THE SOVLE IS Immortall: OR, Certaine Discourses de­fending the immortalitie of the Soule; against the limmes of Sathan: to wit, Saduces, Anabaptistes, Atheists, and such like of the hellish crue of Aduersa­ries.

Written by IOHN IACKSON.

Imprinted at London by W. W. for Robert Boulton dwelling in Smithfield neere Long-lane. 1611.

TO THE CHRI­STIAN READER, Grace and Peace be multiplied.

THe Arch-enimie of man­kinde, Sathan, that olde Aduersarie, as he dared to giue the assault vpon the Author of Saluation himselfe; so hath he not rested from the beginning, to lay battrie to the fortresse of Fayth, seeking by all meanes to beat it downe, and vtterly to rase the very foun­dations of it. And to this end, hath he not left vnshaken any one article of our Chri­stian beliefe, both by old and new Here­tikes, the wicked instrumentes of his in­fernall warringes. So maliciously is he set against vs, that like a ramping and ro­ring Lion, he goeth about seeking whom [Page]be may deuower: And where GOD hath his Church, be euermore adioyneth his Chappell, with his counterfaite, false, and faigned Religion, odious to God, and wonderfull to the world. Amongest the rest, he hath not onely of old, but euen of late, battered the soule, yea euen the life of the soule of man: yea euen now doth he most stoutly batter it; by perswading some, that it is corruptible and mortall; and putting into their mouthes the most venomed swordes of poysoned sophisticall Argumentes to maintaine the same, a­gainst the most certaine and necessarie trueth of the Soules immortalitie. For not onely the Saduces did dispute against the immortalitie of the Soule; yea, and they in like manner, who sayd in Saint Paules time, that the Resurrection was past alreadie to him that beleeueth; and made no other resurrection, besides the resurrection of the regenerate. But also the Anabaptistes of later yeares, doe de­nie [Page]the Soule to be immortall. And Paul the third of that name, Pope of Rome, when he was breathing out his Soule and readie to die, sayd; that now at length he should try and know three things: First, whether there were a GOD: second, whe­ther the Soules were immortall: third, whether there were a Hell or no; whereof all his life time he was in much doubt. Yea verily euen at this very day, there are now wicked Epicures, and gracelesse Atheistes, whom the Diuell to lull them faster a sleepe in their sinnes, and enforce them to heape sinne vpon sinne, hath so suggested them, that they are fully per­swaded that there is no rewarde for the Good, nor punishment of the Wicked; but that Man perisheth as Beast, and the Soule to come to nothing: according to that wicked verse of Horace: Et re­dit in nihilum, quod fuit ante nihil. For they affirme, that the Soule of man, like as of brute Beastes, is nothing else, but [Page]Life, or the vitall power, arising of the temperature and perfection of the Body; and therefore dyeth, and is extinguished togeather with the Body. And some a­gaine say, that the Soule sleepeth, when the Body dyeth that is, is without motion or sense, vntill the raysing of the Body: which indeed is nothing else, but that the Soule is mortall; that is, a meere qualitie onely in the Body, which when the body is dis­solued, becommeth nothing; because if it were an incorporeall substaunce, it could not be without sense and motion.

Wherefore hauing my selfe met with some of this badde sort, and hearing of moe, I thought good euery way to fight in the cause of Christ Iesus, with the weapon put in mine hand by my grand Captaine, and with might and maine, to heaw at these two Monsters, and vtter Ene­mies to the Soule. Therefore seeing that the print of the Penne may come vnto the eyes of moe, than the sound of the voyce [Page]into the cares, I (by Gods assistance) haue set my talent on worke, against them both, proouing the contrarie: First, that the Soule is not (as they say,) mortall, but immortall: Secondly, that the Soule is not a forme, perfection, temperament, force, power, or agitation arising out of the temperature of the Body; but a sub­staunce incorporeall, liuing, vnderstan­ding, dwelling in the Body, and susteining and moouing it. And this latter, is proo­ued true by these Scriptures, Psalm. 48. His Soule shalbe blessed in life. Heb 12. God is called the Father of Spirites. And it is sayd of the faythfull; Yee are come to the Celestiall Ierusalem, and to the companie of innumerable An­gels, and to the Spirites of iust and per­fect men. 1. Cor. 2.11. Noman know­eth the thinges of a man, saue the spi­rite of man, which is in man. In these, and like places of Scripture, both the Soule of man is called a Spirit, and the proper­ties [Page]of a liuing and vnderstanding sub­staunce are attributed vnto it; therefore it is a substaunce. And therefore to no purpose, doe the aduersaries of this Doct­rine, oppose those places wherein the soule is taken for the life and will of man; as Mat. 6. The Soule is more worth then Meate. Iob. 13.14. I put my Soule in my hand. For by the fore alleadged pla­ces, it is manifest, that this is not generall, but is vsed by figure of speach; whereby we call the effect, by the name of his cause. Now for the former, that the Soule is not mortall, but immortall; and also for a further declaration of this latter, I haue translated foorth of latine (for their sakes that vnderstande not latine) a certaine Treatise of the Immortalitie of the Soule; and thereunto haue adioyned other mens iudgments and reasons, for the helpe of the matter, & Scriptures confirming the same, and confuted the Aduersarie.

GVILERMVS HOVPPELANDVS: Of the immortalitie of the Soule.

THat the auncient Phi­losophers flourished in Witte, and profited in Studie, it is no common opinion, but vnto all men a sure and certaine perswasion: For by Studie and Exer­cise, they on euerie side made them­selues away vnto those thinges that are by Nature, almost incomprehensible: And by their benefite, there are many thinges publikely left vnto all posteri­ties, which we are glad of, and doe mar­ueile at their inuentions. They measu­red the World, subiected Heauen to their Rules, searched out the sundry causes of [Page 2]Nature; and in some sort, with their eyes contemplated the Worke-man of all the World. But of the state of mans Soule, and the Immortalitie thereof, sundrie sectes haue in their Writinges, left sun­drie opinions.

Some say, that Soules are Mortall, and die togeather with their bodyes. Some doe say, that they are Immortall, and al­waies remaine in a fixed stabilitie. Hera­ciuus affirmed, mans Soule to be a Va­pour; Thales, a Moysture; Empedocles, Blood; for hee taught, that the Soule is Blood infused in the Heart. Diogenes and Anaximenes, Ayre. The Storkes, whereof Zeno and Chrisippus are the chiefe, do say, it is a Fire. Democritus affirmed the Soule to be made by a certaine chauncing course of certaine light and round mat­ter. Aristoxenus, an Harmonie: Ari­stophanes, a due proportion of qualities. The Saduces (so called of Sadoc,) denying both Honours and Punishmentes; and vniuersally both Spirit and Angell, doc impudently say, that mens Soules are Mortall, and die togeather with their Bodyes. The Epicures also affirming the [Page 3]Soule to be Mortall, doe place the chie­fest Good, in Pleasures. For Epicurus, who, (as it pleaseth the greatest men) did moderately vse Hearbes and Apples, & such meane Meate, was afterward, by those that came after, being a beastly and filthy companie, reproched with infa­mie; for his sottish vnbridled Schollers, fell into voluptuousnesse, and counted themselues to be most happie, with the vse thereof. All these, and many other moe, in the reckoning vp of whom, it is not profitable for vs for to stay, thought mans Soule to be Mortall. Whom Plinie seemeth to fauour, when he sayeth in his second Booke of his Naturall Historie that God cannot giue men Eternitie, nor call againe the Dead. And also many Romaines, (renowned both for fame and learning,) for Ʋalerius in his seconde Booke of the Immortalitie of the Soule, seemeth to mocke the Frenchmen, when he saith, That old custome of the French­men commeth to my remembraunce, who, as it is written, doe lend Money that it might be payde them againe in Hell; be­cause they were certainely perswaded, [Page 4]that the Soules be immortall. Fooles are they to thinke, that they there, weare long Garments; as Pithago [...]as beleeued them to weare Cloakes. Moreouer Caesar, and Cato (as Salust witnesseth,) plainely said that mens Soules were Mortall: and many others also; of whom it is not ne­cessarie to speake particularly. Against whom it is sayd in the second Chapter of the Booke of Wisedome, The vngodly say, (as they falsely imagine with them­selues,) our life is short and tedious; and in the death of a man there is no recoue­rie; neither was any knowne that retur­ned from the Graue: For wee are borne at all aduenture, and we shall be hereaf­ter as though we had neuer been; for the Breath is a Smoake in our Nostrels, and the Wordes as a Sparke raised out of our Heartes: which being extinguished, the Body is turned into Ashes, and the Spirit vanisheth as the soft Ayre: Our life shall passe away as the trace of a Cloude, and come to naught as the Miste that is dri­uen away with the beames of the Sunne, and cast downe with the heate thereof: Our name also shalbe forgotten in time, [Page 5]and no man shall haue our workes in re­membrance: for our time is as a Shadow that passeth away; and after our ende, there is no returning: For it is fast sealed, so that no man commeth againe. Come therefore, and let vs enioy the pleasures that are present, and let vs chearefully vse the creatures as in youth, &c. Then it followeth at the. 21. verse. Such things doe they imagine, and goe astray; for their owne wickednesse hath blinded them. And they doe not vnderstaud the mysterie of God, neither hope for the re­ward of righteousnesse, nor can discerne the honour of the Soules that are fault­lesse. And in the third Chapter: The Soules of the righteous, are in the hand of God, & no torment shall touch them: In the sight of the vnwise, they appea­red to die, and their ende was thought grieuous; and their departing from vs. destruction: but they are in peace. And though they suffer paine before men, yet is their hope full of immortalitie &c.

There are also others, of euery sect and nation, as well Poets as Philosophers, in witte, learning, fame, and glorie, more ex­cellent [Page 6]then the former, who speaking more rightly of the state of the Soule, haue taught, that the Soules of men are not dissolued togeather with their bo­dyes; but are immortall, or rewarded with eternitie: For Hermes talking in his Dialogues with Asclepius, about the eternall Word, confesseth, that the Soules of men are immortall; and that the Euill are punished, and the Good eternally rewarded. Goe to, sayth he, Wee must now reason of the Mortall, and Immor­tall way or manner: The feare of death, vexe and trouble many, being ignorant of the true way. And a litle after; When the Soule shall depart from the Body, then shall the tryall of his merite passe into the power of the great Iudge: and hee, when he shall see it to be iust, shall permit it to abide in places fit for it: But if it be vnrighteous, it shall be throwne downe into the great deepe, and con­demned to the stormes & whyrlewinds of the Ayre, and the Water; and be snatched vp betwixt the Heauen and the Earth, and be heere and there tossed, haled, and turmoyled in eternall paines. [Page 7]But in this, is eternitie hurtfull vnto the Soule, that by the immortall sentence, it is tyed to eternall punishment. And thy Graunfather Esculapius, O Asclepius, saith hee, the first finder out of Phisicke, to whom is consecrated a Temple vpon a Mountaine of Lybea, about the shore of Cocodrilli, a man of a very godly life; is gone backe againe into Heauen.

The Pharesies also and the Essies doe say, that the Iudgement of God shall come, and that the Soules of men be im­mortall. Josephus in his second Booke of the Warres of the Jewes, sayth this: It is a confirmed opinion amongst vs, that our Bodies are corruptible, and that the mat­ter of them, is not perpetuall; but our Soules alwayes remaine immortall: And when they be losed from their carnall bondes, as though they were deliuered, or set free from a long seruitude; so doe they foorthwith reioyce, and are caryed vp on high. The Pharesies also beleeued the same: which two sectes, were best allowed of among the Jewes, as the same Iosephus affirmeth.

And of the Esseis being put to torments, [Page 8]the same Josephus sayeth: They smiling in the midst of punishings, and laughing those to scorne that eschewed torments, did constantly yeeld vp their Soules with a certaine hilaritie, as though they should at length receiue thē againe: And what is meant by that in the Sentences of the Greekes, that assure them that remaine content with good things, that they shall liue beyond the Occean, where is promi­sed vnto them a full fruition of the chie­fest Ioyes? For there verily, (say they,) is the Region which is aggrauated neither with Raine, Cold, Heate, nor any Mala­dies; but the Occean orient and gentle blowing Zephirus is there very pleasant. But for euill soules, they choose and ap­point stormy and wintery places, which are full of wailings, schrikings, and how­lings, of paines intollerable, whose con­tinuance is euerlasting, and world with out end. According to this same intelli­gence, the Greekes haue faigned, that for those whom they call Heros. 1. noble and halfe Gods, Semidij, are sequestrated the Ilands of the blessed, but for the Soules of the wicked, Hell is destinated, wherein [Page 9]also they faigne, that there is tormented certaine Sysiphos, Tantalusses, Ixions, and Licias: For the Greeke say, that Her [...]i, no­ble and well deseruing Soules, indued with immortalitie, dwell vp very high in the Ayre; whereof Jsiodore sayeth: Heroas dicuntur a Junone traxisse nomen. Grece enim luno a herba appellatur, &c. 1. Heroas are sayd to haue drawne their name from Juno; for in the Greeke tongue, Iuno is cal­led an Herbe, and therefore I know not what Sonne of hers according to the Fa­ble of the Greekes, was called Heros, which Fable hath a misticall signification, be­cause the Ayre is deputed to Juno; where in they will haue Heroas to dwell: for when the Poet Ʋirgill described the Eli­sean Fieldes, where they thinke the soules of the blessed Saintes doe dwell, hee did not onely set downe that those do dwell there, that haue been able to come thi­ther by their owne merites; but addeth also, & sayth: Those also that by deser­uing, haue made others mindful of them; that is to say, who haue so deserued, that by their deseruings, they haue made others mindfull of them. Moreouer, as [Page 10]concerning the Greekes, Histories doe make mention of two kindes of Philoso­phers: One, Italike of that part which in times past was called Magna Graecia: The other, Jonicke, of that part which is now called Graecia. The Prince & chiefe of the Jtalke kind, was Pythagoras; of whom they say, that Philosophie first tooke the name; who was of such autho­ritie among the Auncients, that by a pre­iudiciall opinion, he couered and ouer­came all others sentence, and was suffi­cient enough for the confirmation of euery sentence whatsoeuer, if so be any thing was taught, to be that that he said. For writinges doe testifie, that Ferecides the Sirian sayd, first, that the mindes of men are sempiternall; who was indeed an auncient man in the time that Oeneus raigned: which opinion, his Disciple Pythageras most greatly confirmed; who in the time that Tarquinus superbus raig­ned, came into that part of Italie which was called Magna Graecia; wherein the name of the Pythagoreans flourished with such authoritie, that a long time after, no others seemed learned,

Of the Ionicke kind, Thales Milisius was the Prince: a man very notably well learned and wise, and therefore so much the more admirable to his Schollers, be­cause he was able by the knowledge of Astrologie, to foreshew the Eclipses of the Sunne and Moone. To whom suc­ceeded Anaximander, who left his Scho­lar Anaximenes, the Maister of Anaxa­goras and Dyogenes. After Anaxagoras, succeeded Arch [...]laus his Scholar: After Socrates arose, who by the Oracle of Apollo, was iudged the wisest of all men, and left very many followers of his Phi­losophie; whose studie was chiefly con­uersant in the disceptation & reasoning of Morall questions. After him, follo­wed Plato, who, as Apuleius testifieth, was first called Aristotle: but afterward, be­cause of the largenes of his breast, he was named Plato: who was endued with such an excellencie of Philosophie and finenesse of Manners, that as it were, sit­ting in the throne of Wised [...]me, seemed, by a certaine receiued authoritie to beare rule ouer all Philosophers, both those that were before him, and those that [Page 12]were after him. Afterwarde arose his Disciple Aristotle; a man verily of great Witte and Eloquence, who farre excel­ling many; succeeded Plate in the office of teaching: for this man shined vnto men as the Morning starre, and enlighte­ned the world with manifold preceptes, and sundry beames of Philosophie: and the mist as it were, being wiped away from the eyes, repayred the mindes of men, that the trueth for euer might be continued among them. After the death of Plato, there succeeded also in the Schoole, which is called Accademia, Pseu­sippus his sisters Sonne, and Zenocrates: and for this cause, both they themselues, and also their successours, were called Academickes, whom it pleased rather to follow Plato then Aristotle, who institu­ted the sect of the Peripatetickes, because that he was accustomed to dispute walk­ing: amongst whom was ennobled Plo­tinus, Porphyrius, and Apultius Afer, and also many other; of whom it is not deedfull for vs now to speake in singu­laritie.

All those therefore, whom with o­thers, [Page 13]we doe see not vnworthily renow­ned for their fame, learning, and glorie, haue sayd, that the Soules of men doe ob­taine the state of immortalitie: which sentence Varro, Seneca, Salustius, Tullius, Boetius, and Macrobus, doe approoue. Hereof Tullius in his Prologue Super som­num Scipionis, sayth; Omnibus qui patriam seru [...]uerunt a [...]xerunt (que), certum in calum de­fruitum esse locum, vbi beati cuo sempiterno fruuntur. First, that for all those that haue saued and enlarged their Country, there is a certaine place appoynted in Hea­uen, where the blessed enioy euerlasting life. Moreouer, the Poets Ʋirgil and Ouid, thought the very same: For, in the fifth Booke of Metamorphosis Ouid sayth:

—Morte carent animae, semper (que) relicta Sedenouis domibus, viuunt habitant (que) receptae.

That is to say:

From death are free the Soules of men, and are immortall all:
Which when their roomes they do for sake and Corps doth dead downe fall:
Then habitations new they haue, receiued by Ioues decree,
Wherein he will for euermore, [Page 14]their dwelling place shall be.

All also, that thinke that Gods are made of men, or that men are translated to the fellowshippe of the Gods, haue thought the same. Did not Mercurius Trismegistus speaking of Esculapius, Her­mes, and Osiris, how they were deified and made Gods, say; The Idoles that you euery where worshippe, were first of Egyptians called, Holy liuing crea­tures, and their Soules worshipped throughout all Cities, to whom they were dedicated while they were aliue? so that they are gouerned by their lawes, and named by their names, and in a ma­ner al Sectes and Nations are Attlanticks, as Libians, Egyptians, Frenchmen, Romaines, Spaniards, Perseans, Chaldi [...]s. Did not the great King Cyrus (as Tully doth witnes) say vnto his Sonnes when he lay on his death-bed: Doe not thinke, ô my sonnes, that when I shall depart from you, I shall neuer be againe or be none at al? for al the while that I haue been with you, you neuer did see my Minde or Soule: you saw nothing but this Body that I beare: belieue therefore that I am, and shalbe, [Page 15]although you shall not see mee.

Moreouer, Galdisfa the Mahomet, and the auncient elders of the Mahomets, ac­cording to the traditions of their Law, doe beleeue and preach, that the dead shall rise againe, and shall eate & drinke delicate thinges, and shall haue many faire Women, which they shall embrace and vse at their pleasure: For Marcus declaring the conditions of the East Countries, sayth, that the Tartarians doe so impudently deceiue themselues, that if a Young man and a Mayde do die vn­maryed, they cause them to be espowsed and that very solemnly, before they be buried; that so in the life to come, they may more freely enioy their pleasures.

Touching Aristotle what he thought of the immortalitie of the soule many had rather doubt with the subtile Doctor, then rashly to define: seeing that a­mongst those things that are read of him, whether they be those thinges that hee wrote him selfe, or those thinges that o­thers say that he spake, his opinion can not easily be found out: for almost in all places of his doctrine, hee seemeth to [Page 16]fauour the immortalitie of the Soule: For in his second Booke of the Soule, af­ter the definition of the Soule, putting a difference betweene the partes of the Soule, he sayth, that there are certaine partes that are not separable from their Matters, or the thinges whereof they be made, or receiue the name: and some are separable; as, Nauta a Nauj, The Ma­riner from the Ship, Vt rationalis anima a ratione: and therefore hee concludeth, that it is separable from other thinges, as that which is perpetual, from that which is corruptible. And in the third Booke of the Soule, putting a difference betweene Sensus and Intellectus, the Sense, and the Vnderstanding, hee saith: Excellens sen­sibile corrumpit sensum, excellens autem intelligibile non corrumpit intellectum: 1 The excellent sensible thing, corrupteth the Sense; but the excellent intelligible, corrupteth not the Vnderstanding. Also, in the first Booke, where the translation that Auarroys expoundeth, the Vnder­standing doth seeme to bee a certaine substaunce, which is made indeed, and is not corrupted. And in his Booke, De [Page 17]Animalibus, the Philosopher enquireth, whether all Soules doe come foorth of their bodies? and hee answearing, saith: That it is not possible for corporall Soules to come foorth of the bodyes. It therefore remayneth (sayth hee) that it is the Vnderstanding that cōmeth foorth, and only is diuine. And he in his twelfth of Metaphysuks, ca. 8. sayth: The moue­ing causes as they were made before it, so doe they come foorth of it. And in the Booke of the death of Aristotle, it is writ­ten, that he, lying on his death-bed com­forting his schollars concerning the feare of death, said vnto them. Et vos, vt quid turbatis et de morte timetis? quae est via et incessus animae recedentis a corpore, et ad comprehendendum gradus diuinos, et coniungendum se animabus sapientibus et letis: 1. And you, why are you troubled, and are afraid of death: which is the gate & entring in of the soule departing from the body, to comprehend the heauenly wayes or degrees, & to ioyne it selfe to the soules that are wise and ioyfull. After whose death, his scholers praied for him, saying [Page 18] Deus qui recolligit animas Philosophorum, recolligat animam tuam, et reponat eam in the­sauris suis. 1. The God that gathereth to­geather the Soules of the Philosophers, gather thy Soule, and lay it vp in his treasures. And Libro secundo posteriorum, he reciteth Pythagoras saying, That God doth thunder and sounde as one that threatneth, that those that are in Tarta­rus, or in Hell, may be afraid. And in the 4. Booke of his Ethicks, hee sayth: Al­though they sinne, yet they suffer what­soeuer punishment is layd vpon them; because they say, that immortalitie is life euerlasting: for the passion of life see­meth immortalitie. &c.

On the contrarie part, Aristotle doth sometime seeme to be against the immor­talitie of the Soule: for in his Praedica­ments he sayth: Corrupto animali, corrupti­tur scientia, non autem scibile, scientia autem non est anima, ex quo videtur sequi animam interire cum corpore: 1 The liuing crea­ture being corrupted, the science or know­ledge is also corrupted; not the thing that may be knowne, for the science is not the Soule, whereof it seemeth to follow, that [Page 19]the Soule doth die with the Body. And in his Booke De longitudine et breustate vitae, Of the length & shortnes of life, hee sayth; The liuing creatures being corrupted, the science is also corrupted, and likewise the healthfulnesse; and therefore who of these shall reason for the Soule? for if it be not of Nature, but as science in the Soule, so also shall the Soule be in the Body. And of the same another corrup­tion, besides the corruption wherewith the corruption is corrupted with the Body: therefore it must needes be, that it hath cōmunion with ye body. And in the third, De anima: Non reminiscimur post mortem corum qui in vita sciuimus: We haue no re­membrance againe of thē after, whom we knew, while they were aliue. And in the third Booke of Ethickes: Terribilissimum autemmors, terminus enim, &c. Death is a most terrible and fearefull thing: for it is the tearme or end. And there seemeth thencefoorth to be vnto the dead, neither good nor euill. And Septimo Metaph, hee determineth of the Intention, that, Omnes partes quae possunt manere seperatae a toto, sunt elementa; hoc ect, partes matcriales: [Page 20]All partes that may remaine, being se­perated from the whole, are Elementes; that is to say, partes Materiall. And Primo de Caelo, he seemeth to hold it for vnpossi­ble, against Plato, Quod aliquid sit factum perpetuū et incorruptibile, et hoc de mundo. &c. That any thing can be made perpetuall and vncorruptible: And this is prooued of the world by two reasons; which I omit for breuities sake. And Quinto phi­sico, he sayth: Cuius est principtum, eius est finis: As is the beginning of a thing, so is the end of it. Out of which sayinges, it seemed to Scotus, and to many others al­so, that Aristotle was alwayes doubtfull of the immortalitie of the Soule, yea euen vnto the day of his death. And he see­meth sometimes to come nearer the one part then the other; and sometimes to a­gree to that, hee seemed before to con­demne; accordingly as the matter where­of hee entreated, was more consonant to the one part, rather then the other. Yet notwithstanding, by Scotus leaue, in the foresaid sentence, he seemeth to mee, not to differ frō his maister Plato in this mat­ter: and herein my witnesse is Bessario, [Page 21]the Cardinall of Nicea, in that which he wrote in the defence of Plato; and Cicero also, whose testimonie amongst all men, is most of authoritie, sayth in the first Tusculan question: Post multorum Phi­losopherum de animi quidditate recitatas opiniones, Aristoteles longe omnibus; Pla­tonem semper excipio, &c. After the reci­ted opinions of many Philosophers touch­ing questioninges of the Soule, Aristo­tle is farre aboue all: but I alwayes ex­cept Plato, a man very excellent both for witte and wisedome, and diligence, seeing hee embracing, receiuing, and allowing those foure knowne kindes, thought that there was also a fifth Nature: The minde is equall for to cogitate, and to prouide, to speake and to teach, and to inuent some­what, and to remember so many seuerall thinges; to loue, to hate, to couet, to feare: these thinges, and such as be like vnto them, are not to be found in any one of these foure kindes, and therefore he think­eth there is a fifth nature, that is without name, and so hee calleth the Minde it selfe, [...] Endelcia, quasi quandam [Page 22]contanuatam motionem et perennem: As it were a certaine continued and euer­lasting motion.

And speaking also of the sentences of the philosophers, which we haue put in the first place, hee sayth: His omnibus sententijs, nihil post mortem pertinere ad quenquam potest; By all these sentences, nothing can belong to any man after death. But of the sentence of Aristotle and Plato, he sayth afterward: Reliquorum senten­tiae spem afferunt, posse animos cum e [...]cor­poribus excess runt in caelum quasi in do­micilium suum peruenir [...]: The sentences of others doe bring hope, that soules after they be departed foorth of their bodyes, doe come vnto heauen, as to their owne proper dwelling place. Seeing then, that Aristotle supposeth that the Soule is not of the nature of the Elementes, as Cicero sayth; & also Saint. Augustine in the 22. Booke De ciuitate dej, but of that fifth na­ture, whereof he will haue heauen also to be made: It seemeth contrarily, that as it is thought that Heauen is incorruptible and eternall; so also our Soules are in­corruptible [Page 23]and immortall; for either of them may very well be prooued with the same arguments that the other is: for euen as Heauen hath the nature of no Element; and neither heauie neither light, neither hath any contrarie: it fol­loweth then; that the Minde and Soule it selfe, like as Heauen, can neither be ge­nerated and bred, neither corrupted and brought to naught.

Seeing then it is thus, that he thinketh an infinite multitude of thinges sepera­ted, a thing impossible, hee might haue confessed with Pithagoras and Plato, be­leeuing that the Soule doth flit foorth of one body into another: for so had I ra­ther haue him to thinke, then to beleeue with wicked Auarroys, who would haue but one onely Soule, and that to be common to and amongst all men. And that same fellow Auarroys, although hee concluded with his Maister, that the Soule is immortall and eternall; yet in his second Comentarie vpon the third Booke De anima, he playeth Ambidexter, and holdeth on hoth sides.

The vnderstanding which is called [Page 24]Naturall, as we haue sayd, doth not hap­pen, that sometime it vnderstandeth, and sometimes not, vnlesse in the respect of the forme of Imaginations, existing in euery Indiuiduum, or thing that can not be deuided: But in respect of the Species, kind, or sort, it alwayes vnderstandeth, vnlesse humane kind doe fayle; which is impossible. Yet notwithstanding, in this, he foulely erreth, not only against fayth, but also against Philosophie, in that hee put all mens Soules into one Soule, ma­king them all but one Soule, and would not that euery man should haue a seue­rall Soule: For he setteth downe three false and erroneous thinges, hauing no likelihood of trueth, but altogeather strange from the minde and meaning of euery one of the Philosophers. The first thing is, that the reasonable Soule, is not Actus primus hominis, &c. the first act of man, or mans substaunciall forme, giuing vnto him, to be, name, and reason, where­by man is, Hoc aliquid, This something; but a substaunce, seperated, and a thing outwardly like vnto this. For hee setteth downe the vnderstanding to be possible, [Page 25]separate; which he calleth, the pure ma­teriall power in the kind of thinges that are intelligible. Secondly, he concludeth, that such vnderstanding, doth not come vnto man, a principio sui esse, from the be­ginning of his beeing, but then onely, when he is of yeares of discretion; for then is it in some sort coupled vnto him, and continued, so that by it, he is able to vnderstand. Therefore when he saith in the Fifth, that it is contimed in a Boy in his childhoode, and afterward in the 36. Now we haue found the manner how this vnderstanding is continued in a Child, and seeke the cause in the begin­ning: But he setteth downe the manner of the continuance, when man by ima­gined intentions doth concurre with the agent vnderstanding, to cause the inten­tion in the materiall vnderstanding: so that to cause vnderstandinges in act, hee calleth Abstrahere, to draw away: but to receiue vnderstandinges possible, hee calleth, Intelligere hominis.

Thirdly, hee concludeth, that all men haue but one vnderstanding. Against these thinges, it is first argued on this [Page 26]wise. Anima est actus primus corporis or­ganici physici, igitur anima est forma substan­tialis hominis: 1. The Soule is the first act of the naturall organicall body; there­fore the Soule is the substantiall forme of man. The antecedent is plaine: for the Philosopher in the second of the Soule, affirmeth, the Soule to be a Substaunce, and not an Accident. And afterwarde deuideth the substaunce into matter and forme, and compounde; and shewing that it is neither matter, nor compound; concludeth, that it is Forme, or the first Act of the bodie. &c. Neither is it auaile­able to say, that the Philosopher setteth downe a common definition of the Soule, but speaketh conditionally, say­ing. But if we must say that there is some common thing in euerie Soule; it shall verily be that first Act of a naturall in­strumentall body. And that it is so, it is very plaine: for in the third Chapter, he saith: But of the vnderstanding, nothing is yet manifest, but it seemeth to be an o­ther kind of Soule. And then straight after that clause, the Philosopher saith. Ʋniuersaliter dictum est, quid sit anima: Wee [Page 27]haue vniuersally declared what the Soule is. And an other Booke hath: Iam dixi­mus quid est anima vniuersaliter. And in the Chapter following, he saith. Sicut figurae est vna communis definitio, conueniens omni speciei figurae: sic et animae oportet esse vnam definitionem conuenientem cuiuslibet partium cius: As there is one common definition of a Figure, agreeing vnto euery seuerall Figure; so also should there be one defini­tion of ye Soule, agreeing to all the partes thereof. Amongst which, he expressely nameth the Vnderstanding: And there­vnto he addeth, that such a definition is that which he hath giuen; to witte, that it is. Primus actus. &c.

Neither is the seconde Allegation of any force; because the Philosopher when he saith: De intellectu aurē nihil adhuc mani­festum est: As concerning the Vnderstan­ding, there is yet nothing manifest: refer­reth that Word, to a doubtfull premisse; to witte, whether euery one of the partes of the Soule be separable, as it seemeth to the man that doth consider it. Second­ly, it is euident, that the Soule is. Forma substantialis hominis: the substantiall forme [Page 28]of man. Out of the twelfth of the Meta. in the Chapter beginning, Mouentes au­tem causae superius allegatae: where the Phi­losopher putteth a difference betweene the formall causes, and the efficient cau­ses. Also, so it should follow, that a child, before that naturall vnderstanding were coupled vnto him by the spices of ima­gination, should not be a man neither endued with reason, and should in specie differ from an other man, and also from him selfe the elder he waxeth.

Neither is the solution of Auerroys any thing auaileable, that man is taken dupli­citer, in a double maner: one way, for the essence, by it selfe onely, compounded of the bodie, as it were the matter and the soule togeather, as it were of the specify­ing forme thereof; which is sometime called of the Doctors, Ratio particularis, the particular Reason: Sometime of the Philosopher, Intellectus.

After an other maner; Man is taken for a certaine Substaunce compounded of Man, Primo modo, after the first maner; and the Soule intellectiue, or the naturall Vnderstanding: and so man is, per se vnum, [Page 29] one by him selfe. After the first maner, a Child is not Homo, Man; of the same kind with himselfe when he is old, nor with other men. After the second maner, hee is not Man, neither endued with reason, Nisi potentia, but in power. Contrarily it should follow, that a Child should not be endued with Reason; neither Men in­wardly reasonable: which is absurde. Also, Man vnderstandeth not, seipso pri­mo, not by himselfe first: therfore by his substantial forme. The Antecedent is wel knowne, by experience: the Consequent is plaine, because the proper operation agreeing to any thing compounded, cannot be competent vnto it selfe per ma­te [...]am, by matter: therfore by the former, is the Soule the substantial forme of man. This is confirmed, because then by no operation of an Animall brute creature, it could be conuinced, that the sensitiue Soule should be the forme therof, giuing vnto it esse, to bee; but the Aduersarie might say, that it giueth it operari et non esse, to worke, and not to bee Adde here­vnto, that it is an expresse determination of the Church, in Clemen. Extra de sum­matri: [Page 30]et fide Catholica. Against the second, that the proper bodies, and all thinges shall returne againe vnto the same. But such a continuation is not intelligible, but faigned, vaine, and vnprofitable: Because that by such continuance, man neither after the first maner, nor yet after the second, could vnderstand. Otherwise the painted Wall, or the thing wrought on the Wall, & offred to the sight, should see; because the colour that is on the Wall doth cause the vision, and the sight receiueth it.

Against the third: It should follow, that contraries should be togeather in the same thing; for it is plaine, that in the vnderstanding of one man, is Assent and Insent: and in the vnderstanding of an­other, in the respect of the same, is Dis­sent & Intent. And of that thing whereof one man hath Science, another hath one­ly Opinion, and an other Ignorance. Also according to this, we should hardly vnderstand nothing, but that whereof the Phantasie should cause Intention: But this is false; as experience doth prooue, by the actes aswell of the Vnder­standing, [Page 31]as of the Will; and by many o­thers. For the notice or knowledge Intui­tiue, is knowne by beholding or intui­tiueely, & is cause of the Notice reflexed.

But of the immortall state of the soule after death, the foresaid Philosophers are seuered among themselues; for some set downe, that the soules when they doe depart foorth of the bodyes, do straight­way enter into the bodyes of Beastes, correspondent vnto their Merites: As for example; the Soules of Princes, into Lions; of Souldiers, into Bores; of others, into Swine; of some, into Wolues; of o­thers, into Birdes and Apes, &c. Neither in these, doth the paine and deiection cease, vntill they had put on formes a­greeable to those of the wild outragious Beastes: Whereof it came to passe, (as Ambrose saith, in his Booke do bono mor­tis,) that some said, that the chiefest good, or summum bonum, of the great Philoso­phers, doth consist in this, that their Soules, after their death, doe enter into Apes or Birdes. Others there haue been, that said and affirmed, that they doe change their sexe or kind, and doe turne [Page 32]vnto the infirmitie of Womans nature. Others will, that they goe into strange humaine bodyes: as that fabulous Hi­storie of the Greekes doth witnesse: for it sheweth, that Menelaus, after that Eu­phorbus was ouercome, laide vp his Buck­ler in the Temple of Iuno; which Panthoy­des tooke away: whereof they said, that the Soule of Euphorbus was entred into Panthoydes, and that he was Euphorbus himselfe; whereof Ouid. maketh mention in his fifth Booke of Metamorphosis.

Ipse egó nam memini Troiani tempore belli,
Panthoides Euphorbus eram cui pectore
Hesit in aduerso grauis hasta minoris Atridae.

That is to say:

For I my selfe remember well, in time of Troian Warre,
Panthoides Euphorbus was my selfe, and deepe and farre
A mighty speare did pearce my breast which dead did downe me throw:
Atreus mightie younger sonne, did strike this deadly blow.

And to speake nothing of the rest of the Philosophers, Plato had the best iudgement, what becommeth of Men, [Page 33]if notwithstanding (saith he,) they lead their liues righteously and holily, then so soone as the Soules are deliuered from their bodyes, they are receiued into the bosome of the Gods themselues: But they being vnmindfull of supernall thinges, doe refuse them as things connexed, and doe againe begin to be willing to enter into their bodyes againe. For speaking of which out of Plato his doctrine, Ʋirgill is very greatly commended: Therefore hee thought, that the Soules of mortall men, were alwayes able to abide in their bodyes; but through the necessitie of death, must needes be dissolued: And that they are not able neither to endure perpetually without their bodyes; but thought, that by enterchangeable cour­ses, the liuing became dead, and the dead become liuing indefinitely and for euer­more. But in this, doe Wise-men differ from others; that straight-way after death, they are carried vnto the Stars; & that euery one resteth very long in that Starre that is agreeable or meete for him: and at length, forgetfull of his old mise­ries, and ouercommed with desire of ha­uing [Page 34]his body, returneth againe to the labours and sorrowes of mortall men. Therfore by a most hard condition doth Plato make the Soules of men, yea euen of the wisest, to be happie and blessed. Vnto whom are not such bodies distri­buted, as with which they may liue al­wayes and immortally; neither without them can endure in eternall puritie, but doe sometime, though not immediatly, yet at the length, desire to returne vnto the bodies: And so indefinitely doe by course, returne againe into diuers bodies, vntill the great yeare, in the which they shall haue againe their owne bodies, and all thinges shall come againe vnto their first estate. And those that haue ledde a foolish life, hee thought, should come vnto bodies due to their desertes, whe­ther of Men or of Beastes: and so long to liue miserably in them, vntill they be scoured from their filthinesse, and their errours moderated, be redacted vnto the rule of reason and temperance; and so at length, deserue to come vnto the ho­nour of their first estate. But Porphirius doth not onely remooue from mens [Page 35]Soules the bodies of Beastes, but also will haue the Soules of Wise-men so to be de­liuered from the bonds of the bodie, that fleeing vtterly from euerie bodie, are kept blessed with the Father for euer­more.

It is a foolish thing to speake of that life which cannot be most blessed, vn­lesse there may be a most sure certaintie of the felicitie of it: and for the blessed Soules to desire the blot of corruptible Bodies, and to returne backe againe vn­to them; as though there needed a great Purgation, and an iniquination and de­filing to be required.

Truely the sentence of Porphirius is to be preferred before theirs, that will euer­more haue a changing of blessednesse & miserie: Yet notwithstanding, he will haue the soules of wicked men, to go into other humaine bodies, that they might be purged in them: And then when they be purged, without any returning to their old miseries, hee placeth them in eternall felicitie: For it shamed Porphirius to say, that the Soules of men are posted backe againe into beastiall bodies.

If Plato and Porphirius had agreed be­tweene themselues, I beleeue that they also should haue seene that it is a conse­quent, that Soules doe returne to their Bodies, and should receiue such thinges, as whereby they might liue blessedly and immortally: Because according to Plato, the holy Soules also, shall returne to humaine bodies: According to Por­phirius, they shall returne to the euils of this world. Porphirius therefore may say with Plato, they shall returne vnto bo­dies: and Plato with Porphirius, they shall not returne to euill ones. Therefore that the Soules may be blessed, euerie body must not be eschewed; but a body pro­per and incorruptible, must be receiued; wherein they may more conueniently reioyce, then waile and lament in any that is corruptible: So shall there be in them no direfull wretchednesse and ca­lamitie; which Ʋirgill concludeth out of Plato, when he saith:

Rursus et incipiant in corpore velle reuerti.

That is to say:

And loe they now begin, to haue a willing minde,
For to returne so corps againe.

So, I say, they shall not haue a desire to returne to other bodies, seeing they shall haue bodies eternally with them, into the which they shall couet to returne. It is therefore a more honest thing to be­leeue that which the Saintes and holy Angels haue shewed, which the Pro­phets haue spoken by the instinct of the holy Ghost, which the Messengers of Christ our sauiour haue preached, which the blessed Apostles haue taught and written; to witte; That there shall be a Resurrection of our mortall Bodies: or, that mens Soules shall once returne vnto their owne proper Bodies, and those im­mortalls There now remaineth for vs, so far-foorth as the Lord shall vouchsafe to helpe vs, godlily and humbly, accor­ding to our small Talent, to shew, or to perswade the Immortalitie of mans Soule, or the reasonable Soule, whereby we haue sense, moue, and vnderstande. And this will we doe so much the more humbly, as we doe suppose it the harder to be done: for there is scarcely any trueth more obscure, & out of humaine strength, or the principles of naturall [Page 38]Philosophie more difficile to be perswa­ded; which certainely ought to be coun­ted a worke hard and wonderfull. See­ing that it is the greatest thing that may be for the minde it selfe, to see and know the minde it selfe: For as the corporall eye doth easily see other thinges, but can not see it selfe; so our Minde doth not so easily, contemplate, or looke vpon it selfe, as it doth other thinges: For verily this force (as Cicero saith in the first Tus­culan question) hath that Precept of A­pollo, in qu [...] mouet se quis (que) noscat: 1. Where­in euery one mooueth, let him know him­selfe. For I doe not beleeue, that he gaue that Precept, to the end to haue vs to know our members, or stature, figure, or shape, but that wee should beholde the puritie and dignitie of our minde. To know this therfore, cannot be any other­wise, but diuine and strait. This Precept giuen of the GOD, could not belong to any sharpe and cruell minde. Euerie one therefore, that is not content with the perswasions, and probable and demon­stratiue reasons, in this obscure, difficile and hard matter, which exceedeth, pas­seth, [Page 39]or goeth beyonde all mans witte; hee (I say) is worthy to be despised, and to be left vnto him selfe in the vaine in­quisition of such like reasons: For the hard thinges of our Fayth, ought rather to be considered by the Oracles of the Fathers, then discussed by the vnder­standing. For often times humaine sense, while it seeketh the reasons of certaine thinges, & can not finde it, doth drowne it selfe in the gulfe of Desperation: And when it seeketh to finde out by reason, the force of the Immortalitie of the Soule, it falleth (for the most part) into the bottomlesse pitte of Desperation. Therefore least through rashnesse and temeritie, wee should deserue to be re­buked about the foresayd doubt, we will (God willing) assay to reason and dis­pute in three Conclusions, according to the sentence and iudgement of the aun­cient Fathers.

The first Conclusion.

ALthough the Immortalitie of the reasonable Soule cannot be proo­ued, neither demonstrated by ef­fectuall and euident reason; yet by probable reasons it may apparently be perswaded both to the saythfull and to the vnsaythfull. The first part is plaine; for Augustine in 3. de Trin. speaking of the life Mortall and Immortall, saith: Hac vtrum caveat humana natura, nec parua est quistic; humanis quippe argumentationibus [...]anc muenue con [...]utes, vix pauci magno prae­diti ingent [...], vacautes octo, doctrinis (que) subtilis­simis crudite, ad indagandum solu [...]s animae im­ [...]ort [...]let [...]tem peruenire potuerunt. That is to say: Neither is it a smal question, whether humaine nature doth want this or no: for because that they that goe about to finde out this by humaine argumentations, scarcely a few endued with good wittes, hauing sufficient leasure, and learned in most subtile doctrines, could attaine to the searching out of the Immortalitie of the Soule onely. By reason thus: We can­not [Page 41]naturally know the reasonable Soule in it selfe, neither intuitiuely nor ab­stractiuely, by a perfect and distinct knowledge: therefore we can not eui­dently and by effectual reason, conclude the Immortalitie thereof, which natural­ly and necessarily doe follow it. The Antecedent is cleare, of the intuitiue: of the Abstractiue it is plaine; because such a knowledge naturally gotten, doth pre­suppose the intuitiue knowledge touch­ing the same thing. Secondly thus; eue­rie thing demonstrated of the subiect, is first and more according to knowledge, spoken or predicated of that thing by which it is demonstrated, then of the sub­iect wherein it is demonstrated & shew­ed for to bee. But it is not naturally, nei­ther euidently knowne vnto vs, that Im­mortalitie is first and more according to knowledge, spoken of any other thing then of the reasonable Soule: Or that proposition wherein Immortalitie is spoken of another, is not to vs former or more knowne then this propositiō; The Soule is Immortall. The Maior is plaine, because the demonstration is of thinges [Page 42]former more knowne, and the causes of the conclusion. It is confirmed, because this Conclusion, Anima rationalis est dis­ciplinabilis: The reasonable Soule is dis­ciplinable: Although it be euident and knowne by experience, yet it is not de­monstrable: therefore neither this Con­clusion; This Soule is Immortall, because it is neither euident nor knowne by ex­perience, is demonstrable. The Ante­cedent is plaine; because that Proposi­tion is immediate, then the which there is not another that is former, and princi­pall to conclude this, Homo est disciplinabi­lis, Man is disciplinable: For I doe not beleeue, that the Cause can be giuen why the Soule is Disciplinable or Immortall; but that of it owne nature it is such.

For the perswading of the second part of the Conclusion, we haue excerpt three reasons out of Cicero his first Tusculan Question, and out of Cato the elder. The first, he draweth from (as it were) a na­turall and in-bred opinion of all men; but especially of old auncients. The se­cond Argument he draweth from the hope and expectation of prudent and [Page 43]good Men. The third, he fetcheth from the nigh similitude and likenesse of our Mindes vnto GOD: Afterward we will induce other familiar Reasons. The first Reason that must testifie this trueth, is Antiquitie: which the further it was gone from the birth, and difference of progenie, the better peraduenture it did behold those thinges that were true: Therefore (sayth he) it is sure, that old men haue a sense and feeling in death; and that man is not so blotted out by the departure out of this life, that he should vtterly perish. And this to be so, may be vnderstood by the Ceremonies vsed at the Sepulchres, Graues, and Buriall of the dead; where is vsed such Rites to­wardes them, as if they were still indued with most excellent Wittes. Neither would they haue worshipped with so great regard, nor vsed so deuout Religi­on, vnlesse it had cleaned to their minds, that Death could not destroy all things: but is as it were the Guide, Captaine, & Leader of woorthie Men and Women, that doe goe from hence into Heauen; and change this fraile, brittle, miserable, [Page 44]and wretched life, for a life permanent, euerlasting, blessed, and ioyfull. From which opinion it is sprung, that many (whose names it is not now needfull to reckon vp or rehearse) are, for their good life and virtuous behauiour, while they liued heere in this world amongst men, counted after their death, amongst the number of the Gods. This same may hereof be vnderstood, that all men haue a care, that these thinges should be after their death; to witte, Propagation of Name, Procreation of Children, Adop­tion of Sonnes, and fulfilling of Testa­ments; with many other thinges. It is a most great Argument amongst the Phi­losophers, Why wee ought to beleeue that there is Gods; although there be no Nation so sauage and outragious, whose minde is not indued with opinion of Gods. If any one would haue this Rea­son reduced, and brought vnto that strait forme of Logicke wherein it shall haue lesse force, they shall summarily haue it thus: All men, and especially those old ones, who as they seeme to haue excelled vs in stature of body, so also in excellen­cie [Page 45]of witte; because they found out all good Artes, (which was an hard thing to doe) iudged by nature, or were natu­rally inclined to iudge, that the Soules of men be Immortall: Therefore the Soules of men are Immortall. The Antecedent plainely appeareth to be true, of the di­ligence that all men vse about their Se­pulchres or Graues, about the propoga­tion of their name, fame, and glorie; a­bout the generation of Children, adop­tion of Sonnes, & of many other thinges, which men would not doe, vnlesse they were naturally enclined to iudge, that af­ter they be departed out of this life, there belongeth something vnto them, where­vnto they haue a naturall appetite.

The second Reason is, because that Plato (whose authoritie is of such force with Cicero, that he counteth him wor­thie to be beleeued in what he saith, al­though he shew no reason why,) writing vnto Dionisius in that Epistle that begin­neth, Audiui ex Archidomo, doth per­swade, saying; Natura fieri viaemus, vt ignauissimus quis (que) nihil curet, quae sit de eo futura opinin. Sapientes auten [...] et boni viri [Page 46]cuncta faciunt, quo futura secula bene dese ex­istimant: 1. Wee see that it commeth to passe by nature, that euery slouthfull slug­gard, taketh no care what opinion shall hereafter he had of him: But wise and good men, doe all thinges whereby the ages to come, may thinke well of them. Whereby, I doe coniecture, that his mea­ning is, that they that be dead, haue some sense, feeling, or knowledge of our mat­ters, or the thinges that we doe. This Reason, Cato the elder following, doth thus reason in Cicero his Booke De Se­nectute. Nemo vnquam mihi Scipio, persua­debit aut patrem tuum, &c. There shall ne­uer any man perswade mee; Scipio, that either your Father Paulus, or your two Graundfathers Paulus and Affricanus; or that Affricanus Father, or his Vncle, or many other excellent men; whom now it is not needfull to reckon vp, did endea­uour so great thinges, which might be­long to memorie of their posteritie, vn­lesse they did see very well in their minds, that the posteritie should pertaine vnto them: Or doe you thinke (that I may glorie somewhat of my selfe, as it is the [Page 47]maner of old men to doe,) that I would haue taken vpon mee so great labours both night and day, at home and in warre, if I were perswaded that my glorie should end with my life: Had it not been a great deale better for mee to haue spent my time in ease and quietnesse, without any labour and contention: This speach Cicero hand­ling more largely in the first Tusculan question, sayth. Quae natura in homi­num genere melior, quam eorum, qui se natos ad homines iuuandos, tutandos, conseruandos arbitrantur, etiam vs (que) ad mortem fortiter sustinendam. Quis au­tem sapiens sine spe immortalitatis se of­ferret ad mortem? Quid enim impru­dentius, quam sine vsto premio, se et vita et virtute propria priuare? Cum aut serui­tutis aut egestatis labores, &c. 1. What Nature in Mankind can be better, then theirs, that thinke them-selues to be borne vnto this end, to the intent that they may helpe, defend, and preserue men, yea euen vnto the abyding of the bitter bruntes of direfull death. But what wise-man wil of­fer himselfe vnto death, without ye hope of [Page 48]immortalitie: for what part can a man play more vnwisely, then without any rewarde, to depriue himselfe of life, and his owne proper vertue: when be might, with the rest of the Citizens, patiently abide the labours either of seruitude, or of pouertie: Who will affirme, that Glorie doth pro­fit the dead, if they haue no sense or feeling of it: What good can this glorie doe to those famous worthy men, so diligently & notably cammended & described of Poets, if so be they doe know nothing of it? Whether is it our partes then, to con­demne all those worthy men of foolish­nesse, who haue valiantly susteyned death for their Countrey; or to beleeue that they looked for the immortalitie of their soules? whose mindes, sentence, and iudgement, to finde fault withall, or to reprehend, see­meth to come the nearest vnto temeritie or roshnesse. This Reason diffusedly handled, may be brought to forme, vn­der a double maner. First, wise and good men, doe iudge and hope, that their Soules shall be immortall: therefore it is so. The Antecedent is very plaine: for otherwise they would not haue so en­dangered [Page 49]them-selues, nor willingly died, that their valiantnesse might be left to them memorie of posteritie, vnlesse they iudged that the posteritie did belong to them. The Consequent is plaine; be­cause the diuinations and opinions of good men are seene, as well as of the wicked. The second, If the Soule were not immortall, no man (in his right minde) would offer himselfe to death for his Countrey, or the Commonweale; nor yet sustaine death for his Friendes. The Consequence doth not seeme false: For the Philosopher sayth in the ninth Booke of Ethickes, That euerie one ought to suffer for his friendes; yea & to die for them also, it need so required. The same he saith in the 3. Booke of Ethicks. The Con­sequence is plaine; because none (that is in his right wittes) ought by good reason to depriue himselfe of the chiefest good, or without hope to get some good thing either in this present life, or in that which is to come. But if the Soule be mortall, then it doth by death, depriue it selfe of the chiefest good, yea of all good thinges, without any hope of re­ward. [Page 50]It may be thus confirmed: Death doth not profite of it selfe, or by it selfe, to the conseruation of the Common­weale, but is indeed against it: There­fore, if the Soule be mortall, and is not to be rewarded in time to come; then no wise man ought to stand to the trueth in the right of his Countrey, euen vnto death. The Antecedent is plaine, Simile est de vno ciue, et multis: What is the due­tie of one Citizen, is also the duetie of many. But it is a foolishnesse to say; that all Citizens ought to die for the conser­uation of the Weale publicke, seeing that the Publicke weale is the life of the Citi­zens: For what profited them the per­tinacie of the Saguntines vnto the safetie of the Common-weale? If the Saguntines would haue chosen the safetie of their Common-weale, they should either haue forsaken their Fayth, or else neuer haue made such Oth: But if they must needes keepe their Fayth, then must they needes loose their Common-weale; as it came to passe. Secondly, the Consequence is plaine. No man of sound reason, ought to susteyne a great euill, vnlesse it be to [Page 51]eschew a greater euill; or for the obtay­ning of a greater good, then that good is, whereof by such euill he is depriued; because that of two euils, the lesse alway is to be chosē. But if the Soule be mortall, and after death haue no beeing; then no such good can be giuen, or be imagined.

Neither doth it auaile, that Scotus saith, alleadging the Philosopher in the ninth of the Ethickes, that hee that dyeth for his Countrey, giueth to himself great good, by exercising that great act of vertue. Et hoe bono priuaret se, omnino vic [...]ose viueret: Hee should depriue himselfe of that good thing (sayth Scotus,) and should liue vi­ciously, or in reproch and defame. If the Soule be mortall, there can not thē be vn­to the dead, either good or euill, or sense: For what can either prayse, or fame, or glorie, profite the dead, if the dead know not of them? for after their death, they cannot giue vnto themselues for the said worke, either reward, ioy, or reioycing; for these are the affections of the minde.

Neither againe is that true, or by any meanes to be receiued as true, or for any colour of trueth, which the same Sootus [Page 52]saith, that, Potest dari cōmune bonum, propter quod debet se exponere morti: et totum bonū exponere destructioni simpliciter, etiamsinesci­at animā immortalem: There may be giuen a common good, for whose sake euery one ought to offer himselfe to death: and what good soeuer he hath, to endanger it to de­struction simply, although he can not tell whether the Soule be Immortall or no. Because it is not certaine whether the common good be alway rather to be chosen, then the particular and proper good. Yea, this is vniuersally true at no time, but then when the particular good is included in the common good: But where the common good includeth the particular good, who is there of sound iudgement, and in his right minde, that loueth the particular and proper good, more then the common. For the Philo­sopher saith in the 8. Eth. Amabile quidem bonū oui (que), &c. Euery one loueth his owne good: therefore by good reason, euery one loueth his owne, better thē an other mans. And 9. Eth. Amabilia ad alterū mensurantur, ex his quae sunt adseipsum▪ Louely things are measured vnto another, by those things [Page 53]which a man loueth him selfe.

The third Reason (because I studie to be short:) The Soule of man, according to the most excellent operations, is like vnto God: And therefore of some it is beleeued, to haue a diuine nature. But of men of our Religion, it is called, The image of God: Therefore it is to be esteemed like vnto him in immortalitie. The Antecedent is plaine, and very well knowne a confessed trueth amongst all. The Consequence is prooued out of Plato, alleadged by Eusebius Praeparationis Euangelicae, lib. 11. cap. 14. where are reci­ted these wordes of Porphirius, handling this Reason. Firmam cortam (que) rationem­eam Plato putauit, quae a similitudine [...]iquo­rum vim accepit. Nam si Deo immortali simi­lis est anima, quomodo etiam ipsae sicut exem­plar suum immortalis non erit? Plato think­eth that to be a firme and sure Reason, which taketh force from the similitude of some thinges: for if the Soule be like to God that is Immortall; how shall not then it selfe be Immortall, like as the ex­amplar: I passe ouer the rest. Which Rea­son (as the same Eusebius saith) is drawne [Page 54]out of Moses, who first taught that the Soule is Immortal, because it is the Image of God: yea, hee affirmeth, that assured­ly it is the Image of God. Whom the Wise-man following in the 2. Chap­ter of the Booke of Wisedome, doth most briefely touch the same Reason, saying. Deus creauit hominem inestimabilem, ad imaginem similitudinis suae fecit illū: 1. God created Man inestimable, or with­out corruption; and made him after the Image of his owne likenesse. This Rea­son also Salust toucheth in the beginning of his Booke of Catalines Conspiracie, where he affirmeth, Animum nobis cum dijs communem, et virtutem claram, et aeternam: That we haue a minde common with the Gods, and a cleare vertue, and eternall. Which Sentence, in the begin­ning of the Warre of Iugurtha, hee vseth againe. Ingenij egregia facinora sicuti et anima, immortalia sunt; id est, The worthy workes of the Witte, like as the Soule, are Immortall. Which also may thus be perswaded. These Actes to will, to vnderstand, to remember, to loue, to [Page 55]hate, wherein the Soules haue conueni­encie with God and Angels; may both bee, and be exercised without the body: therfore it is not repugnant to the Soule, both to bee, & to liue without the body. The Antecedent is well knowne; and the Consequent is plaine: because the Accidentis not more abstract then the Substaunce, from which it is sayd to flow. Seeing then we doe prooue in our selues, that the Soule existing in the bo­die, doth know many thinges, which can not fall vnder our sense; and that without the mediation or vsing the meanes of the body: (for wee prooue or finde by experience, that it knoweth the relations following Nature, and insen­sible relations of reason: wee finde by experience, that it assenteth to the com­plections without possibilitie of contra­dicting, or erring, & many other things:) seeing therefore (I say) that these Actes haue no conueniencie, neither can agree to other formes and thinges corruptible, it is most like and agreeable to reason, that these Actes are sufficient to prooue, that the Soule is immortall. Moreouer, [Page 56]the Immortalitie of the Soule, is prooued by certaine reasons of the Schoole Doct­ors. First: In whom there is power and virtue alwayes, Proficere, to profits: in the same also, there is power and virtue al­wayes to bee. Seeing that the subsistence of the Accident cannot be naturally without the Essence of the subiect. But in the Soule there is alway power and virtue, proficere, to profits: therefore there is in the Soule, power and virtue alwayes to bee. The Minor is euident, by the say­ing of a certaine Wise man, who sayth. Cum consummauirit homo, tunc incipit: 1. When man shall make his ending, then is his beginning. And in an other place. Multitudinem ingressus saepientiae quis intellexit? Who hath euer knowne the multitude of Wisedomes entries: Which speach seemeth to haue this sense, that by the prosecting and increasing of Wise­dome, the entrance in vnto her is multi­plyed; because he seemeth more and more to enter in vnto her, that more and more profecteth in her. This Exposition is helped by the speach of the Prophet that saith to his Soule: Post me ingredi non [Page 57]cessabis: Thou shalt not cease to enter in after mee. The Answere of Plato doth also further it: For he being asked, when a man can haue profited so much in Phi­losophie, that there can remaine nothing for him to know more; or when he can haue learned so much, that there can be nothing left for him to learne? Hee an­swered. Hoc solum scio, quod nescio: 1. This onely I know, that I know not. As if hee should haue sayd, Solum cognosco ignoran­tiam meam: 1. I know onely mine igno­rance. This I thus confirme. The per­fections and dispositions that the reaso­nable Soule can acquire or get, are not limitted: therefore the life of the reaso­nable Soule, or the existence thereof, is not limitted; and so by consequence, it must needes be Immortall. The Antece­dent is plaine; because the Soule cannot know so many things, but it may know more. The Consequence is plaine; be­cause it is vnpossible for the virtue and power of euerie subiect, to be of those dispositions and perfections from the which the subiect is naturally prohibi­ted: For this mortall life cannot suffice [Page 58]naturally for the getting or participa­ting of infinite perfections, seeing that euery one of them requireth time.

A second Reason is this: If the Soule should be corrupted, and so mortall, it should be either through the action of the contrarie; or else through the corrup­tion of the subiect. But it is not corrup­ted by meanes of the action of the con­trarie; because it hath no contrarie. Nei­ther can it be corrupted, by reason of the corruption of the subiect: because no­thing is corrupted in that, wherein it consisteth by it owne perfection: For these are contrarie mutations; to witte, of Corruption, and Perfection. But the Perfection of the Soule, consisteth in a certaine abstraction from the Body: for the Body waxing old in men, liuing mo­derately and temperately, the Soule is perfected, according to the science and knowledge thereof, and according to the virtues thereof. According to the science and knowledge; because in aun­cient old men, is Wisedome; and in much time, is Prudence. According to the Virtues; because such men, are tem­perate, [Page 59]neither giue place to wicked Concupiscence, nor haue any great dif­ficultie in act. But young men, haue wic­ked Concupiscences, and are delighted therein: neither can they refraine them, without great difficultie. This Argu­ment is confirmed by a double Reason. The first is this: That when the Body is weakened, or some Organ thereof hath receiued some hurt, the Soule is more for­tified thereby, and made more stronger and virtuous in the other senses and powers, as though it were vnto them a more inward supply of those thinges that seeme to be taken away by the de­fect of the members: Therefore, when the Body dieth, the Soule doth not die. The Antecedent is knowne to be true, by experience: for a blind man is more sharpe & quicke in hearing and in vn­derstanding, and in other senses, then hee that is well sighted. Whereof Guilermus Parisiensis sayth; That a certaine Blinde man was so cunning, and had so much prosited in experience, that he could in­fallibly tell onely by the touching, hand­ling, feeling, or croping, any peece of [Page 60]Monie of his owne Country coyne, though there were neuer so many and sundry sortes of them. And a certaine blind Boy in the fourteenth yeare of his age, learned all liberall Artes, knew and vnderstood all the sacred Scriptures, and taught them, and wrote most largely and amply vpon them; as is mentioned in the Tripartue Historie.

The second Confirmation is thus. As is the whole Body to the whole Soule, so are the partes of the Body, to the parts of the Soule. But whē one part, or some Or­gan of the Body is corrupted, there is no part of the Soule corrupted, nor hurt, nor suffereth in it selfe; but remayneth sound and perfect: Therefore when the Body dyeth, the Soule doth not die. The An­tecedent is plaine by the Philosopher: Si senex haberet oculum neuenis, videret vtig (que) vt iuuenis, &c. If an old man should haue the eye of a young man, hee should see as a young man: therefore when part of the Body is hurt, the Soule is not hurt in it selfe, although it be depriued of the act. For when our Sauiour Christ restored sight vnto the blind, he gaue not, nor [Page 61]conferred vnto the Soule any strength or actiuitie; but onely repaired the hurt, or indisposition of the Organ. Also the reasonable Soule, by how much more it vnderstandeth and knoweth thinges in­telligible, by so much more perfect is it made, and more disposed to vnderstand. But the Soules of all mortall men, by how much more they feele and exercise their operations, by so much more are they weakened, & made vnfit for the ex­ercising of their operations. Experience doth teach both these, to be true: and so doth the Philosopher also, where hee saith. Excellens sensibile currumpit sonsum; excellens autem intelligibile non corrumpit in­tellectum: 1. The excellent sensible thing corrupteth the sense: but the excellent in­telligible thing doth not corrupt the vn­derstanding. Therefore there is another kind of the Soule, from that which is corruptible; and so by consequence, it must needes be Immortall.

Morcouer, the formes or Soules, which all men iudge, or do thinke to be corrup­tible, & to be of themselues wholly cor­rupted, and the corruption of the whole [Page 62]to be as is the corruption of the part, are corrupted as the part is corrupted: be­cause they are extended, hauing part without part; and are greater in a great body, and lesser in a lesse body. This Scotus doth very notably deduct in the fourth Booke; That in Nutrition, is re­quired a new forme; and in the Dimi­nution there floweth not onely the mat­ter, but also the thing compounded of the matter and the forme: Therefore the Nutrition or Nourishing, is called a cer­taine Generatiō. And it is very manifest, that in Nutrition, there are more partes of the matter in the whole, then was be­fore; or else the new part of the matter is in the whole without forme: which is not to be graunted neither vnder the whole forme, because so it is exten­ded, hauing part without part; or else vnder a new forme, and so we haue our purpose: or else vnder part of the forme that was before; and then euen that, lea­ueth off to perfect part of the matter, which before it perfected: and so one and the same part of the materiall forme, shall slit from one part of the matter vn­to [Page 63]to an other part, which is inconuenient: or that part of the forme, being the same it was before, doth in like maner perfect part of the matter that it did before; and this part of the matter, now new: And so it shall togeather perfect two per­fectable thinges; either whereof, is fully matchable to it serfe. But the reasonable Soule, is not extended or stretched out; neither greater in a greater body, & lesser in a lesser Body: but it is whole in the whole Body, and wholly or altogeather indiuisible in euery part: therefore it is an other kind from the corruptible formes, and mortall Soules.

It is a thing well knowne, that all men doe desire blessednesse; and that it is the end of good men. It is also knowne by reason, that blessednesse cannot be o­therwise, then sempiternall: Therefore it is well knowne, that Man is ordained to some euerlasting perfection; which prooueth, that the Soule is Immortall The Minor doth Saint Augustine prooue, 13. de Trin: ap 8. Si beata vita bearum d [...] ­ [...]erat, &c. If so be the blessed sife doe for­sake the blessed man, hee being therevnto [Page 64]either willing, or not willing, or neither of them: If not willing, how is it a blessed life; which is so in the Will, as it cannot be in the Power: If willing, how could that life be blessed, which he that had it, would not haue it verily and indeed: But if neither, Then such a life, cannot in any wise be blessed, in such a case, when he that it maketh blessed, is a stranger from the loue thereof. This may in this wise be confirmed. Mans Soule is made to be partaker of blessednesse, to receiue it and enioy it. For this is certaine, truly proo­ued by the clamor of euery Appetite na­turall: Therefore the Soule is made to receiue either eternall and perpetuall blessednesse, or else temporall. If the first, then the Soule is Immortall, and at the length shall be perpetually blessed. Now the second cannot be; because like as sorrow commeth of those thinges which happen vnto vs against our willes: euen so doth it of those thinges that depart from vs against our willes. But blessed­nesse, if we should be vnwilling vnto it, should perish, and become no blessed­nesse at all: for how can we be blessed [Page 65]against our willes? And so blessednesse perishing, our Soules, by a consequent, should haue in them selues a feare and griefe, and be alwaies sorrowfull: where­by it should follow, that they should be miserable.

Also, in euery well ordered ciuill go­uernement, there are appointed rewards, to prouoke men to the doing of good; and punishmentes, to sound the retreat from vices. But in the whole gouerne­ment of Mankind, good and virtuous men are not sufficiently rewarded; nor euill and naughtie men sufficiently pu­nished: yea, they cannot sufficiently be rewarded, nor punished; the one, by rea­son of Gods Promise; the other, because of his Iustice. Therefore there is another life, in the which shall be giuen to euery one according as his workes shall be. For no man could say, that the virtuous be rewarded with the pleasures which Epicures enioy, and wherewith all they are delighted. Neither can it be said, that the goods of Fortune (as they call them) can sufficiently reward the virtuous; see­ing that for the most part, we see the euill [Page 66]men flow in riches, delightes, prosperi­tie, and all pleasures that their heartes can desire. On the contrarie part, the Virtuous doe often want these pleasures and delightes, and are excruciated with many sundry sharpe showers of Aduer­sitie. What then shall be giuen vnto the iust man, that hath abstayned from de­lightes, euen vnto the day of his death, and sustayneth sorrowes, pouertie, ad­uersitie, and tribulations?

Moreouer, the worke of Virtue is bet­ter, incomparably then the goods of Fortune. And as Aristotle witnesseth, Honor and Fame, and chiefely of those things which are outward goods: hence he sayth, Maxime grauiter quis (que) fert suo honore priuatus? (as wee vse to say in our English,) Who is so woe begone, as first a man, and then none? But Honor is not a meete or worthy reward for Virtue: as the same Aristotle sayth in the seauenth Booke of Ethickes. Ʋirtuti perfectae non vti (que) dignus honor: Honor is no worthy re­ward for perfect Virtue. Neither is it auaileable to say, That the Virtuous are sufficiently rewarded with essentiall [Page 67]goodnesse, that inseparably followeth a good Act. And that the Euill are puni­shed with the paine that inseparably ac­companieth an euill Acte: which the Doctors call, Paenam derelictam, Punish­ment left off; and not Punishment in­flicted. Of which Augustine sayth, in his Booke of Confessions: Thou hast com­maunded Lord, and so it is, that euerie sinner is a punishment to himselfe. Of the which good, (as some say) the Philoso­pher speaketh in the 9. Booke of Ethickes, saying: That euery one that dieth for his Friende, doth purchase to himselfe the greatest good that may be. Moreouer, a lesse delectation, for the most part, doth follow a greater operation; and perad­uenture none at all; as of the operations of Fortitude: Whereof it is that the Phi­losopher sayth, in the third Booke of Ethickes, That in all Vertues, a man can not be occupied with delight. Neither is it of force to say, that mans felicitie doth consist in Sciences speculatiue, or in the operations of Wisedome, and in the knowledge of most high causes: And so by a consequent, by such like operati­ons [Page 68]of Wisedome, a man should suffici­ently be rewarded in this life: As the Philosopher and Auerrhois doe seeme to say. For the Cōmentator vpon the first Booke of Physicks, sayth: That it is pro­per to a man concerning his last perfect­tion to be perfect according to the Sci­ences speculatiue. And this Disposition is vnto him his vtmost felicitie: And that heauenly life consisteth in this Science; because that for Felicitie, a man ought to be good and perfect. But perfection, ac­cording to the Sciences speculatiue, doth not make a man absolutely neither good, nor the best: for many in such thinges, may be perfect, which are vnhonest and vicious. A man vnhonest and full of vi­ces, may be very skilfull and perfect in speculatiue Sciences: for the disposition to felicitie, is made better by virtues Morall, Heroicall, and Diuine. Whereof the Philosopher sayth in the 2. Booke of Ethicks, That it is a very meere beast lines to say, that we can be better, then by vir­tues Heroicall & Diuine. Euen as Homer faigned, that Priamus sayd of Hector; That because he was so very good, he see­med [Page 69]not to be the sonne of a mortall man, but of a God. Wherefore if it be so, as they say; that Gods be made of men, be­cause of the notable excellencie of their Virtues; then such like habite shall be opposite to beastlinesse. And in the 10. Booke of Ethicks, the Philosopher doth teach; That a man must so frame his workes and his life, that all be directed to this end, to witte, to get Felicitie. Vpon which, Auerrhois sayth; If God haue a care of Men, as it is beleeued, and as it is meete he should; he reioyceth of the better, and is delighted in those that doe well; and it is meete and a worthy thing, that he doe well vnto, and reward those that loue him more then others, or all thinges in the world, and honour them, and visit them often, euen as it is the disposition of one friend with another: therefore must wee doe our endeauour to become good. This is thus confirmed. First, That then those men that giue themselues to Speculation, or doe practise and exercise themselues in Speculatiue sciences, howsoeuer they liued mortally and desormedly, Virtu­ous should not be reputed blessed and [Page 70]happy, nor rewarded for their Merites. Secondly, If so be that God haue a care of Men, it is meete and most agreeable to reason, that his delight concerning men, should be of that thing, which is the best in them, and which is most knowne vnto him, and most nigh and a­greeable vnto him; that is to say, which is most like vnto God; which is, to liue virtuously, according to the vnderstan­ding: And also, that he doe well vnto, and reward those that doe loue him: And bestow benefites on those, that for his sake doe cast away, contemne, and neglect worldly wealth, and delightfull pleasures, and patiently sustaine and suf­fer Aduersitie, and willingly abide all Miseries, euen vnto the day of their death. But he cannot sufficiently reward them in this life: therefore the Soule is Immortall. The Minor is plaine; Be­cause man is euen vnto death, vexed with Miseries, Pouertie, and Aduersities. The Maior is manifest, by the Philoso­pher, in the tenth Booke of Ethicks, say­ing; Seciendum intellectum autem operans, et hunc curans, &c. Hee that worketh accor­ding [Page 71]to the vnderstanding, and careth for it, doth seeme to be the best of all disposed, and to loue God most: for if the Gods haue a certaine care of humaine thinges, as they seeme to haue; it shall then be most agreeable to reason, that the Gods them­selues doe reioyce and delight in that thing which is the best and the nighest of kinne vnto them. &c. Also it is thus confirmed: Because, if the Soule should be Mortall, and there should be no life after this; then infinite euils should remaine vnpu­nished, and good deedes should not be rewarded: Which doth seeme deroga­torie to the equitie of Iustice, and to the comlinesse and fairenesse of humaine ci­uill gouernement. For what paine, pu­nishment, and miserie, doth heere hap­pen vnto those euill men, who being gi­uen to delightes and pleasures, doe con­tinually euen vnto their death, heape euils vpon euils? Who (I say) shall pu­nish and take vengeance of those Kings and Princes; by whose decrees, com­maundement, power, and authoritie, Common-weales are tossed & turmoy­led, shaken and spoyled, by so many [Page 72]plagues, tormentes, vexations, violences, iniuries, and aduersities? Who shall in this life be sufficiently able to punish those most grieuous sinnes, that are done in secret, euill mindes, & inward affecti­ons? What punishment then, I pray you, and miserie, shall there be of these euils? Which if it be called the Priuati­on of blessednesse, then shall all be equal­ly punished: which seemeth to be dero­gatorie to the equitie of Iustice. There­fore it seemeth most agreeable to reason, that there is a life of mans Soule after this; wherein euery one shall receiue worthily as he hath done in this life, whether it be good or euill.

Moreouer, if mans Soule should not liue after this life, in vaine then, and to no purpose should we serue God heere; seeing that in this life, the worshippe of God and Religion, is cruelly persecu­ted, tormented, afflicted, and cruciated: and then is there after this life, no reward for it. In this poynt, it were better for the Soule, and more profitable by much, altogeather to denie God; and wholly to giue it selfe to euery vanitie & pleasure, [Page 73]then to liue holily and iustly, with so ma­nie miseries, and to worship the Creator with due honouring and deuotion. Whereof the Apostle, in the first Epistle to the Corinths the fifteenth chapter saith: If in this life onely, we hope in Christ, then are wee of all men most miserable. For if God hath no regard of his Ser­uantes and Worshippers, where is his Power? seeing that neither in this life, (for this thing) he cannot be worsse; nei­ther in an other, better: seeing that after this, there is not another. But if he do not care, nor haue any regard, Where is his Wisedome & his Goodnesse? Wherefore he should seeme to be ignoraunt, not to know, or not to loue his louers and wor­shippers; if there be not another life after this: whereof the one destroyeth his Wisedome, the other his Goodnesse.

Out of these thinges aboue declared, is very easily enough disprooued the rash and erroneous opinion of Auerrhois, putting humaine felicitie, to consist in the euery way and Actuall coniunction or copulation with the Vnderstanding: And that Vnderstanding, he would haue [Page 74]to be but one of all men, that all men haue but one vnderstanding; as we haue a­fore sayd. For he sayd, That man is then happie and sufficiently rewarded, when that Vnderstanding shall be euery way coupled vnto him. Which hee affirmed to be done, when a man shall actually haue all Vnderstandinges speculatiue. But this is vnpossible; because that then there should be togeather in acte, infi­nitely infinite things in the Vnderstan­ding.

Moreouer, we finde by experience in our selues, that the Attention to one thing, doth draw backe againe the per­fect Attention, about another thing. Seeing therefore the Vnderstanding is of a finite vertue, it shall neuer be able to be coupled perfectly and actually to all speculations. Who (I pray you) is found at all times, to be all one; the same in one thing, he was in another, skilfull alike in all thinges? Who so skilfull, that he can not be deceiued in any thing? Who is so perfect, that he is perfectly quieted in all thinges, and fully satisfied? Was not Aristotle deceiued in many thinges, and [Page 75]found ignoraunt in many thinges; as about the Eternitie of the World, and the Perpetuitie of generation and corrupti­on? and in very many other thinges al­so, he foully erred.

The second Conclusion.

FAyth secluded and set apart, in the light of naturall Reason, it is more agreeable to Reason, and more pro­bable to affirme, that the reasona­ble Soule is Immortall, then to say, that it is Mortall: Or that the opinion of those Philosophers that auouch, that the Soule is Immortall, is more reasonable, and more probable: yea, Fayth being secluded and set aside, then the opposite or contrary thereof. First, it is very mani­fest, according to the Philosopher, that that is probable, which doth seeme to the most, euen chiefely to the wisest. But very many of the Philosophers, & those whom we see to be preferred aboue all others, of euery sect and nation, in fame, glory, & wisedome, haue verily thought, [Page 76]the Soule to be Immortall. And but a few, and those of the meanest of the Phi­losophers, of no fame and reputation, haue said, That it is Mortall; as hath been shewed before: therefore the Soule is Immortall.

Hereof the Philosopher sayth, in the ninth Booke of Ethicks, that, Opinionibus sapientum oportet acquiescere, habent enim fidem quandam: 1. Wee ought for to rest and stay our selues in the Opinions of Wisemen: for they haue a certaine Fayth. Whereof he also sayth: That the opini­ons of Wisemen doe sound togeather, &c. Also that Opinion is more reasonable and probable, whereunto there are more effectuall perswasions, or more dialecti­call reasons. But for this Opinion, That the Soule is Immortall, there are more effectuall perswasions, and more Topi­call reasons, then for the contrarie opini­on: Yea for that part, the reasons are most slender: neither haue they scarsely any shadow of probabilitie; for all the reasons wherewith they goe about to impugne the Immortalitie of the Soule, are founded in errour, or on a false [Page 77]ground; as are these wherevnto all (for the most part) doe leane. If the Soule should be Immortall, it should follow, that all the Soules should be perpetually idle and depriued of their proper act. But this Reason is grounded on two thinges: whereof both are false and er­roneous. The first is, that the Body be­ing corrupted, cannot be repayred and brought againe to the same forme and maner that it was before. The second is, That the Soule cannot vnderstand but in the Body, & by the meanes of the Body: of which thinges at this present, it is not needfull to speake. Also, Reasons dia­lecticall, how effectuall or forceable so­euer they shall be; or multiplied out of the nature of them, or from the Empire or Godly affection of the Will, cannot cause but an opinion or assent, with a feare of the opposite. From the same feate, are Reasons bred with the empire of the Will, & the godly Affection there­of, to cause a greater assent in the kind of opinion: yea verily, sometimes Fayth, or a firme Assent without feare of the opposite; whereof the Philosopher saith, [Page 78]in the seauenth Booke of Ethicks, that, Aligui ita firmiter harent his de quibus habent opinionem, sicut alij his quibus habent scien­tiam: 1. Some doe so firmely cleaue to the thinges whereof they haue opinion, as others doe to those thinges whereof they haue full knowledge or skill. And this proceedes of the empire and godly Af­fection of the Will: Whereof the Text thus lyeth: Some that doe hold Opini­ons, doe not doubt, but esteeme or thinke that they doe surely know that whereof they hold opinion, and doe nothing lesse belieue those that are of opinion, then o­thers those that know. But euery one well disposed, is inclined, Ad esse, et non ad non esse. To bee, and not to not bee; to the af­firmatiue, not negatiue; and is affected to alwayes to bee, if it be possible: there­fore others being like, euery one well disposed is borne to haue a greater As­sent, yea a firmer and a surer, that the Soule is Immortall, then of the opposite thereof.

Therefore it is more agreeable to rea­son, and more probable in the light of naturall reason to suppose, or to thinke, [Page 79]that the Soule is Immortall, then the op­posite thereof. Whereof our Cicero thought it more saf & secure, to erre with those Philosophers that hold that the Soule is Immortal, then with those meane and base accounted on Philosophers, that doe affirme and hold of opinion, that the Soule is Mortall.

If the Soule be Mortall, then they that hold it to be Immortal, do not therby get any detriment, losse, hinderance, or euill: neither can they be blamed in an other life, nor noted of ignorance. If it be Im­mortall, then they that hold it to be Mortall, are worthy in an other life, to be reprehended & laughed to scorne. Ther­fore it is more agreeable to reason in the light of naturall reason, to say, that the Soule is Immortall, then to say, that it is Mortall. For so saith Cicero: Quod si in hoc erro quod animos hominū credebū immortales esse, lebenter erro. Nec mihi hunc errorem quo delector dum viuo extorqueri volo. Sin mortu­us vt quidam minuti Philosophi censent, nihil s [...]ntiam. Non vereor ne hunc errorem meum Philosophi mortui irrideant: If so be I doe erre in this, that I beleeued the Soules to [Page 80]be Immortall, I doe willingly erre: Nei­ther while I liue, will I be wrested away from this error wherein I am delighted: But when I am dead, as certaine meane Philosophers doe thinke, I shall feele no­thing; I doe not feare, least the dead Phi­losophers should scorne this my errour.

Therefore the foresayd Philosophers, of whom wee haue spoken aboue, not ouercome by euident reasons and de­monstrations, but fully setled and groun­ded in the foresaid perswasions, and all other reasons probable; which for bre­uities sake I omit, haue concluded; That the Soule is Immortall. For the Philoso­phers in following Naturall reason, haue written and taught those thinges, which they haue not prooued euidently, nei­ther by demonstratiue reason: but per­swasiuely and dilectically. They also supposed, thought, and concluded, many thinges without any great proofe, by mingling and conforming themselues to the opinions of the common people, and the sentences of the Philosophers that were before them. Whereof the Philo­sopher saith, Secundo de caelo, cap. Of two [Page 81]hard Questions (saith he,) it is to be try­ed, which thing we should say, is the wor­thy thing. Reputing Promptitude to be imputed a poynt of shamefastnesse, ra­ther then of bouldnesse. If any do stand on Philosophies part, and doth loue few sufficiencies of that thing whereof we haue very great doubtinges, whence few sufficiencies & perswasions vsually haue sufficed Philosophers, where they were not able to attaine to greater thinges; neither did they contradict the princi­ples of Philosophie, or the opinions of their predecessours; wherein Philoso­phers on all sides rested, because of their probable probations, and sometime for the assertions of their formors; because of necessarie reason.

And in the same Chapter, De alijs astris, dicunt Aegiptij et Babilonicj, &c. Of other Starres, doe speake the Aegiptians and Babilonians, from whom wee haue many thinges that wee doe beleeue of euery our of those Starres: But in the sciences of Astrologie and Astronomie, haue flouri­shed the sonnes of Seth, Noe, Abraham, Salomon, and the holy Fathers; which [Page 82]haue taught Philosophers, of secrets Celestiall and Diuine: vnto the which they could not haue attained by humaine strength and naturall reason. But Iosephus in the first Booke of the Antiquities of the Iewes, sayth: That Seth, when he came to that age, that could discerne good thinges, gaue him selfe to the studie of Virtue; and when he was become an excellent man, he left his Sonnes to be followers of himselfe; they all being the Sonnes of a good Father, tarryed in the same Land, liuing most happily without any vexation; and first found out the discipline and learning of thinges Cele­stiall, and the trimnesse of them. And least they should slide away from men, and vtterly perish, seeing they had lear­ned of Adam, that there should be one extermination of all thinges by Fire, and an other by the power and force of Water; they made two Pillars, one of Brasse, and an other of Stone, and wrote therein what they had found out of Ce­lestiall thinges, that they might leaue vn­to men, the knowledge of Celestiall se­crets.

And in the Secrets of Secrets, it is said; That the glorious GOD, hath ordained the meane and remedie to temper Hu­mors, and preserue Health; and how to get many other thinges. And hath reuea­led it to Prophets and Holy men, and others, whom he fore-chose and illustra­ted with the spirit of his Wisedome. Of these, the men that followed, had the be­ginning and originall of Philosophie; Aegiptians, Greekes, Latines: from whom the latter haue drawne and written the principles of Artes and Sciences. And (sayth he to Alexander,) it is meete and worthy, that he know noble Phisicke, which is sayd to be a glory inestimable, and is called, The Treasure of Philoso­phers. I truely haue neuer truely or per­fectly enough learned it: neither doe I know who it was that inuented it. Some affirme, that Adam was the inuentor thereof. Some say that it was Esculapius, and Hermogenes the Phisition Hirsos and Domasti [...], and Mati [...]dos hebrewes, and Dioris, and Carus, glorious Philosophers. Many say, that Henooh by a vision knew this secret: whom many will haue to be [Page 84]that great Hermogenes whom the Greekes do prayse, and to him commend all Sci­ence secret & celestiall. Wherefore in the Prologue of the Books of Hermes Mercu­rius Triplex Trismegistus, it is thus sayd: We read in old Histories of Diuines, that there were Three Philosophers: whereof the first was Henoch, who is also called Hermes, and Mercurie. The second, Noe; who was called Hermes: for he (as Albu­muzar witnesseth) was a great Prophet, and first builded & peopled Babilon after the Flood, and instructed them in know­ledge and learning. His sonne Sem also taught the Babilonians or Caldeans, and deliuered vnto them the science of the Starres. The third, was called Hermes Mercurius Triplex, because he was a King, a Philosopher, & a Prophet: hee flouri­shed after the Flood, & with great equitie gouerned the Kingdome of Aegipt, and clearely brightened Astronomie. And in the Booke of the Death of Aristotle, it is said; that, After Noe, was Abraham borne, who being wiser then all, did thorowly come to the great degree of Philosophie: for he knew that Sol and Luna had a first [Page 85]moouer, and therefore he followed not the way of his Father, neither of his Kin­dred, that worshipped Idols: But (as Jo­sephus witnesseth in his Booke of the An­tiquities of the Iewes,) hee preuayled to change & innouate that opinion, which then all had of God: for hee first presu­med to pronounce God, one God to be the only Creator of all things: for he, ac­cording to the Histories of the Caldeans, taught the Aegiptians Arithmeticke, and also Astronomie. These, and many other secrets, were planted in Aegipt, which are knowne to haue come to the Greekes.

By the doctrines therefore of these Fa­thers, illuminated from Heauen, the Phi­losophers that came after, being infor­med, as it were strengthned by the Ora­cles of Prophets, haue conscribed many glorious Sciences, which they could not attaine vnto by the force of mans witte. Did not Plato goe into Aegipt to learne Astrologie? And there (as it is thought of all for the most part) hee learned what great thinges soeuer were there had and taught. And chiefely these things which are knowne to be agreeing to our Fayth. [Page 86]Not that Hieremias, as some suppose, saw or read the Translation of the Seauentie: For Plato was borne almost an hundred yeares, from the time that Jeremie pro­phecied: Who seeing that he liued foure­score yeares and one; from the yeare of his death, to the translation of the seauen­tie Interpreaters, are found threescore yeares: Wherefore Ieremie could neither see nor read the Translation of the holy Scriptures, seeing hee was dead so long before they were translated into the Greeke tongue. But because he was a man of a very sharpe witte, as the Aegiptians are, hee so did learne the foresayd holy Scriptures by an Interpreater; as those thinges in Timaeo, which hee there wrote of the trueth of our Religion, doe wit­nesse. Out of Aegipt, they say, that Plato came into Italie, and there learned all the doctrine of Pythagoras. But of the Im­mortalitie of mens Soules, hee did not onely perceiue and know the same that Pythagoras did, but also brought and ad­ded thereunto reasons, which they afore him (in a maner) did not. Whose Booke of the Immortalitie of the Soule; a worke [Page 87]most elegant, Cato the later (before hee flew himselfe) did twise read ouer, as Plu­tarch reporteth: which when hee had read, he so departed this life, that he re­ioyced that he was borne to the end to die; so great surely was the force and power of this Booke, to perswade the Immortalitie of mens mindes, that The­rebrotus a certaine man of Ambrochia, when no aduersitie would befall him to end his life, he got him vp vpon a very high Wall, and cast himselfe into the Sea, after that he had read the foresayd Booke of Plato; of whom Saint Augustine in his first Booke, De ciuitate Dej, and the 22. chapter, writeth thus. Therebrotus libro Platonis vbi de immortalitate animae disputa­uit se praecipitem dedit e muro, vt sic ab ista vita migraret ad eandem quam credidit mehorem. 1. Therebrotus, when he had read ouer the Booke of Plato, where he hath dispu­ted of the Immortalitie of the Soule, cast himselfe downe headlong from a Wall, that so he might flit away from this life, vnto that same which he beleeued to be better.

The third Conclusion.

BY vndoubted Fayth and Beliefe, it is to be holden, that the Soule of euery man is Immortall: And first, it is manifest by the wordes of our Sauiour Christ himselfe, in the Gospell.

Mat. 10. vers. 28.

28. Feare ye not them which kill the Body, but are not able to kill the Soule: but rather feare him which is able to de­stroy both Body and Soule in Hell.

Mat. ca. 18. v. 9.

9. It is better for thee to enter into Life halt, then hauing two feete, to be cast into Hell.

Mar. 9.43.44.

43. Wherefore, if thy Hand cause thee to offende, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter into Life maimed, then ha­uing two Handes, to goe into Hell, into Fire that neuer shalbe quenched.

44. Where the Worme dieth not, and the Fire neuer goeth out. &c.

Mat. 25.

31. When the Sonne of man commeth [Page 89]in his glory, and all the holy Angels with him: then shall he sit vpon the Throne of his glorie.

32. And before him shalbe gathered all Nations; and he shall separate them one from another, as the Shepheard sepa­rateth the Sheepe from the Goates.

33. And he shall set the Sheepe on his right hand, and the Goates on his left.

34. Then shall the King say to them on his right hand: Come ye blessed chil­dren of my Father, inherite the King­dome prepared for you from the begin­ning of the world.

41. Then shall he say to them on his left hand: Depart from me yee curssed, into euerlasting Fire, which is prepared for the Deuill and his Angels.

Iohn 10.

My Sheepe heare my voyce, & I giue vnto them eternall life.

¶ Of these Places, I doe conclude, that the Soule is Immortall: because it liueth eternally, or is punished euerlastingly.

In the Booke of Wisedome, cap. 3.

  • 1. The Soules of the Righteous, are in the hand of God: and no torment shall [Page 90]touch them.
  • 2 In the sight of the Vnwise, they ap­peare to die: and their end was thought grieuous.
  • 3. And their departing from vs, De­struction; but they are in peace.
  • 4. And though they suffer paine be­fore men: yet is their hope full of Im­mortalitie.
  • 5. They are punished in few thinges, yet in many thinges shall they be re­warded: for God prooueth them, and findeth them meete for him.
  • 6. He tryeth them as Gould in the furnace, and receiueth them as a perfect fruit offring.
  • 7. And in the time of their vision, they shall shine, and run through as the spar­kles among the stubble.
  • 8. They shall iudge the nations, and haue Dominion ouer the people, and their Lord shall raigne for euer.

Ecclesiastos. 12.

Because man shall goe to the house of his eternity. Also in the last iudgement, euery man that is predestinate to saluati­on, shall rise againe to life euerlasting, [Page 91]with the same Bodyes they had heere, according to that saying of Job.

Job. 19.

25. I am sure that my Redeemer li­ueth, and that I shall rise againe out of the earth at the last day.

26. And though after my skinne, Wormes destroy this Body: yet shall I see God in my flesh.

27. Whom I my selfe shall see; yea, my selfe shall behold, and none other for me.

So that hereby it is very manifest and plaine, that all the Soules of men, shall euery one of them take againe their owne proper Bodyes being become Im­mortall, or brought vnto the state of Im­mortalitie of the good and blessed.

1. Thessal. 4.

14. If we beleeue that Iesus is dead, and is risen: euen so them that sleepe in Iesus, will God bring with him.

16. For the Lord himselfe shall des­cend from Heauen with a shoute, and with the voyce of the Archangell, and with the Troumpe of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first.

17. Then shall we which liue, and re­maine, be caught vp with them also, in the Cloudes, to meete the Lord in the Aire: and so shall wee euer be with the Lord.

Rom. 6.

5. If wee be dead with Christ to the si­militude of his death, euen so shall we be to the similitude of his resurrection.

8. If we be dead with Christ, we be­leeue that we also shall liue with him.

9. Knowing that Christ, being raysed from the death, dieth no more; death hath no more power ouer him.

Of all good and bad, is plaine in the Epistle to the Corinthians. 1. Cor. 15.

51. Wee shall not all sleepe; but wee shalbe all changed.

52. In moment of time, by the last Trumpet: for the Trumpet shall blow, and the dead shall be raysed vp incor­ruptible, and we shall be changed.

53. For this corruptible, must put on incorruption: and this mortall, must put on immortalitie.

The Conclusion.

OF these Authorities and Reasons, there may in the minde of euery faythfull man, that vndoubtedly beleeueth the holy Scriptures, be bred a sufficient Fayth of the Immortalitie of the Soule, sufficient (I say) to saluation: yea, it doth not seeme possible, that those that are instructed in the foresayd Scrip­tures, should doubt of the Immortalitie of the Soule: For it doth not seeme natu­turally to be possible, that some one eui­dently Assent, that the Antecedent can­not be true, without the Consequent; and vndoubtedly Assent to the Antece­dent, but the must vndoubtedly Assent to the Consequent, which he doth euident­ly know to be concluded and deducted out of the Antecedent. But the Reasons Topicall, or Perswasions Probable, which we haue before set downe, to per­swade the second part of the first Con­clusion; although (as it is sayd) it be not of their nature, to breed nothing else but an Opinion or Assent with feare of the [Page 94]Opposite; (for Opinion is the accepti­on of one part of the Contradiction, with feare of the other:) yet not with­standing, out of the empire of the Will, they may breed a firme and sure Assent, of the Immortalitie of the Soule, aboue Opinion, and beneath Science; by rea­son of the same euidence, and not adhe­rencie.

From hence may such perswasions or reasons be able manifoldly and sundry wayes, to profite and auayle the fayth of the faythfull, for they helpe our Fayth; for by them, in the vnfaythfull, is begun the Fayth of the Immortalitie of the Soule. By them, is the same Fayth pre­s [...]rued and strengthned against the Wic­ked, and Heretickes: By the same, is it suslayned and defended: thereby, are the simple (at the length) throughly mooued and prouoked to true Fayth. Wherefore Peter commaundeth, To be readie prepared to render to euery one that asketh, a reason of the Fayth that is in vs. But the faythfull man, hauing such like reasons and perswasions, doth not leane to the first trueth and conclusion [Page 95]of Fayth, or that the Soule is Immortall principally for those same reasons, but rather doth assent to them, and vseth them, which doe consent to the first trueth, that it is well: as the Lord sayth by the Samaritanes that worshipped in the Mount: By whom are figured and signified the true beleeuers; who seeing JESVS by Fayth, are called Samaritanes. This is to humaine reason; Now we doe not beleeue because of thy saying, but because wee our selues haue seene and heard.

Of these thinges, it most plainely and most euidently appeareth, how great thankes are to be giuen vnto the most high GOD, and Father of Mercies, and to our Lord and Sauiour Jesus Christ, who hath most certainely assured, and fully perswaded his Faythfull ones, in these things, where vnto the most Wittie, & the best Learned men that euer were in all the World, could not, by the light of Na­turall reason, preuaile sufficiently to at­taine: to witte, of the Last end of the reasonable Creature, of the Resurrection of the Dead, of the Immortalitie of the reasonable Soule, and of the perpetuall [Page 96]Eternitic of the same. And this, hath that Almighty Lord & most merciful Father, so done in such sort; that now it is not lawfull for vs, neither is there any neede, to doubt in these thinges, or to flow out, or run any where else to seeke for props or stayes of our Fayth in these matters. Neither is it needfull from hence for­ward, & after this time of so great Grace reuealed to seeke, or put to new reasons or probable perswasions: because wee are most firmely holden, without feare of the opposite: or without any Ambigu­itie, to beleeue that the Good & iust doe gloriously liue eternally with Christ. And that the Euill are tormented perpe­tually with the Diuell & his Angels: ac­cording to that in the fifth of Iohn. And they that haue done euill, shall come foorth vnto the resurrection of Iudgement: and they that haue done good, to the resurrection of Life; Which God shall giue to them, which neuer change their Fayth from him. Which God graunt vnto vs, who is bles­sed for euer and euer. Amen.


Of the Immortalitie of the Soule, out of Palingenius in Capricorne.

BEcause thou shalt beleeue, I will declare to thee,
By reason good, the state of Soule, Immortall for to bee.
For if that God in better thinges, doth Cunning still expresse,
As Wisdome telles, and as the good, and virtuous must confesse:
Then doubtlesse must we iudge he gaue, the Soules no time to die,
Since better farre it is for them to liue continually.
Then with the flesh to be extinct, and feele a full decay:
Which thus I prooue. If death do take from vs the Soule away,
If that we haue no other life, but in this body heere:
Then God may be accounpted ill, and shall vniust appeare.
For thousands euerie day wee see, that florish prosperously,
In Ritches, Substance and Renounce, in Raignes and Empires hie.
Yet idle Lubbers, naught, vnlearnd, that sinne at libertie,
And run the race of all their life in great prosperitie.
On th'other side we may behold, the iust opprest to bee:
With spightfull chaunce, a wretched life and pitious pouertie:
Thus either God vnrighteous is, that doth this thing permit:
Or after death, hath euery man, as he deserueth fit:
Or else he doth disdaine the deedes, of mortall men to know,
Besides, what gratious minde in God, what goodnes doth he show?
If this be all that he doth giue, a life so short and vaine,
That swiftly runneth to an end, and doth no time remaine:
The halfe whereof is spent in sleepe, the rest in griefe and toyle?
And dangers great as fast doth fleete, as Riuers swift in soyle.
Therefore goe to, ō wretched men, [Page 99]build gorgious Churches hie,
And let with costly Offrings great, your Altars pestred lie.
Set vp your ioy full branch of Bayes, your sacred doores about:
With pompe of proud Procession passe, let Hymnes be ratled out.
Spend Frankincense, and let the nose of God be stretched wide;
With pleasant smoke doe this, and adde more honour much beside.
That he preserue your goodly life, wherein doth you torment,
Somtime great cold, and somtime heate, now plague, now famishment.
Now bloody warre, now sicknesse great or Chance to sorrow at:
Sometime the busie Flie, sometime the stinging Gnat,
The Chynch and Flea; reioyce I say, that heere you lead your life,
With thousand painefull labours great, in trauaile, toyle, and strife.
And after, in a litle space, in paine you drop away:
And lumpish lie in loath some Vault, to Wormes a gratefull prey.
O worthy life, O goodly gift: Man in this world is bred,
Among the brutish Beastes and fooles, and knaues, his life is led,
Where Stormes, and flakie Snows, & Ice, and Durt, and Dust, and Night.
And harmfull aire, and clowds, & mistes, and windes, with hellish fight,
And griefe and wayling raignes: where death beside, doth worke his feat.
Is this our goodly Countrie heere? Is this our happy seate,
For which we owe such seruice heere, vnto the Gods aboue:
For which it seemeth meete with vowes the heauenly Saintes to moone?
And if none other life we haue, then this of body vaine:
So frayle and full of filthinesse, when Death hath Carcasse slaine.
I see not why such Prayses should, of God resound in Ayre:
For why we should such honour giue, to him in Temples fayre;
That hath vs wretches framed heere, in this so wretched soyle:
That shall for euermore decay, [Page 101]after so great a toyle.
Wherfore least God should seeme vniust and full of cruelnesse,
Shall well deseruing counted be, we must of force confesse,
That Death doth not destroy the Soule, but that it alwayes is,
None otherwise then Spirit in Ayre, or Saintes in heauens blisse:
Both voyde of body, sleepe, and meate. And more, we must confesse,
That after death, they liue in paines, or else in blessednesse:
But let this reason thee suffice, for if thou doe it show
Vnto the wicked kind, they laugh; no light the blind doth know.
But thou, beleeue for euermore, and know assuredly.
(For ground of sauing health it is) that Soules doe neuer die.
Exempted from the Sisters power, and fatall Destinie.

Palingenius in Libra.

We need not doubt, but Soule proceedes and doth from loue descend,
And neuer dies: whom he permits, the World to comprehend.
What if so be, the Atomies, which some Wise men do fayne,
The Soule is rather thought to bee, than body to maintaine.
All Bodyes be of quantitie, and may deuided be:
But Soule is indiuisible, and of no grosse degree.
And as a Centre doth she seeme, where many Lines doe meete:
Which Senses all to her conuey, as Floods to Seas, doe fleete.
Wherefore I maruaile much at such, as thinke a like decay:
And iudge the Soule no more to bee, when Body fades away.
For if so be it might be prooude, yet should it not be sayd;
Nor Publisht to the common sort, nor euery way displayd.
For many wicked men, and ill there are, which if they thought,
Their Soules as nothing shall remaine, when corps to graue is brought:
Nor that it feeles, or suffers ought, [Page 103]when it goeth hence away,
And that no punishment remaines, for prancks that here they play:
A thousand mischifes would they doe, (take feare from them among)
And fall to euery vilonie, confounding right with wrong.
Besides, a number now that thinke in blessed state to bee,
When death hath them destroyd, & hope the face of God to see:
And euermore with him to ioy, and therefore virtuously
Doe seeke to passe their present life, with godly modeslie.
If they shall see that after death, doe no rewardes remaine:
Amased all, their virtuous workes, shall cease and perish plaine.
So many stately Temples trimde, so many Altars hie,
With Gold and Marble garnished, and decked sumptuously.
Beside Religion, Godly zeale, Honour and worshipping
Of God, shall come to nought, if after death remaine nothing,
That men may hope for, if the Soule as Winde doth passe away.
Of wild and franticke common sort, Religion must be stay,
And feare of smart: for mischiuous, and full of fraud their braine,
Is alwayes seene, nor of themselues, they well doe meane, or plaine.
The common sort doe Virtue loath, and euermore her hate.
Religion is the comlinesse, and glorie of our state.
Which makes the Gods to fauour vs, which we winne Heauen by.
No wise nor good man therefore dare, attempt her openly,
To teach that Soule shal come to nought and so corrupt the mindes,
Of rude vnskilfull common sort, that wauer like the windes.
Now must we teach by reason good, that Soules shall neuer die;
But free from sting, or dart of death, doe liue eternally.
Which euery Christian man doth hold, and Greshop eater Iew,
(Who our foreskins abhorres) beleeues: [Page 105]which God that all thinges knew,
Would not haue made, if he had thought they had been needlesse, sure:
And Nations all besides, do thinke that Soules shall aye endure.
For first the thing resembling most, the mightiest Lord of all:
Of longer lasting life we count, and perfecter must call.
For that which doth not long endure, but shortly doth decay,
That it should be vnperfecter, who is that will say nay?
And therefore do celestiall thinges, a greater while endure:
Because they are more perfecter, and more Diuine and pure.
But thinges that nearer are the earth, and farthest off from skies,
Vnperfect since they are; do fade, and soonest euer dyes.
Shall then our Soule, sith life in it and knowledge doth appeare,
Most like vnto the state Diuine, be closde and shut vp heere
With Body for to end? Nor shall it heere haue longer place,
Then fading flesh? Or shall it liue no more, nor larger space?
Besides, that Soules cannot decay, this Reason witnesse shall:
Because it is of single state, and voyde of matter all.
Adde this, that when the Body fades, the force of Minde doth grow
As weake and aged Fathers old doe more good Counsell know,
Then youthful blouds of younger years and often he lacks wit
That doth excell in strength and force, for rare doth God permit
Both strength and wit to any one. Wherefore, if force brought low,
By space and course of many yeares, the Minde doth stronger grow.
Of Body doth it not depend, but of it selfe consist
Another thing: and after Graue doth liue, and death resist.
Doth not beside when foote doth ake, the Minde iudge thereof plaine?
It is no doubt. But how can griefe, to towre of Minde attaine?
Doth it ascend from lowest partes [Page 107]as Smoke doth vpward flie?
No: for many partes, not foote alone, (if so) should ake thereby.
Nor of the foote, but of the part that nearest is to Minde
The ake should grieue. This shewes that Soule is not of Bodyes kind;
And is so free from death, since it in distance needes no meane,
Adde this, when we would call to minde the thing forgotten cleane;
Or else deuise some worthy fetch, from Minde, the Senses all,
It then behoues to gather vp, whereby doth often fall,
That many better for to muse, doe shut vp close their eyes:
Or else forsaking companie, some secret place deuise.
Or whē the night with darksome cloude the earth doth ouer spread;
And creatures all with heauie sleepe, do take their rest in bed:
They still do watch, and silent all vpon their beds doe rest;
And light put out, in darknesse whet their Minde with Body prest.
For Senses doe the Minde disturbe, Affections it destroyes,
Amazing it with Dulnesse great, and Blindnesse it annoyes:
None otherwise then Cloudes do hide, the Sunne that clearely shines;
If therefore, when it doth remaine within his owne confines,
And flying farre from Senses all, and cares that Body bringes:
It wiser be, then shall it know, and vnderstand all thinges,
In better sort, when it is free, and from the flesh doth flie;
More perfect of it selfe it is, and liues continually.
Againe, sith Man as Meane consistes, the Saintes and Beastes betwixt:
Some part with each, he common holds with Beast his Body mixt.
And with the Saintes his Minde agrees; one of these partes doth die:
Of th'other, death can haue no power, but liues continually.
Death therefore takes not all away: for why? his deadly dartes,
Doe neuer harme the Soule a whit, [Page 109]when it from Body partes.
And more then this, I haue to say, if nothing doe remaine
Of vs, when Carcasse lyes in Tombe, God shall be called plaine
Vniust, and one that fauour shewes to such as naughtie liue.
For such, for tearme of all their life, no Sorrowes do them grieue:
No Ritches lacke, nor Pleasures great, but happily reioyce;
Exalted with Promotions hie, and with the Commons voyce.
On th'other side, the Virtuous men, a thousand Griefes molest,
now sore diseasd, now plagu'd with need In fine, alwayes opprest.
Therefore the Soule liues after graue, and feeles deserued paynes:
And if it haue done iustly heere, a Crowne of Glorie gaines.
By these, and many other wayes, I could declare, no doubt,
That Soule of man doth neuer die, and Body liues without.
But thi's enough time bids me end. Not ignorant am I;
That some, the soule (although vnapt) doe tearme an Harmonie.
And as of sundry voyces mou'd, proceedes a melodie:
Of sundry Compounds Medcine made, which heale with soueraigntie.
So of the ioyned Elements, by certaine meane and way,
Created of the Heauens eke the Soule to be, some say;
A part whereof in Body dwels, and part abroad doth lie:
As sight doth spring of outward light, and virtue of the eye.
But this opinion is not true; for if it should be so,
The Soule with flesh should neuer striue nor once against it goe.
But euermore in one agree. As euery power doth show,
That wonted are of mixed thinges, By spirit Diuine to grow.
As in the kind of Hearbes appeares, and in the precious Stone.
Some thinke the Soule doth not remaine, when flesh from it is gone:
Because the heauie sluggish sleepe, [Page 111]the nearest thing that may,
Resembles Death, and seemes to take, both Sense and Minde away.
Or for because they see the Minde, with sicknesse diuersly
So vext, and harmd, that it cannot the place it hath supply.
And with the Body to encrease, with which it eke decayes:
As well appeares in Children young, and men of elder dayes.
Fond is the child, the man discreete, the old man doteth still:
For weake vnwealdie withered age, doth Minde and Body spill.
And more say they, if that the Soule, of substaunce be Diuine:
And seuered from these fleshly limmes, may lead a life more fine.
Then why should it in wretched flesh, so seeke it selfe to place;
by whose defect so many illes, and mischifes it deface?
But fond she is therefore, if that she doe this willingly:
And if perforce she be compeld in Carcasse caue to lie,
Who doth constraine? doth God him­selfe? then her he nought esteemes.
Nay, what in Prison vile he puts, to hate he rather seemes.
More, of it selfe (except it learne) sith it doth nothing know,
And oftentimes forgetfulnesse the Minde doth ouerthrow:
Therefore they iudge it nothing is, when Body heere doth die:
For learne it cannot, senses dead, which it knowes all thinges by.
Some other say, that Soule there is in all the World but one;
Which giueth life to euery thing, as Sunne, but one alone
There is, that makes all eyes to see, Eternall thinke they this:
Though Body die, or eyes put out, the Sunne eternall is.
These trifles fond, it is not hard, with Reason to disprooue:
But heere I longer am, I feare, then it doth mee behooue.
There shall not want, that such demands shall answere once at full:
And all the doubtes therein assoyle, [Page 113]and knots asunder pull.
O man of sharpe and pregnant wit, thy prayse shall liue with mine.
Our labours (doubt not) shall commend the men of later time.
Thy famous workes attempt, and seedes of Heauen on Earth goe sow:
This one thing will I more put to, that euery man may know,
The Soule Immortall for to be, and sprung of Heauenly grace;
If Senses and Affections all he will restraine a space.
If that despising worldly ioyes, and earthly thought resignde,
With dayly labour he attempt, to God to lift his minde.
Then perfect Wisedome shall he haue, and thinges to come foretell,
A wake, or else in heauie sleepe, perceiue the same as well.
In this sort did the Prophets old, the thinges to come declare.
The sober minde therefore doth come more neare to heauenly fare,
The farther from the flesh it flies, and from the earthly care.
But like to Beastes the greatest sort doth liue, as sense doth will:
And thinke none other good to be, but flesh to haue his fill.
Hereof it comes that many thinke, the Soule with Body dyes:
Because they see not thinges Diui [...]e, with weake and fleshly eyes.
But of the Soule, this shall suffice.

Palengenius in Pisces.

ANd when escapt from mortall chaine the Soule hath passage straight,
Conueighing with her selfe these three, that alwayes on her waite:
The Minde, the Sense, & Moouing force vnto the Heauens hie;
Shall ioyfull goe, and there remaine, in blisse perpetually.

Matheus Dresserus, libro de Anima.
A Confirmation of the Immorta­litie of the Soule.

THe Sentence of the Soules immorta­litie is twofold.

  • 1. Philosophicall.
  • 2. Theologicall.

What is the opinion of Philosophers touch­ing the Immortalitie of the Soule?

Some affirme, that the Soule doth die with the Body. Others do hold, that af­ter the separation of the Body, it remay­neth aliue, and immortall.

The Argument of Panaetius.
What soeuer is bred, or hath a certaine beginning.
The same also dieth, or hath a cetraine ending:
But the Soule is bred, or hath a certaine beginning,
Therfore the Soule dieth, or hath a certaine ending.

The Answere.

The Maior is to be distinguished: for some thinges are bred, or haue their be­ginning of the Elementes, and doe die againe. But others haue a Celestiall and Diuine originall; as the Soule, which doth not die. Thinges that are borne, [Page 116]bred, or haue beginning, are of two sortes. Some are Elementarie, some Cele­stiall. The Elementarie doe die or perish: But the Celestiall, doe not die or perish. But on the contrarie part, Cicero, Plato, and Xenophon, haue iudged, the Soule to be Immortall, and they prooue it thus. 1. Because the originall and nature there­of is Diuine; or, as the Pythagoreans said, the Soule is drawen from the vniuersall Heauenly minde. Cicero in 1 Tuscul.

That which is Diuine, that doth not die:
The Soule is Diuine, Ergo,
The Soule doth not die.

2 Because vnto the Soule there is no­thing mixt, nothing concrete. i. the Minde and Soule is not compounded of the Elementes: therefore it can not die with the thinges that are compounded of the Elementes.

Whatsoeuer is compounded, the same is conflated or compounded of the Ele­mentes.

But the Soule is not compound of the Elements:
Therefore the Soule doth not die.

3 Because the workes or effectes of the Minde are Diuine and Celestiall, as [Page 117]to perceiue and know thinges past, and to come: therefore the Minde it selfe al­so, is Celestiall and Incorruptible.

As is the effect, so is the cause:
But the effectes of the Soule are Diuine:
Therefore the Soule is also Diuine.

4 Because the order of Diuine iustice doth require, that rewardes be giuen to Iust, and punishments to the Vniust. But in this life, there often chance no re­wardes to the Iust, nor punishmentes to the Wicked: therefore after this life, there remayneth another life, wherein it shall goe well with the Godly, and ill with the wicked.

5 Plato in Exiocho saith; Discessus ex hac vita est mutatio mali in bonum; that is to say: The departing out of this life, is a changing of euill into good. Therefore after death, the Soule also liueth, and somewhere remayneth aliue; that it may enioy that so great a good.

Of the Place of the Soule after the separation from the Body.

SOcrates thought, that the Soule when it departeth from the Body, doth re­turne to Heauen, from whence it is sprinckled & strowed into mans Body. But Philosophie doth plainely deny, and is vtterly ignoraunt, that the Soule shall be ioyned togeather to the Body at the vniuersall raysing againe of the dead.

Cicero also, although he did excellently dispute many thinges of the Soules Di­uinitie; yet he confesseth, that he is in very great doubt and staggering, euen as the Shippe is tossed in the middes of the raging Seas.

And Atticus sayth, That hee, while he readeth Platos Phaedo, doth truely As­sent; that is to say, Approoue the Opi­nion of the Immortalitie of the Soule: But when he had layde the Booke away, and beganne to cogitate with himselfe; then that Assent slided away.

Socrates, when hee was going to his death, sayth in Plato: It is time for mee now, to goe away from hence, that I may [Page 119]die, and you liue: but whether is better, God knoweth; I thinke truely no man knoweth.

There was a Philosopher of great Authoritie, who being called to end his life, was verie sore vexed in minde; doubting of the flitting or departure, in what state his soule should be after death: And when he found no other Hauen, he sent for two Philosophers, and bade them dispute of the condition of the Soule after the departure foorth of the Body, saying: Loe, I must flitte hence a­way, & forsake this mortall life: where­fore tell yee mee, what shall become of mee; whether my Soule shall liue, when this Body is extinct, or no? for vnlesse this can be prooued vnto me, and I there­in perswaded, with what minde can I depart out of this life? Heere the Philo­sophers began sharply to contende a­bout the Nature of the Soule: and the one reason'd it to be Mortall, and the o­ther Immortall. And when they had a long time disputed, neither part preuai­ling: Goe to, sayth the sicke man, all sorrowfull, I shall now prooue, whether [Page 120]of you doth thinke more rightly.

But Theologie doth discreetly affirme, both that the Soule is Immortall, and also that it shall at length, returne into the ta­bernacle of the Body: & doth name the very place also, wherein the Soule shall remaine & be kept, vntill the last Iudge­ment.

That the Soule doth not die, is thus prooued by the holy Scriptures.

1 BEcause it is a Spirit; which cannot die. Gen. 2. Math. 10. Doe not feare those that can kill the Body, but cannot kill the Soule. Gen. 2. Hee breathed into him the breath of life.

2 Because; God is the God of the liuing. God is the God of. Abraham.

Therefore Abraham liueth, although his body be dead. Mat. 22.

3 From Examples. Moses and Elias tal­ked with Christ in Mount Thabor. Luk. 9. although Moses was dead a thousand and fiue hundred yeares before: Ergo, they liue.

4 From the testimonie of Christ. Ion. 11. Hee that beleeueth in me, he shall [Page 121]not die for euer. Therefore the Soule is not extinguished, but liueth alwayes.

5 There is also a firme Argument from the Cause vnto the Effect, or from the nature of Relatiues.

Christ is risen, and liueth.
Christ is our Author and Head.

Therefore we also shall rise againe: And the Soule at length, coupled with the Body shall liue for euer.

For what is of force in Christ, the same must needes also auaile in his mem­bers. 1. Cor. 15.

Now that the Body being renewed, shall of vs be recciued againe in the re­surrection of the dead, the testimonie of Job in the 19, chap. teacheth plainely. I know that my Redeemer liueth; and that I shall rise againe out of the Earth in the last day and shall see God in my flesh.

The Place or Seate into the which the Soule doth flitte, being loosed from the fetters of the Body, and resteth in the same, is called, Paradise. Luk. 23. The bosome of Abraham, Luk. 16. The hand of God Sap. 3. Scheol. 1. Hell Gen. 43.

The Immortalitie of the Soule prooued by manifest places of the holy Scriptures.

1. Numbers 23.10.

I Pray God I may die the death of the Righteous; and let my last end be like his.

2. Psal 84.1, 2, 4, 10.

1. O how amiable are thy Taberna­cles, o Lord of Hostes?

2. My Soule longeth, yea and fainteth for the Courtes of the Lord: for my heart and my flesh reioyce in the liuing God.

4. Blessed are they that dwell in thy House: they will euer praise thee. Selah.

10. One day in thy Courtes is better, then a thousand other where. I had ra­ther be a Dore-keeper in the house of my God, then to dwell in the Taberna­cles of Wickednesse.

3. Ejay. 51.6.11.

6. Lift vp your eyes to the Heauens, and looke vpon the Earth beneath: for the Heauens shall vanish away like smoake, and the Earth shall waxe old like a garment, and they that dwel there­in [Page 123]shall perish in like maner: but my sal­uation shalbe for euer, and my righte­ousnesse shall not be abolished.

11 The redeemed of the Lord shall re­turne, and come with ioy vnto Zion, and euerlasting ioy shalbe vpon their head; they shall obtaine ioy and gladnesse, and sorrow and mourning shalbe away.

4. Esaj. 32.18.

My people shall dwell in peace, and in sure dwellinges, & in safe resting pla­ces: in assurance for euer.

5. Esaj. 49.10.

They shall not be hungry, neither shall they be thirstie; neither shall the heate smite them nor the Sunne: for he that hath compassion on them, shall lead them; euen to the springes of waters shall he driue them.

6. Esaj. 65.17.18.

17 Loe, I will create new Heauens and a new Earth; and the former shall not be remembred, nor come into minde.

18 But be you glad and reioyce for euer in the thinges that I shall create.

7. Dan. 12 1.2.3.

And at that time shall Michael stand [Page 124]vp, the great Prince, which standeth for the children of thy people, and there shall be a time of trouble, such as neuer was since the time that there began to be a Nation, vntill the same time. And at that time, thy people shall be deliuered, euery one that shall be found written in the Booke.

2 And many of them, that sleepe in the dust of the Earth, shall awake; some to euerlasting life, and some to shame and perpetuall contempt.

3 And they that be wise, shall shine as the brightnesse of the Firmament: and they that turne many to righteousnesse, shall shine as the Starres, for euer & euer.

8. 2. Esaras.

Be readie to the reward of the King­dome: for the euerlasting light shall shine vpon you for euermore.

36 Flee the shadow of this world: re­ceiue the ioy of your glorie; I testifie my Sauiour openly.

37 Receiue the gift that is giuen you, and be glad: giuing thankes vnto him that hath called you to the Heauenly kingdome.

9. Sap. 3.

The Soules of the righteous, are in the hand of God; and the paine of death shall not touch them.

In the sight of the vnwise, they appeare to die, &c. Yet is their hope full of Im­mortalitie. &c.

10. Sap. 5.

The Faythfull are counted among the Children of God, and their portion is among the Saintes. The Righteous shall liue for euermore: their reward also is with the Lord, and their remembraunce with the highest. Therefore shall they receiue a glorious Kingdome, & a beau­tifull Crowne of the Lords hand.

11. Tob. 3.

O Lord, deale with me according to thy will, and commaund my spirit to be receiued in peace.

12. Ecclesiastes. 7.

The day of death is better then the day of birth. For precious in the sight of the Lord, is the death of this Saintes, saith the Psalmist in the 116. Psalme.

13. Mat. 13.43.

Then shall the Iust men shine as the [Page 126]Sunne, in the Kingdome of their father.

14. Mat. 19.29.

They shall inherite euerlasting life.

15. Mat. 25.34.

Come ye blessed Children of my Fa­ther, inherite the Kingdome prepared for you from the beginning of the world.

16. Mat.

29 Yee are deceiued, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God.

30 For in the Resurrection, they nei­ther marrie Wiues, nor Wiues are besto­wed in marriage; but are as the Angels of God in Heauen.

31 And concerning the Resurrection of the dead, haue yee not read what is spoken vnto you of God, saying:

32 I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Iacob; God is not the God of the dead, but of the liuing.

17. The same is recorded in the 12. of Marke, vers. 24, 25, 26, 27.

By all which places, it is a plaine con­sequent, that the Soule is Immortall.

18. Luk. 16.22.

Lazarus is said to be caried into Abra­hams Bosome. Now what Abrahams [Page 127]Bosome is, let venerable Beda witnesse against the Papistes, that so much boast of him: who in his Homilie on the Gos­pell for the first Sunday after Trinitie, writeth thus. Sinus Abraham requies hea­torum pauperum, quorum est regnum coelorum, quo post hanc vitam recipiuntur: That is; Abrahams Bosome, is the rest of the bles­sed poore; whose is the kingdome of heauē, whither after this life, they are receiued. So by the iudgement of Beda (agreeing with the trueth,) Abrahams Bosome, is the Kingdome of Heauen, with Lazarus was caried. Out of the same place also it is apparent concerning the Soules of the Wicked: For the Rich Glutton is sayd on the contrarie, to be carried downe in­to Hell. Therefore the Soules liue after the Body.

19. Luk. 23.43.

Christ hanging on the Crosse, said vn­to the Thiefe; This day shalt thou be with mee in Paradise. Now that Para­dise is Heauen, is prooued by Saint Paul in the 2. Cor. 12. 1, 2, 3, 4. where he sayth, He was taken vp into the third Heauen: which hee calleth Paradise. But the [Page 128]Thiefe could not be with Christ in Para­dise in the Body; because that was dead & buried. Therefore his Soule was with Christs in Paradise: and so consequently the Soule liueth, and is Immortall.

20. Luk. 23.46.

Father, into thy hands I commende my spirit.

21. John. 16.

Your ioy shall no man take from you.

22. John. 5.24.

Hee that heareth my word, and belee­ueth in him that sent me, hath euerlasting life, & shal not come into condemnation, but hath passed from death to life.

23. Joe. 6.54.

Whosoeuer eateth my flesh and drin­keth my Blood, hath eternall life; and I will raise him vp at the last day.

24. Joh. 11.26.

Who soeuer liueth and beleeueth in mee, shall neuer die.

25. 1. Cor. 2.

The eye hath not seene, neither eare hath heard, neither can it enter into mans heart, what thinges God hath prepared for them that loue him.

26. 2. Cor. 5.8.

8 We loue rather to remoue out of the Body, & to dwell with the Lord: Where­fore the Soules sleepe not, as some Ana­baptistes will haue them; but inioy Im­mortall life, & celestiall glory with God.

27. Phil. 1.23.

I desire to be loosed, and to be with Christ. He speaketh of the rest and ioy, which he should inioy with Christ. But they who feele nothing, what can their ioy or happinesse be? Wherefore they also are refuted in this poynt, that say, That mens Soules sleepe, and so withall, denie the Immortalitie of the Soule.

28. 1. Thes. 4.

So shall we euer be with the Lord.

29. Reuel. 2.

To him that ouercommeth, will I giue to eate of the Tree of Life, which is in the middest of the Paradise of God.

Be faythfull vnto the death, and I shall giue thee the Crowne of life.

Reue. 3.

Him that ouercommeth, will I make a Pillar in the Temple of God; and he shall goe no more out.

To him that ouercommeth, will I graunt to sit with me in my seate.

31. Reu. 4.

The 24. Elders that sate on the Seates, were clothed in White rayment, and had on their heades Crownes of Gold.

32. Reu. 7.15, 16, 17.

15 They are in the presence of the Throne of God, and serue him day and night in his Temple; and he that sitteth on the Throne, will dwell among them.

16 They shall hunger no more, neither thirst any more, neither shall the Sunne light on them, neither any heate.

17 For the Lame, which is in the mid­dest of the Throne, shall gouerne them, and shall lead them vnto the liuely Foun­taines of waters: and God shall wipe a­way all teares from their eyes.

1. Cor. 15.19.

If in this life onely we hope in Christ, then are we most miserable of all men.

If Christians in this life onely, do hope in Christ: 1. If they hope of Christ for the blessednesse of this life onely, and not of one to come, then are they most mise­rable of all men. But Christians are not [Page 131]most miserable of all men: Ergo, they do not looke or hope of Christ for the bles­sednesse of this life onely, but also of the life to come: and by a consequent they shall rise from the dead, that they may be partakers of that blessednesse in an other life.

These testimonies of Scriptures, doe teach and confirme most euidently, that not onely in the Body before death, and after the resurrection of the Body; but also in the whole space and time com­ming betweene, the Soules are, liue, feele, vnderstand, out of the Body; though the manner of their operations be to vs vn­knowne. Wherefore also this gift of Im­mortalitie, hath some similitude with God; who alone, is the onely fountaine of life, hath Immortalitie: as sayth Paul 1, Tim. 6.16.

The Aduersaries of this Trueth, the deare dearelings of the Diuell, fighting with weapons of their graund Captaine Sathan; euen as he in tempting our Sa­uiour Christ, wrested the Scriptures to his purpose: euen so they peruerting the [Page 132]true sense, alleadge sundry places of the Scriptures to disprooue the Immortalitie of the Soule, and to approoue their owne wicked assertion, that the Soule is Mor­tall. Of which hellish Champions, and their vaine and wicked, not reasons, but wordes, I with a reproofe, will bring a double disproofe, and so thereby giue our side a stronger approofe, by enter­preating their false alleadged places, ac­cording to the right sense and meaning.

1. Gen. 2.

In the day that thou eatest of the Tree of knowledge of Good and Euill, thou shalt die the death. Loe, (say they) the death of Body and Soule both.

Answere, interpreating the place.

The Lord in this Scripture, doth not threaten to Man, the destruction or ex­tinguishing of his Soule, but eternall Death; that is, the horrible feeling and terrour of Gods wrath and iudgement, and to liue forsaken and cast off from God, subiect to all miseries & torments: vnto the which eternall death the sepa­ration and parting asunder of the Soule [Page 133]and Body by temporall death, is an ad­iunct; which at that time, through Gods mercie was deferred, that, that mankind might be saued: For so was Adam dead, while he yet liued in Paradise, euen so soone as euer he had eaten the forbidden Fruite: So in eternall death liue all the damned and reprobate; whose Fire shall not be put out, and their Worme shall neuer die. So in the second to the Ephe­sians are they sayd, To be dead through sinne, that liue in sinne without repen­tance. And Ephes. 5. Hee who from sinne is reclaymed to God, is willed to rise from the dead. And Rom. 7.5. Paul saith, That through the knowledge of sinne and the wrath of God, hee was dead.

2. Eccles. 3.19.

19 The condition of the Children of men, and the condition of Beastes, are euen as one condition to them. As the one dyeth, so dyeth the other: for they haue all one breath; and there is no ex­cellencie of Man aboue the Beast: for all is Vanitie.

20 All goe to one place, and all was dust, & shall returne to the dust. Therfore [Page 134]the Soule is not Immortall.

Answere interpreating.

Heere they are deceiued by a fallation, taking that to be spoken simply, which is but, secundum quid, i. in some fort, or, in some respect. For the Preacher doth not simply say, That Men die as Beastes, and so doe vtterly perish: for this sense cantradicteth other Scriptures. But in two respectes, the death of Men, and the death of Beastes, are like. 1. Because Men must needes once die and depart out of this life; because Men are not heere to continue for euer, nor haue heere a setled place. 2. Men die as Beastes; that is, In the sense and iudgement of the Wicked, they seeme to perish.

3. Psal. 78.39.

Hee remembred that they were but flesh: yea, a winde that passeth away, and commeth not againe. Ergo, Mortall.


By these, and such like speaches, is de­scribed and be wayled the frayltie of all humaine affaires, that with God doe pe­rish and come to nothing. For as in this place, they are likened to a Winde that [Page 135]soone vanisheth away: so in Psal. 103. they are compared to Dust, Earth, and Flowers of the field. So Iob. 14. Man commeth vp as a Flower, and is cutte downe. Isa. 40.6. All flesh is grasse.

4. Psal. 88.5.

I am counted as slaine lying in the Graue; whom thou remembrest no more.


In these wordes, the Psalmist doth not meane, that either hee himselfe, or the dead, are exempted from Gods proui­dence. But hee complayneth that hee is forsaken of God, euen as it seemeth to men, that God careth not for the dead. And therefore hee speaketh not accor­ding to the sense of Fayth, but of his owne opinion, weaknesse, and miserie, who iudgeth those thinges to be forsa­kèn and neglected of God, whose deli­uerie for a while he doth deferre.

But what Fayth in the meane season doth suggest and tell the Godly, euen when they striue and wrastle with temp­tation? he sheweth in the ii. Psal. and vers 2. The iust shall be had in an euerlasting [Page 136]remembrance.

5. Psal. 146.4.

His Spirit departeth, and returneth to his earth; and then all his thoughtes pe­rish. Ergo. &c.


Hee doth not heere say, That the Spi­rit or Soule of men doth not die, or va­nish, or is bereaued of sense: But, that it departeth; to witte, from the Body, wherein it dwelleth: and that not the Spirit, but the Body, returneth to earth, which was made of earth. And where he sayth, That all his thoughtes perish: he meaneth not, that the Soule is after this life, bereaued of Reason, Iudgement, and Sense of Gods mercie, or wrath; but that mans Purposes and Counsailes are made frustrate, which in his life he had setled him selfe to bring to passe: In which sense it is sayd in Psal. 112.10. The desire of the Wicked shall perish.

6. Psal. 88. 10.

Wilt thou shew a miracle to the dead? Or, shall the dead rise, and prayse thee? Whereunto we adde all such places as take away worshipping of God from [Page 137]the dead, which must needes prooue the Soule not Immortall.


In such speaches, Death and Hell, or the Graue, haue two significations. They who are spiritually dead, whether before or after the death of the Body; that is, they that are depriued of Gods grace, and forsaken and reiected of God, and are in Hell, that is, in the place and tormentes of the Damned; or else in this life, despayring and destitute of comfort, shall not prayse God at all, neither in this life, nor in the life to come. But they who are dead not spiritually, but corporally onely, although they shall not prayse God while their Bodyes are in Hell, that is, in the Graue, (for which this word Hell, is often vsed in the Scriptures;) yet in Soule they shall not ceasse to acknow­ledge and prayse God, vntill, when they haue receiued their Bodyes againe, they shall magnifie him both in Soule and Body, in the Celestiall eternitie.

But in the meane time, sith God will be acknowledged and magnified of men in this life also, therefore both the whole [Page 138]Church, and euery one of the faythfull, not onely pray that they may not fall into that forsaking, and that sense of Gods wrath, wherewith the Wicked are oppressed, but also desire, that they may be preserued and defended in this mor­tall life, vntill the end thereof appoynted by God, be expired: for the Saintes doe not simply stand in feare of the bodily Death and Graue; but that they may not be forsaken of God, neither fall into desperation or destruction, or their eni­mies insult against God, when they are ouerthrowne. This with dayly and ar­dent prayers and petitions, they begge and craue continually.

7. Psal. 146. 2.

I will prayse the Lord during my life: as long as I haue any beeing, I will sing vnto my God. Heere hee restreyneth prayses to this life onely.


This place, maketh nothing to the purpose: For he doth not limit prayses to this life; but this he onely sayth, that he will spend all the time of this mortall life in Gods prayses: which notwith­standing [Page 139]in many other places he ex­tendeth to continuall eternitie; as Psal. 34. I will prayse the Lord continually. But often times this particle, Vntill, or, As long, signifieth a continuance of the time going before some euent, without any excluding of the time following: as 1. Cor. 15.25. Hee must raigne, Vntill hee hath put all his enimies vnder his feete, I thinke they will not say, that when Christes enimies are put vnder his feete, that then he shall raigne no longer.

8. Job. 10.20.

Let him ceasse and leaue off from mee, that I may take a little comfort before I goe, and shall not returne: Ergo, the Soule is Mortall; there is no Resurrection.


In these wordes, he denyeth that hee shall returne into this Mortall life, and conuerse amongst men in this World: But he denieth not that he in the meane season, hath his beeing, and doth liue, vntill againe he see God in the flesh; euen the same Iob, who then was afflicted: as himselfe sayth. chap. 19.26.

9. Iob. 3.11.

Why died I not when I came out of the Wombe? so should I haue lyen qui­et, and been at rest.


Iob in these wordes, doth not denie, that the Soules after death doe liue, feele, and vnderstand: but onely he sayth; the Miseries of this present life are not felt.


Iob would not wish for a bad change: but if there be euils felt in the life to come, hee wished for a badde change: Ergo. &c.


Iob wished not for the death of the wicked, but of the godly.


But Job maketh Kinges and Princes also, which gather Gold vnto them. vers. 14.15. small and great, good and badde. vers. 16, 17, 18, 19. partakers of this rest.


It plainely appeareth out of the whole processe and discourse of Jobs wordes, that he doth not teach what is the state of men after this life; but onely desireth [Page 141]to be ridde out of his present miserie. And therefore through humaine infir­mitie and impatience, he compareth the sense and feeling of his present miseries with the death and state of the Dead, whatsoeuer it be. As they who are grie­uously tormented with present Distres­ses and Calamities, preferre any thing whatsoeuer, before that which they suf­fer. So also he sayth in the 7. chap. speak­ing as one despayring of deliuerie in this life: Remember that my life is but a winde, and that mine eye shall not returne to see plea­sure. For so hee expoundeth himselfe, when hee addeth, vers. 10. Hee shall re­turne no more to his house, neither shall his place know him any more. So like­wise in the 17. chap. My breath is cor­rupt, my dayes are corrupt, & the Graue is readie for mee. They are wordes of one despayring of life & saluation, God being wroth and angrie.

10. Job. 34.14.15.

14 If he set his heart vpon man, and gather vnto himselfe his spirit and his breath. 15. All flesh shall perish togea­ther, and man shall returne vnto dust.


Job doth not heere say, that the Soule doth either sleepe, or perish: but that by the departure of the Soule from the Bo­die, the Bodie dieth and is dissolued: yet not that the Body doth vtterly perish; for so it should repugne other plaine places that warrant the Resurrection.

11. Job. 14.12.

Man sleepeth, and riseth not; for hee shall not wake againe, nor be raised from his sleepe, till the Heauen be no more.

12. Act. 7.60.

And when he had thus spoken, he fell asleepe.

13. 1. Cor. 15.51.

We shall not all sleepe, but we shalbe all changed.

14. 1. Thes. 4.13.

I would not haue you ignoraunt con­cerning them which are asleepe. In these places, the dead are sayd to sleepe: Ergo, The Soule sleepeth.


In these and such like places, is vsed a figure of speach called, Synecdoche, trans­lating that which is proper vnto the Bo­die, [Page 143]to the whole man. For that this be­longeth to the Body, which is to be recal­led from death to life, as it were to awake from sleepe; many places of Scripture declare: As Iob. 7. Behold now I sleepe in the dust. For not the Soule, but the Body onely sleepeth in the dust or Graue.

15. Mat. 24.46.

Blessed is that Seruant, whom his Mai­ster, when he commeth, shall find so do­ing.

16. Mat. 25.34.

Come ye blessed of my Father, inhe­rite the Kingdome.

17. Mark. 13.13.

13 And yee shalbe hated of all men for my names sake. But whosoeuer shall en­dure vnto the ende, the same shall be saued.

27 And he shall then send his Angles, and gather to geather his elect, from the foure Windes.

18. Dan. 12.1.2.

1 And at that time, my people shalbe deliuered, euery one that shalbe found written in the Booke.

[Page 144]2 And many of them that sleepe in the dust of the earth, shall awake, some to euerlasting life, &c.

These places doe plainely shew, that Blessednesse, and the Kingdome promi­sed to the godly, shall then first fall vnto them at the last day: Ergo, Soules go not presently to heauen after death of the Body.


Those places doe not shew that: But they shew, that at the last day, when the Bodies shalbe raised vp againe, the Soules that alreadie are in Heauen, shall by be­ing ioyned to the bodyes againe, haue their felicitie and glory consummated, and made absolute. For so we pray; Thy Kingdome come: when yet now, God also raigneth in vs.

19. 1. Cor. 15.19.

If in this life onely we haue Hope, we are of all men most miserable. Of this place, they reason thus.

Hee that is blessed and happy before the Resurrection, is not without the Resurrection most miserable.

But wee without the Resurrection, [Page 145]should be of all men most miserable; Ergo, wee are not before the Resur­rection, blessed and happie.


To the Maior we answere: That he is not miserable without the Resurrection, who can not onely before it, but with­out it also, be blessed: But we are in such wise blessed before it, that notwithstan­ding without it following and ensuing, we can not enioy that former blessed­nesse: because, that God with so insepa­rable a knot hath ioyned togeather the beginning, & proceeding, and finishing or perfectiō of the Electes blessednesse; that none can haue the beginning, who must not come to the end and consum­mation thereof. Wherefore we must rise againe, or we must want also the Celesti­all blessednesse before the Resurrection. Rom. 8.11. If the spirit of him that raysed vp Iesus from the dead, dwell in you; hee that raysed vp Christ from the dead, shall also quicken your mortall Bodies.

20. Heb. 11.39.

These all through Fayth are dead, and receiued not the Promise. Therefore [Page 146]they receiued not their Countrie.


Although when they died, they had not found their Countrie; yet would it not follow of these wordes, that they are not at all, or haue no sense after death: for he that is not, or hath no sense, see­keth not his Countrie. Secondly, it is not there spoken of the life after death, which is ledde in the Celestiall countrie, spoken of in 2. Cor. 5. from vers. 1. vnto 10. but of this life; in which the faythfull walking their pilgrimage, sought for the Celestiall countrie, not finding their Countrie on Earth.

21. If presently after death, the godly were blessed; then iniurie was done vnto them, who were called againe into this mortall life.


It was not iniurions to them, seeing God is debtor to no man. God did raise them vp for the manifesting of his glo­rie. Now what can happen better, or more acceptable vnto the Godly, then to serue for the manifesting of his glory, [Page 147]either by life or by death? Therefore there was no iniurie done vnto them. Phil. 1. As alwayes, so now, Christ shall be magnified in my Body, whether it be by life or by death. &c.

22. The Soule hath neither sense nor acti­on, but by bodily instrumentes; and therefore being naked of those instru­mentes, it is also destitute of sense, moti­on, and operation.


Although we graunt the Antecedent that the Soules action and sense is by the instrumentes of the Body, while it is in the Body before this naturall or corporal death; yet notwithstanding that it is not so with the Soule after death, when it is freed from the Body, both learned Phi­losophers doe confesse, and the word of God testifieth. 1. Cor. 13.9. Wee know in part, and wee prophecie in part: but when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shalbe abolished.

¶ Thus (I hope) are sufficiently dis­prooned those wicked Aduersaries of [Page 148]this knowne and necessarie Trueth, The Soule is Immortall. And the Scriptures falsely by them alleadged, rightly and fully interpreted according to their true sense. By which reproofe of the Aduer­sarie, and disproofe of their cause, the trueth is more approoued, and strong­lier confirmed: For contraries by their contraries, are euer made more manifest. God giue the Trueth a speedie victorie in the heartes of his people, that Errours may be beaten downe, Sathan confoun­ded, and all our Enimies vanquished; that we may triumph with our Captaine that Lion of the Tribe of luda, our Lord Jesus Christ.

Athenagoras an Athenian and a Chri­stian Philosopher, flourished in the time of Marcus Aurelius, Antoninus, and Commodus, Emperours of Rome, within two hundred yeares after Christ: and in his Booke of the Resurrection, he reasoueth thus.

REasons touching thinges belong­ing to Mankind, are some drawne from Naturall order, some from the order of Gods Prouidence; such as are the reasons concerning the Resurrection of the Dead. If then wee can prooue, that God is able to know this, and to will it, we shall then euen in a manner, prooue the thing itselfe.

God before he made Man, knew the whole World, and all the partes thereof; and how to order, mixe, and compound the Elementes one with another, in the workemanshippe of euerie seuerall man. In like manner, when he dissolueth his worke, he vnderstandeth whither, and [Page 150]vnto what estate euery part and parcell thereof shall come, at the last. He there­fore knoweth from whence they are in like manner to be taken againe, and by what meanes they are to be brought a­gaine into the same forme they were be­fore, and how to compounde the same man againe. God his cunning & might is the same that was. And euen as he was also able to make that which hee knew from the beginning; so that which hee yet knoweth, is hee in like manner able to make new againe. God, seeing that he is Wisedome it selfe, did therefore make nothing in vaine. Hee did not in vaine make Man partaker of Wisedome: therefore to some certaine end: But not vnto this end, that thinges either aboue, or beneath vs, should vse Man to their owne behoofe: for those thinges stand no need of this vse, but rather were crea­ted themselues for our vse. God there­fore made Man for himselfe, and for the contemplation of Gods Goodnesse and Wisedome in his whole workemanship. God indeed made Man to the end hee might liue; but yet not to be vtterly ex­tinct [Page 151]like vnto Beastes: for vnto this li­uing creature, that heareth within it selfe, the similitude of God it author, by the Vnderstanding and Reason, hath God giuen Euerlasting life. For verily bruite Beastes were not created for themselues, but for the vse of others: which when it ceaseth, the preseruation or restitution of them is not any more necessarie. But Men were not so created, that they should serue for the vse of others; but that their life might so be continued, that they considering the Might and Wise­dome of their Author, and keeping his Lawes, might enioy Euerlasting life, to­geather with those with whom they lead their liues from the beginning. For God verily gaue vnto Man a nature that con­sisteth of a Soule immortall; and such a Body, as might vnite it selfe to such a Soule contemplating Heauenly thinges, and imitating God, by the keeping of his heauenly Lawes. This Acte therefore concerneth Eternitie. This end constitute in the inmost Act, declareth that Man shalbe euerlasting: to witte, in his na­ture, which conduceth vnto such like [Page 152]Act, by the coupling togeather of the Soule and of the Body. Which, if at any time it be dissolued, is to be restored by the Resurrection, hoped for of vs, not through a vaine Hope, but through Fayth, a most certaine sure commander; to wit, through Gods determinate pur­pose, creating such like nature of man to such like euerlasting end and office. God hath not appoynted to any other vse, but hath ordained him according to the inward act of his nature, to imitate God by the contemplation and obseruation of Heauenly thinges. Which end assu­redly, seeing it is the inmost in his na­ture, and diracted to euerlastingnes, doth declare, that Man shalbe euerlasting: Man I say, not the Soule onely; but the whole, compounded of Soule and Body: For God, to constitute this, brought to­geather the Soule and Body, as partes. The procreation of mans composition, is the nature and common life of the man compounded, gathered of the actions and passions as well of Body as Soule: The end therefore of the compound, is commune; that is to say, the imitating [Page 153]of God, and the enioying of him by the same. Gods Iustice also must draw vnto Iudgement both Soule & Body, to beare the reward or punishment, according to the action & passion, and common life. And the end can not be common and one, & iustly exhibited, vnlesse it should belong vnto one commonthing, and that to be men, who commonly had wrought it: And to this, is necessarie the Resur­rection of the dead.

God hath giuen to man, the iudgement of Vnderstanding and reason, that he may know those thinges that may be vnderstood concerning God; to witte, his Goodnesse, Wisedome, and Righte­ousnesse. Seeing then, that these are sem­piternall; it followeth, that man also is borne to thinges sempiternall, and shall be sempiternall: Man I say, compoun­ded; for vnto him is giuen the vse of Iudgement, the office of Virtues, and imitation of Heauenly thinges. And vn­lesse he should remaine compound, such­like vse & office, should not alway con­tinue. And it cannot be, that Man can be euerlasting, if he rise not againe from [Page 154]death. And vnlesse Man should be euer­lasting, rashly and in vaine should the Soule of the Body be ioyned to so many wantes and innumerable passions. In vaine should the Body be withdrawne by Reason, from following delightes & pleasures: vaine & rash should be the painefull vse of Virtues, and the Religi­ous obseruation of Iustice and Lawes. Those Creatures, that haue their perse­ueraunce euerlasting, doe differ therein, according to the diuersitie of their Na­tures: Angels haue it immoueably; the Heauenly bodyes moueably, but conti­nually: But Men, moueably & interrupt. The Soule truely hath a continuall per­seuerance; the Body a life left for a time: but so hath not a bruite Beast. For ac­cording to the Nature of the Body, wee dayly wayting, doe feare a dissolution: but according to the Nature of the Soule, vse of Virtues, and knowledge of the Creator, we looke for the Resurrection of the Body. Moreouer, we doe no lesse, for all this, call the life of the Body, Sem­piternall; for that, for a time, it lieth dead, through the separation of the Soule. As [Page 155]also, we call euery mans life, vntill his death, one and continuall; although it seeme by the course of times as it were, cut off; & through the changing of ages, to be in like manner changed.

That the Resurrection, is of Gods Prouidence and Iustice.

GOD, by the same Wisdome that he made and maketh all thinges, doth also dayly and hourely pro­uide for euery thing: And by that Iustice that he placed seuerall degrees in the World, by the same, doth he giue euery­where to euery thing, the things belong­ing to it. This prouidence prouideth for man, compounded of Soule and Body, nourishment & succession: And in like manner for Man compounded, he pro­uideth Iudgement, iustly to dispence the common reward or punishment, for the actions or passions common to Soule and Body. But such-like Iudgement is lesse fulfilled in this present life, where the Wicked for the most part, are pros­perous, and the Godly and Righteous, [Page 156]almost alwayes in aduersitie. Neither in the other life, can this Iudgement be fulfilled, distributing iustly thinges that are common, vnlesse there may follow the Resurrection of the Bodies. The Bo­die (verily) as it hath been the fellow of the Soule in all actions and passions, as well of Virtues as of Vices; and compa­nion in Holynesse and Martirdome: so ought it also to haue like lot in Paine or Rewarde; therefore the fame Body must arise againe. For vnlesse there remained rewardes of the life to come, Gods Pro­uidence and Iustice might be had in doubt; yea, and Man should be more miserable then bruite Beastes, who for Religion & Iustice sake, depriueth him­self of bodily delights, & hazardeth him­selfe in innumerable daungers: yea, Vir­tue her selfe, Religion, and Lawes, should be dotinges and detrimentes. Vnlesse the Bodies rife againe, Gods Iustice hath no place in the Soule and body. Not in the Body: because it should be vniust for the Soule to haue reward of those la­bours wherein the Body suffered a great part, and cannot it selfe haue part in that [Page 157]reward. Not in the Soule: because it should be vniust for the Soule alone to suffer punishment for so many grieuous sinnes, which of it selfe it had not com­mitted, if the Body had not been ioyned vnto it: for thorow the meanes of the Body, euen of necessitie, Pleasure and Passion, it abideth many sharpe showers or perturbations, and sinneth very often. Vices are not of the Soule only; but are in the whole Man, drawne from the wantes of the Body, and prouoking of the same. In like manner are Virtues in the Whole man; for if the Soule had ne­uer come into the Body, it should not haue needed Fortitude, Continencie, Suf­ferance, Counsell in matters of affaires, and the like Iustice. Virtues then are in­fused: from hence truly in the Soule, but from thence in the Body, because that all men doe confesse, that Virtues (at the leastwise those that are Morall) are cer­taine inuringes of our Soule and Body. Then it is not iust for the Soule alone, to haue either, the punishment of Vices, or reward of Virtues. The Lawes giuen from Heauen, are not giuen to the Soule [Page 158]onely, but to Man also: For there was no need to affray the Soule from Adul­try, Man slaughter, Theft, and such like thinges, which belong onely to the Bo­die & bodily vse. The whole man then, that is tyed to the Lawes, must iustly ei­ther receiue reward for keeping of the Lawes, or else punishment for omitting his duetie. Seeing that all thinges euery one, haue their proper endes, according to the diuersitie of their Natures, it must needes be, that this Nature indued with Reason, should also obtaine her proper end. But this end is not lacke of paine; for that is also common to other Bodies without life: Neither againe, is it a sen­suall delight; for that is common to bruit Beastes: but it is rather somewhat agree­able to the proper and chiefe nature, vir­tue, and action thereof; that is to say, reasonable and intellectuall; a precept wherein continually to rest, and in which estate, Virtue her selfe may enioy her re­wardes: Such like end, in this present life, we can neuer attaine; therefore in the life to come. But seeing there is an end of humaine life and actions, and that [Page 159]this life and actions, are common to the whole man; it must needes follow, that that end must needs belong to the whole man. By the which consequence, wee may surely know that there shalbe a Re­surrection: especially because that our Heauenly workeman hath made all thinges for himselfe: therefore hath he giuen vnto vs, from the beginning, Rea­son and Vnderstanding, able to regard Heauenly things, that we might contem­plate him, or behold him in his workes. From whence is concluded, that the con­templation of God, is the firme and ab­solute end of Man.

These thinges haue we briefly spo­ken of the Resurrection, not purposing hereby eloquently to set foorth al things that may hereof be spoken: but euen a few, such as are most fit for the time, which the hearers may very easily learne.


A Booke of Xenocrates, a Philo­sopher of Plato his sect, concerning Death.

The speakers are, Socrates, Clinias, and Axiochus.

VVHen I went vnto Cynosarges, and was now come to Ilissum, I heard ones voyce calling me by names; And turning my selfe, I saw Clinias, the sonne of Axiochus, running toward the Well Calliroe; and togeather with him, Damon the Musition, and Carmides the sonne of Glancus, of whom that same ex­cellent cunning Musition, was my very deare and especiall friend: Therefore I thought good to goe backe againe and meete them, that we might more leasure­ly and easily goe togeather: But Clinias weeping, said. O Socrates, the present time requireth, that wee should shew foorth that Wisedome which you haue alwayes spoken of to vs: for my Father is vexed with a sodaine and intollerable Disease; and seemeth to be euen at deaths [Page 161]doore, and to take it very vnpatiently: although in times past, hee was wont to mocke those that feared death, as though they were afraid at the countenaunce of an imagined Spirit: Come (I pray you) and blame him, as you were wont, that he may easily beare necessitie: Goe there­fore with vs, and togeather with others, doe a godly worke.


You haue made me very desirous, O Clinias! to do what I can, to fulfill your request, especially seeing the worke is holy, which you craue to be done; let vs therefore make hast: for if the matter be so, it is time to make hast.


So soone as he shall see you, O So­crates, he shall begin to recouer: for it hath often hapned, that he in some sort repented.


Then we went vnto him by the Walles, thorow the Peritoman Fieldes; for he dwelt night the Gates towardes the Amazones Pillar: And we found him sound of limme, and strong of body; but weake in minde, and greatly standing need of comfort, and often times staying to take breath, and fetching sighes and [Page 162]grones, with many teares, and clapping of his handes. Which when I saw; What now, Axiochus (said I) Where is now that your old & boasted Constancie? Where are the perpetuall prayses of Virtues? Where is your wonderfull magnitude and boldnesse of Minde? For euen as an ill or sluggish Wrastler may in the wrast­ling Scoole appeare couragious till he come to try all; so haue you fainted and yeelded in this conflict. Why, consider you not the order and course of Nature, seeing you are so worthy a man, and so well learned: and if no other thing, yet that you are an Athenian? Remember you not that vulgar and old worne Sentence, wherein it is sayd, That this life is a cer­taine Pilgrimage; & that we ought to be­haue our selues rightly, & with an equal minde, as wanderers in a strange Coun­trie, and so come to that thing which is due and necessarie; not with a weake and feeble, but with a ioyfull and merrie minde. But this tender softnesse, is more meete for Infancie, then for riper age.


These thinges, O Socrates, seeme rightly spoken: But I know not how [Page 163]thorow imminent dangers, these same most comfortable wordes of patient a­biding, doe sliely vanish away, and are neglected: yea, there ariseth a certaine repugnant extreame feare, which com­passeth my minde on euery side. Oh alas, I shalbe depriude of this light, & of these good thinges; I shall lie in darknesse: Hauing lost my taste and sight, I shall rot in the earth, and be turned to Wormes and Dust.


Thou (ô Axiochus) doest ioyne Sense with priuation of Sense, without the diligent examination of Reason, and art contrary to thy selfe both in sayings and doinges. Neither do you marke that you do both togeather complaine of the losse of your Senses, and doe sorrow for rottennesse and losse of good thinges; as though you being about to passe ouer into another life, should rather flit into the priuation of euery Sense: Priuation, I say, and that such a one, as went before the time that you were borne. For as in the Common-weale of Draco and Calist­henes, no euill hath touched you; for you were one that was not compassed with [Page 164]euill: so after death, nothing shall ouer­thwart you; for you shall not be he, that may be inuironed with euill. Driue away therefore from you, all such like triflings, and consider thus much, that that being dissolued which was compounded, and the Soule going vnto her owne place, this Body that remayneth, being earthly, and without reason, can by no meanes be Man: for we are a Soule, an Immortall liuing thing shut vp in a Mortall habita­cle, which Nature made vs as a shadow wherein to abide euill. Whereunto those thinges that are sweete, are Adulterous, filthy, naught, vaine, fading, and mixed, with many and sundry miseries, griefes, troubles, & vexations. But those things that are grieuous vnto it, are of their owne nature good, whole, sound, and voyd of sweetnesse: Vnto it doe happen hot Tumors and Swellings, superfluitie of Humours, decay of Senses, and cor­ruption of the Bowels: Wherewith the Soule must needes be very much grieued and payned, being diffused and spread abroad through all the pores and passa­ges, to bind and tie all thinges togeather. [Page 165]Whereby it commeth to passe, that it now desireth the life Celestiall, and niest to it of nature, and thirsteth thereafter, and after the Quire supernall. For the loosing or departing out of this life, is a passage from an euill thing, vnto a good.


Seeing (Socrates) that you doe iudge this life to be euill, why doe you tarry or abide in it; especially seeing you doe most of all meditate on these thinges, and are ateacher of others, and doest excell all the rest in minde & God­ly virtues?


Axiochus, you are no sufficient witnesse for me, but do thinke & esteeme as doe the people of Athens. But I would very gladly, and wish in my heart, to haue the knowledge of these common thinges, and not to know thinges super­fluous and vaine. Those workes which we spake of, are the declamations of Pro­dicus the Wise-man, some bought for sixe pence, some two groates, and some foure; for verily he teacheth nothing of free cost; and hath alwayes in his mouth that saying of Epicharmus, Manus manum lauat; dans aliquid aliquid accipe: i. The [Page 166]one hand washeth the other: giue some thing, and take some thing: Meaning, that one Good turne asketh another. On the former dayes, when in the house of Callias the sonne of Hippomous, he declaymed, he brought in so many thinges against life, that it wanted but a litle, but I euen then, ended my life: and from that time for­ward (ô Axiochus) my Minde doth die continually.


What then are those things that he there sayd? I will rehearse them all, so farre foorth as my memorie will serue mee: and thus he sayd.

What part of life is not full of euilles? Doth not the Infant yet scarcely borne, foorth-with waile and weepe; and be­ginneth it life with sorrow; neither is there any griefe wanting, but cryeth and weepeth either for Parentes, or want of necessaries, or for cold, or for heat, or for hurtes? He cannot yet in words tell what he ayleth: he weepeth, and cryeth with voyce; onely voyce hath he without wordes, as a signe of griefe which he en­dureth. Now when he hath fulfilled the seauenth yeare of his age, he is troubled [Page 167]and turmoylad with very many labours; for then come vp Schoolemaisters and Teachers, Alphabetaries and Gramari­ans, with such others, and doe beare rule ouer him none otherwise then a Tyrant. Then when he is some-what more gro­wen, Censores of Arithmeticke, Dis­tributors of Geometrie, and innumera­ble Maisters besides these, doe beare rule ouer him. And whē he is become a strip­ling, then doth Feare circumuent him: the Vniuersitie, Prentiship, Sceptres, and the immoderate flowing and rage of euils doe dispossesse him of the pleasures wherein his heart delighteth. All the time and course of his youth, he is kept in, & holden vnder by the Censorers of Manners, and abideth the sentence of most seuere and vncorrupted Iudges. And when he is freed or loosed from their sentence, then Care, Consultations, & aduisements, come creeping vpō him while he reasoneth & discourseth within himselfe, what path and course of life is best for him to follow: so that by the comparison of the laboures and troubles that are to come, those that are past, doe [Page 168]seeme both light, and onely to be feared of Infantes: For then arise expeditions of Warre, and Woundes, and often Skir­miges, Conflictes, and Battailes. At the length, old wrinckled crooking Age creepeth vpon him; vpon the which, there altogeather floweth euery foule, fil­thie, and vncureable euill of Nature; as a Banker looketh for aduantage, Nature requireth her Pledges, of this man, Sight; of that man, Hearing; of an other, them both: which if any doe restore, then doth he dissolue, waxe weake, lame, may med, and impotent. Many liue euen to the vt­most boundes of Old age; but then they are in minde, twise Children, fond, & de­crepite: Wherefore, God in prouiding for Mans matters, doth in a short time, call againe vnto himselfe, those whom he loueth. Therefore Agamedes and Tri­phonius, when they went vnto the Tem­ple of the God Apollo, and had prayed for that thing which is the best of all o­ther, they straight way fell so fast asleepe, that they neuer wakened after. The same also happened vnto the Priestes of luno in the Citie Argos, when their Mother [Page 170]had prayed for some good gift to be gi­uen to her Sonnes.

It should be prolixious and tedious to rehearse the sentences of Poets, who in diuine & heauenly Poesies, doe deplore the Calamities of humaine life. I will re­hearse one notable and famous Poet, that speaketh to this purpose, in these wordes. The Gods haue decreed, that miserable mortall men should liue in perpetuall sorrow: Neither is there any thing vpon the earth, more mise­rable, then man. Therefore (they say) that Amphirarus was chosen of Iupiter and Apollo, with a wonderfull great affect; and yet notwithstanding he at­tained not to the age of an Old man. And what dost thou thinke of him, who biddeth him that is new borne, to be­waile the miserie of his owne life? But I will now leaue off, least I should seeme to stray and wander wider and farther, then my purpose was. Who is there (I pray you) that doth not greatly com­plaine of that Studie, Art, Science, Trade, and Course of life, which himselfe hath chosen? Handicrafts-men, Hyrelinges, [Page 171]and such, let vs view and consider them a litle, that sit vp labouring and toyling night by night, and doe scarcely get thinges necessarie for their liuing. More­ouer, day and night doe they, their wiues and children, liue full of complaintes, and fill all the house with weeping & teares. What shall I say of Mariners, how many dangers are they hourely in? Rightly (in sooth) did Bias count Marriners in the number neither of those that are dead, nor of those that are aliue: For they being earthly men, are in a doubt­ful-wise partakers of either estate. But Husbandry is sweete: let it be so; but hath it not alwayes found occasion of Sorrow? For in trueth, the Husbandman sometime accuseth, findeth fault with, and bewayleth Drought, sometime showers and Raine, sometime Heate, ex­ustions and parching burning Sunne, sometimes extreamitie of Cold, and such vnseasonable weather: sometime Wormes, Caterpillers, Grashoppers, and such like deuowrers. What; Is not the Common-wealth in safetie and quiet? Truely it is honourable: But with how [Page 172]many euilles and sorrowes is it turmoy­led? Truely it hath a certaine moouing, soft pleasant swelling, deceiueable and troublous ioy, euen like to swelling and boyling Cholar: but a losse sorrowfull and worse then a thousand deathes. For who can be happy, when there is no re­medie, but he must needes liue at the peoples becke? And he is mocked and hissed at, as though he were a Play or a Fable of the people, berated, flouted, fi­ned miserable and wretched.


Where (ô ciuill Axiochus) dyed Melchindes? Where Thomistocles? Where Ephialtes? Where all the other Captaines? These thinges verily I neuer thirsted af­ter. Neither doth it seeme to be an hono­rable thing, to execute the Magistrates duetie amongst the madde multitude. But those waitelayers that about Thera­menes and Calixenus did the day after, bring vnder the Iudges or Rulers, con­demned the men vndiscreetly to death, whom you Axiouchus togeather with Triptolamus did repugne in three thou­sand speaches vnto the people.


You say true, ô Socrates; And [Page 173]therefore from that same time, euen vntill this day, I haue euer eschewed the Tri­bunalshippe. Neither doth any thing seeme more difficile and hard, then the gouernement of the Common-weale. This is very plaine and well knowne to them, who themselues haue to doe in ci­uill matters. But you doe so speake of these thinges, as one that a farre off, did see them out of a Glasse, or from the top of a Rocke, or the prospect of a faire Tower. But my selfe doe right well know them, seeing I was my selfe con­uersant in the matter. For verily the com­mon sort (O Socratus my friende,) is in­gratefull, full of mockes and scornes, vaine, soone angried, cruel, enuious, rude, heaped full of troubles and trifles: and whoseuer doth familiarly acquaint himselfe with them, & conuerse amongst them, doth at the length, become farre more miserable then they be themselues.


Seeing then (O Axiochus) you doe iudge, that this Discipline is aboue all other, most to be eschewed; What doe you thinke of others? Are not they also to be fledde from? I haue further­more [Page 174]more heard Prodicus, when once he said, that Death doth not belong neither to the dead, nor to those that are aliue.


Which way (O Socrates,) or in what manner?


Because Death is not about the liuing: and the dead are not or haue no beeing: Wherefore, neither is Death a­bout you Axiochus; because you are not yet dead: neither if you depart this life, shall Death be about you; because you shall not bee. Therefore griefe should be vaine, if Axiochus doe bewaile that, which is not about Axiochus, neither shalbe hereafter: For you doe in like manner, as if you were afraide of Scylla and Centaurus, when as these Monsters are neither now about you, neither shall be at any time hereafter. For that which is horrible and to be feared, happeneth to those which are: But to those which are not, nothing is to be feared.


You gather these thinges, out of that light & vaine babling, which is now common all abroad amongst the vulgar sort: For from amongst them, commeth this copie of vaine wordes, composed [Page 175]for young mens sakes. But I, who am de­priued of the good thinges of this life, doe still mourne; although you haue be­fore in your Discourse brought very strong reasons: For my sorrowing head, doth not vnderstand the finenesse of your wordes, neither discerne the co­lours of your speach. Although it heare the pompe and shining of speach, yet it neglecteth, and is farte away from the trueth: neither can it abide those rehear­sed captious Sophismes; it onely atten­deth on those thinges which can knocke vpon, and pearce the Minde and Soule.


Without reason (Axiochus,) doe you ioyne togeather the sense of euill thinges, and the priuation of good thinges: And this lyeth closely hidden, that he indeed is dead who is depriued of good thinges, the passion of euill thinges afflicteth the contraries. But hee that is not, can neither marke or regard the orbitie or priuation. By what meanes therefore where there is wanting the no­tice of the things afflicting, can there be affliction? For vnlesse in the beginning you should put a certaine senses by Iu­stice, [Page 176]you should be afray de of Death. But now you peruert and fore turmoyle your selfe, fearing least you should loose your Soule. But you doe condemne your Soule to amission, that it shalbe lost, and not had againe; you feare least Sense should be taken from you; and doest thinke that Sense existing, cannot be comprehended of that Sense, whereas there are many, and those notable Ser­mons of the Immortalitie of the Soule. For neither had Mortall nature risen to so great excellencie, that it should con­temne the violence of outragious Beasts, sayle and passe ouer the Sea, build Cities, prescribe order to Common-weales, looke vp into Heauen, measure the cir­cuit of the Starres, marke the progresse of the Sunne and Moone, and their rysings and settinges, defectes moreouer, and swift restitutions Meridian, and double conuersions; the seauen Starres, & Win­ter in like manner, and Sommer; the flawes of Winde, and the force of Raine and Stormie weather, the tempostions whurring Whorlewinde, and flashing of the Lightning; and to conclude, how [Page 177]the passions of the world should so won­derfully stande in eternitie, vnlesse there were in the Minde, some Diuine spirit, by which it should get the intelligence of so great thinges. Wherefore, ô my deare Axiochus, you doe not flit vnto Death, but vnto Immortalitie it selfe. Neither shall good thinges be taken a­way from: but you shall enioy the sound possession of good thinges. Neither shall you and more receiue and enioy Plea­sure mixt with a mortall Body: but shall quite be set free, and vtterly voyde of euery sorrow: Thither (I say) you shall goe free from this Prison; where you shall haue all thinges quiet, and remoo­ued from sorrowfull Old age: Where the exultation and reioycing of the inhabi­ters, is an holy ioy, and their life hath no conuersing with euilles; but is quiet, and nourished with Peace; viewing the na­ture of thinges, and contemplating the hidden secrets of Philosophie; not veri­ly vnto the grace of the multitude, or Theatre; but to the obiect of perspicu­ous trueth.


Your Oration hath drawne my [Page 178]Minde, and mooued mee to affect the contrarie to that it did before. I am now quite changed: for I now doe not feare Death, but doe wish it. But as it is the manner of Rethoricians, I also aboun­ding, will expresse some thing. For now (ô Socrates,) I am caried from hence vp on high, and doe run thorow the Diuine circuite and heauenly Throne. And be­ing deliuered out of this Weakenesse, I am renewed so, that I am become alto­geather new, nothing that I was before.


I will also shew and declare vnto you (if it please you,) what Gobrias the Magian did teach mee. For (sayd hee) at that time when as Xerxes passed into Greece with an Armie, his Grandfather (Gobrias by name,) was sent into Delos, to keepe the Ile; werein, there were ex­tant two Gods; where he sayd: That of certaine Brasen Tables, which Opis and Hecaergos brought out of the North partes, that he learned, that in the soluti­on of the Body, the Soule doth flit into a hidden place vnder the Earth, wherein is the Kingdome of Juno, not a straiter Haule of Iupiter; because the Earth must [Page 179]holde the middle of the World; & that must be the sphericall heauen, whose one Hemisphere, the Gods and Saintes doe enioy: The other, the Inferiours, partly Breathren of the heauenly Saintes, partly the children of the Brethren: But the pla­ces without, are the Prouinces of Pluto; which are bound and enuironed with Walles, Rayles, Barres, and Chaynes of Iron. First doth the Riuer Acheron part these places insunder; and then the Ri­uer Cocytus doth separate them: which when silly Soules haue passed ouer, they must needes be brought before the vp­right Iudges, Minos and Radamanthus; to wit, into that Region which is called, Ʋeritatis Campus [...]. The Field of Trueth: Where they sitte in Iudgement, exami­ning the life of euery one that commeth vnto them. Heere no man can boulster or defend himselfe with lyes. Whosoeuer then hath been ledde heere in this life by the good Spirit, doe passe ouer into the place of the Godly; where the Spring lasteth euer, and aboundeth with Fruites of euery kind, and floweth with Springs of most cleare and shining Waters, and [Page 180]Meadowes moreouer very pleasant, and bedecked with faire florishing Flowers of sundry colours, and sweete smelling sauours: Neither is there wanting the fellowship of Philosophers, nor Theatre of Poets. There are the companie of Singing-men and Quiristers: There is Musicke, Singinges, and sweete Con­centes, Pleasant Bankets, and Holy and often Meetinges, inuiolable ioy of Drin­kers, and sweete liuing togeather. There is no excesse of Heate or cold; but the nature of the Ayre is holesome, tempe­red with light beames of the Sunne. Here are the Seates of purged Soules, where they celebrate the Diuine mysteries. What then hindreth, but that there may be giuen vnto you, first honour and re­ward, seeing you deriue your originall from God? Contrarily, those that haue defyled their liues with wickednesse, are of the Hollish furies, sodainely snatched through Hell into Chaos and Herebus, the deepest Pit of all: where lyeth the Pro­uince of the Wicked, and the vaine la­bours of the Daughters of Danaeus; who in vaine doe labour to fill the Tunne [Page 182]with water, out of whose sides filled full of holes, the water runneth so fast, as they put it in; where is the thirst of Tantulus, the bowels of Titius, the perpetuall row­ling Stone of Sisyphus: Whereas raging wild Beastes, byting Wormes, and sting­ing Serpentrs doe inseparably fould a­bout the Bodyes: Where inextinguible Firebrandes that can neuer be put out, doe burne vp their flesh: Where wicked men are punished with all kind of tor­mentes, and are for euer-more vexed with perpetuall paine. These thinges, I heard of Gobrias. But you, O Axiochus, shall iudge of these thinges: for I being constrayned by reason, doe plainely and firmely know this onely, that euery Soule remayneth Immortall; and that that which goeth pure from these pla­ces, doe liue without sorrowfulnesse. Wherefore, O Axiochus, whether you goe vpward or downeward, it can none otherwise be, but you must needes be blessed, if so be you doe liue holily and godlily.


I am ashamed, ô my deare friend Socrates, and it abasheth mee to speake [Page 183]any further. The feare of Death is so farre from mee now, that I now doe most earnestly desire to die. Your former speach, as though it were a Celestiall and Heauenly Oracle, hath so perswaded mee. Now therefore, I doe despise this life, seeing that I am about to goe into a better, & more desired place: Wherefore these thinges that are thus spoken, I will quietly marke, ponder, and meditate by my selfe. And you, ô Socrates, I pray you come againe vnto me at afternoone.


I will doe as you say: But I will now returne againe vnto Cynosarges, to walke there fore my recreation, from whence I was brought hither vnto you.

Heere endeth Xenocrates Booke concerning Death.

Mecaenas good, I [...]raue of thee, my Patron for to bee;
Gainst carping Zoilus cankred corps, and censures bad of mee.

Imprinted at London by W. White, for R. Bolton and W. White. 1611.

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