THE MARCHANTS AVIZO. VERY NECESSARIE FOR THEIR sonnes and seruants, when they first send them be­yond the seas, as to Spaine and Portingale or other countreyes. Made by their hartie well willer in Christ. I. B. Marchant.

ECCLES. 40.18.

To labour and to be content with that a man hath, is a sweet life: but the feare of God is aboue all, &c.


Imprinted at London by Richard Field for Wil­liam Norton, dwelling in Paules Churchyard at the signe of the Queenes armes. 1589.



TO THE VVOR­SHIPFVL MAISTER THO­MAS ALDWORTH MARCHANT of the citie of Bristowe: and to all the worshipfull companie of the Marchants of the said citie: your bounden in good will Iohn Browne, wisheth vnto your worships, felicitie in heauen, and prosperitie in earth.

WOrshipfull, vpon verie earnest motion & persuasion of a friend vnto me, to set foorth in publick this matter, which I onely had made priuate for instruction of me and mine. And then calling to remembrance some necessitie and dutie: necessitie, because by mine own experience I know how greatly my selfe and many other my countrimen, at our first going into Spaine were troubled with difficul­ties, for want of such a patterne as this, for ease of our tender wittes. And dutie, because I acknowledge my self boundē, both to your Worship, and to all those of my pro­fession, to employ my whole labours to do you any plea­sure or profit that I might. I therefore haue emboldened my selfe to dedicate and offer this my poore myte vnto our Worships: wherby not onely your name may therin be still remembred, but may also make manifest your kind fauors, who are still willing to be furtherers of any [Page] generall good. Mine owne labour or skill I confesse, is but very litle or nothing in this thing, because I my selfe do but only as a poore willing labourer, to help forwards that worke, the foundation & platforme wherof, is setled and builded alreadie. But my chiefe purpose herein is, onely to worke a generall ease to all Marchants: wherby they may the lesse trouble them selues, either with wri­ting, inuention, or thought of these matters. And like­wise that it might be some stay to young and weake wits: yeelding them therby the more freedome of mind toward their other businesse. Being carefull in my selfe to order this worke, that not onely (as I hope) it shalbe lawfully permitted to be seene and read in anie parts beyond theIf this booke may not be thought tolle­rable beyond the seas: then will it be yet a good exercise and but litle la­bour, for euery prentice to co­pie it all out in writing: and so carie it with him for his in­struction. sea: but also shal instruct young nouices, to vse grea­ter breuitie in their writings then commonly they are wont.

Wherefore I commit my selfe and my doings, first to the praise of God, and then to your good acceptance and fauourable patronage. Desiring your Worships all, that howsoeuer you do determine of the vnabilitie of this my labour: yet that you vouchsafe to take in good part the abilitie of my loue and good meaning in it. So I rest, be­seeching God to giue vnto you all, eternall felicitie in heauen, and prosperitie to your liues end here on earth.

Your Worships boun­den in good will. I. B. MAR.

To the Reader.

WHen marchants trade proceedes in peace.
And labours prosper well:
Then common weales in wealth increase,
As now good
This was spo­ken when was a long staye of the marchantes trade, to the great decay of many a one.
proofe can tell.
For when the marchants trade was free,
His ventures for to make:
Then euery art in his degree
Some gaines thereof did take.
The marchant made the Clothier rich,
By venting of his cloth:
The Clothier then sets many at worke.
And helpeth euery crafte.
For first the Spinster hereby liue,
The Weauer and the Dier:
By cloth, the Shearman also thriue,
When Marchant is the buyer.
The Landlord and the Tenant sell,
By this meanes all their wooll:
Their Biefe, their Corne, they sell the more,
When Marchants purse grow full.
The Grocer with the Vintener,
And Mercer profit reape:
When Spices, Silks, and Wines, come store,
By Marchants ventures great.
The Vitler and the Husbandman.
And handicraftes ech on:
Makes gaines, when Marchāts Ships & goods
Doe merily come home.
The Sailers herehence gets their skill,
To rule the stately Ship
And so become right worthy men,
For Sea and Land most fit.
Yea diuers more the Marchants trade,
Doth succour and relieue:
As Bargeman, Craneman, Porter eke,
To him that Cart doth driue.
Let no man then grudg Marchants state,
Nor wishe him any ill:
But pray to God our Queene to saue,
And Marchants state help still.

THE TABLE OF THOSE things which are contained in this Booke.

  • A Generall remembrance for a seruant at his first going to sea. folio 1.
  • A letter to send to his maister when he is forced by weather into any Port vpon his voyage. folio 8
  • A letter to be sent presently vpon his arriuall at his Port. folio 9
  • A letter to be sent next after his first letter that he wrote of his arriuall. folio 10
  • A letter to be sent from his second Port of arriuall. folio 12
  • A letter to be sent in that shippe where he hath la­den goods. folio 13
  • A letter to be sent vnto one that hath left some bu­sinesse to do vnder your hands. folio 14
  • A letter of thankes to a friend that hath done you some pleasure: wherein you also request againe some farther good turne of him. folio 15
  • A letter to desire the goodwill of a friend to helpe you in some matter of your businesse. folio 16
  • Certaine briefe notes worthy obseruation: as first of the Kintal or hundred waight of Portingale, Spaine, and France. folio 18
  • Of the measure of cloth in Portingale, Spaine, and France. folio 19
  • Of the measure of corne and salt in Portingal, Spaine and France. folio 20
  • Of the value of moneyes, in Portingale, Spaine, and France. folio 21
  • [Page]A briefe instruction for the better knowledge of di­uerse wares of Portingale, Spaine and France. folio 23
  • A briefe forme for making a Spanish or any other accompt. folio 30
  • A rule to take out your prouision of two and a halfe in the hundred. fol. 32. And also in what sort you must gather it vpon the Impliments. folio 34
  • A rule to bring Portingale Res into Spanish Mer­uedis. folio 46
  • Diuerse particular notes worthy obseruation, as ap­peareth in euery leafe of the Spanish accompt, beginning fol. 30.
  • A forme for making a bill of lading. folio 49
  • A marchants particular remembrance. folio 50
  • A bill of exchange for the countrey of Spaine and elsewhere. folio 53
  • A bill of exchange for our country of England. Ibid.
  • An acquittance. folio 54
  • A bill of atturney. Ibid.
  • A bill of debt. folio 55
  • A bond or Obligation. folio 56
  • A pollicie for assurance. Ibid.
  • Certaine godly sentences, necessary for a youth to me­ditate vpon. folio 61
  • The conclusion, which is an historie very profitable and delightfull for a youth to reade and meditate. folio 65

A GENERALL REMEMBRANCE FOR A SERVANT WHEN HE FIRST trauelleth to the Sea, as to Spaine or Por­tingale, or other countreyes.

A GENERAL remem­brance for you my ser­uant I. A. that when it pleaseth God you shall trauell vnto the sea, first & principally you doe not forget v­pon your fafe arriuall at your Port, to giue vnto God most hartie and humbleFor to feare God, and to be thankefull vnto him, is the be­ginning of all happinesse and prosperitie in our affaires. thankes for his gracious protection of you, by saying as in token of your thankefulnesse, some godly prayer of thankesgiuing, or say onely with re­uerence the Lords prayer, giuing him withall thankes in some wordes of your owne spirit.

Secondly, that presently vpon your arriuall, you doe make diligent inquirie, whether anie [Page 2] ships be bound either to this Port of Bristowe, or to any part of England. And then haue espe­ciall care, that the neerest that commeth to this Port, you write letters by them vnto me, and to them that you haue to deale for, of the arriuall of your ship: according to this plaine and briefe forme of inditing, as I will hereafter shew you. And so write likewise by your first letters, of the state of your businesse, and of the newes of the country, according as that time passeth. And when you haue learned of anie ship that commeth for England, doe not your selfe make itThis I say: to procure the more care and diligence in a youth. knowen to anie bodie at all: but write and deliuer your letters secretlie, for it shall sound much to your especiall credit and good liking, when your diligence shall be so seene, that your letters shall shew the first arri­uall of your Ship: because it is the thing that euerie Marchant doth especially long after to vnderstand.

Thirdly, deale closely & secretly in all your affaires and busynes, and before you enterprise any thing, doe you after curteous and gentle manner aske counsel, either of some Marchant in the Ship, or your Hoste, or of some English man: how you are to deale about your wares, both touching the landing it, the customing it, the selling it, the receauing of your moneyes, the buying of any wares againe, the customing the same againe, and to haue out all your writs [Page 3] and dispatches for euery such thing, as is need­full to be had. And hauing bin thus once in­structed, do you with carefullnes remember it of your selfe against another time. Also be ear­nest in noting & marking euery thing that you may, but be your selfe as secret and silent as is possible.

Fourthly in any case shew your selfe lowly, curteous, and seruiceable vnto euery person: for though you & many of vs else may think, that too much lowlinesse bringeth contempt and disgrace vnto vs: yet assuredly (it is wel known by experience) that there springeth of no one vertue so great fruit vnto vs, as of gentlenesse and humilitie: for it will both appease the an­ger and ill will of our enemies, & encrease the good will of our friends. Also in any wise be not seduced by any person, to play at any kinde of game, especially dice or cards, nor to vse fea­sting or banketing, or keeping company with women, nor to go fine and costly in apparell: for all these things are especially noted, and doe bring any yong beginner to vtter discredit and vndoing.

Fiftly carie this for an especiall note, that whensoeuer you haue dealings for anie mar­chants, you do in all things and euerie point obserue according to their commission and di­rection. For although I knowe, it will some­times seeme to your selfe, that you shall better [Page 4] please your marchant, not to buy those wares which he appointeth, because of the dearenesse of them: yet (I say) you shall giue euermore best contentment to your marchant, and saue your selfe harmelesse, when you followe his owne order and remembrance. And take this also for a caueat, that you neuer think the same ware which is best cheape, and is most bought vp, that it will be best to bestow your money theron: for ordinarily it falleth out, that the quantitie of the best cheape wares that is brought home, hath smaller vtterance and lesse profite, then such deare wares as there com­meth but very litle quantitie of. Also be care­full in setting vp safely your money when you haue receaued it: and likewise be warie whē you receiue your moneys for your wares, crauing the paines of some marchant your freind, as to helpe you the first time to receaue it for you, vntill you haue more knowledge to receaue it your selfe.

Moreouer be you in any wise circumspect touching your behauiour when you be in the countrey of Spaine or else where: and shewe your selfe lowly and courteous to all people, and learne what be their ciuill lawes and cu­stomes, and be carefull to keepe them. If anie of the rude and common sort of people (as so it is in all countreys) will by chaunce offer you anie abuse or wrong, appease them againe ra­ther [Page 5] by sufferance and gentlenesse, then by reuenge: for so shall you best quiet your selfe, & ouercome your enemie. In the sales of your wares, doe you, before you set price of it to any man, make inquirie howe other English men haue sold the like commodities, and so do you accordingly set prise of yours. And lightly doe not refuse the second or third chapmans offer: for most ordinarily it falleth out, that the first and fourth offer is neuer so good as the third offer: but in this you are to haue a good insight your selfe, and to do according as is your hast and necessitie for your sales.

Be most faithful & iust in all your accompts with euery man, & defraud no man willingly not the value of a farthing. See that at no time you do take any mans doings or dealings into your hands, without my leaue and counsell: be­cause by the trouble of other mens businesse, you may neglect & frustrate mine owne. And haue also regarde, for those small aduentures which I shall licence you to make for your owne priuate benefit, that euery voiage you doe deliuer mean accompt of it, wherby from time to time I may see and know your estate, and what of right doeth aperteine vnto you. Be circumspect and nigh in all your expences; making your reckoning, that what you now spare and saue vnto me, it may grow the more to your owne benefit in time to come.

Lastely let this be yet your first and chiefest point in all your actions: that especially you o­mit not your dutifull seruice towards almighty God, but euerie morning and night, to pray that God will still prosper and protect you, & to giue him humble thankes that he hitherto hath alwayes mercifully defended you. And this doe you performe, by saying silentlie, re­uerently, & atentiuely, such praiers as you haue learned by hart: or it your memorie cannot well remēber any other praier, say only to the praise of the blessed Trinity, the * Lords praier and theThis order of prayer I haue thought, might be good and godly: both be­cause of the country beyond the seas, and because of marchants lets and hinderance to continue in long prayer. Creed, vsing euermore withall these three pointes of meditation. First, to meditate your sinnes, and aske God hartely mercy, and stedfastly purpose amendment. Secondly, me­ditate Gods benefits: and humbly thanke him. Thirdly, meditate your necessities: and craue his holy helpe for them. The which you may then conlude the effect of these meditations, by saying lastly againe the Lords praier. And this dutifull exercise of praier, I do require you neuer once to pretermit both at morning & at night, how hastie and vrgent soeuer be your businesse For how great equitie & reason is it, that we should spend at the least one halfe houre or litle moment of the day in thanks, ser­uice, and mindfullnes of God: who is both carefull & mindfull to serue & succour vs, euen all the whole day and euer all our life long. Al­so [Page 7] neuer sit downe, or rise vp from meat, but be mindfull of God: & in expressing your thanks­giuing, say some Godly grace or other: or on­ly say (rather then faile) no more then, In the name of the father, of the sonne, & of the Holy Ghost, & let those wordes shew your thankful­nes to God. Finally in all your actions, vse di­ligence, conscience, silence and patience. Thus making no doubte, but if you be mindfull of your dutie and seruice to God, all thinges shall go well and haue happy successe that you take in hand. But the contrarie doing: your labours will not prosper, nor anie thing that you doe, will euer come to good passe or per­fection. The holy Ghost be euermore your Protector.

Your master to doe you any good that you shall deserue. T. A.

Here followeth a briefe forme of all such letters as you shall neede to vvrite throughout your vvhole voyage. The which forme is effectual & sufficient inough, and may still be obserued, vntill by expe­rience you may learne to indite better your selfe.

A Letter to be vvritten to your Master, if your ship be forced by vveather into any place, before you come to your Port of discharge.

AFTER my dutie remem­bred, I pray for your good health and prosperity. &c. These are certifying you, that by meanes of ill wea­ther and contrarie winds, we were within vi. dayes after our departure from Kingrode, forced into Milford: where here we abide according to Gods pleasure, hoping that he will shortly bet­ter prouide for vs. Litle newes I heare worth the writing: onely I vnderstand that there is [Here vvrite your nevves, if you haue anie.] Thus taking my leaue with my dutifull com­mendations remembred to my good mistresse &c. I heartely desire of God to protect and [Page 9] prosper you and all yours.

Your faithfull and obedient seruant R. A.

A Letter to be vvritten to your Master presently vpon your arriuall at your Port.

AFTER my duetie remembred, I pray for your good health & prosperitie, &c. These are certifying you, that on the 24. day of Octo­ber, within 16. dayes after our departure from Kingrode, we arriued here at Lisbon (God be thanked) in good safetie, and the Gabriel and the Minnyon also. As yet we haue not landed our goods nor sold anie thing, for it is but 3. dayes since we arriued. Touching Sales or Im­pliments, I doe vnderstand that it will not fall out so well as I wished or hoped it would: but I will do my verie best indeuor for you accor­ding as time shall serue.

Brode clothes of the finest sorts, I do heare may be worth about 50. Duckets: and sorting clothes 38. Duckets: fine Stammels 80. Duc­kets a cloth: Reading Kerseis about 14. Duc­kets a peece: Bayes about 12. Duckets a peece: Lead 19. Rials the Kintal: wheat 3. Rials and a halfe the Alquer. ¶ Of the wares here of the [Page 13] countrey: pepper is worth about 50. Duckets the Kintal: cloues 75. Duckets: maces 80. Dks: Nutmegs 80. Duckets: Sinamond 68. Duc­kets: Callicowes of Sancto Passes at 50. Duc­kets the Corge: Sope at 7. Duckets the Kintal: Brasill at 7. Duckets and a halfe the Kintall: Oyles 86. Duckets the tunne: Salt at 11. Rials the MuyNote that you inquire & also write the pry­ses of all other vendible warrs. Litle newes I heare worth the wri­ting, onely it is sayd that the king, &c. [Here vvrite your nevves.] Thus taking my leaue with my dutifull commendations remembred to my good Mistresse, &c. I heartely desire of God to protect and prosper you and all yours.

Your faithfull seruant whiles I liue. R. A.

A Letter to be vvritten to your Maister, or some other man that is of vvorship, next after your first letter.

AFTER my duetie remembred vnto your Worship: I pray for your good health & prosperitie, &c. These are certifying your wor­ship, that by a ship of London called the Mar­chant royall, I wrote to you before of our arri­ual here at Lisbon. But lest some chance should let the comming of it to your hands, you shall [Page 11] againe vnderstand that on the 24. day of Octo­ber, within 16. dayes after our departure from Kingrode, we arriued here at Lisbon (God be thanked) in good safetie, and the Minion and the Gabriel also. Touching Sales or Implimēts it falleth not out so well as I hoped and wished it would: but I haue done my very best inde­uor for you as time serued. Your 10. fine brode clothes, I sold them for 50. Duckets and 6. rials a peece: but they forced me in rebates 8. Duc­kets vpon thē all. Your Stammell brode cloth I haue sold for 84. Duckets and 3. Rials. Your lead I haue sold for 23. Rials the Kintall. The waxe for 24. Duckets and a halfe the Kintall. And as for your impliments, I haue according vnto your remembrance laden for you in the Gabriell, 6. Kintals and 2. Roues of pepper, which cost the first pennie 50. Duckets the Kintall. Also in that ship 1. Kintall of Cloues which cost the first pennie 75. Duckets and a halfe: and haue marked it all according to your marke in the margent.[mark or monogram of Thomas Aldworth]

Mases are here worth 80. Dks. the Kintall: Sinamond 68. Dks. Nutmegs 80. Dks. Calli­cowes of S. Passes at 50. Dks. the Corge. Oyles 86. Dks. the tun: sope at 7. Dks. the kintal: brasil 7. Dks & a half the kintal: salt 11. rials the Muy. ¶ Of our English commodities: Reding kersies are worth 14. Dks. a peece: bayes 9. Dks. 4. rials a peece: wheat 3. rials & a halfe the Alquer, &c,

Within this fower dayes we hope to make readie to go for Andalozia: God be our good speede whensoeuer we go. In Andalozia we vnderstād that oyles are worth about 78. Duc­kets the tunne: and Secks 12. Duckets the But. Litle newes I heare worth the writing: &c. Thus taking my leaue, I commit your wor­ship to Almightie God.

Your Worships at commandement to the vttermost of my power. R. A.

A Letter to be vvritten vpon your arriuall from Lisbon vnto your second Port.

AFTER my duetie remembred, I pray for your good health & prosperitie, &c. These are certifying you, that on the 7. day of Decem­ber, within 5. dayes after our departure from Lisbon, we arriued at S. Lucar (God be than­ked) in good safetie. Touching sales or impli­ments here, it falleth out not so well as I ho­ped and wished it would; but I haue done my very best indeuour for you as the time serued. Your 12. peeces of bayes I haue sold for 11. Ds. and 7. Rials the peece: and your 15. tunnes of lead, after 21. Rials the Kintal, &c. [Here vvrite forvvards as it is in the Letter next before, chā ­ging [Page 13] onely the names of the vvares vvhich you haue to buy or sell in that countrey.]

Your faithfull and obedient seruant. R. A.

A Letter to be sent in that ship vvhere you haue laden goods for any Marchant.

AFTERNote that whē you write to a Marchant or any other, which is not your Maister or is not a man of worship: then may you well inough beginne alwayes your letters after this maner. my very heartie commendations vnto you, I pray for your good health and prosperitie, &c. These are certifying you, that I haue laden for your accompt in the Gabriell of Bristow according to your remembrance, 4. tuns of oyle, which is marked with your mark in the margent. The which doth cost the first pennie 11. Rials and a half the Roue, and doth amount vnto 75. Duckets, 3. Rials the tunne. More I haue laden for you 2. Roues of Coche­nele, which cost after 160 Duckets the Kintal, and is marked according to the other marke. More 12. buts of Seck which cost the first peny 15. Ds. the But: marked also with the former.[mark or monogram of Thomas Aldworth] Al which goods (Godwilling) I hope you shal well and safely receaue. Here within inclosed I send you a bill of lading for all your goods, & likewise your accompt. Thus for this time I take my leaue, trusting my selfe very shortly to be at home, for by the grace of God I purpose to come alongst in the Pleasure: vntill which [Page 14] time I commit you to Almightie God.

Your assured to my power. R. A.

A Letter to be vvriten to one that hath left some busines to doe for him vnder your handes, there in the Country.

AFTER my verie hartie comendations vnto you, I pray you for your good health and prosperitie. &c. These are certifying you, that touching such busines which you apointed me to do for you: I haue now sold the 4. brode clothes which you left herewith me, for 48. Dks. a peece: and haue imploied the monie ac­cording to your direction. Namely in 1. Kintal of pepper, which cost the first penny 45. Duc­kets and a halfe the kintall, and haue laden it in the Minion. More in the same ship I haue laden 3. Roues of cloues, which cost after 76. duckets the kintall, and haue marked it all with your mark as in the margent.[mark or monogram of Thomas Aldworth] The mony which you appointed me to receaue of F.B. he hath paid it me: and I haue passed it (and all the rest of the monie in my hands, being in the whole 184. Duckets, 2. Rials): by exchange to Siuill in B. E. as was your remembrance. I do send you your accompt here within enclosed. Also your letter that you left with me, I haue sent by my [Page 10] brother in law I. R. in the Tobie. I pray you do my harty cōmendacions vnto my good frends at Bristow, master I.P. &c. Litle newes I heare worth the writing. Thus taking my leaue I commit you to Almightie God.

Yours assured to my power. R. A.

A Letter to be vvritten to a friend, giuing him thanks for some pleasure he hath done for you, and requesting againe some farther good turne of him.

AFTER my very harty cōmendacions vn­to you: I pray for your good health & pro­speritie, &c. These are giuing you most heartie thanks for your great pains & gentlenesse here­tofore shewed vnto me: assuring you that you shall find me to the vttermost of my power, both gratefull and mindfull to pleasure you a­gaine in the like & greater if I can be able. Desi­ring you hartily yet once more, to let me craue so much your good wil, as to do me againe this one plesure: which is, to deliuer this letter here­in closed, to master P.R. Draper, that dwelleth in Lisbon in the Roa noua: and that you would receaue for me of him 100. Duckets which I haue written to him to pay you. And when you haue receaued it, that you would be so [Page 16] good as to imploie it all in good pepper, & to set my Masters marke on it, which is as in the margent. Praying you to agree for freyte, and to procure to haue it laden in the Pleasure, & to write a letter vnto my Master about it. I am sory that I am driuen to make still so bold vp­on you: wishing that you had the like or great­er occasion to trye also my good will towards you. Litle newes I heare worth the writing &c. Thus taking my leaue, I commit you to Almightie God.

Your assured to my power. R. A.

A Letter to be vvritten to a friend vvhen you vvould haue him to pleasure you in any matter.

AFTER my very hartie comendations vnto you: I pray for your good health and pro­speritie. &c. These are most hartely to desire so much your friendship and good will, to doe me this pleasure: as to receaue for me out of the Gabriel when she cometh to S. Lucar, 6. tūnes of Lead conteining 105. peeces, being marked as in the margent: & to doe so much as make present sale of it, the best you can as the time serueth. And when you haue made sale & re­ceaued [Page 17] monyes for it, that you would be so good as to ride vnto Sheres and buy for me 8. Buts of very good Secke the best that possible can be gotten, though they cost a Ducket or two the more in a But: & to lade them away as soone as is possible abord the Gabriel, marking them with the former marke in the margent. And the rest of the monies that you shal haue left, I pray you to passe it with all speede hither to Siuil vnto me. Herein (if without seeming ouerbold) I may craue your pains to pleasure me: I doe assure you that you shall finde me to the vttermost of my power, both gratefull and mindfull to pleasure you againe in the like and much greater if I can be able. Litle newes I heare worth the writing. Thus taking my leaue I commit you to Almightie God.

Your assured to my power. R. A.

This breefe & plaine order in your letters, I thinke it best you should for a time vse, because of easing a while your owne young inuen­tion of Inditing: for after this maner of stile you may write to most sortes of persons.

The superscription of your letters may be thus.

To the worshipfull, Alderman Aldworth Marchant, dwelling in Smalstreat in Bristow: giue this with speed.
Or saie: to the worshipfull my Master Ma­ster Ihon Barker marchant. &c.
Or: to my assured good friend Master Tho­mas Pits marchant. &c.

CERTAINE ESPECIAL BRIEFE NOTES OF WAIGHTS, measures, and value of monies in Portingale, Spaine and France, with an instruction for the better knowledge of diuerse wares in those countreyes.

Of the Kintal or hundred weight of Por­tingale, Spaine, or France.

Of the Kintal of Portingale.

Obserue besides these instructi­ons following, to make diligent inquirie your selfe, in all pla­ces where you trade, of euery of these pointes for these notes may in some cō ­tries and through time be a litle altred and changed from the rules here set downe. NOte that in Lisbon in Portin­gale, the kintal of pepper and of ginger (which they call the les­ser kintal) is 112. pound. And their Roue or quarterne waight is 28. pound, and holdeth out with our English hundred of 112. pound, and sometimes two or thred pound more.

The kintal of most sorts of all other spices, as cloues, maces, nutmegs, Sinamōd, &c. cōtai­neth 128. pound, and is called the great Kintal: and the Roue containeth 32 pound, and doeth [Page 19] hold out about 15. or 16. pound more then our English hundred.

Of the Kintal of Spaine.

Note that in most parts of Spain, their Kin­tal is, 100. li. and containeth of our English waight butNote that the lead doth most comonly holde out after this rate of waight: but most sortes of other english wares, doe not so. 102. li. So as our hundred waight is 10 in the 100. greater then theirs. Excep­ting the Kintal waight of Iron in Biskey, which is 150. pound, and doth make about 114. pound of our English waight.

Of the Kintal of France.

Note that in Rochel and Burdeaux, and so in most parts of France, the Kintal is 100. pound: and holdeth out with our English hundred: sa­uing that through falshood of the wayers, it falleth lesse in one place then in another.

OF THE MEASVRES OF cloth in Portingale, Spaine, and Fraunce.


NOte that the measure of cloth in Lisborne is the Couada: which conteineth about 3. quarters of our English yarde. But the measure of Linnen cloth, is chiefely bought and sold by the Vare: which is about an Ell lesse a naile of our English measure.


Note that the measure of Spaine is called the Vare: which conteineth an English yard lesse a naile.


Note that the measure of France, is the Aulne: which conteineth almost a naile long­er then our English Ell,

OF THE MEASVRES OF Corne and salt in Portingale, Spaine, and France.


Note that the measure of corne in Lisborne is the Alquer: and 3. Alquers make about a Bushel of our Bristow measure, which isThe corne measure of Bristow is 8. gallonds Win­chester. 8. gallonds Winchester: and 5. Alquers or neere therabouts, maketh a Hanic of the measure of Spaine.


Note that the measure of Spaine, is his Ha­nic, which conteineth about a Bushell and a halfe of our measure of Bristow: so as 2. Ha­nicks makes about 3. bushels of ours.


Note that the measure of Rochel and Bur­deaux is the Boiseau: which conteineth neere about 3. peckes of our Bristow measure.



ITem the measure of salt of Portingale, is cal­led the Muye: & 60. Alquers makes a Muye: [Page 21] and 2. Muyes and 15. Alquers or thereabouts,The water me­sure of Salt of Bristow: 10. gallonds VVin­chester: & the tonne is 40. of those nusurs or bushels. makes a tonne of our water mesure of Bristow.


Item the measure of Salt of Spain, is called the Kayis, and 12 Hanicks goeth to a Kayis. And 2. Kayis and 3 Hanicks or thereabouts, makes a tun of our water measure of Bristow.


Item in Rochel in France, the measure of salt is the Boiseau: and 24. Boiseans makes a Muy: and 28. Muyes maketh a hundred: & 2. Muyes makes about a tunne and 5. bushels of our Bri­stowe measure. The best measure of all is the Oldron measure, which is 36. Muyes to a hun­dred: and euery hundred maketh about 20. tunnes of our Bristow measure.

OF THE VALVE OF MO­nies in Spaine, Portingale and France.


NOte that the Ducket of Spain, hath 11. rials of plate: and euerie rial of plate hath 34. Meruedis: & euery Ducket 374. Meruedis. The Ducket isNote that the Spanish ducket, is so much in number; but more in value. 5. shillings six pence of our English monie: the rial of plate is six pence, & the Mer­uede is lesse then our farthing. The halfe rial of plate is 17. Meruedis: and the quartel is 8. Meruedis and a halfe: and the single pistolet of gold is 11. Rials, 3. quartels being 400. Meruedis, [Page 22] which is 6. shillings lesse 3. halfe pence of our English money.


Note that the Ducket of Portingale is 10. Rials, and euerie Rial 40. Res: & euery Ducket 400. Res. The Ducket is iust our English crowne: the Rial of plate is six pence: and the Res is about halfe a farthing. The Teston of Portingale is 2. Rials and a halfe, which is one shilling and three pence English: and the halfe Rial or Vinten is 20. Res, which is three pence English: and the Milres of gold is 1000. Res iust, which is two Duckets and a halfe, and is twelue shillings six pence English.


Note that the French crowne of France called the Escu, is 3. Liuers: and euery Liuer 20. Sous: and euery Escu 60. Sous. The Escu is six shillings English mony: the Liuer is two shillings: and the Sous is almost one penny & farthing, for fiue Sous is six pence English. The Sous also is deuided into Liardes and into De­niers: for there goeth to the Sous 6. Liards, & to the Liard 2. Deniers, and 12. Deniers to a Sous The Flemish crowne is 2. Sous lesse then is the French crowne. The Teston of France is 14. Sous and a halfe, which is one shilling fiue pence halfe penny: and some of the newer Testons are worth 15. Sous, which is one shil­ling and six pence English.

A BRIEFE IN­STRVCTION FOR THE BETTER KNOW­ledge of certaine wares of Portin­gale, Spaine and France.


NOTE that of pepper, the greatest and lar­gest is best, & that which is cleanest with­out much dust. The which you shall trie the cleanenesse of it, by taking vp a handfull of it somewhat low in the bagge, for the dust will appeare on your fingers after letting downe the pepper. The russet coloured pepper is best, and that which is soūd: the which you may proue the soundnesse of it, by rubbing it hard betwixt your hands If it be verie blacke of colour, and the dust of it moist, and sticking to your fingers then hath it taken wet, and is not so good.


Note, that of Cloues the longest and smal­lest stems are best, and which are cleane with­out dust, & without much of the mother cloue & which are drie. The which you may proue the drinesse of them, by breaking the stems of some of them: that if they breake short and not bow, then is it a signe that they are good and drie. But if they be verie blacke, and will bend: then is it like they are moyst and wet.


Note that of Maces: the greatest and largest are best, and which are of fayer and bright o­renge colour, and and such as are cleanest and best without the nutmegs, and without the bright yellow mases.


Note that of Sinamond, the largest and thin­nest rinde is best, and those which are of fayer and bright orenge colour, and which are quic­kest and pleasantest on the tong. But the thicke rind & dusky colourd Sinamon is not so good.


Note that of Nutmegs, the largest and grea­test are best, and which are of a bright russet co­lour, and sound, waightie, and quicke on the tongue.


Note that of Ginger, the greatest and largest are best, and which are of yellow or faire russet colour, and sound, waightie, and hote on the tongue.


Note that of Suger, the faire and white co­lour is best, and which is hard, and without brownnesse in the heart of the loafe: the which brownnesse of it is seene, by hauing the loafe broken in the midst, or otherwise if the whole head of the loafe round about be browne and darke coloured.


Note that ofOf Calicowes are diuers and sundry sortes: and therfore the knowledge of them all can not be perfectly described. Calicowes: the whitest and cleanest without starch are best, and which are of fine thrid, close made, and that haue sub­stance in feeling thē. But those which are much starched, of great thrid, and thine wouen, are not so good.


Note, that of Salt the brightest and whitest colour is best, & which is cleane without durte or strawes, and that which is old and not new salt. The which if it be new, it is perceaued by the moistnes of it, and by the sticking of it to your fingers, after hard wringing of it in your hande.


Note, that of Cochenele the largest & brigh­est gray or siluer colour is best, and that which doth cast the quickest & most orient red in the palme of your hand, after you haue rubbed and mingled it with a litle spitle.


Note of Oyle, the swetest, and clearest, yel­lowest, greenest, and without water or foot, is the best. But if it be darke coloured, very rank and with much foote, it is not good.


Note that of Portingale Sope: the whitest, hardest, dryest, and swetest is best, and which hath most of the blew vains & the colour cleer [Page 62] & faire, & which (as I said) is hardest & driest. The which is somwhat perceaued, by the noise or ratling that it will make within the Scarne when it is shaken. But if it be duskie coloured, of few blew vaines, soft, of greasie and rank sa­uour, moist, and clinging one to another, it is not so good.


Note that of Ode: the knowledge & good­nes thereof, is very hardly perceaued before it come to proofe of boiling, and men chuse it e­ther by experience or good report of Soyles where it groweth, or els of the fatnes of the ode. The which is somewhat perceaued the fat­nes of it, by breaking a clot betwixt your fin­gers, wherin will apeere certaine vaines or thrids: the which vaines if they be many, and will spin long, it is a good signe: but if there be fewe or none, and do breake short, it is an euill signe. Also some vse triall of it, by rubbing it with a litle spitle on a knife: the which if it doe cast a good quicke colour, & doth somewhat staine the knife: they say it is a good signe. &c.


Note that of Iron, the smallest and thinnest drawen, and which hath least crackes though most flawes, it is the best. And if in breaking a tong or barre, it do breake tough, & not short, it is good. But if it looke after a firy red colour, & hath many crackes, it is not good.


Note that of Traine: the clearest & swetest is best, and that which is without much foote or water. But if it be thicke and darke coloured and very ranke of sauour, it is not good.


Of wines: it can not be set downe by pen or words, the right knowledge of it, for it is per­ceiuable only by the tast and sauor. But the best sorts of wines generally are, when they doe tast pleasant and strong withall, and when they drinke cleane and quicke in the pallet of the mouth, and whē they are cleere & white hued if they be white wines, or of faire orient red, if they be red wines. But if they drinke weake, rough, foule, flat, inclining to egernesse, or long: they are not good.




A briefe order for making of a bill of lading, the vvhich may serue for diuerse mens goods, and may be sent to one Marchant alone, and re­quest him to giue aduertisement of it to the others.

HAthNote here that you obserue to make still a seuerall byll of lading for your masters goods: and not to vse this forme and order, but whē your haste of busines is great, or when you lade but some small cabo for a Marchant laden by the grace of God in in good safetie in Lisbon in Por­tingale, and in S. Lucar in the pro­uince of Andalouzia in Spaine: by R. A. marchant of the citie of Bri­stow, abord the ship called the Pleasure, wherof is maister for the present voyage W. M. and bound for the Port of Bristowe in England, these goods & marchandise following Name­ly 5. bags of pepper containing 12. Kintals and 2. Roues: for the accompt of my maister T. R. marchant of the citie of Bristowe, and marked vnder this marke in the margent. More 10. pipes of oile for his accompt, marked also with the former marke. More 20. buts of Secke for his accompt, marked with the former marke.[mark or monogram of Thomas Aldworth]

More also 3. Roues of Cochenele for the ac­compt of maister I. B. marchant of Bristowe, and marked as in the margent. More 5. buts of seck for his accompt, marked with the former marke.[mark or monogram of John Brown]

[mark or monogram of T I]More 8. buts of Secke for the accompt of maister T. I. marchant of Bristow, and marked as in the margent. All which goods and mar­chandises, I R. A. purser of the said ship, do ac­knowledge to haue receaued aborde, well and sufficiently condicioned. And by these presents I do bind my selfe with the ship, her apparell and freight, to deliuer the sayd goods in iust or­der and condition againe vnto the marchants and owners aforsaid, God sending the ship and goods to her Port in safetie. In witnesse of truth I R.A. Purser haue vntoNote that your are to make either 2. or 3. of these billes two of these billes of lading set my hand, giuen the 20. day of Ianua­rie. 1589.

By me R. A.

A briefe order for making a marchants particular remembrance.

A Remembrance for you my seruant R. A., that principally you do with diligēceThese words haue relation to the Generall remembrance spoken of in the beginning. read & regard the counsel of that litle booke which I now geue you. And now (God willing) at your comming to Lisbon, you shal receaue out of the Ioseph wherin you go, one packe of 10. fine brode Clothes, and 1. fine stamell cloth, with a gray cotten wraper, the which are mar­ked as in the margent.[mark or monogram of Thomas Aldworth] Nuo. 1. The brode clothes stand me with all charges twelue pound a cloth, and I hope they will yeld you in Lisbon about 52. duckets. The Stāmel standeth me in 17. pound, [Page 51] and I hope will yeld you 75. Duckets: & the wrapper cost 30. shillings. All which doe you your best indeuoure, to sell as the time serueth. More (God willing) you shall receiue 3. Hogs heads of waxe, marked also with the former marke, wherin is 14. hundred and 13. pound. It doth stand me all charges, about 5. pound 12 shillings the hundreth: the which you may sell for 25. Duckets a Kintall, if time so offereth. More also you shall receaue for my acompt 20 tunnes of lead, conteining 345. peeces marked as in the top of the former page: the which if you cannot sel to some reckning in Lisbon, do you let it go along in the Ship to S. Lucar, and there to sell it aswell as you may: I hope it will be worth 22. Rials the Kintal.

And now for my impliments, do you lade me in the Ioseph 8. Kintals of good and large pepper, and se that it be well made vp in good bagges, & giue charge it may be stowed in the driest part of the ship. more at your coming to S. Lucar, do you lade me in the Gabriel 5. tuns of good oyles: and do you see well both to the watring and hooping of your caske, and to the cleannes of the Oyle that it be without foote. More do you also lade in the Vnicorne 12. pipes of Oyle, and haue care vnto it as before I haue said. More lade me in the same ship the Vnicorne 16. Buts of very good Secke, and do you giue a Ducket or two the more in a But, to [Page 52] haue them principall good. And if after you haue bought al these wares, there be any surplus money remaining: do you bestow it in good Cochenele, so farr as it will rise, and marke all these goods with my marke as is before in the margent. But if it fall out that you shall want any monies, to furnish the lading of 15. tunnes in the Vnicorne, which I am bounde vnto: thē request so much friēdship of T. M. to furnish that which you want, in monyes by exchang: and agree with him for the exchange so good cheape as you can, as about 6. shillings and 4. pens or 6. shillings and 8. pens the Ducket, and this my letter shall be your warrant. Make ma­ster W. O. in Lisbon, and master I. T. in S. Lucar, your friends to ayd and instruct you, in the buying and selling of all your wares: and giue thē that thing, which I deliuered you, for a token of goodwill from me. Inquire secretly what wares are in good request & best vendi­ble: and send me speedy and secret intelligence of it. See that the purser of the Vnicorne firme you billes of lading. Thus exhorting you to re­member your duety towardes God: whom I beseech to protect you euermore by his holy Spirit, and prosper you in all your affaires. Bri­stow this 17. day of December. An. 1589.

Your Master to do you any good that you shall deserue. T. A.

The forme of a bill of exchange for the countrey of Spaine.

VVOrshipfull: may it please you to pay vpon this my first bill vnto R. N. or the bearer hereof, within 15. dayes after the safe arriuall of the Gabriell of Bristow to her Port of discharge:Note that you must make 3. of these billes Thirty and thre pound six shillings ond eight pence. thirtie and three pounds, sixe shillings and eight pence. Which is for 100. Duckets that I haue taken vp by exchange for your vse of T.M. a marchant of London at six shillings and eight pence the Ducket. From S. Lucar the 16. day of December. 1589.

By me R. A.

Say as folovveth in your second bil of exchange, and so accordingly in the third.

Worshipful: may it please you to pay vpon this my second bill (my first not being payed) vnto R. N. or the bearer hereof: and so foorth as in the other.

A bill of Exchange to be made in England.

VVItnesseth this present bill of exchange: that I R. A. marchant of the citie of Bristowe, do owe vnto T. M. marchant of the sayd citie, the summe of 100. Duckets: I say an hundred Duckets of currant monie of Spaine, accompting after 11 rials of plate to the Ducket. To be payd vnto the sayd T. M. or his assignes, [Page 54] within 10. dayes next and immediatly after the safe arriuall of the good ship called the Gabriel of Bristowe, to the port of S. Lucar in Anda­louzia in Spaine, or any other porte of hir dis­charge. And for the true payment therof, I the abouenamed R A. do binde me, my goods my heirs executors, & assignes, firmly to these presents. In witnesse of the truth, I haue caused two of these billes to be made (the which the one being payed, the other to be voide): and haue put my firme and seale vnto them, & deli­uered them as my deed, in Bristow the 15. day of September 1589. and in the 31. yeare of our soueraigne, Queene Elizabeth her maiesties raigne. &c.

An aquitance.

Witnesseth these presents: that I R.A. mar­chant of the City of Bristow, haue receaued of T. M. marchant of the said city, the summe of a hundred Duckets currant monies of Spaine, due vnto my master T. A. as apeared by a bill of exchange. Wherefore to testify that I am truely satisfied & payd of the aforesaid summe: I haue vnto this aquittance set my firme, and deliuered it as my deed the 18. day of Nouem­ber. 1589.

By me R. A.

A bill of Atturney.

Witnesseth these presents: that I R. A. mar­chant of the City of Bristow, do substitute and [Page 55] appoint my true & lawful atturney T. M. mar­chant of Bridgwater: to recouer & receaue of G. H. marchāt of the aforesaid City of Bristow the summe of 25. pound, due vnto me as appea­reth by his bil. Wherfore I giue also to the said T. M, all my owne full power and authority, to deale and to do as in steed of my self. In wit­nesse of the truth, I haue vnto this present bill of Atturney, put my firme and seale, & deliuer­ed it as my deed, in Bristow the 17. day of our Soueraigne, Queene Elizabeth her Maiesties Raigne &c.

A bill of debt.

BE it known to all mē by these presents: that I R. A. marchant of the Citie of Bristowe, owe vnto T. M. marchant of the said City: the summe of 25. pounds 8. shillings, of good & currant moneys of England, to be payd vnto the said T. M. or his assignes, at or vpon the 25. day of Iuly next ensuing the date hereof. And for the true payment thereof: I the abouenam­ed R. A. do binde me, my goods, heirs, execu­tors, administrators, and assignes firmely by these presents. In witnesse of truth I haue caus­ed this bill of debt to be made, and haue here­unto put my firme and seale, and deliuered it as my deede, in Bristow the 4. day of May 1589. and in the 31. yeare of our Soueraigne, Queene Elizabeth her Maiesties Reigne. &c.

A Bond or Obligacion. Nouerint vniuersiper praesentes me R. A. de ciuitate Bristoliae mercatorē, teneri et firmiter obligari T. M. de eadem ciuitate Mercatori: in viginti libris bonae & legalis monetae Angliae. Soluendis eidem T. M. aut suo certo Attur­nato executoribus, siue administratoribus suis. Ad quam quidem solutionem bene & fideliter faciendam, obligo me, heredes, executores & administratores meos, firmiter per praesentes. Sigillo meo sigillatum, datum septimo die No­uembris, anno regni Dominae nostrae Elizabe­thae, Dei gratia Angliae, Franciae, & Hyber­niae Reginae, fidei defens. &c. tricesimo primo.

The condition of this Obligacion is such, that if the abouebounden R. A. his heires, executors or assignes, doe well and truly content and pay, or cause to be contented and payd, vnto the a­boue named T.M his executors, administra­tors, or assignes, the summe of tenne pounds of good and currant money of England, on the sixteenth day of May next insuing the date a­boue written, without couen or fraude: That then this obligacion to be void, or else to stand in full force and vertue.

A Policie or vvriting of assurance.

IN the name of God Amen. Be it known vn­to all men by these presents: that Thomas Aldworth marchant of the citie of Bristowe [Page 57] doth make assurance and causeth him selfe to be assured from the Port of the sayd citie of Bri­stow called Hungrode vnto the port of Lisbon in the kingdome of Portingale, and therehence directly backe againe to the aforesayd Port of Bristow: vpon the bodie, tackle, apparell, ordi­nance, munition, artillerie, boate, and other fur­niture, of the good ship called the Gabriell of Bristow, of the burthen of 60. tunnes or there­abouts. And also vpon all goods, wares, and marchandises laden or to be laden in the afore­sayd ship the Gabriel, whereof is maister vnder God for this present voyage R.M. or by what other name the maister of the ship may or shal be called. Beginning the aduenture from the day and houre of the lading of the anker, sprea­ding the sayle, and departure of the sayde ship from Hungrode aforesaid. And so shall conti­nue and endure vntill such time as the said ship with all her sayd furniture, & all the goods and marchandises laden in her, shall returne and safely arriue back againe from Lisbon vnto the Port of Hungrode aforesayd, & there hath sur­ged and mored at an anker by the space of 24. houres in good safetie. Touching the aduen­tures and perils which we the assurers hereaf­ter named are contented to beare and take vpon vs this present voyage, are of the seas, men of warre, fire, enemies, pirats, rouers, theeues, Iet­tesons, letters of marke and countermarke, [Page 58] arrests, restraints, and detainment of Kings and Princes & of all other persons, barratry of the Master and mariners, & of all other perils, los­ses, & misfortunes whatsoeuer they be, or how­soeuer to the damage or hurt of the sayd Ship and goods or any part or parcell thereof. And that in case of any misfortunes: it shall then be lawfull to the assured his factor, seruant, or as­signe, to sue labour, & trauail, for in and about, the defence safgard and recouerie of the said Ship & goods, & all other the premisses, with­out any preiudice to this assurance. To the char­ges wherof we th'assurers shal contribute eche one according to the rate and quantity of his summe herein assured. It is to be vnderstood that this present writing and assurance shall be of as much force, strength & effect, as the best and most surest pollicie or writing of assu­rance which hath bene euer heretofore vsed to be made in Lumbard streete, or now within the Roial exchange in London. And so we the assurers are contented, and doe promise and bind our selues and euerie of vs, our heirs, exe­cutors and assignes, for the true performance of the premises, acording to the vse and custome of the said streete, or Royall exchange. Con­fessing our selues to be fully satisfied and paied of and for the considerations due vnto vs after the rate of 7. vpon the 100. And in testimony of the truth we the assurers haue hereunto se­uerally [Page 59] subscribed our names and summes of money assured,

  • I W. N. marchant of London am content with this assurance (which God preserue) for 25. pounds this 19. day of September. 1589.
    25 li.
  • I R. T. marchant of London am content with this assurance (which God preserue) for 25. pounds this 20. day of September. 1589.
    25 li.
  • I M. R. marchant of Bristow am content with this assurance (which God) preserue for 15. pound this 21. day of September 1589.
    25 li.



HERE FOLLOVVE CER­TAINE GODLY SENTENCES, NE­cessarie for a youth to meditate vpon.

FIRST seeke the kingdome of God and the righteousnesse thereof: and then all things shall be giuen thee that thou hast neede of.

Apply thy selfe vnto labour while thou art young, lest in thine old age thy body become full of diseases, and thy ende be in reproch and pouertie.

The godly and diligent man shall haue pro­speritie in all his wayes: but he that followeth pleasure and voluptuousnesse, shall haue much sorow before he die.

Take heede of vsing a false ballance or mea­sure, for it is an abhomination before God: and a swearing and lying tongue, maketh hote the curse of God vpon his house.

Couet not ouermuch familiaritie amongst men: for it maketh thee spend much losse of time.

Let not thy expences be equall with thy [Page 62] gaynes: for either Sicknes, naughtie dettors, let of trade, and misfortune by the sea or land, may soone ouetthrow thee.

Linke not in amity with too many mē that are aboue thy calling: for it will much increase thy trouble and charge.

Beware in any case of suertiship: for it ma­keth thy friend thine enemy; it indangereth thy estate; and impaireth thy owne credit.

Be not hasty in giuing credit to euery man; but take heed to a man that is ful of words, that hath red eyes, that goeth much to law, and that is suspected to liue vnchaste.

When thou promisest any thing: be not slacke to performe it, for he that giueth quick­ly, giueth double.

If either of goodwill or necessity thou must doe a thing, see thou do it gladly & cheerfully: for so shall thy gift be well accepted, & thy la­bour and cost neuer a whit the more.

Remember often thy Creator, and how he hath made the whol compasse of the day and night to serue thee, but thee to serue only him. Wherefore if thou requite not thy maker, to serue him one houre or litle momēt of the day, for foure and twenty houres which he serueth thee: for thy beastly vnthankfulnes thou hast lost both thy light in this world, and shalt find darknes in the world to come.

If thou wilt prosper, pray: if thou wilt haue [Page 63] blessinges, restore what thou hast euill got­ten: if thou wilt haue ioye of thy labours, be single in thy tongue and eye, vse no lying nor deceit.

Thinke it not inough to refraine thee from doing euill: but know that it is also thy dutie to do that which is good. Therefore be feruēt for the praise of thy Creator: geue good ex­ample: put forwards thy Children & seruants in the seruice of God: help the widow, the fa­therlesse, the stranger, the poore, and the op­pressed.

Do vnto another as thou wouldest be done to thy selfe: and offer not that vnto another, which thy self wouldest take in offence.

Be not greedy nor in lust after that, which is both displeasant vnto God; hurtfull to thy body; an enemy to thy soule; and a shortner of thy life: which is: Wine, Wealth, and Women.

What winneth a man by whordome? euen but a moment any pleasure; a present sorrow to his minde; a perpetuall sicknes to his bodie; and eternall damnation (without hartie repen­tance and amendment) to his soul.

What profiteth a man by deceit, forswear­ing, and dissimulation? he heapeth to himselfe the horrible vengeance of God? and seruantes who shall serue him the like; and offereth his soul as a pray vnto Sathan.

What auayleth it a man to fare delicately, & to drinke much of pleasant & strong drinks? His mouth receaueth twise so much bitternesse as it had before delight; he shall become cor­rupt as the Tode, and shall returne to vomite with the dogge.

What getteth a man by lying? Not to be beleeued when he speaketh truth.

Feare God: for he can destroy both thy bo­die and soule.

Honor thy Prince: for she hath power ouer life and death.

Loue thy parents: for they are the best friēds thou shalt euer haue.

Giue reuerence to thy betters: for therein thou shalt haue honor to thy selfe.

Be curteous and lowly to all men: for there­by thine enemies report shalbe doubted of.

Be not wise in thine owne conceipt: for thou canst not know all thine owne imperfections.

Be not carefull to please thine eye: for it is the deceiptfullest enemie thou hast.

Remember who made thee: it was God: remember of what thou wast made: euen of earth and clay. Remember wherfore thou wast made: to honor and glorifie God. Remember to what thou shalt be made: euen to dust and ashes. Remember to what thou mayst be made againe: euen a glorious and immortall bodie.

Who so taketh vpon him the degree of a [Page 65] seruant, let these three things be his chiefest thought and meditation. The first that euerie morning and euening, he performe his dutifull obedience and thankesgiuing, by his prayers vnto God. The Second, that he alwayes carie in mind, what carefulnesse, truth, and diligence, is required in his seruice towards his maister. The third, how he himselfe may liue with ho­nestie and credit in time to come.

THE CONCLVSION, VVHICH is an historie very profitable and delightful for a youth to reade and meditate.

THere was a certaine Philosopher, who lying on his death bed, called his sonne, & sayd these words vnto him. My sonne when I thy father am dead, remember me by recomp­ting often vnto thy selfe this counsell which now I giue vnto thee. First learne of the little singing birds, who neuer misse in the morning and at euening, but in their kinde, they yeeld foorth their voices in praise and reioycing of their Creator and maker: and so see that thou also do neuer forget & neglect the same.

Learne of the litle emet, that prouideth in the sommer her foode for the winter: and so see that thou also in thy youth, labor for thy main­tenance against thine age. Learne of the cocke, that often watcheth and croweth in the night, [Page 66] both to preserue himself and his fellowes from the wefell: and so se that thou often watch, and stretch forth thy voice in prayer by night vnto God, and in that quiet time, studie to preuēt thy dangers. Learne of the litle dog, who because he is the humblest creature of all vnto man, is therfore most loued and esteemed: & so see that thou euermore shew thy selfe humble & lowly vnto euery man. Learne of the silk worm, who as soone as she gathereth strength to yeeld anie vertue frō her, neuer ceasseth nor waxeth wea­rie vntill she die: and so see that thou also contēt not thy self, to do thy duty to God and man for a time, (as most men do) but still continue in vertue till thy verie liues end.

Thus my sonne (quoth he) if thou wilt obey this my counsell, it shall alwayes go well with thee: but contrariwise if thou forsake it, & fol­low thine owne imaginations, it will happen vnto thee according to this example. There dwelt by a forest side a shepheard, who to pre­serue his sheepe from a lion, which oftentimes had caried them away for a pray to his whelp, prepared many snares and engines to destroy this lion: but the old liō perceauing these traps to be layd for him, departed with his yong one to another forrest. But when the whelp grewe to be as big a lion as his father, he thus saith vn­to him: Father me thinks I can remember that this place is not the cuntrey where I was born, [Page 67] what then was the cause that made thee to de­part there hence? Saith the old lion, my sonne it is not indeed our natiue cuntrey: but there is a litle dwarf a man dwelling in that place, whō for his subtle traps that he laid to take from me my life, I feared, and so fled therehence. Saith the yong lion: and I sweare by my beard that I will be reuenged of him, and will go now and teare him in peeces with my teeth. Nay (sayth the old lion) do not so, for if I my self could not possibly get reuēge against him, thou canst not in any sort do it. But the yong lion would not be ruled by his father, but goeth vnto this forest where the shepheard dwelt: who finding him within his house & the dores shut, called vnto him and sayd, ô thou naughtie & vile wretch, why hast thou so abused my father, as to driue him from his natiue cuntrey, ouer which & all the beasts therof, he raigned as king: I tell thee that I his sonne wilbe reuenged of thee for ma­king him so to loose his right. The man being within his house stoutly answered: I regard not a rush either thee or thy father, but if thou once offer to enter within my doores, I haue here both my staffe and my axe to beate and to cut thee in peeces. The yong lion was straight wayes amazed at his stout wordes, and sayde: then come thou forth, and go with me to yon­der moyle, and let him be iudge betwixt thee & me, whether thou hast done my father wrōg or not, Saith the shepheard: if thou wilt adiure [Page 68] and sweare to do me no harme, I will go with thee. So the yong lion sware vnto him to doe him no harme. The man then leadeth the way vnto the lion, by those engins that he had pre­pared long before: and anon the yong lion fell into one of his pits, and was entangled by his 2 forefeet. O (saith the lion) helpe me, for I know not what is this that hath bound my feete verie fast together. Saith the shepheard, I am not able to helpe thee, but tary thou here, and I will go and call hither the moile. But the lion as well as he could, did yet get forth of the pit, & went iumping and leaping to follow after the man. By and by againe he fel into another pit, wher­by his two hinder leggs were also caught fast. The shepheard now seeing him well tyed and bound: he then cutteth with his knife a good greene staffe, & beginneth to lay blows strōgly vpon the lion. The lion then remembred his father, and said to the man: ô beat me not on my back nor my belly, but rather beat me on mine eares & on my heart: because with mine eares I would not heare the counsel of my father, nor with my heart would not beleeue it, when he said thou hadst more subtlety to preuaile, then I had strength. So the man beat him so long, both on the eares and the heart, that in the end he killed him. Euen so (saith the Philosopher to his sonne) will destructiō come vpon those which shall not accept & obey the good coun­sell and instructions of their aged fathers.


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