• Noune,
  • Pronoune.
  • Verbe,
  • Participle,
  • Aduerbe,
  • Coniunction,
  • Preposition,
  • Interiection,

altogether by the eares. Together with the lamentable burning of a Petty Schoole.

LONDON, Printed by Robert Raworth, for Thomas Spencer. 1635.

THE TRANSLATOR, To all Tyro's, or first admitted into the Gram­mar Squadron.

COme hopefull young ones, and with fea [...]elesse fight,
View the blyth turmoyle, of a Grammer Fight.
It was a Romane field; and higher straine:
But now brought low, fought on an English plain:
That every tender head, and Infant eye,
May iudge and see, who gets the Victorie.
And though the parts of speach in conflict are,
Through wild combustion of Gramma [...]ick Warre;
Yet one thing Iolly Readers grant, that wee
Like Subst [...]ntiues and Adictiues agree.

The Preface vpon the Histo­ricall discourse of the Gram­mar Warre.

THe first and auncient Philosophers that wrote their Poesies couertly hidden vnder subtill and wylie matter, did constitute Pallas the daughter of Iupiter, to bee goddesse of Wisedome, called Mi [...]arua, and of Warre, called Enyo or Bel­lona. Giuing hereby to vnderstand, that of one and the same beginning, in one time altogether and in one substance are two principall things insepa­rately ioyned together: which two properties are so knit, that the one without the other is of no force, and the other without his fellow, of small or no account: Yea, they are the principles where­by men attaine to the height of Honour, aduancing meane men to Honour in their life-time, and im­mortall fame after death. They are Learning and Martiall discipline. Of these two together Noble Greece made separation in her two metropolitanes; when the Citie of Athens flourished in learning, and the Citie of Sparta or Lacedemonia glorious in feates of Armes. The noble fame of the Romanes grew by the one, and by the other they did alwayes defend them, so that they did successiuely greatly set store by them. The worthie, valiant, and mighty Elo­quent Caesar was decored with them both, and by [Page] them did eternise his renowne. These two which did so much ennoble Greece, so greatly honour the Romanes, and eternise the fame of the great Caesar, are in this present small volume comprised vnder an angry Argument, and Historicall narration of the Grammar Warre: Lucian an eloquent Greeke Au­thour made the first d [...]aughts in the battell of the Alphabet letters: But this Authour hath waded further, euen vnto Verbes and Nounes, being prin­cipall heads of Oration, and to the adherents of speach, as well to the congruate word, (being the opener and the declaratiue of the sense) as other­wise, wherein resteth all Arte and Knowledge, wherein also all the wisedome of man is comprised: shaping and forming these two heads, and the aux­iliary ayding parties with such fained personages and pretie properties, so apt and to them so quicke in qualitie, that hee giueth life, body, weapon and armour to dead words, yea, and sounding voyce, to substances inanimate and without soule: so that the Reader in the lecture of this (though fained) narration and dreadfull discouerie, shall deeme them no mo [...] to bee vocall wordes, but by a strong iudgement shall thin [...]e them dapperlie disguised, being transformed into liuely persons, going, spea­king, and sharply reasoning with continuall ter­rours of martiall expedition and exploits, with al­legoricall conflicts of bloody battell, not onely in hostile contention abroad, but also in ciuill, yea, and intestine Warres at home: so that in the dis­couerie hereof he is nothing obliuious of any thing that appertaineth to the deduction and safe gui­ding of so great affaires, euen from the first causes [...]nd intermixed medlies of their aduentures, vnto [Page] the last end of their attemptes and endeauours, with all their circumstances, all their tumults and vproares, with their doubtfulnesse of victory a­mong many martialists, how of bloody battell di­uers losses and dangers doe follow, and how in the end finall peace ensueth. All which matters bee so properlie penned, and so cunningly compact in this tragedie, that the warres of the Poloponenses, and the ciuill warres of the Affricanes in Thucide, in Salust, and Lucan, are peradueuture more high and diffusedly described: But with more a [...]te, or more compendiously, I am sure they are not. Heere are placed the mighty, huge, and fearefull factes of armes vnder the figure of so small a thing as of the congruitie or discordance of words in Oration, ioy­ning letters with weapons, teaching the art Mili­tarie with the art Litterarie, so well, and so exact­ly, that the Reader (beside the delight and plea­sure that hee shall haue in the reading of so plea­sant an Allegorie) shall receiue further benefit: For herein is represented in one conceit, two vn­derstandings knit together, the one proper and naturall, the other tropique and figured. Beside this, hee shall comprehend in this same very sub­stance, and by the only labour of one reading, those two so worthy things aboue mentioned, that doe eternise the fame of their fellowes, that is lo­uers of learning, and prudent Martiallistes. The science litterarie, and militarie, that is to say, the art of G [...]amm [...], yea, the Grand mother of all arts and sciences, and the art militarie (of deduced Warres, vnder pleasant Metaphoricall figure [...], transported and turned, bereauin, the mind of the literall vnderstanding of small things Verball, to [Page] the consideration of greater, more royall & reall) doth manifestly shew by example the ambitious mouings, the imperious desire of Princes to haue gouernment, the tumults and partiallities of peo­ples, the profitable and peruerse counsell of sundry Counsellers, the seemely sentences, and modest messages of the artificiall erands on both Partees, their enterprised attempts, and martiall orders, the summonning of Souldiers, the charts of defi­ance, the denouncing of Heraldes, the high and stātely stomackes of the aduerse parties to ioyne battell, the seeking of aliance in extremitie, the compact confederated of countrey-men, the flights, treasons, espies, ambushments, their suddaine en­traps and skirmishes, the ordinances of armes, the placing of the campe, the pitching of the arrayes, the noble cheering of the Captaines to their Soul­diers, the taking of Townes, the marching of their men, the cruell conflicts, and worthy feates of armes on all sides, the lammentable losse of Cap­taines, the cruell combate of the fighters, the great slaughters on both Partees, the fearefull flying on all sides, the doubtfull meetings of many, the in­differency of their victory, and the finall pernitious accidents that ensue through the warres to both sides, the robbing, the reauing, the rapine and dis­order that is then in vre, the depopulating of in­habitate countreys, the desolate destruction that diuers are damnified by: the commodities and ad­uantages that one realme enioyeth through the detriment of another: and contrarily, the infinite vtillities that ensue through peace and con [...]ord, to all realmes and Republikes. It was first written in Latine, but now translated, whereby the simple and [Page] vnlearned English readers, as well as the learned Latinists, might enioy part of the pleasure that is had in the reaping of this so delectable discourse of the figured warre, and blood-lesse battell, without mortall shot, sweate, or noyse of Canon. For the vtilitie of our English Children, but especially be­ginning to studie the Latine tongue, who reading this pleasant fight in their owne tongue, might learne by way of mirth and m [...]rrie pastime, the principall points of the Grammar. Not to hold thee longer in that to which all this but introduceth; If the Booke please thee, it will bee obuious in Pauls Church-vard and else where; the Stati­oners may haue thy money, but thou shalt haue the profit, an I in the int [...]im [...]est,

Thine I. S.


THere is none so simple (as I thinke,) that doubteth the soyle of Grammar to bee the fayrest and hap­piest of all the renowned parts and Prouinces of the World, as well for the pleasantnesse of the place wherein it is situate, being in good and wholsesome ayre, and aboun­dant in all fruits and other good things, without which this mortall life cannot easily be sustained: As also for that shee hath alwayes, and euer, beene the Nurse and bringer vp of all people of renowne. For euen as in this age, euen so long time heretofore, the custome and manner was [Page] in this land and countrie (except among the rude & barbarous Nations) where any were espied of prompt and ready nature, or hopefully inclined, they were sent thi­ther to bee taught and instructed, where­by they might attayne the most holy and learned Sciences: For by this onely way and passage is the entry and accesse to the highest Countries, and Noble houses of Dialectica, that is Logike, Philosophie, that is learned Wisedome, and Theologie, that is the most high and excellent know­ledge in Diuinitie. Insomuch that vnlesse they enter thorow the Prouince of Gram­mar, no soule were able to attaine to the worthy secrets of the other Prouinces. And albeit that the same regions abound in all pleasure, yet notwithstanding they are so enuironed about with high Moun­taines, and such sharpe Rocks, right difi­cult and hard to bee got vp vpon, that hardly without a good-guide, any may euer attaine to the plaine and pleasant path of them. And therfore because man­kind should not bee restrained from so necessary a benefit, the good and lau­dable custome euer was, and yet resteth to the Kings of the said land, to send abroad [Page] through euery part of the vniuersal world, some of their expert Knights and worthy Captaines of old bands properly called Pcdagoges, Schoole-masters, that they might ayde others, and surely conduct them of tender age to the Princely palla­ces of the sayd Kings, (for the mightie, and such as now draw toward age, hardly suffer to bee taught of any,) to the end that the youth there being taught in the Sciences of the Greeke and Latine tongue, might the easier, and more lightly ascend and goe ouer the foresaid countries. There haue all learned Greekes and Latins made their apprentishippe, who by their wor­thy writings, or by the acte of others, are immortallized with renowned fame. Be­ing there thus well taught and learned, they haue afterward so florishingly liued through the high praise of their illustrious and splendant actes, that liuing, they were vnto all men in their time setters forth of vertuous examples, and after they were dead (yet as aliue) shewed to those that suruiued them, as it were by pointing with the finger, the right path and ready way to attaine honourable life, and im­mortall fame. But although that this land [Page] of Grammar bee none other but indiui­sible and without partition, yet neuerthe­lesse there are two mighty Kings, that there raigne and gouerne, that is to say, the Verbe and the Noune. The Verbe hath to name Amo, and the Noune Poeta, who a very long time raigned together in such concord and quietnesse, that to forme Oration perfect (wherein the beautie of them both, the highest place of the one, and the chiefest seate of the other depen­deth) no dissention, displeasure or con­tention was euer heard betweene them: For in all their territorie there grew no­thing more esteemed, more worthie, or more sound, then Oration, which being beautified with the most colours of sun­dry flowers, and decked with the most faire and fine figures, and most sweete and perfumed Buds of set Roses, was of such singular comlinesse and authoritie, that shee not onely drew vnto her m [...]nkind, (when the same is right and aptly appli­ed) but may also withdraw any of the Gods which way shee will winde them. By reason whereof Euripides saith▪

That which force could not gaine,
That faire speech did soone attaine.

[Page] Pyrrhus also vsed sometime to say that Cyneas did win more Townes with his tongue and comelie speech, then hee with his Warres. These two Kings then being in such concord, as all the affaires of Gram­mar were in good appearance and better estate, it happened that for a small thing, dissention sprang betweene them, where­by vpon a very sudaine, all was bewrap­ped in vprore and martiall displeasures: For what harme is that, that Wine and insaeiate eating cause not? Thus that so great amitie and vnion betweene these two Princes was so ouerthrowne at one onely banquet, wherein they were both drunken; and ebrietie set them in so great enmities one against another, that either of them, pricked forward with ambitious desire of regiment (as wild Bulls stung of gadde flies) almost vtterly ouerturned their owne realmes, and the noble Em­pire of Grammar.

But now let vs shew how their debate happened, to the end that euery one may know, that there is no band or knot of amity so strong that desire of superiority may not breake, euery man louing rather to bee serued, then to serue other.

[Page] As these two Kings on a time were at a banquet, in the midest of the hot Sum­mer, neere to a pleasant and cleere spring, hauing the water bancke on the one side, and the other side most pleasant, and sin­gulatly shaddowed with the branches of greene Willowes, and high Plane trees, after they had sufficiently banquetted, be­ing warmed with Wine, and lightened with drinking, a question arose betweene them, whether of them two were greatest in authoritie, and of most importance to performe Oration? Then the Verbe min­ding to hold the worthiest place, was sharply withstood of the Noune, affir­ming, that without him, Oration and speach might not bee, and that through him altogether, the same is vnderstood and of better grace: And what dost thou (said hee) without mee in Oration? If I withhould me a part neuer so little, the hearers vnderstand thee no more then one were dumbe and spake not. Gather a while a small part of speach without mee, and doe that the hearers may vnderstand that which thou speakest. Doubtlesse, if I bee not there for an Interpreter, none may so much as guesse the least thing of [Page] thy meaning. Moreouer thou shouldest note, that in so much as I am elder then thou, so much more am I approoued wor­thiest. Who is hee that knoweth not the Noune, before the Verbe? Or who is hee that is ignorant, how the beginning of the Noune is more ancient then the Verbe? It is infallible, that God made all things, who if hee made all, then hee made also the Verbe. Now God is a Noune and not a Verbe, wherefore now of consequence, by the Noune were all things made, yea, Oration it selfe was made of God, and so of the Noune. As for thee, O thou Verbe (that art so proud) thou hast thy calling of mee: Hast thou neuer read, that a­mong the Sonnes of Women, is not a greater then Iohn Baptist? This is Gods sentence, it is not lawfull to goe against it. Wherfore if none be greater then Iohn, and Iohn being a Noune; it is apparent to bee seene, that there is not, neither may any thing else bee greater then the Noune. I could alledge to this matter sixe hun­dred places, whereby it is proued clearer then the day, that as in worthinesse and antiquitie, euen so in authoritie and chiefe place the Noune is preferred before the [Page] Verbe. All which things I set and leaue apart, to the end that men thinke me not to proceede of the Verbe, more through much babling, then of iust cause. O Poeta (answered the Verbe) I maruailed before now, why that Diuine Plato had expulsed thee out of his common Weale: But now knowing how shamelesse and light thou art so to intermixe the holy Scripture a­mong thy follies: I know well that the learned and wise Plato iudged rightly of thee. For had not hee exiled thee with many other, forth of the Republike that hee ordained, thou haddest by thy false coremonies, fearfull Gods, and other things, corrupted the ciuill manners of his citizens. For what pernitious thing durst not thy great pride and arrogancie, enterprize and attempte? Yea seeing that by the deuised deceipts, and false writhed witnesses wrested by force from holy Scripture, thou labourest to cast me down from the dignitie of the chiefest place, which I haue long time in this land pos­sessed. But certainely, for that it shall not seeme to thee, that thou alone art lear­ned, I will easily alledge more mani­fest and plaine testimonies of the same [Page] holy Scripture, that maintaine mine au­thoritie. I will set here foremost the very beginning of that Euangelicall Scripture, where it is thus said: In the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and God was the word. Open thine eares now, wherefore hidest thou thy face so? God (said hee) was the Word, and moreouer, all things are made by him: And without him nothing was made. It is not therefore the Noune that made all things, but the Verbe. Againe, God was a Verbe, and not a Noune. Moreouer, by the Word the Heauens were made firme and sure, and all their powers.

What wilt thou now say? There is no meane to defend thee by holy allegati­ons, but thou mayst perceiue them to make for mee, and not for thee. But let vs bend to those points that aptliest tend to our cause: Tell mee I pray thee, whence commeth to thee this folly and madnes? And whence hast thou so sudainely ta­ken such stomacke and hart of grace, that thou darest vsurpe vpon thee the worthiest place in Oration▪ Knowest thou not that all comelinesse, beautie and sweetnesse commeth of mee alone? And [Page] that the Noune is alwayes ruled of the Verbe, and not that the Verbe is ruled of the Noune. The comely featnesse of the Verbe is that, that beautifieth and enrich­eth Oration: And if I gouerne thee not therein, thou shalt bee halfe handed, and of no force. Knowest thou how to make a construction, wherein forthwith the chiefe place is not giuen mee? Behold all men know, that I onely that hold the seigniorie ouer the Verbes, can without the ayd of any other make perfect Orati­on. Wherefore then speakest thou so im­pudently? And (as Horace saith) why throwest thou so thy proud and disdaine­full sixe cornered words? Who art thou? What art thou? Of what force? Or how great? Not of such authoritie as thou boastest of, I am sure, that so goest puffed and swollen, that it is maruell thou burstest not in the middest, I am (thou wilt say the King of the Nounes: But what is thy name? Thou wilt answere Po­eta. And what is Poeta other then a prat­ler, a seller of gaudes, a deuiser of fables, a master of mischiefe, a brabler, a Lyar, a Drunkard, and a foolish dolte, that co­loureth that which is trueth, and putteth [Page] foorth falshood, and such a one as by pratling fillest and perturbest all the World?

Which also by thy chat vsurpest so much authoritie among the common and simple sort, that thou darest striue for the dignitie against the renowned stocke of the Verbes. Foolishly doe those fathers that giue thee their children to bee taught of for what is in thee whereby that youth may bee encited to grace and vertuous encouragement, but the Stews of the a­dulterous Iupiter, the iealousie of Iuno, and the Whooredome of Venus, and of the Ruffian Mars, and such goodly de­vices imrgined of thine owne brayne, that hauing drunke a little more then well, thou, as filled with a diuine ghost, and ouerladen with wine, mad like or deui­lishly, darest in a Poeticall furie mixe heauen with earth, and earth with hea­uen.

At these words, Poeta the King, all fired in ire, not able to suffer the shame nor the iniury that was sayd to him, an­swered thus: O thou most mischieuous head of man, darest thou speake so bold­ly such contentious things of vs? And [Page] there withall caught a Cupp in his hand, which had, violently hit him on the face, had not one of the standers by (holding him by the arme) turned the stroake a­side. It is not to bee doubted now, that in the rage wherein both partyes were then, but that words were no blowes: But certainely of the elder sort and wisest came vpon the same and they beare a­way the sayd Kings all drunken into their Pallaces: And on the morrow after that the friends of the partyes were assembled, there was great enquirie and disputation of the contention happened the day be­fore. Then of the part of the Nounes was sharply blamed, the open throat and vn­seemely talke of the King of Verbes, and the most part of the Nounes, especially the younger of them maruellously muttered, saying that the tongue of King Amo ought to bee tamed, and to giue him to vnderstand, that the mighty maiestie of the Nounes was neuer subiect to such re­proch and contumelie.

But although the elders that were then there present, especially Terence, admoni­shed them that nothing might bee vnad­uisedly done, but that it was requisite [Page] rather first to take counsell then weapon, in that point following the wiser sort: yet notwithstanding all the Nounes with their King, were so fleshed to fight, that it was forthwith fully determined and accorded to offer battell to the Verbes: And thereupon was sent forth a Trumpet to the King Amo, assuredly to proclaime Warre against him. On the Verbes part was no wiser counsells held, for when all their Nobilitie were come together, there was nothing else treated of among them, then to defend the dignitie of the Verb [...]s, in the land of Grammar, and to depresse and throw down the pride of the Nounes. And behold, hereupon came the Herald of the King Poeta, who diligently decla­red the charge of his errand. They answe­red, that with good will they receiued the defiance, and from thence forward all their mindes were bent wholely toward martiall affaires. Afterward the King of Verbes, sent Trumpets and messengers to all Nations and lands that were vnder his seigniorie, commanding that all such as were able to beare weapon, should bee found ready in good order at the day as­signed.

[Page] First before all other, came Quando, the Duke of Aduerbes, with sixe of his Cap­taines, Vbi Quo, Vnde? Qua? Quorsum? and Quosque? Quorsum and Quosque were companied with their bandes, and vnder the first Ensigne were these renow­ned Champions. Hic, Illic Isthic, Intus, Foris, Ibi, Ibidem, Sicubi, Alicubi, Alias, Alibi vsquam, and Nusquam. Vnder the second, Huc, Illuc, Istue, Intro, Foras, A­lio, Nequo, Aliquo, Siquo, Illo, Eo, and Eo [...]. Vnder the third, Hac, Illac, Istac, Alia, Nequa, Illa, and Eadem. Vnder the fourth, Horsum, Illorsum, Istorsum, In­trorsum, Extorsum, Dextrorsum, Sini­strorsum, Aliorsum, Aliquorsum, and De­orsum.

Vnder the fift, Hactenus, Hucusque, Eousque, Vsquemodo, and Vsque nunc. To the sixt band the Captaine himselfe beare the Ensigne, marching in the midst of his men, so that two of the said bandes were in the Van, and the other three in the Reere.

Many other Aduerbes serued for fore­runners, and these discouered the wayes and serued for Partisans, the rest couered the wings and kept that the bandes mar­ched [Page] not out of array. The names of them are, Peregre, Pone, Super, Supra, Inter, Infra, Extra, Citra, and Vltra, with many other. After them came other Aduerbes, great of quallity, quantity, and number, among whom were those hide­ous swearing Aduerbs, as Aedipol, Eni­muero, Ecastor, Medius fidius, and pro­fecto. Also the calling Aduerbs, as He­us, &c. The answerers, as Hem. The laughers, as Ha, Ha, He. The denying Aduerbs, Minime and Nequaquam: which Nequaquam albeit hee were valliant, and greatly trained vp in the warres, was yet withstandinge the most vntrue and de­ceitfullest of them all, and would never say truth, but through constraint of dan­ger.

Now these Adverbs were armed with three kinds of Armor; for they had kinde for a Buckler, Signification for an Head­pice, and Figure for a Sword. Many o­ther Adverbs came to the aide of their King: as Indicatives, Frequentatives, Me­ditatives, Deminutives and Denomina­tives, with their bands, which were not to bee contemned. Anomales (being Verbes out of rule, that beare great sway [Page] and lordshippe in the borders of Gram­mer) were not last and hind most: doubt­lesse worthy men of Warre, but yet not able to hold their array, they are called, Sum, Volo, Fero, and Edo, By reason wher­of it was permitted them to pitch their Tents in any part of the Campe where they would, least they might raise vprore among the Souldiers.

The nation of the Verbes Defectives came also thither very braue, & in good­ly order, Memi [...]i, Novi, Caepi and Odi: Also Vale, Salve, Aio, Inquit, Faxo, and Cedo, being all armed point deuice ready to joyne battayle. After them followed all the Verbes Actiues, clothed in bone and brauerie, and also the Neuters, with the Deponents, Commons, and Impersonals: All of them in sundry fourms and strange languages, and were armed with Gende [...], Tences, Moodes, Kindes, Persons, and Numbers.

The King Amo, after hee had thus as­sembled his hoste, pitched his campe in the wild plaines of Coniunctions, in a place called Copula, and encamped his host there, neere the riuer of Disiunctiues cal­led Siuer, and deuided his Hoste into [Page] foure coniugations, giuing to euery of them a meete place (except to certaine fami­liar Verbes, who were encharged to beare the Baggage of the Infinitiues) Their names are, Incipit, Desinit, Debet, Vult, Rotest, Iubet, Audet, Nititur, Tentat, and Dignatur, with such like: This office was assigned them, for that they were willing thereto, and had sturdy strength and abi­litie. Last of all came certaine Verbes ex­tract from high place, and of great digni­tie, as Pluit, Ningit, Fulgurat, Tonat, Eul­minat, and Aduesperacit; bringing with them certaine bands of their most wor­thy Champions: But the Gerundes, with the Supines, forsaking the Nounes, came and yeelded to the Verbes.

When Poeta King of Nounes heard the great preparation of his aduersarie, fearing to bee suprised with some sudaine alarum, if hee abode the fury and force of his ene­mies without preparation to defend him, commanded all the subiects of his Realme that in the speediest manner they might, they should make themselues ready to be in the field armed, and so aptly equipped, as in best wise were possible for them. Then to the ayde of the King of Nnunes, [Page] First came the Dukes of the Pronounes, as the nearest kinsmen, who for the most part were oftentimes Princes, Ego, Tu, Tui, being of the Blood royall, and of the stocke of the Arsacides, with whom were, Meus, Tuus, Noster, and Vester, Nostras and Vestras, Ille, Ipse, Iste, Hic, and Hac. All the Pronounes were parted in many fourmes, and vnder sundry Ensignes.

Some were Primatiues, other Deriua­tiues, some Possessiues, and some Gentiles. After them came the right worthy Art­icles, who had a long time haunted the Warres, of which the first was, Hic, Haec, Hoc, The second, Hic, & Haec: The third, Hic & Haec & Hoc, armed with Genders, Numbers, Figures, Persons, and Cases. After them came the grand Cap­taines of Interrogatiues, Infinitiues, & Re­latiues, Quia, qui, quae, quod vel quid: and these ioyned to the hoste. These were the generall referenders of all the land of the King of Nounes, with whom were all the Relatiues, and Demonstratiues deuided in­to two bandes; that is to witt, in Iden­dity, and Diuersitie: In the first were Is, Suus, Ipse, Ille, Idem. In the second, Cae­ter, Alius, Reliquus and Alter. The Prince [Page] of the accidentall relatiues was Qualis, vnder whom fought Quartus, quot, quotu­plex, quatenus, quotenus, quotifarium, cu­ias and euigena; the queene of the Prepo­sitions called Ad, came thither also with Ab, and In, the husbands of Nounes Casu­als, and they brought with them three Ensignes of worthy Amazones; Vnder the first were A, abs, cum, coram, clam, de, e ex, pro, prae, palam, sine, absque, tenus, which serued to the Ablatiue Cases, Vn­der the second were Ad, apud, ante, aduer­sum, aduersus, cis, citra, circum, circa, con­tra, erga, extra, inter, intra, infra, iuxta, ob, pone, per, propter, prope, secundum, post, trans, vltra, praeter, supra, circiter, vsque secus, & penes, all seruing to the Acusa­tiue cases: But In, sub, supra, and subter, serued to both Cases, to the Abla­tiues, as well as to the Accusatiues. Vnder the third were, Di, dis, re, se an, con, whose office was to puruey potation for the Souldiers, for it was then Lent. Who albeit they were by composition inseper­able, least they should at any time bee voyd of that was enioyned them, were yet inconstant, that sundry times they claue to the Nounes, and somewhile to the [Page] Verbes, and therefore they were accoun­ted by the common rogues of the campe.

Now the Nounes thus deuided by bandes, marched in goodly array, that is to weete, the Substantiues, likewise the Adiectiues, Nounes proper, Appellatiues, and Participles: After whom were the braue and rich Comparatiues, Superlatiues, Possessiues, Patronymiques, Gentiles, (which were noble) Numerals, and Multiplying, which gouerned the outward borders. Euery of them were deuided by fiue Declinations, to weete, by the first, the second, the third, the fourth and fift, and they were all armed with Kinds, Genders, Numbers, Figures, and Cases. All the said bands reduced in one, Poeta the King of the Nounes carried his hoste into the same playne of Coniunctions, and pitched his campe on the other side of the said riuer Siue: So that betweene both the hostes was nothing but the Riuer: By reason whereof, sundry times there happened sharpe skirmishes, betweene those that went there to the water, notwithstanding yet without open battell, for that had both the Kings forbidden, because all needfull necessaries for the Warres, were [Page] not yet very ready.

Now either of these Kings conueied to [...]nduce to his part the Participle; a man doubtlesse of very great authoritie tho­ [...]ow all the land of Grammar, yea, in [...]uissance and dignitie, altogether next and neerest the King: Who without doubt was able also to cause victory to whether side hee would wind him. By reason of this, as well the Verbe as the Noune, left nothing vnassayed, either of them, hoping to haue him on their side: Poeta the King of Nounes putting forth foremest, wrote to him in this manner: I doubt not (O my brother) but that thou knowest with what pride and puffed stomacke Amo the King of the Verbes is risen against mee, and against the dignitie of Nounes, and by what law I minde to occupie the chie­fest seates to construe Oration: for which thing, seeing that the fame doth so much moue and displease mee; I am forced to take armes, and set Souldiers in the field, that his pride being beaten downe, wee may keepe our seigniorie in his right, vncorrupted. And s [...]hens thou knowest how much thou art bounden to the nation of the Nounes, and what great benefit thou hast receiued of vs, [Page] as Genders and Cases, Numbers, and Figures: Thou shalt therefore doe a worke worthy of thy faithfulnesse and friendship, if with thy men of warre and thy Souldiers, thou come to ioyne with vs to defend our common Titles, our common riches, and com­mon hope. For if the dignitie and lordship of Nounes bee destroyed, thinke not thou to find any sure place in all the land of Gram­mar, And so farewell: Beseeching thee to set forward thy comming in the speediest wise thou mayest.

On the other side, Amo the King of Verbes, wrote to the said Participle in this wise: I know very well (O deare brother) how thou art by our enemies very instantly solicited to bee on their part, to warre against vs: And albeit that wee haue hope, that by thy singular wisedome thou wilt not doe any thing so rash or vnaduisedly, yet neuerthelesse it seemtth good vnto vs, to admonish and aduertise thee, that thou consider in thy selfe what commodities thou hast receiued of vs, and what increase of dignitie the Verbes haue made thee, in making thee partaker of their Tenses and Significations, Numbers, and Figures. And if thou hast any small be­nefit of the Nounes, those that thou receiuest [Page] of vs are much more, yea, and also greater. Thou shalt therefore doe best if thou repayre [...] our happy folde, not alone to keepe and de­fend vs, and the lordship of the Verbes, but also thou thy selfe, and thine. For thus thinke with thy selfe, that if I haue the worst, mine enemies will not withhold them from running [...] thy lordship, and turne thy victorious armes against thee: That they all alone may with their mad will runne in and spoile all the land of Grammar. Farewell.

The Participle after that hee had read the said letters of the two Kings, thought now of the one, then of the other, and had sundry thoughts in his head, conside­ring with himselfe that he could not part with neither of them, without great and evident losse of his owne goods. Contra­ [...]ily if hee should seeme to minister, hee might not only enjoy the favour of them both, but also that he rather wished to see them lowe brought thorough the hazard of the warres, that they being destroyed, he might afterwards alone without resi­stance possesse the said land of Grammer: and therfore thought good to dissemble, [...]eeding them with faire words, vntill hee knew who should haue the better: ther­fore [Page] he wrote to them in this manner.

I haue most puissant Kings, received you [...] letters, and I haue read them with great sor­row and trouble of minde, knowing that be­tweene two such Princes so knit, is fall [...] such discord, that you cannot withold yo [...] from ouerthrowing thorough cruell warre [...] your owne lordships, and that renowned Em­pire. But wherewith are you vexed? O [...] what harme holdeth you? And whence com­meth this madnesse? I beseech you consider [...] little whither you goe. How will our commo [...] enemies (those beast-like citizens of Igno­rance, and that slouen-like people of Barba­rie) reioyce, vnderstanding the strength o [...] two such Princes to bee so wasted throug [...] their owne contentious quarrelling? I adiur [...] you by the high Gods aboue and beneath, tha [...] yee would withhold you, and forbeare such deadly, mortall, and abominable battells, lea [...] that through damnable desire of superioritie you bewrap in vproares & slanders the good liest Prouince of all the world. But if destim [...] will haue it so, & that you be so fully purpose [...] to debate your quarrell by the sword, I purpose to take part with neither of you, seein [...] my lordship dependeth in part of the Verb [...] and in part of the Noune.

[Page] And for that I am greatly bound to you both, with what I can I will ayde you both with Victualls, Munitions, and other necessa­ry things: But as touching facts of armes, I will withholde mee, and I will cause my Souldiers to bee assembled in armes, to keepe in at home, that through incourses no iniury bee done by any, on the frontiers of mine own [...] land: Fare yee well.

And albeit that he had thus written to them, this subtill and wylie Fox neuer­thelesse, through all possible meanes hee might, maintained the quarrell, and by his privy letters incited the mindes of both nations eagerly to itch against othē, hoping thereby (as I haue said) that hee should attaine to the seigniorie of the whole Grammar after their totall destru­ction. Then hauing assigned a day for his subiects to bee assembled in, was in a most trim and braue Company. First the Terminats in Ans, ens, dus, rus, tus, sus, [...]us, were therewith the Nounes verball in Tox, trix, and such like, which were neighbours of the Verbes and Nounes, and ioyned with the Párticiples. Likewise the Gerundes and Supines, to auoid these ciuill warres, withdrew them also from [Page] the Verbes, and fled to the Participles. These things thus appointed, the Parti­ciple sent great gifts to both sides, to bee always and still in their fauor: and first he sent to the Verbe these vndernamed Neu­ter Passiues, to weere, Gaudeo, soleo, audeo, fio, prandeo, Coeno, iuro, titubo, placeo, nu­bo, careo, moereo, poto, taceo, and quiesco. To the King of Nounes hee gaue the en­ding in Tor and trix. Hee sent also for wages to the hoste of Verbes an hundreth Waggons of Preter Tences, of Present and Future Tences. Item, a thousand Camels laden with Figures, Simples, Composites, and Decomposites: And to the Noune, he sent by the riuer Siue, ten shippes laden with Nominatiue and Genitiue Cases, with as many Singular and Plurall Numbers, and a great number of other, Masculine Genders, Feminines, Neuters, Commons and all. This done, hee held him in his countrey with his men of warre, awayting to whether side forture would turne her. In the meane while, these two warre-like Kings hauing very well made prouision of all things necessary to giue battell, a­waited nothingelse then some fit occasi­on to co [...]mence the Warre. But it chan­ced [Page] that two of the worthiest townes of Grammar, (to weete) A, and V, were taken vnappointed by the King of Verbes, albeit that then all townes were indiffe­ [...]ently subiect, and payed equall tribute [...]o both the said kings, as much to the one, as to the other, being moreouer, in no thing more in seruice to the one King, then to the other.

When Poeta the king heard this, hee tooke by the like policie three other Towns, E, I, O: The other hearing this, kept them to their strongest watch, and keeping their libertie, were common to both parts, whose names are, B, C, D, E, G, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, X, Z, and of [...]hem doubtlesse commeth all the force of Grammer. To either of the Kings were giuen two Dipthongs to bee their trum­ [...]ets, for they were taught by sound of [...]rump, to moue the spirit of all the Soul­ [...]iers for to fight, ae, and oe, serued▪ to the [...]ing of Nounes: Au, and Eu, to the Verbes. Beside this, certaine ieasting or [...]ibing Women followed both the hosts, [...]hat moued the mindes of the Souldiers [...] sundry affections: For some wept and [...]ewailed the slaughter that should bee [Page] among them of Grammar, yea, and that they felt the same neere them already, [...] Oh, ah, he, heu, and hei: Other were displeased, and reproued the contention [...] these Kings, as Vah, va, and atat. Othe [...] wondered at such dissention fallen be­tweene so great friends, as Papae, vah [...] and vah: Other as fooles incited and en­couraged the Souldiers to fight, as Ei [...] and Euax. Moreouer all the men of W [...] and Souldiers being well appointed, an [...] ready to enter into the battell, in seem [...] good to the King of Verbes that on hi [...] part gladly with all his heart, hee woul [...] withdraw to commence ciuill Warres And to cloake his doing in, or with som [...] honest manner, wrote a letter to the ki [...] of Nounes, in this tenor:

O Poeta, thou hast well vnderstood [...] what appointment and ready strength I [...] come downe to shew my selfe in the field giue the battell: And againe thou may know that there are not in thee sufficient f [...] ces able to abide, and withstand the viol [...] rushing in of the legions of my men of War [...] Therefore thou shalt doe wisely, if in leau [...] mee in my estate, thou withdraw vnto t [...] territories.

[Page] But if thou bee so senselesse, that it must bee had by the edge of the sword, then know thou that three dayes hence, I will beeready with mine hoste in the plaine field to fight, there to receiue thee.

When the Trumpets Au and Eu had giuen their letters to the king of Nounes; Hee answered them according to his Councell, in this wise:

O Amo, thou euer hast too many words, but it is now no time to amase the eares of the hearers with thy much babling: Thou boast­est thy valiant host, & thy fearefull prepared ordinance, as if on our side wee had none but Dwarfes and Grashoppers. Thy possession hath euer beene very little in Oration: But yet thy folly leadeth thee thither, from whenc thou mayest not flie, vntill with that part of Lordship (by thee wrongfully wonne, worse gouerned, and naughtily retained) thou bee by iust warre chased out. And for that thou shalt know how little, not I onely, but mine, doe waeye thee, and how smally wee feare thy threatnings; our Heraldes ae and oe shall shew thee, their bare buttockes if thou wilt, Farewell, such as I wish thee: Adew to the deuill for euer and aye.

By these letters the hearts of them poy­soned [Page] one against another, did all awai [...] with fiery stomacks the last assigned day of battell. In the meane while, by occa­sion of such troubleous time, there arose (as commonly doth in such businesse) [...] licence of most mischieuous deeds, and there went forth a company of priuie pil­ferers through the whole Prouince [...] Grammar, seeking their prey, and especially in Wooddie places, and from the hills espied the passengers, and spoiled th [...] Victuallers that went to the Campes Whereby great dearth and scarcitie [...] Victualls daily encreased in both th [...] hostes. By reason whereof, certaine wo [...] thy Captaines, with sufficient number o [...] Souldiers were by the consent and decree of both Kings, sent out to slay the [...] robbers, or else to driue them farre out [...] the land of Grammar. They being com [...] thither, the Souldiers did inclose a ver [...] thicke wood, where they had vnderstoo [...] that there were a great number hidden: S [...] they beset them, that one escaped not vn taken. Among whom was a certain fello [...] called Catholicon that draue a great A [...] laden with Greeke & Latine words boun [...] vp together, and carried them into Italie [...]

[Page] Item, an old Dunse called Ignoramits, with a young yonker surnamed Dul­man which also with a great one-eyed Mule, draue a Waggon laden with false and broaken Rules, and fowle Fourmes, not onely of ould Phrases, but also of La­tine termes, wherewith hee hoped to bee enriched in the burroughes and townes, selling them as pretious things set in glasse, to make latine of glasse, which might haue day seene through it. More­ouer this yonker Dulman was found puffed full of false pieces of money, and counterfait coyne, being base bullion, which hee caused to bee taken for good, being of an vntrue stampe which hee had, forged, and of the said money hee had fil­led all the land of Grammar. Likewise there was taken a great and greasie lasie lordane, that made himselfe bee called Grecismus, that had made leane all the Victuallers that went to the campe, to stuffe a great, foule, rancke, stinking, and rotten calues panch with. There was also taken one Pylades, that had robbed all the wayes hee went in, and bodily punished as they had merrited, some quartered and cut in pieces, some burnt in the fire, other [Page] cast into the dongeons of perpetuall and stinking prisons. He that tooke and puni­shed Grecismus, was a right worthy Cap­taine called Toussan or Tusan: The rob­berrie of Pylades was discouered and de­barred by a noble captaine, very well ac­quainted in the Warres, which was called Iohn of Cuvella, that so swelled that hee was in perill of the dropsie, but one gaue him a short glister, that did bring him in slender forme, and more leane & easie to be borne then he was. All the rest of his robberous rabble were destroyed, slaine and buried in a great and darke dungeon. Catholicon that among them was called the great, was brought to the campe with his Asse, who confessed on the racke (al­beit it were a thing manifest) that he had stolen all these words in the land of Grammar: Then when hee was asked ought in Greeke, hee answered that hee vnderstood not the Greeke, and of the Latine but a very little. Then said the Iudges, wherefore carriest thou with thee Greeke words, seeing that thou vnderstan­dest not? Then hee answered: there is so great ignorance of learning with vs (saith hee) that albeit I speak grossely, yet can [Page] I easily make them beleeue that I am through lined in euery corner with all the eloquence of Attica. All they which were there, hearing this, fell in a great laughter, and said: By Saint George, seeing that thou hast such hearers as thou hast, that which wee know not the due owners of, thou shalt carry with safe conduct to thy people and nation: But that which wee shall know to belong to any, that wee thinke good to bee rendered to the due owners. Then after they had made dili­gent search, all the Greeke words almost were giuen Isydore, whose they were, and the remnant of the Latines; to which bu­sinesse was appointed the master of the Trench-men, called Calapine, with the courteous Captaine, Anthonie of Nebrisse. The intermixed, rotten, and secret hid­den words were giuen him, and so they permitted him to goe his way with his Asse lighter laden then before: Neuerthe­lesse they forbade him at any time euer after, to bee so hardy as to call himselfe a Grammarian, except among the rude and barbarous people. In these businesse, one Priscian, a very renowned man, and of great honour in the land of Grammer, for [Page] that hee could not suffer the said land to runne into totall ruine through ciuill war and contention, hasted toward the campe in post to make an agreement, and being taken, was spoiled and sore beaten of the felonish fellowship of Catholicon, and was so wounded on the head, that there was no salue able to heale him. Shortly after, among these fellowes was taken one, who falsely and shamefull said that hee was an Historiographer, and had gathered toge­ther a great bundell of Ieasting foolish gaudes in a great volume, called Supple­mentum Chronicharum, who forced tho­row question, confessed that all they were stollen things: And so hee was exiled for euer into the land of Ignorance. As these things were doing, certaine of the Verbes anomales, as Sum, voto, fero, with three companies of their hand-maides, made an assault and tooke away a prisoner of the captaines of the Nounes named Caeter, which was of the race of Relatiues, and they tooke him hidden with his fellowes in an ambush, in what caue I know not, neere to the by-pathway of the Coniu [...]cti­ons, Quod and Quam, and him they slew, with all his Singulars. His Plurals seeing [Page] the danger they were in, made a vow to Iupiter, to sacrifice him the remnant of their goods, and so they escaped whole and sound miraculously. When tidings hereof were told to King Poeta, hee was maruailously moued, and it greatly gree­ued him to loose such a Captaine: For this Caeter was very stout and full of stomacke euen to the vttermost, and in feates of warre hee had no peere.

The king of Nounes therefore feeling himselfe greately endamaged with the losse of Caeter and his Singulars, diligent­ly awaited occasion, whereby hee might render double the like to his enemies. But fortune, who can in all things doe very much, and chiefely in warre, gaue him shortly after the way to reuenge him of the wrong. For in those dayes many legions of Verbes of no small authoritie were taken prisoners by certain light hors­men of the Nounes. Among whom was Dice, face, fore, and duce of the bande of the Imperatiues and commanders. From whom through great ignomie was cut a­away by the Kings commandement, the hinder skirts of their garments, so that they shewed their buttocks, and so sent [Page] them away againe, so that euer since they were called onely Dic, duc, fac and fer. Afterward hee commanded that the prisoners should bee slaine, namely Fuo, specio, leo and pleo, whose goods were by the king of Verbes giuen to their law­full children, descending of them in line, as Fui, fueram, fuissem, fuisse, and futurus: And the children of specio, who were a great number, as Aspicio, conspicio, and such like: And also to them of Leo, and pleo, as Doleo, impleo, compleo, suppleo, re­pleo, expleo, opleo. At the very same sea­son was bewrayed a great treason to the hoste of the Verbes, how certaine horri­ble hooresons of the stocke of Preter­perfectes, being souldiers, to cloake their treason, and not to bee knowne, were dis­guised after the manner of the Greekes, though they were of the Latine tongue, and beeing taken, had two heads. These had conspired and laid waite for the king of Verbes: but being taken and conuict of the fact, were declared traytours, and con­demned of trespasse against the King: They were called Momordi, cecidi, cucurri, pependi, spospondi, pepigi, didici, poposci, te­tuli, cecini, peperi, tutudi, pepuli, fefelli, me­mini, [Page] pugugi, and tetigi, from whom was cut off one head at that present: So that whereas they were before time called, Momordeo, cecido, cucurro, they bee now called, Mordeo, cedo, curro, and so of the rest. From Tetuli were cut off both heads, as well of the Preter, as of the Present-tence: Albeit that Terrence through pitie thought to simon the same againe of the Preter tence with Baulme, but it held not. Now as the time of fighting drew neere, the said kings set vp in the highest place of their hoste, a red cloake, to aduertise the Souldiers that they should shortly ioyne together in fight, that they might prepare and propose themselues thereto, taking their repast, and whetting their weapons, might make their munitions ready, with all other things pertaining to such affaires. In the morning, after the Souldiers had dined on both sides with­out any noyse making, the whole hoste assembled to the said place. Then when they had all ranged in battell aray with displayed ancients, the said Kings be­sought and required their souldiers ear­nestly to behaue themselues well and worthily: But it was no neede, seeing that [Page] they of themselues were already fired enough. For all as mad-men shooke their Pikes with so great and stout a stomacke, that they cared for nothing but to strike, and awaighted nought but the signe of the onset and alarme: And hereupon he­hold, the Trumpets blew the onset, on both sides. On the other part the earth resounded and rang againe, and in both hostes were made great shoutes and cries, the heads of both hostes made great vowes, and euery of them stomacked and cheered vp their souldiers: Then euery one did what hee could and knew to bee done, they stroake together with great handy stroakes of Swords, brake their Pikes, that the aire rang againe of the crie of the fighters. In the aire was nothing seene but clouds of smoake and brim­stone: On both sides were great stoare wounded, and of dead corpeses plentie. O there was a goodly sight to see the Verbes Defectiues (among the rest) fighting a­gainst the Nounes Heteroclites. These Nounes accompanied with their Nomina­tiue Cases, with their Genders, also with their Genitiues, and Plurall Numbers, did fie [...]cely lay vpon their enemies. The [Page] Verbes Defectiues did stoutly and coura­giously withstand and put apart these Nounes Heteroclites, with their Indicatiues accompanied with their preter-perfect-ten­ses, so that by their Coniugations they breake through force, the Numbers and Genders of the other.

Ofthese Verbes, there was one called Aio, who vsing singular hardinesse, did for a long space resist two Nounes Hetero­clites so long, that in the end being no more able to withstand their furious for­ces, lost diuers of his Persons, Modes, Ten­ses, and Numbers, and then rested onely vnto him, Ais, ait, aiunt, aiebam, aiebas, aiebat, and aiebant: The rest passed tho­row the sword.

The ayre was obscured and made dark with the arrowes that the Numbers Sin­gulars and Pluralls shot. The shot of the Figures Composite and Decomposite, flew whistling so round, and rightly into the eares of euery one, that they were all as deafe. A great number were hurt by the dartes of the kindes of Primatiues, and Deriuatiues. The Trumpets likewise that went on euery side, sounded a fearefull Taratantara; so that the sound thereof en­couraged [Page] the fighters maruailous full of stomacke and hardie, to beare the blowes and sturdie stripes of their enemies. And in the midest of these, troublous rayling Women, the Interiections that went about the arayes, vexed and sore troubled them all, through their mouing and fickle affe­ctions: Among whom for the most part were often heard these pitifull and dolo­rous cries, Heu, and hei: oh, ah, eh. Not­withstanding this warre was more fierce and cruell then long in fighting, and had it not beene for great aboundance of raine, that through a suddaine storme and tem­pest which fell from the clouds, euen at that present made the medly to depart and breake off, then doubtlesse had there beene an end of all the forces of Gram­mar. Such and so great was the furious rage that they had euery one of them, one against another, yea vntill that point, that albeit the Trumpets sounded the retreate on both sides, and they al greatly encom­bred with the water, neuerthelesse could they be vnmingled and separate asunder one from another, to returne againe to their colours: The victory abroad doubt­full and vncertaine, neither was it knowne [Page] of any, whether had the better or the worse, for on both sides there was a mar­uailous many, as well of sore wounded as of slaine, not onely of common Souldiers, but also of high and chiefe Captaines. It is not possible for any to tell the great losses that were there on both sides: Not­withstanding I will endeauour to shew plainely and manifestly, and in the onli­est manner I can, that which some did win or lose there (though I cannot say of euery one in particular) this will I doe, to this end, that they that come after may bee better aduised. First the part of the Verbes Defectiues, Infit, lost all them that were descendent from him, all his Genders, Tenses, Moodes, Persons and Numbers, that were of the fourth Coniugation, of Figure Composite, and of the Singular number. He himselfe escaped safe, for seeling himselfe in perill, hee made a vow, that of no kind of religion, godly, or otherwise, hee would after any more beare the liuerie: And therefore hee was at that brunt so sore af­frighted, that since hee hath beene very seldome seene publikely in the land of Grammar. Fore was berest and robbed of all his goods, except Fores, foret, and fore, [Page] which are of the third Coniugation, Vale, aue, salue, of the kindred and stocke of the Imparatiues (lost a great many of their fellowes) which are yet liuing, the rest were lost. Faxo, of the same stocke of Actiues, escaped only with three of his, all the rest of his band after him were slaine, except faxis, faxit, and faxint, who saued themselues with him by flight. Inquio, of the stocke of the Neuters, kept Inquis, in­quit, inquiunt, inquam, inquies, inquiet, in­quient, inque, and inquam: The rest peri­shed in the Warres. Inquiens at that time was with the Participles, and so escaped. Apage, and apagite, when they had lost all their fellowes, escaped alone. Diet, lost also all his fellowes, except diescit. Facio was put from his sonne factor, who not­withstanding before hee died, did consti­tute by knightly testament an heire, Fio: posco, disco, metuo, timeo, renuo, respuo, com­pesco, vrgeo, linquo, and all they of the race of the Actiues, lost their Supines. Some Verbes lost their Preter-tenses of the third Coniugation, and in place of them they af­ter recouered the Preter-tenses of the fourth Coniugation; among whom was Cupio, peto, quaero, arcesso, facesso, and fero. [Page] Some Verbes, hauing lost their Future in am, to the end that they would not hence forth wholly lose the hope that was to come, bought other Futures in Bo, at the Fayers of Recanetum, as Eo, queo, and vae­neo: But Horace by his authoritie gaue to Lenio, lenibo. All Verbes belonging to beautie lost all their Supines, among whom was Luceo, fulgeo, splendeo, polleo, and such like. Fulcio vsing a singular har­dinesse escaped out of perill, and held his fultum: But seeing wee haue recounted and told of them that receiued losse, it is not meete to hold of no account these Verbes, that behauing themselues well and worthily, had both spoiles and dignities, which they receiued of their King, beside these others that they first had and enioy­ed, among other were eleuate and set vp in great honour, Cano, curo, careo, moereo, nubo, and prandeo, for beside their owne Preter-tenses, they receiued also the Pre­ter-tenses of the Passiue voice. Redimo was enriched in his Fiue Tenses of nature, and at that present obtained foure Significati­ons, as to deliuer, to leade and gouerne, to decke and ornate, and to take to ferme. So­lor wonne three significations, as to bee a­lone, [Page] and to comfort and exhort. Explicat, beside his owne sense, which is, to explicat and shew forth plainely, receiued, that he might declare, shew, that he might draw, that he might represent and deliuer. Valco, beside his owne sense, which is to bee in health and whole, wan so much, that when hee said vale, that hee might sa­lute also and sometime curse too. Presto had foure significations, as, to lend, and to be aloft, to doe good, and hold promise, with diuers other significations. Haurio was as much inriched, for he had foure signifi­cations, as to draw out, to wound, to heare, and see, and diuers other such like: and all they when need is, are reduced into one. Pasco receiued two vnderstandings, to feed and bring vp. Vaco, albeit he med­led not much among the fighters (for as Socia saith in Plautus, the fiercer they fought, the faster he fled) neuerthelesse, fortune that oftentimes giueth reward to the slothfull, would enrich his cowardise with the best of the spoiles: for as he espy­ed certaine of his enemies that were fled and gone away, he crept out of his Cabin and cloaked them in his fist: who after bought them againe with a great summe [Page] of siluer, and he wan beside his owne for­mer sense, seuen other, to weete, to vnder­stand, to leaue of, to serue, to be superfluous, to be lawfull, not to haue, and to be empty. Studeo wan three significations, as to soli­cite, to desire earnestly and to bee very painefully busied. Pango receiued three senses, as to sing, and hath giuen him panxi in his preter-tense to make truces, and hath giuen to pepigi to fasten and ioyne together. Sapio from that day had two senses, to weete, to giue know­ledge, and to be wise. Fero, one of the foure annomales gained three senses, as to vphold, to desire, and to beare. Con­fiteor had three senses, to praise, to purge, and to make manifest. Supero receiued seuen senses, by reason of the great au­thority that hee had among the Verbes: as to remaine in part, to ouercome, to bee neere, to goe further, to escape, to ouerliue and exceed. Some Verbes there were, which hauing lost their owne preter-tenses, had of their king the goods of other Verbes Passiues which were slaine at the battell: as Audeo, Fido, Gaudeo, Soleo, and Fio. These pestiferous and perillous [Page] perillous lying Verbes, which always haue in their heart and minde, other then in the mouth, albeit they had no part of the prey, yet ought not they and their names to bee left in obliuion, but spoken of, to the end that euery one might know them, and so beware: Seeing that alwayes vnder the colour of a cloake of the actiue, they beare the passiue voice: They are called exulo, veneo, nubo, liceo, and vapulo, This last of all is the most wylie and subtillest: and therefore so much wiser as the boy is, so much the more heede will hee haue to decline his wylie ambushes, If hee haue good care to keepe his posteriors. Now seeing wee haue already shewed as well as wee are able, that which happened to the Verbes, it seemeth good in our ac­compt that wee speake also of Nounes. Ouersight was made in and thorow the hoste of the Nounes, and it was found how fortune had beene as much diuerse to one part as to another, and to the end that wee begin by the positiues, there was cer­taine of them, that being hurt in their Comparatiues, receiued dressing and cure through the diligence of certaine expert Phisitians, as melior, minor, dexterior, sini­sterior, [Page] plus, magnificentior, and muneficen­tior, all Irregular, and descending of the second Declension. But Pius, arduus, egre­gius, tenuis, and such-like, lost their owne Comparatiues. The Nounes ending in er, lost imus, in their Suparlatiues: And for the same they had rimus, as tener and salu­ber. To others for that they had lost simus was giuen limus, as Humilis, facilis, gra­ [...]dis, similis, agilis, and to vetus, was gi­uen veterrimus.

Among Trees were certaine Nounes, that quitting themselues manfully, by a suddaine myracle changed altogether at once their kinds, becomming of females, males, every one astonied at the suddaine case, demanded whence came such trans­formation to them: Of them were rubus and oleaster, which Liuius saith were euill and vnluckie tokens, and therefore affir­med hee that they ought to bee cast into the botome of the Sea, or else to bee exi­led out of the land of Grammar. But the King Poeta ieasting at the fond superstiti­on that they had in the miracles, did pro­ [...]ibite all and euery of them, to harme, or any way to hurt them, saying that it was not an euill signe or vnhappie accident to [Page] bee changed from women into men: say­ing that out of a naughtie and crooked kind▪ they were turned into a good and better. From certaine Nounes Hetroclites, fighting against the Verbes Defectiues, were cut away both cods and cullion in the Plurall number, so that afterward there was in that Number neither man nor wo­man but chast Neuters: which doubtlesse is a thing greatly to bee pittied. Their names were Sibilus, Auernus, Infer­nus, Menalus, Supparus, Baltheus, Tartarus, Dindymus: Other had better chance, for when in the same Number they were Neuters, were glad forthwith to see them become males: as Porrum, ra­strum, frenum, and coelum. But the said porrum and rastrum, as they went thorow Rome, found in the markets of Agon [...] their Neuter Pluralls, and there the [...] bought them againe with a great summ [...] of money, and giuing leaue to the males, loued better to hold them to them there, Balsamum among all Nounes and trees a­bode onely a Neuter: By reason whereof seeing that hee could not beget nor bring forth young, is in so great scarcitie, th [...] hee is no where seene, but in the land o [...] [Page] Iuda, which is the cause (as sorrowfull) he yeeldeth his fruite all in teares: As for o­ther Nounes that were bereft of their Plu­rall Neuter, receiued the Feminine for a­mends, as Epulum, ostreum, vesper, and cepe. But trueth is, of all creatures, the Oysters only were Neuters: But aboue all authours, Plinie, and the Poets hold them for Neuters: Wherefore Ouia saith thus: Ostreaque in co [...]chis tuta fuere suis, so that afterward they gaired so, that they be­came as much Feminine as Nenters: others that were of the Doubtfull gender, recei­ued the Masculine in their Plurall number, as Cardo, bubo, and such like: Other that were spoiled of all their Cases Plurall, a­bode euer since dismembered and may­med; among whom were Fumus, imus, fimus, puluis, sanguis, mundus, pontus, sol, sal, and vnus, all of the Masculine gender. Hardly is seene any time more then one Sun in the firmament, but when it hap­peneth so, it is not naturall, but rather wonderfull: likewise also certaine Femi­ [...]ines lost their Plurall Cases, as Lux, sitis, [...]bes, mors. vita, fames, tabes, gloria, fama, [...]alus, pax, humus, lues, tellus, senecta, sobo­ [...]es, inventa, indolis, and proles.

[Page] These fought so feebly in the host,
That all their Pluralls there they lost.

Other Feminines lost at the said conflict their Singular Number, as Argutiae, habe­nae, bigae, blanditiae, cimae, delitiae, exequiae, excubiae, exuviae, phalerae, facetiae, g [...]nae, ga­des, insidiae, induciae, calendae, lachrymae, la­tebrae, minae, and many other. Other Neuters were spoiled of all their Pluralls, as Coenum, foenum, aeuvm, solum, pus, and virus: Furthermore, other were put from all their Singular numbers; as Arma, ca­stra, exta, cunabula, crepundia, pascua, moe­nia, mapalia, magnalia, ilia, seriaprae, coma, precordia, and sponsalia, yea and also all the names of Feasts, as Saturnalia, Dioni­sia, Aphrodysia, Bacchanalia, Floralia, and Neptunalia. These vaine Nounes, which alwayes doe say many, and signifie one onely, hauing lost all their Singulars, sa­ued themselues by flight, as Venetiae, Pisae, Cuinae, Athenae, and Thebae. All the names of Mettalls, especially Aurum, and Ar­gentum, which euery one laboureth to take Prisoner, Auricalcum, plumbum, fer­rum, and stannum lost their Pluralls. A [...] hadly retained hibaera. In like mann [...] for the greate heate and alteration of the [Page] combat, the measures were spoiled of the Plurallitie of their liquors, except of Wines and Honies, which in the Plurall Cases were spared, to the end that they might doe king Poeta seruice with new Wines, for that hee loued them well. Ole­um, and frumentum, by like misfortune were so gluttonous, that thorow the great scarcitie that was in the hoste, they were not found in Plurallitie. Other abroad, shortened in the end of their Genitiues, and Datiues plurall, as Iura, thura, aera, maria, and fora. Yet neuerthelesse all Nounes had not the worse part; for di­ [...]ers of them had of the spoile of their enemies: by reason whereof they were of greater authoritie then before: so that some receiued other Nominatiue cases be­side their former: As Arber, which also [...]ath arbos: Honor, which hath honos: O­ [...], which hath odos: Cucumer which hath [...]eumis: Ciner which hath cinis; and Pul­ [...]er, which hath puluis. Notwithstanding [...]ey occupie not the [...]e alwayes, but keepe [...]is share for high Feasts, as for trim and [...]ce dressing for honours sake. Plaga, al­ [...]it through hurting hee bled, yet wonne [...]e foure other sences without account of [Page] the first (that signifieth a Wound or hurt) as when you would say, the Arming coard of a nett, also a great space of the Heauen and earth (called Clima) also a great kind of Linnen, such as the old matrons of Rome weare when they goe in the Citie, and al­so for a bed, or any part of a bed; Opus the same day wonne other thre senses: for O­pus signifieth earth: Vnder Ope hee gi­ueth Ayde, vnder Opibus, Riches. The The Gerundes and Supines, because they were so often fled to the enemie, were a­merced to fine, after peace was made be­tweene both the said Kings, through the earnest complaint and supplication of De­mosthenes, who alledged the lawes of So­lon, by which it was commanded, that such were to bee put apart from all ho­nour, and Offices, that in any sedition had not held that part of the one nor the other: For that such a one thinketh alto­gether of his owne businesse, and reckon­eth not of the Common wealth: The grea­test part of them in the land of Grammar liued after the lawes of Athens. Afterward therefore the King of the Nounes left to the Gerunds no more but onely three cases, taking away from them for the trespasse [Page] of their default all their other Cases. To the Supines, onely were reserued but two: which greatly greeued all the inhabitants of Grammar, sharpely blaming such a sort of foolish precepts of Solons lawes, as much as the fond reasons of Demostenes, whom they ieasted at, saying, that he had left his cunning at home, his distaffes, bands and wool, and that he had not fai­ned the disease of the throate in vaine, to haue yeerely reueneues and preferrement: be [...]ause hee hoped not to haue so mu [...]h money of the Gerundes and Supines, as be sometime had of Harpalus. Surely if I would describe foorth all the losses and misfortunes orderly as they ought to be, and also all the conquests of the worthi­nesse of euery one that changed in that day, my matter would bee too long: and therefore I will heere make an end: And this may suffice, that whatsoeuer is found lost, wasted, or ioyned to, and growne vp through all the land of Grammar and his borders and vtter limmits, is wholy proceeded through the same hard, hide­ous, and mortall sight among them. In the same time of the Warres, sprang vp many new words, and sundry old were [Page] put apart & reiected. And had not three honest persons been chosen for arbitrators (of whom wee shall speake by and by) which by their power and abillitie with­stood the naughtinesse of certaine Gram­matistes, or slender Grammarians, so great Barberousnesse had then beene so mixed through the Latine tongue, and the same then bin so mingled with foolish wordes, that all hope had beene lost euer to restore the same againe to his honour, and come­ly beautie. Therefore after that the Re­treate was sounded of both the hostes, and that they had numbred as well the woun­ded as the slaine, and knowne the great losse that was of both the hostes, they all began to fall on sighing: and the sight of such a slaughter of their people greatly grieued them, through desire of superio­ritie. Wherefore euery of them repen­ting, sought now nothing else then to make peace.

And first of all Poeta King of Nounes, after hee had called his Souldiers toge­ther (but not without teares) said these words: I thinke well that you know (O my fellow Souldiers) how dolefully, and against my will, I haue taken armes to defend and [Page] vphold the honour (as I thought then) and the authoritie of the Nounes, against our brethren the Souldiers of the Verbes, and by how many wayes I haue assayed to deferre and put off long betweene vs the warres, that they might leaue vs quiet in our estate. But when I thinke not onely of our owne losse, but also of theirs: Againe when I behold the dead corpses on both sides, I haue greater de­sire to lament then to speake. Therefore it be­houeth vs to remember that, which some of our good old Citizens and Burgeses wrote of the discord and ciuill Warres, as well of the Romanes as the Greekes, and how with great reproaches they blame and detest the ambition of them. In trueth if wee had thought of this at the first, wee neuer had gone to so great folly, neither had wee also (as blinded with anger and rage, franticke­ly and as void of reason) torne our propper flesh so with our owne hands as wee haue: That which is done and past, is easier to bee reproued then amended: Neuerthelesse it is better to stay thus, then to follow on a naugh­ty beginning: For if wee will bee so mad as to continue fighting amongst our selues, doubt­lesse then is the principalitie of Grammar vtterly come to confusion, and then shall bee [Page] made so great an excesse and entrie into the same, to the Barbarous and ignorant people, that they onely will rule all, there being none to resist them, or preuent them. By reason whereof (O my fellow souldiers) for the com­moditie of both Realmes, I am willingly de­termined to make peace with the King of Verbes, and of mine owne free will, will goe toward him, and giue him mine hand. Not­withstanding, thinke not that I speake thus because I haue lost stomacke, or that I am timorous; but because there is nothing more sure, that the affaires of the Nounes and Verbes can continue, vnlesse they bee friends tigether, knit and quiet in one: Of my selfe I doe mine office, not doubting but that I teach you that; which serueth to the continu­ing benefit and commoditie of euery one in generall, being ready willingly to doe what your will is.

This profitable Oration, and no lesse necessary saying of the King, greatly plea­sed all the assembly, and all the crew of the Souldiers cried aloud, desiring that that which the King had so wisely spoken, might bee as diligently done. So there was sent into the campe of the Verbes for Ambassadours certaine of the wisest and [Page] chiefest of the Nounes: who hauing first made without much difficulty a truce, fi­nally came in such agrement with the king of Verbes, and his greatest Lords, that three personages should bee chosen, which should bee exactly seene, and haue vnderstanding in all customes, rules and termes of Grammar: and that to their a­ward and arbitrament (by solemne oath being sworne thereto) both parties should hold them, and their rest; without any contradiction. Great was the difficultie, and much more was the disputation, to whom the charge should bee giuen to make the treatie of the peace. Many pro­cured meanes to haue the same office on them, and to diuers was the voice giuen, and other againe tooke it from them: In the end it was agreed by Priscian, Lina­crus, and Despauterius, that Lilius should haue the charge and authority to knit and make sure the Articles of the peace: who being sent for, came to the campe, and hauing there heard the reasons on both sides, and diligently waighed all the businesse; In the end pronounced this sentence.

To the Kings of Grammar, to their [Page] Gentlemen, to their Citizens, and all Stu­dents good happe and commoditie bee that which now is discussed. Whereas wee were deputed to take away the contentious disorders, to put apart all the slanders, wrongs and domages that heretofore haue come vp­on the Kings of Grammar, and their souldi­ers, all which wee reuoke, take away, and blot out: which if they may not bee forgotten, at the least our decree is, that they bee neuer hereafter more spoken of.

Item, That henceforth when a solemne Oration commeth to bee made, that both the Kings of Grammar in good agreement with their subiects come together, as Verbe, Noune, Pronoune, Participle, Aduerbe, Coniunction, Preposition, Interiection.

Item, Wee appoint that in common and familiar speach, the Noune and the Verbe only doe beare the burden, taking for their helpe whether of them they will, but to leaue the other by, to the end that be­ing put too often in worke, they bee not mo­lested.

Item, Wee ordaine that the Noune serue to the Verbe, and when hee goeth formest as touching the case, ought also to be gouerned of the Verbe, but in speach that the Noune [Page] bee before the Verbe, and the same being af­ter, ought therefore to gouerne the Noune touching his Case: but concerning his Per­sons and Numbers, the Verbe ought to giue [...] place to the Noune, Pronoune, or Parti­ciple.

Item, Wee appoint the Participle beare remembrance of the Nounes and the Verbe, and haue the gouernment of the Verbe be­fore him first, and that of the Noune after him last.

Furthermore we permit the Verbe, where neede is to make an O [...]ation himselfe alone, in the first and second Person, and also in the third Person in certaine Verbes of action al­ways notwithsta [...]ding vnder the authoritie of the Noune, but not expressing the sa [...]e.

This sentence was giuen and published in the presence of both parties, and it plea­sed very well all the assembly, and hath since euer beene obserued of all the inha­bitants of Grammar. Also the Vniuersities haue approued it: The Vniuersitie of Pa­ris obseruing the rest, craued then for her Students, that they might pronounce Nounes and Verbes at their pleasure, and that without any regard of the quantitie of sillables. But because betweene the Rela­tiues [Page] and Antecedents, betweene the Ad­iectiues and the Substantiues, betweene the word gouerning, and gouerned, betweene the determined, and also betweene perfect speach and imperfect was an old quarrell, striuing whether of them were chiese and greatest: It was also concluded to ioyne them in vnitie, that the Relatiue of sub­stance identitiall, should agree in Gender, Number, and Person, with his Antecedent.

Item, That the Adiectiue should obey to his Substantiue in Case, Gender, and Number: and that the gouerned word should follow the gouerning: and that the Relatiue of the accident should onely re­present the Antecedent in such accident or propertie, in what manner the referred, and the referrent agreed by rule of diuersitie with the Anticedent: and that the speach imperfect should depend vpon the perfect; and the specifying, of the specified, and be­tweene two Adiectiues, two substantiues, two Verbes of the Infinitiue mode, two per­fect speaches, and betweene two imperfects to bee no bond of seruice. Furthermore the said William Lillie would, that be­tweene sayings and doings might bee made a peace and agreement: but the ad­uice [Page] was, that if that discord were once taken away, the Barbor-surgeons and Ta­uerne-keepers would haue little to doe: wherefore they left that thing euen as they found it. All students of Ignorance, with these bussards of Barbary, Ignoramus and Dulman his Clearke, were by com­mandement exiled for euer out of all Grammar; and all false Latine was euer after confiscated to their vse. The Barba­rous were chased bayond the Alpes into their Cities and Borrough-townes: But the Ignorant through the fauour of some Princes, are bred not onely in and tho­row Italie, but also in Rome, the mother of good letters: and there whether shee will or no, doe they continue, among whom there are some being purueied of fatt Prebends are obserued so dull-headed and doltish, that if yee aske them Amo quae pars? They will say, parlate Italiano chio vt intenda, so much in assery they sur­passe in ignorance the great Mules where­on they are so highly got vp. Moreouer there was giuen irrecouerable power to the deputed by the strong and firme counsell of them all to search out, to pun­nish, and exile (as monsters of nature) all [Page] euill-fauoured corrupters of Grammar, as halfe Latins, halfe Greekes, and they to doe all things that they thought to bee profitable to the honor and aduancement of all good letters. And to the end that they might the easier and more lightly ex­ecute their charge, there were comman­ded forthwith certain Rules to be drawne vp, which were accordingly done; and now there is peace on both sides, euery one knowes his place, as you may more at large perceiue by the Orders esta­blished; where I leaue you: FAREWELL.

A Lamentation vpon the Con [...]lagration of the Mu­ses Habitation: Or a Discription of the burning of a Pettie Schoole.

VVHat heat of learning kindl'd your desire,
You Muses sons to set your house on fire?
What loue of Honor in your breast did turne,
Those sparkes of Vertue into flames to burne?
Or wa'st some higher cause, were the hot God's
[...]hoebus and Vulcan, (old friends) now at ods?
What ere the cause was, sure ill was th'intent:
Which all the Muses iustly may lament.
[...]ut aboue all [...]or name sake Polaehimney,
[...]ewayles the downefall, of this learned Chimney.
Where you might see, without or speech or sence:
[...]ay the sad ashes, of an Accedence.
What Numbers heere of Nounes to wracke did goe?
[...]s Domus Liber, and a many moe.
[...]woefull Case, no Sex the flames did spare,
[...]ach Gender, in this losse had Common share,
[...]ere might you see the rufull Declinations,
[...]fifteene Pronounes and foure Coniugations.
[Page] Some Gerunds, Di, but some Do over come,
And some with heate & smoke, are quite strook Dum.
Supines, lay gasping vpward, voyd of sences.
The Moodes were mad to see Imperfect Tences.
Aduerbes of Place, threw downe their lofty stories:
As Vbi, Ibi, Illic, Intus, Foris.
Coniunctions, so disioyn'd, as you would wonder:
Noe cupling scarse, but it was burnt asunder.
The Praepositi [...]ns, knew not where to bee.
Each Interiection, cry'd Heu woe is mee.
FOr the Due ioyning of the thinges againe,
A Neighbour called Qui mihi, came amaine.
Else sure the Fire, had into flames so turn'd:
Gods, Men, Months, Rivers, Winds, and all had burn't
Now gan the flames the Hetroclites to cumber:
And poore Supellex, lost his Plurall number.
Of Verbs, scarce had escaped one of twenty:
Had there not bin by chance As in presenti.

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.