AN ANSWER, OR CONFVTATION OF Divers Errors Broached and Maintained By the Seven Churches of ANABAPTISTS Contained in those Articles of their Confession of Faith Presented to the PARLIAMENT, and other grosse Opinions held by them against the cleare light of the GOSPELL.


2 TIM. 3.8, 9.

Now as Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, so do these also re­sist the truth: men of corrupt mindes, reprobate concerning the faith. But they shall proceede no further: for their folly shall be manifest unto all men, as theirs also was.

Imprimatur John Downham.

LONDON, Printed for Henry Shepheard and William Ley, and are to be sold at the Signe of the Bible in Tower-Streete, and at Pauls-Chaine neare Doctors Commons. 1646.

The Contents of this Boooke.

THis Chapter containes a confutation of many errours, mentioned by the Anabaptists in their Articles of faith, defended against me by one of their Teachers.
This Chapter containes other wicked errours of the Anabaptists, mentioned against me: First, that the bodies of men consisting of flesh and bones, is their soules, and that they have no other: Secondly, that the breath of men and beasts is their spirits, and that it is immortall, and liveth when their bodies are dead: Thirdly, they hold that in the Resurrection, the bodies both of men and beasts shall rise againe, and their breath shall be againe infused into them.
This Chapter containes wicked errours, mentioned against me by the Ana­baptists: who hold an Universall Redemption by Christ; if not of beasts, as was mentioned in the former Chapter, yet of all men although they be already in hell torments.
In this Chapter, they hold it unlawfull to use that Prayer of Christ, Math. 6.9. as a Prayer, by the godly, and the ungodly; with a briefe confuta­tion of that errour.
This Chapter containes a disputation, with the Anabaptists about the Ma­gistrates power, in commanding those of a contrary judgement, to con­forme in publicke worship, or to punish them in case of refusall.

To the Reader.

CHristian Reader, The Apostacy of others should be as a warning to us: that as we have set our hand to the plow of profession, we may not looke backe. Luke. 17. but goe on unto perfection, and presse toward the marke, and for the joy that is set before us, we should endure the Crosse, and runne with patience the race that is set before us: and ne­ver turne to the right hand nor to the left, but goe on tho­rough the narrow gate, along the straight way to Zion, with our forces thitherward: and encourage our hearts to the Lord by that everlasting Covenant, that shall never be forgotten: and we shall obtaine if we faint not; the end of our faith, shall be the salvation of our soules; if we hold out to the end, we shall be saved; being faithfull to the death we shall have the Crowne of life; then I say Good Reader take heede of Apostacy, doe not beginne in the spirit, and then end in the flesh: for then your former righteousnesse shall never be remembred; but for your sinne you shall dye: but to those that persevere in the way of righteousnesse, all their former sinnes shall be forgiven, and never remembred more, but they shall be cast into the bottome of the sea, and blotted out of the book of remem­brance, and they shall be esteemed as perfectly righteous, having no spot nor wrinckle nor any such thing; then keepe thy garments, for thou must walke with Christ in robes made white in the blond of the Lambe: pure religion will keepe thee from be­ing spotted by the world; and that thou mayest so doe, keepe thy selfe from the fornica­tours of the world, yea from both scandalous and erroneus persons: doe not inquire, saying, how doe they serve their Gods, Deut. 12.31? Come not among any erro­nius persons. Israel living amongst them soone learned their workes. Psal. 110.35. enter not into their paths, goe not with with wicked men, avoyde it, passe not by it, turne from it, and come away. Prov. 4.14, 15. If they say, loe here is Christ or there, beleeve them not: for there shall arise false Christs and false Prophets, that if it were possible, would deceive the very elect. Wherefore if they say, behold he is in the desart, goe not forth, behold he is in the secret chambers, beleeve it not. Math. 24.24.26. If they preach any other Gospell, then that the former Saints have beene taught, let them be accursed. Their new Lights is but Satans delusion, when he transforms himselfe into an Angel of light. The old way is the good way, our Fathers walked therein, and were not confounded. Psal. 22.44. Then if [Page]they bring not this doctrine, receive them not into thy house, nor bid them God speede. 3 Jon. 3.10. Pertake not of other mens sinnes, keepe thy selfe pure, and he not carried about with every winde of doctrine, The slight of men, and cunning craftinesse whereby they lie in waite to deceive with fairs words. They deceive the hearts of the simple, and carry away captive unstable soules into destruction: then it is a good thing the heart be established with grace. Be ye rooted and built up in Christ, and stand fast against all the wiles of the divell: be not like the Athenians, desiring to hear [...], have not itching cares after novelties: labour to have godlinesse with content, and a setled minde upon the truth of the Gospell, so shalt thou stand in these perillous dayes, When iniquity abounds, and the love of many waxes cold: labour to love the truth, and thou shalt not be given up to beleeve li [...]s: labour to doe the will of God, and thou shalt know his doctrine whether it be of God: and receive nothing for truth till thou hast weighed it in the ballance of the Sanctuary: let not thy affections be fastened on any thing, before thou hast tryed it: receive nothing for the love of men, nor re­spect of persons, but search the scriptures, and see whether those things be so, and fol­low Paul, but as he followes Christ: and if sinners entice thee, consent thou not; if they say come let us heare such a Trades-man preach, goe not with them, least thou be snared to thy destruction. Then doe not tempt the Lord, nor presume of thine owne strength to stand in such temptations, but take heede least thou fall: be ever jealous of thine owne heart, for it is deceitfull above all things; keepe it with all diligence, and leane not to thine owne understanding; and if thou desirest satisfaction in any point in controversie, acquaint thy Pastor with it before thou give consent to any thing new come up, or to walke in a way not cast up from the ancient pathes, reads this Book, and let the Scripture be thy Judge, and if it satisfie thee in any thing, give God the prayse, and let me be remembred in thy prayers, and I shall remaine thine, in all Christian duties to be commanded,


A CONFUTATION OF Divers Errors of the Anabaptists contained in their ARTICLES of FAITH presented to the PARLIAMENT.


This Chapter contains a Confutation of many errors maintained by the Anabaptists in their Articles of Faith defended against me, by Mr. Spilsbury one of their Teachers.

Their first Article they beleeve, that there is one rule of obedi­ence for all Saints in all places to be observed, of which I doubted: his answer was that the scripture is that rule to trie and judge all things.

I answer, the scripture is an eternall rule of righteousnesse, but not commanding the same things to be observed by all Saints in all times, and in all places. The Jews were commanded many things which we are not, and yet by the Scriptures; and we are commanded many things here that cease at our death, and shall not be done in heaven: then the same things are not to be observed by all Saints in all places. Againe if the scripture be a rule for all Circumstances in all duties that make for outward decency and uniformity; Then I must see a rule for these things before I give my faith to this Article. In their next article they beleeve that all who know God and Christ shall have eternall life, but vengeance shall be rendered on all that know not God and Christ: but here I doubt they exclude [Page 2]all Infants that dye in their Infancy from salvation, because they are not ca­pable of such knowledge of God and Christ. You answer saying you know not what is this knowledge, neither hath the scripture revealed any such that were saved. But was not Jereboams child saved, when the Lord himselfe said that there was some good thing in him towards the Lord God of Israel. 1 King. 14, 15. And did David rejoyce that his childe was damned, and did he desire to goe to hell to his childe and rejoyce in beleeving it. 2 Sam. 12.23. And why should not Infants that dye be saved, when as they may be sanctified, which is eternall life begunne already? and they may be sanctified as well as Jeremiah and John the Baptist. Jer. 1.5. Luke 1.15. Then, are you a teacher and know not these things? but you say you will not judge them, when as you make it an article of your faith to beleeve that none shall be saved with­out this knowledge of God in Christ, which infants are not capable of; yet they may have the seeds of grace in them wrought by the Spirit of God: neither can this be denyed, when as they are sanctified by the Spirit of God. Againe if I should beleeve this Article, I feare I should condemne many of Gods people, which have the faith of adherence, but not the faith of evi­dence: for many that live a holy life, may want a cleare evidence that God is reconciled to them in Christ, therefore I dare not give my faith to beleeve this Article.

Your sixteenth article is this, you beleeve that unlesse Christ had beene God he could not perfectly have knowne the will of God, which I doubt of: but you answer that you beleeve that Christ was both God and man and the Prophet that all must heare: but what of this? who doubts of it? but then you say that you will decline what the Word of God doth not hold forth: but I feare you will not be as good as your word, but suppose you be; yet how doth this satisfie my doubt? Yet further I grant that no crea­ture can fully know this secret will of God: for Christ as man knew not when the day of Judgement should be. Mark. 13.32, Neither can one crea­ture know what God hath revealed to all creatures. Man doth not know what God hath revealed to Angels, nor doe they know fully what God hath revealed to men, 1 Pet. 1.12. neither doth one man know what God hath revealed to the soule of another: yet all this hinders not but Saints and An­gels glorified, although they be but creatures, doe perfectly know what Gods will is to them, and their duty to him: then if you beleeve this article, that Christ had not perfectly knowne the will of God, but that he was God: Why then doe you say that you will beleeve no more than the Word holds forth? The VVord saith although here we see but darkely, as through a glasse or latisee, yet then we shall see face to face, and know as we are knowne, 1 Cor. 13.12. and yet creatures still, not Godded with God nor Christed with [Page 3]Christ, and yet we shall perfectly know his will to us, and our duty to him. Then if you be as good as your word, you must cast away this Article of your faith.

The twentieth article, you beleeve that the Kingdome of Christ shall then be perfected, when Christ shall come the second time, and reigne amongst his Saints; Here I doubt you beleeve that the Kingdome of Christ shall then be perfected, when Christ shall come from heaven personally into this world before the end of it, and raigne: Monarchically here on earth a thou­sand yeares. Your answer is that Christs Kingdom shall then be per­fected, when Gods will is accomplished in the same: and that Christ by the brightnesse of his appearing shall effect it; but in what space of time, you know not. I answer, Gods will cannot be accomplished till all his decrees are fulfilled, which cannot be before the day of Judgement: then shall all things that offend be gathered out of his Kingdom, and cast into the furnace of fire Math. 13.40, 41, 42. Then after the dissolution of all things saith Peter, we according to his promise look for new heavens and a new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousnesse, 2 Pet. 3.13. then indeede what Adam lost shall be restored by Christ the second Adam to its first purity, and then the Saints shall inherit all things, Revel. 21.1.7. For the new heavens and the new earth which I will make, shall remaine before me saith the Lord, Isai. 66.22. then the Kingdomes and Dominions under the whole Heavens shall be given to the Saints of the Most High, whose Kingdome is an everla­sting Kingdome, and all Dominions shall serve and obey Christ, Dan. 7.27. and of his Kingdom there shall be no end. Luke. 1.33. But the heaven shall receive Christ till the restitution of all things to their first perfection, Act. 3.21. then this article is not by the scripture held forth; therefore I dare not give my faith unto it.

The five and twentieth article, you beleeve that the tenders of the Gospell are absolutely free and no way requiring, as necessary the preceding ministry of the Law, or any qualifications or preparations wrought by it: but onely that the naked soule as a sinner and ungodly, to receive Christ crucified, dead and buried, risen and made a Prince and a Saviour for such a sinner. But I doubt of this, and you answer that you know nothing absolutely necessary to save man, but Jesus Christ and him crucified, and faith to beleeve and apply the same: but is not the Word of God a necessary Instrument in the hand of Christ, whereby he workes faith in us, Rom. 10, 17? by which we beleeve in Christ: then is not the VVord of God necessary to save where it is, although God is able to worke faith in his elect without it in places where it is not, but this being the orrdinary way for our salvation, and while this lasteth, we must not seeke any extraordinary way: then you say the way that God saves [Page 4]men, you will leave to him, and every mans experience, when as you make it an article of your faith to beleeve that the Law of God can be no instrumen­tall meanes to worke any qualifications, as the Law to fit the soule for the seeds of grace: when as three thousand witnesses by experience were pricked by the Law in one place. Acts 2.37. before the Gospell was applied to cure them, and multitudes more in scripture; besides every godly mans owne experience; but your conscience hath forced you to renounce this article, and instead of beleeving it, you leave it to every mans owne experience.

The seven and twentieth article, you beleeve that the three Persons in Tri­nity, are made over to Christians in their fulnesse; but I suppose they have no more of God then a finite creature is able by the weake hand of faith to re­ceive. According to thy faith be it unto thee, Math. 8.13. But you answer God makes knowne his grace and good will to man in Christ by his Spirit, so farre as he pleseth: but who doubts of this, but I suppose we are not ca­pable to receive the fulnesse of God, we have but our measure according to the gift of Christ. Ephes. 4 7 13. neither doe we receive the fulnesse of Christ, but out of his fulnesse we receive, Iohn 1.16.

The nine and twentieth article, you beleeve that those which are beleevers are in truth really; separated both in soule and body from all sinne through the bloud of the everlasting Covenant; but I much doubt of this; you answer that you beleeve all sinne is so taken away by Christ that it shall never hinder the salvation of any beleever; but this is not my doubt; then you say for a beleever to have no sinne, while he lives in the flesh, that you deny, and so have cast away this article of your faith: in which you have published to the world that you beleeve that every beleever is really separated from all sinne both in body and soule by the bloud of Christ: then for shame doe not carry one face in private, and another publickcly to the world.

The three and thirtieth article you beleeve that Christ hath a spirituall Kingdome here on earth, which is his Church that he hath purchased and re­deemed: but this I grant; then you beleeve that this purchased redeemed Church of Christ is visible, and a company of Saints called and separated from the world by the VVord and Spirit of God to the visible profession of faith, and the Gospell, and baptized in the faith, and joyned to the Lord, and to each other by a mutuall agreement in practicall enjoyment of the Ordinances commanded by Christ their Head and King; but I much doubt of these things, then you answer saying you beleeve that the Church of Christ is a purchased people called to their visible profession of him; and for invisible things you leave to God till he make them visible. But here all men may see the falsenesse of your faith; for when you should bring it into the presence of God, then you leave it. but how dare you publish to the world that those whom Christ [Page 5]hath purchased and redeemed, are visible, making profession of faith and the Gospell, and baptized and joyned to the Lord, and to each other in the practi­call injoyment of the Ordinances? When as know I put you to it, you dare not stand to it, but you will leave it to God, and so you cast away this article al­so: and I thinke if I should goe to all whose hands are at them, they would shuffle in the same manner, and I would wish you to take them to helpe you; and so if you can prove all the redeemed of Christ to be such: I am sure he saith himselfe other sheepe I have which are not of this fold, them I must bring in, Iohn 10.16. then are all visible and called, and already make profession? &c. Nay, those that are in the state of grace are not so visible; for that white stone and that new name written, no man knowes but he that hath it, Revel. 2.17. they are called hidden ones, Psal. 83.3. and the Lord had seven thousand which the Prophet knew not of, 1 King. 19.18. And sometimes the Saints themselves in the visible Church may disagree: Witnesse Abraham and Lot, and Paul and Barnabas, Gen. 15.7. Acts 15.39. and then the cruelty of this article shewes from whence it came, which condemnes all that are not in your Church, to be reprobates: then I cannot blame you for leaving it to God, when you are questioned for it; but if your heart con­demne you, take heede of hypocrisie, God is greater then your heart and knoweth all things, 1 Iohn. 3.21.

The foure and thirtieth article, you beleeve that to this visible Church all are bound to come, and acknowledge Christ to be their King Priest and Pro­phet, and to be enrouled amongst his houshold servants: now this I grant, if you mean the universali invisible Church: but I much doubt whether it ought to be so in yours, or in any visible Church, but you answer that you know not how any can be either Sonnes or Servants of God that are not of his houshold; this I grant to be true in the invisible Church; but as I proved before, all are not visible; so then their names ought to be written in heaven, Luke 10.20 but not written amongst your company, then you say that you are ignorant of any invisible Church or House of God; I answer, Ignorance will not excuse your sinne, for Christ is the Head of the body or Church, both of things visible and invisible, Revel. 1.16, 17. then although you know not the Church of the first borne in which the soules of just men are made perfect, yet you may know that there is such a one, Heb. 12. and although the Saints departed know not what is done in the visible part of the Church here, as the Prophet saith, Isai. 63.16. will this prove that there is no such thing? Againe, if you know no­thing in the Church, but what is visible to all, you plainely show your selfe to be an hypocrite. For spirituall things are spiritually discerned, 1 Cor. 2.14. there is foode which you know not of, you have not tasted of that hidden Manna, Revel. 2.7. Iohn 6.32. and while your name is at those articles, you [Page 6]want that inward grace of faith to beleeve them, and so cannot see like Moses him that is invisible, Heb. 12.27.

The sixe and thirtieth article; You beleeve that every particular Church hath power to chuse for themselves meete persons into office, and none other have power &c: but I doubt of it; you answer either the Church or the World must chuse them, and which it is let the Scripture be judge: this I grant that the Church representative or the Presbytery sent Iames and Iohn to Samaria Acts 8.14. and Paul and Barnabas another way. Chap 13.3. but no man never did labour to gather to himselfe a Church, neither did any Con­gregation separate themselves from the rest, and claime this power to chuse officers out of their owne company, but they brought them to the Apostles to ordaine them, and to appoint or authorize them to their office. Acts. 6.3.6. The Apostles laboured to gather disciples to the multitude, having all an Interest in it, as a common Presbytery: so then there never was any single Congregation governed by it selfe, though you make it an article of your faith to beleeve it.

The seven and thirtieth article; You beleeve that you may take one of your sheepe and make him your shepherd; but I doubt of it; you answer that you know not where the Saints should find a Pastor, if not among Church members: but this I grant, for we must chuse a Christian, & not a Iew or a Turke to be our Minister, and we must take him out of the Church of England, and so we doe when we take them out of the Schools of the Prophets, the Universities: for a Trades-man is placed by God otherwise, and a man without humane lear­ning ought not to meddle in it: it is none of his businesse, and hee ought not to meddle with other mens matters; yet here you make it an article of your faith to beleeve that your Congregation may take one of them­selves, and make him their Pastor. I grant that we may take a man of our coasts, and set him up for a watchman. Ezek. 33.2. But for you to take a sheep of your owne flocke, and make him your shepheard, having no ordina­tion, but from his fellow-sheepe: you have no foundation in the scripture for this article of your faith.

The eight and thirtieth article; You beleeve that the Ministers maintenance must be a voluntary contribution: but I doubt of it; your answer is, that all acceptable service to God ought to be free, whereof his servants maintenance is a part. I answer, it is true, although the Ministers wages should be certaine, yet it should be given freely: and so we should freely pay all other debts; and although it ought to be certaine yet this hinders not but we may be willing and doe it freely: and so say this is a service to God I say it is no more to God then all other duties of the second table of the Law are: which are to be done to men in conscience of obedience to God that commands it. But the [Page 7]argument why the seven Churches will give the Minister what they list, is this because it was Philemons voluntary contribution, if he did any thing for his man Onesimus that had brake covenant with him and was ran away from him, and Paul intreates him to use him kindely, Phil. 14.18. But what is this to the Mini­stery? Will it follow because a servant hath broke covenant, and is run away from his Master, and now what he doth for him is voluntarily, that therefore a Congregation may do so with their faithfull Pastor that abideth with them? Yet I confesse if a Pastor should doe with his flocke, as Onesimus did with his Master, be unfaithfull and runne away from them: then let him stand to their voluntary contribution; then here is but a weake foundation for this article.

The nine and thirtieth article; You beleeve that baptisme must be dispensed onely to persons professing faith, to disciples that are taught: but this I doubt of; you answer saying you beleeve all that Christ commanded, and his servants preached, to be truth in Gods worship, which was to baptize such as beleeve; but I say the Command of Christ was not to baptize them that beleeve, but it was to teach, baptizing all Nations; and his servants practise was, if the chiefe in any house beleeved Christ to be the Sonne of God, they baptized all the family without any exception of Infants or servants; for baptisme is the presse-money before they enter into the Christian warefare, it is a Chri­stians colors; then shall any professe himselfe a souldier for Christ, before he hath received his colours, or his presse-money? it were presumption for any to doe it, and it is for want of wit in those that desire it; so then pro­fessing is rather after then before baptisme, unlesse you would have the Soul­diers of Christ fight their warfare, and then afterwards come for their presse-money.

The fortieth article; You beleeve that this Ordinance must be dispensed by dipping or plunging; which I doubt of; you answer what Christ commands ought to be done without doubting; this I grant; but then you say that Christ commanded to baptize by plunging; but I cannot finde it; therefore I dare not give my faith to this article.

The one and fortieth article, You beleeve that the persons designed by Christ to dispense this Ordinance, are not officers in the Church onely, but teaching Disciples; this I doubt of; but you answer that a Disciple; did baptize but you know no officer except a Deacon that did baptize: yet you deny not but they may; but doe you not know that Paul the Apostle baptized Crispus, and the houshold of Stephanus and the Jailor, and all his? But whose Disciple was he? and the Deacon you speake of. I suppose to be Philip, but he was called to be an Evangelist, and then he baptized the eunuch. Acts. 8.21. It is there saith that he was one of those Deacons, not that he is one still; then [Page 8]your seven Churches would prove that Disciples may baptize from these scriptures. Math. 26.26.28. Mark. 16.17. John 4.12. Acts 20.7. But what if Christ called his Apostles Disciples in relation to his owne Personall Ministery? will it follow that he sent them out Disciples? if so, then hee sent them out to be taught, and baptized of all Nations; but Christ ordained twelve, and sent them out to preach, and they were called Apostles before he sent them out. Mark. 3.14 6.30. Luke 6.13. But then he sought for baptisme in the old Testament, and there he found that God saith, binde the testimony and seale of the Law among my Disciples. Isai. 8.16. I answer, if God binde the Law and seale the testimony among his Ministers, then how dare these men to meddle with their Office? The Preists lippes must keepe knowledge, Mal. 2.7. The Law shall not perish from the Preist, Jer. 18.18. Aaron and his sonnes shall keepe the Preists office, Numb. Then by this proofe all but Ministers are barr'd from touching those holy things: then how dare these men to meddle with that Office, unlesse they were called of God, and so lawfully placed in it?

The two and fortieth article, you beleeve that the power to cast out, and to receive in, lies in the whole body of the Congregation: but I doubt you meane the execution of it, which is to be inflicted not by all, but by many. 1 Cor. 5.3. 2 Cor. 2.6. and so they are to admit of Infidels when they become Chri­stians: but those that are already baptized neede not such admittance.

The three and fortieth article; You beleeve that a particular Church must trie their Officers gifts, and then they may preach publickely, and take upon them the charge of a Pastor: but I doubt of it; your answer is, that when Christ gives ability to any, they ought to improve it for their Masters advantage; but I say it must be also in that place where their Master sets them, or else they doe it for their owne advantage, and not for his. but you say, if they be found false, your Churches will not be corrupted by them: but I say if children be left fatherlesse, and have none to take care of them, they will soone be corrup­ted: and to say that you will not be corrupted, and yet use no meanes to pre­serve your selves, is but presumption; like Peter who said that he would not deny his Master, and yet tarried in the High Priests hall: so your Church will not be corrupted, and yet you take away those that are appointed to keepe you from corruption.

The sixe and fortieth article, you beleeve that none must separate from a Church rightly constituted for corruptions that are in it: but if you doe not dissemble, you make it an article of your faith to beleeve your selves to be Schismatickes.

The nine and fortieth article; You beleeve that you are bound to yeelde subjection to all civill Lawes made by the King and Parliament, and yet you daily oppose Government.

The two and fiftieth article; you beleeve that you have a conscience voyde of offence, both towards God and towards man, when as you cast off Gods Law in the worke of conversion, Article 25, and mans law in Ecclesiasticall things; Witnesse your setting up Churches without their authority: these be your articles of faith; then you saide you would beleeve all that is written by the Prophets and Apostles, desiring to disclaime all heresies and opinions which are not after Christ. But I charged you upon this promise of your owne, and upon your generall promise, together with your seven Churches, to be as good as your word, and not to dissemble in the very articles of your faith: but when I had waited the full time appointed, and saw no answer come, I went to know the cause of it, and he told me flatly that he would never write more unto me.


Behold greater Abominations the Anabaptists maintained against me, That the bodies of men consisting of flesh and bones, is their Soules, and that they have no other. Secondly, that the breath of men and beasts is their spirits, and that it is immortall and liveth when their bodies are dead. Thirdly, They hold that in the resurrection the bodies both of men and beasts shall rise againe, and their breath shall be infused againe into them.

TO these things I answer, First, That man hath two natures, the one a Di­vine or spirituall substance like that of Angels adorned with divine facul­ties, as the Understanding, Judgement, Reason, Will, Affection and Consci­ence; the other part of man is humane being made of the foure Elements as all mortall creatures are, and what casualties befall a beast may befall a man, and man hath no preheminence above a beast, for all is vanity, Eccle. 3.19. but the soule, spirit, or heart of a Man, that divine thing may be bound in the bundle of life, 1 Sam. 25.29. being uncorruptible, 1 Pet. 3.4. so then when the corruptible body dies the spirit depart from it, and returnes to God that gave it, Eccl. 12.7. Therefore when the Scripture calls this divine thing a Spirit distinctly, it is for the most part to be understood of those principall faculties of it, as the Under­standing, Reason and Judgement, This is the spirit of your mind, Ephes. 4.23. be­cause the Spirit searcheth all things, yea the deepe things of God, 1 Cor. 2.10. And when the Scripture distinctly calleth this divine thing the Heart, it is to be understood the Conscience, If thy heart condemne thee, God is greater, 1 Joh. 3.2. Davids heart smote him, 2 Sam. 24.10. The Law written in the Heart or Con­science, Rom. 2.15. And when that divine thing is called the Soule distinctly, it [Page 10]is to be understood the Will and all the affections; saith Paul, We were willing to have parted unto you our owne soules because you were deare unto us, 1 Thes. 2.8. Hannah powred out her soule before the Lord, 1 Sam. 1.15. Yet when that divine thing is called by any of those names, it is to be understood the whole inward man; although sometimes Spirit signifies the principall ruling faculties, and by Soule is meant the Will and Affections that are to be regulated by them; and so here is meant the Conscience as an officer in trust to see that this divine order be kept within us, yet for substance it is the same thing, although decla­red by severall faculties of it.

Now I shall prove that this divine thing, the soule, spirit or heart of man, is not the body consisting of flesh and bones; first, from the immediate causes from whence they came, and they differ thus; we have fathers of the flesh, and we give them reverence; but God alone is the father of spirits. Heb. 12.9. Numb. then although the fathers of our flesh begot our bodies, yet saith the Lord, all soules are mine, Ezek. 18.4. for he formed the spirit of man within him, Za [...]h. 12.1. and he gave it. Eccles. 12.7. then the soule is not the body.

Secondly, the soule and body differ when they returne out of the world; then the body returnes to dust from whence it came, Gen. 3.19. and the spi­rit or soule returnes to God that gave it.

Thirdly, when the separation is made, the body dyes; for it is appointed for all men once to dye. Heb. 9.27. We must needes dye all, and be as water spilt upon the ground. 2 Sam. 14.14. but after death to Judgement. When the body is dead, the spirit of man goes upward. Ecces. 3.20, 21. to a particular Judgement; Then this living soule, Gen. 2.7. this incorruptible heart of man goes before the Judge, and receives either the sentence of absolution, or of con­demnation, while the body is dead; and at the resurrection, when the bodies of all are raised, and made capable to receive their finall estate, then they shall be brought before the Judge to have the sentence passed upon them for it; then if the soule can live and receive judgement, when the body is dead, then the soule is not the body.

Fourthly, the body lives no longer then the soule is in it: for when the soule of the childe was gone, the body lay dead; but when the soule came into him againe, the Prophet said, see thy sonne liveth. 1 King. 17.20, 21, 22, 23. but to this they say, the childes sicknesse was so sore, that there was no breath left in him. ver 15. therefore say they, it was not the soule but breath returned. I answer, [...] is plaine that the soule was gone, and came againe at the prayer of the Prop [...] [...] it is said the breath was gone, which was the signe that the soule was gone, that they might the better beleeve it; but that breath being gone, returned not againe, but vanished: but the soule returning [Page 11]and acting in the childe, caused new breath which was never in the childe be­fore; therefore the soule is not the body.

Fifthly, If man can kill the body, and cannot kill the soule, then the soule is not the body: but Christ saith, feare not them that can kill the body, and cannot kill the soule, Math. 10.28. then the soule is not the body. But they say that Joshuah killed all the soules in Mackedah, and in Libnah, and all the soules in Lacish, Eglon, and in Hebron, Josh. Therefore the soule may be killed, and every living thing hath a soule, Job. 12.10. which may be killed or dye. I answer, these places are thus to be understood, the vitall or principall part of humane life was stone dead, for their better encourage­ment against the rest of their enemies which should be killed in like manner, and should never trouble them more, when their vitalls or humane life is stone dead. But they say our soule is bowed downe to the dust. Psal. 44.25. there­fore the soule must turne to dust, and be buried in the grave; for saith David, Thou wilt not leave my soule in grave, Psal. 16.10. I answer, it was but Da­vids vitalls of humane life was almost gone, and must returne to dust, and be buried in the grave. As the vitalls and spirit of a beast goes downeward, so must his. Eccles. 3.21. onely the spirit or vitalls of a beast shall abide there; but our vitalls of the body shall be raised againe, and not left in the grave for ever: but the soule that divine thing may be in glory, when the body lyes dead. As the soules of Christ and the theife were in Paradise, when their bo­dies were dead on the Crosse, Luke. 22.43. the soules of Abraham Isaach and Iacob were living when their bodyes were dead. Math. 22.32. and the soules of them that are slaine for the word of God, are in white robes of glory, and crie how long wilt thou not avenge our bloud on them, that dwell on the earth. Revel. 6.9, 10, 11. But they say, those soules, is meant, their bloud cried, as Abels bloud did, Gen. 4.

I answer Cains sinne in spilling that bloud cried for vengeance; a­gaine these soules that crie, speake of their bloud, saying our bloud; but if the bloud had cried. it would have said how long will it be ere thou avenge me: and they are called soules, but their bloud was not their soules: unlesse when a man hath lost some bloud, they affirme that he hath lost some part of his soule; or so many drops so many soules; then if the soule can live when the body is [...]aine, then the soule is not the body. But then they say, Ja­cob begot so many soules of such a wife, and so many soules went downe into Egypt. G [...]n. 46.22.25, 26 27. I answer those that went to Egypt are called soules from the better and more noble part of man, that divine thing in them; but Jacob begot but the vitals of humane life, and no more, as I shewed before, being onely a father of their flesh, but God alone is the father of spi­rits: thus you see how they differ in their originall cause or discent, and also unto what they returne.

Now I shall shew that the soule is not the body, by differences betwixt them while they remaine together.

First, the body is the carkase, Numb. 14.29.33. 1 King. 13.24, 25. but the soule is the hidden man of the heart. 1 Pet. 3, 4. his flesh upon him shall be in paine, and his soule within him shall mourne, Job. 14.22. with my spirit within me will I seeke thee early, Isa. 26.9. O my soule why art thou so disquieted within me? my soule is cast downe within me, Psal. and Paul puts both these together, saying, though our outward man perish, yet the inward man is renued daily. 2 Cor. 4.16. so then if the body be the carkase, and the soule be some divine thing in that carkase, as you see, both these propositions are proved, then the soule is not the body, but some divine thing that is within it.

Secondly, while the soule and body are together, the soule may be woun­ded and greived, when the body hath no hurt, nor is in danger of any hurt. They were pricked at the heart, and cut to the heart, Acts and the Soule of Christ was sorrowfull before any hurt came to his body, Math. 26.38. and false Prophets slay the soules of some with lyes, Ezek. 13.18, 19. Her soule was vexed within her, 2 King. 4.27. when her body had no hurt. A wounded spirit who can beare? Prov. 18.14. then the soule is not the body.

Thirdly, the body may be afflicted when the soule is not, for in affliction joy aboundeth. They rejoyced that they were counted worthy to suffer shame for his name, Acts. 4. they sung psalmes in prisons Acts. 16. therefore the soule is not the body.

Fourthly, the soule and body may be distinguished about holy duties; both are required; for saith Paul, glorifying God in your bodies and soules, for they are his, 1 Cor. 6.20. but saith the Lord, They sit before thee, and heare thy words as my people, when their hearts are gone after their covetousnesse, Ezek. 33.31. They draw neare with their lips when their heart is farre from me. Math. 15.8. so then you see the soule may be wanting in holy duties when the body is present, therefore the soule is not the body.

Fifthly, the soule may have sweete intercourse with God, when the body is not active in it; Hannah prayed, when her lips did not move, and Moses pray­ed acceptably when he saide nothing, Exod. 14.15. and so did Nehemiah, Chap. 2 14. God hath promised to heare the desires of the heart, Psal. When bodily exercise profiteth little, 1 Tim. 4.8. then the body is not the soule.

Lastly, to affirme that the body is the soule, will cause many absurdities; for then to seeke the Lord with all the heart and soule is but to bring their car­kases to the ordinances, and when God opened Lyd [...]a's heart, it was to open her carkase. And when the Lord gives a new heart, it is to give a new car­kase, [Page 13]and a broken heart is a broken carkase, and a cleane heart is a cleane carkase, and the renting of the heart is the renting [...] the carkase: and when the soule of Jo­nathan was knit to the soule of David; if he body and soule were the same thing, it seemes their bodies were tyed together, which were miserable folly for any man to thinke: then I hope this may suffice to shew that the soule is not the body.

Secondly, they hold that the breath of men and of beasts is their spirits, and that it is immortall, and liveth when their bodies are dead. To this I shall doe as before, to prove that their breath is not their spirit, and answer what they have to say to the contrary as I goe along: onely as I said before, that the spirit, soule or heart of man is for the most part meant the same thing for substance, onely by spirit some times is meant the understanding or principle ruling part of that divine thing: and the soule is meant the lower parts or lesse principle, the will and affections which are to be regulated by them, and by the heart is meant the conscience that officer of the soule, which hath a charge to see that this Order be kept; yet I say, for the most part, when any one of these is named, all that divine thing is meant: then the breath of man and beasts is not the spirit, I prove by these arguments.

First, mans breath is a vanishing thing, his breath is in his nostrils, and where­in is he to be accounted of? Isa. 2 22. It is a winde that passeth, and commeth not againe, Psal. 76.39. It was breathed into man, Gen. 2 7. the Lord comman­ded the winde to breath, and the breath came into them; But the soules of men are created. 1 Pet. 4.19. God is the Father of the spirits of all flesh, Numb. 16 22. and the heart of man is incorruptible, 1 Pet. 3, 4 then the vanishing breath of men and beasts is not their spirit.

Secondly, man and beast have all one breath, and yet the spirit of man goes up­ward, and the spirit of beasts goes downewards to the earth. Eccl [...]s. 3.19.20, 21. therefore the breath of men and beasts is not their spirit.

Thirdly, Job makes a distinction betweene the spirit of man and his breath, say­ing, if God should set his heart on man to gather unto himselfe his spirit, marke, and his breath, Job. 34 14. Here is that divine thing, the spirit with the signes of it which is the breath; then all flesh shall perish, and turne to dust, but his spirit shall returne to God that gave it: and the spirits of men and Angels can live in the third heavens above the region of the winds without breath, neither shall men when their bodies are made spirituall at the resurrection neede any breath: for it is no part of soule or body; and Legions of spirits have beene in one man, and yet I supose he had no more breath then another man, and they might all speake, and yet the man not breath: then I suppose the breath is but a part of the winde already created infused into mortall creatures, while they remaine mortall in this life, and then to returne and never come againe. Psai. 78 39 therefore the breath of men and beasts is not their spirits. But they say, the [...]oure windes are called the foure spirits of the heavens. Zach. 6.5. Hence they conclude that winde or breath in man is his spirit. I answer, the winde moves the cloudes of heaven, as our spirits move us, or as the vitals of beasts move them, therefore they are called the spirits [Page 14]of the heavens: but our breath doth not move us so, but rather some thing with­in us moves us, and when our breath goes out, in speaking or otherwise, we should dye if we had not something else within us to draw it in againe, acting with our vi­tals: and when that power is gone, we dye. But they say, the body without the spirit is dead. Jam. 2.26. and that (say they) is their breath. But if we should grant this, that the body without breath is dead: yet it will not so follow that breath is the spirit, but that breath is a signe of life, or a signe that there is a spirit in that body, which doth produce that breath. As the fruite of the tree is not the life or spirit of the tree, but rather a signe that there is life in that tree that doth produce these fruits. Then they say, Mans breath of life was breathed into him. Gen. 2.7. and when the childes breath was gon, he died. 1 King. 17.17 And if God take away breath from all mortall creatures, they dye and returne to dust. Psal. 104.27. therefore say they, the breath of man and beast is their spirit. I answer as before, it will not follow be­cause the signes of life come and goe with life, that therefore it is life it selfe. There be many signes of life, as eating, drinking, walking and talking, and when they cease, man dies: yet these be but signes of life, and so is breath in men and beasts, and therefore it is not their spirit.

Fourthly, to affirme that the breath in man and beasts is their spirits, many ab­surdities would follow: for they having one breath. Eccles. 3.19. and if this were their spirit, then a beast may have the spirit of wisedome and knowledge. Isa. 11, and the spirit of a beast might search the deepe things of God as well as the spirit of man. 1 Cor. 2.10, 11. and the spirit of a beast may be wounded. Prov. 18.14. and if breath were spirit, then God would delight in broken breath. Psal. 51. and in poore and contrite breath. Isay 66. And if breath be spirit, some shall be borne of breath, and God will give new breath, and all the gifts of the spirit would be no­thing but more breath added; and when the spirit also departed from Saul, his breath failed him; and those that separate from the Church, do it because they have not the breath: Jude. 19. and Daniels excellent gift of the spirit, was nothing but a great breath: And when God requires that we should Sing and Pray with the Spirit, he meanes nothing but breath: many more vile absurdities would follow, if we should be so damnably blinde as to beleeve that the breath of men and beasts is their spirit as some Anabaptists hold.

Thirdly, they hold that in the resurrection, the bodies of men and beasts shall rise againe, and their breath shall be infused againe into them. To this as to the rest I shall shew that the bodies of beasts shall not rise againe, and for bre­vity answer what they have to say against it, as I goe along.

First, beasts have not immortall spirits, as I have shewed before, unto which their bodies should be againe united, but their spirits are gone downeward to the earth. Eccles. 3.21. Then if these beasts should be raised up againe, it would be a new creation of beasts out of the earth, as they were at the first, and could not be a re­surrection of them from death to life.

Secondly, the Scripture makes no mention of the resurrection of beasts, and [Page 15]we must not be wise above that which is written. 1 Cor. 4.6. but the Scripture saith, Thou bringest man to destruction, and sayest returne ye children of men, Psal. 90.3. As in Adam all dye, so in Christ shall all be made alive, but every man in his order, 1 Cor. 15.21.22, 23. So then although we beleeve the resurrection of men, we dare not beleeve the resurrection of beasts. But they say, That when the Lord hath take [...] the breath of all creatures, and they are dead, and turned to dust, then he sends forth his spirit, and they are created, and so he renues the face of the earth. Psal. 104.29, 30. this they say is a plaine resurrection of all the creatures from death to life. I answer, Here in this place they are said by the Spirit of God to be created, and so in Gen. 1. The Spirit of God moved upon the waters in the work of Creation. And saith Job, The Spirit of God made me. Job. 33.4. all this I grant, yet this will not prove a re­surrection, unlesse you make the worke of Creation to be a resurrection from death to life. But they say, this was spoken after they were dead, and returned to dust, Psal. 104.29.30. I answer, this is frequent in scripture: For things that were done first, to be set downe last. 1. Sam. 15.35. There is mention of Sauls death, and Sa­muels mourning for him. and then Chap. 17. Saul conferres with David about his going to fight with Goliah, and afterwards he persecutes David. But was all this after his death, because it is set downe after it. Againe thou renuest the face of the earth? this cannot be meant of the resurrection from death to life: but rather it is to be understood an enlarging of strength and comfort after some great scarcity, with a new supply of plenty. But here is nothing concerning resurrection from death to life.

Thirdly, the Saints of God never expected any resurrection of beasts, that ever I read of before these Anabaptists, but they have alwayes expected a resurrection of men; for saith Job, Job 19.25. When wormes have destroyed this body, yet in my flesh I shall see God. And Martha saith, I know that he shall rise againe in the resurrecti­on of the just. Iohn. 11.24. and saith David, My flesh shall rest in hope. Psal. 16.9. And besides the Saints in all ages embalmed the dead, and buried them in coffins, and sepulchers, and cleane linnen, to declare that they expected that they should rise againe: but I reade of no such thing done to beasts; and they that expect their re­surrection might doe well to bury them more decently: that the world may see that they beleeve a resurrection of beast.

Fourthly, there is no example in Scripture, that any beast ever did rise from death to life: but we have many examples of men and women received their dead raised to life againe, Heb. 11.35. and the man that was buried in the Sepulcher of the Pro­phet, and touching his bones, he revived and stoode upon his feete, 2 King. 12.21. And in the New Testament, one newly dead, and another in the coffin, and another dead foure dayes and many came out of their graves at the death of Christ: then if we have so many examples of men that arose, and not one of beasts: we must beleeve the one, and reject the other as an abominable errour.

Fifthly, beasts can neither dye the death of sinne, nor suffer the death of eternall punishment: neither can they rise to the state of grace, nor to the state of glory, [Page 16]which were a most miserable and shamefull thing for any to affirme: therefore there is no resurrection for beasis.

Sixthly, To rise from death to life at the last day is called the resurrection of the just and the unjust, Acts. 24.15. Now if they say that beasts have done evill, they shall come forth to the resurrection of damnation, Iohn. 9 25. or if some have done good, and some evill, then some of them shall be saved, and some damned: and then they must come before Christ the Judge on the Throne, to receive either the sentence of absolution, or condemnation: These abominable errours are not fitting to be named amongst Christians, much lesse to be embraced, and defended by any; and it would seeme incredible that any should be so blinde as to harb­our such errours where the light of the Gospell comes: but onely we know at the downefall of Antichrist. The divell will stir up all the old heresies, that ever was, to uphold that tottering Babell.

But to come againe to the argument, the covenant of workes was not made with beasts, but with man onely: then it was not the beasts but man onely that sinned against that Covenant, of workes and man onely was punished for the breach of it, and not the beasts; although his punishments was not only upon his person, but up­on his whole estate, and so accidentally the beasts were punished, but not as their punishment for their sinne, but as mans punishment for his sinne. Then if beasts have neither sinne nor punishment, from what should they be redeemed? but they say, if all men were not redeemed, how should they rise again? I answer, Although all men are not redeemed, neither doe they all rise by vertue of redemption: yet Christ by his power will raise those that are not redeemed, to partake of that punish­ment that is due to them for acting in that sinne with their soules, when the whole man broke Covenant with the Eternall God. But they say, it is sufficient to pu­nish the soule eternally, although the body rise not. I answer, if they had kept that Covenant, the body should have had the benefit of it to eternity: therefore because it sinned with the soule, it must suffer with it eternally. But they say the body riseth without sinne. I answer, yet if it did so, the soule being filthy and comming out of hell, will defile it, as a just requitall to the body which defiled the cleane soule as soone as it was infused into it: but I suppose the bodies of repro­bates shall not rise without sinne. But as the tree falls so it lies: there is no re­pentance in the grave, but the same body and no other shall arise. Job. 19.26. For sin shall lye downe with him in the dust Job. 20.11. and having the guilt of sinne upon it. As a Part of the curse it shall be raised to partake with the soule in punishment: for the whole man sinned, and the whole man shall be punished eternally. But they say, As by the sinne of one man, death came upon all men and beasts, so by one man came the resurrection of the dead: For in Adam all dye, so in Christ shall all be made alive. 1 Cor. 15.21, 22. Answ. Beasts were but the goods of men, it was man onely that sinned, and was punished: for all men being in Adam sinned, and died for their owne sinne: for it was theirs as soone as they were in him by nature; so also those that are in Christ shall rise againe to grace here, and to glory hereafter.


Turne thee yet againe, and see greater abominations: They hold an Vniversall Redemp­tion, if not both of men and beasts, yet of all men: although they be already in hell torments.

ELias will come and restore all things. I answer, Elias is already come, for it was John the Baptist. See Math. 11.13.14. Luke. 1.17. Mark. 9 11, 12. But John cannot redeeme a soule from hell: but then they say, As all bare the image of the first Adam, and so were cast out of that Paradise, so all beare the image of the heavenly Adam, and shall come to his Paradise. But I say, the text saith not all: But as we have borne the image of the earthly, we shall beare the image of the heavenly: But no flesh and bloud shall inherit the Kingdome of God. 1 Cor. 15.49, 50. But they say, though they belong in that boyling lake, it will be happy for them in the end: for they shall be there but till they have put off their mortall estate, and at the re­surrection, these Captives ransome shall be fully paide, and Origin was of their Judgement: but see here how they pleade for Purgatory, But those in hell shall suffer the vengeance of eternall fire. Iude. 7. They shall depart from Christ into everla­sting fire. Math 25.41. where the fire is not quenched. Mark. 9.46. But they say, God reprobates none, but upon some fore-seene evill, nor elects any, but upon some fore-seene good: but here it seemes, they hold it possible to doe some good in hell, where they blaspheme God for ever, and doe not repent, to give him glo­ry. Revel. 16.9.11. but they say, those that sinne against the Holy Ghost shall be in danger of eternall fire, but not in it: but I say, They that blaspheme against the Holy Ghost, shall neither be forgiven in this world, nor in the world to come. Math. 12.32. Then how shall they escape it? but they say, Abraham gives Dives in hell a loving title calling him Sonne. Luke. 16.25. therefore there is hope to come out. I answer, It was but a complement, yet he was the Sonne of God by creation, and yet not his Sonne by redemption from hell. But they say, Christ would not have preached to those Spirits in prison, if they should for ever abide there. I an­swer, Christ did not preach to them in hell, but to those that were imprisoned by their sinnes in the dayes of Noah, while the Arke was preparing. 1 Pet. 3.19, 20. and by this argument, divels may be saved out of hell as well as they; but they say, there is hope that Iudas shall come out of hell, because Christ seemes to be sorry for his being there, saying, It had beene good if he had not beene borne. Math 26.24. I answer, It had beene well for Iudas himselfe if he had not beene borne, because of his eternall misery. But his damnation addes no sorrow to Christ. Neither mens righteousnesse nor his finne, nor his salvation nor damnation, neither profits God, nor takes any thing from him. Iob. 22.2, 3.35.6, 7, 8. but they say, although he deserved to be tormented millions of yeares in hell, yet with Christ there is plenty of redemption [...] Psal. 130. I answer, Christ hath merits sufficient, but not efficient for reprobates

But then if those be not redeemed out of hell torments, yet they are confiden [...] that it is the truth, and nothing but the truth that Christ died for all, and ever man in the world. Their scriptures are those, Christ was mad [...] lower then the A [...] [...] that by the grace of God he should taste death for every man, Heb. 2 9. And he [...] [Page 16] [...] [Page 17] [...] [Page 18]himself a ransome for all, 1 Tim 2.6. I Answ. that neither of these places will prove that Christ died for all the world, or for every man in the world: for the word World is not in those texts: And if any man shall adde unto these things, God shall adde unto him the plagues that are written in this booke, Revel. 22.18. Let us see what more proofes they have that Christ died for all, and every man in the world.

Then they say, All we like sheepe have gone astray, and we have tnrned every man to his owne way: and the Lord hath laide on him the iniquity of us all, Isai. 53.6. I an­swer, this text is limited to us, and therefore is not to be taken for all, and every man in the world: but onely it was a comfort to those to whom he spake, being either then converted or else in the use of the Ordinances which is the meanes of conversion and salvation: and therefore in the judgement of charity, we have gon astray, but the Lord hath laide on Christ the iniquities of us all; and yet he might be deceived, as well as Paul was in Demas. But then they say, The Angel brought glad tidings of great joy which shall be for all people, Luke 2.10. But here I hope, they will not say, that all and every man in the world shall be glad, and truely re­joyce in Christ: for then all and every man in the world shall be truely converted and saved, which themselves deny; and besides the word World is not in that text.

But then they say, Christ taketh away the sinnes of the world, Iohn 1.29. And Jesus Christ is a propitiation for the sinnes of the whole world, 1 Iohn 2.12. I answer, That world whose sinnes Christ taketh away, and for whose persons Christ is an Advo­cate, and a Propitiation, that world must needes be saved, as we shall see anon. But themselves doe not holde that every man in the world shall be saved, and none of them shall perish: then if they holde that some shall not be saved, but shall perish, I hope those that perish are none of that world whose sinnes Christ hath taken away, and for whose persons he is an Advocate, and that world for whose sinnes Christ is a Propitiation: then let us see the meaning of this word World, which in the Scriptures hath various significations.

First, the Lord saith, the world is mine, Psal. 50.12. this is to be understood, All the whole Fabricke of heaven and earth, and all the creatures in them; For the Lord made all things for himselfe, Pro. 16.4. and he desposeth the whole world Iob 34.13.

Secondly, this word World is sometimes understood this World here below in opposition to the world to come: for saith Christ, I am no more in the world, but these are in the world; While I was with them in the world. Now I come to thee, these things I speake in the world: I pray not that thou shouldest take them out of the world, Iohn 17.11.12, 13, 15. In this world you shall have an hundred fold, and in the world to come eternall life, Luke 18.28.

Thirdly, this word World is sometimes understoode the Gentiles, or all people besides the Iewes: If th [...] fall of them be the riches of the world, Rom. 11.12.

Fourthly, Sometimes this word World is meant the whole race of mankinde: That every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may be guilty before God, Rom. 3.19.

Fifthly, Sometimes this word World is meant all the reprobates that ever were, or ever shall be, saith Christ, I pray not for the world, Iohn 17.9.

Sixthly, This word World is sometimes taken for all the elect that ever were, or [...]ver shall be, Behold the Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the world, Iohn 1.29. Iohn 2.2.

Seventhly, This word World sometimes is meant the wicked of the world, who are in present being, The world hateth you, Iohn 15 19

Eighthly, The World is sometimes meant the godly in present being, Behold the world is gone after him, John 12.19.

Ninthly, This word World is sometimes taken for the elect in present being before conversion, Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Sonne to be a Propitiation for our sinnes, 1 Iohn 4.10. God that purpoased to love his people from all eternity, loves them actually, as his creatures, as soone as they have being in the world: so God loved Adam and Eve, when they had sinned as not to hate his owne worke in them, but loved it, and therefore sent them a Savi­viour, God so loved the world, those in present, being yet not as his children, till he hath sent to them his Sonne, and hath given them saith to receive him: then as many as re­ceived him, he gave power to become the Sonnes of God, to them that beleeve in his name, Iohn 1.12. Now let us trie whether Christ died for all these worlds; if not, let us see for which of these worlds he died.

First, if Christ died for the universall world, then he died for divels, and for An­gels that never sinned, and for the creatures in the whole world: yet I deny not but the Angels that never sinned, and all mortall creatures have some benefit by his death, in respect of establishment, Isai. 49.8. but I utterly deny that Christ died to redeeme any creatures but mankinde only: He tooke not on him the nature of An­gels, but the seede of Abraham to make reconciliation for the sinnes of the people, Heb. 2.16, 17. To save his people from their sinnes, Math. 1.21. neither can it be understood that Christ died for the world of Gentiles onely: For he was sent to the lost sheepe of the house of Israel, Math. 14.24. and the Angels told the Jewes, saying, Ʋnto you is borne this day a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord, Luke 2.10. And for the world of the elect, I know none that makes question of it, whether called or uncalled to the estate of grace: yet in Gods due time they shall be sure to finde the benefit of it; So then here lies our controversie, they affirme that Christ died for all the wicked and reprobats in the world: but I affirme the contrary upon these grounds.

First, Christ died for the elect onely: for saith Paul, From the beginning God hath chosen you to salvation through sanctification of the spirit and beleefe of the truth, 2 Thes. 2.13. He saith, I have chosen and ordained you that you should goe and bring forth fruite, Iohn 15.16. Christ was ordained for you who doe beleeve in God, seeing you have purified your soules in obeying the truth. 1 Pet. 1.20 21. As many as were ordained to eternall life beleeved, Acts 13.48. that is called the faith of Gods elect, Tit. 1 1. Those who are predistinated, he calleth, justifieth and glorifieth, Rom. 8.30. But Heaven is not appointed for all, it shall be given to them for whom it was prepared, Math. 20.23. Some stumble at the word, being disobedient whereunto they were appointed, 1 Pet 2 8. Some of old were ordained to this condemnation, Jude 4. And some are called to inherit a Kingdome prepared for them, and some are charged to depart into everlasting fire pre­pared for them. Math. 25.34 41. Some are vessels of mercy prepared for glory, and some are vessels of wrath fitted for destruction, Rom. 9.22.23. Those unnaturall brute beasts were made to be destroyed, 2 Pet. 2.12. Then are some ordained to salvation, and others to damnation, and some ordained to the meanes [...] [Page 20]and not others: and for some heaven is prepared, and for others hell is prepared; then sure Christ did not dye for all, and every man in the world: and that world whose sinne Christ taketh away, and is a Propitiation, and for whose persons he is an Advocate, is onely the elect, which may be called a world for multitude, Iohn 12.19. Revel. 19.6. But then they scornfully answer, saying, they will reade world alwayes where they finde the word, elect; and elect alwayes where they finde the word World; then thus saith Christ I pray for them, I pray not for the elect, but for those that thou hast given me out of the elect, and I am no more in the elect, Iohn 17.9.11. And this is condemnation, that light is come into the elect, Iohn 3.19. Thus changing the signification of the word World, they bring in this damnable conclu­sion in scornfull derision of the truth of God. But they say, if Christ died for none but the elect, then unbeleefe is no sinne, and some would sin in beleeving Christ hath died for them, when it is not so. I answer, God gave man faith at the first to beleeve that it he had done as he commanded, he should have lived for ever, and although man hath lost this grace of faith, yet God hath not lost his power to command man to use this faith. Man is to beleeve in Christ; and if he doe not, he sinnes against the Gospell: no man can sinne in beleeving that Christ hath died for his sin, when it is not so, for if he truly beleeve he shall be saved and then it is so.

Secondly Christ did not die for all, and every man in the world; for he died for none but those which his Father gave him; He came not to doe his owne will, but the will of his Father that sent him: He must doe his Fathers businesse, Luke 2.49. And he must finish the worke he gave him to doe, Iohn 17 4. But it is the Fathers will that all which he gave him that he should lose none, Iohn 6.39. but all was not given to Christ; not the world, but those that thou hast given me, Iohn 17.6. and God gave him no reprobates: for Christ gave his eternall life, to all that his Father gave him, verse 2. And the Father commanded him to lay downe his life for those that he gave him, Iohn 10.17.18. But if Christ had died for more then his Father gave him, then it seems Christ would have more then was agreed by the Father to give him, but this would fasten sinne upon Christ in not being content, but to will have more then his Covenant: then Christ died not for all, and every man in the world; but then they will grant that Christ died for no more then his Father gave him: for say they All things are delivered unto him of his Father, Math. 11.27. Psal. 2 7.8. I answer, It is true divels and reprobates are under his Regall power to rule them with a rodde of iron; but none are under his Scepter of grace and glory but his elect: therefore he died for [...].

Thirdly, Christ died not for all and every man in the world, for He was the good shepheard, who gave his life for the sheepe, Iohn 10 11.15. but all are not the sheepe of Christ, neither by election nor calling: For at the day of Judgement, Christ will divide the she perfrom the g [...]tes, and sar to the sheepe, Come ye blessed, and to the goats Goe ye cursed, Math. 25.33.41. then Christ did not die for all and every man in the world: but they will grant this saying, Christ died for all, and therefore for his sheepe: but I say againe that they must be sheepe either in election that shall be brought into this folde. Iohn 10 16. or else they are already in the folde by calling; but this will not prove that he died for the goates and dogges that shall [...]

Fourthly, Christ dyed onely for them that he knows, The Lord knows who are his, 2 Tom. 2.19. And Christ knows his sheep, John 10.27. and as the Father hath his book, wherein the names of all his are written, Luke 10.20. So the [...] hath his book of life, Revel. 13.8. But some at the last day will neither be found written in the book of life, nor in the Lambs book, therefore he will professe unto them that he never knew them, Mat. 7.21, 22. Luke 13.17. So that if Christ knows his sheep for which he died, and yet at the day of judgement there shall be some that he never knew, then Christ did not die for all and every man in the world.

Fifthly, Christ dyed for no more then he prayed for, and now makes interces­sion but sayth he, I pray not for the world, John 17.9. and not to make interces­sion for the Saints, according to the will of God, Rom. 8.27. He makes interces­sion for all that come unto God by him, Heb. 7.25. And, sayth he, I pray not for these alone, but for them also that shall beleeve through the Word, John 17.2. Thus Christ prayed for all the elect that shall come unto God by him, and that shall be­lieve in him, but some he would not pray for, but sayth, I pray not for the world, Joh. 17.9. for then if Christ would not vouchsafe to pray for all, and every man in the world, shall we thinke that he would die and spill his bloud for all: But say they, all were given to Christ, and if he prayes for all those that were given to him, then he prayes for all. I answer, all reprobates are given to his power, to be ruled by his rod of iron; these are under his regall government, that they shall not doe what they list, he hath a bridle for their lips, and a hook in their nose, these hee rules with rigour, and because they will not doe his will they shall suffer this dis­pleasure: But the other he rules with sanctifying and saving grace, but to the o­ther hee will neither give grace not glory, therefore he neither prayed nor dyed for them.

Sixthly, Those for whom Christ dyed, it was to redeem them from all iniquity, Titus 2.14. The precious bloud of Christ redeemed us from our vain conversation, 1 Pet, 1.18, 19. The bloud of Christ shall purge your consciences from dead works, to serve the living God, Heb. 9.14. He washed us from our sins in his bloud. Rev. 1.5. But some shall never have their sins purged, Ezek. 24.13. Some their sins shall never be forgiven in this world nor in the world to come. Mar. 12.31. Then if Christ dy­ed to redeem from sin, and by his death to reconcile some to God, Rom. 5.10. and yet some shall never be forgiven, neither sin purged, then Christ did not die for all and every man in the world.

But they say, Christ takes away the sins of the whole world, yet they believe that he justifies none from their sins, till they behold and believe it, John 1.29.

I Answer, If none be justified till they believe that Christ takes away the sins of all and every man in the world, then they shall never be justified, for as I said be­fore, some shall never be forgiven nor their sins purged, then if all sin shall he to­ken away by Christ, and yet the Father will not justifie them, this were to ta [...]e [Page 20] [...] [Page 25] [...] [Page 20] [...] [Page 25] [...] [Page 26]God to bee unjust. Again, shall not I be saved unlesse I make CHRIST a lyer? Doth hee say some shall never bee forgiven, and cannot I bee justi­fied unlesse I believe that he taketh away the sins of every man in the world.

Again, If Christ takes away the sins of every man in the world, I would know what else can hinder their justification or salvation? Is not God true in his word to CHRIST, to save them that hee hath freed from sinne, [...]s, For this is the Fathers will, sayth Christ, That all which hee hath gi­ven mee, I should lose nothing, but that I should raise it up at the last day, John 6.39. Then doth the Father want power to keepe those that Christ hath redeemed? No, My Father is greater then all, and no man is able to pluck them out of my Fathers hand, John 10.29. Then did Christ lose them again? no, hee saith, All those that thou hast given me, I have lost none but the sonne of perdition, who was onely given to him by office but not by grace and favour: then what is the fault, are their sins forgiven and taken away by Christ, and yet they will not bee saved, this cannot be, for sayth the Father to the Sonne, Thy people shall bee willing in the day of thy power, Psal. 110.3. Then let Popish Arminians bee ashamed to say, CHRIST taketh a­way the sinnes of every man in the World, and yet the greatest part of it damned: For nothing but sinne separates between us and our God: Esay 50.2.

Then they say, it is not the death of Christ that makes any difference of men, For he gave his life a ransom for all, and would have all saved, 2 Tim. 6.1, 2. And it is predestination and faith that makes the difference.

I Answer, It is true, It was decreed that CHRIST should die for the elect, and their faith believes that hee hath done it, and so they are justified, and shall be saved: But then they say, there bee two elections, one generall for all men.

But the other is not decreed till men believe, and is particular for belee­vers: For say they, if God should make some men which hee doth not e­lect to be saved, he would be the positive cause of sin in them, and then for that sin he caused to damne them which would be miserable.

Truly I answer, God is not the positive cause of sin in any, hee never infu­sed sinne into them, hee made man righteous, yet mutable, and hee was not bonnd to support him, therefore hee fell, yet God did not make man to damne him, nor desires hee the destruction of any creature, but hee desires the glory of his justice, and better all creatures should perish then hee should lose the glory of his justice; as in our own case, better the creatures die then wee should want food, yet wee doe not kill them, as desiring their destruction, but to satisfie our hunger, so doth the Lord for the glory of his Justice.

But they say, God doth not decree to damne them, till hee hath tryed and found that they will not be saved: but I say again, God never decreed to damne any, but onely he decreed to glorifie his justice, and for that he need not stay to see what man will doe, can any deliver out of his hand, if he worke, who can let it? Esay 43.13.

Seventhly, Those for whom Christ dyed, shall be justified and saved, for The free gift came upon all, to justification of life, Rom. 5.18. and Whom he justifi­ed, shall be glorified, Rom. 8.30.33. Who shall condemn, if Christ hath dyed for them, ver. 34. The ransommed of the Lord shall come to Sion with everlasting joy, Esay 35.10. But some shall neither be justified nor glorified, but condem­ned and punished everlastingly, therefore they are none of those that Christ dyed for, nor none of those ransomed of the Lord, then Christ did not die for all, and every man in the world.

But they say the death of Christ, for all and every man in the world, is the foundation of justifying faith.

I Answer, That cannot be, but this is rather a ground of it, that Christ hath not dyed for all but for some of mankind, and then with a speciall faith to be­lieve that he hath dyed for me in particular, and this faith instrumentally justifies us, but when we believe with a generall faith, that Christ dyed for all men, this cuts off a speciall faith, for our selves are one of the whole world, and so wee shall apply it to our selves no more then to any reprobates.

Then they say, If all shall be saved for whom Christ dyed, then none of them could perish, but some shall perish for whom Christ dyed, and are damned that he bought, 1 Cor. 8.11. 2 Pet. 2.1. I answer, It was but in the judgement of charity that Christ dyed or bought them, but they say, Christ came not to judge the world, but to save the world, Iohn 12.47, 48. Therefore he dyed for all, I Answer, while Christ is mediator, he is come to save the world, and not to judge them that believe not, but at the last day his words shall judge them and con­demne them. So then his first comming is to save the world, not the univer­sall world, but the multitude of the elect, which may well be called a world, be­ing so great a multitude, Revel. 19. And as the Iews said, The world is gone after him, Iohn 12.19. Then they say, God so loved the world, that hee gave them his onely begotten Son, and yet none are saved but they that believe in him, Iohn 3.16. Hence, say they, Christ is given to all, and yet faith makes the difference, and hath the promise of eternall life, and not the other, although Christ dyed for them, and Gods love to all, and yet not all saved: But if God love them, I would know what could hinder their salvation, shall Gods beloved ones perish, so then their conclusion is this, not he whom God loves shall be saved, but he that will of himselfe believe, shall have eternall life, but it is not in him that willeth, nor in him that runneth but in God that sheweth mercie, for his will shall stand, and hee will doe all his pleasure.

Then they say, Christ came to his own, and his own received him not, Iohn. 1.12. but that is not his fault, for he comes unto them, but it is their own fault, for they will not receive him, so they conclude they are his by purchase, and yet they will not be saved, I answer, they were his own visible Church by a Nationall Covenant, having his Ordinances, and distinguished from other Nations by circumcision, and not by any true work of grace in their heart, and so others might goe to heaven, when those children of the Kingdom are thrust out, Mat. 8.12. Or if it be spoken of any of the elect that were his own, and yet would not receive him, it was but onely at that present, yet after they had crucified him at Peters Sermon they received him, Act. 2.41.

Then they say, put the case that Christ taketh away the sins of the world, and this world is the elect, then it must needs follow that some of the elect shall pe­rish, but what a damnable inference is this? Christ taketh away the sins of the e­lect, therefore some of the elect must needs perish. I answer, It is true, if wee should maintain as they doe, that God hath elected everyman in the world, which would be no election to take all, but the elect is a certain number chosen of God, and given to Christ, whose sins he hath taken away, or at least is taking them a­way, and when that work is finished they shall be glorified, and that world, meaning the multitude of the elect that Christ came to save, shall certainly be saved, For the Lord hath laid help upon one that is mighty, Psal. 89.19. He is migh­ty to save, Esay 63.1. And he hath finished the work his Father gave him to doe, Iohn 17.4. and still he is his Son, in whom he is well pleased, then how shall they miscarry, when Christ takes away their sins, to this they have a bundle of ar­guments together, as if they would prove that Christ dyed for all and every man in the world, although the greatest part be not saved but damned.

1 They say, Christ dyed for all those that are damned, that he might get the victory over sin, death, hell, and the Devill, by his own death and triumph over all, Mat. 28.18. 1 Pet. 3.2. Iob 2.9. Ephes. 1.19, 20, 21, 22, 23. Philip. 1.10.

I Answer, Is it a signe of victory, over hell, death, sin, and Satan, when they shall take from Christ those that he hath bought with his heart bloud, if Christ hath paid for them, shall death and hell, sin and Satan, take them out of his hand, when as he sayth, no man shall pluck them out of his hand, and his Father is greater then all, and no man shall pluck them out of his Fathers hand, Joh. 10.28, 29. then shall the devill and sin doe it to get victory to your Saviour, but it seems by this, that the Devill is your Saviour and not Christ, for if Christ have the keyes of hell, then none shall perish that he hath bought, and this is his victory, that he will save them in spight of all his enemies, Psal. 110.2. But they say, if all the Sins in the world had not been laid on Christ, but the sins of the elect onely, then he had not gotten the victory over all sin, but over some sin. I answer, all sorts of sins are in his people which he hath overcome, that it dies daily in them, and for the sins of reprobates, they shall be restrained by him, and at lest, all things [Page 29]that offend, shall be taken out of his Kingdom, and cast into the furnace of sin, Mat. 13.41, 42. Both reprobates and their sins shall be cast into hell fire, and the Saints shall inherit all things, Revel. 21.7.

Their second reason why Christ dyed for all, and yet all not saved, is this, be­cause he would have nothing preached to man but what is true, but if Christ dy­ed not for all men, and yet the Gospel preached to all, and requires all to believe, then some men are required to believe that which is not true. I answer, it is not sin in God, to command man to believe in Christ, although he knows they can­not, because he made them able at the first to doe it, if he had then required it, and if man by sin hath now disabled himselfe, yet God is not to be blamed for requiring that which he made them able to do at the first, no more then a man is that hath two debtors, and both disable to pay him, the one he freely forgives, and of the other he requires the debt; nor doth he require them to believe that which is not true, when the Gospel is preached unto them, but if they can truly believe they shall be saved, and preaching the Gospel is the instrumentall means to work faith in men that they may believe, Rom. 10.1. and then, He that beleeveth shall be saved, Mar. 16.16. Again, the Lord somtimes sends his Gospel to try if men will repent and believe, and if we doe not repent and believe; it makes us guilty of a great sin in not doing of it, when he requiers it of us, and to say God requires some to believe that which is not true, is a sin to judge of the secret will of God before that he hath revealed it unto them.

Their third reason, why Christ dyed for all and yet all not saved, they say is, to leave man without excuse, for man cannot say that Christ hath not dy­ed for him, and the Gospel was preached to every creature to leave many without excuse. I Answer, Will God give the greatest gift that ever hee gave to man as well to reprobates, as to the elect, to leave them without excuse? Would not a lesse gift then Christ himselfe bee sufficient to leave them without excuse? But then they would confirme this from these words of Paul, saying, The free gift came upon all men, unto justification of life, Rom. 5.18. Hence they would gather that Christ hath dyed for all men, For by him all are justified, and have life by Christ, and yet many of them shall bee damned. O hellish inference, all this is to leave them without excuse, but the truth is this, as by the offence of Adam judgement came upon all men that were in him by nature, even so sayth this Text, by one Christ, the free gift of righteousnesse, came upon all the elect, when they are in him by grace, unto justification of life, for as none is guilty of the first Adams sin, till they are in him by nature, so, nor is righteousnesse by Christ, till they are in him by grace, and not many ages past they said, although Christ taketh away the sins of all the world, yet none are justified from the sin, till they by faith behold it, but here they are not ashamed to say that the righte­ous [Page 30]God should pronounce all to be just, having given them Christ to die for their sins, and the life of grace to believe it, and after all this that God should con­demne these justified persons: What miserable blasphemy is this? Shall not the Judge of all the earth doe right? Gen. 18.25. Is God unrighteous that taketh vengeance, how then shall he judge the world? Rom. 3.5, 6. Then doe not harbour such blasphemous thoughts of God, for whom he justified, them he also glorifi­ed, It is God that justifieth, who shall condemn? It is Christ that dyed, Rom. 8.30, 33, 34.

The fourth reason, Why Christ dyed for all, and yet not all saved, is this, they say Christ dyed for Adam and all his posterity, because the elect should proceed out of his loynes. I Answer, as they are flesh and bloud they are the children of the first Adam, and so in him under sin and condemnation, but as they are new borne they proceed from the second Adam, which is Christ, Hee shall see his seed, and he shall see the travell of his soule, and be satisfied, Esay 53.10, 11. God the Father by Covenant gave them to Christ from all Eternity, therfore sayth he, Behold, I and the children which thou hast given me, Esay 8.18. But will it follow, that all must be elected because all sinned, and must all be given to Christ because they are descended of Adam, or must Christ die for all because all came of Adam? By this reason, what is done to any, is done to all, if any be saved, all are saved, if any be damned all are damned, because wee have all our nature from one man, but cannot God bestow his gift on whom hee will? must all have a like, because all are alike descended? I hope when A­dam had condemned all, it was Gods free grace to pardon any, and as ma­ny as he pleaseth.

The fifth reason why Christ dyed for all, and yet all not saved, is, because by Christ all shall rise again at the last day, 1 Cor. 15.21, 22. Hee is called the resur­rection, John 11, 25. For by the sin of Adam all die, and so lost their bodies, so by Christ shall all rise again, some to the resurrection of salvatian, and some to the resurrection of damnation, Iohn 5.29. Then say they, because Christ raiseth all, therefore he dyed for all. I Answer, although it is by Christ all reprobates are raised, that is, by his power, those vessels of wrath that are fitted for destruction may be filled with it, and because the body of Adam sinned as well as the soule, against an infinite God, therefore the bodies of reprobates should be punished with their souls eternally, and because Christ will send his Angels to gather up the bodies of reprobates, to bring them to their soules to bee tormented eternally: Is this a good argument that Christ hath dyed for them, and bought those soules and bodies, this shews plainly they are goats, and none of the sheep that the good sheepherd dyed for, they are dogs and shall bee without, when as his sheep shall never perish, but shall have eternall life. John 10.

Sixthly, They say Christ dyed for all, and yet not all saved, because the Father [Page 31]gave him all. I answer, Those that are given in to his wrath to be ruled with a rod of iron, to say he dyed for all such, you had as good say that hee died for devills, being so given on to his regall power, that they shall not doe what they list, but then they say he died for all, to purchase to himselfe a Church: But can­not a man purchase a Lordship unlesse he lay down money, and bargain for the whole World, and when he hath purchased all the World, and then stand to their courtesie, whether any will bee saved or not, what miserable arguing is this?

Seventhly, They say, Christ dyed for all, and yet all not saved, because His Father made him Iudge of all, John 5.27, 28, 29. I answer as before, by this Argument he dyed for Devills and Angels that never sinned, for he is the judge of all, but if Christ shall slay those that will not have him to rule over them, and cast unprofitable servants into utter darknesse, Luke 19.22, 27. and ren­der vengeance on these that obey not the Gospel, 1 Thes. 1.7, 8, 9. Is this suf­ficient to prove that Christ hath bought them with his heart bloud when hee shall thus condemne nhem, let all wise men judge. But then they say, if Christ should condemne these that he dyed not for, in that he would be unjust. I An­swer as before, If this were so, then Christ were unjust to condemne the De­vills, or else they must prove that Christ dyed for Devills, but men and Angels were all condemned for their sin against the Covenant of works, and hee was not bound to send men a Saviour to redeem them, and to establish those Angels that did not sin. This may suffice to prove that Christ did not die for all and every man in the world.


They hold it unlawlull to use that Prayer of Christ, Matthew 6.9. at a Prayer both by the godly and ungodly.

THey say the godly must not use this Prayer of Christ, because the fift petiti­on is, forgive us our trespasses, when as they are forgiven already, and there­fore ought not to pray for pardon of sin, being pardoned already. I Answer, David a man after Gods own heart, when Nathan the Prophet told him that the Lord had put away his sin, yet he prayed the Lord to deliver him from bloud guiltinesse, 2 Sam, 12.13. Psal. 51.14. and in his old age he prayed the Lord not to remember the sins of his youth, and to pardon his iniquity, for it is great Psal. 25.7, 11. And although the Lord will cleanse the house of Israel from all their uncleannesse, yet for this he will be enquired of by them Ezek. 36.25, 26, 29, 97. And they must take up words and say, take away all our iniquity, Hos. 14.2. and the Apostles by Christ were taught daily to say forgive us our sins, because we [Page 32]sin daily, and our assurance is but for the time present, and who knows how soone he may lose it: and say with David and Jeremiah, I am cut off, Psal. 31.22. Lam. 3.54. and with Iob, Though thou holdest me for thine enemy, and settest me as a mark for thine arrow, Iob 7.20.13, 24. But they say, if any man lack assurance of Gods favour, let him pray for it, rather then for pardon of sin, being done al­ready, I answer assurance of Gods favour is employed in that prayer for pardon of sin, for it is sin onely that separates betweene us and our God, Esay 59 2. and we should more desire the pardon of sin being an offence to God then our own com­fort that comes by that pardon: again, the way to get assurance and to keepe it, is by praying for the forgivenesse of sins for suppose, we have at the present our com­fortable assurance, that all our sins past are forgiven, yet we sin continually, and e­very new sin is as a cloud betweene God and us, and darkens our assurance of it, now by this prayer we disperse and dispell these clouds which would soon deprive us of all our comfortable assurance of Gods favour: therefore David prays to be clensed from all his secret sins, although unknown, Psal. 19.12. for all sinnes will cause the Lord to hide his face from us more or lesse, Esay 54.2. but they say Christ taught his Disciples to pray for pardon of sin before hee suffered, because hee had then appeased the wrath of his Father, yet afterward hee required no such thing, but if Christ had not satisfied the wrath of God before he came in the flesh, and suffered in it then, I would know what became of all the Patriarks and Prophets that died before, but I have often said, that God made a Covenant with Christ from all Eternity, to give him all the Elect as they fall in the severall ages of the World upon condition, that he should give his life a ransome for them, and so the Father set him a day, and trusted the Son for the payment of it, and gave him all the elect, according to their Covenant that fell in those ages, before the day of pay­ment for the purchase, and then in the fulnesse of time he paid for the purchase, and now the Son trusts the Father, to give him all the Elect that fall in those ages since the purchase was paid: so then the death of Christ was vertuall to save those be­fore his comming, as well as those after, for God was in Christ, reconciling the World or multitude of the Elect in every age of the World from the first to the last, to give them to Christ, and so by vertue of the Covenant, he was slaine from the foundation of the World, Revel. 13.8. Therefore it is said by Isaiah, unto us a child is born, Esay 6.9. And Abraham saw his day and was glad, Joh. 8.58. And Christ was as pleasing to his Father before he came in the flesh as after, for, sayth he, I was set up from everlasting, then I was by him as one brought up with him, and I was daily his delight, Prov. 22.23, 30. Therefore if Christ say in Jobs time, I have found a ransome, then he will deliver his soule from going into the pit, and his life shall see the light, Iob 33.24, 28. so then in every age, when the Father gave any to Christ, his death did vertually satisfie for them, they being in Christ by faith, with whom the Covenant was made, but they say before Christ suffered all power to forgive sins was in the Father, and afterward given to him, Mat. 28.18. [Page 33]And then and not before, he got the keyes of hell and death, Revel. 1.18. I Answer, Christ had power to forgive sin before he suffered, Mat. 9.5, 6. for he was King of his Church, ever since that promise was made to Adam, Gen. 3.15. and had the keyes of hell and death ever since, although he never made it known to the world till then, Rom. 16.25. and if that covenant had not been made before, the cove­nant of works was broken by Adam, all creatures had perished eternally, but they say, although Christ taught remission of sins after his death, yet then he did not teach to pray for pardon of sinne. I Answer, that prayer which he had taught before was to remain to the worlds end, for sayth he, When you pray say, forgive us our sins, and to denie this were to renounce all those truths taught by him before his death, and to confine our selves onely to what hee taught afterwards. Again, then the Doctrine of resurrection was most in question to be resolved on, therefore hee laboured to strengthen the faith in that Doctrine onely, Luke 24.37, 39. John 20.27. and this doctrine of the resurrection being confirmed, all other doctrines taught before were confirmed also. But they say, the ceremo­nies of Moses Law may as well continue now as that prayer of Christ, for hee did as well then command them to goe and offer sacrifice, as Moses had commanded, Mat. 8.4. I Answer, although the sacrifices of beasts did end at the death of CHRIST, yet the sacrifices of prayer and praise was not then to end, for praise and thanksgiving must be continually in heaven, Heb. 13.15. and that of those Lepers was such a sacrifice, nine of them went not at all, and the tenth returned to CHRIST and gave him thanks, and it was approved of him as sufficient, Luke 17.16, 18. so then, whether they were brought to Christ by the helpe of a sacrifice or immediately, it was not much ma­teriall, so that they came to him then, although the sinne offering of beasts be ceased, by the Sacrifice of CHRIST once for all, yet the sacrifice of prayer for pardon of sin may still bee a sweet incense, Psal. 141.1. but they say, When Christ taught them thus to pray, the Law was in its full strength, but now Christ hath put an end to the Law, which is the strength of sin. 1 Cor. 15.56. And the Law being ended, sin also is ended, and needs no prayer for the pardon of it. I Answer, The morall Law is eternally setled in heaven, Psal. 119.89, 103.20. and sin remains in hell, for they shall blaspheme God in their torments and cannot repent, Revel. 16.9, 11. and if sinne should cease, the fire would goe out, for It is sin and the wrath of God, that is like ariver of brimstone to it, Esay 30, 33. so then as in heaven is neither sin nor misery to the elect, but in hell is both the reprobate, and in this world all things are alike to all, Eccles 9, 1, 2, the Soints and reprobates have both sin and miserie, although in a different man­ner, for it reigns in the one, and is dying in the other, but he is a lyer that saith he hath no sin, 1 John 1.8. For no man liveth and sinneth not, 1 King 8.48. Eccles. 7.20. Then feeing as the Saints have sin, they must pray for the parden of it as the best means in the world to subdue it, then the godly may say this prayer.

But then they say the ungodly may not say this Prayer of Christ as a Prayer, because they cannot call God Father. I Answer, although they bee none of his children by grace and adoption yet they are his children by creation, thus Adam was the Son of God, Luke 3.38. and so God is the Father of all things, Job 38.28. and if carnall men doe pray, they may obtain some temporall things, as well as Ahab did by fasting, 1 King. 21.29. so God hears all mortall creatures, Psal. 9. Then they say carnall men ought not to say the first petition praised be thy name, for they cannot doe it from the heart. I Answer, the best of us all when we pray, if Christ did not put the incense of his merits a­mongst them, could not be pleasing unto him, Revel. 9.3. and if none should praise the Lord, but those that doe it with their whole heart, God would have very little praise in this world, when as every creature that hath breath, is com­manded to praise the Lord, Psal. 150.6. Then they say, none can give God thanks, but they that have received somthing of him, but this I grant, for what creature in heaven, earth, or sea, that hath received nothing from God? if there be none such, but all have received of him somthing, then let all praise him. But they say, for carnall men to pray, Thy Kingdom come, thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven, were to pray for their destruction, but how can that be, when they pray that the will of Christ were done hy man on earth, as Saints and An­gels doe it in heaven, both chearfully and constantly in salvation, rather then by suffering his will upon them in hell torments for ever. Then they say that car­nall men may not say. Give us this day our daily bread, for that is to be understood, The word of God which the Saints have had, and still desire, but how can this be? must we aske for so much of the word as may onely suffice for a day? and doth the word of God consume in the using of it, when, not one jot of it shall fail, Mat. 5. It was the loafes that Christ said was meate that perisheth, John 6.26, 27. Again, if Christ in this petition did not teach us to pray for temporall things then how could his prayer be perfect, and why would hee give thanks for meate that perisheth, if he would not pray for a blessing upon it: Then they say, here is to be understood that Christ taught them to pray for his spirit, but I say again, how much of his spirit will suffice for a day, and I hope they will not so blaspheme the eternall spirit of God, as to say it consumes in the using of it, no, It is a well of living water, springing up unto eternall life, John 4 14. then this, petition being for carnall things and not the spirit of God, carnall men may pray for them and obtain them. Then they say, if carnall men should say forgive us as we forgive them that trespas against us, in this they would seale up their own damnation, because they will not forgive others, Mat. 18.29, 30. But what of this, shall they escape damnation by not saying of it? and if they cannot, they had as good say it to obtain some temporall things, as to be both miserable in not saying of it, both here, and also hereafter, and besides the using well of these gifts in seeking them by prayer, and giving God thanks for them, is Gods way [Page 35]to obtain better mercies; as some in asking temporall things, by that prayer ob­tain spirituall mercies, Mat. 9.2. Then they say, carnall men must not say, Lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evill, because they are never out of temptation. I answer, the godly are in the same condition, tempted either by the world, flesh, or the devill, continually, and they cannot escape them all toge­ther, except they goe out of the world, 1 Cor. 6.9, 10, 11. then must they not pray and use the meanes to escape them. Then they say, carnall men are temptati­on it selfe, but I say, how can that be? For as they are Gods creatures they are good, and not to be so called, and it is but their words and deeds that tempt, for their thoughts cannot, neither is it all their words and deeds, but some of them onely, and they have a naturall conscience to oppose those words and deeds that are tempting to others, and why may they not pray against them, then we ought not to discourage any, but rather teach them better, for God will destroy these families that call not on his name, Jer. 10.25.

But when they see that they cannot prevail with the godly to cast away one part of this prayer, and the ungodly to cast away all the rest, then they bring ar­guments that no man living ought to say those words of Christ for a prayer, first they say, it was not Christs Doctrine, that we should say these words, but hee rather spake them to frame other Prayers by, for he sayth, Pray after this manner. Mat. 6.9. I answer, although the manner and forme be there taught by Christ, yet this hinders not, but these words may be used as a Prayer, as a just weight or measure may serve for our present use, to wey or measure any thing by, and yet serve for a pattern to make another by, so this Prayer may be a pattern of true Prayer, and yet we may use the very words of at in prayer, as we doe many of Davids Psalmes to praise God with, except they deny all Scripture words to be used as Prayer, and if they doe not, why should this Scripture bee denyed, and when Christ sayth, after this manner pray, we may as well say them verbatim, after him, as a scholler may say his lesson verbatim after his Master.

2 They say Matthew and Luke have not the same forme, nor the same words nor the same number of them, therefore not to be said as a prayer. I answer, we doe not contend that the same words in the Lords Prayer must of necessity always be used and no other, but we hold it lawfull to use those words of Christ as a Prayer, either as it is recorded by Matthew or by Luke, or if we say them verbatim after the one, it is no offence to the other, and if we varie in phrase from both, it is no offence to either, onely we hold that the same words, or to the same purpose, may be used by us as a prayer.

3 They say, all the circumstances of Christ in both the Evangelists, doth but teach us how to use Prayer aright, and he doth teach us the right use of almes­deedes and fastings, which is to avoid ambition, hypocrisie, and babling, and the like, and how to come to God in prayer, as children to their parents, ask­ing bread or fish, or an egg, Mat. 6.10. Luke 11.1.18. and to make our requests [Page 36]unto God for our particular wants in faith and love. I Answer, the saying of these words verhatom which Christ, hath taught us make us guilty of ambition, hypocrisie, and babling: and in the use of these words cannot we come to God with feeling of our particular wants, as children to their fathers, and in the use of them cannot we practice faith and love, they say these things, but they cannot prove them, and till then we deny them. but will they condemne all the Saints of God that use this prayer to be ambitious hypocrites and bablers, and without feeling of their particular wants, and without faith and love. these be but uncha­ritable slanders without any proofe.

4 They say, that the Apostles which knew the minde of Christ did neither binde themselves to these words nor others, but still prayed according to their severall occasions, as in Act. 1.24, 25.4.24 30. I Answer, although they did not so binde themselves to these words yet it will not follow, that they never used the same words as a prayer, and besides, they might goe by this rule upon severall occasions, for although we doe not finde that they did teach any to say over the Lords Prayer, yet they used set formes of prayer in their salutations, for saith Paul, it is the token in every Epistle, so I wright The grace of cur Lord Jesus Christ be with you all, Amen 2 Thes. 3 17, 18. then is it unlawfull to use the forme of words which Christ hath taught us, and yet lawfull for them to use their own forme for a prayer, and yet they taught men according to their occasions and necessities to make their requests known to God, Phil. 4.6. then I say they must use the prayer of Christ, for it doth not hinder supplication in the spirit, although they were not always tyed to say those very words in their prayers.

5 They say, to pray in a strange tongue, the unlearned know not what they say, Then how shall they say Amen? 1 Cor. 14.16. But say they, this Prayer they knew, and would say Amen, though it were spoken in a strange tongue, therefore they did not use it in any Language. I Answer, they might use the Prayer often at Corinth and yet the unlearned not able to say Amen, because there was extraor­dinary Prophets, and somtimes they spake strange languages by a speciall gist at such a time, the unlearned could not understand them, as at the end to say Amen, therefore Paul bids them pray in that language, that the people might joyne with them in their prayers, but suppose, they seldome used this in strange Lan­guages, this might cause them not to understand it, and yet this is not sufficient to prove that they hold it unlawfull to use it as a prayer, but suppose the unlearned heard them often to say it, yet they could not say Amen to it, unlesse they had a distinct understanding of the severall words therein, that their hearts and affecti­ons might goe along with him that said it, and in the conclusion witnesse their consent by saying Amen to it. Again, if the people when they understand it may say Amen to it, is it unlawfull, or dare they say Amen to an unlawfull prayer which is not supplication in the spirit, nor made in the feeling of their wants, nor in faith and love, and if they may lawfully say Amen, at the conclusion then without all question it may be said as a Prayer.

6 They say, If Christ hath commanded to use these words in that number and order, then they sin that pray at any time and use not these words, for saith hee, When you pray, say Our Father, &c. I Answer, this command of Christ sheweth that he allows the use of these words, in the same number and order, that either Matthew or Luke hath recorded, yet it doth not follow that we are tyed to those very words alone, and to no other in our prayers: suppose a man send his servant on a message to his friend, and command him to say to him such words verbatim, after this manner, or to the same purpose, then shall that servant be counted un­faithfull or disobedient, if he use the very words without any change, or if he speak to the same purpose, when Christ sent out his Apostles he gave them a prayer for salutation, when they came to any house to say, peace be to this house, Luke 10.5. thereby to warrant them that they might use those very words verbatim, or the same for substance, and either way obey the command of Christ, so the Lord taught a forme of praise to say alway, the Lord be praised, Psal. 40.16. this doth allow us to use the same words, or the same for substance in other words, so here the Lords prayer may be used as the same for substance, and both ways his com­mand is fulfilled, but they stand much upon this word, when you pray, as if it were always to be used when we pray, but they are mistaken, for sayth Christ, When thou makest a feast call not thy friends, and when thou makest a feast call the poor and mamed, Luke 12.12, 13. But doth this tie us never to feast our friends, and always to feast the poor and the maimed, when the devill is cast out he saith, I will return, Luke 11.24. but when the devill was cast out did he likewise returne, seven de­vils was cast out of Mary Magdelen, and a legion of Devils out of another, but did they return, if not, then this word, when you pray, doth extend it selfe to all our prayers, but then they say, if we be tyed to these words, it will exclude in­ward desires to be prayers, but I say again, we are not always tyed to say those words, although we may somtimes use them, and yet we may pray acceptably without any words or voices at all, as Moses and Hannah did, Exod. 14.15. 1 Sam. 1.13.

7 They say that forme of prayer doth plainly and fully direct and restrain our ignorant and inordinate desires unto certain heads in which whatsoever is need­full and lawfull to be asked I answer, although all things needfull to be asked, be contained in the words of this prayer, and thousands of petitions more may be de­rived from it by Gods people, according to their severall occasions, yet it will not follow that the words of this Prayer may not be used as a prayer: Again, to say the heads are so generall, that no man can rightly apply them to his particular occa­sions itselfe for in generall respect and love to Gods name, and Kingdom, and will, we may lawfully use these words in prayer, although for the present our thoughts doe not settle upon that particular way and means by which his name may be san­ctified, and his will accomplished, so the Angels wait with reverence, and with a general respect to Gods wil, before they have any particular special comand how to do it, Mat. 18.10. Dan. 7.10. Psal. 102.20. so Gods [...] [Page 38]a generall respect of our selves to bee forgiven, and with a generall respect of temptations and afflictions to bee delivered from, although for the present wee think of no particular sins or temptations, if this were not so, it were unlawful for Paul to pray at all, when as hee knew nothing by himselfe, yet sayth hee, I am not hereby justified, 2 Cor. 4.4. and David prayed to be clensed from secret sins, Psal. 19. and although those words be generall, yet they may have relation to particular sins and temptations, and to particular meanes to glorifie God, but neither, man nor Church can be in such condition, as to reach all things needfull for all persons, and all occasions as those heads comprehend.

I answer, suppose no man nor churches case can reach unto all things compre­hended in this prayer, yet these words concerne every Christian, then they may use it as a prayer, and if we should reject this prayer, because our condition can­not reach all things contained in it: by this argument we may cast away all prayers, blessings and salutations in the Scriptures, for if we say, Peace be unto you, Luke 10.5. The Lord blesse you Ruth 2.4. Who can reach all things comprehen­ded in these sentences, for they contain the whole covenant of grace, with all the fruits and benefits of it, then we may use it as a prayer, although wee cannot reach all things that are comprehended in it.

8 They say, if these words of Christ be used as a prayer, as well may Ministers at the end of their Sermons, and Magistrates at the end of their Instructions and Exhortations, say over the ten Commandements, because they doe fully comprise all duties.

I Answer, our question onely about the lawfulnesse, and not about the neces­sity of using it as a prayer: we doe not say that Ministers are bound to say over the Lords Prayer at the end of every Sermon, nor Magistrates at the end of every instruction or exhortation: but suppose Ministers at the end of every Ser­mon should say over the ten Cmmandements, as formerly they have done upon the Lords day before Catechising, and that Magistrates at the end of solemne exhortations should repeat the ten Commandements, this would rather bee a testimony of their obedience to Gods Laws rather then to be any transgression of it: again, there is no equality in this comparison, for the Lord in his wis­dom, hath in his word taught us short forms of prayer for salutation, in two or three words, because we have every day many occasions to use them, and so wee have of mutuall exhortations; then what an absurd thing would it be to conclude every salutation and exhortation with the Lords Prayer and ten Commande­ments, it may be a hundred times in a week, yet this will not prove it to be un­lawfull to begin or conclude a solemne exercise in a Church o [...] family, with the Lords Prayer or ten Commandements.

9 They say this Prayer of Christ is a most perfect forme, wherein is no want or superfluity, then if this be the meaning of Christ to say over those words in prayer to God, then we ought only to use this and no other: For (say they) if we do, it is [Page 39]babling and presumption to put any other words in steed of this prayer, that is so absolute, perfect and sufficient, and the Lord will be worshipped with the best we have, and he is accursed that hath a male in his flocke, and yet doth offer to the Lord a corrupt thing, Malachie 1.14. I answer, God doth not denounce that curse upon those that do not offer the best they have in sacrifice, but against those that offered corrupt things contrary to the Law, Levit. 1.3.10. But this chiefly crosteth Hypocrites, who pretend that they love God, when they doe not; but for a man that had a Kow and two sheep, Esay 7.22. He was not required to offer his Kow, because she was the best that he had: or if a man had ten sheep, hee was not bound to offer the best of them, onely the Law required it should be without blemish, and then he might take the tenth as they passe under the rod, Levit. 27.32, 33. Then, if this Text prove any thing to cast away all other Prayers, but this of Christ, then they must prove them all, but this to be corrupt things, like the torne and lame sacrifice: for although this prayer of Christ be more excellent then any of ours, yet this will not nullifie and make ours void, no more then the excellency of one sacrifice will make void another that hath not the same degree of goodnesse in it: yet this is beside our controversie, for hitherto they have argued, that it was unlawfull to use this prayer of Christ at all as a prayer: and now they seem to argue, that all other are unlawfull but this prayer of Christ, because it is so perfect and sufficient, that there is neither want nor superfluity in it, and yet before they said, there was so much superfluity in it, that neither man nor Churches case could reach it, and therefore they said, it was not lawfull to say it for a prayer, and another time they said, it was too short to reach all mens conditions and occasions, and therefore unlawfull to use it as a prayer. Thus wee see their arguing is meere caviling and not to be regarded of those that love the truth, and those words of Christ may be blessed as a prayer, notwithstanding all their cavils made against it.


This Chapter contains a Disputation with the Anabaptists, about the Magistrates power, in commanding those of a contrary judgment to conforme with us in our publike worship, or to punish them in case of refusall.

THey say, if a Magistrate command those of a contrary judgment to conforme with them this would make them sin against their conscience as Hypocrites, I answered, that to come to the publike Assemblies is from the Magistrate, but to be Hypocrites is from themselves, as when a man spurs his horse, if he go it is from the man, but if he halt it is from himselfe, then the cause of hypocrisie is in your selves, and not in our godly Magistrates for commanding you to come to our publike Assemblies. Again, they command, but the outward man as his words and actions, and his bodily presence there, but they have no law can reach their conscience to command it, nor to inflict any punishment upon it, in case of refusall, it is God that requires truth in the inward parts, Psal. 51.6. and to obey from the heart, Rom. 6.17. For he sees not as man sees, he looks on the heart, 1 Sam. 16.7. if they be hypocrites, it is for want of syncere obedience to God from the heart, but if they bring those excuses to the Assembly, they have done all that the Magistrate commands them, then they do not make some Hypocrites, but suppose, they com­manding these of a contrary judgment should accidentally make them hypocrites; yet so far as they obey, they shall lose nothing by it: if they obey outwardly, they may by that receiv blessings, as Ahab did, 1 King. 21.29. The judgment was removed from his days, and the Pharisees had a reward, Mat. 6, 5. But those that obey from the heart shall receive spirituall and eternall blessings, For every one shall receive according to his works, Psal. 62.12. Job 34.11. though not meritorious for it, yet according to it, whether it be done in hypocrisie or in truth; then is it not better to conforme in outward obedience to obtain outward blessings, then to be both mi­serable here and hereafter: and shall we blame them that seek to pull us out of any danger, and to procure for us, although but outward blessings. Again, it is better to sin in using the meanes tending to salvation, then to sin in that way that takes Lold on hell, Prov. 7. For if you cast off Magistrates authority, you will in time kill the Saints of God, and thinke in your conscience that you doe God good service, John 16.2. then bring your conscienc to the word, and not the word to your con­science, lest you exalt your conscience above the word. Again, when all are brought to the means of salvation, it may please God to make those means effectuall com­ming to the posts of wisdomes doores they shall be blessed, and to the poole they shall be cured.

Now I shall prove that Magistrates have power to command those of a con­trary judgment to conforme with us in publike worship; or to punish in [...] refuse to obey such lawes as shall be made for the preserving of peace both in Church and State, this they have good warrant from Scripture, for King Ass. comanded Judah to seek the Lord God of their Pathers & to doe the Law and Co [...] ­mandement, and Jehoshaphat sent Princes, and with them Levits to teach in Judah, & reformed government in matiers of the Lord, 2 Chron., 8 9. & 19.11. And Manasses commanded Judah to serve the Lord, and they kept the Passeover ac­cording to the comandement of King Josias, Chap. Here then it is plain that Magistrates have power to command obedience to the publike worship of God in relation to the Church, now we shall see their power to punish those that are disobedient the Lord said to Moses, Take the heads of the people and hang them up before the Sun, that bowed down to the gods of Moab, Numb. 25.2, 3.4. And Ioash ordained, that if any man did plead for Ba [...], he should be put to death, Iudg. 6.31, And Asa punished his own mother for having an Idoll in a Grove, 1 Kings 1 [...] 13. And when Iehu destroyed Baal out of Israel, with all his priests and worship­pers, the Lord said, Thou hest done well in executing that which was right in [...] own eyes, 2 Kings 10.28, 30. And Iosiash put down the Idol [...], yea, bee slue all the priests of the high places, and burnt their bones upon their [...], 2 Kings 23.5, 20. Thus they may see that Magistrates had this power to com­mand obedience to the publike worship of God, and to punish the disobedient, and if they have lost this power, let them prove when and how they come to lose it.

Secondly, the Iews had the same Law of God contained in the ten Comman­dements as we have, and they had the same Gospel as we, for saith Paul, the Go­spell was preached to Abraham, Gal. 3.8. and Peter saith, For this cause war the Gospell peached to them that are dead, 1 Pet. 4.6. onely it was to them in [...] types and shadows, and to us more clcerly manifested, yet they were [...] by the same Christ as we, for there is but one way to heaven. Ier. 32.39. Then why [...] not our Magistrates have the same authority in relation to the Church as they had, but this man denied that the Iews had the Gospel, or that faith was of absolute ne­cessity for salvation, flat against the Scripture, Ioh. 3.16 19, 36. Heb. 11.6. but they having found out some new way contrary to the old and good way, in which our fathers walked and were not confounded, Psal. 22. They must [...] have new Ma­gistrates, with lesse authority in relation to the Church, to command obedience to the publike worship of God, or to punish the opposers of it.

Thirdly, if Magistrates under the olde Testament had this power, then much more now under the New, because now they have greater obligation to command obedience, and to punish the opposers of it then they had, because [Page 42]The Covenant of grace is now more manifest then it was to the Jews, and if our Magistrates had not that power, which the Magistrates in the old Testament had, our church would not be in so safe a condition now, as it was under the Old Testament.

Fourthly. Kings and Queens must be as nursing fathers and mothers to the Church, Esay 49.22. but shall Kings and Queens have no authority about the Church when they lend their power to assist it, and shall fathers and mothers have no command in relation to the Church? and shall nurses have no power to feed their children? Jehoshophat sent Ministers to teach in Judah, and sayth the Lord, Cyrus is my sheepherd, then shall not he defend the Church as a sheep­herd doth his flock? David fed them according to the integrity of his heart, and guided them by the skilfulnesse of his hands, Psal. 78.72. but while the Lord looks for a man to make up the hedge, Ezek. 22.30. and saith, he shall be called the repairer of the breach, Esay 58.12. In the meane time, these men throw open the gap to the ravening lyon, which shews how insufferable they are in any Christian Church, yea, they be but like vipers, both to Church and State.

Fifthly, Princes in Scripture are called Saviours to Sion, and such are foretold to be in our dayes, Obad. 21. But how can they be Saviours to our Church, when they must neither command obedience, nor punish those that oppose it, but God commands to punish those that intise others to Idolatry, Deut. 13.6. if they doe not, they are guilty of other mens sins, 1 Tim. 5.22. and they carry the Sword in vain, Rom. 13.4. and God will have somthing against them for suffering Jezabel to seduce the servants of God, and for suffering the doctrine of Baalam, and the doctrine of the Nicolaitans which God hates, Revel. 2.14, 15, 20. The very Heathens will punish those that oppose their Religion, and shall not Chri­stian Magistrates doe as much for the true Religion as they doe for a false Re­ligion.

Sixthly, We are commanded to pray for Kings, and all those in authority, that we may leade a quiet and a peaceable life in all godlinesse, 1 Tim. 2.3. But if they have no power in relation to the Church, to command obedience, and to punish the opposers of it, then what a vain prayer would this be? but hee that rules over men must bee just, and not onely so, but ruling in the feare of God, 2 Sam. 23.3. I know, sayth the Lord, that Abraham my friend, will command his houshold to doe judgment and justice, Gen. 18. And we must obey for conscience sake, Rom. 13.7. but not bringing the conscience in obedience to mans precepts, but we must obey men in conscience of obedience unto God that commands it. Tit. 3.1. Then let them take heed how they despise government.

But then because the Magistrates power is a burthen to this man, and he would fain ease himselfe of it, therefore he propounded some Queries.

1 Hee would know, whether the whole ground of the Jews worship, for [Page 43]matter and forme, was not in plain precepts and commandements, and taught them by the Prophets, as they had immediately received it of the Lord, to this I grant affirmatively that it was so, but then hee would know, whether any Ruler, Governour, or King of Judah either did, or lawfully might set up, alter, or change either matter or forme of that worship, and to compel the people to obey it, or to inflict a penalty upon any in case of disobedience: I answer negatively, that no King of Judah did or ought to set up, alter, or change, either matter or forme of Gods publike worship, yet the Kings of Judah both did and ought to command obedience to that matter, and to that forme of publike worship, that was set up and received from the Prophets, as they received it from the Lord, and also they both did and ought to punish those that were disobedient to that forme that was set up by the Lord, as all those Scriptures before quoted witnesse, and so our Magistrates may and ought to compell obedience to the outward forme of the worship of God in relation to the Church, although their power be not in the Church or over the Church, but onely assistant to the Church, then they may command obedience to it, and punish those that despise or abuse it, yet I grant they never had nor shall have power to alter the forme or matter, or to add any new matter to it, nor take any matter from it, this belongs to Christ alone, the head and King of the Church, but I say again, that Magistrates have power to command outward obedience to that forme that Christ hath set up, neither may the matter of any ordinance be taken away or changed, or new inventions of our own added to them, and so for the matter of the Sacraments, wee must neither take away the bread nor the wine, nor add any thing else, and so likewise for the persons, the subject matter of the Church, they must be the seed of Abraham, neither may a Turke be admitted, unlesse hee will leave his Turkish Religion, he is not fit matter for it, yet all this hinders not, but Christian Magistrates may command Christians being already in the Church to obedience, and to punish those that are disobedient to the Church.

2 He would know whether the Jews government now under the Gospel per­tain to Gentiles any more then the matter and forme of the worship, and if their government, why not all, both the Church and State, and if all, whether the neg­lect of any be not under the curse, especially so much as is under the letter of the Law. I answer, the Jews Government both in Church and State, as it was the Judiciall Law, it ought to be obeyed of none but Jews onely, and as much as their Law was but ceremoniall, the matter was calves and lambs, and the Altar and Temple, and the forme was sacrifices, and divers washings, &c.

But now Christ the King of the Church is come, hee [...]ath taken away much of the matter and forme of their publike worship, and now all Kings and Rulers being his deputies, [...]st give their power to the Church, to defend that matter [Page 44]and forme that Christ the King of it hath set up, and appointed to be themat­ter and forme of it, but while hee pleads for the Jews matter and forme hee smells rank of Judaisme, yet it is like the Jews when they are called may have their own positive Laws for their own Common-wealth, as our positive Law is the Law of England, But wee are no more bound to the Jews positive laws, then they are bound to our positive Laws, although those are written in the Word, and ours are not, but besides the ceremoniall law that ended by Christ, and the Judiciall law that was made particularly for Jews, they had also the eternall morall law, and what their Magistrates did in obedience to that, our Kings and Magistrates are bound to the same as well as they, and it was in obedience to that law, that they commanded uniformity in publike worship, and punished the disobedient, and further I say, that our positive laws binde our Magistrates and people as strongly being grounded on the morall law, being the law of nature, as the Jews positive laws bound them, although theirs was written in the Word, and ours are not.

Thirdly, He would know whether the matter and forme of the worship of God under the Gospel, lies not in as plain precepts and commandements as the matter and forme of the Jews worship, and whether to urge and compell men to any other be not sin.

Here I shall first grant, that the matter and forme now, is in as plain precepts and commandements as the Jewes was, and to compell men to any other is sin. But here lies not our controversie, for our Magistrates neither command other things then CHRIST hath appointed to bee the subject matter of the Church, although themselves, most abominably, brought a Cat to the Sacrament. Neither doe wee admit Infidels or Turks unlesse they leave their Religion, and become Christians, neither doe wee take away the bread or the wine, or change them, or add any thing else to them, not doe we take away or change any other ordinance, but themselves have cast away much of the subject matter of the Church being esteemed of them but as reprobates, although many of them be the deare children of GOD, unlesse they please then humours, and they have cast away the Ordinance of singing of Psalmes, and all family instructions, admonitions, prayers, watchings over one another in love, and building up one another in faith. Thus they have almost cast a [...]y both matter and forme of the true visible Church, when as they cannot ta [...]e us as wanting any Ordinance, nor of having any supersluous of our own de­vising.

Then if Magistrates should command any other matter or forme, they would sinne in to doing, yet it will not follow that when Magistrates com­mand the same that CHRIST hath set up that then they should sinne. [Page 45]The Lord said to Moses', The Magistrate gather the people together, both men, women, and children, and the stranger that is within the gates, that they may heare, and that they may learne, and feare the LORD thy GOD, and observe to doe all the words of this Law, Deut. 31.12. and saith Christ compell them to come in, that my house may be filled, Luke 14.23. then I hope it will not trouble your consciences to be compelled to heare the word, which is the onely way to know the Cove­nant between God and Christ in our nature, and when it is known, it will be­received, They that know thy name will trust in thee, Psal. 9.10. yet the Magistrates will not command you to believe they are not Lords of your faith, but they may be helpers of your joy, but saith is the gift of GOD, the Magistrate onely commands to come to the paths of wisdoms doors that we may be blessed, Prov. 8.33. this is the way to come in to the Covenant of Christ, the Lord of the Church, and when this is done, we need not make another Covenant with the members, as they d [...]e at New England, and if they were in Covenant with Christ, as they pretend the members neede not make such soldering, for a Christian hath right to all Churches, as well as to one Church, and needs not way [...] for the members ad [...]mttance, although their Lordly pride besuch, while they pretend humility, that they will not al­low of it.

Lastly, he would know whether any people under heaven have power to frame the outward government of the Church so perfectly, that it shall neither have sin nor failing in it, i [...] not then saith he where is there power to command obedience to that which is sinful. I answer, It is true, none have power to frame such a govern­ment that hath neither sin nor failings in it, therefore the Parliament doth not take upon them to frame any government for the Church, because as I said before, their power is not in the Church, nor over the Church, but in relation to the Church, as lending their power to assist it, therefore they have called the assembly of Divines to search the Scripture, to see what government Christ hath appointed for his Church, who is the Lord and King of it then there businesse is onely to search this our and then the Parlinment by a positive Law of the Land will command that this government shall be observed, and no other but when all the Assembly, or the greatest part shall conclude upon one way of go­vernment and the Parliament hath established that Government by a Law of the Kingdom then I say, although there shall be some failings in it, yet it being as neer the rule as all our Divines upon diligent search can finde out, and the Parlian [...]ent hath made it a Statute to bee observed, it must bee obeyed, and all those Scriptures and Reasons before alledged serve to confirme it, and those that will not, doe the Law of GOD, and the Law of the King, let [Page 46]judgement be executed speedily upon him, whether it be to death or banishment, confiscation of goods, or imprisonment, Ezra. 7.25, 26. and then it will be but a weake excuse to renounce a positive Law of the Land upon this ground, saying, It is not perfect without sin or failing, therefore I will not obey it, by this argu­ment they may renounce all our Laws and Magistrates, for no humane Ordi­nance nor Magistrate can be without sin or failing, then, by their argument, both must be cast away, and so live like sons of Belial, without any government, but this shews how unsufferable that faction is, to be among Christians.

But suppose, they should have free leave to frame their own government, what they would have, upon condition it should be confirmed by an act of Par­liament, I am confident they would not agree to have it done, because they all seeke to have a gap open to turne to what Heresie they please, This also shews how unsufferable they be amongst us. But suppose they were willing to have such a government established as they should like of, then I would know why a whole assembly of faithfull, learned, wise, godly, and pious men should be deny­ed that which they will grant to a few, and some of them factious; and others hereticall, nay, why will they not grant our Assembly so much as they grant to one single man, who setteth up what government he pleaseth, and they all freely obey him, when he aymes at his own ends, to gather Churches that he may vent his Heresie and faction, which is a thing to be abhorred of all godly Christians, be­ing more enslaved to him then ever they were to the Prelates, if they had but eyes [...]o see it. The meane time all may see how these men despise the Magistrates pow­er in relation to the Church, when they command obedience to it, or punish the opposers of it.


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