ENGLISH ATLAS, Tome the First.

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AFRICA: BEING AN ACCURATE DESCRIPTION OF THE REGIONS OF Aegypt, Barbary, Lybia, and Billedulgerid, The LAND of Negroes, Guinee, Aethiopia, and the Abyssines, With all the Adjacent Islands, either in the Mediterranean, Atlantick, Southern, or Oriental Sea, belonging thereunto.

With the several Denominations of their Coasts, Harbors, Creeks, Rivers, Lakes, Cities, Towns, Castles, and Villages.

THEIR Customs, Modes, and Manners, Languages, Religions, and Inexhaustible Treasure; With their Governments and Policy, variety of Trade and Barter, And also of their Wonderful Plants, Beasts, Birds, and Serpents.

Collected and Translated from most Authentick Authors, And Augmented with later Observations;

Illustrated with Notes, and Adorn'd with peculiar Maps, and proper Sculptures, By JOHN OGILBY Esq Master of His Majesties REVELS in the Kingdom of IRELAND.

LONDON, Printed by Tho. Johnson for the Author, and are to be had at his House in White Fryers, M.DC.LXX.

CHARLES R.
CHARLES, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c.
To all Our loving Subjects, of what De­gree, Condition, or Quality soever, within Our Kingdoms and Dominions, Greeting.

Whereas, upon the Humble Request of Our Trusty and Well-beloved Servant John Ogilby Esq We were graciously pleased, by Our Warrant of the 25th of May, in the Seventeenth Year of Our Reign, to grant him the Sole Privi­ledge and Immunity of Printing in Fair Volumns, adorn'd with Sculptures, Virgil Translated, Homers Iliads, Aesop Paraphras'd, and Our Entertainment in Passing through Our City of London, and Co­ronation, together with Homers Odysses, and his fore-mention'd Aesop, with his Additions and Annotations, in Folio; with a Prohibition, That none should Print or Re-print the same in any Volumns, without the Consent and Approbation of him the said John Ogilby, his Heirs, Ex­ecutors, Administrators, or Assigns, within the Term of Fifteen Years next ensuing the Date of Our said Warrant: And whereas by one other Warrant, of the 20th of March, in the Nineteenth Year of Our Reign, We were in like manner graciously pleas'd to grant him the said John Ogilby the sole Priviledge of Printing Homers Works in the Original, adorn'd with Sculptures; a Second Collection of Aesops Fables, Para­phras'd, and adorn'd with Sculptures; The Embassy of the Netherland East-India-Company to the Emperor of China, with Sculptures; and an Octavo Virgil in English, without Sculptures, heretofore by him Printed; with like Prohibition, That none should Print or Re-print the same in any Volumns, without the Consent and Approbation of him the said John Ogilby, his Heirs, Executors, and Assigns, within the Term of Fifteen Years next ensuing the Date of Our said Warrant: And whereas the said John Ogilby hath humbly besought Ʋs to grant him further License and Authority, to have the sole Priviledge of Printing a Descri­ption of the whole VVorld, viz. Africa, America, Asia, and Europe, in several Volumns, adorn'd with Sculptures: VVe taking it into Our Princely Consideration, and for his farther Encouragement, have thought fit to grant, and we do hereby give and grant him the sole Priviledge of Printing the said Books last-mentioned: And VVe do by these Presents [Page]straitly charge, prohibit, and forbid all our Loving Subjects to Print or Re-print the said Books, in any Volumns, or any of them; or to Copy or Counterfeit any the Sculptures or Ingravements therein, within the Term of Fifteen Years next ensuing the Date of these Presents, without the Consent and Approbation of the said John Ogilby, his Heirs, Executors, Administrators, or Assigns; as they and every of them so offending, will answer the contrary at their utmost Peril: VVhereof the VVardens and Company of Stationers of Our City of London, are to take particular notice, that due Obedience be given to this Our Royal Command.

By His Majesties Command. J. TREVOR.

To the High and Mighty MONARCH, CHARLES II. Of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, KING, Defender of the Faith, &c.

SIR,

SInce it pleased Divine Providence, by Your Ma­jesties sole Conduct and Direction, to Compose all Foreign Differences, setling at last Your weary People, Harrased with Fire and Pestilence, under a Necessary and Honourable Peace.

The Effects of which, soon Chearing up Your Loyal Subjects, they, laying Arms aside, straight betook themselves to the several Improvements of Arts and Sciences, each stri­ving to outvie the other, in what seemed most Conducible to the Restaura­tion of the former Wealth, Splendor, and Reputation of these Your Ma­jesties Kingdoms, Renown'd and Famous through the World.

But amongst these Busie Preparations, no Work appears more Per­spicuous than that Stupendious Miracle! the Raising from a Confused Heap of Ruines (sooner than some believ'd they could remove the Rub­bish) Your Imperial City, already looking down, though Private Houses, [Page]upon former Publick Structures, hereafter to be the Business of Foreign Nations to See and Wonder at.

I also, Dread Soveraign, feeling a Spring of Youthful Vigour, warming my Veins with fresh Hopes of better Times, have under­taken, according to my Mean Abilities, no small Business, a Work of Time, requiring some Years to Publish, being, May it please Your Majesty, a New Model of the Ʋniverse, an English Atlas, or the setting forth, in our Native Dress, and Modern Language, an Accurate Description of all the Kingdoms and Dominions in the Four Regions thereof.

Since such, and so great an Off-spring cannot be Born in a day, nor see the light of Publication at once, being several and distinct Volumns, this my first Issue, Most Gracious Sir, being Africa Compleat, in the Name of the Rest yet Ʋnfinish'd, I humbly Dedi­cate and Tender to Your most Serene Majesty, as an Earnest and Re­presentative of the whole Work.

In which, Dread Sir, You may behold amidst a Gallaxy of Southern Constellations, or the numerous Flourishing Cities and Seats of that famous Region, Your own Bright Star, none of the smallest Mag­nitude, Your Metropolis, Your Royal City Tangier, which Seated on the Skirts of the Atlantick, keeps the Keys both of the Ocean and In-Land Sea, whose unparallell'd Scituation, Temperature of Air, and Fertility of Soil, may well make the Story True, if Romance, that an antient Emperor resolv'd to fix there his Imperial Seat, to be his Terrestrial Paradice, Invironing with Walls of Brass, a Gold and Sil­ver City.

Thus Prostrating at Your Sacred Feet, that which if Your Majesty be pleased to receive with a Smile, Your Subjects through Your Brittish Monarchy, not onely Ambitious in obeying Your Commands, but ready to follow, in what they may, Your Royal Example, will give the Work also a Civil Reception.

Whilest I, Dread Soveraign, to clear all difficulties, am busie ex­ploding Old Tales, Fictions, and Hear-says of the Antients, Collect­ing and Translating better and more Modern Authority, especially Eye­witnesses, our late Sea Voyagers, that I might not weary Your Sacred Ears with any thing, if possible, but undoubted Truth, May Your Majesty, though Your Claim be Just, and Your Sword able to Intitle You Emperor of the Ʋniverse, Your Thundring Soverdigns already [Page]Commanding the Sea, and Royal Standards by Land, fixt in Possessi­on in the four Regions thereof, rather by Your Example at Home, and Mediation abroad, Reconcile those Ruffling Princes that delight in War, setling them in Leagues of Amity; for which so great a Blessing, may they, You being the best of Gods Vicegerents on Earth, Crown also the King of Peace, a second Augustus, whose Piety and Prudence hath once more shut up the Temple of Janus, binding in Per­durable Fetters, Bloody and All-destroying War for ever.

Your Sacred Majesties Most humble, Most obedient Servant, and loyal Subject, JOHN OGILBY.

THE PREFACE.

ENtering upon so great a Work, being no small Concern in my Territory of Business, I sup­pose it proper, never Apologizing hereto­fore, by way of Preface, to give you a brief Review of all my former Endeavors, so lead­ing you on to this present Occasion.

Many years are past with various Revoluti­ons, since in the first Fluctuations of the late Grand Rebellion, I being left at leisure from former Imployments belonging to the quiet of Peace wherein I was bred, in stead of Arms, to which in parties most began to buckle, I betook my self to something of Literature, in which, till then, altogether a Stran­ger; And drawing towards the Evening of my Age, I made a lit­tle Progress, bending my self to softer Studies, adapted to my Abi­lities and Inclinations, Poesie: And first Rallying my new rais'd Forces, a small and inconsiderable parcel of Latin, I undertook no less a Conquest, than the Reducing into our Native Language; the Great Master and Grand Improver of that Tongue, Vir­gil, the Prince of Roman Poets; and though I fell much short in this my vain Enterprise, yet such, and so happy prov'd the Versi­on, and so fairly accepted, that of me, till then obscure, Fame be­gan to prattle, and soon after I, forsooth, stood forth a new Author, and so much cheer'd up with fresh Encouragements, that from a Mean Octavo, a Royal Folio Flourish'd, Adorn'd with Sculp­ture, and Illustrated with Annotations, Triumphing with the affixt Emblazons, Names, and Titles of a hundred Patrons, all bold As­sertors in Vindication of the Work, which (what e're my Deserts) being Publish'd with that Magnificence and Splendor, appear'd a new, and taking Beauty, the fairest that till then the English Press ever boasted.

Yet this first Endeavour rais'd my Reputation no farther, than to be accounted a Good Translator, a Faithful Interpreter, one that had dabled well in anothers Helicon; but I, greedy of more, [Page]having tasted the sweetness of a little Fame, would not thus sit down, but ambitious to try my own Wing, endeavor'd to Sore a little higher. The most Antient and Wisest of the Grecian Sages, who first led us through a Vocal Forest, where Beasts also spake, and Birds sat Chanting in every Tree, Notes for Men to follow: Aesop the Prince of Mythologists became my Quarry, on his plain Song I Descanted, on his short and pithy Sayings, Paraphras'd, raising my voice to such a height, that I took my degree amongst the Minor Poets.

My next Expedition with Sails a Trip, and swoln with the Breath of a general Applause, was to discover Greece, that there, I might from Homers own hand, the King of Pernassus, receive plentifully at the Fountain-Head staining Draughts of the brisker Hypocreen; in which I had a double Design, not onely to bring over so Antient and Famous an Author, but to inable my self the better to carry on an Epick Poem of my own Composure; whose Iliads with much Cost and Labor at last finishing, being Dedicated to His Sacred Majesty, and Crown'd with His Gracious Acceptance, I main­tain'd my Post, loosing no ground of former Reputation.

Soon after, being order'd by the Commission of Triumphs, to Ban­quet His Majesty at the Cities cost with a Poetick Entertainment, Marching with His Train of Nobles through His Imperial Cham­ber to His Corronation at Westminster, the Argument being great, seeming almost impossible to set forth the Dear Affections, and un­expressible Joys of all His Loyal Subjects, especially of His Metro­polis London, at His so Happy Restauration; and that the Glory of so Bright a Day, the most Splendid that e're this Nation saw, should not close with the Setting-Sun, but appear a shining Tro­phy to Posterity; I, at my own proper Cost and Pains, brought it to light once more, in a Royal Folio, containing the whole Solem­nity, the Triumphal Arches and Cavalcade, delineated in Sculpture, the Speeches and Impresses Illustrated from Antiquity, and Dedi­cated to His Majesty; of which, some, and but a few, escaping the late Conflagration, remain'd.

But whilst I busied my self thus, neither sparing Cost nor Pains, to dress and set forth my own Volumns with all the Splendor and Ostentation that could be, I thought it also Religious, and the part of a good Christian, to do something for Gods sake, to adorn in like manner, with Ornamental Accomplishments, the Holy Bi­ble, which by my own sole Conduct, proper Cost and Charges, at last appear'd the largest and fairest Edition that was ever yet set forth in any Vulgar Tongue.

Next in order to the compleating of Homer, I fell upon his Odis­ses, which Dedicated to his Grace the Duke of Ormond, then His Majesties Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, to whom, in that Kingdom, in the late miserable Distractions, I was a Servant, he kindly accept­ing thereof.

Then, being restless, though weary of tedious Versions, and such long Journeys in Translating Greek and Latin Poets, Works asking no less than a Mans whole life to accomplish, I, the better to feed my Fancy with variety of Objects, a second time betook my self to Aesop, where I found such Success, that soon I seem'd to tread Air, and walk alone, becoming also a Mytholo­gist; not onely Paraphrasing, but a Designer of my own Fables, and at last screw'd my self up to a greater height, finishing two He­roick Poems, viz. The Ephesian Matron, and The Roman Slave, which Volumn, a most Worthy and Illustrious Person, the Earl of Ossery, vouchsafed to Patronize; and although a Second Part, met with a Fate not common, to be esteem'd equal with the for­mer.

Thus elevated by the Success of these my last heightned Essays, I thought it time to go on (having fitted Materials, both Historick and Poetick) with my long intended Edifice, my own great Fa­brick, an Epick Poem, already divided into twelve Books, some al­most finish'd, call'd CAROLIES, from our Miracle of Hero's, Charles the First, being the best Pattern of true Prudence, Valor, and Christian Piety; of whom, though too late, and too unworthy to be affix'd to his Herse, out of the abundance of my Zeal and Loy­alty to so matchless a Worthy; I hope there may be indulgence for the placing these Lines, which may remain to Posterity, in the Portal of this Great Work.

Mirror of Princes! Charles, the Royal Martyr,
Who for Religion, and His Subjects Charter,
Spent the best Blood Injustice Sword e're dy'd,
Since the rude Souldier Pierc'd our Saviours side;
Whose Sufferance, Patience, reach'd to such a height,
For Angels onely with Sun-beams to write:
No mortal Hand, less my unworthy Pen,
Fit to Display the best of Kings and Men.

This Work thus settled, and so well resolv'd upon to be the Pride, Divertisement, Business, and sole Comfort of my Age, that day annually so fatal to the Royal Party, swallow'd in that devour­ing Deluge of Fire, with most part of the City, that, and my whole Estate.

Thus fall'n into a low condition, groaning under a double bur­then of Sickness and Poverty, and almost quite despairing, the Work that might have Boy'd me up once more, thus irrecoverably lost; and reminding, that many of my Friends, and Worthy Patrons were more favorable to my Endeavors, when under a Cloud, than after Shining in full Lustre; and that since his Majesties Restaura­tion, the minds of those restor'd to former Fortunes, or rais'd to several Advancements, were more abroad, and not at leisure to [Page]look on such private Divertisements at home; so that those later Volumns, which in course were Printed to perfect the former, re­main'd a Drug, until the insatiate Flames, at once, and in one bad Market, clear'd me of my Store, and House also.

Besides grave Poesie, in which Homer and Virgil's Heros spake Honor, and the greatness of their Souls; comprizing in few Lines, by Example, more Rules of good Life, than Phylosophers in many Volumns; loosing place and former Lustre, Rough Satyr, Rude Travestee, and Rhime Doggerel, gotten above, assisted with such, that confidently avouch, that we in this more Refin'd Age, speak better things ex tempore, than what hath been Recorded by the whole Rabble of Antiquity; looking down upon Moral Ver­tues, as stale Saws, and stiff Formalities, onely fit for School-Boys Theams, and that our Brisker Youth, and more Sublime Wits, should be asham'd to peruse, much more to follow.

Thus a new Gaggle drowning the old Quire of Melodious Swans, I resolv'd to desist; and shutting up the Fountain of the Muses, left Clambering steep Pernassus, and fell into the beaten way, and more frequented Paths of Prose: My first undertaking be­ing, An Embassy from New Batavia, to the Emperor of China, which Publish'd in my last Lottery, prov'd so acceptable, that I resolv'd to carry on in the same way hereafter, the whole Business of my Pen.

When, as in my former Acquisitions, I flew first at the highest and best Poetick Authors; so now as much ambitious, I pitch'd up­on the like Accomplishment in Prose, and no less serves my turn, than the Reducement of the whole World, viz. A New and Accu­rate Description of the Four Regions thereof, the first of which being AFRICA; wherein, having made some Progress, still Collecting more Materials towards the Compleating of so great a VVork, a Vo­lumn lately Publish'd beyond Sea in Low-Dutch, came to my hands, full of new Discoveries, being my chief and onely Business to en­quire after, set forth by Dr O. Dapper, a Discreet and Painful Author, whose large Addition, added to my own Endeavors, hath much Accelerated the VVork; which thus being finish'd, adorn'd with more variety of Sculpture, Maps of Cities and Countreys, and a much larger Declaration than any yet extant, Presents it self to your favourable View and Acceptation; and will, I hope, (such is the Intrinsical Worth and Beauty thereof) invite a general Encou­ragement from all parts, that I may more chearfully and speedily go on with the Remainder; which if the Effects follow, I doubt not, but a short time will produce the Happy Conclusion, by

Your most humble Servant, John Ogilby.

A CATALOGUE OF THE NAMES OF THE General Authors, both Ancient and Modern, besides Later Voyagers, Consulted to the carrying on of this First Volumn; who led us by the Hand through those Vast, and till of late Untracted REGIONS of AFRICA.

OLiver van Noord, Jacob van Neck, Stephen Vanderhagen, Cornelius Mate­lieff, Peter Williams, George Spilbergen, Peter Both, The Governours Peter Vander Brock, and many more; as Samuel Blomert, one long Re­sident there, his Observations being faithfully Collected by the Learned Isaac Vossius.

THe Particular Authors for the several Provinces, beginning with Egypt, are, Johannes de Leo, or Africanus, Louis Marmol, Sanutus, Francois Alvarez, Peter Belonius, Vilamont, Radziviel, Johannes Alpinus, Santen Seguesse, Caesar, Lam­bert, Matthias Vossius, Peter de la Valle, Balthazar Tellez; these being Portuguese, Italian, Latin, and French Writers; besides the Descriptions of other both Anci­ent and Modern Geographers; as, Strabo, Dionysius, Perigetes, Pomponius Mela, Ptolomy, Cluverius, &c.

THose that give us an Account of Barbary, are the afore-mention'd Leo and Marmol, Diego de Haedo, Johannes Gramaye, Braeves, Cel. Curio, Diego de Torres, and others. In like manner, there is taken out of the first Part of Leo, Marmol, and Sanutus, all that lies in Numidia, Biledulgerid, and Libia, or Zaahra, and the inmost part of Negro-land.

AS concerning the several Places lying along the Sea-Coast of the Negroes Countrey, viz. between Cape de Verd and the Kingdom of Lovango, being a Coast of about 900 Leagues, we find all the foremention'd Geographers to be defective in it: But most of what hath been found hitherto, we have from the Hollanders, in their several Voyages to Guinee, Collected by Peter de Marcez, who even to these Times gives us so large a Description, that it descends to the meanest Village; and withal, a large Account of their Religion, Modes, Manners, and Merchandize.

Samuel Blomert also, remaining long in those Parts, being very inquisitive, hath rendred a more large and exact Accompt concerning Guin [...], than the for­mer.

NExt, in reference to those Coasts near the Cape of Good Hope, there hath been almost nothing said by former Writers, but onely what hath been Collected out of the several Journals of the Hollanders, in their Voyages to the East-Indies, which are very large and Authentick.

THe Territories and Coasts of the Nether-Ethiopia are lately as well Sur­vey'd and Delineated; first, by that Eminent Author Johan de Barros; next, Pigafet, Sanutus, Jarrick, Moquet, Od. Barbosa, Urreta, Maffeus, Peter Davty, and some others.

FOr the Description of the Abyssines, or Upper-Ethiopia, of which we were till of late in a manner altogether ignorant, let us thank Nicholas Godig­nus, Francois Alvarez, Jarrick, Dam. Goez, and especially Father Balthazar Tellez, who hath far exceeded all the former, having in an excellent Composure, in the Portuguese Language, given us a large and accurate Description thereof.

ANd as concerning the Islands belonging to Africa, most of the fore-men­tion'd Authors, with some few others, have set their Hands to; except the Salt-Isles, or those of Cape de Verd, and that of St. Thomas, which boast their Description chiefly from Blomert.

ALso Madagascar, or St. Laureuce, Stephen de Flaccourt hath for the most part ingrossed and appropriated to himself; he being long resident there, im­ploy'd by the French East-India Company: Besides, a Frenchman that suffer'd Ship­wrack on that Coast, hath done well; but not so hit the Truth as the for­mer.

FOr the Island of Malta we are beholden to Bosio, Megisaer, Hieronymo, Alex­andrinus de Naberat, besides one, a great Observer, that long Inhabited there.

AN ACCURATE DESCRIPTION OF AFRICA.

The Induction.

THE Terraqueous Globe, (whereof Africa shares no narrow Limits) seems but an Imaginary Point, to the vast Expansions of the Universe, though in it self of a Great Magnitude; for its Girdle, or Equi­noctial Circle, contains in length 21600 English Miles, or rather such as 60 make Concerning this, see Mr. Norwoods Experiment, or Sea-mans Practice. As likewise Mr. Oughtred's Treatise of Navigation, at the end of his Circles of Proportion. a Degree. And the Diameter or Axis of the Earth, according to the same measure, amounts to 6875 Miles. The Semi­diameter 3438. But the Superficies of this Mighty Ball, if by a General Survey set forth in square Miles, reckons up 148510584 of the like Miles, which is the product of the Circumference, multiplied by the Diameter, (not omit­ting its Fractional part.)

The Earth is divided into three Parts, or rather Islands, remoted from each other by Circum-ambient Sea, though their Largeness nominates them Con­tinents. The first contains Europe, Asia, and Africa; the second America; and the third Isle, Magellanica.

The first, being the then onely known World, The Old World. Antiquity confers on the three Sorts of Noah; to Sem, Who, some say, though the eldest, shared the least part, being contented with his Patrimonial Improve­ments, whilest his younger brothers roamed through, settling their several Plan­tations in the un-inhabited world.Asia; to Ham, Africa; and gave Japhet, Europe; yet later Ceographers make of this onely two parts, casting Africk into Europe, supposing the Gades, or Hercules Pil­lars. Mountains Calpe and Abyle, (now the Jaws of Gibraltar) were opened by an Earthquake, receiving then also an Inundation from the Atlantick, which now makes the Mediterranean Sea, being before all continued Land.

Others divide by the Mid-land Sea from the Straights of Gibraltar, unto Tanais, placing Europe on the North, and spreading Asia on the other side, over the utmost Extent of Africa: Some double this again, making four Divisions of this our first Part of the World, (viz.) Europe, Asia, Africa, and Egypt; Others later have once more reduced them to three, joyning Egypt to Asia, (yet very [Page 2]improperly) making the Nile bound Asia and Africa, so that Egypt striding the River, extends her Limits into both. But the most modern Geographers, make the Arabian Gulf the Meer betwixt Asia and Africa, casting Egypt into the last.

Concerning the several Divisions of this our old World, much hath been said both by Greek and Latine Writers, not pertinent in this place to be ta­ken notice of.

The second Island of the Globe, The New World. call'd America, from Americus Vesputius a Flo­rentine, who by a lucky hit, Or the gingle of his Name Americk with Africk, though signifying no more in English than Harry Wasp. obtained the Denomination of this New World, from the first Discoverer Christopher Columbus a Genöese, employed by Ferdinand and Isabel, King and Queen of Castile and Arragon, in the Year 1492. The Southern Parts Peru, that vast Empire, was after penetrated by Pizarro, Anno 1525.

Magellanica, The Unknown World. the Unknown World, or third Island, was so called from her first Discoverer Ferdinand Magellanus, being found by him in 1520.

Sir Francis Drake our Famous Navigator, forty five years after made a far­ther Inspection, and in 1557. Sir Thomas Candish; next Oliver van Noord, a Hol­lander; but the latest and last who made a far deeper incision than all the rest, was Ferdinando de Quier, a Spaniard.

Thus much in brief concerning the Division and Dimension of the Uni­versal Globe, which we are hereafter to treat of; henceforth we shall onely speak of Africa, the chosen Argument of this our First Volume, of which ere we particularize, thus in general.

Africa in general.

AFRICA, Names of Africa. so called from the Grecians, according to Festus, and the most Eminent Geographers, signifies wanting, or devoid of Cold; though by some the whole was taken for Lybia, which is now but a single Province; Also they call'd it Olympia, Oceania, Coryphe, Hesperia, Ortygia, Ammonis, Aethiopia, Cyrene, Ofiusa, Cefenia, and Eria, but the Romans call'd it onely Lybia and Africa. Lybia from Lybia Daughter of Epaphus son of Jupiter; and Africa from Afer the son of Hercules. The Moores, if you consult Thebets Geo­graphy, call it Alkebulan, and the Indians, Bezecath; the Arabians, who formerly over-ran the major part, knew their Conquests by the Name of Ifriquia, de­rived from the word Faruch, which signifies Separation, because it is visibly more separated, not onely from theirs, but from all other Countreys, than any other part of the whole World; for the Mid-land Sea parts it from Europe; the Arabian Gulf, from Asia; and the Atlantick Ocean, from our later Discoveries; Some Arabians (as Marmoll tells us) call it Ifiriquia, The West-Indies. in honor of Melek Ifiriqui, an ancient King of Arabia Felix, who driven from his own, planted here a New Kingdom, which after grew great and populous: The Turks as some write, call it The West Countrey as to the Arabians, who pene­trated that way. Magribon, from Magrip, though this Name properly belongs onely to the Western Sea.

The most received and best known is Africa, which some derive from Aphar an Hebrew word, signifying Dust, and analogizing well with that dry and sandy Soyl: Festus an old Grammarian, as was said before, will have Africa from a compounded Word, with the Greek Letter α, which hath a privative or furtive quality, and the Word [...], signifying Cold, which conjunctively [Page]

  • Africa in general, stands divided into seven Re­gions, besides Islands.
    • Egypt, Fol. 39.
      • Upper.
      • Lower.
      • Middle.
    • Barbary, 146. and therein
      • Fez.
      • Morocco.
      • Tunis.
      • Tremesen.
      • Dara, and Barka, the onely Common­wealth in Africa.
    • Biledulgerid, 283. contains,
      • Three Realms, and Four Kingdoms.
    • The Desart Sarra. 305.
    • Negro-Land. 315.
      • Nineteen Kingdoms.
    • Ethiopia Ne­ther. 489.
      • Four Realms.
    • &
    • Ethiopia Up­per. 632.
      • Nineteen Kingdoms.
    • The Islands. 659.

[Page]

AFRICAE ACCURATA TABULA ex officina IACOBUM MEURSIUM.

[Page] [Page 3]makes void, or depriv'd of Cold, well suiting with the sultry disposition of that Air; Bochartus who reduced all Language to the old Phenician, will have Africa to be from Feruc, a Corn-Ear, which chang'd into Feric, comes at last to Afric, that is, a Corn-Countrey, which well may be, especially those parts which the Romans knew, then so abounding with Grain, whose Harvests supported That World Rome! when most populous, and in her greatest height and glory; with which Plenty their Poets prided to swell their Verses.

As Claudian:

Tot mihi pro meritis Libyam Nilumque dedêre,
Ut dominam plebem bellatoremque Senatum
Classibus aestivis alerent, geminoque vicissim
Littore diversi complerent horrea venti.
Stabat certa salus: Memphis si forte negasset,
Pensabam Pharium Getulis messibus annum.
Frugiferas certare rates, lateque videbam
Punica Niliacis concurrere carbasa velis.
They gave me Libya,
De Laud. Stil. Lib. 2.
and th' Aegyptian Shore
For my deserts, that they might with their Store
The People, and the Warlike Senate feed,
And with contrary Winds supply their need.
Famine farewel: if Memphis should deny,
Getulian Harvests will our Wants supply.
Freighted with Corn, I saw the Punick Fleet,
And Ships from Nilus in our Harbours meet.

And Prudentius:

Respice num Libyci desistat ruris arator
Frumentis onerare rates, & ad Ostia Tibris
Mittere triticeos in pastum plebis acervos.
See if the Libyan Swain neglects to load
In Symmach.
Our Ships with Corn, and to the Ostian Road
Sends Wheaten Mountains for the Peoples Food.

And Horace:

Illum, si proprio condidit horreo
Quicquid de Libycis veritur areis,
Gaudentem patrios findere sarculo
Agros Attalicis conditionibus,
Nunquam dimoveas, ut trabe Cypria
Myrtoum pavidus nauta secet mare.
Perswasions him shall never charm,
Hor. Ode 1.
Grown proud of his Paternal Farm,
Where Lybick Harvests thwack his Grange,
Not for King Attalus Wealth to change
His plenteous state, to furrow Brine,
And cross rough Seas in brittle Pine.

But next to those who derive the Name from the Hebrew word Epher, or Aphar, Festus seems to have hit the Etymology of the word Africa.

JUdea, and the Judean Desarts, Arabia Petrea, and Sues, with the Red-Sea, Its Borders. and the Arabian Gulf, bound Africa East-ward; the South-side stretching to Cape Bon Speranza and part of the West, the Ethiopick Ocean borders; the remainder the Atlantick; on the North-side Gibraltar, and the Mid-land Sea; so that Africa lies divided from all the World by Sea, except Asia, where it sticks by a narrow Isthmus, or Neck of Land of about sixty miles, so seeming the great­est Island of the World, form'd like a huge Pyramid, whose straight Basis takes up all from the Mouth of Nile to Gibraltar, verging with the Me­diterranean Sea; one of its two sides running Eastward through the Red-Sea, the other Westward washed by the Atlantick, conjoyning both their Points, making its Apex or Spire the Grand Southern Cape: whose largest Extent from Gibraltar to Bon Speranza, contains 3600 miles; its utmost breadth from Cape de Verde, to the Point of Guardafuy, at the Mouth of the Arabian Gulf, 3150.

¶ THe Ancients never had any clear Prospect of Africa, The Ignorance of Anti­quity. more than what vergeth the Mid-land Sea; the rest obscure; onely guessing or hear-say: but of all beyond the head Springs of Nile, and the Mountains of the Moon, they were utterly ignorant (being within these last two hundred years discovered to us) because much of those vast Tracts of Africa lying under the Torrid Zone, they concluded not habitable, being parcht up with the Suns excessive [Page 4]heat, therefore they never thought of further Penetrations, but blockt them­selves up with a possest prejudice, and their own ignorance: Yet for all this, some old Writers admit most parts to be habitable, but with such monstrous Nations, that they deserve not to be accounted Humane, as From Pomp. Mela, and the like Authors, our fictio­nary Traveller Sir John Mandevil, raised his so bold Stories. Pomponius Mela says, The Gymfasants are a naked People, who know no use of weapons either for private or military Defence, nor how to avoid a well-aim'd Javelin, ut­terly waving all Commerce with strangers. The Dogs-heads. Cynocephali, who have heads and claws like Dogs, barking like them. The Foot-shadowers. Sciapodes, who are wondrous swift, hopping on one Leg, and lying down on their Backs, make their single Foot an Umbrel, so shading their Bodies from the heat of the Sun. The Headless Blemmyers whose Eyes and Mouth are the onely Face, and that de­lineated upon their Breasts; with other like Fictions.

All which later Voyages have made void, Africa habitable, and why. manifesting the contrary; for the In-land Regions are found for the most part habitable, and the Suns heat by shorter days and coolness of an equal night, assisted with moistening Dews, and fresh Breezes, is much moderated; And though Africa hath many Desarts, yet the greatest part, especially under and on each side the Aequator, suppos'd to be most insupportable, abounds with Springs, Brooks, and Shade-casting Trees; Besides under the Equinox, the Seasons of the Year differ from other Climates, for our remoter Suns bring Cold and Wet; our nearer, Heat and Drowth; but there the contrary: which many admire, yet never dive into the Occult Cause, but straight flying to Providence, say, so it must be: other­wise who could inhabit there? which though we should not altogether reject, yet God working by secondary means, we may, modestly enquire by what? which may probably be thus.

¶ THe Sun darting fiery Beams daily perpendicular into the Sea, raiseth abundance of Vapour, which suddenly ascendeth the Airs colder Re­gion, and there thinly crusting, becomes Snow, which sinking from thence dis­solves into a misty Cloud, or Dewy Rain, then increasing its velocity ac­cording to the Laws of descending Bodies, and also quitting that station, ga­thers into bigger drops, which if in abundance, (as oft happens) falls with the greater violence, no more a Shower, but like Buckets-full, or Cataracts, whose irruption and sudden dis-embogue, agitating the medium, raiseth mighty and cooling Winds, which together supplies the parched Earth, and refrige­rates the sultry Air.

¶ BUt yet this blessing extends not to the In-land Countreys, nor hath the Atlantick Ocean any such influence upon the Western Coasts, unless (which is very rare) the Winde comes from Sea, because the condensed Air, the far­ther it penetrates, the more it rarifies, attenuated by the invading heat of the Soyl, that before it scarce contributes a Dew to stiffen the upper Sands, in a thin Cloud, re-ascending, vanisheth.

But yet the In-land and utmost Western Shores need not much complain, being for the most part Hilly, for there the Mountains are glutted with assi­duous showres, for those huge congested Heaps, being the highest in the world, withstanding the Airs constant motion, still agitated from East to West, or ac­cording to Copernicus, lagging from the Earths diurnal Course, which moves swiftest under the Equator, condenseth by Reverberation the subtiler Air into [Page 5]its first Original, Water, which in the tumultuous commotions of eddying Windes, either finding, or forcing their passage, through unequal Glens and Declivings of the byass'd Mountains, they drive a constant trade, still brewing all sorts of stirring weather, as Winde, Rain, Hail, and Snow, which often covers their Skie-kissing Tops.

But these jarrings of the Elements there, produce happy effects below, vast Champaignes, which else would be all Desarts by natural Drowth, flourish in perpetual Green, fann'd always with cooling Gales, and kept moist with Mountain-floods, which converted into Springs, Brooks, and Rivulets, water in their Meandring Courses, barren Plains like a Garden; so that as in a Para­dise you every where find shady and branching Trees, bearing allsorts of Fruit, like Alcinous Orchard, still blossoming, green, and ripe. Of which Equinoctial Elizium, Homer thus seems to allude:

[...]
[...].
[...],
[...].
[...],
[...]
[...]
[...].
[...],
[...], &c.
Close to the Gates, well hedg'd on either side,
Odyss. Li
A stately Orchard was, four Acres wide:
There pregnant Trees up to the Heavens shoot,
Loaden with Pears, and store of blushing Fruit:
Olives, and Figs, green, budding, ripe appear,
Cherish'd with Western Breezes all the year:
Peach succeeds Peach, Pears, Apples, bloom'd and big,
Grape after Grape, and Fig succeedeth Fig:
Whilst here Vines ripen, there ripe Clusters load
The yielding Branches, ready to be trod.

Thus Africa, which else would be a miserable and unfrequented Desolation, is fruitful and populous, having alternately two Winters and Summers every year; Drowth making one, Moisture the other: but the tops and heads of these Mountains, according to their various Positions, differ from this general Rule, making some exceptions, setling their several Seasons otherwise; Of which I will instance some few.

¶ ON the Coast of Malabar, Winter rules from April to September; The Nature of the Air. Summer commenceth with the beginning of October, shutting up with the end of March: On the Coromandell Shores, just the contrary, yet both scituated alike under the Torrid Zone, in which Season happen great Floods, both from the Ocean, and sudden Falls from the Mount Gatis, not far distant. The like is found also at Cape Rosalgate, and Guardafuy, the utmost Eastern Point of Africa.

¶ BUt to make a deeper and more exact Disquisition, is, that all Arabia towards the East of Africa, lies enclosed with Mountains, whose Rocky Battle­ments appear above the Clouds, their swoln Ridges extending themselves in a long continued Wall, reach from the bottom of the Arabian Gulf, to the Islands of Curiamurie; these towery Hills of so prodigious height, not onely put to a stand all Windes and Rain, but turn them in their hurrying Eddyes, so dispersing every way, as well as in the two out-stretching Capes of Mo­samde and Rosalgate, though they lye much lower than the rest of the Sea Coast: On these Rocky Ascents, appearing to Sea-ward rough and rugged, the poor Arabians, in a very sad condition make their residence.

These people have Winter with those of Coromandell; for their remoter Suns brings them Cold and Wet: but those who dwell on the other side of the [Page 6]Mountains towards the Coast of Frankincense, have the same seasons with those of Malabar; so these Mountains work the like effect on the Arabians, as Gatis on the Indians, their Winter falling in June, July, and September, both in the Land of Frankincense, Arabia Felix, and the whole Coasts of the Curiamurian Isles, unto the Lake Babalmandab.

Near the Arabian Gulf in Ethiopia, you will meet there also the like altera­tions, and the same seasons of the year as at Guardafuy, and the Kingdom of Adell, and all along the Ethiopick Coasts, to the Mouth of Babalmandab, as we have, or those of Coromandell, finding in December and January their hardest weather.

Then they which live betwixt twenty and thirty miles off the Coast, have their Colds more milde, and their Rains so temperate and harmless, they seem rather a comfort than a disturbance, Nature conferring on them such refresh­ing Coolness: but if you venture farther up into the Countrey, then the Scene changing, you are tormented with excessive Heat, for at the same instant while Winter smiles on the Shore, it rages farther up, and their gentle Rains below so unequal to their deluging Showres above, that then there is no travelling any way, all Passages being obstructed with Floods, so sudden and violent, that many perish there with extream Cold, meerly from the raw De­fluxes of chilling waters; such alterations the Mountain Dabyri Bizan causes.

The Portugees and Hollander have also discovered many more such places in Congo and Angola, where their Winter and violent Rains commence in the Vernal Equinox, and continue March, April, and May; their milder showres in the Au­tumnal, September and October; so that in some places they have two Seasons, their former and later Rain; for those steep Mountains (whence Zaire, Coansa, Bengo, and other great Rivers descend) obstruct the course of the Air, and the Land-windes, being hot and dry, but the South-west winde coming from Sea, brings Rain: hence it is manifest that Africa under the Torrid Zone, is for the most part Habitable.

¶ AMongst the Ancients, Ancient Discoveries of it. Hanno a Carthaginian, set forth by that State, disco­vered long since much of the Coasts of Africa, but pierced not far the In­land Countrey, nor did his Voyage give any great light that they might after steer by, though translated from the Punick Language into Greek, and published by Sigismund Gelenius at Bazill in 1533. and in the Reign of Necho King of Egypt, some Phenicians from the Red-sea sayl'd by the Coast of Africa to Gibraltar, from thence returning the same way they came; Of which Herodotus wrote nine Books of History, according to the number of the Mu­ses, entituling them in order by one of their Names. Herodotus in his Fourth Book. Melpomene, says, The Phenicians sayling from the Red-sea, came into the Southern Ocean, and after three years reaching Hercules Pillars, return'd through the Mediterranean, reporting wonders! how that they had the Sun at Noon on their Star­board, or North-side, to which I give little Credit, and others may believe as they please. Nor did Sataspes Voyage in the Reign of Xerxes King of Persia, in the year of the world 3435. give us any better Hints; of which thus Herodotus in the same Book:

Sataspes, Teaspes son, ravishing a Virgin, and Condemned to be Crucified, by the Media­tion of his Mother, Darius Sister, was to suffer no more than to undertake a Voyage round Africa, which he but sleightly perform'd; for passing Gibraltar, he sayl'd to the utmost Point called Siloe Perhaps Bon Speranza, or Cape de Verd., from thence sayling on Southward; but being weary, returning the same way he came, made a strange Relation to Xerxes, how he had seen remote Countreys, where he found few People in Tyrian Purple, but such as when they drew near Land, forsook their Abodes, and fled up into the Mountains, and that they onely drove some of their Cattel [Page 7]thence, doing them no further Damage; Adding also, that he had sayl'd round Africa, had it not been impossible: To which the King giving small credit, and for that Sataspes had not perform'd his Undertakings, remitted him to his former Sentence of Crucifying.

¶ AS little avail'd that Expedition of the A People inhabiting Tunis. Nasamones to this Discovery, who (as Herodotus relates in his Second Book. Euterpe) chose by lot five young men of good Fortunes and Qualifications, to explore the African Desarts, never yet penetrated, to inform themselves of their Vastness, and what might be be­yond; These setting forth with fit Provision, came first where onely wilde Beasts inhabited; thence travelling west-ward through barren Lands, after many days, they saw a Plain planted with Trees, to which drawing near they tasted their Fruit, whilest a Dwarf-like People came to them about half their stature, neither by speech understanding the other, they led them by the hand over a vast Common, to their City, where all the Inhabitants were Blacks, and of the same size; by this City ran towards the East a great River, abounding with Crocodiles, which Etearchus King of the Ammonians, to whom the Nasa­mones related this, supposed to be the Nile. This is all we have of Antiquity, and from one single Author, who writ 420 years before the Incarnation, which sufficiently sets forth the Ignorance of the Ancients concerning Africa.

¶ BUt what they knew not, and thought almost impossible to be known, is common; for the secrets of the Deep, and remotest Shores are now beaten and tracted with continual Voyages, as well known Roads are, since Vasques de Gamma a Portugees Anno 1497. first opened the Discovery, and finish'd, to the no small Honor of the Nation, his intended Design; for that People having got ground upon the Spaniard, widening the bredth of their commodious Sea-coasts, first fell on the Moors in Africa, taking several of their best Cities near the Atlantick; Henry Duke of Viseo, yongest Son of Henry the I. encourag'd by this good Success, resolved to make this his Business, and sparing no Cost, invited from Spain and Italy expert persons for his purpose, skilful in Navigation and Mathematical Sciences, by whose help and diligence in 1420. he found Madera, in 28. the Isle These Names were all given by the Portugees, at their first Discovery of the places. Porto Sancto; in 40. Cape de Verd, and in 52. the Coasts of Guinee. After this Prince laid open thus a new Way for Discoveries, having gotten the honor to be the first that made the Portugees Sea-men, being of a great Age, he dyed in 1463. after whose death those Seas lay fallow twenty years; which King John the Second afresh furrowed then up again, and first discovered Angola and Congo, St. Georges Isle, conducted by Diego Cou in 1486. next year re­solving to try further, hoping to sayl round Africa, and so finde a new Way to the East-Indies, and assisted by Bartholomew Diar, passing Cape Verd first found the Princes Isle, thence steering South-ward reach'd the Great Southern Cape, from thence either daunted by cross Windes, rough Seas, or mutinous Mariners, they returned, leaving the honor of this Great Enterprize to the fore-mention­ed Vasques de Gamma; for which, imploy'd by Emmanuel King of Portugal, after the Discovery of St. Johns Isle, and St. Hellens, he attempted the same Cape which Diar durst not, then first calling it Cabo de Bona Esperanza, there being first encouraged, with hopes of finding the much desired way to the East-Indies.

Thence doubling this Great Point, they steer'd northward, Africk on their The Left hand, or north­side. Lar­board, reaching the Coasts of Quiloa, Mozambique, Mombara, and Melinde, con­tracting an Amity with the Melindian King, by whose assistance he found the Port Caliculo in the East-Indies, from thence returning with unexpressible Joy, and eternal Honor, to Lisbon, in 1500.

The next year after Alvares Capralde, with twelve Ships and fifteen hundred men, prosecuted the Design, but suffering Shipwrack on the Coast of Brazil, desisted; but the following year the former Vasques, and his brother Stephen, reassum'd the Undertaking with greater zeal and vigour: afterward by Fer­dinand Almeida, and Alfonso de Albukerque, and so from time to time by several of that Nation, and last of all by the English and Hollanders. By this means the Moderns were exactly informed of the particulars of Africa, when the An­cients knew no more than the Limits of the Roman Empire, and some parts belonging to Egypt, hearing strange Stories of Beasts and Monsters; whence arose this Adage:

Africa semper aliquid apportat novi.
Strange Monsters Africk always breeds.

¶ THe Romans divided this Region into six Provinces, The Roman Division. first the Sub-Consul­ship, in which were Carthage and Tunis, called properly and especially by them Africa: Next the Consulship of Numidia, wherein was Cyrte, now Constan­tine, Bysacena being a part of that proper Africa which contained Adrumetum; last the Tripolitan Consulship, Tripoly being the Head City; and two Mauritania's, one Imperial, containing Algier and Telesin; the other Mauritania Tingitana, the Realms of Morocko and Fez; and Egypt which they also possess'd; and these Inhabi­tants made no further discovery than what was known before, so pinching up Africa, that all was comprehended within Barbary, excepting Egypt and some fragments of Numidia; yet Plinie, though a Roman, mentions many other Na­tions, as the Murri subdued by Suetonius Paulinus; and Garamantes, by Balbas; the Romans also possessed Cyrenaica, which they joyned to Creta.

Mela bounds Africa with the Nile, and so also Dionysius scarce mentioning far­ther than Mauritania, Numidia, and Cyrenaica, placing Egypt in Asia; Strabo so shrinks Africk, that he pities their ignorance that made it a third part of the World, saying that Africa joyn'd to Europe, would not both quadrary with Asia; but Ptolomy, knowing further, did better, swelling it to twelve Provinces, as the two Mauritania's, Numidia, Cyrenaica, Marmorica, the inward and proper Lybia, up­per and lower Egypt, Ethiopia under Egypt, inward or south Ethiopia; For by his Maps may be plainly seen that what lyes five or six degrees beyond the Equa­tor, he knew nothing of, saying expresly that 64 degrees under the Southern Elevation, were all Terrae Incognitae; so the Ancients did not what they should in its Description, Marmol. p. 1. l. 2. cap. 2. & 3. but what they could; they contracting its Limits much more than Ptolomy, taking Egypt and all betwixt the Nile from Africk, conferring it on Asia.

Leo Africanus their most Eminent Author, and curious Searcher of his Native Countrey, in 1526. boasted that he had been through all, yet makes no more than four Provinces, as Barbarie, Numidia, or Biledulgerid, Lybia, and Negro-land, giving Nile for its bounds, not the Arabian Gulf, with the Streights of Sues, to the Mid-land Sea, so bestowing a great part of Egypt upon Asia Eastward; and as Marmol says, not once mentioning upper Ethiopia, or Abyssine, nor the nether, nor many other places discovered by the Portugues since; besides all that is now called New Africa, extending from the sixteenth degree of Northern Lati­tude, to the Great Southern Cape, discovered by Vasques de Gamma.

¶ THe most apt and usual Division of Africk, Africa as now divided. with the unanimous consent of late Geographers, is, as we shall here in a short Survey present ye. The Main Land, not reckoning the Isles, they divide into Provinces. seven Parts, [Page 9] Egypt, Barbarie, Biledulgerid, the Desart Sarra, Negro-land, Inner, or Upper Ethio­pia, or Prester John, and the Outward, or Nether Ethiopia.

Egypt is divided into the Upper, Middle, or Lower; Barbarie makes six Divi­sions, as the Kingdoms of Fez, Marocco, Tunis, Tremesa, and Dara, and Barka onely not Monarchical.

Biledulgerid contains three Realms, Targa, Bardoa, and Gaoga; The Land of Locusts; and four Wil­dernesses, Lempta, Haire, Zuenziga, and Zanbaga; the Desart Sarra makes no Division.

Negro-land boasts nineteen Kingdoms, Gualate, Hoden, Genocha, Zenega, Tom­buti, Melli, Bittonnin, Guinee, Temian, Dauma, Cano, Cassena, Bennin, Zanfara, Guan­gara, Borno, Nubia, Biafra, and Medra.

Upper Ethiopia makes also nineteen, Dafela, Barnagasso, Dangali, Dobas, Which seven Regions contain in all fifty Kingdoms and but one Re-publick.Trige­mahon, Ambiaucantiva, Vangue, Bagamadiri, Beleguance, Angote, Balli, Fatigar, Olabi, Baru, Gemen, Fungi, Tirut, Esabella, and Malemba.

Nether Ethiopia contains Congo, Monomotapa, Zanciber, and Ajan.

The Isles belonging to Africa in the Straights, are Malta opposing Tripoli, Islands belonging to Africa, in number twenty four. in the Ocean, Porto Sancto, the Maderas, Canaries, the Isles of Cape de Verd, or the Salt-Islands, the Isles of Ferdinando Poo, the Princes Island, St. Thomas, St. Matthews, Ascension, Anbon, St. Helens, the Isle of Martin Var, Tristan de Cunha, the Island Dos Pikos, St. Marie de Augosta, and the Trinity; all which lye west from the Main Land: Northward from the Cape of Good Hope, and towards the East of Africk, are the Isles of Elizabeth and Cornelius, Madagascar, or St. Laurence, St. Maries, Comore, and Mauritius, and Socotara in the Mouth of the Arabian Gulf, near the utmost Point of Guardafuy, and other less Islands.

¶ THe Hills of most remark, are the Great and Lesser Atlas, Hills. the Mountains of the Sun, the Salt-petre Hill, Sierre Lyone, Amara, Mount Table, and Os Picos Fragosos.

The Great Atlas, call'd by the Natives Aydvacall, (as Marmol tells us) and as Aug: Curio, Anchisa, and by Olivarius, Majuste runs thorow Africa, as Taurus tho­row Asia; or the Alps, Europe; beginning in Marmarica, and from thence extend­ed to the west, divides Barbary from Biledulgerid, and though it hath many gaps, and oft discontinues, yet holds he on from Jubell Meyes, to the utmost Moun­tains of Cehel, and the Coast of Masra, about twenty miles from Alexan­dria; west-ward the Atlantick Ocean stops his course, near the City Messa, chan­ging his name Aydvacall, which often happens both to him and the lesser Atlas, taking new Denominations from the several places they pass by; No Moun­tain in all Africa is more celebrated by the ancient Poets than this, amongst many take these from their Prince Virgil, 4 Aen.

— Jamque volans, apicem & latera ardua cernit
Atlantis duri, Coelum qui vertice fulsit;
Atlantis cinctum assiduè cui nubibus atris
Piniferum caput & vento pulsatus & imbri:
Nix humeros infusa tegit: tum flumina mento
Praecipitant senis & glacie, riget horrida barba.
And now the craggy top, and lofty side
Of Atlas, which supporteth Heaven, he spy'd:
A Shash of sable Clouds the Temples bindes
Of Pine-crown'd Atlas, beat with Rain and Windes;
Snow cloathes his Shoulders, his starch'd Beard is froze,
And from the old Mans Chin a River flows.

All Writers affirm his wondrous height, that he seems to reach the sky: That side which views the Ocean to which he gave his Name, is rugged, bald, and dry; that towards the Land, seems hairy with Bushes, and shady with leavy [Page 10]Trees, and watred with Springs, so being made fertile, in producing all sorts of Fruit: that by day his Inhabitants not see well, and that by night the Moun­tain seems to shine and send forth flames, and (as some say) is full of Satyrs, and abounds with Echoes, resounding like Flutes, Trumpets, and Tabors.

The Lesser Atlas, call'd Lant, coasts with the Mid-land Sea, there known by the Name of Errif, extended from Gibraltar, unto Bona; the Spaniards call both Atlas'es, Montes Claros, or the Shining Mountains, because their eminency renders them perspicuous far off, or that their Spires shine above the Clouds; Thus Diego de Torres: But the Moors (saith Strabo) call them Dyris.

On the Cape where the Atlantick shoots into the Mediterranean Sea, opposite to Europe, appears the Mountain Abyle, now by the Spaniard call'd Sierra Ximiera, or Sierra de las Monas, that is, Ape-hill; against this shews Calpe in Spain: these are the Herculean Pillars so much celebrated with a ne plus ultra, by ancient Writers.

The Chrystal Mountain, according to Pigafet in his Congo, shoots to the Sky his spiry and un-inhabitable Towers: on the Eastern skirts of that Province, there are found rich Mines of Chrystal.

Near which is the Mountain of the Sun, so call'd from its wondrous height, and being barren of all Vegetables.

On the same side Eastward, appears the Salt-petre Hill, so nam'd from the abundance fetcht from thence: This Mountain divides the River Sarbeles, whose sides are so watered by its parted Streams.

Amara (that gives the vast Kingdom of Amara denomination) consists of most high and inaccessible Hills, which stand as Out-works to a strong Fort in the middle, where the Kings Sons have Education, kept with double Guards till their Fathers decease, then the next Heir taken from thence enjoys the Crown.

The Mountains of the Moon, which lye betwixt the Tropick of Capricorn and the Great Southern Cape, are the highest in Africa, or Europe, now call'd by the Inha­bitants Betsh, they are Ledges of barren Rocks, always cloath'd with Snow and continued Ice, extending to the Coasts of Ceva in Goyame. Eminent Wri­ters would prove (though false) that the Head of the Nile springs amongst these; And Ptolomy hath left on Record, that his Overflowings are fed with the disso­lution of these Mountains Snow.

At the Cape of Good Hope appears the Table-Mount, so call'd from the flatness of its Crown, like a Diamond so squar'd, not far from the Shore on the South­side of a pleasant River, from whence by a Cliff they scale the top, no way else any accession, being very steep and wondrous high, seen from the From the Sea. Offin nine or ten leagues: three or four hours before a Storm it seems to frown and grow sullen, then veyling with more thick and opacous Clouds.

Westward from this is Mount Lyons, either supposed their Palace, (being a Re­ceptacle of those Royal Beasts) or that the Hill resembles a Lyon couchant. Near Mount Table are those the Spaniards call Os Picos Fragosos, and the Italians Pici Fragosi, signifying sharp, or rough, such being their aspiring tops continually covered with Snow, all ranging in order one by another, at whose foot runs a great and swift River, which comes down from the Countrey. On the Border of Guinee appears another Mount Lyons, Sierra Leona in Spanish; in Portugues Sierra Lioa; there are several other Mountains in Africk of wonderful height and weal­thy in Mynes: but we pass them over till we speak of them at large in their due place, and Descriptions of their several Countreys.

¶ THis Region abounds also with many great Lakes, Lakes. the chiefest is that they call the Zaire, or Zembre, which Linschot takes to be the Old Triton, out of whose bosom issues two famous Rivers that water the Kingdom of Congo, the Coanze and Lalande: Some affirm that from the Nile, Zambere, or Couama have here their original; of which more at large hereafter.

¶ NOr are here great Rivers wanting, as the Nile, the Niger, Rivers. call'd by the Spaniards and Italians Rio Grande, or the Great River, also Sanaga, or Sa­nega, the Gambre, Zaire, Couama, and Holy Ghost River; all which by their flyings out, and overflowings, make more fertile their neighboring Margines: what concerns the Nile (best known to us in Europe) we will discourse at large, when we make our entry into Egypt, and of all his Benefits accrewing to that Coun­trey, and so of the rest in their order.

¶ AS for the Soyl, it is very rich, producing all sorts of Vegetables, Animals, The Soyl. and Minerals; what ever of these Europe or Asia boasts, Africa hath, besides no small production of its own, which the other have not, unless brought over by Merchants and Travellers, with us presented for strange Mon­sters in Shews, at Fairs, Markets, and the like. Such as are in common with us I shall not mention, but those Creatures most of them peculiar to that Countrey, but all strangers to Europe, will require an exact Inquisition, and here a room to be set forth in, because of their rarity.

AFrica abounds with Camels, especially in the Wilderness of Lybia, Beasts.Bile­dulgerid, and Barbary, they have them also in Asia; Camel. the Bactrians and Arabians use them for Burthens, nor travel they in Egypt without them: the Beast is cloven-footed, having a fleshy bunch on his back, onely peculiar to its Species, and another lesser bunch on the bending of his Knees, which seems Supporters to the whole Body; his Tayl is like an Asses, but has four knots like a Cows; his Pizzle which sticks out behind, is so sinewy, that they make of them the strongest Cross-bowe strings. Each Leg hath onely one Knee-joynt or bending, though they seem more, because of the trussness of his Hips, and short Buttocks; his Dung is like that of an Ox, his Gall lyes not separated as in other Beasts, but keeps in certain veins: Nature, as Aristotle and Plinie write, hath bestowed on him two Maws, because he eats Thistles and Thorns, for the Uval of his Mouth, and the inward Skin of his Maw, are very rough.

Modern Writers, as Purchas, Peter de Avicen, and others, Three sort of Camels. say there are three sorts of Camels, the first (as Marmol tells us) the Arabians call Elhegen, which is so large and strong, that he will carry a thousand weight; the Africans geld them, so making them more hardy, ordering onely one Male to ten Females. The second sort call'd by the Arabians Bocheti, or Bechet, is lesser, and hath two bunches, each carrying Burthens, or a Man; these are onely in Asia. Of their Burthen. The third they call Raguahill, or Elmahari, are the Dromedaries, which are small, Of the Dromedary. lean, and tender, fit onely to carry men; but in swiftness they so far excel, that in one day they will travel a hundred miles, posting seven or eight days through Desarts with little, or almost no food: All the Arabian Nobles of Biledulgerid, Of his Swiftness. and the Africans of Lybia, ride on them usually, and when the King of Tombut would impart weighty Affairs to the Biledulgerid Merchants, he postes one away upon a Dromedary to Darha, or Segelmess, in seven or eight days, which are each from Tombut about seven hundred and fifty miles.

When they load a Camel, or unload, he sinks down on his Belly, and when he feels that he hath a sufficient Burthen, he rises, nor will take more upon him than he is able to carry: The African Camel far excels the Asiatick, for they travel forty or fifty days without Provender, Of his enduring Hunger and Thirst. contented onely with a little Grass, and browsing on the Leaves of Trees: Solinus saith, they endure thirst four days, but swill when they come to it, not onely satisfying their arrears, but barrelling up store for the future; puddle-water best suits their palate, for finding what is clear, they will stir up the bottom with their feet, so delighting as it were in the Must, or drink with a flying Lee. Late Authors say, they will endure thirst fourteen or fifteen days, and it is certain in the Desarts of Hara and Biledulgerid, they never drink if they can finde Grass to feed.

They copulate backward (says Plinie,) Their Generating. but Aristotle tells us that the Female stoops under the Males embraces, as other Juments, and that in their Amours they spend whole days in dark Recesses and private Retirements, concealed amongst Bushes and the like, none daring come near to disturb them in their commutual Love-fits. They go (as Suidas says) ten moneths, producing on the eleventh, and after the twelfth moneth prepare for the like encounters. Plinie will have twelve months e're they are delivered, and that being three years old they generate, bringing forth always in the Spring, and so soon as delivered couple again: But Aristotle puts twelve moneths to their pregnancy, and that they never bring forth more than one Foal.

They by natural instinct hate the Horse, Their Enmity. Lyon, and Gnat, which Cyrus King of Persia well observing, drew up his Camels against Croesus Horse, who cannot endure their smell. Elian writes how offensive Lyons are to them; the Arabs noint them over with the fat of Fish, so to keep off their Enemy the Gnat: Au­thors differ much about their age; Their Age. Aristotle says they live above fifty years; So­linus a hundred, unless the disagreeing temperature of the Air out of their Na­tive Countrey cut them sooner off; They are docile and vindicative, and extreamly fond of their young; They swell if beaten, and conceal how much they take it ill, Revengeful. and study revenge till they finde an opportunity. The Camel Colt learns to Dance, Learn to Dance. as saith Africanus, to a Tabor beaten behinde the door, where he is put up in a room with a hot Stove, which not well enduring, he lifts up lightly one foot after another, which quick and tripping motion, when ever he hears the like Musick, reminding his old lesson, he puts in practice, so seeming to dance: They are driven with great trouble, yet not with stripes, but onely a Song, so that they seem delighted with vocal Harmony. Camels flesh amongst the Arabians and Sineses is esteemed as a Dainty, but prohibited to the Jews. The Arabs count their Wealth by their stock of Camels; for when they Audit their Princes Estate, they reckon not by Pounds and Duckats, but adjust his Revenues by thousands of Camels, for they live in full pleasure, freedom, and safety, because they can remove with all they have into the Desarts, where no Army nor Invasion can reach them.

¶ THe Elephant call'd by the Arabs Elfill, Elephant. is common both to Asia and Africa, but especially to the last; Amongst the Woods behinde Syrtes and the Desarts of Salee, in Upper Ethiopia, Guinee, on the banks of Niger, and in the Wilderness of Atlas, and other parts of Africk they abound, of which there are also of divers kindes; as the Lybian, the Indian, Marsh, Mountain, and Wood Ele­phants; the Marsh hath blew and spungy teeth, hard to be drawn out, and dif­cult to be wrought and bored through, being knotty and full of little knobs. [Page 13]The Mountain are stern and ill-condition'd, their teeth smaller, yet more white, and of a better shape; the Field-Elephant is the best, well natur'd, most docile, having the largest, whitest teeth, and easiest to be cut of all the other, and may by bending be shaped into any form, according to Juvenal:

Dentibus ex illis quo, mittit porta Syenes
Et Mauri celeres.—
From whiter Teeth, Sat. 2.which the Syene sends
And the swift Moors.—

So it appears the Wealth of Africa did as much consist in Elephants Teeth as Corn, by this Crown or Wreath described by Claudian:

— Mediis apparet in astris
Africa rescissae vestes & spicea passim
Serta jacent, lacero crinales vertice dentes
Et fractum pendebat Ebur.—
Amidst the Stars next Africa appears
De Bello Gil­don.
Her Garments torn, her Wreath of Wheaten Ears
Scatter'd about, Teeth brayded on her Crown,
And broken Ivory hung.

The Wood-Elephants in the Kingdom of Senega, especially near the River Gamba, feed together in a Heard like wilde Swine in some parts of Europe. Of which thus Petronius:

Quaeritur in silvis Mauri fera; & ultimus Ammon
Afrorum excutitur, ne desit bellua dente
Ad mortes pretiosa suas—
The Lybian Sands we seek, and th'utmost South
To finde a Monster out, whose precious Tooth
Proves its own bane

The Lybian or Mauritanian are lesser than the Indian, and (as Polybius writes) can not endure the Voice or Cry of the Indian Elephant; The Indian, though the lar­gest of all, differ in size much amongst themselves; They shew'd one at Con­stantinople, that was eleven Foot betwixt his Eyes; and the utmost of his Trunk, from his Eye eight Foot in length: many are nine Foot high, some above eleven; Aloysius Camustus saw one whose flesh weighed more than five of our Stall-fed Oxen; They are all black, except the Ethiopian, yet the Relaters of the East-Indian Voyages say, that the King of Narsinga had a white Elephant.

Their Skin is rough and hard, but more on the back than the belly; they have four teeth that are Chawers, besides their Tusks which stick out of their Man­dible, and are crooked, but the Females are streight; some of these Tusks are of an incredible bigness: Vertomanus saw two at the Isle of Sumatra that weigh'd three hundred thirty six pound. Polybius says, that in the borders of Ethiopia they are us'd for Jaums of Gates and Door-posts, and in Beasts-stalls for stakes.

For a Nose or a Snout, they have a long, small, hanging part, call'd a Trunk, reaching the ground and open, being sinewy and bending every way, it serves him for a Hand, with which he gathers both his Food and Potation, conveying so to his Mouth; through this he also breathes and smells: Aristotle says, they have Joynts in their hinder Feet below, but others write variously concerning the flexure of their Knees; some say they have Joynts in their Legs; others the contrary, and that if fallen they cannot rise: Plinie says (which experience al­lows) that they have short Joynts in their hinder Legs, bending inwards like a Mans; their Feet are round like Horses Hooffs, but larger. Vertomanus com­pares them to a round Table, their broad soal being eighteen inches over; their Toes (being five) look as if all one piece, being black and squadded, an unlick'd piece, so little cloven that they scarce make any separation. This creature hath two Teats, not on her Breasts but backwards, and more concealed; His Pizzle little, comparing his huge Bulk, and like a Stallions; his Stones appear not, but abscond about his Reins, which apts him more for Generation.

Their sustenance is Water-Herbs, browsing on Trees, This grows upon a small Tree with great leaves, and is of the bigness of a Cu­cumer, and by the Mahu­metan Doctors is affirmed to be the forbidden Fruit, because so exceedingly plea­sant. Musae fruit, and Indian Fig-Tree Roots; sometimes they swallow Earth and Stones; but such food proves obnoxious to them (as Pliny judges) unless well chaw'd; when tam'd, they feed most on Barley, and drink untroubled Water, delighting in Liquors made of Rice, other Fruits, and European Wine: One at Antwerp guzzel'd down seven of our Wine Gallons at once, and took such large pota­tions often, yet are they not impatient of thirst, but will suffer eight days well, and not languish under Drowth; Their ingenuity is wonderful, as ap­pears by that Elephant which Emanuel King of Portugall presented Pope Leo, who seeing him at a Window, made formal Congees to his Holiness with bended knees; Metellus says, that in the Isle of Zeilan they understand the Language of the Natives. Pliny reports that an Elephant he knew, could write Greek, and often set down in that Character this signification, [...], &c. I my self writ this, and offer'd up to the Celtick spoil. Elian tells us that they us'd to eat handsomly, and sit mannerly like men, not tearing or devouring their Victuals: when they drank, they took their Cup, delivering it to the next, draining the Goblet, moderately sprinkling the remainder as in a Joke upon the beholders; when they would pass any water that is scarce fordable, the tallest of them enters first, the rest passing by him, as it were a Bridge, to whom they cast Branches of Trees to help out at last.

Some affirm that they are Religious, adoring the most Eminent Lights, the Sun and Moon; and also hospitable, directing wandring Passengers when out of their way; observe Murtherers and other Criminals, and will detect such Guilty Offenders; how they will toss a Pike, and Fence one with another, playing out their several Weapons, and Dance after a Warlike manner. Auge­rius Busbeek writes in his Turkish Letters, how he saw a young Elephant that Danc'd to a Song, and play'd at Stool-Ball, striking and retorting with his Trunk, as we with our hands; one at Rome would tye and untye hard knots by Moon-light, so cunningly complicated, that none else could unloose them, and patiently receive correction from his Master when he fail'd, and was out.

The female excels the Male in strength and hardiness; yet Aristotle makes the Female more timerous.

Oppianus tells that they will beat down with their Teeth, Beech, Olive, and Palm-trees; and whole Houses, as Aristotle relates.

Vertomannus Stories that an Elephant threw down a Tree, whose body four men could not Fathom, and that three Elephans drew a great Vessel on shore.

Aristotle saith they fight desperately, charging with their Teeth, and worsted, flye the menacing voyce of the Conquerour; an innate abhorring they have to Lyons, Serpents, Tygers, Rams, Swine and the Rhinoceros, and also to some Colours, and Fire.

Authors vary concerning their Copulation: Pliny will have the Male fit at Five years, the Female at Ten; but Aristotle allows Twenty years to both, of Twelve to the Female, if forwards; if slow, fifteen; they conjoyn usually in the water, which is easier for both, for the water supports the Male, and ligh­tens so great a burthen, and fetches him after the Encounter more nimbly off; they deal in love-affairs very private, and but once in three years; choosing every Triennial a new Mistress, which work concluded they grow wild and almost stark mad, throwing down their Stalls and Stables; their time of pro­duction is also uncertain, some say they go Eighteen Months, others Three [Page 15]Years; a few stretch it to Ten, and these reduce it to Eight years; in Tra­vel their pangs are great, squatting down on their hinder Legs, bringing but one at a birth, though others say, four; their young see and go as soon as born, Sucking with his Mouth, not his Trunk, Eight years.

They are taken several ways both in Africk and India: The Ethiopians knowing the Elephants Night-reposes, where he alwayes withdraws to sleep, catch him in a strong Palisado made of Timber, in a close Covert, a Trap-Door left open lying on the ground, which when the Elephant is in, they sculking in a Tree, draw up and shut with Ropes: when they have him sure in the Trap, they descend and shoot him to Death with Arrows; but if he chance to escape, rending their Gins, he spares none, killing all he meets.

Others Saw a great Tree half in sunder, making a pit on the side, then co­vering it, which the Elephant suspecting nothing, being weary, retires to his old resting place, to which, he leaning, his weight oversets the half-cut Trunk, which failing, he falls into the covered Hole, and finds himself their Prisoner.

In Zenega near Cape de Verd, the Inhabitants, sixty in a Company, draw forth, each Arm'd with six small, and one great Arrow, so finding his haunt, they stay till he resorts thither, which, by the loud rusling noise he makes, burst­ing through opposing Branches, and overthrowing whole Trees, keeping his march, they know, then they follow him shooting continually, till their so many infixed Shafts, may bring him to his end, which the Blacks observe by the loss of Blood, and the stronger resistance of his confining Palisado against his feebler charge.

The African Lyon called by the Arabians Aced, Lyon. is the most couragious and cruel of all other, devouring not only Beasts, but Men: yea a Mauritanian Lyon sometimes dares attaque a The Empire of these De­sarts I obtain'd,And under me Kings, Petty Lyons reign'd;On Expeditions, Armies I could raise,Nor plotted we for spoil, clandestine ways,Lying whole Nights in silent Ambuscades,But took the Field by day in bold Brigades;And like a falling Deluge swept up all,Emptying at once both Pa­sture, Coat, and Stall:Nay more, on Skirts of Ci­ties we durst prey,Ships Boarding at Low wa­ter in the Bay. Aesopic. Audroclem. Sect. 11. Gesner. Paraph. Troop of 200. Horsemen, and though mor­tally wounded, will fight it out to the last gasp, defending his young ones. Those which are bred upon cold Mountains are less stout and dangerous, for the hotter their habitation, the more fierce and cruel they are; such are those to be seen between Tremesen and the Kingdom of Fez, or in the Wilder­ness of Anguep, or Angad, and about Tremesen: Also between Bone and Tunis are found the cruellest and strongest Lyons of all Africk.

The Lyons forehead, (according to Aristotle) is of a middle size and four­square; his Eyes not strutting out, nor yet hollow, his Nose rather thick than thin, his upper and under Jaws meet, yet open very wide when gaping, his Lips or closing of his Mouth thin, his Neck great and rough, moderately thick, his Breast strenuous, Belly slender, Legs strong and sinewy, Hair of a dark yellow, not falling in hard but looser curles, his Feet before have five claws, his hinder but four, the Majesty and Grandeur of his shaggy Mayn, differences him very much from the Lionnesse, who more signally may be known by the exuberances of her two Teats, according to the number of her young ones. Galen says, that the Lyons temples are very strong, that he may bite the harder, his Tongue rough, strangely red, as if fire, and speckled, hav­ing but one bone in his Neck, as Aristotle holds: but Scaliger maintains, that it consists of many Joynts: his Complexion extremely hot and dry, caused by the sharp boyling of his heart. Gesner writes that his foreparts are hot, but his hinder cold and defective; he feeds sometimes on As Mountain Lyons, whom their Mother bred In shady Coverts, by their fury led, Kill folded Sheep, and Cat­tel in the Stall, Till by revengeful Shep­herds Steel they fall, &c. Hom. Iliad. 5. Cattel, especially on Ca­mels, and where straitned for Victuals, foraging he adventures to fall upon men: Polybius saith he saw many of them standing there, that had suffered [Page 16]Crucifixion to terrifie others from the like cruelty and humane slaughter.

Writers differ concerning their preying on the dead, Vide Gesner. which Elian affirms, saying, that they feed on them and bury the overplus, lest other Beasts should prey after them; They drink little (if Aristotle and Elian say true) en­during thirst three days, especially in Summer, but in Winter they drink often.

The Lyon loves the Dolphin, but is an enemy to Swine, Wolves, Wild Asses and Bulls: Eccles. 13. from a Woman that dares shew her Nakedness, and boldly discover her intimacies, strangely abashed at her immodesty and quite out of countenance, he flyes, sayes Leo Africanus: The Greeks of old make him afraid at the Crowing of a Cock, but Camerarius affirms, that a Lyon in the Duke of Bavaria's Court, leap'd up to the adjoyning houses a wonderful height seizing the Pullen roosted in the roofs. Some Writers say, the Lyon Lowes like an Oxe, which perhaps the Whelps may when they get a prey; a few imagine that they grunt and whine like a Boar; others, and they the most, that they roar, which is most likely; if we will take fancy for truth. Hear the Lyon himself Describing his own Language.

Thus formidable grown, being wondrous strong,
I roar'd Leontick, lost th' Egyptian Tongue;
Though Beasts and Birds use several Dialects,
Apollonius they report to have understood the Lan­guages of Beasts and Birds.
That less than humane voyces have defects,
Uttering soul-dictates, both more clear and brief,
Hatred and Love, Fear, Hope, their Joy and Grief;
Yet Leo Lingua who not understands?
Words Edicts are, each Syllable commands;
The Lyons Fiat's quicker than his nods,
Like Angels Tongues, or Language of the Gods.
Aesopic. Androcleus Sect. 11.

His true valor appears, when in most danger, for then, though he neither fears Weapons nor Enemies, contending long in his own defence, yet finding him­self overpowred, he makes an honourable retreat, loosing his posts with like courage they were maintained, oft boldly charging on the least seeming ad­vantage; so recovering the Champaigne; observ'd well by Virgil in the Ninth Book of his Aeneis on his retreat of Turnus,

—ceu saevum turba Leonem
Cum telis premit infensis, ac territus ille
Asper, acerba tuens, retro dedit & neque terga
Ira dare aut virtus patitur, nec tendere contra:
Ille quidem, hoc cupiens, potis est per tela viros (que)
Haud aliter retro dubius vestigia Turnus
Improperata refert & mens exaestuat ira.
As when a Troop a Lyon hath beset
With cruel Spears, he makes a brave retreat,
Although forbid by Valour and by Rage;
Nor can, though willing, 'gainst such Power engage.
So unresolv'd, bold Turnus did retire
Step after step, his Bosom swoln with ire.

When he pursues his prey, he leaps, but in retiring he walks only: he knows whom he receives a wound from, and will single him out from all his Ene­mies, that spent their shafts in vain, and take his life only in satisfaction, if possible; That these fierce Beasts may be tame, appears by Onomarchus King of Castane, who entertained and treated them, as his Guests. In the Temple of Adonis in Elemea, they drest and comb'd such as tamely resorted thither, in civil man­ner. Hanno an Eminent Syracusian, was the first that took a Lyon, and after [Page 17]presented him tame and tractable. And Mark Anthony after the Pharsalian Vi­ctory, first brought tame Lyons drawing a Chariot into Rome, which was ad­mirable in those dayes. In like manner Virgil brings in the Mother of the Gods. Virg. Au. 10.

Alma Parens Idaea Deùm, cui Dindyma cordi
Turrigeraeque urbes, bijugique ad fraena leones:
Tu mihi nunc pugnae princeps, tu rite propinques
Augurium, &c.
Oh blest Idaean Mother of the Gods,
Who in Towr'd Cities dwel'st and high aboads,
Whose Chariot Lyons draw, our Cause befreind, &c.

That they are good natur'd and grateful, appears by the Story of Mentor a Syracusian, but especially by —From a large Boscage Androcleus comes to meet the Lyons rage; His Breast, his Shoulders, brawny Arms & Thighs, Waste slender, Manly Face, and sparkling Eyes; In Matrons stirring Pitty, kindled flame, And all, his great Accuser much did blame. The Lyon then, on pur­pose fasting kept, Forth to his Prey, eager with hunger leap't; A Feast prepar'd, then rea­dy to attack, His face beholding, sudden­ly starts back, When he, his dearest friend perusing, knew; Then in an humble posture, near he drew, Kissing his Feet, his Hands, and well-known Face, Then they each other hug'd in dear Embrace; He knows the Lyon, though so curl'd and kemb'd, And he Androcleus guilt­lesly condemn'd; To see the Monster that should him assail, Fawn like a Spaniel, wag his bushy Tail; And him that stood an of­fering to be slain, Then clap his back, stroak­king his shaggy Main; Th' Admiring House made with applauses ring, And Purses him of Gold and Silver fling, A hundred thousand hands speak loud applause, Glad the Defendant scap't the Lyons jawes. Aesopic. Androcleus, Sect. 30. Androcleus, or the Roman Slave, which though among the Aesopicks, hath a true ground and sufficient Authority. The Romans used them with a great bravery in their Triumphs. Quintus Scaevola in his Pontifice shewed a Battel of many Lyons. Lucius Sylla in his Pretorship set forth 100 Lyons with Mains: And after him Pompey the Great 600. whereof 350. had Mains. Lastly, Caesar the Dictator triumphed with 400.

They procreate backwards, and at all seasons of the year, but chiefly in the Spring: then are bloody wars commenc'd among them, eight or ten Corrivals following one Lionnesse: in summe, when the Males are debilitated with the excessive heat, the Lionnesse is gal-lanted by the Pard, whom impreg­nating, she produces a Leopard; but if she joyn with the Panther, she brings forth a more biformed race; but if with the Hyena, thence is gotten the Crocuta. Sometime urged by the necessitating Stimula's of Lust, they are forced to en­gender with Dogs. Their young ones are brought forth seeing, which is only peculiar to them of all Quadrupeds with crooked Claws: The sixth Moneth produces them, though ill shap'd and imperfect, not as Elian will, tearing the Matrix of the Dam, but as Aristotle saith, for want of Nutriment: Pliny declares that they bring forth six young ones at the most, and sometimes but one only. Philostratus relates that one was slain which had eight in her Womb.

¶ IN several parts of Africa are an excellent breed of Horses, term'd by us Barbs, strong of Hoof, and extremely fleet: But the swiftest and most hardy either in Africa or Asia, are the Arabian Horse, so call'd because first broke by the Arabs from running Wild in the Woods, and brought thither by them, for till Xeque Ismael first took them up, they wandred in Troops, since when the Arabs have stock'd with them all Asia; The most assured proof of their celerity, is, when they can overtake the Lant or Ostrich in their Flight; if so, that Steed they value at a 1000. Duckets, or else Barter for 100. Camels: few of these Horses are in Barbary, but some are bred up in Arabia, and abundance in Lybia, not enured to Tillage, or Warres, but Hunting. They feed them daily twice with Camels Milk to keep them lusty and quick, but not too foggy: When the ranck Grass flourishes, they turn them in­to the Fields, but then they Ride them not: The Lybian Horse, hath a Body long, Ribs and Sides thick, and a broad Breast strutting forth: The Mare, as Lib. 12. c. 44. Elian writes, becomes lustful, and with Foal by This must be understood of the wind, of which Syl­vius Polyhistor. c. 57. says, it is onely peculiar to the Mares of Spain, as Salma­sius notes upon Solinus, but common with Creatures of another species, as Pliny instances in Partridges: and Columella in Sheep. Whistling; of which thus Virgil in his Georgicks:

Vere magis, (quia vere calor redit ossibus) illae
Ore omnes versae in Zephyrum stant rupibus altis,
Exceptantque leves auras: & saepe sine ullis
Conjugiis vento gravidae, mirabile dictu,
Saxa per, & scopulos & depressas convalles
Diffugiunt, &c.
When heat of Blood returns,
Then all to Courting Zephire turn their Face,
And plac'd on Rocks, Lascivious Gales embrace.
And oft they Pregnant prove without a Mate,
Big with the Winds, and (wondrous to relate)
Then over Hills and Dales, &c.

[Page 18]If we may believe Vertomanus, the Mares in Arabia will run at full speed a Night and Day without resting, and will Travel without stop a hundred hours. Wild Horses. The Wild Horses amongst the more Savage Arabs, who live in the Desarts, are scarce, they eating them as delicate Venison, being wondrous sweet, when young: They catch them with Trammel'd Ropes lay'd under the Sand, Noosing their Feet; whatever means else is used for that purpose, proves vain, and frustrates the Hunters expectation.

¶ THe Rhinoceros, Rhinoceros. so call'd in Greek, that is Nosehorn, having one near the Tip of his Nose, hath a Skin speckled in tufts, with a mixture of Black and Grey, his Back looking as if saddled, his Sides and Ribs swell out Dosser­wise, dented down to the Belly with folding panes; his Back is so hard, that a Partizan will scarce pierce it, nor hath it Scales (as with us reported) onely the deep furrows on his thick Hide resembling such: On the tip of his Nose, being like a Boars Snout, onely sharper at the end, there appears a Horn many times different in colour, being one while Black, another while of a lighter Colour: The bigness of this Beast varies, according to his Age: A midling Rhinoceros may compare with a midling Elephant, onely the short­ness of his Legs, Aristotle. makes him much more despicable: In Aristotle's time about 664. years before the Building of Rome, neither the Greeks nor the Romans knew this Creature; Nor is it yet agreed upon by Writers who first shew'd it, though Dio sayes, Dio. Pliny. Lib. 8. cap. 8. Solinus. it first appeared in Augustus his Triumphs: for Pliny relates, that it was before shewn in Pompey's Playes, which Solinus affirms, saying, the Rhinoceros was never seen before Pompey's time: He feeds on bristly Leaves, and sharp Herbs, Bontzius. having a very rough Tongue; insomuch, that Bontzius writes, that having cast down a Man and Horse to the ground, as if nothing, (which he never does, unless greatly provok'd) he kills him afterwards with licking, for the roughness of his Tongue, will immediately denude the Bones of their Fleshy coverings: He is at great enmity with the Elephant, against whom preparing to Fight, he whets his Horn upon a Stone, ayming to strike him in the Belly, his tendrest part, that so rending it open, he may bleed to Death; but if he miss that opportunity, the Elephant assuredly kills him with his Trunk and Teeth.

¶ THe Musk-Goat is not onely found in China and Persia, Musk-Goat. but as most Emi­nent Writers affirm, in Africa and Egypt: There is difference among Au­thors about its Description; yet all agree that it is a kind of Goat. We find in Martinus his Chinese Atlas, that in the Country of Xensi Musk grows in the Navel of a certain Beast not much unlike a Hart without Horns, whose Flesh the Chineses eat: When this Beast is high in lust, his Navil swells like a Tumor, or Bile full of Matter, and taken thence, resembles a thin hairy Purse stuffed with this costly Odour.

The Civet-Cat, Civet-Cat. called in Spanish Genetta, by the modern Greeks, Zapetia, and perhaps unknown to the Ancients, hath rough Hair, and is from the Head to the Tayl, a Cubit long, about the size of, and colour'd like a Wolf; near the Cods it hath a Purse, from whence they gather Civet: She eats eagerly raw Flesh and Mice, as also sweet things, Rice and Eggs. The Excrement (which flows out of the Purse-net near the Fundament, being full of small holes) hath at first a strong Scent, but put together and set in the Air, becomes most odoriferous; some suppose this to be the Sperm, which they take [Page 19]daily out of the Purse with a Silver, Copper, or Horn Spoon, about the quan­tity of one Dram: of which he will yield the more being anger'd or irri­tated with a limber Twig or Wand, when you are to gather it.

The Leopard, hath a long Fore-head, round Ears, Leopard. very long and small Neck, little Ribs, a long Back, Thighs and Buttocks fleshy, and flat about the Belly and Hips, which are speckled, his whole Body wants shape and sym­metry. On the Belly are four Teats; its Fore-feet have five, the hinder Feet four Clawes: his Eyes are more fiery than other Creatures in the dark, but dimmer in the open light; his Skin, according to Oppianus, is of a dark Yellow, dappled with Black upon White; 'Tis said he is marked in his Fore-head with a Half Moon, his Tongue is very Red, Teeth and Clawes sharp, and his Heart great, considering his bigness; he hath strong Legs, yet by reason of his great heat, is but lean: many of them are bred in Asia and Africa, in the Countrey of Comeri and Bengale.

He Courts often the Lionnesse her self, sometimes driving a lower Trade with homely Bitches, and the She-Wolf. Isidore fabulously relates, that the young ones anticipate their Birth, tearing their Mothers Wombs: So much he hates man, that he assassinates his picture, though a meer Paper Sketch, yet flyes from a Dead Mans head; though some say, he fears onely a humane Visage, which Gesner confirms: He bears a great enmity to the Cock, Serpent, and Leeks. Pliny saith that a Panther will not venture on any that is an­nointed with Cocks-blood: and who wears a Panthers Skin need fear no Ser­pents; such his Antipathy to the Hyena, that their Skins hang'd opposite, his will shed the hair, if you dare believe Pliny.

¶ THe Camelopardelis, so call'd, as springing from the Camel and Pard, Camelopard. in size resembles the Camel; in his Marks or Spots, the Leopard, and is call'd Nabuna by the Moors, says Pliny, by the Moderns now Saffarat; the Greeks and Latines call it Gyraffa; Bellonius in his Observations describes this Beast very exactly, thus: ‘I saw a couple of them in Grand Cayro, each having two little horns in the Forehead about six inches long, between which appear'd a bunch like a third horn, about two inches high: from the Dock to the crown of the Head, was 18 foot; his Legs were much of a length before and behinde, but the upper Joynt or Shoulder-Bone, much longer than the Thigh: his Back slop'd like the ridge of a house, his whole Body is of a Deer-colour trick't up with many, great and square spots; Cloven-footed like an Ox, with his upper Lip over-hanging the under; his Tail little, thin, and tufted at the end; his Mane like a Horses, and seeming to limp in his going, first on the right, then on the left Leg: When he eats Grass, drinks Water, or takes other Food off from the earth, he stretches out his Fore-feet, otherwise he can take up no­thing: his Tongue, as Josephat Barbarus writes, is two foot in length, of a sad Azure, long and round like an Eel, wherewith he gathers branches, leaves and herbs up into his mouth with an admirable celerity. Purchas adds, that a horse and man may pass under his Belly. Strabo says, he is found among the Troglodites, and Ethiopes. Caesar first shewed him at Rome, though 'tis probable they formerly abounded in Judea, being a food prohibited to the Jews.

Here also are a kind of Wild Bulls, called by the Natives, Gualiox, Wild Bulls. but by the Spaniards Vacas bravas, that is, Mad, or Hectoring Bulls: They are swift as a Hart, but lesser than our Beeves, arm'd with horns black and sharp, but his Flesh is sweet, and his Hide fit for Tanning, making good Leather: In Barbary [Page 20]they run together in herds, more than 100. sometimes 200. especially in the Countreys of Duquele and Tremisen, the Desarts of Numidia, and elsewhere.

¶ WIld Asses also are found in the Wildernesses of Numidia and Lybia, Wild Asses. of a light grey, and for swiftness equalling the Barb.

In the high Eastern part of Prester John's Countrey, Goats. on the Banks of Nile, are Male-Goats as big as a wean'd Calf, their thick hair trailing on the ground: They have excellent Skins call'd Xarequies, which are drest, hair and all, with the Root of a Tree, Cows. stiled Alhanne: There also are great naked Cows, which the Egyptians call Demnie, with Tails trailing on the ground, and raising the dust like our Madams Gowns; and their Necks strip'd with divers colours.

In these parts are two sorts of Sheep, Sheep. Woolly, and Hairy; The first differ from ours, only in their Horns and Tails, the last so round and thick, that the Sheep themselves are but subservient to their own Train, some there­of weigh 15, others 20 l. which happens chiefly in their fatting. Leo Africanus says, Of their wondrous Tails. he saw one weighing 80 l. Others report to have seen some of 150 l. weight: however, true it is, that the people are constrained to bind them upon little Carriages, that they may go with less impediment: All the fat that covers the Kidneys of other Sheep, is contributed upon their Tails; Store of them are found in the Kingdom of Tunis, and in Egypt, and of late in the East and West of Africa, and in the adjacent Islands.

The tame Cows in Africa are so small, Kine. that they seem to be but two year old Heifers, yet the Inhabitants of the Mountain Galate, as Leo writes, use them for Tillage, being very strong and laborious.

Adimnaim is another tame Creature, Adimnaim. much like a Sheep, but great as a mid­ling Ass, having long and pendulous Ears; the Lybians use them as Sheep, and their Milk (whereof they give much) serves both for Meat and Drink; their Wool is short, but good; the Males are without, but the Females have horns: they are mild and tractable, having strength enough to carry a Man a days Journey; they breed chiefly in the Lybian Desarts, and some few in Numidia.

The Arabian Dabuch, Dabuch. which the Africans call Jesef, is of the bigness of a Woolf, and resembling him in all parts but his Legs and Feet, wherein he is like a man: He hurts no other Beasts, but devours the Dead, digging them out of the Graves, which is no strange thing, the Moors usually burying in the open fields; when the Hunters know his recess, they make their approaches Singing and Playing on Musical Instruments, ravish't with the pleasure there­of, he is drawn forth to listen, where they in the mean while snare and kill him. Leo Africanus says, they are found in the Woods of Mauritania, Pegus, Congo, China, and divers other parts, especially in Egypt, where they breed very much.

The Dub being in the Wilds of Lybia, Dub. of the length of a mans Arm, and the bredth of four fingers, hath a strange antipathy to Water, so that if any be put into its mouth, he immediately dyes: They lay Eggs like a Turtle, and are harmless; their Flesh roasted, tastes, as they say, like the hinder part of a Medow-Frog; he is very swift, and so strong, that if his head be in a hole, and his tail out, no strength can draw him thence, except you loosen his hold by widening the passage; it has a kind of trembling Convulsive motion three days after it is slain, if but exposed to the Fire.

The Guarall is like the Dub, but bigger, Guarall. having poison both in his Head and Tail, which is the cause that the Arabians throw them away when they Cook the rest.

In Africa, especially in Biledulgerid and Lybia is a Beast, like a little Bull, Lant. or small Cow, called the Lant; It seems to be that Bubalus of old, which Aristotle says, is a timerous Creature, having neither Hair or Wooll: which Leo thus de­scribes; The Lant, or Dant, resembles an Ox, but smaller Legg'd, and his Horns less, with white Hair and black Hooves, and so swift, that no Beast unless the Barb, can once overtake; yet easier to be catch'd in Summer than in Winter, because the Parching heat of the Sand softens and loosens his Hooves. But Scaliger sayes: The Dant, Lant, and Elant, (which is all one and the same, though different in name) is white hair'd, fac'd like a Cow, but less in body, yet much swifter and nimbler; so that they excell all Wild Beasts both in agility and speed: Their Skin so strong and tough, that Steel will not pene­trate: the best time to catch them is the Summer, for then their Hooves become loose and tender by the heat of the Sand: Bellonius makes another sort, being (saith he) a full grown Beast, smaller than a Deer, but bigger than a wild Goat, and so well propor­tioned in shape, that it is pleasure to behold; his yellow hair so sleek and shining, as if Curried and Dress'd; his Belly strip'd or dappled with more brisk and various Colours than his Back, which is dusky; Cloven-footed, with strong stubbed Legs, a thick short Neck, black and very crooked Horns, Ears like a Cow, Thighs full and plump, his Tail as a Camelopard, hanging down to his heels, full of bristly and rough hair, Lowing very like, but not so loud as an Ox. This they find in the Arabian Desarts, and between the Mountains of India and Catay, and divers parts of Asia.

¶ SOme Writers say, that in Africa, in the Mountains of Beth, Unicorn. in Upper-Ethiopia, breeds the Unicorn: Garcias ab horto tells, that he saw one be­tween the Cape of Good Hope, and Cape de Currentes, though Modern Authors do not without cause deny, and hold it a Fiction, and that there can be no such Creature as the Antients describe. Strabo out of Onesicritus saith, it is like a Horse; but Philes, that his Tail being ringl'd, resembles a Wild Boar, and that he opens his Mouth like a Lyon: According to Pliny, he hath a Harts head, Feet like an Elephant, Tail of a Boar, and the rest representing a Horse, with a Horn in his Forehead two Cubits long: Isidorus makes him the same with the Rhinoceros, affirming his Horn so strong and mighty, that he either breaks or penetrates quite through what e're he strikes: Marcus Paulus Venetus tells us, that the Great Cham of Tartary uses them, and that in the Region of Lambri, they are smaller than an Elephant, having a flat head like a wild Swine, an angular Tongue, wherewith they take in what food they can get, and the rest of their Shape agrees with the Rhinoceros. One Lewis de Barthema of Bononia writes thus of it: Near the Temple at Mecha, are Stables wherein they keep two living Unicorns; the one having a Horn near four handfuls in length. But the other being of the growth of a Colt of two years and a half old, had a Horn on his Forehead near seven foot long, the Body being of a sad Colour, with a Head like a Hart, short Neck, little Hair, and thinly Main'd, spindle shanks like a Deer, Feet with Hooves a little cloven; be­ing by nature Wild, and loving solitude: That which we call in Europe the Unicorns Horn, and preserve as a costly and rare Cordial, belongs to a Monster or Sea-fish taken in the North-Seas, upon the Coasts of Island, Greenland, and other adjacent Isles: which we thus describe.

It is a full and well-grown Fish, near eighteen foot long, and twelve broad; Sea-Unicorn. headed like a Perch or Carp; the Horn shoots out of the upper Jaw above [Page 22]his Mouth, opens very wide, not right in the middle, but a little more towards the left side; its Skin is russet, under which lyes very much fat, whereof are made great quantities of a nauseous and ill scented Oyl, which for that cause hath little esteem. The Back-bone consists of many strong Joynts, ending in a forked tail, armed on both sides with strong prickles: The Horn is streight, hard, white, and so neatly adorned with deep wreathings, as if it were smoothly polish'd, and Artificially turn'd Ivory; in length sometimes nine, ten, twelve foot, or more; whose vertues are not inferior to those ascribed to the Land-Unicorn, as well in driving out the Measles and Small Pox, as in asswaging Malignant Feavers, and tough Distempers of Agues.

In Nubia and the Kingdom of the Abyssines, Zorafes, or Giraffes. is a Beast called Zorafes, or Gi­raffes, as big as a two-years old Heifer, having a Neck like the Glave of a Javelin, or Half-Pike, and a head resembling a Gazell, with Legs short behind and long before, hair'd and brindled like an Ox, the Ears like a Hart, and Breast smooth and shining; which the Africans say is generated of two Spe­cies; he wanders solitarily through the Woods, flying from men, and not to be taken, but young.

¶ HAving treated thus far of Beasts; We shall now briefly present you with some Plants and Vegetables, referring their full discourse to the places where naturally produced.

Though Africa be in some places very fertile, yet a great part of the Country lyes waste and unmanured, full of Barren Sands, or abounding with Serpents, in such manner, that the Peasant dare not Till the ground, unless Booted; but the manured parts afford a rich crop to the industrious Husband­man, yeilding oftentimes an hundred fold encrease.

The chief Grain of Africa, is Wheat, Rye, Barley, Rice and Maiz, and besides the Trees growing there, that are in common with Europe, are divers others not found amongst us, such are the Cassia, Egyptian Fig-tree (the Inhabitants term it Guimeiz) the Date, Cotton, Coco, and Balsam-tree, Sugar-Canes, and the like Productions, with which they drive a great Trade with us in Europe.

Among others in the Wildernesses of Lybia, Ettalche, a Tree.Biledulgerid, and Negro-land, grows the Tree call'd Ettalch, guarded round with Prickles, having leaves like the Juniper shrub: from under the Bark issues a Gum, whose body and smell resembles Mastich, which the Merchants often cheat with, by adulterating, so selling it for Mastich.

Of the Tree Argan or Erguen, Argan. an Oyl is made by the Inhabitants; whereof more at large in the Description of Hea a Province of Marocco.

In the Countrey of Lyme, Aud-Altassavijt. is found the Aud-Altassavijt, which is tough like Hemp, and will not break with hachelling, but yields at every blow a plea­sing sound.

Other parts of Africa afford no small number of Herbs and Plants; all which we shall set forth in their due place, especially in the Description of Egypt.

There is also the Root by the Inhabitants call'd Terfez, Terfez. A Root. but Kamha by the Physitians, resembling an Earth or Ar-Nut, but bigger and very sweet, ga­ther'd by the Arabians in the Desarts of Biledulgerid, pleasing their palates like confected Fruits. Another Root yeilding a very sweet and pleasing scent, is found on the Western parts on the Sea-shore, which the Merchants of [Page 23] Barbary carry to sell among the Negroes, who use it as a Perfume, onely by sprinkling it about the house: An African A Mudde is three Bushels English, or thereabouts. Mudde, which in Mauritania, is sold for half a Ducket, which the Merchants vend again among the Negroes for eighty or a hundred Duckets, and sometimes dearer.

There is another Root call'd Addad, not unknown to the African Women, Addad. whose acid Leaves and Root are of so poysonous a faculty, that a little of their water distilled, gives a quick dispatch by sudden death to their Husbands, or any other that they are weary of.

On the West-side of Mount Atlas, is the Root Surnag; Surnag. having a special ver­tue to incite Venus. The Inhabitants report, that it will devirginat Maids, couching to Urine on the Leaves, and after will much dis-affect them with Tympanied infirmities. There is also Euphorbium, whereof more at large in Barbary.

¶ HEre are two sorts of Pitch, the one natural, or Stone Pitch; Pitch. The other Artificial, and thus made: They erect a great Oven with a hole at the bottom, in which they put the Branches of Pine or Juniper chop't in peices, then the Ovens mouth close stop'd, a fire is made underneath, by the heat whereof, the Pitch is extracted out of the wood, running through the bottom of the Oven into a hole underneath it in the Earth, whence they take it out, and put it into Bladders, or Leathern Bags.

All the Salt in the most part of Africa, as Leo saith, is dig'd out of Salt-pits, Salt. being white, red, and gray: Barbary 'tis true, hath plenty of Salt; Biledul­gerid is reasonably well stored: but in Negro-land, and the innermost Parts of Ethiopia, a pound of Salt is sold for half a Ducket: They use no Salt-cellar, nor set it on the Table, but each having a piece in his hand, lick it at every Morsel. In a Lake in Barbary, near the City of Fez, all the Summer is found a well-concocted and coagulated Salt; but such as border on the Sea, make Snow-white Salt of Sea-water.

Atlas on that side, where Biledulgerid borders on the Kingdom of Fez, Antimony. pro­duces great quantity of Antimony, and sundry other have veins of Sulphur; Mines of Gold and Silver. but above all, the rich Mines of Gold and Silver, those especially in Negro-land, Guinee, and Ethiopia, deserve admiration.

MArmol relates from Aben-Gezar, Marmol. Los Hechizos. that certain Stones are found in the Land of Lyme, call'd by the Spaniards, Los Hechizos, and by the Arabians Hajar Acht, which have divers signatures, representing several parts of a Man, as a Hand and Foot, Face, Head and Breast, many like the Heart, but some the whole compleat Figure of a Man, in just proportions. The most perfect of these Stones, they assuredly believe, to have an occult and wonderful faculty, irritated by the help of Spels and Sorcery, to introduce and bring the Bearer thereof into the favour of Princes.

In the steep Mountains Alard and Quen, between Nubia and Zinchamque, The Stone Beth. a Stone is found call'd Beth, which, as they say, will make those Speechless that long gaze upon it.

AFrica also brings forth Eagles, differing in size, colour, and properties, Eagles. whose greatest, the Arabs call Neser, and bigger than a Crane, having a very short Beak, Neck and Legs, yet mounts exceeding high, till for want of Feathers, he betakes himself to his Nest, where the Eaglets feed him.

Divers parts of this Countrey, Parrots. especially Guinee and Ethiopia, yield Parrots of several sorts and colours. Whereof more at large, when we come to those parts.

The Mountains of the upper Ethiopia, Griffons. Marmol. specially that of Beth, as Marmol says, shew Griffons, which the Arabians enstile Ifrit.

Great store of strange Creatures, Hippo-potamus, and other Amphibious creatures. some Amphibii, as the Hippo-potamus or Sea-Horse, the Sea-Cow, the Crocodile, Tortoises, Ambare, and others of the same nature using both Water and Land, are found in the Lybian wildes, and Sea-coasts of Africa.

Serpents, Serpents, &c. Venomous Creatures, Reptiles, and strange Insects, are produced in the Wilderness of Biledulgerid, Negro-land, and upper Ethiopia.

¶ HItherto we have lightly touch't several things; as first, that Africa is for the most part habitable, from the mildness of the weather and the sea­sons conducing thereunto; next the greatness of the Mountains, richness of their Mines, enumerated their Provinces and Kingdoms, the variety of Creatures, Plants, Grain, and Herbage: now we will say something of the people them­selves, their Statures, Complexions, Manners and Religions.

Some divide the Africans into Black and White, but a curious eye may easily observe a great difference in the colours of those people, Complexions of the People. as not being under the same climate: Blacks and White. Such as in habit in and about Guinee, and the Negroes Land, be­tween the Equinoctial and Tropick, are Black; who live in Prester John's Countrey, Brown and Olivaster. are Brown and Olivaster, but the Natives of the Cape of Good Hope (which of all Africa, is the most Southward) are the Blackest. Experience therefore clears the vanity of that conceit, that according as people live nearer or farther from the Aequator, so they are Blacker or Whiter; whence it would follow, those who have the Sun directly over them, must needs be the Blackest; and the farthest therefrom, the whitest: whereas Nature in this case hath frustrated the fancy of the Learned, by a visible contrary, giving diversity of colours to the Inhabitants of the same degree: for the Patagons a great people near the Streights of Magellan, are totally white, whereas at the Cape of Good Hope under the same Latitude, they are very Black; of the causes whereof are See Brown's Vulgar Er­rors. l. 6. cap. 10, 11, 12. of the Blackness of Negroes. various opinions, but which carries the greatest probability of truth, we will not here discuss.

Nor is there a greater distinction of Complexions, Stature. than difference in the bulk of their Bodies; Gygantick. the Natives of the Kingdom of Neguz, being Giant-like; those of Mosambique, Dwarf-like, and Middle. Dwarfish; and those of Barbary, of a middle Stature. As to their several characters and dispositions, we shall touch them in the Descrip­tion of each particular Country.

For Valour and Courage, Un-warlike. they are much inferior to the Europeans; neither understanding to handle Arms, nor willing or forward to learn: A great number of them not long since, by their effeminacy were conquer'd by a few Portugues: One strong Fort, with a small Garrison, keeps a whole Countrey in awe, and a See Salust. de bell. Ju­gurthiu [...], contestatio inter Jugurth. & Marium; that Jugurth and Marium were well match't, or equal Cap­tains, but their Souldiers would endure no degree of Comparison. Regiment of English or Hollanders, are able to rout whole Armies: And the Turks make continual war upon the King of the Abyssines, wresting from him divers places of great concernment, which Prester John he never durst attempt to recover. 'Tis true, in some places, the people are very wilde, savage, and dangerous to deal with, but their ignorance and unskilfulness in Arms, makes their fierceness little avail for defence of so great a Countrey. Among all these Provinces, Barbary Warlike. Barbary is the most Warlike; having a long time by the Christians [Page 25]been exercised in Martial affairs, making manful resistance against all inva­ding attempters, with the assistance of her home-born Turks and Arabs: yet they are kept in awe by the Christian Forts on the Sea-coast, receiving from them no small damage, without hopes ever to recover what they knew not how to keep.

There are in Africa divers sorts of people, generally divided into Arabians, Several people. and Aborigenes, sub-divided again into Whites and Blacks; of which two kinds so dispers'd over Africa, it will be worth our pains to set down their places of abode, manners, and strengths.

The White Africans are by Johannes Leo, divided into five Tribes, viz. White Africans, their di­vision.Zanha­gians, Musmudans, Zenetans, Haoranians and Gumeranians; which are again sub­divided into six hundred Families, as their Historian Ibnu Rachu, Marmol. by Marmol named Ibni Alraquiq, hath Registred: The same Marmol, calls the first two Zinhagians and Mukamudans, in the other three agreeing with Leo, who says, That the Musmudans dwell East and by South from Mount Atlas, inhabiting all the Plains, and commanding the four Provinces of Hea, Sus, Guzule, and Marocco. The Gumeranians possess the Mountains of Mauritania, towards the Mid-land Sea, and the Strands of Errif, beginning from the Streights of Gibral­tar, and extending East-wards to the borders of the Kingdom of Tremisen: These two people live apart, whereas the other three live mix'd one among another, but may as easily be distinguish'd by the Air of their faces, and Mien of their bodies, as the Natives from Strangers, being at continual hostility among themselves.

The Zenetans and Haoranians inhabit the fields of Temesne, but the Zinhagians in the Lybian Wildernesses, (whereby it appears that in former times they all had their dwellings in the Plains) each favouring his own party, and imploy­ing themselves in works necessary for humane subsistance. The Gover­nours are Pastors, or Keepers of Cattel; but the Citizens apply themselves to Trading, the Mechanicks also follow Husbandry. Some Writers imagine that the Kings of Tombuto, Melli, and Agadez, are sprung from these Zin­hagians.

The first Planters of the Eastern Desarts of Africa, are now term'd African Bereberes, descended from the Sabeans of Arabia Faelix, who came thither with their King Melek Ifiriqui, mentioned before: But those of Tingitana, Numi­dia and Lybia, are call'd Bereberes Xilohes: when these people fell at variance, the Conqueror remaining Master of the Field and Cattel, forc'd the Van­quished to secure themselves in the Mountains, or more populous Cities, who intermixing with the other Africans, came at last, as they, to dwell in Houses, and to be equally subject with them: Therefore those which live in Abraham journeyed with his Family and Cattel, as these, & lived in Tents. Gen. Tents, as the Arabians, are counted more noble, because more mighty, and richer in Cattel; yet both preserve their Pedigree and Descent, having their habitation in the strongest places of Barbary, Numidia and Lybia.

The Mukamudens hold four Provinces of Marocco in common with the Zene­tans, with them residing in the Fields of Temesne, the utmost westerly part thereof. These are now a mean people, called Xavies: But others of them inhabiting part of the Great Atlas, bordering on this Kingdom, and Tremisen, are very valiant, maintaining continual Wars with the Turk: Another sort of them dwell in the Countreys of Constantine and Tunis; some in the Fields, like the Arabs, and a few dispersed in Houses and Towns.

The Haoranians are mixt with the Zenetans: The Zinhagians reside behind the Mountains of Barka unto Nefuca, and Gueneris: The Gumeranians possess the Lesser Atlas, where it extends towards the Midland-Sea, and along the bounds of Ceute, to the utmost part of Mauritania Tingitana, bordering on the Imperial Mauritania.

¶ THere are another people scattered over Barbary and Numidia, Effeminate people scat­ter'd in Barbary. for the most part Herdsmen: some so effeminate that they Spin and Weave, yet live very poorly in Mountainous Holes and Caves, Tributary to the Arabians. Others are War-like, and laborious, enjoying liberty, and not acknowledg­ing any Superior. They claim as their chief Seat, the Provinces of Temesne and Fez: But those who inhabit that part of the Kingdom of Tunis adjacent to the Date-Countrey, are the most mighty and stout, having dared to engage in a War with the King of Tunis, Anno 1509. and gave Battel unto Mules Nacer Son of Mahomet, King thereof, endeavoring to subject them; who at this day bear Rule over the Kingdoms of Cauco and Labez.

The Zenegans, or Zanagans, the Guanesers, Tergers, Lempters, and Berdoans, all very poor and despicable, living without Order or Laws in Tents, and rove about with their Horses, like the Arabs through the Lybian Wildernesses.

Some of the Arabians in Africa are more Savage, wandring over the Moun­tains, and through the Woods. Others dwell in Cities, and are called Hadares, that is, Courtiers; being indeed Merchants for the most part; the rest apply themselves to Study, or follow Princes Courts, and are counted less noble, because they mix their blood with others. Those which inhabit Fez, are intituled Garbes, that is, West-countrey-men; such as dwell Eastward, Xarquies, that is, Diego de Torres. Easterlings; which made Diego de Torres divide the Countrey into Xar­quia and Garbia: The Lybian Arabs are Savages, but stout and war-like, Tra­ding with Merchandize upon Camels to the Negroes Countrey, and keeping many Barbary Horses, oft-times recreating themselves with hunting of Wilde Asses, Ostriches, and other Beasts: The Numidians are great friends of the Muses, The Numidians are Poets. and highly pleas'd with Poetry, Poets naturally, being much addicted thereunto, having so rich fancy, that on all occasions they set forth their Passions and Love-fits in a smooth and elegant stile: They are also jealous, especially in bestowing their favours, lest they discover their wealth and abilities: The Men go apparelled as the Numidians, but the Women differ.

Those between Mount Atlas and the Mid-land Sea, are much wealthier than these of Numidia, both in sumptuousness of Apparel, richness of Tents, and abundance of Horse, which are handsomer, and more full and brawny than the former, but want much of their speed. Tillage and Cattel are their chief livelyhood, the later of which are so numerous, that they are often compell'd to remove and seek new Pastures: They are Savage like those of the Wilder­ness; some living as Subjects to the King of Fez, but others in Marocco and Du­cale, formerly free from Tolls and Taxes, till the King of Portugal began to conquer Asafi, Aza and Azamor, when after a civil War, and the miseries of its common Attendant, Famine; they freely submitted to the Portugueses.

They of the Wilderness about Telesin and Tunis, are rich and stately; their Rulers drawing great Sums of Money yearly from the Neighbour Kings, which is equally distributed among the people, who pride themselves in comely habits, being ingenious in making Tents, and Breaking or Riding Horses: [Page 27]In Summer they come to the very borders of Tunis, to gather Contributions; and in Harvest furnish themselves from other mens labours, with all Necessa­ries, as Victuals, Clothing, and Arms, wherewith fully supplyed, they return to their old Winter Quarters; but the Spring they spend in Hunting: Their Tents abound with greater plenty of Cloth, Copper, Iron, and other Mettals, than the richest Ware-houses of some Cities; and no mar­vel, for under the pretext of courtesie and civility, Good Poets rewardes they steal all they can lay hold on: They are also ingenious Poets, and the best of them, get not only praise, but according to their excellency, have rich rewards, and high honours from their Governours.

The Women, according to the custom of the Countrey, The Women. wear black Gowns with wide Sleeves, cover'd somtimes with a mantle of the same colour, or blew, fastned about their Necks with Silver Clasps: their Ears, Fingers, Legs and Ancles, are adorn'd with Silver Rings: If any man, except their Kindred and intimate Acquaintance, meet them abroad, they cover their Faces with Vi­zard Masks, and pass by in silence: In all their Journeyings (which are fre­quent) the Women ride on Tin Saddles fastned to the Camels backs, big enough only for one; yea, and going to war, their Wives accompany them, the more to encourage them to fight for them and their Children.

The Maids Paint their Faces, Breasts, Arms and Hands; but the more noble Women content themselves with their own natural Colours and Com­plexions; only somtimes out of Hens Dung and Saffron, they mix a Colour, wherewith they make a little round Beauty-spot in the Center of their Cheeks, a Triangle between their Brows, and an Olive-leaf, or long Oval, upon their knees: Their Poets and Amours so highly commend the painting of the Eye­brows, that it is not used above two or three dayes together; in which time none but her Husband and Children may see her, because they account this painting a great incitation to Venus, as thereby supposing themselves much more beautiful and handsom.

LEo writes that the Arabians of Barka between Barbary and Egypt, Lib. 6. Hist. Afr. live very miserably and poorly, which happens by reason of their want of Corn; Want of Corn in Barka. for there is not in all that Countrey a place fit for Tillage, or that produces ought save Dates, and those too but in a few Villages: wherefore though sometimes they Barter Camels and Cattel for Corn, yet cannot they purchase sufficient for so many people; whereupon the Parents are constrained to leave their Children to the Scicilian Merchants for a pawn or security of payment: And if according to the agreement, they break their day, the Sellers keep their Children for Slaves, whom if the fathers will redeem, they must render tre­ble of the former debt: This misery makes them such barbarous and inhu­mane Robbers and Murtherers, that no Merchants dare approach their Coasts, but rather choose to travel some hundreds of Miles about.

PEter Dan in his Journey to Barbary, in the year 1633. Lib. 2. Hist. Barb. hath very exactly described the manners and life of these Arabians. Arabian Manners.They utterly (saith he) abhor labour, glorying in a supine carelessness, and esteem no other people so happy, though themselves be the most despicable and wretched in the whole world; so priding in their pover­ty, that they will scarce change their Hutts and Rags for the Palaces and Robes of the greatest Monarchs; They have no secure or setled place of abode, but rove up and down: where they stay for any short time, they pitch their Tents, or rather Huts, close together, [Page 28]but divided into several quarters: and this great Troop, or Company, they call Dovar; each single Tent they stile Barraque: Here they lye upon the ground intermixed with their Cattel; the Barraques seem like Pavilions, underprop'd with two great Poles, the Door made of branches of Trees, and a place in the middle like a void Court.

The Men wear about their heads a kinde of Shash, The Men. hanging down part before, and part behinde: They use no Linnen nor other Clothing for their Bodies, save only a remnant of four or five yards of Cloth, wherein they wrap themselves, casting it over the Shoulder and under the Arms, bare-footed, and bare-leg'd.

The Women wear a piece of Cloth hanging from the Breasts down to the Knees, The Women. the rest naked: They tye up their Hair, adorning it with Fishes­teeth, and some small pieces of Coral, or Glass, over which they lightly cast a fine Hair-cloth, or Lawn, to appear the fairer. They pounce their Foreheads, Cheeks, Thumbs, and Calves of their Legs, making various marks with the point of a needle, wherein they strow a black Powder to make them the more visible, and continuing; and in stead of more costly Jewels, Wear wooden Rings.

Their Kitchen-Furniture consists in one or two earthen Pots: their daily food is Rice, Their Houshold-stuff. Cakes, and Cuscous, with a little Drink and Milk: they drink fair water, wash their right hands, but never any part else; using nei­ther Cups or Napkins, but squat crosse-leg'd on the ground on a Mat made of Date-leaves: Each Houshold carries with it a Like a Mustard-Mill. Mill to Grind Corn, made of two stones lay'd one upon another, which they turn about with a stick: Every day they bake Bread in great flat Loaves under the Embers, and eat it hot. They are strangers to riot and luxurious feeding, never tasting of two several Dishes at one Meal; which admirable temperance may be the cause of their so constant health, Salust. They dye of no Disease, but the Plague, Scr­pents, Sword, or Age. and freedom from the Gout, Stone, and all other like Distempers, usually living eighty years, and upwards.

They greatly delight when they come into Cities, to be presented with Oyl and Vinegar in a Dish, and warm Bread, which broken in small pieces, they dip therein and eat.

Each wandring Company chooses a Captain, Their Habitations. his Barraque or Tent stands in the midst of the Dovar, where he takes care of all things conducing to their preservation. Their Arms are a Half-pike or Javelin, they call it Agay, or Azagay; and use it with such dexterity and strength, that they can certainly hit a man, and wound him dangerously at a very great distance: They use besides a broad Dagger, which they wear in a sheath on their right Arm near the Elbow, for the more ready service: They are so skilful and active Horse­men, Their Horsemanship. that whatever they let fall, they can take up again, their Horses running in careere at full speed.

Upon any Visit, Their Visits. if they be equals, they salute one another upon the Cheek at first meeting, but if a Commander, or Marabou, visit them, they kiss their hands with great respect and reverence: After salutes, they civily enquire of the health and welfare, not onely of their Wives, Children, and Relations; but also Horses, Cattel, and Hens; nay more, strangely inquisitive how their Dogs and Cats do, as a more concern'd Domestick; for their Dogs are highly esteemed, not as their Play-fellows, nor Ladies Foisting-hounds; but as faithful Warders, and a Watch against the incursions of the subtile Fox, preventing all Assaults and Plots upon his Masters Poultry, and also giving no­tice [Page 29]of a more dreadful Enemy the Lyon, by their loud and continual barking. But the great estimation they set on their Cats, is not onely that they pre­serve Victuals from the plundering Rat and Mouse, where ever seizing of them, but their persons from the deadly tooth of the Viper, which there abounds.

¶ THeir Marriages are thus celebrated: Their Marriages. The Wooer furnish'd by his father with a certain number of Oxen and Cows, wherein their wealth consists; drives them to his intended Father-in-laws residence, who immediatly acquaints his Daughter that such a man must be her Husband: Whereupon putting on a White Garment, she waits till he comes to visit her in the Tent, where the onely Complement is to tell her how much he lov'd her, by declaring how dear she cost him, whereto a customary reply is made, that a discreet and vertuous Wife cannot truly be valu'd at any price: After this first interview, she remains for a while It is a custom in Spain, as formerly in Greece, that both Wives and Virgins should have their faces co­vered, whence Libanius mentioning the Destruction of Troy. [...]. The head of the Woman was without a veil; for the destruction of her Countrey had taken away the consideration of mode­sly, for it was the fashion for Curtizans to walk open­fac'd, as may be seen in Calli­machus Hymn on Venus, and in the Comedy of Xenar­chus; whence the Athenians made this Caveat: That whoever was taken with any Woman, Wife, or Vir­gin unveyl'd, should not be counted an Adulterer. veyl'd in her Fathers Tent, and there visited by all the Maids of the Dovar; which done, she mounts on Horseback, attended by the same Visitants, with great shouting and joy, till arriv'd at her Bridegrooms Tent, where expected by many Women, with his Mother and Friends: At the Bridegrooms approach, they offer him drink, wherein is sopt a piece of the Tent wood, with loud acclamation, wishing happiness to the new Mar­ried Couple: and that the great God would so bless their Marriage, that their Cattel might encrease, and Milk flow to the top of the Pavilion: When they alight, they give the Bride a sharpned Wand, which she sticks into the ground, to intimate that as that cannot come out of the earth unless forc'd, so a woman must not forsake her Husband, unless by Divorce, or driven away: These Ceremonies perform'd, they set her to keep the Herds and Flocks, signifying that from thenceforth she must lay her hands to work, and take care about Houshold-affairs: After her Marriage, she wears a Mask for a Moneth, not stirring abroad.

When one dyes, the Wife or next Neighbour goes out of the Tent, After the Irish ma [...]ner and wont, with a loud cry, or ou-la-loo. howl­ing in a strange manner with a loud cry, or Ou-la-loo; by which Sum­mons the Women start out from their Tents, and joyning their sad notes, make a hideous and doleful harmony: others mean while repeating as it were in a Song, his Eulogies, chanting forth his Praises and Vertues, till at last they bring him to the Grave, according to the custom of the Mahumetans.

They are so much addicted to Robbery and Theft, that their very name Arab, signifies a Theif: for where the Prophet Jeremy saith, Like a Thief in the Wilderness; St. Jerome saith, like an Arab in the Wilderness.

¶ THe Xilohes and Bereberes, as Marmol says, Marmol. Their Languages and man­ner of Writing. at this day write and speak all one Tongue, which is called Quellem Abimalick; that is, the speech of Abimalick, who was accounted the Inventer of the Arabick letters: But besides this, they use also the African speech, very much different from the other, and mixt with many Arabian words: Africanus says, the five white People of Africa use this Speech, which he calls Aquel Marik, that is, a noble Speech; This last is di­vided into three several Dialects; the Tamazegtans using one; the Xilhans ano­ther, and the Zenetans a third; each varying from other onely in some words, and holding affinity with the Arabick.

The Gumerians and Haoranians, who live on the lesser Atlas, and all the In­habitants of the Cities on the Coast of Barbary between the greater Atlas and the Midland-Sea, use the Morisk Tongue: But in the City of Marocco and all its Provinces, the Numidians, Getulians, and Western part of Africa, speak the [Page 30]antient African, known by the two old names of Xilha and Tamazegt. Others residing Eastward, bordering Tunis, and extending beyond Tripoly to the Desarts of Barka, speak a broken Arabick; Such as live in Dovars, or in houses, mingle the Zenetan Tongue with corrupt Arabick: so that few people in Afri­ca speak pure and true Arabick, Sealig. ad Cansabon. lib. 1. Epist. 72. but use generally in their writings the Abi­malik Tongue: some have observed, that in the Cities on the Coasts of Barbary the Citizens speak Arabick, but base and corrupt. The Peasants use the African Tongue: But the common Edicts, Commands, Lawes, and Contracts, yea and their very Proverbs, are written in pure Arabick.

The Azengians and other Mahumetans mingle their speech with Arabick and Barbary words: The mixture of the African Speeches or Dialects. the speech of Gelofe, Geneba, Tombuto, Meli, Gago, and Galata, they call Zungay: that of Guber, Cano, Queseve, Perzegreg, and Guangray, Guber; which the people of Borno and Gouga imitate; whereas in the Kingdom of Nubia, they have a Dialect different from all the former; these Countreys lye upon the River Niger: In the more Southern, the Languages are as various and differing, the principal are Zinch, and Habex, which last the Abyssines use: In some of these parts the people are so sullen and brutishly inclined, that they will neither speak, be sociable, nor appear to any; and in case one of them be taken, he will rather starve to death, than open his mouth and speak.

Eminent Arabian Historiographers affirm, that when the Government of Barbary (the choicest part of Africk) became subject to the Mahumetans, the African and Roman Letters were the same, and were used commonly in Wri­ting: so that all their The Arrian Hereticks that fled out of Italy from the Gothes, and setled here. Arrian Histories are Translated out of Latine, and abridged with the Names of Princes and Commanders, according to the Reigns of the Persian, Assyrian, Chaldean, Israelitish, and Roman Kings. But the Schismatical Caliphs who conquered Africa, raging with malice, destroyed all those Books of Histories and Sciences, permitting no other to be read, than those of their own Sect. And the beforementioned Writer Ibnu Alraquiq sets forth, that the Romans after their Conquest, destroy'd all the ancient Records and African Books, The Romans utterly ob­literated all Punick Re­cords, Books and Histories. introducing in place thereof their own name, which in small time so prevail'd with a shining lustre, that their honour and glory alone remain'd, and the African Letters so totally blotted out, that without any glimmering thereof, they now write all in Arabick.

JOhn Leo saith, Africans skill'd in Astro­nomy, &c. that the Africans are well skill'd in Astronomy, and other Sciences, and that they have some skill in Architecture and Husbandry: which knowledge they first learn't out of Latine-writers, as appears not onely in that they order their Moneths by Ides and Calends, as the Latines; but that they have likewise a great Book in three Volumes, Entituled, The Treasury of Husbandry, which in the time of Mansor Lord of Granado, was translated out of Latine into Arabick, wherein are contained the rules of Tillage and Husban­dry, the alteration of the Seasons, manner of Sowing, with many the like singularities: Insomuch that in former times these parts produced divers in­genious and great Wits, Hath produced many fa­mous and Learned men. such as the Comedian Terence, and some Fathers and Doctors of the Christian Church: And others whose valour was not inferiour to the greatest, who by an incredible courage maintain'd their liberty against the most magnanimous of the Romans; although the present Inhabitants by a sad change, are so degenerated from that glory of their Ancestors, that they are esteemed the absurdest and most despicable Clowns in the Universe.

The African and Arabian Mahumetans reckon by the Moon, allowing to the year but three hundred fifty four days, every year shorter by eleven days than our European Account, giving six moneths thirty days, and to the other six twenty nine.

¶ AS Africa is thus blest with the extraordinary production of Cattel and Corn, Mines of Gold and Silver. so the infertility of the Desarts is in many places recompenc'd by rich Mines of Gold and Silver. Guinee, Sofale, Gago, Nubia, and divers other contain such Mines of Gold; as, Angola, Monomotapa, and other King­doms produce excellent Silver, not without some Gold; the Kingdom of Neguz is rich in many sorts of Merchandise; the Coasts of Barbary inhabited by the Turks, yields Corral, which they dive for, growing upon Rocks under water; and Tombuto affords the finest Gold, and other precious Rarities; so that Africa is not to be esteemed the least or meanest part of the World.

If the Valor of the Inhabitants did but equal their number, Their Valour. the united Forces of the rest of the World could little prejudice them; so numerous are the Armies alone of the King of Marocco and Fez; besides those of the Ara­bians, the bands of the Turks in the Kingdoms of Tunis, Algiers, Tripoly, and Egypt, the usual Army of the King of Neguz, and the incredible numbers of the King of Angola, seeming sufficient to make Africa invincible, if they were hardy and couragious, and trained up to the use of Arms. It remains then that we touch thereupon, and their manner of making war.

The Arabians of Marocco and Fez use Lances or Sagayes, Shields, Their manner of War-fare. Brest­plates and Helmets: Their Swords generally they have from Europe, and are much esteemed by them for the hardness of their Steel and excellent tem­per. They are, according to their manner of Riding, most expert Horse­men, casting their Javelins (whereof some carry six or seven) very swiftly one after another, and aiming exactly at great distance; All manner of Fire-Arms, whether for Horse, or Foot, or Field-Carriages, Cannon, great or small, wanting experience hitherto, they are not skilful in: They ride with tuck'd up Stirrops, that their heels almost kiss the Skirts of their Saddles, and in Fight cast off suddenly their loose upper Garment, or Man­dilion, to ease their Horses, and make themselves free and loose for the Battel.

Those that inhabit Westward, near Tremesen, and the Wildernesses of Barka, carry sharp, long-pointed iron Javelins, which they cast here and there, forwards, backwards, and on every side at their Enemies, that like the antient Parthians, they do greater execution in flight, than charging in Battel; yea, some of them are so hardy, that one of them so mounted will engage their single person some­times against a dozen of their opposers: They use no Shields, nor other de­fensive Arms; some few have Bowes; fewer Gunnes, which they onely carry to terrifie the Wilde Arabs, who fly from the report, as Wilde-fowl, not onely fearing, but abominating so base and treacherous an Engine that surprizes at such distance, and kills before warning, the sound not being heard till execution.

All their Wars hitherto have been managed on Horse-back, yet lately those of Tremesen have some Musketiers, but they use neither Ranks nor Files, but fall on in disordered Plumps, so many crowded together, and throng'd up in a narrow circle: And if assaulted, dissipate immediately, endeavoring to break through the Ranks, or else making huge gaps, force their passage to escape by flight, or in so doing break through the imbodied Enemy.

¶ SOme parts of Africa are govern'd by Emperors and Kings, The Government of A­frica. others by Vice-Roys, and elsewhere by Xeques, that is, Commanders, onely those of Bravas have moulded themselves into the form of a Republick, while ano­ther sort live without Governors and Laws, like Vagrant Rogues, roving about and robbing their Neighbours.

Barbary, (which was chiefly known to the Antients) was at first subject to several Princes, and after the destruction of Carthage, and other African Kings, fell under the command of the Romans, who planted these fruitful parts with their Colonies, and govern'd them a long time by Sub-Consuls, till the Vandals under the conduct of their King Genseric, with an Army of twenty four thousand men, in Anno 427. became Masters thereof. In possession of which they continued one hundred and eight years: But Carthage in the year 553. was re-conquered by Bellizarius, the Emperor Justinian's General, and their King Gelemer taken Prisoner: by which Victorious proceedings, Africa was a Province of the Greek Empire, who sent thither Annual Governors.

The Greeks maintained their Conquests till the year 663. when the Ara­bians invaded the Countrey, and subdued part thereof in the Reign of Ottoman the first King of the Turks, under the command of their Generall, Occuba Ben Nasick, with an Army of twenty four thousand men; with which, having worsted the Greeks in divers Battels, he built the City Cairaven, since corrupt­ed to Carvan or Cairvan, thirty Miles Eastward of Tunis. Most of the Arabians, (say the African Historians) returned home laden with rich Booties, but they which remain'd in Barbary built more Towns, mixing themselves with the Africans of Zinhagia, Barvata, and Zenega, commonly call'd Berberes, and by continual conversation speaking Lingua Franca. Italian or corrupt Latine, forgot the Arabick, their Native Tongue.

¶ ANd here we may observe, Chronology of Barbary. that when Barbary was under the Arabians, (and the family of Iris, who built the City of Fez, ruled over both the Mauri­tania's, and the Abdarhamans at Cordova) one family of the Zenetans, call'd Mequinecers obtain'd the Government: After that the Magaroanians of Biledulgerid drove out the Abdarhamans, and won many places from them, and also the Maquenetians out of Barbary; but themselves were soon expelled by other Africans of Zinhagia (by some call'd Lumptunas, by others Almoravidians and Morabitines) who were the first that embraced the Mahumetan Sect, in the Reign of Hexin, son of Abdul­malik: yet did it not prevaile to quiet their possession long, for a Mahumetun nam'd Mehedi, made War upon them, under the favour of the African Hargia's (a branch of the people of Mukamuda) and his Successors became in time Lords of all Africa by the name of Movaledines, from the Doctrine of Mohavedin, that is, The Law of the Writers: Against these the Benenerins arose and expelled them, but were shortly themselves subdued by another people, call'd Beni-Oataz, who last of all were bereft of the Government by the Xeriffes, or Cheriffs: All these together with the Kings of Tunis and Tremisen, and all the Kings of Africa who have reigned since the fall of the Arabians, are issued out from these five people.

¶ THe Africans were in former times great Idolaters, Religion of the old A­fricans. worshipping the Sun and Fire, as the Persians, erecting stately Temples to the honour of both, and therein preserving a never-dying flame, as the Vestals did at Rome, by con­stant Vigils. In this blind Superstition they remained to the year 349. when they embraced Christianity, though some soon after fell into the Manichaean He­resie. [Page 33]The Numidians, Getulians and Lybians worship'd the Planets: Their old Religion. The lower Ethiopians, some ador'd the Sun, others the Moon, others the Stars, Water, Fire, and many things besides. Nay, so did superstitious folly lead some, that they worship'd whatever living Creature met them at their first going abroad. They of Upper Ethiopia by a natural instinct, honor'd Guigim, that is, the Or God Almighty. Lord of Heaven: Afterwards, as themselves report, they became Jewish Proselites by means of the Queen The same with Sheba, in our Vulgar Translation. Saba, or Maqueda, who having heard of Solo­mon's great Wisdom, travel'd thither, and received from him Moses Law, with the Books of the Prophets: But in the year 1067, Yahaia the Son of Abu­bequer coming into Negroland and Lower Ethiopia, some of the Mahumetan Priests insinuated into the minds of the simple people, notions of their false Doctrine, (which suddenly rooted and spread like an infectious Disease, not onely into Egypt, but over the Mid-land Sea into Spain) thence coming off Victorious.

¶ BUt the Africans having embraced Christianity, Africans when first Chri­stians. as we said before in the year 349. continued therein, by reason that in those parts which now make the kingdoms of Tunis and Tripoli, at that time divers Christian Princes (most of them Arrians) flying from the rage of the Gothes (who harras'd Italy) took up their residence about Carthage, with whom, the Arabians (invading Barbary) waged War a long time, until after various Successes, and tyred out, some went for Spain, and others for Italy. As an apparent Testimony, how well Christian Religion had thriven and improved here, it is Gramay. lib. 2. c. 2. recorded, that in Carthage seven Ecclesiastical Councels have been held; in one of which, viz. that Anno 1411. there assembled two hundred eighty six Orthodox Prelates, besides a hundred and twenty more summon'd, that were absent; Nor was this all, it having produced many excellent and famous Fathers, such were Tertullian, Cy­prian, Fulgentius, Pope Gelasius the first, Arnogeus, with divers others; but above all, the incomparable St. Augustine.

They of Upper Ethiopia yet remain Christians, though tainted with many Jewish Superstitions, by the residence of some few Jews among them: but the Nether Ethiopians continue all in their Idolatry, onely here and there some few, since the Voyages of the Portugues into those parts, have received the Gospel.

At this day Africa is possess'd by five sorts of Religions, viz. Christians, Five sorts of Christians. Africa by whom possess'd at this time.Jews, Caffers, Idolaters, and Mahumetans. The Christians in Africa are partly Strangers, and partly Natives, whereof some Slaves to the Turks and Barbarians; others are free people: Of these again, some are Or­thodox (as to Fundamentals) such are they under the Government of the King of Spain, the Venetians, English, Netherlanders, and Genoese, &c. Others Hete­rodox, Superstitious and Schismatical, as in Prester John's Countrey, and some part of Negro-land; Others live here and there scatter'd, as the Armenians, Maronists, Georgians, Thomists, and Grecians: the first acknowledge the Patri­arch of Alexandria; the last the Patriarch of Constantinople; and the rest have their own peculiar Prelates.

Here likewise on the Sea-coast several sorts of people at certain seasons of the year, assemble to Negotiate and Trade with the English, Hollanders, French, Trade and Commerce.Danes, &c. who make constant and frequent Voyages over the whole Coast of Barbary along the Mediterranean Sea, unto the Streights of Gibraltar, and from thence to Cape de Verd, and the Cape of Good Hope: the two first of whom have rais'd Forts and Fortresses in divers places on the Coast of Guinee, to secure and confirm their Trade.

Many Jews also are scatter'd over this Region; Judaism spread through Africa. some Natives, boasting themselves of Abrahams seed, inhabiting both sides the River Niger: Others are Asian Strangers, who fled thither either from the desolation of Jerusalem by Vespa­sian; or from Judea wasted and depopulated by the Romans, Persians, Saracens, and Christians: Or else such as came out of Europe, whence they were banish'd, viz. Out of some parts of Italy in the year 1342. Out of Spain in the year 1462. Out of the Low-Countreys in 1350. Out of France in 1403. Out of England in 1422. These all differ in habit, and are divided into several Tribes, having no Dominion, though both wealthy and numerous, but despised of all Na­tions, and so abominated by the Turks, that they are not admitted to be Mahumetans, unless first Baptized: And then no otherwise made use of, than to receive their Customes, and gather in their Taxes.

The Caffers, or Libertines, who hold many Atheistical Tenets, live together promiscuously without Ceremonies, like our Familists Or Hectoring Debau­chees, that make their sum­mum bonum, a distolute life; hating business, and all manner of ingenuity. or Adamites, follow­ing their sensuality and unbridled lust, inhabiting from Mosambique to the Cape of Good Hope.

The Idolaters are numerous in Negro-land, Upper and Lower Ethiopia, and towards the great Ocean, except, as we hinted before, some few, who by the industry of the Portugueses and Spamards, have been converted and baptized in several places.

The Mahumetans possess at this present a great part of Africa; arriving there from Asia and Arabia; of whom, we will a little enlarge.

Some of them are Non-conformists, living uncontrouled and without Laws, nor acknowledging any Principality, having their Meeting-places in the Wildernesses of Lybia, Barka, and Biledulgerid: Those of Marocco, Fez, and some Ethiopian people, have their Kings; whereas the Inhabitants of Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli and Egypt, are govern'd by Deputies and Lieutenants, that is, Turkish Bassa's.

MAhomet was born, When Mahumetism be­gan, and Mahomet born. as most Authors hold, in the Reign of the Emperor Mauritius, Anno Christi 592. (though some would have it eleven years sooner, others sixteen years later) at a mean Village in Arabia call'd Itrapea: his Father an Ishmaelite, Abdellas; his Mother, a Jewess, by name Cadiges; different you see both in Nation and Religion: They say he was twenty three years in brooding of his Monstrous Issue, the Alcoran, dying in the Emperor Constantius his time in 655. at the Age of sixty three years, though some stick not to say he poyson'd himself in the thirty fourth year of his age.

The chiefest cause how this accursed Doctrine hath so prosper'd, Why Mahumetism so spreading. and from all others drawn Proselites to it, may be, for that it is a subtile compound of several Religions, tolerating pleasures, and not obliging its followers by rea­son, but faith: so wheedling both the Jew, Gentile, and Christian; first the Jews it draws in by the acknowledging of onely one God, affirming Adam to be the first man, and Abraham and Moses to be Prophets, commanding Circumci­sion, Offerings, and the Feast of the Passeover, also forbidding Swines flesh, and abolishing of Images. The Gentiles are not diffident to own it, because they observe them adore towards the Sun rising, admit Polygamy, and some of their Superstitions. Christians are inveigled by the great respect they give our Saviour, the Virgin Mary, and some of the Apostles, that they fast, acknowledge God the Father, and have great veneration for the Holy Ghost, and many other the like Tenets. These indeed are causes, but the main concern is fear, or the terror of falling into slavery, under the insup­portable [Page] [Page]

NOVA AEGYPTI TABULA.

[Page] [Page 35]cruelty of the Turks, for avoiding which, and not furiously possess'd with the spirit of contradiction, no small numbers have forsaken their setled principles of Religion, and espoused theirs. They have also another win­ning way by bestowing great gifts and favours on those who renounce their own Religion to embrace the Mahumetane, carrying them along the Streets in state, and with extraordinary Ceremonies, richly rewarded, and made free from Customs and Taxes.

¶ THe Mahumetans have divers Sects, Divers Sects of Mahu­metans. the first follow the Alcoran in the literal sense: of this Sect are many Marabouts among the Arabians. The second follow Elhesibnu Abilhazen, born in the City of Bafra, and the Father of it, eighty years after Mahomet's Decease; he left no book behind him, but taught his Disciples certain Rules and Commands, which Mahomet never prescribed, which after was carry'd down to Posterity by Tradition: They are numerous in Egypt and Cyrene, where they usually spend their time in Poesie, Dancing, glad Acclamations, singing Love-Songs, and the like: The third Sect, had for Founder, one Elhari Ibnu Esed, born at Bagadat a hundred years after the former: he left his Disciples some Books, but the whole Fraternity was shortly after condemned by the Mufti and whole Divan of their Doctors; yet after eighty years it revived again, under another famous Teacher, whose fortune no better than the former, he and his followers were condemned to death; but upon better defence of their Doctrine they were released, and since that continued a hundred years, until Maliksach, of the Turkish race, descending from the greater Asia, banish'd all of this opinion; whereupon some fled to Cairo, and the rest sheltred in Arabia: Under this cloud they continued near twenty years, to the Reign of Kaselsah, Nephew of Maliksach, when Nidan Elmule one of his Councel, and a man of a daring Spirit, much enclining to this Doctrine, so restor'd it with the help of one Elgazulli (who wrote divers learned Exposi­tions thereon) that he reconciled the Doctors aforesaid to them of this Sect, on condition that the Doctors should be stiled The Preservers of Mahomet's Law, and these his Disciples, The Correctors of it. This Agreement lasted till the ruine of Bagadat by the Tartars; since which they have dispers'd themselves almost over all Asia and Africa, accounting all other Mahu­metans, Hereticks, while themselves by the vulgar are reputed Saints, though guilty of all manner of impieties: They Elect one High-Priest, whom they name Eloth.

There are many other Mahumetan Sects, as the Cabalists, Sanaquites, &c. Seventy two Sects of Mahumetans. amounting in all to seventy two. By some all these are reduced to two: viz. that of Lashari, spreading over all Africa, Egypt, Syria, Arabia, and Turky: And that of Imamie embraced over all Persia, and in the City of Corazan.

These two Sects differ in many points, for the Arabian Lashari maintain, that God is Author of good and evil: But the Persian Imamie say, he is onely Author of good: The Persians hold God onely to be Eternal; but the Turks say, the Law is so also: The Persians believe, the Souls in bliss see not God but in his works; whereas the Turks affirm, he shall be visible in his That is, corporally, herein agreeing with the old Hereticks the Authropo­morphites, who ascribed hu­mane figure unto God, after which they conceived he created man in his own likeness. Essence. The Persians allow, when Mahomet received the Alcoran, his Soul was carried by the Angel Gabriel into Gods presence: But the Turks, that his Soul and Body were both so carried. The Persians pray but thrice a day: The Arabians five times, besides many other differences about the interpretation of the [Page 36] Alcoran, as may be read in Camerarius, Bovius, and others; which for brevity we omit.

What Mahomet contrived designing his Foundation for this (as they call it) his Law, appears in the Alcoran, wherein speaking of Christ, the Virgin Mary, the Gospel, and himself, he says; That God, Jesus, and Mary, wrought Miracles before men. And in another place; The Word of God, Christ Jesus, the Son of Mary, was sent by the Creator of the World, to be the face of all people in this, and the Ages to come. Elsewhere he confesses, That Christ is the power of God, the Word, Wisdom, Soul, Breath, and Heart of God, born by a Divine inspiration of the Virgin Mary, that he raised the Dead to life, made the Blind to see, the Lame to go, and wrought many other miracles. That he was more excellent than all the Prophets, and that the Jews had no more Prophets after him. He prefers Jesus before all men and Prophets, and Mary above all Women; but averreth withall, that the The Heresie of the Anthropomorphites. Traitor Judas was Crucified in stead of Christ, being changed into his likeness, and apprehended in his likeness in the Garden. Speaking of himself in the Alcoran, he useth these words, That he did no miracle, nor should; that he was ignorant of most things; that he was a meer man, though sent and inspired by God, and could not forgive sins. He forbad people to worship him; confessing that the truth of some things ex­tant in his Books may be doubted. He acknowledges the power of the Gospel, in that he calls in a Light, a Guide, and Perfection; And much diminished the Authority of his Alcoran, in saying, Every one that worshippeth the true God, and liveth honestly and uprightly, be he Jew, Christian, or Saracen, shall obtain mercy and salvation. His Disciples believe the Creation of the World, that Adam was made of earth, all the Hebrew Histories, and Christs Doctrine in part; They acknowledge a Resurrection of the Dead, the last Judgment, Rewards, and eternal Punishment in Hell; and that Christ shall sit next to God in judgment, which are points so seemingly consonant to the truth, that weak Christians mistaking those general notions, think it no great error to submit to it; but all those fair shews and formal species are quickly overthrown and dash't to pieces by Mahomet's assuming too much to himself, where he saith that Christ had profit by him in these words; I declare unto you from the Messenger of God who shall come after me, whose name is Mahomet, that is written from eternity, in the sight of Gods Throne, on his right hand: 'Tis true, he commends Moses highly, and owns Christ greater than Moses, but himself the greatest of all. He further adds, that the Christians have corrupted the Gospel, and the Jews the Law of Moses; But yet both together makes up the same, and as much truth as is in his Alcoran. That he was sent and directed by God, to settle his Law by force of Arms, but Christ in the power of Miracles.

At eight years of age, Circumcision. the time of their Circumcision, the Children ride to the Mosque with a Turbant on their heads, and a Torch carried on a Spear before them. After the Circumcision, the Child by the Priests direction saith aloud, La Illah Illella Muhemet re sul Allah, that is, God is one God, and Mahomet his Prophet; and so after some Prayers and Offerings, returns.

The Mahumetan Law contains eight Commandments; The first com­mands to acknowledge one onely God, and but one Prophet. The second contains the Duty of Children to their Parents. The third, the love of Neigh­bors one towards another. The fourth, the times of their Sala, or Prayer in the Mosque. The fifth, their annual Fasts, by all to be observed thirty days. The sixth, the love and alms to the Poor. The seventh, of Matrimony. And the eighth, against Murther.

A Paradise of all pleasures is promi'sd to the observers of these commands; but for the Offenders a Hell with seven gates is prepared, wherein they shall eat and drink liquid Fire, be laden with Chains, and punish'd with hot seething Water.

The grounds or rise of Mahomet's promised sensual Paradice, first appears in Homer, which he makes no more but a shady place of quiet retirement; con­cerning which, Ulysses congratulating Achilles, seeming to him as great a Prince there, as when alive, and the primest Heroe in the Grecian Camp, he much con­trary to his expectation thus answers:

Thou of the Dead a weak discourse dost make,
Hom. Od. 11.
Trather would a Rustick be, and serve
A Swain for hire, ready almost to sterve,
And living, be 'mongst all misfortunes hurl'd,
Than Dead, be Emperor of this shady world.
[...]:
[...]
[...],
[...].

But Virgil raises his Elizium to a higher pitch, giving them pleasant slowry walks, and shadows of Fruit Trees for delight, passing their time in Singing, Dancing, Wrastling, and such like Entertainments. For which take a part of himself thus described.

His demum exactis,
Virg. Aen. lib. 6.
perfecto munere divae
Devenere locos laetos, sedes (que) beatas:
Largior hic campos aether & lumine vestit
Purpureo, solem (que) suum, sua sidera norunt.
Pars in Gramineis exercent membra palaestris:
Contendunt ludo, & fulva luctantur arena:
Pars pedibus plaudunt choreis, & carmina dicunt.
Necnon Treicius longa cum veste sacerdos
Obloquitur numeris septem discrimina vocum:
Jam (que) eadem digitis, jam pectine pulsat eburno.
This done, they came to Seats of Joy and Rest,
Groves, happy Mansions of the ever blest,
Which larger Skyes cloth with a Purple gray,
New Stars attending their own God of Day:
Some in green Meads, their time in wrestling spend,
And gallantly on Golden Sands contend:
Some graceful footing with a Song present:
In a long Robe the Thracian Poet went
On seven sweet strings, descanting sacred Lays,
His hand now strikes, his Ivory quill now plays, &c.

But Tibullus drove it up almost to this our Mahomet's height, Tibul. El. lib. 2.3. of which he thus says▪

Sed me, quod facilis tenero sum semper amori
Ipsa Venus campos ducet in Elysios:
Hîc choreae, cantus (que) vigent: passim (que) vagantes
Dulce sonant tenui gutture carmen aves:
Fert casiam non culta seges: totos (que) per agros
Floret odoratis terra benigna rosis:
Ad juvenum series teneris immista puellis
Ludit: & assiduè praelia miscet amor.
Venus her self shall by the hand convey
Me, her Gall-ant, to seats of lasting joy,
Where Revels never cease; where Birds their throats
Extending ravish with delicious Notes:
Cassia unplanted grows: the fertile ground
With beds of Aromatike Roses crown'd:
There Youth and Virgins drawn, Love-battels fight,
And never fainting, keep up full delight.

These amorous encounters being the top of his Paradise, Mahomet by the help of Sergius an Apostate Monk, imping the Poets fancies, introduced as the greatest of all allurements, setting forth Beauties most admir'd by the Asiaticks with full and black Eyes, who shall alone regard their particular Lovers, not such as have lived in this world, but created of purpose, which daily shall have their lost Virginities restored, ever young and Feasting with all variety of Delicacies.

They have three sorts of Marabouts or Saints; The first affirming; that a man by good works and fasting, and abstinence from Meat, may attain the nature of an Angel; the heart by these Duties, say they, being so cleansed from all infection of evil, that although it would, it can sin no more, and that to attain happiness, they must ascend by the steps of fifty Sciences. They live very strictly at first, and torment themselves with fasting, keeping a long [Page 38]Lent; after which the Scene changing, their abstinence and mourning turns to all Feast and Merriment, and their whole life is a continual Parallel to those Bac­chanalian Revels mention­ed by Virgil. Carneval, which they spend in Maskings, and Serenaids, and all manner of dissolute and intoxicated pleasures; whereof four Books are written by Eseb-ravardi Schra­varden Sein, a Learned man born in the City of Corasan. Ibnul Farid, another Author, hath described their whole Religion in a Poetick stile; upon which one Elfargari made an Exposition, collecting the Rules of the Sect, and disco­vering the steps to attain happiness. These Verses are made in so sweet and elegant a stile, that they will sing no other at their publick Feasts and Merry­meetings; Some of their Tenets are as follow, viz. That the Heavens, Planets, and fixt Stars, are holy; that no Law or Religion is erroneous, every one being at liberty, to pray to what his mind is most enclined to; That all knowledge of God was infused into the first man, whom they name Elchot; and that man elected by God, is made like him in knowledge. After this Elchot's death, forty men called Elanted, that is, the Heads or Chief, choose another out of their own number, and when any of these forty happen'd to dye, then they choose another out of the number of seven hundred sixty five. These Vagabond Sectaries are by certain rules of their order to go alwayes unknown, in poor and despicable rayment, so that whoever sees them, would judge them to be Mad-men, and void of all honesty and humanity, rather than Marabouts or Saints; for they run naked and wilde all over Africa, and force Women pub­lickly (as beasts) without modesty or shame. Leo saith, that many of them are in Tunis, but more in Egypt at Alcair, where I (saith he) upon the Market-place Bain Elkasraim, saw a Matron-like Woman coming out of a Bath, Ravish'd by one of these Fanaticks, in the presence of many people, who thereupon ran in great numbers to touch her Garment, as a Holy thing; and the Womans Husband with silence, manifested his thankfulness towards the Ravisher, by a great Feast, and liberal Gifts.

The second sort called Cabalists, fast very severely, eat not the flesh of any living creature, but have a peculiar Dyet and Clothing. They have Set-Prayers for every hour of the day and night, according to the diversity of the Days and Moneths; and wear small square Tablets Engraven with Chara­cters and Figures. They feign daily to converse and discourse with Angels, who, as they say, teach them the knowledge of all things. Their chiefest Teacher was one Boni, who set them Rules, and invented those Prayers and Tablets. Their Rule is divided into eight parts, the first whereof is call'd Elumha Ennonaritae, that is, the Demonstration of Light, containing their Prayers and Fast-dayes. The second, Semsul Meharif, the Sun of Sciences, wherein are the aforesaid square Tablets, with their use and advantages. The third, Lesme Elchufne, and in it a Table of the Ninety nine Vertues, which, as they conceive, are comprehended in the name of God; each other part of the eight having a particular name, and matter whereof it treateth.

The third sort termed Sunachites, reside in the Wildernesses like Hermits, living onely upon Herbage, and Leaves. They have a little smatch of Idolatry and Gentilism, using no Circumcision till the thirtieth year; yet they Baptize in the Name of the living God; so that they have a smack both of Christianity, Judaism, and Gentilism.

Thus far of Africa in general; we will now descend to particulars, be­ginning first with Egypt, having obtain'd the pre-eminence and place, both from Antient and Modern Writers; and also being so often mentioned in Sacred Scripture.

Egypt is divi­ded into

  • Erriff, containing the Cities and Towns of
    • Plintina, or the Arabian Tower, Monestor.
    • Busiris, now Bosiri, Heliopolis, or Rameses.
    • Alexandria, the Island Pharos.
    • Bocchir, or Canopus, Casar, and Athacon.
    • Rosetta, now Rassit, Natumbes, Fuoa, or Foa.
    • Gezerat, Eldekab, or the Golden Island.
    • Mechella, Derota, Michellat, Cays, besides many Villages.
  • Elheatrye, or Beheyra, comprehends
    • The Cape Brule.
    • Damiata.
    • Tenez, or Tenex, and the Lake Stagnone.
    • Arris, or Ostracine.
    • Pharamide.
    • Seru and Rascaellis.
    • Masura, or Masur, Demanora.
    • Fustatio, or Fustat, Meny Cambri.
    • Caracania, Bulbaite, Abessus, and Souta, besides many other Villages, and inconsiderables Pla­ces, not worth the naming.
  • Sahyd
    • Grand-Cair, or Memphis, and therein Bulach.
    • Charaffa, Old Cair, and Grand-Cair.
    • Mattaria, or El-Mattharia.
    • The Ruines of Heliopolis.
    • The famous Pyramids.
    • The Island Michias.
    • Niffralhetick, Geza, Nukullaca.
    • The Lake Mani.
    • The City Changa.
    • Suez, Bethsames, Mukaisira, Benesuait.
    • Munia, Fyum, Manfloth, or Menf-loth.
    • Azuth, formerly Bubastis, Ichrim, Anthinoe.
    • Barnaball, Thebes, Munsia, or Munza, with a Cloyster of St. George.
    • El-chiam, now waste.
    • Barbana, Cana, Cessir, a Port-Town by the Red-Sea.
    • Conza and Asna, Assuan, Suaquen, Thura.
    • Sachila, Phogono, Narmita, Nitriota, Elmena.
    • Libetezait, Saguan, Dakat, Pharaoh's-Angle.
    • The Seven-Wells.
    • Menviae and Cosera, Veneria and Ansena.
    • Cynopolis, or Monphalus.
    • Heracleopolis, besides 24000 Villages.
    • The Nyle-River.

EGYPT.

EGYPT (as we said before) Antient Geographers, who parted Asia and Africk with the Nile, established amongst the Asiatick Ter­ritories; but the Modern, who since disterminated these two Quarters of the World with the Arabian Gulph, have totally re­duc'd and carried over into Africa, as no small Region thereof.

EGypt, according to Diodorus, Strabo, and others, had that Appellation from their first King, Egyptus the Son of Belus the Assyrian Monarch, who secluding his Brother Danaus, setled the Government of that Realm upon him­self, and then Reigned sixty eight years, the Countrey before call'd Nilea, Aeria, and Osserina, though others assert this Denomination sprung from Nilus, whose antient name was Egyptus.

And as this Countrey hath confounded Chronologers with the strange Vicissitudes and main Alterations of its Government, The Antient names. so hath it puzel'd them with the numerous variety of its Denominations; Berosus calls it Oceania, from A Sea-god, or rather some Antike Prince. Oceanus; Xenophon, Ogygia, from An Egyptian King. Ogyges; Herodotus names it from the Nile Potamitis, that is, River-land; Lucian in Greek, Melambolos, from the darkness of the Soil; several Writers, and the bordering Moors, stile this Region Ethiopia, or the Land of Chus; Homer will have it to be Hefestia from Hefestes, or Vulcan; The Modern names. the Modern Turks call it El-Kebit, or Cover'd-land: the Arabian, Mesra; the Caldeans, Mesrai; the Assyrians, Misri; the Moors, Gabara and Mesra; the Romans from Augustus Caesar, Augustanica; but the antient Inhabitants call it after Ham, the Son of Noah, Hamia; Lastly, the Jews stile this Countrey Miz­raim, from Mizraim the Son of Ham, being there the first Plantet.

The later Assyrians call the Egyptians, Egoptes; and the Mahumetans call the Christians there, El-hibit and Elcupti, sometimes leaving out the Article El, contracting to Cupti, or Ecupti; but the Moors call them plain Giptu or Gibitu.

Herodotus makes Egypt a Present from the Nile, Egypt covered with water. (being all Sea formerly) so conjecturing from the various shells found on Summits and more rising grounds; from the brackishness of the water, in Pits, Ponds, and Trenches; from the dusky soil, much differing from the Neighbouring Territories; but more especially from the Nile Pillar, whereon formerly flowing eight De­grees, prognosticated fertility, when in his time, rising to Heretofore sixteen Cu­bits was the most it attain­ed to, as is to be seen in that Image of Nilus, having sixteen Children playing a­bout it, brought from thence and Dedicated by Vespasian in the Temple of Peace, but since that at Cairo it hath usually risen 23. particu­larly in 1610. Mr. Ge [...]. San­dys. sixteen, gave but a doubtful conjecture of a plentiful Harvest.

Such and the like instances, not improbable, intimate that the greatest part of Egypt (especially where descending from the Mountains about Gran Caire, it stretcheth down towards the Sea, lying annually under the overflowing of the Nile) rais'd its depress'd Morass from the sediments of these pudly inundations, the River leaving in his retreat the fertile plunder brought from the High Lands upon the Low Countreys, which mud and marling slime filling up stagnated ponds and plashes, when dry'd into a swarf, improv'd the soil for [Page 40]manuring and better confirm'd for Plantation. It is to be supposed that much of it was then covered with water. Most Writers with Aristotle concur in this assertion; and Homer also seems to hint the same, mentioning onely Thebes of this most rich and populous Countrey.

The Boundaries of Egypt according to the variety of Writers, The Boundaries. are diversly set forth: Scaliger, with some few, placing part of Arabia with the Gulf on the East; the Ethiopian Wildes and Mountains to the South; the Desarts of Lybia, Westward; and the Mid-land Sea, North. Others prescribe different limits: But Ptolomy, though he would seem not to meddle much in this matter; yet when more nearly considered we may find him in some manner agreeing with the former, bound­ing it Westward with Marmarica and the inner Lybia; to the East, with the Red Sea, and part of Judea; Southerly, with Ethiopia; and on the North with the Mid-land Sea; by which Description he hath rectifyed the mistakes of sundry antient Geographers, who accounted Egypt (as we have said) a part distinct from the other three, the then known Regions of the World.

The Africans themselves, who should know their own Countrey best, bound Egypt on the South with Nubia, on the North with the Mediterranean (now the Sea of Damasco) the Arabian Gulf washing the East, and Alvahat fronting the West. But Maginus a very able Geographer, gives it for borders, the De­sarts of Arabia, East; the Lybian Mountains and Desarts of Barka and Nubia, West; Ethiopia or the Abyssines Countrey, the Wastes of Bugie and Cataracts of Nile, South; And the Mid-land Sea North. And herewith in effect agreeth Marmol: By all which it may appear, that Egypt is encompassed with sandy Desarts, but where it touches the Mid-land Sea; Easterly towards the Red Sea, lyes the Country of The regal Metropolis was also called Thebes, destroyed by Cambyses, eighty furlongs long, and built all upon Vaults—Qua centum por­tarum sunt: ducenti autem per unamquamque Viri egrediantur cum equis & curribus—Ʋbi multa in domibus; opes reconditae ja­cent. Hom. 11.9. —Nor Thebes so much renown'd, Whose Courts with unex­hausted wealth abound, Where through a hundred Gates with Marble Arch, To battel twenty thousand Chariots march. Thebes, whose Wilderness being of three or four days jour­ney in former ages, becoming a retreat for divers Recluse Orders of Chri­stians, contained many Towns, which were far better furnished with Mona­steries and Cloysters, than Houses.

¶ THe Desarts of Barka Westward, are a tract of ground of fifteen days journey, where stood the Temple of Jupiter Hammon, to whom Alex­ander the Great, affecting the honour to be stiled his Son, gave a Solemn visit. Beyond the Red Sea to the South from Caire, is a great Wilderness extending even to Judea, and supposed to be the same wherein the Israelites made their wandering peregrination of forty years: The ground here is not surfac'd with yellow Sand (as that of Sahid in Egypt, where the stupendious Pyramids, and the Mummies so fam'd among us, are to be seen) but with a kind of soil, whose germinating faculty or moisture being utterly exhausted with perpetual and ex­cessive heats, leaves no products, unless here and there an inconsiderable shrub.

Another sandy Desart and more dangerous, Mummies found. stretches it self between Caire and the well-known Village Delbogui, twenty eight days journeys, and destitute of all accommodation, where many casual Mummies are found, supposed to be Travellers perishing there under accumulated drifts of Sand, raised by sudden Tempests; but now to avoid such eminent hazards, all that journey those ways, are convey'd in close Wooden Boxes, which neither air nor light transpierceth, otherwise than through small crannies.

¶ THe divisions of Egypt are as various, Egypt, how divided. as the opinions of Authors are differing; Jaques Albert reckons thirteen Provincial Jurisdictions, by the Inabitants called Kasssiffs, or Meltoscemines; six of which, viz. the Kasssiffs of Girgio or Sahid, Manfelout, Benesuef, Fiam, Gize, Bouhera or Baera, lye toward the West from the Nile, the other seven, as Garbia, Menoufia, Mansoura, Kalliou­bith, Minio, Cherkeffi and Kattia, wholly to the Eastward.

The Kassiffe of Girgio or Sahid, Kassiffes, thirteen. the first of the Western Provinces is a vast tract, sub-divided into twelve or fourteen lesser Governments, call'd there Kassifillix, whereof every one hath its particular Regent or Lieute­nant: About a hundred years since this was accounted as a distinct King­dom; for the Government whereof, a Bassa with the title of Vice-roy, was usually sent thither from the Grand Seigneur at Constantinople, but of late brought under the Bassa of Cairo, who sends thither a Sanjacke, as his Deputy.

The Kassiffe of Manfelout, joyns to that of Girgio, having under subjection two hundred and seventeen Villages.

The Kessiffe of Benesuef is adjacent to Manfelout, in the way to Cairo, exact­ing obedience from three hundred and sixty Villages.

The Kassiffe of Fium, lyes next to Benesuef, Westwards of Cairo, and com­mands three hundred (or according to Zanton Zeguessi, three hundred sixty) Villages, all whose Territories yield abundance of Line or Flax, with great variety of pleasant Fruits, especially Grapes.

The Kassiffe of Gize, Neighbouring to that of Fium, lyes close by Cairo, towards the West divided onely by the River, which, in regard of its low scituation, is generally at the overflowing of the Nile, covered twenty foot deep, but this is recompenc'd with exceeding fertility, both of Flax and Grain, and a convenient stock of very good Cattel.

The Kassiffe of Bouhera or Baera next, stretching from the Nile to the Cape Bon Andrea, a large Dominion ruling three hundred and sixty Villages, whose greater part lying high, looses the advantages of the inundating River, so becoming less fruitful; wherefore those High-landers are watchful of all opportunities of Plowing and Sowing, when any rain happens; however they have store of excellent Sheep-walks, abounding with numerous flocks. Among the inferior governments, subservient to this Kassiffe, Tarrana, wherein lyes the Wilderness of Makairo, boasts of about sixty three Hermits Cells.

To the East of the Nile, on the Island of Damiata, the Kassiffe of Garbia ap­pears all Champaigne, Mantled and Checquer'd with variety of Herbage. The greater part of the Land is well manured and planted with Sugar-Canes, Rice, Corn, and Flax, having three great Cities, viz. Maala (call'd from its extention Medina) Demanoour, and Sabin.

The Kassiffe of Menoufia lyes on the same Island, divided between this and that of Garbia, and although this Jurisdiction hath not so many Towns and Villages, yet the extent of its Territories, stands in equal competition.

The Kassiffe of Mansoura on the Eastern bank of Nile, as Cairo, containeth a hundred and ninety Villages, produceth great store of Sugar, and is very fertile in the growth of Flax, and all kind of Grain.

The Kassiffe of Kallioubieh on the same bank of the River bordering upon Mansoura, gives Law to a hundred ninety six Villages.

The Kassiffe of Minio on the same side of the Nile opposite to Girgio, and Manfelout, hath a vast extent, but scatteringly inhabited, shewing onely a hundred and four Villages, occasioned from the rising of the Land being in­capable to receive the Niles Annual Tribute, unless it rise above two and twenty foot; which happens so rarely, that the greater part lyes uncultur'd, and indeed the fertilest yields no greater reward to the Husbandman, than the pitiful returns of Fennel and Cummin.

The Kassiffe of Cherkeffi lyes on the same shore, but over against Benesuef, [Page 42]having onely forty two Villages, scarcity of Corn, some small quantities of Fennel and Cummin; Sugar and Rice denyed them from the infertility of the soil.

The Kassiffe of Kattia last, and indeed controverted, whether a Kassiffe or not, for the Divan (or Councel) of Grand Cair will not allow it to be numbred with the rest, because it contains but three Forts or Castles of Defence, and is so unfruitful and sandy, that excepting a few Dates, nothing is found.

But Zanto Zeguessi, Here but ten allowed. allows onely ten of these Kassiffes, viz. Saet, Baera, Garbia, Menufia, Mansura, Giza, Fium, Ebenesuef, Manfelat, and Minio, to each of which (excepting Saet) he allots three hundred and sixty Villages: To these principal ten, he subjoyns divers lesser ones, viz. Galiup, Mesela, Fazackur, Eloua, Kattia, Terrana, Ensy, Aceut, and Brin.

¶ BEsides the former, Egypt divided in two parts. some onely will divide as the Nile cuts it, into two, almost even parts of East and West Egypt, to which others have added the Nether-Egypt, call'd also Delta Δ, from the form of the Greek letter, which the Nile by branching into a right and left arm makes; and the upper Egypt, which is that tract of Land from the South-angle of Delta to the Cata­racts. But another sort of Writers make an Upper, Middle, and Lower; whose first part takes in Thebes; the second, Heptapolis, (the seven Towns) and the third Delta. This Justinian sub-divided into the first and second; and Pto­lomy into the greater, the lesser, and the third Triangle. Haythen makes it have five Provinces; Five Provinces. named; 1. Sahyf, 2. Demesor, 3. Alexandria, 4. Resint, and 5. Da­miette, or Damiata. Strabo says that of old it was divided into thirty seven parts, by the Greeks termed Monoi: Ptolomy enlarges to forty, and Herodotus reduces it to twenty eight; Thirty seven parts. but thirty seven seems the most convenient, as agreeing with that On the Senthside of the City of Alexandria near the Lake Mareotis wherein the Sepulchres of King Maeris, and his Wife, were Pyra­midally built with a Colossus of Stone on each side: and adjoyning thereto was the Labyrinth so sam'd, in the midst whereof were thirty seven Palaces, belonging to the thirty seven Jurisdi­ctions of Egypt (whereof ten in Thebais, ten in Delta, and seventeen in the middle Region) unto which resort­ed the several Presidents to celebrate the Festivals of their Gods, (who had there­in their particular Temples; Moreover fifteen Chappels containing each a Nemesis) and also to advise of mat­ters of importance concern­ing the general welfare. The passages thereunto, were through Caves of a mira­culous length, full of dark and winding pathes, and Roomes within one ano­ther, having many doors to confound the memory and distract the intention, lead­ing into inexplicable error; now mounting aloft, and again re [...]descending, not seldom turning about, Walls insolded within one another in the form of intricate Mazes, not possible to thred or ever to get out without a Conductor. The building more under the earth than above, being all of Massy Stone, and lay [...]d with that Art, that neither Cement nor Wood was imployed through the Universal Fabrick. The end at length attained to, a pair of Stairs of ninety sleps conducted into a stately Portico, supported with Pillars of Theban Stone: the entrance into a spacious Hall (a place for their general Conventions) all of Pollish'd Marble, adorn'd with the Statues of their Gods and Heroes, with others of monstrous resemblances. The Chambers were so disposed, that upon their opening, the Doors did give reports no less terrible than thunder; The first entrance was of white Marble within, throughout adorn'd with Marble Columns and diversity of Figures: Dedalus was said to have imitated this in that which he built at Crete, yet expressing hereof scarce the hundredth part. Who so mounted the top, should see as it were a large plain of Stone, and withall, those thirty seven Palaces, environed with solid Pillars and Walls consisting of Stone of a mighty proportion: At the end of this Labyrinth there stood a square Pyramis of a marvellous bredth, and answerable altitude; the Sepulchre of King Ismandes that built it. See Herodotus. There were four very eminent Labyrinths, one in Egypt, another in Lemnos, a third in Italy, and a fourth in Crete, built after the ananner of the Egyptian, to whose former Description take this addition: It was all of square polish'd Stone, every side three hundred foot broad, fifty foot high upon a square base; It had five Pyramids, one at each Corner, and one in the Middle of a hundred and fifty foot, with such a top as hath a Brazen Orbe upon it, and one covering lay'd over them all, from which hung down Bells in Chams, which stir'd by the winds, made a sound afar off, upon which Orbes there were four other Pyramids a hundrod scot high, and other things: this is delivered from Varro by Pliny, lib. 36. cap. 13. Mysterious Temple or Labyrinth of theirs, which had so many Rooms, and with-drawing Apartments in it: But later Writers say, that since the Mahumetans conquer'd Egypt, they made but three divisions; the first, call'd in Arabick Nahar Alleriffe, or Erriffe, extending from Grand Cair to Rosetta: The second, Sahaid or Assahaid, signifying firm land, and reaches from Cair to the borders of Bugiha: The third, Bechria, (or according to Marmol, Beheira-Allards, that is, Or Zealand. Sea-land) stretching along that arm of the Nile that extends to Damiata and Tenez.

The first of these is very fertile and luxuriant in the production of Rice and all sorts of delicious Fruits: The second yields plenty of Corn, prickle Fruits, store of Cattel, Fowl, and Flax. And the third abounds with Sugar­canes, Cotton, and other such Commodities.

The whole thus divided into three; each three is sub-divided into ten; as follows, in Delta or Nether Egypt, were Rakotites, Phtenuti, Phtemphuti, Mende­fites, Omisis, Saities, Attribis, Tavites, Tarbethites, Busirites; which order and names were first constituted by Sesostris, (of whom it is recorded, that he would by cutting the Isthmus between the Mid-land and Red-Sea, have joyn'd them, had he not been diverted from the attempt by their Priests asseverations, [Page 43]That all Egypt would of necessity be drown'd by the irruption of the Red Sea, which lay higher than that Countrey did) though afterwards Ptolomy and others his Successors, made great alterations therein.

Middle Egypt, held Memphites, Heliopolites, Bubastites, Heracleopolites, Crocodilopo­lites, Oxyringites, Kynopolites, Hermopolites, Antinopolites, and Latinopolites.

And Upper Egypt, Thebetes, Apollopolites, Panopolites, Koptites, Tentyrites, Lyco­polites, Aphroditopolites, Latopolites, Abydene, and Anteopolites.

The reason of this division may be two-fold, the first in regard of their diversities of Gods, and various Ceremonies in their Services, which Sesostris their Prince observing, to prevent tumultuous Seditions, alotted the Countrey into Rather thirty seven, for the reason in the Descrip­tion of the Labyrinth. thirty shares, according to the number of their Gods and Goddesses, and by this means made Egypt as it were one Universal Temple, wherein were as many Numens, as Plato hath divided the whole earth between.

The second cause was the Litigiousness of the people, concerning their bounds or limits, occasioned (as Strabo observeth) by the Nile's yearly inun­dations, whereby boundaries were not onely obscured, but even all Land­marks and distinctions of propriety utterly washed away; which necessitated an infinite trouble in Annual Surveys; this was setled by the afore-mentioned division, each particular Governour apportioning to himself even by inches the Compass of what was committed to his charge.

This division of Sesostris totally differed from that made afterwards by Pto­lomy, and by his Successors established (after the decay of that State by the Persians, under the conduct of their King Cambises) which was into forty Dy­nasties: But this, with the remains of all the rest, were at last by the Mahume­tans, who trampled all down, utterly subverted, yielding to the Laws and Establishments of the insulting Conqueror.

¶ THe Extent of Egypt is from the 21 degree of Northern Latitude, Extent of Egypt. to the 31 degree of the same; and therefore some have judged it to contain in length fifteen days journey, and in bredth but three.

Others strangely over-reckon, and will have it four thousand Italian Miles, though Maginus. Marmol. Maginus will allow but five hundred and sixty common ones, which Marmol shortens much, reducing it to a hundred and fifty French leagues, therein somewhat agreeing with Cluverius, who from the Pelusian mouth of Nile, to the Town of Catabathmus, count no more than a hundred and fifty Miles.

In bredth, as Marmol reckons, it hath but twenty six Spanish Miles, an in­considerable tract of Land between the shore of Nile, and the two great De­sart Mountains, from whence the River with wonderful swiftness issueth, and thence descending to Asne, and so to Alcayro, having scarcely run a course of twenty Miles beyond it, divides it self into two Arms, which afterwards re-unite, till having run sixty Miles beyond Alcayro, it branches again into two streams, the one call'd the Canopean, passeth to Rosetta, and the other to Damiata, where by a new division, causing a great Lake, through a narrow Streight, it falleth into the Mid-land Sea, near the place where of old Tenesse was scituated.

These two Armsdraw or delineate the sides; and the Sea-shore, the basis of a Triangle, giving the name of Delta Δ to that most Northerly part of the Coun­trey, call'd also Nether-Egypt, but by the Natives themselves (as Guilliam de Tyr, maintains) Mahetek. To this part Strabo assigns about three thousand Stadiums, which make three hundred seventy five Italian Miles; but this is [Page 44]lessen'd by Maginus, to three hundred, whereas on the other hand Villamont will have its Circumference to be seven hundred Miles, setting down a great Lake at the Coast of Garbia, Eastward from the River, for one part of its Limits; and another Channel of the Nile called Katoz, that goes to Alexandria for a second. And this might cause Ptolomy to stile it Great, and sub-divide it into the lesser and third Delta.

The Antients (as Kircher observes) named this part Fium, which in the old Egyptian Tongue, signifyed the Sea: not from its resembling the Sea in the time of its being over-flow'd; but because it is generally believed that hereto­fore the whole surface of that part was totally covered by the Sea, until by a long Series of time, the Slime and Mud of the Nile came to settle, and at length with great labour, became firm Land. The same Kircher in his Itinerary from a certain Rabbi, affirms, that from the Patriarch Joseph's time, many Hebrew Monuments, and old great Buildings were found there; and that after many dayes toyle and labour, by him directed, the same was made fit to be, and was actually inhabited, according to which example, succeeding Princes con­tinually drayning the Marshy parts, made the whole Countrey useful; which thereupon became so populous and wonderfully fertile in all things, that it was named, The Gift of the Immortal Gods, as Diodorus relates. And the Poets tell us of a great Serpent bred hereabouts, which did much mischief to the people, till slain by Or Apello, Ovid. Met. Hercules Egyptius, and the memory of his Atcheivement preserv'd, by naming the City (from the Serpent) Python.

This proof of Delta's lying under water heretofore, makes us rightly to in­terpret Herodotus, Strabo, and others, who maintained all Egypt to have been in the same condition; whereas they must be understood by a Synechdoche, to have taken a part for the whole, for that Egypt in general was not drown'd with the Sea, will appear from hence, that it was very Mountainous, and upon a continual ascent upwards to the Nile, even as far as the Cataracts thereof, and Ethiopia.

And now the Series of our Discourse, having brought us to the Nile, we will with as much brevity and exactness as possible describe the same, by dis­covering his first rise and heads, with his several branches and sources, and setting down the Genuine causes of his annual Fluxes, from the crediblest of our Modern Authors.

This River famous for his greatness and faecundity, According to some the name of Nilus is derived from N [...] Ow [...], id est, draw­ing new slime, which may make the Earth fertile. See Virg. Georg. 2. hath by antiquity, many several names attributed to him. The Hebrews call him Nahar-Mitzraim, that is, the River of Egypt; the Inhabitants Nuchal, (which agrees with Pomponius Mela, who give the same to the Head-spring of Nile) and is but little different from the Hebrew Nahal or Nachal. 'Tis also by the Jews named Shickor or Sihor, signifying black, from the colour of the sediment; for the same reason call'd by the Greeks Melas, black. And the Antients represented his Figure in black stone, though all other Rivers were denoted by white Statues: Some would fancy this to be Gihon mentioned in Holy Writ; but with how little pro­bability, may easily be conjectured, if we consider that Gihon was one of the four great Rivers that watered the Terrestrial Paradise, and consequently in Asia, whereas this is in Africk. Homer, Diodorus, Xenophon, and others, give him the common appellation of the Countrey, that is, Egyptus; and Plutarch names him Osyris and Syris; Apollonius, Triton; Pliny, Astraton; Diodorus, Aquila; (because of his swiftness it seems) Cedrenus, Chrysorrhoe; (Golden stream) and Dyonisius, Syene. In the Reign of King Orus there, eight hundred years before the building [Page 45]of Rome, the same was by his Subjects, known by the title of Noym or Num. Upon the Coasts of Lybia towards Syene, (from the name of a Princes Child there drown'd) it was first call'd Nilus, which also the Africans do; The Abyssines stile it Abanha (Father of Rivers;) The Negroes or Moors, Takkui; and from them the Abyssines, Nil Takui, and the two branches thereof Tagazi and Abanhi. Lastly, by the report of Sanutius, the people of the Kingdom of Goyame call it Gihon.

This famous River thus severally known by variety of Names, by yearly inundations, doth so fertllize and fatten the earth, that it provides for and furnishes the Inhabitants even with an exuberance of Plenty; which proceeds from three remarkable Prerogatives, wherewith Nature hath endowed him be­yond all other Rivers: The first is, that he sends forth no foggy vapors, which makes the Air very healthful and serene, being continually free either from Rain, Clouds, Mists, or Fogs: Secondly, he runs with so even and undi­sturbed a stream, that there never accrews any danger from his Waves or Billows to any Boats, Barks or Passengers sailing thereon, but a satisfactory pleasure from his continual calm: Lastly, his faecundating vertue, which is so great, that it causeth not onely an infinite encrease in all sorts of Cattel that water there; and breeds a prolifick faculty in Men and Women, but produces of all things growing from the earth a Harvest plentiful even to admiration. And this fertility without dispute was the cause why Egypt of old exceeded all other Nations almost, for multitude of people, and yet to this day, after so many direful depopulations, may compare with those that boast the greatest number of Inhabitants: As a testimony whereof, Diodorus records, that there were once in it eighteen thousand strong Cities; many of which, as it seems, were either by Time or War lay'd waste and desolate, because we find in the Reign of Ptolomy Lagus, onely three thousand Registred, no more then remaining: which by Suidas his account, was in the Empire of Caesar Augustus, when Dio­dorus lived.

The same Author reports, that in Elder times, the number of its Inhabi­tants were seventeen hundred thousand; and that in his own time, they were no less in general esteem, than thirteen hundred thousand; which wonder­ful encrease might be effected by the constant drinking the water of this River, whose vertue had the power as some believed, to make the Egyptian Women bring forth so often, not onely two or three, but sometimes six or seven, nay eight Children at a Birth. And this may a little abate the wonder how the Children of Israel in so short a time as two hundred years ( Broughton. which was all the space they sojourned in Egypt) multiplyed from but seventy souls, to above six hundred thousand men on foot, besides Women and Children; nor may those stupendious Monuments of Grandeur, which even to this day bear the name of Wonders, seem so strange to have been erected by the Antient Kings of this Countrey, as a Remonstrance of their glorious Greatness and Magni­ficence, if we lay into the other Scale the infinite number of people that were under their Commands; all whose hands at the Princes Fiat being em­ployed, made things otherwise seeming impossible to become facile; accord­ing to that of the Poet, Multorum manibus grande levatur opus.

From these unusual Excellencies, and rare Qualifications of this River, the Gymnosophists of Egypt made it one of their chief Numens, which they worshipped with particular Solemnities, under the name of the Goddess Isis, to whose care and kindness, they ascrib'd their continual freedom from the terror and dan­ger [Page 46]of Earthquakes; and that they were never infested with any Pestilential Contagion, but alwayes enjoyed a Serene wholesomeness of Air, not subject to any impetuous storms or alterations of weather, either from the Clouds or Windes: This was the cause of those many honorable Epithetes bestowed on it by Antiquity; among which, one was the flowing of Osiris, or rather as Abenefius an Arabick Writer hath it, Osiris Arm; because it did as it were reach forth to Mankind so great a Plenty of Provisions: For observing that Egypt enclosed with Mountains, did resemble an Arm, and that the several par­titions at the end, seemed Fingers, he appointed to the Nile the place of the Me­diana or Liver-vein; This like that in the body, sending forth its quickning moisture, by whose motion and circulation, it fertilitates the whole even to such an height of abundance, as makes Wonder stand amaz'd, to see Nature turn Prodigal. This agrees well with the Antient Poets, who gave to this River many notable attributes: Homer the Prince of them, says it fell from Heaven out of Jupiter's Bosome; from whence happily sprung the belief, not onely of the old Egyptians, but the later Greeks, that Heaven was its Spring­head: This made some term him, The Gift of Jupiter; others, The Tears of the Gods; The Veins of Paradice; The Seed of the Gods; The Pond of Proteus; The Husband of the Goddess Isis, and a number of other titles of remark not unknown to the remotest Nations: So that the more ignorant Moors and Negroes, fre­quently entitle it Ankaata Mazat Schamatarri, that is, The Fountain of Heavenly Water: The Arabian Poets Hunfarid and Eldeburge, stile it Giatellartim, The life of the Earth: Isai. cap. 23. ver. 3. And the Prophet Isaiah, cap. 23. ver. 3. speaks of it in these words, By great Waters the Seed of Sihor, the Harvest of the River, is her Revenue: upon which words, the Hebrew Rabbi Eliezer thus Comments; Sihor (which is Nile) saith he, in one Moneth, by one onely over-flowing, does more than all other Rivers are able to bring to pass within a Year: Which fertility, the Greeks repre­sented by the Word [...], Neilos; their name of Nile, which Cabalistically resolved into Arithmetical figures, maketh the compleat number of the days of the year, thus, N with them standing for sixty, E for five, I for ten, Λ for thirty, O for seventy, and Σ for two hundred; which brought into one Sum together, make just three hundred sixty five, according to the Diary number of the year.

Thus we see the various opinions of sundry Authors and Nations, in refe­rence to the name of Nile; we shall surely find as great diversity of judgments as to the place from whence this famous River takes his first rise; there being hardly any thing mentioned on Record, whose beginning is so abstruse, or hath frustrated more the undertakings of the Learned.

Of his Head, Lucan in his Tenth Book thus:

Te vident primi, quatuor tamen hi quo (que) Seres
Ethiopumque seris alieno gurgite campos:
Et te terrarum nescit, cui debeat orbis:
Arcanum natura caput non prodidit ulli:
Nec licuit populis parvum te, Nile, videre,
Amovitque sinus, & gentes maluit ortus
Mirari, quam nôsse tuos.—
Seres, first sce thee, and ask wondring whence
Through forrein Channels thy strange waves commence,
The world, to whom they owe for, thee not knows:
Nature thy obscure Head not any shows:
None see thee shallow, and from banks retir'd;
Thy Fountains rather are to be admir'd,
Than known to us

And in this quest we will cursorily give some reasons why this River is most full of water, even to an overflux, when most others, whether in cold or more temperate Climes are empty, and likewise on the contrary; for the [Page 47]better and more clear effecting thereof, without any wandering interloping: Athanasius Kircher, and the Learned Vossius are worthy to be heard in their proper sence, being such as with the greatest perspicacity, have waded through those depths, wherein others of great and eminent parts have sunk and been gravelled.

Kircher then from a MS. of one Peter Pais, Kircher. (who in company of the Abyssine Emperor, in the year 1618. March 21. most accurately searched for satisfaction of the very Point in debate) gives us this Relation.

The Nile rises in the Countrey of Sahala, being a part of the Province Agaos, P. Pais. bor­dering on Goyam: whose Source or Spring-head, first appears in two Founts, seeming per­fectly round, on the top of a Morass or Boggy Plain, upon a Hill sur-rounded with a shady and pleasant Grove; the Diameter of each, though no more than eighteen inches; yet is in depth unfathomable, supposed bottomless; the water keeps within those narrow banks, till break­ing forth at the foot of the Hill, it soon spreads into a River, whose Channel replenished by the concourse of divers others, swells into a Lake thirty Leagues long, and fourteen broad; whence breaking forth afresh, after several Windings and Meanders, it returns almost to the first Head, and there falling down by great precipices among unapproachable Rocks, shoots into [...]e mid'st of Ethiopia.

The Cataracts of Nile ibid. Luc. l. 10.

—Sed cum lapsus abrupta viarum
Excepere tuos & praecipites Cataractae
Ac nusquam vetitis ullus obsistere cautes
Indignaris aquis; spuma nunc astra lacessis:
Cuncta tremunt undis & multo murmure montis
Spumeus invictis albescit fluctibus amnis.
When Rocks in ruines faln, withstand thy force,
Stopping in thy precipitated course,
Mad thus to be oppos'd, thy waves more fierce
Roar, and with dashing Foam the Stars asperse;
Thy thundring Voyce all parts with terror fills,
Whil'st conquering Waves silvers the lofty Hills.

Then passing several Countreys and vast Kingdoms, he visits and enriches Egypt, and at last disembogues into the Mid-land Sea. The access to these two Wells is very difficult on all parts, but towards the North, by which who­ever desires to view those eyes of the Nile, must ascend.

This is Kircher's sense of Peter Pais Relation, to whose diligence he renders infinite commendations, averring that all the Learned are hereby alone freed from all the doubts, wherein they were so long entangled, adding withal his own conjecture, that the shaking Plain was once a large open Pool, which by length of time contracted a film or crust of earth, made more substantial and firm by the growing and spreading of Grass, and other dust and slime, by the removal whereof (which he supposes no hard matter) the principal grand source would quickly be seen.

But Isaac Vossius excellently well confutes this discovery of P. Pais; Volsius. so ap­plauded by Kircher; For (saith he) those pits on the shaking plain, as all others, are undoubtedly replenished by Rain, without which the whole Globe of the earth would become barren and unfit for habitation. No River having any peculiar fountain, from which alone it riseth, but for its rise or fall is beholding, either to excess, or want of Rain: In vain therefore do any seek for a setled Head, since each Brook and drop of Rain that falls upon the sides of Hills or Valleys, inclining downwards to the Channels, are as so many contributing mites to the encrease of a River.

But whether it spring from the one or other, as we see opinions differ, so we are more assured of its overflowing, whereof the Egyptian Priests assign'd three causes; One was the great plenty of water, wherewith Egypt naturally [Page 48]abounded, which they endeavored to prove, because the Nile contrary to all other Rivers) overflow'd his banks in the mid'st of Summer,

According to that of Lucan, l. 10.

Inde etiam leges aliarum nescit aquarum;
Nec tumet Hybernus, quum longe Sole remoto
Officiis caret unda suis, dare jussus iniquo
Temperiem caelo mediis aestatibus erit
Sub torrente plaga, ne terra dissipet ignis
Nilus adest mundus, contra (que) accensa Leonis
Ora tumet—
His Waves at Laws of other Rivers scoff,
Nor swels in Winter, Phebus farthest off,
That custom scorning, but when scorching beams
Inflame the Air, he tempers the extreams
Under the Line, and when the Lyon raves,
Swells more his torrent with impetuous waves
Drawn up against his rage

A second, the Ocean, from whence they supposed that superabundance of water came at that season: The third, was rain, because as Democritus writes, at that time in the Southern parts, great quantities of rain pours down; the Trade-winds driving the clouds that way. Anaxagoras a great Naturalist, holds the melting of the snow in the Ethiopian Mountains as a cause, agreeing therein with Euripides.

Aquam pulchram deserens
Fluminis Nili, quae extera defluit
Nigrorum hominum, & tunc tumefacit undas
Quum Aethiopicae nives liquuntur.
Then leaving pleasant streams of Nile
Issuing from the Negro soil;
Who annually his Banks o'reflows
At Thaws of Aethiopian Snows.

But Ephorus a Scholar of Isocrates, says, it proceeds from an abundance of moisture all the Winter retained in Subterranean Caverns, which at the ap­proach of the Summer solstice break forth and evaporate like Sweat by an in­sensible transpiration to such a quantity, as produces the rising of the River.

Contrary to which, Lucan l. 10. says thus:

Vana fides veterum: Nilo quod crescat in arva
Aethiopum prodesse nives, non Arctos in illis
Montibus aut Boreas, testes ubi Sole perusti
Ipse color populi calidis (que) vaporibus Austri:
Adde, quod omne caput fluvii quodcun (que) soluta
Praecipitat glacies, ingresso Vere vanescit
Prima tabe nivis—
Slight antient Saws, that Nile his banks o'reflows
From melting swoln of Ethiopian Snows,
No Boreas hoars those hills, their people tan'd
With sweltring Southern Windes and scalding Sand;
No streams in brimmers from their Fountains post,
Till Spring dissolves the hoards of Winter frost.

Kircher in his Enquiries upon this subject, first makes the natural scite and disposition of the Ethiopian Mountains a prime, and the condition of the Chan­nel, a second cause; but after coming more home to the point, he gives two more probable. One, when their mouths are so obstructed, they cannot dis­charge their Water; Another, when the Channels receive more than they are wont or can contain. This later happens either through molten Snow, or the falling of excessive Rain. Thales one of the seven Grecian Sages, asserts the former opinion; Anaxagoras, and most other Philosophers, the second; and in truth the belief that the increase of Rivers proceeds from violent Rains, hath obtained the greatest credit, being manifest not onely in Countreys lying un­der the North-Pole, but even in Mountainous parts, under the Line, such as t [...] Hills of Andes in America, and the Mountains of the Moon in Africk. These [Page 49]great Rains come not from the Clouds, driven thither by annual Windes, but from those exhaled in Ethiopia it self, which are so much the greater as the Sun­beams there in a perpendicular line, have the greater vigour to attract, for which reason at the Suns coming out of Gemini, the matter causing Nile to over­flow is onely preparing; but when the Sun enters Cancer, then the Nile and other Rivers pass over their Banks; among whom the great African River Ni­ger, then passing between mighty Mountains in West-Ethiopia, dischargeth him­self into the Ocean.

With this of Kircher, agrees Odoardo Lopez, saying, Odoardo Lopez. there Rains fall from the beginning of March till August, not by drops, as with us in Europe, but pouring down as it were by whole Payls or Buckets full, with such impetuousness, that they cause all streams to swell above their Banks.

The reasons of the overflowing of Nile being thus shewn, Kircher starts up two new Difficulties, viz. Why the mentioned Rains fall, the Sun passing the Northern Signs, and not at any other time? The second, Why the Rains which fall in the Moors Countrey do not cause the same overflowing? Or why Egypt onely in the overflowing of Nile should so much participate of it, as to seem no Land, but all Main Sea?

As to the first, it is to be observ'd, Why the Rain falls in the Moors Countrey, when the Sun is in the North.that a constant effect cannot be produced without a certain and constant cause; Now the Position of the Sun, and na­tural Scituation of the Ethiopian Mountains, are the chiefest and greatest cause of these Rains, and the overflowing of Nile and some other Rivers; for wise and provident Nature hath made these Mountains (especially those between the Equinoctial and the Winter Tropick in 22 degrees of Southern Latitude, and which encompass the Southerly Ethiopia on the East, South and West) to be as hollow, or concav'd Burning-glasses, which lying to the Sun in his Nor­thern Latitude, fitly gathers and so concenters his Beams, that they reverbe­rate such a fiery heat, as makes extraordinary Exhalations, by which, abun­dance of thick Clouds are consequently engendred, which crouded and thrust together by the Trade-windes, at that time always Northerly, and beaten towards the capacious Receptions of the aforesaid Mountain Convexities, are dissipated thence at length by the fervent cold descending from the tops of the Hills, and so are dissolved and come pouring down in hideous Showres, or rather in Streams, Floods, or Rivers of Rain, from whence it appears that Nature hath set them as Receptacles of Vapors and Clouds: for how much the scituation of Mountains, not onely in Ethiopia, but also in other parts of the World, conduce to the breeding of Windes and Rain, is not strange to any who have made search into Natural Causes.

To the second, 'tis answer'd, Why the Nile overflow [...] onely in Egypt, and not in the Moors Countrey.That the Channels of Nile are the cause of its overflowings. For as the Channels of Rivers running between the sides of Mountains are deeper, so they can swallow the greater quantity of waters, because the Mountains hinder their overflowing and running away: On the other side, where the Channels are shallow, and go through flat places and wide extended Grounds, with Banks low, the more overflowing they are sub­ject to: The great Mountains therefore pouring down waters between their narrow Openings and Precipices into the Nile, makes it flow far and near over its shallow Channels, not able to contain that abundance; And for this reason all the flat Grounds in the Moors Countrey are subject to the like Nilian overflowings: As therefore the natural Scituation and Position of the Moun­tains which are so conjoyn'd, as we before said, and the Plains surrounded by [Page 50]them serving for a Laboratory as it were,The shallowness of the banks in Egypt, a cause of the overflowing of Nile.to make Rain in, is an infallible cause of Showres at set-times: So also must the Natural Position and Consti­tution of the Channel of Nile be held for a certain cause of his overflowing.

Now the reason why these Rains fall when the Sun is in the Northerly Signs, Why it rains when the Sun is in the Northern Signs. must be attributed to Annual Winds, call'd by the Portuguese General, or Trade-Windes, which at the Suns entrance into Capricorn, come blustering out of the North, and turn the Clouds to Rain; but when the Sun passeth Libra, the An­niversary Windes coming from the Ocean, and Countreys full of Snow in Ma­gellanica, being very cold, the Vapours not exhaling is the Cause, there is there at that time constantly bright and clear Weather.

We will conclude the whole from the aforesaid Isaac Vossius, Lib. de Nili, & ali [...]rum Fluminum origine. who saith thus: The opinion of Antient and Modern Writers, is, That the Nile first rises either out the Mountains of the Moon, or out of the great Sea Zaire; both which lye beyond the Equinoctial to the Southwards, and in that part of Africa which lyes under the Tropick of Capricorn: But Isaac Vossius of the Ori­ginal of Nile, and other Ri­vers. he from the Portuguese Journal-books, says, That the Spring-heads of Nile lye Northward of the Equinoctial between nine and ten degrees. For the better clearing this Point, something must be said of the Seasons of the Year, and the various Alterations of the Weather in several Climates.

With those that inhabit beyond the Line and the Tropick of Cancer, What Weather, and how the Season alters in 23 de­grees of North Latitude. to the three and twentieth degree and thirty minutes of North Latitude, Winter con­tinues as long as the Sun passes through the Northern Constellations, coming on leisurely and by degrees: for when the Sun enters Taurus or Gemini, the Windes begin to rise, and some stormy short Showres to fall: when it comes into Cancer begin the lasting Rains, and continue to the end of September, but their greatest violence is while the Sun is in Leo; in which time the Rivers un­der the Torrid Zone swell up very high, and the tops of the Hills are cover'd with Snow: When the Sun passes Scorpio, Sagittary and Capricorn, they have clear and moderate Weather, but their greatest heat is at the Suns being in Aquarius; for then are most of the Channels of the Rivers dry, and a great part of Africa choak'd up with Drowth: On the other side, with such as live between the Line and the Tropick of Capricorn, to the three and twentieth degree and a half South Latitude, Winter begins at our Autumn, as we said before, from which time till the Vernal Equinox, they have lasting Rains and great Cold: Thence commences their Spring, which continues to the Suns entrance into Cancer, and thence to the Autumnal Equinox makes their Summer, so that the Sea­sons of the Year hold the same time, though not the same method, both with them and us: And all that travel those parts never finde any other Seasons; onely the Hills sometimes cause an alteration and stop in this Law of Nature: Hence it may be supposed where every River hath its Spring-head; for such as lye Northward of the Line, overflow in July or August, whereas those to the Southward swell principally in January and February: The consequence of all is onely this, That what River stretches it self from one Tropick to another (if any such one there were to be found in the world) it must overflow twice in a year; but the Nile onely swells immediately after the Suns being in Can­cer, and never in the Winter, so that it must be concluded, that his Spring-heads arise from those parts lying under the Artick Signs.

The beginning of the Niles encrease happens, When the Nile begins to overflow in Egypt, and when in Ethiopia. according to the opinion of most Writers, on our seventeenth day of June, the Sun passing into Cancer. Pro­sper Alpinus would seem to assign the very hour of the day (wherein this encrease was first enquired after) but that cannot be, because it happens sometimes a [Page 51]day or two sooner or later: But in Ethiopia it begins to swell sooner, because the first Rain falls there in the beginning of June: but forwarder towards Egypt the Nile encreases but slowly as long as the Waters are low, but in June and afterwards, when thickand lasting Rain falls in Abyssinie, then his Current is mightily encreased as well in swiftness, as depth: Now when the encrease is at the height, viz. when the Nile rises to eighteen, twenty, and more cubits, then is his Current extream swift, though not so well discernable in a broad Channel, as when the Waters are shut up in a narrow; an Experiment of which may be gathered out of Francis Alvarez; Francis Alvarez. The great swiftness of the Nile. who speaking of a certain Arm of the Nile that flows out of the Countrey of Dobas, into the River of Takaze, says, When we lay here under the shadow of Willows to repose our selves and bait, on a dry and clear day, we heard a great Thunder, whose noise seemed to come afar off, so that we said it thundred as it used to do in India: We being then about to pack up our baggage, as we did, supposing no danger, had no sooner taken down and were folding up the Tent, where­in we eat our Dinner, but one of our Company began to cry aloud to us, which startling made us look about, when at the same instant we saw coming with a head a great Mountain of Wa­ters, rolling towards us with a horrible noise, and in the twinckling of an eye swallowed up some part of our ungather'd Carriage, and without doubt had swept away the Tent also, if standing, so that we were necessitated with speed to save our selves from that so sudden sur­prizal, by climbing up the Willows: This Water poured down with such an impetuous force, as carryed with it great stones rolling, and such an amazing fragor, that the Earth shook, and the Skie ecchoed, but this as soon gone, as come. After this we betook our selves to some poor Cottages we saw scattered in the Countrey, but were driven away with stones by the In­habitants, so that we were forced to sup, and stay all night under the Canopy of Heaven: Next day we went forward and perceived by the way Rain and Thunder, as we had the day before, but were not troubled therewith.

Prosper Alpinus says, The Inhabitants to foreknow the greatness of the Rivers approaching encrease, preserve a dry Clod, which at the time of the first swel­ling grows heavier: How true soever this may be, yet it's no certain nor satis­fying Prognostication, for if this or other tokens before-hand could verifie the completion of their hopes, then would they not concern themselves, nor be so sollicitous and diligent to mark each days encrease, and to publish it by Com­mon Cryers.

¶ THere is a great Contest between Antient and Modern Writers, Difference about the time of its continuance. varying about the Time and Continuance of the increase and decrease of the Nile: The general belief is, that it rises forty days, and falls as many: Herodotus, Herodotus. Diod. Sicul. Ammian. Marcell.Dio­dorus Siculus, Ammianus Marcellinus, and many others, say it encreases ninety or a hundred days: Aristides, longer, almost for four moneths time; Aristides. which differ­ences may easily be reconciled; for the Antients call'd the whole time of his In­undation, The Encrease; whereas the Moderns say, that time onely is the En­crease, which is between the least and greatest depth of Water; and the other wherein the Water returns into his own Channel, The Decrease.

The Nile then flows by degrees from the later end of June: How long the Nile in­creases in Egypt. At the first very little, scarce rising up two or three fingers in twenty four hours, nor much more any day after while the Sun remains in Cancer; but when the Sun passes into Leo, it rises first half a foot; afterwards half a foot and a palm, immedi­ately a foot, and lastly a whole cubit almost every day, so continuing till the full height: Thus the Grounds lying near the River are first moistened, after­wards those afar off, and at last all Egypt over; Then the Earth which a little before was dry Land, becomes Navigable; and the River (whose Channel in [Page 52]many places was scarce broader than a Furlong, enlarges to Above thirty English miles. three hundred Furlongs; nor would it stay there, if the Hills on both sides did not curb and hinder it.

The Nile in this expansion at his height (which ordinarily happens, the Sun in the middle of Leo, though sometimes when in the fifth or sixth degree of Libra) doth not presently decrease, but continues many times at the same depth twenty days and more, till the Sun enters Virgo, then by degrees lessening and running away; before which time all the Dikes, Ditches, and Damms are opened to receive and detain the water: Then may it easily be perceived how the Waters retire gradatim, first from the Grounds of Upper Egypt, that border up­on Ethiopia; afterwards from the High-grounds of Lower Egppt; which naturally comes to pass, for the Water glides through the High-grounds, not running off indeed, but kept up in Ditches, that the Mud which improves the Land may be ready to be spread so much the nearer: At length after the Autumnal Equinox, the Water returns into its natural Channel; and that which was thus long by Dikes kept up in the Upper-grounds, let out by Sluices, first in Upper, and after in Lower Egypt: And although sometimes there is a difference in the rising of the Nile, according to the little or much rain falling in Ethiopia, yet the whole Countrey is clear'd, and the Water return'd to its Channel before our eight and twentieth of September, whereupon immediately the Grounds are ploughed with small Coulters, and made fit for Sowing, and the Countrey­man (when the Sun enters Scorpio, The Nile almost always either increasing, or decrea­sing. puts his Seed into the Earth; however, though in its own Channel, the River ceases not lessening till the end of May the next year.

It remains now that from this Overflowing of the Nile, The Current of Nile some­times swift, and sometimes flow. we shew the swift­ness or slowness of his Current, and how it varies at several times; for the making which appear, you are to know that in Ethiopia it flows up at least twen­ty days, and sometimes a whole moneth ere it begins to rise in Egypt, at the beginning scarce running a league in an hour, whereas when the Water is come to the highest, it passes so swiftly forward, that if the Channel of the Nile be above four hundred and fifty leagues and more in length, as by reason of its windings and reaches, some running almost point-blank backwards, it may well be, upon an equal calculation it will appear that it may run three leagues in one hour: we must confess it is not so swift in Egypt, because the Channel is like a Sea, about ten leagues broad, which causes it necessarily to flow slower, whereas it's circumscribed and confined in narrow limits in Ethiopia, and so consequently goes there more swift.

But now to return to our quest of the Head Sources or Fountains of this fa­mous River; The Head-Springs of Nile where, as supposed. Vossius. Vossius gives us this account, Although the Head-springs of other Rivers are not onely in places far distant from their mouths, It receives all its water out of Ethiopia. in regard, where Rain falls, Brooks and small Channels are usually found, which by their confluence make the great ones full; it is clear otherwise with the Nile, being onely indebted to Egypt for a passage, not receiving any addition of Waters there: for all Egypt (except where bordering on the Sea) is altogether void of Rain, but comes out of that part of Ethiopia that now is call'd Abys­sine, so that with reason there must we look for the Head-veins of Nile.

Among the many Heads ascribed thereto, the farthest and most Southerly making the rivers Maleg and Anguet, which joyn in the Countrey of Da­mut, and make the West Channel, retaining the name Maleg, till after a course of fourscore leagues, it falls into the middle Channel, accounted the chief, [Page 53]beginning in the Hilly Countrey of Sakala, The Sea Bar-Dambea. wherein also lies the large Sea Dambea, eighty and eight leagues long, and about two hundred over, call'd Bar-Dambea by the Inhabitants, first falling in the Countrey of Bagameder, thence gliding forward through the Regions of Amaharam, Olekam, Gauz, Bizamo, and Gongos, and increased by the addition of other Rivers, turns towards the North, visiting the Fields of Fasculo, at last intermingling with the River Ma­legt, where it borders upon Nubia.

The third Channel is the rich River Takaze, rising from three Springs on the borders of the Kingdom of Angola, whence after a Western course between Daganam and Haogam, it winds towards the North, by the Kingdom of Tygre, and dividing the Region of Syre, turns Eastward. Afterwards falling into the River Mareb or Marabo, which begins near Baroa, they joyntly water the Countrey of Dengiri, call'd by the Moors (who enjoy it) Ballai, and unites at last with the Nile by the City Jalak. There are the three Rivers, which principally make up the Nile, and enrich his Bosome with such plentiful Streams. Thus far have we traced the opinions of Kircher and Vossius: Now we proceed to declare what the Cataracts thereof be, divers having written strange things thereof.

But first as to the name, It is call'd by Pliny and other Latine Authors, and by the people also who live thereabouts, Catadupae, and by the present Inhabitants, Katadhi, which in their Tongue signifies A Rushing Noise: This happens at the Hill Gianadel, where his even Current is broken by the sharp rocks, through or over which it makes passage: The place of this Fall, according to the An­tients, contains Above six miles. fifty Furlongs, filled up with huge and inaccessible rocks, over which the Nile making his way, falls with such an impetuous force, and prodigious noise, that as the Antients write, the people who dwell thereabouts were all deaf by reason thereof: But Experience now adays hath taught us, that this Noise hath no such effect, whilst the River keeps his usual stream, but when he begins to rise, the Noise encreases, but yet is never so great that peo­ple should loose their hearing by it; Though 'tis true, the Waters rush down­wards two hundred foot, roaring like the Breaches of the Sea in a Tempest; from hence then sliding in a gentle Current over the Plains of Egypt to Cairo, where the Haven of Bulach towards Villamont, carryes in bredth two mile, then leaving Cairo behinde him, he parts into two, and after into more Branches: The Inhabitants for distinction sake, have call'd the Tract of Land Eastward, Garbiah; and the places Southward near the Angle or Point of Damiata, Chargnia.

These Branches or Arms, make the several Mouthes of Nile, which the An­tients have especially noted to be seven; But Ptolomy sets down nine, which two are missing: and Pliny encreases them to eleven, whereof four are wanting: The names of the supposed seven remaining are these, The Heraclean, call'd al­so Canopean, and Naucratian; The Bolbitian; Sebennitian; Pathmetian, by Strabo nam'd Fatnian, and by In his Euterpe. Herodotus, Bucolian: The Mendesian, Tanitian, and Pelu­sian: The two wanted, are Dialcos and Pineptimi: But if we take the What ever was, or is their number, antient or modern Maps vary among themselves; for whereas Ptolomy hath set forth nine, Hondius in his Map of Africa makes but eight, and in that of Europe, ten. Ortelius in the Map of the Turkish Em­pire setteth down eight, in that of Egypt, eleven: And Maginus in his Map of that Countrey, hath observ'd the same number: And if we enquire farther, we shal find the same diversity and dis­cord in divers others. Thus we may perceive that this Account hath been always different concerning these Ostiaries of Nile. Nilus as he is at present, we shall finde nine Mouthes great and small; the chiefest and most remarkable being the Canopean, now stiled Rosetta from its neighborhood: The Pelusian, by some taken for the Ostiary, were Damiata, but seemeth rather the Tanitian, from its near adjacency to Tenez: The Bolbitian, known by very few: The Sebennitian, now beareth the Name of Sturioni: The Pathmetian re­tains the old Name: The Mendetian and Damiatian, by some are supposed the same, though others call it Migri: The Tanitian, at this day known to some by [Page 54]the name of Kalixen, and to others of Tenez or Tanez: Pineptimi is taken for that which in the Maps in nam'd Brule: Lastly, Diolcos that is wanting, Sanutius stiles Damanora.

Modern Geographers much abate this number, Peter de la Valle his Jour­nal. Maginus. Guil. Tyrius. Bellonius. attesting there are but three or four, to wit, The Rosettian and Damiatian; and two other little Rivulets run­ning between these, but poor in waters.

We come now to the Description of the Countrey, wherein for Methods sake we will begin with the Cities.

EGypt (as we declared before) is at present by the Turks divided into three Parts: Description of the We­sterly parts of Egypt. We will take our view from the Westerly, call'd Erriff, extending to the Point of the Sea by Barca, a Countrey belonging to Barbary, and reaching from thence to Rosetta, containing all the places between the two Arms of Ni­lus from Alexandria, and Rosetta to Cairo.

First, To the West of Barca, lyes a City by the Antients call'd A [...]ort or Castle of the Arabians. Plinthina, and now by the Italians, The Arabian Tower, near adjoyning to which is the Sea Monester. Busiris, or Bosiri. Next to the old City Busiris, now term'd Bosiri, on the Coast of the Mid-land Sea, about twenty miles westward of Alexandria, heretofore by the Christians subdu'd and totally destroy'd: This Busiris, whence the Busirian Pre­cinct formerly takes its name, is call'd in the Bible by Ezekiel, Cap. 30. In our English Translation it is rendred Pathros.Phatures: Some will have this City so call'd from the feigned Syntagm. Chorograph. Aegypti. Busiris, who sacrificed all his Guests to Jupiter, and was the most cruel Tyrant of all Egypt: Others draw its Denomination from There is in this Coun­trey a Pillar with this In­scription, Mihi Pater est Saturnus Deorum junior, sum vero Osyris Rex qui totum peragravi orbem us (que) ad Indiorum fines: ad cos quoque sum profectus qui septentrioni subjacent usque ad Istri fontes & alias partes usque ad Oceanum, Dr. Brown, &c. Nowaccording to the best Determinations, Osyris was Mizraim, and Saturnus, Egyptus, the same with Cham, after whose name Egypt is not only cal­led in Scripture the Land of Ham, but testified by Plu­tarch, who in his Treatise De Osyride says, Egypt was called Chamia, a Chamo Noe filio. Osyris the Egyptian Jupiter, or Hercules; and the Arabians from Busir the son of Cham. Kircher says, it is so nam'd from the Egyptian Idol Apis, signifying in their Tongue An Ox; into which shape, as Diodorus reports, he was transformed; and then the Name in the Old Egyptian Language must be Busosirin, that is, The Kings Ox. The Grecians confound this City with The­bes, although they be distant the whole length of Egypt. From the Name Bu­siris, it may be supposed the Inhabitants worshipp'd an Ox; Osiris, as they hold, first shewing himself in such a similitude: But the truth is, he was a man, as they say (though much controverted) and a great Enricher of that Nation upon this their idolizing of an Ox, and scituation of the City so near to Memphis or Cairo, as also to Called also Ez. 30.17. Aven. Heliopolis, which was Rameses, the constant place of residence to the Israelites, whence might perhaps the worship of the Golden Calf in the Wilderness take its original.

Not far from Bosiri lyeth Alexandria, Alexandria. so call'd from Alexander the Great, who built it about three hundred years before the Birth of Christ, chiefly employ­ing therein the famous Architect Dinocrates.

Some say it was antiently call'd Noy; Its several Names. The Hebrews knew it by the Name of No-Ammon: The Romans, of Pharos, Sebastia, Augusta, Julia, Claudia, Domitiana, and Alexandria: The Egyptians formerly styled it Racotis, and say it was built by one Dalucka an Egyptian Queen, after the drowning of Pharaoh in the Red-Sea: The European Christians call it to this day Alexandria, but the Turks Scanderoon, which is the same with Alexandria.

We finde in Greek and Latine Historiographers, Several Cities bearing the Name of Alexandria. eighteen Cities of that Name, whereof this the most famous is chief: Another claiming the same Founder lyeth in Asia: A third in Scythia, by the River Tanais: There is one built, as is said, by Pope Alexander, or rather by the Millanois and Cremonois in Lumbardy, by the River Tanaro. Another new Alexandria built by Alexander the Great, at the foot of the Mountain Caucasus: A sixth in the East-Indies; A se­venth [Page] [Page] [Page]

De Stadt ALEXANDRIE of SCANDERIK. The City AS EXANDRIA or SCANDERIX.

[Page] [Page 55]in Troas; In Thrace an eighth, call'd indeed Alexandria, but erected seven­teen years before Alexander's Birth: A ninth in Aria, a Countrey of Persia: A tenth in the Island of Cyprus: An eleventh in Caria: and several other more in divers places which we spare to reckon, all of them through length of time, or raging War, hath destroyed, leaving them heaps of Rubbish; so that at this day there is scarce any Tracks or Remains of other than this Alex­andria in Egypt, and that in the Dukedom of Millain.

The City lyeth on the edge of the Mid-land Sea, on a Sandy ground, Its Scituation. near the Canobian Mountains of the Nile, Lee Africanus mistaken. though Leo Africanus placeth it forty Miles to the Westward of Nile, in regard near Cairo it begins to divide it self in two Arms, and so in strictness looseth its name, as he supposeth, and about seven or eight hundred paces from the Haven, which is very spacious for Ships, but dangerous because of the two great Promontories of Rocks standing on either side in the entrance, call'd by the French Diamant and Girofele, but generally known by the names of the Tower Port, and the Chain'd Port: The former very dangerous, the later more secure than convenient.

The City appears in the form of an The form of the City like a Market-Cross. oblong Cross, and divided into the old and new Town, which being three Miles in length, incloseth two or three sandy Hills; but Villamont makes the City four-square, and saith that it is encompass'd with two old Walls of a large circuit.

The Walls after so many terrible shocks, What manner of Walls it hath. in part remain standing which Alexander himself rais'd, strengthened with very many Turrets, and beautified with ranks of stately Pillars: The inserted Draught represent­ing the antient state of the City to the life, onely mentions one hun­dred and eighteen; each of which is four Stories high, and built more for ornament than strength; yet some of them still spacious enough to receive some hundreds of Souldiers to quarter in.

In the Walls of the old City, were four principal Gates, The Gates of the City. all fortified with strong Iron Bars: One on the East side, call'd Cairo-gate: The second to the West, leading towards the Wilderness of Barca: The third named the Popes Gate on the South-side, leads out to the great Sea of Elbucharia or Bouchaira, The Sea Elbucharia. for­merly Mareotis, and about half a Mile from the City, shadowed round with Palm Trees; in this Sea, which is of a large extent, lye several small Islands to which the Inhabitants for fear of the Enemy, sometimes fly for shelter: some name this Sea (abounding with various kinds of Fish, yielding a great yearly Revenue) Antaca, from another City near it: The fourth is the Sea­gate, opening to the Sea-side.

The new City appears somewhat pleasanter, The New City. having on its left side the Old Haven, now Porto Vecchio, and for its defence hath one Castle belonging to the old Town, which though not of so good use, because of the cumbersome passage into it, yet affords a convenient Rode and Haven for the Turks Gal­leys, and other small Vessels: And if it were not for the Neighboring Sea, it would without doubt be quite void of Inhabitants, because of the bad Air: And as it is, the Buildings are mean and few, inhabited by Jews, Turks, Moors, Copties, and Greeks, who reside there onely for Merchandize, little else invi­ting them thither.

This City hath been several times besieg'd, and as often ruin'd, The City often Ruin'd and Rebuilt. but never so fatally as in the year 1624. when the Pyrats of Barbary, who in great Multi­tudes ranged over the Mid-land Sea, seizing and enslaving all persons without difference of Nations, Sex, or Religions, lay'd it almost utterly waste, falling [Page 56]on like Wolves, whose implacable rage was never satisfy'd till 'twas lay'd in ashes, so that nothing could be seen but Walls decay'd, and Streets buried under the rubbish of their demolish'd Buildings; since which time, 'twas begun to be Re-built, but so tediously, that in the year after its Destruction, there were onely four small Huts erected; however not long after, they pro­ceeded with such vigor and diligence, Turks encourage its Building. that many new Fabricks were rais'd, and by the Turks encouragement at length became a stately City: And indeed the Turks endeavor to raise this place to the former lustre, by continual addi­tions of new Edifices, but they take so little notice of the old, that they let them fall down for want of repair, which makes several Houses, Churches, and other Buildings there, seem half destroy'd by their heaps of rubbish, testi­fying their antient greatness and glory, Agathias opinion refuted. contrary to the opinion of Agathias, who says, that in his time, the Buildings of Alexandria were neither firm nor large.

The Houses are not ridged with Gable ends, Houses. but flat, like those of the East-Countrey, for several conveniencies, especially the pleasure of walking; for the Inhabitants after Meals, take great delight to expatiate there, or take repose both Winter and Summer: They all seem to be founded on great Arches, and Marble Pillars, with Vaults and Sluices underneath to receive the Nile water when it overflows, which Flood-gates are so many and great, that the whole City seems to stand on Arches and Pillars: for a branch of the River, from between Cairo and Rosetta, runs thither through certain Drains, or Common-Sewers, under the City Walls to fill the Brooks: This water when the muddy slime is sunk to the bottom, becomes clear, and is used by many Eminent Citizens and Gentlemen upon all occasions: But that which is muddy and dirty, the common people use and are content with, because in all the City there is no publick Spring or Well to repair to.

There are three small Hills, Three Hills. resembling that named Testacio at Rome, and where many Earthen Vessels, Urnes, Pots and old Medals are found: Here­tofore near the old Palace of Alexander, were two Two Obelisks. Both these were erected by the Egyptian King Sothis, about 1058. years after the Flood. Dr. Brown. Obelisks, each an hundred foot high, and eight broad, of one entire Stone of Thebane Marble, intermix'd and speckled with Veins of two other Colours: One of these remains yet en­tire, but sunk deep into the earth, yet seems to exceed that of St. Peters at Rome; but the other is quite ruin'd.

Upon a small Hillock about two hundred paces from the City, surrounded with Palm Trees, and from whence is a prospect both of the Buchairan Lake, and Mid-land Sea, Perhaps from its being hem'd in with Palms. stands Pompey's Pillar, by the Arabians call'd Hemadussenar, that is, The Trees-Pillar; though hewen out of one entire rough Stone, (the same with that of the Pyramids) and of so exceeding height and thickness, that to this day no Artificer could ever be found that would undertake to remove it thence to any other place: The height and bigness of Pompey's Pillar. It is a hundred and five and twenty foot high, the Pedestal fifteen foot in compass, remaining yet firm and whole: why it is so call'd, we can with no certainty affirm, unless it were erected for a Remem­brance of the Magnificence of It is said to have been reared by Caesar, as a Memo­rial of his Pompeyan victory Mr. Sandy's in his Travels. Caesar or Pompey: It is Fabled, that a certain Egyptian King set it there to defend the City against Naval incursions, having placed a Magical Burning-glass on the top, that being uncover'd, had power to set fire on all Ships sailing by.

In the Suburbs is a place where 'tis reported St. Athanasius hid himself to escape the Arrian persecution. Here also between three Columns of Porphiry, is shewn the place, where 'tis said St. Catharine was Beheaded, to whose Memory [Page 57]the Christians formerly erected a Church, now by the Turks converted to a Mosque. In the adjoyning Street is a Cross, on the spot, where they say the Evangelist St. Mark suffer'd Martyrdom; to whose honour, St. Mark's Church, the Patriarchal See. a Church was built, formerly the Patriarchall See, but now held by the Egyptian Christians: within it lay the Body of St. Mark, St. John Baptist's Stone. whence the Venetians secretly removed it to Venice: There they say, also is the Stone upon which, at Herod's command, St. John Baptist's Head was chop't off: near which, no Turk or Infidel can sit, but with great pain and torment: Besides these Christian Churches, the Mahu­metans have several stately Mosques.

Somewhat distant from the City (where now scituated) are great heaps of rubbish, through whose very disorder appear marks of Antike Grandeur: Cleopatra's Building. Many secret doors and passages may yet be seen, whence not without some shew of truth, they are concluded to have been the Palace of Cleopatra: And Strabo says, that the Royal House of Alexander, with the City prospect on the left hand, stood in the entrance of the great Haven.

Formerly Alexandria was the most populous and stately City, The Excellency of Alex­andria heretofore. not onely of Egypt, but of all Africa, so priding it self in Magnificent Buildings, as well Private as Publike, that no City, but Rome onely, could compare with it. Chri­stianity even in the Primitive times, did here flourish in such a glorious man­ner, that the antient Fathers of the Church, call'd it Paradise.

When the Emperor Augustus after his Victory over Mark Anthony, Angustus spared this Ci­ty, and why. entred into it, he commanded not to spoil it for the memory sake of Alexander the Founder, whose reliques he viewed with a serious countenance: then in respect to the beauty of the City; and lastly, for love of the Philosopher Arrius chief Reader in the University there, and in high favor with the Emperor: for this indeed was in those days the Pernassus of the Muses: Serapeum and Iseum two Universities or Colledges rather. here were the Schools of Arts and Sciences; the beautiful Colledges Serapeum and Iseum, so call'd from the Goddesses Serapis and Isis; wherein all the youth, who for their Learning aim'd either at the Priesthood, or other City-employments, were edu­cated: The Serapeum far exceeded the other in Beauty, having an exquisitely curious Portico more than a Mile in length, whereto adjoyn'd a Court of Justice, and a Grove: In this the followers of Aristotles Doctrines had a pecu­liar School, whereof the Alexandrians, as Eusebius and Nicephorus write, would needs impose the charge on Bishop Anatolius for his extraordinary knowledge in all Arts; Lastly, St. Mark the Evangelist was here the first Divinity-Professor, whose Successor erected a School for Theology, wherein for the advancement of Christian Religion, several of the most Learned men, were appointed Readers, who Scholastically handled the main and fundamental Points only: Among whom the famous Panthenus, who flourish'd about the year of Christ one hundred eighty one, and other most excellent Pastors of the Church were of great remark: Here also St. Jerome, St. Basil, St. Gregory, and others were brought up: and Philo Judaeus became eminent; for in this Academy, the Jews had a flourishing and populous Synagogue.

But what hath much enhansed the glory thereof, The Library of Alexan­dria, so famous among an­tient Writers described. was that most wonderful Library of Ptolomy Philadephus Son of Ptolomeus Lagus, the second of that Name, of the Line of the Egyptian Kings; first established and afterwards from time to time by the following Kings augmented and enriched: This Philadelphus was a Lover of Art and Learning, which moved him to advance this most cele­brated Library, wherein he placed the Books of Aristotle and his own, and not onely so, but with great labour and charge made a collection of all manner of [Page 58]Books from all places, as well of Humane Learning, Arts, Sciences, Histories, and the like; as Divine, such as the Pentateuch, and other parts of the Old Testament, which he procured out of Judea: The other he obtained out of Greece, Lib. 1. c. 1. from Athens, the Island of Rhodes, and other places, according to the Testimony of Athenaeus. The Copy or Duplicate of his Letter to Eleazar the High-Priest is to be read in Epiphanius, Eusebius. Epiphanius. Josephus.Eusebius, and Josephus, and other of their Historians.

When this Prince worthy of eternal honor, had obtained these Books, written in Languages unknown to the Egyptians, he burst out into these words: O hidden Treasures and sealed Fountains, what exceeding benefit is couched in both! After some consideration, he wrote back to Eleazar with diligence to select six honest and antient men of every Tribe, skill'd and experienced in the Greek Tongue, and to send them over to Alexandria, that they might Translate those Books for more common use; In the answering this design, Eleazar was very careful, and sent over the aforesaid number, whom Ptolomy embraced with great care and civility, and in the Island of Pharos caused to be erected several convenient Mansions, wherein every one by himself was to Translate the Holy Law, which was so perform'd, Josephus, Clemens Alex­andrinus, Eusebius, Nice­phorus, Augustine. that according to the testimony of Josephus, Clemens Alexandrinus, Eusebius, Nicephorus, Augustine, and other Learned Writers; they not onely used the same sense, but the very same words; certainly not with­out the special grace and assistance of the Holy Spirit. And this is that Tran­slation which bears the name of the Septuagint, Septuagint Bible. to this day. Of this Library was Phalerius Demetrius, Phalerius Demetrius made Library-keeper. an Athenian exile, famous for his Writings, made Overseer, and promoted also to greater Offices; Furthermore this King sent to the Chaldeans, Egyptians, and Romans for Books, and in like manner commanded to be Translated into Greek.

Seneca says, The number of the Books. the number of the Books in it were four hundred thousand, whereas indeed they were more, Agellius, Ammianus, Diodorus, Josephus. amounting as Agellius, Ammianus, and Diodorus alledge, to seven hundred thousand: Josephus reports, that Demetrius the Li­brary-keeper, being once ask'd by the King, how many thousand Books there were? made answer, Above two hundred thousand, but that shortly he hop'd, the number would be five hundred thousand; whereby it appears how infi­nitely the number increas'd in short time, which ceased not with Philadelphus, but afterwards from time to time were still multiply'd by succeeding Kings: yet this precious and invaluable Treasure of Books (which were all Manu­scripts (for then the Art of Printing was far off from being Invented) was totally Burnt in the Civil Wars of Pompey and Caesar, They are all burnt, and by what means. taking Fire at first from Caesar's Fleet fired by the Enemy in the Haven: a dire and irreparable mis­chance! at which Caesar, though it came not by his fault alone, was so much asham'd, that afterwards in his third Book of the Civil Wars he neither ma­keth mention of it himself, Plutarch, Dio, Livy, Seneca. nor the Roman Consul Hirtius; But Plutarch, Dio, Livy, and Seneca, have not omitted it; of which the last thus writes: Let another commend this burning Stratagem, Ammianus.like Livy, who said, that it was a work becoming the most Excellent, Wise, and Provident Kings. And Ammianus pathetically: Among all the Buildings, the Serapeum bad the pre-eminence, wherein was that invaluable Library, con­taining all antient Records of Memorable Transactions in seven hundred thousand Books, by the diligence of the Ptolomies, Kings of Egypt, gathered together, but in the Wars of Alexandria, and Destruction of the City, burnt by that most Pernicious destroyer Caesar being the most emi­nent for Arms and Acts, ac­counted this his greatest misfortune, that he so great a Lover of Books, should be the cause of such an irre­pairable destruction. Agellius. Julius Caesar. All the Books, says Agellius, were burnt in the fore-mentioned Wars of Alexandria, when the City was destroyed, not wilfully, nor of set purpose, [Page 59]but perhaps by the multitude of helpers to save it: He excuses not onely Julius Caesar, but also the Romane Souldiers, and lays the fault upon the unruly crew of assistants: But Dio and Plutarch speak clean otherwise, Dio and Plutarch. as may be read more at large in their Writings. Thus had this never to be parallel'd Library its end, in the hundred eighty and third Not much above forty years before the Incarna­tion. Olympiade, after it had continued an hundred and twenty four years.

Another Library was after re-erected by Cleopatra in the Serapeum; It is again rebuilt by Cleo­patra. which by the help of Mark Anthony, who obtained the Attalian and Pergamenian Libraries, was greatly adorned and enriched, and in being to the time of Primitive Chri­stianity, and was there preserved so long as the Serapeum, which was a Building of great Entertainment and wonderful Art, continued, And at last with the Sera­peum utterly subverted. which at length the Christians in the Reign of the Emperor Theodosius the Great, as a Harbor of In­fidelity, threw to the ground.

Over against Alexandria stands the renowned Island Pharos, The Island Pharos. by the Inhabitants call'd Magraf, or Magragh, and by the Arabians Magar Alexandri, that is, Pharos of Alexandria; and by Ortelius, Pharion, from the Lanthorn Tower which stands upon the Island, and now call'd Garophalo: In the time of Homer, Alexandria and this Island were severed by a Part of the Sea about a days sayling from the Land, whereof himself thus speaks, Od. lib. 4.

Pharos an Isle amidst the swelling Deep,
'Gainst Egypt lyes, from whence a nimble Ship
May sayl 'twixt Sun and Sun with Sayls a trip.
[...]
Hom. Od. 1ib. 4.
[...],
[...], &c.

But now it is part of the Main Land, the reason whereof is, because the river Nile by his evomition of Soyl and Mud, has constantly gained upon the Sea: To this place of Homer, Lucan alludes in his tenth Book thus:

Tunc claustrum Pelagi cepit Pharon: Insula quondam
In medio stetit illa mari, sub tempore vatis
Proteos, at nunc est Pelleis proxima muris.
Then he took Pharos circled with the Main,
Where Fate fore-telling Proteus once did reign,
But now to Alexandria joyn'd

Pinetus and others will have nothing lye between this City and Island but a Bridge; but Villamont who hath searcht more narrowly, saith, Piuetus. it is now united to the Continent, and the Walls of the City in such manner, Villamont. that the Island makes two Points, one Eastward, another West, 'Tis united to the Main Land. which almost meet in two other Points, running from the Main Land into the Open Sea, But makes two Haven. leaving two Passages into the Havens; one of which is call'd Porto Vecchio, that is, The Old Haven, and hath no Defence, as it is said, but the Castle of the old City, by the Italians nam'd Castel Vecchio: But the other Haven hath two opposite Forts, yet not so far distant, but that they can answer and defend each other, Two Castles. nor can any Ship go in and out between them without leave. The greater Fort is much the stronger, having high Walls fenced with Towers, besides a quadrangular Work of Defence: And in it beneath is a Watch, or Cour du Gu [...]d for Security, and above are Lights that give direction for Ships coming in to finde the Channel. This great Castle on the right hand the Italians call Pharzion, and that on the left Castelletto, or The Little Castle: Both of them are subject to great inconveni­ences by the want of fresh water, which they are compell'd to fetch from the City every day on Camels backs.

On a steep Hill in this Island, King Philadelphus caused to be set up an excee­ding high Lanthorn-Tower, directing Sea-men in their steerage by night, be­ing accounted one of the Seven Wonders, whose Master-Builder Sostratus, that in­geniously-ambitious [Page 60]

[figure]

Architect, who caused these words to be cut in a Marble Stone, SOSTRATUS GNIDIUS DIXIPHANIS FILIUS DIIS SERVATORIBUS, PRO NAVIGANTIBUS, that is, Sostratus of Gnidus Son of Dixiphanes, to the Gods Protectors for the Safety of Mariners: This Inscription he covered with Playster-work, wherein he set the Name and Title of the King, which ima­gining (as it happen'd) a short time would make to crumble and fall off, then his own written in the Marble, would obtain a perpetual Remembrance.

The Soyl hereabout, The nature of the Soyl in, and about Alexandria, as we said already, is sandy, bearing neither Bush nor Vine, and so barren, that it is unfit to be sown: all the Corn that serves the City comes about forty miles off down the Artificial Channels of Nile: There are some small Orchards, but they onely produce Fruits so unwholesom, that they commonly bring such as eat them into dangerous Feavers, and other ma­lignant Distempers. They have abundance of Capers and Tamarisk-Plants, and Hamala, which is a Root they make Wine of, like the Herb Anthillis, by the Arabians named Killu or Kalli, Kalli, a Plant. and is of three sorts; the two first are found in Europe, but the third is peculiar to Egypt, having few Leaves, and very like Field-cypress, but longer: The Stalk is single, and somewhat crooked, out of which two or three small Branches shoot forth, and grow upright, each of which hath a Blade furnisht with five bending Leaves, or more, as appears ABOVE ENGRAVEN. Venice Glasses made with the ashes thereof, and other ingredients. Out of these three sorts, first dried in the Sun and then burnt, Ashes are made, from thence transported to Venice, wherewith and a mix­ture of Soap and other Ingredients, they make those most clear and chrystaline Glasses, The Physical use of the Leaves and Juice. so well known through Europe for their rarity: It is also said that the Leaves beaten and taken in a convenient Vehicle, cleanse Flegm and a dust Choller; The same vertue is attributed to the strained Juice of them.

Thus much we have thought fit to say of Alexandria, the Seat of the Antient Egyptian Kings, and Birth-place of Ptolomy the Prince of Geographers and A­stronomers; from whence it must be concluded, that all the state and osten­tation of this City by Historians mentioned, is to be understood of the time [Page 61]before its first destruction, A great Staple of rich Merchandize still, and there­fore there are Consuls at Alexandria or Scanderoon, at this day. however notwithstanding the several desolations thereof, yet always hath it driven on Trade and Merchandize by the continual coming in of Ships from several Countreys; insomuch that divers European Princes have their Consuls there, for the Management of Affairs, and Deciding Controversies that may arise between their inhabitants and their Subjects, to this day.

¶ NExt Alexandria in the East, lyeth the wasted City Bocchir, by others Bicchieri, Bocchir, or Canopus and formerly call'd This City was so call'd from Canobus, Menelaus his Pilot, there buried by his Master, who on these Coasts had suffered Shipwrack. Zacit. Annal. 2. Canopus, perhaps from the Egyptian Idol Canopus, which in this Precinct of Land was call'd Phtenuti, and there antiently worship'd; Of this place thus speaketh that Prince of Latine Poets, Virgil, Georg. Lib. 4.

Nam quia Pellaei gens fortunata Canopi
Accolit effuso, stagnantem flumine Nilum
Et circum pictis vehitur sua rura Phaselis.
Where happy people plant Canopus Soyl,
And dwell near spreading Streams of flowing Nile,
And through their Countrey painted Vessels glide, &c.

Through the World noted for luxurious Practices, and varied forms of Effe­minacy, whereof the Satyrist thus:

—Luxuria quantum ipse notavi
Barbara famoso non cedit turba Canopo.
Canopean Banquets now seem poor and small,
Juven. Sat. 25.
Rome, beggars boasts at Feasts more prodigal.

For within Canopus stood the Temple of Serapis, to whose Festivals resorted all sorts of people from Alexandria, men and women mixt in painted Barges, chanting down the Nile Love-Songs, behaving themselves with all sorts of looseness, beyond the bounds of Modesty; concerning which Statius brings in Pampinius thus excusing himself:

Non ego mercatus Pharia de puppe loquaces
Delicias, doctumve sui convitia Nili
Infantem, lingua (que) simul salibus (que) protervum
Dilexi—
I bought no Songs, nor pleas'd with boys so vile,
Lib 5.
That imitate all Vices of the Nile,
Chanting with shameless gestures on the Decks.

Amongst whom, saith Seneca, who so avoided vice, yet could not escape infamy, the very place administring suspicion, and therefore worthily buried in its own Desolations.

After that is to be seen the Tower and Cape of Bocchir, lying in a dange­rous place, where many Ships sayling from Syria, are bilg'd in the night, falling short of the Haven of Alexandria; adjoyning as it were hereto, two Castles appear call'd The Castles of Bocchir; here also is the Sea Bocchir, and be­low it the Towns Casar and Athacon.

The next place considerable is the City and Fort of Rosetta, Rosetta. eight miles from the Mid-land Sea, and thirty from Alexandria, lying upon one of the Ostiaries of Nile, where the Merchandize brought from Cairo arrive: Strabo. Strabo nam'd it Sche­dia, as some say; though others will have it to be the Metelis of Ptolomy: The Arabians and Turks now call it Rhaschit or Rasit; the Egyptians, Rassit. Guilland. Bellon. Description of the City. The City is small but populous, and as Belon and Jo: Baumgarten say, without walls, but hath nevertheless excellent Buildings, richly gilt and curiously painted: At the side of the Nile, there are stately Pallaces and a Market-place, where dwell none but Artificers of all sorts, and Merchants: there is an exquisite Tem­ple, one of whose Doors looks towards the Market-sted, another to the Nile, whither they descend upon very neat steps; beneath the Temple is the Haven, from whence by reason of small Channels the Citizens from Boats can land [Page 62]

[figure]

their Merchandize or Goods at their Door, being no small advantage: With­out the City in the Suburbs are store of Asses and Mules ready at livery to be hir'd by such as travel to Alexandria, or elsewhere.

About this City, but chiefly towards Cario, there groweth in the Ditches a Plant call'd The Egyptian Plomp or Lotus, Lotus, a Plant. in such an abundance, that the Leaves, resembling those of the Water-lillies, cover the whole Channel; The Egyp­tians call the Flower with its Stalk Arais el Nil: the Leaf with the Stalk, Bush-nyl, and the Root Biarum. This Plant hath the property of growing exactly as high as the Water in the Ditches, and opens his Flowers not underneath the Wa­ter, but above it: 'tis certainly true, that it turns about with the Sun, though the Antients disputed it.

This Plant for its near resemblance to a Water-lilly, Prosper Alpinus was de­ceiv'd in taking it for the very same, though afterwards in his Book of Forrain Plants, he retracted his opinion: Every Leaf hath a single Stalk growing out of the Root, which is thick, long, and round, in shape resembling a small Pear, the biggest sometimes as large as a Hens Egg: On the outside black, and full of Fibres, within yellowish and very pelpy, and hard, and sharp in taste on the tongue: The Flowers are large like white Water-lillies, as we said; where­of every one grows on the top of a green and round Stalk, smelling like a Pink: After the Flowers follow round green Cods, containing in distinct bags a sort of Seed, not unlike that of a Cabbage: After the Earth hath drunk up the Water of Nile, and is dried up, immediately the Leaves, Flowers, and Fruit, wither and dye.

The Flowers of this Lotus were in former times, The use of the Lotus as well heretofore, as now. as Heliodorus writes, wrea­thed in the Triumphant Garlands of Conquerors: Now adays the Juice of the Flowers and knobby Cods, mixed with Sugar, by the Arabians call'd, Sharbet Nufar, is used against all inward heats: Thus made, they mingle Sugar and Water, which hang'd over the fire, they suffer to boyl till it come to the consistence of a Syrup, then taken off and cooled, the pure Juyce of [Page 63]the Lotus is put into it: The Egyptians in the Summer eat the raw Stalks with the Heads, being very sweet, moistening, and cooling very much.

A little further up in the Countrey, there is the small City Natumbes, Natumbes. half a days journey from Rosetta, and lying on the opposite shore. Next is the old City Fuoa or Foa, formerly call'd Nicy, seated on the Banks of Nile, Fuoa. five and forty Miles Westward of Rosetta, very populous, but the Streets within are narrow, having great Suburbs, famous for Beautiful Women, Ladies of Pleasure residing there, assuming to themselves so much more than the usual freedom allow'd to modest Women; they Entertain, and are Entertain'd publickly by their Gal-lants, at Night returning home to their always indul­gent and kind Husbands, without the least rebuke, or once questioning Where hast thou been? About a Mile from Fuoa, lyes the Island now nam'd Gezirat Eddeheb, The Golden Island. but formerly Nathos, or The Golden Island: Here are many Villages, Mechella. and stately Palaces, but not to be seen at a distance, by reason of the shadow of sur­rounding Trees: Here also is the rich, but ill fenced City Mechella, or Maquella.

A little forward on the River, stands the un-walled City Derota, Derota and Michellat Cays. as also Michellat Cays, on a high Hill. In Derota was heretofore a stately Church, and the Citizens flourish'd in wealth and abundance; The Countrey so abounding with Sugar, that they pay yearly to the Sultan for the freedom of making and refining it, a hundred thousand Gold Saraffies or Turkish Crowns: But within the last Century of years, this place is much decayed, and the Ci­tizens impoverish'd.

ELbeahrye or Beheyra, the second part of Egypt, The second part of Egypt and its extent. extends from the Mid-land Sea to the Easterly Arm of Nilus, running to Damiata, and beginning from the Borders of Rosetta, and ending at Faramide, wherefore the Egyptians call it Sealand, and the Italians, Maremma.

In this Quarter of Egypt, is, first on the East of Beheyra, the Cape or Point of Brule, in former times known by the name of Pineptimi, and by Ptolomy taken for one of the Nilian Mouths; it is enclosed in the form of a Haven, and re­ceives the water, shooting out of the Eastern Arm of the Nile.

Not far from thence lyeth Damiata, or Damiette, by Nicetas in his Journals of Emanuel, taken for Tamiathim; but by the Antients for Pelusium, and by Ste­phanus for Tamiates: Guilandinus will have it be Tanis, spoken of in the Holy Scripture; but Auchard distinguishes Tanis and Damiata, making Tanis the same with Tenex or Tenez, which hath given the name to the Tanitian Mouth. Others will not onely have Pelusium, as we said, but also the antient Heliopolis to be the now Damiata; which error and mistake is very great, since Pelusium, accord­ing to general consent, is seated near the Mid-land Sea, whereas Heliopo­lis lyes up within the Land, many Miles from the Sea.

Damiata lyes in a bottom, Damiata. about two Miles from the Mediterranean on the shore of Nile, which runs through and waters it on both sides, on whose Banks there stands a Fort upon one side, but on the other are onely Houses, for having no Walls, the lowness of its scituation, makes it strong and tena­ble enough, by reason thereof it becomes also most delightful and fertile; the Inclosures and Gardens abounding with Trees of Cassia, Limons, Vines, Musae, and all manner of other delicious Fruits, which here according to their several kinds, are more delighted with the soil than all the rest of Egypt; for by the Trenches here (which is so no where else) after the retreat [Page 64]of the Nile, the waters are let in to moisten the thirsty Lands, in the time of Drowth. In these Trenches grows a Weed that moves to and fro upon the water, resembling that we call Ducks-Meat, or Ducks-Madder, without Stalk or Root, shooting downward, onely many small strings and threds: The Leaves are of a pale green, like those of Dogs-tongue, but shorter, broader, thicker, whiter, more bristly and stinging. This Plant is the true Stratiotes, Milfoyl, or Souldiers-Herb of the Antients, having Leaves like Houseleek, Water House-leek. and is therefore call'd by the Egyptians, Hay-alem-Emovi, that is, Water House-leek: The juice or powder good to stop Blood. It has no smell, and in taste is choaky and dry: The Egyp­tians use the Leaves for the same Diseases, The juice or powder good to stop Blood. for which we take Mallows: The Bedori, or Countrey-women, use the Juice or Powder of the dry Leaves, daily a quarter of an Ounce, The Leaves cure wounds. against all immoderate Fluxes of Blood: The Countrey­men cure all Wounds with the Leaves, The Leaves cure wounds. which they apply stamped or crushed in a strange manner.

Next in the East stands Tenez, Tenez. or Tenex, by Burchard call'd Taphnis, and taken for Tanis in Holy Scripture, The Lake Stagnone. being in the Land of Goshen: Adjacent thereto is the Lake by Mariners (as Pinetus reports) call'd Stagnone or Barathra; by the Inhabitants, Bayrene; and by Montegarze in his Travels, Marera; This Lake is very dangerous, because of the Sands, whereof some appear above, and others treacherously sculking underneath.

The next in course is Arrise, Arrise. formerly Ostracine, and in many old Maps Ostraca, and Ostraci: then comes Pharamide, by some stil'd Pharamica, and for­merly Rhinocura, and by Strabo placed on the Coast of Egypt and Syria; Burchard thinks it is Pharma, which he saith is large and well built, but in a manner de­serted by the Inhabitants, overpowr'd by the encrease of Serpents.

From thence passing Southward by the point of Nile towards Cairo, Seru. Rascaillis. there are two antient places call'd Seru and Rascaillis, near Neighbors. There is here Masura or Masur, Masur. formerly Miscormus, near a branch of Nile, call'd by the Inha­bitants Batsequer. Here Lewis the Ninth, King of France, was taken Prisoner in the Battel which he fought against the Soldan of Egypt. After Masura follow­eth Demanora, and many other places, of which the most worthy of note, is Fustatio or Fostat, Fustat. that is, A Pavilion. It is a small place lying on the Nile, and call'd by the Inhabitants Misreatichi, that is, The Old City, which name by good right it challenges in respect of Cairo, whose Founder was an Arabian Com­mander, named Hanier, sent thither by the Califfe his Master; on the side of Chargni, Mevy Cambri. lyes Mevy Cambri, betwixt Damiata and Grand Caire, after which may be reckon'd Caracania, Bulgaite, Abessus, and Souba.

Having passed the forementioned places, we now come to enter the third part of Egypt, call'd Sahyd, otherwise according to Sanutius, Thebes, from Thebes, once the Court and Seat of the Egyptian Kings, who afterwards removed to Memphis, and from thence to Alexandria, and afterwards to Cairo. This Province extends it self from the borders of Buchieri to Cairo, and so to Assue.

Grand Caire is the Metropolis, not onely of Sahyd, but of all Egypt, and is by many supposed the antient Memphis; some distinguish it into the Old and New; understanding by the Old, the Egyptian Babylon, and by the New, the present Cairo, but this determination is not without some scruple; for that first the ruinous heaps of the antient Cairo, seem too old to belong to this place; and secondly, the Egyptian Babylon, by the testimony of Strabo, and other Antients, lyeth upon the edge of Delta, to the left hand by the Eastern shore of Nile, almost opposite to Memphis, which Herodotus and others, placed on the West; [Page] [Page] [Page]

The City CAJRƲS. De Stadt CAIRUS.

[Page] [Page 65]besides the near lying of the Pyramides, which belonged to Memphis, and the nearness of the edge of Delta, where Babylon stood, according to Strabo, clearly evince that the Egyptian Babylon could not lye otherwise than over against New Cairo, on the East side of Nile, in that place where are seen the ruin'd heaps of Old Cairo. Others on the contrary place Memphis on the East of Nile, and will have that old City to have stood, where at this day, Cairo stands, but we will not undertake the controversie, but leave it to be disputed.

Cairo then, taken for Memphis, The various names of Cairo. which was reputed the most antient of all Cities, is call'd by the Egyptians or Coptists, Monphta; by the Armenians, Messor; by the Chaldeans, Cabra; by the Hebrews one while Moph, otherwhile Noph or Migdal, that is, Wrath: then again Maphez, but commonly Mizraim (which last name also the later Hebrews, as we have said, have given to the whole Countrey.) The Turks call it Mitzir or Missir, and Alcaire: Marmol.Marmol and others say, that Cairo is deriv'd from the Arabian word Elcahira, which signifies a Society or Cloister: some will have it from the Arabian and Persian, Mercere, or rather from the word Mesre; adding moreover that an Egyptian King nam'd Mohez, on the highest place of Mercere, made a Bulwark, and built a Castle to strengthen it against all incursions of Enemies, and call'd it by his Daughters name Caireth: This place at length grew so great, that the first name Mercere was utterly forgotten, and the name Caireth received, and now known to us in Europe by no other name than that of Grand Cairo. Leo Africanus, Leo. Afr Marmol, and others.Marmol, and others consent in one opinion, that this City is not antient, be­ing founded by Gehoar-El-Quitib, the Subject of a nameless Caliph, from all which it may be concluded that the old Memphis is either quite ruin'd, or had another scituation.

Memphis is an Egyptian word, and has its derivation from Monphta, The Original of the word Memphis. as we said, which in the Egyptian Tongue signifies, The Water of God, and by the Grecians chang'd into Memphis: For what cause, or how the City got this de­nomination, Opinions are various; one, not improbable may be this. Kircher. Chorogr. Egypt. p. 27. When the Sons of Cham began to send Colonies into these parts, some say they pitched their first Tents upon the Memphian Hills, the Lower parts generally, as afore-mentioned, lying under water as a Lake, but afterwards as the Ground became more dry, the City was Built by Mizraim the Son of Cham upon the Shore of Nilus, calling it by his own name, Mizraim: afterwards the Countrey and City by the fruitful overflowings of the River, becoming more fertile, they conceive it was call'd Monphta, that is, The Water of God, and by variation of Dia­lect, corrupted to Memphis. Herodotus affirms in his second Book, Herodot. Enterpe. that Memphis was Built by the first Egyptian King Menes, who is held to be the same with Mizraim.

This Memphis, now Cairo, was divided into four parts, viz. Bulach, Charaffa, Old Cairo, and Grand Cairo; the two first were generally accounted among the Suburbs of Grand Cairo, but are now, (as also Old Cairo) so ill furnish'd with Houses, that they seem rather Villages than Cities. It containeth in its circuit, Beauvau. the mentioned places, with their Suburbs, according to Beauvau, is thirty Leagues, though others extend the Limits further.

Bulach, by some supposed Babylon, a Port belonging to Cairo on the East, Bulach. having formerly four thousand houses: There dwell now Artificers and Tradesmen, especially such as deal in Corn, Oyl, and Sugar: The stately Churches and Palaces fronting the Nile, yield a pleasant and delightful pro­spect, although its beauty is much diminish'd and impair'd by the several Wars, in which it had no mean share of Suffering.

Between Bulach and Grand Caire, Lesbrechi. lyeth a great place by the Inhabitants nam'd Lesbrechi, frequently drown'd with the Nile, which a little below Bulach, divides into many branches, whereof one runneth to Alexandria, another to Damiata, and others to several other places: From Bulach to Grand Caire, the Land is all flat, and the way very pleasant, being much frequented with Travellers; but the most beautiful part, is a place call'd Usbechia in the Suburbs, near the City gate; this Usbechia is a round piece of Land, encompass'd about with Houses, which yield a prospect infinitely pleasant, not onely when the Fields are deck'd with Flowers, but also, when by the recess of Nile, it seems like a drayn'd Pond, full of various sorts of living Fishes.

Charaffa, Charaffa. otherwise Caraffar or Massar, another part of the Suburbs, lyes two Miles from Cairo, it contained formerly two thousand Houses, which extended seven Miles in circuit; but long since, this place where formerly the Sultans kept their Court, hath lyen waste: Here were many Monuments built with high and stately Arches, and within adorn'd with several carv'd Images, which the superstitious people worshipped, as Consecrated Reliques of Saints, covering the Floors with Tapestry: Here also is a Custom-house, whence the Wares which come from Sahid pay their Duties, and there at this day, Joseph's seven Granaries for Corn, so suppos'd, are shewed to Stran­gers.

Old Cairo stands conveniently towards the East, Old Cairo. but un-walled, although Drusius bestows upon it a Wall of four and twenty Miles: At this day, as Belloon says, there are scarce Houses enough to make a small Village, which is inhabited by Greek Christians and Armenians. Pet. de la Vall. This Old Cairo, Peter de la Valla supposes to be the antient Egyptian Babylon, now lying full of ruinous heaps; the Houses few, and standing every where at distance one from ano­ther, wherein now some few Christians inhabit; here were according to the same de la Valla, several Churches, whereof one dedicated to St. Barbara, with some Reliques of her and other Saints; St. Barbara's and St. Geor­ges Churches. another of St. George, built upon a Hill, so as it may be viewed both from the Old and New Cairo, and the Countrey round about with great delight: Another was heretofore probably the Church of the Coptists, built upon the ruines of a small House, wherein they say the Virgin Mary dwelt a long time, while she was in Egypt. The Reliques of this Holy House are yet to be seen under the great Altar of this Church in a deep dark place, with some small Pillars, whereupon the Altar rests: and some remainders of pieces of Timber: Besides these Suburbs lying without Grand Caire, there are three other Suburbs, as Beb-zuaila, or Beb-zuila, Gemethailon, and Beb-elloch.

The Suburb Beb-zuaila, The Suburb Beb-zuaila. otherwise Missuletiffe or Miffruletich, lyeth at the going out of the Gate, bearing the same name, containing about two thou­sand Houses: and from West to South about a mile and a half, and towards the North about a mile to the Suburb Beb-elloch. Here are many Mosques and fair Halls for Guilds, especially one built by Soldan Hesen; as also a Castle of the Soldans, at this day the Court of the Turkish Bassa's, lying at the foot of the Fountain Mochattan, surrounded with strong and great Walls: The Pala­ces being many and large, are pav'd with various-colour'd Marble, and the Rooms rarely Painted and richly Gilt. The Windows curiously made with Painted glass of several colours, and the Doors of excellent Wood, carved and wrought with all sorts of Artificial work, and gilded. Here formerly resided the Soldans Wives, Children, Attendants, Waiters, and Life-guard; [Page 67]And in times of Feasting they shew'd here their Magnificence, at the State-Receipts and Entertainments given to Ambassadors, when brought to Au­dience, or otherwise admitted to more private Courtly invitations.

The great Suburb Gemethailon, The Suburb Gemethailon. reaching Westward to some decay'd places of Old Caire was founded before the erecting of Cairo it self, by one Tailon, a Sub­ject to the Califfe or Governor of Bagdet, a Commander in Egypt, who left the old City, and came to dwell in this Suburb, where he built a Stately Palace, and a Magnificent Mosque: Here also dwell Tradesmen and Artificers, who for the most part are Moors of Barbary.

The Suburb Beb-ellock, which is none of the least, Beb-ellock Suburb. stands about a mile from Grand Caire, having in it near three thousand Houses, inhabited severally by Artificers of all sorts: In a void and spacious part whereof is a great Palace, with a Court of Justice, founded by a Mammalucke, nam'd Jasbach, then one of the Sultans Councellors, from whom it took the name Jasbachia. The common people hereof, after the Mahumetan Publick The Turks Divine Ser­vice. Sahala is ended, give themselves up to all lasciviousness and Debaucheries, and seeing of vain Sights, and idle Shews, for out of the City, Stage-players, Juglers, and Morrice-Dancers present themselves, shewing many Camels, Asses, and Dogs in a ridiculous manner Dancing to make sport: Fencing Masters also and Sin­gers, who by their Gestures and Songs, seem to act to the life, Egypt Conquer'd by the Arabians.

Grand Caire, lyeth very near the middle of Egypt, The scituation of Grand Caire. about two thousand paces to the Eastward of Nile, between the ruines of Old Caire, and the Circassiers-street upon a plain below the foot of the Hill Elmucattant or Moncatun, where is a strong Castle, giving to the City the repute of a most remarkable Fortification. In this City are, and reside persons of almost all Nations, How inhabited. coming thither to Trade and Merchandise: But the principal inhabitants are Moors, Turks, Jews, Coptists, Grecians and Armenians: At this day it is the prime of all the Egyptian Cities, exceeding in bigness, Rome, Constantinople, Villamont. Its compass. and most others by us accounted the greatest, being in circuit according to Villamont, two and twenty Leagues, so that a Horseman in full speed, can scarce ride about it in ten hours, but Grand Caire, Old Caire, and the Suburbs, are three Dutch Miles long; but Villamont says, Old and New Caire, together with Bulach and Chatafat, are thirty Leagues long, and twenty broad.

The City is Walled round, except on the side next Nile: The form of it. Villamont. Belloon.Villamont says the form of it is Oval; but Belloon Triangular, of which the Castle lying upon a Hill makes one Angle, whence the Walls are the second, and thence going to to the North shapes the third, wherein is a Fort and Castle: And whereas both the City and Suburbs are close built, with a great number of Sumptuous and Stately Edifices, which hinder the sight of the Walls, therefore such as have but superficially viewed it, have taken occasion to say that Cairo is with­out Walls, whereas in truth it is encompassed with strong Walls and Gates, The Gates. of which, the last are all plated over and strengthened with Iron; below the chief Gate on the East side, is that call'd Beb-Nansre or Beb-Nansare, the Gate of Victory: Then Beb-zuaila leading towards Nile, and Old Caire: Next Beb-el-futuch or Beb-el-fetoch, the Gate of Triumph, beyond which lyes the Lake Esbici.

The Houses by some accounted thirty thousand, The Houses. but with those in the Suburbs, about Cairo, in Bulach, and adjoyning, are little less than three hun­dred thousand: Each of them is on the top flat, as most of the Houses in [Page 68] Egypt; the Doors are narrow and low, so that none can go in or out, unless they stoop, and this is the custom not onely here in Egypt, but in all Turkish Countreys, that they might avoid quartering of Horse in time of Wars: The Locks of their Doors are of Wood, but as curiously wrought with variety of wards, and fit for use, as ours in Europe: within, the Houses are trimmed and embelished with Carved work, and Painting, and inlay'd with Ebony. A wood growing by the Lake Mareotis, whereof Lucan in his Tenth Book thus:

—Hebenus Mareotica vastos
Non Operit Postes—
—Nor the huge Pillars made
Of Mareotic Ebony.

And in the Island Meroes, as Lucan in the same Book.

—Nigris Meroen faecunda colonis
Laeta comis Hebeni—
—Meroes Black people proud
Of Ebon Tresses.

a Tree being cut down, almost equallizing Stone in hardness.

Most of the Houses stand upon open Vaults, either of ordinary Stone or Bricks, bak'd in the Sun, and lay'd in Clay Mortar, onely some few by the water side, are rais'd about the height of a man with Hewen Stones to with­stand the overflowing of Nile: A great many are built onely of Reeds, others both built and cover'd with them.

Beauvais reckons here six thousand and eight hundred remarkable Mosques, The Mosques, and their number. besides the ordinary ones, which together amount to the number of four and twenty thousand; but Villamont lessens the number to eleven hundred: of all which the Mosque Bemasar having thirty curious Pillars, surmounts all the rest in Beauty.

There are also several Hospitals and Almes-houses, one of which hath the yearly Revennue of an hundred thousand Sultanies or Turkish Crowns, where all manner of Wounded Souldiers and Sick people are received, and with great care attended by Skilful Chirurgeons and expert Physitians, for the recovery of their healths.

Within the City is a great piece of Land, containing about ten Acres, so fruitful that it is yearly sown, and never lyes fallow: There also is the Besestan or Market-place, where all sorts of fine Wares and Merchandize are sold: Some Writers say the Citizens reckon about eighteen thousand Streets, The number of Streets. which others encrease to six and twenty thousand, all which have several names, and in the Evening for preventing Tumults and Uproars, are lock'd up by their own attending Porters; they are very long, but narrow: The Houses are small, but stand so close in some places, that there is scarce room to go between them, much less any convenient passages, and in the Evening are shut up with the same care and diligence as the City gates.

Without the City runs a long Street, Circassiers Street. taking name from the Circassiers or Mamaluckes, who formerly therein us'd to exercise the Riding of Horses, and to present other Shews: This opens into a plain inclosed with Walls with­in, which is a stately walk adorn'd with Flower Pots and open Spaces, where­by whatever's done in the Street or Plain, may be seen: The Windows in stead of Iron Grates, have Stones with several holes made in them, for the conve­nience of Women, who then, may peep through and see all that passes or is done in the Street, without being seen.

Moreover, Another Street with Mosques. there is another long and broad Street, wherein are convenient and handsom Mosques, though small: Adjoyning to every of which, stands a [Page 69]Garden, on one side appearing stately Monuments made after the Turkish manner, which they say, the Circassiers built for their own private Devotion, and there each set forth his Burying-place for himself and Family: This Street is one of the most Stately Remarks in Cairo, being very broad, and above a thousand paces long, and all the Palaces and Mosques adorned with high Towers; but lying so far distant from the City, 'tis not inhabited, but as it were utterly waste.

Over this City, a Castle or Fort raises his head standing upon a Rock, The Castle. to which the ascent is by a great and wide pair of Stairs: The form of it is cir­cular, but so capacious, that it seems almost a City of it self, encompassed with slight old-fashion'd Walls, with Turrets and Battlements betwixt: The Dwellings within afford a most pleasing Retirement, because from every quar­ter may be seen all within and without the City, and from the top, as from the height of the Pyramid, the Eye may sport it self over the low and level Plain: And the Stately Chambers, Banquetting and With-drawing Rooms, yet to be seen, plainly evidence the Pomp and Grandeur of the Soldans and Mamaluckes: For so long as their Kingdom flourish'd, this was a most beau­tiful place, the Califfe or Soldan having therein his Throne of Massy Gold, himself seldom or never seen, except a little while to some Embassadors; round the Wall runs a Marble ledge a foot broad: The Gates and Windows enchac'd with Mother of Pearl, Ebony, Christal, and Coral, and all the rest very Arti­ficial painted, and richly gilt.

¶ FRom Cairo also set forth the Turkish Pilgrims, The Pilgrimage to Mecha. which annually travel in Caravans to Mecha, to visit Mahomet's Sepulchre. This is the Head City of Arabia Felix lying by the Red Sea: Eight days Journey from which is Medina, where is Mahomet's Tomb; to which out of Egypt once a year in November, go sometimes twelve or fifteen, nay, sometimes forty thousand Pilgrims to offer ac­cording to their ability, Sacrifice and Burnt-Offerings to their Prophet. Over the whole Caravan, one Superior Commander is appointed, call'd Hamirag, who leads them under the conduct and safe-guard of three hundred Souldiers, fur­nish'd with Bows and Musquets to Mecha and Medina, and without much delay and hindrance brings them back to Cairo (except sometimes assaulted, hurt, plundered, and slain by the Arabians in the Wilderness.) The number of Camels attending this great Company, are accounted by some sixty, and by others ninety thousand. The Grand Seignior, alone, bestows upon this Pilgrimage without accounting particular expences of the people, six hundred thousand Duckets, a fourth part of the whole Revenue of Egypt; for many poor people and Beggars go thither on foot without any Money or Provision, for whom the Grand Seignior causes many Camels to be furnish'd, to be rea­dy in case of sickness, faintness, or weariness.

Each person must provide himself of all Necessaries, even to Water, The order of setting forth. because in the whole way there is scarce any to be found: Before the Caravan sets forth, all the Pilgrims and Waggons are to be viewed and searched, which in good order passing quite through Cairo from the Castle where the Bashaw dwells, draw forth out of the City-gates into an open Field, where they wait one for another, and sometimes above eight days are spent before they are all gotten together.

Before the Caravan, march the Troops of Horse, or Cavalcade, follow'd by the chief Bakers, Cooks, Smiths, Sutlers, and other Artificers, each having a Camel laden with Necessaries needful for their Journey. Then [Page 70]follow the Horses of the Hamiragh, or Superior Commander, some of which carry Vessels of water, others several necessary things to be used on the way: After these Horses, two Camels, who are to draw Waggons or Chariots, ac­companyed with a great number of other Camels, some with Burthens, and some without, in time of need to carry the poor and those that are Sick, as we mentioned before; after that a great number of other Camels belonging to persons of Quality, and many Musquettiers and Pilgrims on foot, follow­ing the Janizaries that are bravely set out with Musquets, and with Plumes in their Turbants; then the Commander of the Carravan, and other Voluntier Vo­taries: Last of all, a small Pavilion of Silk stitch'd with Gold, is carried upon a Camel, by which he so becomes infranchis'd, and for ever after freed from bearing burdens, and honored with a stately Caparison thrown over him at the Tomb of Mahomet, from thence attended with many other Camels in great number, all in a rich and curious manner Equipped and Harnessed.

In this Order these Votary Travellers set on together, under the conduct of the Hamiragh, towards Mecha, and from thence back to the Grave at Medina, which they perform in threescore days time: Beyond Mecha, which is under the Turks obedience, an Arabian Prince rules by the name of Seriffe, which all assume that derive themselves from Mahomet's Stock, and by Records and Wri­tings can shew their Relation by Consanguinity. This Prince commands ten thousand Horse, and twenty thousand Foot Souldiers, wherewith suddenly upon report of the Pilgrims approach to his Borders, he goes out to the Moun­tains, and there stays till the Pilgrims return, which is twenty days after; which flying of this Seriffe, is for fear of the Turks, by this means preventing any snare that may intrap him, or otherwise.

The Grand Seignior has from this Seriffe, Presents sent from the Se­riffe to the Grand Seignior. several Presents every year sent to himself, as a Golden Panser is a Brigandine or Coat of Mayl.Panser; and to his Children and Brethren, a hundred and fifty thousand Duckats; In return whereof, the Grand Seignior bestows upon him four hundred pieces of very fine Silk Cloths, and three or four pound of Balsam; the Governor of Cairo, and the Commander or Hamiragh of the Pilgrims, each of them half a pound: There are also two other Hami­raghs, with many Pilgrims; one from Damascus, and the other from Arabia Felix, to whom he gives some Balsam, but very little: From Mecha all these Pilgrims Travel to the Mountain Arafat, The Place where the Pil­grims Sacrifice. at the foot of which lyeth a place by them call'd Maura, where they Sacrifice, in remembrance of the Sacrifice of Abraham made there, Supposed to be where he Offer'd his Son Isaac. as they believe.

¶ THe Soil, especially about Cairo, produces great variety of Plants; and the Gardens and Orchards are full of many fruitfull Trees of all sorts.

In the Fields about Cairo, Bammia. grows the Plant Bammia: It shoots forth four or five Stalks aloft, resembling Cassia in Leaves and Flowers, though somewhat differing in bigness and hardness: The Flower hath five Leaves of a pale yellow colour; the Fruit is five, and sometimes ten corner'd, and not much unlike wild Cucumers: The Fruit, Leaf, and Seed, of what use in Dyet and Physick. The common people, when it is green, boyl it Seed and all, with some Flesh in Broath, and eat it; the Seed is dressed like Pease and Beans with us: the Leaves are very cooling, and used in Physick against several Diseases.

Another Plant like the former, Mosch. is Mosch, whose Seed the vulgar call Abel-Mosch, because it smells like the Eastern Musk; from the likeness of which [Page 71]

BAMMIA. MOSCH

smell it has the name of Mosch, the Seed answering the best Musk in colour, taste, and smell, as we have said: The Arabians herewith so well can coun­terfeit the Eastern Musk, that expert Merchants very hardly discover the cheat; but a small time makes it plain, for the lovely smell of the Seed in the counter­feit soon fades and vanishes.

This Plant shoots forth upon strait, round, and hairy Stalks, where from one and the same joynt grow two Leaves, one small, the other great, having long Stalks beset with whitish hairs: The Leaves in shape resemble Lousy­weed, and different from those of Bammia onely in bigness: The Flowers are almost like the Bammian, and shoot forth between the Body and Stalk of the Leaves, succeeded by round blackish Cods, which include a small, black, bitterish Seed, smelling as strong as Musk.

The whole Plant is hot almost in the first degree, having a slimy Moisture; The use of it. the Leaves boyled in water, and applyed in form of a Plaister or Pultiss to a Wound or Sore, though it makes the party faint and weak, yet hath good Ope­ration: Of the Seed which is more hot and drying, are made Purging Pills for Women to suppress the rising of the Mother; But put upon the fire, and the vapor taken up into the Body, draws down the Menstrua.

About Cairo, and in many other places of Egypt, grows the Tamarinde Tree, Tamarinde. which in brief, (although the East-Indies and Arabia, is the proper Countrey thereof) for its manifold uses in Egypt, we will here describe. The Egyp­tians call it Derelsides; the Arabians inhabiting Egypt, Tamer-hendi; that is, the Indian Plant, because it is brought over from the East-Indies to Arabia Felix, or from Ethiopia, or the Moors Countrey.

This Tree is as big as the Damesin Tree, full of Branches, The form of it. and has leaves like the Mirtle, the blossoms are white, resembling Orange Flowers, out of the middle of which shoot forth four white thin strings, whence proceed thick Husks, first green, but when ripe, of an ash-colour, where are rugged thick Seeds, with a black tartish pelp: The Leaves alwayes follow the Sun, The Leaves turn after the Sun. and therefore are call'd Heliatropes, or Sun-followers; for when the Sun sets, they up [Page 72]of themselves, and at its rising open again: This turning of the Leaves is ob­served in many Egyptian Plants, So do the Acatia, Abrus, Absus, and Sesbus. viz. The Acatia, Abrus, Absus, Sesbus, and this Tamarinde.

These Leaves, which fall not off in Winter, are somewhat sharp, and not unpleasant to the taste, us'd to kill the Worms in Children: Moreover the same infused a Week in Spring water, Their use. maketh a Purge; the Arabians conserve the small and green, as also the large and ripe Husks, and their Pelp in Sugar, which Travellers take with them when they journey through the African Wildernesses, and therewith, when they are by the heat of the Sun in­flamed and thirsty, it admirably cools, comforts, and quenches their Drowth; (a special Blessing!) nay, sometimes they cure burning Feavers: The Liquor wherein these Leaves have been steeped a Week, sweetned with Sugar and drank, is good against Malignant and putrid Agues: Lastly, they use them in all Inflammations of the Liver and Reins, and also to cure the Gonorrhaea.

In these parts about Cairo, Calaf. especially in moist places, grows a little shrubby Tree, like a Willow, the Egyptians call it Caleb or Calaf; The Leaves are of a fingers length, and two fingers broad at full growth: The Flowers grow in form of a little ball, between the Body and Stalks of the Leaves; they are white, of a pleasant smell, grow plentifully, the Flowers commonly equallizing the Leaves on the Tree.

From the Blossoms they extract a water call'd Macahalaf, The use of it. accounted very powerful against all Putrifaction and Poyson, and also a great Cordial; whence happily the Plant gained its name, Joan. Vesting. in lib. Al­phin: de Plant. Egypt. Caleb or Calub, in the Arabian tongue, signifying a Heart; The water of it is also specially commended against all Malignant or Quartan Agues, and is given to young Children, with some Graines of the Bezoar Stone, to drive out the Small Pox and the Measles.

About seven thousand paces from Cairo, El-Mattharia. lyeth a Hamlet or Village call'd Mattarea, and El Mattharia, by some thought to be the antient Hermopolis, but untruly, yet by consent of most Writers is esteemed to have been the Residence of the Virgin Mary and Joseph, The place whither the Virgin Mary fled with Christ from Herod's per­secution. with our Saviour, when they fled thither from the persecution of Herod: There is still to be seen a Wall with a little Win­dow, where the Christian Priests celebrate Mass upon a small Wooden Altar, and on the right side of the same Wall, the Turks have erected a Mosque: There also springs a Fountain, wherein, they say, the Virgin washed our Sa­viours Swadling-cloths; the water whereof is yet in great esteem, having as they say, a special power for the Curing of Agues: Close by this Village is a Tree known to the Antients by the name of Sycamore, Sycamore Tree, or Pha­raoh's Fig. and by the present Christians of Egypt is call'd Tin El Pharaon, Pharaohs Fig; but by the Natives, Giamez. The Body of this Tree is low and broad, parting it self into two or three spreading Branches, from which again spring others strong and large, close one by another, [...] in Greek sig­nifies a Fig. and [...] a Mulberry. which in Summer afford Travellers a pleasant cool shade, to keep off the scorching Sun-beams: The whole Tree in its Stock, Branches, Fruit, Milk, roughness of Leaves, and Colour, resembles our Fig­tree, but in form and bigness of Leaves, which never fall off all Winter, like the Mulberry: It is, as many aver, so fertile, that it's never without Fruit, it growing on the Stock and thick Branches, and never on the uppermost, as Dioscorides hath mis-reported. The Fruit of it call'd Figs. This Fruit they call Figs, growing out of a Milk that issues from slits in the Bark, without which it would be barren, for each slit sends forth a small Branch, bearing sometimes three, five, seven, or [Page 73]more Figs, hollow within, and full of a yellowish small dust, which com­monly turns to little Worms: These Figs eaten are very hurtful to the Sto­mach, making it faint, weak, and subject to vomit; but they are good to cool and moisten such as walk in the heat of the Sun, being moderately taken; they have a purging quality, and cure all heat and hard Swellings, if applied by way of Plaister, or Pultiss.

The Learned Ulpian speaking of the Miscarriages of strangers, says, Ʋlpian. It is not to be pluck'd up by the Roots. It is com­manded that none should presume to pluck up a Sycamore by the Roots, because growing upon the Trenches at the foot of Nile, they binde the Earth fast toge­ther with their Roots. It grows not of the Seed, for the Fruit has no Seed in it, but is propagated by Slips set in the Earth, suddenly springing up and grow­ing in a little while to great largeness, and continues very long.

That which now grows in Mattharea, A Sycamore in Matarea. the Inhabitants believe and held to be the very same, in whose Concave formerly the Virgin Mary, Mary the Virgin, and Je­sus hide themselves therein. flying from Jerusalem to avoid Herods Persecution, hid her self, and her Childe, our Savior, for some days, and ever since it is held in great esteem, especially the Hollow of that Tree wherein Christ lay conceal'd, which the Turks themselves say pro­ceeded from the Spirit of the great God; whereupon they also shew great De­votion at this Place and Tree, accounting Christ, next Mahomet, for a great Pro­phet. Others affirm, that this Tree by a Miracle was split in two parts, be­tween which the Virgin Mary, with her Childe JESUS, and Joseph, put them­selves to dis-appoint the Persecuting Pursuers, whereinto they were no sooner entred, but it immediately by like Miracle closed again, till the Herodian Child-slaughterers passed by, and then suddenly re-open'd to deliver its charge, so as at this day is to be seen: They report also, The Illegitimates cannot walk under it. that none unlawfully begotten can walk along under this Tree; It is encompassed with a low Ditch, on whose edge a bank of Earth is cast up for the ease of the Beholders: the top-branches are still green and lovely, though the Body toward the Root is miserably spoil­ed; it having been observed that who ever comes out of zeal to visit or kiss this Tree, commonly cuts off a piece of the Trunk, to keep it in remembrance.

These kindes of Trees grow in several other places of Egypt in great plenty: some of that largeness, that three men can scarce fathom them about. They are found also in the Island of Cyros, Tripoli, and at this day in several Gardens of Eu­rope, being brought hither out of Egypt, though our Sycamore never bears Fruit, but onely puts forth flourishing Branches and Leaves.

It was this kinde of Tree upon which Zacheus climbed to see Christ, By St. Luke it is call'd Sycomoraea. by St. Luke in his nineteenth Chapter and fourth Verse, call'd in Greek [...], that is, Sycomoraea: and the same which our Translation renders a Fig-tree, which seeing fruitless he cursed, that it should never bear Fruit more, whereupon it presently withered.

Close by El-Mattharia in a Marshy and moist place, caused by the long lying of the water of Nile upon it, groweth a Plant call'd Beid-El-Ossar, Beid-El-Ossar. but by Ara­bian Physitians Ossar & El-Usar: It hath been brought and planted in Europe in several Gardens, where it groweth very great and blossometh, Vesting. in Lib. P. Alpin. de Plant Aegypt. but never bear­eth Fruit. The Roots grow in great clusters, out of which sprout Stocks up to the height of a man. The Leaves stand in couples, being thick, firm, broad at the Stalk, and oval at the end; As well from the young Leaves as the ripe, The form of it. which are of a pale, light Green, and also from the Stalks and Branches broken, there drops an exceeding sharp and bitter Milk, which in those Countreys growing hard, from its whiteness is call'd Manna, or Saccar El-Usar: The Saf­fron [Page 74]coloured and purple Blossoms grow in bunches at the tops of the Bran­ches, and hang by tufts on long Stalks bowing towards the Earth, and yield­ing Bees a pleasant food: The Fruit when ripe is large, resembling the Cods of a Camel, The reason of the Name Ossar. whence it might possibly take the Name Beid-El-Ossar; Ossar in the Arabian Tongue signifying the Cod of a Beast.

In the Seed is Wooll as soft as Silk, which is used in stead of Tinder, being apt to take fire from the least spark: The outermost Skin is overgrown with a thin hairy Wooll, call'd by the Arabians Escera, and Scerara.

The stamped Leaves unboyled, The use of it. or else boyled in water, and applied in form of a Plaister, cure Diseases coming of Cold; of the Wooll are made Beds and Quilts: Alpin. de Plant Egypt. The Milk, which many keep in Vessels, fetches off the Hair from the Hides of Beasts, lying awhile steeped therein: Dried, it makes a violent Purge, causing a deadly Bloody-Flux; but it is an excellent Remedy for the curing all Freckles and Spots in the Skin, the parts affected being anointed therewith.

In some Gardens or Orchards of the same El-Mattharia, The Balsam-tree grows in Arabia. grow several Balsam-trees, trees, Theophrastus, Dioscorides, Pliny, Justine, Strabo. though their proper Countrey is onely Arabia the Happy, as Theophrastus, Dioscorides, Pliny, Justine, Strabo, and other antient Writers, have asserted. The Balsam-trees are strangers in Egypt, onely preserv'd in those Gardens, never growing wilde, but brought from Mecha in Arabia beyond the Red-sea, by the Turkish Pilgrims visiting Mahomets Tomb there: They continue not long, but fade or wither by the alteration of the Soyl, or negligent looking after, in whose room others of the same, brought over the same way, are planted anew: These Trees, say those Pilgrims, grow in vast numbers close by Mecha and Me­dina, upon the Mountains and flat Grounds; as also in sandy and barren pla­ces, though indeed such as grow in barren Land produce little or no Balsam, but much Seed, which is sold into Europe, and the Inhabitants to make them the more fruitful, remove them into fatter Soyls.

That Arabia is the native Place, and proper Countrey of Balsam-trees, is not onely testified by the said Pilgrims, but many antient Writers, especially Jo­sephus, Josephus lib. 8. Hist. Jud. in his Eighth Book of the Jewish History, who says, That the Queen of Saba brought out of Arabia to Judea, a Balsam-tree, and presented it as a Gift to Solomon, whence afterwards others were produced. But Homer celebrates Egypt for a Countrey abounding with all sorts of Medicinal Plants and Herbs; among which, take this his wondrous Cordial:

Joves Daughter Hellen,
Hom. Od. 4 Lib.
then her self bethought,
Straight sending for a Cordial to compound,
Would Rage and Grief both in Oblivion drown'd;
Who ere drinks this commixt with Wine, though dead
He saw his Parents, not one Tear would shed
In a whole day; nor him his Brother more,
Or Son would trouble, weltring in their gore.
On her this Medicine to appease all woe,
Did Polydamna, Thonus Wife, bestow,
Rich Egypts Product: many Simples there
Make wondrous Compounds, some that deadly are;
The Natives great Physitians prove, and all
From
Apollo.
Paeon boast their high Original.
[...],
[...],
[...]
[...],
[...]
[...],
[...]
[...].
[...]
[...]
[...]
[...].
[...]
[...].

And not onely heretofore, but to this time, in those Parts such Trees propa­gate, and their Balsam in great quantities carried into many Eastern Coun­treys, [Page] [Page]

Sykomorus. Kal [...]t. Tamarind-boom. Balz [...]m-boom.

[Page] [Page 75]where by the report of the Arabians, it is in esteem and very dear; the profit whereof the Arabians finding so extraordinary, they all began with great earnestness to remove the young Trees from the sandy and mountainous Pla­ces, and transplant them in Gardens upon fat grounds, by which means there are a multitude of Balsam-gardens: It being also further provided by Autho­rity of the Law, that none but the Magistrates should sowe, or set this Plant; neither may any man without license pluck off the Balsam Blossoms, Bran­ches, or Fruit.

The Balsam-tree shoots very high with few Leaves, which as Dioscorides saith, The Form of a Balsam­tree. are of a green colour, whitish, and do not fall off in winter: The Wood is gummy, cleaving to the fingers, smelling well, and light, outwardly of a reddish colour; the Branches are long, straight, rough, and full of Leaves without order, and some like the Leaves of a Mastick-tree. The Blossoms are small, growing in form of a Coronet, five on every Stalk, of a pleasing Scent, though fading in a little time: After the Blossoms follow yellow sweet-scented Seeds, inclosed in a reddish-black bladder, wherein is a moisture like Honey; It is bitterish, and a little sharp upon the tongue, and of the same shape and bigness with the fruit of the Turpentine-tree, in the middle thick, and at the ends pointed.

Opo-balsamum in the summer drops from the slit of the insected Barks of these Trees; as soon as it cometh into the Air it becomes whitish, afterwards green, Opa-balsamum, what it is, then of a Gold Colour, lastly paler: The strained Balsam is at first clear, but becomes instantly thick and cloudy, and when old, groweth like Turpen­tine; when it first drops it is of so strong a smell, as causeth in many the Head-ache, and in some causes a sudden bleeding at the Nose; but this sharp and strong savour at length changes into a pleasant scent, which in old Balsam is so weak that you can hardly discover any smell at all.

Observe here, All Balsams comes not out of the Bark, or Rinde. That all the Balsam brought over from Cairo in Flaskets and Leathern-bottles, though it be very odoriferous, yet it is no pure Liquor or Gum issuing from the bark of the Tree, as aforesaid, but is drawn out of the Wood and green Branches by boyling, which yet is not all retained pure, but frequently adulterate with Cyprus Turpentine. They press another sort of Balsam out of the Seed, which is many times sold for right, though not so strong­scented and bitter in taste.

There is no Medicine in more esteem, Its use. or greater use with the Egyptians than this; for they apply it almost against all Diseases proceeding from Cold, Moi­sture, or Poison, curing with it all Wounds that are not deep, and accompa­nied with fractured Bones or cut Sinews, in a short time.

It heals also all venomous bitings of Serpents and Scorpions, A Universal or Catho­lick Medicine. either taken in­wardly, or spread upon the Wound; It is an extraordinary Preservative against the Plague, taking half a quarter of an Ounce inwardly. It drives away all inveterate Agues and Feavers that proceed from Putrifaction, cleanseth all un­concocted and cold Humors and inward Obstructions, if daily a quarter of an ounce be taken inwardly: Very operative in opening Oppilations and con­cocting indigested and superfluous Humors: It restores lost Sight, and Hear­ing, if it be dropt warm into either of the offended parts: It is a very power­ful Medicine against all Cramps derived from Cold and Moisture, against the Vertigo or diziness of the Head, the Falling-sickness, Lameness, Palsie, sha­king of the Limbs, Cough, stoppings of the Chest, Consumption of the Lungs, a weak Stomach, difficulty of Breathing, Fits of the Mother, stopping of the Courses, the Whites, stopping of the Urine and the Collick; the Stone [Page 76]in the Bladder and Reins it powerfully breaks and dissipates.

Those Women that will anoint themselves go first into a warm Stove, This Balsam a Fucus for women. and when with this throughly heated, they dab and spread this Unguent on her naked Breast and Face many times, continuing an hour or longer in the Stove, till the Skin hath drunk it in and is become dry: then she comes forth and doth her accustomed business, her Brest and Face remaining so befucus'd at least three days without washing or cleansing; the third day after she goeth into the same Stove again, and anoints her Face and Brests in the same maner many times over and thick; Thus sometimes, they anoint themselves ten times or oftner in a day, staying so long between each anointing till the Skin is become so dry, that the following Balsam may the better take place: This some of them con­tinue at least thirty days, in all which time they never wash or wipe the Skin, as we said, then at length they wash it after being anointed with Oyl of Bitter-Almonds mixt with Water extracted from Field-bean-flowers, and so cleanse themselves many days successively.

The Seeds and green Branches also are used against all Distempers that the Balsam it self is: The same Vertue is ascribed to the Wood, but the Bal­sam works most strongly, term'd by the Greeks Opo-Balsamum; The Seeds or Carpo-Balsamum, more gently; and the Wood or Xylobalsamum, the weakest of all. The Arabians also use Balsam, both the Fruit and Branches in many Medi­cines, and against many Diseases.

¶ NEar El Mattharaea, An Obelisk or Pyramid, near Mattarea. where the ruines of Heliopolis are yet to be seen, stands in a great Lake a streight Obelisk or Pyramid, with several Hierogli­phicks upon all its sides; to which none can come on foot, but when the Water that from the overflowing of the River Nile falleth into this Lake, is dryed up by the heat of the Sun.

Who was the Erector of this Pyramid is a difficult task to finde out, Who erected them. though we may guess it to be one of the eight built, according to the relation of Pliny, in Heliopolis: Pliny.Afterwards (says he) other Kings erected Obelisks or Pyramids, in the City of the Sun, viz. So this four, each eight and forty Cubits high: and Rameses, un­der whose Government Troy was subdu'd, four also, each forty Cubits high. This Te­stimony of Pliny plainly evidences that this Obelisk is one of the four of the height of eight and forty Cubits.

On each side are one and the same Characters which have a peculiar and mystical Exposition; they are carv'd but coursely and with a rough hand, which makes some suppose they were not erected by Sothis, because all his were more curiously Adorn'd: Artefius an Arabian Writer mentions two yet stan­ding in Heliopolis, engraven with the Celestial Scheme.

Two hundred and fifty paces from El Mattarea, Ruines of Heliopolis the Ruines of Heliopolis are to be seen: It is call'd The City of the Sun, from a Mirror or Looking-glass, which here in the Temple was consecrated to the Sun, and set with such Art, that all day long it reflected the Sun-beams direct, so as they enlightened the whole Church: Of the aforesaid Pyramid in this City, Titus Livius. Titus Livius hath written; And the King of Poland's Architect, or Surveyor of his Buildings, who saw the Pyramids, and took their Sketches, after drawing them very exactly, gives this account thereof to Athanasius Kircher: Two miles from Mattaraea, a Place famous for the Balsam-tree, the Marks and Ruines of a very great City may be seen, on the Market-place whereof stands a Pyramid with Hieroglyphicks, the Arabians call it Ain Schemps, that is, the Suns Eye. It lyes Eastward of Nile, as they say antiently Heliopolis did. This agrees [Page] [Page]

[pyramids]

[Page]

The inside of the first and fairest Pyramid.

[Page]

EGIPTISCHE PIR-AMIDEN

[Page] [Page 77]with Abulfeda an Arabian Geographer, whose words are to this effect: Ain Schemps or Heliopolis, known by the name of The Eye of the Sun, is in The time he wrote in, which he calls ours, was a­bout the year 724. which was the onely time Africa made great expeditions, and over-ran Spain and several parts of Europe.our times waste and void of Inhabitants; they say it was the City and Court of Pharaoh, wherein are yet many Excellent and Memorable Antiquities; amongst other, a foursquare Column call'd Pharaoh's Monument thirty Cubits long.

About four miles from Grand Caire within Land, The Pyramids. are those famous Stru­ctures of Stone, the Pyramids built four-square of great Marble Stones, broad below, very high, in manner of a pointed Diamond, becoming smaller and smaller, till it runs almost to a point at the top. There is no curiosity of work­manship in them, aiming onely at firmness, not so much to make them plea­sant to the eye, as to preserve them from decay, and that they might endure even to a perpetuity, wherein they have answered expectation, these Structures, having outstood Ages already, and without doubt may yet continue many Ages more, for such is the firmness of the Materials, and the Stony ground, upon which they stand together with their Spiring, that they are preserved not onely from all injury of weather, but made free from Earthquakes.

The three first and greatest very handsomly described by Prince Radzovil, and Peter Belloon, are seen in the way to Cairo, together with many other, standing about twelve thousand paces from Nilus, on the West side in the mid­dle of a barren and sandy Plain. Mr. Greaves from Pliny says, these three are very conspicuous to those that Sail upon the Nile; they are seated on Africa side upon a rocky and barren Hill, from the Nile less than four, from Memphis six Miles.

¶ THe first and greatest Pyramid, according to Belloon, hath on every side at the ground from one corner to the other, three hundred and fifty paces: If we imagine the square sides of the Basis, four equilateral Triangles mutually propending, till they all meet on high, as it were in a point; then we shall have a true notion of the just Dimensions and Figure of this Pyramid; the Perimeter of each Triangle comprehending 2079 feet, and the Perimeter of the Basis 2772. whereby the whole Area of the Basis (to proportion it to our mea­sures contains 480249. square feet, which make 693. by the English Standard; eleven English Acres of ground, according to the Measure taken by Mr. Mr. Greave's Pyramido­graphia, 68.70. Greave's with a Radius of ten feet, most accurately divided: In the Circumference twelve hundred paces; in height six hundred foot. The altitude of this Pyra­mid is something defective of the Latitude, though in Strabo's computation lib. 17. it exceeds; but Diodorus lib. 1. rightly acknowledges it less: which if we measure by its perpendicular, is 499. feet; but if we take it as the Pyra­mid ascends inclining, then is it equal in respect of the Lines, subtending the several Angles to the Latitude of the Basis, that is to 693. feet, with reference to which great altitude, Statius, l. 5. Sylv. 3. calls them

audacia saxa
Pyramidum

From the Basis up to the top, two hundred and fifty steps, according to Bellonius. lib. 2. Observ. c. 4. others more, some less: But that which by expe­rience and diligent calculation, Mr. Greave's, 61.77. I, and two others found, is this, that the number of degrees from the bottom to the top, is 207. though one of them in descending reckon'd 208. each Step being somewhat more indeed than two handfuls broad, and little less than four hands high: though the Steps cannot well be told, because they are so broken in several places. All [Page 78]the Stones of this stupendious Fabrick are of one bigness, viz. three foot long, and two foot broad and thick. The North side is much more worn out by Time, than the rest, because the North-wind, which in other places is dry, is moist in Egypt, by reason of the Night-dews, insomuch that it is hollowed or eaten in, whereas the other parts to the East, South, and West, are plain: The Spire or Top, which seems to end in a point, is plain and square, each side containing two and twenty foot, so that fifty men may stand upon it with ease: Pliny indeed makes it twenty five; Plin. l. 36. c. 1 [...]. but Diodorus Siculus, Lib. 1. makes it but nine feet; by Greaves ibid. 72. my measure it is thirteen feet, and 280. of 1000. parts of the English foot: The sides toward the Base, spread so far out, that the Bellonius. Obser. lib. 2. cap. 42. and divers others. ablest and strongest Bowman standing on the top, cannot shoot an Arrow into the Sand beyond the foot of it, as hath been often tryed. From hence is a most excellent and delightful prospect of the Sea and whole Countrey, far and wide, yielding great satisfaction to the beholders.

In the mid'st of it is an Arch'd Entrance, The form of it within. consisting of eight great thick Stones cut with singular curiosity, and close cemented together to the admira­tion of all beholders; From this Entrance proceeds a foursquare Passage like a Well to the mid'st of the Pyramid, where the Corps for which it was erected, was put: A steep way. This way goes down sloping so steep, that it is scarce passable, which the Egyptian Kings did to preserve their Burying-places from violence, and that the Dead might remain undisturb'd: The Door where these bodies lay, was very neatly clos'd up with great Stone like the rest, in such manner that none could see or finde it without breaking up the Pyramid.

This way is not to be passed without Torch-light, there being no Windows or Loop-holes to let in the light, descending almost two hundred paces, cut out between four even ranges of Stones, each five and twenty or thirty hand­fuls broad, whereof one row makes the Vault; the other the floor, and the two remaining, the sides of the Walk.

At the end of this way, A Chamber at the end of it. which is so low, that whoever goes in, must stoop, is a small Chamber, wherein the weary Visitors commonly rest and ease them­selves; for the continual stooping and difficulty of breathing in this close place, causeth no small faintness: Nor is there any fresh Air, other than what they find there; nor light, than that of the Torches they carry; so that the narrowness and the heat, which is no less there than in a Stove, causes a faint sweat on all that enter.

Out of this Chamber runs up another way, Another steep way. by a very steep ascent, wherein is a Vault, after the manner of Italian-Vaulted Stairs, arch'd over. 'Tis square, and made of great and smooth Stones, the upper sticking out a little beyond the lower, till by degrees they almost meet, leaving only a small pas­sage: This way they climb up by Stones, that stick out in several places, upon which laying their Hands, and setting their Feet in gaps made on purpose, each distant six hands bredth from the other, the Visitants with incredible la­bor and pains creep up.

At the end of this steep way is another Chamber with a lofty Roof, Another Chamber with a Burying-place. Piramidographia Mr. Greaves, pag. 94. and a Burying-place therein, standing across the mid'st: This Room according to Mr. Greaves, is seventeen feet and 190 parts of 1000 of a foot. somewhat more broad; and thirty four feet and 380 of 1000 parts of a foot. three inches long, cover'd with seven very great and large Marble Stones, which with the corners and sides, lying one against another, make a flat Roof: The Grave lyeth open without any Tomb-stone, as if it had been broken up, or rather never had been cover'd, because the Inhabitants say, [Page 79]the Kings who built this Pyramid, were not Inter'd there: There is in that Chamber, a very great Tomb, cut out of one entire Marble Stone, hollow within; such Beloon calls Theban Stones, so hard and firm, that they cannot be broken by any force; but being struck upon with a Hammer or another Stone, it sounds as loud as a great Bell; Some that have seen these Stones, say they are hollow within, four fingers thick, twelve hand-bredths long, five broad, and five and a half deep.

The second Pyramid is much less, having no steps on the outside, The second Pyramid. so that men cannot climb upon it. At a distance these lesser Pyramids, standing on the advantage of an higher ground, seem greater; but the contrary is experienced as you approach nearer: This, as the first, is square with a pointed Spire so sharp, that one man cannot stand upon it: The North side hath suffer'd much by the unkindness of the weather.

The third is much less than the two first, The third Pyramid. upon which appear no signs of decay: It is a third part bigger than that standing upon the Hill Testaceo at Rome, by the way from Ostia: The whole Structure stands yet so handsome and undefaced, and free from cracks or flaws, as if it were new made.

Not far from the greatest Pyramid appears a Head of a wonderful form and greatness: Antient and Modern Writers call'd it Sphynx; Herodotus, The Sphynx.Andro-Sphynx; because it had the Face of a Man, and the Body of a Lyon, as Anti­quity us'd to set forth this Monster: Many have endevour'd to undermine this Statue, but without success; because the Sand round about rising, the Sphynx is sunk into it, almost up to the Shoulders: It is of one entire firm Stone, and the form of the Face, Nose, Eyes, Mouth, Forehead, Chin and other parts so well done, Plin. lib. 35. c. 12. that it may be conceived to be wrought with great Art and Skill. Pliny writes of it thus: Near the Pyramids stands a Sphynx, heretofore a rural Deity to the Inhabitants, who suppose King Amasis was Buried therein. Which happily might occasion and give authority to the forming its Body into the shape of a Lyon; because as Gesner relates, Gesner. the said King Amasis was transform'd into a Lyon; Of which Transformation of his, Aesopic. Androcleus. Sect. 10. hear himself speaking thus:

Then first I call'd to minde, what her so scar'd
My dreadful Shape, rough Main, and horrid Beard.
So went I to slip off my Lyons case,
Began t' untye, unbutton, and unlace:
Striving to shift, the more my self I hurt;
The Shape stuck close, like Deianira's Shirt;
I found then, I no property was in,
No Monsters Fur, but my own Monstrous Skin.
My self I did next in the Mirror view,
And from my own reflecting shadow flew;
Though I had seen all sorts of Lyons store,
Ne're such a Prodigy I saw before:
I call'd for help, my Voice grown strangely loud,
Like Thunder rung, broke from a Prisoning Cloud;
Like Mouthing Tempests, or a Water-breach,
Or Battels joyn'd, ten thousand men in each.

This Sphynx, the supposed Sepulchre of King Amasis, is of one entire natural Stone, smooth and polish'd, the Head taking up in Circumference a hundred and two foot; the length of the Body an hundred and three and forty, and in depth from the Neck to the Crown, sixty and two.

Writers concerning this Structure, feign wonderful things; as first, that it gave Responses to Inquirers like an Oracle; though many say, the Priests feigned and delivered them in manner following: They made a way under the Earth to the Belly and Head of it, by which going into the Image, they spake at set­times out of the Head, whatsoever they would, giving answer to such as came to ask Councel in difficult matters: The inward hollowness or cavities were [Page 80]made with such subtilty, that the Voice therein finding no other passage than the large gaping of the Mouth, first rumbling, at last with great force burst forth, whereby the credulous Heathens, who stood before it silent and amazed, took it for no less than the voice of a Deity, and by that extraordinarily led on to the adoration of it.

Sphynx was represented in a two-fold manner by the Egyptians, Sphyux tepresented in a two-fold manner. to wit, either in the shape of a Couchant Lyon upon a Throne, or in the form above-men­tioned: By the first was signifyed Momphta an Egyptian Deity, ruling over the Waters, and the Tutelar Guardian for the over-flowing of Nile: And by the second, the increasing of Nile it self; they made these shapes, not that they did believe such manner of living Creatures were ever in being; but to signifie how much harder than we can express are the several Dictates of the minde: Sphynx then so formed, What it s [...]gnifyeth. signifies Nilus watering and fertilizing Egypt, while the Sun passed through Leo and Virgo; which the Egyptians, being very Learned and naturally addicted to Hieroglyphicks, observing, were easily induced under that biformed shape, which they call'd Sphynx, to represent their meaning, and in course of time they became adored Idols, signifying Nilus.

There were according to Pliny, Many in Egypt. many of these Sphynxes in Egypt, standing in the most famous places; those especially, which were watered by the River, as in Heliopolis and Sais, and the Wilderness of Memphis or Cairo, where that by us described the greatest of all remains yet to be seen. Aben Vaschia an Arabian speaking of these Sphynxes, says thus: For the signification of the fruitful nature of Ni­lus, they set that Structure representing a Lyon, because that overflowing, that fructifies their whole Countrey, they receive from the bounty of the Constellation, the Lyon every year: And from them it is also by a pretty mistake, looking at them onely as Orna­ments introduced here in Europe, to make or adorn the Pipes, Spouts, Conduits, and Pumps, with Lyons heads.

The Sphynxes were set by the Antients before their Temple Gates, to signifie their teaching Divine matters consisted in Wisdom, which lay hid under Aenig­maes, or Mysterious Parables.

Distant from these Pyramids about a thousand paces, Pyramids call'd Mummies. lye others call'd Mummies, because scituate in a Sandy Countrey where the Mummies are found; the greatest of all lying in this place, Spires high into the Air, and much more beautiful than any of the rest there, though almost of the same form; the outer part by length of time is much defaced, so that the steps thereof being broken, it is almost impossible to climb up to the top.

The Entrance of this Pyramid lyes open from the upper part downward, but the way within is so ruinous and choak'd up with Stones, that it is scarce passable without creeping, which to the Visitors, because of the falling down of other loose Stones, often proves dangerous.

Below there appears a very spacious and high Chamber, appointed as they say, for a Burying-place, in which is a little Door opening into another as large Chamber, built after the same manner: Neither of these have any In­ter'd Corps, either perhaps because none were there Buried, or else the Burying-places are totally defaced: Out of these two Chambers, wherein a decayed Gate lyeth, goes a rising way, not to be ascended without a Ladder, and here­in, the people say, is a Burying-place.

Of several that travelled into Egypt to see the Pyramids, and have described them, Prince Radzovil merits the chief place, having written thereof in his Book of Travels, exactly to this effect.

An hour before break of day we went out of our Lodgings, Prince Radzovil. and walking continually along by Gardens, we came into the Old Cairo. City, distant from the New half a mile, two hours after Sun-rising we cross'd the Nile, where having gone about two Furlongs, we came to the Pyramids; whereof, because much hath been written by others, I will in brief set down what I my self have seen.

Most Writers affirm, that the City Memphis mentioned in Holy Scripture, Memphis here thought to be scituate. was formerly seated in this place, whereof all the remaining Tokens are but some ruinous Heaps to the south, cover'd over with dry & barren Sand: there may be seen still undefaced Pyramids, whereof two greater, and a third less, erected, as they say, by that famous Lady of Pleasure Rhodope, which is singu­larly fair, but not above sixty or seventy cubits high; these three are very hand­som and undecayed, accounted among the Worlds Wonders, even by the Ro­mans, as Martial the Epigrammatist observes:

Barbara Pyramidum sileant miracula Memphis.
Thy wondrous Pyramids Memphis boast
no more.

The two least are of an incredible bigness, yet exceeded by the third, which is said to have in height, breadth, and length, three hundred Cubits; It hath within artificial and broad Steps, by which you may, as also by Steps without, climb to the top; There are likewise places fit for Visitants to retire and ease themselves in, two whereof more large were the Burying-places of the Kings; in the lower of which there stands yet extant a very great Sepulchre.

Also by what Kings, how great Cost, in what way, or by what strange Art, and whether by the Israelites during their bondage in Egypt, (which is the opi­nion of With how little reason it may be imagined, that the Israelites should build these Pyramids, may appear, in that they are built of stone, whereas their employment was all in Brick-work. some Writers) these Structures were erected, or by others who dig'd the Trenches & Passages wherein Nilus runs (for it appears that all these works were not by Nature, but made by Art) I leave to Historiographers to deter­mine: We may rather wonder why they were erected upon a rising Rock consisting of one sort of Natural Stones, whereas they, for as much as is dis­cernable, are inade up of many kindes: Neither is it easie to apprehend, or conceive from whence, or by what means so great a quantity of im­mense Stones, each more than a Cubit and a half, and two Cubits broad, could be convey'd thither, Nilus lying distant little less than four miles: The first and greatest Py­ramid. The greatest of them is built of quadrangular stones, rising Instar Montis, like a Mountain, by singular Art: and although it appear in a square form all along to the very top, yet these four-square stones are set in so uniform an order, that the whole Structure seems to represent the form of a Picked Hill: The going up, by rea­son of the thickness and bigness of the stones, is difficult and toylsom, yet feisi­ble; for though I my self used a competent endeavor, I could not in an hour and half ascend to the top, which is flat, and ten Cubits on each side.

The second Pyramid is a little less than the first, The second Pyramid. and about two Bowes shot from it, without any entrance into it: On the out-side you may climb half way up, the stones being so fitted on purpose, as in the former, but a little leveller and smaller: Near the middle way they lye so even, that it is impossible to climb any higher; and this smoothness which seems to be done on purpose, reaches to the height of several cubits, which if it could be passed, from thence to the top, being one third part of the Pyramid, the stones lying carelesly and uneven, you might as well be able to climb up to the top of it, as of the afore­mention'd Pyramid.

The third lying next Cairo, was erected, as we said, by Rhodope, The third Fyramid. made wholly of sloping stones, so that there is no climbing up: Three Bowes shot from it on the one side toward the City standeth a Head, suppos'd of that Concubine, [Page 82]with a long Neck and large Arms, seven Cubits high, and cut out of one entire Stone. Some imagine that out of the first great Pyramid which we entred, by a hollow Passage under ground through a firm Quar, which we saw arch'd over with stone, a small and secret Entrance came into this Head, and from thence (so is the common fame) by the mouth of that Head Oracles delivered.

In the Pyramids were Tutelar or Guardian Images, Guardian Idols call'd Se­rapes. by the Egyptians call'd Serapes, and by them placed there for the protection of the Corps, and to carry the Souls to their Heavenly mansions: They were graven from the bot­tom to the top with various Hieroglyphicks; Among others were found two such Images of a Man and a Woman, both adorn'd with Caps and Ear-lappets, made of black Thebane Stones, thick above, and small beneath: They stood upon a broad Pedestal in the Countrey of Sahid, not far from the Red Sea in a Pyramid, wherein Age on one side had made an In-let, through which some Turks climbing had taken them out, each of which weighed almost Eight hundred Pounds: The Turks opinion'd that formerly the Kings of this Coun­trey worship'd these Images, and had commanded the like to their Subjects, who after their death here buried their Princes together with their Idols: They were both heretofore graven with Egyptian Letters, which according to the Exposition of those who understand that kinde of Learning, signifie several Deities (of which the highest call'd Jynx) stands clothed in the uppermost place) whose sole power preserves the Bodies from all Accidents, and brings them to their, they suppose, Celestial Abodes.

Amongst the most notable Remarks in and about Cairo, Famous Sepulchres under ground. or within four miles, the Marble Sepulchres under ground, by which the City Memphis, and many places round about it stood, and yet stand upon Arches and Vaults, breeds most admiration, far exceeding in greatness and curiosity the Monu­ments of the Romans.

The Learned Egyptians of old, Egyptians held the Pytha­ger [...]au Metempsychosis. which held the Pythagorean Metempsychosis, or Transmigration of the Soul from one Body to another, took care not only for their dead Corps, with great Preparation of several Spices to preserve them from corruption, but endeavor'd also by laying it in a convenient place to keep it quiet; therefore with wondrous pains and curiosity they neither disposed them in places over which the Nile flowed, nor in the open Fields, but either in long-continuing Pyramids, or Stone Caves under ground, which with great labor were cut out of entire Rocks: These Caves serv'd in stead of Church­yards, parted into several Vaults, or arched Apartments, like great Dining-Rooms, with so many turnings out of one into another, that they seem to be a perfect Labyrinth.

There were, as the Egyptians themselves report, so many of these, that they extended many Miles off, even as far as the Oracles of Ammon and Serapis; this was no small advantage to the Priests, Conveniency of the Priests in the Subterranean Vaults. for that they could by these avenues without hindrance from the heat of the Sun, or stiffling of the Sands, meet and converse together: From hence it would seem that the whole Sandy Desart should be hollow, or vaulted underneath, which none ought to think strange, if he observe the many other stupendious Works of this Countrey, and shall mark considerately what is written by Antiquity of the vast Extent, and ex­ceeding Populousness of Memphis. Moreover, some Arabian Writers in their Books stick not to aver, that Memphis and Heliopolis by hidden Passages under ground, were united together, being divers miles distant.

Most of the Inhabitants of the Village Saccara, lying nearest to these under­ground [Page 83]

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Sepulchres, maintain themselves by breaking them up, and digging out the Mummied Bodies; for since from ploughing the Land by reason of its barren­ness they can scarce feed themselves, How they finde out the Subterranean Sepulchres. therefore they hire such as are willing with Money, either to search Caves under ground within their Jurisdiction found already, or cause to be sought and digged up new, and not yet discover'd ones, in the dry and barren Sands, where, as is supposed, are many never yet found, so covered some depth under the Sands, that no stranger, no nor the inhabitants themselves, can know whether any such things lye underneath, or not: When they are discover'd, the trouble is not all over, the greater difficulties follow; for the Searchers do first make a small Well about two foot broad, and sixteen or eighteen foot deep, into which with a Rope, a servant from above is let easily down, with a Torch in his hand; true it is, in some few of them they climb up and down without Ropes, by setting their feet in certain gaps of the Wall: At the bottom of this Well they come to a four-square Passage of the same wide­ness with the Well-mouth, but of several lengths, for in some places it is ten, in some fifteen, in some less, in some more feet long, but so low that they stoop to go in it.

At the end of this they come to a four-square Vaulted Repository, A Description of the E­gyptian Vaults for Burial. four and twenty foot long on either side, and at the end of each stand Tables, cut out of the same Rock, about five foot long, two and a half broad, and one foot high, opposite to each other, whereupon they set their Dead in Chests or Coffins of Wood or Stone: In some Caves in the Wall above the Chests or Coffins of the Dead, are certain Hieroglyphick Characters; and there stand, besides the men­tioned Eminent Coffins, more and other flat ones upon the Floor round about those, which seem to be Childrens; Oftentimes there lye five and twenty such Caves near one another, as in the PRINT above, wherein these Caves are re­presented to the life; All of them come out at one Passage or Descent, and be­cause there is no light, nor any other Entrance than the first, within it is utterly dark, so that without Torches and a Leader, it is dangerous to venture into them.

The Ground-plat of this FOREGOING PRINT, is the fashion of the Cave, together with the Tables, whereon the Bodies shut in the Coffins are set, which here are to the number of nine, all of equal bigness; one of which is marked with the letter D. Each Cave hath on the four sides of it Marble Ta­bles so big that the Coffin may conveniently stand thereon; these Tables, to­gether with the four Walls of every Cave, stand in the Draught or Platform, with the numbers 1.2.3.4. as the letter X sheweth the Ground, or Floor of the Walls: All this appears cleerer in the Draught where S and T are two Vaulted Caves: Between the four Walls of the Vaulted Cave S, four Tables are to be seen, on which are four Chests, as A. O. P. K. denotes every of which has inclos'd Mummies. Commonly there are at the Head, Images set representing Children in Swadling-Clothes, with Figures of the Tutelar Gods, and at the Foot sits a Hawk; for they believe that the Body by their pre­sence shall be freed from all violence. The second Cave T contains the like number of Tables, marked with the letters LMNB. whereupon the Em­balmed Corps, with their Tutelar Gods by them are set: The letters Q and R shew the Ground or Floor of the other two Caves, and the letters G and H the place of the Tables. The letter G. denotes the Entrance into several other Caves, the number of which is so great, that they reach several miles, as they say: On each Wall of some Caves are seen Hieroglyphical Figures of the Guardian-Gods, which appear directly over against them, as the letters E F, and Y Z shew.

Now wherefore these Hieroglyphicks are Graven over against them, and not at the end, is by a hidden Mystery signified, that the inclination and kind­ness of those Gods was the same which themselves had to the Corps: for the Egyptians believ'd that such kind of Figures had a great power and operation in them, and therefore they are set by them as Guardians to the Body: Thus we have given a Description of the Stone Caves under-ground, wherein the Egyp­tians Buried their Embalmed Bodies, now call'd Mummies.

As to the Mummies themselves, Mummies, what they are, and the manner of their Hieroglyphical Signatures. two things are to be considered, first the Chests or Coffins, wherein the Bodies are lay'd, and afterwards the Body it self, onely call'd Mummy. The Body or Mummy it self, void of all Hieroglyphicks, is Embalmed with Spices and Bitumen: But the Chests or Coffins wherein the Mummies lye, and the Winding-sheets wherein they are wrapt up, be richly gilt, streaked with several Colours, and curiously depicted with Hiero­glyphicks.

Every Corps lyes in a smooth or costly Chest or Coffin according to the state and ability of the person, when living, made either of Stone or Syco­more wood, which is not subject to Worm-eating. This Coffin is gilt all over, and always hath carved on it either the likeness of some Deity, to whose Pro­tection it was committed, or the shape of those who lay Buried therein; the Hieroglyphick Figures expressed thereon were several, and sometimes these: that is, the Image of the Deity or Person as we said before: The Figures of an Altar, an Owl, a Semi-circle, a Paper-Pedegree of the Family with an In­scription, a Pitcher with one Ear, a Water-pot, two Pillars divided into four halfs, a Snare, a Balsam-Vessel or Urn, a Goose, an Egyptian Ship, a Branch of the Plant Papyrus, with several other Characters, which have all some peculiar signification, aiming at the preservation of the Body.

The Chest or Coffin wherein the Female lay, represented the shape of a Wo­man, and had upon the Head a Cap with Ear-lappets hanging to it, and very [Page]

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[Page] [Page 85]curiously wrought with Seams and Edgings, as it were Embroidery: On the Breast were several Edges and Seams in Trayle or Net-work, between which stood the Image of a Woman with out-stretched Arms, a Wreath or Chaplet on the Head, one long Feather in each hand, and a three-folded or doubled wing of a Fowl: The Body of the Image was so cut or hewen, that all along from the upper part to the lower, it was smaller and smaller, cover'd with se­veral Veils like a Net, very artificially and curiously expressed: In the three upper Network rows, stood the Images of the tutelar Gods to avert evil, on each side three with Cords in their hands, A. Kir [...]her. without which no adorning of Mummies are prepared; under these Hieroglyphicks, lye hid deep Mysteries, says Father Kircher, who, as he avers, had such a one to shew: His words are to this effect.

The whole Image represents the Goddess Isis, together with the tutelar Gods: The seven trailing Streams upon the Breast, signifie the seven Planets: By the Bodies cover'd with a Cloak or Garment like a Net, is imported that Na­ture by hidden and hazardous adventures, makes Life a Snare, and full of en­tangling puzzle and continual struggle: The Image of a Woman with out­stretched Arms signifyeth the Egyptian * Jynx: Jynx is the eternal Di­vine Image according to which all was Created by God; say they. The long Feathers in both Hands, import the swiftness or suddenness of their Operations; the Wreath or Chaplet upon its Head, shews that it is the greatest of all Deities; to the tuition of the six Lares or Tutelar Gods, viz. Horus, Anubis, Nephte, Cynocepha­lus, Osyris and Arveris, is the Body committed. The Cords in their Hands import that they stop and binde up the powers of contention and strife. Horus upon the mentioned Chest or Coffin, was in the shape of a Child; Anubis, of a Dog; Nephte (which with the Egyptians is Venus, with the Hebrews Astaroth) of a Woman upon her knees; Cynocephalus of an Ape; and Osyris of a Hawk: These in the opinion of the Egyptians carry all Souls to the Heavenly abodes, and therefore not without reason represented on most of the Mummies.

Within the Coffins also in the Winding-sheets or Wrappers, Images within the Coffins. are Earthen Images, some as big as a Finger; others as a Foot; put there to defend the Bodies against evil Spirits, in several shapes of Men and Women, and other Creatures: On their Head they have commonly a Cap with Ear-lappets, on the Breast many fine Winding-Clothes: they hold the Hands across, with a Hawk in the left; they are all cloathed almost in one fashion, as the Mummies themselves; that is, bound up in Swadling-clothes after the manner of an Infant.

Round about them both before and behind, above and beneath the same Characters are written, which are also upon the Grave-clothes of the Mummies, and are to this purpose: The Spirit of this Body, Blessed by the Life of the favourable and gratious Deity, shall by the Worship of the Tribe or Family of Horus the Governor of Years or Time, fly to Heaven.

In these Coffins lye the Mummies Embalmed with Spices and Bitumen, How the Coverings of the Dead are adornd. stretched out at length, and bound up with several Wrappers of fine Linnen or Silk, with in-imitable Art, and great care and circumspection. These Wrappers are spread over with a mixture of Wax, Pitch, and a Chalky Salve, partly to preserve the Bodies from corruption, and partly that they may the easier and firmlyer write thereon the Hieroglyphicks: Upon these Clothes commonly is pourtray'd; first the Pictures of those wound up therein with colours that will never fade or decay, holding in their Hands things sacred to the Service and Worship of the Gods, together with the Fruits usually offer'd up to them: [Page 86]Upon the uppermost Covering, are Ribbons and Fillets, seeming to be set with small round Glass Beads of many colours, with Girdles powder'd over with a Stuff resembling precious Stones, stitch'd on with a Needle: Between the fore-mentioned Ribbons, are Hieroglyphicks of Celestial and Terrestrial Creatures, viz. In one place the Figure of the Sun and Moon; in another of the Bird Ibis, with Serpents in his Bill: There are also Lyons, whereby the fruitful Nile is expressed, and other more such like; lastly, appears the Mummy it self, the Feet wrap'd like an Infants in Swadling-clothes.

The Bodies of Kings and other Great Persons were sometimes lay'd in Pots or Urns, Urns for the Dead wherein Kings were lay'd. whereon was the Image of Canopus their God of Nile; over which, that of a Hawk, whereby they imported the Deity of the Sun, to whose Pro­tection the Corps therein was committed; then were characterized thereupon several lesser Figures in Columns; as, a Goose, a Serpent, a Scepter, a Water-Tankerd and two Forks, a Hawks head, two long Feathers with a Water-pot under, two Oyled Pictures, a Semi-circle, the Bird Ibis, a Crooked Billet, another Image of Ibis pourtray'd in a Garden: The Exposition of the Figures. Every of these Figures have a peculiar Explanation, all together amounting to this sence or purpose: O Cheno­syris the Guardian make the Dead happy, by a Heavenly influence with a Divine dew of the Spirit: The Wisdom of the Sun quicken it with his own Heavenly dew; Hermanubis bring it with his Ruling influence, into the Garden of Osyris.

In another rank sometimes stands aloft upon a Serpent with a half circle, and an out-stretched Arm, an Image revers'd, and looking backwards toward an Altar; a Wreathed Cord with three Blossoms of the Plant Lotus, a hooded Fowl upon two Scepters, one Scepter, two Semi-circles, an Eye, a Fowl with extended Wings, a crooked stump with a Mans Foot; of which, Father Kircher gives this Explanation: The Tutelar God moved by Offerings and due and acceptable Solemnities, grant life to this Corps, and bring this Body into the Heavenly Constellations; Whence it appears, that the Hieroglyphicks were set upon these Urns, for no other ends, but that the Deity moved and drawn thereby, should first protect the Body against all Infirmities, and afterwards bring it to the Heavenly habi­tations with all good success and satisfaction.

Some Coffins or Urns are inscribed with Dogs-heads; Rolls of Paper found in the Mummies. Others have repre­sentations of the Anatomies or Dissections of Bodies to be Embalmed, with the Balsam pots about them. In these Chests sometimes are found Labels of Paper rowled up one in another, written with abundance of these Characters: for this Sacred Learning in the opinion of the Egyptians, did not onely signifie hidden things, but had also a great power and vertue in them to procure the Protection of the Gods, to whomsoever they were thus affixed: In these Rolls the chiefest Portraitures of the Gods, which are also sculp'd upon the Pyra­mids, and in the very same order as they use to be carryed about in Solemn Festivals, call'd Comasien, after the manner of Procession; for they placed a great Mysterie in the graceful and sumptuous order of the Gods marching decently one after another: For this very cause were these Images set by the Corps to protect them from all adverse and evil Spirits, and to lead the Souls to Blisse. These Rollers therefore describe onely the Funeral Pomp or Solemnity of Bu­rials, The Funeral Pomp of the Egyptians. which they carry forth most sumptuously, those especially of Kings, Priests, and other persons of great Quality, bearing several Images of most of the Gods upon Sacred Supporters, thereby to procure their grace and favour to the deceased Party.

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The Portraiture of two such Funeral Solemnities, What Figures stood up­on it. according to the Draughts found in the Mummies are to be seen in Kircher's Book of the Mummies, where you may find according to this Method.

Isis of Memphis with Strings, and a Scarf upon her head, and out-stretched Arms and Hands, signifying the Spirit of the Deceased. The Goddess Nemphte and the God Anubis with Arrows and Darts in their Hands: Two other Ima­ges of Anubis and Nephte upon their knees, adorn'd also with Darts and Sycles: The two first which go upright, seem to be Priests of Anubis and Nephte, whose Images they follow'd to reconcile those Gods: A Serpent with his Breast and Head raised up: An Image with a mans Face, but the Body of a Serpent, re­presenting the Spirit of the World: A Tripos or Trevet, joyn'd by three Angles: Two Dogs sitting as Warders of their Sacred Dominions: Two bundles of offensive Weapons with a Caduceus and Ball therein, out of which creeps a Ser­pent: A Bar between Perches, whereupon stood two Falcons, covered with a consecrated Cloth: A Biere with the Funeral Bed of Memphti the Tutelar God of Nilus, and Anubis under it: The Veil of Horus: The Scepter of Monphti: Water-pots, and an Egyptian Bani or Ship with other Images belonging to the adornment of their several Mummies: At length the Corps or the Mummy Em­balmed and wound up with many folds, and dress'd with various remarka­ble Characters. After that a humane Figure, with erected Arms, and a Tail pendant, which they use to carry about at Anniversary Obsequies or Annual Celebrations of Funerals: Several other Images also headed like a Hawk, and Bodied like a Serpent, at last seven Oxen with a covering cast over their Backs, signifying the seven days and a Which we may suppose to be six hours. quarter, that concern the Birth of the Goddess Isis: during which time, none according to the received opinion are hurt by the Crocodiles, and that there is a cessation of punishment from any of their offended Deities. After all this followed several other Images.

This is the representation of an Egyptian Funeral Solemnity, (for in such Or­der they march) which as a hidden matter full of Mysteries, the Egyptians de­scribe upon the mentioned Rolls of Paper, firmly believing that the Corps [Page 88]will thereby remain freed from the vengeance of those Deities.

Some with much mistake, have judg'd that the life and praise of the Decea­sed is Hieroglyphically described hereby, but the former Descriptions have sufficiently declared the contrary.

The antient Romans have wholly and altogether followed the Egpptians in their Funeral Solemnities, Gutherus. as Gutherus in his Book of The Jurisdiction of Spirits, sets forth: in like manner also have all the usual Ceremonies which the old Romans observ'd toward their Corps, had their original from them.

Many Mummies have under their Tongue a small Plate of Gold of the value of two Duckats; Gold Plates in the Mummies. for covetousness of which, the Arabians and others which dwell in Egypt, break up most of the Mummies which they finde undefaced.

Among several which have treated of the Mummies, Athanasius Kircher in his Book of the Egyptian Hieroglyphicks; Johannes Nardius in his Exposition of Lucretius; and Peter de la Valla, deserve singular esteem: The two first for the exact descri­ption of the Mummies, and the last for not onely describing, but also for his di­ligent searching of them, among which he found two most remarkable; one of a Man, and the other a Woman, which he exactly describes in this manner.

Upon a piece of a great gilded Winding-sheet that lay flat upon the Mummy, The Description of the Mummy of a young Man. was the shape of a young Man in a long Veil of fine Linnen, as the antient Egyptians used to be cloth'd, artificially represented, and all over from head to foot delineated with Hieroglyphicks: The Head was cover'd with a Wreath of Gold and Pretious Stones, under which black-colour'd Hair appear'd; in like manner the Beard was black and curl'd, but small: On his Neck he had a Gold Chain, with a piece of Coyn like a Single-penny on his Breast, such as the Governors of Provinces in Egypt wore formerly, whereupon the Bird Ibis, with several observable Marks were pourtrayed, which seems to import that this young Man had been of quality in his time: He held in his right Hand a Gol­den Cup with red Liquor, for a token of presenting the Drink-offering, and in his left Hand a Fruit not unlike a Malacatoon, with a Gold Ring on the fore and little finger: He had on his naked Feet black Sandals laced on: On the Girdle was a Fillet whereupon was written [...], that is, Happy, or Happiness, perhaps the proper name of the young Man, or else set there as a Prayer for his eternal joy.

The Woman that lay in the same Cave, The Pourtraiture of a Woman. was without doubt the Wife or Si­ster of the young Man, and more sumptuously drawn upon her Herse-cloth; Besides several other Hieroglyphicks, there stood upon gilded Plates two Fowls and two Lions, back to back, and upon another Garment lay an Ox or Cow, perhaps the Image of Apis or Isis, that Idol by the Egyptians being repre­sented in that shape. Upon another Plate hanging to the last link on the Brest, the Sun was pencil'd: In the Ears were Gems with Garters on her Arms and Legs, and many Rings on her Fingers: In her right Hand she held a Gol­den Water-pot, and on the fore-finger of the left Hand a Ring, with other Trimmings and Ornaments: She had, as the young Man, black curl'd Hair, which cover'd her Face; dark and thick Eye-brows, with black Eyes wide open: These Effigies or Resemblances were drawn with a rough hand, like Pictures in unsetled and barbarous times.

In the Cave wherein the two fore-mention'd Mummies were found, there were other Corps which lay all without order, buried in the Sands, and pre­serv'd onely by its driness. Besides the former two, there was another which [Page 89]lay in a Woodden Coffin with a Virgin carv'd upon it, and laid forth almost like the former, with a gilt Herse-cloth and other Ornaments. In the broken Body of this Virgin, was found nothing else but a great many Rollers and Bitumen wound up therein, for the Bones and Flesh were in a manner dried and consumed, so that it seemed to be onely a shell of Wood. The Materi­als of the Mummy were so hard, that a Hammer could scarce make any im­pression upon it: A little forwarder other Corps were to be seen in great number, wound up in single Clothes, and preserv'd in common Bitumen, without gilt Coverings, Pourtraitures, or any other Ornaments; whence may be concluded, that the adorn'd Bodies were Persons of rank and quality, either of Priests or Great Ministers of State, which onely had hope to come to the future Dominion, as Herodotus, Diodorus, and other antient Historio­graphers mention.

MUmmy is a Persian word, Mummy, a Persian name. and signifieth a dry and unperishable dead Body being Embalmed after a peculiar manner: Many are of opinion, (though not so) that the Bodies which are so call'd, were not prepared by Art, but by meer chance brought to the estate of being unperishable by this fol­lowing means.

In Africa, on the east-side of Nile lyeth a great and sandy Desart, call'd from its extent, The Sandy-Sea, which by impetuous Windes is so often agita­ted, that Travellers and Beasts with their Burthens are overwhelmed alive, and there utterly lost, which after by the power of the hot Sun and parching Sand are so dried, that they become fixed and for ever undissolvable.

True it is, some such Bodies are found there, Mummies are not Bo­dies dried by the Sun in the Sea of Sand. and sometimes sold for Mum­mies, but they deserve not that Name, because a Mummy is onely such a Body as by a peculiar Art is incorporated and embalmed with Bitumen, and other odoriferous Spices, such as at this day in great numbers are found under the City Memphis, and the Caves about it.

Herodotus saith in his * second Book, Herodot. Euterpe. that Bodies of Rich or Great Meh were wash'd over with Phenician Wine, and the Belly stuft with Myrrh, Cassia, and other Aromaticks, and then laid in Salt: but those of the common sort, was done with Juice or Gum of Cedar-wood: I shall briefly set down the words of this antient Writer, wherein he sheweth the whole Egyptian way of Embalming, for the better explaining of what is already said, and shall be said hereafter.

After mourning for the Dead, they bring the Body to be embalmed, Herodotus. for which several persons are appointed excellently skilled in that Art, who when it is brought into the house, shew wooden Images of other dead persons painted in natural colours: First, the neatest, afterwards courser, and then a third the coursest of all, asking according to which they will have the Corps done: After a bargain struck, having the Corps there, the Pollinctors embalm the Body with great diligence in this manner: First, with a crooked Iron they drill the Brains out of the Head through the Nostrils, upon which they strew Medicinal Ingredients; After that with a sharp Stone had out of the Moors Countrey, they open the Belly and take out all the Bowels, which being cleansed and washed with Phenician Wine, are mixed with pounded Spices: Then they fill the Cavity of the Belly with beaten Myrrh, Cynamon, Incense, and other the like Aromaticks, and so stitch it up again; this done, they lay it seventy days in Salt, and no longer; After which the Corps are wash'd, and wound up in silk Blankets cut in slits, and spread over (like our Sear-clothes) with a [Page 90]Gum which the Egyptians use in stead of Lime: When the Friends have recei­ved the Corps thus Embalmed, they frame a Wooden case just fitted, where­in they lay the Corps, and put it into the Burial-Cave next the Wall: Thus sumptuously they prepare and order their Dead.

There is another kind of Embalming us'd by those of the middle sort, The second sort of Em­balming. being of no great cost, viz. They fill a Syringe with Gum of Cedar-wood, and inject it through the Fundament into the Belly, without removing the Bowels, then let the Corps lye so many days as aforesaid, in Salt: On the last day they squeeze out the injection by the same way, which hath such an Operation, that it brings with it what is not fit for Preservation, and the Salt consumeth the flesh; so that nothing but the Skin and Bones of the Dead remain, which finish'd, the the Corps is delivered up to the Friends, without any more cost or trouble.

The third way used to the poorer sort is onely this: The third sort of Em­balming. they cleanse and wash the Belly first, and then lay the Corps seventy days in Salt, and so finish the Obits.

Ladies of Quality are not so soon exposed to the Operation of Embalming, nor such as were famous for Beauty, because the Embalmers should not abuse their yet untainted Bodies: for they say, one of these Embalmers. Pollinctors used that unnatural Villany; and upon complaint of his fellow-Artists was surprized in the very Act, and suffer'd condign punishment.

Haly an Arabian Physitian is of opinion, Haly. that Bodies by means of Bitumen and The Gum of the Balsam-Tree, before mentioned. Joh. Nardius. Opobalsamum, Myrrhe, and such like Drugs, is brought to the state of perdur­ableness. Johannes Nardius, who caused many of the Mummies to be broken in pieces to try them, maintains strongly, that the Corps of the Egyptians were Embalmed with no other Material, then Asfalt is a certain Rofin or Pitch, found in some Lakes, especially that of Asphaltites in Jewry, now Mare Mortuum, or the Dead Sea, at certain times cast on the Shore; but now is somewhat rare. Asfalt, of which all pieces of Mum­my smell strongly.

In what manner the Bodies by Asfalt alone, should become uncorruptible, is much questioned: Some attribute it to the great quantity of Salt mixed therewith, but that cannot be; for Bodies lay'd in Salt, resist corruption a while, Salt makes not the Corps unperishable. yet in length of time they consume to dust.

This Baronius in his History of the Church affirms, Proved by Baronius. from a Body found in the Salt Mountains of City of Salt. Saltz-burgh, seeming to have a white Skin, whole and cleer, Eyes as if alive, Hair unhurt, and the rest of the Body as stiff as a stake, but when it had lyen three days in the open Air, it so consumed, that in few days it turn'd all to Water.

It rests then, that we say somewhat of the Manner, Art, and Means, by which Bodies Embalmed with Asfalt become so dry and hard, and how the Asfalt or Bitumen incorporates, which though at first sight it may seem difficult to apprehend, yet we shall in some measure make out as followeth.

ASfalt hath a glutinous Body, In what manner are Bo­dies Embalm'd with Asfalt. being condensed by cold, and relaxing by warmth, especially Fire; but commixt with Naphta grows fluent, when both these Gums are thus dissolv'd together, they put the Corps therein, in which if they let it lye so long till it be throughly soak'd, then taking it out, and the superfluous moisture by heat drawn out of it; the work is finish'd: The probability of this is evidenced by the adequate infusing this Liquor through all parts of the Body, insomuch as the Hair of the Head, Eyes and Eye-brows in some Mummies, The Vertue of Asfalt very Astringent. are fast conglutinated together: And the pene­trating power of the Asfalt, which transpierceth the very Bones, and shrinks up by consolidation so wonderfully the whole Mass, that the Bodies of those so [Page 91]Embalmed, being of full Stature, are so lessen'd by a close contraction, that they seem rather the Corps of Children, and those of Children to have been Abortives.

It is observable, that all the Bodies of the Egyptians, At what time it was the Egyptians Embalmed their Corps, and delineaed then with hidden Letters and Learning. which are thus Em­balmed, sumptuously adorn'd, and Hieroglyphically Characterized, are found either in the Stone Vaults under-ground, or in Pyramids, and were Buried therein before the Expedition of Cambyses into Egypt, in the year of the World, Three thousand four hundred and thirty; as appears by this, Observe that according to this account the Mum­mies in the Pyramids and Vauits, are above 2000 years old. that the same Cambyses after his Conquest, introducing his own Persian Manners, Rites, and Customs, Banished or put to Death without mercy, the whole Priesthood of the Nation, whereby this way of interting utterly failing, was quite lay'd aside; as appears from Herodotus: These Priests, saith he, Herodotus. onely understood those Mysteries, which might not be taught or communicated to the People in common, so that in effect the whole Science dyed with them.

¶ IN the Caves under Memphis, Continual burning Lamps or Candles found under­ground. are frequently yet found a great multitude of burning Lamps made of boyled Chalk, in the shape of a Dog, a Man, a Bull, a Hawk, a Serpent, and other Beasts, wherein some with three, others with four, eight or twelve Wieks, by the report of the Arabians.

Many have imagined from such burning Lights found, that the Antients knew this great Mysterie of so feeding fire, that it should never go out or ex­tinguish of it self; which they strive to demonstrate by examples, The examples of such burning Lights. especially two: The first, was a Taper belonging to Pallas, which in the time of Henry the Third Emperor of Germany, in the year One thousand four hundred, and one, by a Countrey Swain was found, not far from Rome by the River Tiber, together with the Body, supposed to have burnt two thousand years and up­wards, yet could not be put out or extinguished by the Winde, nor by casting of Water, or any other moisture upon it; but as soon as by accident, the Vessel got a leak or crack at the bottom by removing, the flame instantly went out, by the running forth of its nutrimental Liquor; That this was the Body of Pallas the Son of Evander the Arcadian, kill'd by Turnus; Volateranus holds, (whose Story is at large in Virgil's Aen. Book the Tenth) upon whom he gives us this Inscription.

Filius Evandri Pallas, quem lancea Turni
Militis occidit, mole sua jacet hic.
Pallas, Evander's Son, by Turnus Spear,
Bravely in Battel slain, lyes Buried here.

The other is said to be found in the time of Pope Paul the Third, in the Appian way to Rome, in the Sepulchre of Tulliola, Cicero's Daughter, with this short Inscription.

TuLLioLAE FILIAE MEAE.
To Tulliola my Daughter.

They say this Light had continued above fifteen hundred years; the flame of this was not so perfect, as that of the other, nor so bright; perhaps the ad­mission of Air caus'd that dimness.

By what Art a Light can be made to endure so long without recruit, Several Opinions of these long-burning Candles. hath been much debated; but yet remains undecided: Some deny the possibility, [Page 92]that there are no such things in Nature, alledging that whatsoever alters or consumes in vapour, cannot be permanent, but this oily nutriment vanishes and so consumes, therefore the food of fire failing, the flame not durable ex­tinguisheth: Such as take the opposite part, deny that all the nourishment of kindled fire must needs evaporate in a Damp, alledging that there are things that can oppose fire, by fire: Such are the A Stone, if set on fire, cannot be quench'd. Asbeston, Amiant, We may suppose it to be Nitre. glister­ing stuffe like Silver in the Sand, certain Grains of Aurum Potabile, and the mentioned Lights, which by these means have burnt so long; yet 'tis a won­der that the Defenders of these perpetually-burning Tapers, could never finde out these Asbeston Wicks, wherewith the forementioned Lamps were made.

It is true indeed, that nothing in the world is so possible to make a perpe­tual burning Light, as the Asbeston and Amiant, which will be very evident, if we look well into the nature of them: As to the Wick of the Amiant, little can be said of its durableness; but Father Linum Asbestinum is a sort of Linnen spun out of the Veins, as some suppose of the Carystian or Cyprian-Stone. Though Salmasius with more probability con­tends the true Asbestinum to be the linum vivum of linum Indicum, in the folds of which, they enclosed the Dead Body, committing it to the fire, till it were con­sumed to ashes: while in the same flames this Linnen shrowd, as if it had onely been wash'd, became more white and refined by the fire. Salmas. Exercitat. Plinian. Kircher tells us, that himself had in his Lamp a Wiek of Kircher de Lucernis Aegyptiorum. Asbeston, burning two years without any loss or alteration. All the difficulty to make a perpetual lighted Lamp, consists in extracting Oyl out of the Abestion, which who can do, may easily perfect the rest: Several Chy­mists have in vain attempted and spent much fruitless time and labour about it; for the Oyl either affords no fire, more resembling water than Oyl, or else it is so thick, that it is altogether uncapable of affording flame; whereby it appears, that the mystery of extracting such an Oyl, far surpasseth humane Skill and Industry. And if any should yet say, that the two fore-mention'd examples, and (as several Authentick Writers affirm) that the manner of making such Lights, was known to the Antients, and consequently by our sublimer Wits, or Virtuosie might now be again recovered; it may be answered that the above-mention'd Lamps were not perpetual, but onely long-continuing Lights, which might na­turally be thus effected. The Inclosed Air by continuance of time being in­crassated by the fatness of the Bodies long pent up, may easily, as a new Coal draws Air by an Antiperistasis get a flame: So in the Winter, Water in Cisterns, by the circum-ambient Air, becomes warm: Such Ig [...]is fatuus. flames many times appear glimmering in Church-yards, and fat marshy grounds: The like is also assert­ed by the Workers in Mines, that they seldom open a new Vein, but there burst out such flames, seeming of themselves consistent.

Notwithstanding all these disputes, The Egyptians had per­petually enduring Lamps. that the Egyptians have had perpetual burning Lights in their Sepulchral Caves under-ground, which indeed were not made of Asbeston, but supplyed from another Fountain, appears by several Arabian, and other expert Writers, who were Eye witnesses. Their words are to this purpose.

The Egyptian Sages, who were of a sublime spirit, and singularly experienc'd in the course of Natural-causes, Salmuth in his Com­ment upon Pa [...]cirollus de rebus perditis, affirmeth that one Podocaterus a Cyprian, shewed at Venice some in­combushble Cloth, and his Materials were from Cyprus where indeed Dioscorides placeth them: the same is ocularly confirm'd by Vives upon Austi [...], and Maiolus in his Colloquies. And thus in our days do men practice to make long lasting Snasts for Lamps out of Alumen Plum [...]sum, and by the same read in Pausanias, that there always burnt a Lamp before Miuerva's Image. Schianga an Arabian Hi­storian. did place by the Corps of the Dead in token of their acknowledg­ment of the Immortality of the Soul, several Lamps or Tapors, which they, so far as was possible, sought with a discontinued durance to animate in this manner. There are many pla­ces in Egypt, that afford plenty of Bitumen and Petrole, or Stone-oyl; which the Learned among them, who were great Naturallists discovering, lay'd from these Wells secret Channels or Pipes to the Sepulchres, where they set in a convenient place, a Lamp with a Wiek of Asbeston, which moistened and fed thereby continually, and the Wiek of it self unconsumable, it must of necessity follow that the light also endured perpetually. Here comes to minde that which Schianga an Arabian, in his History of Egyptian Remarks asserted, being in English thus: There was in Egypt a field with Ditches full of Pitch and Bitumen, from which their Learned men, all Naturallists, lay'd certain Pipes to the [Page 93]Caves under ground, wherein they placed a Lamp joyn'd to the Pipes, which Lamp had a Wiek incombustible, like the Salamanders Wool is not desumed from any A [...]i­mal; but a Mineral sub­stance Metapliorically so call'd from the received opinion of its incom [...]u [...]i­bleness. Salamanders Wool, by which means they burned; being once kindled, perpetually, because of the continual influx of Bitumen.

The intent of the Egyptians setting these Lights near the Sepulchres, seems to signifie, that as the nature of fire is like the Operations of the Gods, so also the Numens appointed for the protection of the Corps thereby, as by a visible similitude of their own likeness, for the continual glorifying of the Soul, are drawn thither as, they believe.

Perhaps some will wonder, Why the Egyptians so carefully Bury their Corps. and ask for what cause the Egyptians have with such diligence taken care to preserve their Corps from perishing, and to adorn them with such exquisite Ornature: To resolve which Quaere, it is to be ob­served first, that the Egyptians firmly believed that the first state of the world after the course of six and thirty thousand; or as others of forty thousand years, must return to its pristine state and condition again: Secondly, that accord­ing to that Position, the Government of the Seven Superior Tutelar Guardians of Egypt at every seven thousand years end, return to the first again; so conti­nuing for the space of Annus Platonicus, or Maginus. nine and forty thousand years, viz. when the Sabbath, or Rest of all things shall come: That the change of these Rulers, caus'd the altera­tion of the condttion of the Body: That the Soul, which after the course of seven thousand years, transmigrating from one Body to another, should re­turn to its own Body left in the Grave, but clean from all corruption, and pro­tected by the presence of the Gods; yet still advanc'd, till having travell'd through all the Heavenly Residencies, at length it is brought to the Great Protoplastus, that is, Deus; for although the Heathens did multiply to themselves such innumera­ble orders of Deities; yet they ended in one onely God, as Virg. Aen. lib. 1. O Socii (neque enim ignari sumus ante malorum) O Passi graviora: dabit Deus his quoque finem. Dear Friends, for we have many dangers past. And Greater, God these too will end at last. Examplar or Idea of it self, and so live eternally and unchangably happy.

The Egyptians then believing this, and being wonderously diligent to lead an honest and vertuous life, seem to insinuate by their Embalming of their Corps, and to desire, that those Souls after this their departure, may finde their next transmigrated habitations worthy of their deserts, till they be fully united with God; for it is certain that the Egyptians from the beginning of all Memorials have so constantly maintained the Souls Immortality, The Egyptians have al­ways strongly maintained the Immortality of the Soul. that not onely themselves believed it as delivered to them from Antiquity; but have taught and incul­cated this Doctrine also to their other Neighboring Idolaters, though learned: Among others, Pythagoras, who first brought this Opinion among the Greeks. Thus far of the Pyramids and Burying-places of the Antient Egyptians: We shall now return to describe the other Cities lying in Sahid, and begin first with the Island Michias.

¶ IN the midst of Nile, not far from Cairo, Island Michias. over against the Old City Miffrul­hetich, lyes the Island Michias, or El-Michias, that is, Measure-Isle, or Mark-Island, because within it was set the Mark whereby they took the measure of the Rivers overflowing, and the height and lowness of his waters, and thereby made a judgement of the consequent fruitfulness, indifference or infertility of the following Year: This Island contains about fifteen hundred Families, ha­ving at one end a fair Palace, erected by a Soldan, and a large Mosque or Tem­ple; at the other end standeth a round Building alone, with a four-square Well or Cistern, eighteen Cubits deep, into which the Nile-water at the time of the overflowing is conveyed: in the middle of the Well stands an upright Pillar, divided by marks into so many Cubits as the Well is deep, where attend cer­tain Officers by command of the Councel, who give notice of the increase, which some Children with yellow Bands about their Heads, to that purpose [Page 94]appointed, make known by an Out-cry through all the streets of the City and Suburbs, admonishing the people to fear God; and are by them in return pre­sented with Gifts: During the rising of Nilus in Cairo, and most other Cities, there is so great a Noise and Joy made with Drums and Trumpets all along the City, that it seems to be in a Tumult and Uproar.

Opposite to Miffrulhetich lyeth Geza, Geza. joyning to Michias, that severs it from Cairo: it shews many stately Palaces erected by the Mamaluckes, and other cu­rious and pleasant Buildings, together with a sumptuous Temple, by the Nile; Many Handy-crafts men and other Traders come daily from Cairo hither to work and trade, returning at night to their own homes: Those that would visit the Pyramids, can go no nearer way than through this City, which on one side is surrounded with a sandy Desart reaching quite to them.

Not far from Grand Caire stands Muhallaca a little old Town, near which the great Lake Maeris, The Lake Meris. which Diodorus placed ten Stadia or Furlongs from Cairo: An­tiquity gave it in compass two hundred and fifty, or four hundred and fifty miles, whereas at this day it is but eight leagues.

At the increase of Nile, Sanatus. this Lake is in some places fifty fathom deep, recei­ving great store of water, which the Inhabitants make good use of. It hath two Rivulets; one, by which it receives water from Nile, and the other where it runs out of the Lake, and moistens the thirsty grounds in Summer time: They say King Maeris, from whom this Lake took his Name, caused it to be digg'd with Spades, and in the midst of it erected a Sepulchre for himself and his Queen, wherein two fair Pyramids, each forty paces high were set, with the tops out of the water, upon either of which he placed a Marble Statue. The Revenue of the Fish of this Lake, which amounted daily to a Talent of Silver, the King allowed to his Royal Consort to buy her Pins. This agrees with what Herodo­tus writes in his second Book, in these words:

The Lake Maeris is in compass a thousand six hundred Stadia or Furlongs, Herodot. Euterpe.and sixty paces, which compass is as much as all Egypt is in length on the Sea-coast; It reaches far to the North and South, and is in depth fifty paces. That it was digg'd and made by mens hands appeareth, in that about the middle there stand two Pyramids that rise fifty paces above the water, and as much under it, so that each Pyramid is an hundred paces high: Upon either of them is a Stone-Image sitting upon a Throne: The water of this Lake comes not from a Spring, being sometimes very dry, but is supplied by Trenches out of the Nile; six moneths it is furnish'd from them, A Talent is 250 l. ster­ling.and other six moneths makes returns into it, which later six moneths the Revenue of Fish amounts every day to a * Talent of Silver, but in the former onely to twelve Minae, or Pounds; Adding, that the Inhabitants asserted this Lake went under the Earth Westward, as far as the Sandy Syrtes in Lybia, where it anew breaks forth near the Mountain which hangs over Memphis.

About six leagues from Cairo, Changa. at the Entrance of the Wilderness which runs towards Mount Sinai, lyeth the City Changa, heretofore very great, and beau­tified with stately Houses and Temples, but so much spoiled and wasted by Wars, that it hath lost its antient splendor: Here is a double Thorow-fare, the one towards Syria, the other to Arabia; but no water other than what from the overflowing of the Nile is preserv'd in Sluices and Ditches.

Hence towards the East standeth Suez, Suez. by Ptolomy call'd The City of Brightness, upon the utmost Border of the Arabian Gulf, about three days Journey from Cairo, Livy, Sanutus, Bello­nius. as Livy, Sanutus, and others affirm, though Bellonius placeth it much nearer: This is one of the most commodious Havens on the North-side of the Red-Sea, and the Moors bring hither out of India, all manner of Spices, Gems, Pearls, Am­ber, [Page 95]Musk, and other costly Merchandize, which are carryed by Land to Cairo, and so to Alexandria, whither the Venetians, English, Dutch, and other Nations come to traffique: Divers place this City with Ptolomy, in Egypt; Ptolomy. Maginus Geograph. but others as Maginus in his Geography, in Trogloditis, a part of Arabia: but it seems rather to be­long to Egypt, because it is now under the Command of the Turkish Bassa of Cairo: It is environed with a sandy and barren Desart, which reaches some miles distance, utterly desolate and void of all things. It is supported by the Revenues arising from Commodities of other Countreys brought thither: all the water they use is conveyed thither two miles off upon Camels, and is never­theless so brackish, that it breeds many Diseases: On an adjacent Hill stands an inconsiderable Castle with old ruinous Walls.

More to the In-land South from Nile, lyeth Bethsames, Bethsames. by some held to be the old Heliopolis. More Southward, Muhaisira. close to the Nile stands the decayed City Mu­haisira, and on the other side Southwards also lyes Benesuait or Benesuahid. Benesuahid.

A hundred and eighty miles from Grand Caire upon a rising ground, is the City Munia, built in the time of the Mahumetans, by one Chalib, Munia. belonging to the Ca­liffe of Bagdet: This City had formerly many neat Churches and other hand­som Structures, insomuch that there yet appear divers Ruines of the antient Egyptian Building. Not far from Munia, lyeth Fyum, formerly call'd Abydus, Fyum. and by some Abutick. Here it is said, that Joseph the son of Jacob was first bu­ried, whose Bones Moses afterwards when the Children of Israel departed out of Egypt, carryed with then into Canaan. Close by Fy [...]m yet stands the great and old City Manfloth or Menf-loth, erected by the Egyptians, destroyed by the Romans, and afterward re-built anew, and inhabited-by the Mahumetans, though infinitely short of its pristine lustre; however some great and high Columns with stately Church-Portals, whereon are Verses written in the Egyptian Tongue are yet ex­tant. Here also are the Ruines of a great Building, seeming formerly to have been a Temple, from whose Foundations Gold, Silver, and other Coin hath been taken up; upon one side of which was stamped the Effigies of the antient Egyptian Kings, and on the reverse, divers Hieroglyphicks.

Azuth, formerly Bubastes, about two hundred and fifty miles from Cairo, Azuth. was heretofore esteemed a very beautiful City, but at this day, for the most part, ly­eth waste, and buried under Heaps of Ruine. Here inhabit a hundred Christian Families, and three or four Churches remain undefac'd. Without the City stands a Monastery, wherein reside above a hundred Monks, that live onely upon Herbs, Bread, and Olives, not touching either Flesh or Fish. The Cloyster hath great Revenues, giving entertainment to all strangers, who are there sup­plied with all Necessaries for three days.

Three hundred miles from Cairo, on the shore of Nilus, stands Ichium, Ichium. erected by Mizraim the son of Chus, and consequently one of the oldest Cities in Egypt: Which the Mahumetans when they first began to rule there, so wasted and de­stroy'd, that there is not one stone left upon another; for they carryed the Pillars and Stones to the west-side of Nilus, and us'd them to the building of the ill­contriv'd Town Munsta or Munsia, whose narrow un-pav'd Streets by the vicinity of a sandy Soyl, in Summer are very offensive, though the Countrey adjacent hath fruitful Valleys for bearing Corn, and pasturing Cattel.

Anthius, by Marmol call'd Anthinoe, or Anthedon, was a fair City, Anthinoe. built by the Romans, on the Western Banks of Nilus, wherein yet may be read several Inscri­ptions upon Marble Pillars; Joyning as it were to this, lyeth also the City Barnabal.

Thebes, formerly a glorious City, but now almost lost in its own Ruines, lyeth West of Nilus about five days journey from Cairo. Strabo calls it Diospolis, that is, Kircher Choregraph. Aegypt. Jupiters City, because Jupiter was worship'd there; By Homer and Stepha­nus, in his Book of Cities, Hecatompylos, Hundred Gates; for Thebes in former times is said to have had so many Gates. By Diodorus, Busiris; by the Moors, Sirim; by the Arabians one while Asna, another Asiuth and Asuan. Strabo gives the best and most accurate description of all other. We will give you his own words.

Some, Strabo. saith he, reputed this City as the Metropolis of Egypt: 'tis true, there still appear remaining Marks of its Greatness; being in length about eighty Furlongs. Cambyses the Persian much defac'd it and spoil'd the Temples. Now it is rather a heap of conjoyn'd Villages than a City, one part of it lying in Arabia; one of its two Colossus's cut out of an entire Stone, remaining still whole and sound, but the uppermost part of the other, is said to be broken off by an Earth-quake. They also report that sometimes a sound issues from the Pedestal. When I was there with Elius Gallus, and divers Friends and some Soldiers, I heard about the tenth hour, the like sound, but whether it was made by one of the Company, I can­not say; because all, for the uncertainty of the Matter, had more occasion to believe so, than that such a hollow murmur should come out of such a firm body. A little further, beyond Memnonium, from the sounding like Memnous Tomb. Memnonium, are about forty Sepulchres of Kings in Caves under ground, after the manner of such as we formerly described, which are worthy the seeing. Near this Colossus are some Pyramids with Inscriptions, which set forth the Riches and Potency of those Kings.

These words of Strabo not onely speak the Greatness, but also the Sumptuous­ness of Thebes, and agree with the present Asuan, which is a Name given by the Arabians, by adding A to Suan or Soan; for the Copticks call'd that Soan, which the Greeks entituled Thebes.

In this City have been also many Pyramids or Obelisks; according to the same Strabo, as also Diodorus and Herodotus say here were many Pyramids, some few of which still remain, the rest by the fury of the Persians miserably defac'd and destroy'd.

The deep Mysteries which the Egyptians couched under their Pyramids and Hieroglyphicks sculped thereon, being a matter worth the knowledge, induce us in this place to give a more exact account of them than heretofore.

¶ OBelisks therefore are four square Stone-Columns, Several Names of Obe­lisks. running up in height, taporing to a point, and on every side inscribed Characters. The Greeks stile such [...], Kircher. Obilise. Pamphil. that is, Acute Points. The Italians, from the form, broad beneath and running up in shape of a Needle or Spire, Aguglia; the Arabians, Messalets Pharaonis, that is, Pharaohs Needles, because, they say, they were the invention of Pharaoh the first King of Egypt; When Spires were erected in Egypt. Manuphtar. but the Egyptian Priests name them The Fingers of the Sun, to signifie the Mysteries hidden under it: But the first that introduced the practice of erecting Spires or Obelisks in Egypt, was Manuphtar Lord of Memphis, in the Year of the World 2604. So this.

Then his son Sothis succeeding, finish'd the Work begun by his Father, and erected at Heliopolis twelve Obelisks, 1175 yeares before the Incarnation. in the Year of the Creation, 2893.

Momphencure son of Sesostris erected a plain Obelisk in the Year 2947. Momphencure signifies the Governor of Memphis. The like did Simarres or Simannes, in the time of King David, Anno Mundi, 2986. or thereabout.

King Marres or Afhres, Marres. by others call'd Vaphres, built a plain Obelisk in the Year of the Creation 3022. which the Emperor Claudius carryed out of Egypt, and set up at Rome for the Mausoleum.

King Psammitichus, Psammitichus. by Pliny call'd Sennesertus, erected a great Obelisk, inscri­bed [Page 97]with Sacred and Sublime Figures at Heliopolis, Eight hundred and seven years before the Incarnation.

King Nectabanus, by others call'd Necho, Nectabanus. seven hundred and forty years before Christ, erected a great Obelisk at Memphis, which afterwards Ptolomeus Philadel­phus removed to Alexandria, and placed in the Temple of Arsinoe. Most of all these Obelisks at several times by the Roman Emperors were brought out of Egypt to Rome. Lastly, the Persian King Cambyses, after the Conquest of Egypt, which happened in the Year of the World 3528. destroy'd all that remain'd, 522 before Christ. as well those that stood upright, as those that were fallen down, and either slew or banisht all the Egyptian Priests, as we mention'd before.

These were not the Works of Kings onely, but of Priests and Ministers of State; and Custom at length prevail'd so far, that scarce a place could be seen without them; At which none ought to wonder, if he consider the Egyptians worshipt the Sun, to whose honor they erected such Spires.

The bigness of the Obelisks were several, some no higher than ten or twelve foot; while others did climb to the height of twenty, thirty, seventy, an hun­dred, or a hundred and forty foot.

Upon every side the antient Egyptian Priests carv'd Figures and Images almost in the same manner, Hieroglyphick Figures carved upon the Needles or Spires. as those delineated upon the Covering-Clothes and Win­ding-sheets of the Mummies, and sometimes the very same.

There were also plain ones erected by the Kings that conquer'd Egypt, Neeldes or Spires with­out Figures. for the Egyptian Priests would not reveal the Mystery of their Charactering to any strangers.

As this Hieroglyphical manner of writing was very mysterious, Of what stone the Nee­dles or Spires are made. so the Stone they chose for that purpose was most excellent, which the Greeks call'd A Fire-stone. Pyro­boilon; the Latines, Theban Stone; and by the Italians, Granito Rosso: It is a kinde of Marble, sprinkled and speckled as it were with Drops of several colours, and as durable and hard as Porphiry. The Quarry out of which these were cut, lyeth close by the antient City Thebes, among the Hills extending to Negro-land, and the Cataracts of Nilus to the South. And though Egypt abound in Quarries of other sorts of Marble, yet the Egyptian Priests chose this for the erecting of Obe­lisks, no other Stone being us'd to that purpose; for although they had the like Veins of Marble in the Island Ilia, and other places in Italy and Sweden, yet it could no way compare in hardness and variety of Grains and Specks, with that of Egypt. Now why the Egyptians made the Obelisks of those streak'd Marbles, this may be the reason.

They that erected Obelisks in honor of the Sun, Why they do so. whose beams their spiring tops seemed to represent, would not take every kinde of stone, but such onely as did most analogize with that glorious Body, which in their opinion this Marble doth: By nature it consisted of a four-fold Existence, viz. First, a gli­stering Red, among which here and there are found some mixed, other clear Christal-colour'd Spots; then Violet-colour, after that Blew and Ash-colour, with some streaks or dashes of Black between; which the Egyptians seeing, they chose it, as most fit to represent their hidden Mysteries; so that by the aforesaid Mixture of the Colours, without doubt they intend to signifie the four Ele­ments, and particularly by the Red, Fire; by the Christaline, Air; by the Blew; Water; and lastly by the Black, the Earth. Hereby appears with how great judgement the Egyptians chose fit Materials for their Mysteries, and that for the better representing their deep Notions, they have us'd nothing but what might make them more conspicuous. And if any find older Obelisks of another [Page 98]sort, certainly they were not true Egyptick; but either erected by Strangers, in imitation of the true; or in the late times, when by the Destruction and Banishment of the Priests by Cambyses, the Sacred Egyptian Letters were utterly lost. Such was the Obelisk rais'd by the Phenicians to the Honor of the Sun; which being depressed, low, flat, and leaning, very much differ'd from the right: Such a one also Herodian says, the Emperor Heliogabalus brought from Syria to Rome.

¶ ALL the great Obelisks, In what manner the Obe­lisks were brought out of the Stone Quarties to the place appointed. Plin. lib. 36. c. 9. were brought from their Quarries to their ap­pointed place in this manner: First, there was a great Trench Digged, beginning under the already hewen Obelisk, and running into the Nile, where two great Ships deep laden with Stones, exceeding the weight of the intended Freight, were Sunk; and then towed quite underneath it, the two ends of the Obelisks hanging on the opposite Banks of the Ditch. The Ships there setled, and the Stone Ballast being cast out; the Vessels finding themselves eas'd, Buoying up, receiv'd their Lading, the hanging Obelisk, which they brought through the same cut into the Nilus, and so to the appointed place where it was to be erected.

¶ THere are yet to be seen at Thebes, Egyptian, Greek, and Latine Inscriptions, and without the Gates, old Ruines and Columns, all the remaining tokens of its antient Glory. The City according to Diodorus, in circuit had an hundred and forty Stadia or Furlongs, That is, five miles.eight and twenty Stadia accompted for a Mile. As to the number of an hundred Gates, that accompt seems to some, as Dio­dorus reports, to intend onely the gross number of the Avenues and Passages; though others, as Mela, confirm it; adding, that Thebes was so exceeding po­pulous, that it could draw out of That is a Million of men. every Gate ten thousand Armed men. And that the Greek word Hecatompilos, which signifyeth an hundred Gates, (according to which Thebes was call'd by Homer) is not to be understood literally; but is rather to be explained to relate to an hundred Palaces, in which so many Princes had their residence. Plin. lib. 36. c. 14. Pliny, will have the whole City stand upon Arches so made on purpose, that the Egyptian Kings might draw their Armies this way, under the Houses of the City without being discovered.

Round about this decayed and desolate City, are Desarts, wherein formerly very many Hermits dwelt. Two days Journey from Cairo lyeth a Wilderness, wherein it is said, is the Cave wherein St. Paul remaining, was visited by St. Anthony.

Six miles from the City Munsia or Munza, lyeth a Cloister of Georgian Chri­stians, heretofore very famous, and inhabited by above two hundred Monks, who having much Goods, and a great yearly Revenue, imparted the same to all needy Strangers; sending the overplus to the Patriarch to Cairo, who distri­buted it among poor Pilgrims in his Diocess; But two hundred and sixty years since, all these Monasticks dying by a Pestilence, the Bashaw of Munsia, wall'd in the Cloister, and made it into Houses for Artificers and Tradesmen, to dwell in.

Chiam or El Chiam, Chiam. now a heap of Rubbish; but heretofore the Seat of the Jacobite Christians; Livy and Sanutus, seem to be of Opinion, that this is Ptolomy's old Diospolis, because both of them lay in the same Latitude.

More toward the South from Cairo, Barbanda. lyeth another City upon the Banks of Nile, call'd Barbanda, destroyed by the Romans, whose ruinous heaps were for [Page 99]the most part, brought to Asna: among which sometime they finde Gold and Silver Coin, and pieces of Smaragdus or Emeralds.

Against Barbanda, lyeth Cana, erected by the Egyptians near the Nile, Cana. and Walled. The Inhabitants use no Trades, but rely all upon Husbandry and Tillage: by which means, this place which is divided from the Red-Sea by a vast sandy and dry Desart, is very rich in Corn, which the Inhabitants of Me­dina, where the Tomb of Mahomet is, and also of Mecha Transport in great abundance for Asia. Opposite to Cana, on the Red Sea, lyeth Cossir a Haven, whither they usually Travel from Cana over the fore-mention'd Sandy Desart: There are many Granaries for the reception of Corn brought thither from Cana. It is probable that Livius Sanutus says, that this Haven is that of the Old City Berenice, because they lye in the very same elevation; yet some will have it to be Miosormus.

There is also Conza, formerly Metacompsus, not far from the City Asna, Conza. on the Southermost borders of Egypt, some of the Antients placed Elephantis or Elephantina; of which at this day, the name onely remains.

The last City to the South of Egypt, lying on the Nilus, is Asna, formerly call'd Siena; but got the name Asna from the Arabians, for the word Siena being the same with the Arabian Zey [...]a, which signifies Foul, Sanutus lib. 9. they thought the City too fair to bear that Name, and therefore chang'd Siena into Asna, that is, Fair; the City indeed being very beautiful; the Romans wasted most part of it, but it hath since been much more stately rebuilt by the Mahumetans.

The Inhabitants drive a subtle Trade in the Kingdom of Nubia, partly in Vessels sailing up the Nile, and partly by Land through the Desart; by which way of Transportation, they are become considerable in Cattle, Corn, and Money.

In the City, which is of a large extent, and by the Moors, according to Marmol, call'd Gavera, there yet appear many fair Edifices, and particularly a very curious Sepulchre, with Egyptian and Latin Inscriptions.

There is also a deep Well, into whose bottom the Sun shines at Noon, A deep Well. while he passes too and again through the Northern signs. To this place or a little further, the Nile is Navigable; but beyond no Vessel can pass; oppos'd and stop'd by the Cataracts, and therefore they Land their Goods below, and carry them over Land, then again shipping when they are past the precipice, and come into smooth water.

Eastward from Asna is the antient and great City Asuan or Assuan, The City Assuan. by some taken to be Conza or Metacompsus, and borders upon the Desart Buche: through which they Travel by the City Suaquen, to the Red Sea, Neighboring with the Moors; and by Marmol placed in Egypt. Beyond this they pass not up the Nile, Sanutus. because of the fore-mention'd precipices. It is very hot there in Summer, and the Inhabitants are Tawny of colour; not caused so much by the great heat, as by their commixture with the People of Nubia and the Moors. In several places about this City are many antient Buildings and Towers, there call'd Barba; which makes some imagine that heer stood Thebes, In circuit five mile, in length three miles. out of whose Ruines Asuan was built; Strabo gives it eighty Stadia or Furlongs in length, of which City of Asuan, Albufeda the Arabian, thus writes: Asuan is a City of the upper Theban Countrey, lying by the side of the Eastern Desart: wherein stands the famous Needle or Spire, the greatest Monument of Antiquity, partly for its huge Carv'd Stones, and partly for the variety of curious Imagery upon it. And that many Obelisks and Pyramids have been there, Herodotus, Diodorus, and others testifie. Herodotus. Diodorus. Beyond this the ut­most [Page 100]border of the Turkish Dominions in Egypt, there are no Seats or Habita­tions worth the mentioning, onely some few Huts or Cottages, where Tawny people of Buchia dwell, that speak a Tongue scraped together out of the Egyp­tian, Arabian, and Moorish Languages.

Several other small Cities, Sanutus. and inconsiderable places by length of time de­cay'd, are by Sanutus and other Geographers, with few words touched upon; such are these: Thura in the East, lying close by Cairo; Sachila and Pharsono lying beneath the Lake Maeris; Narnita and Nitriota above it; Elmena, Libelezait, Sa­guan, Dakat, all poor and thin peopled places; of which the first is to the in­land, in the mid-way between the Red-Sea and Nile; but the other lye close by the Sea side.

King Pharaoh's Angle, Pharaoh's Angle, or Point, from whence Moses with his people, in a wonderful manner, passed through the Red Sea; Corondal, Aziruth, and Aphaca, places on the Red-Sea, lying not far one from another, with few or no Inha­bitants.

The seven Wells, Seven Wells. call'd by the Italians, Zette Pozzi, is a place in a dry Tract of Land, where at this day appear some tokens of the Old Wells or Fountains of Water, that gave name to the place. Menuia and Cosera lye in the Island Heracleopolites, Sanutus. but thinly inhabited. The like also are Veneria and Ansena, two Neighboring places.

Besides the Island Michias, The two Islands of Hera­cleopolites, and Cynopolites. lying by Cairo, and the Island Elephantina, there are Heracleopolites, and Cynopolites, or the Isle of Dogs, both lying in the Nile, placed by Sanutus in Egypt.

The Metropolis of the later is Cynopolis, Cynopolis. or Dog-town; because the Inhabitants for the most part worshipped a Dog; but at this day 'tis call'd Monphalus.

The Island Heracleopolites, Heracleopolis. so call'd from Heracleopolis, that is, Hercules City, because Hercules was worshipped in it, is fifty miles in circuit, and fruitful in Olives and other Fruit-Trees. Here was the Icneumon, the mortal Enemy of Crocodiles and Serpents worshipped.

Besides all these Cities, The Number of Villages in Egypt. there are many Villages in Egypt; for above Delta both Southward and Northward of Cairo, Sanut. there are four thousand, and in Delta twenty thousand, whose Grounds and Meadows are once a year water'd by the Nile.

As to the Soil, The Soil of Egypt is dry and thirsty in it self. it is Sandy, very Barren, and so dry and seared, that unless it lye under water many dayes, as at the overflux of Nile, it will never become fertile. Therefore the Egyptians often drown their Gardens and Orchards, so by long soaking to make them fruitful; whereby their Pot-herbs and Salletting are very waterish, and more insipid or flashy, than in Europe. But although the Soil be of it self thus steril; It is made fat by Nilus. yet the fruitful Nilus with his fat Mud, makes it fertile, and fit for Tillage; and in some places so luxuriant, that they often mix the fatness of the Soil with Sand, to temper and allay it.

This onely over-flowing of the Nile, made Egypt to be esteemed not onely the Granary of Rome, but of the whole then known world; for it fed all the Roman Provinces with Corn, a third part of the year, exposing besides abundance into remoter Countreys. Pliny reports, that the ground there was so exceedingly fruitful, that one onely Seed planted in the Earth, would bring forth a hundred fold. But this wonderful fertility was attended with this in­convenience, that the rich Product was not lasting; and from this very same cause, they dispatch'd them away to their Neighbor Nations of the Arabian De­sart, Palestine, Syria, Constantinople, and Europe; especially Sugar, Cassia, Sena­leaves, several Gums, and other Inland Commodities.

Kassia Colekasia Datura

The Delta's boast theirs the richest Ground of all Egypt, Delta is fruitful. for the rest beyond Catro to the Moors Countrey, is but barren, except two or three Leagues in bredth on each side the River Nile; the rest of the places beyond, are dry and sandy Desarts. The Countrey of Errif produceth excellent Rice, and other Fruits; Errif though towards Alexandria, some places are cover'd with Sand, and the Gar­dens there all produce very unsound Fruit. The Lands of Becheira, Becheira. lying round about the River, are extraordinarily rich; but the places between the Eastern Channel, towards Damiata and Syria are Mountainous, and without water, over-whelmed with Sand. Suez and Bocchir, and the Land about the Lake Mareotis, by Alexandria, have nothing but great sandy Desarts. Sanutus says, Sanutus. the ground about Alexandretta is unfruitful; Bellonius. whereas Peter Bellonius in that place saw growing Rice, Wheat, Barly, and other Fruits. About Rosetta, grows a kind of Red Rice in great abundance, and the like about Damiata.

EGypt is also singularly rich in the production of variety of wholsom Plants, Egypt is rich in Plants. Herbs, Trees, and other Vegetables; some common in Europe, but many utterly unknown, transported from thence; such are, The Datura, Colocasia, Sebesten, Cassia Fistula, Elhanna, Lablab, Melochia, Sesban, Sophera, Absus, Sempsen, Berd, Chate, Abdellavi, Batechia El Mavi, Negel El Jalib, Tamaris-Tree, Dedal-Tree, Mauz or Muza, Carob, Sant, and many other; of some of which we have spoken already.

Among other, their groweth in Egypt a kinde of Night-shade nam'd Datura, Datura. Alpinus de Plant. crotic. or Tatura, by the common people, and by Dodoneus in his Book of Plants, is call'd Strammonie, as the Fruit is by Avicenna held to be the Nut-Methel. This Plant Datura, shoots into the ground with a long, thick and brushy Root, of a very unpleasing savour. The Stalk being slender, broad, and round, grows to the height of four or five Cubits, divided into several Branches, on which hang dark brown-coloured Leaves, deeply indented on each side. The Blossom is very sweet-scented and pleasant to the eye, beneath small, above broad, and white without and within; follow'd by roundish Fruit, inclosed in a prickly Shell full of yellowish Seeds.

The Seeds eaten, will cast one for a time into a kind of blockish inebriation. The use of it. It is commonly us'd among the Egyptian High-way-men, made up with bread, which dose so prepared, they have a subtle way to administer, by insinuating themselves into the Company of Merchants, following the Caravan, and under pretence of safe conduct, taking together their repast, they convey these Loaves instead of Bread, of which eating, they grow strait besotted, while they take the Plunder of their Gold, Silver, and other rich Commodities.

The Curtezans of the Countrey use the like Trade, What the Whores in E­gypt perform therewith. giving such as they in­tend to rifle, a quarter of an Ounce of this Bread with Wine or other Drink. The same power is also ascribed to the Blossom.

No Plant is more known among the Egyptians, nor more used, than Colocasia; Colocasia. Alpinus de Plantis Egypt. by the Arabians in Egypt, call'd Culcas. These greatly provoke Venus, whether eaten raw or boyled; whole Fields are over-grown with these Plants; though none, whether Stranger or Inhabitant, which seems a wonder, It Blossoms not in Egypt. have ever seen it bear either Blossoms, Fruits or Stalks. Prosper Alpinus had a round Root (for there are of two sorts, a round, and a long) sent him out of Alexandretta; But in Italy it doth, and the reason thereof. that Blossom'd in his Garden at Venice in April, in form and bigness resembling the Blossom of the Aron or Calves-foot, though with Stalks and all it is no longer than the Palm of ones Hand. Now why this Root in Egypt its own proper Countrey, should bring forth neither Blossoms nor Stalks, and in Italy usually does it, proceeds onely from the fatness of the Soil in Egypt, which makes them [Page 102]increase onely in Leaves and Roots, whereas in Italy, being a Forrein and leaner Soil, the Roots and Foliage are small, and the upper part drawing the nourish­ing moisture, is the cause it sometimes brings forth Stalks and Blossom.

Two sorts of Sebesten-Trees are found here, Sebesten. a wilde one like the Damsin-Tree, and a Garden one, which hath thicker and broader Leaves than the wilde. The Blossom is small and white, succeeded by a Fruit, not unlike the small Damsin, with threesquare Kernels. The Fruits of the wilde Sebesten-Tree are smaller, and later ripe, than the Garden, which are bigger and better. The De­coction is very prevalent against the Cough, Ruptures, Pluretick Stitches in the Side, Hoarseness, Agues, and all Distempers of the Breast and Lungs. The Juice of the Fruit hanging the whole year upon the Tree, and ripe in Harvest, makes excellent Birdlime; the same stamped and washed, and wrought into the form of a Plaister or Cataplasm, the Egyptians use against all hard Swellings.

The Tree by Physitians call'd Cassia Fistula; The Pipe Cassia-Tree. by the Arabians in Egypt, Sagiar El Selichet, and by the Turks Chai'ar Xambar, that is, Black Cassia, flourishes in great plenty, in low and marshy places, lying near the Sea; the Stock, Bran­ches, Leaves, and Shell, which are smooth, of a pale ashy colour, resemble the Nut-tree, but more Leavy. The Buds or Blossoms are very like the Primrose smelling well, especially early in the Morning; so that the Egyptians delight to walk under their shade. Every Blossom hath in the mid'st of it many small Strings, which at length become great, and turn thick Trunks or hollow Pipes, which ripen all the year long, and at all times continue hanging on the Tree.

The Egyptians gather these Pipes at Cairo, onely in Summer time, when many other green ones appear out of the Blossom, which at length, as the first, grow dusky. That which grows in and about Damiata, hath thick Shells, but little Pelp or Juice within; but those of Cairo and Alexandria, are thinner Husked and more full, which are accounted the best, being of two sorts, that is, Reddish, which they call Abis, and are the best; the other are Black. Prosper Alpinus opinions, that the Pipes which open with shaking, are the best; but that is not so, because they are dry and withered; such as by a hard Winter and Stormy Winds, are shaken or fall from the Tree, are unfit for use. Wherefore some good Hus­bands to prevent that, do with a string tye fast together many Pipes of the same Branch.

The Pelpy Juyce of the Pipes, The use of Cassija. the Egyptians use as we do, that is, stamped and given in Potion, mixed with Wine or other Liquor, being hot and moist in the first degree, makes a gentle Purge, driving Flegm and Choller out of the Stomach and Bowels, cleansing and allaying the heat of the Blood. The Juyce mix'd with fine Sugar, and taken inwardly, is esteemed a certain Cure of all Diseases of the Reins and Bladder: For it quenches or allays the inordi­nate heat of the Kidneys, and an excellent Vehicle for carrying off the slimy dregs out of those Vessels through the Bladder; so that the Egyptians by the fre­quent use thereof are absolutely freed from the Stone. It is also useful against pains in the Limbs arising from heat, especially against the Gout, applyed by way of Plaister.

The Blossoms Candied with Sugar, are a powerful Remedy against the Heat of the Kidneys, and cleanse and free the Uretories from vicious and slimy foulness. The green Pipes first decocted in water, and then dryed in the shade, and lay'd in Sugar or Honey, are used commonly by Women and Children against the same Distempers, taking the weight of half an Ounce at a time.

The Plant by the Arabians in Egypt, call'd Elhanne, Elhanna. and by the Physicians Alcanna, grows with many Branches like a little Shrub. The Leaves resemble those of the Olive, being shortish, but something broad, of a fresh and flou­rishing green. The Blossoms grow as those of the Elder-tree, and used by the Women, as a comfortable refreshment in their Baths. A decoction of the Leaves, prevents the falling off of Hair, and drives away Vermin; the Egyptian Women with the Juyce of the Leaves and Branches, paint their Nails, in the manner of a Semi-circle, which remains long without wearing off. Of the stamped powder of the Leaves, which they call Archenda, mixt with water, is made a Gold colour, wherewith they stain their Hands and Feet, which yellow tincture they hold for a great Beauty.

Lablab a Tree with many Branches, climbing and spreading like a Vine; Lablab. but in Leaves, Blossoms and Form resembling the Roman Bean. Twice a year, that is in Lent and Harvest, it bears long and broad Cods or Shells, which contain in them Black and Brown reddish Beans, streaked as the Roman. This continues many times without sensible decay a hundred years, carrying both Winter and Summer green Leaves. The Egyptians use the Beans for food, which are no less pleasant than the European. The Women drink the Decoction of it for their Moneths, and it is good against the stopping of the Urine and the Cough.

Melochia is an Herb growing a Cubit high, with thin and limber Twigs. Melochia. The Leaves are like those of a Beet, but smaller, long, and sharp-pointed. The Blossoms are little, and colour'd like Saffron, the Seeds little and black, in a Husk like a Horn. The Seed is us'd to prevent Swooning-fits, and ripens all hard Swellings; though this be common, yet is nothing more acceptable to the Palate, for they boyl it either alone in water, or in Pottage as we dress Beets, at Feasts they both garnish and season their Dishes with it, which is very pleasing; yet notwithstanding this repute, it agrees not over-well with many, for it yields but slender nutriment and a flimy juice, breeding in such as eat much of it great stoppings and Costiveness in their Bowels. The taste also is something flashy and flat unless quicken'd with Juice of Lemons. The De­coction of the Leaves is very good against the Cough, and half an ounce of the Seed makes a sufficient Purge.

Sesban, is a Sprout with a prickly Stock, Sesban. shooting up to the height of a Myr­tle Tree; the Blossoms are yellow, the Husks or Cods long, and like those of Fenugreek; so also is the Seed, and hath an attractive power like the Fenugreek Seed. The Egyptians commonly make Hedges or Fences between their Grounds with this Bush.

Sophera, is a Plant two Cubits high, and leaved like the Myrtle; Sophera. it bears scentless yellow Blossoms with few Seeds, which are said to be poisonous.

Absus is an Hearb with Leaves like the common Clover or Three-leav'd Grass, Absus. the Blossom white or straw-colour'd, the Seed black, and the Stalk prickly.

The Plant known to the Egyptians by the Name Sempsen, Sempsen. but by the Greeks and Latines call'd Sesamus, grows upright a foot and half high, the lower Leaves are more indented or nicked than the higher, and are very like those of Night­shade. The Blossoms are small and white, followed by small Cods, holding a Seed like Line-seed, out of which Oyl is pressed, which the Arabians call Zeid Taib, that is, Good Oyl, because it is so wholesom a Food, that it is sold dearer than the Oyl-Olive.

The Leaves, The use of it. Seed, and Oyl moderately hot and moist in the second degree, of an extenuating quality, are by the Egyptians us'd against many Diseases. The Countrey people heretofore fed thereon, and grew fat with it, but now the Oyl is chiefly us'd to take away Freckles and Spots in the Skin, and to anoint Sores.

The Plant Berd or Papyrus, Berd or Papyrus. groweth upon the Nile, having a reedy or stringy Root, with many streight Stalks, six, seven, or more Cubits high above water, at the end of which is a multitude of long and very small Threeds, seeming as a Blossom. The Leaves are Triangular, soft below, at the Stalk broad, and at the end sharp, in form of a Cross-barr'd Dagger; Surgeons there use the Juyce of the Leaves, to cleanse and enlarge the Orifices of Sores, and with the Ashes of the tops of the Stalks, close and heal up the Wounds.

The Roots in former times serv'd in stead of Writing-Tablets, The use of them. the Juyce of the Stalks wrought into thin Leaves, the Antients wrote upon, as we now adayes do upon our Paper made of old Linnen, and probably from this Plant took the name Papyrus. There is a signature of a Sprig or Stalk of this Plant Carv'd upon several Obelisks, whereby they signifyed the great abundance of all things, because this Plant served them formerly in stead of all necessary Commodities; for before the Planting of Corn was known in Egypt, the peo­ple lived on this Plant, making thereof Cloaths, Boats, all manner of Houshold­stuffe, Garlands for the Gods, and Shooes for the Priests. But at this day by the carelessness of the Inhabitants, and the importing of our European Paper thi­ther, it is by them esteemed of no worth at all.

There grows also a kinde of Cucumers in several places in Egypt, Chate. nam'd Chate, differing onely from ours in Europe in greatness, clearness, and softness of the Leaves, which are smaller, whiter, softer, and rounder; they have a very pleasant taste, and are light and easie of digestion. The Inhabitants account them very wholsom, either eaten boyled or raw, and Physicians use them against burning Feavers, and several other like Distempers.

There grow also several kinds of Melons; Abdellavi. one call'd Abdellavi, much differing from ours: another kinde Chajar, of an unpleasant and watery taste; but the Seed is held to be more cooling, Batechia El Mavi. than of the rest: A third sort, call'd Batechia El Mavi, bigger than ours, yellow of Skin, and hath within nothing but Seeds and sweet water, which they drink in great abundance, against Thirst, and to allay the heat of the Stomach, Liver, and Kidneys, and also to abate the Ter­tian Ague. The more noble Turks, Arabians, and Egyptians, who live delicately, drink this water onely with Sugar, and mixt with Rose-water, Musk and Am­ber, in Summer time for their daily Drink; yet not without damage to the Stomach and Liver, because of the over-great Cooling, if it be too much us'd.

The Egyptians keep this Fruit the whole year good, in Cellars, which as a rarity they set upon the Table for Strangers to eat.

Here also groweth a kind of limber Grass, Nejem El Jalib. creeping in the Earth with white, tartish and sweet Roots, as our Couch-grass. On the ends of the Stalks stand four Ears, with small Seeds in them, over against one another; from whence the Egyptians took occasion to name it Nejem El Jalib, that is, Cross-grass. The Seed is held for a special Remedy to dissolve the Stone in the Kidneys, and Bladder. The decoction of the Root, is with good success given inwardly against the Measles and Small Pox, and doth bring down the stopped Terms.

There groweth also a Tree call'd Atle, Tamaris-Tree, or Atle. very like the Tamaris-Tree, which Dioscorides names Mirica and Tamerix, and is found in several places of Italy and Germany, though no where in Egypt.

The Egyptian Atle, shoots up to the bigness of a great Olive-Tree, and in the Countrey of Sahid, grows as big as a great Oak. The Leaves are like those of the Tamaris, but longer, smaller, and full of green Hairs. The Fruit, is hard, woody, or sticky, without Kernels, and seems to be the same with Nut-Galls.

The Wood of it they use for Fuel for want of other; The use of it. and also make thereof a kind of Charcoals, which all Egypt and Arabia burn.

The Leaves open Obstructions of the Milt or Spleen; so do Cups, Cans, and Pots, made of the Wood.

In several places of Egypt, and especially about Alexandria, The Dadel-Tree, unknown to us. are great Woods of Dadel-Trees, which the Arabians from the name of the Fruit call Dachel.

The Dadel-Tree (of which there are Male and Female) hath every other year abundance of Fruit, but the Female affords no Fruit, unless her Branches be plash'd with those of her Mate. Many to make the Female fruitful, Alpinut. strow the Matter that lyes in the Bag or Receptacle, out of which the Blossom and Fruit comes, upon her Branches: And probably if the Egyptians did not so, they would bring bring forth no Fruit, or if they did, they would never come to any perfection. But Veslingus seems to reject this, Observat. in Alpin. ascribing the great fruitfulness of it to the Soil, being Sandy and Nitrous: For he affirms that he hath seen the Earth in the Dadel-Tree Wood oftentimes, thick cover'd with a white Down or Callow, like Cellar Walls where we finde our Saltpetre, which by the sultry South windes from Negro-land and the Barren Arabia, is in great abundance driven up hither, and falling on the tops of the Dadel-Trees, not onely makes them flourish, but also pregnant.

The Roots are so small, thin and short, that it is a wonder how it supports it self, being so great, especially when so often charged by strong & assiduous gusts; for contrary to other Trees, this tapers downwards, and the slenderest part of the Stock is nearest the Foot, which hath made some suppose that the Plant, though large, receives no nourishment from the Earth by the Root, but from the Air.

There is no Tree more profitable, or turns to a greater account than this: for of the Stock or Body they make Beams and Rafters for Floorings of Houses, and of the Boughs and Branches they make divers sorts of Wooden Ware, which they call Cuffaz. Of the Leaves, Sayls and Mantles; and of the Bark they make Tow and Cordage for Ships. The Fruit affords not onely a most delicious Food, but good Physick. The Arabians as we said, call this Tree Dachel; a Bough of it with Dadels on, they call Samarrhich; the Bag or Cod, Dux; a young un­ripe Dadel, Tella; a greater, Nin; one half ripe, Ramich; perfectly through ripe, Bellan; a dryed one, Tamar; a rotten one, Rotob; and the Leaves, Zaaf. In the Stock where the Branches shoot out, lyes a white Bag full of Pelp or Juice; which many, when a Tree either falls or is cut down, pull out, and eat raw, as a provocative to Venus; it not differing much in taste from our Arti­choaks.

There also you may see in some Orchards a Tree, Cotton-Tree. by the Arabians in Egypt call'd Gottne'l Ssegiar, whereon the Cotton groweth. It rises ten Cubits high; the Wood hard; the Leaves have five deep indentings; the Fruit is a Nut as big as an Apple, cover'd with a green Skin, full of Milk, white Wool or Cot­ton, which by the opening of the Fruit as it ripens, endeavors to thrust it self out; within which, is one onely dark brown hidden Seed.

There is Lasting but a year. an Anniversary Plant that also bears Cotton, and differs from the afore-mention'd in slenderness of Stock, and form of Branches and Leaves; [Page 106]this grows not in Egypt, but plentifully in Candy, Cyprus, Apulia, and Syria, which from thence the Egyptians transport, for they use not their own Cotton, being but scarce, but the other in all cases, and particularly in stead of Lint for Wounds, as also to stench Bleeding. The Juice or Extract of the Seed is very Sovereign in all Agues and Burning Feavers, and good to expel what ever cor­rodes and gripes the Stomach and Bowels.

There is also another Tree, Carneb, or St. Johus Bread. bearing Fruit Semi-circled like a Hunters Horn, call'd here Saint Johns Bread; by the Arabians, Carob or Carneb, that is, The Mother Horn, with whom the Fruit onely is in use, out of which they draw an exceed­ing sweet Honey, wherewith in stead of Sugar they preserve the Cassia Fistula, Tamarine Ginger, and other Fruits green. Moreover, that Honey is very much us'd by them in Clisters, by reason of its solubility.

The Sant, Sants or Acatia. the true Acatia of the Antients, groweth in Egypt in a Tract of Land far from Sea, by Mount Sinai. The Body of the Tree hath a Bark black, rough, and prickly. The Leaves are small and slender, closing at the setting, and opening again with the rising Sun. The Fruit lyes in a flattish Cod or Husk, like those of a Lilly, of a Thumb breadth, and sometimes a span long. From the green Cods stamped in a Stone-Mortar, Juice of Acatia. they extract a Juice, by decocting made thick and hard; The use of it. of which the Tanners in Cairo use a great quantity to make a gloss upon their wrought Hides: It hath also an astringent quality to stop the sharp Defluxions causing sore Eyes, and to dissipate the like hot Goutish Distillations falling in the Joynts.

This Egyptian Plant sends forth also from the Body a Gum, Gum-Arabick. by the Apothe­caries call'd Gum-Arabick, though others think that their Gum proceeds not only from this, but is a Compound-product of many other; because in Egypt and Arabia no sorts of Summer Trees are to be found, but this Sant onely.

The Mauz, Mauz, or Muza. or Muza, by which name also the Fruit is known, groweth in several places of Egypt, and especially about Damiata; but in much greater abundance in Guinee and Ethiopia, where we shall speak more fully of it.

Egypt produces also several sorts of fair and beautiful Flowers, Why the flowers in Egypt lose their smell. as Hyacinthus, Daffadil, and the like, brought over from Constantinople by the Turkish Bashaw's, but keep not long any esteem, because here their fragrancy is presently lost.

In Egypt are no Poplars, Belon. but Myrtles in abundance. Here is also a sort of Rue call'd Hermale, wherewith the Arabians, Turks, and Egyptians perfume them­selves every morning, with perswasion that the scent thereof drives away evil Spirits.

Here also grow very great Pomegranats, Villamont. out of which they press a very plea­sant Wine; as also Pomecitrons, Oranges, Lemons, Figs, with other sorts of Fruits which grow not in these Countreys, but they have no Eglantine, Wallnuts, or Hasel-nuts, Flax. nor several other European Fruits.

Some places produce a Lint that makes Russet Flax, Pier. Hierogl. lib. 53. especially about Rosetta, where the In habitants plant such abundance, that they serve with it several for­reign Countreys.

Among all the rich Commodities of this Countrey, In Egypt is no Wine pro­duced. there is no Wine but what Merchants import from other places: the flatness of the Region hinder­ing the Planting and Dressing of Vineyards; Radzovil. yet Prince Radzovil in his Book of Travels, writeth that he saw a Vineyard as he went to El Mattharea. Secondly the Mahumetans, to whom by the Alcoran drinking of Wine is forbidden, root up such Vine-stocks as are at any time by the Christians planted, out of obedience, as they pretend; But is brought thither from other places. however notwithstanding their zeal, many of the Turks [Page 107]strong Wine, and suffer Wine of Candia, Cyprus, and Mount Libanus, and of the Island Zant and Cephalonia, to be imported, so that they have no want thereof, though none grows there.

As to Gardens and Husbandry, there are few of the one, How Tilage is done in Egypt. and little of the other here, but abundance of Wheat and other Grain, being sowed upon the bare Mud which Nilus at his Overflux left upon the Land, without other la­bor of Ploughing or Tilling, than the running it over with a wooden Harrow, the better to drive and settle the Seed therein.

This shall suffice to have spoken concerning Plants or Vegetables, we shall now proceed to enumerate Quadrupedes, Fowls, and Fish, wherein it hardly gives place to any other Region in the world.

¶ FOur-footed Beasts, by reason of the great plenty of Grass, Meadows, and Pastures, excellent Trees and shady Groves, bred up and nursed by the Nile, are here for the most part very large, as Bees, Oxen, Camels, Horses, Asses, Bellon. lib. 2. cap. 25. Goats, and Sheep; which last are fat and fleshy, with a Dew-lap like Oxen, and long spreading Tayls, that hang upon the ground. The Mutton, Veal, Beef, and Lamb, is singularly sweet and delicious, but somewhat moist and watry.

The Goats very numerous about Alexandria, Goats with long Ears. have Ears hanging down to the ground, and at the end four or five fingers broad, curling upwards.

There is another kinde of these that are wilde, Wilde Goats. by the present Natives call'd Gazelles, but known to the antient Greeks by the name of Orygis, commonly run­ning in great Herds in the Fields and Woods, which the Inhabitants shoot or kill with Guns. Their Hair and Tayls, Eyes and Eye-brows, resemble Camels; fore-footed like a Hare, shorter before than behinde. They have a black Horn, and bleat like tame Goats, but are Beardless; very nimble in climbing, but unweildy to descend; on plain ground very swift. The Horns of the Male exceed those of the Female, standing very straight, onely at the end a little crooked. Pliny says they have but one Horn, and which is more remarkable, if true, when the Dog-star ariseth, they look stedfastly upon it, performing some gestures, as it were, of Adoration to it.

Here also are a kinde of Apes, the Baboon, call'd in Greek Cynocephalus, Cynocephalus. The Drill, or Baboon. Arist. lib, 2. cap. 7. Hist. Animal. that is, Dogs-head, for the likeness of that part to a Dog: They are much larger, stronger, and wilder than the other, with Teeth sharp and set close together: This Beast, according to the testimony of Horus, had a very extraordinary pro­perty, which was to urine every hour. For these and other rarities observ'd by the Egyptian Priests in this Creature, it was of frequent use among the Hiero­glyphicks, to denote and signifie several Mysteries.

Chameleon is a Greek word, and signifies A Little Lion: Chameleon.Bellonius says they fre­quent about Cairo, and many other places in the Hedges and Bushes: it bears some little resemblance of the Crocodile, from which different in Colour, Head, Their shape. Tongue, Eyes and Feet: It creeps not, but walks upon all four, the Head long and sharp like a Hog; the Neck very short; and Eyes, which having no Eye-lid, can turn about on every side.

This is a sluggish and dull Animal, holding the Head carelesly, and the Mouth always gaping, lolling out the Tongue, and so catching Flies, Grashoppers, Caterpillars, Palmer-worms, and such like; in stead of Teeth having one en­tire Jaw-bone, indented like a Saw, but useless, swallowing whole what ever Food it takes, wanting both Spleen and Bladder, dunging, or rather muting like a [Page 108]Hawk. The Back hath a hard and rough Skin, beset with some few prickles: the two fore Feet, Bellonius saith, have three Claws inwards, and two out­wards; but the hinder Feet three outwards, and two inwards, with hooked Nails or Talons.

It hath a strange and ridiculous manner of gate or movement, Its gate is ridiculous. for stretch­ing both feet on each side at once together, and so alternately, the other makes such a shuffling gradation, one Shoulder jetting foremost, the other out-step­ping that, with a continual untoward hank and loose, that it makes Spectators laugh, as if it were a match, which side should come first to the Goal. But he is so nimble in running up Trees, that he seems rather to flie; wherein he makes great use of his Tail to lay hold on the Boughs, especially in coming down; whence we may gather, that the Camelion more frequents trees, than the ground.

Nor give the motions of the Eyes less cause of Comical admiration, It stirs the Eyes wonder­fully. for he does not as other Creatures, who turn both Eyes at once after the same object: But somtime like our squinters, not only look two opposite ways at once, but more, seeing right forward with one Eye, and looking up with the other aloft; ano­ther while to the ground with one, and sideling with the other; but which is yet stranger, it will draw one Eye to its Back, and make a survey behind, while the other takes a prospect forwards.

They make at their Meals also Merriment, It Eats devouring, or swallowing whole. neither pecking as Fowl, nor chawing like Cattel, nor sucking like Lampreys and leeches; but with an odd and sudden flutter of the Tongue, shot out near a hands breadth, ingurges the caught prey in a trice.

This member being nothing else but a hollow Pipe, The fashion of the Tongue. fleshy and spongy, wherein are some Sinews easier to shut together than a Gin or Trap, because those Nerves proceeding from the Os Hyoides, and running through the Cavity, draws the same after expansion back again, with its prey sticking to a glutinous stuff, wherewith it is covered: This refutes the opinions of the Antients, who believed the Camelion liv'd by the Air, whereas in truth, it lives by such receiv'd nourishment as we have declared.

It appropriates to it self another peculiar quality in the Opinion of some old Writers, who deliver that the Camelion changes colour according to the several objects presented: First in the Eyes, then in the Tail, after that in the whole Body. Cameleons vary not co­lour with their objects. And this alteration of colours, many Authors conjecture, and among others, the Roman Panarolus affirms to proceed from the Systole and Dia­stole of the Heart, which according to sensibility of heat or cold, beats quicker or slower, the quicker striking a redness, whereas the slow reduces him to his own natural Ash-colour; for it retains that hew even after Death, though a little paler.

The Ichneumon of old call'd by the Greeks [...], Ichneumon. a Hog, from rooting in the Earth; but now by Bellonius nam'd The Egyptian, and by Elianus, The Indian Rat, though some will have it, The Egyptian Otter: it much resembles a Cat, but longer, and of a rougher hair, colour'd between bay and dun, round Ears, black Legs, and a long stern taporing from the Hanch to the end. Near the Fundament appears another wide passage hairy all over, which hath given Wri­ters occasion to suppose that this Beast was a Hermaphroditick.

The Ichneumon, bred onely in Egypt, and chiefly about Alexandria, becomes tame as Cats and Dogs; Vitruvius asserts, they are also found on one side of Mount Atlas, and at the Head-Springs of Nile. They feed on Mice, Snakes, Snails, Cameleons, Frogs, and small Fowl, especially Hens. Some fancies [Page 109]

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that it hath a peculiar appetite to the Liver of a Crocodile, and therefore creeps into its Belly sleeping; but in truth not so much to eat the Liver, as from a natural antipathy; for it also breaks their Eggs wherever found, to the no small advantage of the people, who greatly rejoyce at their destruction. It cannot endure the winde: for whensoever they rise it sculks under shelter. This creature though multiparous, having always many young ones, hunts eagerly Mice and Snakes, as a Poulcat or Weesel, therefore they are kept tame, and preserve themselves against cold by playing and motion: It thrusts her Head between her hinder Legs, so converting into a round bundle, like a Hedge-hog or Porcupine.

At the approach of any Beast, it bunches the Back, and bristles up the Hair as in defiance, daring to set upon Mastiff Dogs, nay upon Horses or Camels, and will leave a Cat breathless at three strokes; he seizeth his prey cou­ching like a Bull-Dog upon the ground, and at length rising upon the hinder legs falls upon it with a leap. When he draws to Battel against the Asps, he rolls first in the Mud, then dryes himself in the Sun, or else dips over head in water, and then tumbles to gather up the dust, which she uses as defensive Arms against the Enemy.

The Scincos, which Dioscorides suppos'd to be the Land-Crocodile, Scincos. and Bello­nius the small Crocodile, in outward appearance one and the same, having four feet, and as big, sayes Bellonius, as the Salamander, with a round knotty Tail. Renodeus appropriates to it many small and yellow knobs, a long Head, and a round Tail, somewhat crooked at the end, with a blew list or streak from the point of the stern to the crown of his Head. They feed upon sweet smelling Flowers, and bury their Eggs, whose flesh they use Physically, as Cantharides to heighten Venus.

The Bird Ibis, hath long Legs and a crooked Beak, being of two sorts, viz. The Bird Ibis. the white found all over Egypt; and the black onely to be had at Damiata, and no where else. The white ones have a head like a Sea-pie, and a pointed and hooked red Beak, about a Thumbs breadth. It represents the form of a mans [Page 110]Heart, when hiding the Head and Neck in the Feathers under its Breast. Plu­tarch says, it weighs but half an Ounce when first hatched. Gaudentius Merula, gives it a Heart too big, if compar'd with the Body. Elianus avers, that his Guts are ninety and six Cubits long, which are shrunk together, so long as the Moon is near the Change unseen. This Bird with which all the ways to Alex­andria are filled, is so peculiar to Egypt, that it will starve it self to death if tran­sported thence. Yet some say, the like is found about Licha, in the utmost parts of Africa.

They eat Serpents, Grashoppers, and such like: A West-winde drives them out of the Lybian Desarts into these parts, where they are very numerous and much nourished, because of their enmity to Serpents. And for this reason, they say, Josephus. that when Moses drew into the Field against the Moors, through places beset with Serpents, he took these Birds along with him, shut up in Paper Cages. For fear of the Cats, they make their Nests upon high Palm-trees. Some hold, but with what reason is yet controverted, that a Basilisk or Cockatrice is bred out of the Eye of this Bird Ibis: But most certain, says Elian, that the Feathers and Eggs stupifying, take away all motion from the Crocodile; it makes it self clean when preparing to sleep. This Creature first taught the use of Clisters and Syringes; for with the crooked Bill, as with a Syringe, it injects Salt-water into his own Bowels, to open its vent when obstructed: and from thence, says the same Elian, Plutarch and Pliny, the Egyptians took that Chyrurgical Practice. Another observable thing, and peculiar to this Bird is, that it will drink no foul or unwholesom water: wherefore the Egyptian Priests made Holy-water of such as the Ibis had drunk.

Bellonius says, A Sacred Hawk. here is a Sacred Hawk, because formerly worshipp'd by all the people, large as a great Raven, headed like a Kite, but of the usual colour of Hawks. 'Tis a Bird of Prey, abounding not onely here, but in Syria, though ve­ry seldom, and sometimes also in Caramia. It had so much repute, as to give the name Baieth to one of the Provinces of the Countrey, as the Crocodile did to Cro­codilopites; the Dog, to Cynopolites, and the like.

The Priests comprehended great Mysteries under this Bird, It signifies great Mysteries among the Egyptians. and their Figure was carv'd upon almost all their Spires or Obelisks, where always uppermost was the Deity of the Sun, acknowledged to be full of Spirit, Light, and Life; For this, saith Horus, the Egyptians call'd them Baieth, and Thaustus; Bai signi­fying the Life; and Eth, an Heart: because as the Heart is the Fountain of Life, so the Sun is the Heart, or Soul of the World; for this reason the Egyptian Priests did conceit that the Hawk, The Egyptian Hawk, or rather the Eagle, drinks no water.because of the similitude of Nature which it hath with the Soul, drinketh no water, but blood, whereby they imagine the Soul to be nourish'd. In their Hieroglyphical Writings a Hawk represented God, partly because above all other Fowl it seems to be the Image of the Sun, being observ'd out of a peculiar and hidden power of Nature, to look with very fixed Eyes upon its Beams, and for that cause they sometime pourtray the Sun in the form of a Hawk. Those who had willingly or unwillingly kill'd a Hawk, or the Bird Ibis, Herodot. were without hope of pardon condemn'd to die: Nay, so high was their Veneration of it, that they ceremoniously buried a dead Hawk, and brought it to the City Bulis.

It hath been observ'd, The Egyptians have taken several Letters from the forms of Beasts. that the antient Egyptians took several of their Letters from the forms of the Legs, Head, and Beak of the Bird Ibis, and this sacred Hawk; as also from the Ox, and the Dog, both by them reputed religious. These four Beasts were of the highest esteem, not only for their use in Hieroglyphical Writing, but also because in their High-times of Solemnity, call'd Comasien, [Page 111]they usually carried them in Procession, according to the Testimony of Cle­mens Alexandrinus.

Herodotus writes, That in former times about Thebes, small bodied Serpents with two horns on the crown of their Heads, and very harmless, were found; which being dead, they buried in the Temple of Jupiter, because they believed them dedicated to him. The same Herodotus reports, but from hear-say, That near the City Brutus, close by Arabia, were Serpents with wings, which flew thence in the beginning of Lent into Egypt; but the Bird Ibis met and fell up­on them in their flight, and by their deaths anticipated any prejudice from their arrival: for which benefit the Ibis was held in great adoration.

As the Land is ennobled by producing great store of Plants, Beasts and Fowls, so the Nile hideth in its bosom a vaste abundance of Fishes; of which the Crocodile, and Hippopotamus or Sea-horse, which are Amphibii, be the most noted and chief. And though the Crocodile keeps in several Rivers of Asia and America, as in the River Ganges about Bengala, and in the Niger in Africa, yet Nilus feedeth the greatest, as though a more peculiar of that than any other Rivers.

The Crocodile Herodotus tells us, Crocodile. the antient Egyptians about Elephantina call Champsa, and in the Dominion of Syena, according to Strabo, Suchus; but the Ionians or Greeks, [...], that is, Crocodiles. The Indians name it Cayman; the Arabians and Jews, says Megistus, Corbi, and in Kirchers Egyptian Lexicon, it stands expressed by the name of Picharuki.

This wonderful Creature has very great Eyes with little balls or apples, Its Form. whose Back-bone consists of sixty Joynts; his Feet furnish'd with sharp nails, and splaying outwards, and the Tail proportionable to the Body, lessening by degrees to the end. This Serpent, as we may call it, runs swiftly, but can nei­ther deviate to the right or left, or turn about easily, but with a stiff formali­ty goes directly forward by reason of the inflexible Joynts of the Back-bone, by which means it is often avoided. They say, it can live four whole Moneths without food, but when hungry will cry or weep like a man. Some dare affirm, though untruly, that it lives of Mud or Slime; for it eats dead fish, and humane flesh: Peter Martyr relates in his Babylonish Embassy, Peter Martyr. that one of them was taken that had three young Children in his Mouth. When they ingender, the Male turns the Females Belly upward, The Breeding of them. otherwise for the shortness of their Feet they cannot well couple: After that Coition, the Fe­male lays sixty Eggs, each as big as a Goose Egg, upon which they sit to hatch sixty days. Some conceit that they bury their Eggs in the Sand, and hatch their young ones by the heat of the Sun, but that is not so: however there is no Creature that from so small a beginning, comes to such an extraordinary bigness, some being found to exceed thirty Foot in Length.

They bear enmity to the Ichneumon, Buffel, Tyger, Hawk, Hog-fish, Dolphin, It bears Enmity against other Beasts.Scorpions and Men, but hold friendship with Hogs, and the Trochilus; which is a small Fowl, with a sharp point or pin on the Head, Trochilus. that when the Croco­dile is glutted with Fish, and sleeping with his Mouth open, comes, (searching his own Food) and by picking cleanseth his Mouth, Teeth, and Gullet. Lee. Afric. Others suppose this little Bird picketh out the Worms breeding between the Teeth, who ingratefully would eat it up for requital, but that the sharp Pin on the Birds Head pricking his Jaws, makes him open them, by which means the Bird escapes.

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Several Eastern People eat them as good Food, The Flesh of it is eaten. which was customary also here; onely forbidden to Apollonopolitans: whether it was, because the Daughter of King Psammitichus, as you may read in Herodotus, was devoured by a Croco­dile, or out of hatred to the Heaven-invading Typhon, who as they say was Metamorphosed into one, is not yet determined; however in Arsinoe, which Strabo calls, At Arsinoe it was count­ed sacred. The City of Crocodiles, it was counted Sacred, and fed with Bread, Flesh, and Wine: The Original of which Veneration without doubt pro­ceeded from fear, for that the Crocodiles, which in great abundance in the Lake Moeris lay close by the City, continually waiting to make a Prey both of Men and Beasts, by that means glutted, should not be greedy after Prey: but neither Fear or Reverence of that could prevail with the People of the Neigh­bour City Heraclea, to hinder them from giving Worship to the Ichneumon, its most mortal Enemy.

The Hippopotamus, Hippopotamus, or the Sea-Horse. or Sea-Horse, not so call'd from any Similitude it bears with a Horse, but from the bigness, (the Word [...] in Greek sometimes seem­ing to bear the Signification of Great as well as Horse) haunts the Proteus the Son of Oce­anus and Tethys is feigned to be the Keeper of Sea-Calves or Horses. Nyle, says Pliny, though indeed found also in the River Niger, and many other Pla­ces. Barboza. Barboza averres he saw many of them in Gophale, leaping out of the Sea to the Land, and returning again: And others have seen the like in the great Sea near Petzore. Aristotle, Elian, and others have done something towards its Description: But Fabius Columna in his Observations of Amphibious Creatures, hath exactly shewed this in a Salted Skeleton, brought from Damiata into Italy by Ni­colaus Zerenghi, The Form of it. Master-Surgeon of Narn. It hath no likeness of a Horse, the Body resembling an Ox, and the Legs a Bear: From Head to Tail thirteen Foot long, and four and a half broad; The Belly was rather flat than round; The Compass of his Legs was a Yard, and his Foot twelve Inches in breadth; Each Claw had three Divisions: The Head two Foot and a half broad, three Foot long, and seven Foot about: The whole of a very large Size: The Mouth is fleshy, shrivel'd, and very wide; The Eyes an Inch broad, and twice as long; The Ears little, and but three Fingers long: It was fat, had Claws divided into three, with a Tail like a Hog: The Nostrils large: The [Page 113]lips like a Lions, beset with a bristly Beard, though the rest of the Body were without Hair. In the nether Jaw were six Teeth, of which the two outermost were half a Foot long, two Fingers broad, and on either Side seven thick, and short Grinders. In the upper Jaw, which he moved like the Crocodile, were the like; all of them as hard as Flints, and from thence for an Experiment, by striking the back of a Knife upon it, flew sparks of Fire, so that it is probable, that this Beast with gnashing his Teeth one against another, might seem to breath Fire; which special property the Antients ascribed to it, but thus mistaken. He will leap ashore, and running into the Plow'd Lands, satiate himself with Corn; then immediately returning into the River, either for fear of Hunters or Plowmen way-laying him. When superfluous fatness troubles Him, he rubs himself so long upon the stump of a Reed, till he hath opened a Vein; which having bled enough he closeth, plaistring it over with Mud.

It is as dangerous and malicious to Man as the Crocodile, Its Flesh is Eaten. yet the Moors eat their Flesh, which Clusius sayes, A chief Man of the Hague in Guinee, about the Promontory of Lopez Consalves, hath seen; where in the City of Ulibetto, many of their Heads were kept, out of which his People took with them Teeth of a strange bigness. The Egyptians, as Columna reports, binde the Teeth to any Part troubled with the Cramp, or carry about them a Ring made thereof. With these the Blacks imagine they preserve themselves from many Diseases.

The four Sea-Horses which Peter van de Brock in his Journey to Angola, Sea-Horses. saw on Land in Lowango, were like great Buffles, slick Skin'd, with Heads like Wilde­horses, short Ears, wide Nostrils, two crooked Tushes, like Wilde-Boars, short Legs, and Feet like Clover-grass-leaves, and neighing like our Horses. They stood still till the People came near them, then they went away Pedeten­tim, foot by foot, till returned to the Sea, where throwing themselves in, they sometimes rose above Water, but dived again as soon as they discerned the ap­proaching People; so that by all their Endeavour they were not able to shoot one of them.

¶ THe Old Egyptians were so great Idolaters, The Egyptians worship­ped Beasts. Heredot. that the meanest of Crea­tures, Herbs or Plants, had among them Divine Adoration; for when a Cat was dead in any House, the whole Family shav'd off the hair of the Eye-brows; but the hair of the whole Body and Head when a Dog dies. The Cats first salted they lay in large Burying-places in the City Bubastis; Hawks in the City Butum; and Bears and Wolves, which they accounted Sa­cred, in the place where they were found lying. Nor did they only Interr when dead, but set them at their Tables when living, feeding them with the dain­tiest Morsels, and did also adore them in times past, as Esopic. Androclent. Sect. 16. Amasis thus complains.

Soon as my usual Dishes up were serv'd,
They for themselves, their Wives and Children carv'd;
And like a Dog gave me their Plates to lick,
Throwing their Offall and gnawn bones to pick;
Delicious Wines, my whole allowance quaff'd,
And at my savoury lapping Water laugh'd;
In wild Moriscoes heightned thus they Dance,
Shins, over Stools and Tables take their chance;
When a fat Priest had almost broke my Chine,
Throwing athwart me his foul Concubine;
This Ipass'd o're, but I began to stare,
When Owl-fac'd Malkin Feasted in my Chair;
They truly honour'd her, in state there sate,
Fed with my Dainties a ridiculous Cat;
But the fat Priest who her did most adore
In publick, was in private her Amour.

The Lycopolitans did forbear all manner of Cattel, because worshipping the Wolf, they would not bereave him of his due food: The Oxyrinchites adored [Page 114]a Fish, Oxyrinches, which takes his Name from Swiftness, may be the Dolphin, the swittest of all [...]ishes. the Cynopolitans a Dog; between whom Plutarch relates, that in his time a bloudy War arose, because the Cynopolitans had eaten the Fish which the Oxyrinchitans had in Divine Honour; and on the other side, the Oxyrinchitans in revenge had taken and killed a Dog, to which the Cynopolitans did offer Sacri­fice. In his Oration against Julian. Athanasius says, that all the Contention and Wars among the Egyptians, took their Original from such mean and slight beginnings. The Inhabitants of Thebes honoured an Ox or Calf; whence the worshipping of the Calf, by the Children of Israel in the Wilderness, perhaps took Original; those of Croco­dilopolis a Crocodile; the Latonopolitans, the Latonos; they of Mendes, a Goat or Pan, call'd Mendes in the Egyptian Tongue.

Thus every City, Province or Territory had a several Deity; nay, they descended lower, even to the adoration of things more abject, as Garlick, Onions, and other Kitchin Garden-stuff; whereof thus Juvenal in his 15th. Satyr.

Quis nescit, Volusi Bythinice, qualia demens
Egyptus portenta colat? Crocodilon adorat
Pars haec; illa pavet saturam Serpentibus Ibin.
Effigies sacri nitet aurea Circopytheci!
Dimidio Magicae resonant ubi Memnone, chordae
Atque vetus Thebae centum jacet obruta portis.
Illic caeruleos, hic piscem fluminis: illic
Oppida tota canem, venerantur; nemo Dianam.
Porrum & caepe nefas violare ac frangere morsu.
O sanctas gentes! quibus haec nascuntur in hortis
Numina! lanatis animalibus abstinet omnis
Mensa: nefas illic faetum jugulare capellae:
Carnibus humanis nesci licet—
Who not, Volutius, knows, what Monsters vile
Mad Egypt worships? these the Crocodile;
Those Ibis glutted with Serpentine gore,
Others a grave Baboon in gold adore,
Where Magick groans from Memnons Tomb arise,
And hundred-gated Thebes in ruine lyes:
Some Sea, some River Fish, whole Cities there
Pray to a Dog, but none Diana fear;
Garlick and Onions none must burt or eat,
O holy Nation who in Gardens set,
Peculiar Gods, from Sheep all must abstain
To kill a tender Kid, or Goat, profane;
Yet eating mans flesh all these Sects maintain.

Now why the Egyptians, Why the Egyptians wor­shipped Beasts. with such Zeal and Solemnity worshipp'd Beasts, seems to proceed from their opinion of the Transmigration of Souls; for they believed, that the Souls of good men went into sacred Beasts, as Hawks, Oxen, Dogs, Ibises, especially the Lion, as the prime of all bestial Transmi­gration; Androc. Sect. 8. Aesopic. of which hear Amasis.

I not in Bestial Soveraignty rejoyce,
Though all the Forest trembles at my Voice;
My high Condition wretched seems and base,
Husk'd in a shaggy Main and Hairy Face;
I rather would, armed with my Lench and Aul,
A Cobler be, Inthroned beneath a Stall;
Drive some such subtle Trade to purchase Bread,
Than be o're Beasts the universal Head;
Though 'mongst the numerous Animals that be,
Next Man, the Lyon takes the first degree.

But the Souls of the wicked they supposed to go into more vile and despica­ble Creatures, as the dull Hippotames, Horses, Asses, and the like. And that both Gods and Kings walked up and down under such disguises, to punish Vices, and encourage Vertue, where-ever found.

EGypt also hid within its Bowels great Quarries of all sorts of Marble, as appears by the sumptuous Burying-places under Ground, Spiers, Nee­dles, and other stately Works, erected in antient Times, with such variety of Stone as we have already mention'd.

¶ THe Air, especially about Cairo, and further towards the South, The Air in Egypt. Hot. because so near the Line, is when the Sun casts his Beams perpendicularly from Cancer, very Hot; during which time of violent Heat, all the people dwell in places under ground; and in Cairo, in the midst of every House, are Wells containing water, which not only cools their Mansions, but refreshes them­selves. They contrive also in their Houses very great Pipes or Funnels, which stand right up into the Air, from the midst of the House, with a broad Mouth like a Bell, standing open to the North, wherein the cool Air en­tring, is sent down to the lowermost retiring Rooms under Ground. For shade also in the Streets, every Dwelling hath a broad Penthouse: And for refreshment of their scorched Bodies they use bathing, for the commodious­ness whereof they have curious Bannia's of sweet and clear Water from the River Nile, without mixing any Herbs or Medicinal Ingredients. The Hot Air is cooled by Nilus, and the Anniversary Winds.

The Heat also is somewhat moderated by the overflowing of Nilus at that Time, and the continual blowing of cool Northerly Winds; otherwise the Heat there is so vehement, that neither Man nor Beast could be able to live. In Winter, the Air is Hot and Dry, sometimes a little cool, but generally very Hot, and most obnoxious to the Head of all parts of the Body. The Air of the Nights is cold, which after Sun-rising becomes a little Warm; at Noon very Hot, but at Night again Cold: so that its inequality breeds many Diseases.

¶ THe Year may also very well, though in a different way from us, The Seasons of the Year are with the Egyptians fourfold. be di­vided into four Seasons, The first is Spring, March or April. in which the Weather is temperate. They have also every Year two Summers, but contingent, divi­ded into an unhealthy and intemperate, and a healthy and temperate. The first Summer. The first being the unhealthful, continues to the middle of June, and the rising of the Nile.

The second Summer begins from the Nile's rising, The second Summer. and continues till Septem­ber, and the Decrease. The Harvest consists of two other Moneths; Harvest. but the Brumall Season beginneth on December, and continueth to March or April. Winter. Thus is the Year divided, the Reason whereof we will a little search after. First, Then they placed the Spring, as before is said, because at that Time the Air is of a moderate and milde Temper, and the Trees begin to bud and grow, The first Summer causeth many Diseases. and the Ground to bring forth. The Spring ended, the first Summer begins, very hurtful both to Man and Beast; during the whole time of whose conti­nuance, very hot and tedious Winds blow, call'd by them Campsien, from Campsi a Commander, who was overwhelm'd under a great heap of Sand by these Winds, and smother'd with his whole Army in the Desarts of Africa: Such is the violence of these impetuous Gusts, sometimes, that it so raises the Sand, that for three, five, seven, or nine Days, the Air is darkn'd, and the Sun can­not be seen for those Atomy Clouds. At this time rage many mortal Sick­nesses, but chiefly Soreness of the Eyes, for the hot South-winds, as we said, How this comes to pass. so drive up the scortching Sand, that they seem to bring with them shining Flames, the which driven through the Air, hurts and prejudiceth the Body, and in the Eyes breeds prickings and inflamations. And that time many mortal Feavers and Phrensies rage, which dispatch men in few Hours. In fine, all Bodies are thereby so Distempered, that they abhor Food, continually burning with unquenchable Thirst, against which the Water of Nile is the only Remedy. [Page 116]Strangers all this Season retire to places under Ground, where they remain till other cool North-winds arise from the Midland-Sea, which afford a present Comfort to their inflamed and afflicted Bodies, wonderfully cooling the Air.

After this followeth the second Summer, not so Hot, because the Northerly Winds daily renew fresh and cooling Breezes, and the Nile over­flows his Banks: What Alterations of Air happen, are not sudden, but come leisurely, and therefore it is a healthful and wholesome Time.

Now the Husbandmen live at Ease, because the Ground, while covered with the Nile, cannot be either Plowed or Tilled, passing the Time in Shows, Sports, and other signs of Joy, with Feastings and Mirth. Then comes Seed­time and Harvest at the Decrease of the Nile, in which are Wheat and other Fruits sown, which becomes soon Ripe, and are suddenly Reaped. This Sea­son is temperate and free from Sicknesses: The following Winter-Moneths the Air is colder, and consequently more wholesom.

It Rains seldom in the In-land Parts, It Rains seldom in Egypt. and about Cairo, and what is, is rather a Dew or misling than a Shower. At Alexandria and Damiata, and upon all Places lying near the Sea, are many times great Rains, but seldom or never is there any Ice, Snow, or Hail seen, because the Air is not cold enough for it. This as to the Temperature of the Air.

¶ NOw concerning the Temper and Constitution of the People, Several kinds of Egypti­ans. you may observe three sorts of Inhabitants in Egypt, viz. Citizens, dwelling in Cairo and other Cities; wandring Arabians, that live in Tents; and lastly, Ploughmen or Husbandmen, which dwell up the Countrey. Most of the Ci­tizens are Sanguine, but the Bodies of the Ploughmen and Arabians are hot and dry, so are many Townsmen; but the continual drinking the Nile Water, often use of cooling Food or Diet, and the immoderate use of Venus, mightily lessen and alter the Heat and Drought. Besides, their continual use of Baths of sweet Water, so cools them, that many of those dry tan'd Complexions be­come Sanguine, especially Women and Eunuchs. They have cold Stomachs, and full of Flegm, proceeding from the constant using of cooling Diet, as also by the over-great Heat of the Air, whereby the natural Heat extracted or ex­haled, the Stomach is left Raw and Cold.

The Egyptians are general very Gross and Corpulent, The form of their Bo­dies. especially the People of Cairo; most of the Men there being so Fat, that they have much Greater, Thicker and Larger Breasts than Women; but the Arabians are Meagre and Slender, so are the Husbandmen, and not only so, but also hairy, sweaty, and almost scorched and burnt by the Sun. They do all follow Venus immoderate­ly; they are by Nature very Wakeful, and little inclining to Sleep, of a chear­ful Spirit, yet delighting in an Idle and Lazy Life; only the Arabians and Farmers take Pains, or else they must Starve.

¶ THis Countrey is very subject to several and dangerous Diseases, Egypt is much subject to Land-Sicknesses. partly because of the intemperate Air, partly by the immoderate use of Wo­men, and partly because the Poor there which are numerous, are necessitated to use foul unwholesom Food, and muddy and corrupt Water. The chief Diseases afflicting them, are Blear Eyes, Scabs, Leprosie, and Mortal Phren­sies, Small Pox, pain in the Limbs and Joints, Ruptures, Stone in the Kidneys and Bladder, Consumption, Obstructions or Stoppings, Weaknesses of the Liver, Spleen, and Stomach, Tertian Agues, Consuming Quartanes, and all [Page 117]manner of Maladies of the Head. It is true, other people are subject to the like; but not so continually, nor grievously, and therefore properly may be call'd The Plagues of Egypt.

In Alexandria, in Harvest-time many malignant and mortal Agues reign, by drinking the tainted and foul Water, which the Townsmen from year to year keep in their Wells under their houses. In Winter they are troubled with sore Eyes, but the Inhabitants of Cairo much more; among whom it reigns so E­pidemically, that scarce half of them escape the Distemper. There also rages that most terrible Egyptian Disease, by the Arabians call'd Dem El Muia, which in few hours suddenly possesses the Brain like an Apoplexy, and bereaving them of sense and understanding, in few minutes irremediably kills them. Every year once are the Egyptians surprized with this Sickness, of which multitudes dye.

At the same time Children are much afflicted with a malignant kind of Pox bred by the venomous Damps raised from the corrupt Water of Caleg, Malignant Childrens Fox in Alexandria. which is a Branch, or rather a Trench cut from the Nile into Alexandria. Every year, Whence they arise. when the Nile is risen eight or ten Cubits, it falls into this Trench, and runs from thence through the whole City; and at the recess of Nile, this Water then in the Caleg, remaining without current, or motion, at length corrupts, and first becomes green, then black, and in the end sends forth a very noisome Stench; which corrupting, sends forth venomous Vapours whereby the Air is polluted, and that Infection bred; and therefore all the Children which dwell thereabout for that cause are carried thence to other places.

Many other Diseases are in Egypt, which are bred by the eating Ox and Camels Flesh, and rotten Salt Fish, taken in Pools, and Lakes, and mouldy stinking Cheese, by them call'd Gibnehalon: whereby is ingendered much thick Blood, Choler adust, Grossness, and soft and crude Humours. The Cause of the Dropsie. The Dropsie here is very frequent, and such as have it, have Legs, which by the abundance of hardness and gross Swelling are blown and puffed up, like the Legs of Elephants; though indeed they feel no Pain, but are only unwieldy to walk. One main Cause of these Distempers proceeds from the too frequent Use of Colocasie, Beets, Bammia, and Melochia, Herbs breeding thick and tough Flegm.

Many of the better Sort also have a Weakness in their Joynts and Limbs, Why the Egyptians have weak Joynts and feeble Limbs. like Childrens Rickets, relaxed either by immoderate Venery, or the too fre­quent Use of Sweat-Baths: Alpin. Medicin. Egypt. But the meaner Sort get it by wearing the same Clothes in Winter and Summer, and going bare-foot and bare-legg'd. And are troubled with the Stone. The Stone is no stranger among them, being bred from the Sediment of the Wa­ter of Nilus, which as all Water causing Urine, comes to the Kidneys: but the more Earthy Part remaining like Dregs behind by the extraordinary Heat of the Body, becomes dry, and in a little Series of time is turned into Stones.

There are also many of a Melancholy Temper, Sad spirited People in Egypt. which are generally ac­counted Holy Men: For the vulgar perswade themselves, that they live with­out Sin, leading their Lives in great Sanctity; the better to mind Sacred My­steries, retiring from the World into desart and barren Places: The Mahume­tans look upon them as Santons, because they seem to contemn Riches, and slight the vain Pleasures of the World. They live single, giving Hospitable Enter­tainment to all Strangers of what Religion soever: They reprove Vice very sharply, affirming the World to be nothing but a Vale of Misery and Trou­ble: In a sad and morose Reservation they denounce great Punishments to Man for Sin, and so macerate and mortifie their Bodies by a vowed Abstemi­ousness [Page 118]and Labour, that they are little better than the dried Mummies.

The Pestilence is very frequent in these Parts, Egypt is much afflicted with the Pestilence. and prevails against them the more, because they seek no Remedy for it, falsly conceiting, that God hath cer­tainly appointed and ordained every ones Death aforehand, and the manner of his Dying; so that he that must die in the Wars, cannot die of the Pestilence, and those onely can die of the Pestilence, that are aforehand destined of God for it. For this cause, as we said, no Egyptian will go about to avoid the Place, nor shun converse with the Infected: and the Clothes and other Houshold­stuff of such as dye of that Distemper, are instantly sold in the open Market by Out-cry, which none are afraid to buy: by which mad obstinacy in this their foolish Perswasion, the Plague in Cairo, in the space of six or seven Moneths, sometimes sweeps away above five hundred thousand People.

This dreadful Malady commonly begins in their first Summer, When it commonly be­gins in Egypt. continuing till the cool Northern Winds arise, and then it begins to abate.

That which begins in the first Moneths, is the worst of all, especially if it come over out of Barbary: for then it sometimes almost depopulates whole Cities, leaving them destitute of Inhabitants: But if it comes later, it is so much the milder, and ceaseth the sooner. But although it rage never so fierce­ly, At the Suns entrance into Cancer, the Pestilence ceases in Egypt. yet at the Suns entrance into Cancer, it wholly ceaseth: which by them is accounted no small Blessing: for from thence forward, as if never any such in­fectious Disease had been, the City and all things in it are from a depth of mi­serable despair reduced into a secure, safe, and healthful condition: Neither while the Contagion lasted, did any other Diseases appear among the People. Now the reason of this so sudden Cessation seems to be caused by the even and constant temper of the Air, How this comes to pass. by the blowing of the Anniversary Northwinds, which then begin to rise and oppose the moist Nature of the South-winds, call'd as we said, Campsien; which cooling as well the Air as Mens Bodies, taking away the Cause, (the infectious Heat) the Effect ceaseth.

Very seldom or never doth the Plague begin here from Putrifaction of the Air, Seldom does the Pesti­lence in Egypt arise from the Putrifaction of the Air. unless the Nile overflowing the Countrey too high, leaves his Water a long while upon the Ground, whereby the whole Land becomes as a corrupt and standing Lake, that by the Southerly Winds, and Summer Heat, are ripened and made fit to send up infectious Vapours.

There being then no Natural Cause to breed this Contagion within Egypt, The Pestilence is always brought over from other Places into Egypt. it follows that it is brought thither from other Neighbouring and Bordering Places; and especially out of Greece, Syria, and Barbary. That which is brought thither out of Greece and Syria, and falls upon Caire, is very milde, kills few, and holds but a short time. But when it comes from Barbary thither, it is most pernicious, and of longest continuance: Such was that in the Year Fif­teen hundred and eighty, that raged so furiously, that in a short time it clearly swept away above five hundred thousand men.

By the continual rising of the Dust, Why the Baths are in great use among the Egyptians. and extraordinary Sweating, the Bo­dies of the People become foul, nasty, and verminious; and therefore Baths are of very great use to cleanse and keep them sweet and free from breeding Cattel: But the Women, with most frequency and care use Bathing, as in­tending, or at least imagining, that such Lotions make them more pleasing to their Husbands, and to have a gracious and pleasant Scent in their Nostrils, when they come together to recreate themselves.

They take little care of their Hair, Alpin. de m [...]de. Egypt. ordering it slightly, according to the manner of the Countrey in a Silken Caul; but are very curious elsewhere, [Page 119]using the Razor where necessary. Afterwards they anoint themselves with se­veral rich Perfumes, such as Musk, Amber, Civet, and the like, which there are bought in great abundance for a small matter, as aforesaid.

This frequent Bathing and Anointing they use not onely for Ornament, Fat Women are pleasing to the Egyptians. Cleanliness, and Coolness; but especially to make them, if lean, to become plump and fat: because such Women be highly esteemed of in those Parts; by which means some grow Bona-Roba's, and others out of all mea­sure with fathomless Wastes, like foul Sows: chiefly the Jews, whose Women are more liable to that undecent Extream.

All in general when they are Bathing, the sooner to facilitate their Design, What they do to be fat. take nourishing cool Broaths, and Cordial Jellies, on purpose made of Pin­guefying Ingredients; to wit, Bammia, Melochia, and Colocasia.

The poorer sort in the Bannias drink the Settling of the Oyl of Sesamus Seed, which they call Thaine or the decoction of China Roots, or the Oyl pressed out of the Indian Nuts, or the Fruit of the Turpentine-Tree, Sweet Almonds, Hasle-nuts, and Pistaches: eating besides much food, and Flesh of fatted Fowls, with the Broath boiled to a Jelly, and mixed therewith.

Nor do these Lotions and Unctions suffice, The chasing of the Body. unless attended with a threefold Frication; The first is done with the naked palm of the hand, anointed with the Oyl of Sesamus; the second with a rough linnen cloth; and the third with a course cloth of Goats-hair.

After which they are rubbed all over with Sope, which they wash off in a Bath of warm sweet-Water. And lastly, they lay upon their Feet a mixture of the Powder of Archanda mixed with ordinary water, and is very serviceable for moist and stinking Feet, drying them speedily by its great astringency.

At Cairo and Alexandria great multitudes of Houses are appointed for the use of Baths, which have many Caves, Cellars, or Chambers, The Superfluity of Baths at Cairo. wherein people sweat, are chafed and washed, containing at all times hot, warm, and cold Baths; but usually moderately warm, because principally in use among them.

The Egyptians keep a slender and sparing Table; eating little, but often: The Egyptians feed spa­ringly, but often. They are not pleased with Variety, but content themselves with one Dish of Meat at a meal: And if Flesh, eat sparingly of it, as having no great appe­tite thereto; but when they do, they chuse Mutton simply cook'd, without either addition or Sauce to it: But of late some Merchants have begun to learn to eat Chickens.

They chiefly delight in moist Food; Their Food, and therefore commonly use Rice boil­ed in preserved Juices of Linse, Erwetes, white Cives, Melochia, Beets, Melda, Coale, Bammia, Cucumers or Chate, the Roots of Colocasia, Melons, Dates, Musae Fruit, Figs, Apricocks, Peaches, Oranges, Lemons, Citrons, Granates. The poor people eat Beef, and Camels flesh; and some Fish, as Pikes or Pickerels, and many other: and among the rest the flesh of the Crocodile.

In places near the Sea, Fish may be had in great abundance, which they eat without distinction; for the most part salted, and sometime half rotten. Milk, and all that come of it, or are made with it, is with them in very great use.

And as they are best pleased in simple Diet, of one kinde of Food, They eat not many sorts of Food. so a lit­tle of it contents them; For many make their Dinner and Supper, onely of Melons or Wheaten Bread; some of such simple Broth as we mentioned be­fore; and others chew upon a green Sugar-Cane, or onely with Figs, or Grapes or Cucumers, or some such trifling Diet.

All their Pot-herbs and Fruits are moister than the European, and therefore more unsavoury. The Fishes are unwhole­som. In like manner the Fishes, taken in the Nile, are fat enough and pleasant in Taste, but accounted unwholesom, because that River hath no stony or gravelly, but a sedimented bottom, and the Water unsetled with a flying Lee, which must of necessity make the Fishes that breed in it un­wholesom.

The common Drink of the Countrey is the Nile, Their Drink. which is very sweet, but the Christians and Jews drink Wine also, as also some Turks, and especially the Soldiers, that often at Cairo take the Creature in such abundance, that they re­turn home laid athwart on Asses Backs; in those mad and inebriating Fro­licks, no more minding their Prophets Wine-forbidding Laws. The best Wine, for in Egypt there grows none, is brought from the Island of Candy, Rhodes and Cyprus; the Wine of Italy, Corcyre and Zacynthe, turning sowre pre­sently.

This Water of Nilus, The Water of Nilus very wholesom to drink. which by the length of his Current, and the Heat of the Sun, must needs be sufficiently concocted and made thin, is very wholesom; for as to the dregs or muddy part thereof, the Egyptians have a way to make it clear, which they do in this manner: As soon as the Water is brought home in Leathern Flasks or Bottles, they put it in long-neck'd great earthen Jugs or Jarres, with broad round Bellies, anointing the edge a little with stamp'd sweet Almonds, then taking a handful of the same, they thrust their Arm into the Water up to their Elbow, with all their strength stirring the Water about; then leaving the Almonds in it, the Water will be clear in the space of three Hours. Lastly, pouring out the clear Water into other small Vessels, they use it either for their Drink or Food. Others let this Water stand only and setle, till it become clear of it self.

The Vertues of this Water are very many and great, The Vertue of the Water of Nilus. for in some it fetches out an inward Infirmity by insensible transpiration; others it causes to Urine freely, some to go to Seige, to none is it hurtful, though drunk Day and Night, even to excess. Moreover, it is to hot Bodies as a cooling Julep, to allay the heat and burning of the Bowels.

There also our New Drink call'd Coffee hath no small Estimation, Coffee-Drink. gotten by long Experience of the Benefits which they suppose they receive by it, using upon the matter little or no other Physick or Doctors, they eating much Fruits, and drinking only the Nile, which is it self their grand Physitian: The infusion of the Powder of this Berry, in that so excellent Water decocted, and taken Hot, composeth not only the Crudities arising from bad Digestion, but suppressing all Fumes, so setleth in quiet both Head and Stomach; which may be well asserted by those that use it moderately here, who after they have ta­ken their Dose, two or three Cups in the Morning, find themselves more apt to Business or Study. It certain and suddenly cures Inebriation, and in many allays the fits of the Gout. Namral History. Sir Francis Bacon, who took it long before in use with us, says, It comforts the Heart and Brain by Condensation of the Spirits. The Arabians call it Caova, and the Tree whereon it grows, Bon; where it grows in such abundance, that from thence the whole Eastern, and now part of our Western World is furnished; yet with them so valued, as not to be pur­chased by any Barter (as they say) but Gold and Silver.

The Turks and Moors have also a very wholesom Drink call'd Sorbet, A Turkish Drink call'd Sorbet. made of Sugar and Lemmon, and drank by them with great Delight. They use also another kind of Drink, made of Plumbs, Corants and Water, set together in the Sun.

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¶ MEn in Egypt live longer than in other Places, for they say, The Egyptians live long. 'tis usual to find People above an hundred Years old, the Reason of which Lon­gevity, Physitians much differ about; yet in General they assign'd as one chief Cause, their spare Life in Eating and Drinking, whereas on the contrary, Alpinus de Medicina Ae­gypt all Europeans which drink abundance of Wine, and eat much Flesh, By what means this is so. are for the most part short Liv'd; for as the moderate use of Flesh generates good Blood, and quickens the natural Heat, so the immoderate use incrassates the natural moi­sture, making it become tough and viscous, so stopping the activity of Circu­lation, with the Load of gross repletions, just as the Flame in a Lamp, by the exuberancy of the Oyl extinguisheth; therefore the Egyptians living Sparingly, and not Distempering themselves with high Fare, their Blood be­ing thus attenuated, spins out a longer thread of Life to them, than our guz­ling and debaucht Nations.

¶ THe Habits of the Men are neat, but not gorgeous; Mens Habits. for in the Summer time they wear Vests of the finest and lightest Cotton, but in the Win­ter, of their own Countrey Cloth, quilted with Cotton. Their Vests are shaped narrow above, and wide below, with small Sleeves close at the Hand; over which Princes, Officers of State, and other Great Men, wear a rich Tu­nick of Sattin, Damask, and other costly European-stuff, every one according to his State and Dignity.

They wear great Turbans, made of long striped Camelet, Tulhandes or Turbants. wound or folded up round together. The Colour of which denotes of what Religion they are; The Colour of the Tur­bant, denote the Religion. for the Jews wear one Yellow, the Christians Red or Blew, and the Mahumetans only a White one; but those that boast themselves, lineally descen­ded from their Great Prophet, wear Green Turbans. Their Hose or Stock­ings, are short, like the Buskins of the Antients, but in a manner all strangers to Shoes, for what they use on their Feet, are rather Slippers or Sandals, having no Upper-leather behind, and the Soals according to the Turkish Fashion, shod with Iron.

Ladies and Persons of Honor, The Habit of Women. are there for the most part cloathed in White, with Masks of the same Colour. The Countrey-Women, have in stead of a Mask, a Cotton Cloth before their Face, Black or some other Colour, at the Chin, pointed with two holes only, that they may see their Way, and where they tread: But in many Places, their Vizors follow the Turkish Mode, being a very thin Cloth, made of Horse-Hair, before their Faces; or else a­mong the better Sort, a fine Linnen or Tiffany. They go mounted on Chop­pines, which have no Upper-leather, but only to fasten them over to the foot.

Their Head-attires are various, according to the divers Customs of the Countrey, the Turkish keeping their own Fashion of being close covered, but the Egyptians wear a costly Silk Cap, half a Foot high, and running to a Point, like one of our Womens high-crown'd Hats without a Brim; on the fore-part of which they fix a Branch or Sprig, neatly compos'd of several Gems with vari­ous Lustres, and a Frontlet of Oriental Pearls, with Chains of Gold about their Neck, The Egyptian Women wear Smocks and Peticoats lac'd at the bottom, like the Gallants of our Time. and Golden Bracelets on their Wrists, and Garters all of Gold: Next their Skin they wear a fine Silk Smock, bordered with curious Needle-work, and over this a Coat or Gown of a different Length, made of changeable co­lour'd Silk, trim'd with Gold, Silver, and Silk Knots, and the Skirt richly em­broider'd.

No People are more dextrous in Swimming, as compelled thereto by neces­cesity; for at the overflowing of Nilus, they swim from place to place to dis­patch their Affairs, and to that end are very lightly Clad, only with a Coat and Shirt, intending to Travel, which they tye upon their Heads in form of a Turbant, when they swim cross any deep Rivers; but if their Transnatation extend to a farther Distance, they have bundles of Flaggs or Bull-rushes, which as either necessity or conveniency requires, they use to Buoy themselves upon, both for their Ease and Safety. When they ride in Cavalcade through Cities in State, or through the Countrey for private Business, their Horses are unshod, cover'd after the Moorish Fashion, with Foot-clothes or Caparisons, usually made of Tapistry, wrought after the manner of the Moors; but the Women mask'd upon Mules. Mean People and Strangers use Asses, which always stand upon the parting of cross Ways ready to Hire.

¶ THe Houses of the plain Countrey, Their Houses. because of the overflowing of Nilus, are built upon rising Places, with thick clay Walls, and flat Roofs, as is usual in most Eastern Countreys. And in regard Wood and Stone are very scarce, they are little and low, without advantages of many Rooms, be­cause most People Eat, Drink and Sleep under the Date-Tree for coolness, not fearing either Winter or Summer-Rains, because the Countrey is free from them. The whole Countrey is subject to one Inconvenience, which is want of Fuel; for in the great scarcity thereof, they are forced upon all necessary occa­sions to burn the dung of Cattel.

POlygamy is common among the Nobler Sort, Their Marriage. who shut up their many Wives together in a Seraglio, but separate from one another in distinct Apartments. The Moors and meaner Sort, to shew their Affection when they go a Wooing, sear their Flesh with red hot Irons, and flash their Arms, without any sense of Smart or Danger. And if by that means they can obtain the bare reward of a single Kiss from their Mistris Hand, they take it as if they had gain'd the top of Felicity, or whatsoever Love-sick Amours desire.

¶ THe Parents dispose their Daughters in Marriage at ten, or at most at twelve year old. When they conduct the Bride to the Bridegrooms House, she hath carried before her whatever her Friends or Parents gave her: for the Bridegroom bestows on her Money, Garments, and other Necessaries; Jewels, Housholdstuff, and Slaves of both Sexes.

¶ THe Turks in Egypt are either of the Civil or Martial List, Their Employment. living vo­luptuously, having little or no business but at starts: but the Native Egyptians follow Pasturage and Husbandry. The Arabians live by downright Robbery; the Moors, Negroes, and Jews mannage Trading and Merchandise; so do most of the Inhabitants of Cairo.

There are another sort of People here call'd Beduines, The manner of the Bedu­ines. wandring about in great Companies, of two or three hundred, with their Luggage upon Carts, and driving their Cattel like the Tartars, from place to place for fresh Pasturage: and where they finde good Grass, they spread their Tents of course Goats-hair Cloth, and thence migrate up and down still for fresh Pasture.

The Men are most of them Smiths, and Weavers; they go meanly appa­rell'd, without any Clothes, but a blue or gray Shirt, with broad Sleaves hang­ing down to the ground, and a piece of Cloth, call'd by them Baracan, which sometimes they cast over their shoulders as a Mantle; when they pitch, they sometimes make that their Tent to sleep under in the night, and in the day to skreen off the heat of the Sun.

The Women go for the most part clothed like the Egyptian, having maskt their Faces with holes. They stick in their Hair many Silver and Copper Plates, and black Ear-rings and Jewels of an unusual bigness; and the like on their Arms. The Daughters, as they become marriagable, manifest it by scratching themselves upon the Chin and Lip, which they dawb over with Ink and Ox-gall mingled; that give such a fixt tincture as will never wear out.

¶ THe Potency and Wealth of Egypt ha's ever been famous; The abundant Riches of Egypt. insomuch that in Antient Times, Authors have said there were above twenty thousand Walled Cities, and is at present, China excepted, held one of the richest Spots of earth in the World. Cairo onely for its share contains fix hundred thousand Jews; from whence the number of the rest of the Inhabitants may be guessed: as also from the great destruction, in the Year Fifteen hundred and eighty one, when died of the Pestilence in seven Moneths, above five hundred thousand. In the time of Asan Bassa, there were numbred seven millions, or seventy hun­dred thousand persons.

¶ TWo Languages and two sorts of Writing were used here, Two sorts of Tongues a­mong the Egyptians. one Com­mon, understood by all in ordinary Conversation; the other Peculiar, onely used by the Priests, Prophets, and Religious Votaries, whose ambition led them to hopes of the Crown and Government of the Kingdom: This they nam'd The Sacred; but the Coptick or Vulgar, The Profane Tongue: Which last was also call'd, Pharaohs Speech; because it was usual in the time of the An­tient Egyptian Kings, which were call'd by that one General Name of Pharaoh. I shall in brief set down the difference and propriety of them both.

Whence the Name Coptos or Copta took its Original, Writers disagree. The Tongue Copta, why so named. Atha­nasius [Page 124]Kircher seems among all to have come nearest, deriving it from Coptos, formerly the most famous City in Egypt, and the Chief of the Countrey of Thebes; though at this day the Ruines thereof are but mean: or else from the Coptists, the Inhabitants of that City, by whom alone this Tongue was kept in being.

Here we may take notice of a great mistake among most eminent Writers, The difference between Coptos and Cophtos. who without distinction confound Coptos and Cophtos; whereas they differ much in their signification. Coptos is an antique word, and found in old Authors; but Cophtos is a Name invented by the Mahumetans, who call the Egyptian Chri­stians by way of derision Cophtites; as if they would say, Circumcised. Some suppose they are call'd Cophtites, Della Valla. because they followed heretofore the Erroneous and Heretical Opinions of Eutiches and Dioscorus, condemned in the Council of Ephesus, which did before Baptism use to receive Circumcision; (for [...] is onely a Greek Name, and signifies Circumcised) whence they were nick-nam'd Christians of the Girdle, meaning upwards; because from the Girdlested down­wards, being Circumcised, they were rather Jews.

The present Cophtick Tongue, The Coptick is the old E­gyptian Tongue. is not onely like the Antient Egyptian, in the time of the Pharao's, but altogether one and the same, as appears by some words still in use; and among the rest the Names of the Moneths, whereby the Old Egyptians and the Modern Coptists name them without any remarkable difference. The like you may observe in the Planets.

Mars was with the Antient Egyptians Moloch, which the Holy Scripture so often mentions; Remphan in our English Translations. Saturn, Refan, the very word used in the Acts of the Apostles; Venus is called Zahara: and many Plants and Herbs, mentioned by Apuleius in his Book of the Vertues of Herbs, may be found very little different from the present Egyptian Names. Now since no Tongue comes nearer to the old E­gyptian, than the Coptick, we may rationally conclude, that the Coptick is the true and antient Egyptian, not so pure and undefiled indeed, as it was in the time of the Patriarchs; but by process of time, the manifest mixture of People and Languages, and other alterations of the State disguised and corrupted.

The Coptick in it self is an Original, Its distinction from the Greek Tongue. not a Derivative Language, though some strongly argue, that it is but a Greek Dialect, differing as the Caldee from the Hebrew. It is true, that in Coptick Dictionaries, brought from Egypt by Peter Della Valla, many words sound like the Greek; but it is to be observed withall, that this Tongue had not that mixture at the beginning, but it fell in in the time of Alexander the Great, and the Ptolomys, by the mutual Converse of Greeks and Egyptians together, for three hundred years. And by the same means also Latine, Arabick, Hebrew, and Samaritane Words are blended with it; but this is not sufficient to root out its Original Purity.

Diodorus Siculus sets down so great an Agreement between the Hebrew and Egyptian Tongue, From the Hebrew. that he seems to maintain those People might very easily have understood one another; but this contradicts that Psalm, which speaking of Joseph, hath these words: When he passed into Egypt, he heard a Language which he knew not. Besides, If there were so great an Agreement, it must have arisen either by Trading or Converse; of both which the Hebrews, as the Scripture witnesseth, were utterly debarr'd.

Gesner, And from other Eastern Tongues.Volateranus, Eusebius, Ambrose, and Theseus seem to assert, That the Egyptian Tongue hath some relation to the Abyssine, Caldee, Arabick, Syriack, and other Oriental Languages, moved by a similitude of Sound: and for that like the Hebrews, Arabians, and Caldeans, they use Letters instead of Arithmetical Characters.

But this Opinion stands upon a loose Foundation; for there are great Diffe­rences between this and the other Eastern Tongues, as well in manner of Pro­nunciation, as in Words: As for example; The Hebrews call Father and Son; Ab-U-Ben; The Caldeys, Abba-Ubra; The Syrians, Abo Vabro; The Arabians, El­lab Vallabu; The Abyssines, Vb Wawalda; The Armenians, Hor eu Ordi; The Sa­maritans, Ab-U-ben; The Egyptian Copticks, Fiot Nemsiri: Hereby appears the great Agreement of the Eastern Tongues among themselves; but not in the least with the Coptick: for what likeness have the words Fiot Nemsiri, with Ab Uben, Abo Vabro, Ab Uben, Ab Wawolda, &c.? Accordingly Theseus concludes, That the Analogy of several Speeches in one or two words, makes no more to prove them the same, than that Stone and Timber are Identicals, because both grow in the Earth.

The Coptick hath this peculiar Property; That all the Words thereof used by a Stranger, receive alteration in the first Syllable, and not in the terminati­on or ultimate, usual in other Languages: Neither at this day are any Books remaining of it, onely a few words have been preserved by Greek and other Writers of most Antiquity.

Authors disagree about their Characters; The Letters of the Anti­ent Egyptians. however we have reason to conclude, that they were taken from the form and postures of the whole Bo­dies of Beasts, by them accounted Sacred; when they intended to signifie whatever in it self is great. The minute or lesser matters were exprest by their several parts or members.

As they endeavored in their holy Language to perform all their matters by Mysteries, so they did also in the vulgar Coptick, as will plainly appear by their Alphabet, consisting of two and twenty Letters: wherein few but signifies some deep Mystery. The second Letter in its Figure, represents the form of a Capital [...] Gamma, and signifies A Carpenters A Square is a Carpen­ters Rule, by which they measure their square Lines: it is made of Iron.Square; but mystically intends the rule or method of square and honest dealings, which God the Great Fabrica­tor of the World hath set down and fixt as a Law in our Nature, that a Qua­drary Proportion should rule all Actions which we call just and vertuous. In like manner, under all the other Letters, according to their specifical diffe­rences, lay hid other peculiar and deep Mysteries. Besides this, they had an­other manner of Writing: so that it seems the other were onely used as Sacred Hieroglyphicks, to set forth great Secrets: As a Testimony whereof several Mummies have been found, upon whose gilded and gummed Winding-Clothes many Coptick Letters were inscribed, being no small evidence to prove the An­tiquity: because the Mummies were Interred long before the Invasion of Cam­byses, who destroyed or banished the Priests, by which it was lost, as we have often mentioned.

But neither could its Antiquity or Sacred Use preserve it from being abo­lisht, as at this day it almost is: The Arabick having generally prevailed, The Coptick Tongue is not spoken any more. one­ly some Christians have retained still a small Remainder, in Celebrating their Liturgy, and having a few of their Religious Books written in it; as among the rest, the Books of the Old and New Testament, translated out of the Hebrew into that Language above fourteen hundred Years since; when the now ru­in'd Thebes was the famous Patroness of Religion, as Nicephorus reports: Nicephorus. There is also a Coptick Dictionary, of about six thousand Words, with the Ara­bick by it, preserv'd and kept in Egypt: and another, which that Worthy Searcher into Antiquities, Peter della Valla, brought with him thence, in the Year Sixteen hundred twenty and four, which in the same order, with [Page 126] Latine Interpretations, was twenty Years after published in Print at Rome, by the Learned Father Athanasius Kircher, who had also before that Published an Introduction to the Coptick Tongue, wherein he treats largely of its Antiquity, Original and Difference from other Tongues, together with the Knowledge of the Letters, and the Means both of Restoring and Reforming it.

The Sacred Egyptian Tongue, The Consecrated or Sa­cred Egyptian Tongue. consists of comprehensive Representations, by Philo Judaeus call'd Figures of Living Creatures, and by the Greeks, Hieroglyphicks, that only denote by Mystical Figures holy Matters. These were found out with great Sagacity, and consist no way in the Apprehension of Letters, Words or Sentences; As a Basilisk, with the Tail twin'd about its Body, signifies the Course of Time; a Serpent, with the Tail in its Mouth, the World; a Branch of Palm, the Moon, because a Palm, at the beginning of every New Moon, The Palm shoots forth a fresh Branch every Moon. sends forth a new Branch, so that in a Year it shooteth forth thirteen new Branches, as they observe.

These Hieroglyphicks contain a compleat Sence, in what manner soever it be expressed, whether Beneath or Above, or on the Right or Left Side; for upon the Obelisks or Spires they stand perpendicular; upon Flats for Painting, they stand as we write, Level; but upon Rounds of Metal or Marble Statues or what other Representations, they march strait up or down, athwart or promis­cuous without Order. Also observe, that the Sages did not grave upon Stone their Histories, as many now suppose, or the Famous Acts of their Kings and Princes, or the Liberal Arts, or any other such like Argument, but only what was Holy, and which had respect either to the Properties of the Divine Nature, or to the Orders of Angels and Spirits, or to the Tuition of Corps interr'd.

These were written not only upon Stones, but also upon Winding-Sheets, and Funeral-Cloaths of Mummies, made either of Paper, Wood, or burnt Brick, or the like Matter, as is declared in the Description of the Mummies. But generally the whole Body of this Learning was cut upon Stone, and set up in several Places in Egypt, as upon Temple-doors, Obelisks, or Images of the Gods, that they might remain Remarks to all Posterity. They make Mercurius Trismegistus. Hermes the first Inventer of these consecrated Figures, whom the Arabians called Adris; He was a Priest, and the greatest Wise-Man in all Egypt, and flourished in the time of Abraham, under the Government of the first Egyptian King Mizraim.

This Hieroglyphical Learning was so highly Esteemed by the Egpptians ever since its first Beginning, Was in high Esteem. that the Priests, who only understood it, might teach it to none but those of their own Order. Moses himself, according to the Scri­ptures, was indued with all the Wisdom and Learning of the Egyptians, which according to the Exposition of Philo Judaeus, chiefly consisted in this Divine Philosophy, When it was destroyed. which since the Conquest of Egypt by Cambyses, is so wholly lost, that there is scarce any Remainders to be found.

¶ A At present the Native Egyptians speak Arabick or the Morisk Language, so do the Coptists, only their Church-Service or Liturgies are celebrated in the Coptick, with an Arabick Explanation. The Jews at Cairo for the most part speak a mixt Language, a meer Gally-maufry hasht together of all usual Tongues, now call'd Lingua Franca.

¶ THe Number of Souldiers in Pay, The Soldiery. which the Grand Signieur main­tains to keep under the Countrey, they variously Report; formerly they were no more than twelve Thousand, but at this day, as well Horse as [Page 127]Foot, 15100. ten Thousand seven hundred Horsemen, Jaques Albert. which they call Motta­feragas, Chiauses, Arabgis, Geoumelli, and Tuffegis, and four Thousand four hun­dred Footmen, that is, Janizaries, Topigi and Azapi, besides the San-jaks and Cherkes, which last watch the Banks of Nilus, to prevent the Arabians from cutting off or stopping the Water at the time of the overflowing; besides these, there are to garrison Castles and Forts, two Thousand two hundred, as also trained Sol­diers raised in the several Cassiffes, at the pleasure of the Divan of Cairo, and maintained at their own Charge.

¶ OUr Purchas says, Egypt is guarded by an hundred Thousand Soldiers, call'd Timariotts, who are bound to serve the Turk in all Places where he pleas­eth to use them. Villamont accounts twenty Thousand Spahies and Breves, and five and twenty or thirty Thousand Janizaries and Natives, all bravely appointed in Habit and Arms. The Baron of Beauvan reckons five Thousand Spahies, who do nothing but Ride through Cairo, two Thousand Mottafaragaes or Mattafera­gaes, two Thousand Chiaous or Chiaus, fifteen Thousand Janizaries, all Foot-Sol­diers. Prince Radzovill relates, That there lye in Cairo usually six Thousand Horse, and as many Foot, to prevent the Robberies of the Arabians, and that the Cavalry consists partly of Turks, partly of Mammelucks and Circassians, but all the Infantry wholly of Janizaries.

¶ THe Mottaferagaes are at this day three Thousand three hundred, Jaques Albert. having no other Commander but the Bashaw, who is of their own choosing; the Chiaus three Thousand five hundred, commanded in chief by the Aga, but secon­darily by one chosen out of themselves, whom they call Chiaussi Tihaiassi. The Seraquegies, Gioumelli and Tuffegies, are each of them twelve Hundred, under their proper Leaders, which they call Boullouk; the Seraquegies bear Yellow Colours, the Geoumelli Red, and the Tuffegies Green and White. If at any time a Boullouk offend, he receives both Tryal and Punishment of the Aga.

The Janizaries are above three Thousand, with a peculiar Aga, who only may punish them, but no otherwise than in secret. They guard the uppermost side of the Castle of Cairo. The Arabgies and Topigies, each five or six Hundred, all Cannoneers, under the Aga of the Janizaries, though they have also a distinct Commander, their Post is the Gate of the Castle of Cairo, on the side of the Way from Romeilla.

Out of this Soldiery, by the Command of the Divan, residing at Cairo, a cer­tain number is drawn, according as the danger of any Place requires; but for Defence of the Countrey, against the Incursion of the Arabs, two Thou­sand two hundred twenty and three, are always in readiness, as a flying Army to assist the Soldiers quarter'd in and maintained by the Countrey, and always lying in the Field under rich and curious Tents.

The Cassiff of Sahid or Girgio, The Soldiery of every Province. hath by the Command of the Divan of Grand Caire, an Hundred Mottaferagaes, an Hundred Chiauses, an Hundred Janizaries, and two Hundred Spahies at the publick Charge, keeping as many in Pay upon their own Account. These continually scout Abroad, laying hold of all opportu­nities to fight with and cut off the Arabians, that lurk in the Mountains for Spoyl.

Manfelut maintains six and twenty Soldiers, Mottaferaga's and Spahies, and as many Natives in Arms, which as the other lye always in the Field. Benesuef hath a Hundred and forty; Fium a Hundred Spahies, and fifty Janizaries; Gize hath a Hundred Spahies, all which constantly keep the Field, to free the Countrey from the Plundring Arabians.

Baera hath two Hundred Mottaferagaes and Spahies. Along the Channel that runs from the Nile to Alexandria, the Provincial Governor keeps some Soldiers, to hinder the Arabians letting out of the Water. In Gaobia are fifty Soldiers, to preserve the small Channel, call'd Tessos, from being cut off by that Wilde Nation.

Into Menousia the Divan sends a Hundred Spahies, and the like into Mansoura, whose Provincial Governor is bound to keep the like number, at his own Cost and Charges. In Callioubieh a Hundred; in Minio seventy five, together with thirty of the Provincials providing; in Cherkeffi five and forty, all at the Cost of the Countrey: Besides all which, Alexandria, Rosetta, Damiata and Suhez, each receive sixty Soldiers.

EGypt, besides these Military Guards, hath several Castles and Fortificati­ons, Castles and Forts. partly on the Sea-Coast, and partly more In-Land.

There are four Castles in Alexandria, one Great, call'd Pharaillon, and another smaller, standing close by it, at the Mouth of the New Haven, and the two other lye on the other Side of the Old Bridge; one Great, call'd Rouch, and the other smaller, a Member as it were of the first. Next these four stands ano­ther, call'd Boukier.

In Rosetta are two, one at Broules, the other on the Sea-Point towards Damiata. There are two or three also in the Dominion of Cattia, by the Side of Gaza. And in the Way towards Mecha, two small days Journey from Cairo, stands the Castle Aseroust, through which the Caravans pass, also a small Church of the Greeks. The next is that of Lacaba, Magazines. in the Road to Mecha, and further, about half Way, between Cairo and Mecha, the Castle of Hazalem. Over and above these Ca­stles, there are three Arsenals or Magazines, for Arms and Ammunition; one at Cairo, another at Alexandria, and a third in Suhez. All these Fortresses are Garrison'd with sufficient numbers of Soldiers; for in the two Pharaillons, the great and small lye three Hundred: Yet Caesar Lambert averrs, that there is sometimes no more than one poor Moor, to kindle the Fire to be a Guide to Ships entring the Haven in dark Nights; for notwithstanding the Divans Or­der, the Guard of Janizaries has been long neglected, as almost all things which concern the Grand Signieur in that Countrey are, out of too much Security.

In Rouch-Castle are five and twenty Men; in that of Boukier, two Hundred and twenty; in the two at Rosetta, five Hundred; in Broules, six and twenty; in the two at Damiata, three Hundred; in each Castle of Cattia and Caniones, a Hundred and sixty; in Aseroust, five and thirty; in Labaca, forty; and forty in Hazalem. All the Cavallery receive above their Monethly-Pay, Maintenance and Forrage, of Corn and Grass, but not the Foot. The Pay of the Beis, Cherkesbeyes and Mottaferagaes only amount to ninety Sisi or Beurses a Moneth, which they constantly receive every three Moneths, out of the Revenue of the Province. The Garrisons in the Castles are Paid out of the Revenue of the Customs; of which the Farmer brings an account to the Divan of Cairo. One Piaster is 120. As­pers, and 12 s. 6 d. sterling.

The Pay of the Soldiers in the Castles of Alexandria, Rosetta and Boukier, is ac­counted Yearly to be twelve thousand six Hundred Piasters; those of Broules, two Hundred; those of the Castles of Damiata, five Thousand five hundred; of the two Magazine-Houses in Cairo and Alexandria, Yearly, four Hundred and fifty Piasters. Della valla. A Seriffi is six shillings English. Some raise the whole Charge of Egypt, to six Hundred thousand Gold Seriffi, a fourth Part of the Revenue of Egypt. The least Pay of [Page 129]a Soldier is six Medins a day (a Medin is thirty Piasters) though some receive fifty or sixty Medins a Day. Over and above this, such as lye to guard Provinces, have further Encouragement and Allowances taken Nolens volens from the poor House-keepers, besides Provision for them and their Horses.

¶ THe Yearly Revenue of Egypt, The Revenue. Jacq. [...]lb. which the Provinces and Customs of the Spicery bring in at Alexandria, Rosetta, Bekir, Damiata, Brules and Bouluk, some advance to Nine hundred and sixty three Zizi, or Bags, each of which contains Seven hundred fifty and a half Piasters, Two Medins make an Asper. or Five and Twenty thou­sand silver Medins, and some about Seven hundred French Crowns, together with Three hundred twenty and nine thousand Ardebes of Corn, An Ardebe 260. or 300. French Pounds. every Ardebe ac­counted Two hundred and sixty, or Three hundred French Pounds. All which Treasure is divided into three Parts, one to the Grand Signieur, another to the Divan, and the third to the Bashaw of Egypt, his Tihaia and Agas: Thus the Bashaw hath Three hundred and ninety two Bags; the Tihaia and his Aga's Eighty se­ven, the Divan Fourteen hundred and forty, and two Chests of Twenty thou­sand Seriffs, together with above a 100000 Quarters, Two hundred and seventy four thousand Ardebes of Corn.

Others raise the Revenue to Four and twenty hundred thousand Serifs, Della vella. each worth little more than a Venetian Sequin or Ducat, and divide it thus; the Bashaw Yearly must send upon forfeiture of his Life, Six hundred thousand to Con­stantinople, together with Three hundred and fifty Seriffs, the Revenue of Je­men in Arabia Felix; another Six hundred thousand is bestowed on the Caravan to Mecha; the like sum paid to Soldiers, and the Overplus comes to the Bashaw.

There are that Compute the Yearly Revenue no higher than Sixty thou­sand Seriffs, besides the Provision of Sugar, Spice, Drugs, Indian Cloths, Incense or Perfumes, Rice and all manner of Provision of Grain for his Seraglio, and many other Gifts or Presents, and such like, amounting to as much more. One of the San-jaks living at Cairo, conveys the Revenue or Chasma to Constantinople, with a Guard of Five hundred Soldiers, each of which have three Men to at­tend Him, which raises their number to above Two thousand. At their return every Troop has a Medin for the Advance of his Pay, and the Foot-Soldiers half a Medin or Asper.

Every Provincial is bound to pay the Revenue or Farm of Customs he re­ceives of every Village in his Province, to the Bashaw of Cairo, Jacques Albert Estats de Egypt. to whom he also rendreth a certain Rent Yearly, as also to his Tihaia and Aga's; that is, those of Sahid or Girgio, give yearly forty Bags of Money; and to the Tihaia and other Aga's of the Bashaw, twelve, and fifty thousand Ardebes of Corn, all which he must bring to Old Cairo. He payes also to the Grand Signieur, besides the Corn, Four hundred and twenty four Bags of ready Silver to be di­stributed among the Soldiery, and a hundred and five Officers of the Divan. When the time of his Government is drawing to an end, he must sow all the Land of his Dominion overflown by the Nile, which he delivers up to the Divan. If by chance the Provincial of a Place continues his Office no longer than one Year, it impoverishes him; but if he continue four or five years, he will be a gainer, and acquire a plentiful Fortune.

The Provincial Governour of the Cassif of Manfelout, pays to the Bashaw twenty or thirty Bags, to the Tihaia of the Bashaw, and to the Aga's five other; he gives to the Divan a hundred thousand Ardebes of Corn, and five Bags Yearly.

The Subordinate Province of Ebrin yields nothing but Date-Trees, Senna-Leaves, and Ebony, so that they pay no Rent to the Divan, nor above two or three Bags to the Bashaw.

Benesuef gives as a yearly Present to the Bashaw thirty Bags, twelve to the Tihaia, and to the Aga five; and to the Divan sixty and six, together with four and twenty thousand Ardebes of Corn yearly.

Fium affords to the Bashaw five and twenty Bags, to the Tihaia and Agaes five: and for Rent to the Divan in ready money two hundred Bags a year.

The Provincial of Baera pays to the Bashaw thirty Bags, to the Tihaia, and the Agaes six, and to the whole Divan an hundred twenty and four.

When a new Bashaw, comes into Egypt, this Provincial is bound to finde Horses and Camels for him and his Retinue, and to bear all their charges to Cairo.

Out of Garbia the Bashaw hath forty Bags, the Agaes nine, and the Divan four hundred and ninety.

The Provincial of Menoufia pays to the Bashaw twenty five Bags, to the Ti­haia and Agaes four, and to the Divan ninety six.

The Cassiff of Mansura pays to the Bashaw twenty five, to the Tihaia, and to the Agaes four, and to the Divan two hundred ninety six.

The Cassiff of Callioubieh pays to the Bashaw five and twenty Bags, to the Tihaia, and to the Agaes four, and to the Divan two hundred and ninety six.

The Cassif of Minio pays to the Bashaw twelve Bags, to the Tihaia and Agaes four; and to the Divan ten thousand Ardebes of Corn.

The Cassif of Cherkeffi pays to the Bashaw five Bags, to the Tihaia and Agaes one and a half, and to the Divan a thousand Ardebes of Corn, and twenty five Bags of Money.

The Cassif of Cattia payeth to the Bashaw four Bags, and two to the Officers: All the Revenue of these Countreys are raised from the Tolls or Customs of the Caravans, passing through it to Jerusalem and Palestine.

All these Presents are raised out of the Villages, farmed yearly to honest and faithful Chiaues, Mottaferagaes or Spahies, who are bound to give Rent accord­ing to the List of the Villages, which lieth ready in the Divan at Cairo; where­in are set down all the Villages, and what every of them must give yearly; as well in Corn as in Money: And yet these Farmers let out scarce the half of the Villages, but keep the best part of them to be tilled for their Families.

There are several kinds of Tolls or Customs, The Toll or Custom, or Douan of Delborar. call'd by them Douanes. The first is the Custom of Delborar, that is, the Farm of Spices and Drugs; and in general, of all Merchandise, which come from Mecha, Mocal, and India, of which the Farmer takes the Tenth in Silver, according to the usual Valuation, which is Fifteen in the hundred, and more: He gives for it to the Bashaw 45 Bags, to the Tihaia 15, and to the Grand Seignior 120. to whom obliged likewise to finde all Spice, and Drugs, Clothes, and Ambergreese for his Womens Seraglio.

The second Douan, The Custom or Douan of Alexandria. is that of Alexandria, comprising Rosetta and Bekir: for which the Farmer of the Customs gives to the Bashaw thirty Bags, ten to the Aga's, and to the Divan an hundred and twenty; besides twelve thousand Piasters, for the maintenance of the Garrison-Souldiers of Alexandria, Bekir, and Rosetta; three hundred Quintals of Oyl of Olives for Mecha, and twelve or fifteen thou­sand Piasters, for Silk Clothes, and Cloth once a year to the Bashaw, and his People at their Ramadan, or Easter. For the raising of this, all Wares that [Page 131]come out of Christendom pay one and twenty in the Hundred; and those that come out of the Grand Seigniors Countreys, ten in the Hundred. The Wood brought from the Black-Sea gives twenty in the Hundred: This Customer is like our Clerk of the Market, overseeing Weights and Measures, for which he ha's a Salary of twelve or fifteen Bags yearly.

The third Douan, is that of Damiata, The Douan of Damiata. for which the Farmer pays yearly to the Divan, two Chests of Gold, worth twenty thousand Seriffs; to the Bashaw, fif­teen, and to the Tihaia four Bags, and to the Souldiers of both the Castles lying at the mouth of the Nile, being an hundred and twenty four, to each six Medins a Moneth. The Revenue hereof ariseth from Imported Commodities and Merchandise from Turky, as Corn, Oyl, Soap, and Almonds; or other Com­modities brought from Gaza, Zeida, and Damas, which all pay ten in the Hun­dred. Many Saiques also from Turky and Cyprus come laden with Rice, Beans, Pease, or Rent-Corn, and Flax, Sugar, and Canes.

The fourth is that of Brule, whose Revenue grows from Dadle or Dates, Douan of Brule. and other Fruits; but chiefly from the Fish that caught in great abundance, are salted and sent to Candia, and other places. The Customer pays to the Ba­shaw two Bags and a half, one to the Tihaia, and to the Divan four: The Metas­soup, that is, he who sets the Price upon all Victuals, inhances upon the poor In­habitants, to raise for the Bashaw thirteen Bags.

The fifth, call'd Caddare, is that of Boulak; Douan Caddare. for which the Farmer gives the Bashaw fifteen Bags, the Tihaia and Agaes five, and the Divan sixty four. His In­come proceeds from the Custom of Flax, of which yearly there is spun and weaved two hundred thousand Quintals at Boulak, besides an hundred thousand sent to Damiata. Of Corn, which is brought to Old Caire, of which the Farmer takes six Bags, and six other of the Green-water Melons, and the like; which in all amounts to twenty and four thousand Bags: The remainder is upon Tobacco and other Merchandise coming from Turky, of which some afford ten in the Hundred, some less. He also receiveth of every Camel laden with Merchandise, going to India and Mecha, four Piasters, as a certain Summe of the Caravan, which come from Damas, Gaza, and other places.

The Jews and Christians living in the Grand Seigniors Countreys, Pole-Money of Jews and Christians. at sixteen years of Age, pay every one Head by Head a certain Price, yearly amounting to eight and forty Bags. There are in Cairo above eight hundred Camels ap­pointed to draw water; all which pay a certain Tax imposed on them at the Bashaw's pleasure. So do the poor people which carry water upon their backs in Goat-Skins through the whole City, each of whom, being thirty thou­sand in number, give to the Bashaw for his Licence what he lays upon them.

Trading and Merchandise is not in such flourishing state as formerly, Merchandising. be­cause of the danger of the ways which the Grand Siegnior hath endeavoured by all means to secure; but without any success; so that at present Cairo that was wont to furnish Christendom, is now from thence supplied with Cassia, Cina­mon, Nutmegs, Pepper, Ginger, Purcellaen, and other Spicery.

The Merchandise there had at present, is Rice, Sugar, Flax, Tamarinds, and Linnen. From the Borders of Hymen comes still much Frankincense; and from the Skirts of Ethiopia or Negro-Land, Turkish and Arabian Gums, Feathers, and some Drugs.

They have in Cairo, Bazars, Market-places, or Bazars the chiefest of which are the Rows of the Mer­cers and Druggists. There are also stately Houses, which they call Ochelles, where they sell Blackamores, wherein are divisions to keep Whites to sell; where Men will yield from twenty to sixty Pieces of Eight, and Women especially Whites, [Page 132]five hundred Piasters; yea, a thousand, according to their Beauty: yet no Chri­stian may bring a Slave to Land on pain of his life.

In the Market of Cairo are also great Sacks of Jett brought to be sold in pieces two handfuls thick, being in great esteem among the Arabians, Syrians, and Egyptians; because they make of them Beads, which they tell over Religi­ously: and sometimes deck their Hair with them.

The Powder of Alcanna is in such repute, that whole Ship-Ladings are sent to Constantinople; and is of so general use in all the Eastern Countreys subordi­nate to the Turk, that the Revenue amounts yearly to eighteen thousand Sulta­nies, or Ducats.

In Mala, being under the Cassiffe of Garbia, every two days is held a Market of Cattel, and all sorts of Commodities, call'd Chec Ahmet Elbodoin. In Hayman or Hiemen are found some Precious Stones, as the Cornalines, or Cornelians, the Sardis, or Sardonicks.

¶ THe Antient Egyptians observed onely a Lunar Year: But seeing this manner of Reckoning did not agree with their Affairs, but was discommodious, they brought it, according to Censorinus, from one to three Moneths, and after that to four. But here we must observe, all the Egyptians did not compute their Year according to the Course of the Moon: for a great part observed the Solar Year, but yet not the same that is now in use, for it contained no more than three hundred and sixty Days, which they divided into twelve Moneths, gi­ving each Moneth thirty Days.

This Computation was a long while used, then at length growing skilful­ler by experience in the Course of the Heavens, and the Suns Annual Motion; they added to the said three hundred and sixty, five more, which they call'd Nisi: which year afterward was generally received for the true Civil Year, and according to Horapolla call'd Gods Year: Plutarch. For the Egyptians call'd the Sun God, and therefore it is not strange, that the Sun's Year by them should be call'd The Year of God.

365 Every four years with them consisted barely of fourteen hundred and six­ty Days: 4 But Gods Year, fourteen hundred and sixty one Days. Then at length among the Egyptians the Civil Year was brought to the Solar or Sun's Year, 1460 that is, every Year was lengthened a quarter of a Day, 1461 that is, to three hundred sixty five Days and six Hours; for in so much time the Sun finisht his Course round the Zodiack; and the fourth Year, with the lengthening of one Day, by the putting together of the four-times six hours, made it a Leap-year: Now that the making a Leap-year in this manner was in use among the old Egyptians, among others Diodorus Siculus gives us to understand in these words, Diodorus Siculus. where he says; That the days among the Egyptians were not reckoned by the Moon, but according to the course of the Sun; so that they gave every Moneth thirty days, and to the twelfth Moneth they added five days with a quarter of a day, that in this manner they might have a perfect course or circuit of the Year. And this among the Egyptians was so antient, that they had it long before Alexander the Great's coming thither; not learning it from, but rather teaching it to the Romans, as Eudoxus, Plato's Disciple, testifies: who having by Services and by great Study dived into this knowledge, taught it the Grecians in his own Countrey, as Strabo affirms.

As the Year so settled was generally call'd Gods; Gods year. so was also every year of the four call'd by the name of one of the chiefest of their Gods: The first they call'd Sothis, or Thoth, that is, Dog; from the Dog-Star, for that they [Page 133]began their year at the rising of that Star; The second bore the name of Isis, or Serapis; The third of Osiris, and the fourth of Horus, which the Egyptians also call'd Kemin. Wherefore, when they would represent the four years, they made the Figure of Hermes or Mercury, with a Dogs Face, standing upon a Cro­codile with a Bowl in his hand. At his right side Jupiter Ammon, at the left Sera­pis with a Figure of Nilus upon his head, and an Image of a Star, representing according to Manilius, Isis.

The Coptists and Abyssines keep the same reckoning, onely changing the names of the Heathenish Gods, into those of the Four Evangelists; calling the first year Matthew, the second year Mark, the third Luke, and the fourth John.

Besides this forementioned Civil and large year, for Civil affairs, there was by the Priests and Astronomers another current year in use, which they term'd The Mystical Year, and consisted of three hundred sixty and five days, bare: By which means, in four years they lost one full day; and in forty years ten: Wherefore the time of their Festivals, instituted for the Honor of their Gods, every year came so many days earlier: For Geminus affirms, That the Feast of the Goddess Isis, which in the time of Eudoxus fell in the Winter Solstice, in his time came a whole moneth sooner. This moveable Course of the Festivals was done by the Contrivance of the Priests, that they might not Celebrate them always upon one and the same time of the year; resolving that they should run through all the Seasons: For the Gods, according to their opini­on, in fourteen hundred and sixty years make Progress over all Countreys and Places of the World, and pass through all the Degrees of the Zodiack, and the days of the Moneth in process of time, that no place of the World, nor part of year should be debarr'd of their necessary presence. Thus far of the Computation of the Year among the Old Egyptians.

The Modern Christian Copticks observe a threefold Accompt; The Modern Accompt of the Year among the Cop­ticks. The first from the Creation of the World, and with them observed by most of the Eastern People; and in Arabick call'd Abrahams Epocha.

The second accounts from the beginning of the Grecian Monarchy.

The third from Nabonassar, King of the Caldees: But this used by the Astro­nomers onely, was little known.

There is a fourth Accompt used by the Abyssines, and that is the Emperour Dioclesian's, introduced by him in the nineteenth year of his Reign, being the year of Christ, Three hundred and two: It begins the twenty eighth of Au­gust, Old, or the Eighth of September, New Stile, in the first Moneth Thoth. They call it in the Arabick, from the City Captos, Tarich Elkupti, that is, The Coptick Calendar; and by the Copticks, The holy Martyrs Calendar, or, The Year of Grace; and by the Abyssines in that Countrey Language, Amath Mahareth, that is, The Year of Grace and Mercy; because of the great Persecution which the Christians at that time suffered under the same Dioclesian; when about Coptos onely were Martyr'd an hundred and forty four thousand. The reason of introducing which Accompt, we will in short set down.

When Dioclesian reign'd, seiz'd with a raging Fury, he not only insulted with strange arrogance over the Christians, casting them to wilde Beasts, and exer­cising against them all other kinds of savage Cruelty; but endeavoured by all means to extirpate their Name, and to that purpose he put in practise, and commanded to destroy and burn up all their Religious Books, supposing when that was done, they would easily be brought to the practise of their Heathen Rites, and accordingly upon the twenty fifth day of March, being then Easter-day, the [Page 134]said Dioclesian and his Colleque Maximian, commanded and published Edicts to that end, that all the Churches of the Christians, in Egypt especially, and about Thebes, should be thrown to the Ground, and the Books of their Religion destroyed. And in the second place, the antient manner of the Years used by the Egyptians, he made to be fitted to the Roman Stile, and that Account he named from himself, Dioclesian; in which last he so far prevailed, that it took place even among the Christians, so long as Heathenism continued, and until the time of the Abbot Dionysius.

The Names of the Twelve Moneths, into which the Year was divided by the Copticks, are

ThothSeptember
PaopiOctober
Athor.November
ChoiakDecember
TobiJanuary
MechirFebruary
FamenothMarch
FarmyApril
PaskoesMay
PaoniJune
EpipJuly
MessoriAugust

The Moneth Thoth, the first of their Year, beginneth on the nine and twen­tieth of August; Paopi the eight and twentieth of September; Athor upon the same day of the following Moneth October; Choiak upon the twenty seventh of November; Tobi upon the same day of December; Mechir the Six and twentieth of January; Famenoth upon the six and twentieth of February; Farmy the twenty se­venth of March; Paskoes the twenty sixth of April; Paoni upon the same day of the following Moneth of May; Epip the twenty fifth of June; Messori upon the same day of the following Moneth of July; all which Account is set down ac­cording to the Old Stile, which with ten Days added to every such day of the Moneth, easily may be agreeable with the New Stile.

In the common Years they add to the last Moneth Messori or July, five days, which the Greeks call Epagomenes, that is, additional; but the Copticks, Nisi; and in the Leap-year six, which they intercalate between the eight and nine and twentieth of our August, according to the Old Stile, or according to the New, between the sevententh and eighteenth of September.

The Egyptian Moneths,By the Arabians call'dBy the Syrians call'd
ThothMuharamIllul
PaopiSafarThisrin 1.
AthorRabi 1.Thisrin 2.
ChoiakRabi 2.Kanum
TobiGiamadi 1.Kanon
MechirGiamadi 2.Scebat
FamenothRagebAdar
FarmyScabanNisan
PaskoesRhamadanIjur.
PaoniScevelHaziram
EpipDulkaidaThamuz
MessoriDalhagiebAb

EGypt at the beginning had Native Kings, The Antient Egyptian Dynasties. who governed their Subjects with a free and unlimited Authority, and according to the Prescription of their Priests, lead a Moral and Vertuous Life; and till the Government of Psammenitus, son of Amasis, who Rul'd in the Year of the World, Three thou­sand four hundred and five and forty, were all call'd by one general Sirname or Title of Paraoh: Wherefore in Jeremiah in his six and thirtieth Chapter, we read Pharaoh Jer. 46.2.Necho, and Pharaoh 44.30. Pharaoh-Hophra.Kofra, as much as to say, King Necho, King Kophra; Pharaoh being barely a name of Dignity, as with us the name of Em­peror or King is. In which Year, for he reign'd but six Moneths, Cambyses the son of Darius, with a strong Army invaded and conquer'd Egypt, and took Psammenitus captive, putting to death, banishing, and destroying all before him, and reducing the Countrey to a Province; in which Subjection of the Persians it remained above a hundred and fifty Years, till the Reign of Artaxerxes Longi­manus: In whose time the Egyptians set up one Inarus, son of Psammitichus, be­fore King of Lybia, who in the beginning Govern'd happily, till Artaxerxes with a great Fleet and Army came upon them out of Phaenicia, unawares, and soon reduced them again to his Obedience; from which time it was subject to the Persian Kings, until the Reign of Darius Nothus, when they were expell'd by Amirteus, born in the City Sais, or a Sebanite.

Six years reign'd Amirteus, succeeded for about Ninety one years, Mendesian Princes, so call'd from Mendes, which also was Horus, one of their Gods, from whom they descended, or from the City Mendes. by four Mendesian Princes, Neferitis, Achoris, Psammites, and Neferitis the Second; after that by three Sebennites, viz. Nectabanos, Techos or Meos, and Nectabanos the Se­cond; which last, Artaxerxes Ochus bereav'd of his Kingdom, and drove to Ethio­pia, and so Egypt fell again to the Persians, to whom it continued subject till the destruction of Darius Codomannus, by Alexander the Great, who brought it to the Grecian or Macedonian Kings, that reign'd five years over it. Anno Mundi 3600. After Alexander's Death, this Countrey fell to Ptolomeus, surnam'd Lagus, whence all the Kings, his Successors, in that Kingdom, were call'd Ptolomeys, subjoyning thereto some other Name, as Philadelphus, Epiphanes, and the like. This Dynasty held the Scep­ter Two hundred ninety and eight years.

At first, after the Death of Alexander the Great, his Brother Arideus, after much debate was chosen King, who over the conquered Territories made the chiefest Captains, Lieutenants and Governors: In which Distribution of great Offices, Egypt, as we said, fell to the share of Ptolomy (which in Greek sig­nifies Warlike or Couragious); but his Companion Perdicas picking a Quarrel, quickly routed him, and was himself as soon vanquished by Antigonus, who was so puff'd up with his Victory, that nothing but Soveraignty would con­tent him, whereupon he took the Title of King, which Ptolomy now recruited, Egypt was a Kingdom un­der the Ptolomeys. imitating and not willing to be inferior to his Companion, assum'd the Royal Dignity and Title, joyning to Egypt, Syria and Arabia, rifling Jerusalem; from whence he brought away many Jews captive, whom at first he grievously per­secuted.

The Ptolomeys in Egypt which bore the Title of King, were Ten in Number, and these that follow.
  • Ptolomy the Son of Lagus Reign'd 40 Years.
  • Ptolomy Philadelphus Reign'd 28 Years.
  • Ptolomy Evergetes Reign'd 26 Years.
  • Ptolomy Ceraunus Philopator Reign'd 17 Years.
  • Ptolomy Epiphanes Reign'd 35 Years.
  • Ptolomy Philometor Reign'd 24 Years.
  • Ptolomy Evergetes Reign'd 29 Years.
  • Ptolomy Phiscon, other­wise Soter, that is Protector Reign'd 17 Years.
  • Ptolomy Alexander Reign'd 18 Years.
  • Ptolomy Auletes. Reign'd 30 Years.
  • Cleopatra Reign'd 24 Years.

The Reign and Race of the Ptolomeys over Egypt, ended with Cleopatra, the Daughter of Ptolomy Auletes, courted at first by Julius Caesar, then by Mark Anthony, through whose favors She kept her Soveraignty: but Augustus at the Battel of Actium ruining Anthony's Fortunes, with the death of Cleopatra who poyson'd her self, made it a Roman Province, and it continued under that Empire till the Reign of Heraclius, who held his Royal Court and Seat of Empire at Constan­tinople.

After the dividing of the Roman Empire into East and West, Egypt fell to the Greek or Western share; but the remisness of their Government, and Extortion of their Officers, made the Egyptians submit themselves to the Arabian Califs, about the year Seven hundred and four, to whom they stood faithful till conquered by the Mahumetans.

The first Arabian Calif was called Omar, who to that end sent a strong Army, under the Conduct of his Lieutenant Ambre, son of Albas, to Cairo, over which at that time, in the Greek Emperors Name, presided as his Deputy or Vice-Roy, Makaubare, who compounded with Ambre upon these Terms: That every Inhabi­tant should pay a Gold Esku; That the Arabians should be entertained three days in all places where they pass through; and that the Citizens should pay to the Calif a yearly Revenue of twenty hundred thousand Eskues. The year following Ambre won Alexandria, and so brought all Egypt under the Command of the Arabian Califs, and there­upon took upon him, in the Califs Name, the Dominion of Egypt, as his Gover­nour: From thence it was ordered by Deputies, until the year Eight hundred fifty and one, when Calif Mutamid dividing his whole Empire, gave his Bro­ther among many other Countreys, Egypt, who held it fifty years and upward. Then in the year Nine hundred and four, Calif Muktatos made it Provincial; but the Calif Abubekre adding to it whatever the Syrians had possessed, Muhamed Abuhur succeeded him with the Title of King, and after him Casur.

In the year Eleven hundred thirty and five, Ali Abulmansar after his Fathers Death came to the Throne, and Reign'd to the year Eleven hundred sixty and three, at which time Syracon or Xarracon, call'd by others Asereddin Schirachoch, an Armenian, General or first Vizier of the King of Damas, who had sent him with an Army to the assistance of the dispossess'd Souldan Sanat, against the new Souldan Dargon; by his lucky Conquest and victorious Arms, taking captive the Calif of Egypt, made himself Master there, with the Title of Sultan or Souldan. [Page 137]After whose death his Brother Joseph Nazir Saladin took Possession, and by the overthrow of the former Calif Etzar, so setled the Government, that it conti­nued in that Name and Race till the year One thousand two hundred and forty two, when the Mamalucks, the off-spring of a People on the Banks of the Euxine Sea, vulgarly call'd The Circassians, and by Melechsala, The seventh Calif, of Shirachochs Race made his Guard, knowing their own strength, and finding a fit opportunity by the Murder of their Lord, made themselves Lords of the Coun­trey, appointing for their Prince one Tarquimenis, born in Turcomania; in whose Race the Possession continu'd from 1255. (for Elmutan the Son of Melechsala held War with them till then) until the year 1517.

The last Souldan of Egypt was call'd Tomumbey, the second of that Name, The last Sultan of Egypt. which by the Warlike Mamalucks, for his Vertue and Honesty, was elected Sul­tan, who having Wars with the Turkish Emperor Selim, and defeated by him in Battel, fled to Cairo, where taken captive, betrayed and deliver'd up by a Moorish Prince, he was miserably in the said year, Fifteen hundred and seventeen, Murder'd, and his Body ty'd to the Tail of a Camel and dragg'd through Cairo. This, with the Victory the year before gain'd against Souldan Campson Gauri, so ruin'd the power of the Mamalucks, that ever since, Egypt together with other Countreys and Kingdoms, by their Courage and Conduct, kept in Subjection above Three hundred years, as before is mentioned, fell under the Com­mand of the Turkish Empire, to which with Cayar-Bey, and Gazelle, most of the Mamalucks joyned themselves, though indeed Gazelle, Souldan of Apamee and Aman, the most Noblest of the Mamalucks, held War a long time; but finding his Power too weak, at length he submitted with his Forces, and was receiv'd into Favor by Selim, and made Governor over Syria, which Office he perform'd till the death of Selim, with great Care and Fidelity; but after his death Gazelle be­gan to strengthen himself with Soldiers, and endeavoured to draw to his Par­ty Cayar-Bey, though in vain, for he perfidiously put to death the Messengers; yet Gazelle did not leave his Enterprize unattempted, but with a great Army drew into the Field, though without any remarkable success.

Mamaluck signifieth in the Syriack, A mercenary Soldier; they were always kept in the Pay of the Souldan or Sultan, being chiefly Horse, and the most of them Christians, or children of Christians; for Arabians, Saracens, Moors, Turks nor Jews, may not be received into their Society.

The greatest part of them were of Circassia, on the Banks of the Euxine Sea, as we said, where the Turks call them also Cercas or Zercas, and we Circassiers. These, saith Jovius, were taken in their Infancy by the Valaques, Tartars, Precopi­tans, Podolians, and the Inhabitants of Roxolania, and sold to the Merchants, who chose out the strongest and stoutest, which they brought over the Midland-Sea to the Souldan, who at Cairo caused them to be brought up in the Exercise of Arms as soon as they came to Age, and learn'd to draw a strong Bow, and shoot at a Mark with extraordinary Aim and Steddiness; the whole Science of Defence, and the exercise of their Arms for Battel, Riding and well managing of Horses; they received Pay of the Souldan, and were immediately listed into the Number of his Life-Guard. Thus these Mamalucks being in no likelihood to attain any Honour, Office or Maintenance, but by their Valor and Courage, so enured themselves to Martial Discipline, that of despicable Bond-men and purchased Slaves, many of them became great Captains and mighty Princes.

This Government of the Mamaluck Souldans was Elective, for no Son might by right Succeed his Father, but went away content with the Heirship of his [Page 138]personal Estate. In the Election, every Mamaluck had a voice, and as soon as a Souldan was chosen, required of him a Serif or Ducat of Gold.

Since the subduing of Egypt by Selim, Government. Cesar Lambert. Jacques Albert. his Successors, the Grand Signieurs, ma­nage the Government by a Bashaw, otherwise call'd Beglerbei, and chief of the Sanjacks, in the same manner as Alzier, Tunis, Tripolis, and other Countreys, sub­ject to the Turks.

The Great Turk sends commonly every Three years a new Bashaw from Con­stantinople, although for these fifty or sixty Years none of them hath continued in his Office for a whole Year; nay, sometimes in Three Moneths there have been two new Bashaws. If a Bashaw offend the Commons, especially the Leaders among them, he is instantly as they say there, Manzoul; that is, without Au­thority, and secluded apart, sometime within, sometime without the Castle; and in his Place, the Kai Macam, that is, the antientest of the Sanjacks is sub­stituted, who often performs the Place better than himself. That this is most certain, we have a fresh Example that happen'd but in the year Sixteen hundred and thirty.

Mahomet Bashaw, Nephew to the Grand Vizier, Kampson Bashaw, General of the Army for the Grand Signieur in Persia, after his coming and Reception in Cairo, stay'd there about five Moneths, obliging all the Great Ones of the Countrey to him, and putting to death five or six very Rich but intollerable Oppressors and Squeezers of the poor People. At length in the year Sixteen hundred and thirty, Gaetai Bey, one of the richest Men in Egypt, very ambitious, and who had cast an eye upon the Kingdom, came at eight of the Clock in the Morning to visit the Bashaw, who received him with more than ordinary Kindness, and shewing him greater Honor than expected. After much Discourse held on both Sides, and the Conclusion of the Beys Business, which continued about two Hours, he invited him to taste a dish of Sorbet and Coffee; which done, and he about to depart, the Bashaw accompanied him three or four steps over a­gainst Door of his Chamber on that side of the Room where he gave audience; and then told him, That he had a Letter from the Grand Signieur, which con­tain'd a Command to send him his Head, upon the penalty of his own, and without more words, Bey having no time to escape, was immediately taken and brought through the Gallery of the Room, by the side of the Place, where usu­ally Water is to wash himself; there was he beheaded, and the head instantly thrown through the Window of the Room upon the open Place, as also the Trunk or Corps through the Gallery of the Chiaus in the same Place.

The Bashaw, a man of solid Judgment, and full of Courage, of the Age of five and thirty Years, withdrew himself without any tumult; but as soon as it was Published, he was surrounded with five or six Thousand Janizaries, whom he satisfied with Reasons. On the Morrow, the Great Men all assembled to­gether, with the Janizaries in the Castle, and other Commanders, demanded of the Bashaw the Order of the Grand Signieur, which he said, he would not deliver to any but his Master, neither would he shew it. They threatned to take his Head in Compensation for the other; to which with a setled Resolution he neither answered nor resisted. However, he was convey'd out of the Castle, and kept under Guard till the Grand Signieur should signifie his Pleasure, either to discharge, or have him sent to him.

The Dominion of the Bashaw is limited and bounded by Law; for without the Kadilescher or President of the Council, and the Great ones of the Coun­trey, he cannot conclude any thing of great Concernment; however he [Page 139]takes Cognizance of most things which happen to his Employment.

The Bashaw in Cairo hath the like Officers under him, as are in other Turkish Places; that is, a Tihaia, Cadilesker, Sanjaks, Defterdar, Sarraks, Chiaus, Soubachi; all which together Constitute the Divan or Councel.

The Tihaia is the second Person next the Bashaw, and the Cadilesker as much as President of the Councel, or Divan.

The Sanjaks, of which the Bashaw is Head, are eighteen in number; they take Pay every Monday, and their highest Pay is five and twenty thousand Medins a Moneth; besides five and twenty Ardebes of Corn, and the like Weight of Barley.

The Soubachi is as much as a High-Sheriff of a County.

The Divan or Councel assemble at the Castle of Cairo, or in the Rooms of an old Structure joyning close to the Castle, thrice a Week, on Mondays, Tuesdays, and Thursdays; on Mondays usually Matters of State, and that which concerns Justice are debated; and on Tuesdays touching the Re­venues.

The Bashaw comes into the Divan at Noon, accompanied with the Defterdar, and four Sanjaks, which they call Nubba; after the dispatch of business proper for the time, and calling over their Names, they leave the Bashaw and the Def­terdar alone with the Secretaries of the Divan, which sit at the foot of the Ba­shaw: In this Divan also sit the Rosmanegi, Mocategis, Calfas, Mocabelgies, and the Sarraf Bassy, who commonly is a Jew, accompanied also with several other Sarrafs, Receivers of the Treasures as well in Cairo, as in the plain Countrey in the Cassifillis and Meltescens, or Meltecemino that be Provinces.

The President of the Chiaus, who is the Bashaw's Interpreter, is in the Divan Catteby, as well as the Secretary, usuall with four Chiauses, and as many Motta­feragaes, and a like number of Janizaries which stay below.

On Thursdays the inferiour Divan assembles, where the Cadilesker sits in per­son, to hear the Complaints of the People, violently oppressed or fleeced by the Cassifs, or Governours. But at this day these Courts are seldom kept, yet the people dare not complain.

Concerning the peculiar Businesses of the Janizaries, they have their own particular Aga or President, as also Spahies and a Chiaus; from which last all the Chief Officers proceed, and are Judges in all Differences which arise among them: from whom however there is an Appeal to the Divan of the Bashaw, which yet is seldom done. Business of small moment, that reach not Corporal Pu­nishment, are decided by the Cadizen of State; but Corporal Punishments are inflicted by the Sanjak, or Superior Authority.

All the Differences among Christians in Cairo, or between Christians, Turks, Moors, and Jews, are determined by the Consuls of their own Nation, there resident.

The Sanjaks of Cairo superintend several high and mighty Affairs both with­in and without the Countrey; that is, one conducts the Caravan from Cairo to Mecha; another guards the Grand Seigniors Revenue to Constantinople; a third at­tends the Muster-Master General in the Affairs of the Souldiery, and to per­fect his Rolls against Persia, Syria, and Mecha. When they have finisht their Ex­peditions, they are discharg'd for three years following.

Four other Sanjaks usually keep Guard in Grand Caire Moneth by Moneth, upon the four great ways of the City: The first is Alladelne, or the Gate, out of which they go to Suhez, the Red-Sea, and Palestine: The second, that over [Page 138]against Old Caire: The third leading to the Sepulchres of the Garrison; and the fourth to the second Bridge of Cally.

Besides the Chief Bashaw, there is over every Cassif or Dominion, a particu­lar Governour or Lieutenant, call'd Sabbessadeh, appointed by the Bashaw, of whom he rents or farms the Province.

Every Governour hath his own peculiar Councel or Divan in his Province, to which are belonging one Chiaus, one Droguerman or Interpreter, one Aga of the Janizaries, and four Boullouks, besides Mottaferagaes, Sphahies, Tuffegies, Sarakgies, and Arabgies.

There is also The Enrollment-Office, or, The Divan Catteby, where all the Orders of the Great Divan are entred.

¶ THe Religion of the Antient Egyptians consisted in the worshipping of Idols, The Antient Religion or Worship. Beasts and other Creatures, under the several Names of Osiris and Isis, Serapis, Apis, Hammon, Canopus, Horus, Harpocrates, Mithres, Typhon Osiris's Brother, and others beside.

Osiris, according to the Testimony of Diodorus, was the Son of Saturn, after whose Decease married to Isis. They say he govern'd Egypt with such Wisdom and Moderation, that he infinitely gained the affections of all: For besides the wholesome Laws he made, he instructed them in Husbandry, Mechanick-Trades, Planting of Vines and Olive-Trees; and was the first among them, that by the help of Mercury taught them Letters.

These happy Inventions thus perfected, Osiris thirsting after greater Glory, raised a great Army, and commending to Isis the Care of all, to whom he joyned as an Assistant for Councel, Mercury, a most Ingenious and Politick Statesman; Hercules Egyptian. and Commissioned Hercules, a man of extraordinary Strength and Power to overlook the more Active and Military Part. When he had order­ed all thus wisely, he associated to him his Brother Apollo, and his two Sons, Anuber and Macedo; thus marching into the Field, accompanied also with Pan, Maro, and Triptolemus, the first Planters of Vineyards, and Sowers of Corn, he passed through Arabia, and the Indies, atchieving many great Victories, and teaching Civility to all those barbarous conquer'd Nations: At last touching upon Europe, much improved by his Travels and Warlike Expeditions, he re­turned into Egypt; where for these great Acts he was Deifi'd by the People, and Worshipped as the Sun, and his Royal Consort Isis as the Moon: because as their idolatrous and dull Fancies imagin'd Osiris ascended into the Sun, and Isis into the Moon, to preside and govern the two great Luminaries, and so consequently the Earth.

The same Diodorus relates, That when Typhon saw his Brother Osiris while alive thus highly reverenc'd, his heart was so imbitter'd against him, that he privately murther'd him by the help of the Tytanois distributing to every one of his Relations a part of his Body, and usurped the Kingdom. But Isis with the assistance of her Sons Horus and Anubis, soon reveng'd her Husbands Death, by the destruction of Typhon, and all his Rebellious Complices.

Isis after this in memory of her murther'd Lord, with Herbs and Wax wrought or kneaded with Aromatick Spices together, framed a most Exquisite Effigies of him; commanding the Priests to shew it every one, with order that they should in secret honour him as a God, and Consecrate to him what Crea­ture they liked best: And the more to promote this Service, she settled on them a Yearly Revenue; which prevailing on their covetous minds, they instantly put all in practice, in manner following.

The Priests at the appointed time Went into the Archives of the Temple, where stood (but known onely to them) this Image of Osiris, before which in mournful postures, amidst their contrite and most doleful lamentations; they first shaved their Heads, then beating their Breasts, and ripping up the Scars and new-heal'd Orifices of their former Wounds received in private as a preparation for this general Service. Some days in this manner being past, they pretend by a most wonderful, and divine Instinct, to have found the Body of Osiris; whereupon they run out from Sorrow to the extremity of Exhila­ration; Tears and Lamentations turn to Songs, Dances, and all sorts of Re­vels: Which Solemnities finding applause with the ignorant Vulgar, after the first Sanction were continually after Celebrated at the Festival set apart for the finding of Osiris's Body.

There was another Feast, call'd in Greek, Phallophoria, The Feast Phallophoria. kept in Comme­moration of the finding his Genitals; for Typhon had, as we said, distributed the rest; which Diodorus says was publickly presented in Ivory or Gold, half a yard in length, carried about with Wind-Musick, and in dancing before it pre­sented all wanton and obscene posture. Isis also had a Holiday, wherein they did nothing but bemoan Osiris Death. At all these Feasts, the Priests wore a long white Linnen Surplice, they wore upon their Head the Image of Anu­bis, headed like a Dog, in their Right Hand a Branch of Sea-Wormwood, or Pine; in the Left, a Tree that had power (as they gave out) to drive away Evil Spirits. Osiris, according to Plutarch, draws the Etymology from the Greek Word Hosieros, or Hosiros, that is, Very Holy; or of two Egyptian Words, Os and Iris; the first signifying Great or Immense; and the last an Eye; as much as to say, as Great Eye. Kircher will have it, that Osiris in the Antient Egyptian Tongue signifies Holy Lord, and a Ubiquitary Fire. If then Osiris genuinely denotes a Shi­ning Light, or an Immense Eye, it must needs be meant of the Sun; because Phi­losophers held the Sun to be a Fire. And we not scruple to denominate it Great Eye, viewing still at once the half of our Orb.

Isis, Osyris's Wife was also taken for the Moon; both these were said, ac­cording to Diodorus, to compass the World, and to feed and multiply all things, by a continual Circulation. These are peculiarly operative in all Pro­pagations; the one being Fiery and full of Spirit, the other Moist and Cold; the Air which is the Nurse, participating of both.

The Powers and Perfections of Osiris, or the Sun, are expressed by so many Names, that Plutarch not without good cause calleth it Myrionumos; that is, Thousand Names. Homer names Osiris and Isis, for the same cause, Father and Mother of all the Gods: And indeed from hence have sprung an infinite number; some confounding Osiris with Bacchus or Dionysius, Mercury, Pan, Neptune, Jupiter, Ja­nus, Saturn, and Coelum; others make him one and the same with Hercules, Apol­lo, Pluto, Horus; some, as Hesychius, will have him the same with Nilus, Apis, Serapis, Hammon, and Oceanus. See here a Pedigree of all the Gods proceeding from one Stock or Root.

Writers infinitely differ about this Isis: The Greeks make her the Daughter of Inachus, whence the handsome Fiction of the Transformation of Isis by Juno into a Cow, springs; but this Isis, or rather Io, was not the Wife of Osiris, but the Assyrian Isis. Some derive her from Ethiopia: Xenophon, Diodorus, Euse­bius, and others, make Osiris and Isis Children of Saturn, which some again con­tradict.

Isis was among the Egyptians held in such great Honour, that it was a Capi­tal Crime to say, She was a Man; therefore in all Temples where the Images of Osiris and Isis were set, stood also one of Horus or Harpocrates, Osiris's Son, with his finger upon his Lips, importing silence. She was held by general consent of most Antient Writers, to be the Moon; and therefore by Plutarch in Greek is call'd Pandeches, that is, Receiver General; and Keratophorus, or Cornuted, Servius saith, Isis signifies the Spirit of Nilus: The moving of the Trees, which she was feign'd to carry in her right Hand, signifi'd the flowing up of Nilus; and the Merlin in her left Hand, the flowing to the Banks: From whence, we may not without Reason infer, That in the Egyptian Tongue it signifies the Earth. By Apuleius in his Eleventh Book of his Metamorphosis, she is stiled, The generating Nature of all things, Lady of all principal Matters, Bringer forth of Ages, the Supream of the Deities, Queen of Spirits, the first Exemplar of Gods and Goddesses. Adding, that the Athenians call'd her the Cecropian Minerva; the Cyprians, the Paphian Venus; the Cret [...] ­ans, the Dictimnian Diana; the Sicylians, the Stigian Proserpina; the Eleusinians, the an­tient Ceres, others Juno, some Bellona, Hecate, Rhramussia; only the Egyptians call'd her by her right Name, Isis. So many and several Names had Isis, for no other Cause, but to signifie the different operations which she affected in the World. Diodorus affirms, that Isis found out many Medicinal Remedies for the expelling of Diseases: Diodorus. For Horus, her Son, kill'd by the Tytanois, and found in the Water, she not only restor'd to Life, but made him also Immortal, as they say; by which means she gain'd greater Honor and Reverence among the Egyptians, than Osiris himself. The Egyptians have in memory of them several Inscriptions to be seen, ingraven upon Pillars in Writings of Eternity, some whereof we may read in Diodorus particularly, one of Isis.

IIsis, Queen of Egypt, taught by Mercury, am the Wife of Osiris, I am the Mother of Horus; That which I have Established by Laws, shall none be able to Dissolve. I am the first Inventor of Fruits, I am in the Constellation of the Devouring Dog; the City Bubastis was Erected to my Honour. O Egypt, Egypt, Rejoyce that thou hast Foster'd Me.

Memorials of Osiris.

MY Father is Saturn, the Youngest of all the Gods; I am King Osiris, who have tra­vell'd through the whole World, even to the uninhabited Borders and Bounds of India, and other Parts of the Kingdoms of the Earth, to the utmost Ocean. I am the Eldest Son of Saturn, a Branch of a Noble and Excellent Father. There is no Place in the World which I have not Visited, teaching every where those rarities which I have found out.

They say at last, That Isis, besides the Inventing the sowing of Wheat, Bar­ley, and other Grain, instituted Laws also; wherefore she was call'd by the Antients, Plutarch. The Law-giver, which confirms the words of the former produced Inscription. She was also by the Greeks call'd Tithenes, that is, Nurse; and Pan­deches, that is, as we said already, Receiver General, and held to be the same with Proserpine and Ceres, and so the Mother of the Gods, because she bears the Titles attributed to all.

We have heretofore spoken of the Egyptians ridiculous Superstition and Ido­latry, we will now add something of their Apis, and so come to their present Perswasion.

The Egyptians worshipped with great Zeal and Devotion, Apis or Epaphus. a Calf or Ox, which they call'd Apis, and the Greeks, Epaphus; for every Ox was not fit for it, [Page 143]but it must be Black all over the Body, having a square White Spot or Star on the Fore-head, the shape of an Eagle upon the Back, a Py'd Tail, and upon the Tongue a Horse-flye or Hornet.

When such an Ox dy'd, the People fell into sorrow upon it, and sumptu­ously Bury'd it, never ceasing their grief till the Priests found out another like the former; in which Quest proving successful, the Priests brought the Calf first into the City Nilus, where they fed it Forty days, afterwards in a Ship, under a Golden Pavilion, to Memphis, where they plac'd it in the Temple of Vul­can. The cause hereof, says Diodorus, was because they believ'd the soul of Osiris first of all transmigrated into it.

Nor did this Apian Worship terminate it self in Egypt, but also spread into the East-Indies, where even to this day, in the Kingdom of the Great Mogol, in Bengala, Sumatra, upon the Maldiver Islands, and other Countreys lying on the Sea-Coast, are to be seen such Apises or Oxen; nay, they are come to such a height of Sottishness, that they believe none that die shall be sav'd, unless at their Departure they lay their Hand upon the Tail of any Ox or Cow.

¶ AS to the present Religion in Egypt, it is Mahumetan: The present Worship in Egypt. And Bellonius in his Observations, says, The Egyptians and Arabs do keep their Law much more stricter than the Turks; and although that have prevailed most, yet in Cairo it self, are many Christians, of several Nations and Sects, viz. English, Dutch, French, Italians, Copticks, Nestorians, Maronites, Georgians, Jacobites, Arme­nians, Syrians, and others, amounting to the Number of 100000. All which, though in some Points differing among themselves, yet in many of their Church-Ceremonies they agree with the Roman, though in others they have remarkable Differences: They inhabit several Cities, Villages, Hamlets and Cloisters beside Cairo, as at Alexandria, Sai, Tmui, Asna, Festadada, Coptus, Asman, Asioch, Elesmunin, Monphaluth, Caus, and in the Cloisters of St. Macharius, St. Pe­ter, St. Hermes, and St. Pachomius, adjacent to the Red-Sea.

All these Christians, and the Abyssines themselves, are under one Patriarch, who keeps his Residence in Alexandria, and in the Arabick is call'd Papa, or Abu­ma Patriarch, that is, Our Father Patriarch.

In former times, under the Persecution of the Emperor Dioclesian, the Copticks did lead an Honest and Sincere Life, adhering to the Church of Rome, but af­terwards rent from it, by the embracing the destructive Heresies of Dioscorus and Eutiches; and at present own no other Head of the Church than the Alex­andrian Patriarch.

The Jacobites hold, that in Christ, by the Hypostatical Union, Kircher suppl. Copt. c. 2. is one only Per­sonal Nature, consisting of two Natures not Personal, without Mixture grow­ing together. They make Saints of Dioscorus, Severus, Petrus, Macharius, all He­reticks, and condemn Pope Leo. They hold also, that themselves, together with the Armenians and Abyssines, are the Universal or Catholick Church, and exclude all others, and withal, that before the General Judgment, no man goes into Paradise or into Hell.

Those that follow the Heresie of Dioscorus, from Arrius and Origen, Kircher. deny Christ's Humanity, affirming his Body coequal with the Deity; others deny that he received a Soul, and from these words of St. John, And the Word became Flesh; that he took Flesh of the Virgin Mary, and that meerly the Word became Flesh.

Those lastly, that follow Nestorius, a Constantinopolitan Bishop, Kircher. distinguish [Page 144]two Substances or Beings in Christ, giving him two Persons, and by Conse­quence two Sons of God, and two Christs; one which is God, and the other generated of his Mother Mary. They say that the Virgin Mary is not to be call'd Gods Mother, but Christs Mother.

In their Divine Service, the Copticks use the Liturgies of St. Peter, Mark, Basil, Gregory, Cyril, translated into the Coptick, they also Celebrate it in Arabick, which there every one understands; but the Epistles and Gospels are read twice, once in the Coptick, and once in the Arabick; In the same manner as in a Solemn Service at Rome, they are read both in Greek and Latine. At the time of the Service, they all leaning against the Pillars, thereby to shew, that they are Travellers or Pilgrims, and expect the blessed coming of the Glory of the Great God. They sing aloud altogether their Liturgies, in a Tone call'd in Arabick, Hink; sometimes raising their Notes to the Alts, then using deep Cadences, so well ordered, that no un­pleasing Discord jarr from their Harmony.

Now although most of the Alexandrian Patriarchs or Pastors, together with their Flocks have formerly thus departed from the Church of Rome, yet all the Coun­treys of Egypt, and the whole Abyssine Church, have, and still do acknowledg the Ro­mish Doctrine to be the right, and the Pope to be Christs Vicar; as appears by several Letters from Gabriel the Patriarch of Alexandria, sent by two Messengers to Pope Clement the Eighth, in the Year Fifteen hundred ninety and three; wherein he calleth himself GABRIEL, The humble Minister by Gods Grace, of St. Mark, in the City of Alexandria, and in all other, bordering Southerly on the Sea-coast, and among the Abyssines. In one of these his Messages he made Confession of his Belief before the Pope, in these words: I believe and confess that the holy Apostolick Seat, and the Roman Pope, is the supream Head in the whole Church, and the Successor of the blessed Apostle St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, and Christs Vicar, and Father and Teacher of all Christians: I confess that Power is given to him from our Lord Christ, through St. Peter, to keep and govern the Universal Church, as al­so that none can be Saved out of that Universal Church.

This was the Confession, which they stand to at this day. The Pope is by these Patriarchs, in their Letters to Him, commonly thus Entituled:

To the Greatly Esteemed Pope, Father of the Priesthood, Successor in the Universal, Apostolick, truly Believing Church, Father and Prince of Princes, Christs Vicegerent on Earth, Sitting upon the Seat of St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, Lord Urban the Eighth.

After the Death of one Patriarch, another is chosen out of the number of Monks, residing in the Cloisters.

And here observe, That ever since the Beginning of Christianity, there were three Patriarchs, by the Apostle Peter, Erected in the most Famous Cities of the Roman Empire; The Roman, the Alexandrian, and the Antiochian; where­to afterwards was added the Constantinopolitan, by the Councils of Constantinople and Chalcedon: And lastly, the Jerusalemitan, by the same Council of Chalcedon.

The Sixth Canon of the Council of Nice, held in the Year after the Birth of Christ, Three hundred twenty and five, annexed to the Patriarch of Alexan­dria, Egypt, Lybia, or Pentapolis, Arcadia and Augustanica; to which afterward were added Upper and lower Egypt, both Thebes, and other, so that at last Egypt con­tain'd ten Arch-Bishopricks: For so many Metropolitans it pleased the Emperor Theodosius and Valentinius to call together out of this Patriarchat, in a Letter to Dioscorus. And indeed so far hath this of Alexandria extended it self of late, that now it includes the utmost Bounds of the Abyssines.

There are in Egypt likewise many Calogers, that is, shaved Monks, which follow the Greek Religion, and possess many Churches and Cloisters. All which live poorly, sleep upon the Ground, and drink no Wine, but meerly so much as is necessary for the Mass.

 The Years of their Govern­ment.The beginning of their Go­vernment af­ter the Birth of Christ.
THe Archbishop or 45
Evangelist S. Mark1964
Anianus.22 
Miliut, alias Abilius1387
Cerdi11110
Ephrim, otherwise the First12112
Justus11124
Eumenius11133
Marcianus6144
Claudianus15150
Agripini17165
Demetrius, an Opposer of Origen44190
Hieroclas, Follower of Origen12234
Dionysius, a Scholar of Origens18248
Maximus.19266
Theonas, a Pillar of the Church15285
Peter the first Martyr.10300
Here began the Ac­compt of the Martyrs under Dioclesian  
Archillas and Achillas1310
Alexander15311
Athanasius, great Dr. of the Church42326
Peter12368
Timothy5380
Theophilus27385
Cyril the Great33412
Dioscorus, under whom began the first Rent from the Alexandrian Church7445
Timothy, a Scholar of Eutiches25452
Peter, alias, the Here­tick Gnapheus9477
Athanasius, a false He­retical Bishop20486
John, of which there were three, viz.10506
Mela  
Tabida  
Machiota  
Dioscorus the young 516
Timothy  
Theodatius, an Arch-Heretick  
Peter, alias, Mogus, a false Bishop  
Dimanus  
Anastatius 622
Andronicus 639
Benjamin 645
Agathus19664
John; this built the Church of St. Mark in Alexandria8672
Isack3675
Simon the Syrian  
Alexander20 
Cosmas13718
Theodorus11703
Choel23763
Mena9772
John13791
Mark10817
Jacob; this is said to have raised the Dead to Life10890
Simeon1822
Joseph18845
Chael1864
Cosmas7866
Sanodius, otherwise Sa­nitius 875
Chael, otherwise Mi­chael25885
Gabriel11923
Macarius12931
Theophanius, killed4967
Mena11972
Abraham, died poison'd by his Amanuensis, or Secretary3976
Philotheus24919
Zacharias281015
Senodius251043
Serius Christus301068
Cyrillus141098
Michael81112
Maccearius, alter'd the Church Ceremonies261246
Gabriel  
John  
Mark; here the Years of Government are wanting.  
John  
Benjamin  
Peter  
Mark  
John  
Gabriel  
Mathew  
Gabriel  
John  
Mathew  
Gabriel  
Michael  
John  
Gabriel  
John  
Gabriel; this sent a Messenger to Pope Ʋrban the Eight 1593
Mark  
John  
Mathew 1635

BARBARY.

THis Countrey was not unknown to the Antient Romans, by the Name it bears at present of Barbary, since their Writings signifie they had settled therein several Colonies. The Original of the Name Barbary.

The Arabians, according to the Testimony of Ibnu Alraquiq, have given to this Countrey, by Marmol call'd Berbery, the name of Ber, that is, De­sart or Wilderness: from whence the Inhabitants themselves were afterwards stiled Bereberes. But others will have it so nam'd by the Romans; who having subdued some parts of Africa, this part lying opposite to them, they call'd Barbary, because they found the Inhabitants altogether Beastial and Barbarous: Nor is it at all improbable, Herodotus. considering that among us it is usual to call such as lead a wilde and ungovern'd life, and not civiliz'd by Education, Barbarians; so of old, the Grecians call'd all people [...], barbarous, that agreed not with them in Manners and Customs. But Jan de Leu saith, the White Africans were call'd by the Arabs, Barbarians, from the word Barbara, in the Arabick Tongue signifying Murmuring; because their Language in this Region did seem to them a kinde of confused murmur or noise, The Bounds of it. like that of Beasts.

Barbary lieth inclosed between Mount Atlas, the Atlantick and Midland Seas, the Desart of Lybia, and Egypt: For it begins at the Mountain Aidvacal, the first Point of the Great Mount Atlas, containing the City Messe, and the Territory of Sus, and reacheth from thence Westward, along the Sea-Coast of the Great Oce­an; on the North, by the Straits of Gibraltar, and the Mediterranean, to the Bor­ders of Alexandria; Eastward by the Wilderness of Barcha, near Egypt: and on the South, The Contents of it. passing from thence to the Mountain of the Great Atlas.

The Length, taken from the Great Atlantick Ocean, to the Borders of Egypt, is by some accounted six hundred Dutch Miles, and the Breadth from Mount At­las to the Midland-Sea, about eighty two Dutch Miles, which Breadth is not every where alike in it self, but according to the Cantles and Indentings of the Sea-Coast, and the going out and in of the Borders on the Land-side, which are very unequal. Other Contents of it.

Marmol makes Barbary much bigger, accounting from the City Messe, lying on the Western part of Barbary to Tripolis, under which the Kingdom of Mo­rocco, Fez, Tremesin, and Tunis lye above twelve hundred; and that part of the Sea-Coast extending to the Sandy Desart of Lybia, broader than an hundred and eighty Spanish Miles. To which Length we must yet adde, from Tripolis to the Borders of Barca, a Countrey no less than two hundred Miles long.

In the Division of Barbary, The Division of it. among the most noted Geographers, there is some difference. Philippus Cluverius, who seems to follow Golnitz, divides it into Six Parts; that is, into Barca, Tunis, Tremisen, Fez, Morocco, and Dara, which first sets down for a Republick, and the five other for Kingdoms. In this lieth the [...]

Barbary is di­vided i [...]o 5 parts. 141.

  • 1. Morocco, containing
    • Morocco proper, & therein
      • Rivers. Tenzift, Ecifelmel, Niftis, Agmet, Afisnuall, Teccubin, Hued la Abid, Habid, Umarabea, or Ommirabih, Darna, Sie-siva, Tesethne, Rio dos Savens, Teculeth, and Imiffen. Fifteen in all.
      • Cities, or Towns. Morocco, Agmet, Elgiun [...]uhe, Emigiagen, Tazarat or Tezrat, Tenez, Gamaagidid, Tenulet, Imizimiz, Tamdegost, and Animney.
      • Mountains. Nefuse, Derenders, Aden, Atron, Semmede, Xauxave, Sicsive, Gedmeve, and the Hantete.
    • Hea
      • Towns. Tedoest, Agobel, Alguel, Teknleth, Halequis, Texeuit, Lusngaguen, Tesegdelt, Tegetze, Eitdevet, Kyleyhat Elmuhaidin, Tefethne, Gazale, Tafalle, Zebedech, Magodor, Goz, and Engueleguingil.
      • Mountains. Ayduacal, or Atlas, Demensere, Mount Giubel el Hand, and Tenzift.
    • Sus
      • Towns. Messe, Tecent, Gared, Tarudant, Faraixa, Tedsi, Tagoast, Aguar, Gantguessen, Aguilou, Algazib, and Samotinate.
      • Mountains. Henquise, Laalem, Guzala, and Ilde.
      • Rivers Onely one, nam'd as the Province, Sus.
    • Guzula
      • Towns Hath no wall'd Cities, few good Towns, but many Villages.
      • Mountains None rising there, and scarce any en passant.
      • Rivers None rising there, and scarce any en passant.
    • Ducala
      • Towns The principal City, Azamor; Elmedine, the next; Magazan a place of great Strength; Tit, or Tut, now waste; Saffi, a wall'd City; Conte, Maramor, Cernu, Aguz, Telmez, Umez, Miatbir, Sudeyt, Tamarrox, Terga, Benekafiz, Guilez, Terrer, Cea, and Bulaaguan.
      • Mountains Benimequez, and Jakel; Hadra, or Mount Verd.
      • Rivers Ommirabih.
    • Haskora
      • Towns Elmadine, [...]lendin, Tagodast or Isadagas, Elgiumuha.
      • Mountains Teuendez, Tenhite, wherein 50 fortified Castles, and Guigim.
      • Rivers Tenzift, and Elgua del Habid.
    • Tedle
      • Towns Tefze the chief, Fixtele, Cithiteb, Aitiat.
      • Mountains Segeme, Magran, and Dedes.
  • 2. Fex
    • Fez, a Pro­vince
      • Towns Salee, Rabat, Fez the Metropolis, Tefensare, Maamore, Mequinez, Tefelfelt, Gemaa el Hamem, Hamis, Metagan, Beniz Bail, Makarmede, Habad, Zavy, and Haluan.
      • Mountains Zalagh, Zathon, Tagat, and Gereygure.
      • Rivers Burr [...]greg, Subu, Fez, Bath, Likus, Homar, Guir, Gomer, Cherzer, Melulo, Melnean, and Mutuye.
    • Temesne
      • Towns Coxor, Escossor, Anfa a Roman Building, Almansora, Sala or Sella, Rotima, Rabat, Newhayle, Adendum. Tegeget. Hain el Chetu, Maderauvan, Thagia, and Zarfa.
      • Mountains None remarkable.
    • Asgar.
      • Towns Larach, Elg [...]umha, and Casar el Cabir.
    • Ehabat
      • Towns Tangier, [...]aximus, Arzille. Cosar, Ezzachir or Alcazer, Ceuta, the Vionones, Ezagen, Beni-tuid, Mergo, Tansor, Agle, Narangia, Homam, and Tituan.
      • Mountains Ralione, Benefenficare, Beni-Aroz, Chebib, Angera, Quadres, and Beniguedarfeth.
    • Erif
      • Towns Comere-Terga, Yelles, Bedis, Penon de la Velez, Gebba, Mezemme, Tegasse, Seusaon, and Guazaval.
      • Mountains Beni-Garir, Beni-Mansor, Beni-Chelid, Beni-Zarval, Seusacen, Beni-Gebara, Beni-Yerson, Beni-Gualed, Beni-Guazual, Guarga, Beni-Achmed, and Beni-Guarrued.
    • Garet
      • Towns Tarforagello, Fetis, [...]arfoquirato, Melille, Casasa, Tezzote, and Meggio.
      • Mountain [...] Alkude, Eguebdenon, Beni-Sahia, Azgungan, Beneteusin, and Guardan.
    • Cus, or Chaus
      • Towns Teurert, Hadagia, Garsis, Dubdu, Meza, Sophroy, Mezdega, Benihublud, Ham-Lisnam, Mehedia, Tezerghe, Umen­giueaybe, and Gerceluin.
      • Mountains Matgara, Cauata, Megeze, Baronis, Beniguertenage, Beniriftere, and Siligo.
  • 3 Tunis
    • Tunis pro­perly
      • Rivers Guadelbarbar, Magrida, Megerada, and Caps, or Capes,
      • Mountains Zogoan, Gueslet, Benitefren, Nefuse.
      • Towns Tunis, the Metropolis of the whole.
    • Goletta
      • Towns Goletta, the chief; Marsa, or Marca; Nebel, of old Napolis of Barbary, Cammort, Arriane, and Arradez, once a Roman Colony.
    • Carthage
      • Towns Carthage.
    • Byserta
      • Towns The City Biserta; Choros, or Clypea, or Kalybby, Porto Farine.
      • Mountains None; but one fertile Plain, call [...]d Mater.
    • Urbs and Beggy
      • Towns Urbs, Beggie, Nayne, Sammin, and Kasba.
      • Rivers One, but without Name.
    • Susa
      • Towns Susa, the chief City, Hammameth, or rather Mahometa; Heraclia, Monaster.
      • Islands Cumiliers, Querguene, and Gamelere.
    • Mahady
      • Towns Mahadia, or Africa.
    • Kayravan
      • Towns Kayravan, Tobute, and Astachus, or Arfachus.
    • Tabarca and
      • Galita Two small Islands
    • Tripoli
      • Towns Old and New Tripoli, Capez, Machres, Elhamma, and Zoara.
      • Rivers and Lakes Kasarnaker, Rasalmabes, and Mabro. The Lake Tritonis, famous in Antiquity.
    • Zerbi
      • Towns Meninx, Thoar, or Guerra, and Sibele; but scarce worth naming.
    • Ezzab
      • Towns Ras, Axara, Tessuta, Rasamisar, Lepida, of old Eoa, and Ruscelli.
      • Mountains Garian, Beniguarid
    • Mecellata
      • Towns Lard, Chedicke, and Eufrata, Sibaca, and the Philenian Altar.
    • Cyrenaika
      • Towns Cyrene, Berenice, Apollonia, Ptolemais, and Arsinoe; Alcude, Sabbia, Drepanum, Camara, Carkora. Teionis, & Ardbry.
    • Taurka
      • No Towns; but the People live scatter'd in Huts.
  • 4. Tremesen, or Algier
    • Algier pro­per, and Tremesen
      • Towns Algier, Tremezen, Hubet. Tefezara, and Tezeta.
      • Rivers Zis, Hued-Habra, Tesne, Mina, Xiles, Celefe, Ceffay, Hued el Harran, Hued el Hamis, Hued-Icer, Hued el Quibar, Suf­gemar, Marsock, and Yadoch.
      • Mountains Beninezeten, Matagara, Beniguernid, Tarara, Agbal, and Magarava.
    • Angad
      • Towns Guagida, Tenzegzet, and Isli.
    • Desart
      • Mountains Benizeneten.
    • Beniaraxad
      • Towns Beni-Arax, Calaa, Elmohaskar, and Batha.
    • Miliane
      • Towns Miliana, or Manliana, Mezune, and Tequident.
    • Kouko
      • Towns Kouko, Tamagus, a good Haven.
    • Labez, a gr. mount.
      • Towns Tesli and Boni.
    • Tenez
      • Towns Tenez, and Medua.
      • Mountains Beni-Abukaid, Abusaid, and Guenezeris.
    • Tubeca
      • Towns Thabuna.
    • Humanbar
      • Towns Humanbar, Haren, Tebekrit, and Ned-Roma. Haresgol, a particular City of it self.
    • Horan
      • Towns Oran
    • Sargel
      • Towns Sargel, and Brexer; and the Mountain Darapula, and Bresch.
    • Bugy
      • Towns Bugy, Micile, or Mesele, Stefe, and Nekans, one of the pleasantest Cities in Barbary. The Village Gigery.
    • Constantine
      • Towns Constantine, Chollo, Sukaycada, and Estote, with many Mountains.
    • Bona
      • Towns Bona, Mele, and Tabarca. The Isle of France.
  • 5. Barca, or Marmarica
    • Towns Raxattincase, Trabucho, Augele, Laco, Mosolomar, Soudon Haven, Raxa, and Barca the Metropolis.
BARBARIA BILEDULGERID o: Libye et PARS NICRITARUM TEREA

¶ THe Customs of these People are according to their Names, Every man marries ma­ny Wives. Barbarous: For every man takes as many Wives as he pleases, keeping besides Con­cubines and Slaves in great number. They esteem the Children of one Woman no more than the other; all after the Fathers Decease joyntly participating of the Inheritance.

In their Marrying they use no other Solemnity, than a bare Testimony and Assurance, which the Bridegroom makes before the Cadi or Judge; whereby he acknowledges to take such a As we had in the late Troubles, Marriages before a Justice. Woman or Maid for his Bride: but this is of so little validity, that he may put her away when he will: Neither hath the Woman a less Priviledge, having liberty at her pleasure to renegue her Hus­band, onely with this difference: If the Wife go from her Husband, yet the Father is bound to pay him the Marrige-Portion promised: But if the Man puts away his Wife, he can demand nothing, except he have testimony against her for Adultery. The Women and Maids keep themselves so vail'd, that they are not, nor must be seen by such as would make Love to Marry them.

In like manner the Men are so Jealous of their Wives, that they dare not go open-fac'd to their Parents.

They have many pernicious Customs, Evil Customs. being greatly addicted to Sorcery and Witchcraft: Whoever at any time falls sick, makes an address to a Wise­man or Wise-woman, as we term them, who oftentimes cure them by Charms taken out of the Alcoran, or Amulets, or else Specifick Medicines, for they have neither Physician, Apothecaries, or other Druggists, but onely some inexpert Chyrurgeons.

The greatest Zealots amongst them, when sick, go where one of their Mara­bouts, or Saints lie buried; to whose Sepulchre they bring a great many things to eat, fondly fancied to a belief, that if by chance a Beast eat thereof, it gets the Disease, and the sick person will recover.

When their women are in Labor, Great Superstition of the Barbarians when they bring forth. they send to School to fetch five little children, whereof four are employ'd to hold the corners of a Cloth, in each whereof they tie a Hens Egg: wherewith these Children presently run along the Streets, and sing certain Prayers, one answering the other. In the mean while the Turks and Moors come out of their Houses with Bottles or Cruises full of Water, which they throw into the midst of the Cloth; by which means they believe the Woman who is in Labour is luckily deliver'd.

To this idle Fancy they adde another no less ridiculous, to cure the Pain in the Head; by taking a Lamb or young Kid, which they hunt and beat about the Field so long, till it fall down, whereby they perswade themselves, that the pain will pass out of the mans head into the beasts.

To countervail these bad and foolish, Two commendable Cu­stoms. they have some commendable Cu­stoms: Pierre Dan. descript. Bar­bar. One is, That how angry soever they are, they never swear by the Name of God; nor have in their Language, whether Arabick, Turkish, or Mo­risk, any particular words wherewith they can curse or blaspheme. 'Tis true, the Renagadoes Swear desperately in their own Tongues; but because they do it in contradiction of the Turks, they are presently most severely punished for it: The second is, That how great a contest soever they have one against an­other, they seldom come to Hand-blows, but never kill.

The Inhabitants of the City of Barbary are very ingenious, The Condition of the In­habitants in Cities. and singularly zealous in their Religion; but no people more jealous: for they had rather lose their lives, than have a blemish on their Reputation; which especially [Page 149]they look upon, as best preserved by their Wives Chastity. They covet Riches above measure, but are very modest in speech. The Inferiours behave them­selves towards their Superiours with great humility and submission: But Chil­dren shew wonderful Reverence and Obedience towards their Parents.

The Countrey People dwell in Tents or Booths upon the Hills and Fields, The manner of the Coun­trey People. generally dealing in Cattel; they are not fierce of Nature, yet very couragi­ous; they live but poorly, yet are great pains-takers, and liberal.

Whereas the Townsmen on the other side, are quarrelsome, vindicative, in­hospitable, covetous, setting their whole thoughts upon scraping together Money and Goods. They are continual Traders, but so suspicious, that they will not trust any Foreigner: They are great boasters, but dull of wit, gi­ving easie belief to common reports, and doubtful hear-says, yet so cunning and false in their dealing, that they will deceive the most vigilant.

Some of the better Sort have great inclination to Arts and Sciences, They are inclin'd to Skil and Knowledge. delight­ing chiefly in Histories, and the Exposition of their Law. Heretofore extraor­dinarily addicted to Southsaying, Magick, and Astrology; all which about five hundred years since were absolutely forbidden by their Princes.

They Ride well after their manner, and know with a singular dexterity to mount and dismount: The chiefest Weapons of such as dwell up in the Coun­trey, are long Launces or Javelins, in the throwing of which they are won­derful ready: but all that coast upon the Sea, use Guns, Powder, and Shot.

The whole Countrey is very healthful, The Age of the People in Barbary. so that the people by the ordinary course of Nature, seldom dye before sixty five, or seventy years of Age: In the Mountains peradventure some be found reaching a hundred years, remain­ing to the last very strong and active; but chiefly upon the Sea-Coasts where the Air is constantly refresht and agitated, by the frequency of cool Breezes, which have the same efficacy, working upon their Constitutions, so that they are seldom sickly.

Barbary hath a great abundance of Merchandise, Barbary affords much Mer­chandise, which are transported by Foreigners to the enriching of the Inhabitants; such are untann'd or raw Hides, Linnen, and Cotton-Cloth, Raisins, Dates, Figs, and the like; of which we will speak more particularly in its proper place.

Evident Signs of the great Wealth of this Kingdom in former times may be drawn hence, that the Kings of Fez, as they say, Signs of the Antient Pow­er of Barbary. formerly spent four hundred and eighty thousand Crowns in the building a Colledge, Leo Africk. Peter Aviley Barbary. and seven thousand in erecting a Castle, and little less in founding a City, besides his continual standing Pay to his Militia. No less are the Riches thereof at this day, Signs of the present Power as ap­pears by the great Revenue of the Kings of Morocco and Fez, the Bashaws and other great Lords of Tripolis, Algiers, and Tunis, and the infinite Trade and Merchandise, which the English, Venetians, Genoas, Hollanders, French, Hambur­gers, and other people, drive there, without taking notice of the rich Spoils the Pyrates of Barbary carry in from all parts, especially Spain and Italy, with too much connivance of their Governours, though seemingly against their Command.

Another signal proof of its exceeding Wealthiness, are the great number of Mosques, and the yearly Revenues belonging to them. For in Algiers onely there are a hundred, and in Tunis three hundred, as many also in Fez, and in Morocco seven hundred, among which the chief have two hundred Ducats An­nual Rent. Adde thereto, that the Plunder of Fez, when those of Algiers be­came Masters of it, was valued at two hundred and sixty Millions; and the [Page 150]Spoyl of Tunis, under the Emperor Charles the Fifth, which he gave to the Soldiers for a Reward, as much, when the three chiefest Field-Officers gave each of them for their Heads, Thirty Millions of coyned Ducats. Moreover, the Jews, who have their chiefest Refuge there, as in the Center of the World, bring no small advantage by the liberty of their Usury.

The Dominion of Barbary is various as the Countrey, The Government of Bar­bary. some are absolute un­limited Kings, as those of Morocco and Fez. Others acknowledge a Superior Lord, as the Kings of Algiers, Tunis and Tripolis, who are no other than Bashaws or Viceroys, or under the obedience of the Great Turk, who at his Pleasure may alter the Bashaw: Another sort, though Tributaries, yet Rule with absolute Soveraignty, as the Kings of Konkue and Labez, as also the Xeques of the Ara­bians; in the whole Countrey there is but one Common-wealth, and that too may rather be termed an Anarchy than a Republick.

In every City where the Grand Signieur hath a Bashaw Resident, In every City is a Cady. a Cady is sent to administer Justice, who with unlimited power Judges and Determines all Civil and Criminal Causes. Every one there pleads his own Case without Proctor, Advocate, or Councel, which course is observed through all Bar­bary, except at Salle, where the Moors who are Masters there, plead with Proctors and Advocates after the Spanish way.

The People here are, Many sorts of People in Barbary of several Reli­gions. as elsewhere, of different Religions, as Mahumetans, Christians, Jews, and the Countrey People, who are never congregated or make any shews of Devotion.

In their Mosques they have no Images, The Mosques or Temples of the Mahumetans. but in stead of them, Six hundred Lamps sometimes in a Row; about it stands a great Cloister or Hermitage, wherein the Iman or Marabou, that is, the Priest dwells. Their Prayers are call'd Sala, How they pray in them. and the People repeat the same words the Priest, says before them, and in all Gestures imitate him, in several lifting up of their Hands and Heads to Hea­ven. At their entrance into the Mosques, they put off their Shooes, kiss the Earth, and wash their Mouths, Noses, Ears, the soals of their Feet, and Secret Parts, whereby they believe that the Pollutions of the Soul are purifi'd and clens'd. And during their abode there, they neither dare to Spit or Cough, nor so much as speak one to another, but upon great Necessity; They sit down there upon the Floor one by another, upon Matts of Date or Palm-Trees. The Women are not permitted to come thither, lest by their sight the Men should fall into unclean Thoughts; but they commonly perform their Devotions at Home.

They go to their Sala five Times a Day, They perform their Pray­ers five times a Day. that is, at Day-break, which they call Caban; at Noon, call'd Dohor; in the Afternoon at four, call'd Lazar; at six or seven, which they call Magarepe, and at two in the Night, Latumar; but few resort at all these Times, but the most Zealous, none being compell'd to it. They have neither Bells, Clocks or Dials. And when they call the People to their Devotions, How People are called to Prayers. certain Officers to that purpose only appointed, go up to the Battlements of an high Steeple, and upon a Wooden Pole set up a small Flag; but this is used no where but in Barbary. When this is done, then the Marabou turns himself to the South, because Mecha lyeth that way; then stopping his Fingers in his Ears, he cryes out these words with a loud Voice, Lahilla Lah, Mahometh ressoul Allah; that is, God is God, and Mahomet is his Prophet. Then he turns him to other Parts, saying the same words. By this setting up of the Flag, and Out-cryes, the People know what hour of the Night it is. When the Marabou of the greatest Mosque hath call'd, then all the other follow, which they act with Ridiculous and wilde Gestures.

The Friday is their Sabbath, call'd by them Dimanche, Friday is their Sabbath­day. in which most of them go to the Mosque, especially in the Afternoon; during their Service none Work, and all the Shop-Windows are shut, but after the Sala is ended, they are open'd again, and every one applies himself to his Business.

They use Coral-Beads, of an equal size, and in number a Hundred; Their Praying. upon which many times they say, Sta-fer Lah, which is, God Bless me. The Feast Ramadan.

Every Year they keep a Feast, which they call Ramadan, which continues a whole Moneth; during which they abstain, from Morning to the close of the Evening, from Eating and Drinking; but then the Marabou going to the Stee­ple, gives them by his accustom'd Cryings, leave to Eat. This their Fasting, is so highly esteemed, that they dare not so much as drink Tobacco, supposing that to be a Breach: Nay, the very Corsaires or Pyrates observe the Ramadan at Sea; and though the Renagadoes do not so strictly bind themselves to it, yet they for neglect of it, are, if known, punished with an hundred or two stroaks on the bottoms of their Feet.

After this Fast, and long Lent so well kept, they celebrate their Passeover, Their Passeover, Easter or Bayran. call'd by them Bayran, which continues three Days, wherein they distribute Alms plentifully, and frequent their Mosques with great Fervency and Zeal.

The Priests in Barbary are of two Sorts, Santons and Marabouts, The Clergy or Sacred in Barbary are of two sorts. whereof the chiefest is call'd Moufti, who hath his Residence in Cities, and hears and deter­mines all Ecclesiastical Causes. The Marabouts are in great number about the Mosques, as well in Cities and Suburbs, as in the open Fields, where they live as Recluses or Hermits, in Cells, to which these Barbarians bear so great an Esteem and Reverence, that they flye to them as to Sanctuaries, how great a Crime soever they have committed.

Among these Devotees, there are some, who lead a strange and unusual Life, Their Gestures. for sometime Melancholy so working on their Imagination, that no less than if Distracted, they rove through the Cities bare-foot and bare-leg'd, in a rag­ged Coat and a Staff, with which they tap or gently strike, here one, there another, which favour whoever receives, accounts himself happy, perswaded thereby their Sins are remitted. Besides also, these Recluses study Magick and such forbidden Arts, undertaking to cure all Diseases, and to work Love, by several Incantations, and the power of Numbers: Of the great opinion the An­tients had of Charms and Numbers, hear Virgil.

Carmina vel coelo possunt deducere Lunam:
Carminibus Circe socios mutavit Ulyssis:
Frigidus in pratis cantando rumpitur anguis.
Terna tibi haec primum triplici diversa colore
Licia circumdo, ter (que) haec altaria circum
Effigiem duco, numero Deus impare gaudet.
Necte tribus nodis ternos Amarylli colores.
Necte Amarylli modo, & Veneris, dic, vincula necto.
Vanquish'd with Charms, from Heaven the Moon descends,
Circe with Charms transform'd Ulysses Friends,
Charms in the Field will burst a poys'nous Snake
Three Lists, and each of Colours three, I bound,
And with thy Picture thrice the Altars round,
Three several Colours Amarillis fetch
And quickly tye in treble Knots: dispatch,
Then say these Knots I knit for Venus sake.

In the City of Algier, and in other Cities in Barbary, are several small Mosques, where many of these Marabouts lye buried, whom they honor as Saints or Sa­cred, or set before their Sepulchers burning Lamps, going thither on Pilgri­mage, or when they are sick, send Presents to obtain Remedy.

Those that are afflicted with the Falling-sickness are held in great Esteem, The Falling-sickness in Esteem among them. because Mahomet was troubled with this Disease, and shamelesly made them [Page 152]believe, That then God by his Angel Gabriel reveal'd to him the most secret Mysteries of his Religion.

The highest Festival is the Nativity of their great Prophet, A Festival upon the Birth of Mahomet. which they celebrate with all Solemnity, the fifth of September, in manner fol­lowing: All the School-masters assemble after Dinner with their Scholars in the chiefest Mosque, out of which they go in Order, every one with a Torch in his Hand, and sing along the Streets the Eulogy and famous Acts and Praise of their Prophet. Two of these Masters carry upon their shoulders a great Pyra­mide, cover'd over with Flower-Works, and a Cross on the top of it, follow'd by vocal and instrumental Musick, after the Turkish manner; all the Corner-Houses in Cross-ways are hang'd with Tapistry and burning Lamps. They set also in every House, about Mid-night, a lighted Torch upon the Table, be­cause Mahomet was born at that Hour. During the eight Days of this Feast, every one may walk the Streets by Night, which at other times they dare not, on pain of corporal Punishment.

The Cooks of the Divan, to the number of Two hundred, each carrying a Napkin or Towel upon his shoulders, and a burning Torch in his Hand, from the seventh to the eleventh Hour, go two and two along the Streets, till pla­cing themselves before the doors of the chiefest Councellors, they chant a solemn and appointed Hymn, in Praise of their Prophet, with many Instruments of Musick.

¶ THe last Solemnity concerns their Burials or Funerals, Their Solemnity for the Dead. which they per­form in this manner: When any Dies, the next Friend hireth Women to lament, who flocking about the Corps, with strange and unusual howling make a noise, and scratch themselves till the blood follow their Nails. This done, How they bury their Dead. the Body is inclosed in a Coffin, cover'd with a Green Cloth, upon which a Turban is set, as we use a Garland, and so with the Head forward, is carried to and laid in the Grave, but attended all the way thither with howl­ing Valedictions. At the entrance of the Burial-place some Marabouts sing without intermission these words, Lahilla Lah, Mahometh ressoul allah, that is, God is God, and Mahomet is his Prophet. At last it is placed in the Grave in a sitting Posture, with a Stone under the Head, in stead of a Pillow, and the Face towards the South.

Their Burying-places are very Large, and lye round about the Cities, for they Interr none in their Mosques, but in the plain Field, where every one accord­ing to his Estate buys a spot of Ground, which they Wall in, and plant with Flowers. The Women every Friday visit these Monuments, carrying thither Meat and Fruits, which they leave for the Poor, and for the Fowls, after they have tasted of them, believing it to be a work of Charity, and a furtherance to the bliss of departed Souls. They pray there for their Husbands and other De­ceased Friends, and comfort them sometimes with these or the like words; That they should have Patience in waiting for the Resurrection of their Bodies. And this shall suffice to have spoken of the Mahumetans there.

The Jews in Barbary differ in nothing from the Jews in Asia and Europe, Great number of Jews Barbary. being so numerous, that only in the Cities of Morocco, Algier and Tunis, and a part of the Kingdom of Fez, there are a Hundred thousand Families.

The Christians are few, and not Masters of many places in Barbary; those that be, are under the Command of the King of Spain, as Arache, Oran, Mamaure, and Tangier, now in the possession of the King of England. Gramay saith, that in [Page 153] Morocco, Fez; also in Lybia are some Remainders of Antient Christians, who Celebrate the Liturgy of the Mozarabes or Moxarabes, Translated out of the Latine into the Greek Tongue, and about an Hundred and seventy Greek Families, who give peculiar Honor to St. Stephen.

There are besides these many other of several Nations, who taken at Sea by the Pyrates, are brought to Land and sold for Slaves, whence they cannot be redeem'd without great Ransoms, except by chance any make an Escape, which is seldom; or rowing in the Galleys be retaken by the Christians. These gene­rally lead a miserable Life, undergoing the extremity of Servitude; only some one by good Fortune, that lights upon a milde Patron, is more gently handled.

In Algier the Slavery is most bitter; but in the Kindoms of Tripolis, Tunis and Fez, more tollerable.

Some Slaves meet with Patrons dwelling up in the Countrey, The labour of the Slaves in Barlary. which carry them thither to bear all sorts of Burdens to Market, of which if they render not a good account, they are sure to be well beaten. Others go Naked, as in Bil­ledulgerid, tending Cattel, or like Horses drawing the Plough without any other reward for their toyl, than harsh Language and merciless Blows, being hardly afforded a little Water and Meal for Food. Others are thrust into the Galleys to row, where their best fare is Water and hard Bisket, and the reward of their Pains, drubs with a Bulls pizzle; nor is their treatment better when they come ashore, being lockt to a heavy Chain, and at night thrust into Dungeons, by them call'd Masmora, where they lye upon the bare ground.

Such as chance to have City Patrons, The labour of the Slaves in the Cities. their chiefest labour is to carry Wa­ter from place to place, bear away the dust of their Houses, convey their Mer­chandises to Ware-Houses, work in the Mill like Horses, knead their Dough, bake their Bread, and do all other drudgery, yet for all receive neither good word or deed, or freedom from their Fetters.

Many of these wretched Creatures, Why many Christian Slaves make desection. partly out of desperation and impati­ence of their misery, partly out of a desire of liberty, and hopes to attain the honour of a Janizary, renounce their Religion and turn Turks: Nay, there are many rich Women, who often give half their Goods to their Slaves, when they embrace Mahumetanism; and some even of the best Quality among them being Widows, are so zealous, that they marry their Slaves, out of design only to draw them to be Mahumetans, it being among the Turks accounted a most meritorious work to make Proselytes to their Prophet. The several Punishments for Ma­lefactors in use by them are these.

Those that can be prov'd after Circumcision to revolt, Their Punishments. are stript quite na­ked, then anointed with Tallow, and with a Chain about his Body, brought to the place of Execution, where they are burnt.

They who are convicted of any Conspiracy or Treason, have a sharp Spit thrust up the Fundament, others bound Hand and Foot, and cast from a high Wall or Tower, upon an Iron Hook, whereon sometimes they stick fast by the Belly, sometimes by the Head or other parts of the Body, sometimes only by the Skin, and hanging many days, they so languishing in great torture, die; or else ty'd with a Rope about the Middle, and with four Nails fasten'd to a Cross against the City Wall, they are flead alive, or bray'd to pieces in a Mortar.

There is another inhumane Torture in use, which for the barbarousness we will describe: Upon a Gallows are two Hooks, the one fasten'd to a short, the [Page 154]

[depiction of torture method]

other to a long Chain; the Malefactor so soon as he comes thither, climbs up the Ladder with the Executioner, who thrusting the Hook through his left Hand, hangs him by it on the shortest Chain; then to that on the longer, he fastens him by the soal of his right Foot, where by insufferable Torments, he often remains hanging three, four, or more days before he dies.

Those that have committed any crime at Sea, Sea-Justice. are ty'd to the Mast or Stee­rage, and shot to death with Arrows, or else his hands and Feet cut off, and set before the Mouth of a Cannon, Usual Punishments. and so shot all to pieces. To drag them in pieces with four Ships, to which they are ty'd, and then cast the Quarters into the Sea, is a usual Punishment; so it is to cut off limb by limb, or joint by joint; but to tye them up in a Sack, Light Punishments. and draw them, is held a gentle and milde Sentence. 'Tis capital to lift up the Hand against a Janizary, or to commit Adultery with a Mahumetan Woman. But this later is connived at, because they believe that all sins by washing in the Bath, or by once plunging into the Sea, are washed away.

Their Lodging is very mean, Their Houshold-stuff. being only a Mattress in stead of a Bed, which they lay upon a floor of Boards. They sleep in their Drawers or Calsoons; they have neither Chairs, Stools or Tables, but hang their Cloaths upon Pins in the Wall. Those of Quality sit at Meals, and all other times upon pieces of Ta­pistry, cross-legg'd on the Ground; but poor People have a great Matt, made of the leaves of a Date or Palm-tree.

The Men wear next their Skin a large Linnen Frock and Drawers, The Habit of the Men. and o­ver that a loose Coat of Cloth or Silk, buttoned before with great Gold or Silver Buttons, and hangs down almost to the knee. Their Sleeves reach but to their Elbows; so that turning up their Shirt upon them, their Arms are for the most part half way bare or naked; and instead of Stockins, the great men of the Court, and other People of quality, sometime wear small Turky-Lea­ther Buskins.

They shave their Hair all off, except a little Lock, which they let grow up­on the Crown of their Heads, because forsooth Mahomet shall pull them up [Page 155]

[figure]

to Paradise; as the Angel brought Abaccuck to Daniel into the Lions Den: Some cut off the whole Beard, reserving onely two large Mustacheo's; but such as are stricken into years, wear their Beards long grown, but cut round.

They wear Turbants made of red Wooll, wound up in a piece of Cotton five or six Ells long.

Their Slippers are piked at the Toe, of yellow or red Leather, shod under the Heel with Iron, having no Lappets; which they slip off at the door of any house whereto they enter, as a great point of Civility.

They wear at their Girdles three very fine Knives, that is, two great, and one small, in a silver Scabbard a foot long, adorned with Turkoyses, and Smarag'd or Emeral'd Stones, so rich sometime, that they stand them in above a hundred Escues.

When they make water, they stoop down to the ground; How they make water. for it is held a shameless thing to urine standing, as the Christians do: And the reason may be, because if the least drop of their water fall upon them, they are polluted, and must forthwith wash themselves.

The Women are Habited almost like the Men, The Habit of the Wo­men. onely having a fine Linnen Cloth on their Heads in stead of a Turbant: Their Semaires come but to half their Thighs, the rest naked. Rich Women wear commonly five or six Pen­dants in each Ear, with Bracelets of Jewels on their Arms, and Silk Garments. They paint the ends of their Fingers blue, with an Herb call'd by them Gueva, perhaps our common Woad. When they go along the City in the Streets, they cast over all a Cotton Cloak, which hangs down to their Feet, and tie a string of Pearls upon their Foreheads, and a fine Kerchiff before their Eyes, so that they cannot be known as they go up and down the Streets. All their occasions lie within the house, where they have a several apartment by them­selves, wherein none but Women may visit each other, the Master of the House himself being at such times excluded, to prevent all occasions of jealousie.

They are curious in the beautifying themselves according to the Fashion of their Countrey, painting their Eye-brows and Eye-lids, and colouring their Hair black with burned Antimony.

The usual Food of the Countrey is commonly Rice, Their Food. Cuscous, Mutton, Veal, some Beef, and Fowl. When ever they slaughter any Beast, they say over each, I kill thee in the Name of God; then turning themselves to the South, they cut the Throat quite through, like the Jews, that it may bleed the more; else they count it unclean, and dare not eat of it.

Their Drink at Meals is either clear Water, or Sorbet, for Wine is forbidden them by the Alcoran: And in the mornings when Tradesmen and Merchants meet about business, they go to the Publick Coffee-Houses, which Liquor they drink, having a great opinion of it, smoaking abundance of Tobacco, spend­ing much of their time there. In stead of Table-Cloths, they use red Turky-Leather Carpets, and wipe their fingers on their Handkerchiffs in stead of Nap­kins: Onely at Solemn Festivals, the great ones wipe upon a blue Cloth fixed to the Carpet.

Their Cups and Dishes are of Tin or Earth; Their Cups or Vessels. for none may use Silver; onely the Sultans, they are all of Massy-Gold. Liquid things they eat with wooden Spoons a Foot long.

Gaming is unlawful among them, so that they neither play at Dice, Cards, Balls, Bowls, nor any other Sport usual with us. Sometime they will play a Game at Chess, but not for money.

Bathes are much used, Great use of Baths. besides their frequent Washings enjoyned before De­votion; so that every place almost is filled with Bannia's.

Every City hath also many Free-Schools, or Mesquites, for the instructing of Youth to Read, Write, and cast Accompts, but no further. The principal Book they learn, is the Alcoran, which when a Scholar can read well, his School-fellows lead him in his best Habit along the Streets, and set forth his Commen­dation through the City; for beyond this none learn.

Thus having shewed you the Manners and Customs of the People, we shall now in short give an account of the nature of the Soyl, and what Beasts and Plants it produces.

¶ THere are in Barbary very many Springs and Rivers, The Rivers. the chiefest of which take their Rise in, and Fall down from the greater Atlas, though some others claim distinct Originals; all which disembogue either into the Great Atlantick or Midland-Sea. The Waters springing from Atlas, relish of that Earth whence they arise, and are for the most part thick and sedimenty, especially on the Bor­ders of Mauritania.

The whole Coast of Barbary lying on the Ocean, The Scituation of it. Atlas, and the utmost Southerly Parts of the Territory of Sus, as far as the Streights of Gibraltar, is very fruitful in the Production of Wheat and Barley, full of Meadow-Ground, and luxurious in Herbage to feed up Cattel.

The other on the Midland-Sea, How the Soil of Barbary is at the Mediterranean Sea from the Streights, to the Eastern Borders of Tripolis, is uneven, craggy, and full of Mountains, which in some places ex­tend twenty or thirty Miles; between which and the Great Atlas, are not onely pleasant, but luxuriant Valleys intervein'd with Brooks and Rivulets de­scending from those great Hills, and shaded on each side with delightful Groves, reaching as far as Cairavan.

But that part call'd Errif, near the Little Atlas, is subject to Cold more than Heat, so that it produces little Wheat, but great plenty of Barley; a very good Commodity in those parts.

The Great Atlas is in some places unhabitable, because of the excessive [Page 157]

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Cold; particularly over against Tremesin, where in the Winter are such fierce and driving Snows, that neither Man nor Beast can tarry there long without hazard of life, the Snow overwhelming the whole face of the Ground to that heighth, that the tallest Trees are not discernable: But at the return of Sum­mer, when the Snows dissolve, first the Trees appear, and after that a plea­sant Verdure clothes the Ground, inviting thither the Herdsmen to depasture their Cattle.

The Fruits growing in this Countrey are very delicious; the Raisins, Figs, Cherries, Plumbs, Peaches, Quinces, and Apricocks, having a more brisk and quick Gust; and the Pomegranates, Oranges, Citrons, are more pleasing and sweet, than the same in other Countreys. Their Olive-Trees in Morocco, Fez, and Algier, are very thick, bushy, and high, but in Tunis neither bigger nor better than in Europe. Here grows also abundance of Sugar-Canes, and Cot­ton Trees.

Among others, here grows upon the Coast of the Midland-Sea, a shrubby Plant, call'd in Arabick, Achaovan Abiat; that is to say, White St. Johns Wort, or White Mugwort. It ha's many branches, two or three Cubits high, bearing an Ash-colour'd Wool, with broad and deep indented Leaves, black on the inside, and on the outside white; but in thickness and growth, like the Leaves of our Mugwort; the Blossoms are yellow, like Grunsill, and vanish at last disperst into a Powder: This Plant is cherish'd here most for Ornament of several Gardens, and by a modern Herbalist is call'd Cineraria, that is, Ash-plant, and Jacobea Marina, that is, Sea-Saint-James-wort, because it grows upon the Sea-shore, and agrees with the common Jacobea, or Saint-James-wort.

The Decoction of it taken is good against the Stone in the Kidneys or Blad­der, and all inward oppilations.

Here are numerous Herds both of great and small Cattel, and in the Woody and more Mountainous Parts, incredible numbers of Wilde Goats, Lyons and Tygers, and other Savage Monsters; as also Fowl, and Venomous Serpents.

Barbary hath in some parts Gold, Mines of Metal. Silver, and other Mines; whereof we will be more particular, when we come to the distinct Territories.

Having thus briefly run over Barbary in general, we will now descend to every Kingdom and Territory, together with the most remarkable Singulari­ties in each of them; beginning first with MOROCCO.

MOROCCO.

THe Kingdom of Morocco, Cluverius. together with that of Fez, contains the whole Countrey known to the Antients by the Name of Mauritania Tingitana, so call'd from its chief City Tangier; whose Inhabitants were call'd by the Greeks, Maurusij; by the Latines, Mauri, that is, Moors, accord­ing to their Colour, which was either Olivaster, or black.

It is bounded on the West and by North by the Great Sea, Its Borders. and the Bay De las Yegucas, or Jumens, extending along the Sea-Coast, from the City Messe, where the River Sus falls into the Ocean; Azamor at the Mouth of the River Umara­bie, or Ommirabih, from whence the Great Atlas makes its Southern Border; and Mount Dedes divides it from the Kingdom of Fez on the North.

DIego de Torres, The Length. according to the common Account of the Natives, who reckon Distances of Places by Days Journeys, says it is in Length se­ven Days Journey: And the Spaniards have reduced every Days Journey to ten Spanish Miles, which Length he takes from the said River Ommirabih, to the Cape or Point Ager, that parts Morocco from Tarudant, which Torres shuts out of Morocco, although it be a Member of Sus, one of its Provinces.

In Breadth from Mazagan to Dara, The Breadth. That is 180 Miles English. it hath sixty Miles; and on the Sea-Coast from East to West, accounting from the River Azamor to the Cape Argu­er, That is 150 Miles English. is Fifty; in which Tract lie many Places and Havens of note, as Azamor, Mazagan, and Safy.

The Kingdom of Morocco contains in it seven Provinces, viz. Morocco, Hea, Sus, Guzula, Ducala, Escure or Hascora, and Tedles.

¶ MAny good Rivers either have their Spring-Heads, The River Sus. or pass through this County. The first of which towards the West, is call'd Sus, or Sous by the Inhabitants; but by Geographers, supposed to be the River Una menti­oned by Ptolomy: Now it gives Name to this Region, the last and most South­erly of the whole; it rises in the Great Atlas, or rather that part of it named Mount Ilda, adjoyning to Demenser; from thence running directly down to the South, it waters the Low-Grounds of Sus, opposite to Tagavost, where altering the course, it passes to the West through the three small Cities of Messe, and at length at Guertessen finishes its course into the Sea.

Tenzift, or Tensist, the second River of note, derives its Head from another part of Atlas, by the City Animmey, in the Province of Morocco, properly so call'd, running North all along, till passing through a Quarter of Ducala, it falls into the Great Atlantick: Some hold this to be the Phuth of Ptolomy, whose mouth Marmol says, was stil'd Asama, and whose Waters were increased by the Rivers Eciffelmel, or Sifelmel, Niffis, or Hued Nefusa, and Agmet.

FEZZAE ET MAROCCHI REGNA AFRICAE CELEBERRIMA.

Eciffelmel, says Marmol, springs from Mount Sicsiva; Eciffelmel. but Sanut and others from the great Hill Hantete, above Morocco, whence it glides through a Level, till it falls into the Tenzift aforementioned.

Niftis or Hued Nefusa, springs from the same Hantete, Niftis. soon mixing its Water with that of Tenzift.

Agmet, whose Waters are always clear, Agmer. takes it beginning source from a Lake in Mount Agmet, close by a City of the same Name, whence flowing to Morocco, it sinks under Ground, but afterwards re-appears, following its course till united with Tenzift.

Asifnual springs out of the Sicsiva, one of the Arms of Great Atlas, Asifnual. above Del­gumuha, whence it streams with great force, and makes a Boundary between the Territory of Hea and its Neighbour, falling at last into the River Tenzift.

The other Rivers, both call'd Teccuhin, which signifies Windows, Teccuhin. shoot forth out of the Mountain Gugidime, a part of the Great Atlas, out of two Fountains, lying about a Mile one from the other, then passing a flat Coun­trey, crosses through the Territory of Hascora, then ending in the River Ni­ger, call'd by the Inhabitants Hued la Abid.

Heud la Abid, the Niger, takes its Original a Mile from the City Bzo, Hued la Abid. in Mount Animmey, where the Dominion of Hascora borders with Tedle; it runs through a deep Vale between barren Mountains, Northward, still receiving Brooks and Rivulets as an augmentation of his streams.

There is also the small River Habid, rising according to Sanutus, Habid. out of the Mountain Tevesson, conterminates the Region of Hascora, and that of Ducala, at length also mingling with the Tenzift.

The Great River call'd by Marmol, Umarabea, by others Ommirabih, Ʋmarabea. and by Sanut, Ommirabili, derives his source from Mount Magran, where Tedle borders on the Kingdom of Fez, then gliding through the Plain of Adaksuni, and after­ward shut up as it were in a narrow Valley, where a fair Bridge was erected over it by Abul Hascen, the Fourth King of the Marin Family. From thence Southward, overspreads the Levels between Dukala and Temesne, till at length, by Azamor, after it hath received the Waters of the River Hued la Abid and Derna, it pours it self into the Ocean. This River, neither Spring nor Winter, can be forded, therefore the neighbouring Inhabitants ferry over both Passengers and Merchandise upon a Float, made of Goat-skins, blown up like a Bladder, with Hurdles fasten'd to them, upon which they take in their Fare and other Lading. This River abounds so much with Shads, that not only the Inhabi­tants of Azamor and Marocko are serv'd, but also Andalusia and Portugal are sup­pli'd with them as a forreign Dainty.

Darna runs out of Mount Magran, by the Cities Efza and Tefza, from Tedle, Darna. be­tween the Mountains full North, till it meets with Ommirabilis streams.

The Brook Sicsiva, call'd by some Sessua, and Sefsava, Sicsiva. runs betwixt the Moun­tains of Nefise and Semede, and through the City Elgumuha, then mingling with the Asifnaal.

Tefethne takes its beginning out of the Mountain Gabelelhadi, Tefethne. passing through the Plains of Hea, watering Heusugaghen, Tesedgest and Kuleihata; then branch­ing into several Arms, glides into the Ocean over against Cape Magador.

The River of Sanut, call'd in Spanish, Rio dos Savens, and in Portugues, Rio dos Savens.De los Savalos, in English, Shad-Brook; it shoots out of the Mountain Gabelelhadi, so descending through the Campaign of Hea, to Amama, then delivering up his fresh Water to the briny Ocean.

Tekuleth, Tekuleth. supposed to be the River, by Ptolomy call'd Diur, whose Margents are crown'd with the Famous City Tekuleth, and not far thence looseth it self and name, between Goz and Amama, in the Atlantick.

Lastly, And the Fifteenth River which waters this Kingdom of Morocco is Imiffen, Imiffen. proceeding out of the Mountain Sicsiva, then gliding Southward, dis­patches a short Progress, falling into the Ocean at Cape Non.

The Air of this Countrey, The Air of it. is commonly much warmer than that of Europe; but the Air on the Mountains is commonly cold, especially on the highest, which are covered with Snow, and so probably are more unfruitful.

The Plains of Morocco and Fez, The fruitfulness of Mo­rocco. thus water'd with abundance of Rivers and Brooks, are exceeding fruitful.

This Kingdom abounds with all things necessary for humane sustenance, particularly good Oyl d'Olive, and other useful Oyls.

The variety of their Vines are numerous, of whose grapes they eat many fresh gathered; many they dry, and some they press, which yield both plea­sant, brisk, and full-bodied Wines.

Here also is exceeding plenty of Dates, Figs, Peaches, Nuts, Pine-Apples, Sugar, Flax, Hemp, Woad and Honey.

Mines of Gold, Gold Mines. Silver, and Copper are frequent, so also are great Stone-Quarries, but none of them all are at any time open'd or sunk without special Order of the Xerif.

Upon the Plains and Mountains feed large Oxen, Beasts. Horses, Mules, wilde Goats, Roe-Deer, Asses, Sheep; also frequented by Lions, wilde Swine, Wolves, and many other Beasts of prey, as shall appear in the Description of the particular Territories.

There is no place in Barbary so well stored with Camels as Morocco, Camels. of which the Inhabitants make great use in carrying Burdens and Merchandise out of the in most places to the Sea-coast, Leo Afric. A sign of Apprehension in Camels to their no small advantage. These Creatures seem to have a notable apprehension, for when between Ethiopia and Barbary they are forced to go a days Journy more than the common Stages, Leo Afric. their Masters cannot drive them forward with blows, but are necessitated to sing and whistle before them; which supererogated Reward seems to them a sufficient bounty to draw and entice them to the performance of their over-service. Experience confirms that the African Camels far exceed the Asian in strength, being able to travel fifty days with their Burdens on, Camels travelling fifty days together never un­loaden. without any Fodder or Meat, Nature in them supporting it self by a Consumption as it were of the parts; for first the flesh of their Bunches fall away and consume, afterwards their Bellies, and lastly, of their Hipps and Buttocks; whereby they become so feeble, that they can scarce bear a hundred weight. Concerning their Form, Nature and other Pro­perties, we have mentioned at large in our general Description of Africa.

Here likewise also in Ducala and Tremisen, Guabox, or Wilde Oxen. breed a kind of wilde Oxen, by the Inhabitants call'd Guahox, and by the Spaniards, Vacas Bravas, that is, Mad Bulls; they run as swift as a Hart, and are smaller than an Ox, with a dark brown Tail, black and sharp Horns, the Flesh sweet, with a Skin fit to tan for Shoo­leather. They generally range through the Woods in great Herds.

In the Rivers are found great pieces of Amber, abounding also with Shads, Pikes, Eels, and other variety of Fish.

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¶ THe People of Morocco are well set, and strong of Body, The Constitution of the Moroccaians. as most of the Inhabitants of Barbary are, of a subtil and piercing spirit, abounding with Choler Adust, which commonly denotes acuteness of wit.

Some of them follow Merchandizing, others Husbandry, a third sort Wars, Diego Torres, c. 88. a fourth Arts and Sciences, but all in general have a peculiar Inclination to Ju­diciary Astrology, as may be supposed from the opportunities of their Serene and long Nights.

Their Women constantly keep within doors, using Spinning, working Ta­pistry, or doing other things, and have black and white Slaves of both Sexes, to serve them on all occasions.

For want of Knives they break their Bread in pieces with their Hands, and eat their Meat on Matts spread on the Ground, as we said before.

They have variety of Dishes, as Beef, Mutton, Fowl and Venison; Their Food. but their most usual is Couscous, made of Meal, Rice, and other Ingredients, mixt with water, and made up in Balls, then put into an Earthen Vessel full of lit­tle holes, set upon the Hearth, the heat whereof Bakes it enough. This they eat in great pieces, being very pleasant in Taste, and of a wonderful pinguefy­ing Nature. Feasting is here very frequent, especially in the Houses of Great Persons, where for one Entertainment, sometimes twenty, or five and twenty Sheep, all of a large size than ours, are drest.

Their Drink commonly is a Liquor made of Raisins, Their Drink. steep'd in Sugar and Water, or else Like our Metheglin. compounded of Water and Honey. But the Inhabitants in and about Mount Atlas, drink commonly boyl'd Wine, whereas others will drink nothing but Goats and Camels Milk.

The Citizens of Morocco, and other great Towns, wear Shirts, The Habit of the Men. long Breeches and Coats reaching to the Knees, of Red or other Colour, with Caps of Linnen or Silk, and on their Feet a kind of Slippers or single-soal'd Shooes, which they call Reyas.

The Women pride themselves in much Linnen, The Habit of the Women their wide Smocks being [Page 162]several Ells in the hem, with large Linnen Drawers or Calsoons, which come down to the Calf of the Leg. In Summer they have Bonnets of Silk, in Win­ter of Linnen; in stead of a Mantle they cast over them long pieces of Cloth, call'd by the Inhabitants Likares, trim'd with Embroidery or Fringes, which they clasp together with a Buckle, either of Gold or Silver, Brass or Iron, ac­cording as the Wearers ability will extend; which it seems was antient there by Virgils Description of Dido. Virgil.

In their Ears they wear Jewels, rich Neck-laces and Bracelets of Pearl, which they call Gagales.

¶ SEveral Languages are here spoken, viz. the Morisk, Arabick and Gemmick Tongues. The Morisk is the antient African, or rather a mixture of several Tongues, with a dash of Arabick, for they speak it not pure, because of their converse with Forreign People, whereby are introduced many strange words; the Gemmick is half Spanish and half Portugues.

There is another Speech call'd Tamacete, used by the People which dwell be­tween Morocco and Tarudant, Northerly of Mount Atlas, and boast themselves to come of a Christian Parentage.

¶ Every Mahumentan may by the Alcoran lawfully have four Wives, The Marriage-condition. from any of which he may divorce at his pleasure, and take other. When any man intends to Wed, they have a Caziz, Notary and Witnesses; the Notary makes a seal'd Agreement of all that the Man promises to give his intended Bride for a Marriage-Portion, which they call Codaka, which he must give, if at any time he part from her.

If a Woman will part from her Husband, she loseth her Marriage-Goods.

Besides their Wives, they may keep as many Concubines as they are able to maintain, out of which the King may choose one to bestow upon his Favorites. They count it no Crime to obstuprate their Slaves, White or Black. The King hath commonly four Wives, besides a multitude of Concubines, with whom he companies according to the dictates of his wandring Fancy.

On the day of Marriage, The Solemnity of Mar­riage. they set the Bride on a Mule, sumptuously adorn'd and set forth, begirt with a round Canopy in form of a Tower, cover'd with Ta­pistry, after the Turkish Manner, so carrying her in State through the whole City, follow'd by many Muletts laden with the Goods, given her by her intended Husband, and attended with Men and Women in great Multitudes. After this Calvalcade, they go to Feasting, which done, they remove to a spacious and open Place, where all the Kindred and Friends assemble; and such as are skil'd in Horsmanship, for the space of two hours exercise themselves with Lances before the Bride.

But Diego de Torres says, Cap. 76. the Woman is carried upon a well-furnish'd Ca­mel, in a small Castle or Tower, call'd by them Gayola, and curiously adorn'd and cover'd with thin and single Taffaty, that she may easily see through it, with a great Train of Followers; so is she first brought to her Fathers House, and from thence to her Husband, where is great Feasting and Mirth.

If the Husband find she was devirginated before, Maquet, lib. 3. he immediately sends her away, with all he gave her, but if he be satisfied of her Chastity, her praises are sung through the City, and the tokens of his satisfaction publickly shewn, which also be carried through the City, in token of her being a Maid; this was customary among the Jews.

Into their Church-yards the Women go every Friday and Holy-days to be­wail their dead, with Blew Mourning Garments on, in stead of Black, Mourning for the Dead. as is the fashion in this Countrey.

The Revenue of this Kingdom yearly brought into the Kings Chamber or Exchequer is very great, and rais'd thus: Diego de Torret. Botero Relat. univers. p. 2. lib. 2. Every Male or Female of twelve Years, or according to Botero, of five Years old, pays four fifths of a Ducat; Hearth-Money. and the like of every Hearth, which by them is call'd Garama: For every Bushel of Beans, the King receives the second; for every Beast, the tenth; but for every sack of Wheat, half a Real. Besides these, there are other Customs paid upon exported Goods, which sometimes they raise high, pretending thereby to ease their Subjects. However, the Christian Merchants, for all Com­modities, either imported or exported, pay great Tolls, besides a large Sum of Money for License to Trade freely there.

Lastly, The King hath full power over all the Goods of his Subjects, What makes the Kings mighty and rich. of whom none can claim what he possesses for his own; for when the Alkayde, that is, the Governour of the Countrey, and other Officers that take Salary, die, the King seizes all they left, giving to his Son, if fit for the Wars, his Fathers Im­ployments; but if they be little, he maintains them till they can handle a Weapon; and the Daughters, till they are married. Another Device the King uses to possess himself of the Peoples Wealth: When he hath intelligence of any rich Person, he sends for him, and under colour of Favour, confers on him some Office that receives a Salary from the Crown, in which continuing to his Death, makes the King a Title to his Estate; which is the cause that every one, as well at Morocco as Fez, to prevent this inconvenience, endeavour to con­ceal their Wealth, and keep as far from Court, and the Kings knowledge, as possible.

The King also takes one Beast in twenty, and two when the Number riseth to a hundred. His Collectors also gather the tenth of all Fruits growing in the Mountains, which the People pay as a Rent for their Land.

¶ THe English, Hollanders and French drive here a notable Trade, The Merchandise of se­veral People in this King­dom. carrying thither several Commodities, as Cloth, &c. bringing thence again Turky-Leather, Wood, Sugar, Oyl, Gold, Wax, and other Merchandise, having their Consuls resident in the Cities of Sale, Zaffi, and other Places.

¶ THe Inhabitants of Morocco in some things differ among themselves as to Religion; most of them follow the Doctrine of the Xerif Hamet, The strictness of the Mo­roccoians, in observing Ma­homets Doctrine. who at first was a Monk, but left his Cloister in the Year Fifteen hundred and four­teen, and began to set abroach the Enthusiasm of one Elfurkan, declaring that the Doctrine of Ali Omar, and other Expounders of the Alcoran, were only hu­mane Traditions, and that men were to observe the pure and single writings of Elfurkan, who was a faithful Expositor of the same. And as the Turks prohibit any to come into their Mosques, that is not of their Religion, upon pain of Death; So this new Prophet admitted all Nations, as well Christians as Jews, to hear his Preaching. For this difference in Religion, the Turks and Moroccoians bear a peculiar hatred one against another; the Moroccoians treating the Turkish Slaves as cruelly as the Christian.

They observe all Solemn Feasts with the Turks and other Mahumetans, Festivals. espe­cially the Feast of the Passeover; The Passeover of the Mo­roccoians. for the King rides sumptuously the Day of the Passeover, attended with the Bashaw and other great Lords, both Horse and Foot, [Page 164]and men sounding Trumpets, playing upon Flutes, and beating Drums, and Kettle-Drums: When he is come to an appointed place without the City, two Rams are brought to him, Homer. Il. 3. lib. which after several Ceremonies he sticks in the Throat; and if they die quickly, that is held by them for a good Presage; but if they linger any while, they believe the following Year many Sicknesses and Troubles will ensue.

¶ The King of Morocco bears the Title of Emperor of Africa, The King of Morroco's Title. and also Em­peror of Morocco, King of Fez, Sus and Gago, Lord of Dara and Guinee, great Xerif of Mahomet.

He hath, as we said, so absolute a Dominion, that all the People are his Slaves, not daring without leave go out of the Kingdom, upon pain of Corpo­ral Punishment.

In this Kingdom many wilde Arabs frequent, Arabians in Morocco. by some call'd Larbussen, which live by the Wars and Plunder, being general Enemies to all, and all Foes to them; yet when the time of their Harvest is come, they make a Cessation of Arms; for it is not a Peace, because as soon as the Corn is threshed, and laid up in their Pits, made in the middle of the Fields for that purpose, and co­ver'd over with Planks and Earth, they-fall to their old Trade of robbing and spoyling again; whatever Corn is hoarded in those Pits, none see or meddle with, unless when they fetch some for private use, to Sow, or to Sell.

They dig also deep Pits to find Water, to which they come with their Ca­mels from Places far distant, leading them home laden therewith in Leathern Bo­rachio's. These Arabians in regard of their so much using the Wars, are Comman­ders over the Almahallen, that is, little Armies to conduct the Caphiles or Caravans, by order of the King.

MOROCCO.

THE Province of Morocco, The Territory of Moroc­co, and Borders of it. Grammay Afric. 9. Marmol. p. 1. lib. 3. taking Name from the Metropolis, is almost all Champaign, beginning on the West at the Mountain Nefise, and stretching Eastward to the Mount Hannimey, and so running North­ward to the Tenzift, where it meets with that of Eciffelmel; so that on the North, Ducala conterminates it; on the West, Hea and a part of Sus; on the South, another part of Sus, Darha and Gezula; and the East, the Territory of Eskure or Haskora.

Morocco, Morocco the Head City. the Principal City of the whole Kingdom, call'd by the Inhabitants Marroc, and by the Spaniards, Marruecos, is by the unanimous consent of most Geographers, held to be the Boccanum Hemerum of Ptolomy. Be it one or other, such as make narrow inquiry into Antiquity, say, That it was first built by Jo­seph Aben Texijien, and his Son Ali, out of the Ruines of Boccanum, or rather in the same place where Ptolomy had set that.

It is situate between the Rivers Neftis and Agmet, in thirty Degrees and thirty Minutes, Northern Latitude, incompassed with a Plain, sprinkled with little Hills, among which on the North-side Atlas thrusts his Basis within six Miles of the City.

It contains a Hundred thousand Houses, and Four and twenty Gates, at [Page] [Page] [Page]

Het KONINKLYK HOE meteen ge [...]elte der Stadt MAROKKO.

[Page] [Page 165]present surrounded with a strong and very high Stone-Wall, fortified with Turrets for defence, a Rampart within, and deep Trenches without.

The Citizens number, saith Gramay, five and thirty Streets, besides a multi­tude of Lanes, and other narrow Passages; but addes withall, that one third part is destitute of Inhabitants, by reason of many Ruines, between which it is planted with Groves of Dates, Vineyards, and other Trees.

Here were in former times many Stately Temples, Guilds, Baths, It was formerly very rich in Buildings. and Inns; but the Civil War in the Countrey hath laid waste and levell'd most of them with the Earth. Memorable Monuments remaining, are two Tem­ples of a wonderful Greatness: One built by Ali, the other by Abdul Mumen; neighbour to which, King Almansor erected a third, encompassed with a Wall of fifty Cubits high, and beautifi'd with Columns or Pillars, which he brought out of Spain: Under it he made a Cistern of like bigness with the Temple, to receive all water from the Roofs.

The Royal Palace, call'd by the Inhabitants Alkakave, or Michouart, may compare with an ordinary City, surrounded with strong and high Walls. In the middle of a Basse Court stands a stately Mesquiet with a Tower, on whose Top, in stead of a Fane, stand four golden Apples together, as they say, Four Golden Apples of the top of the Tower. weighing seven hundred Pound, and given to the King of Morocco by the King of Gago, with his Daughter in Marriage. And to confirm this Opinion, they alleadge, that the King of Morocco in right of that Marriage still remains In­heritor of that Kingdom, and fetches from thence much Gold.

But Marmol tells us, That when King Mansor had builded this stately Tem­ple, out of a desire to leave behind him some Memorial of his Wealth, be­stowed a great part of the Jewels he had in Marriage with the Queen, for the making those Apples. The Inhabitants firmly believe they were so signatur'd by such Configurations of the Heavens, that they were as Telesman's, ne­ver to be remov'd: which Magick seems to be as antient as the Building of Troy, and whose Palladium we may suppose to be such; whereof hear Virgil. Aen. l. 2.

Omnis spes Danaum & coepti fiducia belli
Palladis auxiliis semper stetit, impius ex quo
Tydides, sed enim scelerum (que) inventor Ulysses,
Fatale aggressi sacrato avellere templo
Palladium, caesis summae custodibus arcis,
Corripuêre sacram effigiem, manibus (que) cru­entis
Virgineas ausi divae contingere vittas.
Ex illo fluere, ac retro sublapsa referri
Spes Danaum, fractae vires, aversa deae mens.
Our chiefest hopes and confidence were laid,
Since first the War began, in Pallas Aid,
Till impious Diomed with Ulysses went,
(The best that ever mischief did invent)
And boldly from her sacred Fane convey'd
Fatal
That was the Effigies of the God­dess, and Telesmon made of Pelopts bones by Arius the Philoso­pher, and presented to Trous to preserve his City where founded; and therefore Di­omede and Ʋlysses stole it from thence, that they might conquer the City, though Synon feigns thus.
Palladium, and dire Slaughter made;
These the blest Image pulling down, distain'd
With bloudy hands, and Virgin Wreaths prophan'd,
The Grecian hopes from that time backward went,
Our Strength decay'd, the Goddess discontent.

Cidrenus saith, this Image of Pallas was consecrated by Diabolical Rites, out of a vain presumption, that the Town was impregnable while that re­mained in it: This is confirm'd by Joannes Antiochenus, who saith such Images were Telesmatically made under a good Horoscope, and enabled by Art to pre­serve Cities, wherein they are kept or set up in a victorious and impregnable condition. And the Architect employ'd to place those Apples, not onely used the like Arts, but had by Magick set several Spirits for the constant keeping of them.

Many Kings have endeavour'd to take them down, but still some mishap hath followed to prevent them. The King of Morocco himself, Anno 1500. boasted he would take and bestow them upon the Portugals, as a Reward for their Service in the Defence of his State; but the Commons withstood it: alleadging they were the greatest Ornament of Morocco, and next to the King­dom they were fit to be preserv'd.

In this Palace are thirty Chambers, and a Hall, on all sides within and without furnish'd richly with all sorts of Imagery, and appointed for places of Contemplation and Study. In the midst of the whole stands a very goodly Fountain, canopi'd and turrited with white Marble, artificially Carved and Polished.

¶ ABout half an hours Journey from the City, The Garden, or Montserat. lieth a very stately and pleasant Orchard or Garden of the Kings, call'd Montserat, planted with above fifteen thousand common Trees, the like number of Oranges and Dates, and about thirty six thousand Olive-Trees; besides many other sorts of Plants, Flowers, and wholesome Herbs. A Rivulet cometh out of the Mountain, and runs quite through it; watering not onely the Plants, but feeding many sorts of Fish. In the midst of this lieth a four-square place, wherein stands a Leopard of white Marble, speckel'd with black Spots to the life, at every corner, and round about encompast with Marble Pillars, upon each of which is a Lyon, spouting clear water out of his mouth.

To this Garden adjoyns a Park, A Park of Beasts. wherein are inclosed a great number of Wilde Beasts, as Elephants, Lyons, Deer, and the like.

In the first Court of the Palace, Moquet says, appear three very stately Buildings, after the Morish Fashion, and adorned with Fountains: The second Court hath Piazzaed Walks, supported with white Marble Columns; so ar­tificially built, that the best Architect may admire their Workmanship. And on the ground stand many Marble Vessels with clear water, where the Moors wash themselves before they go to their Sala.

Next this are the Habitations of the Jews, The Jews Dwelling-place. like a second City, girt with strong Walls, but having one onely Gate guarded by the Moors. Many Agents or Em­bassadours from several Princes and States of Europe use to be here resident.

The ordinary Houses are low, Their Houses. small and slight, raised up onely of Loam and Chalk; but the Houses of great Persons are magnificent, built with Stone, and flat at the top to walk upon for coolness.

Most of the Mosques or Churches, Churches. which there are very numerous, are entire Marble, and cover'd with Lead.

The River Tenzift runs through the City, whose Water the Citizens use on all occasions, and serves also to drive Mills for grinding Corn.

¶ THis Province abounds with Flax, The Fruitfulness of the Soil about Morocco. Hemp, Wheat, and all sorts of Grain, which it vents abroad into other parts in great quantities; nor yields it a less store of Dates, Figs, Raisins, Apples, Pears, Olives, Nuts, and the like Fruits, besides Cattel, which afford plenty of Milk, Butter, and Cheese. But the tops of the Mountains lye many times covered with Snow, being for the most part barren and cold, and at best producing nothing but Barley.

Eight Leagues from Morocco, Agmet. upon the top of a Mountain, stands Agmet, in former times rich and populous, containing about six thousand Families, but [Page 167]at present decay'd, and affording Wolves, Foxes, and other wilde Beasts and Fowl, a burrow and resting place.

Elgiumuhe or Elgiemahe, by the River Xeuxaue or Sochaiu, Elgiumuhe. about two Miles from Mount Atlas, formerly a place well inhabited, but now lieth almost waste and desolate.

Emigiagen or Umegiagen, a City and Fort, eight miles Southerly of Elgiemake, Emigiagen. surrounded with a stony Rock in stead of a Wall.

Tazarat, or Tesrat, or Terrasast, lieth upon the Banks of Eciffelmel, Tazarat. five miles Westerly of Morocco, and seven from Mount Atlas.

Teneze at the foot of Atlas, call'd Guidimyve, or Gedmeve, Teneze three miles from the River Eciffelmel.

Gemaagidid call'd by some Delgumuhe, Gemaagidit. a fair City lying upon the high Moun­tain Sicsive, five and twenty mile from Morocco, containeth about a thousand or twelve hundred Houses.

The City Temelet, call'd by some Temelle, and Mehedie, Temelet. lying on a Moun­tain.

Imizimiz, or Imismizi, on the hanging of the Hill Guidimive, Imizimiz. hath below it a Road which runs cross Mount Atlas, and is call'd Bureix, which signifies Feathers, because the Flakes of Snow oftentimes flye over this City like Doun.

Tamdegost, or Tumeglast, about five mile from Atlas. Tamdegost.

Animmey, a small City on the side of a Plain, Animmey. about three miles from Moroc­co, Eastward.

¶ HEre also are divers great Hills, such are Nefuse, or Nefise, Derenders, Hills of Morocco Nefuse.Aden, and Atron, lying in the West, and dividing it from Hea. Very barbarous people inhabit it, who live hardly.

The Semmede, begins at the foot of Nefuse, Semmede, and spreads Eastward seven miles in Length.

The Xauxave to the Southward of Semmede, Xauxave. gives name to a River rising there.

The Mountain Sicsive is very high, Sicsive. and the Hill Temelet boasts of a stately City call'd Temelet.

The Guidimive, or Gedmeve, begins at the Westerly Foot of Semmede, Guidimive. extend­ing East about eight miles.

The Hantete is so high, Hantete. that at a distance it sheweth continually cover'd with the Clouds; touching to the West on Guidimive, and reaching Eastward about six miles to Animmey, which also lifts it self up to a great heighth, extending from hence Eastward to the River Tecouhin.

¶ THe Constitution and Nature of the Inhabitants we will now give you a touch of, as in the several places wherein they are seated, The Constitution of the Inhabitants. and begin with them of Morocco; who are well featur'd, and very white: The Men de­light much in Hunting and Hawking, and therefore keep excellent Horses; which, according to their Custom, they manage with good judgement. They take great pleasure in keeping all sorts of Fowl, which are brought to them from Mount Atlas.

They of Elgiumuhe are diligent in Husbandry, but often plunder'd by the Arabs. Those of Delgumube are extraordinary neat in their Habit, proud, bold-spirited, but very jealous. The Mountaineers are ill natur'd, rough, and de­ceitful, [Page 168]coveting from Strangers what ever they have. They go meanly Ha­bited, live as beasts, and feed on Barley with a little Oyl of Olives. Some few of them have Converse with Jews, from whom they learn some Mechanick Arts, wearing onely under their Feet artificial Soals, to defend them from sharp Stones and Thorns. And their best Habit is meerly a Cloth about their Loins, to keep off the violent beatings of the Snow.

All the aforemention'd Cities and Towns, Strength and Riches of Morocco. are by natural Scituation ex­ceeding strong, and the inhabitants Powerful and Rich; so that if they were reduced under one Head, by such a Union, his Discretion and good Conduct might effect great matters.

HEA.

THe Jurisdiction of Hea, Borders of the Territory of Hea. the most Westerly Part of the Moroccian Kingdom, joyns to the Great Atlas, which the Inhabitants call Ai­vakall, conterminated on the West and North with the great Oce­an; on the South with Atlas, and part of Sus; and on the East with the Ri­ver Eciffelmel, which divideth it from Morocco.

The famousest Places lying in this Territory, are

Tedoest, Tedoest. heretofore the chief City of Hea, was in the Year Fifteen hundred and fourteen totally ruin'd, but is now rebuilt in part by the Jews, who have erected there five hundred Houses:

Agobel, Agobel. a strong City on a Hill, and surrounded with a Wall, contains about three hundred and thirty Houses.

Alguel, Alguel. scituate also on a Hill, hath tolerable Walls, and the advantage of two small Rivers running through it.

Tekuleth, Tekuleth. a fair City on the side of a Hill, eighteen Miles Westward of Te­doest, close by the Fort Aguz, at the mouth of the River Tekulet, which Ptolomy call'd Diure.

Hadequis, Hadequis. lying on a Plain three Spanish Miles from Tekuleth, before its De­struction by the Portugueze, in the Year Fifteen hundred and eleven, had Walls of Stone, strengthened with Towers: The Houses were of the like Materials, amounting to twenty thousand; but now is thinly inhabited by a few Jewish Merchants.

So also the next City Texevit, Texevit. though wall'd and water'd by a pretty large River, falling from the neighbouring Hills, between which it stands.

Lusugaguen, Leusugaguen. or Ilusugaguen, a strong City, built on a high Hill in manner of a Fort, three Mile from Hadis, Southward.

But amongst these Mountain-Cities, Tesegdelt is imputed the chiefest, four Miles from Texevit, having a Wall of sharp Rocks, it containeth about a thou­sand Houses, and is moistned with a handsom River.

Tegteze, Tegteze. or Tagtesse, stands on a high Hill, five Miles from Tesegdelt, the ascent to it going round the Hill as it were by winding stairs.

Eitdevet, Eitdevet. five Miles from Tegteze, towards the South, an antient City, con­taining about Seven hundred Houses.

Kuleyhat Elmuhaidin, Kuleyhat Elmuhaidin. that is, a Foundation for Scholars, seven Miles from Eit­devet, was first built in the Year Fifteen hundred and twenty, by an Apostate [Page 169] Mahumetan, named Homar Seyef, who broached divers new Opinions as to mat­ters of Religion, drawing after him many Followers who did much mischief; but at length after this Province of Hea had been miserably harrased and wasted, he was slain by his Wife, for his Incestuous living with his Daughter­in-law; and all his Followers, when his notorious Dissimulation and odious Debaucheries were discover'd, driven out of the Countrey, only his Nephew betook himself to a Fort, which he defended a whole Year, though strictly be­sieged; but in the end surrendred on Articles, but carried with him his ma­lice, which he wreaked on them in a perpetual enmity.

Tefethne, or Teftane, by Gramay call'd Bente; but Tamusige by Ortelius, Tefethue. a strong City on the Coast of the Atlantick, at the foot of Mount Atlas, hath a Haven four Spanish Miles in length. A little toward the West lyes another, Gazole, Tafalle, Zebedech. which Mar­mol supposes to be the same that Ptolomy calls Hercules-Road. Then to the South­ward Gazole, Tafalle and Zebedech, all places of small Importance, which at last bring us to the Cape of Ozem, Northward, The Cape of Ozem. Magador. not far from which appears the Island Magador or Mongador, about five Miles from the main Land. Here is a strong Castle, wherein the Kings of Morocco always keep a good Garrison for de­fence of his Gold and Silver Mines in the neighboring Mountains.

Goz or Gozen, a safe Haven, by some taken to be the Surige of Ptolomy. Goz. Kurio descript. Regus Morocco. Engueleguingil.

Engueleguingil, or according to Sanutus, Ichillinghighil, is a small City, lying two Miles Southward of Eitdevet. Those are all the remarkable Towns. We will take a short view of the Mountains, and so proceed.

¶ THe first that lyes in our way is Aidvacal, or rather Atlas, Mountains of Hea. Aidvacal. beginning at the Ocean, and reaching along the Shore, making a Boundary between Hea and Sus, being about three days Journey in breadth. Here are many popu­lous Villages.

Demensere, or Tensare, begins where Aidvacal ends, Demensere. and reaches into the East about seven Miles, to Nefise in the Province of Morocco; it is very populous, but hath no City nor inclosed Town, but divers small ones, and many Villages.

Mount Giubel el Hand, or Gebel el Hadith, that is, Iron-Hill, Giubel el Hand. which Ortelius guesses to be the Fokre of Ptolomy, begins toward the North, near the Ocean, and reaches Southward; Tenzift running between Hea, Morocco and Ducala, but cometh not near Atlas.

This Countrey hath in it many small Rivers, great Woods, The Nature of the Ter­ritory of Hea. and pleasant Valleys, yet the Inhabitants have little Corn, which proceeds either from their sloth, or unskilfulness in Husbandry; as appears, for that in several places are abundance of Fig-trees, Peaches and Nuts. Here is also great quantity of Honey, which in part they sell; but such is their stupidity, that they throw away the Wax.

¶ ASses, Goats, Oxen, Sheep, Deer, Hares and Apes, run here in great abun­dance; so are the Horses, but of a strange shape, different from ours, and so swift, that they will run over the Mountains without Shooes, catching hold like a Cat.

¶ THe usual Food of this Province, is Barley-Meal unsifted, Nature and Customs of the Inhabitants. which they Bake with the Bran, in an Earthen Pan, and eat for Bread, together with Elhasid, that is, Barley-Flower, in Winter boyl'd in Water, and Oyl put [Page 170]into it, but in Summer, boyl'd in Milk, and sauced with Butter. Other-while they eat boyl'd Flesh, sometimes divers sorts of Meat together, which they call Couscous.

¶ THe most People wear only a piece of Woollen, Apparel of the People of Hea. by them call'd Elchise, made like a Sheet, and ty'd about the Body; so, round about the Head, with a piece of the same dy'd Black, with the Bark of a Nut-tree. But the Elder, and such as are in any esteem for Learning, wear round double Bonnets.

Their Matts which they sit on, Furniture for their Houses. are made of Hair, platted thorow with Reeds; so also are their Beds, and cover'd with Hair-cloths, from five to ten Yards long, serving both for Blankets, Sheets and Coverlid. In Winter they put up their Hair under a Cap, but let it hang down about their ears in the Summer.

They Plow their ground with Horses and Asses intermixt, and contrary to most in these parts, their Women go with their Faces bare.

SUS.

THE Territory of Sus or Sous, Its Borders. formerly a Kingdom, took name from the River Sus, which bounds on the West as far as the Great Bay of That is, of great Cattel. Juments, or de la Yeguas; Northward it reaches to Mount Atlas, where touching on the Side of Hea; on the South lyes the sandy Desart of Biledulgerid; on the East bordering upon Guzula.

In this Territory on the Sea-shore lye three small Cities, all known by one common name, Messe, being indeed rather one City divided into three parts, each separated and surrounded with a Wall. This was heretofore call'd Temest, being seated on the shore of the great Ocean, at the foot of Atlas, or Aidvacal, as they call it.

The River Sus running through the Messe, A strange Temple. at a place call'd Guertesen, falleth into the Sea, on whose shore a Temple appears, whose sparrs, rafters and beams are said to be the bones of the Whale which swallowed the Prophet Jonas, who was thrown up again in this place. The learned among them stick not to affirm, That this our Minor Prophet shall appear in this Temple, being so declared by their great Prophet Mahomet; for which Reason they all highly reverence and preserve it with extraordinary care.

Hereabout are many large Whales often begrounded, which the common People fancy happeneth by an occult quality of that Temple, which kills all those Monsters coming that way and endeavouring to swim by it.

Teceut, Teceut. an antient City, a Mile from Messe, Triangular, and contains four thousand Families. In the middle of it stands a fair Temple, through which runs an Arm of the River Sus.

The Countrey hereabout is full of Hamlets and Villages, but more Souther­ly is not inhabited, but over-run by the wilde and wandring Arabs.

One Mile from Teceut lyeth Gared, Gared. founded by the Cerif Abdala, about the Year Fifteen hundred, on a Plain by a great Spring call'd Ayn Cequie. Here is a sort of excellent Moroquines. Kids-Leather, which in such great quantities is transported [Page 171]into Europe, that the Custom of it yearly to this City, produceth Thirty thou­sand Ducats.

The Principal City of all is Tarudant, by the Moors call'd Tourant, Tarudant. twelve Miles East from Teceut, and two Miles South from Atlas, in a pleasant Valley, eighteen or twenty Miles long. This City water'd by the River Agur, was for­merly the Metropolis of the whole Kingdom, and the Royal Seat and Cham­ber of the Kings of Sus.

Half a Mile from Tarudant stands Faraixa, built by Mahomet Cherif, Taraixa. before he was King of Morocco.

Tedsi, twelve Miles Eastward of Tarudant, twenty from the Ocean, Tedsi. and seven to the South of great Atlas, was in former times very rich, containing above four thousand Families, but is now by their Civil Wars almost ruined.

Togoast, the greatest City of this Territory, twenty Miles from the Atlantick, Togoast. eighteen from Atlas, and three from the Sus, contain'd in former times six thou­sand Houses, which at present are reduced to a far smaller Number. Volatera­nus says, this was the Birth-place of the antient and famous Doctor St. Augustine.

On the Westerly shore of the River Sus, lyeth Cape Aguar, Cape of Aguar. taken by Ptolomy for the Cape Usagium. This place in former times belong'd to the Portugues, who erected there a very strong Castle, by them call'd Santa Cruce, and by the Moors Darumnie, that is, Christian-House. Afterward the Portugals founded a strong Ci­ty in the same Place, which they possess'd a long time, but at last were driven out of it by the Cherif, in the Year Fifteen hundred thirty and six.

On a cutting Skirt of Atlas, by the great Ocean, Gantguessen. at the Mouth of the River Sus, stands Gantguessen, a very strong place; and more Southerly on the Sea-Coast; these places, Aguilon, Alganzib, Samotinat, with the Capes of Guilon, and Non or Nun, in twenty seven Degrees Northern Latitude.

¶ THe Mountains of Sus are Henquise, The Mountains. reaching from West to East twelve Miles in length, Ilalem or Laalem, Guzula beginning at the end of Hen­quise, and stretching Eastward to Guzula, South to the Plains of Sus; Ilde the Western, boundary between Guzula and Sus.

All the Inhabitants of Messe maintain themselves by Husbandry, The Nature of the ground of the Territory Sus. encouraged thereto, for that in April and September the River Sus rises and overflows its Banks, which causes a plentiful Harvest, whereas if it fail in one of the afore­mention'd Moneths, then generally follows a Scarcity, or dear Year. On the shore by Messe, is found very good Amber in great plenty. All about the City of Teceut, the Grounds abound with Wheat, Barley, and many other sorts of Grain, as also Sugar-canes, besides Dates, Figs and Peaches.

Mount Henquise is cold, and continually cover'd with Snow.

Mount Laalem abounds with Horses, and holds in her bosom a rich Vein of Silver.

From Tarudant is brought Ostridge Feathers and Amber, and so transported into Europe.

The People of Tedsi live orderly, and behave themselves with great Trust and Civility. The like do the Inhabitants of Tagoast, whose Women for the most part are white and Handsom; nevertheless there are Blacks and Tauny-Moors among them.

They of Messe are Husbandmen, but those of Teceut ill natured, proud and pervicacious. Those of Henquise and Ilalem are Valiant and Generous, but maintain old Feuds about their Silver Mines.

Lastly, The Mahumetans themselves living in this Territory, shew great Honor to the Body of St. Augustine, which they report lyeth Buried near the City of Tagoast.

DUCALA.

THE Territory of Ducala hath for Borders, Limits of the Territory of Ducala. on the East the River Umara­bea, or Omni [...]abih, and the Country of Temesne; on the East the Tenzift, and Cape of Cantin, with part of Hea; on the North the great Ocean; and on the South the Province of Morocco, and the River Habid.

The greatest length from West to East is Thirty; Its Bigness. and the breadth, according to Marmol, Twenty four Miles. The Cities and Places of Note in it are, First, Azamor, Azamor. a City lying at the Mouth of the River Umarabea, three Miles from Mazagan. In the Year Fifteen hundred and thirteen, Emmanuel King of Portugal, to revenge himself of the Injury which Zeyam the Governor of this City had done him, Was won by the Pertu­guese. in disappointing of his Marriage, sent a Fleet of two hundred Ships, with great Forces, who coming to this City, begirt it with a strong Siege, and compell'd the Inhabitants to surrender. The Portuguese who entred, Ruin'd and Plunder'd it, and not so contented, proceeded further, and took and wasted divers other Places.

The Town before this War, contain'd above Five thousand Houses, and is still large and populous, being subject to the Moors, who keep a strong Garri­son in it. The greatest Trade of the Citizens consists in Fishing, which from April till September they use in the River Ommirabih, to their great advantage, raising thereby yearly six or seven thousand Ducats.

Elmedine or Almedine, Elmedine. a Place of great Antiquity, formerly the chief City of the whole Jurisdiction, distant about ten Miles from Safi, between it and Aza­mor, on a pleasant and fruitful Plain.

The next in Order is the strong Citadel Mazagan, Mazagan. by some call'd Mazzakan, by Marmol, Mazagran; but by the Moors, Boreyja, about two Miles from Amazor, on the Banks of the River Ommirabih, not far from the Sea. It formerly contain'd five thousand Houses, whereas at the present 'tis scarce half a Mile in Compass, and lyeth scatteringly in four Parts, each whereof hath a peculiar Governor, but all subject to one Cherif, and among themselves very unanimous.

The Inhabitants flourished heretofore in Wealth and Prosperity, but at this day is a place of no Trade, M [...]quet, lib. 3. but only serves for a Garrison, having lofty Walls or Rampars, so overtopping the houses, that whoever stands without, sees nothing but the Fortifications, which so much surmount the Dwellings.

Upon these Works are planted many great Cannons, for whose Defence five hundred Foot, two hundred Horse, and five hundred Pioneers, are always ready, bestowing the intervals of their leisurable times, either in new making or repairing their Works.

The circumjacent Places are very fruitful, Nature of the Soyli part of which the Soldiery look after, that it may be sown for their Advantage and Provision, yet is all their care too little to prevent the Moors, who in the Night come and make them­selves sharers of the greatest part.

Tit or Tut, four Spanish Miles from Mazagan, lyes now desolate, having ne­ver recovered the Destruction thrown upon it by the Portugues, about the Year Fifteen hundred and thirty.

Then comes in order Cape Cantin, Cape Cannaveral, on the North; Cape of Cantin. not far from whence lyeth the City Saffi, or Azaffi; by Marmol, Assi; and by the Portugals, Safin, who conquer'd it under the conduct of their King Emmanuel, in the Year Fifteen hundred and seven, but since it is reduced to the subjection of the King of Morocco, who hath strongly Wall'd and Garrison'd it. Here resides a French Consul to order the Merchants Affairs.

Conte is an In-land City, seven Miles Eastward of Safi, Conte. and not far from Cabo de Spart, or Sparts Cape, so call'd from the Plant Spart, signifying Rushes, which not only the Natives, but the Portugals use in stead of Hemp to make Cordage.

Five Miles East of Safi lyeth Maramor, having old Walls, Maramor. and about four hun­dred Buildings; a member whereof is Cernu, three Miles from Safi, Cernu. formerly Ruined, but now full of People.

Aguz, now thinly inhabited, and Telmez, and Umez, Aguz. two inconsiderable Pla­ces, possessed by Hoc Afri, an antient People of Barbary.

Next is the Fort, by the Inhabitants call'd Miathir, that is, Aundred Pits, Miathir. and by the Geographers in Italian, Cento possi, from the great number of Pits there­abouts, wherein the Inhabitants lay up their Corn to preserve it. It is situate on a high Cliff, and her Houses for the most part of Marble.

Sudeyt, a poor and meanly Wall'd Town, by the River Umarabea, Sudeyt. Tamarrox. Terga. close by is Tamarrox, containing about four hundred Buildings. Terga, suppos'd to be the Jagath of Ptolomy, ten Miles from Azamor, now almost totally buried in its own Ruines.

Benekafiz, five Miles from Azamor, and two from Mount Verd, or Green-Hill. Benekafiz.Guilez, Terrer and Cea, in former times famous Cities, but now void of Inha­bitants, except a few wilde Arabs. In the last place comes Bulaaguan, of no other Note, but that it stands by the River Ommirabih, between Fez and Morocco.

Mountains here, are Benimeguez or Benimagar, four Miles from Azafi, Mountains of D [...]quel. which Marmol guesses to be Ptolomy's Mountain of the Sun. Jakel-Hadva, or Mount Verd, beginning on the East side of the River Ommirabih, and reaching West to the Hill of Haskora, becomes a Boundary between Ducala and a part of Tedle. Upon it live many Hermites, scatter'd under the reception of several Mahumetan Altars, and ruinous African Buildings.

This Territory of Ducala is full of People, but they are Dull-witted, Ill­natured, Cowards and Clownish.

HASKORA, or ESKURE.

THis Province hath on the North Ducala, on the East the River Tenzift; Limits of the Territory of Haskora. to the West that of Elgua del Habid, which separates it from Tedle. The chief­est Places of it are Elmadine, or Abnedine, on the side of Mount Atlas, Eastward, Elmadine. about thirty Miles from Morocco.

Alendin, or Elmedin, a mile to the East of the former in a Valley, Alendin. encompas­sed with four great Mountains, and consisting of about a thousand Houses.

Tagodast, or Isadagas seated, saith Marmol, among great Mountains, yet is ve­ry [Page 174]pleasant, by reason of the Confluence of Rivulets and Brooks, which descending pass through it.

Elgiumuha standing also on a Hill four miles from Tagodast, Elgiumuha. and Bzo or Bizu, eleven miles.

¶ FAmous Mountains here are Tenuevez or Tevendez, Mountains of Haskore. about five and thirty Spanish Miles from Dara Southward.

Tenhite beginning at the edge of Tevendoz, reaches on the East to Dedez, run­ning along South by the Wilderness of Dara; this Hill containeth fifty Ca­stles, all fortifi'd with Stone Walls, and subject to the Governor of Dara.

Guigim or Gogideme inhabited onely on the North, neighbour'd by two other Hills, commendable for nothing but a convenient River, that takes Rise there, and afterwards waters a pleasant adjoyning Vale.

¶ OLives, The Fruitfulness of Has­k [...]re. Grapes, Nuts, Figs, and other Fruits grow here naturally, but the Apricocks are as large as a great Portugal, or as we call it, a China Orange.

Gagodast produceth Wheat, Barley, pure Oyl, and especially Honey of two sorts, the one white, like our Virgin, and the other clear and yellow, like our common Honey. They have also store of Goats.

Tevendez bears onely Barley and Woad, yet abounding with Sheep and Goats, though its Ground lies continually cover'd with Snow.

Tensite yields store of Dates, and Gogidem wilde Beasts of several kinds, espe­cially the Lant; of which we have spoken at large in our general Description.

¶ THe People are much more reserved, Cuse [...]n of the Inhabitants. than those of Ducala, affecting a stiff formality; their onely Business Merchandise, which is no small Encouragement to Strangers to come thither to Traffick.

There is a natural Antipathy between the Inhabitants of Elmadine and their Neighbours, so that they always go armed, though about their ordinary oc­casion into the Fields. They are very kinde and hospitable to Foreigners, entertaining them with a great deal of respect in places purposely appointed.

They eat several sorts of Flesh like us in Europe, as Mutton, Veal, Kid, and Venison.

The Women are handsome, and take great pleasure in the Company and Converse of Strangers, adorning themselves with Neck-laces, and curious Armelets of Pearls and precious Stones.

Most of the Men in this Territory are Tanners, with great Art and Cu­riosity dressing Kid-Skins, which the French Merchants call Maroquins; and are transported in great abundance to most Countreys of Europe.

TEDLE:

THe Territory of Tedle hath on the East the Kingdom of Morocco, Limits of the Territory of Tedle on the West the River Quadelhabid, and on the North, the Conflux of the same River with that of Ommirabih; and on the South Mount Atlas: So that it is in effect Triangular. For those Rivers springing from Atlas, make one Angle, Atlas a second, and Morocco the third.

Tefze the Chief City, erected by the Arabians on the edge of Atlas, stands encircled in a Wall of Marble curiously cut, which Work in Arabick they call Tefza, the Wall so giving name to the City, being large and well peopl'd, ha­ving many Temples, and adjoyning to it the pleasant Plains of Fixtele; wherein is a Village of the same name a mile from Tefze on a Hillock, con­taining about seven hundred Houses.

Cithiteb, on a very high Mountain, three Miles Easterly from Tefza. Ehithi­at, or Aitiat, four Miles from Cithiteb, having about four hundred Houses; but no Walls other than the Mountain and steep Cliffs.

¶ THe Mountains are Segeme, or Seggheme, lieth in the South, Mountains of Tedle. joyning to Te­seven; Magran a little more to the West, reaching from the last menti­on'd Segeme, to Dedes; one Point of whose Basis Westward rises at Magran, and so running to Adesan on the South, makes a Bulwark or Wall to the Plains of Tolge.

¶ THis Countrey is full of Mountains, The Condition of this Territory. whose tops are cover'd with Snow the greatest part of the year; yet the Plains yield all sorts of Corn in great abundance, Vines, Pistachio's or Nut-Trees, Figs, and other Fruit-Trees in vaste numbers. Neither are Cattel wanting here, though much infested, and often devour'd by the wilde Beasts harbouring in the adjacent Mountains, such as Lions, Tygers, and Wolves. And the pleasure of the Valleys is also much abated by the almost infinite numbers of Mesketo's, (a kinde of Wasp) that by their too frequent stinging make their lives a trouble to them.

¶ THe People of Tebre go well habited, but those of Dedes almost naked; Custom of the Inhabi­tants. they pilfer and steal naturally, and are as deceitful, and delight in broaching of quarrels; so that who ever comes among them, had need have more Eyes and Hands than single Pairs: therefore not onely Strangers, but their Neighbours refuse to trade or deal with them in any kinde; so that they spend their whole time in laziness and thievish inventions, without any desire to improve themselves by learning Arts, or using Commerce: As an evidence of which; Whosoever by chance travels through their Countrey without Convoy, they make no scruple to rob of all; and though they have the safe Conduct and Protection of their Governors, they extort from them above one fourth of whatever they carry with them, besides what is other­wise useful to them.

Mahumetanism overspreads the whole, The Religion of Tedle. yet admits a few Jews to reside in several places among them for the benefit of Trade, and fewer Christians. But [Page 176]all the Mountaineers know nothing of Religion, nor trouble themselves with Churches or Priests, but make their Gods the wilde Dictates of their bruitish Inclinations. Yet this nothing is also so catching, that some neighbouring Christians wheedled by those specious form of Libertinism, renouncing their Savi­our, embrace their Atheistical Tenets.

GUZULA, or GEZULE

THis Province seems to Marmol to have been a part of the Antient Getulia, Guzula is a part of Getulia. whereof the Name retains yet some small remembrance; and that which makes this Conjecture yet more probable, is, that the Antient Getulians were placed near Libia, beneath Mount Atlas towards the South, where at this day Guzula lies.

It hath in the West the Mountain Ilde, Its Borders. on the South Atlas, by which also parted from Morocco, and on the East the Dominion of Hea. Here are no wall'd Cities, and but few good Towns, but many Villages; among which some contain a thousand Houses.

¶ THe Inhabitants are bruitish and sordid, The Condition and Cu­stom of the Inhabitants. commonly wearing Woollen Jackets without Sleeves, hanging down to their Knees, and Hats made of Date-leaves. They have Mines of Copper and Iron that bring in great profit, but no Silver; and are exceedingly stockt with Cattel. Iron and Copper they exchange with Foreign Merchants, and barter it for Cloth, Spi­ces, Horses, and other things which they have occasion for. But that which above all brings greatest advantage to this place, is a Fair or Market kept there once a year for two moneths time, during which they entertain and feast all Strangers repairing thither. And that they may the more peaceably reside among them, they make a general Cessation of Arms among themselves, each party una­nimously chusing a Captain with a hundred men, for the Guard and good or­dering of the Fair; which Captains continually go the Rounds into every Quarter; and if they finde any offending, according to their Crimes, so do they immediately inflict a suitable Punishment: As for example; Thieves they execute immediately, by running through every Limb with their Laun­ces, leaving their dead Bodies to be devour'd by Dogs. This Fair is kept on a Plain, where for the Merchants are erected in Rows like Streets, Tents and Booths, plaister'd with Reeds and limber Twigs, wherein every Trade is plac'd in distinct order; so that each hath his particular Station: Onely the Grasiers that sell Cattel stand in the open Fields. This Fair begins on Mahomets Birth-day, being the Twelfth of the Moneth of Rabih, or Rabik.

¶ THeir wearing Arms are Simiters, Their Arms. and short and broad Daggers, with very sharp points; which they hang on both sides.

They say this Countrey can bring sixty two thousand men into the Field, so that they need not stand in fear of the Arabs.

They live in Freedom, and are their own Masters, without acknowledging any King or Lord, though they do properly belong to the King of Morocco. [Page 177]They formerly paid to the Portuguese twelve thousand Ducats yearly as a Tri­bute, but it continued not long.

Some think that they wave Law and Religion as well as Kings; but keep­ing their Fair on Mahomets Birth-day, leaves it questionable, that they may be of some Belief.

FEZ.

THe Kingdom of Fez, The Territory of Fez the most Easterly Part of the Antient Mauritania Tingitana, now by the Moors call'd El-garbe, bounded on the West with the Kingdom of Morocco, and the River Meline; on the North, by the Midland-Sea; on the South with part of the Great Mount Atlas.

In this Kingdom, as before in Morocco, are seven Territories, viz. Fez it self, giving the Denomination to the whole, but the most Westerly Part is Temesen, or Temesne, the others are Asgar, Elhabat, Erif, Garet, and Cuz or Chaus, or Sau.

The Rivers which run through, or rising there, water this Kingdom, The Rivers. and after fall either into the Ocean or Midland-Sea, are the Burregreg or Burregrag, Subu, Fez, Bath, Likus, Homar, Guir, Gomer, Cherzer, Melulo, Melukan, and Muluye.

The River Burregreg or Burregrag, formerly call'd Sala, taketh the Original in the greater Atlas, from whence passing through many Woods and Valleys, at last dischargeth it self into the Sea, between the Cities of the old and new Salle.

The River Subu, by Ptolomy call'd Suber, one of the greatest in Barbary, Subu. springs from Mount Ciligo, or Selego, a Branch of Atlas, in the Dominion of Cuz, or Chaus, from whence it descends with so strong and swift a Current, that a Stone of a hundred weight cast into it, is presently thrown out again. Not far from its Head is a stately Bridge made over it: After a long Course and various Meandrings, it runs for two miles along by Fez, enriching that City and Countrey, as also Asgar, with its Waters; So running on, till it falls into the Sea by Morocco.

Many lesser Streams and Brooks, and particularly Guarga, Sador, Yuavan, and Halvan, as also the River Fez, contribute their Streams to the augmen­tation of this River.

The River Fez runs through the City Fez; the Neighbours give it an Arabick Name, signifying The Pearly River, known to Pliny by the title Fut, as to Ptolomy by that of Phuth or Thuth.

The Bath rises out of Atlas, and gliding through Asgar, receives Incremen­tal Helps of Gurgivora and Bunzar, joyning at last with Subu.

Lucus, heretofore call'd Licos, derives from Mount Gomere, running from the West through the Plains of Habat and Asgar; so looking at Naravigia and Basra, about two miles from the Sea, makes the Island Gezire; then washing the Walls of Alkasar Elquikie, it pours into the Ocean by L'aracch a City of Asgar, making there an excellent Haven.

The Homar, Homar. so call'd from a City of the same Name by which it flows, begins in the Mountain of Habat, and runs into the Ocean by Taximuxi.

The Guir, Guir. by Ptolomy call'd Dyos, a small Rivulet, comes out of the Moun­tain of Temesne, and loses it self in the Ocean near Almansor.

The Gomer, Gomer. springing a Mount of that Name, falls into the Midland-Sea, by a place call'd also Gomer.

The River Cherzar descends out of Errif, Cherzar. and enters the Sea a little way di­stant from Cherzar.

Nokar, Nokar. by Ptolomy call'd Mokath, and by Peter Daviyte, Milukar, takes its Rise out of Mount Elchaus, so running towards the North, and dividing Errif from Gared, falls into the Mediterranean.

Melulo, Melulo. a great River descended from Atlas, between Sezar and Dubudu, from whence visiting the barren Desarts of Tesreft and Tafrata, empties it self into the Mulukan, taking Head from Atlas six or seven miles from Garcylain, a City of Chaus; so watering the Desarts here, as also Angued and Garet, falls in­to the Mediterranean by the City Cacasa, having first received the Waters of Me­lulo, and some others.

Lastly, Muluye. The Muluye from Atlas, runs from West to East, till disemboguing into the Midland-Sea by the City Ona, it makes a handsome Haven, by Ptolomy call'd Malva.

FEZ.

THe Province of Fez hath for Boundaries in the West, The Territory of Fez Burrogreg or Burragrag, as it comes from Temesen, and stretcheth Eastward to the River Imnavan, on the North Subu, and part of the Sea between Salle and Mamorbe; on the South the Mountains of Atlas. Its Length from East to West about seventeen Miles.

The most Antient City of this Countrey is Sale; Sale. by Ptolomy, Sala; and by some Geographers, Sella; on the Northerly Shore of the Sea, where the River Buragrag, Beregreg, Sala, or Kumer, flow into it Southerly, and toward the South opposite to Rabat or Rabald, which also is stil'd Salle: so making the Old and New Sale. Nor do the Cities onely differ in Name, but the Inhabi­tants also; those of Old Salle being call'd Slousi, those of New or Rabald, Rab­bati; being for the most part Andaluzians, formerly driven with the Moors out of Spain.

Both these Cities are strongly Wall'd and Fortifi'd: The Old in a Qua­drangular Form with four Gates; one of which towards the North, is call'd Sidimusa Ducala, from a Saint, whose Sepulchre stands about an half hours Jour­ney from thence; and on the same side a less Gate by a Redoubt: On the Land-side towards the East are two Gates, one opening to the Burying-place of the Jews, and the way leading to Mikanez; the other a Percullis'd Gate, like a square Watch-Tower.

Old Sale is on all sides, except that of the Percullis'd Gate, fortifi'd with a strong Breast-work, and Palisado intermingled with strong Forts, viz. One of [Page] [Page] [Page]

SALEE

[Page] [Page 179]Stone leading to the Point, in the entrance of the River on the Sand, and Plan­ted with seven or eight Pieces of Cannon: Another also of Stone on the same side, at the North Point: The third on the Land-side, at the North-East Point: And the fourth, as it were adjoyning to the Portcullis'd Gate. Be­tween the aforementioned Gate and the Castle, upon the Point of the River, stands a Block-House, just opposite to such another at New Sale.

The Arabians keep a daily Market in the Old City, bringing thither But­ter, Wheat, Barley, Oyl, Cows, Sheep, and other necessary Provisions. In this Market under the Ground lies the Masmora or Common Prison for the Slaves, receiving all its Light, with divers inconveniences, from Iron Grates lying even with the earth. This was heretofore a large place of Receipt, as ap­pears by the Ruines of the Walls and Buildings; but at present both in Build­ings and Beauty falls short of New Sale.

Rabad or Rabald, now New Sale, almost also Four-square, New Sale. stands in a Val­ley between two high Precipices; those on the Land-side much higher, and uneasier to ascend, than those on the Sea-shore.

A double Wall guards the Land-side, the one old, the other new, between which they reserve a proportion of Land, half as big as the Town, wherein they Sow yearly several Grains: The outer or new Wall defending the En­trance between the aforemention'd great Hills, boasts an extraordinary Thickness, and the Heighth of thirty Foot, or thereabouts; but towards the Sea lies in a manner open.

Three Gates on the Land-side give entrance into it; one on the East, The Gates. and two on the South, viz. The Gate of Morocco, and the Gate of Temsina.

Close by the River upon a rising Ground, standeth