Comprized in a plain and practicall Discourse upon the six particulars neces­sary to Mans Life, viz. 1. Aire. 2. Meat and Drink. 3. Motion and Rest. 4▪ Sleep and Wakefulness. 5. The Excrements. 6. The Passions of the Mind. With the discussion of divers Questions pertinent thereunto. Compiled and published for the prevention of Sickness, and prolon­ [...]ion of Life.

By H. Brooke.M. B.

Mihi verò, & qui ambitionis, aut cujusvis Cupiditatis gratià, impeditam negotiis vi­tam delegerunt, quo minus corpori curando vacare queant, ii quo (que) servire ultro do­minis, & quidem pessimis videntur. Gal.

London, Printed by R. W. for G. Whittington, and are to be sold at the Blew-Anchor in Cornhill, near the Exchange. 1650.

Praesidi, Electis, reliquisque Collegii Medicorum Londinensis Sociis; Egregiis, Viris, Do­ctissimis (que) S. D.

P Ʋlblicae sanitati consulens, ad quorum pedes libentius tracta­tulum hunc deponerem, quàm vestris, qui [...], Summi estis antistites: non est gratitudinis hoc, sed obser­vantiae pignus, quippe qui prius de vobis be­ne mereri studui, quàm audire, & sodalitii vestri me dignum reddere quàm ambire. Hoc saltem cona [...] fas sit; nec desperare. Medicinae partem hanc secundam, abstrusam satis, & no­dosis implicatam controversiis consultò el [...]gi, & vernaculâ promulgavi, uniuscujus (que) scilicet, cognitioni necessariam, & ut vos etiam exper­tos magis, & intimiores Apollinis [...] pro­vocarem, quod perfunctoriè incoepi, stylo magis exarato per ficere, rationibus (que) veritatem magis irrefragabilibus confirmare.

[Page] Gladio vixdum vaginato, novum imminere videtur bellum (quod tamen avertat Deus) publica autem calamitas, Medicorum duplicare curam industriam (que) debet ut vel sic compensanda strages. Litibus quidem locupletatur juriscon­sultus, morbis Medicus, Illius autem finis debet esse Pax, hujus Sanitas: quippe utrius (que) lucro, Populi preferenda est Salus: haec est summa lex tam in Scholâ Hippocratis, quàm in Politicis. Sanitatis praecepta necesse est & tutò cognoscat populus, in hisce enim sui juris est; bisce etiam abundè vacat, reliquas medicinae partes, nisi omnes, eas (que) non superficialitèr sed intimè cog­noscat, melius est ut penitus ignoraret; adeò luculentèr constat, nihilo plus inesse periculi quam imperfectâ scientiâ. Operae pretium ergo existimavi enchiridion Diaiteticum concinnare, portatu facile, quo promptè consilium unicui (que) occasioni suggeratur: Primitias has vobis de­dico, exiles satis, nec tanto dignas patrocinio; majora tempus proferet vestrum (que) exemplum: haec interim candidè accipite verissimum obser­vantiae [...], & me vobis addictissimum totâ vitâ futurum existimate.

H. Brooke.

To the Reader.

BEing solicitous of thy health, and finding thee too neglectful of thy own I have for thy bene­fit at a few leasure hours compiled the ensuing. Trea­tise of that part of Physick which concerns Dieting, or the Regulation and well ordering thy Life, the Reasons prompting me thereunto being these.

1. My Duty as a Physi­cian, for being bred up in the Study of that Faculty, and licentiated in the pra­ctise thereof, and so ta­king upon me a generall [Page] care and charge of preser­ving Health, I judg my self thereby obliged to communicate what Coun­cel, and advice I esteem necessary thereunto.

2. Because this part of Physick, though by most Physicians esteemed the principall, and by some the All, or only necessary part, yet hath the publication thereof in the English Tongue been omitted, very little having been written thereupon, which was an urgent & more then ordi­nary motive to me, to sup­ply somewhat that de­fect.

3. The Physician being [Page] seldom or not at all con­sulted with about preser­ving Health: there is the more need of furnish­ing every man with a Ma­nuall, that may be alwaies ready at hand, to which recourse may be had upon any occasion; And indeed so far every man ought to be a Physician, or else he brings into Question that discretion, by which well imployed, in a strict obser­vance of what is good or bad, wholsom or unwhol­som, in the six non-natu­rals, he may easily make his Conclusions, and re­serve them as a Guide to himself, and leave them [Page] as a Help to his Posterity.

If I had regarded ap­plause, or preferred Fame & Opinion before thy wel­fare, I should have come a­broad in a more queint & Scholastical dress; where­as I have now studied plainness, and (so far as the Subject I treat upon will permit) evened my words to the meanest capa­city: which though hap­pily the most Critically Learned may despise, yet will the most wise I doubt not approve: knowing well that matter was not made for words, but words for the plain and Intelli­gible conveyance of our [Page] minds one to another.

Ʋnwilling I was, as Dr. Brown cautions us, to put thee to the trouble of lear­ning Latine, to understand English: my drift being herein not so much to de­light the Learned, (who may elsewhere find gar­dens enough to exspatiate in) but instruct the ignorant. I have not taken much care in quoting Authors, (to some of whom I have been be­holding) intending thou shouldst rather be perswa­ded by Reason then Au­thority: and this I did, ex industriâ, on set pur­rose, preferring the sim­plicity [Page] of Truth before the Honor of Allegation.

I desire likewise, that notice may be taken, that what I have written, is in­tended for the preservati­on of Health; other Rules there are in Diseases to be observed, particular, ac­cording to the Nature, and with reference to the Be­ginning, Augmentation, State, and Declination of each disease, in which each one must expect advice from his Physi­cian.

This Part of Physick thou mayst simply and safely known: In the rest, unless thou beest skilful in [Page] all, and with some exact­ness, 'tis better thou re­main Ignorant which thou canst not be, if thou hast any other employ­ment, considering the a­bundance of time necessa­rily required, before 'tis possible to attain those many particulars that are hard to be learnt, and yet of necessity to be known, before thou canst without extreamest hazzard un­dertake the practise of Physick: With a Smat­tering and Imperfect Knowledge, thou mayst be bold (as most are) but not skilful. To the first gain and Pride may prompt; [Page] but to a true Physician, see by that which follows what is Necessary.

It is expedient thou shouldst first know where­of man is made: his prin­ciples of Composition, his due Temperament, as he is, intire, and of every part: Their deviations likewise and diversities; The Nature of Spirits, In­nate Heat, and Radicall Moisture. The Conforma­tion, Situation, and use of all and every part of the Body, both Similar and Organical, the several Vessels, Rivulets, and Conveyances within us; and this is only attainable [Page] by frequent dissection and Inspection. Thou art also to know the Operations of the Soul, as it is distribu­ted in, and makes use of several parts of the Body: whether they be Nutri­tive, Generative, Vital, Animal Sensitive, Mo­tive.

The particulars contai­ned in the Diaetetical part, thou hast in this Treatise: Thou art like­wise to have exact know­ledg of all diseases of the whole Body, and of every Part: Their Nature, Causes, Differences, Sym­ptoms or concomitant Ac­cidents, and Signs, as well [Page] to know them by, as also to fore-know their issues and events; Their usual Mutations, Duplicati­ons, sudden and many times frightful Alterati­ons: which will distract the Practitioner, who to save his credit will then also venter, but with ex­treamest danger to the Pa­tient. But above all, and that which is most necessa­ry, is right knowledge of the manner and method of Curing: which com­prehends all the operati­ons in Physick and Surge­ry, which are exceeding numerous, and require a large Discourse, but to [Page] reckon up and explain. And as one requisite here­unto, thou oughtest to be furnished with the Know­ledge of all Plants and Trees, (at least that are in use in Physick) Their Roots, Stems, Barks, Leaves, Flowers, Berries, Fruits, Seeds, excresences; to know all Forraign Drugs, Gums, Rozens, juyces liquid and inspissa­ted, all medicinal Animals, their parts and Excre­ments; Whatsoever the Sea affords for Medecine: or the bowels of the Earth, as Mettals and Minerals. All these ought well to be known, both how to choose [Page] them, to prepare, mix and compound them. To make of them distilled Waters, Simple and Compound: Conserves, Syrups, Loches, Powders, Electuaries, Pills, Trochisks, Diet Drinks, Apozems, Potions of all sorts, proper to each body, part, disease: Vo­mits, Iuleps, Ptisans, O­piats, Epithems, Lotions, Fomentations, Baths, Liniments, Oyntments, Cataplasmes, Cerats, Plaisters, Vesicatories, Colliries for the Eyes, Caps for the Head, Gar­garismes for the Mouth and Throat, Dentifrices for the Teeth, Errhina for [Page] the Nose: Sneezing-powders, Suffiments, Pessaries, Suppositories, Clysters and Injections. These of diverse kinds, with many more, which for brevity sake I omit, a Physician ought to be well seen in, and acquainted with; but principally to know the proper time, and season of using them; which is not to be done, but with much study, educati­on therein, great helps and experience; and yet without that, all Medi­cines, though in them­selves, they be [...], as the hand of God to cure diseases, prove like [Page] a sword in a mad mans hand, by which instead of doing the Physicians work, Work is made for the Physician.

I intend not by this to affright any from the acquisition of the Medici­nal Art: but rather to let the World see, what is requisite thereunto, that it may understand how far short of being Physicians such men are, who upon the bare stock of a few Re­ceipts, and knowing how churlishly to Purge and Vomit, with three or four more common Operations in Physick, presently and with confidence fall to [Page] the practise therefore: As if a man should boast him­self a good Painter, because he knows how to mix Colours, but knows not what belongs to Symmetry and Proportion.

—Sed quo non mor­talia pectora cogit,
Auri Sacra Fames—

It were better their need or Avarice did prompt them to venter upon some other subject then the body of man. Thus much I thought good to insert in this place, to shew the difference between what is requisite to the preserving [Page] preserving thy Health, and restoring it; The first is properly thy own work, the last is the Phy­sicians, unless thou givest thy time to make thy self such.

But to return from whence I doubt I have too long digressed; They who resolve to continue their course of life without care or consideration of their Health guided by their ap­petite, and not their un­derstandings, will receive little or no benefit by this Treatise: however Libe­ravi animam meam, I have done my duty, and therein receive satisfacti­on. [Page] Others who are more careful of themselves will, I question not, hence gain some light and bene­fit, to whom I offer this, but not impose it; prefer it in my own understan­ding as best, but submit it to theirs; and wish them to be perswaded, as the reason thereof proves effi­cacious: all that I desire is, that they would not be prejudiced by Custom, and long received opinion wch in some places it thwarts: but preseinding from that, give their understandings leave clearly to examine, and so judge and Practise. [Page] It is like my attempt here­in may set others at work; I shall be glad of that al­so, and of whatsoever else may tend to the Helath and Commodity of Man­kind.

Studious whereof is, Thy Friend and Servant, H. Brook.

To my Freind the Au­thor, a Truly Learned and Expert Physician.

WHat mean you Sir?
This will undo Physicians, and Surgeons too.
They live by Sickness, not by Health,
Disorder brings them all their Wealth.
If this take place, you ne'r will ride
On foot cloth, with a Groom by your side.
This is as if a Draper should,
Invent a neat spun cloth, that would
[Page] Seven Ages last, and after be Fresh, and fit for Livery.
Pray timely think on't, and Recall
This Book, that will undo us all.
You rather should excess in­vite,
And raise decayed Appetite.
Cry down all Rules, and Free­dom praise,
The Rich t' Apicius Diet raise;
Teach Curious Sauces, and advance
The Mysteries of Intempe­rance.
Make Rabelaies in our En­glish shine,
Erect a School for Aretine:
That to encrease Physicians gain,
The Rich mans Gout and P—may raign.
[Page] Catarrhes and Palsies, and the new
Disease that lately scapt so few.
Or think you that egregious Race
Of Leeches that yet spring a­pace
From every Trade, will find you more
Work, then diseases did be­fore.
Or then those Books which teach new skill▪
How with good Medicines men to kill.
But your diffusive Soul, that still
Studies the World with truth to fill
And useful Knowledge, shews a way
(Would mankind but your Rules obey)
[Page] To scape those Quick sands, and live free
From need of Drug, or Sur­gery.
THis little Manuel will prove
A House Physician, that in Love
To each mans Health, will ready stay
Without his Fee, and every day,
Councel sound and plain impart,
Drawn from surest Rules of Art.
Where by an undisturbed Health
Thou mayst enjoy the Crown of Wealth.
[Page] But I detain you from a Feast,
At which you long to be a Guest.
Read and Practise, so you'l find
In aSound Body, aSound Mind.
Sam. Blaicklock, Chirurgus.

The Table.

  • OF Aire. 55
  • Which the best Aire. ibid.
  • Helps against bad Aire. 58
  • Sharp Aires. 60
  • Corruption of Aire. 62
  • Change of Aire by Winds. 63
  • Of Native Aires. 71
  • Sudden alteration of Aire bad. 72
  • Caution about Aire. 74
  • Of Anger. 237
  • Its Discommodities. ibid.
  • Remedies against Anger. 228
  • No Breakfast. 123
  • Benefits of Continency. 185
  • Costiveness to be prevented. 52
  • OfCustom 34
  • Customs how to be altered. 35
  • Rules for Drink. 133
  • [Page] Effects of Drunkenness. 136
  • Of Dotage. 240.
  • Of the Excrements. 182
  • Excrements of the Belly. 189
  • Their proportion to the Aliment. 191
  • Excrements of the Brain. 217
  • Of the Ears and Nostrils. 218
  • Commodity of Exercise. 143
  • Exercise when to be forborn. 159
  • What best for the Fat and Lean. 160
  • When best. ibid.
  • Places bad for Exercise. 161
  • Violent Exercise bad. 162
  • Drinking cold beer after Exercise bad. 165
  • Also drinking Sack and strong wa­ters. 166
  • Kinds of Exercise. 167
  • Errors in Feeding. 104
  • Cautions about Feeding.
  • Respect in Feeding to the nature of meats. 114
  • [Page] To the Constitution of the Person. 115
  • To the season of the Year. 116
  • Best times of Feeding. 118
  • Order of Feeding. 139
  • Of Feasting. 110
  • Of Frications. 171
  • Health what it is. 15
  • By the orderly use of what things
  • Health is preserved. 21
  • Of Hunger.
  • Intemperance. 85
  • It hinders nourishment and growth. 90
  • Of Joy. 251
  • Effects of Joy. 252
  • Incommodities of Incontinency. 187
  • Of Love. 236
  • Three kinds of Love. 236
    • Godlike. ibid.
    • Humane. 237
    • Conjugall. 238
  • OfLooseness. 192
  • OfLust. 238
  • [Page]Of Motion and Rest. 143
  • Of Meat and Drink. 77
  • Due quantity of Meat. 84
  • Drink against Melancholy. 249
  • Whether Physick be necessary for the preserving of Health. 44
  • Cautions in using Physicall Helps. 47
  • Whether customary Physick be to be continued. 49
  • Physick worse for the Healthful. 51
  • Of the Passions. 220
  • Commodities of Rest. 176
  • Discommodities of a sitting Life. 144
  • Of Sleep and Wakefulness. 174
  • Cause of Sleep. ibid.
  • Evils of immoderate Sleep. 176
  • Long Sleeps for whom best. 178
  • Sleep after Dinner. 180
  • Form of lying in Sleep. 181
  • Of Sweat. 210
  • [Page] When Sweating to be avoided. 211
  • When to be provoked. 212
  • Helps to Sweat. 214
  • Why Sleep causes Sweat. 215
  • Long and Violent Sweating bad. 216
  • What Smels best. 70
  • Of Spitting. 217
  • Of Sadness. 243
  • Remedies against Sadness. 244
  • Larger Supper. 127
  • The Bounds of Temperance. 100
  • Gaeatest pleasure in Temperance. 95
  • 1. Rule of of Temperance. 102
  • 2. Rule of Temperance. 103
  • Of Thirst. 80
  • Of the Ʋrin. 193
  • Divination by Ʋrin a deceit. 194

A Conservatory of HEALTH.

IT is as much the Duty of a Physitian to endeavour the Preserving of Health, as the restoring it: and so much the more carefull he ought to be, by how much the more neg­lectfull People are of [Page 2] themselves: This is in­deed a charge that we are not so much ob­liged to by Gain, as by Conscience; For there are few or none that come to the Physitian to keep themselves wel, but only when they are forc't thither by the importunity of Sick­ness: It becomes us therefore who have the Charge of Bodies, to send our Councell a­broad, and though that may be a means to les­sen our Practice, yet will it much quiet our Minds in the discharge of a necessary part of [Page 3] our duty; It is much easier to prevent Dis­eases, then expell them, It may be done with small care, and less ex­pence; our Diseases cost us dear, not only in the Cure, but in the pur­chase, being for the most part the off­springs of Intempe­rance, Incontinency, Disorder, and other very costly Vices. Temperance therefore brings a double Com­modity with it: the pre­serving of Health, and the Saving of Expence, all which notwith­standing, so indulgent [Page 4] is the generality of Mankind, to their ap­petites, and the present enjoyment of their loose and inordinate de­sires, that they ut­terly cast off the consi­deration of events and consequences, never du­ly prizing Health till they have lost it: pre­ferring a sickly, wea­rish, and momentany Delight before a full, perfectly contentfull, & durable. A customary saying they have, That he lives miserably, who lives Physically; and that they who observe Rules, look palest, are [Page 5] most frequently sick, and in Physick, of Lean and consumed Bodies: whereas the good Fel­low, that regards not what he eats, or how much he drinks, is usu­ally plump and Ruddy, seldome sick, & though happily they live not so long, yet are their lives more pleasurable, which makes good a­mends for the short­ness. For better is a short life and Happy, then a long and Dolo­rous: And therefore let us, say they, give the Reins to our Appe­tites, let us loose no [Page 6] time: Let us eat and drink, and if we die to morrow, let us have our penny worths out to day; For to what end are all delicious things given us, if not to enjoy? Thus pleads the Intem­perate: As if he were born for his Belly, and all the noble Faculties of his Soul, the exqui­site operations of his Senses, and other Ha­biliments of his Body ought to be subservient thereunto, As if he lived to Eat, and did not eat to Live: making that the main end of his Creation, which is [Page 7] but an unavoidable Consequent, occasion­ed by Necessity for Preservation: Eating and drinking, and other sensuall pleasures, are indeed below the Dig­nity of the Soul; In which Beasts are our Equals, and for the do­ing whereof it was ne­cessary to furnish us with parts of exactest Sense, for the incitation of Desire and Appetite, least otherwise wee should neglect those o­perations needfull for preserving the Indivi­duall and Kind, out of a contempt to the Home­liness [Page 8] of the Works themsleves, or out of a more earnest intention, upon more excellent & worthy Actions. But besides all this, They consider not those fre­quent Headaches, Ca­tarrhes, Qualms, Gri­pings, Swimmings in the Head, Dimness in the Eys, flushing Heats, Dropsies, Gouts, Pal­sies, and other more irksome and ignomini­ous Diseases, they that indulge their Appetites and Desires are over­taken withall: besides the decay of Memory, slackness of Under­standing, [Page 9] loss of Time, and Reputation: All which God Almighty, both to deterr and pu­nish us, hath made the inseparable Concomi­tants of Intemperance and Incontinency; that whom the foreknow­ledge thereof will not affright, the sting and punishment may justly Recompence, and hap­pily Reclaim.

Others there are, who avoiding the extremi­ties of those Vices, Pride themselvs there­in, and think they are carefull enough, and do in that as much as is [Page 10] needfull for the preser­vation of Health. These are affrighted with the variety and multiplicity of Rules and Cautions, which they say Physi­tians have purposely in­vented, to make their very Healths Tributary unto them; that scru­pulosity in Diet and Order keeps the Mind too intent thereupon, and hinders the enjoy­ment of Health, by the fears of Sickness, unto wch the very imaginati­on enclines us upon eve­ry Default, and omission of what is prescribed. To these I shall say, [Page 11] that I intend the re­ducing them, not so much to what Art di­rects, as Nature: from whose ordinary & safe prescripts the generali­ty of Mankind are swerved, and thereupon faln into many strange and complicate Dis­eases, which except in Countries of equall Lu­xury and Intemperance with our own, are not to this day so much as heard of. Mine shall not be Rules of Nice­ness, but Necessity, such as every Mans Reason shall approve, and Ex­perience confirm: I in­tend [Page 12] no burdens or Fet­ters, no Farrago of Re­cipes, with which the Understanding is ra­ther distracted, then di­rected: but to revive those unhappily explo­ded Rules of Tempe­rance, and due Order in our Lives, by obser­vation whereof Life may be prolonged, and Diseases avoided: The Benefits of this Tempe­rance I shall not need to reckon, they being so largely and plainly re­cited in two excellent Treatises: The one of Learned Lessïus, Enti­tuled The right course of [Page 13] preserving Health: The other of Cornaro, Of Temperance and Sobriety: both which are almost at every Booksellers to be had in English.

That therefore I may the more methodically, and so the more benefi­cially proceed, I shall observe this Order.

1. I shall declare wherein Health con­sists.

2. By the due and re­gular Observation of what things it is pre­served.

3. The right Order and Course to be ob­served in the use of [Page 14] those Things, and by the way I shall handle those practicall and fa­miliar Questions which occasionally shall offer themselves, whereby ei­ther popular errors may be Rectified, or wilfull neglects amended, by a recital of the prejudices thence arising.

Of Health.

Health, what it is?HEalth consists in a good and well tem­pered Constitution of the Blood and Spirits, and of all the Similary Parts: as also in a legi­timate and proportiona­ble Structure of All the parts Organicall, com­prehended in their just Magnitude, Number, Scituation, Passage and Confirmation; their U­nion likewise and Con­tinuity: Health is then known to be, when all the Actions of the Bo­dy, viz. Naturall, Vi­tall, [Page 16] and Animall, are in their Integrity; But when there is a defect in any one, it is no longer Health, for as in Morals that action only is truly good, which is so both in its Nature,Bonum constat ex Inte­gris. End, and all its Cir­cumstances; in which there is not the least Mixture of Evill: So in Naturals, that Man cannot be truly said to be in Health, who is not intirely so, in all and every particular requi­site thereunto: Hence may we conclude, that though Sickness ad­mits a Latitude, Health [Page 17] doth not: and that the Neutrall Constitution, maintained by Fernelius and others, and the common Saying of People, that they are neither Well nor Ill, is not in Reason allowa­ble, but must be com­prehended within the Sickly Constitution. In the beginnings where­of, though Sicknes doth not so eminently and visibly appear, yet there she is in her degrees, and gives Testimony of her Self, by the depra­vation of some Action, as want of Digestion, of Nutrition, Immodera­tion, [Page 18] or Irregularity of Pulse, imbecility of the Senses, Motion, or Re­spiration, &c. in the Perfection and Integri­ty of which, and all o­thers that flow from Man, is Health com­prized. In this sense a Heathfull man is hardly found, every one having his Constitution more or less depraved, by a desertion of Natures Rules, and prescripts in the Regulation and Or­der of Lives. The dif­ficulty therefore is to finde out the exactness of those Rules, that so we may gradually re­turn [Page 19] from the pervers­ness of Custome, which by continuance of time is seated in Natures Chair, and usurps her Offices (though wee smart for the change) to those Safe, Whole­some, and Preservative Rules, which begets us long Life, and happy Dayes. Certainly wee are Recoverable, and God hath placed it within the Compre­hension of Reason to finde out our Defects, and amend them: Our Infirmities lie not upon us from any Necessity, but our neglect: Nei­ther [Page 20] did the Almighty Create our Diseases with us, they are like Insects, the off-spring of Corruption, of our Disorder and Luxury; and consequently may by due care and cir­cumspection be very much avoided. Yea, those diseases which are Epidemicall, as Pe­stilentiall Feavers, Ca­tarrhes, small Pox, the present Flux, &c. do much easier seize upon such as by contracting an evill Habit of Body, have rendred them­selves more obnoxious, and disposed thereunto, [Page 21] in whom likewise they are more difficultly cu­rable: but to proceed.

By the orderly use of what things Health is pre­served.In the next place we are to consider the Sub­ject Matter of our Health, and what those particulars are, which are essentially necessary to its preservation; and they are six. 1. Aire. 2. Meat and Drink. 3. Motion and Rest. 4. Sleep and Wakefulness. 5. The due Excretion of those things which are to be Excreted, and the Re­tention of those things which are to be Retained. 6. The Passions of the Mind. The abuse of [Page 22] these six Things de­stroy Health; The right use and ordering them preserves it: They are therefore usually by Physitians termed In­differentia, Things in themselves indifferent; the care where of God hath referred to us, and hath endowed us with understanding requisite to make the best use thereof; Our selves therefore we are most to blame for our Ma­ladies, whose unhappy disorders they insepa­rably follow, as the Shadow doth the Bo­dy.

[Page 23] Of these six things we wil severally Treat, with all circumstances relating thereunto, as the Measure, Manner, Season; not only ab­stractively, as in them­selves, but with all the concomitants of Age, Sex, Temperament, their Diversities and Changes: and with­all the Method and Order of using the fore­said six things, so as that Life may be with least Sickness extended to its utmost possibility. But before I come to particulars, I shall touch upon two Questions:

The 1. Whether Health is alwaies to be preserv­ed by Meats and Drinks of like Quality and Temperament, with the body Taking them.

This, though a Fun­damentall in Physick; which saith that Dis­eases are expelled by Contraries, Health pre­served by Similaries; Yet is it oppugned by many Arguments, As 1. Children & Youths, of Nature Hot, are for­bidden Wine; and with old men that are cold of Temperament do hot things best agree; [Page 25] Hence say we, Vinum est Lac Senum, Wine is the old Mans Milk; a­greeable to which is that of Hippocrates, Epi­demiôn 6to. They that are Cholerick must use bathing, and much rest: they must drink Water for Wine; Mustard, Garlick, Leekes, Oni­ons, and spiced Meats are to such very hurt­full: This is confirmed by every daies experience; Therefore ought that Traditionall Foun­dation in Physick to be no longer trusted to, being so detrimentall to our Healths.

[Page 26] For the Decision of the Question, we must Note, 1. That the In­stances to be given, ought to be in cases of Health & Sound Con­stitution, and not of Distemper and Sicknes, for then the other part of the Maxime takes place, That they are to be helped by Contraries.

2. Note. That the Assimilation is not to be understood in a large Sense, but strictly, with reference, not to the Quality in generall, but to the proper and indi­viduall degree thereof: As for Instance, The [Page 27] true Temperament of Man is, when all the Qualities pertinent to his▪ Composition are well mixt and modera­ted, only his Heat and Moisture are somewhat predominant, it is now therefore to be pre­served by such things as are of like Temper and Qualification; Hence must we not infer, that whatsoever is Hot, though in never so in­tense a degree, is proper and nutritive, but that which is so in the same degree and constitution with himself.

3. Those things are [Page 28] truly said to be alike in Temperament, which are of equal distance from the Mean: For in­stance, those things which are hot in the se­cond degree, are pre­served by Aliments of the same degree: but those which have much departed from the due Temperament, ought not to be preserved in the State they are in, but by due Alteratives and Correctives to be amended and restored.

These things thus pre­mised, I agree with the Affirmative, That the Body is best preserved [Page 29] by Similaries; for how is Nutrition perfor­med, but by agglu­tination and Assimilati­on, by making the food one and the same with the body: Those things therefore that have greatest Likeness and Resemblance in Tem­perament, must needs be most easily and with least disturbance to Na­ture assimilated, and made one with her Self.

To the objections I answer, 1. That Wine is therefore forbidden children, because its Heat is in no proportion [Page 30] analogous to theirs, as being over-intensively hot, and so too violent­ly consumptive of that radicall Moysture, and destructive to that in­nate Heat; which by meats and drinks of like Temperament is long and kindly preserved.

To the 2. I will not here dispute how good Wine is for Old men; I believe they are gene­rally too bold with it: and my observation tells me that they live most Healthfully, who both in their youth and old Age are least ac­customed to it: It may [Page 31] be good Physick, but bad Diet: Help to re­pair and recompense the Defects of Heat, and to dry up those superfluous Moystures with which old men a­bound, but they who use it as their Milk, must expect (in stead of Soft and Firm Flesh, such as Milk indeed produces in Children:) a dry­ness and withering in theirs, a depraedation of their spirits & strength, Catarrhes from their brain, one while upon their Lungs, and then they become Physical: Another while upon [Page 32] their Kidnies, and then they prove Nephritical: Now the Humors re­main and thicken in the Brain, and then they prove Lethargicall, and Apoplectical: in others they loosen the Nerves, and fall upon the Limbs and Joynts, and then the Palsy and Gout seizes them. Thus much as to the In­stance.

To the objection I say, that the good which Wine, taken in good quantity and season, doth to Old Men, it performs as a Corrector of the defects, and a­mender [Page 33] of the decayes which age is accompa­nied withall, and so makes nothing at all a­gainst our Position.

3. The case is much the same in the 3d ob­jection, of the Cholerick: whose dyscracy must by contraries be amended, and those things strict­ly forborn which aug­ment his Distemper: He is therefore prohi­bited the use of Wine, of Hot meats and Spi­ces, as increasing his E­vill habit of▪ Body, and advised to such Corre­ctives of contrary Na­ture and Quality to his [Page 34] distemper, whereby the same may in time be al­layed, and he reduced to a more equal and or­derly constitution.

Of Cu­stom.In the 2d place, as a par­ticular very necessary to be known in it self, and very pertinent to a right understanding of what shall hereafter follow, I think it good to make some enquiry, briefly as I may, into that great Imitatrix of Nature, Custome, who is said to be as a second Nature, and into which Nature (though improperly) is said to be convertible: However this Usurper [Page 35] hath exceedingly ex­tended her Dominions, whose power and effi­cacy is seen almost in e­very action of every mans Life. She may be thus Defin'd.

Custome is anAdven­titious Quality, gradual­ly acquired, by frequent Exercise and Multiplica­tion of Actions: arriving in time to a power some­what resembling Nature, but never acquiring such an Identity, as to become Nature her self.

Cu­stoms how to be alter­ed?She gains footing up­on us by degrees, and must therefore gradu­ally be removed: they [Page 36] therefore err, who ad­vise the sudden aboliti­on thereof, acting here­in contrary to the ap­proved Maxime of Na­ture, That all Sudden Mu­tations are to be avoided as dangerous; Whence saith Hippocrates Aph. 51. l. 2. Much at one time, and suddenly either to evacuate, to fill, to heat, to cool, or any o­ther ways to change or move the body, is very dangerous: and advises thereupon that all Mu­tations be made insen­sibly, and [...], by little and little, yea even the refection and [Page 37] Restauration of emaci­ated and consumed bo­dies. Nature makes no leaps, but passes from one extream to another by intervenient Grada­tions. This Rule must carefully be observed by such as having long accustomed themselves to that which is hurtful and prejudicial to their Healths, have acquired thereby an Evil Habit and Constitution of Bo­dy: whether it be by too much use of Wine, Tobacco, Carnall Coi­tion, Exercise, Meats of bad juyce and Hard Di­gestion, Sleeping after [Page 38] Dinner, or whatsoever else either in its immo­derate use, or in its own nature proves detrimen­tal to Health, must not however either in Sick­ness or Health, be sud­denly, and all at once left off, but by degrees, and small portions, and the contraries thereun­to (if need require) in­sensibly introduct, and inoffensively to Nature. Many Instances might be here reckoned up to shew the evils that have ensued upon such Vio­lent changes, but in a case so clear▪ and in which almost every [Page 39] mans observation will afford him examples, it will be needless: The inconveniences are most familiarly seen in leaving totally off long accustomed exercises, whereby those Humors which Motion wasted by Transpiration, being closed in, and heapt up in the body, become the Food and Matter of Diseases. So that here the Gradation is to be observed, and the Diet lessened, that so what by stirring before was used to be evaporated, may now not be gene­rated.

[Page 40] Another Error there is, of suddenly altering an inveterate Custome in Sicknes & Weaknesses, although that Custome hath no Contrariety with the Disease. By which means Nature is very much discomfited and de­jected, her delight being taken away, and in that dejection she yields ve­ry much to the disease; she must for a time be indulged, Custome ha­ving got a great simili­tude and sympathy with her self; the o­mitting whereof must be left to a time when Nature is strong, and at [Page 41] good leasure, & not un­der the hands of some violent or obstinate dis­ease. This case is most perspicuous in those that drink much Wine, and take much Tobac­co, which though in themselves in some re­spects prejudiciall to the parties using them, yet by time and long use made familiar with their Natures, as Hem­lock was to Galens A­thenian Woman, or Poi­son to Mithridates: they must not when Violent Diseases come upon them, be rashly and to­tally left off; and the [Page 42] Customary longings of Nature utterly rejected, considering I say the si­militude they have got with her self, but rather their quantities fitly lessened, and the totall omission thereof left to a Time of greater Strength and Ability.

The Reason hereof is, because whatsoever any man is accustomed to, though worse in its own Nature, yet is it less hurtfull to him then its contrary, forasmuch as it makes less Resi­stance, and so works less disturbance to the Stomack and other [Page 43] parts, because of its A­greement in quality with what is before in the Body: A Country­man though weak and Aged better bears Gar­lick, then the strongest man who never before eat of it: That which hinders digestion is the Resistance that is made in the Stomack; and that is most done by Dissimilaries; For, Inter Symbola facilis est transi­tus: Those things that are of nearest similitude, do easiest pass one into ano­ther.

I plead not here for bad Customs, but for [Page 44] the best way of Remo­ving them; desiring this Inference rather may be made there-from, that since Evil things becoming Customary are so difficulty remo­vable, we be very care­ful to enure our selves only to those things that are good, whol­som, of easy charge and preparation.

Whether Physick be Ne­cessary for the preser­vation of Health?

If the due Course and Order of Nature were observed, there would [Page 45] be very little or no need at all of Medicinal Helps, for we see those that live nearest there­unto, continue longest and most free from sick­ness, as Country-men, and those who observe a Strict Diet: the last by an extraordinary tem­perance, prevent the generation of those Crudities and Corrupt Humors, which are the matter and Fuel of Dis­eases: The other, though they feed heartily and plentifully, yet is their Diet but simple, and at all times much alike, their Appetites fresh [Page 46] and urgent, their Con­coction strong and con­stant, and the accumu­lation of evil Humors prevented by their hard and Customary Labor. These want little or no Physical helps: But those that are subject to many Disorders, as the most part of Mankind is, stand in much need of Preservatives & Pre­ventives; Hence hath come in the Custom of bleeding & purging at Spring & Fall, and with some Monthly; the now frequent Regurgitations after every feeding, the use of Fontanels, the fre­quenting [Page 47] of the Wells, the entring into Diets, and Courses of Phy­sick: Nor do we usually after Restauration be­come Wiser or more wary and orderly in the Regulation of our lives, but recover strength on­ly for the new & more able exercise of our In­temperance: & so con­tinue the▪ Necessity of customary preventives; In these cases therefore they are to be allowed for the avoiding of greater Evils, only with these Cautions.

Cauti­ons in using Physical Helps.That strong and vio­lent means be not used, [Page 48] when gentle and more familiar helps wil serve, nor many Remedies when few are sufficient; that we prefer Altera­tives and Correctives, before Purgatives; and likewise Minoratives and benigne Medicines before Churlish, and Scammoniate: bleeding or purging before an Issue, for that is Medicamentum Continuatum, a being as it were in Continual Phy­sick, which is also fre­quently liable to pain and irksome prickings, upon the change of weather and other acci­dents. But then though [Page 49] gentle means be to be preferred, it must be with a great probabili­ty of effecting the ends intended.

2.Whether Custo­mary Physick­ing is to be con­tinued? Though Imminency-of Diseas do beget a Ne­cessity of observing the Seasons for Physick, yet that Custom need not be continued, but when there is a likelihood of the same Imminency; as suppose a Turgency of Humors, heaviness and wearisomness of the Limbs, want of appe­tite, &c. hath for these six years every Spring, signified a Necessity of Dieting and Purgation, [Page 50] and that they have to good purpose been used accordingly, yet if the same man do by ob­serving a better order in Diet, and a greater Temperance, so behave himself for the follow­ing year, as not to have the same Symptomes and Indications, neither is it necessary that he continue by Custom of Physick; but may the next Spring without danger leave it off, or at least wise lessen it, as occasion requires. For in these cases the Indi­cation is not to be taken from Custom, but the [Page 51] Imminency of Sickness.

3.Physick worst for the Health­ful. Though Custo­mary means be needfull for prevention of Im­minent Sicknesses, yet they are not therefore to be used Out of Wan­tonness, and when there is no appearance or likeli­hood of an ensuing Mala­dy, for by that means, as Celsus well saith, We consume in our Healths the Remedies of our Sick­ness; and dispose our selves many times by so weakning our Bo­dies, to those sicknesses we had before no pro­pension unto: for that they worst of all en­dure [Page 52] Medicines that are of sound Constitution, who have nothing for Physick to work upon, but the good Humors, and Habit of the Body it self.

4. They who either naturally, or by the ex­cessive feeding upon hot and dry meats, have slow bellies, and are constantly costive, must prevent the incon­veniences which will thence ensue: as ex­tream putrefaction of Ex­crements, hot Vapours in the Brain, heaviness and pain in the Head, Inappe­tency, palpitation of the [Page 53] Heart, windiness in the Stomack, the Cholick, &c. they must prevent I say these Inconveniences by the use of some gen­tle Lenitive, and such order as is requisite for keeping the body loose and laxative, as eating roast Apples, or stewed Prunes half an houre before Dinner, drink­ing a good Draught in the Mornings, forbear­ing dry Meats, using Cassia, Manna, Pulp of Tamarinds, Syrup of Roses, Pilulae ante Ci­bum, loosening Clisters, Whey with Fumite­ry, Senna, or Epithy­mum, [Page 54] &c. Milk, or the Waters in the Summer, and the like, proper to facilitate the Belly, pre­vent those obstructions which are the Fountain and Nurse of most Dis­eases: and all this may be done familiarly, without much ado, and beget no disturbance to the Body.

Of Aire.

AIre we attract by Inspiration and Per­spiration, by the Wind­pipe, and by the Pores, and that to repair our continual loss of Spirits, and contemperate the heat of the Heart and Blood.

Which the best Aire in general?The goodness of Aire is considered either, as it is in it self, or with Re­lation to this or that Bo­dy:

In it self, that is best wch ispure &serene, not mingled with anynoy­some smell,as ofCarrion, [Page 56] Iaxes, places where they repose their Dung, stand­ing and corrupted Wa­ters, thick Foggs and Va­pors, &c,but isnaturally pure and void of all inqui­nation.

Which to each Particu­lar.Considered with Re­lation to this or that Bo­dy, that is best, which by its similitude is most pro­per to preserve Health, or by its contrariety most ef­ficacious to expel diseases: as over moist bodies, live most Healthfully in Dry Aires, and over dry in Moist: so that 'tis a mi­stake to think the clear­est and sharpest Aire is best for every body; [Page 57] since Distempered and depraved Constitutions do as necessarily require a contrariety in Aire, (and consequently som­times moist and thick Aires) as in Meats and Drinks.

I have lately known two sickly bodies who heretofore were hardly ever out of Physick, and yet for that time since they lived in Lambeth-Marsh (a place that no one would choose for the pureness and Clari­ty of the Aire) have en­joyed a sound, and un­interrupted Health: and one of them hath lived [Page 58] there for these 3. or 4. years: Sound Bodies and healthful endure well almost any Aire, but Crazy Persons must (if they have the Conveniency) make choise of such Aires as are opposite to their Distempers.

Helps against Bad Aire.But when want of Means and Convenien­cy necessitates any to those Aires that are most repugnant to their Healths, all the help that remains, is by pro­per meats and drinks, and other means to re­pair what may be that defect: as if the Aire [Page 59] be hot, and the Body inclined to hot Distem­pers, to use cooling ali­ments, to drink VVater in stead of VVine, to fre­quent Bathing where it may be had, to Rest much, and forbear Vio­lent Motions, To have little Cisterns of Water, always running, (such as are commonly made of Peuter,) to hang up Wet clothes, to strew the pave­ment with Roses, Rushes, Ʋine-leaves, Water-Lil­lies, and other Cooling Hearbs, which may like­wise be sprinkled with Rose-water and Vinegar: On the contrary, cold [Page 60] and moist Aires may be much helped by Large Fires, Bath-stoves, Warm­ing-stones, and agreeably provisions may be made in other cases.

I purpose not to insist upon every considerati­on that relates to Aire, but passing by those that are speculative, I shall touch only upon such as are useful and practical, and from which most men may derive some Com­modity to themselves.

Of sharp Aires.Mountanous Aires are esteemed wholsomer then in the Valley, be­cause more perflated [Page 61] and cleansed by the Winds: whereas the o­thers are stagnant like standing Waters: But I doubt the truth hereof, for that I see not how one part of the Aire can be moved without the other, its motion and impulsion being so ea­sy, that we see the very voice moves and makes it give way at a very great Distance, and then again if to some bodies more gross and stagnant Aires are not so whol­som, for instance, to the slaggy and corpulent, to others they are most a­greeable, and the thin, [Page 62] sharp, and Penetrative most inconvenient, namely to thin, spare and emaciated Bodies.

What the inconveni­ences of Metalline Va­pors are, I shall not need to recite, neither yet what helps there are a­gainst them: because living not where they are, we are not subject thereunto.

Corrup­tion of Aire.The Causes whereby Aire is Corrupted, that are within our Ken, and which may by us be Remedied, are especial­ly three.

  • [Page 63]1. Great Standing Waters never Re­freshed.
  • 2. Carrion lying long above ground.
  • 3. Much People in small Roome li­ving uncleanly and sluttishly.

Change of Aires by winds.The Aire Changes its qualities from the Diversity of Winds: By those from the North 'tis cold and dry, they do confirm and strengthen such bodies, which are able to bear them. From the South they are hot and moist, and so loosen and dis­solve; [Page 64] the West is more Temperate: but the East apt to blastings.

TheSouth Wind with­out rains continuing long,disposes toFeavors andthe Pestilence: and gene­rally so dostagnant Airs without Winds, Rain and Thunder.

It is observed that from the North there arises with the Dogg­star certain Winds cal­led Ethesiae, which do not only contemperate the Heat of the Aire, but Purg it from putre­faction, and pestilenti­al Infections, and have thence got the name of [Page 65] Scoparij: because they do as it were Brush and Clense the Aire.

In Consumptions, and for Restauration after long Sicknesses; the best Aires are in dry Champaignes, where there is much Timber-Shade, and Forrest, Beach Trees, and Groves of Bayes,; where likewise grow odoriferous Plants, as Wild Time, Wild Mar­jerom, Penny-royal, Ca­momil, Calamint, Juniper and the like, and where the Brier-Rose smells like Musk-Roses, Help­ful whereunto is like­wise the Steam of new [Page 66] ploughed grounds; and for such as have not strength to walk, a Fresh Turf of Earth every Morning, with a little Vinegar poured upon it.

However 'tis best for them that are any thing Healthful not to be o­ver-solicitous in the choise of Aire, or to judg that they cannot have their healths ex­cept in some few Places of best and excellent Aire, for they do there­by very much deject Nature, and opinionate themselves into Sick­ness. Such Imaginations [Page 67] the mind in continuall doubts & perplexities, and make us sickly, out of a fear of being sick: We see that many men, and those not of the strongest and most healthful constitutions, live long, and without sickness, amidst noysom and unpleasant Smells, as Oyl-men, Sope-boylers, Tallow-Chandlers, and divers others besides, those that are conver­sant about Dung, clean­fing of Common­shores and Jaxes, and though Custom in these cases may be urged, be­cause of the familiarity [Page 68] that by long use is be­gotten between such Smells and their Na­tures; yet is it thence clearly evincible, that health and noysom smells are not inconsisti­ble, which is a clear ar­gument that we need not be over nice and so­licitous in the election of Aires, as if in this City of London amidst thick fumes & Sulphu­rious Vapors from the Sea-coal, we could not enjoy our Health: In these cases Opinion is more our Mistris then Reason: which whilst we are pleading for, we [Page 69] can content our selves with the Smoak of Narcotick Tobacco, & not only surround our selves therewith in a close Room, and in hot weather too, but suck it in, and let it sometimes descend-into our Sto­macks, and sometimes ascend into our Nostrils and so into the very Brain it self: In some cases therefore we are scrupulously exact, in o­thers supinely negli­gent, a middle between both were best, as not to think but that health is preservable in Aires not exquisitely serene [Page 70] and penetrative: and on the other side to a­void choaking, hot and too exiccative Fumes, which in time parch the Lungs, and dry up the Brain.

What Smells best.For Odors, those are best which neither by their super-abundance of Heat, Strength and Crassitude of Spirits do overcome us, but which by their rarity and quickness do re­fresh us: But they also are good only some­times, and the bodies infirmity requiring it, for otherwise, no Smell is best: but that which [Page 71] is almost insensible in the Aire it self.

Of Native Aires.It is observed, that the Aire we are born in, tends much to the Re­stauration of Health. Something may be al­lowed to't because of its Sympathy with the innate▪ Spirits of the Body: which remain in some measure from our generation to our Dis­solution: Although I conceive when we go into our Native Coun­tries, to repair our Health, after long Sick­ness, the principal means thereof, is va­cancy from care and busi­ness, [Page 72] the wholsomness and simplicity of Country Feeding, the enjoyment of friends, merriment and pleasant pastime, which is usuall, and which ought indeed to be especially intended in such Jour­nies.

Sudden alterati­ons.But above all, sudden alterations in Aire from extream to extream, is very dangerous: Such as usually falls out in March, April, and som­times in May, as also in September, October: the change is usuall too in severall parts of the same day; the Morn­ings and Evenings ex­tream [Page 73] cold, the mid day excessive Hot: In these cases the surest way is for them that are crazy to go warm clothed, till the uncertainty of the weather is over: the Proverb speaks well, though homely,

Till May be out,
Leave not off a Clout.

We must not, like the unexperienced Marri­ner, believe the Stormy Season to be past, be­cause of a fit of Sun­shine. If we err, tis better do it on the safe hand, and not run the hazard of a sickness for fear of an unhansome Nick­name. [Page 74] This Caution concerns those only that are any thing in­firm and sickly, (as in­deed most are) the youthful and robust, can bear all Weathers, and in the thinnest ap­parel; though there is a Proverb concerns them also, That they should be old when they are young, that they may be young when they are expected to be old.

Cauti­ons a­bout Aire.Some other inobser­vancies there are preju­dicial to Health, that somewhat concern this point, which I shall on­ly touch upon: as be­ing [Page 75] naked in the cold Aire, and going into the Water when we are hot and Sweaty, by doing whereof many health­ful Persons dispose themselves to Agues and Consumptions.

2. The ventring too suddenly before the Pores are closed into the cold Aire after Bathing, and Sweating in Hot-Houses, Cradles, or Sweating-Chairs, by which not only the be­nefit hoped for is lost, but our Infirmities are doubled upon us, by begetting an inequa­lity of Heat and Cold [Page 76] in the Inward and Out­ward Parts, whence a­rise those Shuddrings, and Aguish Rigors, that usually follow thereupon. And so I have done with Aire, the first of the non-Na­turals, as we call them: (that is) of which the body is not compound­ed, though by them it be preserved.

Of Meat and Drink.

OUr Bodies being in a continual, though insensible Consumpti­on, would in a short time decay, were it not that Reparation is made by the use of Meats and Drinks; By the first the Solid Parts are refected, by the last the Humid: For the better perform­ance whereof, God hath endowed every Creature with an Appe­tetive Faculty, distin­guisht according to the Objects forementioned into Hunger and Thirst.

[Page 78] Of Hunger.Hunger is caused by a sharp and Fermenting juyce remaining in the Stomack, especially in the upper Orifice, the most sensitive part thereof, by the pene­trative Quality where­of the Meat ingested is also digested, fer­mented, and concoct­ed, and so made fit for separation and Di­stribution. When this juyce, (a visible Speci­men whereof is the Runnet in a Calfs Sto­mack) is either wasted, as after very long Fast­ings, or is dulled by Re­pletion, or intermixture [Page 79] with other Humors, so that the force thereof cannot be felt, or when the Mind is over-intent and distracted, so that it can give no ear to its Impulsions: Then does the Appetite flagg and decay; as on the contra­ry, when this juyce is over-abundant, and ex­treamly acide, there fol­lows a continual Im­portunity from the Sto­mack, an unsatisfiable Appetite, which being most eminent in Dogs, is therefore called Ap­petitus Caninus, the Dog­like Appetite; but ap­pears sometimes in [Page 80] Men, as every one can Instance.

Of Thirst▪ Thirst is a Desire of that which is Cold and Moist, for though many Stomacks are satisfied with Hot Drink, yet is it through a Customary aberration from Na­ture, inasmuch as we see that all Creatures ex­cept Man are desirous of, and use that Drink only which is cold; and in man the use of Hot Drinks is not so much attributable to his Na­tural Appetite, as to his having been indulged therein by his Physiti­an, or himself, in respect [Page 81] of some other Weaknes and Infirmity of his Bo­dy. This Thirst doth vanish when the Mouth of the Stomack is be­dewed with Humors that are Phlegmatick, Watery, or Insipide: As it is increased when those Humors are con­sumed, and the Stomack dry and parcht, either through its own or any of its Neighbours In­disposition, or yet when the Coats thereof are lin'd with a Salt, Hot, or sharp Humor. These Things premised, of which I shall make use hereafter; I return to the [Page 82] Considerations of those things that are Aliment (viz.) which being eaten or drunk are alte­red by our Naturall Heat, and so prepared by the several Parts destined thereunto, as at length to be Converted into the Habit of the Body it Self.

In Meats and Drinks there are six particulars to be considered, viz.

  • 1. Substance.
  • 2. Quality.
  • 3. Quantity.
  • 4. Custom.
  • 5. Time.
  • 6. Order.

For the two first, I [Page 83] purpose not to insist up­on them, viz. their Sub­stance and Quality, what yield Good, what Bad juyce and apt to putre­faction, which are easy, & which hard to be di­gested; what are Hot, Cold, Moyst, Dry, Causing or Freeing from obstructions: nei­ther intend I to treat of every Meat and Drink particularly, both of these having been al­ready performed in En­glish by Dr. Venner in his Via Recta ad Vitam longam, from whence those that are inquisi­tive that way, may re­ceive [Page 84] satisfaction: Un­willing I am now to ex­spaciate in so large a Field, which I shall rather reserve to a time-of more Leasure: My Intention being at pre­sent to consider only these Particulars rela­ting to Meats & Drinks, viz. The Quantity, Time, Order and Custom. The greatest and most dangerous Errors being committed with Re­ference hereunto.

Of Quan­tity in Meats.First then for Quanti­ty, or how much ought to be eaten: Here there is not so much need to prescribe the Bounds, [Page 85] and shew what are the Limits of Temperance: as effectually to per­swade to the obser­vance of those Limits: Argu­ments against Intem­perance.A word therefore first as to that, and what Argument can be more efficatious then an Enu­meration of the Bene­fits that ariseth from Sobriety and Tempe­rance: and of the dis­commodities that are the Natural Effects of the contrary. I shall reckon them up in two ranks, and then let e­very man make his choise.

[Page 86]

The Benefits of Tem­perance.
  • 1. Freedom from almost all Sicknesses.
  • 2. Length of Life, and Death without pain.
  • 3. It armeth us against outward Accidents.
  • 4. It mitigateth incu­rable Diseases.
  • 5. Maintains the Sen­ses in their Integrity and Vigeur.
  • 6. It moderates our Passions and Affections, and renders them easily commendable.
  • 7. It preserves the Me­mory, sharpens the Wit and Ʋnderstanding.
  • 8. It Allays the Heat of Lust.

[Page 87]

The Inconveniences of Intemperance.
  • 1. It brings upon us al­most all Diseases.
  • 2. It shortens our Days, and makes us dy in Ago­nies.
  • 3. It exposeth us to in­numerable accidents of extream prejudice.
  • 4. It takes part with Diseases, and makes them incurable.
  • 5. It dulls, stupifies, and decays the Senses.
  • 6. It subjects us to our Passions, and makes them irresistable.
  • 7. It drowns the Memo­ry, dulls the Wit and Ʋn­derstanding.
  • [Page 88] 8. It furiously provokes us to Lust.

These experimental Events who can deny? since almost every man carries about him, and within him a convince­ing argument thereof. Whence is the Multi­tude of Physicians, but from the frequency and Multitude of Diseases? and whence that fre­quency and Multitude, but from Excess? This is generally confessed, but the practice still continued; the under­standing assents, but the Affections over-rule; [Page 89] the present delight we take in those delicious Cates, Condiments and in­ticing Sawces that are before us, over-sways our judgments; In this case, Venter non habet Aures, the Belly hath no Eares, All our Senses are at a stand, save that of our Tast, so earnest are we in digging our Graves with our Teeth; so greedy after Disea­ses, which by excess insensibly steal upon us, and then in the midst of our Aches and Intempe­rance we repent, and call to mind the unhap­py cause thereof.

[Page 90] Much feeding hinders nourish­ment & growth.I shall desire therefore that before hand, be­sides the former, these 2 Arguments be con­ed: 1. That Nourish­ment and Growth con­sists not in the Abun­dance we eat, but in the due competency: A man may hinder his Nourish­ment and prevent his Growth, as well by eat­ing too much, as by eat­ing too little: for Nu­trition and Augmenta­tion consists principally in good Digestion, and perfit Distribution: A­bundance of Meat and Drinks hinders first Di­gestion.

[Page 91] 1.1. Di­gestion. In that it suffers not the Stomack to close, but leaves the up­per Orifice open; by which its heat exhales and so languishes, & the inconveniences thence arising are almost innu­merable: for then Va­pors ascend, and fill the Brain, there they thick­en and cause Defluxions into the Eyes, the Gums, and Teeth, the Stomack, the Lungs, the Spine of the Back, the Kidnies, the Joynts, the Veins, Nerves, and Arteries, according as they can insinuate them­selves, and the openness [Page 92] of Passages affords them way.

2. When the Sto­mack is over-charged, it is extended, its Pleits and Duplications un­folded, and consequent­ly both its own heat is diminished, & the Parts surrounding, which are very great Assistants, if not principalls in con­coction, cannot afford their due Heat and effi­cacy, in that they are not able to compass the Stomack as it is then extended: Thence ari­ses Crudities, Putrifacti­ons, Worms, Putrid, Ma­lignant and Pestilentiall [Page 93] Feavers, with many other Diseases.

2.2. Growth or Aug­menta­tion. For Distribution, how can that be per­formed when the Pas­sages are choakt up through the abundance of Meats? how can each part have its pro­portionable share by Wise and Equal Nature allotted, when we raise Banks and Dambs to hinder that Distributi­on: On the contrary when a due competency is taken into the Sto­mack, it presently closes and aptly surrounds it, and is fitly embraced by its assistant parts; [Page 94] So is Digestion perfect­ed, the Meat made pas­sable, the Excrement orderly descends, the Nourishing juyce takes its Course to the Liver, and after Sanguification is distributed, and assi­milated into the Habit of the Body it self. So that since we eat to be Nourished, and since by a due competency that is best performed, and excess is a manifest Impediment thereunto, how vain are we if we alter not our Course, and take that way that is effectual for produ­cing of our Ends?

[Page 95] Greatest Pleasure in Tem­perance.The 2d Argument is taken from the greater Pleasure that Temperance brings with it then Ex­cess: And this Argu­ment sure will do, for why is it that we indulg our Bellies so much, but because of the supposed pleasure we reap there­from? Now if it can be made appear, that Temperance brings more, we cannot then choose sure but follow her tract and Prescript.

1. Then, that pleasure is greatest, which is most Natural and unforc't, such is the Temperate man's: His Appetite [Page 96] only is his Sawce, which by spare feeding, and due Abstinence is kept alwaies fresh, vivid, and Importunate, so that he tasts to the last, and to the very end of his Temperate Meal his Appetite continues, and consequently his De­light; Whereas the ex­cessive man eats not from desire, but Cu­stom, and generally finds no Appetite na­turally, but is fain to force it by artificiall Helps, whilst to the o­ther, ordinary Fare doth Equal in Sweetness the greatest Dainties.

[Page 97] 2. That Delight is best, which is most last­ing, such is the Tempe­rate mans, His all the year long continues; Whilst the other, for his Deliciousness to day, is fain to lie by it to morrow: nay, is distracted amidst his Pleasure, by the fore­knowledge of what will follow: And how can that be termed delight, which is intermixt with an expectation of Sor­row. There will bee Qualms and Surfets, a necessity of frequent Purgations, Vomitings, Bleeding, making Is­sues; [Page 98] And then the for­mer Surfets are called to mind, and repented of; then we condemn our selves for preferring a sickly and momenta­ny Pleasure before a sound and lasting: The Athenians by one of their Senatours were told, that they never Treated of Peace but in their black Robes, af­ter the loss of their dearest Friends & Kins­folks:Plutar. Praecep. Sanit. So are we, re­gardless of a sober Di­et, till we are cauterised, and have Cataplasmes and Plaisters about us. Till then we blame, one [Page 99] while the Aire, another while the place we live in, as unwholsome, at­tribute the fault to our being out of our Native Country, or some such trifle, but never think of the true cause, our In­temperance. But I shall not need further to pur­sue this Point, for to such as have the Com­mand of themselves, their longings and de­sires, here is sufficient; Such as have not, will run their course, till Sickness, and an inabi­lity of being Intempe­rate restrain them. I come now to the Thing [Page 100] it self, The Determina­tion of the Bounds and Limits of Temperance; In doing whereof I cannot approve of that Arithmeticall Proporti­on, The Bounds of Tem­perance. or Dieta Statica, the allotment of a certain Weight and Measure of Meat and Drink, not upon any tearms to be ex­ceeded.

I cannot I say ap­prove it, as to generall practice, for how should the same shoo fit every foot; how can it be, but that where there is difference in Constituti­on, Age, Sex, &c. and so diversities of Heat, [Page 101] and ability to Concoct and Digest, a different proportion should be also requisite: That Quantity surely which is but sufficient for a young man in his Heat and Growth, is by much too much for an aged man, whose Nu­tritive Faculties are lan­guide, whose Transpi­ration being litle, stands in need also of but litle Repaire; Leaving there­fore the strictness of Lessius and Cornaro to Speculative and Mona­stick men, as somewhat above us, and besides us: My purpose is only [Page 102] to prescribe two gene­rall Rules of Tempe­rance, which may easi­ly be made practicable by all sorts of Men and Women; and likewise to suggest some Helps to such as finding the inconveniencies of Cu­stomary large feeding, are desirous to reclaim themselves, and observe such a Diet as is most advantagious to their Healths.

1 Rule of Tem­perance.The first Rule is that of Hippocratis, [...]. They that study their Health, must not be satisfied with meat, but as Avicen otherwise [Page 103] expresses it, must rise from the Table cum Fa­mis reliquiis, with the re­mainder of their Hunger: by this means the Sto­mack will well over­come and digest what it hath received, & the remainder of thy Ap­petite will be better im­ployed in perfecting thy Digestion.

2.2. Rule of Tem­perance. That thou so feed, as after it to be neither unfit for the labor of the Body, nor the employ­ments of thy Mind: For he that finds an op­pressive Dulness, and slothfull Weariness af­ter his Meal, may know [Page 104] for certain that he hath exceeded the Bounds of Temperance, and perverted the end of Feeding, which is not to oppress, but to recre­ate the Spirits, and re­new the strength and powers of the body, to make them more cheer­full and vigorous, that by abstinence or labor were impayred: If therefore thou trans­gressest in this point, let thy Abstinence be the greater, and thy care & circumspection dou­bled at thy following Meals.

Error in Feed­ing.Many, as Lessius well [Page 105] observes, run into an extream mistake in this point, for finding them­selves more faint and unweldy after Meals then before, they pre­sently attribute the cause thereof to their not having eaten e­nough, or conceive that their Meats were not sufficiently Nutritive, and thereupon are very solicitous to find out Meats of better nourish­ment; which when they have done, and fed largely thereupon, do yet alas find the same Lassitude and in­disposition of Body re­maining: [Page 106] the true cause whereof is the ill Juyce and Moisture, the Reliques of their former Sur­charge, as their much spitting, their frequent Catarrhs, and the swel­ling of their Bellies do eminently demonstrate: This Moysture likewise remains in the Joynts, the Brain, and Nerves, and so renders both the Limbs unable to per­form their severall offi­ces, and hinders like­wise the Conveyance of a due and competent proportion of Spirit thereunto: And hence comes that Dulness, [Page 107] and Lumpishness of the Limbs and Senses, so generally complained of amongst men.

2. Error.Another generall mi­stake in this particular is, That Men and Wo­men finding this Heavi­ness and Indisposition in the Mornings, judge it to proceed from Fa­sting, and therefore, as for prevention thereof, carefully provide good Breakfasts; from which they may happily for the present find some alteration, by the pre­sent Warmth and Spirit of their new Feeding; which being in present [Page 108] motion in their Bodies, takes away not the Cause, but the sensibility of their former Lassitude: but that being gone, which continues but for a very short time, their Wearisomness returns again, with the addition of new Crudities, till at last an accumulation is made, to that degree and quantity, as doth both very much dis­pose them to the Gout, and also begets other Diseases. The preven­tive Remedy whereof, is to spend those ill Juyces and Superfluities by Abstinence, with [Page 109] the assistance of an Ex­iccative Medicine, or as the Crudities and ex­cess may have been, of Vomit or Purgation. And this is the way to restore the Lightsome­ness and Agility of the Body.

1. Cau­tion.My first Caution is, that we Enure our selves what may be to a simple Diet, as most health­ful, as the best Remedy against Intemperance; so prescribes Nature, & we see those Crea­tures in whom Nature is least perverted, and who are not distracted from their Course by [Page 110] the Lust and Tyranny of Man, do strictly and with excellent success observe this Rule; In this Simplicity there is not that entisement to the Appetite, whereas Diversity of Meats and Drinks do extend it, ultra famen & sitim, as Socrates was wont to say,Of Feasting beyond hunger and thirst. In this our English Feastings are exceed­ingly blamable, in wch no Art or Charge is wanting, to furnish us with Diseases; There are all the Curiosities that can be invented to provoke us to Intempe­rance, [Page 111] Diversities of Courses and Services, each of which is much more then sufficient; and all to renew decay­ed Appetite, and entise it to subvert it self, and its yielding Master: the next daies Nauceous­ness tells us as much: The Pleasure of Feast­ing consists not in the daintiness,True end of Feast­ing. and curiosity of Fare, and Multitude of Dishes, but in the So­ciety of Feeding, not in our Eating much, but in our Eating together; it is poverty of Spirit, and below a man to place felicity in Meats [Page 112] and Drinks, 'tis an argu­ment, that in us the sen­sual exceeds the Ratio­nal, that our Desires are our Masters & our Bellies Soveraign to our Brains. A great Feast is indeed a handsome opportuni­ty to exercise our Tem­perance, for they are most truly such who can resist the Entise­ment, and abstain when delicate cates are be­fore them; but since few there are of us (though some I know) that are arrived to such a degree of Vertue, 'tis best to decline the Field, not being able to en­dure [Page 113] the Combate; Next to Resisting a Temptation, is the a­voiding it; nay in some sense 'tis to be prefer­ed, in that it avoids the hazard of being over­come thereby: Though the first shews most Fortitude, this shews greater Prudence.

2.2. Cau­tion. Provoke not Hunger, (if the Body want not Nourishment) by Sawces or Vomit; but Rather by Exercise and Absti­nence. These are the Natural ways of least disturbance to the Bo­dy, and are most effica­cious to the begetting of Appetite.

[Page 114] 2. In the Quantity of Meats, respect is to be had to three particu­lars.

1. To the Nature of the Meat. 2. The Consti­tion of the Person, and his maner of life. 3. To the Season of the year.

Respect had to the Na­ture of Meats.Meats that are tough, Viscid, Dry, of hard Digestion, must be eat­en in lesser quantity: Such also as are most in­grate to the palate, for that the Stomack upon their Ingestion, doth not firmly close, but with some kind of Re­luctation: Meats also [Page 115] that are uncustomary, unless they be very pleasant and of easy di­gestion, must very sparely be fed upon.

These following do re­quire a larger proportion of Meat:To the Consti­tution of the Person.

1. They that have Hot Stomacks, and so both wast much, and have greatest Heat and ability to Digest; with whom likewise solid Meats, and somewhat of hard Digestion do best agree.

2. They that are in their growth.

3. They that Labor or Exercise much.

[Page 116] On the other side, a lesser proportion is suffici­ent, for,

1. Those that have Cold Stomacks.

2. That are in their full age, or declining.

3. For those that lead a sedantary Life, and use no Labor or Exercise.

4. For those that are indisposed in their Bodies, newly recovering their Healths, or falling into Sickness. But as well these later as the for­mer must observe the two Rules of Health formerly prescribed.

To the Season.In Winter & Spring our Stomacks are hot­est, [Page 117] and our Sleeps long­est, and therefore a larg­er proportion may be allowed in those Sea­sons, of Meat, but not of Drink, for that the Body is then moist, both because the Sea­sons are such, and also because the Cold hin­ders the egression of Va­pors, which being clo­sed in, turn into Hu­mors.

In Summer, what is wanting in Meat, may be taken in Drink, for then the Body is dry, and the inward heat and Vapors are extracted by the external.

[Page 118] Autumn is more Va­riable, and so not capa­ble of Rule: in it self much like Spring; and must be respected as it partakes of the prece­dent and Subsequent Season.

Times of Feed­ing.The next Circum­stance to be considered in Meats and Drinks, is the Time of Feeding;Best Time when Hungry. And therein, the best Guide is Hunger: that before the next Meal, the former Meat be well digested, and per­fectly distributed; then will Hunger follow, the Richest Sawce, without which we may con­clude [Page 119] (the body being in Health) that the Sto­mack hath a part of its former work to do; and therefore ought not yet to be charged with new employment. This rule truly observed, would exceedingly conduce to the Conservation of Health: for it would keep the Stomack and Bowels clean, much better then purgati­ons, and all artificial Helps, it would keep its strength Fresh and Vi­gorous, prevent Crudi­ties, Nauceousness, fil­thy and unsavory Eru­ctations, and that Ca­tholick [Page 120] Source of most Diseases, Obstructions. This, as to the general, to be observed by all.

The particular Con­siderations for often feeding, are much the same, as for much feed­ing: Children must eate little and often. Little, because their Stomacks are as yet streight, & not enlarged. Often, because little, because their Sto­macks are hot and able to concoct. And lastly, be­cause they are in their Growth. Young men pro­portionably may, to the Frequency, be allowed Larger Quantities. Very [Page 121] Old men are to be fed like Children, because they are not able to di­gest much: But being not in the extremity of Age, they can best of all endure Hunger. The Hot and Cholerick endure not Hunger: The Cold and Moist can bear with long Abstinence. The Lean and Hot, whose Transpiration & vvast­ing is much, must have Large Reparations. To the Fat, who have narrow Pores, Abstincnce is good and easily endured. Much Labor and Exer­cise, as they spend much, so do they require Large [Page 122] and Frequent Supplies, otherwise the body is soon enfeebled; But they who Lead a Seden­tary life, which is the unhappiness of most Women, must seldom and sparingly feed: yea very seldom and sparing­ly, otherwise they will have need of continual Physick and Evacuati­on, to spend and drive those Humors, that in other are consumed by Labor or Exercise. Cu­stom is here of very great Moment also; which if not very bad, must be indulged; but if so, it must be altered [Page 123] by degrees, and insen­sible Gradations.

The usual Custom in England is to eat thrice a day;No Break-fasts. a Break-fast, Din­ner, and Supper: the young and very health­ful may be allowed it, eating not to fulness; But forasmuch as the generality of People are infirm, and since most diseases proceed from Crudities, and Indi­gestion, I judg it bet­ter to omit the Break-fast, that so by Abstinence the Stomack may be cleansed, and its super­fluous Moistures consu­med: I mean those [Page 124] that labor not, and who have crude Stomacks, their mouths being con­stantly bedewed with Phlegmatick moisture, & who seldom eat from the instigation of Hun­ger, but Custom.

Much benefit they will likewise find from the using of some desic­cative, to dry up these moistures, such as are Condite-Ginger, Ginger-Bread, the Condite-Roots, or Stalks of Angelica, Rinds of Oranges, Lem­mons, or Citrons condited: Cakes or conserve of the Flowers of Rosemary: Conserve of Roman [Page 125] Wormwood, with a little Cream of Tartar, the Roots of Horse-Radish sliced and steeped in Sack: of any of which a small quantity, as half a Dram, a Dram, or two Drams to more Robust Bodies, will dry up Reu­matick Superfluities, dis­pel Wind, and prevent those Scorbutick Mala­dies, to which most People are Inclinable.

From this Rule I ex­cept those that Labor, Nurses, Growing Per­sons: who must daily eat thrice at least. And also in Recompence of the others Abstinence, [Page 126] 'tis requisite that they Dine betimes, as about Eleven, and Sup about six: so will there be a sufficient Space interve­ning for the perfecting of Each Digestion.

Whether may be allow­ed, the larger Dinner or Supper?

Custom pleads for the former, for then our ap­petite being strong, and we coming with empty bellies, and importunate Hunger to our Dinners, feed largely, having re­spect only to our pre­sent Satiety, by which meanes (the space to [Page 127] Supper time being but short, and consequently our Stomacks not yet empty) our appetite is then weak, so that (at least if we have any re­gard to Health) we then feed sparingly, other­wise we must expect a a very turbulent and restless Night.Large Supper best. But set­ting Custom aside, which is alike inclined to that which is bad as good: I conceive the healthfullest way is, to propose the Largest Meal for Supper: the largest I say, not to a Surcharge, or Surfet, for that is at no time good, [Page 128] but to a competent Sa­tiety: alwaies provid­ed that it be somewhat early, as about six, that so a due space may in­tervene between that and Bed time: That our Dinner be only ad mulcendam famem, to asswage Hunger, not sa­tisfie it, but take off its Edg and Urgency till Supper. And that Sup­per be Quasi Laboris & Cogitationum Terminus, and the time after it, till Bed time, be only de­stined to Mirth and Pastime, pleasant both to the body and the mind.

[Page 129] My Reasons for larger Supper are, 1. Because the time after Supper is fittest for Concoction, as destined to Rest and Sleep, in which the heat & Spirits are not distra­cted, or otherwise im­ployed, in the Brain or limbs, as in the day time by Business or Labor but are totally retired, & imployed about Di­gestion. 2. The Inter­vening Space between Supper and Dinner, is much larger then be­tween Dinner and Sup­per; & the Heat & Spi­rits have thereby the greater Help and op­portunity [Page 130] to perform their office of Digestion.

The strongest Ob­jection against this that I can find is, in the case of those that are troub­led with the Head-ach, Vertigo, Catarrhs, or any other infirmities of a weak and moist Brain.

To which I answer, first, that my enquiry was only of what is best for them that are in good state and con­dition of Health, and that particular Infirmi­ties require particular Rules.

2. I say, as to the pre­sent case, that the early [Page 131] Supping avoids the inconvenience; for that a sufficient space is allotted before sleep­ing time, for the closure of the Stomack: nor can I but conceive that Motion and Labor, which is usual after Dinner, doth by Agita­tion and subversion of the Stomack, hinder its Closure, and so more inclines to the Elevati­on of Vapors, which is the cause of the infir­mities in the objection mentioned.

To the Common Ar­gument, of the assistance the Stomack finds by [Page 132] the additional Heat of the Sun, for its Help to Digestion. I answer, that all external Heats are rather a Hinderance thereunto, then a Fur­therance, for that they dissipate, and draw forth the Natural Heat, and leave the Inner parts more Cold and Helpless: This they shall soon experiment that sit by a great Fire, or in the Hot Sun after Meals; and the case is clear by our Stomacks, greater inability in the Summer then Winter: So that my assertion to me remains firm, which [Page 133] therefore I commend to publick considerati­on.

Rules for drin­king.The same Rules as are for Eating, serve al­so for the times of Drinking, the only mo­tive whereunto ought to be Thirst: the only ends of Drinking being to Moisten and make passable the Victuals; & therefore Moist Meats require little Drink, and solid require only so much, as well to temper them and prevent ob­structions: They there­fore who drink much at Meals, incur a double inconvenience. 1. By [Page 134] making the Victuals Float in the Stomack, which ought to reside in the Bottom thereof, they hinder Digestion, and by over-much moistning the upper O­rifice thereof, they keep it open, and so make the Vapors rise. And 2. It makes the Victuals pass too soon out of the Stomack, raw and in­digested, whence come Fluxes in the Bowels, and putrid Crudities in the Veins and Arteries.

The best time of Drinking is about the middle of the Meal: for that best moistens [Page 135] and contemperates the Meat, and so helps Di­gestion: To Drink be­fore too much, dissolves the Stomack, unless in those that have a very Currant passage, and then an houre must be allowed between. To drink after is very bad for those that are apt to Rheums and Head-aches. Avoid drink­ing also at sleeping time, for that also di­sposes to Vapors and Rheums. Drink also small draughts, for that best prevents fluctuati­on, when the Drink in­sensibly, and by little [Page 136] and little mixes with the Victuals.

For those that Drink much, and frequently, ad Ebrietatem usque, 'tis in vain to prescribe Rules, 'tis better save that labor, that I know before hand will be lost: Only I shall pre­sent them with a short scheam, at their leasure (if they can spare any from their Potations) to Contemplate upon.

The Effects of Drun­kenness are,
  • Resolution of the Nerves,
  • Cramps and Palsies.
  • [Page 137] Inflation of the Belly and Dropsies.
  • Redness and Rheums in the Eyes.
  • Tremblings in the Hands and Joynts.
  • Inclination to Feavers and the Scurvy.
  • Sicknesses at Stomack and sowre Belchings.
  • A furious and unmanage­able Disposition to Lust.
  • A Subjection to all the Passions.
  • Decay of Memory, and Ʋnderstanding.
  • Loss of Credit and Repu­tation.
  • An unfitness for Busi­ness, and Dispatch of Affairs.

An easy Discovery of all Secrets:

These and many more are the bitter Fruits that grow upon that unhappy Tree: God ha­ving wisely annexed to every Evil its insepara­ble Inconvenience: E­very Vice hath its Sting, and every Vertue its Recompence; two Paths he hath made, the streight and crooked, and given commands that we should walk in the one, and eschew the other; the first leads to Felicity, the last to Mi­sery, and Man hath [Page 139] Understanding and Freedom, to know and chuse the best, and con­sequently himself only too blame, if he prefer the worst.

Order of Feed­ing.The last Particular to be observed in Meats and Drinks is the Or­der of Feeding: What is to be eaten first, and what last: wherein two Things are principally, and in most People to be intended. 1. The Avoiding Obstructions. 2. The prevention of the Vapors ascending into the Brain. Obstructions are best avoided, by begin­ning our Meals with those [Page 140] things that are loosning, (contrary to our Cu­stom) whereby the Passages are made slip­pery, and the Victuals easily passable through the Bowels: Such are Figs, Straw berries, Cherries, Roasted-Ap­ples, Prunes, &c. On the contrary astringent things are at first to be avoided; as Quinces, Medlers, Services, Bak'd Pears that are gretty, Peaches, Chees, Olives, all wch do close up the Bowels, and are there­fore to be eaten in small quantities after Meals, as necessary to press [Page 141] down that which was first eaten, to shut the Stomack and keep the Vapors from fuming in­to the Head. If Laxa­tives be eaten last, the Stomack will be apt to Qualms, Belchings, and Regurgitations, and (o­ther Meats hindering their descention) they will easily corrupt, and will then impart their putrifaction. And this is all I shall say about Order, in which, as it is not convenient we be over-nice, for that the Victuals doth in some sort mix and blend in the Stomack, [Page 142] yet since it cannot be supposed to be so per­fectly done, but that the Order in egestion or casting out, is much the same with that of In­gestion or taking in; so much care is necessary, as to prevent the manifest inconveniences I have mentioned. And so I have done with the second of the Non-Na­turals, Meat and Drink. I come to the third, which is;

Of Motion and Rest.

THe Commodities of Moderate Mo­tion or Exercise are ma­ny, principally three.

1.The Com­modi­ties of Exer­cise. The Increase of Na­tural Heat and Spirit.

2. The Agility and Firmness of the Body.

3. An easy bearing of external accidents. To which may be added,That it assists the Distri­bution of our Nourishment, and so augments our Growth: That it discusses Vapors and fuliginous excrementsby the Pores or Spiracles of the skin,[Page 144] Facilitates the Birth, adds Color and Vivacity to the whole Body.

Dis­commo­dities of a Sitting Life.The Discommodities of too much Rest and Sitting, are, 1. That it makes our Bodies loose and slabby, easily yielding to all exter­nal accidents: it be­gets Multiplication of Humors and excre­ments, & consequently that they are seldom well at ease, and void of Infirmities: This is e­specially the unhappi­ness of Women, who mostly leading a Seden­tary Life, lose their Co­lors, and the vivacity of [Page 145] their Countenances, and are thereby forced to use paintings, whence (being unskilfully ad­ministred) they contract Head-aches, pains and blackness in the Teeth, and derive many other Maladies both to them­selves and their Posteri­ties: Hence it is that they are unavoidably in continual Physick, have need of Issues, and other artificial Helps, for the evacuation and exicca­tion of those Superflu­ous Moistures, that might more safely, Na­turally, and with infi­nite less trouble to [Page 146] them, be consumed by easy and constant Labor or Exercise: So that the Indigent People have this recompence to their Poverty, that their necessitated La­bors keeps them much in Health, and without the need, trouble and charge of Physick.

Caution to Wo­men and Maids.Let me therefore without offence to good Women and Ver­tuous Maidens, give this advice, that as they re­spect their Healths, and Beauties (and who I pray do not respect them?) they accustom them­selves from their Child­hoods [Page 147] to convenient La­bor or Exercise, so shall they by Custom and Education, take a good liking thereunto, and without any reluctancy of mind or irksomness of body undergo the same: To Labor I say, for under favour they are much mistaken (be their condition what it will be) to judge it dis­honorable, or a Dero­gation to their esteem in the World, 'tis ra­ther an Ornament, and addition thereunto, e­specially since employ­ments may be found out very sutable (and [Page 148] becoming Maidens of greatest Birth and Pa­rentage, such as are Confectioning, Simpling, or an acquisition of the Knowledge of Herbs and Drugs, their Natures and Vertues, how to use them likewise in Phy­sick and Surgery: which is a very com­mendable and profita­ble employment both for the Body and the Mind, and whereby they may be helpful and assistant to their poor Neighbours.

History.The Gentlewomen of France, of very Honora­ble Discents, esteem it [Page 149] an Honor to them­selves, and an Obliga­tion upon them from their Religion, to be at­tendant for some time in the Nosocomium or Hospitall, upon the sick, and disdain not to dress their Provisions, make their Beds, and perform for them the meanest offices, which they do with greatest care and attendance, and with much more affection and tenderness of Heart then is usual in Chare-Women and Hired Nur­ses. And indeed wealth is not given by God to Nourish Idleness, but [Page 150] to enable us to do more good, and extend our selves in offices of Love and Charity towards others.

Many other Decent Employments there are wherein young Gen­tlewomen may busy themselves, keeping thereby their Bodies Fresh, and Healthful, and their Minds in mo­tion (whereby wanton and vain Thoughts, and Qualities are avoided) wherein some regard may be had to the mu­tability of humane Affairs (a notable in­stance whereof these [Page 151] late years hath afforded us, where so many that have been richly and delicately brought up, are reduced to penury) whereby provision may be made for adversity, by the acquisition of some neat and Curious Manufacture, wch may be in Prosperity a Delight and Recreation, in Po­verty a Refuge: For a­las, those that are bred up only to the expence, how sad is their Condi­tion when the Means and Store-house there­of is by any casuality wasted, to an infinite Number whereof God [Page 152] hath subjected us. How much better is it to copy the Picture of a Vertuous Woman, wch Solomon in his last Chapter hath so lively delineated; and for eve­ry good Woman to en­deavor the being like Her, Pro. 31. In whom the heart of Her Husband may Trust, and by whose Industry he shall have no need of Spoile. But I digress too far, and happily may incur a censure for my boldness, in this point; However with the Vertuous I hope to find excuse, since my fault (if it be any) hath [Page 153] proceeded only from my Love and fair Re­spects to that Sex.

Be pleased that I may add some few Argu­ments to press the Ne­cessity of Labor and Ex­ercise.

I have urged before how much the want thereof enclines you to diseases, and puts you to a continuall need of Phy­sick: that it decays your Colours and Complexions; that particularly it di­sposes you to Obstru­ctions of the Liver, Spleen, Womb and Breast: One more, and that a grievous Inconvenience [Page 154] it produces, viz. Long Travel, difficulty and danger in Childing: The Hebrew-Women, saies the Egyptian Midwives, are lively, and are deli­vered ere the Midwife comes to them: The Irish Women because of their stirring and active Lives are Streight, Tall, full grown, quick in Delivery: The German-Women are also▪ observed to be such, & here in England also the poor and labo­ring Women in City and Country, are very quick at their Labors, and allow themselves hardly a Weeks Retire­ment: [Page 155] So that in this particular also, which is of no small concern­ment, the active and stirring Life is of great­est advantage.

2. They that Lead Sedentary Lives, usual­ly bear Weak and Sickly Children, and so beget themselves much sorrow, & double care and charge in their Education: be­sides the Injury they thereby do the Com­mon-wealth.

3. The mind, for want of convenient business to employ it, becomes either dulled, and unac­quainted with humane [Page 156] accidents, and so not fit­ted, and prepared to bear them, or other­wise misguided and de­praved.

4. It is necessary that Parents, and they that have the Charge in E­ducation, timely take care in this particular, for that their Children being at first bred up restively, acquire a habit thereby, and cannot af­terwards, when they or their Parents see the in­conveniences thereof, change their course, their Joynts and Limbs are so stiff and unweildly, and their obstructions so great. [Page 157] Insomuch that by en­deavouring an alterati­on, they incur ma­ny times grevious disea­ses; So that Parents ought to lay this parti­cular very much to heart in time, and to or­der the Education of their Children accor­dingly, for which they will afterwards be more beholding to them then for their Portions, as of more re­all benefit and behoof unto them; For what is Wealth without Health; yea how much better is a mean fortune with a Sound and Healthful [Page 158] Constitution, then Large possessions, when the Body is Crazy and unapt to en­joy them.

But if through ne­glect or inanimadver­tency, this at first be o­ver-slipt, the old Cu­stom must not all at once be left, nor the Body suddenly be in­nur'd to Labor, but by degrees, using at the same time convenient Helps, & such drinks as do powerfully clear ob­structions, and remove shortness and difficulty of Breathing. And so I have done with that Particular. I shall add [Page 159] one or two Considera­tions more concerning Motion and Rest, and so Leave it.

When Exercise is to be forborn.When the Body is ve­ry foul & replete with ill humors, exercise must be forborn till it be con­veniently cleansed, for that otherwise it will work & disperse them into the Habit of the Bo­dy it Self: and occasion thereby some long and hardly curable Disease. In this case 'tis best to avoid fool-hardiness, & venienti occurrere Morbo, remember, that to prevent, is far easier then to Cure.

[Page 160] Exercise for the Fat and Lean.They that are Lean should exercise only ad Ruborem, till the Body and Spirits are gently heated, for that will help to satten them. They that are fat may Exercise ad Sudorem, till they Sweat, & that will extenuate them.

Exercise when Best.Exercise is best be­fore Meals, for it clears the Stomack, and pre­pares the Appetite: but a little time must be al­lowed again to settle the body before we eat.

When Bad.Too soon after meals 'tis very bad; for it subverts the Stomack, and forces the Victuals [Page 161] thence raw and indi­gested, and so disperses it into the Veins and Habit of the Body, whereby putrid Fea­vours, Head-aches, Weakness of the Eyes, and a general Cacochy­my or depraved Con­stitution is engendred.

Place bad for exercise.Avoid exercising in damp and noysom places, for that the Lungs be­ing opened, and Respi­ration encreased, much aire is drawn in, and the brain thereby filled, and the Lungs corrup­ted: This Caution is to be observed by all, but especially by those [Page 162] that are Pthisical and Rheumatick.

Violent Exercise bad.Lastly, too Violent Exercise is very bad, for it too much dries the Body, it engenders the Stone, & Gout, especially towards old age, when it is discontinued. Let not therefore Pleasure, and a too earnest In­tention at our sports make us so much our own Enemies, as to con­vert that which ought to be used only to re­fresh the Mind, to Strengthen and keep healthfull the Body, into the means of its In­firmity, Sickness and [Page 163] decay: especially know­ing that exercise is then only pleasant when the Body is fresh, Vigorous and very well able, and without toil and pain to undergo the same.

Besides that too con­stant a use and intention upon Sports, corrupts the Mind, and distracts it in the midst of all af­fairs and business, and begets a Dotage there­upon, wherein there is not true Pleasure▪ and contentment, but a w [...]arish and impotent giving up of the Spirits and Faculties thereunto: a con­venient mixture of Labor [Page 164] and Excercise is best, so as that the first do far exceed the last, and that the last be indeed but as a Refreshment and quickning of the Spirit and Body, for the better and more Plea­sant undergoing of the first.

Lastly, If it be too much or too violent, it is no friend to Prolon­gation of Life; for it o­ver-heats the Spirits, and renders them easi­ly evaporable. 2. It consumes too much the Moisture of the Body. 3. It wasts the inward Parts, which delight [Page 165] most in, and are conser­ved best by Rest. We see by this the inconve­niences of Excess and Defect: Via Media, via Tuta; the middle way is best and wholsom­est.

Drink­ing cold Drink after Ex­cercise bad.A usual error is, the drinking cold beere after Violent Exercise, and in our Sweat, to which Heat and Thirst intises us; but the effects are,

1. Damping and al­most exstinguishing the small remainder of heat that is left in the inward parts.

2. Surfetting the Bo­dy by Mixing cold [Page 166] Drink with the fat, which is at that time melted, and floating in the Body: Let that in­convenient custom be therefore carefully left. Another is, to Drin­king Sack and hot Spirits bad. Drink Sack or Strong-Water, when we have spent and wearied our selves with hard Labor or Ex­ercise, which is done as for avoiding the former inconvenience, not see­ing that thereby we in­cur another: which is the over-heating and dry­ing our bodies, which were too much heated and dryed before: To a­void both, and to re­fresh [Page 167] the body withall, the best way is, first to rest a while warm, if conveniently we may, but however to drink a good draught of Caw­dle, Mace-Ale, Hot Beer and Sugar, or of some other Supping, whose Warmth is not Scorching, but analo­gous to that of our Bo­dies, so will the Spirits soon settle, and be re­freshed, and the Limbs after rest be enabled with ease to undergo new Labor.

Kinds of LaborFor the kinds of La­bor, some stir the whole Body, the best whereof [Page 168] are, Dancing, Running, Leaping, Bowling, Walk­ing; Tennis is too Vio­lent, and to be used on­ly upon extraordinary occasions, with conve­nient Rubbings, Sweat­ing in Bed, and other ac­commodations after it: Fencing hath too many inconveniences atten­ding it, and is best to be learned as necessary for safeguard and Defence, and not used as a custo­mary exercise. There are also Exercises appro­priated to certain parts, as lifting great Weights, and the Pike, to the Back and Loins. Riding is a­vailful [Page 169] for the Stomack, the Kidnies and Hips, Navigation for those that are Pthisical: Ball and Bowls for the Reins; The Breast and Lungs are opened and cleared by Shooting, Hollowing, Singing, Sawing, Blow­ing the Horn, or Wind In­struments, Drawing a Rope too and again about a Post or Table, Swinging, Lifting the Poyse or Plummets on high, and letting them down again. And last of all, the use of Frications or Rubbings, which hath been much in use, but is now grown obsolete, is ve­ry [Page 170] convenient for what­soever part we please; Gentle Rubbings, with warm soft Cloths, sof­tens the Parts, attenu­ates the Humors, and opens the Pores; But Strong Rubbings, with hot and course Cloths, used long, do Dry and Harden. The Ancients had two kinds of Frica­tions, the one which they called Praeparatori­um, which they used before Exercise, to ren­der the Limbs agile and apt to Motion, the other Recreatorium, which was used after Exercise, and was per­formed [Page 171] with sweet and Mollifying Oyles, to Moysten and refresh the Body dryed and wasted with toil.

Natures great Explo­rator, in his Centuries, much commends the use of Frictions, as a Furtherance of Nourish­ment, and Augmentati­on; he instances in Hor­ses, whom for that end we constantly Rub: His reasons are, for that it draws a great quanti­ty of Spirits and blood to the Parts (it ought not therefore to be used upon a full Stomack) and again because it relaxes the [Page 172] Pores, and so makes passage for the Aliment, and dissipates the excre­mentitious Moistures; He prefers it before Ex­ercise, for Impinguation or Fatning the Body; because in Frictions the outward parts only are moved, and the inward at Rest. Hence, saies he, Gally slaves are Fat and Fleshy, because they stir the Limbs more, and the Inward parts less.

I shall not say more hereof, but only com­mend its use to good Women, that theygen­tly, and by a warm fire, [Page 173] either themselves, their Maids or Nurses,e­very night rub the Sides, Back, Shoulders and Hips of their Children,as ve­rynecessary to prevent obstructions and the Rick­ets,and tofurther their growth and agility, and also to keep streight and strong the Limbs of their Children.

Of Sleeping and Wake­fulness.

THe Subject of Sleep is not the Heart, as Aristotle hath asserted; but the Brain, as Galen: for to that we make our applicati­ons in cases of too much Sleep,Cause of Sleep. as in the Lethargy, or of too little, as in Phrensies. The cause thereof is, the ascention of pleasant and benigne Vapors into the Head from the blood, and Ali­ment: benigne ones I say, for those that are sharp, hot, and furious in [Page 175] their Motions (as in Burning or putrid Fea­vors) occasion Wake­fulness, and want of Rest. In Sleep, Heat, Blood, and Spirits re­tire towards the Cen­ter and inward parts, which is one reason why 'tis a furtherance to digestion.

When we are awake the Understanding is employed, the Senses, the Limbs, and parts destined to Motion, whereby the Spirits are wasted; it is necessary therefore, that they be replenished by Sleep; In which all the Facul­ties [Page 176] are at rest,Com­modities of Rest. except sometimes the Phansy, and alwaies the Moti­ons of the Pulse, and Respiration. By that cares are taken away, Anger is appeased, the Storms, Agonies, and Agitations of the Body are calmed, the Mind is rendred Tranquil and Serene. It Stops all immoderate Fluxes, ex­cept Sweating. Hence is it thatSleep­ing. Soporiferous Potions are good in Lienteries, and all other Laskes.

The Evils of Immo­derate Sleep.These are the Com­modities of Moderate Sleep; of Immoderate [Page 177] the Inconveniences are:

1. In that the Heat being thereby called in­to the Body, it consumes the superfluous Moi­stures, and then the Ne­cessary; and lastly, the Solid parts themselves, and so extenuates, dries, & emaciates the Body.

And secondly it fixes the Spirits, and makes them sluggish and stu­pid; it duls the under­standing, it hardens the Excrements, and makes the Body Costive, from whence follows many inconveniences.

Old men may Sleep long; and 'tis necessary [Page 178] they should,Large Sleep best for whom. for nothing refreshes them more: for that end Condite Lettice is very good, ea­ten to Bed-ward: So is the washing of their Feet or Hands, or both, in warm water, with flowres of Water-Lillies, Chamo­mil, Dill, Heads of Poppy, Vine-leaves, Roses, &c. boiled in it; It is ne­cessary likewise that they go to bed Merry, and keep their Minds devoid of Perturbations. That they avoid Co­stiveness, by taking loosening Meats at the beginning of their Meals, and by using [Page 179] now and then, as need requireth, some Laxa­tive: as Electuarium Le­nitivum, Catholicum, or Benidicta Laxativa, of any of them 2. drams in the Mornings, with a lit­tle powder of Anni­seeds: or yet Cassia, Ta­marinds, or Prunes Pulp'd, Manna, &c. either of themselves, or dissolved in Broth or Posset-drink; But these, though gen­tle, I advise they use not too often, for better is it to be moved natural­ly; besides that by the frequency, the Party using them will loose the benefit thereof.

[Page 180] Children may likewise sleep Largely; So may the Cholerick, and the Lean: The Phlegmatick and Fat should Watch much.

Sleep after Dinner.Sleep after Dinner may be allowed Old men, Children, and they who are accusto­med to it; And then 'tis best not to lie, or hang down the Head, but to sit upright in a Chaire, to have no binding be­fore upon the breast, and not to be suddenly awaked; but better it is, that they only drowze for the better closure of the Stomack, for [Page 181] long sleeping in the day, indisposes the Body ve­ry much, and makes the Nights restless, but they are especially Hurtful for those that are apt to Rheums, Sore Eyes and Coughes.

Form of Lying.The best form of Ly­ing is with the Arms and Thighs somewhat contract, the Head a lit­tle elevated, on either of the Sides, for lying on the back is bad for the Stone, assists much the Ascension of Va­pors, and wasts the Marrow in the Spine.

Over-much Watch­ing consumeth the Spi­rits, [Page 182] dryeth the body, hurteth the Eye-sight, and very much shortens our Lives.

Of the Excrements.

THey are distingui­shed into two kinds, the Benigne, or Profitable, destined by Nature for special U­ses, as the Seed and Flowers. 2. The un­profitable, of which the Body hath no use, but which are as soon as may be to be expelled. Such are the Excre­ments [Page 183] of the Belly, the Ʋrine, and Sweat; and particularly that Muck and Phlegm that is ex­cerned by the Mouth and Nostrils, and the more thick Transudation by the Ears. Sure it is, that the orderly and seasonable evacuation of These, in due quan­tities, as Natures needs are, doth very much tend to the conservati­on of Health. I will speak of them all seve­rally, except of the se­cond, which I shall pur­posely omit, and first of Seed.

This if considered in [Page 184] its own nature, is far a­bove the appellation of Excrement, being the most spiritful part of the blood, whose excellency likewise is exceedingly improved, by its elabo­ration in the Testicles▪ it is called so only ab ex­clusionis modo, because it is excreted out of the Body. Men should not provoke it till 20. for till then 'tis for the most part unprofitable to the individual, and to Generation: Children till then are generally born weak & infirm, and the Parents them­selves become of Mean [Page 185] growth, by so preven­ting it, and of short lives. The case is the same in Plants, Trees, and other Animals.

Moderation in Coiti­on is most necessary to the preservation as well of Pleasure, The be­nefits of Conti­nency. as of Health: Rectè perpendentibus con­stat, in Immoderation we consult not with de­light, but lust, & lose the pleasure, by being too intent upon it: and 'tis a certain Truth, that those Parents have most, and most healthful Chil­dren, that are most con­tinent, who meet their Pleasure by Necessity; [Page 186] To these it rejoyces the Heart, it makes free the Breathing, it appeases Me­lancholly and Sadness, it mitigates anger, it dispo­ses to Rest: But then the Moderation receives its difference much from the Temperature: for less is sufficient for the Melancholly and Chole­rick▪ the old and emaci­ated; but more is requi­site for the Sanguine & Phlegmatick, & those of middle & flouirshing Age; the Feavorish in any kind must avoid it, and they who are inclined to Gowts, and diseases of the joynts: There are some [Page 187] diseases Cured by it; But I am bid Silence.

Its Immoderation hath these damages at­tending it,The in­commo­dities of Inconti­nency. a dissolution of Strength and Spirits, dul­ness of Memory and Ʋn­derstanding, decay of Sight, Tainture of the Breath, Diseases of the Nerves and Joynts, as Palsiesandall kinds of Gowts, weakness of the Back, involuntary Flux of Seed, Bloody Ʋrine:But then, if to Immo­deration be added, the base and sordid ac­companying ofHarlotsandImpure Women:what follows? but a [Page 188] Consumption of Lungs, Liver and Brain, a putri­faction and discolourati­on of the Blood: loss of Colour and Complexion: a purulent and violent Gonorrhea, an ulceration and Rottenness of the Genitals: noysom and Malignant Knobs, Swel­lings, Vlcers, and Fistu­laes in the Head, Face, Feet, Groin, and other Glandulous and extream parts of the Body; these, with the loss of Credit, and the sense of Sin, should me thinks be sufficient to deter all sorts of People from that noysom Vice wch [Page 189] Almighty God hath cursed with so many at­tendant Evils, viz. The decay of Body and mind here, and utter ruine hereafter; who will not be deterred, must deservedly suffer the Evils thus fore­seen: and for a mo­ments pleasure (if it may be called pleasure) must content themselves to lead the greatest part of the remainder of their Lives, in shame and Torment.

2. Of the Excre­ments of the Belly. Of the Excrements of the Guts, or 1st Concoction. The Excrements of the Belly are duly to be E­vacuated, [Page 190] for which end we must obey Nature, whenever she solicites thereunto; and accustom our selves to some cer­tain times, as first in the mornings, and last at nights, for that will ve­ry much dispose the body thereunto: Strai­ [...]ng over-much is to be avoided, and some other help to be used instead thereof: for o­therwise Ruptures may follow, the falling of the Fundament and Streight Gut, by a Resolution of the Sphincter Muscle. The best pro­portion of the Excre­ment [Page 191] to the Aliment, is about the third part, they who much exceed it,Its pro­portion to the Aliment have the mesaraick Veins stopt, and so cannot be nourished; If it exceeds it, 'tis sure that the body wasts, unless the matter of some disease be thereby evacuated: if the Ex­crement be very little, either Nature is unable to expel, and so must be assisted, or great Heat e­vaporates the moisture, and so dries the Belly, or there hath been long hunger, and then the greatest part is turned to Aliment.

[Page 192] Of Loose­ness.Loosness of the Bel­ly, so long as it is not Violent, and the Appe­tite remains good, is not to be suddenly and rashly stopt, for Nature thereby frequently pre­vents, and many times rids it self of many a di­sease; which upon an unadvised astriction, would be riveted into the Body: the rule is, first Cleanse, and then Close; But if it be too Violent and Frequent, & the Somack thereby decayed, it must be carefully and speedily remedied, but in this case advise is very re­quisite; [Page 193] for to err is easy, and very dangerous.

The Incommodities of a Dry and fast belly, I have occasionally spoke of before, to which I refer you.

Of the Ʋrin.

THe Serons and Wa­terish part of the blood is streined through the Kidnies, and is kept in the bladder, till either by its abundance or sharpness, it provokes to Excretion: This retei­ned beyond its due and convenient time, in­flames [Page 194] the Bladder, and so over-fils it, that ma­ny times it cannot without much pain be contracted: in those ca­ses you must gently compress the Bladder, which lies in the bot­tome of the belly, some­what above the Geni­tall: Long Meals, Festivals, Counsels and Assemblies are very in­convenient for this, e­specially where there is more modesty then is requisite: Some Helps there are also in such Cases.

Divina­tion by Urin a deceit.The Diagnostick & Prog­nostick of Diseases by [Page 195] Ʋrin, is from my inten­tion here, that relating to another and peculi­ar part of Physick; on­ly I shall for the re­demption of such as are deceived by it (and most are, and deserve to be) spend some little time in shewing how far it may be used, and how far it is abused: Urin of it self doth truly and properly declare the immediate indispositi­ons only of the Blood, the Liver, the Kidnies, Bladder, and Ʋrinary passages, and of these not distinctly, but confusedly, & not without the help, [Page 196] and interrogating of the Patient; erroneously therefore do People imagine, that in the U­rin is contained the ample understanding of all things necessary to inform a Physician: which is therefore a vain and sottish, though Customary way to Judge of a Physician; the best whereof do leave devining thereby as false, and out of mea­sure uncertain; the most Ignorant and deceitful only do practise it, to delude the Credulous: Many other things are equally, if not more [Page 197] necessary for the right information of a Physi­cian, as the Pulse, the Knowledge of pain, and the place affected, of all concurrent and prece­dent Causes, which by due inquiry he is to find out, and then from them all compared to­gether, he is to make his judgement of the nature of the Disease, and so may fitly, and with best probability of Success apply his Remedies: The other by seeking his own Glo­ry hazards thy Health, regarding more the be­ing thought skilful by [Page 198] thee, then rightly to in­form himself, that so he may knowingly pro­ceed to the Cure.

The diseases of the Breast are best known by the pulse; insomuch that in those greifs ma­ny times the Urin speaks fair and Healthful, e­ven to the last moment of Decaying Life. The Brain and Animal parts have their proper Excre­ments, & are best known by them. Neither is she any other then de­ceitful, even in the indicatin of the disea­ses of the parts abovementioned, from which [Page 199] the Urin more imme­diatly proceeds: It is changed and appears different according to the diversity of Meats, Drinks and Medicines: its Colour and Sub­stance is wholy altered, upon the Critical De­termination of diseases, which many times eva­cuate themselves by U­rin, and which can­not but Confound the Judgement of our Pisse-Prophets, proceeding only upon Inspection thereof; The Sex can with no certainty be known by it, for though the Urin of a Man and [Page 200] Woman are usually different in Colour and consistency; yet since both the one and the o­ther is upon easy chan­ges alterable, no cer­tain judgement can be made thereupon. Be­sides that a Cbolerick Woman after exercise, and after the use of Hot and spiced meats, will make a deeper coloured water then a Phlegma­tick man; She likewise hath different Urin, according to the diver­sity of the disease that then possesses her: The Comparison therefore is only to be made be­tween [Page 201] the Urins of a Healthful Man, and a Healthful Woman, wch have received no altera­tion by any thing eat, drank, or external acci­dent: and so is the dif­ference given by Physi­cians to be understood, when they say, That Man yeilds thinner Ʋ ­rins, higher coloured with small Contents or Sediment: but Women pale, with Copious Sedi­ment.

In Virgins, and also o­ther Obstructions of Na­tural courses, there wil be much the same alterati­ons in Urin, as in Con­ception: [Page 202] because the Blood, and consequent­ly the Urin, is also thereby Tainted. Preg­nant Women do also render different Urins, both one from another, and also the same Women at several Sea­sons: neither is there any one sign of certain­ty to determine the same.

Let me subjoyn a Hi­story for confirmation hereof; and 'tis Dr. Cottas, a Northamtonshire Physician, whose for­tune it was to take the profession of a Dying Physician in this point. [Page 203] He was (saith he) but simple in manners, and meanly Learned, but in his Auguration of Con­ception by Urin, held most excelling, and pre­ferred before the best learned of the Country: Some small time before his death, he was for the behoof of posterity im­portuned to leave be­hind him that skil in U­rins, that had made him so famous; he Replyed, that it was unworthy Posterity, unworthy the name of Art; That he had long indeed, with the felicity of good opinion, exercised [Page 204] it, but with tryed cer­tainty known it to be uncertain and deceit. Simplicity, he said, was easily ready to betray it self, and the ignorant People; especially to one used to the obser­vation, will easily disco­ver their hearts in their Eyes, Gesture and Coun­tenances, of themselves unobserved, and unconsi­dered: Sometimes I have predicted right upon Conceptions, and that hath spread it self, but I have proved more often to my own know­ledge false, but that hath soon dyed, or [Page 205] found excuse. I some­what satisfied my self in my deceitful custom, in that I deceived none but such as either desi­red, or deserved it; who by their insidiation of the proof of my skill, ei­ther provoked it, or by unreasonable earnestness extorted it. Thus, some daies before his death did this famous Devi­ner unbowel himself, and thereby indeed made someamends for his former inpostures.

Lastly, 'tis most easy to deceive the Physician by other Liquors, e­specially, if he smells [Page 206] them not: and though some notes of diffe­rence are given by Avi­cen and others, yet are they very doubtful, and not to be trusted to: I judge it no dishonor to be deceived in this kind, unless to such as arrogate a certainty of Divination.

It should be conside­red also, that thou art ignorantly, & doltishly imploying thy self a­bout posing the Physi­tian, mispending thy time that way, running from Doctor to Do­ctor, till thou art struck in the right Vain, and [Page 207] inveighled by the Ar­tifice of some more crafty then the rest, who sets himself to de­ceive thee in this kind, when in the mean time, the disease by delay gets strength, and be­comes more obstinate, Malignant, and perad­venture incurable.

I advise therefore all good People, that you regard not other mens fame fraudulently got­ten; but your own health: and in order to that, that you punctual­ly and expresly inform the Physician of all you know concerning your [Page 208] disease, particularly of your pain, if any be, and of all external acci­dents that may have any waies caused it; of the place and part af­fected, of the Impedi­ments you have in the performance of any action in the Body; and let the Physician then feel your Pulse, see your Urin, consider your Temperature of Body, know your use and Custom of Living, so is he most likely tru­ly to understand your State and Condition, and you to receive be­nefit and Curation: I [Page 209] shall not need to insist longer hereupon, the Vanities and Deceits of Ʋroscopy, or Devination by Ʋrin having been fully and demonstra­tively discovered by many able Physicians: and by some in English, as Mr. Brian in his Piss-Prophet: and by Dr. Cot­ta in his Discovery of the Errors, and dangers of Ignorant Practitioners: To which I refer the Reader, who if not­withstanding all that can be said, hath yet a mind to be decei­ved, doubtless he may, and there be [Page 210] enough that are pro­vided for't.

Of Sweat.

SWeat and Ʋrin have the same material cause, but have different waies of Excretion: The skin is therefore made pervious, that so there might be free E­gress for the Sweat, which retained in the Body, corrupts it, and begets a languishing wearisomness in every part thereof; as in Bur­ning Feavours, when the [Page 211] Party cannot Sweat: whereas the kindly and free Evaporations thereof, make the Bo­dy lightsome, removes colds, chilness and las­situde of the Limbs: It is most to be avoided in Cold weather, When to be avoi­ded. either in Bed, or at Exercise; for though it frees the bo­dy from internal causes of Diseases, yet it more disposes it to receive wrong from external sharpness, and penetrati­on of the aire or wind, by opening the spira­cles, and so giving ad­mission thereunto. As to preserve the Body, [Page 212] which is my intent,When to be used. it is necessary that every one upon a Cold taken, which together with the usual signs prece­ding, is manifested by a sudden heaviness and lumpishness of the Limbs, do with the first convenience he may, with an empty Stomack, dispose him­self to a gentle and lea­surely breathing, which in most Bodies may be procured, with a draught of Saffron and Milk: of Posset drink, with a few Camomill Flowers boiled in it: ei­ther of them drank hot, [Page 213] and close covering thereupon; or if need require it, with a scru­ple of Gascoignes Pow­der in either of them: which Sweat being gently continued for a­bout an Hour, care is to be taken that thou be­est rubbed well with warm clothes, and shifted with fresh and well aired Lin­ning, and that about half an Hour after thou drink a draught of hot and comfortable Broth, Cawdle, or other Supping, and so by de­grees enure thy self to the aire and Customary way of Life: This time­ly [Page 214] and carefully perfor­med, may save thee ma­ny a sharp and irksome sickness.

CautionProvided alwaies, that thou then beest not co­stive: for so, sweating will harden the Excre­ments, and evaporate the moisture thereof into the Body: Before thou sweat therefore, if thy belly have been fast, open it either by some gentle Lenitive, or loosening Clyster.

Helps to Sweat.They that have dry & hard skins, and there­fore difficultly sweat, should be bathed, or at least fomented with a [Page 215] Decoction of Warm Water, with Hot and mollifying Hearbs boil­ed therein, that through the skin so relaxed, the Sweat may have the easier passage. The Help of Bottles, with a Decoction of Sudorifick Hearbs, as Camomil, Penny-Royal, Rosemary, Mother of Time, Hyssop, &c. is very assistant in this case; encreasing the heat by degrees, as by putting in less Hea­ted Bottles first, and half an Hour after the more Heated.

Why Sleep causes Sweat.Sleep that stops other Fluxes, causes Sweat, [Page 216] because the Heat and Spirits first moving in­ward, do there gather force, which so encrea­sed, works upon the moisture, and evapo­rates it by Sweat.

Too long & violent, Bad.Sweat is not to be over-long, or over-vio­lent, for it impairs the Body too much; bet­ter it is to Sweat twice or thrice, for that's Na­tures way, who never expels the whole Mor­bifick matter at one Sweating. Thus much as to the Preservative by Sweating.

Of other Excrements.

Of Spit­ting.THey that spit much, want exercise, for that is the best way to spend the matter there­of; for to stop it, begets pains in the Head, and endangers many disea­ses of the Brain: be­sides that, it may af­terwards take another course, as upon the Lungs, in the Spine, or on the Reins, whereas exercise safely breaths it out through the Bo­dy.

Excre­ments of the Brain.If the Humors and Viscosities remain in [Page 218] the Brain and Head, and descend not, they are to be provoked down by the Nose, or Mouth, either by Snee­zing, or theChew­ing. Mastication of those things which are of Subtile Parts, and so open and clear the passages: as To­bacco, Rosemary, Bettony, Seeds of Thlapsi, Crosses, &c. are very good: so are their fumes, but then they must not be brought into a Custom, but used only as the necessity requires.

In the Ears and NostrilsThe Foulnesses in the Ears, and thick wax that by Time grows [Page 219] there, ought to be pre­vented; by often clean­sing them, taking first into them the fume of Camomil, and Penny-roy­al, boiled in Ale: and afterwards of hot Vini­ger; which done, clense them with thy Ear­picker carefully, for fear of hurting the Tympanum, and Provo­king Coughs.

After Meats, and in the Mornings, Wash and Rub the Teeth, thy Eyes, Ears and Nostrils, thy Hands likewise, and Face with Cold water, even in Winter. Comb thy Head well, that [Page 220] thou mayest make way for the Egression of Vapors, which will otherwise fill thy brain. In the observation of these small Matters how much doth Health consist? I am in these things but thy Remem­brancer.

Of the Affections, or Passi­ons of the Mind.

OF these I purpose breifly to treat, not as a Natural Philosopher, but Physician, and so to consider, not their [Page 221] Essences or Causes, but Effects, and how their Regulation conduces to the Conservation of Health. Their power is doubtless very great upon us, as being of force, not only to hur­ry us into diseases, but to bring upon us sud­den death. Their Steers­man is Reason, which assisted with the Devine Spirit, manifested in the Holy Scriptures, is able to keep down the Sur­ges of our Passions, and is by Almighty God given us, to be as a Check or Bridle to pre­vent, or restrain all their [Page 222] Extravagances: so that although there be great force in our Passions; yet are we not involun­tarily, and without the power of Resistance o­vercome by them; but yield unto them cow­ardly, and unworthily, for want of making use of that Reason, by which we might Re­strain them. Our Af­fections indeed are [...] unreasonable, but yet they also are [...] under our own power and command, & one principal work, that man hath to do in the world, is to mo­derate [Page 223] them. And though some Passions, as also Vices, have through Custom, and an habituall commitment, become Usurpers upon reason, and over-rulers thereof, insomuch that it becomes a most diffi­cult thing for Reason to reassume its Empire, and keep them in due sub­jection; This however is attributable, not to their Nature, but our own default, and is de­creed as a punishment of our first yielding thereunto: 'Tis just in God to harden his Heart, who first har­dens [Page 224] his own; the pe­nalty is appropriated to the offence: From whence we may col­lect, that Vice is a Punishment.

2. 'Tis observable, that there is a mutual influence from the Body upon the Mind, and from the Mind upon the Body: not necessitating, but inclining. 'Tis clear in the several effects the Passions produce in the Body, which I shall pre­sently speak of: and 'tis as clear, that Anger, Sadness, Joy, &c. in their Immoderation I mean, are more easily [Page 225] produced in those that are under the Violence of a Feavour, or other Sicknesse, or pain, or yet of depraved and unequal Constitutions, then in them that are in Health, and of Sound Complexi­on: That therefore thou mayest be Vertuous, keep thy self in good Health; that thou mayst be in good Health, keep thy self Vertuous, and Regulate thy Passions.

Passions are not bad of themselves, but in their excesses or de­fects: for by their as­sistance, we more easily attain good and Lauda­ble [Page 226] Ends: there are some things against which they are well, and by injunction im­ployed: Be Angry and sin not, saith the Apostle: and our Saviour drove the Money-Changers out of the Temple: our Love and Hatred, our Fear, Sadness and Re­joycing, have all of them proper objects a­bout which they may, and ought to be em­ployed. 'Tis to be more then man, to be [...] wholy indolent and void of Passion: we are requi­red only to be [...], well to manage & mode­rate them.

Of Anger.

Its in­commo­dities.IN its excess the in­commodities are ma­ny, and evil: as Fea­vours, Phrensies, and Madness, Trembling Pal­sies, Apoplexies, Decay of Appetite, and want of rest, paleness, as when fear is conjoyned, and the Spirits called in; sometimes Redness of the Face and Eyes, when the Spirits are sent out, as in desire of Revenge: which is also accompa­nied with an Ebullition of the blood, stamping, bending the fist, &c. [Page 228] With many more evils anger is accompanied,Reme­dies a­gainst Anger. all of which, though they fall not out to eve­ry one that is angry, yet some do, and more or less, as it is, it inclines us to all: 1 these had in Remembrance, may be a Motive to refrain that which is the cause of them, that's one help a­gainst it. 2 Another is to observe them that be angry; for in others we can better judge of the unseemliness of it, then in our selves, to whom we cannot but be par­tial, neither are we ca­pable Judges in our [Page 229] Fits, when we are who­ly possest by it: But observing it in others, we may thus reason: Shews this so unhan­some in my Freind? sure it doth so in me al­so: Doth it impair his Health? so will it mine also: Doth it un-man him? doubtless it also transforms me into a Beast.

3 Thirdly, Consider we, that the more we enure our selves to it, the stronger habit we get, and the apter we shall alwaies be upon every slight occasion to fall into it.

[Page 230] 4 Fourthly, 'Tis to be thought upon, that the frequency thereof makes it loose its effect, and become wholly ne­glected by them upon whom we spend it. It ought to be ultimately not against Persons, but Things; not against Men, but Vices: so that we ought even in our Angers, to give some manifest of a desire of good to the Person we are angry withall, as of Reclaimer, of his a­mendment, and altering his Course: so will it both make the deeper Impression, and do our [Page 231] selves less Hurt. Sixth­ly, Let us call to mind the Patience, Long-suf­ferance, and Humility (for Anger is frequent­ly an effect of Pride) enjoyned us in Scrip­ture: Let us remember, how unspeakable it is in God towards us. And lastly, How Christ the Son of God, and God, who might have had Legions of Angels to have defended him, and who indeed wan­ted nothing, had he pleased to have defen­ded himself; yet did he patiently submit himself to Rebukes, [Page 232] Scorns, and false Accusa­tions, to be hurryed from place to place, to be bound with Cords, whipt, spit on, buffeted, Crowned with sharp Thorns, to carry his own Cross he was to suffer on, to be extended forth, and nayled thereon, to have his Sides pierced, his Sinews stretched, and at last suffer death, and all this not for his own, but even his Enemies offences: for whom he prayed whilst he was Tormented. O let us all lay this to heart! and let it sink into us: so shall it doubtless be a means to restrain [Page 233] those light, and custo­mary Heats, and animo­sities that take fire at the least motion, and upon the slightest occa­sion: and last of all, as we respect our own Happiness even here in this World in Body, in Mind, let us wisely pass by Mistakes, Af­fronts, Injuries: at least wise, let us assay all gentle means first, of a­mity and Love, of win­ning upon our Adversa­ries by all Christian wayes that can be thought on, and when no other means will serve, then to shew our [Page 234] Anger for our own de­fence only, and preser­vation.

5 Let us consider, that tis easy to begin strife, but hard to allay it:The Beginning thereof (saithSolomon) is as one that openeth the Waters, therefore ere the conten­tion be medled with, leave off.

6 One means more there is, and that is Di­version: Octavian was advised to say over the A. B. C. before he ex­prest his Anger in word or deed, for giving some pause thereunto, it ma­ny times vanishes; Rea­son [Page 235] then (as I conceive) having some space to work and rowse it self, which at other times is surprized. If I were not Angry, said Architus Ta­rentinus to his Bailiff, I would now beat thee. 7 This man had well Learned his Lesson, and may be our Master. The rea­ding of good Books is likewise a great Help to make us Masters of our Passions, especially the Scripture: For thereby the mind will be furni­shed with sound Know­ledge, and Reason in­structed and made rea­dy against all its Temp­tations and assaults.

Of Love.

THis in its extream, is a Passion seldom heard of in our times, the two Catholick Vi­ces, Pride and Covetous­ness, having almost swallowed up this Affe­ction: the sincerity whereof, as it relates either to Freindship or Marriage, is now con­verted into Conveniency, and terminated not in another, as it ought to be, but in our selves: I distinguish it into 3. kinds; Three kinds of Love God­like.The 1. Godlike, which is a knitting of [Page 237] the Soul to God, and manifesting by his bles­sed example, without any indirect ends, Sine serâ, sine fuco, without deceit, or without dis­simulation, a Sympathe­tical Spirit and Affecti­on towards one ano­ther. This is uncapable of extremity, in its ut­most extent being but our Duty. The 2. is Humane,2. Hu­mane. towards parti­cular Persons, as Parents, Wife, Children, Friend, or Things; towards the first, it ought also to be Hearty, Constant, be­gotten & continued for their sakes, not our own [Page 238] but yet bounded with a due submission to the Will of God: That to Things, is not to be fixt, but apt to change and alteration, because the Things themselves are so: which we are to love, The Apostle saith, As if we loved them not.3. Con­jugall. The 3. is that which is shewn be­tween one Sex to ano­ther, and ends in the Conjugal; This is natu­rally imprest upon us,Caution concerning the third. and is to be carefully preserved from Dotage, and Lust: Of Lust when it takes fire from the last, 'tis never permanent, but [Page 239] soon cloyes it self, and Vanishes upon satiety: Reason is here exclu­ded, and that hath made so many happily seeming Marriages soon vanish into those which are full of Bitterness, and p [...]ssionate Distem­per; Love therefore is to Begin, as it ought to Continue, or rather to encrease by continuance, and so it ever doth, when Vertue, and sweet­ness of Disposition is its Foundation, and not Wealth or Beauty, which are good Concomitants, but bad Principles. A Vertuous Mind, an un­blemished [Page 240] Life and Con­versation, a Healthful Body, these are, me thinks, essentially ne­cessary in man and Wo­man, to make a Marri­age Happy: the other two are Ornamentals, that adde to its perfecti­on, but not to its essence. For Dotage which is an Impotent and unreaso­nable placing of the Affection upon ano­ther,Of Do­tage. which many times brings all the Faculties of Soul and Body into a Languishment or Con­sumption, and some­time by Summoning and uniting all its spirits in [Page 241] the Brain causes Phren­sies, Madness, and di­vers other Maladies; For this I say, neither Reason nor Physick, hath yet found any Re­medy: it being neither capable of Councel, nor within the reach or power of any Medi­cine: Diversion is by the Wisest esteemed the best Remedy; Change of Objects de­vides it, and so lessens it: Indeed Stratagem and Invention hath most share in this Cure, which must be assisted by Season and Oppor­tunity. I shall end this [Page 242] with one only Cauti­on, That Parents ha­zard not the destruction of their Children, by not giving their con­sents to those Marriages where the Hearts are United, and Vertue is the Bond, and the de­fect or cause of obstacle is only inequality of Birth, or Estate.

Of Greif, and Sadness.

Evils of Sadness.IN Sadness the Heat and Spirits retire, and by their sudden sur­rounding, and possession of the Heart all at once, do many times cause suffocation: They being likewise by uniting en­creased, do violently consume the moisture of the Body, and so be­get drowth and leanness. Hence saith Solomon, Pro. 17. 22. A joyful heart causeth good Health, but a sorrowful mind drieth the Bones: like the moth in a Gar­ment, or a worm in the [Page 244] Tree, so is sadness to the Heart: It likewise takes away Appetite, over­heats the Heart, and Lungs, decays the com­plexion, unfits us for our Business and em­ployments, and shor­tens our daies. The Remedies are diverse,Reme­dies a­gainst Sadness. as the cause is: only in general, consider, that what is without thy pow­er to help, 1 ought not to afflict thee, for 'tis utter­ly vain; if it be within thy power, then greive not, but help thy self. 2 Thou art likewise to fortifie thy self against all accidents before [Page 245] they come, by frequent reading, and rightly un­derstanding the Scrip­tures, and other Religi­ous andCha [...]on of Hu­mane Wisdom. Seneca. Plu­tarchs Morals and Lives. Moral Wri­tings, that are full fraught with good In­structions, to arm thy mind against the day of need; that so when af­fliction comes, thou mayest be provided for it; for our Sadness is generally falsly groun­ded upon mistake, and mis-apprehension, wch may by this means be prevented: Without this Help thou shalt be hardly able in the day of thy streight, to take [Page 246] good advice, though it given thee. In the Scriptures and other good Books, thou shalt find sound advice, that will enable thee to bear the Ingratitude of a Friend: the loss of nearest Friends, of goods, or office, a Re­pulse in thy desire of pre­ferment, and all other casual accidents, with which the World is re­plete, and which do frequently befall us.

3 Another Remedy there is, and that is, to give our Sadness vent, for so it spends it self, and the sooner forsakes [Page 247] us, whereas cooped up and stifled, it takes dee­per hold upon us; For that purpose, disco­ver the causes, and take the advice of a Bosome Friend; restrain not thy tears, but give them way, and it will ease thee; If Pain begets thy grief, take thy Li­berty, to Cry and Roar, neither should thy Freinds restrain thee; for that if it do not to­tally remedy, yet will it revell and somewhat divert thy pain.

4 But lastly, If Distem­per of Body be the cause of thy Sadness, [Page 248] and thy very Tempera­ture, dispose thee there­unto; Then avoid all things that be noyous in sight, smelling, hearing, and embrace all things that are Honest and De­lectable. Fly Darkness, much Watching, and bu­siness of mind, over much Venery: the use of things in excess, Hot and Dry, often or violent Pur­gations, immoderate Ex­ercise, Thirst and Absti­nence, dry Winds, and ve­ry Cold: Meats of Hard Digestion, such as are very Dry and Salt, that are Old, Tough, or Clam­my: Cheese, Hares flesh, [Page 249] Venison, Salt-Fish, Wine, and Spice, except very seldom, and in small quan­tities. Prepare now and then when Sadness most oppresses thee, one of these following drinks, which upon long experience I have found very recreative, and quickning the Spi­rits.

1. Drink againsh Melan­cholly.Rec.

Waters of Car­duus, and Wood-sorrel, of each 4. Ounces. Syrup of Violets 2. Ounces and a half. The best Canary 3. Ounces.

[Page 250] Spirit of Vitrioll 12. drops; Mix them, and drink it at thrice, at ten in the fore-noone, and four in the after­noon.

2. Drink against Melan­cholly.Take a large sound Pip­pin, and cut out the Core, and in its place put a little Saffron, viz. Three grains dryed, and beaten ve­ry fine, cover it with the Top, and rost it to Pap, then put to it half a pint of Claret Wine damasked: sweeten it well with fine Sugar, and make Lambs­wooll: and so drink it.

Take the first of these when thou artCostive,the last when thou art loose,or goest orderly to stool. But in this case it is expe­dient that thou take further advice of thy Physician.

Of Joy.

THere is no great Fear of the Im­moderation of this Pas­sion; the present con­dition of the World [Page 252] hardly affords cause for it, and man hath gene­rally lost his Chearful­ness, with his Innocency: 'Tis now in Fits and Flushes, not solid and constant: Effects of Joy. The effects of it are very good, for by Dilating and sending forth the Spirits to the outward parts, it enli­vens them, and keeps them fresh and active; it Beautifies the Complexi­on, it fattens the Body, by assisting the Distributi­on of Nourishment to every part: 'Tis that doubtless which God intended should be the Portion of every man, [Page 253] he therefore made the World so full of de­lightful objects for e­very sense, and plenti­fully furnished it in eve­ry place, with all things necessary for the solace, and contentation of Mankind; But we un­happily have distracted our own Lives, and multiplyed the occasi­ons of Hatred, Oppressi­on, Jealousy, difficulty of gaining a very competen­cy, doubts of loosing, en­deavours of supplanting one another, Envying, Law-Suits, Wars, and a thousand other Engines we have contrived to [Page 254] destroy our Content­ment, and multiply our sorrows and afflictions: Insomuch that very Wise and good men, have much ado to preserve that chearfulnes, which is the reward and Re­compence of their Ver­tue. I wish I could here propose Remedies: Some I have, but the World is not able to bear; and must yet longer by its Miseries and sufferings be chasti­sed into Repentance and Amendment.

These Passions are the Principal that have Influence upon the bo­dy, [Page 255] others have not, or very little; I shall there­fore pass them over, with this generall Cau­tion relating to them all, that as we expect to keep them in due subjection, and not to become Slaves to our Affections, let us lead a Temperate and Continent Life; for all Disorder and Excess, especially in Meat, Drink, Venery, makes us their Slaves, and gives them heat, and spirit to Lord it o­ver us, and renders us impotent to withstand their Temptations and Assaults. And so I [Page 256] have done, desiring that what I have said, may be fairly accepted, and Interpreted by all, as intended for every mans good, and is but a preparatory to much more that I have in my Thoughts: Beseeching Almighty God to give his blessing to it, that it may prove effectual, at least in some measure, to preserve every man, and woman in Health and Vertue.


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