A BRIEFE DIS­COVRSE OF ROYALL MONARCHIE, AS OF THE BEST COMMON WEALE: VVherin the subiect may beholde the Sacred Maiestie of the Princes most Royall Estate.

VVritten by CHARLES MERBVRY Gentleman in duetifull Reuerence of her Maiesties most Princely Highnesse.

Wherunto is added by the same Gen. A Collection of Italian Prouerbes, In benefite of such as are studious of that language.


Imprinted at London by Thomas Vautrollier dwelling in the Blackefrieres, by Ludgate. 1581.

CARLO MERBVRY humil vassallo, & minimo seruo desidera lunga vita, & perpetua felicità.

SI COME il viandante riguarda al Sole, il nauigante alla tramontana, & la calamita al Polo: cosi (Sere­nissma Maestà) hauend'io à solcar con la mia debil barca nell'alto ma­re delle Republiche, & de glistati; hò preso ardire d'alzar gl'occhi alla diuina, & chia­ra stella del suo felicissmo Regno; indrizzando il corso del mio viaggio, & gouernandolo tutto, se­condo lo splendor, & la chiarezza di quello. Però con ogni humiltà supplico sua Sacra Maestà, che (quātun (que) la mia Nauicella non habbia à pena toc­cate le prime spōde di quel profondo pelago) si de­gni pure con benigna fronte riguardarla; sgombrā ­do con la serenità de'i suoi reali occhi l'indegnità di quella, & del infelice nocchiere: Il quale priega diuotamente Iddio, che sua Maestà Serenissima, (Stella, Sole, Honor, & Gloria della natione Inghi­lese) splenda lungamente, & ci scaldi sempre con i suoi viui, & chiarissimi raggi.


I Had thought, vvhen shortly af­ter my cōming from beyonde the Seas, I first entred into this bold­nes of vvriting (prouoked ther­vnto for not loosing altogether the remembraunce of those fevv studies vvhich I had vsed in my late trauelles: enforced also by the vacantnesse of my time (as then attending in Courte vpon her Maiesties seruice:) and not a litle incouraged by the vertuous and learned companie of my good friende maister Henry Vnton, vvith vvhome I had both in the languages and in other good letters, vvherin he is rarely indued, daily conference:) I had thought I saye (vvhen moued vpon these good occasions I first tooke penne in hande) to haue onely, by calling some thinges to my remembraunce and by imparting them after vnto some fevv of my priuate Friendes, the better esta­blished therby my ovvne vnderstanding, and somevvhat also enriched and confirmed theirs: litle or nothing at all thinking that any such idle exercises of mine should euer come vnto the open sight, and light of the vvorlde. VVher­fore calling to minde hovv I had othervvhiles bestovved some time in Oxford (vnder the gouernement of my lear­ned Tutor maister Doctor Humfry) in the studies of hu­manitie: and remembring also hovv I had lately taken some litle paines in seeing of Cities, and Countreyes, and obseruing their customes, and sundry sortes of Gouernement: [Page] I thought good to take such a kinde of enterprise in hande, as might best minister vnto me occasion to put those thinges in vse and practise, vvhich I had before time seene, and learned. Being minded therefore to reduce such my intent and purpose in Imitation of Aristotles Humane Philosophie into three seuerall partes, all tending vnto the iust consideration of a best and a most perfect common vveale (The fittest fielde me thought vvherin to runne at large my pretended course:) I beganne first vvith a morall treatice; vvherin after the maner of the saide Aristotle in his Ethickes, I shevved vvhat is the last Ende of a best Common vveale, applying vnto the same all such perfec­tion of vertue, and humane felicitie, vvith all the com­plementes and ornamentes of externall good thinges be­longing thervnto, as he did in his Moralles vnto his Sum­mum, and ciuile bonum. A treatie, allthough not al­together to be dispised (as none such of that matter being to my knovvledge vvritten in this our English tongue:) yet because I desired not as then to bring my name in que­stion vnto the vvorlde (hauing onely shevved such my indeuour vnto some fevv priuate friendes of mine) I laide the same a side, and proceeded vnto the seconde parte of my Institution, concerning the best forme and facion of a perfect Commonvveale. VVherin, not follovving my for­mer Guide in his bookes of Polletickes, but relying rather vpon the riper iudgement of later vvriters, and adding somevvhat also of my ovvne small experience, gathered of my late studies, and trauailes: I tooke iust occasion to pre­ferre Monarchie aboue all other kindes of Commō vveales, and vnder the Royall mantell of the same to discouer a per­fect shape of the best, and most happy state of gouerne­ment. This Treatice both for the vvorthinesse of the mat­ter, and for the good ende, and duetifull intent of the same, [Page] as also for some other priuate causes of my ovvne; I thought good to preferre vnto a fevv honorable and vvorshipfull of my speciall Fauourers and freindes; nothing at all desi­ring that the same should any othervvise be seene or layed open vnto the variable speeches, and censures of the vvorld. But being further incouraged since by some, vvhose iudge­ment I ought not to despice, and requested also by others, vvhome I vvould be loth any thing to denie, I haue novv taken this boldnesse to publish, and impart it vnto my Coun­trie: hoping, that though the handling therof be but rude, and simple, yet forasmuch as the matter tendeth vnto the honour, and duetifull reuerence of our most gracious Mai­strisse (her Maiesties Highnesse) you vvilbe as vvell contēt to reade it, as I am vvilling to recommend it vnto you. I haue added also for the benefit of such young gentlemen, as are studious of th' Italian tongue, a Collection of Prouerbes, and sentences, the vvhich I gathered in diuers places of Italie, and out of sondry approued authors: some parte vvher­of also I borrovved of my freinde maister Henry Vnton; vnto vvhome, if you reape any commoditie therof, I praye you, that vvhat thankes you vvould be­stovv vpon me, you vvill imparte them vnto him. Fare you vvell.


HENRY VNTON, to the vertuous Reader.

IOVGHT not, can not, and therefore will not omit (prouoked by the worthi­nesse of the matter, compelled by the fast friendship of the Author (whome I haue long, and much loued,) and incou­raged by my owne priuate knowledge of the Gentlemans Intent, and trauailes) to publish my priuate good liking, Iudge­ment, and commendation of this booke: As, a testimoniall of my thankefull good will vnto him: A Seale of our vnfained friendship vnto others: and lastly, a per­fecte discharge, and satisfaction for my selfe. Which duely considered I haue burst out into these few rude lines, not to th'Ende I am able to pur­chasle praise vnto th'Author, (Because the lesse can not authorize the greater) but that I may gaine commendation to my selfe, onely for shew of a thankefull, and well willing minde. Seeing therefore of necessitie I must needes speake somewhat, this is my conceiued opinion: that, in this booke you shall feede your vnderstanding with a most delicate and [...] foode, containing in it a sweete ioyce, and rare Quintessence of the best framed Monarchie: wherby the poore of vnderstanding in mat­ters of state may be enriched, and the riche of vnderstanding somewhat therin the better confirmed: and all sortes of men with an admiration of her Maiesties most Royall person, and perfect gouernement not a litle ra­uished: wherunto th'Authors whole intent onely directeth it selfe. And albeit his Diseourse be but small in quantitie, yet it exceedeth in qualitie. For that his writing is not obscure, but cleere: not forced, but free: not roughe or harshe, but smoothe, and pleasaunt: not out of order, but well vnited, methodicall, briefe, fullfraited with vatietie of matter, and no­thing at all affected: briefly it is not painted with any glorious colours, but naked, (like the truth,) and in all pointes it is like vnto him selfe: who coueteth rather to be in this his Countrey as a tree in a garden to beare fruite, th [...]n as a tree to make a shew and shadow onely. Imploye there­fore (I beseeche you) your leasure, to reade with a purged iudgement this his rare Enterprice, and by your good, and iust commendation, ra­ther seeke to spurre others to treade these his good steppes: then by your discommendation to clippe their winges, which else of them selues would make the like slight. Which if you doe, (as if you paye your selues with reason you must needes doc,) you may incourage both him and many others to be your Creditors hereafter for the like, or greater Enterprises, Fare you well.


A DISCOVRS OF MO­NARCHIE AS OF THE BEST COM­mon wealth: tending vnto the duitifull consideration or rather admiration of a Royall Princes most highe, and happy Estate.

AS there is nothing more comfortable vnto all li­uing creatures, then to see the light, and shining of the gladsome Sunne: So is there nothing more ioyful vnto all good subiectes, then to beholde the Glorie, and Maiestie of their soueraigne Prince. If the Sunne intercep­ted with cloudes, and vapours, or by some other interposition preuēted, sendeth not forth his lightsome beames: The whole face of the Earth is couered (as we see it is in the night season) with sadnesse, and blacke, and loth­some darknesse. Birdes keepe in their bushes, snakes in their holes, men hide them selues [Page 2] in their houses. In like maner if the Princes Power be in any pointe impared, or the bright­nesse of his Royall Maiestie any whitte eclip­sed: the subiecte straight doth feele the smarte, and want therof. The Trauailer is lesse estemed abrode: the Courtier lesse regarded at home: the Marchante lesse priuileged in a farre coun­trey: the Noble man lesse honored in his owne. For as the Moone, the Starres, and all infe­riour lightes doe fetche their light from that great light (the life, and light of the worlde:) Euen so the prosperous estate of the subiectes, is deriued from the prosperitie of the Prince: their honour from his honour: their estimation from his estimation. So long as the Romane Empire flourished, and retained his light, and brightnesse, a Senator of ROME was thought any kinges compagnion: a Citizen, or soul­dier of ROME might haue trauailed ouer all the worlde without paying one pennie of taxe, or towle. And since the Dignitie of th'Empire was translated into Germany: the Germanes also in most places haue like priuileges. At BO­LOGNA (a famous Vniuersitie of the Popes in Lombardie) they are not subiect vnto th'Inqui­sition: At FLORENCE, SIENNA, PISA, (cheife [Page 3] cities of Tuscane) they haue free libertie to ca­rie their weapons, and in many places they pay no Impostes. So the Spagniard, because his Prince is of great Power, and pretendeth ma­ny Titles: he chalengeth also many Prehemi­nences. If he may haue his will, he will sit vp­permost at the table wheresoeuer he commeth: and though he haue neither money in his purse, nor good cloathes on his backe: yet because his maister is kinge of Spaine, he wilbe SI­GNOR DI CASTILIA: and starue rather, then worke in any maner of way with his hands to get him a liuing. For truely I do not remem­ber that I haue seene any Spagniard, (and yet I haue seene a great many both at MILAN, NA­PLES, MESSINA, SYRACVSA, MALTA) e­uer to exercise out of his countrey any manuall occupation. But I haue founde him, either in the Gallies a souldier, or in the Cities in maner of a Gentleman: wheras th'Italian hauing lost the light, and dignitie of his nation: (the Ro­mane Empire) is contente on the Seas some­times to play the Mariner, and other whiles in the Cities to sit dressing of silke: So the Fle­minge because his countrey seemeth of late yeares to be ouer hadowed with a kinde of [Page 4] darkenesse, (as wanting the foresaid brightnesse of Royall Maiestie) he, as a man halfe in dis­grace, hueth abroade with lesse reputation and for the most parte vpon some bare, and handy­crafte occupation.

VVherefore it is no small comforte vnto an English Gentleman, finding him selfe in a farre countrey, when he may boldly shew his face, and his forehead vnto any forren Nation: sit side by side with the proudest Spagniard: cheek by cheeke with the stoutest Germane: set foote to foote with the forewardest Frenchmā: know­ing that his most Royall Prince (her Maiesties highnesse) is no whitte subiecte, nor inferiour vnto any of theirs. But that shee may also (if shee plaise) chalenge the superioritie both o­uer some of them, and ouer many other kinges, and Princes more. As maister DEE hath very learnedly of late (in certaine tables by him collected out of sundry auncient, and approu­ued writers) shewed vnto her Maiestie, that shee may iustly call her selfe LADY, and EM­PERES of all the Northe Ilandes.

The which kindes of titles, and dignities, al­though they be not altogether to be neglected, (For they may in conuenient time minister iust [Page 5] occasion vnto the Prince to inlarge his domi­nions) yet because they are but as Lanternes without light, or lightes without warmth, as flowers without fruite, and blossomes without substance, or certaintie: they are neither so highly to be regarded, nor so tenderly to be cherished), as those Royalties, and dignities, which I intende (where occasiō shalbe offered) to commend vnto the excellencie of ROYALL MONARCHIE, as necessarie vnto the framing, and fashioning of a best, and a most perfect common weale: The skope, and marke wher­vnto tendeth the speciall purpose of this pre­sente discourse. For, as in a morall Treatice I haue done my indeuour to shew what is the principall, and last ende of the best common weale: So doe I desire in this ciuill discourse to declare, what is the best forme, and fashion of the same. And thirdly (when time shall serue) to speake of the discipline, and maner of gou­uernement wherwith shee may best direct her selfe vnto the obteining of the saide her last ende and perfection.

Discourses (I confesse) more fit for them that are continually conuersante in the skoole of good learning, or for such, as tredde the pathe [Page 6] of publicke affaires, then for him that followeth no such profession: Yet seeing that I proceede7. The maner of procee­ding of the Author. not therin by waye of rules and preceptes: As CICERO, ARISTOTLE, and PLATO did in their common weales, (Che non vanno si alte l'ale mie,) but by the way of reasoning, and of dis­course, not presuming to teache any (thinking my selfe skante worthy to learne of those vnto whose excellent handes these lines may happe­ly come) but meaning onely to put the lear­ned reader in minde of that, which he already knoweth; and if by chaunce there shall be any thing new therin, and not in this our natiue language before time written, humbly to re­commend the same vnto his courteous correc­tion: I hope, my modeste meaning will helpe to excuse the boldnesse of my enterprise, and the courtesie of the reader will vouchsafe to re­garde more the good wil, and th'indeuour: then the simple skill, and youngnesse of the writer.

But for to come vnto our present Institution: I will first (because there are diuers kindes ofThe order obserued by the author. common weales, and diuers opinions therof according vnto the diuersitie of mens affecti­ons:) before I speake of the maner, and forme of the best common weale: shew in generall, [Page 7] what a common weale is: how many speciall kindes of common weales there are: and wherin they differre one from an other. A com­mon weale therefore is, An order of gouerne­mentWhat a cō ­mon weale is. obserued in a citie, or in a countrey, as touching the Magistrates that beare rule therin: especially concerning that Magistrate, which hath highest authoritie, and is the principall. The supreme, or principal Magistrate we meane him, who ruleth all vniuersally: from whome is deriued, & vpon whome dependeth the power, and authoritie of all inferiour offices, and or­ders: As in a popular Estate, the people: In a kingdome, the Prince. Of commō weales someHow many kindes of common weales there are. are good, and iuste, which tende onely vnto th'aduauncement of the publicke profit. Others are ill, and wicked, tending altogether vnto their owne priuate commoditie, and not vnto the benefit of their countrey. Of good com­mon weales there be three kindes. The first is, wheras a number of good men, and men of reasonable wealth, doe iointly beare rule toge­ther,What is Respublica. procuring by all good meanes they can, the weale of their countrey: the which is cal­led by the generall name of common weale: (in Latine Respublica) such as was vsed in SPAR­ [...] [Page 8] and is now in GENOA, and in LVCCA.

An other is, when the gouernemente of the whole is committed vnto the handes of a fewWhat is [...]. of the best, and choiseste persones, such as in­deuour to imploye the same vnto the benefitte of those, which are vnder them: The which in the Greeke tongue, is called [...]: An E­state of the best, or a gouernement of the states: wherof the common weale of VENICE is atWhat is Monar­chie. this daye the onely Phenix. The third is that which we call a kingdome, the greekes [...]: wheras one onely ruleth, and hath soueranitie: directing such his gouernement (next vnto the glorie of God,) vnto the prosperous, and hap­py estate of his subiectes. Examples wherof, though in these dayes of ours there seeme to be many: (all nations of the worlde almost, ha­uing receiued this kinde of gouernement) yet we neede not seeke any farther then our owne natiue countrey for a most liuely, and perfecte paterne of the same. And these be the three good common weales, deuised for the main­tenaunce of mankinde, established for th'ad­uancement of iustice; and generally receiued, and imbraced for the prosperitie of cities, and countreys.

Now there are as many ill common weales, cleane contrarie vnto these, being in deede no­thing else, but the corruptions, and destructiōs, into the which the good common weales doe fall: when they doe alter from the maner, and forme wherin they were first instituted. TheWhat is Democra­tic. first is, when the multitude of the common people, and of the baser sorte, (as of handy­craftes men, and such other) haue the mane­ging of publicke affaires: vsing, or rather abu­sing such their authoritie vnto th'oppressing of the nobilitic, and aduauncing of the cōmonal­tie: fauoring alwayes those, that are of poorest, and meanest condition at their owne foolish fancie, without all order, or discretion. This corrupte, and confufe kinde of gouernemente is called in Greeke [...], A state popular: such as was in ROME: when the Tribunes pre­uailed against the Consulls: and as was in FLO­RENCE after th'expulsing of PIERRO DE'MEDICI. The second is, where a few of theWhat is Oligarchie. richest, and of the mightiest, because of their great power, and possessions doe carie all the swaye, seeking onely their owne profit, and not the furtherance of the common weale. The which is called in Greeke [...]: such as was [Page 10] in FLORENCE in the yeare 1494: when CHARLES the eighte of France ouerranne I­talie subduyng NAPLES: and as was in SIENA in time of the PETRVCCII: and in GENOA in time of the ADORNI, and FREGOSI. TheWhat is Tyrannie. thirde is called TYRANNIE, wheras one onely ruleth at his owne luste, and pleasure, and all for his owne aduauntage: without hauing any regarde vnto the good, or ill estate of his sub­iectes. As DIONYSIVS did in SIRACVSA: NERO, COMMODVS, CARRACALLA did in ROME: The greate Signori doth in Turkie: and as king VORTIGERNE in the yeare 447. did here in Englande: who for to mainteine his Tyrannie called in the Saxons, and they to stablish their new power: oppressed the Brit­tons: dryuing them into a corner of the llande, brenning, and spoiling their countrey: wheras VVILLIAM the Conquerour (a Prince of more Iustice) forbad (at his first arriuall here) his souldiers to hurte, or spoile any English­man: saying that it should be a great sinne, and follie for him to spoile that people: which ere many dayes after were like to be his subiectes. VVherby we may see, that all good common weales haue: alwayes an especiall care, and ten­dernesse [Page 11] ouer the subiectes, as good fathers haue ouer their children: And the corrupted, and vsurped gouernmentes (like vnto vnnatu­rall mothers) haue no regarde, but of their owne lustes, and licenciousnesse.

But to speake more particularly of the diffe­rences betwene good and ill common weales: VVe finde that a common weale common­ly so called, (and taken in good parte) is con­tent with a meane estate, neither enuying o­thers, because she wanteth not her selfe, neither enuyed of any, because she doth not possesse any great aboundance of wealth. (I meane in priuate mens handes:) she is obediente vnto the lawes, not insolent in her magistrates: she is not of so vile, and base minde: as to suffer her selfe to be choked with bribes, or corrup­ted with couetousnesse. But the Signorie ofThe diffe­rence be­twene Res­publica, & Democra­tia. the mechanicall people, (called DEMOCRA­TIA) is alwayes in confusion: she enuyeth the riche, and malliceth the mightie, seeking how to betraye the nobilitie: she is of so base, and vile condition: as she can not applie her selfe vnto any kinde of good gouernement: she is ignorant of all thinges: and yet she thinketh to know euery thing: In few wordes she is no bet­ter [Page 12] then an vniuersall confusion, a horrible mon­ster of many heddes without reason, & a tempe­stuous Sea tossed with boysterous windes in e­uery place & at euery season. Betwene the go­uernement of the best, and that of the mightiest, there is this difference. Those of the best haue no other ende prefixed vnto them, but vertue and honestie: They refuse no traualle, or painesThe diffe­rence be­twene Ari­stocratie, and Oli­garchie. for the benefit of such, as are committed vnto their charge: they loue and cherish the poore people, procuring to make them liue in good, and plentifull estate, defending them also from being iniured of mightier, and richer then they: and aboue all thinges they seeke to traine vp their citizens, and subiectes: as they would doe their owne proper children, vnder a continuall discipline of vertue, and good education. These of the mightiest, studie onely how to pull from their subiectes all the wealth vnto them selues: by laying intollerable taxes, and tributes vpon them: All profites, honors, pleasures, and com­modities they thinke to be due vnto them one­ly: All charges, labours, troubles, and dangers postinge ouer vppon the people, whome ne­uerthelesse they hate deadly: inuenting by all meanes how to intrappe them, and that with all [Page 13] kind of insolencie. Betwene a good Kinge, andThe diffe­rence be­twene Mo­narchis, & Tyrannie. a Tyrante there is this difference. The one is courteous, mercifull, endewed with all vertue: the other is hautie, and cruell, defiled with all vice. The one embraceth equitie, and iustice: the other treadeth both Gods lawe, and mans lawe vnder his feete. The one hath his minde, and all his care vpon the health, and wealth of his subiectes: th'other estemeth his owne plea­sure more then their profit, his owne wealth, more then their good willes. The good Kinge taketh pleasure to be freely aduertised, and wisely reprehended when he doth amisse: the Tyrante can abide nothing worse, then a graue, free spoken, and a vertuous man. The good Kinge punisheth publicke iniuries, and pardo­neth those which are done vnto him selfe: the Tyrante reuengeth most cruelly his owne iniu­ries, neglecting those, which are done vnto o­thers. The good King hath an especiall regarde vnto the honour, and good name of chaste ma­trones: the Tyranttriumpheth in abusing, and shaming of them. The good Kinge deliteth to be seene, and other whiles hard of his subiectes: the Tyrant Hideth himselfe from them, as from his enemies. The good Kinge loueth his people [Page 14] and is beloued of them againe: the Tyrant nei­ther loueth them, that are like vnto himselfe fea­ring lest they being as wicked as he, will be rea­dy to betray him for euery light cause, & he ha­teth, and pursueth all those that haue any valor, or vertue in them: as men, whome he knoweth to be by nature contrarie, and enemies vnto his tyrannie. Againe the one chargeth his people as litle as he can, and but vpon publicke hono­rable and necessarie occasions: the other gnaw­eth the bones, and sucketh out the very blood, and marowe of them with vnlawfull taxes, towles, and confiscations: The one maketh choise of the best, and most sufficient persones about him to imploye in the publicke affaires: the other imployeth none but ruffianes, and cutthrotes: such as he may best serue his owne turne withall: The one vseth the assured fayth and forces of his owne subiectes, in time of warre against his enemies: the other calleth in forreinc nations whome he can not safely trust: (as LONOVIKO SFORZA duke of MIDANE did) to warre against his owne contreymen: The one hath no garde, nor garrison but of his owne naturall people: the other but of stran­gers: The one liueth in assured hope, merrie, [Page 15] voide of suspition, alwayes enioying the sweete rewarde of his vpright conscience: the other hath the pointe of a sworde hanging ouer his head: alwayes languishing in continuall feare: The one looketh for euerlasting ioye: the other can hardly escape euerlasting paine: The one is honored in his life time, and wished for after his death: the other is hated in his life time, and torne in peeces, after he is deade: so that li­uing, and dying he is in a continuall hell of all miserie. VVherefore as the gouernement of a Tyrant is of all other the most odious, and ofWhich is the best common weale. the three ill common weales the worst: So is a Lawefull kingdome of the three good the best, the happiest, and that which I desire to preferre in this my Treatice before all other: Not ledde therunto onely by bonde of duetie, as subiecte, and seruant vnto so worthy a Prince: Nor mo­ued by affection onely, as borne in so quiet, and prosperous estate of countrey: But moued, ledde, and drawen by force of good reason, grounded vpon the naturall excellenoie, and excellent properties therof: as it shall at large appeare: after that I haue first shewed of what especiall kinde and qualitie this best common weale of kindome is.

Sundry kindes of Monar­chies.For there are diuers kindes of kingdomes, according vnto the diuersitie of countryes, and of their lawes, and customes: though all good, & lawfull, yet not all of like excellencie: though all pertakers of soueranitie, yet not all in equall proportion: though of like nature, and essence,Kingdomes by Gifte. yet differing accidētally. For some kingdomes go by gifte, as IVBA was by OCTAVIVS, made of a slaue: kinge of NVMIDIA (now called Barbarie:) and as the kingdomes of NAPLES, and SICILE were giuen first vnto CHARLES Earle of Prouence in the yeare 1266, and af­ter vnto. LEWIS the first Duke of Anioue bro­ther vnto the french kinge CHARLES the fifth, (surnamed the wise:) and as some haue written that VVILLIAM the Conquerour by the gifte of his Nephew kinge EDWARD sonne of king EGELRED pretended, and attained vnto theKingdomes by Testa­mente. Crowne of England. Others are lefte by will of testament, as CHARLES Nephew, and heire vnto RENALD Duke of Anioue bequethed all his estates, and dominions vnto the frenchKingdomes by Custo­mes. kinge LEWIS the leuenth. Some descende by the vertue of a Lawe, as the Realme of Fraunce in practise of late descentes doth by the Lawe which they call SALICKE. Others goe by a­doption, [Page 17] as E [...]EVS kinge of ATHENES adop­tedKingdomes by Adoptiō. THESEVS: MICIPSA kinge of the Nu­midians adopted IVGVRTHA: SCIPIO th'el­der adopted the sonne of PAVLVS AEMILIVS: CAESAR the dictator, his Nephew: AVGV­STVS th'Emperor, adopted TIBERIVS: CLAV­DIVS, NERO: NERVA, TRAIAN: TRAIAN, ADRIAN, who after adopted ANTONINVS (surnamed the Pityfull:) & so were AELIVS VE­RVS, and MARCVS AVRELIVS also adopted vnto th'Empire. Likewise of late yeares ANNE, and IANE Queenes of NAPLES, and SICIL­LE adopted LEWIS, and RENALTE Dukes of Anioue; and in the yeare 1408. MARGARIT Queene of Demnarke, and Swethlande adop­ted HENRY Duke of Pomerane for their heires, and successours in all their dominitions. So in king HENRY the fifth of England byside the interest of his auncesters, and his owne in­terest vnto the Crowne of France was added an adoption by his father in law the french kinge CHARLES the sixte. Some kingdomes areKingdomes by Lotte. translated from one to an other by lotte, or P [...]ouince of fortune: as it happened vnto DA­RIVS one of the seuen Lordes of PERSIA, who was made kinge, because his horse first neyed. [Page 18] Kingdomes by Pollicie.Some estates are gotten by Pollicie, as in olde time CECROPES, HIERON, GELON, PISI­STRATVS gotte theirs: and as of later yeares COSMVS of MEDICES added the state of SIENNA vnto his Dukedome of FLORENCE.Kingdomes by Cōquest. A number of kingdomes also are gotten by conqueste: As FERDINAND of ARAGON the first king of Spaine got the kingdomes of NA­PLES, NAVARRA, SICILE: and after him his daughters sonne CHARLES the fifte, got the kingdome of THVNES, the dukedome of MILAN, the Soueranitie of Artois, and Flan­ders.Kingdomes by Election. Others go by Election, as the kingdome of POLONIA doth. And of this kinde there are diuers sortes: For some are chosen kinges for their Noblenesse of birthe: As CAMPSON kinge of Caramania, was by the Mammelucs chosen for their SOVLDANE: the Vycountes of ANGLERIE were for their noble birth made Lordes of MILANE: Some for their Iustice, as NVMA POMPILIVS was by the Romaines: Some for their olde age, as the auncient ARA­BIANS did choose alwayes the eldest: Some for their great possessions, and mightie power AS HARAVLDE (sonne to GOODWINNE Earle of Kente) was after the death of kinge [Page 19] EDWARD (surnamed the Sainte because of the good, and wholesome lawes, which he in this our countrey instituted) chosen the last SAXON kinge in Englande: Some for their strenght of body: as MAXIMINVS: Others for their beautie, as HELIOGABALVS: Others for their greatnesse, and tallnesse of stature, As they were wonte to doe in AETHIOPIA. All which are kindes of kingdomes, and they may be good, and lawfull, according as they are well and lawfully vsed: But they are not of that ex­cellencie which is required in our best king­dome. For there is yet an other kinde farre more excellent, then any of them, more com­mendable, more sure, lesse subiect to corruptiō, more capable of perfection. VVhich is when aWhich is the best kinde of Kingdome. kingdome descendeth by right of Succession vnto the next of the blood royall. In the which point we are cōtent to swarue from him, whom hitherto in the waye of Philosophie we haue most followed: who was of opinion that kinges were rather to be chosen, calling them people Barbarous, which did take their kinges by way of Succession: preferring therefore the Car­thaginiansThat Suc­cession is to be prefer­red before Election. before the Lacedemonians, because these receiued their kinges by Succession, those [Page 20] by Election. But perhappes ARISTOTLE would haue differed herein from him selfe: if he had liued a litle longer for to haue sene how the MONARCHIE of Macedone (hauing con­tinued fiue hundreth yeares from the father vn­to the sonne in the right Line of HERCVLES) was after for want of Royall and Lineall Succes­sion brought vnto vtter confusion. Or if he had liued in these dayes of ours, to haue seene how kingdomes goe now, how they florish, how am­plie they distēde them selues, he would (doubt­lesse) haue changed his opinion, and neuer haue called Barbarous so many goodly coun­tryes, and so diuers sondry sortes of nations: both of ASIA (as the Persians, Medians, Par­thenians, Turkes, Tartarres, Arabians:) of A­FRICA (the Aethiopians, Barbarians, Numi­dians:) of EVROPE, (England, Scotland, Fraunce, Spaine, Naples, Sicile,) preferring before all th'afore saide riche and florishing E­states a few colde countryes of Polonia, Dem­narke, and Swethland: because these haue their kinges by Election, those by Succession. But he neuer needed for to haue liued so long for this matter. For if he would but haue looked backe with an indifferent eye into his owne [Page 21] countrey of Greece (the which he commen­ded to be so ciuill) he should haue found, that th'Athenians, Lacedemonians, Sicyonians, Co­rinthians, Thebanes, Epirotes, Macedonians, for the space of sixe hundreth yeares neuer had any other gouernement, but of kinges, and those by the right, and lawfull waye of Succes­sion: vntill such time, as ambition, pride, and priuate Interest blinded their vnderstanding, and made them change their kingdomes into DEMOCRATIES, and ARISTOCRATIES mis­sterming the same by the false name of libertie. The like may be said of the auncient Toscanes, and of the olde Latines, who many hundreth yeares before the building of ROME had their kinges, and gouernours descending lineally one vnto an other. As we reade that AENEAS by the right of his wife succeded vnto LATI­NVS: TIBERIVS (of whome the riuer of Te­uer or Tyber which runneth by ROME was so named) vnto AENEAS: and so forth vntill the kingdome came to ROMVLVS by the waye of his mother RHEA (daughter to NVMITOR. and Nece to AMVLIVS kinges of the Latines.) VVhereby we maye gather that in those dayes neither Election was vsed, nor yet any excep­tion [Page 22] made of kinde or Gender. But some man will say. O how happy is that coūtrey, where the estates of the people do make choise of a iust, and righteous Prince, who feareth God aboue all thinges, honoreth vertue, oppresseth vice, giueth rewarde vnto the good, and punishment vnto the wicked, that hateth flatterers, keepeth his fayth, and his promisse, banisheth out of his Courte the Inuentours of new exactions, re­uengeth the iniuries that are done vnto others, & forgiueth those that are done vnto him selfe. These are faire speeches, and they seeme to ca­ry with them great good apparences. Sed lates anguis in herba, they shew not id manticae quod in tergo est. But as we are wonte to carie alwayes two sachelles about vs, one before, to put other mens faultes in, and an other behinde, wherin to hide our owne: So they make no mention of the daungers, and discommodities which are incident vnto such kinde of Elections. As whatWhat Incō ­ueniences do proceede from Ele­ctions. a monsterous Inconuenience is that when Sede vacante, after the Prince is deade, and before a new can be chosen, the whole state remaineth in a very ANARCHIE, without kinge, or any kinde of gouernement, like a shippe without a Pilote in hazarde to be cast awaye with euery [Page 23] winde: Then may you see all lewdnesse, and li­centiousnesse set at libertie: Theeues robbe by the highe way side without punishment, Mur­derers commit their treasons without controll­ment. For the first thing that is done Sede vacante is to breake open the prisons, kill the iâylors, reuenge iniuries, oppresse the poore with all insolent, and vniust meanes. As we reade that the MAMMELVCS were wont to doe sacking, and spoiling the poore people of EGYPTE whilest their SOVLDANE was a choosing. And this Impunitie of vice for the most parte lasteth vntill such time, as the ELECTORS doe fall to agreement: which happeneth not some times in a yeare or twaine, otherwhiles not in tenne. The Empire of Germanie laie voide 18. yeares together after the death of th'Emperor VVIL­LIAM Earle of Holande: The Sea of ROME after the death of CLEMENT the fifte remai­ned two yeares, and a halfe without any Pope: after NICHOLAS the third three yeares: after Pope IOHN fiue yeares: and sometimes the Sea hath bene vacant tenne yeares together. In all the which time a Romane coulde not stirre out of his dores without daunger: a stranger could not trauaile on the highe wayes without perill [Page 24] of his life. And at this daye there are so many FVORVSCITI vpon the borders, as that no man will ryde betwene ROME, and NAPLES without the PROCACCIO, and 40. or 50. horse in his companie: VVheras in euery other parte of ITALIE that I haue bene in (and I haue bene in the most parte,) a man may ryde safly with his purse in the palme of his hande. But you will saye, that there may be therefore in time of vacation, A gouernour apointed to administer Iustice, and to punish vice: So shall all this tem­pestuous Sea be quieted, & all those mischiefes remedied. I graunt well: but yet with a greaterHow daun­gerous a gouernour is, Sede va­cante. mischiefe. For if the gouernement be com­mitted vnto one only with absolute power, and authoritie to rule, and commaunde vntill the Prince be elected: let me aske you, who shall lette such a one, as hath the lawe in his owne handes to make him selfe if he liste of a gouer­nour a king: as GOSTAVVS father vnto IOHN kinge of Swethlande did. If he haue Legions of souldiers at his commaundement, who shall let him from making him selfe of a Consull for a time, a Dictator for euer: as IVLIVS CAESAR did. Againe if the gouernement be laide du­ring th'Election vpon sundry persones, as it is [Page 25] now vsed in POLONIA, and as it was wonte to be some times in ROME: The daunger is no lesse, lest the mightiest of them, that haue such power laie not handes vpon the Fortresses, and strongest holdes of the Countrey: As POM­PEIO COLONNA, and ANTONIO SAVELLA did, who in the like case seazed vpon the CAM­PIDOLLE, crying vnto the people of ROME, Libertie, Libertie. So we see that the woundes are well nighe incurable, which such countries receiue at the death of their Princes: The paines are no lesse, and the daungers as great, or grea­ter, which they sustaine in choosing of their new kinges. As what a worlde of trouble was thatTroubles and daun­gers inci­dente vnto Elections. of late yeares in the kingdome of POLONIA about th'Election, when the Pollackes were faine to sende into Fraunce (so many miles, thorough so many countryes) for the Duke of Anioue (now HENRY the third of Fraunce) to be their king: and what successe all their paines, and trauailes had who knoweth it not? Did not the Duke so soone, as his brother CHARLES dyed, & that a greater kingdome fell vnto him, leaue them, and retourne into his owne coun­trey: (as right and reason would, that a man should be more carefull of his owne Nation, [Page 26] then of strangers.) And the like did LODOVIKE kinge of Hungarie before him, who being cho­sen, and crowned kinge of Polonia, retourned straight after into his owne countrey: leauing a Lieftenante behinde him to gouerne the Po­lonians withall. A thing odious vnto men of valour, and greuous vnto all free people: when they can not see the face, and countenance of their Soueraine Prince: but must be controlled with the pride, and ouerlayed with the coue­tuousnesse of inferiour Magistrates. The which burden how vnwillingly it is borne MILAN, NAPLES, SIENA, SICILE, and FLANDERS to their cost, and paine haue knowen.

But let vs imagine that a Prince, hauing two kingdomes, one by succession, an other by Ele­ction, and being lothe to leaue either of them, will make what shifte he can to be personally residente vpon them both: (the which he can hardly doe, excepte they be very neere adioy­ning one to the other:) who doubteth then, but that he will make (if he can) one kingdome of them both, or of both kingdomes one MO­NARCHIE. AS CHARLES the fifth, would haue done with the countryes of Germanie, hauing brought his sonne PHILIPPE, purposely into [Page 27] those partes, for to haue made him king of the Germanes, if the french kinge HENRY the first had not by aiding of them, distourned him from that his pretended and commenced course. But though th'Emperour was of that his purpose so disapointed, and could not be suffred to vnite the countryes of Germany vnto his other king­domes: yet it is well knowen, that he lost not all the benefitte of his Election, nor all his la­bour, and time in vaine, which he bestowed in those partes. But so long as he liued, and sate in the seat of th'Empire, their are many that can yet remember, how he made his Haruest of them, and rept what commodities he could of the said countryes, drawing forth of them from time to time, both men, money, and Muni­tion to serue his other priuate purposes withall. As in his Italian warres against the French king FRANCES the first he had at one time vnder the conducte of CHARLES of BORBONE his Lieftenant 18. thousand at the lest of the Dutch Nation: By meanes of whome, and of a few Spagniardes more, he droue the French men out of all their possessions in Lombardie, he impatroned him selfe of the Dukedome of MI­LANE: he impropriated to his one vses the Ci­ties [Page 28] of PARMA, and PIACENZA: he altered for his owne aduantage the states of FLORENCE, SIENA, and of GENOVA: he sacked ROME: and in briefe, by meanes of the Germaines he subdued and brought all Italie vnder his yoke. In like maner when he went to ALGIERS (An enterprise which could no kinde of waye bene­fit the Germaine Nation, no nor yet any whit the Estate of Christendome, but tending alto­gether vnto the benefit, and aduancement of his owne countryes of Spaine) he vsed not onely the bodies, but the goods, and substance also of the Germaines: causing them by waye of a Counsell or Diette (which he called pur­posely to the same end) to contribute vnto theGlorious in the setting forth ther­of, though not in the fequelle, & successe of the same. charges of that his glorious voiage. He was therefore a Prince, if you regarde the greatnesse of his minde, the hautinesse of his Enterprises, the number of his victories, the hugenesse of his possessions, his valour, his wisedome, and his temperance, he was (I say) a Prince most wor­thie, of that fame, and great name, which he caried in the mouth, and th'opiniō of the world. But if you looke into his doinges, and where­to they tended, you shall finde, (and I haue heard an honorable personage that knew him [Page 29] well, and most of his proceedinges, affirme the same) that he was the lest beneficiall Emperour vnto the common weale of Christendome, and the most hard, and heauy Prince vnto the states of Germanie, of a great many others, that went before him, and of any that as yet are come af­ter him. For it appeareth that he directed all his actions vnto the stablishing, and stengthning of those Estates onely, which he knew should necessarily descend vnto his lawfull and lyneall heyres after him, litle or nothing regarding the succession of them, which were to be elected at the will and pleasure of others. VVherefore as he fetched both men▪ and money out of Ger­manie, for to serue his other tournes withall a­broade: so tooke he from thence also (A thing which I my selfe haue hard much lamented by the Germaines) the best parte of all their Mu­nition: As out of VVITTEMBOVRGE (a ci­tie of the Duke of SAXON) he tooke two hun­dreth and twentie peeces of great Ordinance: a hundreth out of GOTTA: from the LAN­GRAVE also he had 200. peeces: and out of STRAVSBOVRGH, he tooke all the best, that they had: Sending thereof 50. peeces vnto NAPLES, other 50. to MILANE, and 400. into [Page 30] FLANDRES: he did the like also with many other their Dutche Commodities, transpor­ting them, either into SPAINE, or into his coun­tries of AVSTRICH, for to inlarge, and make riche his owne house and posteritie withall. And this is a thing common vnto all elected Princes (that haue Estate but for terme of Life) carelesly to cōsume the Treasores of the coun­trey, dissipating the publicke demaines, and conuerting them into priuate menshandes, ei­ther of their owne fauorites, or of their kinse­folkes.How coun­tryes are impoueri­shed by Princes elected. As of the Cities, and Prouinces belon­ging vnto the Sea of ROME, the Popes haue made awaye almost the one halfe for the ad­uauncement of their owne priuate houses. Pope SIXTVS the fourth of that Name, after the death of GVIDIBALDO DE MONTEFEL­TRO Duke of VRBYNE, procured the duke­dome vnto his kinseman de ROVERE. The which dukedome (not long after) Pope LEO the tenth, translated from FRANCESCO MA­RIA DE ROVERE vnto his Nephew LOREN­ZO DE' MEDICI. Pope ALEXANDER the sixte gaue REGIO, and MODENA (two good Townes in Italie) in dowrie with his daughter vnto ALFONSO Duke of FERRARA. CLE­MENT [Page 31] the seuenth, aduanced his Nephew ALE­XANDRO vnto the Dukedome of Florence. And PAVLVS tertius the Romane exalted his house of FARNESE vnto the Dukedome of PARMA, and PIACENZA: All which Estates were either conueyed out of the Ecclesiasticall Monarchie, or by the meanes, and charge ther­of procured. As GVICCIARDINE in his sto­rie of the warres of ITALIE reporteth that the forenamed LEO the tenth, what with warring against the duke of VRBYNE, and with main­teining the costlinesse of his sister MAGDALE­NA, and his owne pride, and prodigalitie, he left the Church worse by 40. thousand Dueates a yeare, then he found it: besides the iewells, and ornamentes of the pontificall treasor, which he engaged. In the like maner all Temporall Princes (I meane such as are elected) when they see that they can not leaue their estates vn­to their Children, they seeke by sale, or by gifte to make the best commoditie of them during their owne liues. As RODVLPHVS th'Empe­rour for a summe of money exempted all the Cities of TOSCANE out of the subiection of th'Empire. And ROBERT OF BAVIER gaue three Imperiall cities at one time vnto his sonne [Page 32] FREDERIKE, he gaue also the Liberties vnto NVRENBOVRGE. As OTHO the third did vn­to ISNE. LODOWIKE of BAVIER did the like vnto the citie of EGRE. HENRY the first soulde what he coulde, whereby th'Empire was brought so low, as that CHARLES duke of Bur­gony was able to make warre against the whole bodie of the same. If then an Italian will not sticke to weaken the Popedome, (the pride and strength of his Nation:) nor a Germaine to de­minish the power of th'Empire, (a Dignitie which the Germanes pretende to be dewe, and proper vnto them onely:) Much lesse may we thinke that a Hungarian will obserue any more respecte in Polonia, being chosen vnto that kingdome: or a Spagniarde vse any more cour­tesy in Italy, being elected vnto the Popedome: But rather it is to be thought that they, seeing them selues called by this vnorderly way of E­lection vnto new gouernementes, will seeke for the better stablishing of the same, to alter in what they can the state, and course of the coun­tryes, whervnto they are so called: tourning their lawes, into theirs: their customes, into theirs: their Religion, into their owne Religion. For commonly we see that all men are of that [Page 33] nature to thinke alwayes their owne religion best, their owne customes commēdablest, their owne lawes soundest: desiring to bring and in­duce al others vnto the same lawes, customes, & religiō that they them selues are of. The Turke would haue all his people to acknowledge MA­HOMET: The kinge of Spaine all his subiectes to holde with the POPE: The Greekes thought all other nations barbarous in respecte of them selues. The Italians likewise in these dayes are not ashamed to call all Oltramontani (vs that are on this side the Alpes) barbari, as though none knew what Ciuilitie mente but they. The Ve­netians will say, when they heare a man speake in a language which they vnderstand not, Mo! parlate Christiano, as though no language were good or christianlike but theirs. So, VVIL­LIAM the Conquerour sought to surpresse, and extinguish our English speeche, commaunding all our lawes to be writtē in his owne language, as it appeareth also by the termes of our pasti­mes (of hawking, hunting, karding, dycing, Tennis, and such like,) which for the most parte doe yet remaine in the NORMANE tongue. VVherfore it is euident that all elected Princes, which come out of forreine Countryes (in the [Page 34] maner as we here meane (to the ende to rule, and raigne onely, and not for loue, alliance, or freindship sake) will in what lyeth in them, both for their greater glorie, & for the better strength of their Estates, seeke to change the Religion, lawes, customes, and language of the places whervnto they are so elected. But you will say, that your meaning is not to fetch your Prince so farre of, but to haue him neerer home euen of the same countrey, wherof he is to reigne: because you will be sure that he shall neither change customes, not bring in any language. You say well, but let me aske then: who shall haue the choosing of him there at home in his owne countrey? If the common people choose him, you may looke for nothing else, but fa­ctions, seditions (Tot capita, tot sententiae) so ma­ny men, so many kinges. If he be chosen by the Souldiers, as the Emperours were other­whiles of ROME, then shall he not be allowed of by the Senatours: if elected by the Se­natours: then can he not be receiued of the Souldiers. VVhich inconueniences being of later yeares better wayed of by the wiser, It was thought expedient, that the Election of th'Em­pire should be reduced vnto a certaine num­ber [Page 35] of seuen Princes (who, because the Pope as then GREGORIE the fifth, was a SAXON borne were all appointed of the Germaine na­tion: Namely the duke of SAXON, the Counte PALLATINE, the Marchese of BRANDIN­BOVRGE, the three Bishoppes of MAGANZA, COLLENE, and TREVERIE, and the seuenth (to waye downe the ballances) the kinge of BOEMIA.) And yet for all that the Electours were neuer so few: the factions, and ciuill dis­cordesDifficulties and dissen­tions, in the choosing of Princes. that ensued were neuer a whit the lesse. LEWIS of BAVIER, and ALBERTE of AV­STRIKE were both chosen Emperours at one time: whervpon they continued 18. yeares in warres one against the other. In like maner the Colledge of the Cardinalles haue bene (as is before saide) sometimes two, sometimes three yeares together in choosing of one Pope: And at an other time they haue chosen three at a clappe, and often times two together. VVher­fore they are now faine to shutte them selues into the CONCLAVE of Saint Peters Pallaice: there to remaine vntill the two thirdes of them do fall to agreement. As it is also more straight­ly obserued at MALTA (now called VALET­TA) in the choosing of the great Maister of the [Page 36] order of Saint IOHN. For there the 24. Elec­tours (appointed by the KNIGHTES of the great Crosse) are walled into a strong place, where within a certaine time limited vnto them they must without all delaye, choose one that is not of their number. So we see, that the dif­ficulties,A number of Popes, & Emperour; murdered about their Election. and dissentions which proceede from such Elections are infinite: The Murders also and massacres that do insue of them are no lesse frequent both amongest th'Ecclesiasticall Pre­lates, and temporall Princes. Of Popes there haue bene at the least 22. beheaded about their Election (as the Registers of the VATTI­CANE doe certifie) besides a number of Car­dinalles, and of common people that for the like cause haue gon the same waye with them. VVe reade that in the Primatiue Church there were 600. Romanes slaine at one time about the choosing of DAMASVS, and VRSINVS. Of temporall Princes there haue bene within these 360. yeares (since th'Empire fell into the subiection of the Lordes Electours) eight, or nine EMPEROVRS slaine and poisoned. Of 15. SOVLDANES that haue bene chosen kinges of EGYPTE seuen of them dyed with the sworde. Of Romane Emperours after the death of AV­GVSTVS [Page 37] there were seuen all in a rowe murde­red, and three of them in one yeare. It would greeue me to rehearse, and weary you to heare all the piteous examples, which might be reci­ted in this behalfe: wherof both English, La­tine, and Italian histories are euery where full. These few may suffice to shew what slaughters, Murders, Massacres haue bene cōmitted aboutThe benefit of Succes­sion. the choosing of Princes. Neither could there any order be found, either for the sauftie of a kinge, or for the quietnesse of a kingdome, vn­till such time, as a lawfull sonne, or sonne made by Adoption, succeded vnto his father withoutKingdomes assured by meanes of Succession. any further Election. As TIBERIVS, TITVS, TRAIAN, ADRIAN, ANTONINVS PIVS, MARCVS AVRELIVS, who all succeded pro­sperously one vnto th'other in the Romane Em­pire. The Germaines also (for all their great Titles of Election) are faine at the last to flye vnto this refuge and to fetche their sauftie, and quietnesse from Succession: Suffering the house of AVSTRIKE these hundreth, and three skore yeares solely, and successiuely to possesse th'Em­pire. As after SIGISMONDE, FREDERIKE, then MAXIMILIAN, then CHARLES the fifth, then FERDINANDE, then MAXIMILIAN the [Page 38] seconde, and so vnto RADVLPHE who now raigneth. In POLONIA likewise, BOHEMIA, HONGARIE & DENMARKE, where the states stand so much vpon their Priuileges, they are glad, and faine (of later yeares) for the auoi­ding of ciuill warres, and other of the aforesaid inconueniences to acknowledge the benefit of this Succession: choosing for the most part him that is next of the blood Royall, and next of kinne vnto the predecessed kinge. So precious a thing it is, as they that hate it, are constrayned to seeke it: And they that haue it, are glad to holde it. SPAINE, NAPLES, CICILLE, NA­VARRA, SCOTLAND, and FRAVNCE also (whose Lawe SALIKE for ought, that I can see is nothing else but a limited, or nice kinde of Succession▪) haue not for these many yeares knowen any other kinde of gouernement. But of all nations there is none that more amplieHow Suc­cession is tendered in England. hath enioyed it, and which doth more willing­ly reteine it then our owne. Seeing therefore that Lineall Succession is so sure a foundation, as all good kingdomes both do, and may bold­ly builde theron: And contrarily ELECTION so weake a sande or rather so daungerous a Sea, as it is able to sinke the tallest shippe of Citie, [Page 39] or Countrey that saileth therin: it is good rea­son that in this our discourse of ROYALL MO­NARCHIE (as we desire to frame the same the best, and the most perfecte common weale) we embrace the one, as a sure grounde, and shunne the other as a most daungerous sande, preferring Succession before Election, and con­sequētly before all the other forenamed kindes of kingdomes: the which all are either kindes of Election, or else they are of lesse impor­tance, and such as are not to be estemed for their owne worthynesse, but for some Necessi­tie sake. As where Succession faileth, that there is none lefte of the bloode Royall mall, nor fe­mall to inheritte the Crowne, then men are faine to goe to drawing of Lottes, to Neyinge of horses, to choosing the Noblest, the wisest, the Eldest, the Mightiest, the Richest. But the best, and most Royall Prince is not to receiue his Scepter by any such happe, or hazarde of fortune (as DARIVS did his:) Nor to come to his kingdome by the vncertaintie of voices (as all chosen Princes doe:) Nor yet by Gifte, by Custome, by Pollicie, or by Conquest (as it hath bene saide that kinge IVBA, Duke CO­SIMVS, and many other Princes did come to [Page 40] theirs:) But he is to come vnto his Crowne, and kingdome first, and principally by the grace of GOD, and secondarily by the waye of law­full, and Lineall SVCCESSION.

It followeth that we speake of the maner of estate of this most ROYALL MONARCHIE: and best kinde of kingdome: (Come sta how, and in what case it standeth, as touching the Power, and authoritie appertaining thervnto.) For it is not sufficient that so ROYALL a Prince be descended Lineally, and lawfully into his kingdome: But he must also possesse, and exer­cise such ROYALL, and princely Power therin, as is most fitte for his worthynesse, and for his subiectes happynesse: Neither in so extreame maner, as to make A god of him selfe (as ALE­XANDER the great would haue done,) and slaues of his vassalles (as the Great TVRKE at this daye doth:) Neither yet in so slender sorte, as to haue the sworde caried after him (as the Duke of VENICE hath,) and to be but a litle better, then a sipher, or shadowe of a Prince.

What pow­er apper­taineth vn­to a Royall Prince.He is for to haue therefore (by the grace, and Permission of Almightie God) that Power, which the Greekes call [...]: the Latines MAIESTATEM: Th'Italians SIGNORIA: The [Page 41] Frenchmen SOVVERAINETE: That is, Power full and perpetuall ouer all his subiectes in ge­nerall, and ouer euery one in particular. Not to rule for a yeare onely, as the Consulles of ROME did: Nor for two yeares, as the Dukes of GENOVA doe: Nor for three, as the VICE­ROYES of NAPLES: or for nine, or ten yeares, as the great Archon of ATHENES did: Not to be DICTATOVR for a daye onely, as MA­MERCVSA Royall Prince is to rule with­out limita­tiō of time. was: Nor for eight dayes, as SERVI­LIVS PRISCVS: or for fifteen, as CINCIN­NATVS: No nor yet for fifteen yeares, as SIL­LA had gotten it graunted vnto him by a Lawe to be Dictatour foureskore yeares (although he raigned but foure:) and then after the terme of yeares expired, to render vp his gouerne­ment vnto an other, perhappes vnto a stranger, perhappes vnto his enemie: But his Power shall last (by Gods grace) perpetually: first during his owne life in him selfe, and then after his death in his sonnes, and successors.

Neither is he countable of such his gouerne­ment,A Royall Prince is not Coun­table vnto Any. (sauing to God, and his Conscience) else not vnto any other: in such forte, As LE­GATES, LIEFTENANTES, PRESIDENTES, & REGENTS are, who though they haue autho­ritie [Page 42] sometimes during their liues, yet are they to render accoumpte vnto those which gaue them the same. The DOGES of VENICE, if they gouerne not well, are deposed by the SI­GNORIE of the gentlemen: as TEODATVS, and GALLA of MALOMOCCO were bani­shed, and had their eyes putte out, because they ruled to Lordly. the Gouerners of BOLOGNA LA GRASSA, when they goe out of their of­fice, are bounde to render accoumpte vnto two SYNDICI: The Dictators of ROME were forced by the TRYBVNES to render reason vn­to the People. The Regentes of SCOTLANDE, the Lordes Protectors of ENGLAND, although they rule neuer so highly during the minoritie of their Princes: Yet we see that after they are out of their Offices, they are constrained to aunswere vnto many oppositions. There was neuer greater, and more absolute Power graun­ted vnto any subiecte, then was by CHARLES the ninth, vnto his brother HENRY Duke of ANIOVE, when he made him his Lieftenant Generall, and perpetuall ouer all his domi­nions: And yet was there in th'ende of his let­ters patentes this Clause apposed Tant qu'il nous plaira, to signifie that the Dukes authoritie was [Page 43] both countable, and reuocable at the will and pleasure of the kinge the giuer. Our PrinceA Royall Prince is not to de­pende vpon any. therefore is not to receiue his power from any (excepte from God the giuer of all Power:) For if he receiue it from any other higher Prin­ce, then is he not the Principall, and supreame Magistrate, but there is an other higher, and greater then he. For as honour dependeth more of the giuer, then of the receiuer: So likewise that Power is greatest, from whence the others are deriued. But our Prince, who is the Image of God on Earth, and as it were Vn minor essempio of his almightie Power, is not to acknowledge any greater then him selfe: nor any authoritie greater then his owne. VVherefore as he isA Royall Prince is not subiecte vnto any of his owne Countrey. not to receiue his Power from any: so is he nei­ther to be subiect vnto any higher Power, ei­ther at home, or abroade: Though some doe mainteine that a Prince ought to be subiect vn­to the states and Peares of his Realme: as the kinges of LACEDEMON were to the EPHORI, An Opinion (if it be not well tempered, and conueniently limited) most preiudiciall vnto th'estate of a MONARCHIE: peruerting, and conuerting the same into a meere ARISTO­CRATIE: Much lesse is he subiecte in any thing [Page 44] vnto the Multitude of the common people: who as they haue more authoritie are for the most parte more insolente, and more disposed vnto rebellion. VVherefore in all wel ordained kingdomes these haue no other then a voice SVPPLICATIVE, those a voice DELIBERA­TIVE, and the Prince onely a voice DEFINI­TIVE.

But some will aske, if this great MONARCHE of ours shall not be subiecte vnto the Lawes, Customes, and Priuileges of the Countrey where he gouerneth: vnto the othe which he taketh at his entrance: vnto such couenantes, and promises as he maketh vnto his people. Vnto whome we aunswere that our Prince is subiect vnto lawes both ciuill, and common,How a Prince is subiect vn­to the Lawes. to customes, priuileges, couenantes, and all kinde of promises, So farre forth as they are agreable vnto the lawe of God: Otherwise we thinke that he is not bounde to obserue them. VVherein we neither diminishe the libertie of the subiecte, supposing all lawes to be good, or ought to be good: Neither doe we inlarge to much the Power of the Prince, as to make him lawlesse, subiect neither to God his lawe, nor mans lawe. As some flaterers persuade the [Page 45] POPES, and EMPEROVRS that they are aboue all lawes, and may vse the bodyes, and liues of their subiectes at their luste and pleasure, taking from them their landes, goodes, and liberties without right, or reason: a thing expressely con­trarie vnto the worde of God (Thou shalt not couet thy neighbours house &c.) and a doc­trine most pernicious vnto Princes, who puffed vp with such opinions should take their course vnto a Tyrannicall kinde of puissance, making their couetousnesse confiscation, their loue A­dulterie, their hatred Murder: and as the lighte­ning goeth before the thunder, so they depra­ued with such corrupted Councellers should make the accusation to goe before the faulte, and the condemnation before the tryall. From the which kindes of libertie, or rather licen­tiousnesse our ROYALL Prince shalbe as farre of, as he is free from all kinde of subiection both domesticall, and forreine. For it is notAn absolut Prince is not subiecte vnto any stranger. enough for so worthy a kinge to be obeyed of his owne people at home, but he must be also well estemed of strangers abroade: not onely beloued of his freindes, but honoured of his neighbours, and feared of his enemies. VVher­fore, as we haue saide already that he is not [Page 46] subiect, or inferiour vnto any of his owne Na­tion: So is he neither to acknowledge any grea­ter then him selfe abroade. Kinge EVMENES, though he was but a poore Prince, and had but one onely Castell of PERGAMON vnder his power: yet when he came to capitulating with ANTIGONVS the greate kinge of ASIA, he would not yeelde one iote vnto him in prero­gatiue of honour: saying that, so long as he had his sworde by his side, he knew no man greater then him selfe: and yet by his leaue he fetched his fier from the Romanes, who main­teined him in all his quarrelles both against ANTIGONVS, and against PHILLIPPE kingeA Royall Prince nee­deth no Protection. of MACEDONES. But our ROYALL Prince is not to shrewd him selfe vnder the shadow of an other, as EVMENES did vnder the Ro­manes: Nor to shield him selfe vnder any buckelar of Protection, as FERRARA doth vn­der FRANCE: BOLOGNA vnder the POPE: FLORENCE and LVCCA vnder the kinge ofA Royall Prince is not tribu­tarie vnto any. SPAIGNE. Neither shall he paye tribute vnto any forreine Prince, as the Common weale of CARTHAGE, after it was subdued by SCIPIO AFRICANVS, did vnto the people of ROME. Neither yet any annuall pension is he to paye, [Page 47] as some great Princes of Christendome haue done vnto the greate Turke: The Common weales of VENICE, GENOVA, RAGVSA for the countreyes they haue confining vpon him doe yet the like. And as not long since LEWIS th'leuenth of FRANCE payed 50. thousand crownes a yeare vnto kinge HENRY the eight (of noble memorie) for to haue peace with him, and with our Nation. Much lesse shall he be Liege Vassall vnto any, as the kinges of SCOTLAND were wonte to be vnto the kinges of ENGLANDE: The Dukes of BRITANNIE vnto the kinges of FRANCE. Neither shall heThe most Royall Prince hol­deth not in Fee or in Fealtie of any. holde in Fee, or Fealtie of any, as most of the Cities in ITALIE doe of th'Empire, and the kingdomes of NAPLES, and SICILLE doe of the Pope: The Knightes of MALTA of the kinge of SPAINE: these giuing yearly a Faul­con, those a white amblinge Geldinge, some one thing, some an other. VVhich all are cer­taine kindes of subiections, and spyces of Ser­uitude, carying with them a number of rightes, duties, honours, and reuerences, vnworthie of the dignitie of a ROYALL Prince. VVho must be as the Gramarians saye a Noune Substan­tiue able to stande of him selfe, without the [Page 48] helpe, or aide of an other, without paying Tri­butes, doing Homages, swearing Fealties, andInconue­niences pro­ceding from Subiectiōs. Loyalties vnto any forreine Prince. COSMVS Duke of FLORENCE (of late remembrance) might not be made kinge of TOSKANE, al­though Pope PIVS the fourth, had a good will to make him, Because he helde his Cities, and Tounes of the Empire. VVherefore the Empe­rour hearing of his sute: saide Italia non habet Re­gem, nisi Casarem. The French kinge FRANCES the first of that name, for to let CHARLES the fifth, as then Archeduke of AVSTRIA from being chosen Emperour, shewed vnto the Elec­tours, how that the Imperiall Maiestie should be to much imbased, if they made of his vas­sall their chiefe, and Souueraigne. VVhich made the saide CHARLES hauing after taken FRANCES prisoner (at the famous battaile fought in the Parke of PAVIA) that he would neuer condescende vnto his deliuerance, vntill he was first exempted by FRANCES from all kinde of Seruices, and Subiections which he owed vnto the Crowne of FRANCE for the Countreyes he helde of ARTOYS and FLAN­DERS. It seemeth so base a thing vnto the Ma­iestie of a ROYALL Prince, to become the [Page 49] Liege man of an other: to sweare Fayth, and Loyaltie vnto an other: ioyning his handes within the handes of an other: to fall downe onSeruices annexed vnto the foresaide Subiectiōs. his knees as TIRIDATES kinge of ARMENIA did before NERO: to kisse the Thresholde of the dore, as PRVSIAS kinge of BITHINIA did when he entered into the Senate house of ROME: to call him selfe the Seruant of an other, as ASDRVBALL called him selfe the FACTOR, and PROCVRATOR of the people of ROME: These (I saye) and such like Indignities pro­ceeding from Protections, Tributes, Fealties, Loyalties, and the other kindes of the forena­med Subiections, are so much abhorring vn­to the Soueraignitie of a ROYALL, and abso­lute Prince, as he will choose rather to parte from whole Countreyes, then to incurre, and indure such indignities. VVherefore quarells were made against the kinges of England (her MAIESTIES most ROYALL predecessours) touching the Dukedomes of GVYENNE, and NORMANDIE, The Earldome of POITOV, and MVTTRELL, and many other goodly Pos­sessions, which they helde in FRANCE, be­cause they vouchesaued not to be bounde to doe Honours, and Homages for the same. [Page 50] But no meruaile though great kinges can not abide Subiections whē the Prince of ORANGE (this mans father) refused of the French kinge LEWIS th'eleuenth tenne times so much, as his Principallitie was worth, because he would not be subiecte to Seruices, and Vassallties. CALISTENES also the Nephew of ARISTO­TLE, being but a priuate man, chose rather to dye, then he would (according to the maner of the Persians) fall downe prostrate and adore ALEXANDER, as a God aboue the estate of man. And I haue harde how an Imbassadour for the VENETIANS at CONSTANTINOPLE, when he was to haue audience of the Great TVRKE, vnto whome he coulde not haue ac­cesse, but thorough a litle lowe place made of purpose, because men should come stoping, and kneeling vnto him: The VENETIAN Im­bassadour, (supposing in him selfe the reuerend Hienesse of that estate,) creeped thorough the hole with his backe forewardes. A thing, which the GRAN SIGNOR can in no maner of waye abide to see a mans taile towardes him.

But for to retourne vnto our most ROYALL Prince, we will conclude that he is not to doe Homage, or Honour vnto any, not to paye Tri­bute, [Page 51] or Pension vnto any, not to be subiect either at home, or abroade vnto any, not to holde in Fealtie, or in Loyaltie, by Protection, or by Commission, nor for a shorte time or sea­son: But to rule really, fully, and perpetually,Conclusion of the Treatice. according as we haue in a generall maner hi­therto discoursed. I coulde wishe to speake more particularly of the ROYALTIES, and prerogatiues belonging vnto the Maiestie of a Soueraine Prince: as of his power, and au­thoritie in allowing, and disallowing of maters propounded to be Lawes: in proclaming of warres, and concluding of Peace: in choosing, and refusing of Magistrates: in coyning and rating of money: in erecting of Fortresses: in graunting Pardons, Licences, Liberties, and Priuileges: &c. But because they are matters of more waight, and therefore doe require good aduisement, and better authority: I thinke good to suspende them vntill a more conue­nient time, or else to commende them vnto those, that are of more approued Iudgement, and better warranted to deale with them. In the meane while I hope, that these fewe lines of ours concerning the maner, and forme of the best Common weale, shall not seeme al­together [Page 52] impertinent to shew the Excellencie and Dignitie, the Power, and Maiestie of ROY­ALL MONARCHIE. VVhereby all good sub­iectes seeing the greatnesse which God hath indued Princes withall, to be as it were his LIEFTENANTES to gouerne vs here vppon Earth, may respecte, and reuerence them with all humilitie: Serue, and obaye them with all Loyaltie: heare, and speake of them with all honour.


PROVERBI VVLGARI, RACCOLTI IN DIVERSI LVOGHI D'ITALIA, ET LA maggior parte dalle proprie bocche de gl'Ita­liani stessi.

PER Carlo Merbury Gentil'huomo Inglilese.

ILQVALE NE FA PRESENTE DI COSÌ FATTA SVA INDVSTRIA à gl'amici, & patroni suoi hono­rati, della lingua Italiana studiosi.

A I NOBILI, ET ILLV­STRI SIGNORI DI CORTE, ET AL­tri gentil'huomini honorati, della lingua Italiana intendenti.

IO non sò (Signori Illustri) che luogo habbia trouato ne' vo­stri cortesi concetti quel mio precedente discorso: se riguar­dando all'altezza del suo sug­getto, voi desiderate in me maggior isperienza, e più ga­gliardo giudicio: ò se conside­rando la fine, & l'intentione di quello, vi contentiate della mia debita, quantunque de­bole industria. La mia isperienza io confesso vera­mente esser picciolissima, sì come di persona poco prattica nelle cose de gli stati: & quanto àl mio giudi­cio, non mene attribuisco punto; conoscendomi gio­uane di poche lettere, & di men che mezzano inge­gno. Mà purè, poi ch'io mi son ingegnato d'ingagliar­dire, & quella, & questo, & tutte l'altre forze mie col desiderio di mostrar la mia debita diuotione verso il fe­licissimo stato della nostra Serenissima Principessa: Io spero, che voi Signori di Corte (I quali viuete nella viua & continua contemplatione di quella sua Maestà, in honor & riuerenza di cui tendono quelli pensieri, & [Page 2] & discorsi miei) spero dico, & quasi m'assicuro, che voi vi contentarete di fauorir à così fatta mia impresa: non mirando già tanto alla dignità di quella (troppo alta per l'ale mie,) nè alla sua difficultà (troppo pesante per le spalle mie,) mà alla diligenza, studio, industria, & al buon animo mio: di che se ben altro effetto non ne se­gue, nè altro vtile non risulta al lettore (& pure non tengo lo trattato sia con modestia detto, affatto inuti­le,) ch'vna nuda significatione della mia viua voglia: non è però, che la buona mente nō sia da Dio attesa, & da voi tenuta in conto. Vi si presenta ancora vn' altro parto della mia industria, il quale poi che non è mio figliuolo naturale, ma adottiuo, & d'altre lingue che della mia leccato, (se ben uon d'altra mano, che dalla mia raccolto, vestito, & produtto in questa luce) più arditamente velo raccommando: assicurandoui, che se vi degnate d'vsarlo, & d'adoperarlo, egli vi farà di molti, & molti segnalati seruitij. Egli vi mostrerà creanze & vsanze forestiere: vi darà ammaestramen­ti al viuer vtili, auertimenti al conuersar conueneuoli: se v'occorre vsar ragionamento famigliare, egli vi sarà à canto: se pùr v'accade entrar in qualche discorso gra­ue, egli sarà là anche presente, sempre ministrandoui qualche bel motto, ò qualche bel detto per confirmar le vostre ragioni. Per conto poi di quella lingua, della quale voi (Signori, & gentil'huomini giouani, al cui seruitio l'ho spetialmente indrizzato) vi delettate; non vi posso dire, quanto honoreuol aiuto (se lo trattenete bene) vene potrà auuenire. Voi sapete, ch' in ogni lin­gua non c' è più bella gratia, che l'vsar, & nel parlare, & nel scriuere, di bei, & spessi Prouerbi: I quali, sì per le scelte, & purgate parole, che vi si trouano; si per le belle metafore, & allegorie delle quali per lo più si [Page 3] compongono, per l'acutezza che vi si scuopre, recon­dita & non cosi nota, come quella fauella che s'vsa ordinariamente parlando; come ancora perche sono quasi voci diuine riceuuti, & per commun consenso da tutti approuati: par che portino seco (non sò come) vna certa authorità, dignità, & Maestà à quel che si scriue, & si dice. Di così fatti Prouerbi questo vostro Italico seruitore vi fornirà à pieno nella sua lingua volgare, prestandouene tanti, & tanti, che se degnate à mandarne solamente la minore, ò la migliore parte alla vostra memoria (si come il suo primo patrone al­tre volte n' ha mandato la maggiore, & non se n'è pen­tito, anzisen' è seruito pùr assai,) Vedrete, che vi corre­ranno per ogni verso leggiadri & vaghi Prouerbi, sen­tenze illustri & celebrate, belle parole & purgate, mot­ti Toscani, modi Italiani: in maniera che di sì fatta so [...]e in breue spatio vi s'auanzerà la lingua, si purge­ranno le parole, vi si crescerà la creanza, s' arriccherà il giudicio, & tutti insieme sì realmente in voi s'incor­poreranno, che parerà ch' in vn subito voi vi siate trasferiti in Italia, & d'Italia ritornati senza passar ò mare, ò monti. A me veramente Signori essendo in Italia, mi è riuscito tanto dà valent' huomo questo vostro seruitore (che più non lo chiamo mio, ma vo­stro hauendolo raccommandato à voi) & mi son tan­to ben seruito & sodisfatto dell'opera sua, che s' io ho mai fatto qualche progresso nella lingua Toscana, lo debbo certò in gran parte riconoscere da lui. Le cose sue sono brieui à ricordare: facili ad intendere, (sì l'ho facilitate io ancora, doue m' è parso bisogno:) argute & piaceuoli per dilettare: sono varie, rac­colte non in Siena, ò in Fiorenza solò, ma in diuersi & diuersi altri luoghi d'Italia: sono anche Rare per non [Page 4] esser già tanto d'ogni scrittore frequentate, quanto so­lamente per le bocche de gl'huomini in commū par­lar vsate; non gia tutte fuor da libri cauate, ma la mag­gior parte dalle proprie mani de gli Italiani stessi ri­ceuute. Videbbono anche questi Prouerbi esser via più grati, perche hauendo essi fatti molti viaggi me­co, & corsi per mare & per terra molti pericoli; par che siano stati da qualche gratia diuina à posta riserbati, per farne presente a i vostri honorati studi; a i quali mille volte li raccommando, ba­sciandoui le mani.



VARIA COLLETTIONE DI PROVERBI VVLGA­RI, SENTENZE ILLVSTRI, DETTI BREVI, ET VAGHI MOTTI, che s'vsano nella lingua Italiana, copiosissima, & felicissima in così fatte cose, massi­me nel Prouerbiare.

L'HVOMO propone, & Dio dispone.
Quel ch' e disposto in Cielo, bisognache sia.
Accasca in vn punto quel, che non accasca in cent' anni.
Bisogna quando altri è
An anuylo.
incudine, soffrire: quando
A hammer.
martello, percuotere.
Egl'è mal boccone, quel ch' affoga.
Beato colui, chi puo far beato altrui.
La necessità non hà legge.
Chi ser [...]e, & tace, assai dimanda.
Che premio al ben seruire, pur viene al fin, se ben tarda à venire.
Il mal non stà sempre, doue si pone.
Sono caduto dalla
Frying Pan.
padella (come dice il vulgo) nelle
Burning coales.
brage, cio è da mal in peggio.
Facilmente si truoua il bastone per dar al cane.
Bisogna legar l'asino, doue vuole il parrone.
Le disgratie non vadano mai scompagniate.
I sogni non son veri, & i disegni non riescono.
Chi mal pensa, mal dispensa.
Chicerca *
briga, àa troua à sua posta.
Però non cercar quel che non ti tocca.
Chi potendo stare, cade tra via, s'ei rompe il collo, suo danno.
Il mondo è tondo, & dopo la notte vien il giorno: & ogni tempo vien, à chi lo può aspettare.
Più sa il matto in casa sua, ch' il sauio in quella d'altri.
Il ben non fumai tardi.
Chi nasce matto, non guarisce mai.
Chi di gallina nasce conuien che *
Chi si contenta, gode.
Chi si loda, *
Beraieth, or defileth him selfe.
Tutto quello che riluce, non è oro.
Che profitta, rauedersi dopo il fatto, ò tardare à pentirsi al'*
Pillow, or bolsterre.
Se s'auesse à fare la cosa due volte, ciaseuno sarebbe sauio.
Chi hà tempo non aspetti tempo, ma pigli' il bene, quando viene.
Ch' il mondo è fatto à scale, chi le scende, chi le sale: & l'hore non tornano à dietro.
In vna vernata sola gli alberi mutano faccia, & il giudicar il presente per il passato non è sempre sieuro.
Meglio è rauedersi vna volta, che non mai.
Però chi non hà ceruello habbia gambe: si suol dire, quan­do vn s'è scordato d'vna cosa, & gli bisogna tornar in dietro.
Il peggior di tutti i peccati, è l'ostinatione.
Gl'è vn gittar il *
The handle.
manico dietro alla palla.
I gattucci hanno aperti gli occhi.
Al *
carnouale si conosce chi hà la gallina grassa.
Io conosco i miei polli al raspiare.
Al *
To baye like an Asse.
ragghiare si vedrà, che non è Leone.
Chi più hà, più s'imbratta.
Chi Asino è, & ceruio esser si crede, al saltar di fossa se n'auede.
Non è ben sempre dir il tutto, anzi dicono, è meglio man­giar quel, ch' altri hà, che dir quel, che altri sà.
In bocca serrata non entrò mai moscha.
Però si dice tien la lingua fra i denti.
La lingua non hà osso, ma fá rompere il dosso.
Le suni legano i buoi, & le parole gli huomini.
Chi troppo parla, spesso falla.
Si dice ancora che chi troppo parla è tenuto matto,
Et chi non parla diuien muto affatto.
E sauiezza parlar poco, & ascoltar assai.
Vn par d'orecchie seccano cento lingue.
La lingua corre, doue il dente duole.
Chi non parla, Dio non l'ode.
Et però dì il fatto tuo, & lascia fare al diauolo.
Il vitio di contradire è proprio de gli insensati.
Prouerbio antico.
Costui vuol toccare il cielo con vn dito, cioè, è glorioso.
Acader và, chi troppo in alto sale.
Non vanno si alte l'ale mie.
Si lascia taluolta la carne per l'ombra.
As we saye, Selfe doe, selfe haue.
Qual Astno dà in parete, tal riceue.
Chi dorme co' cani, si leua con le
To play, or touche wan­tonly.
Stuzzicare il *
A waspes neste.
vespaio, è cosa pericolosa.
Chi schernisce il *
A lame man.
Zoppo, dé esser diritto.
Tutte le cose vbidiscono al danaio.
Io veggo, che secondo il prouerbio. Volete star lontan da Gioue & dal Folgore: cio è suor d'ogni pericolo al sicuro.
A' i molini, & alle donne sempre manca qualche cosa: cio è alle donne troppo curiose.
I panni rifanno le *
Stakes, or postes.
Vestì vn bastone, & parrà vn barrone.
Può sostenere il Toro, chi haurà già portato il vitello.
Chi non s'arrischia, non guadagna.
Chi vuol del pesce, bisognache s'imbratti, & s'immolli le brache.
Egl'è difficilissimo andar à veder macinare, senza imbian­carsi di farina.
Non vien vn male, che non vien per bene.
Prou. Sanese.
Chi pecora si fa, il lupo selo mangia.
Che si perde multo per esser stolto.
Alla pruoua si *
Is fleade.
scortica l'asino: & molte cose son meglia crederle, che prouarle.
Bisognatal volta pena patire, per bella parere.
Se io hò delle corna in seno, non me le vaglio metter in capo.
Perche è mala cosa esser cattiuo, ma egl'è peggior l'esser co­nosciuto.
E buona cosa esser lodato, ma è meglior il meritarlo.
Chi há poca vergogna, tutt'il mondo è suo.
Il can, che vuol mordere non *
Et doue bisognano i fatti, le parole sono d'auanzo.
Dal detto al fatto v'e vn' gran tratto.
Chi non fa, men falla.
Mira la *
bruscha d'altri, & non vede la sua traue.
Chi há bocca vuol mangiare.
La commoditá fa l'huomo ladro.
All'arca aperta il giusto pecca.
Ogni *
grillo grilla à se.
Ogni gallo *
ruspa á se.
Et ogni vn tira l'aoqua al suo molino.
Prou. Sanese.
La girlauda ancor che costi vn quatrino, la non sta bene in capo ad ogni vno.
Quel é tuo nimico, chi é del tuo officio.
Fra Corsali, & Corsali non si perde che barili voti.
Fra barcaiuolo, & marinaio non si quadagna se non cose da ferro vecchio.
Non fù mai vn si tristo, che si nō trouasse vn perggior di lui.
Perche ogni diritto bà il suo rouerscio.
E mal sordo, quel che non vuol vdire.
Fallo celato è mezzo perdonato.
Cagna frettolosa fá i cagnuoli ciechi.
Non si sé mai nulla bene in fretta, se non il fuggir la peste.
D'Eforo sete diuenuto Teopompo, de' quali quello haueua bisogno di sprone questo di freno.
Chi guarda ad ogni penna, non fá mai letto.
Fà d'vna moscha, vn Elefante.
Tre donne fanno vn mercato, cio è donne parlatrice.
Egli è vn sparger le perle fra i porci.
Si amo in Casa Talpa, & fuori Argo: cio è veggiamo mol­to di lontano, & nulla d'appresso.
Mescolar zucche con lanterne: come à dire parole Lom­barde con Toscane.
Troppo veramente s'arischia, chi del proprio giudicio s' as­sicura.
Et è volgar detto, che àl ben s'appiglia, chiben si consiglia.
Dimmi con cui tù vai, & saprò quel che fai.
Vi sono di quelli, che secondo il prouerbio hanno il mele in bocca e' il
A Raiser at his Girdle.
rasato à cintola.
A can mansueto il lupo par feroce, & la virtù va à terra senza la confidenza.
Si dice ch' il nobil ama, e'l villan teme.
Del rio seruo peggior parte è la lingua.
Tanti nimici habbiamo, quanti seruitori: vero è, se non sono fideli.
G'i par sempre di mangiar il cascio nella trapola: cio è à chi stà in prigione.
Hà consumato più olio, che vino: si dice d'vn huomo stu­dioso.
La verità è nel vino.
La fiamma è poco lontana dal fumo.
Amor vuol fede, & fede vuole fermezza.
Aqua lontana non spegne fuoco vicino: s'intende d'vn rimedio tardo.
Grasso ventre non genera sottil ingegno.
E mala cosa lisciar il pelo ál seruitore: cio è lodarlo, ó adulardo.
punge il villan, chi l'vnge: vnge, ch' il punge.
Tale è la cagnuola, quale è la Signora.
Quale è il padre tal sono i figliuoli.
Qual é il Rettore, tal sono i popoli.
Il pesce commincia à putir dal capo: cio è I vitij de' serui­tori hanno ad esser ascritti al patrone.
Buon cauallo, ò mal cauallo vuol sperone.
Dal mattino si conosce il buon giorno.
Si suole dire, che chi hà cauallo bianco, & bella moglie, non é mai senza doglie.
Non é bestia più pazza di quella del popolo, né acqua più grossa di quella del
A certaine kinde of past boiled, and made as it were in frit­ters to be eaten.
Dio mi guardi da due cose: l'vna da' segnati da Dio, l'altra dall 'acque quiete.
Dio mi guardi da hoste nuouo, & puttana vecchia.
Ogni vn conta della fiera, come egli andò con essa.
Talhor per vn brutto viso, si perde vna buona compagnia.
Porco pigro non mangiò mai pera mezza.
Cinqu' hore dorme il viandante: sette il studiante: & vn­deci ogni forfante.
I dispetti, & irispetti guastano il mondo.
Tanto é il bene che non gioua, quanto il mal che non nuoce.
Chi non vuol ballare, non vadi al ballo, perche poi che altrì é dentro, bisogna ballare.
Contra due non la potrebbe Orlando.
Chi la vorrà solo dunque contra due Orlandi?
Vien l'asino di montagna, & caccia il caual di stalla.
Al tutto é
orbo, chi non vede il sole.
La paura guarda la vigna.
Siedi, & gambetta, & vedrai tua vendetta.
Quel imboccarsi per man d'altri, é vn non sattolarsi mai.
Chi ti fá più carezze, che non suole, ò t'hà ingannato, ò in­gannar ti vuole: altri dicono, ò ingannar, ò tradir ti vuole.
Le galline si pigliano con belle belle, non con scioia, scioia.
Tal mano si bascia, che si vorrebbe veder
Cut of.
Non é ingannato, se non chi si fida.
Ogni bel giuoco, rincresce.
Ben spesso si piglia della volpe.
Non é miglior Rimedio che tener lungi dal
A Goate.
becco l'herba, & far dicostar le serue dal marito.
Egli é meglio esser Martire, che confessore.
Picctola pioggia fá cessar gran vento: s'intende delle la­grime di donne.
Il spensierato fa come il Magnano, che salta tanto con le
bolge, come senza le bolge.
Onde dice il volgo: Il saper nulla, é vna dolce vita.
Per far buon giudicio del vino, bisogna dar prima colore à gli occhi, dapoi l'odore ál naso, & finalmente il sapore alla bocca.
Non si vuol tagliar il fuoco col ferro: cio è non conten­dere co' contentiosi.
Hà la fame più grande, che il ventre.
Da ventre pieno esce miglior consiglio: cio è più fidele, & manco astuto.
E meglio esser sol, che mal accompagnato.
La compagnia nel male suole allegierir il male.
Io non vorrei esser solo in paradiso.
Le pietre, che vanno rotolando, non piglian rugine.
Il seruitore dé ò seruir, come seruo, ò fuggir come ceruo.
Há talmente dalla crapula ingrossato l'intelletto, che non conosce (secondo il Prouerbio) la traggea dalla
Haile, or yce.
Gragnuo­la: & gl'é giuditioso, come l'asmo che giudicò più Soaue il canto del cucco, che quello del
A nightin­gall.
Quando la Patrona sollegia, la sante dannegis.
Non sipuò insieme bere, &
to whistle.
Chi non fá quel che deue, quel che aspetta non riceue.
Et altri dicono: Chi non sa quel che debbe, gli interuien quel che non crede.
Quando il Marito sáterra, la moglie fácarne: s'intende della moglie cattiua, & disleale.
Vá circando il pelo nel'ouo.
La lettera non s'arrossisce, né sivergogna.
La verità si può piegare, ma rompere non giá mai.
Chi é facile à credere, sitrona ingannato spesso.
Sigrida poche volte ál lupo, che non sia in paese.
Il villano vien sempre col disegno fatto.
Tal ti guarda la cappa, che non ti vede la borsa.
Non é peccato ál mondo simanifesto, che non si venga à manifestare.
Però diceua la fornaia, se non vuoi, che si sappia, non lo fare, & se vuoi tenerlo secreto, non lo dire.
Chi non sa tacere, non sa godere.
Chi há intrigato ista oosa, la slrighi: chi há mangiato i
new beanes.
baccelli, spazzi i gusci.
Chi vá alle nozze, & non é inuitato, spesso se ne torna suer­gognato.
Chi scriue à chi non risponde, ò l'è matto, ò l'há di bisogno.
Di promesse non goàere, & di minaccie non temere.
Amor, & Signoria non voglion compagnia.
Chi biasima vuol comprare.
Mangiati à tuo modo, ma vestiti à modo d'altri.
Chiunque ad altrui inganni tesse, in se stesso non poco­mal [Page 15] ordisce.
Odi, vedi, & tac [...], se vuoi viuere in pace.
Carne fácarne, vino sá sangue: pan mantiene.
Dio mi guardi dalle mattutine di Parigi, & l [...] vespri di Sicilia.
Bologna la grassa, Padoua la passa, ma Venetia la guasta.
Chi vuole del fresco, non vadi à cercarlo.
Tien coperta la testa nel giorno manco che puoi, & nella notte quanto che vuoi.
Conti spessi fanno amicitie lunghe.
Chi fá la sua vendetta, oltre che offende,
Chi offeso l'há, da molti si defende.
Chi più spende, manco spende.
Spesso vna molestia ne leua molte.
Il fuoco arde la
paglia facilmente.
Cosa, che voglia cadere, fá prima cenno.
In vn buon seruitore ci vuole il muso di Porco, la schiens d'Asino, & le gambe di Ceruo.
Spesse volte il giorno d'oggi aggiugne qualche cosa á quello d'hieri.
Chi simarita in sretta, se ne pente adagio.
Pigliar vnadonna brutta, è mal di stomacho,
Pigliarla bella è mal di testa.
Questoè come
To stompe.
pestoiar acqua nel
Mortaio, ò gittar le
Faue al muro, & come perdere l'acqua, el'sapone.
Chi hauendo tempo, aspetta tempo, tempo perde.
Con il tempo, & con la paglia si maturano le nespole.
Il più delle volte auiene, che la maggior parte vince la migliore.
I vecchi, che sch [...]zano con le donne fanno carezze alla morte.
A buono Intendimento non bisogna molte parole.
La scusa non richiesta, presuppone errore.
D'vn errore sempre ne nascono altri maggiori.
La fuga si fá tarda, per troppo spronare.
Vien la vernata, che ne và l'agnel prima, che la capra.
Chi fá i fatti suoi, non s'imbrata le mani.
Chi non sa fare i fatti suoi, peggio fa quei d'altri.
Quel ch' è del patto, non è d'inganno.
Imonti firmi stanno, mà gl'huomini à rincontrarsi si vanno.
La facilità non impedisce l'elegantia.
Chi lascia la via vecchia per la nuoua, spesso ingannato si truoua.
Caual donato non si guarda in bocca.
Né femina, né tela non pigliar alla candela: s'intende delle donne che si lisciano.
Assai sá, chi non sá, se tacer sá.
Se non con la pelle del Leone, con la pelle della volpe.
La conscienza è mille testimonij.
La marauiglia è figliuola della ignoranza.
Vn huomo val cento, & cento non val vno.
Chi semina virtù, raccoglie fama.
L'vna mano laua l'altra, & ambedue lauano il viso.
Bocca larga: borsa stretta.
Mentre che v' è acqua, bisogna molinare, & mentre è cal­do, battere.
Ciascuno Molino resta di molinare mancando l'acqua.
Chi comporta vn ingiuria vecchia inuita altrui à fargli vn' altra nuoua.
Prouerbio Bolognese.
Putto in vin, & donna in Latin, non fecer mai buon fin.
Frasepolto Tesoro, & occulta sapienza, non si conosce alcu­na differenza.
Seruo d'altrui si fá, chi dice il suo secreto, à chi no'l sá.
L'adulatore è simile al beccaio, che grata il porco con la mano, per dargli poi della mazza su'l capo.
Chi vuol entrare, piccy l'vscio.
Il diauolo non è si brutto, come si depinge.
Il diauolo sá, perche è vecchio.
A cane, che lecca cenere, è mal fidarli la farina.
Al can che fiuta farina, si può ben fidar cenere.
Quel sarebbe come porre il Lupo per
A sheepe­hearde.
pecoraio, & andar alla gatta per lardo.
Né Christo ancora si potè guardare da man di traditore.
Legalo bene, & lascialo andare.
Piscia chiaro, & fá le fiche ál medico.
Io leuai la lepre, & vn' altro la prese.
Al'arborè che cade, ogniun grida taglia taglia, & al can che fugge dágli dágli.
Ogn' vn corre à far legna al arbore, ch' il vento in terra getta.
Dio mi guardi da furia di populo, da cattiua giustitia, & da man di traditori.
Non è in tutto sauio, chi non sá bisognando esser pazzo.
La gatta há pelata la coda.
Chi altri tribola, se non posa.
Andarono per sonare, & furono sonati: come i piffari diProuerbio Lucchese.Lucca.
Chi tutto vuole, tutto perde.
Chi ben siede, mal pensa.
Tal biasima altrui, che tira à' suoi colombi.
Accennaua à coppe & daua bastoni.
Non è peggior male, che quel della morte: nè peggior mine­stra, che quella che sa del fumo.
L'amore, & la tosse non si ponno celare.
Non si serra mai vna porta, che non si apra vn' altra.
Loda, & comforta, & non t'obligare.
Sempre de' cattiui partiti, piglia il migliore.
Però si dice in Italia che per arte, & inganno siviue il mez­zo anno: per inganno & arte si viue l'altra parte.
Alla buona di rata pensaui sú.
Non sono tutti huomini, quelli che pisciano al muro.
Bisogna gustar il mele con la punta delle dita: cio è vsar vna cosa non per cibo ordinario, ma come per ri­storatiuo.
L'aquila non piglia le mosche.
L'infelici figliuoli lodano i padri: volendo dire ch' essi stessi son d'ogni lode indegni.
Questo non sarebbe altro, che voler torre il folgore à Gioue: ò entrare in altrui possessione.
L'ingannar se stesso è la più facil cosa di tutte l'altre.
I secondi pensieri son sempre migliori.
Chi falla la seconda, tocca vn cauallo.
Par vn Toscano di Monferrato: Si dice d'vno ch' è trop­po curioso nel parlare.
L'agnello humile succia le mamelle della propria madre, & l'altre ancora.
Da mal Coruo, mal ouo.
Le donne s'hanno à sposare prima con l'orecchie, che con gli occhi.
Voi volete dire, ch' io imbocco (secondo il Prouerbio) col
with an empty spone
cucchiaio votò: cio è mostro di voler fare, & non fare.
E meglio pascer febre, che pascer debolezza: volendo dire, che l'infermità, che vengono da repletione sono menò pericolose, che quelle, che procedono da estenuatione.
Il vino non há *
The Rudder of a boate.
L'è vn voler estinguer il fuoco con l'oglio,
Picciol vento accende fuoco, ma vn grande l'estingue.
M' hauete renduto pan per
Più dolci sono le ferite del amico, ch' i baci del inimico.
Le cose malamente acquistate, malamente se ne vanno.
Vn belmorir tutta la vita honora.
Freno indorato non migliora il cauallo.
Se l'occhio non mira, il cuor non sospira.
Che quanto piace al mondo è breue sogno.
Chi porta il torchio indietro há per costume, à se far ombra, àchi lo segue lume.
Non shirzar che doglia, non motteggiar del vero.
Gli huomini da bene sono si pochi, che si posson numerare col'Naso.
Lodando il buono, è poi sempre migliore,
Riprendi il tristo, ogn' hora ne vien peggiore.
Chi dice tutto quel ch' egli sá, fá tutto quel ch' egli può, & mangia cio ch' egli hà, non gli resta più niente.
Con l'ombra della virtù si depinge il vitio,
Et s [...]tto il conio della bontà si spende la malitia.
Egl'è formica di sorbo, che non esce per
to knocke.
Bisogna esser tagliato a buona Luna.
Ogni cosa ha principio.
Muro bianco carta da matti.
Per via s'acconciano le Some.
Egli scorticarebbe il pedocchio per hauer la pelle.
Quanto vno ha più roba, tanto più ne vorrebbe hauere.
Há fatto più che Carlo in Francia: cio è cose incredibili.
Tristo è colui ch' aspetta la mercè d'altrui.
L'auaro inanzi ch' egli scōdesseil Tesoro, perse se medesimo.
Tanto gode l'auaro hauendo nulla, quanto hauendo ogni cosa.
I danari non statiano l'auaro, ma gli fanno hauere più sete di quelli.
L'huomo virtuoso ama più d'essere, che d'esser tenuto.
La spada de' tristi non taglia, ma il credito de' buoni amaz­za l'huomo.
Chi si becca il ceruello in vn modo, chi in vn altro.
S'io trouassi l'inimico à dormire, non gli torcerei vn pelo.
Vn pazzo ne fa cento.
Il serluitor isciocco suol esser spesse volte nel rubare astuto.
I bnoni costumi si debbono honorare non meno ch' i capei ca­nuti.
infanga il giouane, & il vecch [...]o
Non desideri mai nissuno d'esser il primo a portar cattiua nouella.
Quel che tu vuoi donare vna volta, non lo prometter due.
Non sa donare chi tarda à dare.
La legge poche volte resiste ál Oro.
Il martell d'argento
Breaketh in peeces.
spezza le porte di ferro.
A far bene le facende, bisogna ben pensare, meglio consiglia­re, ottimamente deliberare, & perfettamente fare.
Il pouero s'affattica incercar quello che gli manca, il ricco in conseruar quello ch' egl'ha, & il virtuoso nel domandar quel'che gli bisogna.
Ei fu buon
A greene goose.
Papero, & cattiua ocha: cio è fumiglior mas­saio in giouentù, che in vecchiezza, meglio com­portana la pouertà che la ricchezza.
Virtù è, fuggir il vitio.
Chi non fa le pazzie in giouentù le fa poi in vecchiezza.
L'oro s'esperimenta col fuoca, con il martello si p [...]uoua l'ar­gento, & con l'adoperare siconoscono gl'huomini.
La più cattiua Ruota del carro è quella che
that kreakes
Chi cerca i fatti d'altri non puo esser buono.
Ogni ignorante è cattiuo.
L'arbor buono fa buon frutto.
Tanto và là gatta ál Lardo, che vi la scia la
La padella dice al
Paiuolo, fatti in la che tu mi tingi: si puo vsar questo Prouerbio, per [...]assar i maledicenti.
Ama è serai amato.
Sent. di Pla­tone.
Amore é il vero prezzo con che si compra l'Amore.
Ogn' vn s'il becca: si dice propriamente de' poeti.
l'acciaio ch' egli hà adosso non potrebbe fare vna punta d'vn ago.
Non si puo trar la
ranòcchia dal
Chi laua il capo al Asino perde il
ranno, el'sapone.
Tal merito ha, chi ingrato serue.
Di buon seme mal frutto.
Il sapere ha vn piede in terra & vno in Nane, Perche Si­gnoreggia l'acqua & la terra.
Tu hai fatto d'vna lanza vn
fuso. cio è pensando d'esser Gigante nel sapere, ti sei mostrato vn Pigmeo.
Impacciati co' fanti,
Et lascta stare i Santi.
Tu sei fatto come la
A chesnut.
Bella di fuori, & dentro è la
A magott.
Si vuol andar col pie del piombo.
Non ti conosco, se non ti maneggio.
Duro con duro non fece mai buon Muro.
Non si può distendersi, che quanto è lungo il
Chi ha moglie ha pena & doglie: s'intende della cattiua.
Egli ha tolto vn
A hawkes bell.
sonaglio per vn
Chi non può battere il cauallo, batte la sella.
Io leuai la lepre vn' altro laprese.
Chi fa la roba non la gode.
Nido fatto
A birde called a Pye.
gazza morta.
Detto diCi­cerone.
L'huomo honora il luogo, & non il luogo l'huomo.
Le parole son femine, & i fatti son maschi.
Predica il Vangelo ad altri, & egli non crede nulla.
Costui sene và alla Carlona: cio è alla libera.
Fà come il
A popiniaye
Papagallo, che non leua mai il piede, se non ha prima appiccato il
becco: cio è non scriue ne serue se non sia prima premiato.
Andò aggirando vn pezzo, come moscha senza capo.
Fa come le capre che saltan tutte doue ne salta vna.
Buone parole, & cattiui fatti ingannano i sauij & i matti.
Ciascun Molino resta di molinare, mancando l'acqua.
Vuol fare d'vn
A Thorne.
Pruno vn
An Orége.
La campana suona per altri, & non per se.
Fa come la candela: è buono à gli altri & à se medissimo fa danno.
Egli è meglio vn tieni tieni, che cēto piglia piglia.
Il fauio be [...] spess [...]caeua'l
A Crabbe.
Grancio dalla
A Hole.
buca con la mano d'altri.
Vuol pigliar la Lepre conil carro.
Egli è fauio dopo il fatto.
Nō per passar il tēpo ma per acquistar tēpo si leggono i libri.
Più tosto si dé guardare dell'inuidia del Amico, che dall'insidie del nimico.
Non conosce la pace, & non la stima,
Chi non hà prouato la guerra prima.
Il cane abbaia, doue si pasce.
Ogni cane vuol pisciar al muro.
Ogni tristo cane mena la coda.
Il far il letto al cane è gran fatica.
La fiamma è poco lontana dal fu [...]no.
Nelle guerre d'Amore chi fugge, vince.
Lo faremo credere ancha à San Thomaso.
Quando l'oro parla, la lingua non ha forza alcuna.
Chi hà Amore in seno, ha sempre le sprone al fianco.
Chi scampa d'vn punto ne scifamille.
Da vn lato hò il precipitio, & dall altro i lupi.
Si vuol amar amico col suo difetto.
Dire villania al surdo, & scolparsi sopra la fortuna, sono cose d'huomini dappoco.
E più facil cosa tener vn carbonè ardente, che vna secreta parola in bocca.
Il perder fá mal sangue: Giocar & perder lo sá far ogni vno.
La moscha ha la sua colera, & non è si picciol pelo che non habbia la sua ombra.
Non bisogna stuzzicare, quando fumail naso del orso.
Ogni mal fresco ageuolmente si leua.
Non è buona madre quella, che fá il figliuolo, & non hà poi latte di poterlo nutrire.
E meglio perdere dicendo il vero, che vincer con le bugie.
Non può il vitello, & vuol che porti il bue.
Costui vuol abbracciar l'ombra, & pigliar il vēto con le reti.
Fà come il gallo, che canta bene, ma crespa male: cio è ha buone parole ma cattiui fatti.
Colui và in
zoccoli per l'asciuto: cio è si dà fastidio sen­za cagione.
Chi ben dona, caro vende, se villan non è ch'il prende.
L'huomo é dio al huomo, & Lupo.
Non bisogna per gli vccelli restar di seminare il grano.
Euery sowle coyfe.
scuffia lorda serue per la notte.
Non si crede al bugiardo, anco che giuri.
Ben si crede al verace, anchor che menta.
Più scende, chi più sale.
A sciascuno passo nasce vn pensier nuouo.
Il serpente tra fiori, & herbe giace.
E tempo à cenare à i ricchi quando vogliono, & à i poueri quando possono.
La gola non ha orecchie.
La Salimanda uon è offesa dal fuoto.
Il medico è grasso, e'l religioso è magro.
Io chi sono di cera al fuoco torno.
L'aquila non genera colombe.
Vn tacer à tempo auanza ogni bel parlare.
Si vuol saper con i più, & parlar can i manco.
Merita ogni biasimo quel giouane che vuol parlar come vec­chio,
& quella donna che vuol parlare come huomo.
In giouenil fallire è men vergogna: dice il Poeta.
Tre sorte di persone odiose al mondo. vz. Il pouero superbo: Il ricco bugiardo: E'l vecchio stolto.
L'esser canuto è segno di tempo, ma non di sapere.
Doue è manco cuore, quiui è più lingua.
Tanto più manifestasi il pèccato,
Quanto più il peccator é in alto stato.
Chi riceue beneficio per via di prieghi, lo compra caro.
Chi viue per altrui, é morto in se stesso.
Val più vn' vncia di fortuna, che cento pesi d'industria,
E molto meglio meritar vn honore che hauerlo.
Perdonando troppo à chi falla, si fa ingiuria à chi non falla. del Cortegiano.
E peggio non voler far bene, che non saperlo fare.
La misura del hauere debb' esser il corpo del huomo: si come
il piede é la misura della scarpa.
La pace non armata é debole.
La diffidenza é la radice di sapienza.
Il magistrato fa manifesto il valor di chi l'essercita. del Guicciardini.
Chi si contenta, gode.
Chi fa la casa in piazza vn dice ch' ella é alta, & l'altro ch' ella é bassa.
La verità si può piegare, ma rompere non giamai.
Senza oro & argento non s'entra dentro.
Irasenza forza é cosa vana.
Ad amor palese rare volte é cōceduto felice fine. del Bocca.
Tra felici, & infelici nel mezzo della lor vita non v é dif­ferenza alcuna.
Donna basciata, & mezzo guadagnata.
Sola la miseria é senza inuidia nelle cose presenti.
Per vna percossa non cadde mai arbore.
Le puttane sono come il carbone, che, ò coee, ò tinge.
Chi vuol esser ricco ageuolmente, hòr sia pouero di desi­derij. disse Cleante.
Non é più tempo à dar
fieno à
La vita fugge, & non s'arresta vn' hora. Et la morte vien dietro à gran giornate.
La vita il fine, e'l di loda la sera.
Trotto d'Asino dura poco.
Vn fior non fa Primauera.
Chi dona al indegno, due volte perde.
Non é bel quel ch' é bello,
Ma bello é quel che piace.
Chi dà tosto dà due▪ volte.
Al Bugiardo non é creduto la verità.
Pensa & poi fa. Da & poi di.
Chi vno ne castiga cento ne minaccia.
Detto di Se­neca.
Sarebbe troppo per vn cauallo, & poco per vn carro.
Ogni vn chi stamale desidera ruina.
Egli ha fatto il suo de
Thinges pilfered.
ruffola, * raffola.
Dal detto àl fatto v' é vn gran tratto.
Ogni simile appetisce il suo simile.
Se tu vuoi conoscer vno, fallo parlare.
Broome o [...] beessome.
granata nuona spazza ben la casa.
Io mi sono alleuato la serpe in seno.
La discretione é la madre delle virtù.
Chi non sa fare i fatti suoi, peggio fá quei d'altri.
L'auaro non fa mai miglior opera, che quando tirale calze.
Costui mi riesce meglio àpane ch' à farina.
Fá come il can pauroso, che tira la coda frale gambe.
Non crede al santo se non fá miracolo.
Egli há troppo buon vino á sicattiua
A Butte, or hoggeshead.
Se l'é rosa, la fiorira.
Quando la Pera é matura, conuien che la caggia.
Quando il villan é solo sopra il fico,
Non há parente alcun, ne buon amico.
Chi bá siel in bocca, non può sputar mele.
E difficilissimo andár á veder macinare, senza imbiancarsi di farina.
Ogni vn chiama la gatta gatta.
Il pazzo sa meglio i fatti suoi, ch' il sauio quelli d'altri.
Gli adulatori si lasciano pigliare al boccone come pesce.
Non v'è maggior male che l'ignoranza.
La gola, il sonno, & l'otiose piume,
Hanno del mondo ogni virtù sbandita.
E bruttissima cosa tollerar vn huomo malitioso che ponga la bocca in cielo.
Sempre dopo la gloria ne vien l'inuidia.
Dio voglia che quel oro non riesca Orpello.
Tutt' il nostro proceder non è altro ch' vn aggirarsi intorno, come vna
A Gnatte.
far falla intorno al lume.
Chi cosi vuol, cosi habbia.
Il gallo canta con buona voce, ma non resta à
raspar con le vnghie.
Par ch' egli habbia questa ventura di cascar in piedi come le gatte.
Si và per più strade à Roma.
Si tende vn
A Snare.
laccio alle lepri, vna
A fowlinge Nette.
ragna à gli Vccelli, vna Rete à pesci, & à gli huomini si tendono l'Insidie.
Chi non può pigliar vccelli, mangi la
An Owle.
Non si và alla fama sott' il coltrone, ne co'l dormire su la coltrice, & chi dorme in questo modo lascia di se vn fu­mo in aria, & vna schiuma nell'acqua.
O bene ò male tutt' è faua.
Chi nō sá adulare nō sa conuersare: ma si dice meglio che.
L'adulatore é amico nel conuersare con parole & inimico nel animo co' fatti.
Vi corre ancor vn altro Prouerbio più volgare che lo­deuole che.
Chi non sa dissimulare non sa viuere.
La fortuna non sá sedere: Colui è degno d'ogni male, che della sua fortuna si vergogna. Dicono gli ignoranti ventura Dio, poco senno basta: Et vorrei buona Fortu­na, la sapienza chi la vuol la tolga: Chi non ha ventura non vadi à pescare.
Tanto è del auaro quel che possiede, quanto quel che non pos­siede.
Sempre pioue, quando io fó bucato.
Come iò vò in Chiesa, mi cade il Campanile in capo.
Detto d'Ho­mero diuen­tato Prouer­bio.
Amico fin ál Altare.
Anche gli stolti conoscono la cosa poi ch' ella è fatta.
Gli huomini grandi hanno à morire in piedi.
Prouerbi trattì dalle Historie.
Il Romano vince sedendo.
Egli hà fatto il figliuol Prodigo.
Prouerbi ca­uati da' sacri libri.
Egli è venuto senza la veste nuptiale.
Non si cognosce Errore, la doue regna Amore.
Prouerbi facti pervna Getildōnna Sanese.
Chi vuol saluar honore, sdegno in fronte, & fuoco in cuore.
Doue non è la speranza del bene, non è la paura del male.
Il pianger i morti nō rileua, & la vendetta sfoga l'odio assai.
Se il lagrimar ne medicasse il male,
Et piangendo il dolor finisse,
Per le lagrime ogni vn darebbe l'oro.
Chi osserna queste tre cose non haurà mai con­tesa aucuna.
Cedere al maggiore, persuadere con modestia al minore, & consentire al vguale.
Ad amor palese rare volte ò non mai è conceduto felice fine.
Del Bocca­cio.
Fauciulla à tempo non maritata, spesso si marita suerginata,
Tien la fortuna mentre che tu l'hai, Che si ti esce di man mai più l'haurai.
La Zingara ad altrui la sorte dice, Et la sua non conosce l'infelice.
Aspettare, & non venire, seruire & non aggradire, Star in letto & non dormire, sono tre cose da morire.
Il miser suole dar facil credenza à quel che vuole.
Sempre che l'inimico è più possente,
Più chi perde accettabile ha la scusa.
Ambasciator pena non porta.
Del Ariosto.
L'huomo nè per star, nè per fuggire, Al suo fisso destin puo contradire.
Perch' il porro ha il capo bianco, la coda è verde.
Le cose quantunque molto piacciono, hauendone soperchia copia rincrescono.
Ogn' vn corre à far legna,
Del Ariosto.
Al arbore, ch' il vento in terra getta.
Del Corte­giano.
La facilità non impedisce l'elegantia.
La compagnia nel male suol allegierir il male.
I giouani hanno copia di tempo, i vecchi n'han carestia.
Ama, & sarai amato.
Di Platone.
L'amar altrui è il vero prezzo con che sicompra Amore.
I diauoli non sono si negri come si dipingono.
L'arbore che di continuo si trapianta non fàmai frutto.
Vfficio pregato è mezzo pagato.
Di nouello ogni cosa è bella.
Milano la grande, Venetia la ricca, Genoua la superba, Fiorenza la bella, Napoli la gentile.
Prouerbio Napolitano.
Balsant di quatro, ò vendre, ò barratre: Balsant di tre caual di Re: Balsant d'vno, non dar annissuno,
Di tre cose il Fiorentino ne fa vna frulla, A Dio, mi raccommando, vuoi tu nulla.
Del Petrar­cha.
Piaga antiueduta assai men duole.
E meglio hauer vn buon porco, ch' vna bella tosa.
Non stuzzicar il can che dorme.
Dall'vnghie si conosce il Leone.
Chi muore in campo, muore in letto d'honore.
Non si ponno coglier le rose senza punger le mani.

Motti brieui ch'hanno del Prouerbio.

Costui ha del sale in zucca: cio è egl'è molto ingenioso.
The fore­name vsed to be giuen to a Nunne.
monna Zucca al vento: cio è di poco ceruello.
Piaccia a Dio che la mia Zucca mandi fuori il suo seme.
Io caualco alla
A light horse man.
stradiotta, pochi arnesi mi fanno.
Ha tanti libri di lettere in capo ch' vn Asino ne sarebbe ca­rico.
La tua opera anderà in monte.
Ma vegniamo a meza lama: Gli dette vna buona
picchia­ta: Saltò di
Palo in
A bough of a tree.
Gli ho dato con la sferza vn buon cauallo.
Ho serbato vn colpo maestro.
I poueri
Great heddes.
capessoni han fatto il pane.
Egl'ha posto il tetto. Succia su quello.
Dice le cose si alte che non si puo pigliar la
The sight.
De gli incorrigibili si dè mandar le radice al sole.
Se voi vì lasciate l'ossa, vostro danno: La malitia ha fatte profondissime radici: Sò che tu l'hai hau [...]ta buona á ca­pello: Gli ignoranti sono pur cresciuti senza
To water
Come ha tocco dne volte in capo di messer Eccellente, egli gomfia, come vna
A Toado.
botta. Si vantaua d'amazzar l'aria: Star non si può a petto con lui: Dar la stretta ad vno.
Hebbe nome mezzo forfante, mezzo mariuolo, il reste poi era tutto poltrone.
Vn certo mercantuzzo di stringhe: Vn Asinaccio da bastone: Vn bestionacchio sperticato da venderlo à canne come i campi, ò à farui presente á vn lungo remo: Vn Asinac­cio pezzo d'huomo: Vn bestiuolo dá poco ceruello.
Lo darà il Boia bello, & fritto al diauolo: Lo dò alle forche: Mi ritirai con questo cocomero nel capo alla villa. S' è cauata la maschera.
Non pensate ch' io vocelli á presenti: Vn huomo alquanto di sale. Heueua il piede in due staffe: cio è si poteua ò bene ò male interpretar i fatti ò i detti suoi.
Gl'hauete tolto quello á torto, che non gli potete rendere á ragione, cio è la vita: Chi così vuol, così habbia:
Io ti daró tanti, & tanti, ch' io ti cauer [...] il
Skoffinge, or iestinge.
ruzzo del capo.
Non me ne so né grado, né gratia.
[...] [...]
Pare che quella cosa cerchi il suo centro.
Poi alla fine sono iti à monte con gli altri.
Gl'é terreno da piantar carotte: Ha l'ali più grandi ch' il nido: Più sù sta mona Luna: Dà del buon per la pace: Hà la fede Greca, cio è egl'è disleale: Dorme con gli occhi aperti: A lui si cangiò il pelo: Che si dè far dunquc? Stringer le spalle: Dare il *
Ouerwaight, or the sha­king.
crollo alla bilancia: Colui fù il primo che ruppe il ghiaccio: Gli s' è portato il cap­pello rosso, cio è ha hauuto la buona nuoua: Ha vnto le mani ál guidice: Ha cattiui vicini: M'ha dato à cre­dere
Gloowe wormes.
lucciole per lanterne: Costui braua à credenza: Ho dato nello scartato: Há preso vn granchio: ha man­giato vn' osso: voi empiete la valigia come vn zoccolan­te
Without paying any thing.
à scrocco. Dormite al par d'el piumaccio: Ei suda di bel Gennaio: Hà pisciato in più neue: Io ho reso l'arme à San Giorgio: Si messe in dozzena con le stringhe rotte. Sono saui à credenza, & matti á contanti. Di tal mo­neta l'hauete pagato, quali erano state le derrate vendute. Tu che non hai ancora rasciuti gl'occhi. Egli haueua á buona
A ringe in a wall.
cauiglia legato l'Asino: A madonna poco fila gli si tringeuano i *
The garters.
cintolini. Costei sente del scemo. E terreno da' ferri miei. Star con le Muse in Parna­so, fare fascio d'ogni herba.
Amioi di proferta assai si truoua
Ancor chi stanno con la borsa aperta,
Quando si vien al fatto della pruoua,
Borsa serrata, amici non si truoua.
Chi dá tosto, dá due volte.
La gratia presta si radoppia, & la tarda suanisce.
Le gratie non aspettate, soglion esser più grate.
Ma non si può sforzare il Popone.
In fine in fine i guai col pane sono buoni, & ogni cosa ha il suo rimedio, fuor che la morte.
La morte anchora dá minor pena, che l'indugio della morte.
E molto meglio tosto morire, che viuendo languire.
La morte di se stessa non è misera, ma la via che conduce álla morte è misera.
E meglio ritornar in dietrò, che andar errando inanzi.
Meglio è godersi il poco, ch' il bramar assai contrauaglio.
L'huomo risoluto non depende dalle cose a venire: l'aspetta, si bene: & gode (il meglio ch' egli può) le cose presenti: Del Autore.
Se non contento, almen risoluto. C. M.


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