The RUSSIAN IMPOSTOR: OR, THE HISTORY OF Muskovie, UNDER The Usurpation of BORIS AND THE Imposture of DEMETRIUS, Late Emperors of Muskovy.

LONDON: Printed by J. C. for Thomas Basset, at the George in Fleetstreet, near Cliffords Inne. MDCLXXIV.


To the Right Honorable THOMAS Earl of Ossory, OF The Most Noble Order of the GARTER, &c.

I Had no sooner en­gaged my thoughts in the following Narrative, but I judged it worthy of your Lordships view; and my Concern in it, your Prote­ction. Besides, at what Altar could I more reasonably make tender of this humble Sacrifice, but where I had already made Oblation of my self? Or to whom should I more properly expose the great Atchieve­ments of others, than to Him whose Courage and Civility are such, that both Peace and War seem equal Rivals for his Fame?

I had large room in the last Sum­mers Expedition to contemplate the greatness of your Mind, and the Ho­nour of your Nature; for I obser­ved such generous impatience in you before the Fights, so much Va­lour, and Conduct, and Temper in them, and such care and pity for the hurt and unfortunate after them, that I reverenced and admired so many Virtues in one Person.

These are the steps, my Lord, by which your Ancestors entred into the Temple of Honour. Thus has the Splendor of your House for so many Ages been upheld. And in what Firmament does there now shine a more Illustrious Star? Con­tinue then to be propitious to the Nation, and kind unto

My Lord,
Your Lordships most devoted Servant R. M.


THese Collections being the Is­sues of some of my Forein Rambles in the Late Times, whilst our Intestine Calami­ties rendered it infectious to abide within the Air of them, and laid aside amongst my neglected Papers, have run the risque of being stifled in their birth; when looking about me, and finding nothing considerable of this Story made publike by any other hand, I fancied (I think not unreasonably) that it might, under the Cha­racter of being divertive, appear abroad in the croud, without too much exposing its Author. Besides, I found so much paral­lel betwixt these Troubles and those of my Native Country, which by a Providence not many degrees short of Miracle, is but lately rescued (I may say, uninchanted) from an Imposture of more Artifice and Delicacie, by how much it is more difficult [Page]for one person to vary his shapes to the same eyes, than for those eyes to be decei­ved by variety of persons, that I have here thought good to present the world with some Observations of the later sort. The Scene of what I write was laid in the great Empire of Muskovy, which, in the Memo­ry of man hath laboured under an Impo­sture no less strange in its birth, than admi­rable in its productions; and if we consi­der the various vicissitudes of the Actors in it, not only surpassing what former A­ges have delivered of this kind, but hardly to be parallel'd by Posterity, unless it had already happened. For the better under­standing of this History, I have thought fit to premise somewhat, but briefly, concern­ing it; upon no other designe than that of gratifying such as are less versed in the Manners and Government of that Coun­try.

The vast Continent of Russia extends from the Frozen Ocean to the Caspian Sea; being also bordered upon by the Swedes, the Poles, and the Tartars. The length of it from the Cape of Ob to the Town of Czerkassy, is accounted 1520 English Miles: and its breadth from Corelenburg in the Confines of Finland to Lepin, 300 [Page]German, or 1200 English Miles. This great Territory is divided into many large Provinces, which give also names to, or re­ceive them from their principal Cities; the Chief whereof is that of Moskwa, so called by the Inhabitants, and by us Musko, from whence also the whole Region is called Muskovy. The Country is sandy and plain, but welnigh impassable, by reason of the mul­titude of Lakes and Rivers, save in the Win­ter, which is long, and insufferably cold; but most of their Commerce is driven then, upon their Sleds and Ice. The Summer is in its turn as violently hot, and seems the more intense by reason of its short stay; sufficing howsoever to ripen their Herbage, and Corn, and Fruits; especially such as survived the rigor of the cold. It abounds in Flax and Hemp, and an immense quantity of Ho­ny; the Woods, which are many and great, being filled with swarms of Bees, as also of Birds and of wild Beasts; the precious Furs of the later bring in such high esteem in the world. The Inhabitants (we will except those of the first Rank) are barba­rous, yet cunning, unfaithful, immeasura­bly debauched, luxurious, cruel; and yet so servile, that they glory in it. The Nobility think it an honour to be esteemed the most [Page]abject of Slaves to their Princes; but they again insult and tyrannize over their Vas­sals, though all acknowledge the Despotick power of their Duke; who is so absolute, that he is Sovereign of the lives and fortunes of every individual; being fettered by no Law but that of his will, which is as exten­sive as his pleasure. In a word, there is no Government in the world where the Prero­gative of the Prince and the Servitude of the People are greater. For all this, He ad­mits of a precarious Council, many of them of the Clergy, the better to impose upon the ignorant and superstitious Commonalty, who think nothing Sacred that they have not consented to, nor nothing hard that has their approbation. Their chief Strength consists in their Cavalry, all Gentlemens Sons: for none are esteemed Noble, who do not serve in the War. When all these meet, they are accounted 80000; and that is as oft as the Great Duke pleaseth: these have Land and Stipends allotted for their sub­sistance. The Foot all Fire-men, are 12000 in ordinary pay; nor are there any Stran­gers imployed, but upon extraordinary oc­casions. Whereas our chief care is to pro­vide Victuals for our Armies, their Prince takes none at all for his; every Souldier [Page]being his own Purveyor, and content with a little, scarce using any thing but Bisket and Meal. If they were as brave as they are strong, and understood War as well as hardship, what could resist their numbers and power? But they are heavy, and so addicted to servi­lity, that they scarce desire, seldom acquire any great matters. Yet they have one other excellent quality, especially in Garrison, tenacious even to obstinacie, as appears, to­gether with most of their other Virtues and Vices, in the sequel of this Narrative. This, as most other Countries, was at first govern­ed by many and several petty Princes and Lords, until most truckling to the felicity of a few, these again did by Alliances and Conquests devolve upon one. John the Son of Basilius was the first that assumed the Title of Prince of all Russia, having not only reduced all others to his obedience, but shaken off the Tartars yoke, from whom his Predecessors received their Scepters and Power. His Son Basilius equally happy, [...]d­ded the fair Provinces of Smolensko and Plescow to his Dominions, with the Honor of Knez, King and Emperor, to his Titles. John succeeded him, who adding Industry and Discipline to the Arts of his Forefa­thers, conquered the Kingdoms of Cazan [Page]and Astracan, and extended his Empire to the Confines of Persia. But he was no less cruel than brave; which did much asperse the glory of so many Victories. But this Prince being his Father, whose Story we write, we will refer the rest of him, and the Reader, to the subsequent Relation.


The Introduction. Theodorus dies, and Boris is chosen in his place. He causeth Demetrius the Heir of the Empire to be slain, to facilate his Election. A new Demetrius appears; his Education and Dis­covery. He is acknowledged in Poland, and enters Moscovy with an Army. He is beaten. He af­terwards overthrows the Enemy in a memorable Battle. Boris en­raged with this loss and the Com­petition of a Rival, transported with passion and fury, dies sud­denly. His Elogie.

ALong and uninterrupted se­ries of Succession had de­volved the Dominion of the vast Empire of Musco­vy upon the person of John Basilius, who however pre­ferrable for his Cruelty to the most mon­strous of Tyrants, did yet excel the Glo­ry [Page]of all his Predecessors in the Lustre of his Actions, and Greatness of his At­chievements. For having added the se­vere Rules of Military Discipline to his Industry and Valour, he extended the Bounds of his Dominions as far as Persia, and Conquered the Kingdoms of Casan and Astracan, in vain attempted by his Father before him.

This Great Prince having lived six and fifty Years, and Reigned nine and thirty of them, was forced to quit this World, to search for that Repose in another which the violence of his mind had deni­ed him in the midst of his Victories and Triumphs. Anastasia his first Lady had born him two Sons; John his Eldest, whom he slew with his own hands, upon no other provocation than that of his violent Temper; and Theodorus, Heir of his Em­pire, not his Greatness; though the Fa­ther labouring under the pangs of Death, was not wanting to recommend with much passion to his surviving Nobles the Conduct of that Son, in whom he propo­sed to himself the perpetuating of his Glories and Conquests. He yet left be­hind him another Son of a second Bed, the unhappy Demetrius, born in the ex­tremity [Page 3]of his Fathers Age, and brought up by his Mother till his supposed Decease, in the Castle of Ʋglecz.

The Great Dutchess, a Lady of a Mascu­line Presence and Carriage, was Sister to Boris Gedanow, Master of the Horse; who (by the joynt Advantages of his Re­lation and Quality, added to the dexte­rity of his Address and Contrivances; to all which Conspired the Infirmness of The­odorus his Constitution, and the easiness of his Nature) had gained an entire pos­session of the Government. This Glori­ous Favorite having, by his Sisters Influ­ence and his own Skill, gathered into his Manage the greatest Concerns of the State, had thereby the opportunity of obliging or removing the chief Officers of the Em­pire at pleasure. And whether having ta­sted the sweetness of Dominion, ordina­rily quitted with much reluctancy; or that he had from the Death of his old Ma­ster laid his designs of placing the Crown upon his own head, is scarce questionable. However it was, the way seemed already smoothed by the indisposition of the Duke, and the acquired favour of the Nobility, who, preferments passing through his hands, gave them a necessary depen­dence [Page 4]upon him; none being advanced to any place of Honor or Trust, but as they were presented by this Prince-minister. Add to this, that Theodorus was Child­less, though Married in his Fathers life­time, who by reason of his Wives Bar­renness had oft commanded him to put her away; (a Practice consistent with the Power of those Princes:) but he consult­ing more his Affection than his Interest, had all that time delayed it: and now what the Dutchess by her Influence had before exercised for the raising of her Bro­ther to the Great Dukes Favour, is by his insinuations upon the Affections and Passions of the Prince returned to her with advantage, who for his sake conti­nued her, as he had formerly for hers re­ceived him. He had indeed attained to a very great perfection in the Art of Govern­ment, which with the powerful Charms of Flattery and a well-dissembled passion for his Masters Interest, as it rendered Boris absolute in his greatness, so it ren­dered the Empire secure in the Fidelity and Watchfulness of so excellent a Mini­ster, that laying aside the present Care of his Dominions, he was consequently as little thoughtful of a Successor; but indul­ging [Page 5]himself in his private Pleasures and Retirements, he became insensibly devest­ed of the Majesty of one of the Greatest Princes of the Christian World. The main obstacle to the growing Ambition of Boris, was the Life of Demetrius Brother to the great Duke, and Heir apparent to the Crown. His destruction was therefore judged necessary to precede, in whom the Blood-Royal determined; there would want only the death of the Great Duke, to make way for the Election of a new Em­peror. And the Constitution of that Go­vernment then considered, Boris might reasonably propose to himself the suffrages of the Nobles and People, who were actu­ated by his Counsels, and imployed or discontinued in order to his Interests and Designs. Bloody Tyrants never want Bloody Instruments (witness that most horrid of Murthers perpetrated in our own Land upon the best of Princes) nei­ther is any Relation proof against the Charms of Ambition and Avarice in a degenerate mind. Boris by the aid of vast Presents, and promises of greater, had gained four of Demetrius his Servants to murther their Lord. The horridness of so sad an Assassination made them for some [Page 6]time suspend its execution, till hurried on by a consideration that they were too far advanced to retreat with safety, by threats of the Tyrant, and by the hopes of be­coming suddenly Great, they resolved upon the cruel performance of what they had so wretchedly undertaken. All the diffi­culty now is, how it should be compassed; and several ways being proposed, they at length conclude, as followeth. An ob­scure gloomy Night is made choyce of, as most proper and sutable to so black a deed; and the Town being set on fire in many places at once, these miscreants fill all with Tumult, and the terror of the Burning. This done, they fling themselves like men amazed into the Princes Bed­chamber, and awaking him with a sud­den Fright, alarm his already-disturbed Spirits with the approaching danger. De­metrius starts up at the noise, and running to the window to see the Flames, is set upon by those he trusted most, and pier­ced in several places of his Body with long poysoned knives prepared for this inhumane Butchery. While the unhappy Child lay wallowing in his Blood, and strugling with his Fate, these Villians, by the advantage of the Night, and the con­fusion [Page 7]they had raised, and upon Horses laid for them, posted to Boris with the news of the execution of his Command, and to receive their promised Salary. The Tyrant upon the first advertisement la­bouring under the Impressions of his Joy, received these Bloody Ministers of his will with no ordinary transport; till the heat of that Passion being spent, and re­flecting upon what he had done; as it is the Nature of Guilt and Treason never to think it self secure, he thought likewise his Practices might come to light: but be­ing resolved these miscreants should not discover them, he by the temptation of excessive rewards hired other Executioners to destroy and make away these four first Murtherers. And that he might not be engaged upon new contrivances, he de­signs the same Method for their Ruine, which they had squared out for the death of the Prince: in order whereto, as Ʋ ­glecz was Sacrificed to his destruction, so Musko was put into flames for theirs. The Town is fired in many places at once, some hundreds of Houses buried in their own Ashes, while these hated Traytors were (though by unjust means) punished with a just retaliation for their execrable Villany.

But to return to Ʋglecz. As soon as the Fire was quenched, and that the Citizens began to be Composed from their disor­der, a Rumor being spread that their Prince was Murthered, they violently break into the Castle; and finding what they feared to be true indeed, their di­straction being now heightened to Fury and Outrage, they slaughtered all his Ser­vants without distinction or enquiry: sup­posing the carelesness and neglect of the Innocent, no less culpable than the perniti­ous industry of the Guilty, they thought happily to purge themselves from the stain of the Fact, by their zeal in revenging it. But in vain: for Boris, to clear him­self if any durst suspect him, and to sig­nalize his pretended Passion to his Prince, made use of this Irregular vengeance of the Citizens as an Argument of their Guilt; and laying the Murther at their door, be­cause they had slain all those from whom inquisition might have been made concer­ning it without examining them at all, he caused them to be proceeded against as Criminals. Many of the chief amongst them were tortured, hanged, drowned, Banished, and exposed as examples of pub­lique Justice; while he (the better to dis­guise [Page 9]his cruelty) under the sence of so irreparable a loss, vests himself and the whole Court in mourning; And having dispatched Duke Basilius Zuisky with ma­ny prime Senators and Persons of Eminen­cy, with Orders to Celebrate his Obse­quies with all the Funebrial Pomp and Honour imaginable, he commanded that the very place of his Death (as guilty in failing to protect him) might not survive to be a witness to so great a loss, but (as Infamous) be immediately razed, and le­velled with the ground.

Demetrius being thus removed, Theodo­rus did not long survive him; and 'tis more than conjectural, that his end was hastened by the impatience of Boris, and the violence of a secret poyson. Howe­ver it was, the Duke sensible of his weakness, and the approach of his de­parture, bequeathed the Government of the Empire to the conduct of the Lady Irena his Wife, sister to Boris: the Patriarch was appointed her Assistant, and both of them by the dying Prince recommended to the Valour and Fidelity of the Great ones of his Kingdom.

Theodorus being dead, and the Solemni­ties of his Funerals performed with all be­coming [Page 10]Ceremonies and Circumstances, his Dutchess did readily ascend the Throne: but afterwards having some time toyled under the weight of so Great an Empire, whether out of unwillingness to fustain so Great a Burthen, or, as is more probable, to secure the succession in her own House by transferring it upon her Brother, she declares her resolutions to quit so unequal a Charge: And accord­ingly yeilds up the Ensigns of her Au­thority into the hands of the Nobles, gi­ving out, that for the Repose of her Soul she would Sequester her self from the Tur­moyls of this World into the Retire­ment of a private Life. This news being spread amongst the people, did infinitely perplex them: for though they might have some reluctancy against the Govern­ment of a Woman, or that the servility of their Nature might at other times ren­der them patient of any Yoke; yet they wisely considered it more safe to submit to one, than many Tyrants. Boris in the mean time laid his trayns at distance, chusing rather to have the Government devolve upon him by necessary Conse­quence, than rudely to break in upon it; cherishes (by his secret Agents and Emissa­ries) [Page 11]the mutinous Temper of the People, who without an head were become uneasie to themselves as well as others. This subtile States-man had in the interim withdrawn himself from all publique business, to the retirements of a Countrey-house. All things in this State had a tendency towards confusion; some not daring, others not willing to lay hold upon the Government: and indeed, all the prime Ministers being raised by his Favour, not secure in the Counsels of each other, were emulous who should first conduct him to the Throne. In order whereto, they attend him with their Submissions and Addresses that he will take upon him the protection of a di­stracted State. The people transported by the apprehensions of their Ruine, se­conded the Nobility with their Importu­nities. The Clergy, whose safety consist­ed in the Peace of the Empire, brought in their Supplications. The Nuns quit­ted their Cloysters, and instead of pray­ing for their exquisite Artist, offer up their Prayers to him as their Tutelary Saint or Angel. The very Children, as if sway­ed by a Supernatural Impulsion, besieged him with Tears and Cries. And what he denied to all these Sollicitations either a­part [Page 12]or united, supposing them to have a respect to him only, not to themselves; he grants, as he declared, to the necessity of his Country; which being without a Head, and no man willing to undertake the care, he must offer violence to his own nature, rather than expose so glorious an Empire as a prey to every Invader. Who could all this while, under so dark a Veil, suspect him guilty of Poysoning his Sove­reign, and the Murther of his Prince, to make way for his Crown, presented to him several times in vain by all the Orders of the Empire? But permitting himself at length to be overcome, he protested that he had given that to their importunity and the love of his Country, which he should for ever have denied to his own Honor and Greatness, and the Advance­ment of his House to so Illustrious a Rank. He confessed himself too weak for so great a Burthen; but Courting the Aid of his Petitioners to his Assistance, he promised his utmost Endeavours to answer the obligingness of so Unanimous and Ho­norable an Election, wherewith they were pleased to signalize him above his Fel­lows: And since they had marked him out for their Emperour, he would no lon­ger [Page 13]Question their Judgment, but chear­fully receive the Honour of that Trust; which he would die rather than betray or relinquish, but into their hands who com­mitted it to him. He assured them, that where he could not equal his Predecessors in Glory and Merit, he would surpass them in Temperance, Evenness of Government, and the Impartial distribution of Justice to his People; as deriving his Greatness from their choice, and dedicating it wholly to their Service and Interest.

Boris being thus come to the Crown, shewed no less wisdom and conduct in conserving his Dignity, than he had exerci­sed in the acquiring of it: he secured the Army and men of War to him by Gifts; the Nobles, by Preferments, Favours and sutable Graces; and the Commonalty, by a diminution of their Taxes, increase of their Priviledges, protection and encou­ragement of Trade, and in all things by a gentle hand upon the Reins of Go­vernment; whereby he was become the Darling of his people, and the Honour of that Crown they had given him. He had an eye to the state of his Affairs abroad; in order whereto, he was careful to renew the Treaties with the Swede, Pole, the [Page 14] Persian, and neighbouring Tartar; and being secure beyond humane apprehen­sions to the contrary at home and abroad, he is from the Contrivances and Designes of a private Monk in a Cloyster hurried into those discords and perplexities which no forein Enemy with all his Powers could have reduced him to.

This Monks right name (if we believe the contrary party) was Hrisko Otropeia, born a Gentleman, but of a decayed Fa­mily, in the Dukedome of Jareslaw. The debaucheries of his younger years were extraordinary, which necessitated his Pa­rents to dispose of him into the Cloyster of Trinouka, where he might have room to breath out the extravagancies of his youth by this more rigid conversation. This retiredness did not at all quadrate with the licentiousness of Hrisko's nature, who being of a Spirit over-active for the Contemplative life he was condemned to, had therewith a very advantageous meen and presence; which an old subtile Frier of that Covent taking notice of, one who had a secret Antipathy to the person of the Great Duke, though never disobliged by him (if at all known to him) he contracts a particular friendship with this young Pro­bationer; [Page 15]and fully instructing him in the History of the Russian Chronicle, and with the present form of Government, he also acquaints him with all the circumstan­ces of the late Changes in the State, and by what Arts and Assassinations Boris had possessed himself of the Empire. The Frier having thus qualified his Pupil, tempts him away from his Cloyster and Coun­try, and secretly conveys him into the Dukedom of Kiow; where, with some dif­ficulty, he places him in the service of Duke Adam Wisnioweski; furnishing him with apt Rules for the discovery of himself when a seasonable opportunity should be offered. Hrisko being thus dis­posed of, the Frier leaves him, and returns into Russia; giving it out every where, that Demetrius the right Heir of Moscovy was yet alive: that his Murther had been designed by that bloody Tyrant Boris, but that his Mother, the Great Dutchess Dowager, having gained private Intelli­gence of the Plot, and in that Juncture of Affairs judging no place secure against the power and malice of the Favorite, thought it more safe to avoid the storm, than vainly to resist it: in order where­to, she caused Demetrius to be conveyed [Page 16]away under the conduct of only one Ser­vant privy to his Estate; and the better to disguise his flight, had provided ano­ther Child of the same Age (a Priests Son at Ʋglecz) of shapes and features not un­like the Prince, whom the Murtherers killed in his stead. He affirmed further, That the Corps was suddenly Coffined by the wary and honest Lord Chamber­lain, a German, privy to this pious fraud, in order to his Interment; whereby the escape of the Prince was managed with less difficulty; who was at present in Duke Wisnioweski's Court in great Ho­nour, and acknowledged and treated as Emperour of Muscovy: That his prepa­rations were in a good forwardness for the recovery of his Rights; and assures the Cossacks, that if they would espouse his Quarrel, they should share in his Con­quests, and their Pay (for it is a Military Nation) be much bettered. Whilst the Frier by whispers of this kind was accom­modating the peoples inclination to his own Designes, Demetrius, (for so we shall here­after call him) remains in the Dukes Court, in the Quality of his Chamberlain; but not forgetting the Rules his Tutor had left with him, he employs all his spare [Page 17]time in the exercise of those Qualities and Graces which render Great Persons more considerable; as, riding the great Horse, Tilting, Fencing, and whatever else might bear proportion with that Greatness he resolved to pretend to. His Conversation amongst his Fellows was reserved, and yet obliging; towards his Mr. full of Respect and Submission, not with­out the mixture of an Air which spoke his Services more the effect of Gratitude than Duty.

Thus did this apt Scholar demean himself in the Court of Wisnioweski, watching all opportunities to put in pra­ctice the Documents of his Tutor; which by an accident of some severity, were sea­sonably offered, and laid hold of by him. For the Duke being one day in a Bath, his Chamberlain had omitted some necessary circumstance about his Person, wherewith his Choler being raised, he strikes him upon the Face, calling him the Son of a Whore. Demetrius not at all surprized with this usage, (as if forgetting the Quality of a Servant) seemed infinitely perplexed at so unkind a Treatment from a person his equal at least, if not his inferiour; and the scorn and unkindness of a Blow from one [Page 18]whom he had vouchsafed to serve, trans­porting him to a discovery of himself be­yond a retreat: His Eyes filled with Tears, he breaks forth into these words: My Lord, were my Quality as well known un­to you as my Person and Service, your Grace would have spared your ill Lan­guage, and your Blows, both which I e­qually scorn and grieve at; being that where I promised my self a Sanctuary, and Ayds for my Restauration, I am discoura­ged by this rugged Treatment from ex­pecting either. And as recollecting himself for having said so much, he stopt sudden­ly. The Duke being strangely surprized by his Servants discourse, and behaviour in this discourse, hastily asked him, What mean these ambiguous Speeches? Who art thou? Of what Country, and Name? and upon what designes art thou here? His haste by these multiplied Questions to know all, without permitting Demetrius to speak, and answer them severally, gave him room to cleer up; and composing his Countenance into a more Grave po­sture, not without a becoming sadness and modesty, answered, That his Country was Muskcovy; his Father John Basilius the deceased Emperour; his Name Demetri­us; [Page 19]and his Business there, for Protection and Aid against Boris, the most bloody of Tyrants, who had laid designes to murther him, but that by the care of his Mother, and the fidelity of a Servant, he was conveyed away; another Child of his Age, and not unlike him, being laid in his place, whom the Assassinates killed, sup­posing it to be him. That since that e­scape, he had been concealed in a Covent of Monks; till a just ambition of getting his own, had tempted him into the world to try what was to be done. And to con­firm all this, putting his hand into his Bo­some, draws out a rich Cross of Gold beset with Diamonds, which he said was the only Testimony of Royalty his Mother had left with him upon his escape. Then casting himself at the Dukes feet, he breaks forth into these Expressions: Now Sir, that I have discovered to you a Secret of that nature which no Rack could have extorted from me, you are become Master of my life and fortunes: neither have I thus expo­sed my self to your knowledge without designe, it being equal to me to die, as to wither and languish in this servile condi­tion. But if you will make good that confidence which first swayed me to put my [Page 20]self under your Protection; refuse me not those favours which I have promised my self from your Justice and Vertue. Let not the wickedness and evil conse­quence of the example receive countenance from so just a Prince, but give your self the Honour of assisting me to cleanse my Throne from the usurpation of a Tyrant, by so much the more Ignominious, by how much he stands obliged to me, as my Subject and Vassal. And for your recom­pence, besides the having performed so good an Act, which brings with it its own rewards, I shall think no acknowledgment too dear for you. The Duke astonished at this discourse, and at the same time re­flecting upon former passages in the be­haviour of his Servant, which comparing with the seeming probability of his narra­tive, and his meen in delivering of it, be­sides the Rumour spread abroad that De­metrius was yet alive, was at a loss how to behave himself; but being divided in his resolution, he made a kind of excuse to his Servant, that not knowing his Quality, he ought to pardon any miscarriage to­wards him; and requesting him to stay where he was, till he should send to him. He left him very anxious what would be [Page 21]determined concerning him. The Duke full of amazement and irresolution, hastes to his Ladies Chamber, to whom he re­peated the whole story of his encounter with his Servant Hrisko. The Dutchess, according to the nature of Women, much pleased with the novelty, judged the mat­ter very probable, because not altogether impossible: and then comparing all cir­cumstances together, she raises her likely­hood to a certainty, that it could not o­therwise be; that she had ever observed in his very Face, the marks of Greatness; that he had ever aspired to noble Qualities; that no Impostor could have dared under so young years to own so hazardous a dis­covery; and that therefore it must be De­metrius, and no other, who had cast him­self into their arms for Protection, which by all Laws, Divine and Humane, they were obliged to afford him. Thus having determined the matter, care was had for his reception, in a way proportionable to the Greatness of his Quality; and the whole Court immediately disposed into a State fit to have received the Great Duke and Emperour of Muskovy, that evening. A train of Servants of all sorts, with horses for the Saddle and Coach suitably accou­tred, [Page 22]were forthwith ordered, and an Ap­partment in the most honourable part of the house was made ready with all imagi­nable State becoming so Great a Prince. This being done, the Duke having loaden twelve Servants with presents of the Rich­est things in his possession, and most suita­ble for the occasion, himself in Person ushers them with much Submission and Ceremony to his late Servant Hrisko, conducts him to his Appartment, humbly beseeching his Highness to receive those trifles as a testi­mony of his service, and devotion to his in­terest; declaring his resolution to contri­bute all his Powers for the setling him up­on the Throne of his Fathers.

Demetrius being by this time reassured, receives the Dukes Complement with a becoming Reservedness and Civility, re­peating to him his Engagements; and that when it should please God to restore him to his Dominions, he would give more effe­ctual Testimonies of his resolutions never to forget so seasonable & obliging Favours.

This extraordinary change in Wisnio­weski's Court, managed with so great Ce­remonies in the view of the whole world, failed not to justifie those Whispers scatter­ed abroad by the Old Friers industry, and [Page 23]gave a confirmation of those Rumours dis­persed in the adjacent Kingdoms and Countries: and what before could make no impression upon the faith of the Cos­sacks, is now become an Article of it; That Demetrius, Son to John Basilius, and right Heir to the Empire of Musko, was a­live, and in safety. But no man appre­hended the report with more Terrour than Boris; guilt and fear rendering even impos­sibilities conceivable, though he knew not how to reconcile the present reports with those had been made unto him by his Assassinates, and were confirmed by the Solemnities of the Princes Funeral: but being of a present Courage and Judge­ment, laid by his wonders, to make room for his Industry and Conduct; and wisely foreseeing what great disorders the Novel­ty might produce, if not seasonably pre­vented, He immediately posts away his dispatches with Presents to Wisnioweski; besides an Offer of a perpetual League, and several Castles and Towns upon the Borders, convenient for him, with a vast sum of ready Money, upon condition he would dead or alive send him that Tray­tor and Impostor who presumed to abuse the world by assuming the name and per­son [Page 24]of Demetrius; warily mixing his Courtship with some threats, That Wis­nioweski he hoped was too wise to be made a property to gratifie the Malice of any that should dare to interrupt his re­pose. Wisnioweski was so far from being swayed by the Messages and Temptations of Boris, that he became wholly confirmed in what he made some doubt of before; and concluding that this seeming Hrisko was the true Demetrius, he resolves to e­spouse his Cause and Interest. In order whereto, Boris having strong Forces upon the Borders, the Duke with Demetrius took Coach immediately, and with some Horse that he had in a readiness, retires to Wisnioweski, a strong Town of his farther in the Country: being come thither, he puts the Great Dukes Letters into De­metrius his hands; who having perused them, after some little pause, cast himself at the Dukes feet, and with interrupted words said to him, Sir, I am in Gods hands and in yours; the Fortunes and Person of Demetrius are at your dispose: but my Trust is in the Honour of your promises, and that the temptations of this Usurper shall have no influence upon your Integri­ty. Wisnioweski raised him up with much [Page 25]Humanity and Respect, bids him be sure he would not depart from that faith he had already passed to him, for all the Do­minions in the world; that he had there­fore brought him to that place, further out of his Enemies reach, where he wish­ed him to remain with his Attendants, while himself went back to a nearer di­stance from Boris, in order to a better dis­covery of his designes.

Boris being impatient of Wisnioweski's delays, sends yet again to him, before the return of his former Agent, with larger offers; but suspecting the Duke was not to be wrought upon, he gave secret instru­ctions, that by some Art or other Deme­trius should be privately Murthered or Poysoned. The Duke by means of a se­cret correspondent in the Court of Boris, having notice of this designe, & judging Demetrius scarce safe at so near a distance, recommends him to the Palatine of Son­domiria, by whom he was received with all imaginable Demonstrations of an en­tire Respect and Honour, as due to a Person of so Illustrious Quality. Being thus by the mediation of his supporter disposed into a place of better security, he had more room to reflect upon the [Page 26]Documents of his Tutour: And being quick of apprehension, close in his nature, and apt to promise himself a glorious Issue to these fair beginnings; he nourishes his fancy with high Reflections, whereby his thoughts being sublimated, his very nature was changed into that of Princes. Greatness had seemed to take possession of his Soul; and what by a conversation with persons of the first Rank, and dis­courses of Kingdoms and Empires, the part he Acted was become natural to him. His faculties were pregnant, and his cou­rage not unbecoming the Person assumed by him. He had an understanding above his Age, and a presence so agreeable, that he seldome or never lost ground where he had room to Act his own part. He was not insensible of the present State of his affairs; that he was fallen into the hands of strangers, who having taken fire at the novelty of his Fortune, would be apt to cool again at the least hard weather that should fall upon it. 'Tis true, he had received very honourable promises of pro­tection from Wisnioweski, but he wisely considered those would depend upon Inte­rest of State; and when the Duke should judge it more conducible to his affairs to [Page 27]deliver him up, he foresaw it would be his fate to be the sacrifice of the Dukes peace. He therefore casts about how to lay a more solid Foundation for his great­ness, and at all turns calling to mind the Rules of his Tutor the Monk, he con­trives how to involve the Interest of such who had or should own him, with his own. He was now in a Country that professed the Roman faith; he considered that his Aids must be procured from those of the same Belief; and observing the zeal of the Jesuites in the propagating of that Do­ctrine, and that they had an influence up­on the Counsels of most Christian Princes, he fixed upon them, as the first Corner­stone to his new Fabrick. They, who were not without their designes neither, had easie access into his presence; and ta­king all opportunities to feel his Pulse, they were not wanting to let fall their ob­servations upon the fortune of him and his Family, as labouring under the Judge­ments of God, and the Wrath of Christ, in refusing Obedience to his Vicar the Pope; not failing to urge the suitableness of the punishment, which rendered the hand of God the more visible: that that Prince who in opposition to the Catholick [Page 28]Church had owned a Heterodox Patriarch, renouncing the Supremacy of the Infalli­ble Chair, should have the Throne of his Fathers possessed by an Usurper. Our Demetrius seeming to be staggered by these and the like arguments, did with equal art suffer himself to be convinced, but Gradually, and upon the Impulses of Conscience, lest he might be thought to have a more faint Zeal to the truth of Religion, than to the recovery of his Em­pire. He therefore makes his doubts and scruples upon the accompt of that, and re­ceives their solutions with so seeming an Innocence and Simplicity, that they pro­mised to themselves a Conquest of his heart as well as of his head. He failed not to hint the reasons of State which would oblige him to profess the Religion of his Fathers; and that to own any other, were to make a general War upon the Consci­ences of his whole people, who upon de­claration of himself to be given over to the Church of Rome, would make it matter of Conscience to resist him as the publike Enemy to their faith: That what the U­surper wanted in the justness of his Title, would be supplied by the asserting the faith of Muskovy, and by the Influence [Page 29]of the Patriarch, whose Dominion over the Conscience of the Muskovites was the more absolute, by how much they were the more ignorant in the knowledge of the best things; the common people being al­ways swayed by a blind devotion, which derived to them from their Ancestors, they could better defend by Arms than Argu­ments. However, he let fall some profes­sions, which coming from him by snatches, seemed therefore the more real, that no Reasons of State or Interests should in­gage him against the convictions of his Conscience, & that he would not purchase the Universe with the wounding of that. These ejaculations did yet more inflame these Apostles, and they were themselves ta­ken in their own Artifice; concluding him real, while they were labouring to possess him that they were so; and resolving, that he being once brought off from his former Tenets, they had gained a Champion to their Cause, whose soul was engaged in the Quarrel. Thus did our young States­man lay his Foundation à Jove; but his affairs being of an active nature, he con­trives how to fix to himself an Interest, which if things fell out well, might bear some proportion with the greatness of his [Page 30]pretensions; if otherwise, might prepare him a retreat, where he might subsist in honour.

The Palatine had a daughter young and sprightly, of an Air Noble and Masculine And though her Carriage was more char­ming than her Complexion, and her di­stinct parts less winning than the Compo­sition; yet in her Entire, she was very love­ly and taking. To all this, she was indu­ed with a Courage above the ordinaries ot­her Sex; and that so tempered and allay'd by a great measure of Understanding, that she was considered at the rate of a second Pallas: and all this attended with a pre­sence so Majestique, that her very aspect rendered all her beholders her Ado­rers.

Demetrius considering this Lady as [...] proper object for his Passions, judged i [...] very conducible to his Interests to plan [...] himself into so Illustrious a Family. Fo [...] the Palatine was a person very considera­ble in his Quality, potent in Allies, able it Council, and rich in Men and Money Demetrius sway'd by these motives, rea­sonably supposing that the Palatines ambi­tion would dispose him to cast in hi [...] daughter into the Fortunes of a person [Page 31]where she should stand fair to be one of the greatest Princesses of the Universe, re­solves to make his Addresses to him.

Whilst he was entertaining himself with these thoughts, he was again visited by the Jesuites; whereof one, a very grave per­son, to whom the rest seemed to pay most respect, finding himself singly with the Prince, and both removed from the com­pany, (for they withdrew to a convenient distance) said to him to this purpose: My Lord, had I not a very great assurance of your wisdome and vertue, I should not with so much passion offer my self to the service of your interests. Your temper hath so far prevailed upon me, that I must profess in my self a natural propensity to your servi­ces, for the sake of your person, which will be always dear to me. It is upon that ac­count that I press thus (I must acknowledge with much indecencie) upon your retire­ments. Father, said Demetrius, as I have ever had a high esteem of your wisdom and piety; so have I in my heart retained due acknowledgements of your zeal for my con­cerns. My Lord, replyed the Jesuite, being fully convinced of your Candour in rightly understanding my devotions for you, I shall use the more freedom towards [Page 32]you. I have, according to the best of my understanding and observation, weighed every circumstance of your Condition, with the present posture of your Affair; and I must needs say, that upon the whole matter I finde it full of intricacies and hazards. Your Adversary is a person of great wisdom, experience and courage, in possession of a vast Empire, to which he is ascended by many gradual Contrivances, that render him a States-man of no ordinary Indow­ments. His Interests are laid deep in the Affections of the Nobilitie, most of whom he took care while the old Emperour lived to link to him by Preferments and Favours, and though some amongst them may malign his Precedencie and Election to the Throne yet we are reasonably to suppose, that all Places of Trust and Power are in the hands of his Dependants and Favourites. You cannot be ignorant how he endeavours to stain your Pretensions and Titles with the Ignominy of Imposture; which he hath spread abroad with much Artifice; making the Story so particular, that it carries with it the greater face of truth, as that which because all men have power to examine, they therefore admit, without examination. To all this, adde how you are but lately dis­covered [Page 33]to the World; and that in your discovery, you have not been so happie as to produce any other Testimony of your Quality besides your own. And though there needs no more to conclude you de­scended from Emperours, than to look up­on your face, where Majestie sits enthroned as in its proper seat; yet you must confess with me, that this Evidence is too delicate for the grosser multitude, who believe all things and nothing much alike. Let me therefore, who have studied your Concerns, and am not a stranger to the Constitution of your Empire, presume to offer you my humble and faithful Advice, grounded up­on my true love to your Cause, and upon my great experience of the Affairs of this World, and the present posture of this Kingdom in which you now receive shelter. You must in the first place know, that there is not now living a more ambitious person than the Palatine; and could you so far de­scend below your self, as to make an Alli­ance with him, it would put so great coun­tenance upon your Cause, that I know no one thing in the world would more contri­bute to the success of it. He is considered as a person of great wisdom, and that he would not cast away his daughter upon an [Page 34]Impostor; and whatever may be spread a­broad to your disreputation, would lose much of its credit, when the World should see that he, in a flourishing condition, should give away his only Daughter, a person of high Accomplishments, and of an Illu­strious extraction, into your arms. As for the change of your Religion, wherein I most magnifie your piety, and shall always offer up to the Father of Mercy my poor Prayers and thanks for touching and in­flaming your Princely heart with the love of the truth: Let me be free with you, and tell you, that that Point is to be handled with much caution: though it will be neces­sary to perswade our Holy Father the Pope of your reality, yet it will be as requisite to suppress all breathings of it in your own Territories; and 'tis therefore that I the more earnestly advise this Alliance, which as it will draw the King of Poland to your Aid, so it will satisfie the scruples of the Nobi­lity and People of Muskovy, that what the Palatine does for you by himself and his Confederates, is for his own Child also. And now that I have given you the best counsel I am capable of offering to so High and Wise a Prince, I humbly supplicate your pardon, if in the freedom of it I have let [Page 35]fall any expression unworthy of your Sacred ears. Having spoke this, he was silent. Whereupon Demetrius approaching him neerer, takes him in his arms, and imbracing him with all imaginable affection, Fa­ther, says he, I receive your counsel as pro­ceeding from an Oracle, and I shall pursue it, as that upon which will depend my future happiness; I only beg, that as you have ad­vised the main, you will contribute your particular Aids, and instruct me as well in the method as the thing. My Lord, reply­ed the Jesuite, since you are pleased to re­ceive my true meaning with so great affe­ction, I shall not decline your service in any circumstance: Make your addresses to the young Lady; and when you have tasted her inclination, my advice is, that you move her Father for his Consent. I shall be consulted by him in the Affair, and you need not doubt of my Fidelity to your Interests, only it may be conveni­ent for you to communicate to me the Pro­gress of your applications, whereby I may the better contrive my self for your ser­vice. Demetrius promised to pursue his instructions; and it now being grown late, he dismissed the Father with a very great Sensibility of his zeal and services. He [Page 36]being gone, Demetrius indulged the hap­piness of his fortunes, and was over-joyed to think how powerful an Advocate he had gotten. He was not without reflecti­ons upon the reality of his own Birth, and considered that by the same Rules he had deceived this quick-ey'd Jusuite, he might much more captivate the sight and sence of the thick-sighted Multitude. For Re­ligion, he knew that his heart had little of that to sway it, only he saw the pretence was necessary. He considered it as a good step to ascend to a Throne by, and that if he could by pretending to that, raise himself to the possession of an Em­pire, he concluded his Title would then be cleer enough: in the mean time he re­solved to pursue his designes, though he dyed in the attempt; and one day taking an opportunity to speak to the Palatine, unbosomed himself to him with such pro­testations of love for his Daughter, that he seemed to prefer his acquisition of her, to that of his Empire. The Palatine very sensible of the honour of this Alliance, and too wise not to venture upon such sair hopes, being also prepared by the Je­suite, is said to have answered him after this manner.

‘My Lord, though what you are pleased to propose to me, be a matter of consequence, not to be determined upon single Counsels, yet your person hath something of mag­netick in it, that hurries me by secret im­pulsions to your service and interests, which leave me no room to consider, but how far I may contribute to those ends. That noble Testimony you gave me of an affecti­on for my Daughter, hath gained so much credit with me, that I make not the least doubt of it; and in that moment you men­tioned it to me, I must say, you spoke the desires and ambition of my soul: and ha­ving cleared that to you, which you are pleased to place in the first rank, let me oblige you to take my advice in the conduct of your other affairs, which in my judg­ment are more considerable. You have be­fore you an undertaking which will require all your powers and faculties for the effe­ctual prosecutions of it; you have upon you the eyes of the whole Christian World; you have a potent Enemy seated upon your Throne, who hath all his Engines at work for your confusion. The reputation of your Courage, your discretion, and indeed the reality of your being the true Demetrius, are all at stake, and must be vindicated by [Page 38]an industry worthy of you; else, let me take the freedom to tell you, you are not wor­thy of Marina, were she meaner than she is. Then as to the seasonableness of what you please to urge concerning her; I must with the same freedom tell you, that considering the Aids you depend upon, you ought not to think of marrying in this Juncture. King Sigismond hath declared himself for your supply, with both men and money; and who knows but that the part he may pretend in your disposal, may render him more zealous for you? Others, while you are single, will run in to your assistance, every man forming to himself his hopes and ex­pectations according to the condition of his Affairs; which you must nourish by those ways and arts which may increase, not di­minish your Confederates. I know I run a great risque in this advice: It may pos­sibly fall out, that when you are ascended up to your Throne upon the necks of your Ene­mies, and shall be seated there Triumphant in their confusions, that your Appetite may change; Marina may be ugly in your eye, or mean in your esteem; and then all those obliging promises will be forgot: But le [...] that, or worse (if it may be) be the con­sequence of this delay, I cannot allow my [Page 39]self otherwise to advise you than I do. And to confirm to you that my Counsel respects you, not my self, and that it is built upon Foundations of Honour and Integri­ty; I doe here promise you that I will Raise all the power I am able, and march in person with it, for the recovery of your Kingdom. I will espouse your Interests with the same fervour as if they were my own; and will dye in the attempt, or will cut out a passage for you to your Dominions through the heart of the Ʋsurper. After this profession of mine, let me have no more doubtings to remain in you, but cheer up, and intend the prosecution of your In­terests. Conceal and smother your passions for Marina, and let the Courage which is in your Soul shine in your eyes: It will like fire kindle a flame in others, which being cherished as it ought, will strengthen your hands, and multiply your numbers. I will not permit you to object any thing to this; I know 'tis the best way for you. I will so far pretend to the power of a Father (since you give me the honour to expect it) as to impose upon you in this affair.’

Thus did the wise Palatine play with the temper of this young Gallant, bear­ing him in hand with hopes, grounded [Page 40]upon arguments and probabilities, which he could neither contradict, nor in his judgment disapprove of. Demetrius how­ever pleased with the obligingness of these promises, yet seemed afflicted at the delay imposed upon him; but seeing no other remedy, and that the enjoyment of his Mistriss depended upon his Establishment in his Throne, he seemed to desire this but as relative to the other: and now, as a­waked out of an amourous lethargy, he bestirred himself with more fervour than before. And reviving his considerations as to that part of his business which he would have to be acted by the Jesuites, he admitted them more frequently into his presence, not only declaring his conver­sion to their Religion, but promising to reduce Muskovy under the obedience of the Pope; and to make that provision for the Clergy, in Colledges, Monasteries, and other Indowments, that the whole World should be convinced of his entire Submission to the Apostolique Sea. He was grown so exact a States-man, as to discern that the designes of Empire are no way more properly carried on, than under the Veil of Religion, where the parties to be managed may find their sa­tisfaction [Page 41]as well in point of Interest as Conscience. The Fathers over-joyed with the hopes of so fair an accession to St. Peters Patrimony, promise Mountains, and assure him they will embark all the Princes of the Christian World in the Quarrel. Neither were these industrious undertakers any way remiss in their endea­vours. Demetrius his Interests were now become theirs, and a Croysado was resol­ved on, to put more countenance on the holiness of them: To this end, they ac­quaint the Pope with the designe, Sollici­ting his Holiness to espouse it as the con­cern of the Church, and accordingly to order powerful supplies of his own, besides vigorous Recommendations to the King and Nobility of Poland, as nearest hand. Demetrius also writ his Letters in reason­able good Latine, which he had learned in his Cloyster, and with his own hand, to the then Pope Clement the eighth, in the Stile of Emperour of Russia; wherein beway­ling his own unhappiness, he besought the Aid, Prayers and Counsels of his Holi­ness, against the usurpations of Boris; pro­mising that if it pleased God to restore him to his Crowns, he would not onely bring in his erring Inheritance into the [Page 42]Communion of the Mother-Church, but by a perfect Obedience to his Holiness, as the Head of the same, signalize his gratitude to all Posterity.

He continued all this while at Sando­miria, and had not yet been presented to the King; which he seemed passionately to desire, hoping by the advantage of a per­sonal enterview, and the telling of his own story, to gain upon the inclination of that mild Prince: and indeed he was not mistaken in his computation; for being after some time introduced into the Kings presence by the mediation of the two Pa­latines of Sandomiria and Wisnioweski, and received with Complements suitable to the Quality he bore, he made an han­some Narrative of his Fortunes, in a Stile not inferiour to the Majesty of an Empe­rour; and yet obliging, and full of defe­rence to the King; in the close whereof he took the freedom to mind him, that he himself came into the World a Son of sor­rows, being born in the noysomeness of a Prison, and was at last by various Fortunes conducted to a Crown: That therefore he would please to reflect upon the muta­bility of humane affairs, and upon the suf­ferings of an injured Prince, whose Re­stauration [Page 43]depended upon his Aids; where­in he would perform a double Act of Ju­stice; to chastise the Usurper, and to esta­blish the rightful Heir upon the Throne of his Fathers. The King received his Address with much respect and compassi­on; and being instructed by his own former hardships to sympathize with those of o­thers, he gave him permission, or rather connivance to make his leavies of Volun­tiers within his Dominions.

Demetrius having thus improved the Credit of his extraction by the power­full countenance of the King of Poland, which gained him a reputation too in the esteem of other Princes, failed not by the fame of his preparations to fill his own countries with irresolutions; which being seconded by secret Emissaries imployed into those parts, the people, whose nature is to affect novelty, did with greediness swallow those seditious Pamphlets scatter­ed abroad by him against that bloody U­surper. To all this he added the Court­ship of invitations to the people to depart from that hated Murtherer, lest they should be overwhelmed in the vengeance prepared by God for him; fortifying the whole by promises not only of indem­nity [Page 44]for what was past, but of rewards and honours to such as by their example should instruct others to the duty of their obedience. Having thus plained his way by infecting the minds of his Countrymen, and corrupting some person of Eminencie of Muskovy, he judged it seasonable to gratifie their expectation by rendering himself upon the Stage of Action, whereby not onely to give life, but security to his party; whose correspondencie might be discovered to their Ruine: He therefore treated more particularly with the Pala­tine, descending to Articles, the substance whereof were: That in consideration of his Supplies and Aids, Demetrius should upon the regaining of his Crown, repay him his full charges, Marry the Lady Ma­rina, and introduce the Roman faith into his Dominions.

These Articles being Signed and Rati­fied, (though kept secret) the Palatine applied himself vigourously to the work, raised an Army, being under-hand supplied by the King: But Duke Constantine Wis­nioweski did publikely own the Quarrel, by whose example many prime men of Russia presented themselves unto him upon the Borders, in the head of considerable [Page 45]Troops raised at their own charges. Be­ing thus strengthened by fresh supplies, which signified more in their reputation than in their numbers, the Palatine, with Demetrius in his company, marched with his Army into Muskovy, the Winter being far advanced, sending before him the terror of his Arms, and filled with hopes of Conquest. This Engagement was the Fountain from whence did spring those many changes which we have since seen in that Empire, and may possibly be the effect of that Blazing-Star which ap­peared on the 3 of October, 1614. in the 7th degree of Sagittarius, portending peradventure those more than Civil dis­cords which tore and distracted the States of Muskovy and Poland.

Demetrius had no sooner entred into Muskovy, but that 8000 Cossacks, disposed to it by the perswasions of the crafty Monk, Ranked themselves under his Colours: and being strengthened with this consider­able supply, they passed the River Bori­sthenes at Kiow, without opposition, and sate down with their whole Army before the walls of Eeringow. The place surren­dred upon summons, the Governour Tack­menno having taken this opportunity to [Page 46]revenge some disgraces formerly placed upon him by Boris the Emperour. Putti­wol, a great and populous City, followed the example of Eeringow, induced to it by the Volgodensian Cossacks there in Garrison, whose Governour Michaelowitz Solte­kowski was swayed by the temptations of Corelos General of the Demetrian Cos­sacks, and who had the reputation a­mongst his own Troops of being skilled in the art Magick. Some other places, but of less importance, followed these Exam­ples, the rising Sun of Demetrius his hope shining strong in their eyes.

Boris received the tidings of these Suc­cesses with Astonishment: he vowed vengeance against these Revolters, after such a manner, that the whole World should dread the like Infidelity and Trea­son. In the mean time he prepares to op­pose the Invasion with a force proportion­able, and having drawn together an Army of 100000 brave and choyce Souldiers he placed Fedw in the head of them a their General, commanding him to march with all speed to the relief of Novogrod [...] straightly beleaguered by Demetrius, but as courageously defended by the Valour of Bosmanno the Governour. Boris in [Page 47]the mean time was not wanting to him­self, in contriving what was most suitable to the present occasions: and considering that those of his Subjects who had run into Demetrius upon no provocation but that of Novelty, would, when their Appetite was served, be as apt to repent and come back; He prepared Declarations of Im­punity to publish amongst them; be­sides which, he dispatched several Agents into Poland and Lituania, to undeceive such as seemed enclined to the Aids of an Heretick and Impostor; and having found out one Smyrna Otropeia Unkle to Hris­ko, he directed him to repair to his Ne­phew, and to convince his adherents of the fallacie he had put upon them. But the Palatine, who was too far advanced to look back, would not permit Otropeia to come into his presence, seeming to despise those Artifices, as weak shifts to a declining Cause, and that he doubted not but he was prepared by the Usurper, to lay a ble­mish upon the Title of Demetrius, by own­ing him for his Nephew. But those Arts were too feeble to divert them from ex­acting a severe account from him for his murther of Theodorus, and placing him­self upon the Throne of Demetrius the [Page 48]present Emperour. Boris finding no Suc­cess from these kind of little attempts, as it were from behind the Curtain, resolved upon the dispatch of a solemn Embassy to the King and Commonwealth of Poland, in order to expostulate with them the rea­son of this Invasion. The Embassador be­ing arrived at the Court of King Sigis­mond, and pressing for a speedy audience, it was granted him: he complained highly against the violation of the Truce lately confirmed between both Nations for twen­ty years, by this unexpected Invasion of his Dominions, sacking his Towns, and killing his Subjects; and all upon no pro­vocation, or so much as the pretence of any. He added, that his Master hoped the King and Commonwealth of Poland would not only be more just, but better advised too, than lay themselves under the reproach of perjury, by imbroyling them and their Allies in a new War, by violating a League sworn to by them with all the Solemnities in the World: He therefore proposed they would not only recal their Troops out of his Masters Country, but that Commissioners might be appointed to consider of the damages sustained from them; and that that Impostor might be [Page 49]forthwith delivered into the Great Duke his Masters hands, whom he would un­mask, and render him to the World in his native Complexion, a mean Creature, set up by the Malice of a discontented Priest. And then concluded, that in case the King and Kingdom of Poland shall decline those equitable demands, they would create to them an Enemy, one of the greatest Princes of the World. And thus having sprinkled his desires with a mixture of some Threats, he added Rich Presents, which were distributed amongst the Ministers of State, and indeed most of those in Credit about the King, with an open hand; so that there were very few but tasted of Muskovitish Bounty. But all this state and charge amounted to nothing; the Interest of the Jesuites ad­ded to the Authority of the Pope, had rendered the King and his Council deaf to the applications of the Embassador. It was therefore resolved that Demetrius should be assisted with fresh supplies, in order to his Restauration; which was considered as the only Basis upon which to lay the Foundation of a perpetual League be­tween both Crowns, and the only means to root out that Schism in Religion, which [Page 50]hitherto had fomented their Quarrels; their affection being swayed by their faith.

These Resolutions were kept secret, as the Arcana Imperii: for they did not judge it fit to come to an open Rupture, till they saw what was like to be the Suc­cess of Demetrius his Arms. Their An­swer therefore was, that the King and State of Poland knew nothing, at least took no notice of what was done in Muskovy; and that those Tumults raised by Demetrius, a Muskovian born, and Aided by Muskovi­ans, or any other Voluntiers engaged in his designes, did not at all infringe, or so much as trench upon the League, which they should be always ready to observe to­wards that Crown and Empire. The Em­bassador being dismissed with this general Answer, without effecting what he came for; In the mean time the Armies in Mus­kovy were drawn within sight of each o­ther, equal in hopes and desires, though not in numbers. Demetrius upon the E­nemies advance, raised his Siege; and ha­ving chosen his ground, with respect to the number of his men, wherein he was infe­riour to Boris, he was not without some hopes that some part of the Enemies Ar­my would, upon the closing, come over to [Page 51]him, having held an intelligence with some of their Officers to that purpose. But there appearing so formidable a power of the Muskovites, and but a handful of men with Demetrius, those who had made him a promise of coming over to his side, judged it more adviseable to adhere to their own. The Armies were now drawn so neer each other, that it was impossible to part without Engaging.

Demetrius therefore and the Palatine judging their safety depended upon their Courage, received the Enemies Charge, as men resolved to conquer, or lie by it, not onely sustaining, but resisting the fury of their Enemies. The Success was a while disputed with doubtful hopes, till at last, the Victory began to declare it self for the more numerous Force, which powring in fresh supplies, the Polonian was forced to shrink under the impressions of the mul­titude, after they had given testimonies of great resolutions, having fought it out with so great a pertinacie, that the Victory cost Boris the loss of many of his men. His General received several wounds; and it was with much difficulty, that the Enemy quitted the ground: at last they were disordered and broke, saving them­selves [Page 52]by flight. Demetrius having rallied some few of his Troops, retreated to Ribscum, and the Palatine returned into Poland to raise new Forces, having left 8000 of his men upon the place, with all his Cannon and Baggage. The tidings of this Victory was carried to Boris the Great Duke, by Bosmanno the Governour of Novogrod, whom Boris received as his better Angel; and (the General having rendered him with an advantagious chara­cter) caused him to be presented with a great Bason of pure Gold, filled with Ducats of the same Mettal, and all the Officers of the Army with Medals, and increase of Pay.

The Borisians shewed more Courage in gaining this Victory, than Conduct in im­proving it to their advantage, wasting their time at the Siege of Krom, whilst the Enemy had room without interruption to gather together their scattered Troops; who had they been chased while their fears had been upon them, must necessarily have fallen into the hands of the Conque­rours, and then the Garrisons had followed their Fate. But the Great Dukes Army being fate down b [...]re Krom, the place was defended againse them with so great [Page 53]a Courage, that they despaired of taking it: whereupon the greater part of the Army being reinforced with fresh men, marched towards Ribscum, in order to the scatter­ing of Demetrius his Forces, and the inter­rupting of his Levies.

He upon this defeat found the experi­ence of those friends which had been made with his Successes, not himself. Many who had run in upon the fame of his prosperous March, ran now from him, as from a falling house, that would in its own ruine involve those within it: Yet was not he wanting to himself, having his Courage cherished by two Cistercian Monks and two Jesuites, who attended him, especially the latter, in all his adven­tures: These inflame him to a perseverance, with promises that the Issue would be Crowned with Success to him, and confu­sion to his Enemies. In the mean time the Borisians advanced towards him, upon intelligence whereof he sent out his Horse to face them, while he was drawing up his Foot. Who had seen the great dispropor­tion between both Armies, the one of a vast Body of Horse and Foot fleshed with Victory, a great Train of Artillery & Car­riages; the other not exceeding 5000 ef­fective [Page 54]men; those abounding with wants, most of them Raw and Undisciplined; and the rest, the remnant of a defeated Army, might reasonably have guessed at the Suc­cess. But the power of Fortune, or ra­ther of Providence, in this juncture, ap­peared beyond humane expectation.

Demetrius was in a strange Country, no Counsel about him, unknowing in Dis­cipline, preposterous in his Orders, and not so much as a temptation left him to hope: his Horse being advanced, were opposed by those of the Enemy, of whom upon the Charge they killed about 1000; which discouraging the rest, they shrink, and being pressed on by the Demetrians, had not time to rally, but were in disorder for­ced upon their own Foot, breaking their Ranks, and doing for Demetrius what his Army could never have effected. He pursuing his Success, had the slaughter of that great Body, which not being able to make Head, were cut down without any resistance. And thus what began but in a light Skirmish, ended in an intire Vi­ctory.

The Demetrians laden with spoils, (the whole Camp and Train falling into their hands) returned in Triumph to Puttiwol, [Page 55]where the Fame of this signal Victory spreading it self to their advantage, Five good Towns with their Forts rendered him their Submissions; whereby he was furnisht with Ammunition, and all other provisions for War. A while after, two other places, Jalka and Leptina, rendered themselves; and the great Province of Se­neria made one entire present of all tis strengths at once. Others also hasting in to be first, or with the first acknowledge the Conquerour, who received their Ad­dresses with great moderation upon so unexpected a Success. His great care was the relieving of Krom, besieged by the rest of the Enemies Army: but having by a Spy which came from out the Town, un­derstood the place was in no danger, and that it might defend it self for some longer time against the Assailants; He diverted his thoughts from relieving it, till he had improved his late Victory by enlarging his Quarters. He continued at Puttiwol, to reinforce his strengths, and to receive the Submissions of several places and persons, which daily rendred themselves with re­cruits to his small Army. While he was thus busied, Boris was not less active in his Levies, repairing the Breaches in his scat­tered [Page 56]Regiments, and doing what ever else might be needful to oppose the im­pressions of a great Enemy. He had like­wise his Emissaries and Agitatours in the Army of Demetrius, who endeavoured to debauch the Cossacks and such other of the Russians as had listed themselves in his ser­vice, tempting them by excessive rewards and honours to seize upon the Impostor, (as they Stiled him) and to present him to the Emperour, as a Peace-offering for their Rebellion. And to inforce this the better, they had with them a thundering Mandate from the Patriarch, as the Vicar of Christ, and Head of the true Church. These Arguments swayed little, specially those grounded upon point of Conscience: The people had shook hands with that be­fore, only they kept so much of the pre­tence of it, as might serve to justifie their present swerving from the present Govern­ment. Some of these Agents were seized upon, and being exposed to the Rack, con­fessed the whole designe upon the person of Demetrius, who being to gain upon the affections of the people by his clemencie, dismissed them; despising, out of a gene­rous carelesness of his own particular, to revenge his own injury upon so ignoble [Page 57]Instruments. He writ also his Letters to the Patriarch, to mind him of the duty of his Office; that he should not fix the Seal of Religion, to justifie an usurpation founded upon murther and perfidy, but rather dispose the people to yield to the Son of John Basilius their undoubted So­vereign that Obedience and Submission which was due to him from them by the Laws of God and the Empire. 'Tis said, he also sent a Message to Boris, advising him from those ungenerous practises of Assassinations and Libels; and that if he would give testimony of his repentance, by renouncing the unjust possession of the Throne, to which he had ascended by a continued Series of unworthy and wic­ked practices, He should be permitted to retire into what part of the Empire he pleased, with an entire indemnity for what was past, and all reasonable caution and security for his future safety. But the Great Duke refused these overtures with scorn and indignation; and casting about how he might root out this growing evil, he judged it advisable to frame a diver­sion upon his forein supplies: wisely con­sidering, that if he could prevent those, the Rebellion in his own Kingdom would [Page 58]in time, extinguish for want of fuel to sustain it; and that those of his Subjects who were deaf to his invitations, during the prosperity of Demetrius, whilst he was owned and asserted by forain Princes, would when he were left to his own for­tunes, fall from him with no less fervor than they had run in to him. In order to this, he treats with the Danish and Swedish Embassadors then in his Court, by what means King Sigismond might be best in­commodated in his own Dominions. De­signes were accordingly laid to imbroy him at his own doors, and to kindle a fire in Poland, which might oblige him to call home his own Subjects for the quenchin [...] of it. But amidst all his contrivance of State, formed with prudence agreeable to the occasion, he was seized with a vio­lent tearing in his Bowels, a deluge of Blood flowing out of his Mouth, Ears and Nostrils; with which, after some moments his enraged Soul issued out, leaving the Body a horrid Spectacle to all about him and a Monument of the instability of hu­mane greatness. Some say he died of an Apoplexie, others, (the fancied Fate of most Princes) that he was poysoned; De­metrius having by a more delicate contri­vance [Page 59]subdued him at his own Weapon. However it was, he expired in the Month of April, 1605. having lived Emperour the space of seven years; during which time, his Government was adorned with all imaginable moderation and justice, as if to compensate the people for the murther of his Prince, and to make good the sufficiencie of their choyce in his a­bility for administration: And if we be­lieve him who writ his Panegyrick, he is to be justly reckoned amongst the best of the Russian Dukes.


Fedro succeedeth his Father in the Empire. His Army revolts. His Partisans and Palace are de­stroyed by the madness of the peo­ple. He and his Mother and Sister being reserved for Deme­trius his Triumph, poyson them­selves. Demetrius is received and crowned Emperour of Mus­kovy. He marries the Lady Marina, and in the height of joy and grandeur is miserably mas­sacred. Zuiski the chief of the Conspirators, and prime Actor in this Tragedy, is elected Empe­rour of Russia.

THe Great Duke being thus vio­lently snatcht away in the midst of all his designes, and in the strength of his Age, the Nobility and chief Officers of the Army were asto­nished [Page 61]with the surprise of it; and many of them (for it is a superstitious Nation) reflecting upon this extraordinary adven­ture as a clear decision of Providence, with relation to the right of Demetri­us, began to entertain inclinations in his favour: and certainly had not the people interposed, they would have manifested the same by declaring him the Son of John Basilius. But the people being a­larm'd with the Death of Boris, came to Court in swarms, and in a Tumultuary way (as if prompted by some irresistible impulse) they placed his Son Fedro upon the Throne of his Father, declaring his Mother Regent in his minority; and bear­ing all before them like a torrent, they sorced all the Nobility to swear Fealty to them, and to ratifie the election by an Act of State, grounded upon a mixture of descent, and the suffrage of the people. The Army, as if swayed by the same in­stinct, did by their example salute him Emperour, and by their Deputies thereto appointed, sent him a Declaration, wherein they promised to adhere to him with the exposing of their lives and fortunes, and to stand by him, not only in repelling the common Enemy, but also in suppressing [Page 62]the Rebellion raised by his own Subjects The State of Affairs being thus established at Court, care was had for the interment of the deceased Duke, whose Corps was without much solemnity laid in the Se­pulchre of their Princes. After this, a Council was held, for the more effectual prosecuting of the War. Peter Bosmanno, upon the accompt of his great service and known abilities, was appointed Gene­ral of the Army, and dispatched to the Camp before Krom; Mislikowski and Zwiski being recalled to assist the Regent and the young Emperour in the admini­stration of the Government. Krom had been assaulted by the Russians ten severa [...] times, who were as often repulsed by the obstinate Valour of the Cossacks within it. But Demetrius, to cherish the Courage and Fidelity of the Garrison, and setting much of his rest upon the conservation of the place, dispatched Zaporius one of his chief Commanders with the greatest par [...] of his Army, to the relief of it. He ha­ving marched within a convenient distance of it, and by his Scouts and other Spie [...] understood the posture of the Enemie Leaguer, judged it very hard to attempt any thing upon it by force; and therefore [Page 63]hath recourse to policie; and framing a Letter to the Governour, told him he was advanced so far, as a Forlorn to the main Army, and to keep the Leaguer from for­raging the Country, while the Polish and Cossack Auxiliaries were coming up to their relief, under the conduct of Deme­trius in person: And then magnifying their fidelity, and abounding in promises of rewards and honours to them, he con­cluded with an assurance of speedy relief. This Letter was put into the hands of a bold fellow, who undertook the delivery of it, but was by the crafty Commander directed such ways towards the Town, as led him directly upon an Out-guard of the Enemies, who having seized upon him, brought him to the Head-quarters, where being presented to the Rack, he discovered his Letters; and being examined, confirm­ed the effects of them as a truth which he had heard discoursed of by the chief Offi­cers of Zaporius his Army. The Leaguer was as yet commanded by Hoduinus a near Kinsman of the late Great Duke's; the prin­cipal Officers of the Army disdaining to sub­mit to Bosmanno, as a Son of Fortune. Up­on this intelligence, there were 2000 Horse commanded to keep the avenues of the [Page 64]Town, while the rest of the Army drew off to encounter the Enemy. Zaporius that he might better countenance his con­trivement, drew out his whole Army in Battalia, and having at a further distance behind him placed all his Boyes and Bedles of the Army, with all the Carriages and some few Souldiers to make up a Front, which he extended to a great di­stance; He with his real Forces marched up to encounter the Enemy, having given order to this mock-Army that was behind, and which he had furnished with Trum­pets, Drums and Colours, that upon the Engagement they should advance in view and fill the Air with shouts and noises that the Poles and Cossacks were at hand The Fight was fierce, and doubtful in the beginning; and Zaporius was so hard put to it by the greater numbers of the Enemy, that notwithstanding all his skill, he must have sunk under their weight, had not Bosmanno (disobliged by his own Party) who had the command of some Reserves, instead of charging the Enemy, joyned his Troops to theirs; and then in the head of his men declared that Demetrius was the true Emperour, inviting all who had a zeal to the honour of their Country, to [Page 65]follow his example in adhering to the rightful Prince. This extraordinary ad­venture did equally surprize both Armies, possessing the one with a consternation, and the other with amazement; in so much, that the Fight held up as by joynt consent, and both sides seemed to expect the determination of the Cause, by some other Umpirage than that of their Swords. Bosmanno taking advantage of this profound Silence, shews himself again betwixt both Armies; and crying out with a loud Voice, invited all those who had any reverence for the Ashes of John Ba­silius, or honour for his Son, and affecti­on to the publike peace, that they should follow his example by rendring themselves to the obedience of their rightful Prince, where they should be sure of Indemnity and Protection. Bosmanno being of great reputation with the common Souldiers, as one that had engaged with them in many Services, had the fortune in this juncture to make so strange an impression upon their minds by his discourse, that af­ter some murmur amongst themselves, they all cried out with a loud voice, that they would live and dye with Bosmanno. The Nobility observing the course of the [Page 66]stream, and lest that they might be over­whelmed in resisting of it, resolved to follow the Current; and immediately decla­ring for Demetrius, dispatched a Party of 500 to him to Puttiwol, with tender of their Submissions, & supplicating his pardon for their former defections, whereto they had been insnared by the Artifices of Boris. They further offered him an entire Obedi­ence of themselves, and of the strength of the Empire; beseeching him he would come over to them, that they might march under his Conduct to the Possession of his Hereditary rights. Hodwenus having thus lost his Army, which deserted him as one man, purposed to save himself by flight; but being pursued by a Party thereto imployed, was seized upon, and presented to Demetrius, in whose presence he disdaining to bow, or pay those respects due to an Emperour, was commanded to Prison, and to be laden with Irons.

Demetrius transported with this happy news, broke up with those Troops which he had about him, marching directly to Krom, where he caressed the Governor and Gar­rison with all kindness imaginable, mag­nifying their Courage and Fidelity, and heaping upon them promises of Mountains, [Page 67]when he should be establisht in his Throne. From thence he went to Arol, where the revolted Lords and Army at­tended his coming, and received him with all the Submissions and demonstra­tions of joy that could be expressed: And being by this accession of Force ren­dred absolute Master of the Field, he ad­vanced by easie marches toward Musko the Seat of the Empire; and being come as far as Tula, he made some stay there, as well to refresh his Army, as to consider how to carry on the rest of his Affairs: And having advised with his Council, he writ his Letters to the Magistrates of Musko, to acquaint them that God had in a won­derful manner owned him and his Cause, by bringing over the Army that opposed him to their due obedience without bloodshed, much to his satisfaction, rather to have them reduced by the convictions of their Con­science, than by the force of his Arms: he therefore invited them, according to that pious example of the Army, to re­turn to their obedience; and as a manife­station of it, to root out from the face of the earth that hated Progeny of Boris, who had murthered his elder Brother, and had laid Trains for his life, but that he was [Page 68]rescued from them by deliverances not much short of miracle. That for his part he had a heart to forgive all their former failings and rebellions, and as a true Fa­ther of his Country, to extend his Cle­mencie to such as should manifest their pe­nitence: But if after this advice, and the example of their fellow-Subjects, they should yet persist in their rebellious actings they must expect he consequence in the ruine of them and their City.

These Letters falling into the hands of some of Fedro's Forces which he had drawn together for the defence of Musko, were suppressed, so that the people knew nothing of them. Demetrius in the mean time wondered he could receive no An­swer to his Letters, till at last guessing the truth of the matter as indeed it was, he employed some private Agents to Crasna Cella, a great Village within a quarter of a mile of the City, peopled with Mer­chants and Handicrafts-men, whose tra­ding however was in the Town: He by these Agents insinuated into them, that upon the single desire of their safety, he had imployed divers Messengers to the City with overtures of peace; but that not having answer, he was disposed [Page 69]rather to believe that his Letters were suppressed by the Gedanow-Faction, than that the people were wanting to him in suitable returns. He had a considerable Army about him, ready upon their March, and impatient for want of action; but he had made that long halt at a convenient distance from so populous a City, rather than incommode it by a nearer approach: He therefore desired to understand their inclinations, according to which he re­solved to move; putting into their hands, whether they would embrace Peace under the auspice of his Government, or the unhappy consequence of a bloody War, for which themselves should stand ac­countable, and not he. The Inhabitants of Crasna Cella receive this Message with great reverence; and the Agents having with them Copies of those Letters for­merly writ to the Magistrates of the City, they delivered them likewise: whereupon the Inhabitants trooping together, took with them Demetrius his Messengers into the Town; and being come into the Mar­ket-place, they caused his Letters to be openly read to that world of people that flockt about them: whereupon, with­out the least shew of tumult (which was [Page 70]a wonder) they went as one man to the Palace of Duke Basilius Zuiski, and by two of their number in a very civil manner beseech him to tell them if young Deme­trius the Son of John Basilius had been slain at Ʋgletz or not? Zuiski without the least hesitation answered, that in very truth Demetrius, upon notice of Boris his designe had been secretly conveyed away, and another Youth of his years and com­plection, the Son of a Priest, put in his place in the Princes Bed, who according to the plot laid by Boris, was murthered and interr'd, as the right Demetrius, with the Funeral of Princes. To this he added that he was the real Demetrius who lay with his Army at Tula. The people hear­ing this from so great and eminent a per­son, and considering how the bulk of the Nobility had declared for Demetrius, who was ready with a potent Army to advance towards them, most of the Provinces ha­ving already tendred him their Submissi­ons, judged it high time for them also to make their Addresses; and whilst they were in consultation of the affair, some Courtiers having had notice of the Tu­mult, were come with some of the Guards to disperse them, and seize upon Demetrius [Page 71]his Agents; which the people not only opposed, but proceeding from one degree of heat to another, breathed nothing but Demetrius his pretensions, asserting him to be the rightful Prince; and that they would not any longer be so far wanting to themselves and the Empire, as to refuse their obedience where by the Laws of God and the Land it was due: and then crying, Long live Demetrius, Great Duke and Emperour of Russia; come, say they, let us go and destroy that Viperous brood of the Gedanowes from the face of the earth. This said, they ran toward the Court like mad-men, and as a Snow-ball so encreased by rowling, that by the time they were come thither, their numbers were multi­plied to many thousands, sending their Clamours before them, which filled the Court with terrour and confusion: All within and about it were sacrificed to their rage and fury, and no life escaped them but that of the Great Duke, the Em­press-Regent and her Daughter, who were rather reserved for the judgment of Deme­trius, and wherewith to purchase their own peace and pardon, than upon the accompt of tenderness towards that Fami­ly. She was a Lady of high spirit and [Page 72]courage, and considering that she and her Children were reprived only to add to the Triumphs of Demetrius, resolved to put them and her self out of the malice of his power: in order whereto, she prepared a strong Poyson, and disposed them to pledge her in that Fatal mixture. Her Tears did easily deceive their Innocence; and yet theirs had almost overcome her Con­stancie: Come, says she, the dear pledges of your Fathers love; and then taking them in her arms, Come, continued she, my joy and grief, it may be the Tyrant ha­ving rendered us uncapable of disturbing his repose, will be content with our spoils, and spare our lives. Here she paused; but suddenly recollecting her self, No, no, said she, Treason is never secure so long as there are any left to reproach its Author: Let us therefore not linger out a miserable life by a more miserable delay, till the Tyrant have studied to destroy us more Exquisitely, and more Ignominiously: and with this snatch­ing the Cup, she hastily swallowed the greatest part of it, forcing her Children to take off the rest; and then clasping them in her arms, the Poyson did in a short time spread its vigour over their tender Bodies, all of them expiring as by [Page 73]joynt consent all together in their mutual embraces. Such as favour Demetrius, af­firm that the Princess was preserved by his command, by the speedy applying of Antidotes to subdue the malignity of the Poyson. His Enemies also say the same; adding, he preserved her but in order to satisfie his lust. The people being inflamed with the heart of their own fury, after they had pillaged the whole Court, ran like mad men into the City, seized upon all the Borisian Party and Family, putting many of them to death at that in­stant, and the rest they hurried into a Fort adjoyning to the City, where having stript them stark naked, they turned them in promiscuously, men, women and chil­dren together, without either Cloaths, Food, or Covert; and some of them, by the coldness of the Air, and for want of Nou­rishment, perished; they strangle the rest, or put them to some other violent death, so that there was not one of the Family left alive; their rage herein executing upon the House of Boris an exemplary judge­ment of God, proportionable to the Cru­elty wherewith he had treated that of his Master; God in his justice punishing his Cruelty to them with a due retaliation [Page 74]of the like upon his Posterity. We have in this a lively Description of the peoples temper; unconstant in their resolution, violent in their love, and equally so in their hate: They in this juncture cast off all their gratitude to the memory of Boris, their prosperity under his calm and wise Government, his impartial distribution of Justice, the many publike Buildings by him erected for the splendor and use of their City. They had no remembrance left of his great industry and charges in pro­viding Food for them in that more than Samaritan Famine, which happened in his Reign, in the years 1601, 1602, 1603. or finally, no reflection upon the advanta­geous peace and repose which he had pro­cured for them with their Neighbour-Princes. But though they might be suspe­cted to bury the memory of those things in the Grave of Boris, yet the wonder was that they should so suddenly destroy their own Act, in destroying him whom they had placed upon the Throne but two months before, as a Soveraign of their own choyce, contrary to the designe of the Nobility, whom they forced to swear fealty to him, vowing to live and dye in the defence of him, his Mother and Sister, [Page 75]now rendered the unhappy Objects of their boundless fury.

The Borisians being thus rooted out, wherein the Citizens were equally cruel and diligent; they dispatched their De­puties to Demetrius, to render him their Submissions, and to assure him, that in obe­dience to his Letters, they had destroyed the Family of the Gedanowes to a man: That Fedro, his Mother and Sister, were in safe custody, in order to his Majesties dis­pose; and that not only their gates, but their hearts were open too for his recepti­on. Demetrius upon this agreeable news advanced toward Musko with his whole Army: such of the Lords as had not yet presented themselves to him, met him up­on the way; and being come within a mile of the Town, their Magistrates were there in their Formalities, as a representative of the City, with a tender of its Homage; which he received according to the mode of that Nation, in Bread and Salt. They had also prepared a vast Present for him in Gold and Jewels; which he received with a show of kindness. And being now owned by all the Nobility and Orders of the Kingdom, and well assured of the de­votion of the people to his Interest; he [Page 76]made his entrance into the Royal City in great State, upon the 20th of June, in the year 1605. Emperour and Great Duke of Muskovy, and many other Provinces, and King of Casan and Astracan. The man­ner of this celebrious Cavalcade was thus: The Polish Horse with their Launces pre­sented, had the Van: Some thousands of Muskovites followed them in good order, having in the midst of their Body, the Coach of Demetrius drawn by six beauti­ful Horses, with all his lead Horses nobly Sadled and Trapped, with embroidery of Gold and Jewels. After these came the Clergy, with squared Ensignes born before them, on which were Painted some Saint or other, as our Lady, St. Nicholas their Patron, and the like. The Patriarch brought up the Rear of these Spiritual Warriours; and at some distance behind him was Demetrius himself mounted upon a goodly Milk-white Courser, environed on all sides with the Lords and Gentle­men that made up his Train. All the Bells rung for joy, and all the Streets, Windows, tops of Houses, and all other eminent places swarmed with multitudes of people, who as he passed along, fell upon their faces, and then raising them­selves [Page 77]up, cried as one man, Long live the Great Duke of Russia; Thou art the right Sun and bright Morning-Star that now shines in Muskovy. To which he replied, God give you my Subjects Health and pros­perity, stand up and pray for me. As he passed along, he was shewed the Palace of Boris; but he turned another way, as loath­ing to behold that place where had been hatched all the Villanies against him and the Blood-Royal of Russia; and declaring it his pleasure to have it defaced, the wil­ling people were not long in the execution of his Commands, laying those goodly Fabricks in a moment level with the ground. Demetrius being entered the Palace-Royal, dismissed the Princes and Lords, who trooped together into the Mar­ket-place, where Bogdan Bielski made them an Exhortation to acknowledge the good­ness of God for their Great Duke, obli­ging them to be true and faithful to him: That he was the undoubted Son of John Basilius: and thereupon taking his Cross out of his Bosom with St. Nicholas his Pi­cture upon it, he kissed it, and swore that their present Emperour was the right De­metrius, and that to the day of his dis­covery he had been concealed and kept [Page 78]in the Bosom of St. Nicholas, who had now restored him to them for the preser­vation of them and their Land. Hereup­on the whole people answered with joy­ful acclamations three times, God save our Great Duke, God give him health; God pu­nish all his Enemies, and all those that fail in their Fidelities to him.

Demetrius being by this extraordinary Concurrence of his Affairs got upon the Throne, assumed the manage of the Go­vernment into his own hands: and having made it his study to understand the Inte­rests of his Crown, as it stood related to forain Princes upon the accompt of Traf­fick or any other considerations of State; he informed himself what Embassadors were then in the Kingdom, either at Court, or upon their return; he judged it advi­sable to signifie to them his happy Restau­ration. And understanding that amongst others of other Princes, that Mr. John Merrick Agent, and Sir. Thomas Smith Embassadors for the King Great Britain, having received their Dispatches from Boris, were upon their return homeward; in order whereunto, having finished their other Negotiations, they were gone to­ward the Sea-side; Demetrius sent this [Page 79]following Letter from the Camp at Thula to Mr. Merrick, and a while after another, with an Express by one of the Gentlemen of his chamber, to the aforesaid Embassa­dors.

Demetrius his Letter to Mr. Merrick, Dated the 8th of June, 1605.

WE Demetrius Evanowich Lord, Em­perour, and Great Duke of Russia, To John Merrick, English Merchant. We give hereby to understand, that we are by the just Judgment of God, and his strong Power, as Duke and Sole Lord, raised to our inhe­ritance, Throne and Empire of Uladomir, Muskovy and all Russia. Calling therefore to minde the Confederations and Amity which our Father Evan Vasilowich, Lord, Emperour and Great Duke of Russia, held and kept with the Great Princes of Christen­dom: We likewise are resolved to maintain and keep the same, and in a more special manner to hold a more particular correspon­dence and friendship with your King James. To this end we purpose to favour you, his English Merchants, with a greater measure of our Grace than heretofore you have enjoyed from our Predecessors. So soon therefore [Page 80]as you shall have received these our Letters, and finished your markets at the Port of St. Michael the Archangel, our pleasure is, that you hasten back to Musko to behold the Majesty of our presence: to which end we have commanded Post-horses to be prepared for you by the way; and when you are come to Musko, you shall Address your self to our Secretary Offenasis Ulassou. Written in our Majesties Camp at Thula, in the year of the World 7113.

Sir Thomas Smith having received his dispatches from Boris, and being in his way homeward, was overtaken at Archangel by an Express from Demetrius, with the following Instructions and Letters.

Demetrius Evanowich, great Lord, Em­perour and Great Duke of all Russia, hath commanded Savarela to repair to Volgoda, and then to the new Castle of Archangel, or any other place, where he may overtake the English Embassa­dor Sir Thomas Smith. When he hath overtaken him, Savarela shall send his Interpreter Richard Finch to the Lord Embassador, with notice that the Great Lord, Emperour and Great Duke, [Page 81] Demetrius Evanowich, Sole Com­mander of Russia, hath sent one of his Courtiers unto him touching his Majesties Affairs; and after about two hours respite, Gavarela shall him­self go to the said Embassador, and deliver unto him his Majesties Mes­sage as followeth.

DEmetrius Evanowich, Great Lord, Emperour, and Great Duke, of all Russia, and many other Kingdoms, Lord and Commander, hath commanded thee Thomas Smith English Embassador, to cer­tisie unto James King of England, Scot­land, France and Ireland, that We are by the just Judgment of God, and his strong Power, come and succeeded into the place of our Father and Predecessors, as also the Throne of the Great and Famous Kingdom of Uladomir, Musko, and the Empire of Casan, Astracan, and Sibiria, and of all the Kingdoms of Russia. Moreover, we calling to minde the Correspondence, Love, and Amity which was between our Father the Great Lord, Emperour and Great Duke Evan Vasilowich of Famous Memory, as also our Brother the Great Lord Emperour, and Great Duke Fedro Evanowich, Sole Com­mander [Page 82]of Russia, and their Sister Queen Elizabeth, Queen of England: In the like manner we do purpose to have Entercourse, and to be in love with your Lord King James, and more than hath been in for­mer times; and in token of our said Love and Amity, we do intend to favour all his Subjects within our Dominions, and to give unto them more liberty than they have had heretofore. And you, his Em­bassador, we have commanded to be dis­patched without any delay or hinderance. Therefore we would have you to notifie to your Lord King James, our Majesties love: and as soon as God shall grant the time of our Coronation to be finisht, and that we are Crowned with the Imperial Crown of our Predecessors, according to our man­ner and worthiness; then we the Great Lord, Emperour and Great Duke, Deme­trius Evanowich, of all Russia Sole Com­mander, will send our Messengers to sa­lute each other according to the former manner. As for those Letters which Boris Gedanow sent by you, we would have you deliver them back again to our Courtier Gaverela; and after the delivering of our Speeches, to return him to the Emperour. Ʋnderwritten by the Chancellour Offanafie Evanowich Ulascan.

These and some other publike affairs being dispatched, Demetrius judged it very conducible to his establishment, to have the Solemnities of his Coronation speedily performed; the Celebration of which were therefore appointed to suc­ceed upon the Kalends of September: for 'tis then that the Russians do, as the Jews of old did, begin their year. But Deme­trius impatient of delay in that material Circumstance, would have it done upon the 29th of July, after his enterance into Musko, upon which day he was by the Patriarch crowned with the Imperial Di­adem of those Kingdoms; after which he caused the Corps of Boris to be taken up out of that Sepulchre wherein he had been interred (being that belonging to the Royal Family) and buried without Solemnity, in a private Church-yard without the Town. Before the Coronation, 'twas judged ad­visable that the supposed Mother of Deme­trius, who had for many years been shut up in a Monastery by Boris, should be sent for to Court, as a reputation to the Solemnity; which by Demetrius his art was improved to the utmost: for upon advertisement of her being within a League of the Town, he went forth in Person to meet her; and [Page 84]being come within view of her Coach, he alighted from his horse, and making his Addresses to her with all imaginable Hu­mility, she received him with great de­monstrations of Affection: She would have come out of her Coach, but he would not permit it; neither could she prevail with him to come up to her, protesting that as she had given him life, so would he pay it her back in his Obedience; that the Crown of Russia was hers, and should be only born by him, the better to exe­cute her Orders. And with these and some other obliging entertainments of this kind, she was conducted to the Palace; Demetrius following the Coach on foot, bare-headed, till the Empress stopping, declared that unless he would get up on horse-back, she would accompany him on foot. Being come to the Palace, she was conducted into the usual habitation of such who were Widdows of the Royal Family; where being alighted, she em­braced Demetrius with great passion, ac­knowledging him before all the Lords and Courtiers present, to be her Son, begot by Duke John Basilius; evidencing the same by many particular marks and tokens, which gave great credit to the Impostor [Page 85](if it were one.) His stature and pro­portion had a resemblance to that of the true Demetrius; his hair was black and hard like his, with a mark upon his nose and the right hand as the Prince also had: And though the Lady might well remem­ber the features of her own Demetrius, whom she had lost but seven years before, and that this in reality was not he; yet she wisely dissembled the matter, it being grown too far for her to contradict: and besides that, she lay under a double obli­gation to him, having not only enjoyed her liberty, but the satisfaction of an entire Revenge by his means upon Boris and his Family. However it was, she treated him with all the demonstrations of a warm and sincere Affection, while he ho­noured and reverenced her with a more shan filial Duty; so great a tenderness ap­pearing in their caresses, that their Tears of Joy were attended with a deluge from the eyes of the Lords and all others upon the [...]lace. And to be thus owned by the Empress in the face of the whole World, gave a greater confirmation to the reality of his Birth, than all his other Testimo­ies together; there being now no room [...]eft to question his Extraction, confirmed [Page 86]by the open declaration of her that bare him. 'Tis to this day a controverted point in Russia, whether he was an Im­postor or not. Common fame since his misfortune, seems to render him such; and Petreius in his Chronicle of Muskovy, hath a Jury of Arguments to confirm it. But his Testimony is not to be believed, but with caution; he being employed in that Country (at such times as he made his Collections) by Charles the VIII, King of Sweden, upon the accompt of the con­trary Party. The Poles, by their learned Historian Praeserius, as also by the Testi­mony of their own example, asserted the contrary with much fervor; he by his Writings, they by their vigorous Aids by the countenance of which, as by steps he ascended up to the Throne of the Em­pire: and to justifie his Title yet th [...] more, there were many eminent Person engaged personally in his Quarrel, mon out of greatness of mind, than any per­ticular Interest; which they would no have done, if they had believed him a Impostor. And he himself, when he w [...] at any time ready to engage, was use with erected hands and eyes to Pray [...] the hearing of his Souldiers, in the [Page 87]terms: Destroy me, O just Judge, and blot out my name from amongst men, if what Iundertake be done unjustly, or wickedly: Thou seest my Innocence, help my most righteous Cause: I commend my self and these my fellow-Souldiers into thy protecti­on, O Queen of Heaven. That he used these kind of Ejaculations before a Battle, is very true; and if at that time he did not believe himself, it is very strange; for then must he not believe in the Majesty of that God upon whom he called, or that the great Creator was more swayed by his mental Reservations than his publike Ex­pressions, and was of a confederacy with him to betray his Army into a good o­pinion by the Success he gave it; which were Blasphemy to imagine. And yet we have in our own Land had appeals to God upon the most palpable Rebellion that ever was committed against a Sove­raign; proceeding to that hight, as to de­stroy the Anovnted of the Lord in the Name of the Lord. Possibly this Deme­trius had it instilled into him by the Priest his Tutor, that he was in reality the Son of John Basilius; but however it was, or whether he believed himself so or not, he was rendered to the world as the most [Page 88]remarkable Object of Fortune that many Ages can parallel; she in him passing to both extreams, by which may be observed the mutability of humane affairs, and that their change is natural.

Demetrius was scarce warm in his Seat, when the Lords either taking it for grant­ed that he was an Impostor, or weary of that Instrument wherewith they had ser­ved themselves to revenge upon Boris and his Family the Cause of the Blood-Royal of Russia, began to form a Conspiracie a­gainst his life; which being secured by his Guard of Poles and other Forreners, their first designe was to remove them, the better thereby to break in upon him. In order to this, they took all opportunities to breathe their Moans and Complaints to such as they knew to be in favour a­bout him: That it was the anguish of their Souls, after the Testimony given by them of their Loyalty, to find their Prince re­tain doubtful thoughts concerning them; which they collected from his employ­ing Poles and other mercenary Strangers to guard his person, as if he could be more safe in their hands, than in those of his native Subjects, who could do no less than consider themselves neglected, at [Page 89]least to see the Royal Person of their Em­perour in the hands of strangers, as if to defend him against his own Subjects: That it was a new thing in Muskovy to have a Life-guard of Forreners, and did more argue the fears of an Usurper, than the as­surances of a legitimate Prince; and that they should understand these kinde of Guards, (were they not well assured of the Clemencie of their Great Duke) as Executioners of his displeasure, when he should please to look back into those times when they had obeyed the commands of the Tyrant Boris. Thus did the Lords whis­per their griefs, as they call'd them, but with so great modesty, that Demetrius being acquainted with them, and with what tenderness and respect they were uttered, resolved to comply entirely with them, and to give up himself absolutely into the arms of his own people; being so strangely deluded with this seeming kind­ness, that he not only dismissed his Guards, but his Auxiliaries besides. The Conspi­rators having got over these great steps, drew more into their Party, whereby the Plot was rendered more publike, till at last it reacht the ears of Demetrius, who too late repenting his unadvised credulity, [Page 90]would yet make appear his resentment of this Treason; and causing some to be ap­prehended, they were tortured till they confessed the whole designe, and that they had been induced to it by the insinuations of Basilius Zuiski, who assured them, that his Highness was not the Son of John Ba­silius, but an Impostor; the Interment of Demetrius having by Boris been com­mitted to his particular care. He confes­sed indeed, that in compliance with the ma­lignity of the Times, and to preserve him­self from ruine, he had upon the Uproar in the City, when Demetrius was at the Gates, affirmed, that the Son of a Priest at Ʋgleckz had been put in the place of De­metrius, and was killed upon the supposi­tion of his being the Prince; but that all this was a false suggestion of his own, to gratifie the fury of the people, who would have involved him in the ruines of Boris, had he deni'd it. Duke Basilius Zuiski being apprehended, and the Rack pre­sented to him (the readiest expedient for discoveries, and commonly used in that Country) he confessed the whole Charge; whereupon he was condemned to loose his head: in order whereunto, being conduct­ed to the Scaffold, and placed upon his [Page 91]Knees to receive the fatal stroke, the Exe­cution was stopped, and he not only par­doned, but received into particular favour and nearness about Demetrius; who by an ill computation of his Affairs, took this way, first of exposing and terrifying them as Criminals, and then taking them into his bosom as Friends; not considering, that disobligations stick closer than kind­nesses; and that they who had laid a de­signe for his ruine, were not to be divert­ed from it by the Courtship of words.

If we look into the Affairs of the world, we shall find that the industrious man is not always rich; there are that rise early, and yet eat the bread of carefulness: Wealth comes many times by a lucky hit, and a fortunate man is served by a con­currence, or rather confederacie of Acci­dents, which in the judgment of right Reason would more probably tend to his ruine. Demetrius was a notable proof of this, in his prodigious rise to the Empire of Russia, towards which he had done little more than personate a fit Subject to be op­posed against the Interests of Boris. He owed his acquisitions to Fortune, and the giddy humour of the wavering People; and his ruine to his own inconsiderate­ness [Page 92]and want of Conduct. He prosecu­ted the Family of Boris beyond what was consistent with the State of Great Duke of Russia; above seventy Families of that Kindred and Party being banished by him, dividing the Spoils amongst his forein Au­xiliaries; giving out that he would plant the Kingdom with Colonies of strange Nations. This fill'd the people with dreadful Apprehensions of his Tyranny, and imbarked the Lords in the same pre­judice, to find themselves neglected in the administration of Justice, and the same managed according to the appetite and fancie of the Poles.

To all this, he gave the Jesuites publike Churches and dwellings, and to all of that Perswasion the free Exercise of it. He had indeed himself been brought up in the Romish Religion, which might in some measure have warranted the Profes­sion of it in his own Chappel (though Henry the Fourth of France dispensed with his former Faith upon his accession to the Crown) endeavouring thereby to cure the Jealousies of the people, who are no way so fervently engaged, as upon the the account of Conscience. But Deme­trius his publike despising of the Rites of [Page 93]the Greek Church, and his so open endea­vours to introduce that of the Latins, ab­horr'd by the people, gave the first shock to their affections; and then his Habit, Garb, and Gesture being wholly Forein; the Commonalty, who see but the outside, and make their judgment by that, con­clude his Inclinations were so too. But what wrought most effectually upon those that understood best, was, to discern a lightness in his Behaviour, bearing no pro­portion with so exalted a Quality as he bore in the world; little Gravity, and less Judgment in the manage of publike Affairs, measuring concerns of a different nature by the same Standard. From this short-sightedness, being but newly invest­ed in the Royalty, he denounced War a­gainst the Swedes; and with the same va­nity writ to King Sigismund, that he would arm against the Turk and Tartar, before he knew the Constitution of his own Em­pire, or by what establishment an Army was to be maintained.

Demetrius being Crowned Emperour, his next care was the matter of his A­mours; those Passions were still alive in him; and he had so much of the Constan­cie of a Lover, as to invite Marina to the [Page 94]participation of his Greatness: Upon this consideration, he dispatcht a splendid Em­bassy into Poland, with a Present of the Jewels of the Crown of an inestimable va­lue. The Palatine of Sandomiria had in­deed deserved well from him; but the No­bility of Muscovy abhorred the thought that the Treasure of their Empire should be havocked away upon that Negotiation, which no way quadrated with their Ap­petite: however, this concern fell out so far luckily for Demetrius, that it respited his fate; for the Conspirators having laid their designe to be put in execution some days after the dispatch of this Embassie, held it advisable to delay it till that was over; lest by quitting their hands of their Great Duke, the Jewels of the Crown should fall short, and stay in Sandomiria. They therefore directed the Embassadors (who were also privy to the Confedera­cie) to make secret Articles with George Mniseck the Palatine, Marina's Father, before they made their Present of the Jew­els to her, that she should bring them with her for her Ornament to Musko. There was at the same time dispatched an Em­bassador to the King and Commonwealth of Poland. Athanasius Rosclovius the [Page 95]Treasurer was made choice of for this Em­ployment; who being admitted into the Kings presence, did in the Name of his Master the Great Duke, present his very hearty acknowledgments to the King and Nobility for the seasonable Aids he had re­ceived from them; declaring, that next under God, he derived all his Enjoyments from their Succours; and confessed, that had he not been vigorously owned by them, he must have wandered about the world, the pity of his Friends, and the scorn of his Enemies; whilst an Usurper possessed the Throne due to his Birth, and in which by their kindness he was seated in perfect peace. And as a Testimony of his further Gratitude, he had sent his Em­bassadors to establish a perfect Friendship and League Offensive and Defensive be­twixt the Crowns, which was to ex­tend to all the Enemies of either Nation, especially the common Enemy the Turk, who by the advantage of misunderstand­ings amongst Christian Princes, got ground upon Europe. And that he might be the more naturally linked to the Kingdom of Poland than the Ceremony of a League could extend to, he desired the Kings permission to Marry a Lady his Vassal, the [Page 96]Palatine of Sandomiria's Daughter: His Obligations to her Father being of that nature, that he knew not by what other means to contrive him a proportionable Recompence. He had not only owned and received him in his Exile, but engaged his Person and his Fortunes in his Quar­rel; and he could not stand acquitted to himself, if he did not communicate to the Daughter of those Enjoyments which were derived to him by the kindness and Courage of her Father. The King ha­ving fully heard the Embassador, did with much Civility acknowledge the respect of the Great Duke in that Address; that he wished him all happiness, and did hearti­ly congratulate the success of his Arms in the acquirement of his just rights: Adding further, that he did highly commend the pious resentments he was pleased to have for the sufferings of the oppressed Christians. That he would willingly enter into a League with him against the Infidels, but that without the consent of the Senate and Nobility of the Kingdom, he could determine nothing of that Nature. As to the Proposal of his Marrying the Lady Marina, he should not only have his con­sent, but his prayers also, that God would [Page 97]render that Marriage auspicious to both Kingdoms, by propagating between them a League of everlasting Friendship. The King having expressed himself to this ef­fect, the Nuptials were within eight days after celebrated at Cracow, in the presence of the King, and a great number of the Nobility of Poland, who were invited to this Royal Solemnity. His Majesty deli­vered the Bride with his own hand to the Embassador, exhorting, that now she was to be transplanted into another Nation, she should retain the Memory of her own Country, and her Fathers house: That she should do all good Offices betwixt both Nations; and above all things, that she should adhere to the Catholike Reli­gion, wherein she had been educated.

The Church-Ceremonies being finish­ed, his Majesty entertained the Bride at a Royal Feast: Prince Ʋladislaus his Son, the Princess of Sweden his Sister, the Pa­latine of Sandomiria, the Embassadors of Persia, with all the Publike Ministers then at Court, were invited to it; where at the last Course, those Jewels sent by De­metrius to his Marina, and the Palatine her Father, to the value of two hundred thou­sand Ducats, were served up to the Ta­ble [Page 98]instead of Fruit; which in so Illustri­ous an Assembly spoke the Magnificence of the Russ, and satisfaction of the Bride, to be courted at so valuable a Rate.

About the end of Jan. 1607, the Bride, accompanied with the Embassadors of ei­ther Nation, the Palatine her Father, and Duke Constantine Wisnioweski, and many other Persons of Quality, and a splendid Train, having taken her leave of the King and Court of Poland, set forwards towards Musko; and on the 26th of April entred the Imperial City; being met by the way by Peter Bosmanno, attended by a great number of the Nobility, who conducted her into, and through the City, which was fitted and accommodated according to the Mode of the place upon such occa­sions; the Citizens being disposed in their Formalities, to make a passage for her; and the streets ecchoing her Welcome with the confused noises of the People, Trumpets, Cymbals, and other sorts of Musick. Being arrived at the Palace, she was received by Demetrius with all the i­maginable demonstrations of Joy and Af­fection. She also was not wanting in a very obliging reception of the Great La­dies that were presented to her: and af­ter [Page 99]a short stay at Court, she, after the manner of that Country, was conducted back to the Monastery where the Empress Dowager was, and where she was accom­modated with an Appartment till the ce­lebration of the Nuptials. Four days af­ter, she was removed from thence to ano­ther Appartment, prepared for her in Court, and Royally furnished, in order to her Marriage, which was the day follow­ing after Evening-prayer performed by the Patriarch. The Scepter, the Apple, and the Sword, were born before the Em­perour (the Great Duke of Muskovy as­suming that Title) and the Crown where­with the Empress was to be adorned, was carried before her upon a Cushion of Crimson-Velvet, the Walls of the Church being hung with the same Livery, borde­red with a deep Fringe of Gold. The Church-ceremony ended, they were both of them, with their Crowns upon their Heads, conducted back to the Palace (all the Cannon, Bells, and Musick in the Town thundring, ringing, and playing without intermission) where the succeed­ing night was wasted in Feasting, Dan­cing, Balls, Masks, and other Revels pro­per for the Divertisements of Kings and [Page 100]Great Personages. The Solemnity was continued the next and other following days, with all those Delights and Plea­sures which the Wit of Russia could in­vent, no excess being spared which might improve the State and Magnificence of the Nuptials, till the 16th, the fatal Eve of the ensuing Tragedy.

We have already given you some ac­count of this Emperours disadvantages in the peoples esteem, and by what ways he lost ground amongst them; his manner of living bearing no proportion with the station wherein he was placed. He was much to seek in the Art of Government; neither had he discretion to make right application of the Advice of his Coun­cil, or indeed to be much amongst them; his whole time being spent in the Society of Players, and such other Mimicks, whereby his Nature being vitiated, he grew profuse of the Treasures of the Crown; which were so strangely wa­sted amongst his Rabble, that to enu­merate their sum, must needs raise the Readers admiration. They speak of many Myriads of Gold and Silver, and twelve Bushels of Pearl, and other Jew­els; and to have this prodigious stock of [Page 101]Riches havocked away in a few months, rendered him the hate and scorn of the Nobles; which was heightned by his in­troducing of forein Habits and Customs a­mongst them; a people tenacious, even to Superstition, of the old Manners and Ce­remonies derived to them from their Fa­thers. All this being put together, did so enflame them, that what they first design­ed out of a levity in their nature, was now pursued upon the score of Justice, as be­ing called to it by Divine Impulsion, to chastise this Mushrome of a Prince, whose growth being preposterous, his end was likewise so.

Basilius Zuiski, to the rest of his Ar­guments to conspire the ruine of this Prince, had now an addition of Revenge to add to the heap, for that publike reproach laid upon him, not to be can­celled by new favours. He confider­ed, that the next transgression would be severely punished upon him, and that he only held his life at the will of a Tyrant, in whose power it was every moment to renew the old Judgment against him. He was not wanting to inflame the Lords and people with a zeal, as he termed it, to the Interest of their Countrey; who had ta­ken [Page 102]fire to that height, that they used to discourse publickly concerning him: As for his Birth, it was base, being nothing of the Person or Manners of Jo. Basilius ap­peared in him; and as for his Religion, it was Heretical, being he scorned coming to the Churches; and if at any time he ap­peared there, he manifested neither respect nor Devotion; & by his Outlandish Modes, rendred his Presence a reproach to the Place. He omitted bowing to St. Nicho­las and other Saints which were had in Ve­neration by that people; and in his Diet would ordinarily eat Calves-flesh, which was held an abomination amongst them. A bold fellow taking the liberty to dis­course at this rate in the hearing of some of the Guards, was seized upon, and brought before the Great Duke, who commanded him to the Rack; but some of the Council interposing, affirmed that the fellow was drunk, and that it was be­low his Majesty to reflect upon such a worm; adding, that there was no cause for those fears in a potent Empire, where he was able to raise Millions for the de­fence of his Sacred Person; so that he was fatally swayed to neglect the business: and being drowned in security, and led away [Page 103]by the flatteries of a sort of Buffoons, who fed his pleasures with fresh Inventions, he left the Affairs of State to their own for­tune, accounting himself secure in the pro­tection of his new Guards of Foreiners, which were 300 men, English, French, and Scotch, and divided into three Squadrons, commanded by Officers of their respective Nations. They were armed with Swords and Halberds, and cloathed for their every­days Habit in Scarlet, and for Festivals in Crimson-Sattin. These Guards were brought in the place of those Foreiners whom he had dismissed before; but the Gangrene was run too far to be cured by so feeble an Application.

The Conspirators, as we have already observed, had purposely suspended the Ex­ecution of their Designe, till the arrival of the Bride, especially the return of the Jewels; with another Consideration of no less Consequence, as to time, which was judged most seasonable at the Solem­nity of the Nuptials, when Demetrius and his Court would be drowned in plea­sures.

Basilius Zuiski, allied by the Mother to the Blood-Royal of Muskow, had two Bro­thers, John and Eogdan, who were very [Page 104]serviceable to his Designe in the raising of some thousands of men in their several Territories, and especially in their convey­ing of them into the City unobserved. The Marriage of Demetrius conspired with them in that part of it, as agreeable to the manner of the Eastern Nations; for the Nobility upon such publike Solemnities do travel with a great Train of Friends and Attendants. There was upon the 16th of May a more Royal Feast appoint­ed than any had been held before, as if upon a particular respect and Honour to the Polish Nation; to which the Embassa­dors of that Country being invited, they instead of promising to come, returned their Answer by way of expostulation, that unless the same place were given them at the Great Dukes Table, as his Embassa­dors enjoyed at Cracovia, they begg'd his Pardon for not obeying him; chusing ra­ther to deny themselves the Honour of his Invitation, than to receive it to the preju­dice of their King and Commonwealth. This Punctilio being argued in Council, was opposed by the Russian Lords by all the Arguments they could devise; but the Great Duke over-ruled the Point, and would have the Foreiners gratified, as [Page 105]those by whom he had ascended up to his Throne. There happened during the Feast some passages of heat betwixt them; the Poles giving themselves the liberty to reproach the want of Courage in the Russi­ans, as having imposed an Emperour upon them; which Language being received with scorn, had certainly been returned with severity upon the place, but that ha­ving whispered together, they chose rather to hasten their Designe, and to Revenge all their Resentments together. The close of the Feast was the beginning of the Af­fray: for when all the world was steeped in Jollity, giving themselves up to Dan­cing and Revels, the very Guards being dismissed upon this occasion; the Con­spirators, who had been kept waking upon other Designes, had by break of day next morning possess'd themselves of the most considerable Parts and Avenues of the Ci­ty; and Basilius Zuiski placing himself in the Head of them, with a Cross in one hand, and his Sable drawn in the other, led them on towards the Heart of the Ci­ty. He had caused the great Bell (the common signal of Alarms) to be toll'd, and a confused Cry to be spread about the Streets, that the Poles were in Arms, upon [Page 106]a Designe of putting the whole City to the Sword. The People being raised with this apprehension, fell upon the Poles in their Quarters, and destroyed them before they could wake to see their danger. The tolling of the Bell, with the greater noise of the people in the Streets, had rouzed Demetrius, who calling to them of his Bed­chamber to enquire the Cause of that Tu­mult, they answer, it must necessarily be some Fire. Bosmanno being commanded to understand the true reason of it, ha­stens to the window that looked towards the Streets, and observed them full of armed men; and asking the Cause of it at that unseasonable hour, they cried, they would speak with that Impostor the Great Duke, who had betrayed them into the hands of the Poles. Bosmanno hear­ing this, and struck with the apprehension of the danger, ordered such of the Guards as lay next at hand, to be called to their Arms, and to make good the Palace; and going in to Demetrius: My Lord (said he) it is now too late that you have the Ex­perience of my Counsel; the Conspirators are in Arms, and the Treason at your Door. Whilst Bosmanno was speaking, a Gentle­man of the other Party had pressed [Page 107]through some of the Guards half asleep, and called to the Duke aloud, Thou false Great Duke, why comest thou not out to sa­tisfie that demand of the people, who are in the Streets expecting thee? Bosmanno abhorring so great an Insolence, snatcht a Sable which hung by upon the Wall, and at one blow laid this bold man dead at his feet. Demetrius flung himself out of Bed, and covering his Body with what was next hand, snatched a Halbard from one of the Guards, with which going into the Anti-chamber where the Conspirators were, entring with fury in his looks, he flies upon them, and put the forwardest to retreat: but they pressing in the second time, and some of them shooting at him, he judged it advisable to withdraw; whilst Bosmanno advancing up towards them, desired they would please in a peaceable manner to signifie their desires, and he would undertake to have them gratified. Michael Tatisson, one of the Ringleaders, answered him, Thou Son of a Whore, dost thou take upon thee to prescribe Rules to the Nibility and people of Russia? And drawing out a long Knife which hung by his side, stab'd him to the heart, where­with he fell down dead before him upon [Page 108]the place. The Guards being now no longer able to resist, were kill'd as they ap­peared, whiles the poor Duke retiring from Chamber to Chamber with some few of his Servants, was at last come to such a place, where there was no further passage: he hurried on by his despair, flung himself out of a Window, forty foot from the ground. His fall was so great, that he vomited Blood with the crush of it; but his fears making him strong, he scrambled to his Guard of Muskovites in the For­tress. The Conspirators in the mean time missing their prey, made Booty of what else they found in the Palace; and causing themselves to be guided to the Appart­ment of the Empress, who had hid her self, they asked for her: but the frighted Ladies wanting courage to reply, the old Lady Palatine of Samoc, confident in the Prerogative of her gray-hairs, told, she was upon the noise fled to her Father's Lodgings. They searched the Room, and not finding her, revenged their disap­pointments in such a vile sort of unclean Expressions, as is not fit for any Language but the Russian to repeat; and the Lords by this strange irruption transported in their very minds to all excess of Debauchery, [Page 109]seized each of them upon one of the La­dies; none escaping them but the old Lady Palatine, who was spared upon the Privi­ledge of her wrinkles, and another Lady that sate sick in a Chair; till one of them observing some extraordinary motion a­bout her lower parts, pull'd her up; where the poor affrighted Marina was discovered, but with so great a Majesty in her Aspect, that they her Enemies seemed more asto­nished than she, and withdrew, offering her no kinde of violence; which is not the least Argument for the Dominion of Beauty, able to subdue the Spirits of men, when they are become savage. The Con­spirators having received some advertise­ment that Demetrius was retreated to the Fort for shelter, they all made thither; where after some confused attempts, but greater threatnings to force the place, that unfortunate Person was put into their hands. They led him away in Triumph, as the Spoils of War; and the Rabble were not wanting to aggravate his afflictions by their reproachful Behaviour and Lan­guage; to which he made no reply at all: but seeing his stately Palace pillaged, and stained with the Blood of his Servants and Friends, and others of them hurried away [Page 110]to Prison, and abused in his presence, he could not resist to manifest his resentments by his Tears. And to add yet to his mi­sery, they covered him with an old ragged Coat, and so exposed him to publike view, not without the scorn of mocks and taunts, which none can have so great a sense of, as he that had been possessed of so eminent a Grandeur. And to leave no­thing unattempted that might imbitter his Soul (besides their justling him, pointing their fingers at his eyes, plucking him by the Nose, and such rude freedoms) they ask him if he were Demetrius or Gris­ko; and what Devil had tempted him to profane the Blood-Royal of Russia by so base a mixture. He expressing a greater sense of this than all his other sufferings answered, You all of you know that I am Great Duke of Muskovy, Crowned in the face of the whole world, and received, as I am, So [...] to John Basilius; which if you make a­ny Question of, go to the Cloyster, and [...] the Empress my Mother, to whose Testimony I refer you, and shall abide by it. They al [...] seemed startled at this positive affirmation and that being the main Point of the Quar­rel, they would after all their brutish vio­lences seem to do him right in that: in [Page 111]order whereto, they all desired Basilius Zuiski to attend the Empress for her De­claration; which he did accordingly: And if we will credit common report in this matter, it is rendred, that the Empress did renounce him now, as positively as she had owned him before; affirming, that her Demetrius was murthered by the cru­elty of Boris; but that seeing how this Impostor had possessed himself of the Em­pire, she judged it safer to own him for hers (being she could not by denying him divert the people) as a means to procure her not only her enlargement, but the enjoyment of her State and Great­ness; and that indeed she was not with­out some good will for him, as having revenged her injuries upon the bloo­dy Usurper Boris; but that in touth he was no Son of hers, neither had she ever seen him before that time that he met her upon her return to Musko. Zuiski returned with this answer from the Empress; which having reported to the people, a Mer­chant stept out of the croud, with a Pistol in his hand, and coming up to him, spake with a loud voice, Thou infamous Traytor, 'tis enough thou hast lived hitherto to de­ceive the people of Russia; take the reward [Page 112]of thy Ambition for staining the Sacred Blood-Royal by thy Imposture; and with that shot him to the heart, whereupon he fell dead upon the place; and the people, whose love and hate are always in ex­tremes, seeing him laid along, wounded his carkass with their Swords and Pikes, as if they could never kill him enough; and to shew their malice did not end with his life, they dragged him out of the Hall by the heels to the place where the Body of Bosmanno lay; the Rabble following after with Outcries and Exclamations, as if he had yet sense left him. And thus was the splendor of these Nuptials dark­ned by the Tragick end of the unfortu­nate Demetrius, who was only suffered to taste the joys of a Crown and a fair Bride, and then snatched from them; as if the whole had been a Dream, which upon the wakening vanished away.

The Barbarity of the enraged Multi­tude rested not here; it extended to his inanimate Corps: for having laid his Body naked, they post a cord through it, which being fastened to his private parts, they tied it to Bosmanno's foot; and drag­ging both the Bodies through the Streets into the Market-place, they lay exposed [Page 113]there for that whole day; which was done to satisfie the world, that the Great Duke being killed, it concern'd the peo­ple in order to their own safety to consi­der of another choice. I shall not trou­ble the Readers ears with the further in­dignities offered to the dead Carkass, be­yond what Heathens would have permit­ted, much less acted.

The contagion of this Tragedy extend­ed it self to the Poles quartered up and down the City, who with the like inhu­manity were pillaged and murthered by the multitude. There was a mixture of malice and cunning in their cruelty; for in those parts of the City where the death of their great Duke was not yet known; the Russians came with a formal Command to the Poles, that it was the Dukes plea­sure they should attend him unarmed, be­ing he would have nothing of force or terror in the celebration of his Nupti­als; and the poor Poles giving credit to this deceit, exposed themselves tamely to the slaughter which was committed up­on them. Many warned by the cruelty exercised upon their Friends, disputed their lives, and fell not unrevenged. Some defended their Quarters; amongst the rest, [Page 114]one Vitenski, a young Polish Gentleman of great Quality, made good his with a great slaughter of the Rabble, till not be­ing able to force him, they caused Cannon to be drawn before the house. Upon that he hung out a white Flag in token of sur­render; and then causing his Servants to cast out handfuls of Gold and Silver a­mongst the Rabble, he engaged them all in the scramble; and then being well se­conded by his Friends and Servants, he sal­lied upon them, forcing his passage through the lives of many a Russian, and making way with his Sword, bore all before him; till being spent with toil, and the carnage he had made, he was ready to be overwhelm­ed by their numbers, when some Russian Lords coming seasonably to the place, in­terposed their power, and rescued him out of the hands of the people. Duke Constan­tine Wisnioweski and the Palatine being in their several Palaces, which were large and strong, received many of their Coun­try-men which fled from the peoples rage in to them, and defended themselves maugre the force that was prepared a­gainst them; killing a great number of that giddy multitude who attempted them. The houses of Embassadors were [Page 115]in the height of this fury considered as Sa­cred, they only of all Foreiners escaped untouched. Many Merchants upon account of their Traffick with Poland were pillaged and murthered; and at this time they, espe­cially the Stranger-Merchants and Jewel­lers, were more numerous, and had more Riches about them than ordinary, in order to the great confluence of people at Musko, to celebrate the great Dukes Nuptials.

This Massacre (as no violent thing is perpetual) ended with the day, in which there fell twelve hundred of the Poles, and four hundred of the Russians. The dark­ness of the night was accompanied with horror and silence, as if guilty of the more dismal preceding day. The next Morning the Boyarians being recollected, went to Council, where the first thing proposed, was, the Election of a New Prince, as the only Expedient to prevent future Com­motions. Zuiski observing the temper of the Nobility, and that many had an eye up­on him; the better to dispose them in his favour, and to remove such Objections as might be urged against him, is said to have spoke in the Assembly to them after this manner:

My Lords and Friends,

THat Station wherein God hath placed me a Member of this Empire, as it rendred my Actions of an extraordinary Nature in these late Revolutions, so it hath plunged me upon some inevitable, though irregular Expedients; without which it had been impossible to rescue the Honour of the Empire from the Confusion ready to over­whelm it. But as you, my Lords, are Wit­nesses for me of our Disorders, so am I to my self, of that reverence I bear to our Laws, and to the Majesty of him that is seated upon the Throne. These considera­tions did so long restrain me, that I had almost suffered my self to be born down with the Torrent, rather than tread a way to redeem millions of People from the In­undation. But a just zeal to my native Country, and the Honour of the Royal Fa­mily, having at length subdued the temper of my Nature, I shall instead of excusing what is done, bemoan to you the unhap­piness of our Fate, that hath left us no o­ther way to avoid Death and Confusion, but through it. To what extremes were we re­duced, when the Sword of Justice must be committed to the hands of the Multitude [Page 117](who commonly strike blindfold) and that nothing but Blood, Horror, and Confusion could preserve us either a Being, or a Name! But the work is done, the Tyrant is chasti­sed, and the ashes of our dead Emperour in some sort appeased: We are now to look forward; and in order thereto to consider, how God the Disposer of Empires, had by a long and uninterrupted Series of Princes, devolved this greatest of Christian King­doms upon the Person of John Basilius; whose great Mind not enduring to be restrained within the Bounds of his antient Domini­ons, extended his Conquests by the accession of two great Kingdoms to the Empire; and [...]f any particular Persons suffered under the violence of his temper, yet the universal be­nefits of his Victories did abundantly balance those private mischiefs. My several Employ­ments and Trusts under that Great Prince in Peace and War, in Negotiations and Em­bassies, and Battles, as it gave me a particu­lar knowledge of, and Honour for so Illu­strious an Emperour, so it gave me an In­spection into the Mysteries of State, which [...]y degrees had so naturalized me into the [...]oncerns of the Empire, that I think I may, without vanity, assert my actings, as prin­cipally respecting the Honour of my Prince, [Page 118]and the safety of my Country. But Basi­lius being dead, our Glory (as if he had been the Soul of our Nation) withered away under the Conduct of Theodorus; whose infirm, melancholick Complexion, bearing no proportion with the Courage of his People, they seemed to degenerate from what they had formerly been; and the bar­renness of the Great Dutchess conspiring with the indisposedness of the Prince, our Government was no longer supported by his Vertue, but rendred a Prey to the Designes of her Favorites. And though her unfruit­fulness had by our known Laws actually re­pudiated that Lady from the Emperors bed, yet by the artifice of that worst of men (whose Name ought to be in horror with us) she was continued near him, whilst that cursed Brother of hers, Boris, having thus, and by the Murther of Demetrius, deprive [...] us of all hopes of a Successor, had by the influence of a secret Poyson, laid a Train for the life of Theodorus, and was to take effect in point of time, with his other hel­lish Contrivances for the attaining of the Empire. Then was it, that our Banks be­ing born down in the Extinction of the Roy­al Family, our Calamities broke in upon [...] like a Deluge; and such miseries as were [Page 119]not within humane Comprehensions, were acted upon us by the vilest of Monsters; whose Villanies were such, that had we not our own Testimony for our Sufferings, we should never credit that of any other. It was from the Sense of this bleeding Condi­tion, that I judged it necessary to close with any Pretensions, for the Extirpation of so abhorr'd a Tyranny; judging it a less evil to own the supposed Demetrius, than to sit under the Cruelties of Boris; and no other way being then visible, I was constrained by the Aid of an Impostor, to revenge the Roy­al Family upon a bloody Ʋsurper: In or­der whereto, I recommended him to you, my Lords, and to the whole people, as the right­ful Heir. But this Mushroom thus set at the Helm, immediately attempts to hurry us from one confusion to another; nothing of ours was Sacred in his eye, the Religi­on of our Fore-fathers was become our re­proach, our antient Laws trampled on and violated, new Fashions and uneasie Cu­stoms introduced upon us, our Liberties ta­ken away, and the Government put into the hands of Strangers. These considera­tions made me break through all difficul­ties to resist the Impostor, and with the ha­zard of my life to refuse him those Honors [Page 120]which were due to a lawful Prince. 'Tis true, I fell into his hands in the Attempt; and that he spared my life, when the Exe­cutioner was ready to take it from me: But I owe it him but as to a Thief, who had no right over it; and who when he might, did not take it away. Though this might oblige any other of less zeal for his Country, yet I, who lay under greater obligations to that, and that never cared to live for my self alone, was after some reluctancies upon the sence of ingratitude resolved to embark my Fame in the same Vessel that had the charge of the Common-Interest; chusing ra­ther to Shipwrack with that, than to lie secure with my own Concerns in the Harbour. That which gave life to my Endeavours, was the faithful concurrence of you, my Lords, whose Zeal and Courage in so glorious an Attempt, as it contributes to the eternal Ho­nour of your Memory, so it receives Testi­mony from the Great Disposer of Empires, who hath signalized his Approbation of our Actings in the Event. And now, my Lords, being we are delivered from our Bondage, and have once more day before us, that the Royal Line is extinguished, and that we are in the quality of a free people, it behoves us, as good Patriots, to provide for the Go­vernment [Page 121]of these vast Territories, in a way consistent with their antient Constitu­tions: in order whereto, let us look into the Commonwealth, for what is denied us in the Royal-Family; and pitch upon a Person fitly qualified for the Greatness and Honour of the Charge he is to undertake. Let his Extraction be Eminent, and of the first Rank, that the Glory of the Empire may not receive diminution from the mean­ness of his Blood, or the Nobles scorn Obe­dience to their Inferior; and let his Vir­tue be so Illustrious, that they have no room to envy his Precedencie. But above all things, make choice of a zealous Worship­per and Observer of our Religion, in the Rites and Ceremonies of our Ancestors; which besides that it draws down the Bles­sing of Heaven upon us, it checks all Con­spiracies hatcht under the Mask of Godli­ness and Conscience. Let your Prince be a Person of years and Experience in the Af­fairs of State, considering that besides our disorders within, we are surrounded with Enemies from without, who lie in wait to invade us, and are ready to close with any distempered Spirits for our confusion. Let him be one who will account Justice and Temperance a more firm Support, than [Page 122]Pride and Arrogance to the Royal Majesty; who measures his safety from the Affection of his People, and his Treasure from the Preservation of their Propriety, and the Splendor of their condition. When I dis­course at this rate, you will possibly say, Where can you point us to such a Person of these Accomplishments? I know 'tis dif­ficult to do so; but it being the duty of a worthy Commonwealths-man, and becom­ing the Honour of this great Assembly, to propose the best things: Let us in the Name of God proceed to our Election with all necessary prudence and sincerity.

This insinuating Speech being received by the whole body of the Lords with universal applause, they passed an unani­mous Vote in favour of the Orator; who being a Person of great Birth, and great Parts and Experience, was elected Prince, Emperour, and great Duke of Muskovy, by the concurring Suffrages of all the No­bility upon the place; who immediately passed an Act of State for the confirming of the Election upon the Person of the Il­lustrious Prince Basilius Zuiski, who ascen­ded the Royal Throne of Russia upon the 17th of June 1606.


Basilius Zuiski being scarce warm in his Throne, is disturbed by ano­ther pretended Demetrius. Puti­wol by the artifice of Schakopski, declares for the Impostor. His Lieutenants beat the Zuiskians, and block up Mosko. Masalski is defeated, and the Muskovites be­ing reduced to great streights, give the Lady Marina her liberty; who after some difficulty acknow­ledges this Pseudo-Demetrius to be her Husband. King Sigismund invades Muskovy, and Besieges Smolensko. Demetrius flies to Caluga, his Army mutinies by the practices of Marina, and dis­solves. Zolkievius beats the Mus­kovites at Clusinum. Zuiski is deposed, and Prince Uladislaus chosen Great Duke of Muskovy.

BAsilius Zuiski being thus chosen Em­perour, his Coronation was hasten­ed, to prevent any change in the Affections of the People; which being performed with the usual Ceremonies of State, he took upon him the Administration of the Government, placing Guards upon the Lodgings of the Palatine and Duke Wis­nioweski, as well to observe their motion, as to preserve them from injury. He also caused the Lady Marina to be delivered to her Father with what was hers, ex­cept the Jewels of the Crown presented to her by Demetrius, which were restored again into the Treasury. And to put some Countenance upon the late Tumults, he published a Declaration against the slain Demetrius, rendring him guilty of Impo­sture, Witchcraft, Heresie, and Tyranny. The People, as 'tis their nature, fond of what is new, and of their own Creation, received all that came from him as Ora­cles; and perceiving he took delight to vilifie and traduce Demetrius in his Wri­tings, they to Complement his humour, digged up his poor Carkass out of an ob­scure Grave which had been given it, af­ter three days lying above ground; and [Page 125]after a repetition of barbarities upon him, they burn the body, and scatter the ashes in the Air.

And now the Great Duke casts about how to establish his Interest abroad; in order whereto, he renewed those Corres­pondencies which had been held betwixt that Crown and forein Nations, by wri­ting his Letters to several Princes of Chri­stendom, wherein he gave a Narrative of the troubles of Muskovy, and his own ad­vancement to the Throne. A Copy of his Letter to our King James, is extant in our Country-man Purchas his Pilgri­mage, to which I refer the Reader; it being too long to insert in this place. Which though it be in a rude Copy of Language, yet speaks that Nation to be men that understand the compass of their business, though not much of Rheto­rick.

And thus ended the most unhappy De­metrius, an unparallel'd Example of both the extremes of Fortune, and the Incon­stancie of Popular Favour; for being by them brought from a Convent to a Crown, he was by them also precipitated from so splendid a height, into a calamitous abyss of misery. But whether he was truly [Page 126] Basilius his Son or not, is uncertain, and will ever be so; nay, it is questionable whether he was slain in this Muskovitish Tumult, or afterwards: for Fame, as she had divulged him long since slain, so now when he seemed dead to all men, she a­gain raised him, and exposed him in a second Resurrection. For the Tumult was scarce appeased, when a report ran through the City, that he was still a­live; another having in the hurry been kill'd for him, & not possibly to be known, being so unhumanely mangled, for all his being publikely exposed. 'Twas fur­ther muttered, that he had disguised and withdrawn himself betimes, esca­ping the danger upon swift Horses, which he had taken out of his own Sta­bles. Neither was this Rumor without appearance, there having been several Stalls in the said Stables found empty of their Horses, which he afterwards affirmed he had made use of in his flight. Such who wished him well, believed this noise, be­cause they desired it; and others who did abhor the flagitious Cruelty of what was acted, or preferr'd turmoils before quiet, did not contradict it. But the business was put out of Controversie, when after a [Page 127]few days Demetrius did indeed appear; but whether the true, or an Impostor (which I am apt to believe) is not yet de­cided. Whoever he was, the Poles flock to him, to revenge their Massacred Coun­try-men, and the Violation of the Laws of Hospitality; they acknowledge him for the true Demetrius Emperour of Mus­kovy, and make War upon Zuiski with such revengeful obstinacie, that it cost him his Crown, his Liberty, and lastly, his Life, and consumed them an immense mul­titude of Men and Money. But to re­late things in order: During the Confu­sions and Tumults at Musko, George Scha­copski, Lord-Keeper of the Great Seal, and faithful to Demetrius, seeing the irresistible Torrent that was broke in upon them, con­trived for his own escape out of Musko, and taking two Poles with him in Russian Habit, got away unobserved. The design­ed place for his Retreat was Putiwol a Ci­ty that had stood vigorous for Demetrius in the Infancie of his Acquisitions. Be­ing got about 30 Mile on his way, upon his leaving the Inn where he had refresh­ed himself, instead of asking the Hostess what was to pay, gave her a handful of Gold; with which she being equally trans­ported [Page 128]with amazement and joy, desired to know the Author of that Profusion. Schacopski answered, As for my self, I am a Prince and Lord in Musko; but my place is to attend upon the Great Duke, whom the Rebels think they have mur­thered, but you have had the Honour to harbour him this day under your Roof. Having said this on purpose to raise a Rumor of his being yet alive, they im­mediately take Horse, and post away to the River Occa; where being wafted over in the Ferry, they gave the Waterman six Gold Crowns; and told him, he had had the Honour to serve the Great Duke De­metrius (pointing at him that passed under that Character) and promising the Wa­terman high Preferments for that days Ser­vice, if he ever should be restored to his Empire; charging him, as the Hostess be­fore, in the mean time, to keep their coun­sel, lest they should be pursued. Being landed, they mount again, and post on to­wards Putiwol, taking all opportunities by the way, to possess the world of De­metrius his being alive, and escaped out of the reach of the Conspirators. Scha­copski being arrived at Putiwol, sent his two Poles forwards to Sandomiria, with [Page 129]Letters to the Palatine's Lady of what had befaln in Musko, and to assure her, that the Great Duke, her Son-in-law, was escaped seasonably, and hoped suddenly to be in the head of an Army, to revenge upon his re­bellious Subjects their Treason & Disloyal­ty. Schacopski having made his dispatches to Sandomiria, applied himself to the Citizens of Putiwol, desiring Audience from them in the Name of the Great Duke Demetri­us his Master; which being granted, and an Assembly called, he took the liberty to enlarge upon the unheard-of Barbarities of the Citizens of Musko, how they had slaughtered the Inhabitants without re­gard of quality; laying their malice so deep, as to attempt the Murther of the Emperour; but that he had been preser­ved by the Providence of God, who had always an especial regard on his Sacred Per­son: By whose Impulse, having taken some of his best Horses out of his own Stable, He, with a small, but faithful Company under his conduct, had withdrawn himself betimes out of the Tumult: That he was retired to his Allies in Poland, for Aid against his Re­bellious Subjects; having left him to attend the Affairs of the Empire in his absence, with an express direction to apply himself [Page 130]in his Masters Name to that Loyal Town, to assure them that he was alive, and well, and preparing to vindicate the Honour of his Empire out of the hands of the Conspirators. Schacopski was not wanting in Arguments to provoke the Zeal of the Citizens to the Service of their Prince; how great an Honour it would be to that City, to be the only place in that vast Empire to which their Prince durst commit his Person and Interest: That he would not fail to stamp upon them particular marks of his Fa­vours and Resentments for their seasonable Loyalty; and that it would be their Eter­nal Glory to bring in their Great Duke, and to place him upon his just Throne; cleansing the same from the pollutions of Conspiracies and Usurpations. His Ora­tory had that effect, as to inflame them up­on the place with Resolutions to declare for Demetrius as their Leige-Lord and So­vereign; that their Lives and whatever else was dear to them should be at his devo­tion, and that in the mean time, till he ho­noured them with his presence, they would submit to his Commissioner the Lord Keeper; who having gained this great Ci­ty, failed not to sollicite the Neighbour-Country. He dispatched Posts into Tar­tary, [Page 131]inviting all that had the courage in behalf of an injured Prince, to repair to Putiwol. The Cossacks flock in; and in four weeks he had perswaded fourteen Castles in those parts, to follow the Example of Putiwol; taking a new Oath of Alle­geance from them in the name of Demetri­us against all his opposers, and particularly against the bloody Usurper Zuiski.

Zuiski alarmed with the Rumour of a new Demetrius, and that a considerable party had declared for him, under the Command of Isthoma, a great Lord, made all the speed possible in his Levies, to check that growing evil; and encountring that Demetrian General, was totally defeated: Who pressing upon him, as Master of the field, blocked him up in the Imperial City, and sate down with his Army at the di­stance of about a Mile from it. Whilst Isthoma lay incamped there, there came up to him an Army of twelve thousand Cossacks under the Command of John Po­lutnich, a Souldier of Name, who was come out of Poland, and produced a Com­mission from Demetrius to Command in Chief as General; which Isthoma, after some disputing, was constrained to yield to, but apprehended the affront with so [Page 132]great disdain, that he resolved not to brook it, or after having chased Zuiski out of the the field, to truckle under the Command of Polutnich, who was about to ravish from him the Palms due to his Victory. Hurried on by these Sentiments of scorn, he risked the blasting of his Honour, by an extraor­dinary tenderness of it; and having de­bauched 9000 of the Army, he went over to Zuiski with them; who gave him a re­ception sutable to the seasonableness of the kindness; and much more, when Isthoma had assured him that no Demetrius had appeared in Putiwol; and that the whole trouble of his Affairs was formed by the contrivance of the subtle Schacopski, who to render himself considerable, had pos­sessed the people with a suggestion of De­metrius his being alive. This Relation from Isthoma was immediately communi­cated to the people; who, however, were not without their fears; and therefore sent out to Polutnich, demanding of him to see their Lord Demetrius, and they would cast themselves at his feet for pardon: and immediately Polutnich returned answer, that in truth Demetrius was in Poland, that he had there seen and spoke with him, and received from his own hand the Com­mission [Page 133]mission by which he then acted as General. Some of the Lords sent again, to assure him that the Great Duke Demetrius had been kill'd in Musko, in the face of the whole people; that if any one assumed that Name, he was an Impostor: Perswa­ding him further to quit that counterfeit Prince, and joyn himself to the Party of the rightful Emperour, who would gra­tifie his Loyalty with Preferments and Honours sutable to the Merits of his Ser­vice, in preventing the effusion of Chri­stian Blood, & the harrassing of the Coun­try, the guilt whereof would lie heavy at his door, if he should not hearken to their wholsome invitation. But he re­jecting those offers with indignation, re­plied, he had taken an Oath of Loyalty to Demetrius, which he would preserve inviolable, and not like the perfidious [...]sthoma, betray the trust reposed in him: He added, that he neither desired nor ca­ [...]ed for Zuiski's favour, only required of [...]he Citizens, that if they would not have [...]hat Christian blood which they so much pitied, spilt, they should forthwith re­turn to their Duty and Obedience they [...]wed their lawful Prince, deliver the U­ [...]urper Zuiski into his hands, and lay [Page 134]down their Arms: in doing so, he would grant them an Act of Indemnity and Obli­vion in the Great Dukes Name, and promi­sed they should be restored to that rank & place which the Loyal City did formerly obtain in the Great Dukes favour. On the other side, they were to expect nothing but the indignation of an incensed Lord, and of an enraged Souldiery. This Polut­nich was a Muskoviter born, but had been brought up amongst the Tartars and Cos­sacks, and being taken prisoner by the Turks, had served as a Gally-slave against the Christians, till amongst others, he hap­pen'd to be released by the Venetians; and passing through Poland towards his own Country, he met at Sandomiria with this new Demetrius; to whom being present­ed, he received conditions from him, and engaged himself in his Service, as General of his Army; upon which account he lay now encamped before Musko. But the Citizens perceiving that no Demetrius did yet appear, took heart; and making an unanimous conjunction with Zuiskis Troops, made a furious Sally upon Polut­nich; who not able to sustain the assault of an hundred thousand men, was forced to quit his ground, and save himself by a dis­orderly [Page 135]retreat, in Caluga. Zuiski trans­ported with the Success, returned Trium­phant into Musko; and having modelled his Army for a march, advanced towards Caluga, and sat down before it; but was forced by the Valour and Conduct of the Lord Keeper to raise his Siege. However, having recruited his Troops, he marched again to find out the Enemy; and both Armies being met, were upon the point to encounter, when Schacopski being terrified with the unexspected defection of 4000 of his men, not daring to hazard the rest in so great a consternation, was constrain­ed to quit the Field, retreating to Thula, whither he was hotly pursued by Zuiski, and the place closely besieged, in such sort, that not having had time to put in Provisions, they were soon reduced to the eating of Horses, Dogs, Cats, Rats, and such other things as were abhorring to nature. This quickly raised the Citizens into a mutinous posture against Schacopski and Polutnich, as being betrayed by them, up­on an imaginary supposition, to adhere to a fictitious person that had not a being; else that Demetrius, if he had been alive, would not have failed in such a juncture of his Affairs, to have asserted his Interest [Page 136]in Person. Polutnich protested to them, that he had seen and discoursed with a young man in Poland of about 28 years of Age, who called himself Demetrius, and was there acknowledged for such; but whether he were really so or no, he could not positively affirm, having never seen him before. But if the people would have a little patience, and stand by him, he would send out such a trusty Messenger as they should make choice of, one that knew the Prince, to inform them of the truth, and to see what hopes of relief was to be expected from him. This being resolved upon, an Emissary was sent out, by the fa­vour of the night, and the carelessness of the Besiegers; the Citizens resolving with patience to expect his return. In the mean time no Demetrius did appear; that person whom Schacopski had designed to assume his Name and Fortunes, being a Polish Gentleman, who thought it more safe to depend upon a plentiful estate of his own, than to change his private condition for the hopes and hazard of the Empire of Muskovy.

An Empire can never Escheat for want of an Heir: a new Demetrius shews him­self upon the Stage, coming out of Po­land, the forge of all the contrivances and [Page 137]troubles of Muskovy. He was conducted to Putiwol by Micharetski a great Polish Lord; and acknowledged there, and re­ceived with all imaginary honour, as their Prince and Sovereign. After a short stay there, he marched with what force he could make to Staradub, where he met the Messenger from Thula; who be­ing brought into his presence, was start­led at the sight of a person only very like Demetrius, but in reality not he. Deme­trius observing his dissatisfaction, judged it more advisable to carry the news of his relief in the head of his Army, than put himself into the hands of one who might raise in the City a prejudice against his Person and Interests. This precaution was not unreasonable, though it proved fruit­less; the Garrison of Thula being reduced to those straights, especially for want of water, (and supposing by the Messengers long stay that he was fallen into the Ene­mies hands) they came to Terms for a Surrender; which being honourable as to the condition of Souldiers, Zuiski swore to observe, but failed in the performance; for he caused Peter Fedrowits, an eminent person, to be hanged, and Polutnich to be cast into a loathsome prison, where he [Page 138]was miserably famished to death.

Thula being reduced in this manner, the Demetrian Cossacks quitted their own Party as desperate, to follow that of the Conqueror; and were with some other Troops sent by Zuiski to prosecute the Siege of Caluga, the Enemies principal Re­ceptable. The Quarters were scarce mark­ed out before the Town, when there hap­pened a desperate Mutiny amongst the Souldiers, propagated by the Cossacks, as was supposed, upon the news of Demetrius his recovery and approach. This gave so great a terror to the rest of the Army, that being possessed with a pannick fear, they ran out of the Camp in the night in so great disorder, that they left their Baggage behind them, and made towards Musko with all their might. The Cossacks see­ing themselves left to their own disposal, called upon the Garrison to receive them into the Town, assuring them of their friendship, and the flight of the Russians. The Garrison wondring their deliverance should be so near and so unexspected, could not upon the sudden (being agitated with the passions of hope and fear) re­solve what to do; until being ascertained by their Spies and Parties they had sent [Page 139]out, of the truth of it, they opened their Gates and arms to receive their Delive­rers, and joyntly with them plundered the Camp, bringing into the Town in Triumph all the Provisions and Cannon of the same. The Cossacks themselves would not enter into the City, but hastening to meet Demetrius, joyned themselves to his Ar­my, with the mutual congratulations of both sides.

Demetrius being thus revived, many Muskovites, and very many Lithuan [...] and Poles came flocking in to him [...] out of Novelty, others out of resp [...], many for Pillage, and most for Revenge, and being now rendered considerable by the accession of the revolted Cossacks, he marched in quest of the Enemy, whom he encountered and defeated, being 8000 men, and took Mathew Misinowski their General Prisoner; with wch success having gain'd a strong reputation, the Towns of Se­veria gladly returned to the obedience of their old Lord, and furnished him abun­dantly with all necessaries for the War.

But the Supplies from Poland were the main appay of his Army. Duke Roman Rosinski being engaged in the Quarrel, sent great Forces under the Command [Page 140]of Walareski, a Creature of his, out of that Country; and a while after, Duke Adam Wisnioweski, Tischievicz, Charlinski, Mi­elski, men of Eminence; and at length Rosinski in person came up with the rest of the Army; and at the same time there arrived at the Rendezvouz a Recruit of 8000 Zoporensian and Dumensian Cossacks; so that the Army being now great, and u­nited into one body, Rosinski by the suf­frage of all the Peers and great Officers was declared General. Basilius Zuiski ob­serving the great growth and progress of his Rival, caused new Levies to be made, with which having formed an Army of 170000, though most raw men, he placed his Brother Demetrius Zuiski in the head of them, with Orders to find out and fight the Enemy. And now behold both Ar­mies in sight of each other, encamped near the Town of Bolchow! The first day was spent in Skirmishes, Picqueering, and other hostile Braveries. The next Morn­ing both Armies impatient of looking upon each other, were drawn out in Battalia with all the advantages that the ground would admit, or able Officers could contrive; the Generals caressing, exhorting, and encou­raging their Souldiers to do well with all [Page 141]their Rhetorick. Zuiski fierce in the con­fidence of his numbers and conduct, told his men, that now was the time to chastise the hereditary Enemy of their Country, the Pole, whose malice had been at work to create them those mischiefs under which their Kingdoms had laboured for divers years: That this was the second mock-Demetrius, framed and set up in Poland to be imposed upon them: That it would be a reproach to the Glory of their Em­pire, to receive Laws from Strangers, who by all Arts conspired their ruine: That this Demetrius whom they had now in the head of their Army, was one Master John, a School-Master of Pocala, a Town in Rus­sia Alba, as the other was one Grisko no­toriously known in Muskovy; and his vio­lent death suffered in the face of the whole world in Musko universally acknowledg­ed, till the wicked Pole, maligning their Greatness, had raised another Impostor, under whose countenance they proposed to themselves the inslaving of their Coun­try, and the rooting out of their Religion: That there was no deliverance from all these, and thousands more of miseries im­pending over them, but in their Courage: That they must resolve to win or die, and [Page 142]to lose the day at no other rate than the Ioss of their lives: That they must never survive their own happiness and the Glory of their Country; and that for his part, he would in that days fight give them the Example of a true lover of it. Demetrius on the other side, especially Rosinski, were not wanting to inflame the courage of their Souldiers by all the Arguments of Power to sway them; as desire of Empire, Revenge, and Spoils: That the Conquest of Russia depended upon the Points of their Swords, and that they had but that days labour to go in and possess that vast Empire. In short, both Armies joyn, with equal hopes and equal courage: The Fight proved but short though obstinate, and the success doubtful, till the Demetrians ha­ving before-hand placed their Chariots and Carriages; attended with their Ser­vants, with Drums, Trumpets, and Co­lours at a distance out of sight (an usual Polish Stratageme) caused them in the heat of the Battle to appear in view with cries and shoutings; which was so dreadful an object to the Zuiskians, that they be­gan to shrink, not daring to trust in their Courage against that fresh Reserve that advanced towards them: which the Polish [Page 143]Horse observing, seconded their fears with a violent Charge, wherewith they put the whole Army to an entire Rout, leaving behind them all their Cannon and Bag­gage upon the place. 5000 of the Mus­kovites saved themselves in Bolchow, who after being four days beleaguered, render­ed themselves and the Town to the mercy of the Conqueror, and were for their en­couragement disposed and listed amongst his Troops. The fame of this Victory o­pened him a passage into all the Cities and Forts in that Quarter, only Mosaise gave him the trouble of drawing before it, and then surrendered. And now Demetrius being absolute Master of the Field, march­ed by great Journeys towards Musko, the Imperial City; confident, upon the stock of his last signal Victory, that the Citizens upon his approach would quit Zuiski, and receive him into their Town: and que­stionless the issue had justified his compu­tation, but for the new perfidy of those 5000 men, who upon the rendition of Bol­chow had listed themselves under his Com­mand; for these left him again, and marched into Musko, assuring the Towns­men, that the Polish Army was neither so numerous nor so formidable as Fame had [Page 144]rendered them: which comfortable Intel­ligence and Aid giving new life to the heartless Citizens, they resolve to adhere to the Fortunes of Zuiski; and taking ad­vantage by the delays of Demetrius, who instead of improving his Victory as he ought, suffered his men to ramble up and down the Country, they consented to new Levies for the recruit of their Army, wherewith they blocked up the way be­tween them and Severia: for the Poles were moved Northward, so that no further Supplies out of the adhering Provinces could well joyn with them; and many who were ignorant of this obstacle, were daily intercepted. But the Poles, at length grown sensible of their Error, drew back their Army to the South-side of the Town, and having forced those Troops which interrupted their Passage, encamped at Tusin with their whole strength, being en­vironed and secured by the two Rivers Moska & Tussin. From whence by their fre­quent & vigorous Excursions, they obliged the Muskovites to keep within their Walls. The Citizens seeing themselves thus shut up, and that they could not drive away the Enemy by force, betake themselves to other shifts; they apply themselves to the Polish [Page 145]Embassadors and the Palatine of Sandomi­ria, and propose a Treaty of Peace to them; and in the mean time mention a Cessation of Arms, as the only means to compass it. Their Designe was not so much a Reconciliation, as that the Poles, otherwise naturally careless and licentious, should waste their force and heat in a lan­guishing Truce, and that the designed Suc­cours for their relief might be ready against the designed time. But the Embassadors and the Palatine, who had been detained Prisoners ever since the Massacre, desirous of Peace and their liberty, send Peter Zba­rouski to the Camp, to perswade their Countrymen to return into Poland, and not disturb that Peace which they were then treating, with further hostilities; but in vain: for the Poles refused all commerce or mention of Peace, unless Demetrius, from whom they expected the reward of their labours, were first restored to his Throne, and the Usurper delivered into their hands. Rosinski was in the interim preparing for an attempt becoming the greatness of his Quality and Courage; for Duke Basilius Masalski a Kinsman of Zuis­ki's having raised an Army in the adjacent Provinces of 70000 men for the relief of [Page 146]the Town, had entrenched himself upon the Banks of the River Chodiunka, three Miles from the City. Rosinski being re­solved to attempt his Quarters, drew out his whole Army by favour of the night, and marching directly to the Enemies Camp, in a manner secure in the greatness of their numbers and nearness of the City, broke into it without any very great re­sistance, killed 14000 upon the place, took the General prisoner, and scattered the whole Army. Neither was the Victory cheap or bloodless on the Demetrian side; for while they were engaged upon the Pillage, being dispersed over the Field to rake up the Spoils, the touted Enemy fa­ced about, and rallying (being further en­couraged by a Party come out of the Ci­ty) returned to the Charge, and renewing the Fight with much pertinacie, made a slaughter amongst the Conquerors of mul­titudes of their men; in so much that they were upon the point of snatching the Victory out of their hands: when the Poles armed with despair only (for all hopes of flying was gone) rushed on with Resolutions to die or conquer, and finally compelled the Muskovites to a disorderly retreat. This considerable Victory mag­nified [Page 147]the Reputation and Terror of De­metrius his Arms. Many Provinces sub­mitted to him, and he was reinforced with many and great Supplies out of Poland. Alexander Zlarowski brought him an ad­dition of 1500 Horse, Sapiha as many, and several others other great Troops; in so much that the Muskovites (their own Forces being wasted, and such swarms of Foreiners pouring in upon them) despaired of being able to repel them: they there­fore betake themselves to new Counsels, and coming to terms with the Embassadors of Poland and the Palatine, still in their cu­stody, they gave them their liberty, upon their undertaking to oblige their King to remand the Army of his Subjects wch lay then at their doors: whereupon they, toge­ther with the unfortunate Marina in their company, were permitted to depart. Deme­trius having intelligence of this, and not ig­norant how advantageous it would be to his Cause to have these Persons with him; he sent Zbarowski with 2000 Horse to in­tercept their passage; wch he did without difficulty, bringing them to the Camp, where they were presented to Demetrius. But his Party was much out of countenance to ob­serve that strangeness of Marina's carriage [Page 148]towards him, with that of her Father and the Embassadors, all of them affirming that this Demetrius differed very much from the slain Great Duke. But this passage was husht up with all possible care and caution, and she sent to another Quarter of the Camp, no notice being taken that Demetrius had yet seen her; but this could not be so carried as to escape every observation: but what was most sensible was, that Knia­sus Masalski, the routed Generals Kinsman, then a prisoner in the Camp, made his e­scape; and getting into the Town, told the Muskovites the whole Story of Marina's arrival and doubts; which wrought so powerfully upon the waver­ing people, that they made new Vows of Allegeance and Fidelity to Zuiski; seem­ing resolved to suffer any hardship rather than this second Imposture, or to be impo­sed upon at the will of their Enemies. And therefore to testifie the fallacious dealing of their Adversaries to the whole world, and to satisfie all others as well as them­selves, they did by the instigation of Zuis­ki, depute some persons of Honour in principal esteem amongst them, to repair to Ʋglecz, with Orders to disinter the body of the true Demetrius, which had lain there [Page 149]15 years, and to convey it to Musko, to be deposited in the Sepulchre of his Fathers. The Body was scarce above ground, when it was cunningly insinuated into the peo­ple, that the touch of it did work mira­culous effects, which had been experimen­ted by the fortuitous touch of some di­seased Patients. The Veneration towards it was heightened by the Peoples astonish­ment at the uncorruptedness of the Corps (for it was found still entire) which ren­dered it blasphemous to question what was become an Article of their Faith, to wit, whether this was the true, or the other the false Demetrius. Many lame and sub­orned blind by their intercessions to this new Saint were restored to their vigour and sight: so that the senseless Corps, by the importunities of the more senceless Vulgar, was ordered to remain uninterred, until a Temple were built for its repose and their Superstition. A while after, the business grew so absurdly publick, that the Relicks of this fictitious Deity were by Zuiski's command, lest the fallacie should be discovered, suddenly, but very solemnly inhumed; this Reason being given, that though all manner of Honour was due to the Sacred Memory of their Prince, yet [Page 150]that Cult and that Veneration might by the mistaken zeal of the people be paid to a Mortal Creature, which is only due to the Immortal Creator; and so rendered them all in tangled in the same error, ob­noxious to the Divine Indignation.

But to return to the Camp, where we left the unsatisfied Marina, whose Ambi­tion had exposed her to extraordinary turns of Fortune; and that being still the predominant passion of her Soul, when she was retired from Demetrius to an Ap­partment prepared for her and her Father, she had better leasure to digest and weigh the posture of her Affairs; and consulting the matter with her Father and some of their most secret Confidents, they brought it to this, that she must either own this Demetrius, or return into her Country with all the disreputation and reproaches that could be invented by either Party. The Zuiskians would affirm she had married a mean wretch, a suborned property, a Mushrome started out of the earth, and as soon extinct: and Demetrius and his Ad­herents would give out, that she was in­deed his Wife, but that he had repudiated her for Incontinencie. On the other side, if she should receive this man as her for­mer [Page 151] Demetrius, she was sure to cast her self into the arms of some ignoble sordid person, set up only to gratifie the Interests of the Poles, and she must thus prostitute her self as it were to serve their ends. But then after a full consultation they came to this, that by owning this second Impostor (if the first were one) she should sit upon the Throne of Muskovy; and that how ungenerous or mean soever Demetrius were in the reality of his extraction, the Crown (as it cures and wipes off all At­tainders) would Nobilitate and purifie his Blood; and that in truth Nobility it self was no other than a continued Succession of Greatness beyond the memory of the present times, there being no essential diffe­rences in the Extractions, but what is made by Wealth and Education. These whole­some considerations being received by this wise Lady, she resolved to submit to the condition of the times, and to serve her self of this opportunity to ascend to the Throne of Russia, which she had but seen as it were before like a Scene in a Play. But now she proposed to her self, that this Demetrius being upon the point of redu­cing Musko it self, and bringing the No­bility to a greater subjection than they had [Page 152]formerly been, she hoped her Dominion would be longer-lived, as laid upon Foun­dations of greater Policie. So that after ten days separation (upon several preten­ces of indisposition) she suffered her self to be conducted to the arms of her Deme­trius, as she call'd him. The business be­ing a Designe of a popular nature, was ad­vised to be acted in the face of the whole World; in order whereto, Demetrius was to meet his Empress in the presence of the whole Army, when all the Nobility, Em­bassadors of forein Princes, and Deputies of revolted Provinces were upon the place. The Enterview was solemn, and full of passion. Demetrius received Marina into his arms, and intermingling their tears with their embraces, the whole bu­siness was acted so to the life, that the most subtle and doubting observers could not refuse to be satisfied. The Lady mingled the testimony of her love with marks of esteem and reverence as to her Lord as well as Husband; and he repeated his em­braces and endearments with so vive a pas­sion, that they drew tears of joy from the Beholders. He was not wanting in a par­ticular application to the Palatine, making him his acknowledgments for all the Ho­nors [Page 153]he had received from him in the In­fancie of his Affairs; and they failed not to mention some particular passages of that time, which both of them seemed to remember very well, and with much plea­sure. This Ceremony being performed with all necessary circumstances, the most wave­ring seemed now confirmed of the reality of Demetrius, and came flocking to the Camp from all Quarters. And thus did this Fa­ble, contrary to the nature of Untruths, gain ground by age. In the mean time it was judged needful to fortifie and ac­commodate the Camp, as well against the approaching Winter, as the attempts of the Enemy. Several goodly Edifices were erected for the Nobility, and Tents and Huts prepared for the rest of the Army; so that the whole being divided into Streets and publike places, had the resemblance of a great City. All the Provinces of the Empire except Novogrodock and Smolensko made their submissions to Demetrius, sup­plying his Camp with abundance of Pro­visions of all sorts. The Inhabitants of Musko being by the defection of the Country and the ill neighbourhood of the Camp reduced to great straights, yet had courage enough not to yield, but applied [Page 154]themselves to Charles King of Sweden, who having usurped the Crown upon his Nephew Sigismund, was glad of any op­portunity to incommode him; and there­fore sent them a considerable force under the Command of Pontus de la Guarde, which gave them a strong diversion the Summer following; and many Provinces of the Empire being tired and exhausted by intolerable Contributions exacted from them by the Poles, grew to a detestation of them; which having rendred the distra­ctions of that vast Country universal, the Camp it self was not without strong effects of them, by Schism and Dissention a­mongst the Great Ones, whereby many opportunities of well-doing were omitted and neglected. Hence arose a new face of Affairs, and prodigious Vicissitudes; for all things seeming to conspire against the Imposture of Demetrius, fatally oppo­sed him, even in the moment that in hu­mane appearance he should have trium­phed over all his Enemies.

Whilst these things are thus moving in Muskovy, Sigismund the Third King of Poland was induced by the perswasions of his Senate and Council to invade that di­vided Empire: and to what was objected [Page 155]that there was a Truce in being, the time of it not yet expired; it was answered, that this was no Violation of that, but ra­ther an adhering to it, by appearing for De­metrius the lawful Great Duke, and in actual possession of the greatest part of the Empire, against an Usurper, who had cau­sed himself to be elected by perfidie and force. This would acquit them as to the world; and then as to that thing, it was very advisable with relation to the present posture of their Affairs. Their civil Dissentions were but newly calmed; and if any seeds of them remained, this would be a means to root them up, by di­verting the humour upon another Enemy, and burying in Oblivion the former heats and animosities among themselves, by a nobler War abroad. It would also purge their Country of those swarms of vagrant Fellows and Robbers which now infested it, being the Excrements of their unhappy Discords; and to all this 'twas urged, that this War carried no charge with it: The Army was ready upon the least Summons, and would be able without difficulty to march into Russia, where they should live upon the Country as soon as they should set foot in it. There were many other [Page 156]Arguments of Honour and Interest, as to revenge the Massacre of their Country­men, and the detention of their Embassa­dors, and the employing so powerful a Neighbour at his own home and charges, &c. all which being laid together, it was determined to invade Muskovy with a Royal Army, and the King in the Head of it, where he could not in a divided & distract­ed State fail to give Law to both Parties.

Sigismund in order to this Designe mu­stered his Army at Orsa, which consisted of 6000 Lances, 18000 light-Horse, and 5000 foot; and passing the River Boristhe­nes, entred Muskovy in Aug. 1609. Leo Sapiha Chancellor of Lithuania, had per­swaded the King that if he but appeared before Smolensko the place would be im­mediately surrendred into his hands This Temptation put him upon a hasty March, taking with him neither Cannon nor any other Engines of Battery, going rather to receive than force a City stored with all manner of Provisions necessary for War. But having by long Marches got near the Town, he found himself very much mista­ken in his computation, the Garrison ma­king strong Sallies upon him; which look­ed so unlike a Surrender, that he conclu­ded [Page 157]himself deceived in his Intelli­gence.

Michael Sehin Palatine and Governour of the place had 30000 Souldiers with him besides the Townsmen, being as ma­ny more able to bear Arms, with an im­mense quantity of Ammunition, Artillery, and Provisions to serve for a long Siege: so that the Palatine upon a confidence of his strength, despised the Chancellors in­vitation for a Surrender. The King then seeing there was no entrance to be had unless forced, sate down before it, fancying that a short time would reduce so great a multitude to distress, however plentifully provided at present; being restrained from forraging, or the Country from bringing in their Provisions: or at worst, that they might be forced in a few Months, by a vi­gorous Attack. With these hopes he lays siege to the Place; which did not end so, for it held out above two years, with vari­ous changes and toils on both sides. Smo­lensko the Metropolis of a Province of that name, is famous for its largeness, wealth, and beauty; and being seated on the Banks of the Boristhenes, is encompassed with Hills and vast Woods. The Walls of the City are eight cubits thick, and 35 in [Page 158]height, whereof 15 are of free-stone, and the other 20 of Brick, built after the old fashion, as also without Ditches or Out­works to hinder Approaches. Sigismund considering the obstinacie and power of the Enemy, commanded Cannon for Bat­tery, Spades, Mattocks, and all other In­struments for a Siege, to be brought him from Vilna and Ticcocino, whilest he shuts up the Passages and Avenues of the City with his Quarters and Circumvallation. The King himself lay on Orsa side, his Quarters extending to the Banks of the Boristhenes; the Cossacks kept the East­side, reaching that way to the same River: Potocki Palatine of Bracl had his Post on the North-side beyond the River; and ha­ving burnt a Village near the City, which lay convenient for them to fetch in their supplies of Water, gave them some distress that way. Nowodorski a Knight of Mal­ta, and Captain of the Kings Guards, ren­dered himself famous for an Attempt, wherein if he had been vigorously second­ed, the place had run the risk of falling into the Kings hands. He fastened a Pe­tard to St. Michaels Gate, which laid the passage open into the Town; but being ill seconded by his own men, and [Page 159]multitudes of the Russians flocking to the danger, he was forced to retreat without having effected any thing more, than to ren­der the Enemy more diligent: who immedi­ately blocked up their Gates with Moun­tains of earth, making also great Trenches before them, to prevent the like Attempt for the future. And thus the Siege continu­ed with various labours on both sides; the King having lain about a year before it with more pertinacie than was judged conducible to the state of his Affairs, which seemed to invite him to Musko the Imperial Seat, as a place more probable to fall into his hands.

It was now the Year 1610, and the Zuiskians had laboured long against a pre­vailing Enemy at their Doors, when the Aids came from Sweden. The Poles in the Camp wanted not their inconveniencies: They had a multitude of Chief Comman­ders, which occasioned frequent Disputes, to the disappointing of many probable De­signes; they had to this a licentiousness in their Discipline, secure carelesness in the conduct of their Affairs (the natural in­firmity of that Nation) and an instabili­ty and irresolution in their Councils, all things seeming to portend their ruine.: [Page 160]Most of the great Cities and Provinces, except Severia, had revolted from their Obedience: Their Taxations were be­come intolerable, which the unseasonable Seditions of the Army had extorted from Demetrius for want of Pay; the People now too late repenting themselves of the Contributions already paid them, with­out which they must have left them to the enjoyment of that peace, which by their own folly and fickle nature they had de­prived themselves of. They proceeded so far in many parts of the Empire, as to seize upon, imprison, and kill the Tax­gatherers; which caused the Poles to di­sperse strong Parties of their Army into several parts of the Land, insomuch that their force in the Camp did not suffice to check the excursions of the Town, by whom they were several times baffled. Their Commander in Chief Rosinski up­on one of those Sallies was shot into the side with an Arrow, of which hurt he lay long sick, and never perfectly recovered. Upon an Encounter which happened in May, the Poles had gained a notable ad­vantage over them; but delaying their Re­treat, gave the Enemy time to come on with fresh Troops against their wearied [Page 161]Souldiers, whom they routed; and snatch­ing the Victory out of their hands, took divers Prisoners, and destroyed most of their Foot. The time was thus wasted, as well as the strength of each Party. The Poles having received Intelligence of the ad­vance of the Swedish Aids towards Musko under the Command of Pontus de la Garde, sent Alexander Zbarowski with 2000 Horse to check their progress. He beat one of their Regiments at Toccinum, and killed 600 Germans upon the place. The Muskovites concerned in the safety of these Auxiliaries, drew out their whole strength and joyned with them. The Poles also re­inforced Zbarowski with their best Troops; and being now in the Field again, both Armies met at Twer, 30 Leagues from Mus­ko: the Dispute was fierce, the Demetri­ans rushing with contempt upon those they had so often beaten; & the Russians seemed more willing to die than be overcome; which made the Fight bloody and doubt­ful, until these were forced yet again to give place to the Ascendant Virtue of the Poles. And certainly the business had there received an end, had not the main body of the Army, commanded by Zba­rowski himself, shrunk from the ground: [Page 162]for both his Wings prevailed over those of the Enemy, and dispersed those who had beaten his Battalia; but their number being inferior to that of the Enemy, they durst not follow the pursuit, or attack the body of Foot, which stood immoveable, notwithstanding the defection of their Horse. There were slain in this Fight 1000 German Horse, and 6000 Musko­vites, with the loss of but 50 Poles. The Main Body of Zbarowski's Army emulous of the Success of their Fellows, and pres­sed with the shame of their own miscarri­age, resolved upon the very spot of ground to redeem their sullied Honour, though contrary to the advice of some of their a­blest Souldiers, who counselled them to withdraw to a more advantageous Post. The Army labouring thus under divi­ded Counsels, but united in a careless se­curity, some lying in the Field, and others quartered in the Town: The rallied Ene­my about break of day fell upon them with a surprize so violent, that they had no choice left them, but to fly for their lives, or lie by it. Many save them­selves in Twer, which was Garrison'd with Cossacks; others scarce looked till they got to the Camp at Musko. The Poles did [Page 163]indeed what they could to have rallied, but the Assault being universal, it was im­possible for them to do it; which probably saved most of them; but they lost all their Baggage, and most of their Horses. The Muskovites raised upon the stock of this Victory, stormed the Castle of Twer thrice, but were as oft beaten off with loss; and now despairing of carrying the place, they raised the Siege, and marched to­wards the Volga, where they met again with the Demetrian Forces, and fought them at Kolasinum, but parted upon equal terms.

Whilest Zuiski and Demetrius do thus with various Fortune strive for the Empire of Russia, Sigismund continues obstinate at the Siege of Smolensko; which if he had raised, and transferred his Arms to Musko, it is very probable he might have given Law to both those wearied and implaca­ble Parties: but he was absolutely resolved not to quit the place till he had taken it, though it may be presumed he failed in his unseasonable distracting and weakning the Demetrian Poles, which he ought rather to have assisted with fresh Supplies, lest the Muskoviters prevailing, Zuiski might be confirmed in the Government, and at­tempt [Page 164]the relief of Smolensko with the united Forces of the Empire; which also happened. The King had not his Recruits so opportunely out of Poland as he desi­red; but he could not well call his Coun­trymen from Demetrius without satisfying their Arrears, and the rewards they had proposed from the Victory they seemed assured of; and the exhausted Treasury of the Commonwealth could not suffice for such a sum: but he positive in his resolves, sent some eminent Emissaries to perswade them to abandon Demetrius, and return to their Duty. They on the other side, sent their Embassadors to the King, that they might not by an untimely desertion be defrauded of the fruit of their labours: and after many altercations and disputes of Duty and Rewards, the Souldiery re­solved to persevere in their faith to Deme­trius, and which they were obliged to by the Sacred Ties of Vows and Oaths. There were, for all that, some who promised O­bedience, provided they might be paid their Arrears due to them from Demetrius. But the Kings wisest Counsellors judged that they ought still to keep in with De­metrius, and by no means to distract his Forces until Smolensko were taken: for [Page 165]then they might march to Musko without opposition; with assurance, that all the Polish Forces, and all the places possessed by them, would of course fall into their hands. It was certain, that every disgrace that happened to Demetrius would ad­vantage Zuiski: for the City of Musko would not only be delivered by dispersing his Army, but all the Demetrian Provinces revolt also from him; which proved true, as will appear hereafter: For the Kings Agents having at length gained Rosinski, Zlarowski, and some other Chief Officers, the rest began to waver; which did so ter­rifie Demetrius, that being sollicitous for his own security, looking now upon the Kings Engagement as a Designe to expose him, he resolved to withdraw, rather than be made a Sacrifice either to his Interest, or the Avarice of the Souldiery, who for the satisfaction of their Arrears, would (he thought) have delivered him up to Zuiski himself. He would however first speak with Rosinski, and endeavour to conserve him if possible, still; but to no purpose: which irritated him so much, that he re­proached him with levity and breach of Trust. This enraged Rosinski to that height, that he dared to call the Emperour [Page 166]to his face an Impostor, and the Son of a Whore. These Speeches not to be suffer­ed by a private man, did so disturb the Prince, that seeing himself not in a conditi­on to revenge them, or indeed to secure his own Person in his own Camp, he resolved to leave it; and taking Horse with only a very few of his Friends to Guard him, he privately got away, and fled to Caluga All the Boyarian Muskovites of his party did follow him; and his Lady, however left in the Camp, would not stay behind. The Embassadors endeavoured to detain her, and to perswade her return into Po­land; but she, like another Texena, affirm­ed, that she had not only wedded the good Fortunes of her Husband, but his Adver­sities also. The Embassadors did notwith­standing persist and earnestly press her to submit her self to the Kings Clemencie and Munificence. They did at length so much, that she seemed vanquished by their Rea­sons, promising she would send Embassa­dours of her own to the King; and gave them for the present her Letters to his Majesty, wherein having congratulated his arrival in Muskovy, she wished him all good Success. She farther complained o [...] the sad Vicissitudes of her Fortune, sub­mitting [Page 167]her self and her Concerns to God, from whom she did expect an end of her calamities and sorrows; she added, My adverse Fate hath deprived me of all: I have nothing left but the justice of my Cause, and my right to the Muskovitish Empire, confirmed by my Inauguration, and the double Oaths of all Orders of men. I relinquish all to your Majesties disposal, being assured of your Equity and Justice; only I beg, that you will treat me and my Family (who will be no small support to you in the acquisition of the Muskovitish Empire) according to our Dignity and your Magnificence.

Demetrius his flight being known, the whole Camp was in an alarm and tumult. Some would follow the Great Duke, some would go to the King, and others would continue in their Quarters till they had their Arrears. The Complaints against Ro­sinski were high and furious, by whose arti­fice & wickedness, they said Demetrius had been forced to quit the Camp, whereby the Souldiers should be deprived of the re­ward of their Blood & Labours. Demetrius his Letters read publikely did extremely foment their Seditions, but the presence and carriage of Marina transported them be­yond [Page 168]all bounds. She with a Courage more than Masculine, and a Countenance composed of sorrow and sweetness, wan­dered through the Camp, spoke to all she met, called such as she knew by their names, and urged those she did not, by the Charms of her looks and presence; to con­clude, she inflamed all with her winning Discourses. She tells them, that their Va­lour and Courages were to expect their Stipend and Reward of so many Travels from Demetrius only, it not being likely that the King would remunerate the Ser­vices they had done for others otherwise than with scorn and contumely. She de­monstrates to them the infinite Treasures of Muskovy, and the Greatness of the Em­pire; and assures them that the Great Duke would deny them nothing by whose fide­lity and fortitude he should be restored to what had been so cruelly usurped from him. The Souldiery being incensed with these and the like Discourses, the Dumensian Cossacks immediately leave the the Camp to follow the fortunes of Deme­trius. Rosinski would hinder them; but they persisting, endeavoured to break through the Polish Horse in their way They fought, and two thousand fell i [...] [Page 169]that Conflict on both sides. After this Fight, some ran into the City, and some went to Demetrius to Caluga, and the rest remained with their Chieftain Zarucki in the Camp. Some days after happened a­nother more grievous, but less bloody Se­dition, begun by the Polish Horse, and which threatned all with ruine. The Cause of this Tumult was Marina's flight, who when she had effected what she could with the Souldiers, omitting nothing to reconcile them to her own and her Hus­bands Interest, and now secure of a great part of the Army, she disguised her self in mans Apparel, and accompanied only with one Maid and a few Cossacks, came safe to Caluga. Before she parted, she wrote a Letter to the Army, which she left upon her Table in her Chamber, wherein she tells them, that she was forced to retire from amongst them, to save her Honour, her Fame, and her Life. She could suffer no longer the fast and opprobrious Lan­guage of that insolent and drunken fellow (meaning Rosinski.) She invoked God, the Avenger of wrongs; minds the Soul­diers of the Religion of their Vows: In­veighs against the flagitious perfidy of her Adversaries; and finally, extolling the Fi­delity [Page 170]and Courage of her Friends, bids them not only hope for, but assure them­selves of all they could wish for from the Great Duke, as soon as he had recovered his Empire. The last word of the Letter was, I part. This Epistle being read, was like the sounding of an Alarm, all being full of tumult and horror. The Souldiers ran to their Arms, and in threatning Troops haste to the Generals Tent, crying out, Is it so Rosinski, that by thy Pride and Debaucheries thou didst force the in­jured Marina to follow her banished Lord? What Captains shall we now fol­low? Thee perfide, and betrayer of the Souldiery, who being bought and deluded by the vain promises of the Kings Emissa­ries, wouldst deceive us of our Stipend, and the rewards of our Labours; Restore to us our Princes, and try thou first that butchery thou dost prepare for us. And therewith they made several shot with their Pistols at him; but he escaped that danger, though he could not appease the tumult; neither would they any more be Commanded by him, but chusing one Tiskevicius for their General, prepare to follow Demetrius their old Lord. For all this, the Chief Officers, and those most in [Page 171]favour with the Souldiery, had by their diligence and Authority welnigh appeased these disorders; which they had also pro­bably effected, if new Commotions had not interven'd, upon new considerations, to wit, that it was not safe to remain longer in the Camp so distracted and divided, without Order or Discipline, and in sight of an E­nemy vigilant and intent upon every oc­casion. This hurried them into new Con­fusions, and like so many Furies they all cry out they would immediately be gone; and packing up their Baggage, fired their Camp, which for the variety and Magnifi­cence of its Structures seemed another great City; and being ready to march, mutually engaged to keep together till they came to Volock, where every body should be at liberty to dispose of himself as he thought most for his advantage. Being come thi­ther, Sapiha and all his men resolving to follow the fortune of Demetrius, went to Caluga to him. Rosinski and Alexander Zbarowski with 4000 Horse and the Du­nensian Cossacks, went to their King at Smolensko. And thus this power which had so long blocked up Musko, and had trampled upon the Empire two years, and would certainly have subjugated both, [Page 172]was dispersed in the beginning of March 1610, by the ill Counsel, and to the very great detriment of King Sigismund; for the Enemy being well-nigh broke with the long Siege of their Metropolitan, ga­thered new force and vigour upon the rai­sing of it; and the King, who might have prosecuted the War at the expence and danger of others, drew the whole burthen of it, as it were, voluntarily upon his own shoulders.

In the mean time, the Zuiskian Musko­vites, not ignorant of the dissentions in the Camp, began to hope well; but lea­ving them to their discords, lest by attempt­ing them the sense of their common dan­ger might unite them, they turned their forces another way. They turned the Poles out of Peraslaw and Alexandria which lay there; drive Sapiha from the Siege of Troyeze, and reduced all the pla­ces about the Volga into their power. But when the City it self was delivered from their troublesome Neighbours, then, as if they had broken their Fetters, & been deli­vered out of a long Imprisonment, they re­assumed new courage and new vigour; and having in a short time recovered most of the Provinces which revolted to them, [Page 173]they sent the best part of their Army to follow Rosinski, who had possessed him­self of Volock and the strong Monastery of Osippow. He was necessitated to stay there, by reason of the indisposition his hurts had procured him. He kept with him 1500 Poles and 400 Cossacks, having sent the rest of the Army with Zbarowski to the King. His health was much impaired, through his daily toils and the smart of his old hurt; to which also contributed the perturbation and grief of his mind, which his ill Successes had created him, in that he had quitted Musko with less Glory and Splendor than he had attempted it. Na­ture and strength being decayed in him, he was overcome by the violence of his Malady; and unable to resist longer, was forced to submit to the necessity of his Fate, which deprived him of his life and hopes in a strange Country, which he had entred in Pomp and Triumph.

Rosinski being dead, Volviovius the Zuiskian General taking the occasion of the distraction his loss had bred amongst the Garrison, besieged Volock, and took it without much difficulty. Ossipow defend­ed it self better, in so much that the Auxi­liaries from Sweden, being French, and de­sirous [Page 174]to shew of what importance they were to their Party, having opened a pas­sage into the Fortress with a Petard, were after a very bloody Assault baffled and beaten off. But the place being more op­pressed by wants from within, than by any force from the Enemy from without, were forced to yield to the necessity of their condition; but scorning a tame surrender, they resolved upon a Salley, and to take the hazard of that as their safest and last re­fuge. The obscurity of the night was judged fittest for the Exployt; which be­ing come, they refreshed themselves with the whole Provisions of the place, and af­ter mutual embracings and encouragement of each other, they set open their Gates, and made towards Smolensko. Their Sally was furious, like that of men resol­ved to die, and they performed it with a Courage hurried on by despair, which made the Fight bloody, and the carnage great amongst the Muskovites; but they abounding in their numbers, and not be­ing surprized upon this occasion, killed most of the Poles, so that scarce 300 of them escaped in safety (and they were 1200 who sallied out) to Sigismund's Camp.

The Muskovites raised with this variety of Successes, formed to themselves an Ar­my of 30000 men, to wch were added 1000 French, De la Garde's Germans, and 6000 Suedes newly arrived under the Command of Count Edward Horn. Demetrius after his quitting the Camp lay with a few Sa­pihans at Caluga; but they despising his small force, marched to the relief of Smo­lensko. King Sigismund having no­tice of these preparations and their ap­proach, Commanded Stanislaws Zolkie­vius his General with 8000 choice men to obstruct their passage. The two Ar­mies engaged at Clusinum, where the Muskovites were again overcome by the Fatal Virtue of the Poles, in a great and memorable Battle. But it cost the Poles dear: for though their Right Wing had routed the Enemies Left, Commanded by Demetrius Zuiski the Great Dukes Bro­ther; yet the other Wing, consisting of Germans and other Strangers, stood their ground, which they had chosen advanta­geously amongst shrubs and other rub­bage, in such a place where the Enemies Horse could not come up to charge them without much difficulty; but being well seconded by their Reserves, they at last made so violent an impression upon this [Page 176]Wing also, that it was put to flight. There remained yet the Main Body of Foot, made up of Germans and Swedes, which kept entire; and the Polish being recal­led from the pursuit, prepared to make a Charge upon them; but they seeing them­selves abandoned by their Horse, and left singly to the fortune of the day, many of their men likewise stealing from them and running to the Enemy, durst not stand out the shock, but waved their Hats and hands about their Heads in signe of Parley; which being granted, and Hostages deli­vered, they surrendered themselves, for all what la Guarde (who was newly returned from the flight, whilest they were in Trea­ty) could intreat or do to the contrary. Those Wings that had been defeated, ha­ving rallied themselves, returned also to their Station, upon a confidence their Foot had stood their ground; but they came only time enough to be beaten over a­gain, the Poles having the pursuit of them till late in the night: and thus the Field being cleared of the Enemy, they had the entire Pillage of it, with all their Cannon and Baggage. The Germans, a Mercena­ry Soldatesque, took pay in the Polish Ar­my; the rest of the Captives, the Colours, [Page 177]and other Ensignes of Victory, were sent to the King at Smolensko; who shewed them to the Besieged with what Military Pomp and Ostentation they could be ex­posed, who were also invited to a Surrender after so signal and irrecoverable a loss; but to no purpose: for Sehin being of an in­trepid Courage, as if he alone would stay the declining fate of his Country, did dare singly to resist the course of so many Victo­ries. Volviovius lay at Czarow with a Party of 8000 Zuis kians, but terrified with this Success, did upon the first Summons render himself and his Army to the Con­querors discretion, Czarow being taken, the Polish Army marched towards Musko, whither the Sapihans, having routed the Zuiskian Tartars at Troycze, and a thousand Muskovites at Borowsko, did also hasten. The Russians broken with so ma­ny evils, being vanquished at Clusinum, at Troycze, and at Borowsko, and seeing the Poles approached their City, and that the Demetrians did meditate a new Siege; and finally, being the Germans were re­volted to the Enemy, and that there was no appearance of repairing their ruined Troops, did not know to what Saint to devote themselves, or how to extricate [Page 178]themselves out of so many impending mi­series. At length, after many and various agitations and consultations, they fix upon an expedient of a very extraordinary na­ture for their deliverance. In the first place they seize upon and depose their Great Duke Basilius Zuiski, as the unhap­py Author of all their miscarriages, and infamous for his Misfortunes, his Tyranny, and his Sorceries, with which they charged him; and with a passion equal with that wherewith they had raised him to the Throne, they pulled him down again, and thrust him into a Cloyster; giving at the same time out, that they would elect Ʋla­dislaws, King Sigismund's Son, Great Duke in his stead: proposing by this means that they should quit their hands of Demetrius, whom they equally scorned and hated; take away the cause of the War in one in­stant, and compose their harrassed Coun­try with such a Government, that would immediately rescue them from all other pretensions. They knew the Poles (whom they naturally hated like emulous Neigh­bours) would become secure by this Ele­ction, and that they themselves having breathed a while, and quit themselves of the War, should be able either to elude [Page 179]the Election of Ʋladislaws, or remove him as obnoxious to their Artifices, by rea­son of his Childhood, in due time. They then proposed to themselves the choice of a Prince of their own Blood and Manners, and the reverting of their Government into its antient Channel: all which hapned as they did designe, and their Counsels laid upon profound Reasons of State, had a Success accordingly. The Poles sway'd by a nea­rer Interest than that of Demetrius, had no care of recruiting his Party, but on the contrary prepared for the reinforcing of the City of Musko against his Attempts; in order whereunto (upon this bare Pro­mise of chusing Ʋladislaws for their Great Duke) Zalkievius sent Troops to their Aid to defend them against Demetrius; and following himself with the whole Army, he sate down on the East-side of the City (Demetrius his Camp being on the other) and a while after the Gates being set open for him, he marched through the City, and encamped with all his forces near Deme­trius his Camp. It was no hard matter for Zolkievius to debauch the Sapihans, upon his engagement for the Publike Faith of the Kingdom of Poland to be given them for their Arrears; so that they revolt­ed [Page 180]unanimously to him. Demetrius thus forsaken by them he confided most in, re­treated again to Caluga as an auspicious place, for the shelter he had formerly re­ceived there. His most faithful Friends, as if they had been obliged to his Fortune, not to him, did in this disastrous juncture of his Affairs expose him to his own de­spair. Zarucki that courageous Leader of the Dunensian Cossacks, with Kasinowski Prince of Tartary, his greatest Confidents, did likewise leave him for a time, submit­ting themselves with the rest to the will of the Conquereror. The Muskovites be­ing freed from Demetrius, would have respited the Election of their new Duke, but that there was no other choice now left them. They had an Army in their Bow­els, resolved not to quit the City till they saw their Prince seated upon the Throne. They therefore proceeded to the Election according to the usual Ceremonies, cau­sing him, though absent, to be Proclaim­ed, and Fealty sworn to him as Great Duke and Emperour, hiding all their secret aversions under the Mask of Joy and Ac­clamations: and that they might remove all shadow of suspition from themselves, they delivered the unfortunate Basilius Zuiski, [Page 181]with his Brethren John and Demetrius, into Zolkievius his hands; who also engaged, as likewise the great Officers of his Army, to the Russians, that the new Duke should speedily come to them, conserve their Religion inviolable, and maintain all the Priviledges of the Nobility and People. And thus was the Government upon a sud­den translated into new hands.


The Muskovites deal fraudulently with the Poles, refusing to deliver Smolensko in Prince Uladislaws's Name. Zolkievius lodges his Army in Mosko; but being dis­gusted, returns into Poland. De­metrius is slain by his Guards. The Russians revolt from the Poles, and fight them in their Chief City. Smolensko is taken, and King Sigismund returns into Poland. Zolkievius his Triumph, Life and Death. The Poles plun­der the Ducal Treasury; but being closely besieged in the Palace, are forced to surrender. King Si­gismund returns, but too late, to the relief of Musko. Marina and her Son are drowned, being thrust under the Ice. Zarucki is impa­led. Another Pseudo-Demetrius. [Page 183]Who he was He gathers an Ar­my, but is delivered up by his own men. Michael Federowicz is chosen Duke of Muskovy, by whose Command this last De­metrius is hanged.

ZƲiski being thus laid aside, and Ʋla­dislaws chosen in his place, there was a splendid Embassy sent to King Sigismund still before Smolensko, with an account of what they had done. They were received with much Honour, many prime Courti­ers, and all the Horse being sent to meet them. Being introduced into the King's presence, they humbly besought him in the name of all the Orders of Muskovy, that he would be pleased to take them and their afflicted Country into his Royal pro­tection. They then sollicite the speedy dispatch of the Prince to them, that in order to the compleating of their unani­mous Election, he might publikely be Crowned in the Royal City Great Duke and Emperour; and that they might en­joy the comfort of his Presence and Prote­ction. They likewise brought with them [Page 184]the Conditions upon which he was to be received; wherein the most considerable were: That a General Amnesty and Act of Oblivion should be passed, and all their Laws and Customs confirmed and esta­blished; and that for the better set­tlement of the Kingdom, their Duke must abjure the Romish Profession, and declare himself for the Greek Rites. The King having received their Message, and not ignorant of the wiliness and reserves of that subtle Nation, was not wanting in a return sutable to the occasion. He told them, that he did receive this Honour con­ferred upon his Son with great satis­faction, which should oblige him at all times to serve their Country with his best Aids and Counsels. And as to the Trea­ty, relating to its particulars, he did pur­pose to give Zolkievius (then upon the place) full Instructions for the compleat­ing of it at their own homes. The Em­bassadors after this Answer, and having been sumptuously feasted by the Prime Officers of the Court, with great and mu­tual professions of kindnesses, in so much as they seemed to be but one people, were dismissed.

The King having by this fully weighed [Page 185]the state of his Affairs, gathered to him­self many reasons not to believe the reali­ty of the Moscovites; for else why did they elect his Son and not him, but that they should be able when he had with­drawn his Forces out of their Land, to practise upon the unexperience of his Son by reason of his youth, and to justle him out of the Throne, to which they had rai­sed him out of necessity, not choice? And on the other side, if the King should for­bear to send him to them till he were of Age, they would take occasion from this delay to transfer their Suffrage upon ano­ther. He took a further Umbrage of their Designes from the refusal of the Garrison of Smolensko to surrender their City in the name of Prince Ʋladi­slaws, though he were declared and pro­claimed Great Duke with the usual Cere­monies: their excuse was, that they could not own him by so publike an Act, till he had been received in the Capital City, Crowned and Sworn to the maintenance of their Laws and their Protection. Zol­kievius had many ill-willers about the King, who were not wanting to cherish these apprehensions of prejudice contract­ed by him against the Russians; and ha­ving [Page 186]gained the Kings ear, they instill'd new Counsels into him: That this Election of his Son was an affront, and an imposing upon his Majesty, instead of receiving Law from him: That he had by his Arms re­duced them to those distresses, that they must suddenly lay themselves, that they must suddenly lay themselves at his feet; whereas now they addressed to him by their Embassadors with Conditions not only inglorious, but inconsistent with the state of his Affairs, and impossible for him to subscribe to: And that upon the re­ducing of Smolensko, he might consider himself as a Conqueror, and Rule that false People by such Laws as he should judge sutable to his Honour and Safety. But there were others of his Council that advised the preserving of that Faith which Zolkievius had Sworn to them in his Name, and by his Approbation: That by confirming of that, he would in one day render himself Master of a vast Empire, which it might cost him some years, besides a great expence of Blood and Treasure to reduce. And they being an obstinate people, might fall upon new Counsels, and close with Demetrius, whose Title would give him a trouble to resist, as well upon the account of Reason, as the power [Page 187]of his Arms. For it was upon the pre­tence of aiding Demetrius, that he inva­ded their land; who being restored to the Throne, the King could have no more a fair colour to stay in it: That his Army might by this means be paid all their Ar­rears, as the Souldiers of Ʋladislaws the Great Duke, out of the Treasures of Rus­sia; whereas the Kingdom of Poland, if it fell to them to pay it, would grow un­easie under so intolerable a burthen: That the practises of the Russians might easily be eluded by seating Ʋladislaws upon the Throne with an able Council about him, who should immediately provide pay for the Army, which they would not refuse upon his first reception, and while it lay in their Chief City: And as to the Articles, they might be well enough evaded and de­layed, while more Recruits were coming out of Poland. But the King's mind be­ing prepossessed, as if carried on by an irre­sistible Fate, adhered to the more violent Counsels of such as blew him up with a Punctilio of Honour, not to rise from be­fore Smolensko before he had reduced it, having cost him already above a years Siege, and was now upon the point of a rendition, or being forced. The King had [Page 188]raised a Battery against it, but did not pro­secute his matters with that quickness, but that they within had time to make a deep Ditch, and to raise new Ramparts in op­position to the Battery: after which the Cannon began to play; which indeed laid flat a great part of the Wall, with two Flankers that stood next it: the Assault was made, but in vain, they being repulsed with great loss. The Russians in the mean time clamoured at this breach of the Trea­ty, which had been celebrated with the Solemnity of an Oath; and that contrary to the Law of Nations, their Embassadors were detained. Which the King justified upon this Reason, that they refused to give order to the Governour of Smolens­ko to surrender the Town in their Great Dukes Name; and which they excused, as not within their Instructions.

The Affairs of Russia hung thus in sus­pence for some time, the people not da­ring to do more than mutter, while Zol­kievius and his Army lay enquartered in their Chief City. Demetrius also began to look up again, having sheltered himself in Caluga, while he was reinforcing his Party, which was much countenanced by the return of Zarucki and Prince Kazi­mowski [Page 189]to him, whose reception by King Sigismund bearing no proportion with what they proposed to themselves, left him, and returned again to the Service of their old Lord. But Zolkievius disdain­ing to be thus treated by the King, con­tracted violent discontents, in so much that taking the pretence of going to fetch the Prince to Musko, he left the Army; and passing by Smolensko, where he but salu­ted the King, he retired into Poland. The Russians, after the Generals departure, un­derstanding that the King had refused send­ing his Son at his intercession, that the captive Zuiskius's, together with their Em­bassadors were sent away Prisoners into Poland, and that the King took upon him the Administration of the Affairs of the Em­pire, putting new Officers into all the great places, and refusing to own them as a State, prepared for a Revolt; to which the death of Demetrius did very effectual­ly contribute. He had a little before, up­on some apprehensions of infidelity in Ka­simouski against him, caused him to be thrown into the River Occa, and drowned there; which the Tartars of his Guard so far resented, as to study a revenge. He was of late time used to divert his Melan­choly [Page 190]with drinking, drowning, at least steeping his cares in liquor: and having been one day a hunting, he retired himself with some of his particular Friends to the enjoyment of this accustomed solace, when these enraged Tartars broke in upon him, and murthered him upon the place. Nei­ther did they escape Vengeance: for Ma­rina receiving this news with the most violent apprehension in the world, and laying aside all respect to her Quality, be­ing transported with grief and rage, she ran into the Streets, calling to every per­son she met, either to revenge the Mur­ther of her Lord, or by the same cruelty to do an act of Charity towards her, in de­livering her from that loathed burthen of her life. The Cossacks inflamed by the Prayers and Tears of this great Lady, fell with such fury upon the Tartars, that they sacrificed two hundred of them to Deme­trius his Manes, Marina's grief, and their own resentments. This second Demetrius after his death, was by all hands admitted to be an Impostor. Most would have him to have been a School-Master in Socola a Town of Russia Alba, and that he had been set up as a Property by the Poles, the better to countenance their Designes up­on [Page 191] Muskovy. Others supposed him a Jew, upon this Reason, that there were found in his Closet some Hebrew and Tal­mudical Books; the same being likewise affirmed by Michael Federowiez the suc­ceeding Emperour, in a Letter from him to Maurice Prince of Orange. But whoever he was, he was slain by these Tartars as we have related, but did not die so entirely, but that his Son was chose Great Duke by them of Caluga; and Zaruckius with all his Forces addressed himself to the Russians, offering them their aid, upon promise that so soon as they should quit their hands of the Poles, they should by the example of Caluga, chuse this Son of Demetrius Great Duke and Emperour. This being assented to, this Son of Demetrius and Marina was in those Quarters considered as Emperor; though many believed this yet a further Impostor, for that Marina was supposed barren.

King Sigismund continued still the Siege of Smolensko, which he judged ig­nominious and below him to abandon; though while he opiniatred there, he o­mitted more specious opportunities of prevailing elsewhere, and by this delaying gave the Muskovites means to regain what [Page 192]by their Divisions had been extorted from them. It was now the beginning of the Year 1611, when they began to take Arms under the Conduct of Lepanow a Great Lord of the Country, who having made some private Levies, appeared in the field first about Prezlaw, from whence he invi­ted and gained most of the Boyarians to his Party, dispersing Messengers into all the Provinces, to reproach the Poles of their breach of Faith in detaining their Prince from them; complaining further, that they had got their City of Musko by fraud and practice; and that they kept the Zuiski's in Prison together with their Embassadors, contrary to the Law of Na­tions. Zarucki brought in his Force to this Party, upon the Conditions before mentioned, that young Demetrius should be received and declared Emperour and Great Duke, so soon as they should have cleared their Country from the Poles, the plague of it. And Prosowecki another Great Lord raised another and greater Ar­my about Novogrodock; so that these Le­vies, from small beginnings, did by the in­advertencie of the Poles improve to that bulk, that none of the Kings Forces scat­tered in the Country for the securing its [Page 193]Obedience, durst look upon them, they scarce sufficing to defend themselves. He could not spare any of his Leaguer from before Smolensko, having a great Line to man, and the Enemy a strong Garrison in the Town: his Army in Musko was little enough to keep the numbers in the City in subjection; whose old aversion to the Poles was revived to so high a pitch, that upon notice of Lepanow's being in Arms, they conspired how to Massacre the Garri­rison, consisting of 6000 Horse, and 1000 Foot. They wanted only Leaders, not a will to this bloody action. There were within the circuit of this vast City one hundred and eighty thousand houses, a multitude of Inhabitants, besides a great confluence of Strangers retired thither out of the neigh­bour-Provinces for Sanctuary, to avoid the fury of a Civil War; and many to as­sist the Conspirators, as conscious of the in­tended Designe; so that they only want­ed a Head and Method for the carrying of it on. Goziouski General of the Poles was not without his Intelligence of these Menés, but chose rather to dissemble his notice, being only intent upon his forti­fying of Kitaigrod and Krimgrod, which contain within their Walls the Dukes Pa­lace, [Page 194]with the Ware-houses of the weal­thiest Merchants; proposing to him­self that he should be able to retire thi­ther upon occasion. Gariouski had scarce finished his Works, when the Russians sup­plying by their malice what they wanted in conduct, being carried on as it were by the weight of their number, drawn together by the ringing of their Bells, the third day after Palm-Sunday made a furious As­sault upon the Enemy in their bosome. The Poles opposed Despair and Discipline to their confused multitudes, and were so successful in it, as to kill 6000 upon the place without any considerable loss; and prosecuting that advantage by firing that part of the City next them, they destroy­ed multitudes of Houses, Women, Chil­dren, Goods, and helpless People, by the aid of that raging Element. The day following, Gariouski commanded the Suburbs on the other side of the River Moscha to be burnt, because that Strusius, who was hastening to the relief of his Countreymen with his Regiment from Mosaisco, was retarded there by the Inha­bitants. The City tamed thus by Fire and Sword, rejecting the fault upon some few, petitioned for pardon, and had it without [Page 195]great difficulty, the Poles not being in a con­dition to do more than secure their own Quarters, though they had gained well to bring the Enemy to ask quarter of them. It was neither compunction in the one, nor kindness in the other, that begat this calm; for the Inhabitants upon the ad­vance of Lepanow with Zarucki and Proso­wecki with an Army of 100000 men, joyned with them, forcing the Poles into their Works, where they were besieged, save on one passage over the River, which they kept open a long time, and by which they got in their Provisions, and made fre­quent Sallies with various Fortune and Success.

All this while King Sigismund lay im­moveable at the Siege of Smolensko, which dured longer than he had fancied; but what was worse, the Souldiers grew uneasie for want of Pay, clamouring in such sort, that he was in much dread of a Mutiny. He had no Moneys, neither did he know how to compass any without a Convention of the States of his King­dom; and this he was put upon to calm the Souldiers, who were prevailed with to expect the determinations of that As­sembly with patience. But the King, that [Page 169]no Objection might lie upon him for not having made all imaginable Attempts for gaining the place, resolved upon a general Assault before he left the Leaguer to go to the Convention, which he had appointed in September following. The Assault was contrived to be made before day-break, and was carried on accordingly with less notice, or indeed expectation of the Ene­my than was imagined; for the Souldiers had without great opposition raised three Ladders upon the Wall before it was light, upon the 13th of June. Potocki the Pala­tine of Brachlaw had his Post on the East­side of the Town; Wyer with his Ger­mans on the Kings side; who both of them got up to the top of the Walls: but the descent being steep into the Town, and the Garrison flocking to the place, rendred the dispute hot and doubtful, till Bartholomew Novodwoski Captain of the Guards apply­ing a Petar under the Kennel on the South­side towards the Boristhenes, made a Breach of 30 Cubits long. Dorostanski Marshal of Lithuania assaulted and en­tred the same in the head of the Guards, and marched directly to the Market-place, possessing himself of it with little resi­stance: for the Garrison astonished with this unexpected Adventure, swallowed up [Page 197]in their own fears, instead of making any defence, threw down their Arms and quitted their Stations, leaving a free passage for the Besiegers to enter in on all sides upon them. All was fill'd with horror and confusion; the Poles enraged they had been so long a Conquering, put all they met with to the Sword. The poor Citizens not knowing where to hide them­selves from the fury of this bloody Ene­my, were butchered without remorse or distinction; which possessing others with de­spair and indignation, very many of them took their Wives, Children, & most pretious Moveables, and retired with them into the great Church, where was kept the Maga­zine of Powder; and putting fire to it, de­stroyed themselves with a more than Sa­guntine despair, for fear of perishing. Se­hin Palatine and Governour of the Town with 15 more, got into a little Tower upon the Wall, where, though all was lost, he bravely defended himself, telling the Enemy, that he resolved to die rather than render himself, unless to some Chief Officer. He had been exemplary for his cruelty to such as were taken upon any Sallies, which gave the Poles a particular hatred for him; and he dreaded worse than death falling [Page 198]into their hands: but word being brought to Potocki, who was near that Quarter, he came to the place, to whom the Palatine and his fifteen Camerades yielded them­selves upon Parole, Prisoners of War. And thus was this great City, which had been the labour of almost two years, taken in less than two hours time, with the loss only of eight Germans. The gaining of the place was justly attributed to the suc­cess of Novodwoski's Petar; that attempt of scaling the Walls being wholly despe­rate, and in which the Assailants must in­evitably have perished. So soon as the possession of that place was secured, there was a strict Command to give Quarter; only the Pillage of the Town was consign­ed to the Souldiers, as the reward of their labours; but they not agreeing in the di­stribution of it, the Booty was ordered to be brought into one place, whereby the dividend might be more equal; but a fire by some accident happening, consumed all that Wealth, with a great part of the City. There was found in the Magazines a pro­portion of Corn and other Military Pro­visions sufficient for three years longer: Men were only wanting, they being wasted from near 70000 to about 8000 fighting [Page 199]men; but however, had they not been more conquered by their own fears than the power of the Enemy, they had certainly made good the place against this As­sault.

The King having appeased his Army, feasted them three whole days together; in the solace of which, and the reflection of their Victory, they buried all their for­mer regrets and discontents. And he sup­posing he should now appear more ad­vantageously to his own Subjects, had a greater appetite of being at the Assembly than before, proposing to himself, that Crowned with the Palms of this Conquest, he ought to shew himself in Triumph to his people: adding this Error to the for­mer (as if swayed by some secret Fatality) he turned his back upon his new Acqui­sitions, to receive the flatteries and accla­mations of his Polish Subjects. And thus he yet again suffered the vanquished Em­pire of Muskovy to slip out of his hands: for if he had prosecuted his Victory, and had carried the Terror of his Arms, and the reputation of his Success to the Impe­rial City, where his men disputed his Inte­rest with great courage, against the multitude that oppressed them, and where [Page 200]he had a considerable Party amongst the Russians themselves, it is more than pro­bable that he had not only kept the City in his power, but by the Example of it have compelled the rest of the Provinces to receive his Dictates at pleasure. But he, by an ill computation of his Affairs, and that unhappy cunctation which lost him his Hereditary Kingdom of Sweden, lost now also the Monarchy of Muskovy: For as soon as the Besieged and Besiegers at Musko had notice that he was gone, it had different effects upon them. The Ar­my from without grew confident, re­peating their Attempts upon the Poles; who looking upon themselves as exposed, began to contrive for their own safety; and taking a pretence from their want of pay (but the true reason was a despair of Re­lief) they demanded their dismission.

The Assembly of the Estates at Warsow was held with the usual Ceremony, but unusual Pomp, the King being received as a Conqueror, with all imaginary Congra­tulations for the reducing of Smolensko, and adding so fair a Province to their Commonwealth. Zolkievius his Triumph was Memorable and Magnificent: for being attended by a gallant and numerous Ca­vallery, [Page 201]he was followed by Basilius Zuis­ki late Emperour of Muskovy, who was clad in a red silk Vest, and seated in a high Chariot betwixt his two Brothers, that he might be seen of all men. They rode thus to the Senate-house, where being admit­ted, Zolkievius presented the Captive Prin­ces to the King and Assembly; and in a grave and set Speech, having magnified the Majesty of the Commonwealth, and the adverse Fortune of the Prisoners, made no scruple to parallel the Conquest of these Illustrious Captives to the most renowned Examples of former Ages. After this, the Zuiski's were confined to Goston-Castle, where they were Royally treated, though Basilius impatient of his Fetters, and not able to support the weight of his sorrows, died soon after, and was privately buried betwixt Warsow and Thorn, where he also reposed till the end of the War; at which time, his and his Brother Demetrius his Ashes, who likewise died there, were at the intercession of the Muskovitish Embas­sadors translated out of Poland to the Tomb of their Ancestors. In the mean time, King Sigismund, to perpetuate the Memory of so great a Victory, caused it to be ingraved in Tables of Marble, and [Page 202]placed upon his Monument, as follow­eth:

REGIS REGUM DEI EXERCITUM GLORIAE, SIGISMUNDUS TERTIUS REX Poloniae & Sueciae, Exercitu Moscovitico ad Clusinum caeso, Moscoviae Metropoli deditione accepta, Smolensko Reipublicae restituta, Basilio Zuiskio Magno Duce Moscoviae Et Fratre ejus Demetrio Militiae Praefecto Captivis jure Belli receptis, Et in Arce Gostienensi sub custodia habitis, ibique vita functis, Humanae sortis memor Ossa illorum huc deferre; Et ne se regnante etiam hostes Injusteque Sceptra parantes, Justis Sepulturaque carerent, IN HOC A se ad publicam Posteritatem Memoriam, Regnique sui Nomen, Extructo Trophaeo DEPONI JUSSIT, ANNO A PARTU Virginis MDCXX Regnor' POLONIAE XXXIII. SUECIAE XXVI.

And this was the end of Basilius Zuiski, who having by many extraordinary Acti­ons raised himself to the Throne, enjoyed it no more than his Predecessor, either long or quietly. He had to do with an unstable People, hurried from one extreme to another; and being of a jealous na­ture, had recourse to Witchcrafts and In­cantations, endeavouring by the help of Sathan to preserve what he had gained by improving the violent humour of the gid­dy multitude. And his Wizards furnish­ing him with Discoveries of the unfaith­fulness of some about him, or he pretend­ing such Discoveries, to gratifie his fears, put many eminent Persons to death; pro­posing to settle that Dominion by Blood and Fraud, the same Arts whereby he had obtained it. And his nature by frequent practises being hardened in cruelty, he caused three of his most faithful Servants and Friends to be made away, only be­cause their names were Michael; for he had been told by his Soothsayers, that one of that name should Succeed him in the Empire (which proved true, for all his barbarous precaution) which hurried him upon doing those horrid things that hardly any Story can parallel. He would tear up [Page 204]the Wombs of great-bellied women, and rip open the breasts of the mettledst Hor­ses, for the immature fruit of the one, and the hearts of the other, wherewith he used to make his Diabolical Infusions; as well to charm the Poles whom he could not overcome, as his Rebel-Subjects whom he could not bring to their Duty. But no Magick is of power against the Provi­dence of God, which after a short turbu­lent Reign, removed him from the Throne to a Prison, where he ended his days.

The Method of our Tragick History doth invite us back to Musko, to observe the actions of that place; but Zolkievius, whose Army we left there, having in the succeeding course of his life rendered him­self famous upon the account of many En­terprizes, especially his unparallel'd Retreat at Cicora from the Turks, a short digression as to his Affairs may not be wholly im­pertinent, wherein I shall observe my ac­customed brevity, to relate only matter of fact, and so return to where we left.

Stanislaws Zolkiewski (the Sirnames of most of the Polish Nobility do end in ski) a Person of an eminent extraction, dedica­ted himself to Arms so soon as he was well able to wield them, making his first Ap­prentiship [Page 205]under that Great Chancellour, and greatest Captain that Poland hath pro­duced for many Ages, John Zamoyski; who at the famous Battle of Byczin, which de­cided the contest between Sigismund and Maximilian concerning the Crown, in favour of the former, had the Honour to Command the Right Wing of Zamoyski's Army, to the defeating of that Enemy that opposed him; in which encounter he received a sore wound in the Knee. His Conduct in that Adventure raised him in short time after to the Preferment of being Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom; du­ring which Command, he was employed against the Rebellious Cossacks, whom af­ter many doubtful Fights he reduced to his own Terms, of delivering up their Ge­neral (a Plebeian, but of great Conduct) with three other of their Principal Officers into his hands. He defeated the Swedes at Revel: And afterwards being made Gene­ral, he did beat the Russians at Clusinum, entred Musko, forced Demetrius to quit his Siege, and led away the Emperour Zuiski and his two Brothers Captive with him into Poland, as we have formerly mentioned; and likewise that he left the Army in Musko upon discontent, by rea­son [Page 206] Sigismund refused to ratifie the Arti­cles which Zolkievius by his directions had in his name sworn to.

Being 70 years of Age, he was created Great Chancellor of Poland: He repressed the Tartars in their Invasion at Orimin; and a while after marched with his Army into Moldavia in aid of Gratian the Vay­vod against the Turks, that oppressed him to so great an extremity, that he came in to Zolkievius but with six hundred Horse; but so fatally negligent, that he could give no account of the Enemies number or force, even in his own County; so that the General had nothing certain of them, till he saw them cover the Campania about him with their numerous hoast. He him­self had encamped upon the Plains of Ci­cora, determining in that place to attend their motion. This was in Sept. 1620. The Tartars, who had joyned with the Turks upon this occasion, having taken some Christian Prisoners, gained from them an account of the Christian strength, which did not exceed 10000 effective men: whereupon they drew up within view of them, with an Army of double their number, led by their Commander Cantimir Mursa. A few hours after, they [Page 207]were followed by Skinder Bassa General of the Turks and of the War, who pitcht his Tents near those of his Confederates within view of the Christians.

The Poles contained themselves within their Trenches, till a Squadron of Cossacks who had the out-Guard, encountred that of the Tartars, whom after a smart dispute, they forced to a Retreat; but being re­lieved by their own men, they turned up­on the Christians, pursuing them up to their very Trenches, where they also be­ing seasonably reinforced, opposed the prevailing Enemy with so great Success, that having killed a great number, they chased them into their Main Body; but gi­ving no Quarter, did consequently take no Prisoners, and so made no discovery of the Enemies strength; in so much that Zolkievius making his computation by what appeared in view, and finding his Army chearful upon the Success of that days Action, resolved to put all upon the fottune of a Battle. That night there came to the Turkish Camp Sultan Galga the Great Chams Brother, with a fresh Ar­my of 30000 choice Souldiers, whereof Zolkievius had no knowledge; and there­fore in order to the determinations of the [Page 208]day before, he drew out his whole Army early the next morning, being the 19th of Sept. 1620. and ranging them in Battalia, strengthened both Wings with Forts made of his Waggons and Carriages, closed to­gether on all sides, and filled with Foot and Cannon, so that the Enemy could make no advantage of their numbers to infest their Flanks. Skinder Bassa on the other side seeing the Order of the Chri­stians, drew his Army into a Line of Bat­tle, placing only the Turks, revolted Wal­lachians and Transylvanians in view, the Auxiliary Tartars being placed out of sight, and commanded not to stir till a Signal was given them to move, which should be when the Christians were en­gaged. The Poles had indeed ordered their Reserves, but by an over-confidence advanced upon the Enemy from without the protection of their Forts, contrary to the Generals Orders; which the Enemy observing, the Tartars shewed themselves on the Right Wing; and extending that way, endeavoured to get between the Christians Camp and the Rear of their Ar­my; which obliged Zolkievius to oppose against them his Reserves. The Fight was Bloody and doubtful for two hours [Page 209]together; but the Main Battle of the Poles having no Seconds (by reason of the diver­sion of their Reserves to defend the Rear) oppressed by the often-repeated Charges of the Enemies fresh Troops, however keeping within the protection of their Forts on the left Wing, were no longer a­ble to sustain the Impression of those mul­titudes that swarmed upon them: they therefore faced about, and breaking through those Squadrons of Tartars who had got between them and the Camp, made their retreat in reasonable good or­der: the Barbarians being checked in their Pursuit by the Forts before-mentioned, which were still defended by the Poles. That on the Right Wing was violently assaulted by the Enemy, who killed three hundred of the Defendants, and took four of their Field-Pieces; neither had their Success rested there, but that the Christi­ans not wanting to themselves in that ex­tremity, advanced with their best Troops to their relief, forcing the Infidels, after a hot dispute, to a confused Retreat. The Fort or Castle on the other Wing was left unattempted; and night drawing on, the Enemy, after a kind of drawn Battle, wherein there fell 1000 of theirs, and about [Page 210]six hundred of the Christians, retreated to their Tents. The rest of that night and the following day were past without any Attempt on either side. The Poles in the mean time went to counsel, what was to be done upon this pressing occasion; wch be­ing of an extraordinary nature, they were able to fall upon no probable Resolutions. During this time of their Consultation, there was a report spread about the Camp, of a purpose in the Chief Officers to steal away from the Army; which put the Souldiers into confusion, till they were undeceived by the generous professions of their Leaders, who vowed to live and die with them. Zolkievius proposed in Coun­cil, that they should the next day try the fortune of another Battle, wherein they might easily correct the errors of the for­mer day; and being now informed of their own and the Enemies strength, they could better lay hold of such advantages as should occur, having failed more in Con­duct than Courage; and if the Success of the next day should not answer the At­tempt, they might then think of retiring towards the confines of their Countrey, where they should be sure to meet with new Supplies for the further prosecution [Page 211]of the War. The very mention of another Battle surprized many of the Great Per­sons, especially Alexander Kalinowski, Duke Corecki, and Nicholas Struse, three of the most eminent Lords in the Army, who maligning the Command of Zolkie­vius, were the more apt to oppose his Counsels, especially in this juncture, which must bring their lives to an apparent ha­zard. They therefore absolutely decla­red against it, and that there was no safe­ty but in a sudden flight; by which means they might avoid death, or a Turkish Bon­dage, which was yet more terrible: and being resolved to put the Counsels they had given in execution that night, they took the first opportunity after the Watch was set, to quit the Camp, proposing to themselves, that by the favour of the dark­ness they might get over the River Prut, which covered the Rear of the Camp, be­fore the Enemy could take the Alarm of their departure. Gratian the Vayvod, for whose preservation the War was underta­ken, went away with them; and having by the number of their Train and Depen­dants made a considerable Party, they con­cluded themselves of strength able, by the advantage of the night, to break through [Page 212]all opposition. There was a second Ru­mour spread about in the Army, that the General himself was likewise gone; which bearing terrour with it, the inferior Offi­cers and Souldiers were upon preparation for their flight also; whereof he having speedy notice, mounted on Horsback, and causing many lighted Torches to be carri­ed before him, shewed himself to his Soul­diers; surrounded the Quarters, spoke to every one he met, and animated all with his presence and chearfulness. He added, That he could not be guilty of so nefarious a Treason, as to desert so many brave men, his fellow-Souldiers; they had served too long under his Command, to conceive their General capable of so wretched an act, as to sully all his Honour by so sordid a Retreat. That for his part he had no other considera­tion for his life, but in order to their pre­servation: and since some (he must con­fess, eminent Persons) had preferred that to all sence of Honour, he was glad they were gone, hoping they had carried away with them that infection of Cowardize, which might have tainted the whole Army. He also would wish them a good Journey, provided they would tell the King and such of their Friends that should enquire after [Page 213]them, that they had abandoned the Army and their General in the Plains of Cicora, engaged against theirs and the Common E­nemy of Christianity. Zolkievius, though he had harangued his Souldiers in these kind of Terms, and with a serene Coun­tenance, yet had he much ado to compose those minds which were agitated with ter­ror and fear; who could not be perswaded to return to their Duty, until a sence of the danger of their disobedience obliged them to it. But they were wholly confirmed by the ill Success of those who had desert­ed them, who by their degenerous flight had hastened, not prevented their ruine. For in passing the River, which was ra­ther rapid than deep, many of them missing the Ford, were overwhelmed in it. Ka­linowski himself perished in the stream; and such as got over, at least most of them, were knocked in the head by the Tartars, who had the Guard of that Post. Grati­an and his Moldavians being skill'd in the Passage and ways, got clear off; but being pursued by his ill Fate, had the recom­pence of his infamous flight rewarded up­on him by the perfidy of his own Servants, who murthered their Lord, to possess themselves of what Treasure he had [Page 214]brought away with him. The rest of the Party, after a vain Attempt to pass the River, not daring to land on the other side, wet, weary, and confounded with shame, came back for refuge to the Camp, which a while before they had forsaken as desperate, reposing now all their safety in that of the Army. The Poles by these losses, and the escape of 900 Cossacks (who by a more lucky fate than that of their Fellows, had broke through a neglected Quarter of the Enemy without oppositi­on) being much weakned, and far une­qual in strength to the Enemy, and not daring to attempt another fight without manifest hazard to loose all, resolved upon a retreat.

They had lost many of their Horses, and more died daily for want of Forrage: they were harrassed with duty, and had no hopes of relief from Poland, being besieged by a barbarous Enemy, ready every moment (at least in their apprehension) to storm their Camp: their Provisions were short, and no possibility of Supplies from with­out, all the sides of their Camp be­ing invested, so that it was impossible for them to subsist for want of Food, in expectation of succour from their [Page 215]own Country. Neither had the King, by reason of the interruption of the Passages, received but one Letter from Zolkievius, when it was too late, wherein he gave him an account of his condition, and how he had been unseasonably abandoned by some of the Army. This was the state of Af­fairs in the Camp, while the Enemy with­out lay close upon them; and computing the distresses and disorders within, by the desertion of those that had left them, they were much raised in their hopes, despising all proposals and overtures of quitting the place: In so much that upon the 22th of September the whole Turkish Army was drawn up before the Camp, threat­ning a general Assault, unless they imme­diately surrendred at discretion. On the 23th they did the like; and on the 26th the Galga or Prince of Tartary ap­proaching nearer the Trenches, was met by Duke Corecki upon Parole, who proposed to him an excessive ransom for himself and some few with him; and descending to some particulars for a rendition of the Camp, only that the Souldiers might march away with their Swords, the Tar­tarian left him in scorn and anger, and clapping his hand upon his Sable, bid him [Page 216]expect no other conditions than what the sharpness of that would afford him. Zol­kievius having throughly computed the state of his Affairs, resolved to quit the Camp; and having ordered all things accordingly, which took up three days time, being assisted in the method of his Designe by Martin Kasanowski an old ex­perienced Colonel: and upon the 29th of September that part of the Wall through which the Camp was to pass being open­ed, the Army about Sun-set began its march in the order following: On both sides a row of Waggons, as it were chained toge­ther, five hundred paces in length, drawn by their Horses, closed the Wings. The Front consisting likewise of linked Wag­gons, took up three hundred paces; and the Rear being fenced with the like Bar­ricado, was (as also the other extremi­ties of the Camp) fortified with Cannon. The wounded, sick, Baggage, and all the best Horses of the Army, were placed in the middest, while the Officers and Soul­diers marched on the out-side of the Camp with Colours flying, and their Arms rea­dy fixed to resist any impression. The Tartars observing this order of the Poles, did at first think they had drawn out to [Page 217]fight; but when they discerned the whole Camp to move, and that no man stirred out of his Rank, they stood amazed at the Novelty; and the night being so near, they durst do no more but send out small Par­ties to observe their motion. And so they marched two Moldavish Miles that night without any disorder, save what they received at the passage of a Lake; which was supplied well enough, in respect they were not eagerly pressed upon by the Enemy. On the 30th of September, Skin­der Bassa assaulted the Camp on all sides with his united Forces; but being repelled with great loss, they marched yet two Moldavish Miles more that night. A Mol­vish Mile is more than a German.

On the first of October, the Camp be­ing lodged near a great Pool, continu­ed there that whole day and the night following. The Infidels did extremely gall them from the other side of the Wa­ter with their shot, and from the open side by their Excursions; but were bravely re­pulsed with great slaughter of their men. About Noon that day they prepared for a fresh Assault; but instead thereof, sent a Trumpet to the Camp to demand their Turkish Interpreter, that they might speak [Page 218]with him; which being granted, they on­ly detained him, making no Attempt that day.

Octob. 2. The Turks having the day be­fore observed the Camp, stormed it with greater fury than ever; and being repul­sed, returned fifteen times to the Assault. The Courage of the Defendants grow­ing, by their being able to resist; in so much that at last it did not only suffice them to make good their Station, but that they followed the flying Enemy to a good distance from it; in which Pursuit they took two Colours and a Piece of Ord­nance, having killed multitudes of their men. Towards Sun-set they began their March, with their shot about them; which must needs retard their pace; and yet they advanced three of their Miles before Morning, being by computation fifteen English.

Octob. 3. Having gained the Advantage of a Rivulet and heights of Ground, they easily repressed the Enemies fury, and took a Tartar Colours; they also eluded an Ambush of the Enemy, and continued their Journey that night.

Octob. 4. They had strengthened their Camp by the Neighbourhood of a River. [Page 219]But Skinder Bassa considering that by these Marches by night, the Prey might slip out of his hands; and sensible of the disgrace that would attend him to suffer it, resol­ved to make an Attempt at the hazard of his whole Army; and consequently gave order for a general Assault. But being the Tartars were not so forward as he ex­pected, having been so many times baffled, pretending the difficulty by reason of the posture of the Camp, seated upon the ad­vantage of the River, by the help of which they would be able to bring more hands to the defence of those parts that were as­saultable; but the enraged Bassa impati­ent of Arguments, turned hastily to his Janizaries: And are you also affrighted with the greatness of the danger? said he, And will you suffer this handful of men to slip out of your hands for want of a vigorous Attempt upon them? But they cried out, He should not reproach but Command them, for nothing was terrible to them but the anger of their General. The rest of the Turks sway'd by this Example, would be of the Party, prompted by an Ambition to do the Service with their own hands, without the aid of the Tartars. And armed with these Resolutions, they assaulted the [Page 220]Camp from all their Quarters; and pressed on by a mixture of shame and fury, broke in upon it in one place, carrying their terror into the Bowels of their Enemy, maugre all the resistance made against them. All their former disputes and con­flicts seemed but sport to this. The Turks hurried on by their Principle of Predesti­nation, added to a zeal of gratifying their General, made havock of their lives to preserve the footing they had gained in the Camp, doing more than men in prosecu­tion of the advantage. The Christians armed with a native courage, inflamed yet by their despair, did more than they: for despising their multitudes, and resolving to conquer or die, they made a charge upon those who had entred, with a fury sutable to the constitution of their Affairs; and for­cing them back, and upon those that follow­ed, made them contribute to their own dis­orders, in such sort, that not being able to rally, they were repell'd with a great slaugh­ter. And having clear'd themselves from this violent storm, they continued their march that evening alongst the Banks of the Ri­ver for three Miles, the enemy coasting them on the other side with an equal pace.

Octob. 5. The Tartars having got before [Page 221]them the day before, lay directly in their way; but they carrying with them the re­solution of surmounting every difficulty, and grown skilful in this new kind of March, broke through all the resistance made against them; though not without some disorder in their Rear, occasioned by the fears of the Waggon-men, which ren­dred them less exact and faithful in their charge. But by the valour and conduct of Zemberg, who commanded in that part, the Enemy was repulsed; and the disorder being repaired, they performed a March of two Miles that day.

Octob. 6. They still advanced, and like a wedge of Iron divided their passage through the numerous Squadrons of the Enemy, who clouded their very sight with their showers of Shot and Arrows: but seeing they could make no impression upon them, they burnt up and destroyed all their grass and forrage in their way, whereby they were extremely incommodated, and by reason whereof, and their often Skir­mishes, they were that day able to march but one Moldavish Mile.

The Poles still followed the Banks of the River Tire, with a designe to gain Mo­hilow, a safe Retreat after their tedious [Page 222]March. They were constrained to avoid the nearest way thither, as mountainous & bog­gy, besides great Woods in it, wch would obstruct them in the manner of their motion; chusing for the sake of a more even pas­sage, to go about by such a way as brought them within a Mile of their desired Har­bour. The Camp was in perfect order; and the Enemy tired with a repetition of fruitless Attempts and labours, had forborn to press upon them, being content to wait on their motion by a few Scouts only. The Poles about the evening of this seventh day of their March, continued their Jour­ney according to their former Method; and meeting in their Passage with some Barns stored with great quantities of Hay and Corn, many of them, but without or­der, ran to the Bait, to supply themselves with Provisions for their well-nigh-starved Horses. In the mean time, the Van of the Camp began to march, without calling in their Forragers, or giving notice, as they ought and used, to the Rear, of their mo­tion. The Rear for want of the accusto­med Signe, being thus separated from the Main Body, was seized on by a sudden horror and pannick fear; which having laid hold on some, was like Wild-fire, car­ried [Page 223]through all. Their apprehensions were various, but all upon the account of fear, heightned by the darkness and imaginary noises, concluding their Van was cut off, and that the Sword was at their Throats. The same plague being spread over the rest of the Army, infected the whole in a mo­ment with its contagion: whereupon the Carters, Waggon-men, Pedees, and Servants imploy'd about the Carriages, unloosed the Horses, to serve themselves by flight upon them; so that the whole Fabrick and Ma­chine of the Camp being dissolved, they could move no further. There was yet another cause (at least contributary) to these Evils. Upon the departure of Gra­tian and other Fugitives from the Camp at Cicora, the Raskality of the Army, with a mixture of Souldiers, robbed and plunder­ed their Tents and Lodgings; whereof the Officers in that juncture durst not be over-inquisitive: but being got on the Banks of the River Tire, they began to speak of it; and Koninkspolski the Lieutenant-Gene­ral had that very evening (improvidently enough) let fall some threatning expressi­ons concerning it. The number of the guilty being many, they began to think of their proper safety, and the avoiding that [Page 224]punishment, which if they stood to it would fall upon them; they therefore in great numbers fled away from their friends as well as their foes. These wretches ha­ving begun a Tumult upon this occasion, the same was seconded by the dividing of the Camp, as is before declared. The con­fusion was so great, that Zolkievius and the chief Officers about him could not be heard; the variety of noises, with the ap­prehension of the danger, and the dark­ness of the night, rendring the Army deaf to all his Commands and Orders. The Tartars being by their Scouts advertised of these Tumults, failed not to hasten thither; and working upon the advantage given them by the Poles, prepared to it by their own fears, fell in among them with shouts and terror. Zolkievius had Command­ed, that for the better safety of the Quar­ters, and encouraging of the Souldiers, all men should quit their Horses, and march on foot; wherein himself was the first exam­ple; which was the reason that so many of the Chief Commanders fell, and were taken in that encounter: for when the Rout was become so universal, that all re­sistance was to no purpose, they perished upon the place, for want of Horses to carry [Page 225]them off, except such as escaped by swim­ming, and so got away. Zolkievius his Son, with his Nephew and Strusius, the two former being weak of their Wounds, and forsaken by their Coachmen, were made Prisoners, and presented to the Tar­tarian Galga. Zolkievius had before ta­ken an eternal Farewel of his Son, and then having made a short Confession to his Ghostly Father, was lost in the confusion, but found dead next morning upon the skirts of the Camp: some say, he caused himself to be killed by one of his Follow­ers, a Cossack, chusing rather to perish with his Army, than fall into the Enemies hands, or survive his own glory. But the Wounds in his Sword-hand, on his Face, and Breast, and a Tartarian laid dead a­long by him, seem to declare that he was killed fighting. However it was, Skin­der Bassa caused his Head to be cut off and fixed upon a Pike, exposing it for that day to the view of his whole Army; and after­wards to be sent to the Grand Seignior his Master, as a Testimony of his Victory. The Lieutenant-General, Corecki, the young Zolkievius, with the other Priso­ners of Quality, were sent to Constantino­ple, where after a three years imprison­ment [Page 226]they were ransomed, and returned to their own Country. And thus, like a Ship after a long voyage sunk in the harbour, Zolkievius, having through all the accidents of his Life proceeded regu­larly from the Quality of a private Soul­dier to the Supreme Command of an Ar­my, was raised by his own Virtue to those Honours which rendered him eminent in those parts of the World. Neither was there any thing wanting to compleat his Glory, besides the Success of this Retreat, which was reduced to that point, that there wanted but two hours space to ren­der him eminent amongst the most illustri­ous Captains of Antiquity.

It is held of all hands, that the most dif­ficult part of Military Service is in the right conduct of a Retreat; and it may be judged hard measure to deny Zolkie­vius the Honour of having acquitted him­self well in that particular, since he had brought it within view of the Harbour: but as the Honour of the Success would have been entirely his had he prospered, so his Memory must be patient of this Cloud drawn over the lustre of it, by the failing of some mean Officer in omitting to give the Signal of his March. But here [Page 227]did he fall, and was laid upon the Bed of Honour in the extremity of his Age; refu­sing to live, when he could not do it glo­riously. Skinder Bassa, either grown un­easie by the accession of this Victory, or that some Great Ones at Court were un­worthily emulous of his Glory, had con­tracted many Enemies near the Grand Seignior, who upon all occasions did him ill offices: but finding that Infection to work slowly, they corrupted some of his nearest Servants, who by the Infusion of Poyson in his Drinks, destroyed him sud­denly; so that he did not long survive the unfortunate Zolkievius: being in this more unfortunate, that he died in the quality of a Criminal, and that no certain account can be given of him, but that he died in the year 1620.

And having by this digression given the Reader a short survey of this great Action, which wanted only one moment more of Success to render it the most glorious that any Age had produced; we will return to the continuation of our History where we left, which was the condition of the Polish Garrison in the Palace of Musko; who being grown weary with their unprofitable strivings, had taken a rise from their ill [Page 228]Pay, to propose Terms for their dismission. Their General Goziowski used all his Arts to quiet them; and having the Treasure of the Empire in his possession, he resolved to Sacrifice that to their Avarice. There was amongst other things in the Treasury a Statue of our SAVIOƲR, of the big­ness of a man, weighing C C C lib. of massive Gold; which the Souldiers mangled into parcels, not making their dividend so exactly by Rule, but that every one got what he could. Basilius Zuiski, in his short Reign, had destroyed the Twelve Apo­stles, being composed of the same Mettle and largeness. And this part of the Polish Army despairing of relief, were become careless of that Representation of Christ which by the practice of the Church of Rome, they were used to worship. Their General having by this and other divi­dends out of the Treasury appeased, though not satisfied, his Army for the present though what by an equal estimate migh [...] have sufficed all they bargained for, but a [...] part of their Recompence; he was indu­strious in all his other Contrivances for their satisfaction, as well as safety. H [...] caused counterfeit Letters to be brough [...] him from the King of Poland, with Pro­mises [Page 229]of a powerful relief in short time; and that his Souldiers might not be disused to beat the Muskovites, he made frequent advantageous Sallies upon them. There was in that part of the City which had been wasted by the fire, a house in which the Magazine of Salt had been laid up, which having escaped the fury of that merciless Element, was become a conside­rable Commodity to both Parties. It lay more under the Command of the Poles than the City; but Gariowski, because he would have somewhat for his Army to do, forbore to bring it in to his Garrison but as he had daily use for it; this gave his men constant imployment: for what be­tween their own wants and those of the Enemy, they had perpetual Skirmishes; wherein for the most part they came off with the advantage, but that the wasting of their men was an incurable evil, for which they had no remedy. Gariowski made use of all his Arts, and had recourse to yet o­ther Finesses: he laid a train for the de­struction of Lepanow the Russian General, by causing Letters to be dispersed in his name into the several Provinces, requiring them to Massacre all the Dunensian Cos­sacks in their Quarters, as designing a Re­volt, [Page 230]and too passionately promoters of the interest of Demetrius, to which they had always adhered. One of these Packets being put into Sidorus his hand (he was General of the Cossacks) so terrified him (that believing what he feared) and too sen­sible of the danger, he resolv'd to prevent it; in order whereto, having consulted the Principal Officers in so weighty an affair, they all concluded to anticipate their own Fate by Lepanow's fall; and immediate­ly thereupon mutined; their Souldiers transported with the apprehension of their imaginary peril: whereupon Lepanow run­ning to appease the Tumult, being no way warned of his own danger, was overpow­red, and slain upon the place. The Ge­neral being thus removed, the Muskovites gave the Command of their Army to Tru­becius; who being more wary of the Ar­tifices of Gaziowski, which by this time had taken air, caused some of his Emissa­ries, who were found tampering afresh with the Cossacks, to be seised upon; and to render the cheat more publike, had them put to death with exquisite Torments: And after the Kings departure from Smo­lensko, applied himself so vigorously in prosecution of the Siege, pressing so hard [Page 231]upon the Poles, that he shut them up close within their Fortifications. And now they were out of all hope of any relief, and so closely pent up, that they began to want every thing necessary for their sub­sistance. They endured these hardships seven full weeks, after which time they were delivered by a Miracle on the 15th of August, as one of their Priests had foretold. Before they were reduced to this narrow compass, they had sent all their Boys and Servants out, to the number of betwixt three and four thousand upon a Party, for forrage. These by the time of their re­turn, found all the Avenues shut up. At first they were upon thoughts of retiring and shifting for themselves, until detained with the shame of abandoning their Ma­sters without attempting their relief, they took new courage and resolutions to en­deavour to force the Passage. Being thus animated, having some Souldiers amongst them, they drew up into as large a front as they could, extending their Wings to a great distance, and advancing up within sight of the Leaguer upon that side where the Moska runs, put themselves into a po­sture to pass it; which they did without op­position, and were received into the Fortress [Page 232]with the acclamations of the Besieged, and the congratulations of their Masters. The Russians had been surprized with this unexpected relief, as they termed it; and having had no room left in their appre­hensions for the exercise of their courage, concluded that the whole force of Poland was at their backs; which obliged them to quit their Trenches on that side of the Town, and leave an open and uninterrupt­ed Passage for the Boys to enter at. The Besieged taking the opportunity of their Enemies fears, made a seasonable Sally, whereby they reduced all those Forts and Out-works which had been formerly ta­ken from them, enlarging their Quarters to a more commodious distance. But all this being considered by them but as a small intermission of their miseries, and no solid Supply able to sustain the force of all Muskovy, they dispatched Letters to their King in Poland with an account of their condition, upbraiding his careless­ness of their safety; and declaring, that if by the 6th of Jan. their Prince were not sent to them, they would quit the place, and come back to Poland to require their Arrears. The Chief Officers of the Polish Army, by a misunderstanding amongst [Page 233]themselves, contributed unhappily to the Service of the Russians. Potocki Palatine of Brachlaw was left Governour and Com­mander of the Forces about Smolensko; but he could not suffer that Charles Chodkievi­cius Lieutenant-General of the Lithuanian Army should be sent to prosecute the Re­liques of the Muskovitish War, as to the possession of the Imperial Seat, towards the gaining of which he had contributed little; and reckoning upon this as a De­signe fit to be reserved for his own Con­duct, he managed all his Counsels accord­ingly: and though Chodkievits was, mau­gre all his contrivements, marked out for the Service of Musko, yet the enraged Po­tocki perverted some of his Chief Offi­cers, and as it happened there was a con­currence of Causes to thwart the Polish In­terest: for upon the 15th of August, it seemed more than probable that the Mus­kovites being hotly pursued, might have been driven out of the City, but that an old Colonel amongst the Poles consider­ing if they should improve this Success to the utmost, there would be nothing left for their General Chodkievits to do (upon whom this Colonel had a particular de­pendance, and it seems consulted his Glo­ry [Page 234]more than the Common Good) and therefore disswaded his Party from pres­sing their Fortune upon an apprehension of some supposed dangers. In the mean time Chodkievits being design'd for the re­lief of the place, marcht thither with an Ar­my; but the fame of his severe Discipline flying thither before him, and augmented by the envy of his ill-willers, begot a very great prejudice in the minds of the Souldi­ers against him, and an aversion for him; so that they upon his arrival disputed his Commands, and looking upon all his Pro­posals with an eye of diffidence, would not be engaged upon any more Sallies; but as if they had placed a Religion in the perfor­mance of their former Letter to the King, they quitted the Palace upon the sixth of Jan. as they had before declared.

They left indeed the Sapihan Regiment in Garrison behind them, but upon the Temptation of vast advantages. These had the rest of the Crown-Jewels put into their hands, as caution for their pay: which Jewels consisted of two Crowns of Gold richly beset with Jems, a Scepter of Uni­corns-Horn likewise gloriously adorned with Jewels; two whole Unicorns-horns, and another half cut; the Great Dukes [Page 235]Saddle embroydered with Pearl and Gold; two Hats wrought with Diamonds, with the Scepter and Golden Apple, both inrich­ed with pretious Stones of huge value. And having ordered the Affairs of the Fort at this rate, they chose one Joseph Cieclin­ski for their General, and appointing him a new Council of War, they quitted the place, notwithstanding the Kings Com­mands, and the intreaties and threats of their Officers to the contrary, and marched directly into Poland, being 7000 effective Horse; and being arrived at Leopolis, made that their Head-Quarters: and distribu­ting their Troops into the several Palati­nates of the lesser Poland, they seised upon the Kings Domains, and the Ecclesiastical Revenues, which were very great, under pretence of their Arrears due from the Commonwealth. But to return to Mus­ko which they had quitted; the Sapihan Regiment which they had left there, was reinforced and reassured by the access of fresh Troops brought thither by the two Konickspolski's from Smolensko; but they were followed by an envy amongst the Great Officers, as their evil Genius. Po­tocki led on by his Ambition, which had an influence upon all his Councils, having [Page 236]suffered affairs to run up to a pitch of de­speration, judged it a fit time for him to step in to the preservation of the place; in order whereto, he sent his Kinsman Nicho­las Strusius with part of the Smolenskian Foot, as most proper for the Service in Garrison. The Passage along the Ri­ver Moscha was kept open all this time, whereby they were able to receive in their supplies of Men and Victuals in spite of the Besiegers; but their divisions and emula­tions within growing up to a height, gave the Russians the opportunity to perfect their Line by blocking up that Passage. Not long after, the Sapihan Regiment con­sisting of 4000 Horse, debauched likewise by the same spirit of Mutiny, forsook Chod­kiowits, and chusing one John Zalinski to Command them by the Title of Marshal, took the opportunity of breaking through the Enemies Leaguer, and marching into Lithuania, seated themselves at Brestia, where they fixed; dividing the neighbour-Palatinates, the Kings Revenues, and the Ecclesiastical Incomes as a subsistance for themselves, till their Arrears were paid. The Commonwealth of Poland being pro­voked by these repeated insolencies of their Souldiers, failed not to charge their [Page 237]King with the causes of them, in not per­mitting his Son to go to Musko, which he was now inclined to; and though dilato­ry in his nature, resolved now to bring him thither in Person. The Confederate Horse which had formerly desired Ʋla­dislaws with so much heat, and in which the King confided most, refused now to stir, and change their repose and affluence of all things, for penury and new toils. Si­gismund however, with what Forces he could get together, came to Vilna the Me­tropolis of Lithuania, where two German Regiments of Foot were newly arrived; from thence he went by slow Marches to Smolensko, where encountring with new difficulties, he was at a stand for the pro­secution of his Design: for the Horse which quartered there (his best hopes) re­fused to march with him till their Arrears were paid them. The dispute was unsea­sonable to the Kings Affairs, who wanted Monies to answer their demands, and strength to exact their Obedience. He therefore had recourse to entreaties, and the temptation of fair Promises (not only Arrears, but Rewards) which having no impression upon their hardened natures, the King was forced to march with his [Page 238]Guards onely, and a few Light-Horse; though he was after overtaken by twelve hundred of those Horse, who, perswa­ded by some Officers most in credit with them, not to expose their King now up­on the Crisis of his Affairs, but to signi­fie to the world by that Act of Obedience both their Loyalty and Courage. These being overcome by such Arguments, marched after the King to Viasna, midway betwixt Smolensko and Musko, where Chodkiovits also with his Forces joyned the Royal Army.

It happened (and I would not omit a circumstance that carried noise with it) that the Portcullis of the Kings Gate at Smolensko through which Sigismund was to go, fell down at that instant, fil­ling up the Passage with its bulk, in so much that it could not be removed by any force, so that he was forced to turn back and go another way; which was esteemed by some as an inauspicious Omen, that the Royal way to the Empire of Musko should not be opened by him. During these Traverses at Court and in the Camp, the Siege is pressed on at Musko with more fervour than before. Chodkiewits weak­ned with the departure of the Sapihan [Page 239]Horse, could not suffice to hinder their ap­proaches, wanting Foot to oppose their raising of Sconces and Redoubts, where­with they very much streightned the Ca­stle. However, he did in spite of them bring in, by the Aid of his Horse, supplies of Provision for the Garrison that whole Summer; and in September, though all ways of communication were obstructed, and the Garrison reduced to extreme want, he forced the Guards by that way which he had formerly entred, and brought in a small quantity of Provisions; which bear­ing no proportion with the necessities of the place, he made a new supply of four hundred Waggons laden with all manner of necessaries, which he attempted to put into the Castle by the same way of the River, where the Muskovites oppo­sed him with their whole Power. The dispute was long and obstinate, where the Polish Horse were much inconve­nienced by the disadvantages of rubbish, and other difficultie that hindered them to effect what they had so bravely in­tended. Strusius was blamed for not ha­ving advanced with his Foot to the re­scue of the Horse which fought so well; [Page 240]but whatever the fault was, all hopes of Conquering the Russian Empire vanished with this disgrace; and all the fruit of so many Victories, of so much Blood, and of so much Treasure as had been expend­ed in this War, was lost in the misfortune of that day: for before Chodkievicius could gather new Provisions, and open a Passage to the Castle now more carefully fortified and warded than formerly; the Besieged having consumed every thing that was edible, eaten all their Horses, Cats, Dogs, Rats, Mice, Leather, Covers of Books and Trunks, and whatever else they could devise to get into their Sto­machs, proceeded to humane flesh, ready to feed upon one another, as if they had pre­ferred that to a surrender: but the latter prevailed at last over their obstinacie, and they yielded themselves and the place up at discretion.

The King was at Viasna when news of this fatal Surrender reacht him; and being by that time become sensible of this great blow to his Affairs and Interest, he con­sulted what was to be done; whether to retire as from a baffled designe, or to ad­vance further, upon a computation that the [Page 241] Muskovites being yet in disorder, might be over-awed by the presence of him and his Army, and might thereby be in­duced to receive his Son for Emperor; at least he proposed to himself an advanta­geous Peace: and this latter Counsel prevailing, he continued his March till he arrived at Fedorouscum; and Com­manding the Smolenskian Horse to pro­ceed forward, they advanced to the ve­ry Walls of Musko; but instead of any Parley, or other address to them, they were received with shot from the City, and a furious Salley, which obliged them to draw off to places of more safety. The King was likewise disappointed in his ex­pectation, the Country standing upon their Guards, as having an Enemy in their Bowels; carried all their Provisions into Garrisons and fenced Places; in so much that what with that, and the impressions of the Winter, he was much distressed for Forrage for his Horse; and being ob­liged to lie in the Field, it was more than his Army could endure in that season. The Poles enraged at this evil posture of their Affairs, and to revenge the Indignity, as they called it, assaulted the Town of Vo­loc, [Page 242]but in vain; so that having no choice left them, they returned back by the way of Smolensko into Poland. And thus ended the Expedition of King Sigismund, the Election of Ʋladislaws, and the unfor­tunate Endeavours of the two Demetri­us's, the causes of so many Vicissitudes and Calamities.

The Muskovites being by the retreat of the Poles restored to a state of quietness, consulted the settlement of their Empire, by such an Election as might best tend to it: and having looked about them for a fit Person to place upon the Throne of their shattered Dominions, the universal Suffrage fell upon Michael Federowicz, Son to the Patriarch of Rostock, who was at that time detained Prisoner in Marieburg-Castle; Him they Crowned with one of the Diadems which they found amongst the Rapines of the Poles; fought constantly for him, and forced the Enemy, after many and Bloody Conflicts, to abdicate their pretended Dominion o­ver them, and to emancipate them from the Sacrament of that Oath which they had Sworn to Prince Ʋladislaws. That same Winter, to strike at the Root of De­metrius [Page 243]his Pretensions, they attempted his Remnant enquartered about Caluga. The Cossacks being overcome by the Mus­kovites Gold, delivered the unfortunate Marina with her Son into their hands; who, to destroy all Colour of future Claims from that Interest, made the Water her Grave, thrusting her and her Son under the Ice, into that destroying Element, where she and her hopes sunk together; as if nothing less than an Ocean could suffice to satisfie the thirst of her Ambition. I am not ignorant that Kobierzickius in his History of Ʋladislaws delivers, that she was strang­led by the Great Dukes Command, and her Son hanged. However it was, she was a Lady of an immense Spirit, and great­ness of Mind above her Sex. All other considerations in her, gave place to her aspiring thoughts, which swayed her as the only Pilot of her Soul. The desire of Empire did so eat out her joys, that she was seldom happy; and though her Mis­fortunes were not of a common rank, yet the greatness of her Constancie as well as Courage, seemed to brave them. She ab­horred the thought of being treated in her lowest Condition at a less rate than as Em­press: [Page 244]upon which score it was observed, that she slighted the Letters of a near Kins­man, who coming with King Sigismund into Muskovy, judged it fit to advise her, that she should cast her self upon the Kings Clemencie: But she reflecting upon the omission of her Titles (which 'tis like her Kinsman forbore upon an accompt of free­dom, and not to perplex his Paper with hard Names) answered, She did not doubt, but that God the Avenger of Injuries, would be yet propitious to her afflictions: She said nothing of the King, as not approving of his coming into Muskovy; but com­plaining of the omission of her Titles, added with her own hand, That what God had illuminated, could not be obscured; and that the Sun, however sometimes overcast with thick Clouds, could never be totally deprived of his light: and Signed, The Empress Marina. Some time after, she re­jected with scorn the offer that the King made her Husband and her, of the fair Go­vernments of Sambore and Grodners, pro­vided they would not oppose him in his Conquest of the Empire, sending him this answer: That the King should deliver Cra­covie to Demetrius, and he might in re­turn [Page 245]receive Warsovie from his Great Duke. But she is now overwhelmed in another Deluge besides that of her grief. And the brave, though unconstant Zaruc­ki, who had adhered to her Fortunes, fal­ling likewise into the hands of the Great Duke, was impalled; shutting up the Tra­gedy of his Mistress by his own death.

And now the Competitorship upon the accompt of the Blood Royal seemed to have extinguished: but as if to be Deme­trius were to be immortal, and that he had not been slain, but rescued yet again; an inconsiderable Scrivener, by what induce­ment sway'd to it is unknown, gave him­self out to be Demetrius the Son of John Basilius; and that besides his deliverance at Ʋglecz and Musko, he had yet this far­ther Miracle of his preservation at Caluga. The Fellow being of a ready Tongue, and subtle, got together some hundreds of men, such whom the War had indisposed to any thing of labour. And to these there flock­ed all the Vagabonds, Bandites, and idle persons, the excrements of their late Dis­sentions, that proposed to themselves any advantage from Rapine and Plunder. His numbers being by this means increased to [Page 246]the bulk of a considerable Party, he caused a Manifest to be published of his Birth and se­veral Deliverances, invited all his Loyal Subjects (as he stiled them) to that Obedi­ence which they owed to him as Great Duke of Muskovy, the only surviving Is­sue of John Basilius. And to put the more countenance upon his Imposture, he march­ed with his Force to Novogrod, from thence to Jama, and on to Iwanogrod, where he was by the giddy multitude re­ceived, honoured, and owned as the un­doubted Demetrius Great Duke of Mus­kovy. Having proceeded successfully in this great Attempt, he assumed yet more state: and to give a becoming Reputa­tion to his pretensions, he dispatched an Embassy to Sweden, to sollicite aids against the Treachery and ill-dealing of his Sub­jects, who contrary to all Law Humane and Divine, had set up another upon his Throne. King Charles surprized with this Address, could not satisfie his Won­der, not ceasing to admire how that Deme­trius who had been so often slain, should now survive, to demand his assistance. But resolving not to be abused or imposed up­on, he dispatched Petreius as his Embas­sador [Page 247]to Iwanogrod, with Letters of Cre­dence, and Power to conclude; but first exactly to inform himself of the truth of all things: And if he found this Person to be that real Demetrius, who had been acknowledged, Crowned, and Sworn to at Musko, then to give him all encourage­ment of Supplies for the regaining of his Rights, and bringing his Subjects to their due Obedience. Petreius being arrived at Iwanogrod, could get no Audience from this new Duke: for he being advertised that the Embassador had formerly seen the murthered Demetrius both in Poland and Musko, would by no means admit of him in­to his Presence; but pretending an indis­position in point of health, referred him to his Council to treat with him, and that he himself (hoping he might in a few days be fit for business) would ratifie the Trea­ty in Person. The Swedish Embassador answered, that the King his Master desired to enter into a strict League with the Great Duke, and had therefore given him some particular Commands, which he was to communicate to his Highness in Person; but since it was not consistent with his health to receive him into his presence (he [Page 248]being restrained by his Instructions not to entrust his Masters Secrets to any other) would return for Sweden; not doubting, but if the Great Duke should think fit to send his Embassador thither, but that the King his Master would be ready to com­ply with all his Honorable Designes and Desires. And thus Petreius having ended his Negotiation, left the place; gathering from the refusal of Demetrius to admit him into his Presence, and from other Ob­servations made by him, that he was only a fictitious Person, who had assumed a Name and Title wherewith he had nothing to do.

But he having by this time got together a Force, which might well enough bear the reputation of an Army, took the Field; and upon the 24th of June faced Pleschow, a considerable place; which being summo­ned in the Name of the Great Duke Deme­trius, was upon the point of surrendring; when the Muskovitish Army advancing, he made a hasty retreat, leaving behind him his Cannon, and most of his Baggage; and being followed by them, he hardly esca­ped to Iwanogrod. The Russians having with so much ease, and without a blow, [Page 249]dispersed this new Army, careless of pro­secuting the success further, retired. Where­upon the Inhabitants of Plescow dispatch­ed their Deputies to Iwanogrod, with an humble offer to this Pseudo-Demetrius of their Town and Services, as their Prince and Sovereign. He over-joy'd with this unex­pected Success, went immediately away for Plescow with the Embassadors; where he was received with all the imaginable de­monstrations of Joy, Honor, and Obedi­ence. He transported with this Progress in his Affairs, and not capable of impro­ving the same to his advantage, gave himself up to all manner of licentiousness and lust, violating many of the Prime Citizens Wives and Daughters; and proceeding from one degree of Debauchery to another, he let loose the Reins to his Party, who by his Example committed all manner of In­solencies and Villanies upon the people. The Plescovites tired out, and provoked with the barbarous behaviour of their Prince, took Arms, beat his Guards, and forced him to fly the City for his safety. The Cossacks seeing him thus forsaken of all, resolved also to leave him; but some of them more advised, considered of sei­zing [Page 250]upon his Person, whereby they might the better make their own peace. He ad­vertised of this Designe, being well mount­ed, clapped Spurs to his Horse; and had undoubtedly escaped their hands, but that he was overtaken by an Arrow out of a Cossack-Bowe, which wounded him in the shoulder. Hereupon he was taken; and being bound hand and foot, was sent to Pleskow, and from thence to Musko, where he was tied by a great Chain to one of the Gates, remaining there an object of scorn and reproach to all the world, until the Coronation of Michael Federowicz, by whose Command this last Pseudo-De­metrius, the fictitious Son of Jo. Basilius, was hanged in publick: This Mushrome, after it had but peeped up, expiring with shame and infamy.


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