessings and Prayers for her, and so weeping abundantly, he departed from her; this so mollified her hard heart, that she threw an Angel after him saying, Take that to keep thee a true man. Book Martyrs vol 3.

29. Doctor Otho Melander reports this horrible Par­ricide to be Committed in the year 1568. at a place called Albidos in Saxony; there lived, saith he, a Father who had two Sons, the one he brought up to Husban­dry, the other in Merchandise, both very obedient, du­tiful and thriving the Merchant traded to Lubeck, where in few years he got a very fair Estate, and falling sick even in the chief of his trade, he made his will wherein he bequeathed to his Brother, about five hun­dred pound, and to his Father ten, and some few hours after he had setled his Estate, he died; but before his death, he sent to his Brother to come in Person, and receive those Legacies; the Father not knowing how things were disposed of, dispatched away his other Son with all possible speed to Lubeck, being more coverous after what his Son had left him, then sorrowful for his death though he were a youngman of great expectation; the surviving Son, who was the younger, arrived at the City, and having first deplored the death of his Brother, he takes a Copy of the will, and receives all the mo­ney to a penny; and with this new stock, he joyfully returns into his own Country, where at his first arri­val he was gladly welcomed by his Father and Mother, [Page 164] who were overjoyed to behold the bags he had brought, but when by the reading of the will they saw how the money was disposed, and that so little came to their share, they first began bitterly to curse the dead Son, and then barbarously to rail on the living; outfacing him that he had changed the will, by altering the old and forging a new one; which the innocent youth de­nying, and excusing himself, by telling them, that the Original was upon record, and by that they might be fully satisfied; yet all would give them no satisfaction till very weariness made them give over their heavy Cursings; then the Son offered them the whole to dis­pose freely of it at their pleasure, which they very chur­lishly refused, and bid him take all, and the Devil give him good with it; which drew tears from the Sons Passionate Eyes, who after asking their blessing which they denied, he parted very sadly from them; he was no sooner departed from them, but they wickedly con­trived to get this money by murdering him that very night; and when he was innocently asleep in his bed, they both set furiously and violently upon him stabbing him with daggers into the breast; so that with the Agony of the wounds he opened his Eyes, and espying both his Parents with their hands imbrued in his blood, he with a loud exclamation uttered these words, or to the same purpose, O Gold, to what dost thou not compel mankind? What villany dost thou not persuade them to act? for thou causest Pa­rents to sheath their weapons into their own bowels, even those of their own Children; these dying Speeches were uttered with such a doleful and shrill voice that they were heard by the neighbours, who starting out of their beds, and breaking open the doors found them in the very act, be­fore the body was cold, for which they were apprehen­ded, and laid in Prison, Fettered with heavy Chains. After their condemnation for this horrid fact, the morn­ing before the time appointed for Execution, the Father strangled himself, and the Mother was carried by the Devil out of the Dungeon in the Prison, and her body was found dead in a stinking ditch with her neck broken asunder. Beards Theater p. 72.

XXX. In 1620 There was a young Gentleman whose name was Duncomb that fell in love with a Gentlewo­man to whom he vowed his heart, and promised Marri­age, but her fortune not answering his Fathers humour, he threatned to disinherit him if he married her, and the better to alienate him from her, he sent him as a Souldier in the Earl of Oxfords Regiment into Germany; hoping that time and absence might wear out those Impressions that his present fancy had fixed upon him, charging him at his departure never to think of her more, lest with the thoughts of her he lost him for ever. The young man being now long absent from her, and having his heart full with the remembrance of her, could not contain himself, but let her know that no threats or anger of Parents should ever blot her memory out of his thoughts which he illustrated with many expressi­ons of love and affection; but the careless young man, writing at the same time to his Father superscribed his Fathers Letter to his Mistriss, wherein he renounced her, and his Mistrisses Letter to his Father wherein he admired her; the Father swoln with rage and an­ger against his Son, sent him a bitter Letter back a­gain, full of threats; and whether that or the shame for his mistake (that she should see he renounced her whom he professed to Love) did overcome his reason is not known; but he hereupon killed himself to the great grief of all the English there; and by this example Parents may see what it is to be too rigid to their Children, for it was not the young mans hand, but the old mans hard heart that killed him, Hist. Great Brit. p. 140.

XXXI. There was a Peasant, a Macedonian by Nati­on, named Rachoses, who being the Father of seven Sons, perceived the youngest of them played the little Liber­tine, and unbridled Colt; he endeavoured to reclaim him by fair words and reasons, but finding him to reject all manner of good Counsel, he bound his hands behind him, carried him before a Magistrate, accused him, and required that he might be proceeded against as an Ene­my [Page 166] to Nature. The Judges who would not discontent this incensed Father, nor hazard the life of this young man, sent them both to the King, which at that time was Artaxerxes. The Father went thither with a resolution to seek his Sons death, where pleading before the King with much earnestness, and many forcible reasons, Ar­taxerxes stood amazed at his Courage; But how can you my Friend, said he, endure to see your Son die before your face? he being a Gardiner by Trade, As willingly, said he, as I would pluck away Leaves from a rank Lettice, and not hurt the root. The King threatned the Son with death, if his Carriage were not better, and perceiving the old mans zeal to Justice, of a Gardiner, made him a Judge. Cau­sins H. Court. p. 112.

XXXII. Epaminondas the Theban, being General a­gainst the Lacedemonians, it fell out that he was called to Thebes, upon the Election of Magistrates; at his depar­ture, he commits the care, and government of the Ar­my to his Son Stesimbrotus, with a severe charge that he should not fight till his return. The Lacedemonians, that they might allure the young man to fight, reproach him with dishonour, and Cowardice, he impatient of these Contumelies, contrary to the commands of his Father, ingages in a Battel wherein he obtained a signal Victory; The Father returning to the Camp, adorns the Head of his Son with a Crown of Triumph, and afterward com­manded the Executioner to take it off from his Shoulders as a violator of Military Discipline. Plutarch.

XXXIII. Philip the Second, King of Spain, out of an unnatural, and bloody zeal, suffered his eldest Son Don Carlos to be murthered by the Fathers of the Hellish Inquisition, because he favoured the Protestant Religion, which when the Pope heard of, he abusively applied that Text of Scripture to him, He spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all. Acts and Monum.

XXXIV. One of the Sons of Pyrrhus, King of Epyrus, being but a Boy, asked his Father one day to which of his Sons he would leave his Kingdom, to whom Pyrrhus answered, To him that hath the sharpest Sword; an answer [Page 167] not much unlike that Tragical Curse of Oedipus toward his Children.

Let them (for me) divide
Both Goods, and Rents, and Lands,
With glittering Swords, and bloody blows,
By force of mighty hands.

XXXV. In the year 1551. at a Town called Weiden­hasten in Germany, Nov. 20. A cruel Mother inspired by the Devil, shut up all her doors, and began to murder her four Children in this manner; she snatcht up a sharp Ax, and first set upon her eldest Son, being but eight years old, searching him out with a Candle behind an Hogshead where he had hid himself, and immediately, notwithstanding his lamentable Prayers and Complaints, clove his Head in two pieces, and chopped off both his Arms; next she killed her Daughter of five years old in the same manner; another little Boy of three years, seeing his Mothers madness, hid itself, (poor innocent) behind the Gate, whom as soon as this Tyger espied, she drew out by the hair of the head into the floor, and there cut off his Head; the youngest lay crying in the Cradle but half a year old, him she without all compas­sion pluckt out, and murdered in the same manner; these Murders being committed, this Devil incarnate, (for surely no Humanity was left in her) to take punishment of her self for the same, cut her own Throat; and tho she lived nine days after, and confessing her horrid Crimes, died with abundance of Tears, and great re­pentance, yet we see how it pleased God to arm her own hands against her self, as the fittest Executioner of Vengeance. Beards Theat. p. 225.

XXXVI. Fausta, the Wife of Constantine the Great, fell in love with Constantine her Son in Law, whom when she could not persuade unto her Lust; she accu­sed unto the Emperor, as if he had solicited her Chasti­ty, for which this innocent young man was condemned, and put to death; but the truth being afterward disco­vered, [Page 168] Constantine ordered her to be put into an hot Bath, and suffered her not to come forth, till the heat had choked her, revenging upon her own head her Sons death, and her own Unchastity. Idem. p. 225.

XXXVII. Robert de Beliasme, delighted much in Cru­elty, an Example whereof he shewed on his own Son, who being but a Child, and playing with him, the Fa­ther for a Pastime, put his Thumbs into the Childs Eyes, and crushed out the Balls thereof. Speeds Chronicle. p. 448.

XXXVIII. Next, as to undutiful, and unnatural Chil­dren to their Parents, it is certain that six hundred years from the building of Rome, the Name, or Crime of Parricide, or killer of their Parents, was not so much as known amongst them; Paulus Maleolus was the first (saith Livy) amongst the Romans, who was known to have killed his Mother, and who underwent the punish­ment instituted by the Ancients in that case, they ordai­ned that the Parricide should be first scourged till the blood came, and then sown up in a Sack, together with a Cock, a Dog, a Viper, and an Ape, and so thrown headlong into the bottom of the Sea; but notwith­standing the severity of this Law, and those of other Nations, against a Crime of this nature, there are too many instances of unnatural Children, as in part will appear by what follows.

XXXVIII. There was a young Duke of Gelders, na­med Adolph, who took his Father Duke Arnold, one night as he was going to Bed, and led him fifteen miles on foot, bare legged, in a marvellous cold night, and laid him in a deep Dungeon the space of six months, where he saw no light but through a little hole; whereupon the Duke of Cleve, whose Sister the old Duke that was Prisoner had Married, made sharp War upon this young Duke Adolph; the Duke of Burgundy sought by divers means to reconcile them, but in vain. In the end, the Pope and the Emperor began to stir in the matter, and the Duke of Burgundy under great Cur­es, was commanded to take the old Duke out of Prison, [Page 169] which he did accordingly, the young one not being a­ble to prevent it; I have often seen them together (saith Philip Comines) in the Duke of Burgundies Cham­ber, pleading their Cause before a great Assembly, and once I saw the old man present the Combate to his Son; the Duke of Burgundy being desirous to make an agree­ment, offered the young Duke whom he favoured, the Title of Governor of Gelderland, with all the Revenues thereof, save a little Town near Brabant, called Grave, which should remain to the Father, with the Revenues of three thousand Florens, a yearly Pension of as much more, and the Title of Duke, as was but reason; I (saith Comines) with others wiser than my self, were appoin­ted to make report of these conditions to the young Duke, who answered us, That he had rather throw his Fa­ther headlong into a Well, and himself after him, than agree to such an appointment, alledging; That his Father had been Duke forty and four years, and that it was now time for him to gover [...]. Notwithstanding, he said, he would agree to give him a yearly Pension of three thousand Florens, upon condition he should depart the Country as a banished man, never to return; and such other lewd speeches he used. Soon after, the young Duke in disguise left the Duke of Burgundies Court, to repair home to his own Country, but as he ferried over a water near to Namur, he paid a Gueldon for his, passage; whereupon a Priest there present began to suspect him for his liberality, and soon after knew him, so that he was taken, and led to Namur, where he remai­ned a Prisoner, till the Duke of Burgundies death; after which, by the men of Gaunt he was set at liberty, and by them carried before Tournay, where being weakly ac­companied, he was miserably slain in a skirmish, in full revenge of his impiety toward his Father. Philip de Co­mines. p. 105.

XL. When I was in Valentia in Spain (saith Mr. How­el) a Gentleman told me of a Miracle which happened in that Town, which was, that a proper young Man un­der Twenty, was executed there for a Crime, and be­fore he was taken down from the Gallows, there were [Page 170] many gray, and-white hairs which had budded out of his Chin, as if he had been a man of threescore. It struck amazement into all men, out this Interpretation was made of it; That this young man might have lived to such an Age, if he had been dutiful to his Parents, unto whom he had been barbarously disobedient and unnatural. Howels Letters. p. 211.

XLI. Martin Luther reports of his own knowledge this wonderful History; that a young man a Lock­smith, growing vicious and debauched, to main tain him­self therein, was so villanously unnatural as to murder his own Father and Mother with a Hammer, to get their Mony and Estate; after which cruel deed, he pre­sently went to a Shoemaker, and bought him a pair of new Shoes, leaving his old behind him, to be (by Divine Providence) his Accusers; for after an hour or two, the slain bodies being found by the Magistrate, and inqui­sition made for the Murderer, there being not the least suspition of him, because he seemed to make so great lamentation thereat; but God who knows the secrets of the heart, discovered his Hypocrisy, for the Shoe­maker observing that some of the blood which ran from his Parents wounds, had besprinkled his old Shoes, made a discovery thereof, which caused first some doub­ting, and from thence the examination of the young man, who being confounded with the horrour of the Fact, confessed the same, for which he was justly exe­cuted. Beards Theat. p. 224.

XLII. Another Son at Basil in Switzerland, in the year 1560. having bought a quantity of Poyson from an Apothecary, ministred it to his own Father, where­of he soon after died, but when he had effected his wish upon him, the Crime was detected, and instead of possessing his Goods, which he aimed at, he suffered a vile and shameful death, for he was drawn through the Streets, burnt with hot Irons, and tormented nine hours on the Wheel, till his life forsook him. Beards Theat. p. 224.

XLIII. Scander late King of Georgia in Persia (saith Mr. Herbert) had by his Lady three hopeful Sons, Scan­dercan, [Page 171] Trebeg, and Constandel, all born Christians, but for preferment the two last were circumcised, and tur­ned Mahometans; Trebeg served the Turks, Constandel the Persians; Constandel was naturally deformed, but of such an active Spirit, that his bodily imperfecti­ons were not noted; but his hateful ambition rend­red him more than monstrous; it happened that Abbas King of Persia, had vowed some revenge against the Turks, and to that end gave order to Allycawn to trouble them, Constandel perceives the occasion right to attempt his hellish Resolutions, and therefore after long suit, got to be joined in Commission with the Persian General; Through Georgia they go, where Constandel under a pretence of Duty, visits his sad Parents, who (upon his Protestation that his Apostacy was counter­feit) joyfully welcomed him, but he forgetting that and all other ties of nature, next night at a solemn banquet, caused them to be murdered, & till the Georgians saluted him King, perpetrated all sorts of Villanies imaginable; but how secure soever he stood in his own sancy, the dread­ful Justice of an impartial God retaliated him; the rest of his life after, this hated Parricide was infinitely mise­rable; for first, near Sumachan, Cycala's Son, the Turkish General, wounded him in the Arm, and by that gained the Victory over the Persians; the same night he was al­so assaulted in his Tent by his inraged Countrymen, who in his stead cut a Sod omitick Boy, his cursed Bed-fellow to pieces, missing him, who at the first Alarum made his escape; and though he so far exasperated the Persians to revenge, that he brought the whole Army into Geor­gia, resolving there to act unparallel'd Tragedies; yet was he over-reached in his stratagems; for upon Par­ley with the Queen, his late Brothers Wife, he was shot to death at a private signal given by that Amazon, to some Musquiteers, ambushed on purpose betwixt both Armies, a just punishment for such a Viper. Her­berts Travels. p. 291.

XLIV. Justin tells of a certain African called Cartal­lus, who by the Vote of the People was raised to an [Page 172] eminent degree of Dignity, and was soon after sent upon a solemn Ambassy into a place where his Father with many others were banished; he looking upon him­self at that time like a Peacock, gloriously furnished out with the Cloths and Ornaments of his Imployment, thought it was not suitable to his Honour, to admit his Father so much as to see him, though the old man desi­red it with great earnestness; the unfortunate Father became so much inraged with this contempt of himself, and the proud refusal of his Son, that he instantly rai­sed a Sedition, and mustering together a tumultuary Ar­my of banished men, he fell upon his Son, although a Magistrate, took him and condemned him to death; he presently prepared a high Gibbet, and attired as he was in Gold and Scarlet, with a Crown on his head, he han­ged up this young disobedient Gallant, as a strange spectacle to all beholders. Causins Holy Court. p. 112.

XLV. A certain degenerate and cruel Son longing, and gaping after the inheritance of his Father, which nothing but his lifehindered him from, used this villanous means to accomplish his desire; he accused his Father of a most abominable Crime, namely, that he had com­mitted beastliness with a Cow; knowing that if he were convicted thereof, the Law would take away his life; wherein he was guilty of a twofold wickedness, one in going about to take away his life, whom by na­ture he ought to have preserved, the other in robbing him of his good name, which would likewise redound to his Posterity; he notwithstanding being possessed by Satan, goes before a Magistrate, and accuses his Father of this horrid Crime, which he says was upon his own knowledge; the poor innocent Father is seized, and de­nying all (as well he might) he is put upon the Rack to extort a confession from him, who not being able to en­dure the torment thereof, accused himself, but as soon as he was off, he absolutely denied it again; however this his forced Confession stood for Evidence, and he was condemned to be burnt with Fire, which was spee­dily executed, and constantly endured by him, exclai­ming [Page 173] still upon the false accusation of his Son, and his own unspotted Innocency, as by the issue thereof clearly appeared; for his Son not long after fell stark mad, and hanged himself, and the Judge who condemned him with the witnesses who evidenced his forced Confession on the rack, died all within one month after, in a most wretched and miserable manner; and thus it pleased God both to revenge his death, and also to clear his Reptitation and innocency, from ignominy and discredit in this world. Beards Theat. p. 223.

XLVI An unnatural Son pretended to keepd is Fa­ther in his old age, but used him more like a slave than a Father, and thought every thing too good for him, one day a dainty dish of meat being brought to the Ta­ble the Son conveyed it away, because his Father should not partake thereof, and ordered more ordinary victuals in the room thereof; but observe what his dainties turned to, when the Servant went to fetch it again, he found instead of meat snakes, and instead of sawce Serpents to the great terror of his Conscience; and further one of the Serpents leaped on his face, and catching hold by his lip, hung there till his dying day, so that he could never feed himself, but he must like­wise feed the Serpent. Idem. p. 155.

XLVII. It is reported of a certain unkind & perverse: Son, that he one time beat his aged Father; and drew him by the heir of the head to the threshold, who when he was old, was likewise beaten by his Son, and drawn by the hair of the head not only to the threshold, but out of doors into the midst of the street, and that be reflected then upon himself, saying, He was rightly served, only that his Son was more severe to him, for he left his Father at the door and did not drag him out into the dirt; thus did his own mouth bear record of his Impiety Another disobedient Son provided a Hog trough for his poor, aged, decrepit Father because forsooth, he did not eat his meat cleanly enough; which his little Son obser­ving, asked for what use it was; he replyed it was made for his Grand-Father; What (said the Child) [Page 174] must I make you such a one when you are old? At which words he was so disturbed, that he presently threw away the Hog trough. Idem, p. 156.

LXVII. One Garret a Frenchman and a Protestant by Profession was given to all manner of debauchery, for which he was cast off by his Father; yet he found entertainment in a Gentlemans house of note, in whose Family he became a Sworn Brother to a Young Gentleman that was a Protestant: soon after Garret came to his Estate, and then turned Papist; of whose constancy because the Papists could hardly be assured, he promised his confessor to prove himself an undoubted Catholick, by setting a sure seal to his Pro­fession; whereupon he plotted the death of his dearest Protestant friends, and thus effected it; he invited his Father, Mounsieur Seamats who was his sworn Brother, and six other Gentlemen of his acquaintance to dinner; all dinner time he entertained them with Protestations of his great obligations to them; but the bloody Cata­strophe followed; dinner being ended, Sixteen armed men came up into the room, and laid hold on all the Guests, and this wicked Parricide seized upon his Father, and commanding the rest to hold their hands till he had dispatched him, he stabbed the old Gentle­man, crying to the Lord for mercy, four times to the heart, and then with his Poniard kill'd all the rest but three, who were dispatched by these armed Ruffians at their first entrance, and then they flung the dead bodies out at a Window into a Ditch. Clarks Mirrour. p. 78.

XLVIII. Tarpeia the Daughter of S. Tarpeius betrayed her Father, and the Castle whereof he was Governor, to Tatius King of the Sabines, who then beseiged it, up­on condition that she should be rewarded with all that the Sabine Soldiers wore upon their left Arms, she mean­ing, their golden Bracelets; but when she demanded her reward, Tatius bid his Soldiers do as he did, and so together with their Bracelets throwing their sheilds, which they wore on their left arms upon her, they crushed her to death, Clarks Mirrour. p. 78.

LXVIX. The nearest Relations next to these afore­mentioned are brethren, who though, bred up toge­ther, and thus allied in respect of their bodies, yet their minds have been as distant from each other as the Poles of Heaven, which when opportunity hath served they have shewed in the effects of an implacable hatred, and unnatural actions toward each other.

L. Peter King of Spain having reigned some­time with great cruelty, purpling his hands in the blood of his Nobles. At last his Brother Henry took up arms against him in 1369. He had hired Auxiliary Forces out of France against Peter, and having met him in the field, a bloody battel was fought, agreeable to the pertinacious hatred of the two brethren; The Vi­ctory resting on the side of Henry, and his Brother be­ing made Prisoner; he was brought before him, when Peter with a dagger wounded Henry in the face; the other endeavouring to repay it with interest, both grapled together, having thrown each other to the ground, but others coming in to the help of Henry, he quickly became the Superior, and having slain his Bro­ther with many wounds, he succeeded in his Kingdom. Lipsius Monit. p. 348.

LI. Alphonsus Diazius a Popish Spaniard, hearing that John Diazius his Brother had renounced Popery, and was become a Professor of the Protestant Religion, he fell into so deep an hatred of him, that like another Cain, he slew his Brother with his own hands; for which he not only escaped punishment, but was highly applauded by the Papists for this his heroical atchieve­ment; but he was so haunted and hunted by the furies of his own Conscience that he desperately hanged him­self at Trent, about the neck of his own Mule. Clarks Mir­rour, p. 54.

LII. In 1080. Boleslaus King of Poland having slain his Brother Stanistaus Bishop of Cracovia at the very Altar as he was celebrating Mass, he suddenly fell into a frenzy, and such a degree of madness, that he laid vio­lent hands upon himself; it is said of this King, that he [Page 176] grew into a vehement hatred of the Bishop his Brother, upon the account of that Freedom he took in reprov­ing him for those horrible crimes he frequently com­mitted. Wanly Hist. Man.

LIII. Selymus, the first, Emperor of the Turks, having stept into the throne of his Father, sought the destruction of all his Brethren, and while his Bro­ther Corcutus lay quiet in Magnetia, he secretly led an Army thither to destroy him; Corcutus having notice of it fled away with two Servants and all Passages by Sea being shut up, he was glad to hide himself in a Cave by the Seaside, where he lived miserably upon Countrey Crabs, and other such wild fruit, till being discovered by a Country fellow, he was apprehended; Selymus being informed of it, sent one to strangle him, and to bring his dead body to Prusa; the Executioner, who was a Captain, coming to Corcutus in the dead time of the night, and awakening him out of his sleep, told him his heavy Message, That he was sent by his Bro­ther presently to strangle him; Corcutus being exceedingly troubled with this dismal news, and fetching a deep sigh, desired the Captain to spare his life so long till he might write a few short lines to his Brother Selymus which he did readily in Turkish verse, upbraiding him with his horrible cruelty, and concluding with many a bitter curse, he besought God to take a just revenge upon him; being then strangled, his dead body was brought to Prusa; Selymus uncovered the face of it, to be sure that it was he, when seeing this writing in his hand he took and read it; and is said thereupon to have shed tears, notwithstanding his cruel nature, and stony heart. Turkish Hist. p. 502.

LIV. Cambyses King of Persia. seeing his Brother Smerdis draw a stronger bow than any of the rest of his Souldiers could do, was so inflamed with envy against him, that he caused him to be slain; not long after, Cambyses caused a young Lyon and a young Mastiff to fight together before him, but the Lyon being too hard for the Dog, another Whelp of the [Page 177] same litter broke his Chain, and came in upon the Lyon, and so being two, they were too much for the Lyon; whereupon Cambyses laughed, but his wife, who was also his Sister, fell a weeping, and Cambyses asking her the cause, she answered, Because I seeing the Whelp to help his Brother, I think of Smerdis whom thou hast slain, and yet he hath none to reveng his death, this so provoked Cambyses that he slew her also Pezel. Mel. Hist.

LV. And this introduces another particular, namely, the envious nature & disposition of some Persons, who when they cannot blame the substance, will yet repre­sent the Circumstances of mens best actions with pre­judice; and this black shadow is still observed to wait upon those that have been the most Illustrious for ver­tue, or remarkable for some kind of perfection, and to excel in either, has been made a crime unpardonable.

LVI. Maximinus the Tyrant through envy of the ho­nours conferred on Constantine the great, and attribu­ted to him by the People, contributed all that a de­sperate envy could invent, and a great vertue surmount; he first made him General of an Army, which he sent against the Sarmatians, a People extreamly furious, sup­posing he there should lose his life. The young Prince went thither, and returned victorious, leading along with him the Barbarian King in Chains; it is added, that this direful Tyrant in his most ardent fury after his return from the battle, engaged the Prince in a desperate en­ounter with a Lyon, which he purposely had caused to be let loose upon him; but Constantine being victorious over Lyons as well as men, slew this fell beast with his own hand, and impressed an incomparable Opinion in the minds of his Souldiers, which easily gave him pas­sage to the Throne by the same degrees which were prepared for his ruine. Causins Holy Court, p. 55.

LVII. In the reign of Tiberius Caes [...] there wa [...] Portico or curious Porch at Rome that bowed outward on one side very much, a certain curious workman un­dertook to set it right and streight; he under propped it every way on the upper part, and bound it about [Page 178] with the skins and fleeces of Sheep, and then with the help of many Engines, and a multitude of hands, he restored it to its former uprightness, contrary to the O­pinion of all men; Tiberius admired the Fact, and en­vied the man, so that though he gave him Money, he caused his name to be unremembred in the Annals, and afterward banished him the City; this famous Artificer afterward presented himself in the presence of Tiberi­us, with a glass he had privately about him, and while he implored the pardon of Tiberius, he threw the glass against the ground; which being bruised, and crushed together, but not broke, he drew out his Hammer, and beat it again into form, as if it had been Brass, this done, he imagined that he had conquered the world, but it fell out otherwise, for Tiberius's envy increased thereby, and inquiring of him, whether any other besides himself understood the secret, he replied, No, whereupon he commanded to strike off his head, ad­ding, That if this Art of Malleable Glass should be practi­sed, it would make Gold and Silver hut cheap and inconsider a­ble things. Wan. Hist. Man.

LVIII. Ferrex, and Porrex jointly succeeded their Father Gorboduc in the Government of this Land of Brittain, in the year of the world 4711. and continued in love and amity for some time; but at last Envy the Mother of all disorder and mischief so far prevailed with them, that they both studied to supplant each o­ther, thereby to gain the whole Supremacy; and first, Porrex raising an Army unknown to his Brother, desig­ned suddenly to surprize and kill him, of which, he having notice, and yet not being able for the present to provide for opposition, he was forced to fly into France, where being supplied with some Forces, he landed in England, gave his Brother Porrex Battle, defeated his Army, and slew him in the Field. Ferrex proud of his Victory, retired himself to his Tent, whither his Mo­ther Midan came by night with some of her Women; and being freely admitted to the place where he lay sleeping, she with the rest, most cruelly murdered him, [Page] [Page]

Morindus K. of Brittain devoured by a Sea Monster. Page .179.

Q Tomyris puts the head of K. Cyrus into a Bowl of Bloud. Page .181.

[Page 179] and after cut his body into small pieces, cansing them to be scattered in the Field, and in these two Brothers ended the issue of Brute. Thus we see the dreadful ef­fects of Envy, as well in the vanquisht as the victor, but the greatest in the last, to be so cruelly murdered, rather by a Monster than a Mother. Beards Theat. p. 27.

LIX. Morindus was the Bastard-Son of Flavius King of Brittain, by his Concubine Fanguestella, and reigned in the year of the World 1880. The Chronicle reports him to have been of a comely and beautiful Personage, having an active Body, and a most daring Spirit, and strength withal, above any Peer or Subject in the Land, but as a grievous stain and blemish to all these good parts and endowments, he was of a cruel and en­vious disposition, for he grew jealous of all such as were either wealthy, or remarkable in his Court for any vertue or excellency, confiscating the Estates of the one, and discountenancing the other, and hindring them from all Preferment; he was so furious, that when he was vexed he would kill his Subjects with his own hand: His Kingdom being invaded by a Forreign Prince, he fought with him, and chased him to Sea, ta­king many Prisoners, whom to satisfie his Cruelty and Tyranny, he caused to be put to death before his Eyes, with several sorts of Torments, as beheading, hanging, burning drowning, and other kinds of Execution; but at length this Morindus (called by our Historians Mor­with) walking by the Sea side, and espying a dreadful Monster upon the shoar, which he out of his valiant and Royal Courage, endeavouring to destroy, after a long fight was devoured, and swallowed by this Monster. Beards Theatre, p. 26.

LX. When K. Richard the First of England, & K. Philip of France were Fellow-Souldiers together at the siege of Acon, in the holy Land, and Richard had approved him­self to be the more valiant Man, insomuch that all mens Eyes were fixed upon him, it so galled the heart of King Philip, that he was scarce able to bear the Glory of King Richard, but cavilled at all his proceedings, and [Page 180] sell at length to open defiance; nor could he contain any longer, but out of very Envy hastening home, he invaded his Territories, and professed open War. Bur­tons Melancholy, p. 86

LXI. We read of a Rich man in Quintilian, that was possessed of this Evil Disease to that strange height and degree that he is said to have poisoned the Flowers in his Garden, to the end that his neighbours Bees might get no more Honey from them. Quintilian.

LXII. Alexander the Great both envied and hated Perdicc [...]s, because he was warlike; Lysimuchus, because he was skilful in the Arts of a General; Seleus [...]s, be­cause he was of great Courage: He was offended with the Liberality of Antigonus, with the Imperial Dignity and Authority of Attalus, and with the prosperous Fe­licity and good Fortune of Ptolemaeus. Elian. Var. Hist.

LXIII. Hypatia of Alexandria, the Daughter of Theon the Philosopher, had made such progress in Learning, that she exceeded all the Philosophers of her time, and not only succeeded in the School of Plato, but also ex­plained the Precepts and Aphorisms of all sorts of Phi­losophers; so that a mighty Confluence was made to her by all such as were desirous to improve themselves in Philosophy; she came into the knowledg and Courts of princes, where she behaved her self with singular modesty; and doubted not to present her self in pub­lick amongst the Assemblies of men, where by reason of her Gravity and Temperance of mind; she was received by all sorts, till at last the long suppressed flames of Envy began to break forth, and a number of malevo­lent and hot-brain'd men, (whereof Petrus of the Church of Cesarea was the Leader) seized upon her in her return home, pluckt her out of her Coach, vearried her to that Church, where having ostript her of her Cloths, they tore her flesh with sharp shells, till she died; then they pulled her in pieces, and carried her torn Limbs into a place called G [...]aros, where they were burned. This deed was no small matter of Infamy to Cyrillus the Bishop, and to the whole Church of Aeran­dria. Socrates Ecclesiast. History.

LXIV. Revenge is near of kin to Hatred and Envy; and it is observable, that great and Generous Souls are ever found to be most easily appeased, while the weak & fearful are guilty of the greatest Barbarities, as not knowing how to allot any measure or bounds to their Anger; of which the following Relations are too real Evidences and Instances.

LXV. Pope Stephen the Seventh having been hin­dred from the Popedom by Formosus his Predecessor, after his death, he caused his dead body to be taken out of the Sepulchre, to be stript of his Pontificial Gar­ments wherein he was buried, to be clothed in others, and to be buried without the Church: He also caused his Fingers to be cut off, and to be cast into the River for the Fish to devour. When Sergius the Third came to be Pope, he caused the Body of the same Formosus to be drawn out of its second burying place, to be be­headed in the Market-place, and then to be cast into the River Tyber, to gratifie Lotharius the King of France, who thus hated the dead Formosus, because by his means the Empire was translated from the French to the Berengarians: Others say, that Sergius did this to Formosus, because he had also opposed him in the Ele­ction. Heylins Cosmogra. p. 107.

LXVI. Cyrus making War against Tomyris Queen of the Massagetes, he had by a stratagem taken her Son Spargapises; for he had left part of his Army with plen­tiful provisions of Meats and Wine, on purpose to be seized upon: These Troops Spargapises had cut in pie­ces, and that done, set his Army to Feasting and Ca­rousing; and while they were secure asleep, and en­feebled by drinking, Cyrus set upon them, killed and took most of them; Spargapises being brought Prisoner before Cyrus, desired that he might be unbound, which done, and his Hands at liberty, being extremely grie­ved for the discomfiture of his Army, he presently slew himself; after which, Tomyris in a great Battel over­threw the Forces of Cyrus, and having found him a­mongst the dead, in revenge of her Sons death, she [Page 182] caused his Head to be cut off, and to be thrown into a Vessel full of Humane Blood, with this bitter scoff, Satiate thy self with Blood, which thou hast so much thirsted after. Hero­dotus writes she said thus; Thou hast destroyed my Son, ta­ken by craft and guile, while I am alive and victorious, but as I threatned, I will satisfie thee with Blood. Justin. Hist.

LXVII. As I went from Rome with my Company (saith Camerarius) passing through the Marquisate of Ancona, we were to go through a City called Terni; as we entred the City, we saw over the Gate upon an high Tower, a certain Tablet, to which was fastened (as at first it seemed to us) a great many Batts, or Reremice; we thinking it a strange sight, and not knowing what it meant; one of the City whom we asked, told us, There was, said he, in this City, two Noble, Rich, and Mighty Houses, which of a long time bore an irreconcileable hatred toward each other; their malice passed from Father to Son, as it were by Inheri­tance, by occasion of which, many of both Families were slain and murdered; at last one of the Houses, not many years since, resolved to stand no more upon murdering one or two of the adverse Party by surprize, but to run upon them all at once, and not to leave one of them alive: This bloody Family secretly ga­thered together out of the Country adjoyning, with their Servants, and such other Hectors, as many Italians keep in pay to imploy in the Execution of their Re­venges; these were privately armed, and had notice to be ready at a word. About midnight they seize up­on the Person of the Governour of the City, and leaving Guards in his House, go on silently to the House of their Enemy, disposing their Troops at the end of eve­ry Street; about Ten of them take the Governour into the midst of them, as if they had been the Archers of his Guard, whom they compelled by setting a Dagger to his Throat, to command speedy entrance; he caused the Doors to be opened; for they seeing the Gover­nour there, made no refusal; which done, they call their Complices, who stood not far off, and putting the [Page 183] Governour into safe keeping, they enter the House of their Enemy, and kill them Man, Woman and Child, yea the very Horses in the Stable; that done, they force the Governour to command open the City Gates, and so they depart, and disperse into private places amongst their Friends; some fled to the next Sea Ports, and so made their escape, but such as staid any whit near, were so diligently searched for, that they were found, drawn out of their Holes, and put to death, with grievous Tortures; after which, their hands and feet being cut off, were nailed to that Tablet as a lesson to Posterity, and the Sun having broyled those limbs so fastened, makes Travellers that know nothing of the Tragedy, to suppose they are Reremice. Camer. Op. Subse. p. 390.

LXVIII. Ranimirus the Bastard Son of Sanctius the Great, was fetched out of a Monastery by those of Tar­racon in 1017. and made King; after which, in an expe­dition against the Moors, having taken his Shield in his left hand, and his Launce in his right, he was bid by some Nobles about him to take the Bridle of his Horse; How can I, said he, unless I hold it in my Teeth, my hands be­ing already full; At this the Nobles fell into a laughter, and he thereupon conceived such displeasure against them, that having sent for eleven of the chief of them to Ostia, he caused their heads to be struck off; only saying, The Fox knew not whom he played with. Zuinglius Theat.

LXVIX. Altobel, a Citizen of Todi, in the Dutchy of Spoleto in Italy, made War upon his Fellow-Citizens, and seized upon the City and Government; after which, he behaved himself with great Cruelty amongst them, both towards Rich and Poor; many inroads he also made upon the Neighbour Territories, spoiling and rifling many other adjacent Cities; at last he was defea­ted, and taken Prisoner by the Popes Army, and forth­with was bound stark naked to a Post in the Market­place, to the end, that all whom he had wronged, might revenge themselves upon him in what manner they plea­sed; [Page 184] thither ran the Mothers, whose Sons he had killed, who like so many wild Beasts, begin to tear his body with their greedy teeth; others wound, cut, and slash him, some in one sort, some in another; The Fathers, Kindred, and Friends of such as he had Massacred, pul­led out his Eyes, Heart, and Entrails, not forgetting a­ny point of extream rigour, he with a Courage despe­rately obstinate, endured these Torments with Constan­cy, saying between whiles, That no new thing had happened to him, and that long since he had foreseen within himself this punishment. Being dead, they put an end to their fury, by cutting his body into morsels, which, like flesh in a Butchers Shop, were sold by weight, and afterward ea­ten by those that bought them. Leander in his descripti­on of Italy, saith, this fell out in his time. Camerarius.

LXX. Conrade Trincio, Lord of Fulingo, in the same Dutchy of Spoleto, hearing that the Captain of the Castle of Nocera had slain Nicholas Trincio his Brother, upon suspicion of Adultery, came and besieged this Captain so very close, and streightly in his Castle, that being out of all hope to save himself, he first cut the Throats of his Wife and Children, and then threw himself down from an high Tower, that he might not fall alive into the hands of his Enemy, but Conrade seeing himself frustrated of the means to tor­ment him according to his intention, set upon his Kind­red, Friends, and Familiars, and as many of them as he could take, he tortured without all mercy, and after he had murdered them, plucked out their Bowels, chopt their Bodies into small parcels, hung up their Quarters upon the High-ways, and their Bowels and Guts upon Bushes, and places of concourse, for people to gaze on, behaving himself with that savage, and outragious cru­elty, that no man can call it a punishment, or revenge, but must study to find out a fit name for it, and after all, perhaps shall lose his labour. Idem. p. 392.

LXXI. The Duke of Linburg, deceasing without issue, the Duke of Brabant, and the Earl of Gelders strove about the succession, each of them pretending [Page 185] right to it; and when they could not agree, they fell to Arms; at last the Duke of Brabant won the Victory in a Battel, and took amongst other Prisoners the Bishop of Collen, who followed the Party of the Earl of Gelders. This Bishop after he had been Prisoner to the Earl of Haynault the space of seven years, was set at liberty up­on certain conditions which he accepted; and being ready to return home, he prayed the Earl that he would honour him so far, as to convey him into the Country. The Earl willingly condescended, and having brought him almost to Collen, not mistrusting any thing, he saw himself upon the sudden inclosed with a Troop of Horse­men, who took him, and delivered him to the Bishop, who locked him up in a Prison, where he ended his days; and the more to vex and torment him, the Bishop caused an Iron Cage to be made, and anointed all over with Hony, which was hung up in the Sun, the Earl be­ing locked fast within it. This was done in the memo­ry of our Fathers, saith P. Camerarius.

LXXII. In the year 1500. when Tamas Shaw was King of Persia, the City of Spahawn, which is the Me­tropolis of all Persia, surfeiting with Luxury, refused not only to contribute reasonably to the Kings occasi­ons, who was at that time invaded by the Turks and Tar­tars, but audaciously withstood, and hindred his en­trance into their City; a Rebellion so unsufferable, as made him swear a revenge scarce to be parallel'd; he assaults the City with great fury, and in a rage he enters it, firing a great part thereof; and in a hostile severi­ty plunders the Houses; and to conclude, regarding nei­ther the Outcries of old Men, weak Women, nor inno­cent Children, he in two days made headless three hun­dred thousand Citizens, and erected a Pillar of their Heads, as a Trophy and Memorial of their Disloyalty, and his bitter Revenge. Herberts Tra. p. 160.

LXXIII. A certain Italian having his Enemy in his power, told him there was no possible way for him to save his life, unless he would immediately deny and re­nounce his Saviour; the overtimorous wretch in hope [Page 186] of mercy did it, and immediately the other stabbed him to the heart, saying, That now he had a full and noble Revenge, for he had killed him at once both Body and Soul. B. Reynolds on Passions.

LXXIV. Frederick Barbarossa the Emperor, with a strong Army besieged Millain, that had withdrawn it­self from his Obedience, and had lately affronted his Empress in this manner; the Empress being desirous to see the City, and not fearing to meet with any disres­pect from a place under her Husbands Jurisdiction, came into it without any Guard; the mad People seize upon her, set her upon the back of a Mule, with her face to the Tail, and the Tail in her hand, instead of a Bridle, and in this shameful manner turned her out of the other Gate of the City; the Emperor being justly incensed, besieged the City very close, and urged the Inhabitants to yield, who at last did, and he received them to mer­cy upon this condition, that every Person who desired to live, should with their Teeth take a Fig out of the Genitals of a Mule, with their hands tied behind them, and as many as refused, were immediately beheaded; divers preferred death before this Ignominy, those that desired life, did what was commanded, though with many a kick, whence came that scornful Proverb in Ita­ly, when putting one of their Fingers between two o­thers, they cry, Eccola Fico, Behold the Fig. Heylin Cos. p. 144.

LXXV. The Neapolitans, as all the rest of the Itali­ans, are exceeding revengeful, saith Mr. Howel; among multitudes of Examples that might be produced, this may suffice: In the ancient City of Nocera, there were three young Noblemen, called Conrado, Caesare, and A­lexander, the eldest was Prince of the Place; there was, and still is in Nocera a fair, and strong Castle, wherein Prince Conrado kept a Garrison, making a familiar Friend of his Captain thereof; the Prince kept usually at his Country House, yet would sometimes come, and lie a night or two in the Castle; this Captain had a comely Woman to his Wife, with whom Prince Conrado fell in [Page 187] love, and never left solliciting till he had enjoyed her, which he afterward often did to the knowledge of her Husband, who resolving revenge, contrived thus to do it; the Prince and his Brothers being at their Countrey house, the Captain sent him word, That there were two wild Boars discovered in the Forrest hard by, and if he and his Brothers would come such a day with their Dogs he doubt­ed not but they would find Princely sport; Conrado accor­dingly came with his second Brother Caesare, but Alex­ander, upon some occasion, sent word he could not come till two days after; the Captain provided a handsome Supper for the Prince and his Brother, who had brought with him another Nobleman to partake of the sport; the Prince loged in the Castle, but Caesare and the No­bleman lay in the Town; the Captain was wonderful Officious to attend the Prince to his Chamber; but hav­ing ingaged some of the Garrison to join with him, in the dead time of the night they rushed into the Princes Chamber, and first they cut off his Genitals, and then his head; which they set to stand in a window, and quartered the rest of his body; this being done very silently, in the morning betimes the Captain sent in the Princes name for his second Brother to come in all hast to him, and when Prince Cesare came, the Captain waited on him to his Brothers Chamber; where the first ob­ject he beheld was Conrado's head standing in the win­dow, and his members quartered and flung about the room, Ah, said Cesare, is this the wild Boar you writ of, Yes, answered the Captain, but I writ to you of two; and so they fell upon him also, and made the like Sacri­fice of revenge upon him. This being done, the Captain barred up the Gates, and going upon the walls of the Castle, he sent for the Chief of the Town, and made a Speech to them, shewing in what Slavery they lived under Conrado, so that if they ever desired Liberty, there was now a fit opportunity offered, because he had Conrado in his Custody, and could do with him what he pleased; but the Citizens would hearken to no such motion, but sent word speedily to Alexander the youngest [Page 188] Brother, who coming with some Countrey forces, the Citizens joined with him, and beleaguered the Castle; the Captain finding his case desperate, first took his wife to the top of an high Turret, from whence he threw her down amongst them, and after her his Chil­dren, and then lastly slew himself in the Eye of all the City. Howels Hist. Naples. p. 62.

LXXVI. There are no greater Instances of Revenge saith Sabellicus, than in the factious Citys of Italy, where the chiefs of one faction falling into the hands of the other, it was a great favour to be beheaded or strang­led; Pontanus adds, that he has heard his Grand-Mother tell, how in certain mortal differences betwixt some families, one of the opposite faction being taken he was immediately cut into small gobbets, his Liver was broil­ed upon the Coals, and being divided into little mor­sels it was distributed among their friends, who were invited to breakfast to that purpose, after which exe­crable feeding there were brought Cups, in which some of the blood was mingled, then followed congra­tulations amongst themselves, laughter, Jests, and witty Passages, to season their Viands; and to conclude, they blasphemously drank to God himself, as if he were the favourer of this their horrible, and tremendous re­venge. Wierus Op. p. 830.

LXXVII. Having thus seen the dismal effects of revenge, let us next consider the base Ingratitude of some unwor­thy Persons, which was accounted so great a crime a­mong the Ancients, that they judged Ingratitude ought to be punished with death, and very worthily it de­served to be so, at least in the Persons of some who have been dreadfully guilty of this base and unworthy crime.

LXXVIII. In the time of the bloody Popish Mas­sacre at Paris, one of the Murtherers, with some Com­panions of his, came to the City of Orleance, and went to the house of a noble Counsellor, inviting themselves to Supper; the Counsellor Ignorant of their intent made them very welcome, but when Supper was en­ded, [Page 189] with horrible blasphemies, they murthered him, and then plundered his house. Clarks Martyr. p 348.

LXXIX. Humfry Banister was brought up and ex­alted to promotion by the Duke of Buckingham his Ma­ster; the Duke being afterward driven to extremity, by reason of the Separation of his Army which he had mustered against Crookbackt Richard, fled to this Ba­nister as his most trusty friend, not doubting to be kept secret by him till he could find an opportunity to e­scape; there was a thousand, pound propounded as a reward to him that could bring forth the Duke; and this Ingrateful Traytor, upon hope of this sum betray­ed the Duke his Benefactor into the hands of John Metton Sheriff of Shropshire, who conveyed him to the City of Salisbury where King Richard then was, and soon after the Duke was put to death; but as for this ingrateful Monster, the vengeance of God fell upon him to his ut­ter ignominy, and shame, in a very visible and strange manner, for presently after his Eldest Son fell mad, and died in an Hog-sty; his Eldest Daughter was suddenly stricken with a foul Leprosy; his second Son became strangely deformed in his Limbs, and lame; his youngest Son was drowned in a Puddle, and he himself was arraigned, and found guilty of a Murder, though saved by reading his neck verse; as for his thousand pounds, King Richard gave him not a farthing saying, That he who would be so untrue to so good a Master must needs be false to all others. Beards Theat.

LXXX. In the Persecution of Germany a worthy Protestant Divine for reproving his Prince sharply for his cruelty, was condemned by him to be hanged; and a bloody Gentleman with a Troop of Souldiers was sent to see Execution done upon him; the Gentleman coming to his house Saluted him very kindly pretend­ing that he came to make good cheer with him, for he was a good House-keeper, and the Gentlemen in the Country did often resort to his House; the Mini­ster in a short time prepared a Sumptuous Banquet for them, whereof they did eat freely: Dinner being en­ded [Page 190] the Gentleman said to his men; Take this Priest, our host, and hang him up without delay; the Souldiers were astonished at this Command and abhorring to do the deed said, God forbid that we should Commit such a Crime, as to hang him that hath used us so courteously, it is a wicked act thus to render evil for good; but the Gentleman still provoked them to execute his Command; then said the Minister, I beseech you use not such cruelty toward me, but rather carry me to my Prince, before whom I doubt not but to clear my self from any thing shall be laid to my charge; neither do you so violate the Laws of Hospitality which I have shewed you, and other Noblemen, who resort to my House; Consider what a sting this ingrateful act will leave in your Consciences, for I have truly and faithfully taught the Doctrine of the Gospel which is the Principal cause that my Prince bears me this ill will; but whatsoever this good man could alledge in his own behalf, the furious Gentleman con­tinued in his Resolution, calling upon his Servants to accomplish it, and withal said to the Minister, You shall gain nothing by your Preaching in this manner, for I am fully resolved to fulfil the will of the Prince; at last the Servants took the Minister and with great Lamentation, and mourning, hanged him upon a beam in his own House, the Gentleman standing by and looking on. Clarks Martyr. p. 280.

LXXXI. In the Bohemian Persecution some Popish Souldiers coming to the House of another Protestant Minister, he entertained them courteously, and made good Provision for them; but when they knew he was a Minister, they first beat him cruelly, and then killed him, stript him and plundred his House; they also burned his Library, and would not suffer his body to be buried for Seven weeks space during their abode there. Idem, p 184.

LXXXII. In the third Primitive Persecution under the Emperor Adrian, there was a noble Christian Cap­tain called Eustachius, whom Trajan the Predecessor of Adrian had sent to war against some Barbarians, and af­ter he had subdued his Enemies, and returned home­ward [Page 191] with Victory, Adrian for joy of his success, went to meet him, and bring him home in Triumph; but by the way the Emperor would needs Sacrifice to Apollo for the Victory obtained, requiring Eustachius to do the same with him; but when by no means he could be persuaded thereto, as soon as he came to Rome, he with his Wife and Children suffered Martyrdom for the Christian Faith, by the command of this Ingrateful Em­peror. Idem, p. 30.

LXXXIII. When Xerxes had resolved on his expe­dition against Greece, he caused his Army to make their Rendevouz at Sardis in Lydia, and when he had assem­bled to the number of seventeen hundred thousand Foot, and eighty eight thousand Horse; as he entred the Country, he was by one Pythias the Lydian entertai­ned, who out of his Flocks and Herds of Cattle, gave food to Xerxes, and his whole Army; the Feast ended, he also presented him with two thousand Talents of Silver, and four Millions in Gold; then Pythias besought Xerxes to spare one of his five Sons from his attendance into Greece, because himself was old, and had none whom he could so well trust as his own Son; but Xerxes like a barbarous, and ingrateful Tyrant, caused the Body of the young man, for whom his Father Petitioned, to be divided into two parts, commanding that one half of his Carcase should be laid on the right, and the other half on the left hand of the Highway, by which the Army was to march. Rawleighs Hist. World.

LXXXIV. It is remarkable what is reported by Zo­naras, of the Emperor Basilius Macedo, who being hun­ting, wherein he much delighted, a great Stag turned furiously upon him, and fastened one of the Branches of his Horns into the Emperors Girdle, and lifting from his Horse, carried him a distance off, to the great danger of his life; which when a Gentleman in the Train es­pied, he drew his Sword, and cut the Emperors Girdle, by which means he was preserved, and had no hurt at all; but observe his reward; the Gentleman for this Act was questioned, and adjudged to have his head [Page 192] struck off, because he presumed to expose his drawn Sword so near the Person of the Emperor, and so he by an high Act of Ingratitude, was put to death accordingly. Heywood of Angels, p. 528.

LXXXV. Philip King of Macedon had sent one of his Court to Sea, to dispatch something he had given him in command, but a storm came, and he was Shipwrack­ed, but saved by one who lived there about the shore in a little Boat wherein, he was taken up; he was brought to his Farm, and there entertained with all civility and humanity, and at thirty days end was dismissed by him, and furnished with somewhat to bear his Charges: at his return, he tells the King of his wrack and dangers, but nothing of the benefits he had received; the King told him he would not be unmindful of his fidelity and dangers undergone on his behalf; he taking the occa­sion, told the King, he had observed a little Farm on the shore, and besought him he would bestow that on him as a Monument of his Escape, and reward of his Service; the King orders Pausanias the Governor to as­sign him the Farm to be possessed by him; the poor man being thus turned out, applied himself to the King, told him what humanity he had treated the Courtier with, and what ingrateful injury he had returned him in lieu of it. The King upon hearing the Cause, in great Anger commanded the Courtier presently to be seized, and to be branded in the fore-head with these letters with a hot Iron, Hospes Ingratus, The Ʋngrateful Guest. And then restored the Farm to the right owner. Lonic. Theat.

LXXXVI. Pope Adrian the sixth having built a fair Colledge at Lovain in Flanders, caused this Inscrip­tion to be written upon the Gates of it in letters of gold. Trajectum plantavit, Lovanum rigavit, Caesar dedit Incremen­tum; with an unworthy allusion to that of St. Paul to the Corinthians; that is, Ʋtrecht planted me, for there he was born; Lovain watered me, there he was bred up in Learning; And Caesar gave the Increase, for the Emperor had preferred him; one that had observed this Inscrip­tion, [Page 193] and withal his Ingratitude; to reprove at once both that and his Folly, writ underneath; Hic Deus nihil fecit; Here God did nothing. Luthers Colloq. p, 305.

LXXXVII. Cardinal Charles Cariffa, and Duke John his Brother managed all affairs under Pope Paul the fourth; he being dead, Pius the Fourth was made Pope, and that chiefly by the favour and diligence of these Caraffa's; but as a reward of their good service, he made it his first business to overthrow them. He sent the Cardinal, and his Brother Duke, together with Count Alifane and many others of their Kindred and Clients to Prison, in the Castle of St. Angelo, there were they nine months in durance, and expectation of death; at last by order from the Pope, the Cardinal was hanged, the Duke and Count beheaded, and their dead Bodies exposed as a publick spectacle to the People. Lipsius Mo.

LXXXVIII. Bellisarius was general of all the Forces under the Emperor Justinian the first, a man of rare valour and virtue; he had overthrown the Persians, Goths, and Vandals, had taken the Kings of these People in War, and sent them Prisoners to his Master; he had re­covered Sicilia, Africk, and the greater part of Italy; he had done all this with a small number of Soldiers, and less cost; he had restored Military Discipline by his Authority, when long lost, he was allied to Justinian himself, and a man of that uncorrupted Fidelity, that though he was offered the Kingdom of Italy, he resu­sed it; this great man, upon I know not what Jealousy, and groundless suspicion, was seized upon, his Eyes put out, all his House rifled, his Estate confiscate, and him­self reduced to that miserable state and condition, as to go up and down in the common Road with this form of begging; Give a half-penny to poor Bellisarius, whom Virtue raised and Envy hath overthrown. Fulgosus.

LXXXIX. Achmetes the Great Turkish Bassa, was by the confession of all Men, the best Man of War, and the most expert Captain amongst the Turks; Bajazet made him General of his Army against his Brother Ze­mes, where the conduct, and valour of the General [Page 194] brought Bajazet the Victory; at his return to Court, this great Captain was invited to a Royal Supper, with divers of the Principal Bassa's, where the Emperor in token of their welcome, and that they stood in his good grace, caused a Garment of pleasing colours to be cast upon every one of his Guests, and a gilt Bowl full of Gold to be given to each of them; but upon Achmetes was cast a Gown of black Velvet, all the rest rose and departed, but Achmetes, who had on him the Mantle of Death, according to the Turkish Custom, was comman­ded to sit still, for the Emperor must talk with him in private; the Executioners of the Emperors wrath came, they stripped, and tortured him, hoping that way to gain from him what he never knew of (for Isaac Bassa, his great Enemy, had secretly accused him of in­telligence with Zemes,) but he was delivered by the Ja­nizaries, who would no doubt have slain Bajazet, and ri­fled the Court at his least word of Command; but though he escaped with his life at the present, he not long after was thrust through the Body as he sate at Sup­per in the Court, and there slain; this was that great Achmetes, by whom Mahomet the Father of this Bajazet, had subverted the Empire of Trapezund, took the great City of Caffa, with all the Country of Taurica Chersone­sus, the impregnable Cities of Croia, Scodra, and all the Kingdom of Epirus, a great part of Dalmatia, and at last Otranto, to the terrour of all Italy. Turk. Hist. p. 443.

XC. In 1565. Feb. 5. One Paul Sutor near Basil in Switzerland, came to the House of Andreas Hager a Bookseller; he was then old and fick, and had been the Godfather of Paul at the Font, and performed to him all the good Offices that could be performed by a Father; being entred his House, he told him he was come to visit him, as one that esteemed him as a Fa­ther; but as soon as the Maid that attended upon the sick man was gone out of the room, he caught up a Hammer, gave him some blows, and then thrust him through with a Knife; as soon as the Maid returned, he [Page 195] with the same fury did the like to her; and then seiz­ing the Keys, he searched for his intended Prey; he found eight pieces of Plate, which afterward for want of money, he pawned to a Priest of St. Blasius, who suspecting the man, sent the Plate to the Senate at Basil, by which means the Author of the detestable murther was known, he was searched after, taken, and brought Prisoner to Basil, where after Condemnation, he had his Legs and Arms broken upon the Wheel, and his head, while he was yet alive, being tied to a part of the Wheel, he was burnt with flaming Torches, till in horrible Tortures he gave up the Ghost. Lonic. Theat.

XCI. I shall conclude this Chapter with the Cha­rity of Henry Keeble, Lord Mayor of London, in 1511. who besides other great Gifts in his life-time, re-builded Al­dermary Church, which was run to ruines, and bequea­thed at his death a thousand pounds for the finishing of it; yet within sixty years after, his bones were unkind­ly, yea, inhumanely cast out of the Valut wherein they were buried; His Monument was pluckt down for some wealthy Person of those present times to be buried there­in. Upon which occasion saith Dr. Fuller, I could not but rub up my old Poetry, which is this:

Fuller to the Church.
Ʋngrateful Church, o're run with rust,
Lately buried in the Dust,
Ʋtterly thou hadst been lost,
If not preserv'd by Keebles cost,
A Thousand pounds, might it not buy
Six foot in length for him to lie?
But outed of his quiet Tomb,
For later Corpse he must make room;
Tell me where his dust is east,
Though't be late, yet now at last,
All his bones with scorn ejected,
I will see them recollected,
Who fain my self would Kinsman prove,
To all that did Gods Temple love.
The Churches Answer.
Alas! my Innocence excuse,
My Wardens they did me abuse,
Whose Avarice his Ashes sold,
That Goodness might give place to Gold.
As for his Reliques, all the Town
They are scatter'd up and down;
Seest a Church repaired well?
There a sprinkling of them fell.
Seest a New Church lately built?
Thicker there his Ashes spilt.
Oh that all the Land throughout
Keebles Dust were thrown about,
Places scatter'd with that seed,
Would a Crop of Churches breed.
Fuller's Worthies, p. 33.

CHAP. V. The Tremendous Consequences of Cowardice, Barbarity and Treachery.

THese three evil Qualities, or vicious Inclinations of the Mind, are much of the same kind; for Cruelty and Treachery do commonly proceed from base & Cowardly Dispositions. As touching Cowards, that is, such as preserving their Lives or Estates before their Coun­try's welfare, and that either will not, or dare not stand co [...]ragiously in defence of it in time of Danger; they were alwaies reckoned to deserve the greatest punish­ments; [Page 197] and therefore the Romans did sharply chastise them, and endeavoured to render them odious; for they were commanded and sworn never to eat their meat but standing: Nay, they were accounted so hate­ful amongst them, that when Hannibal offered the Ro­man Senate eight thousand Captives to be redeemed, they refused his offer, saying, That they were not worthy to be redeemed, who had rather be basely taken, than die ho­nestly and valiantly.

I. The Senate of Rome indeed dealt more favourab­ly with the Captives, which King Pyrrhus took, for they redeemed them, but with this mark of contumel and disgrace, that they were degraded from all their Offices and Honours, until by getting a double Victory they had won their Reputation again. Beards Theatre.

II. Titias a Captain of Horsemen in Sicilia, being overcharged with too great a number of Enemies, de­livered up his Arms to them, which was counted so hei­nous a Crime, that Calpburnius Piso his General pro­nounced this Sentence against him, That he should go barefooted before the Army, wearing a Garment with­out seams, and that he should have society with none but such as were guilty of the same fault, and from a General over Horsemen he was degraded, and made a common Souldier. Idem.

III. How did the Roman Senate correct the Cowar­dise of Caius Vatienus, who that he might prevent his being ingaged in the Wars of Italy, cut off all the Fin­gers of his left hand? Why, they seized upon his, Goods and cast him into perpetual Imprisonment, that he might thereby consume that life in Bondage and Fetters, which he refused to hazard in the defence of his Country. Idem.

IV. Fulgosus saith, That among the Germans it was judged so dishonourable to lose a Shield in War, that whosoever happened to do it, was suspended from any Civil Office in the State, and likewise forbid to enter into any of their Temples, insomuch that many (he saith) killed themselves to avoid the infamy and shame thereof. Idem.

V. The People called Daci, punished Cowards on this manner: They suffered them not to sleep but with their heads to the feet of the Beds; and besides, they by a Law ordained, that they should be Slaves and Subjects to their own Wives. What more vile dis­grace could there be than this? And yet the Lacedemonians used them more reproachfully, for with them it was a dishonour to marry into the stock of a Coward; any man might lawfully strike them without punishment; and they went with their Cloths rent, and their Beards half shaven. Idem.

VI. Artaxerxes after the Battel was ended which he sought with his Brother Cyrus, punished one of his Com­manders called Arbaces, for his cowardliness, by com­pelling him to carry a Whore on his back stark naked all the day long about the Market-place. And another that had basely yielded himself to his Enemies, and yet boasted that he had slain two men, he caused his Tongue to be bored thorow in three several places with an Awl. Plutarch.

VII. It is likewise a token of a weak mind, and an infirm Soul, to anticipate troubles by their own fear­ful apprehensions before they arrive, which is often­times occasioned by a too great fearfulness of death, and being over-desirous of life, which kind of Cowar­dize hath occasioned great mischiefs and miseries, as by the following Examples appears.

VIII. Lewis the Eleventh King of France, when he sound himself sick, sent for one Fryer Robert out of Ca­labria, to come to him to Toures; this man was an Her­mite, and famous for his Sanctity, and while in his last sickness, this Holy man lay at Plessis, the King sent con­tinually to him, saying, That if the Hermite pleased he could prolong his life. The King had reposed his whole confi­dence in Mounsieur James Cothier his Physician, to whom he gave monthly Ten thousand Crowns, in hope he would lengthen his life. Never man (saith Philip Co­mines) feared death more than he, nor sought so many waies to avoid it as he did; moreover, saith he, in all [Page 199] his life-time he had given commandment to all his Ser­vants, as well to my self as others, we should only move him to confess himself, and dispose of his Con­science, but never to mention nor sound in his Ear that dreadful word Death, knowing that he should not be able patiently to bear that cruel Sentence. His Phy­sician aforementioned used him so very roughly, that a man would not have given his Servant such sharp lan­guage as he usually gave the King, and yet the King so much feared him, that he durst not command him out of his presence; for, though he complained to divers of him, yet he durst not change him, as he did all his other Servants, because this Physician said once thus boldly to him, I know that one day you will command me away but (swearing a great Oath he added) you shall not live eight daies after it; which word put the King into so great a fear, that he ever after flattered him, and be­stowed such gifts upon him, that he received from him in five months time Fifty four thousand Crowns, besides the Bishoprick of Amiens for his Nephew, and other Offices and Lands for him and his Friends. Philip Co­mines Hist.

IX. Mecenas the great Friend and Favourite of Au­gustus, was so soft and effeminate a Person, that he was commonly called Malcinus, he was so much afraid of death, that, (saith Seneca) he had often in his mouth this saying, All things are to be endured so long as life it continued: Of whom these Verses are to be read.

Make me lame on either hand,
And of neither foot to stand;
Raise a Bunch upon my back,
And make all my Teeth to shake,
Nothing comes amiss to me,
So that life remaining be.

X. Heraclides writes of one Artemon, a very skilful Engineer, but withal saith of him, that he was of a very timerous disposition, and foolishly afraid of his own [Page 200] shadow; so that for the most part of his time, he never stirred out of his house: That he had alwaies two of his Men by him, who held a brazen Target over his head, for fear lest any thing should fall upon him; and if upon any occasion he was forced to go from home, he would be carried in a Litter hanging near to the ground for fear of falling. Plutarch. Vit.

XI. The Emperor Domitian was in such fear of re­ceiving death by the hands of his followers, and in such a strong suspition of Treason against him, that he cau­sed the Walls of the Galleries wherein he used to walk, to be set and garnished with the stone Phengites, to the end, that by the light thereof he might seeall that was done behind him. Suetonius Hist.

XII. Antigonus observing one of his Soldiers to be a very valiant man, and ready to adventure upon any desperate piece of Service, and yet withal taking no­tice that he looked very pale and lean, would needs know of him what he ailed? And finding that he had upon him a secret and dangerous disease, he caused all possible means to be used for his recovery, which when it was effected, the King perceived him to be less for­ward in Service, than formerly; and demanding the reason of it; he ingenuously confessed, that now he felt the sweets of life, and therefore was loth to lose it. Clarks Mirrour. p. 354.

XIII. Caligula the Emperor was so exceedingly a­fraid of death, that at the least Thunder, and Lightning, he would wink close with both Eyes, and cover his head all over; but if the Thunder were very great and ex­traordinary, he would run under his Bed. He fled sud­denly by night from Messina in Sicily, being affrighted with the noise, smoak, and roaring of Mount Aetna; being once in a German Chariot, in a streight passage, where his Army were forced to march very close toge­ther, and one happening to say, that if any Enemy should now appear, it would make a very great hurli­burly, he was presently so affrighted with the apprehen­sion of the Danger, that getting out of the Chariot, he [Page 201] mounted his Horse, and finding the way filled up with Slaves and Carriages, he again dismounted, and was from hand to hand conveyed over mens heads, till he came on the other side of the water. Soon after, hearing of the revolt of the Germans, he provided to fly, and prepared Ships for his flight, comforting himself in this, that if the Conquerors should come into Italy; and possess themselves of the City of Rome, yet he should have some Provinces beyond Sea, where he might still live. Sueton. Hist.

XIV. What a miserable life Tyrants have by reason of their continual fears of Death, we have exemplified in Dionysius the Syracusan, who finished his thirty eight years rule in this manner; removing his Friends, he committed the Custody of his Body to some Strangers & Barbarians; & being in fear of Barbers, he taught his Daugh­ters to shave him; & when they were grown up, he durst not trust them with a Rasor, but taught them how they should burn off his Hair and Beard with the white films of Walnut Kernels; and whereas he had two Wives, Aristomache, and Doris, he came not to them in the night before the place was thoroughly searched, and though he had drawn a large and deep moat of wa­ter about the room, and had made a passage by a wood­en Bridge, yet he himself drew it up after him when he went in; and not daring to speak to the People out of the common Rostrum, or Pulpit appointed for that purpose, he used to make Orations to them from the top of a Tower; when he played at Ball, he used to give his Sword and Cloak to a Boy whom he loved, and when one of his familiar Friends had jestingly said, You now put your life into his hands; and the Boy smiling thereat, he commanded them both to be slain, one for shewing the way how he might be killed, and the other for approving of it with a smile. At last being overcome in Battle by the Carthaginians, he perished by the Trea­son of his own Subjects. Wanly Hist. Man.

XV. And this introduces another particular, namely, the barbarity, and bloody mindedness of some Per­sons; [Page 202] Theodorus, who was Tutor to Tiberius the Roman Tyrant, observing in him while he was a Boy, a sangui­nary nature and disposition, which lay hid under a shew of meekness, and a pretence of clemency, was used to call him a lump of Clay steeped and soaked in blood; and this his prediction of him did not fail in the event; this being that savage Tyrant, who thought that death was too light and easy a punishment; for hearing that Carnulius, being in his disfavour, had cut his own Throat; Carnulius, said he, hath escaped me; and to another who begged of him to die quickly, he told him. He was not so much in his favour. Yet even this cursed Artist in Villany, hath been since out-acted by Monsters more overgrown than himself.

XVI. It is in this kind a memorable example that Seneca relates of Piso, who finding a Soldier to return from forraging, charging him to have slain him, condem­ned him to death; the Executioner being in readiness, and he stretching forth his Neck to receive the stroke of the Ax, behold, in the very instant his Comerade ap­pears in the place; whereupon the Centurion, who had the charge of the Execution, commands the Executio­ner to forbear, and carries back the condemned Soldier to Piso, toge her with his Comerade, thereby to manifest his innocency, and the whole Army waited on them with joyful Acclamations. But Piso in a rage gets him up to the Tribunal, and condemns both the Soldiers the one for returning without his Comerade, and the other for not returning with him; and lastly, he likewise con­demns the Centurion for staying the Execution with­out Warrant, which was given him in charge, and thus three suffered death for the innocency of one. Causins Holy Court.

XVII. Mahomet the Great, first Emperor of the Tarks, after the winning of Constantinople, fell in love with a most beautiful young Greekish Lady called Irene, upon whose incomparable Perfections he so much do­ted that he gave himself wholly up to her love; but when he heard his Captains, and chief Officers mur­mured [Page 203] at it, he appointed them all to meet him in his great Hall, and commanding Irene to dress and adorn her self in all her Jewels, and most gorgeous Apparel, not acquainting her in the least with any part of his de­sign, taking her by the hand, he led this Miracle of Beauty into the midst of his Nobles and Bassa's, who dazled with the brightness of this illustrious Lady, ac­knowledged their Errour, professing that their Empe­ror had just cause to pass his time in solacing himself with so peerless a Paragon; but he on a sudden twisting his left hand in the soft curls of her hair, and with the other drawing out his sharp Scimeter, at one blow he struck off her Head from her Shoulders and so at once made an end of his love, and her life, leaving all the Assistants in a fearful amaze, and horror of an act of that Cruelty. Turkish Hist. p. 351.

XVIII. Ʋladus Dracula, as soon as he had gained the Kingdom of Moldavia, he chose out a multitude of Spear­men, as the Guard of his Body; after which, inviting as many as were eminent in Authority in that Country to come to him, he singled out from them all that he thought did not love him, or had any inclination to a change; all these, together with their whole Families, he empaled upon sharp stakes, sparing neither the in­nocent age of young Children, the weak Sex of Wo­men, nor the obscure condition of Servants; the Stakes and place where they were set, took up the space of se­venteen furlongs in length, and seven furlongs in breadth; and the number of those that were thus mur­dered, and in this barbarous manner, were said to be no less than twenty Thousand. Idem, p. 363.

XIX. Johannes Basilides Emperor of Russia in 1569. Used for his Recreation to cause noble and well deserv­ing Persons to be sewed up in the skins of Bears, and then himself set Mastiss upon them which cruelly tore them in pieces he often invited Michael his Father in Law to banquet with him, and then sent him home to his [...]ily through the snow, having first caused him to be stript stark naked; sometimes he shut him up in a [Page 204] room in his own House till he was almost famished, causing four Bears of Extraordinary bigness to be tyed at the door to keep all Provisions from him; these Bears he at other times would let loose among the People, especially when they were going to Church, and when any were killed by them, he said, His Sons had taken great pleasure in the sport, and that they were happy who perished in this manner, since it was no small diversion to himself. Upon a mere suspition which he had conceived against the City of Novogorod, he entred the same and caused to be slain and thrown into the River two thousand seven hundred and seventy Persons, without any respect of Age, Quality, or Sex, besides an Infinite number of poor People, who were trampled to death by a Party of his Horse, and there were so many bodies cast into the River of Volga, that being stopped therewith, it over­flowed the Neighbouring fields; the Plague which followed this Butchery was so great, that no body ven­turing to bring provisions into the City, the Inhabitants were forced to feed on the dead Carcases; The Tyrant took a pretence from this inhumanity to cause all those that had escaped the Plague, Famine, and his former cruelty to be cut in pieces. The Arch-Bishop of this place having escaped the first fury of the Souldiers, ei­ther as an acknowledgment of the favour, or to flatter the Tyrant, entertained him at a great Feast, in his Archiepiscopal Pallace, whither the Duke failed not to come with his Guards about him; but while they were at dinner, he sent to plunder the rich Temple of St. Sophia, and seized on all the treasures which had been brought thither, and to other Churches, as to places of safety. After dinner he caused the Arch-Bishops Pal­lace to be in like manner Pillaged, and then told the Arch-Bishop, That it would now be ridiculous for him to act the Prelate; since he had not wherewithal to support the dignity of his place; that he must put off his rich habit which henceforth would be but troublesome to him, and that he would bestow on him a bagpipe and a Bear, which he should lead up and down and teach it to dance to get money; that he must resolve [Page 205] to marry, and that all the other Prelates and Abbots that were about the City should be invited to the Wedding, setting down a precise Sum of money which each of them should present to the new married Couple; And there were none of them but brought what they had made a shift to save, thinking the poor Arch-Bishop should have had it; but the Ty­rant took all the money, and causing a white Mare to be brought, he said to the Arch-Bishop, This is thy Wife, get upon her, and go to Mosco; the poor Arch-Bishop was forced to obey, and as soon as he was mounted, they tyed his legs under the Mares belly, and thenhung about his neck some Pipes, a Fiddle, and a Tymbrel, and would needs make him to play on the Pipes; all the other Abbots and Monks who were present, were either cut in peices, or with Pikes and Halberds forced into the the River; this Tyrant had a particular longing for the money of one Theodore Sircon, a rich Merchant, where­upon he sent for him to his Camp at Novogorod and hav­ing fastened a Rope about his wast, he commanded him to be cast into the River drawing him from one side to the other till he was ready to give up the Ghost then he asked him, what he had seen under water; the Merchant stoutly answered, That he had seen a great number of Devils carrying the Dukes Soul with them into Hell; the Tyrant replyed, Thou art in the right; but it's just I should reward thee for thy Prophecy; whereupon calling for boyling Oyl, he caused his feet to be put into it and continued there till he had promised to pay him ten thousand Crowns; which when he had done he caused him to be cut in peices; this Basilides was of a most cruel disposition, delighting himself much therein; amongst his infinite acts of cruelty, these are recorded by several authors; In 1570. his own Brother being accused of some crime, he caused him without giving him leave to answer for himself, to be first put to most exquisite tortures, and then to be killed; his wife he caused to be stript, and to be set naked before the Eyes of all men, and then by a Rope to be drawn into a River and drowned. John Piotrowich, a man of principal Com­mand [Page 206] under him, being accused of Treason, came to clear himself, but was not admitted to make any de­fence, but was set in Princely Accoutrements upon a Throne, the Emperor standing bare before him, and bowing to him; but soon after with a Knife he thrust him to the heart; causing his Body to be dragged forth, his Servants to be slain, and three hundred others in his Castle to be executed; he caused all his Boyars or No­bles, to be assembled into one House, and there to be blown up with Gun-Powder; their Wives and Daugh­ters he caused to be ravished by his Followers before his face, and then to be cut in pieces, leaving no living thing in their Houses or Grounds. Their Husbandmens Wives were stript as naked as they were born, and so driven into the Woods, where Executioners were pur­posely appointed to give them their fatal entertain­ment; his Chancellor sitting at Table with his two Sons, were also upon the like Accusation presently cut in pie­ces, and the third Son was quartered alive by four Wheels, each drawn a contrary way by fifteen men; his supream Notary displeasing him, his Wife was taken from him, and after some weeks detainment, was toge­ther with her Hand-maid hanged over her Husbands door, and so continued a fortnight, he being forced to go in and out by her all that time; another of his No­taries Wives was first ravished, and then sent home, and hanged over her Husbands Table, whereat he was for­ced dayly to eat; in his Travelling, if he met any Wo­man, whose Husband he liked not, he caused her to stand with her nakedness disclosed, till all his Retinue was passed by; his cutting out Tongues; cutting off the hands and feet of his Petitioning and complaining Subjects, I omit; with his casting of hundreds at once into the water under the Ice, namely, seven hundred Women at one time; and three hundred seventy eight Prisoners at another; five hundred Matrons and Virgins of noble blood he exposed to be ravished by the Tartars in his sight; he caused the Ears, Lips, and other Members of his Secretary to be cut off piecemeal, notwithstanding [Page] [Page]

The Cruelties of the Hollanders upon the Englich at Amboyna. Page .207.

[Page 207] all the protestations of his Innocence; above two hun­dred other Nobles were at the same time variously exe­cuted, whereof one of them was his Treasurer, whose Wife was set upon a Rope, and violently dragged to and fro thereon stark naked, to force her to confess her Husbands Riches, whereof she soon after died; in a Fa­mine he gathered many people upon a Bridge, in ex­pectation of relief, and causing the Bridge to be cut down, drowned them all, as the readiest way to make Corn cheaper; these are the least part of his inhumane Cruelties, but the last was on himself; for his eldest Son Juan being falsely accused, he struck him with a staff wrought with Iron, whereof he died within a few days after, which this Tyrant laying to heart, died with grief. Ambassadors Yravels.

XX. Demetrius the King of Syria, after he had over­come Alexander the Jew in a Battel, he led the Priso­ners taken in that Fight to Jerusalem, where he caused eight hundred of them to be Crucified in the midst of the City, the Sons in the very sight of the Mothers, and after commanded the Mothers themselves to be slain. Wanly.

XXI. The Island of Amboyna lies near Seran, the chief Town of it hath also the same name, and is the Rende­vouz for the gathering, and buying of Cloves; the En­glish lived in that Town under the Protection of the Castle, which was Garrisoned, and well manned by the Dutch. It happened that in the year 1622. a Japan Sol­dier discoursing with the Dutch Sentinel of the Castle, was suspected, tortured, and confessed that divers of his Countrymen had contrived with him to seize and sur­prize the Castle; also one Price an Englishman, and Pri­soner with them, accused other Englishmen of the Facto­ries, who were all sent for, and put to horrid Torture; the manner this; first, they haled up the Prisoner by the hands with a Cord against a large door, fastening him upon two staples of Iron [...] the top; as wide as his Arms could stretch, his feet [...] to the ground stretch­ed out at length, and full wideness, fastened beneath the [Page 208] door; then they wrapped a cloth about his Neck and Face so close, that no water could go by; then pouring water leisurely upon his head, and filling the Cloth up to his Mouth and Nostrils, that he could not draw breath, but he must withal suck in water, they so con­tinued, till it forced his inward parts to come out at his Nose, Eyes, and Ears; stifling, and choaking him into a swound or fainting; but being taken down, they made him vomit out the water, and being somewhat recove­red, they tortured him again four or five times, his Bo­dy being swoln three times bigger than before, his Cheeks like Bladders, his Eyes staring out beyond his Eye-brows; one Colson being thus tortured, yet still de­med their Accusation, whereupon they burn him un­der the Paps, Arm-holes, Elbows, Hands, and Feet, till the fat dropped out of their Torches, then they lodged him in a Dangeon, where his flesh putrified, and Mag­gots bred in it, to a horrid and loathsome condition, till at the end of eight days they were executed, in March, 1623. at which instant there was a sudden darkness, and a Tempest that forced two Dutch Ships out of the Har­bour, which were hardly saved; the dead were all buried in one Pit, and one Dunkin their Accuser stumb­led at their Grave, and fell stark mad, and died so with­in three days after. Also a sickness followed at Amboyna, of which several Dutch died. The names of the English thus inhumanely dealt with, were, Captain Towerson, Tompson, Beaumont, Collins, Colson, Webber, Ramsey, Johnson, Fard, and Brown. Sanderson Hist. K. James. p. 577.

XXII. The thirty Athenian Tyrants were of that fierce and cruel disposition, that they caused the Daugh­ters of some of the slain Citizens to dance in the blood of their own Parents, who had newly been murdered by them. Dinoth. Mem.

XXIII. Nabis the Tyrant of Lacedemon, did utterly extinguish the Spartan name forcing into banishment as many as were eminent for Riches, or the renown of their Ancestors, and d [...]ing their Wealth and Wives amongst the mercenary Soldiers he had hired, withal [Page 209] he sent Murderers after such as he had banished, not suffe­ring any place of retreat to be safe to them; he had al­so framed an Engine, or rather an Image of his Wife, which after her name he called Apega; with admirable Art it was fashioned to her resemblance, and was clo­thed in such costly Garments as she her self used to wear; as oft as the Tyrant cited before him any of the rich Citizens, with a design to milk them of their Mo­ney, he first with a long, and very civil Speech, used to represent to them the danger that Sparta was in, the number of the Soldiers he kept about him for their safety, and the great charge he was at in sacred and ci­vil affairs, if they were wrought upon by this means, it sufficed, but if otherways, and that they would not part with their money, he then used to say, Possibly I am not a­ble to persuade you, yet it is likely that Apega may; and then with a shew of familiarity, he takes the man by the hand, and leads him to this Image, which rises, and im­braces him with both Arms, she draws him to her Breasts, in which, and likewise in her Arms were sharp iron Spikes and Nails, though hidden within her cloths; herewith she griped the poor wretch, according to the pleasure of the Tyrant, who laughed at his cruel death. Rawleighs Hist. World.

XXIV. Not many years since there was a notable piece of inhumane Villany discovered in the City of Naples, which was this. There was one Francisco Severi­no, a publick Notary, that had a Sister who was a young Widow, but he being to pay her six hundred Ducats to­ward her Dowry, instead thereof, he clapt her up, to­gether with a little Daughter of hers into a dark Cave, betwixt four Walls, where he fed them with Bread and Water, and some few roots, for seventeen years toge­ther; the Widow had also a Son, under the care of an Uncle all that while, who being come to Age, deman­ded of this Notary his Mothers Dowry, thinking she had been dead; the rumor hereof flying among the People, who were then in Arms they rushed into the Notaries House; and the Woman in the Cave hearing [Page 210] an extraordinary noise, began to shriek; which being heard, the People broke down the Wall, where they found two Women like Savages, with long dishevel'd hair hanging about their Shoulders, whereupon the Vil­lany being discovered, the Notary was put to exempla­ry punishment. Howels Hist. Naples.

XXV. Sha Sefi, a late Emperor of Persia, when he came into the World, had his hands all bloody, which his Grand-Father Sha Abbas hearing of, said, That this Prince would often bath his hands in blood; and so it pro­ved; for as soon as he came to the Crown, he made a­way Rustan-Can the Generalissimo of his Army, and se­veral other Lords he caused to be cut in pieces, and slew with his own hands all his own Relations, and what other Person soever he was any way distrustful of; by this means so accustoming himself to blood that when he was incensed, he spared none; he caused the Eyes of his only Brother to be put out, and two of his Uncles, after he had put out their Eyes, he caused them to be cast down headlong from an high Rock, saying, That ha­ving lost the benefit of their Eyes, they were useless to the World; He dispatched Isa Can another of his Uncles, af­ter he had cut off the heads of his three Sons upon a Trivial occasion, saying, That he could now never be faithful to him, at least it was impossible he should love him, after he had dealt so by him. In 1632. He having forced the Turks to raise the Siege before Bagdat, at a private meeting of his Lords, they said among themselves; That since in his tender Age he had committed so many Cruelties, it was likely that in time he would extirpate all the Grandees of Persia, Scinel-Chan presently discovered this to him, advising him to secure himself against them, by taking away those of most credit among them; the Tyrant replied, Thy advice is good, and I will begin with thee; for thou art a Person of the greatest Age, and Authority among them, and therefore must needs be of the Conspiracy; And presently af­ter he killed him with his own hands; he slew his Lord High Chancellor within a few days after, by running him into the Body with a Cymiter, and then caused his head [Page 211] to be cut into small bits, and thus he dealt with most of the rest, who were at the Meeting aforesaid; when he came to Casbin, he sent for all the Lords, and Gover­nors of his Provinces to come to him, they all obeyed, save two, who thought it enough to assure the King of their Fidelity, by sending each of them, one of their Wives, and one of their Sons; but he being not satisfi­ed herewith, sent their Wives to the publick Bawdy-Houses, and exposed their Sons to the Sodomitical bru­tality of his Grooms, and common Hangmen; then he sent for Immanuel Can, Governor of Shiras, and as soon as he came, he caused his head to be cut off, and the heads of his fifteen Sons; these unparallel'd Cruelties frighted all that came near him, and put some upon a Resolution to shorten his days by Poyson, in which, some of the Ladies in the Seraglio had an hand, which coming to his knowledge, he revenged himself the night following, causing a great Pit to be made in the Garden, wherein he buried forty Women alive, some Ladies, and among them his own Mother. Ambas. Tra. p. 265.

XXVI. Innumerable are the Examples of Barbarity in the world, let us therefore add a few instances of the Perfidiousness, and Treachery of some men; there is nothing under the Sun that is more detestable than a Traytor, who is commonly followed with the Execra­tions and Curses of those very men to whom his Trea­son hath been most useful; so that it is seldom but these perfidious ones meet with their just rewards from the hands of their own Patrons; however the vengeance of Heaven, where the Justice of men fails, doth visibly fall upon them.

XXVII. The City of Sfetigrade in Hungary, being defended against Amurath, the second Emperor of the Turks, was then watered but with one great Well in the midst of the City, into which a traiterous Person ha­ving contracted for a mighty reward, to cause the City to be yielded up to the Turks, had cast a dead Dogs this had been no great matter to other men, but he well [Page 212] knew that the Garrison consisted of the Soldiers of Di­bra, who as they were the most valorous of all Epirus, so were they more Superstitious then the Jews, about things clean and unclean, and he knew they would starve, die any kind of death, nay, deliver up the City, rather than drink of that polluted water, nor was he deceived, for it was soon delivered upon certain con­ditions; he that corrupted the water was rewarded with three Suits of rich Apparel, fifty thousand Aspers, and a yearly Pension of two thousand Duckets, but short was his Joy, for after he had a few daies vainly trium­phed in the midst of Amuraths favours, he was sudden­ly gone, and never after seen or heard of; being secret­ly made away, as was supposed by Amurath, whose noble heart could not but detest the Traytor, although the Treason served well for his purpose. Turk. Hist. p. 320.

XXVIII. Ladislaus Kerezin, an Hungarian, Traiterously delivered up Hiula, a strong Place, to the Turks, & when he looked to receive many and great Presents for this his notable piece of Service, certain Witnesses were pro­duced against him by the command of Selymus the Tur­kish Emperor, who deposed, that Ladislaus had cruelly handled certain Turks, who had been Prisoners with him, whereupon he was delivered to some Friends of their's, to do with him, as they should think good; they inclosed this Traytor stark naked in a Tun or Hogshead set full of long sharp Nails within side, and rolled it from the top of an high Mountain, full of stee­py downfalls, to the very bottom, where being run through every part of the Body with those sharp Nails, he ended his wretched life. Camerar.

XXIX. The Venetians put to death Marinus Falienus their Duke, for having Treacherously conspired against the State, and whereas the Pictures of their Dukes from the first, to him that now liveth are represented, and drawn according to the order of their times, in the great Hall of the general Council, yet to the end that the Picture of Falienus a perfidious Prince, might not be seen amongst other of those illustrious Dukes, [Page 213] they caused an empty chair to be drawn, and covered over with a black veil, as believing, that those who carried themselves disloyally to the Common wealth, cannot be more severely punished, than if their names be covered with perpetual silence, and secret detesta­tion. Camerar. Op.

XXX. In the French Persecution there was one Pe­ter Serre, who at first was a Popish Priest; but God of his mercy revealing the truth of the Protestant Re­ligion to him, he went to Geneva, and there learned the Shoemakers Trade whereby he maintained himself, and having a Brother at Tholouse in France, out of a singular love to his eternal happiness he went thither to in­struct him; but his Brothers wife being displeased thereat, Treacherously betrayed him, and he was appre­hended and carried before the bloody Inquisitors before whom he made an excellent declaration of his faith, for which he was condemned and delivered to the Judg, who asked him what imployment he was of, he answer­ed, That of late he had been a Shoemaker, but was formerly or another Profession which he was ashamed to remember or dis­cover, it being the worst and vilest of all other sciences in the World. The Judg and the auditors supposing that he had been some Pickpocket or Thief, were the more impor­tunate to know what it was; but shame and sorrow so stopped his mouth that he could not declare it, yet at last being overcome by their importunate clamour he told them, That he had been a Popish Priest, this unex­pected reply so desperately incensed the Judg that he presently commanded him to be burnt. Clarks Mar­tyrol. p. 45.

XXXI. Solyman the Magnificent Emperor of the Turks, imployed a Treacherous Christian in the conquest of the Isle of Rhodes, promising the Traytor to give him for his wife one of his Daughters with a very great Dowry; after the Isle was taken by his assistance, he demanded that which was promised him; whereupon Solyman caused his Daughter to be brought in most Roy­al Pomp, in order to marry her according to his desert [Page 214] the Traytor could not keep his Countenance he was so transported with Joy; Thou seest, said, Solyman, I am a man of my word, but for as much as thou art a Christian, and my Daughter thy wife that shall be, is a Mahometan by birth and profession, you cannot so live in quietness, and I am loth to have a Son in Law that is not a Musselman, and true believer both within and without, and therefore it is not enough that thou abjure Christianity in word only, as many of thy Sect usually do, but thou must immediatly pluck off thy Skin, which is Baptized and uncircumcised; having so said, he commanded some that stood by, to flea alive the pre­tended Son in Law, and that afterward they should lay him upon a Bed of salt, commanding that if any Mahume­t [...]n Skin came over him again, in place of the Christian, that then and not before his promised Spouse should be brought unto him to be married, the wretched Traytor thus shamefully and cruelly flouted & disappointed, died in most horrible Torments; Camerar. Opera.

XXXIV. In the war with the Falisci, Camillus the Roman general had beseiged the Falerians, but they be­ing secure in the sortifications of their City were so re­gardless of the seige that they walked gowned as be­fore, up and down the streets. These People, after the manner of Greece, sent their Children to a Common School, and the Treacherous Master of them used to walk with them dayly without the walls; he did this often, and by degrees trained them so far onwards, that he brought them unawares into the danger of the Roman Camp, where they were all taken; he bids them lead him to Camellus, he was brought into his Tent, where standing in the middle; I am, said he, the Master of these Boys, & having a greater respect to you than to my Rela­tions, I am come to deliver you the City in the pledges of these Children; Camillus heard it, and judging it to be a base action, turning to his Souldiers about him, War, said he is a cruel thing, and draws along with it a multitude of injuries and wrongs, yet to good men there are certain Laws of War, nor ought we so to thrist after victory as to purchase it at the price of such unworthy and impious actions, a great Cap­tain [Page 215] should rely upon his own virtue, and not attain his ends by the Treachery of another; then he commanded his Officers to strip the School Master, and having his hands tyed behind him, he delivered rods into the hands of his Schollars, to whip and scourge the Traytor back into the City. The Falerians had before perceived the Trea­son and there was an universal mourning and outcry within the City for so great a Calamity, so that a con­course of n [...]ble Persons both men and women like so many mad creatures were running to and fro upon the walls; soon after came the Children driving with lash­hes their Master before them, calling Camillus their Preserver and Father. The Parents and the rest of the Citizens were astonished at what they beheld, and hav­ing the Justice of Camillus in great admiration they call­ed an assembly, and sent Ambassadors to let him know, that being subdued by his virtue they rendred up them­selves and theirs freely into his hands. Plutarch.

XXXV. Rhomilda was the Wife of Prince Sigulphus, her Husband being slain by Cacanus King of the Hene [...] ­tians and she her self beseiged by the same Enemy, yet nevertheless this wretched woman fell so far in Love with him, that upon promise of Marriage, she agreed to deliver into his hands the City of Friol, who burnt it, slew the men and carried the women and Children Cap­tives into Austria; Cacanus took Rhomilda into his bed for one night only and then delivered her to be abus­ed with the lust of twelve Henesians, and soon after caused her to be impaled alive upon a sharp stake. Ca. Op.

CHAP. VI. The Tremendous Consequences of Ʋnchastity, Intemperance, and Ambition.

IT is not to be imagined that I should give an [...] of the Thousandth part of the mischiefs and mi [...] ­ries that have been occasioned by Lust and Debauche­ry, all Ages, and Nations are full of lamentable Acci­dents [Page 216] proceeding therefrom; for though this violent Passion may seem to promise a world of vain pleasure; and though lascivious Persons use many times all manner of Patience, services, and profound submissions to gain the desired object, yet when they have obtained their flagitious desires, and think themselves absolutely hap­py in the midst of their libidinous, and unchast Embra­ces, even at that very instant, there is sometimes brought in an unexpected Reckoning, that drenches all their sweets in blood, and closes up their unlawful pleasures in the black, and dismal Sables of death, as by the fol­lowing Examples is demonstrated, wherein Divine Venge­ance has visibly appeared in the woful Tragedies which have been occasioned by Adultery, Unchastity, & Lust.

I. The first I shall mention, is partly Comical, as well as Tragical. A Knight of Eminent Fame, and of great nore with Henry the Fifth, King of England, as be­ing personally with him in all his Wars in France; after the King had conquered, and setled that Kingdom, this noble Englishman retired himself into his own Country; he had a Lady of such beauty, as attracted the Eyes of all men, who residing with her Husband in the City of Norwich, he after so many troubles and adventures, re­solved to lead a more sequestred life, and next to the pleasure of his fair Consort, he desired to lead a con­templative life, and being very rich, according to the Devotion of that Age, by the direction of the Priests, he resolved to build a handsome Church near his own House, which they said would be for the benefit of his Soul, and likewise a Convent, allowing maintenance to an Abbot, and twelve Fryers; having finished them, there were two of the Friers, one called Fryer John, the other Fryer Richard, who were at continual variance and enmity to each other, and could not by any media­tion be reconciled; it was the dayly Custom of this Knight and Lady to rise every morning early to Mattins, or Prayers, and she being of an affable, and courteous disposition to all Persons, this good humour of hers bred a strange uncivil boldness in Fryer John, so that she ne­ver [Page 217] came through the Cloyster, but he was still attend­ing her with many bows, cringes, and complements, and she suspecting nothing, returned him Thanks again, which so far incouraged the Fryer, that he made him­self suspected by his Fellows, who as much as they durst, whispered it about the Convent; he still growing more confident, presumed at last to write to her, wherein he at large discovered his violent Passion for her; this Letter with great difficulty he conveyed to the Ladies hands, who being much surprized that such lascivious­ness should proceed from one that vowed, and professed Chastity, and not being certain, but that it might be a design of her Husband to try her Virtue, she thereupon resolves, that to prevent her Honour from being called in question, she would discover the whole intrigue to her Lord, which she had no sooner done, but he began to repent him of his former Charity in regard of this so great Ingratitude; yet meditating Revenge, he writes an answer to this Letter, to which he commands his Wife to set her hand to this effect; that she was very compassionate of his Love, and that such a night her Husband being to ride toward London, he should be ad­mit [...], lodged, and entertained according to his own desire; the Fryer received this Letter with extream Joy, and providing himself with clean linnen, a perfu­med Nightcap, and other necessaries, he exactly ob­serves the time and place, and is accordingly admitted by the Lady her self alone, and conveyed to a private Chamber, where he was no sooner entred, but in came the Knight and his Man, and in great fury, without gi­ving him the least time either to call for help to the House, or to Heaven, they strangled the lustful Fryer, and left him dead upon the place, this deed was no soo­ner done, and his rage somewhat appeased, but he be­gan to consider the horrour, and danger of the Fact, both as to his life and Estate, and after several projects betwixt him and his Servant, they concluded some way or other to have his body conveyed back into the Mon­astery; it being divided from his own House only by a [Page 218] Brick-wall, & finding a Ladder hard by, the man mounts it with the dead Fryer on his back, and sits with him astride on the wall, then drawing up the Ladder, and letting it down on the other side, he descends down in­to the Convent, where espying the House of Office, he sets the Body thereon as upright as possible; and so leaves it; and conveys himself over the wall again (but for hast forgot the Ladder,) and tells his Master, how, and where he had bestowed the Fryer, at which being better satisfied, they both retired to Bed; all being con­cealed both from the Lady, and the rest of the Family, who were fast asleep; it happened at the fame instant that Fryer Richard being much troubled with a loose­ness in his Body, had occasion to rise, and being some­what hastily, and unhandsomely taken, he hasts to the House of Office, where by the light of the Moon he es­pied some Body before him, and therefore contained himself as long as he was able, but finding there was no Remedy, he first called, and then intreated to come a­way, but hearing no body answer, he imagined into be done on purpose, and the rather, because coming nea­rer, he plainly perceived it was Fryer John his [...] Ad­versary, who the louder he called, seemed the less to hear; loth he was to play the sloven in the yard because the whole Convent had taken notice of a cold he had got, and how it then wrought with him; therefore judg­ing this pretended deafness was out of spight, and ma­lice, on purpose to shame him, he snatcht up a Brickbat to be revenged, and striking his Adversary full upon the Breast, down tumbles Fryer John without life or mo­tion; which he seeing, thought at first to r [...]ise him up, but after many Trials, finding him to be stone dead he verily believes that he had killed him; what shall he do now? The Gates are fast locked; and fly for his life he could not, but as sudden extremities sometimes create sudden shifts, he espying the Ladder against the wall, presently apprehends what had been whispered of Fryer Johns love to the Knights Lady, and lifting him on his Shoulders, by the help of the same Ladder [Page 219] he carries him into the Porch of the Knights Hall, and there sets him, afterward secretly conveying himself back into the Monastery the same way he came, not in the least suspected by any; while this was doing the Knight being perplexed, and troubled in Conscience, could by no means sleep, but calls up his Man, and bids him go listen about the walls of the Monastery; forth he goes out of his Masters Chamber, and having passed the length of the Hall, designing to go through the yard, he finds Fryer John sitting upright in the Porch, and star­ting at the sight, he runs back affrighted, and almost distracted, and speechless, tells the news to his Master, who being no less astonished, could not believe it to be so, but rather his mans Fantasy, till he himself went down, and became an Eye-witness of this strange ob­ject. At which, being extreamly concerned, he ressects on himself, that murder is one of the crying sins, and such a one as cannot be concealed; yet recollecting his Spirits, he resolves to try a desperate adventure, and put the discovery upon chance; he remembers he had an old Stallion then in his Stable, one of those he had used in Service in the French Wars, and likewise a rusty Armour in his Armory, these he commands instantly to be brought, with a Case of rusty Pistols, and a Lance; the Horse is sadled, and Caparison'd, the Armour is put upon the Fryer, and he fast bound in his Seat with strong new Cords, the Lance is tied to his wrist, and the lower end put into the rest, his Head-piece is clas­ped on, and his Beaver is put up; being thus accoutred like a Knight compleatly armed Cap-a-pe, they designed to turn him out of the Gates, both he and his Horse, without any Page or Esquire, to try a new Adventure; whilst these things were thus fitting, Fryer Richard in the Monastery was no less perplexed in his mind, than the Knight about the Murther, and much dreading the strictness of the Law, summons all his wits about him, to prevent the worst, and at length concludes with him­self, that it is his best, and safest way to fly for his life; he likewise remembers that there was in the Fryery a [Page 220] Mare imployed to carry Corn to, and from the Mill, which was about half a mile from the Monastery, and being somewhat fat, and doubting his own footmanship, he thinks it better to trust to four legs, then two, and therefore calls up the Baker that had the charge of the Beast, and tells him, he understands that there was Meal that morning to be fetcht from the Mill, which was grin­ded by that time; therefore if he would let him have the Mare, he would save him that labour, and bring it back before morning; the Fellow being willing to save so much pains, caused the back Gate to be opened; the Fryer gets up, and rides out of the Monastery Gate, just at that instant when the Knight and his Man had turned out the Fryer on Horseback to seek his fortune, the Horse presently scents the Mare, and after her he gallops; Fryer Richard looking back, was amazed to see an armed Knight follow him, & much more when by the light of the Moon, and the Beaver flying up, he percei­ved that it was Fryer John who was thus armed, and thereupon away flies he through the Streets; and after him, or rather after the Mare, speeds the Horse; a great noise there was in the City, insomuch that many being awakened out of their morning sleep, looked out at their Windows; at length it was Fryer Richards ill fate to ride into a certain turn-again Lane, which had no passage through; there Fryer John overtakes him, the Stone-Horse covers the Mare, which causes a terri­ble noise among the rusty Armour; Fryer Richards guil­ty conscience accuses him, and he cries out aloud, Guilty of the Murder; at the noise of Murder, the People being amazed, ran out of their Beds into the Street, they ap­prehend Miracles, and he confesses Wonders, but with­al, he freely tells them of the horrid, and inhumane Act he had committed in murdering one of his own Con­vent; the former Grudge that was between them is generally known, and the apparent Justice of Heaven the rather believed, Fryer John is dismounted, and sent to his Grave, Fryer Richard is committed to Prison, he is Arraigned, and in pursuance of his own Confession, [Page 221] is condemned. But before his Execution, the Knight knowing his own guilt, and concern in the business, he posts instantly to the King, makes his voluntary Con­fession, and hath his life, and estate for his former good Services, granted to him; Fryer Richard is released, and this notable Accident still remains upon Record. Hist. Women.

II. In the reign of Queen Mary, Sr. Walter Smith of Shirford in Warwickshire being grown an aged man, at the death of his wife considered of a Marriage for Ri­chard his Son and heir, then at mans Estate; and to that end made his mind known to Mr. Thomas Chetwin of In­gestre in Staffordshire, who entertaining the motion in the behalf of Dorothy his Daughter, was contented to give five hundred pound with her. But no sooner had the old knight seen the young Lady, but he became a suiter for himself, offering five hundred pound for her be­sides as good a joynture as she should have by his Son if the Match had gone forward; this so wrought upon Chetwin that he effectually persuaded his Daughter and the Marriage ensued accordingly; it was not long ere her affections wandring, she gave entertainment to a young Gentleman of about Twenty two called Robinson of Dray­ton Basset, and being impatient of all that might hinder her full enjoyment of him, she contrived how to be rid of her husband; having therefore corrupted her wait­ing Gentlewoman, and a Groom of the stable, she re­solved by their help, and the assistance of Robinson to strangle him in his bed, and though Robinson came not the designed night, she no whit staggered in her Reso­lution; for watching her husband till he was fallen asleep, she called in her complices and casting a long Towel about his neck, caused the Groom to lye upon him to keep him from strugling; whilst her self and the maid straining the Towel stopped his breath; having thus dispatched the work, they carried him into another room, where a close stool was placed, upon which they set him; an hour after, the maid and Groom were got silently away; and to conceal the business this La­scivious [Page 222] bloody woman made an outcry in the house, wringing her hands plucking her hair, and weeping ex­treamly, pretending that missing him sometime out of bed, she went to see what the matter was, and found him in that posture; by these feigned shews of sorrow she prevented all suspition of his violent death; and not long after went to London, setting so high a value upon her beauty that Robinson became neglected; but within two years following, this woful deed of darkness was brought to light in this manner; the Groom before mentioned was entertained with Mr. Richaro Smith Son and heir to the murdered knight, and attending him to Coventry, with divers other Servants he became so sen­sible of his Villany, that when he was in his Cups, out of his good nature he took his Master aside, and upon his knees besought him forgiveness for acting in the mur­der of his Father, declaring all the circumstances thereof; whereupon Mr. Smith discreetly gave him good words but wished some others he trusted to have an Eye upon him that he might not escape when he had slept, and better considered what might be the issue thereof; notwithstanding which direction, he fled a­way with his Masters best Horse, and ha [...]ing presently into Wales, he attempted to go beyond Sea, but being hindred by contrary winds, after three Essays or trials to lanch out, he was happily pursued by Mr. Smith, who spared no cost in sending to several Ports, that he was found out, and brought Prisoner to Warwick, as were also the Lady and her Gentlewoman, all of them with great boldness denying the fact, and the Groom most impudently charging Mr. Smith of endeavouring to cor­rupt him to accuse the Lady, his Mother in Law falsly, to the end he might get her great jointure; but upon, his arraignment, being smitten with the apprehension of his guilt, he publickly acknowledged it; and stoutly justified what he had said to be true to the face of the Lady, and her maid, who at first with much seeming confidance pleaded their innocency; till at length see­ing the particular Circumstances thus discovered, they [Page 223] both confessed the fact, for which having Judgment to dye, the Lady was burnt at a stake on Woolvey Heath near Shirford Lordship, where the Country People to this day shew the place, and the Groom with the maid suffered death at Warwick. Dugdale of Warwickshire. p. 37.

III. The debauched life, and fatal death of Sultan Ibrahim Father to the present Emperor of the Turks is very remarkable; his Brother Sultan Amurath or Mo­rat after a fever of eight days continuance, caused by an excess of Debauchery in wine having on the 8 of Febru­ary 1640 expired his last breath; his Mother called Kiosem comforted her self with the thoughts that her son Sultan Ibrahim still lived and was the sole surviver and undoubted heir of the Ottoman family; to whose suc­cession, that it might be the more facile and without disturbance, she consulted with all the Grandees, re­questing their consent and assistance in the lawful pro­motion of her remaining Son to the throne of his ance­stors; for she had understood that Morat always abhor­red the ill shaped body and weaker mind of his Brother, envied him the dignity of the, Ottoman Scepter, and therefore had bequeathed the succession to the Tartar, having in the heat of a debauch and fumes of his wine compelled his Bashas to swear to the performance of his Testament; and therefore the Queen was forced to use very many arguments, to persuade them of the dan­ger, and unlawfulness of rejecting the right heir; with which being convinced, they all cryed out, Let Sultan Ibrahim live; herewith the great Council breaking up, the Viziers accompanied with all the Officers and atten­dants of the Seraglio, went with shouts and loud accla­mations to the Prison of Ibrahim to salute him Emperor, for he poor Prince had, now for four years remained a sad recluse in a dark room, where he had received nei­ther light nor air, but what came from a little window which sometimes in favour was opened to him from above, and what was worse, the continual expe­ctations, and fear of death, without Friends, Conversation, or hope rendred those apprehensions worse than death it self, which dayly were represented [Page 224] him in that solemnity as might terrify a mind more constant and firm than his; so soon as he heard the shouts and voices of a multitude near his door, he immediately conceived that the fate was now come which he had so long expected, and therefore he barred his door, and denied to give entrance, and when the viziers proclaimed him Empe. fearing it might be some artifice of his Brother to see with what joy he would entertain the news, he answered, That he did not so much as think of the Empire, nor desire it, but only prayed that Sul­tan Morat might live, to whom he pretended not to be a Bro­ther but a slave; and when he perceived that they be­gan to force the door, though with terms of respect and observance, he still endeavoured to keep it close, for nature had taught him to conserve a life, however mi­serable and void of Consolation; he continuing thus re­solute not to open, reverence to his Person command­ed them to forbear any ruder violence until the Queen Mother overhearing all this stir, descended her self in Person, and first causing the dead Corps of Sultan Morat to be extended before his door, with gentle compella­tions, and confident assurances she satisfied him of the death of his Brother, the voice of his Mother began to dissipate his fears, and being in part already convinced by his ears, he adventured to peep at the door, and giv­ing then entire credence to his Eyes, his heart and Spi­rits revived and so retiring back into his Chamber, he willingly received the Congratulations of the Mini­sters and Souldiers; which being past, he readily ap­plied his Shouldiers to the Coffin of his dead Brother, and having bore his share of that dear burthen to the gate of the Seraglio, he there resigned it to his Dome­stick Officers, who buried him in the Sepulcher of Sultan Achmet. From thence he took boat, and passed to the Mosch of Jubs Seraglio, where in eight days he compleat­ed all the Ceremonies of his Coronation, and after­ward, according to the custom of his ancestors he rode through the City to his great Paliace; but whether it were for want of practice, or by reason of a posture na­tural [Page 225] unto fools, he sate so ridiculously, on his saddle, as moved rather the laughter than acclamation of the Peo­ple. In fine being entred the Seraglio, he began to breath, and enjoy the air of liberty, with so much con­tentment and Satisfaction, that he was unwilling to lose the least part of it by thinking or attending on business, and as if he enjoyed sufficient, committed all to the management of his Mother; howsoever being desirous to handle something of Government he did it with so little grace & dexterity, that it plainly appeared that that Soul animated a body not fit to sway or weild a Scepter, yet he indulged his luxurious, and wanton appetite to the highest excess of sensuality, for having been accu­stomed to a Prison and restraint, he knew not how to enjoy the freedom he had recovered, but by subjecting it to the imperious servitude of his lusts, this humour the Viziers and great Ministers of state cherished in him by continual banquets, feasts and entertainments, in which he always took high contentment and satis­faction passing a most Lascivious life in his Seraglio, and consuming an immense treasure on his women, whereby he was seized with an apoplexy which was attributed to his excessive use of them, to whom he was so immode­rately addicted that he consumed his days and nights in the womens apartments, wherein Amber was the Com­mon perfume which burned perpetually, and the Com­mon sawce to most of his Dainties, not perhaps because it so much pleased his Palate, as that it was a provocative & incitement to his Lusts; and notwithstanding the great number of women within the Seraglio which were all at the Devotion of the Sultan, yet Ibrahim, not being con­tented therewith, passing one day to Scutari, had by chance cast his Eye upon an Object which much pleased him, what it was, becomes me not to relate; but be­ing returned to his Seraglio, he sent orders to the Vizier to seek out the biggest and best proportiond woman which was to be found in all Constantinople, and the parts thereabout; hereupon Emissarys were dispatched in­to all quarters of the City; at length he found a huge [Page 226] tall Armenian woman, well proportioned according to her height, and a giantess for her stature; who being found, she was presently washed and perfume [...] in the bath, and as richly clothed and adorned as the short­ness of the time would permit; there was no great difficulty to persuade her to become Turk, having so high preferment in her prospect; so that being intro­duced to the grand Seigniors presence, he became im­mediately inamoured, and was so pleased with her so­ciety that he preferred her before all the women of his Court, an evidence whereof he gave, in that he could not deny her any request she could make and particular­ly about that time the Government of Damascus being void, this woman begged it for her self, placing ano­ther in the Office, who was accountable to her for all the profits and benefits thereof; by these particulars of favour the Queen Mother becoming jealous, one day inviting her to dinner, caused her to be strangled, and persuaded Ibrahim that she died suddenly of a vio­lent sickness, at which he poor man was greatly afflicted. And though during his reign the seige of Candia began, and a bloody war continued against the Venetians yet Sul­tan Ibrahim like a stout Souldier of Venus continued his Debaucherys to the height, and at length fell in Love with the widdow of his Brother Sultan Morat, but she resolving upon widdowhood, he assaulted her by force, but his Mother coming in at the outcry, hindred his design, and gave opportunity to the Sultana to escape out of the hands of this Satyr; after this he had a great Passion for the Daughter of the Mufti or chief Priest a­mong the Turks offering her Father to marry her & pre­fer her in honour equal to any other of his Sultana's, but the old man knowing the wandring humour of Ibrabim, refused him, and instructed his Daughter to do the same, which so inraged him, that resolving to have his will of her, he caused her to be seized going from the [...]ath, and carrying her into the Seraglio, he possessed and en­joyed her for some days, but with such tears, reluctan­cy, and sullenness, a [...] took off from the edg [...], and appetite of his enjoyment, so that he returned her back with [Page 227] scorn & contempt to her Father, who at first dissembled the injury, but resolving on Reverge, he first complains to Mahomet Pasha, a great Man in the Council, & afterward to the Q. Mother, who hated her Son extreamly, because he had lately committed her to Prison for reproving him; hereupon they concluded to confine Ibrahim to his old Prison, not that he should be absolutely laid aside, and deposed, but only corrected a while and being put in re­membrance of his past condition, might be taught wis­dom, and instructed for the future, what [...]oderation & Justice Sultans are obliged to exercise in the admini­stration of Government; they then got the two Lord Chief Justices into the Conspiracy, and Aug. 7. 1648. was the day appointed for the Insurrection of the Jani­zaries, who being all in a readiness on that day, went in a tumultuary manner to call the Musti, and other Offi­cers, and Ministers of the Law to go with them to the Grand Seignior, and then they demanded of the Mufti, Whether that according to their Law, Sultan Ibrahim as a Fool, and a Tyrant, and unfit for Government, ought not to be deposed; to which the Mufti answering. Y [...]s, he sent to ci [...]e Sultan Ibrahim to appear the day following in the Divan or Council, to administer Justice to his Soldiers and Subjects, who expected it from him; but Ibrahim laughed at the Summons which the Mufti made him, which being seconded by a Fetsa, which is a point of Law resolved by the Mufti, who is the Month, or Oracle thereof, that is, That the Grand Seignior being called to account, is obliged to appear before the Justice; the Sultan in high disdain tore the Paper, threatning the head of the Mufti; but it was now too late, he having already sufficiently fortified him­self with the power and strength of his rebellious Com­panions; this Fetfa was immediately seconded by ano­ther of a higher Nature; which declared. That whosoever obeyed not the Law of God, was not a Mussulman, or true Be­liever, and though that Person were the Emperor himself yet be­ing become by his filthy Actions a Kasir, or Irsidel, he was ip­so facto, fallen from his Throne, and no further capable of Au­thority and Government; this Fetfa being seen by Ibrahim, [Page 228] he tore it in pieces, commanding the Grand Vizier instantly to put the Mufti to death, as guilty of Treason against his Prince; but he having now lost his Authority, his Commands were no lon­ger regarded, nor any Reverence had of his Person; for the Jani­zaries being again assembled about five a clock in the afternoon, came with their usual Tumult to the Gates of the Seraglio; and now Sultan Ibrahim losing all Courage, fled into the Arms of his Mother, begging her assistance and protection; she being a bold and subtle Woman, imployed all her Rhetorick and Eloquence to persuade the Soldiers not to offer violence to the Person of their Lord and Master; promising that he should relinquish the Go­vernment, and retire himself with a Guard to his old Lodgings; Ibrahim comforted a little that he should save his life; shrunk him­self willingly into his old shell, wherein he had so long conserved his life. In the mean time the Conspirators taking forth his eldest Son Sultan Mahomet, set him on the Throne of his Father, and planting the Sargouch, or Imperial, Feathers on his Head; saluted him for Emperor with loud Acclamations; Ibrahim continued his Imprisonment for some days with great patience, but at length growing desperate and furious, he often beat his head against the Wall, until at length, on August 17. 1648. he was strangled with a Bow, string by 4 Mittes; or dumb Executioners; in this manner Sultan Ibrahim ended his lascivious days, which puts me in mind of the saying of a Wiser, & better King than he, That there is little distance between the Prisons and the Graves of Princes; & this Example made a great Officer un­derstand how K. Charles the Martyr was put to death; for he dis­coursing with the chief English Interpreter at Constantinople, not then calling to mind the Fate of Sultan Ibrahim, demanded, how, and when K. Charles was put to death? Sure, said he, Your King must have no Power, or your People must be more Rebellious and Mu­tinous than other Nations of the world; who durst commit an Act so horrid and vile as this; see, said he, how our Emperor is revered and observed, and how submissive and obedient half the world is to the Nod four great Monarch; the Interpreter replied, it would be to lious to recount to him the History & occasion of this prodigious Fact; but that the time it happened, was some months after the death or murther of Sultan Ibrahim; which was a sufficient item to the Grand Vizier, to give him a perfect understanding of what he re­quired. The Poet makes Ibrahim speak thus of himself.

I that of Ottoman blood remain alone,
Call'd from a Prison to ascend a Throne.
My silly mind I bend to sift Delights,
Hating unpleasing business, and Fights,
Till mad with wanton Loves, I fall at first,
Slave to my own; then to my Peoples Lust.

IV. Neither has Intemperance in Drinking been sometimes less fatal; for we read, that there was one at Liege in Germany, who was addicted to daily drunkenness, & in his Cups, as oft as he had emptied his pockets of his mony by playing at Cards, he used to swear that he would be the death of his Wives Uncle, because he refused to furnish him with more mony to play with; this Uncle was a Canon, & a Person of great hospitality; one night when he enter­tained a Letter carrier, he was murdered by him, together with a Neice, & a little Nephew of his. All men admiring that the Canon was not present at Mattens, or morning Prayer, who never used to absent himself; having long knocked at his doors in vain; this Drun­kard of ours having scarce digested his yesterdays Ale, set up a Lad­der to the Windows, & with others entred the House, espying there three dead Corpse; they raise the Neighbourhood with a lamentable cry, amongst the whispers of whom, when some said, that the Drun­kard was the Murtherer, he was laid hold on, cast into Prison, and thrown upon the Rack; where he saith, that he doth not think that he did it, that by reason of his dayly, & continual drunkenness, he could affirm nothing of a certainty, that he had sometimes a will, or desire to kill the Canon, but that he should never have touched his Niece, or young Nephew, well, he was condemned, and the In­nocent wretch, even in the presence of this execrable Letter-car­rier, was long wearied with exquisite Torments, and at last died an unheard of death. The Letter-carrier being again returned to Liege, and not able to endure the hourly Tortures of a revenging God inflicted upon his Soul, of his own accord presented himself before the Judges, beseeching them that by a speedy death he might be freed from that Hell he felt here alive; affirming that when he was awake (though feldom when asleep) the Image of the little Babe whom he had strangled, presented itself to his Eyes; shaking the furies whips at him, with such flames as the Drunkard had perished in; when he spake this at the Tribunal, he continally fanned his face with his hands, as if to discuss and abate the flames. The thing being evident by the Goods taken, and other discoveries, he also the same year, Aug. 23. was hanged till dead, and then burnt at a stake. Wanly Hist. Man.

V. There was in Salisbury not long since, one who in a Tavern, in the midst of his carousing and healths, drank also a health to the Devil, saying, That if the Devil would not come and pledg him, he would not believe that there was either God or Devil; whereupon his Companions being struck with horrour, hastned our of the room, & presently after hearing an hideous noise, and smelling a stinking savour, the Vintner ran up into the Chamber, and coming in, he mist his Guest, found the window broken; the iron bar in it bowed & all bloody, but the man was never after heard of Cla. Mir p. 148.

VI. In 1446. There was a Wedding near Zegbuick in Germany, [Page 230] celebrated, as it appears, with such unheard of Intemperance, and dissolute doings, that there died of extream surfeiting no less than one hundred fourscore and ten Persons, as well Women as Men. Stowes Annals. p. 385.

VII. A Gentleman having been revelling abroad, was returning home when it was late at night, his head, that was overladen with Wine, proved too heavy for the rest of his body, so that he fell down in the street, not able to rise through the feebleness of his legs; he had a Sword by his side, when another coming that way, & hearing the voice of his Enemy at some distance, suddenly snatcht out the Drunkards Sword, & having run it into the heart of his Adversa­ry, left it sticking in the wound, & in all hast conveyed himself a­way from the place. The Watch at that time chanced to pass by, who finding a man lie dead with a Sword in his body, & this drun­ken Person lying near him with his Scabbard empty, they took him along with them to the Magistrate, who having received such appa­rent Testimony against him, committed him to Prison; he was hang­ed for the Murther, tho Innocent; & afterward the real Murtherer, being to be hanged for some other matter, confessed it was himself who had made use of his Sword to act his own private Revenge. Wan

VIII. Lastly, Ambition & Pride has produced no less mischievous effects upon several Persons. Caesar Borgia, the Son of Pope Alexander, was a most Ambitious man, he caused his Brother to be murdered in the streets, & his dead body to be cast into the River Tyber; & then casting off his Priestly Robes, & Cardinals habit, he took upon him the leading of his Fathers Army, & with exceeding Prodigality he ingaged to him many desperate Ruffians for the execution of his horrible devices; having thus strengthened himself, he became a terrour to all the Nobility of Rome; he first drove out the honou­rable Family of the Columnii, & then by execrable Treachery poy­soned, or killed the chief Personages of the great Houses of the Ʋr­sini, & Cajetani, seizing upon their Lands & Estates; he strangled at once 4 Noblemen of the Camertes, drove Guido Feltrius out of Ʋrbin, took the City of Faventia from Astor Mar fredus, whom heast beastly abused, & then strangled. In his thoughts he had made him­self Master of all Italy, but was cast down, when he least feared it; being at Supper with the Pope his Father, which was prepared on purpose for destroying several rich Cardinals, by the mistake of a Servant, he & his Father were both poysoned by deadly Wine pre­pared for the Guests; and so he was rewarded for his Ambition, and intent of Murther both at once. Clarks Mirrour.

IX. Staveren in Holland was the chief Town of all Friezland, rich and abounding in all wealth, the only staple for all Merchan­dize, whither Ships came from all parts; The Inhabitants thereof through ease knew not what to do nor desire, but shewed them­selves in all things excessive and licentious, not only in their Ap­parel, [Page 231] but also in the furniture of their Houses, gilding the Seats before their Lodgings, &c. So that they were commonly called, The debauched Children of Staveren; but observe the just punish­ment of this their Pride. There was in this Town a Widow, who knew no end of her wealth; which made her proud and insolent; she freighted out a Ship for Dantzick, giving the Master charge to return her in exchange of her Merchandize the farest stuft he could find. The Master of the Ship finding no better Commodity than good wheat, freighted his Ship therewith, and so returned to Staveren; this did so discontent this foolish & glorious Widow, that she said to the Master; That if he had laden the Corn on the Starboard side of the Ship, he should cast it into the Sea on the Lar­board; which was presently done, and all the wheat poured into the Sea, but the whole Town, yea, all the Province smanted for this one Womans errour, for presently in the same place where the Marriners had thrown the Corn, there grew a great Bar or Bank of Sand, wherewith the Haven was so stopt, that no great Ship could enter, and at this day the smallest Vessels that will anchor there, must be very careful, least they strike against this flat, or Sand bank, which ever since hath been called Ʋrawelandt, that is, the Womans Sand; hereby the Town losing its Traffick, in a little time declined; the Inhabitants also by reason of their Wealth and Pride grew intellerable to the Nobility, who in sumptuousness could not endure to be brayed by them, so that this Town is now become one of the poorest of that Province, though it hath the greatest Privitedges of all the Hanse Towns. Hist Netherlands.

X Deminicus Sylvius, Duke of Venice, Married a Gentlewoman of Constantinople, she was plunged into sensuality with so much prosusion, that she could not endure to lodge, but in Chambers full of delicious persurnes of the Fast, she would not wash her self, but in the dews of Heaven, whell must be preserved for her with much skill; her Garments were so pompous, that nothing remain­ed but to seek for new S [...]s in Heaven, for she had exhausted the Treasures of the Earth, her Viands so dainty, that all the mouths of Kings tasted none so exquisite, nor would she touch her meat, but with Golden Forks, and precious Stones; God to punish this cur­sed pride, and superfluity, cast her on a Bed, and assailed her with a malady so hideous, so stinking and frightful, that all her nearest Kindred were forced to forsake her; none staid about her but a poor old Woman throughly accustomed to stench and death; this delicate Lady was poysoned with her own perfumes in such a man­ner, that from all her body there began to drop a most stinking hu­mor, and a kind of matter so filthy to behold, & so noysom to the [...]ell, that every many ainly perceived that her dissolute, & exces­sive Pride and daintiness had caused this Infection in her, which brought her to such a miserable, and tragical end. Causins. Hely Court.


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I SƲrprising Miracles of Nature and Art, in two parts. Containing, 1. The Miracles of Natre, or the won­derful signs and prodigious Aspects and Appearances in the Heavens, Earth, and Sea. With an account of the most famous Comets, and other prodigies since the Birth of our blessed Saviour; particularly the dreadful Apparitions be­fore the destruction of Jerusalem, and the Temple, The terri­ble Presages during the Wars and Desolations in Germany, as several Suns appearing at once, the water in Ponds and Conduits turned to blood, and blood rained from Heaven, Armies of Crows, Dogs, and other Creatures, fighting and destroying each other. Intermixt with Remarks on the Life of the renown­ed Gustavus Adolphus, K. of Sweden. Also a particular Description of the 5 Blazing Stars seen in England, since 1663. A Relation of the burning of Mount Aetna, with the horrid River of Fire and Brimstone which issued thence in 1669. burning near 20 Towns and Villages, with abundance of other unaccountable Accidents and Productions of all kinds, to 1682. Likewise a true account of the Groaning Board. II. The Miracles of Art, describing the most Magnificent Buildings, and other curious Inventions in all Ages, as the Seven wonders of the world, and many other excellent Structures and Rarities, throughout the Earth, Beautified with Sculptures.

Price One Shilling.

EXtraordinary Adventures of several Famous Men; with the strange Events, and many signal Muta­tions [Page] and Changes in the Fortunes of many Illustrious Places and Persons in all Ages; Being an account of a multitude of stupendious Revolutions, Accidents, and observable Matters in many Kingdoms, States, and Provinces throughout the whole World; Namely, the Adventures of Christ. Columbus, and the manner of his Discovery of America, or the New World: the Cruelties used by the Turks upon the Christians at Argiers, their manner of selling Slaves, &c. The dread­ful Mutiny in the City of Naples about their Priviledges in 1647. and how Messanello, a Fisher-Boy, ruled there for 10 days, with greater Power than any King or Emperour. An Account of several Nations destroyed, or driven from their Habitations by Gnats, Moles, Pismires, Sparrows, Locusts, Hares, Conies, Fleas, Frogs, Mice, Grashoppers, Serpents, Worms, and other inconsiderable Creatures; The Tragical Deaths of John and Cornelius de Wit, at the Hague in Holland. Remarks on the Life and Death of Sir W. Raw­leigh, with his last Speech and behaviour on the Scaffold; with Pictures.

Price One Shilling.

III. Admirable Curiosities, Rarities, and Wonders in England, Scotland, and Ireland; Or an Ac­count of many remarkable persons and places, and likewise of the Battles, Sieges, prodigious Earthquakes, Tempests Inunda­tions, Thunders Lightnings, Fives, Murders, and other con­siderable occurrences, and accidents for many Hundred years past: and among others, the Battle of Bosworth, and the mi­serable Death of Crookbackt Richard. The beheading of the Lord Cromwel, and the Earl of Essex, with their last Speeches. the Rebellion of the Papists in Cornwal, &c. against the Common-Prayer in King Edward 6 time, and the Kings Letter to them. The Rebellion under Ket the Tanner, and his Laws and Ordinances in the Oak of Reformation near Nor­wich. The Association in Qu. Elizabeth's time. The pro­ceedings against Mary Queen of Scots, Mother to K. James, with her last words on the Scaffold. The Lady riding naked through Coventry. Together wit the natural and artified rarities in every County in England, with several curious Sculptures.

Price One Shlling.

IV. VVOnderful Prodigies of Judgment and Mer­cy, discovered in above 300 memorable Histories, containing. 1. Dreadful Judgments upon Atheists, Blasphemers, perjured Villains, &c. As of several forsworn Wretches carried away by the Devit, and how an horrid Blas­phemer was turned into a black Dog, &c. 2. The miserable ends of many Magicians, Witches, Conjurers, &c. with divers strange apparitions and illusions of the Devil. 3. Remarkable predictions, and presages of approaching Death, and how the event has been answerable, with an account of some Appeals to Heaven against unjust Judges, and what vengeance hath fallen upon them. 4. The wicked Lives and woful Deaths of several Popes, Apostates, and Persecutors; with the manner how K. Hen. 2. was whipt by the Popes order by the Monks of Can­terbury; and how the Queen of Bohemia, a desperate Per­secutor of the Christians, was swallowed up in the Earth a­live, with all her followers, &c. 5. Fearful Judgments upon bloody Tyrants, Marderers, &c. also how Pop [...]el, King of Poland, (a cruel Tyrant) his Queen, and Children, were de­voured by Rats; and how a Town near Tripoly in Barbary, with the Men, Women, Children, Beasts, Trees, Walls Rooms, Cats, Dogs, Mice, and all that belonged to the place, were turned into perfect Stone, (to be seen at this day) for the horrid crimes of the Inhabitants &c. 6. Admirable Deliverances from imminent Dangers, and Deplorable Distresses at Sea and Land. Lastly, Divine Goodness to Penitents, with the dying Thoughts of several famous Men, concerning a future state after this Life, Imbelli [...]hed with divers Pictures.

Price One Shilling.

V. HIstorical Remarks and Observations of the Ancient and present state of London and Westminster, shewing the Foundations, Wills, Gates, Towers, Bridges, Churches, Rivers, Wards, H [...]s, Companies, Government, Courts, Hospitals, Schools, Inns of Court Charters, Franchises, and Priviledges thereof; with an account of the most remarka­ble Accidents, as to Wars, Fires, Plagues and other occurrences, for above Nine hundred years past, in and about these Cities; and among other particulars, the Rebellion of Wat. Tyler, who was slain by the Lord Mayor in Smithfield, and the [Page] Speech of Jack Straw at his Execution; The Murder of King Hen. 6. and likewise of Edward 5. and his Brother, by Rich­ard 3. called Crook-back. The Insurrection in London in King Henry. 8. time, and how 411 Men and Women went through the City in their shifts, and ropes about their Necks to Westminster-Hall, where they were pardoned by the King; with several other Remarks to this Year 1681. and a discrip­tion of the manner of the Trial of the late Lord. Stafford in Westminster-Hall; Illustrated with Pictures, with the Arms, of the 65 Companies of London, and the time of their Incorporating.

Price One Shilling

VI. The Fourth Edition of the Wars in England Scot­land, and Ireland, being near a third part enlarg­ed, with very considerable Additions, containing an imparti­al Account of all the Battles, Seiges, and other remarkable Transactions. Revolutions and Accidents which have happened from the beginning of the Reign of King Charles the First 1625. to His Majesties happy Restauration, 1660. And a­mong other particulars, the Debates and Proceedings of the Fourforst Parliaments of King Charles. The Murder of the Duke of Buckingham by Felton. The Tumults at Eden­burgh in Scotland, upon the reading the Common-Prayer. The Insurrection of the Apprentices and Seamen, and their assaulting of A. B Laud's House at Lambeth. Remarks on the Trial of the E. of Strafford, and his last Speech. The hor­rid and bloody. Rebellion of the Papists in Ireland, and their murdering above 200000 Profestants in 1641. The Death of Arch-Bishop Land Duke Hamilton, Lord Capel, Mr. Love, Dr. Hewet, and others. The illegal Trial of King Charles 1. at large, with his last Speech at his Suffering. And the most considerable matters which happened till 1660. with Pictures of several remarkable Accidents.

Price One Shilling.

VII. THe Young mans Calling, or the whole Duty of Youth; in a serious and compassionate Address to all young Persons to remember their Creator in the days of their Youth. Together with Rmarks upon the Lives of seve­ral excellent young Persons of both Sexes, as well ancient [Page] as modern, who have been famous for Virtue and Piety in their Generations; namely, on the Lives of Isaac and Joseph in their Youth. On the Martyrdom of seven Sons and their Mo­ther; and of Romanus a young Nobleman with the invinci­ble courage of a Child of seven years old, who was martyred. On the Martyrdom of divers holy Virgins and Martyrs. On the Life of that blessed Prince King Edw. 6. with his earnest Zeal for the Protestant Religion, and his ingenious Letters to his Godfather A. B. Cranmer, when but 8 years old, with his last words and Prayer against Popery. On the Life and Death of Queen Jane, as her learned Dispute with Fecknam a Priest, about the Sacrament, her Letters to her Father the Duke of Suffolk, to her Sister, and to Harding an Apostate Protestant. On the Life of Queen Elizabeth in her Youth, with her many Sufferings and Dangers, from bloody Bonner and Gardiner, and her joiful Reception to the Crown. On the Religious Life and Death of the most Noble and Heroick Prince Henry, eldest Son to King James; And also of the Young Lord Harrington, &c. With Twelve curious Pictures, Illustrating the several Histories.

Price Eighteen Pence.

All sold by Nath Crouch, at his shop at the sign of the Bell in the Poultry, near Cheap­side. 1683.


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