Here begynneth the table of the rubrices of this presente volume named the Mirrour of the world or thymage of the same

  • The prologue declareth to whom this volume apꝑteyneth and at whos requeste it was translated out of ffrenshe in to englissh
  • After foloweth the ꝓlogue of the trāslatour declaryng the substaūce of this present volume
  • After foloweth the book callid the Myrrour of the world and speketh first of the power & puissāce of god Ca p o
  • Wherfor god made & created the world capitulo ¶.ij.
  • Wherfor god formed man to his semblaūce Ca ¶.iij.
  • Wherfor god made not man in suche wise as he myght not synne capitulo ¶.iiij.
  • Wherfor and how the vij Artes liberal were founde and of their ordre capitulo ¶.v.
  • Of thre maner of peple and how clergye cam first in to ffraunce capitulo ¶.vi.
  • And first it speketh of gramaire capitulo ¶.vij.
  • After of logyke capitulo ¶viij.
  • And after of Rethorique capitulo ¶.ix.
  • And after of Arsmetrike & wherof it procedeth Ca. x.
  • After of geometrye capitulo ¶.xi.
  • After of Musique capitulo ¶.xij.
  • And thēne of Astronomye capitulo ¶.xiij.
  • And af [...] it speketh of Nature low she werketh & what she is capitulo ¶xiiij.
  • Of the fourme of the firmament capitulo ¶.xv.
  • How the foure elementes ben sette capitulo ¶.xvi.
  • [Page]How the erthe holdeth hym right in the myddle of the world capitulo ¶xvij.
  • What the Roundenesse of the erthe is capitulo ¶xviij.
  • Wherfor god made the world round ¶.xix.
  • Of the moeuyng of the heuen and of the vij planettes And of the lytilnes of the erthe vnto Regard of heuen capitulo ¶.xx.
¶Here endeth the first partie of the Rubrices of this present book
Here begynneth the secōd partie of the Rubrices of this present book
  • and declareth how the erthe is deuided Ca. j.
  • What partye the erthe may be enhabyted capitulo .ij.
  • After it speketh of paradys terrestre & his foure flodes capitulo ¶.iij.
  • Of the regyons of ynde and of thinges founden there capitulo ¶.iiij.
  • Of the dyuersitees beyng in the lande of ynde Ca ¶.v.
  • Of the serpentes & of the beestis of ynde capitulo ¶vj.
  • Of the precyous stones & of theyr grete vertue whyche growe in the Royame of ynde capitulo ¶.vij.
  • Of the londes and contrees of ynde capitulo ¶.viij.
  • Of the ffysshes that ben founde in ynde capitulo ¶.ix.
  • Of the trees that ben in ynde and of thyr fruyt Ca. x.
  • Of Europe and of his contrees capitulo ¶.xi.
  • Of Affricque and his Regions & contrees Ca. ¶.xij.
  • Of dyuerse Ysles of the see capitulo ¶xiij.
  • Of the dyuersytes that ben in Europe and Affricque capitulo ¶xiiij.
  • Of the maner and condicon̄ of beestis of the same con­trees [Page] capitulo ¶.xv.
  • Of the maner of birdes of the same contrees. ca. ¶.xvi.
  • Of the dyuersites of somme comyn thyngis. ca. ¶xvij.
  • To knowe where helle is sette & what it is. ca. ¶.xviij.
  • How the water renneth by therthe capitulo ¶.xix.
  • How the fresshe water / & salte. hoot and poysonned sourde capitulo ¶.xx.
  • Of dyuerse fontayns that sourde in therth. ca. ¶.xxi·
  • Wherfore and whi the erthe cleueth & openeth. ca. xxij.
  • How the watre of the see becometh salte capitulo ¶xxiij.
  • Of the Ayer and his nature capitulo ¶.xxiiij.
  • How clowdes haylles tempestes thondres. ligh̄tnynges and layte come comynly capitulo ¶.xxv.
  • Of the frostes and snowes capitulo ¶.xxvi.
  • Of hayll and tempestes capitulo ¶xxvij.
  • Of layh̄te lygh̄tnyng and thondre capitulo ¶xxviij.
  • For to knowe how the wyndes growe capitulo ¶xxix.
  • Of the fyre & the sterres whiche seme to falle. ca. ¶.xxx.
  • Of the pure Ayer & how the vij planets ben sette .xxxi.
  • How ye vij planettis gyue names to ye vij dayes ca xxxij
  • Of the tornyng of the firmament and of the sterres capitulo ¶xxxij.
¶Here endeth the second partie of the table of the Rubrices of this present booek /
Here begynneth the therde parte of the table of the Ru­brices of this volume /
  • Hier is declared how the day and nyght come capitulo p o
  • Wherfore men see no sterres by day light. ca. ¶.ij.
  • Why men see not the sonne by nyght capitulo ¶.iij.
  • [Page]Why the mone receyueth dyuersly her lyght & clerenes capitulo ¶.iiij.
  • How the eclypses of the mone come capitulo ¶v.
  • Of the eclypses of the Sonne capitulo ¶vi.
  • Of the eclypse that cam at the deth of ihesu cryst. ca. vij.
  • Of the vertue of the heuen and of the sterres. ca. viij.
  • Wherfor and why the world was mesured. ca. ix.
  • Of kynge tholomeus & of other philosophres. ca. ¶.x.
  • How the scriptures and sciences were saued ayenst the flode capitulo ¶.xi.
  • Of them that fonde the science & clergye after the flode capitulo ¶.xij.
  • Here after is sayd in substaunce of the meruailles that virgyle made by astronomye in his tyme by his witte ca­pitulo ¶.xiij.
  • Here is declared why monoye was made. ca. ¶.xiiij.
  • Of the philosophres that went thurgh the world. ca. xv
  • What thynge is philosophye and of thanswere of plato capitulo ¶xvi.
  • How moche the erthe hath of heyght / how moche ī circuyte and how thycke in the myddle capitulo ¶xvij.
  • How moche the mone and the sonne haue eche of them of their propre heyghte ¶xviij.
  • Of the heyghte and gretenes of the sterres. ca. ¶.xix.
  • Of the nombre of the sterres capitulo ¶.xx.
  • Of the gretenes of the firmament and of heuen that is aboue capitulo ¶.xxi.
  • Of heuen Crystalyn and heuen emperyal. ca. ¶.xxij.
  • Of Celestial paradys capitulo ¶xxiij.
  • [Page]After this foloweth the Recapitulacion of the thinges aforsaid capitulo ¶xxiiij.
¶Hier endeth the table of the Rubrices of this present book.

¶Prologue declaryng to whom this book apperteyneth


COnsideryng that wordes ben perisshyng / vayne / & forgeteful / And wri­tynges duelle & abi­de permanēt / as I rede Vox audita perit / littera scripta man [...]t / Thise thinges haue caused that the faites and dedes of A [...]meyent men̄ / ben sette by declaracion in fair and Aourned volumes / to then̄de that science and Artes lerned and founden of thinges passed myght be had in perpetuel memorye and remembraunce / ffor the hertes of nobles in eschewyng of ydlenes at suche tyme as they haue none other vertuouse ocupacōn on hāde ought texcersise them in redyng / studyng / & visytyng the noble faytes and dedes of the sage and wysemen somtyme tr [...]uaillyng in prouffytable vertues / of whom it happeth ofte that sōmen ben enclyned to visyte the bookes treatyng of sciences particuler / And other to rede & visyte bookes spekyng of faytes of armes / of loue / or of other meruail­lous [Page] histories / And emonge alle other this p̄sent booke whiche is called the ymage or myrrour of the world / ought to be visyted / redde / & knowen / by cause it treateth of the world and of the wondreful dyuision therof / in whiche book a man resonable / may see and vnderstande more clerer by the visytyng and seeyng of it and the figures therin / the situacōn and moeuyng of the firma­ment / and how the vnyuersal erthe hangeth in the myd­dle of the same / As ye chapitres here folowyng shal more clerly shewe and declare to you / whiche said book was translated out of latyn in to ffrensshe by the ordynaunce of the noble duc / Iohan of Berry and Auuergne the yere of our lord .M.CC.xlv. And now at this tyme rudely translated out of ffrensshe in to Englissh by me symple ꝑsone william Caxton / at the request. desire. coste and dispense of the honourable & worshipful mā Hugh̄ Bryce Alderman & Cytezeyn of london / entendyng to present the same vnto the vertuous noble and puissaunt lord / wylliam lord hastynges lord Chamberlayn vnto the most Crysten kynge / kynge Edward the fourthe kynge of England & of ffraunce (etc) and lieuten̄nt for the same of the toun of Calais and marches there whom he humbly besecheth to resseyue in gree & thanke / whiche booke conteyneth in alle lxxvij chapitres / & xxvij figures / without whiche it may not lightly be vnderstāde / And for to declare more openly / it is ordeyned in thre parties / Of whiche the firste cōteyneth xx chapitres and viij figures / The seconde partie xxxiij chapitres / and ix figures / And the therde conteyneth xxiiij chapitres and [Page] .x. figures / whiche was engrossed and in alle poyntes or­deyned by chapitres and figures in ffrenshe in the toun of beuggis the yere of thyncarnacion of our lord .M.CCCC.lxiiij. in the moneth of Iuyn / And emprised by me ryght vnable and of lytil connyng to translate & brynge it in to our maternal tongue ye second day of the moneth of janyuer the yer of our said lord .M.CCCClxxx in thabbay of westmestre by london / humbly requy­ryng alle them that shal fynde faulte / to correcte and amende where as they shal ony fynde / And of suche so foūden that they repute not the blame on me / but on my copie / whiche j am charged to folowe as nyghe as god wil gyue me grace / whom j most humbly beseche to gyue me scyence· connyng and lyf taccomplysshe and wel to fynysshe it (etc) /

THenne who so wylle comprise and vnderstande the substaunce of this present volume / for to lerne and knowe specially the creacion. of this world / the gretnes of the firmamēt & lytilnes of therthe in regard of heuen / how the vij sciences were ffounden and what they bee / by whiche he may the better auaylle in knowleche alle the dayes of his lyf / Thenne late hym rede this said volume treatably. auisedly. & ordynatly that in suche thing as he shal rede / he suffre nothyng to passe / but that he vnder­stonde it right well / And so may he knowe & vnderstonde veritably the declaracion of this said volume / And he thenne that so wille obeye this cōmandemēt / May by the contēte of the same lerne grete partie of the fourme and condicion of this worlde / And how by ye wyll of our lord [Page] it was by hym created made and accomplisshed / And th [...] cause wherfor it was establisshid / wherof the debonayr lord hath don to vs so grete grace / that we euer ben bounden to gyue hym lawde and worshyp / or ellys we had not ben of ony valew / ne worth ony thyng / nomore than vnreso­nable beestis / Thenne late vs praye the maker and crea­tour / of alle cratures god all myghty that at the begyninyg of this book it liste hym of his most bounteuous grace to departe with vs of the same that we may lerne / and that lerned to reteyne / & that reteyned so teche / that we may haue so parfyght scyence and knowleche of god / that we may gete therby the helthe of our sowles / and to be partyners of his glorye permanent and without ende in heuen Amen /

Hi [...] begynneth the book callid the myrrour of the worlde / And treateth first of the power and puissaunce of god capitulo primo.


YE ought to knowe that whan our lord god made the world And that he had made alle thinges of nought / he had no nede of it / ffor as moche had he bi­fore / as he had afterward Certainly god was to fo­re / and shal be incessantly after / without ende. & withoute begynnyng / Thenne he shal nothyng amende ne be better ffor hym faylled neuer ony thynge / he seeth all / hereth all know [...]h alle / and holdeth alle thynge in his honde / he had neuer hunger / ne thurste. ne tyme. ne daye. ne hour / but abydeth cōtynuelly in alle good / ffor to hym ne appertey­neth soone ne late / and of alle them that euer were. that ben. and shal be. haue alway ben & shal be to fore his eyen as wel the ferre as the nyghe / and the euyll as the good he sawe as wel the world [...] it was made & fourmed as he doth now at this daye / And yf he had neuer made the worlde / as moche had he ben thenne worth / and of as gre­te valewe as he euer myght haue be / ffor otherwise he myght not be god / yf he knewe not / sawe. and herde alle that myght be / & yf he were not soo / he shold be lackyng [Page] and not myghty of euery thynge / And of so moche he was and shold be a mortal man / bus his nature was not suche / ffor he is god entierly and hool without begynnyng and without ende / Nothyng is to hym newe ne olde / Al­le weel & good thingis ben his / by right / And by nature goon / & retourne agayn to hym / ffor fro hym alle thynge procede and meue / And retornyng to hym in holdyng the right waye / he retcheth neuer of ony harme / ffor hys boūte is alle pure. clene. hool and cler [...] without ony espece of euyll Certes alle euyllis ben to hym contraryes / And therfor it is pure necessite that they wythdrawe them vn­der hym and fro alle his goodnes / ffor it is nothyng but donge and ordure / whiche muste nedes descende in to the deppest / And the good thingis must nedes goo vpward tofore the souerayn creatour whiche is clere net & pure / And the synnes whiche ben obscure. horrible and derke aboue alle other thyng leuen the good whiche is aboute god and auale and goo doun / ffor so behoueth it to be by rayson and nature / Alle in lyke wyse as we see the ordure of the wyn that is put in the vessel / and the foule departeth fro the clere / in suche wyse as the good and cle­re abydeth aboue / And the lye whiche is thordure abideth byneth in the bottom as infecte and not good / And the good wyn that is aboue abideth alway clere and fyn / And that whiche is not good that is byneth in the bot­tom abideth alway obscure. fowle. & black / and so moche the more as the wyn is good & more clere / somoche more reteyneth the lye more of filthe and obscure / Thus is it of the good / and euyll / ffor the euyll muste descende in to [Page] places derke and horrible / and ful of all sorow & bitter­nesse / And so moche more as the good shyneth to fore god and the more it ioyeth / so moche the more sorowe & derknesse is in helle / where it is contynuell and shal be as longe as god shal be in heuen / where as god hath alle goodnesse to fore hym and alleway shall haue without payne. wythout trauayl / and without grief or Annoye / he hath alle / and alle he enlumyneth without ony defaulte and withoute ony terme / God may make alle thyng / & alle deffete or vnmake without changyng hym self in ony thing that may be / ffor he may alle and conceyu [...]th alle / Ther is nothyng that may hurte hym / he is esta­bled without ony meuyng / And alle meuynges meue of hym / An hondred thousand yere mounte not to hym so moche as the thousand parte of one only houre of this world / ne to alle them that be in heuen / of whiche the les­te that abideth there hath more Ioye in an hour only / & of deduyte soulace gladnes and of honour of whiche he shal neuer be wery ne full / than ony man may thynke ne knowe ne esteme in this world in an hondred thousand yere yf he myght so longe lyue and endure / thaugh he were the most subtyl of alle the men that euer were born or euer shal be / thaugh he thought the beste he myghte / Of this so grete & jnestimable glorye is god the veray and souerayn lord without ony other / as god that alle knoweth and alle seeth / alle that euer that hath ben / alle that is / and alle that euer shal be / & all that belongeth to hym / hym faylled neuer ony thynge that is good / he hath hem alleway tofore hym / ner ther was neuer ony good [Page] thynge ne neuer shal be / but that it was pourtrayed to fore hym / byfore the creacion of the world / Now ye shal here why and wherfore god created and made the world /


Wherfor god made and crea­ted the world / capitulo ¶ijo

GOd made and created all the world of his only wylle by cause that he myght haue somme thynge that myght besuche / as myght deserue of his weel & goodnes yf it were not in his defaulte And therfore he establisshid this worlde / Nothynge for that he shold be the better / ne that he had ony nede / But he dyde it for charyte & by his grete debonarete / ffor as right charitable / he wolde that other shold parte with hym of his weel & goodnes / And that alle other creatures euerich after his nature sholde fele of his puissance after that it myght apperteyne to hym / Thus wold god establisshe this world / that suche thinge shold yssue that myght vnderstande & knowe the noblesse of his power and of his sapyence / and also of the good that he made for the man erthely / that he myght serue hym in suche maner / that by hym he myght deserue the grete weel & good that he had made for hym / Thenne ought we aboue alle other thynge to loue hym & thanke [Page] hym that made and fourmed vs / Whan we haue suche power & suche auctorite by hym / that yf we wil loue hym we shal be lordes of alle goodes / Now loue we hym thēne with alle our myght / and thēne shal we doo as wise men And yf we do not we shal haue grete harme and dāmage ffor yf we by our cause lose suche goodes as our lord hath made for vs / yet for alle that god shal lese nothing / Cer­taynly he made them to thende that we shold haue them / syth that by our good dedes we myght conne deserue them & that he of his grace hath gyuen to vs the wytte. then­tendement and the power /


Wherfor god fourmed man like vnto his ymage and to his semblaūce capitulo ¶iijo

Whan god fourmed man he wolde make & create hym like vnto his ymage and semblaunce / to thende that he shold haue remembraūce of the goodes that he had len­te hym / and that he mygh̄t deserue them alle by right & raison / ffor he shewde to hym so grete loue / that aboue alle other creatures he fourmed hym to his figure and sem­blaunce / And gaf to hym naturelly right parfyght vn­derstondyng for to loue and knowe hym more than ony [Page] other thyng / to thende that he myght parte more largely of his goodes than ony other creature / Ne god dyde neuer ne made for other creature so many good thynges / as he hath made for man / But who is he that wyll deserue them And yf he doo not / it is Reson that he sorowe / ffor he doth to god no bounte / that doth wel for to haue hys grace & his loue / ffor he doth it more for his owen prouffyt / than he doth it for other / And ther for he doth well that loueth & seruyth hym / ffor moche may he calle hym self Caytyf and meschaunt / that by his folye leseth so hye / so noble & so excellente glorye / ffor his synne that prouffyteth hym nought / And hath not in thende but shame and blame / And draweth hym in to suche a place where is no thinge but payne / yre / sorowe / & heuynesse / of whiche he shal neuer see hym delyuerd as longe as he lyueth Thus hath he los­te the grete joye▪ that was gyuen to hym / whiche is taken away by his synne / And myght haue ben a lord yf he had wolde / yf he had mayntened hym self in doyng al­way good werkes / and wold haue absteyned and kepte hym fro doyng euyll / ffor who that doth wel in this world he hath so moche good and honour / that thangels of he­uen make hym their lord and maistre / by fore god kynge of alle kynges / Thenne he may wel holde hym for ewroꝰ and happy that doth so moche good in erthe duryng his lyf that may conquere and haue this honour / And that may euery persone doo all for hym self yf it pleseth hym / Now late euerych doo as hym good shal seme / and take whiche that he wylle / for he may wynne by doyng well / & also lese by doyng euyll /

Wherfor god made not the man / suche as he myght not synne capitulo ¶iiijo

WHan our lord god created the man / he gaf to hym power to doo his fre wille / That is to wete to doo good or euyll whiche he wolde / ffor yf god had made the man suche as he myght not haue synned ne to haue don nothing but well / he shold haue take from hym somwhat of his power / ffor he myght not thenne haue don euyll whan it had plesyd hym / And thenne it shold haue fo­lowed / that wold he or not / he shold alway haue doon weel withoute reson / And thus he shold not haue ben cause of the good that he shold haue doon / but it sholde haue proceded of another whiche by force sholde haue cau­sed hym and haue gyuen hym the wylle / And he / by the moyen of that he so shold do / shold deserue the gwer­don / and not only he / ffor lityl deserueth he that by force of other doth seruyse / who that to morow shold put me in a stronge prison ayenst my wille for to doo good / I shold not holde hym for wyse / ffor he shold doo me wronge / Neuertheles it was wel in our lordes power yf it had ple­sed hym to haue made man suche that he shold not haue synned ne haue don ony harme ne euyll / But he had not deseruid yet suche merite ne reward as he now doth in no ty­me of the world / And therfor god gaf to man playn fre wille to doo weel or euyll to thende that in weel doyng & le­uyng the euyll he myght haue more merite / ffor otherwise [Page] he myght not deserue so moche / yf god had made thangels suche as myght not haue synned dedly / ne haue don euyll ffor that yet shold not they deserue so noble a yefte as the men / And who that wille deserue these hye merytes / he ought gladly with entier herte and parfyght serue by grete loue and grete Reuerence hym that hath made hym for to conquere and come to the most hye honour / And our lord god wolde that man were suche / that by right he myght deserue as moche good a boute hym as he hym self hath / And therfore he gaf to hym witte and reson for to haue entencion to hym / ffor by right he ought wel to serue hym / Thenne is he a moche fool that pourueyeth not to doo well whilis he is here lyuynge / ffor alle the good that euery man shal doo / shal be for hym self / And alle the euyll also / And eche man shal haue for one good thinge / an hondred good thinges / and for one euyll an hondred euillis / ffor he is a moche fool that weneth to doo to god ony bounte of his goodis in ony maniere that it be / And whan he absteyneth hym fro doyng euyll / so moche our lord holdeth hym the derrer / and loueth hym the better / ffor yf he loste alle the world / our lord shold neuer be the lasse worth / ne none of the goodis that ben in his power / yf alle the sayntes that euer here to fore in the world or euer shal be / had neuer don good / And that alle by her demerytes were perpetuelly dampned in helle / yet for alle that our lord god shold neuer haue the lasse joye ne con­solacion / And shold not be the lasse worth / ne noo thinge that is in heuen / But the sayntes were wyse. [Page] prudent. and constaunt for to doo weel and prouffyt / as they that playnly knewe that this world is not but a wyn thinge and tran [...]itoire And had moche leuer to suffre paynes and trauaylles / and offre their bodyes to tourmēt and martirdom and to haue shames / blasphemies and other iniuries for the loue of our lord in this mysera­ble world that so litil while endureth / and to haue the goodes of heuen euer lastyng / than to haue ease chaūgea­ble to the body / for to haue payne perdurable / They retched not ne had no charge of suche goodis that atte laste shold be of no value But they toke the bridle by the teeth for to gete the right hye witte and vnderstandyng of he­uē And ther ben many of them that holde them for foolis in this world / the whiche now at this tyme haue their neckis charged / of whiche the other be deliuyd / ffor they ben herberowed in heuen / And yet holde they many a wi­se man for fool that preyse not moche their wordes / Ther ben plente of wise peple in heuen now / that yf they had preysed the folissh dictes or sayengis and the folissh wer­kis of the peple that so moche coueyte the hauoir and loos of this world for the worde of foles / that they had lefte the commandemens of god / In whiche the sayn­tes in heuen dyde gretely their deuoyr / ffor they lefte not for the delytes of the world to serue their maker and creatour for to gete heuen where they haue joye and alle honour as they that ben lordes and shal ben with­oute ende / And yf they had don otherwise / they shold haue perpetuelly shame fylthe and tourmen­tis of helle where as ben alle the euyllys that [Page] man can deuise / It is moche grete meruaylle of this world how that it is so / that ther ben so moche peple that will suffre payne and trauaylle more for to gete loos of the peple / or for to amasse grete tresours / the whiche so ly­til tyme abide with hem / that in an only hour they faylle / than they wille doo for to cōquere the goodes of our lord the whiche shal neuer faylle / whiche the blessid sayntes haue goten by a lytil hard lyf that they haue endured in this world that ne semeth but a right delyte to them that of good herte doo it / And in thende it semeth to them / that for lytil or nought they haue goten heuen / and alle thus may euery persone gete it / and be comyn of the goodes of our lord and haue the joyes and glorye of he­uen / yf the defaulte be not in hym self / But they that de­sire the joyes the glorye and honours of this world / they empayre them self so moche that they may not lerne no good ne entende to their sauacion / And had moche lieuer the ease and consolacions of the body of whiche they ben so sone put out / and brought to sorow and payne than they doo the ease of the fowle whiche endureth without ende / Ne they preyse not the wytte ne entendement of the man / yf he can not wel haue hym in the world and haue plente of temporel goodes / by whiche he may be enhaunsed and lyft vp in the world / but saye he is nyce and folissh by cause he can not their malices and cawteles / But alle they ben cursed of god by the mouth of dauid the prophete that so payne them to plese the world by alle the wayes that they can doo / ffor suche pryde is vayne thynge by whiche [Page] the soule is eupayred / of whom dauid saith in the psaulter Acursid be alle they and confused / as peple of exyle that playse the world / ffor of alle goodes they extende them & discorde fro god & fro his loue / syth they haue gyuen them and that they acorde them to the world to his vanytees and delytes / ffor god hath them alle in despyte / & put them fro his grace / by cause they seche the loos and the glorye / of the world / in whiche he was put out and sette a back & in thende crucyfyed and holden for a fool Thus saith our lord god in his gospell / that alle they shal be blessyd that haue the world in despyte / And shal be as peple hated de­fowled and cast out as foles for the loue of me and of my name / ffor they shall haue in heuen their reward and guerdoun / And this may euery man see yf god hym self lye not / And trouthe may not be false / that they whiche plese the world / and wille haue & take the loos & glorye of the world / it may not be but they after haue sorowe / Therfor he is a fool that secheth to haue it / by cause alle they that weeshe or pourchace it / be euyl counceylled / ffor alle suche maner of peple ben by the deuyl ledde in to helle wher [...] they haue a right soroufull guerdoun / And ther is nowher so valiaunt a kynge ne so puissaunte prince duc / erle. knyght or noble man to whom the deuyl hath regard but that he doo to hym as moche grief to his power / as to the most vyle & most poure that cometh in to helle / whan he hath so vsed his dayes & lyf that he is fallen in his hon­des / ffor alle they that ben dampned for to goo theder of what estat that they be / ben alle called Rybauldis / ffor he mocht haue conquerd in heuen more noble & more worthy [Page] Royāme than is in this world / ffor who that in this world serueth our lord vnto the deth / he is more honoured in heuē than alle the kynges that euer were in this world that so litil endureth with vs / Now serue we hym thēne and leue we the euyll / the glorye and the vanyte of this world / Syth thenne that hereto fore we haue deuised how and wherfor god hath created the world and wherfore he made man / we shal deuise to yow herafter the fourme of the world and the facyon after that it conteyneth and compriseth / And how it is made and composed rounde aboute / But it is expedyent that to fore this we speke of the vij Artes liberals & of theyr resons / And how they were founden by them that apperceyued the sciences and vertues / ffor by the vij Artes ben knowen the faytes of the world And how it is sette / And therfore we owe now to speke therof for to vnderstonde the better that we shal saye here after /

Wherfor and how the vij Artes liberal were founden and of their ordre / capitulo ¶vo

NOw declareth this book whiche is drawen out of Astronomye how somtyme the notable & wyse phi­losophres wold enquere of the maner of the world / & how hit had ben created and made of god / wherof moche peple meruaylled / And thenne whan the world was made and compassed / ther was peple ynowhe / Of whiche many behelde the firmament / that torned round aboute the world / and meuyd / they had grete meruaylle how it myght be made / [Page] And they waked and studyed many nyghtes and many dayes / Thenne began they to beholde the sterres that roos in the cest / and meued aboute ouer their hedes Certaynly thise philosophres apetyted not these grete mangeries ne delicyoꝰ wynes ne for to fille their belyes / as don beestis that seche nothinge but their pasture / like as this day doo they that retche of nothinge but to fylle their paunche with good wynes & good vitailles & after to haue a fair bedde. white shetes & softe / and there to slepe as the swyne But those were wakyng and studyeng many nyghtes and it greued them not / but they were embelisshid moche of that they sawe the firmament thus torne and so no­bly to holde his cours & termes Thus sawe they the ster­res meue til they went doun in the weste / somme on that one side / and somme on the other side / And somme sonner than the other Thus behelde the prudēt men-philosophres and other aboute the firmament til it was day that they sawe the sonne shewe and ryse in the mornyng rede and clere whiche ascended and mounted half the day / And that other half descēded so longe til he wente vnder whiche made the nyght tapproche / And thenne cam agayn the sterres in the nyght in their cours til the sōne cam agayn and enlumyned the day / and helde his way and cours til that he repayred on the morn in to his pryncypal place / After they behelde the mone / whiche was a comune thynge and appered to the world dyuersely / One tyme she was rounde / another tyme half / and after horned / and so wente and becam such as noman myght see her / And after she appered horned and syth half as she had ben to fore / and [Page] also round and full / Thenne knewe they well by their entendemēt that she approched the sonne til she was euen ayenst hym / and after departed / And after she withdrew her more and more til that she was vnder the sonne as she had ben to fore / And thenne she wente & cam agayn euery nyght and day tornyng and makyng her cours a aboute the firmament / right as she now doth wyth out ony thyng changyng the contrarye / But now as said is the peple that ben now thynke more / And ben moche more cu­ryous of their grete and fatte paunches for to fylle / and to make them fatte / by whiche they come the sōner to their ende and to carayn̄ & by their ouermoche nourisshyng & vylaynous / whiche delyuereth them first to trauaylle and after to shame & dampnacion / The auncyent faders go­uerned them not in this wyse / ffor they setted not of mete and drynke / but for talegge their hungre and thurste for to susteyne their bodyes and to holde hem in helthe in suche wyse as they myght helpe them self by their wittes / as they ought to doo for to come to the glorye of our lord / And that tyme they lyued xx or xxx yere lenger than they doo now of an honderd one / And that procedeth of theyr folissh and outrageous gouernaunce / Certaynly suche peple vnderstande not wel the worde of our lord whan he said to the deuyll whan he cam to tempte hym and saide that he shold make of the stones brede and that he shold ete / Thenne Ihesu Cryst answerd / that man lyued not only by brede / but by the worde that procedeth fro the mouth of god / yf the men in thise dayes vnderstode wel this worde / they wolde reteyne more gladly the doctrynes [Page] that procede and come fro the mouth of our creatour and maker / But the grete rentes that they haue / & the grete tresours of their coffres bē cause of shortyng & abreggyng of their dayes / by their disordinat mangeries that ouer­moche noye and greue them / so that nature may not wel bere ne susteyne / wherof they muste nedes the sōner rendre their soule and dye / Thus their Rentes / their tresours or other thinge wherin they delyte them / take away theyr lyf / their herte / & their wytte alle attones / In suche wyse that whan deth cometh & muste nedes dye / they haue loste wytte and vnderstondyng / of whom many ben deed and dampned / whiche at their nede may not be counseilled ne can not helpe them self whan they haue moste nede / They lyue not lyke them / that for to kepe them fro peryllis stu­dyed in sciences and vsed their lyf in suche manere that they wold but susteyne their body only as longe as they shold be in this world / as they that wel knewe that this lyf shold not to them longe endure / And had enuye at none other thinge / but only for to lerne suche science by whiche they myght knowe the souerayn kynge allmygh­ty that alle had created of nought and made it with his hand / Thenne they thought in their entendemēt as peple that was of noble and vertuous entencōn / that they shold neu haue knowleche of our lord god / ne of so hye myght but yf they entended and serched in his werkes whiche they fonde so excellente / and as grete as they myght en­quere & knowe / ffor men shal neuer wel knowe the mais­tre / but yf byfore men knowe parfightly his estate and what his werkes been / ffor by the werkys is the werkeman [Page] knowen / And how he may be suche one / And therfor the auncyent faders wold employe them and assaye the wer­kis of our lorde / And first for to haue knowleche of his power and his vertue / Considering that they myght not ocupye them self in a more digne ne worthy science ne more diffycile / And whan the more that they knewe of his werkis and of his wisedom / somoche more had they the better wille to loue her creatour and maker / and to ho­noure hym / considering that he had made so noble a thin­ge and so worthy as is the heuen in whiche ben the ster­res that shyne bright therin / and his other meruayllous vertues whiche they preysed moche / ffor how moche more they preysed hym / somoche with good wille they seruyd hym / ffor it was all their affeccion / jntencion and reson to knowe god / ffor as moche as they knewe certainly / that god had gyuen to them with nature witte & raison for to serche and compryse of thinges of therthe / and of them of heuen as moche as they myght knowe / ffor otherwyse they myght neuer haue thought it / Thus a man be he neuer so wise ne discrete / may neuer come for to vnderstan­de the hye secretes of god ne of his myracles / but by hym ffor by right he knoweth all / But of them that by natu­re be made and ordeyned in heuen and in erthe / man may wel enquere somme resouns yf it be gyuen hym and that he be garnysshid of good quyk witte / And that he haue sette and employed his tyme to studye & to lerne / And sith they had goten vnderstandyng and raison by their grete estudye labour & trauayll / somoche that they myght comprise wherfore and how alle the world was made and [Page] compassed as ye haue herd here to fore / So thought they thenne / that they myght wel knowe and haue reson of somme thinges / sith they had the vnderstandyng of hym that is almyghty to knowe in partie or atte leste of suche as they myght see with their eyen / how wel that they were ferre / Thus wold they knowe the reson of that / that they sawe so meue the sterres of the firmament & of them that shone so clere / Certainly this was the pryncipal cause why first they put them to studye for tenquere the science that they knewe not / And knewe wel that they shold enquere sonner of thinges that they sawe / than of them that they sawe not / And therfore were they meuyd for to knowe & tenquere the science whiche they knewe not of that they had ofte seen the firmament to meue / & wolde knowe the trouthe / And saide it was right good to knowe it / yf it pleasid god / and to knowe of his naturel werkis / ffor the more parfightly to bileue & knowe how he was god alle myghty / ffor men coude not knowe ne fynde no resons of god but only by his werkis / The good Auncyent wise men / wiche diligently wolde vnderstonde this mater / had noo cure for to amasse none other goodes / but only to lerne the pure science / they were nothing couetous / ne sette not to gadre tresours / And ther were plente of them that apperceyued as wise men that it was a grete charge to them oftymes as wel to kepe it / as to spende it by me­sure as in other wayes to gete it and bringe it to gedre / And that all this was a letting to them for to lerne / And they deliberid emong them and concluded / that som­me caste and threwe their tresour in to the see / The other [Page] gaf it away and abandonned to them that wold take it / & wente as hermytes / And the other departed it to poure peple / And other ther were that lefte their good in suche wyse as them semed that they shold haue lasse cause to thynke theron / and reteyned nothyng but only for their vse / And helde with hem certayn folke to serue them to thende only / that they shold entende to nothyng but to stu­dye and to lerne / They dyde do edefye their houses fro the peple like as religious peple and sette them in suche places that thries or foure tymes the weke they myght assemble & come to gydre for to solace them and sporte / And there eche rendred his reson of that he had founde and lerned / And so longe dyde they thus til they had experimented whiche was trewe / and who knewe most & that they had founden who had moste grettest entendement / And hym they chose by consent of them alle for maistre / And he re­corded their resons heeryng alle the felawys / and reherced to them alle to gydre that euery man had said / In this manere were the clergies first founden contryued & auaū ­ced / And somoche trauaylled & studyed that they knewe by the helpe of our lord of whom alle science groweth and haboundeth grete partye of that it is / But this was not in lytel tyme / ffor they were longe in studye and vnder­stode moche / And they that were first / alle that they vnder­stode and knewe / they put it in wrytyng the best wise they coude / to thēnde that they that shold come after them / and wold entremete in connyng / myght haue their wrytyngis and trauaylle alway in the science as they had don byfore Alle that they fonde and sawe / they sette in compilacions [Page] And dide so moche eche in hi styme that they were more than .ij.M. and .CCCC. yere er they by their labours & continuel studyes had goten the vij Artes or sciences li­beral and put to gydre / But they helde their labour wel employed & the payne that they put therto / ffor they knew by their witte and by their clergye / alle that was come on erthe by nature / whan they wold sette their cure theron And also were not abasshed whan a merueylloꝰ caas hap­ped on heuen or on erthe / ffor they coude wel enquere the re­son wherfore it was / & sith that it happed by nature / And so loued god moche the more / whan they sawe suche mer­uaylloꝰ werkis / And watched many nyghtes with right grete joye and grete studye of this that they sawe & fon­de so hye werkes / by whiche they amēded them self ayenst our lord that they knewe trouthe / and lefte the vanyte of this world / that so litil is worth for to come to the joye that neuer shall faylle / Of whom plente of wyse philoso­phres that were in the world deyde wrongfully and without reson / by cause they shewde rightfully to the grete lordes / & gaf them fair examples / in repreuyng & myspreysing their euil tyrannyes and thextorsiouns that they dyde to moche peple / And preched to them right and trouthe / And they that wold not bileue them / & had shame of that they were of them blamed / they made them to be put in their prisons / where they made them to deye by greuous tourmentes / by cause they shewd to them the trouth wherof they were cer­tayn / like as was don to holy sayntes that suffred deth and passion for the loue of ihesu cryste whom they wold en­haunse So were ther suche philosophres that by their witte [Page] and vnderstandyng prephecyed the holy tyme of the co­myng of ihesu cryste lyke as virgyle saide whiche was in the tyme of Cezar at Rome / by whiche plente of peple haue ben better syth / than they were bifore / ffor he saide that a newe lignage was enioyed fro heuen on hygh̄ that shold do / vertues in erthe by whom the deuyl shold be ouercome / vpon whiche saynt poul that sawe this escripture / whiche he moche preysed / saide with a sorouful herte for so moch [...] as he had not ben crysten / ha that j shold haue rendred and yelden the to god / yf thou haddest lyued / and that j had come to the / Other philosophres ther were of whome eue­rich saide good wordes and meruayllous / But we may not now reherce alle the good thinges that they saide / ffor they were prudent alle and valyant / seen that they set to fore alle other thynges clergye / ffor yf it were not by clergye / men shold not knowe that god were / And yf they had not ben so prudent men as they were / ther had neuer be so grete clergye as is now / And yf ther were now suche as they were thenne that fonde first clergye / it shold be other wyse than it now is / But clergye goth now al to nought / that almost it is perisshid / ffor in thise dayes the peple secth not by cause that they that ought wnderstande vertues and to teche other and enscyne and gyue example to doo well / they ben they that recule and withdrawe fro it And alle this procedeth by their folye / ffor nomā holdeth clergye for vertue / ne he loueth it not ne applyeth it in all poyntes / But many ther ben that sechen the lyes & dres­tis / and leue the clere wyn̄ / ffor noman lerneth ne secheth now / but for to conne so moche that he myght conquere & [Page] gete the moneye / And whan they haue goten and large­ly assemblid therof / thenne ben they werse than they were a fore / ffor the money hath so surprysed them that they may entende to none other thinge / Ther ben plente of pour clerkes that gladly wold lerne yf they had the power But they may not entende therto / by cause they haue not wherof for to furnisshe them of their necessitees as wel for to haue bookes as m [...]te. drinke and clothes / But ben cō ­strayned for to gete their liuyng other wise / ffor the riche haue now in thise dayes seased somoche / that the poure abide naked and must suffre / yet ben ther plente of Riche clerkis that haue bookes without nombre of one & other richely adoubed and couerd to thende that they ben holden for wise and good clerkes / ffor they seche to haue nomore / buf only the loos and preysing of the peple / And doo in lyke wyse as the Cock that shrapeth in the duste for to fynde pasture / he shrapeth so longe in the duste and mulle til he fynde a gemme riche and precyous whiche shyneth clere / thenne he begynneth to loke theron and beholdeth it / and doth nomore but late it lye / ffor he demandeth not af­ter the ouche or gemme / but had leuir haue somme corn to ete / In like wise is it of many of thise not wise clerkis couetous that haue the precyous bookes richely lymined storyed and wel adoubed / that doo nothinge but loke and beholde them without forth while they be newe by cause them seme that they ben fair / & so they beholde them glad­ly and passe therwith / and after they torne on that other side and thinke for to fylle their belyes / & to come to their folyssh desyres / And they myght lerne ynoughe yf they [Page] wolde entende it / ffor they haue wel the power / and myght doo as the wise men dyde herto fore / the whiche by their trauayl. studye and diligence fonde first the clergyes / but they haue their entendement folissh and out of the waye / And therfor the sciences and artes perisshe in suche wise that vnneth and with grete payne knowe they their par­tes of reson whiche is the first book of gramaire / the whiche is the first of the seuen sciences But put their ar­te [...] in their males / and goo lerne anon the lawes or decre­tals / and become aduocates and iuristes for to amasse & gadre alway money wherin the deuyl conforteth hem / and yet doo they not somoche for to lerne / as they doo for to fylle their purses / In parys Oxenford and Cambrige is ther suche maner of clerkes that ben acustomed to wille haue the Renomme and fame to be called maistres for to be the more preysed and honoured / And haue leuer to conne lytil and to haue the name of maistre / than they shold be good clerkes without hauyng the degree and na­me of maistre / But they be called maistres wrongfully / ffor vanyte maistryeth them in suche wise that they can but lytil trouthe / bicause that they haue so soone the na­me of maistre they leue the clergye / And take them to the wynnyng / lyke as marchants doo and brokers / And in this wise ben many in the world that haue the name of maistre / that knowe right lytil of good and reson / ffor they that now desire this ben not maistres after right / ffor they ordeyne them otherwise to the sciences / than they dyde that fonde them first / They entred first in to gramayre for to drawe reson in their ordynaunce / And after logyque [Page] for to preue and shewe the trouth fro the false / After they fonde rethoryque for to speke fair in iugement and right whiche they moche loued / & after arsmetryque for to be ex­pert in alle thinges / after they fonde geometrie for to me­sure & compasse alle maistrye / & after they fonde the sciēce of musyque for to sette alle thinges in concordaūce / after they had the vnderstandyng of astronomye / ffor therby were they meuid to haue science & vertue / In this manere ye may vnderstāde how they that first fonde science / ordey­ned the vij artes or vij sciences / & they ben in suche wise entrelaced that they may not be auctorised that one with­out that other ne entierly preysed / & also the first may not be perfightly cōned withoute the laste / ne the laste wyth­out the firste / and he that wille lerne one a right & vnder­stonde it / hym behoueth to lerne alle the other / ffor otherwi­se may not be knowen appertly the certayn / ne the incer­tayn / ffor that one is so comune to that other that it beho­ueth to knowe of alle / but now men seche to lerne nomore but the arte for to gete y moneye / & ben to blame of that the other were preysed that first so trauaylled of whiche it is to vs so grete nede / ffor litil shold we haue knowē yf we had not seen it by writing / ffor as it is tofore said / yf cler­gye had be loste / we had knowē nothing ne who had be god Ne men shold neuer haue knowen / what thing had ben best to doo / & so shold alle the world haue ben dampned / thēne had we ben born in an euyll houre / ffor the men had knowē nomore than do dombe beestis / and alle the good thinges ben now knowen & alle comen of the vij sciences that the philosophres fonde somtyme by their wyttes / ffor therby [Page] had they vnderstondyng to loue god and his vertues And that god is alway & shal be withouten ende / & so bi­leued they in grete faith truly in the aūcyent lawe / But in thise dayes the sciēces perisshe by our enuyes detraccōns & other euylles in suche wise that right lityl is reteyned of one and other / ffor now dar no man entende but for ry­chesse / ffor myssayers felons & enuyoꝰ men that wil lerne no good / & yf they see ony entende to sciēces & clergyes / & they be not riche & myghty for to furnysse hem / the Ryche men wil anon scorne & mocque them / & thus wil the deuil exhorte them that is their maister & their lord & to whom it pleseth that they messaye in so moche as he shal reward them with grete hyre that they shal be sure to haue alle euyl aduētures in helle that stynketh where they shal moc­ke them self and shal saye that they were born in an euyl houre / whan they haue not lerned that they ought to lerne There shal they haue more prouffyt of their sciences / that loued better to cōquere clergye / than the fool to conne kno­we to assemble the grete tresours & the grete richesses / & knowe ye that alle they that for to gete worldly goodes lefte their tyme for to lerne good / ben alle assured to haue euyl & payne after their deth / ffor by their auarice & cheuaū ­ce the sciences come to nought / so that almost they be pe­risshyd / & that / whiche now is knowen / cometh & groweth of the vnyusitees of parys oxenford & cambrige & other &c

¶Of thre maner of peple and how clergye cam first into the Royamme of fraunce. capitulo ¶vio

NOw regneth clergye moche strongly in ffraūce in the cyte of parys as sōtyme was in the cyte of athe­nes [Page] whiche thēne was moche noble & puissaūt / The phi­losophres that thēne were / & whiche that oughte to teche & lerne other / acompted but thre maner of peple in the world after their vnderstādyng / & that were clerkes. knyghtes. & labourers / The labourers ought to pourueye for the cler­kes & knyghtes suche thinges as were nedeful for them to lyue by in the world honestly / & the knyghtes ought to defende the clerkis / & the labourers that ther were no wron­ge don to them / and the clerkis ought to enseigne & teche these ij maner of peple / & to adresse them in their werkis in suche wise that none doo thinge by whiche he sholde disple­se god ne lese his grace Thus setted sōtyme the wise phi­losophres thre maner of peple in the world / As they that knewe / that no man myght sette his corage in that he myght be wise a right in ij maners or thre / ffor it happed neuer day of the world that clergye cheualrye & labourers of therthe myght be well knowē by one only man in alle his lyf ne lerned ne reteyned / therfore he that wold lerne byhoueth hym only to lerne one of the thre / & therfore the philosophres sette thre maner of peple without moo in the erthe / ffor they wold seche the very trouthe / And sought a­cyte in the world / where they myght best be & dwelle for tenquere thestate of the clergye / & thus the better for ta­dresse them / & to teche other / they chees the cyte of athenes whiche was noble & sōtyme one where they had their comyn residence and assemblee And there regned first chyualrye with clergye / & after fro thens it wente to Rome / whiche now is of grete Renōmee / And there cheualrye conty­nued long / And frothens after it remeuid in to ffraūce / [Page] where chyualrye hath more power than ony other place in the world / And thus haboūdeth there that one & that other ffor cheualrye sieweth alway clergye where she goth Then­ne the kynge of ffraunce & of Englonde may be ioyous that there is in his Royāmes suche seignourye as is sci­ence of clergye where euery man may drawe out wytte & connyng humayn / & ther abydeth neuer the lasse / ffor it is as a fontayn that contynuelly sourdeth & spryngeth And the more it renneth & the ferther / the more it is holsom / & how more the sprynge of the fontayn renneth & ferther so­moche is the more of the water / & the more may be taken fro it for nede / In lyke wyse may I saye to yow / that pa­rys Oxenford & Cambryge ben the fontayns where men may drawe out most science & more in parys than in other places / & sith it is soo that clergye is somoche auaunced in ffraūce / Thenne ought we knowe by reson in especyal yf the heyres of fraūce daigne to conne it / ffor like as the sonne is most fair of alle the sterres And causeth moste good thinges to growe in the world / by the bounte that ha­boūdeth in hym / so ought the kyng be of more valewe than ony other / & to haue more vnderstādyng & clergye / so that by his valyaunce & suffysaunce he myght shyne emonge other peple / & by thexēple of his wel doyng that they see in hym / they myght by right conduyte drawe them to our lord & in suche wise shold he be kynge by right in this world & in heuē / so thenne shold it be wel right & raison / yt they doo their diligēce to lerne suche clergye & sciēce / that after this mortal lyf they lese not the seignourye of heuē / ffor by na­ture & lignage ought they alle to loue clergye & alway to [Page] lerne it Certes thēperour of almaygne louid with al his herte clergye / And auanced it to his power in ffraunce / And alle the good clerkis that he coude fynde he reteyned them to his courte / & sente for them oueral where he knewe ony / he had in his tyme many a trauayll / many a payne / & many a dan̄gier & ennoye for to mayntene and enhaunce crysten faith / And therfore he neuer lefte / but helde the cler­kes in right grete reuerence / ffor gladly he lerned alway as is founden by his dedes / he was a good Astronomyer / And was moche louid in lorayn / ffor gladly he dwellid there / And yet ben ther many of his iewellis fair & riche that he gaf vnto chirches as a good blessid man as he was / Truly he louid god aboue alle other thyng / & dyde moche dyligence in his tyme for to brynge the sciences & the clergye in to fraunce / & yet they abyde there & regne by his prowesse / And hath moche taught & gyuē ensample to kynges that come after hym / ffor euermore he hath in pa­rys cōquerd science & clergye / Now thēne almyghty god holde it / and that it may in the cyte be. alway mayntened ffor yf the studye wente out of ffraūce / knyghthode wold goo after / as it hath alway don / ffor contynuelly that one is by that other / Therfor late the kynge of ffraunce for his weel / reteyne it yf he may / ffor he may wel lose his Royamme / yf clergye departe out of ffraunce / Also ther ben in ffraūce an other peple whiche ben late come / & they ben ffreris mynours and iacobyns / whiche haue take on them relygion for the loue of god for to lerne & entende to serue god / of whom our lord hath don to vs so grete ho­nour and Reuerence that they reteyne alle the flour of [Page] clergye in their ordres for tadresse and enhaunce our mo­der holy chirche by their estudye and trauaylle / ffor they haue good wille for to serue our lord & to lerne sciences and the holy scripture / as they that haue gyuen ouer the world and habandonned / And me semeth that they doo as dyde they that setted them by hynde the hutyns in theyr cloyster vnder the peple for the better to gete the merite of heuen in leuyng worldly possessions / And our lord hath don grete bounte to them that haue them in their cytees in their castels & townes / ffor they serue not for tricherye & barat / but trauaylle in prechyng & makyng sermones for to brynge the peple to good lyf & to the waye of trouthe / And oftymes suffre grete disease for to brynge other in ease / ffor I bileue wel that yf ne were theyre boūte & good prechynge & techyng / Cristente shold be exyled by errour & euyl byleue / yf they holde hem & kepe that they haue empri­sed as they that haue leyd doun vnder them alle the riches­ses of the worlde / without retornyng agayn therto / thēne haue they a moche good manere / ffor they haue taken on them for the loue of our lord the lyf of pouerte / & plente of other that be in the world don in like wise that take en­sample at them that see that they weel doo Therfor ought we to yeue thankynges to god / & adresse our hertes to doo well / in suche wise that by right we myght goo to the joye of heuē by our good deedis / of whiche god gyue vs myght to deserue that therof we may be partoners / but for as moche as ye haue herde reherce how the vij artes or sciences libe­rall were founde and by whom / I passe & deporte but wille reherce what they be and wherfore they serue / ffor fro them [Page] procedeth sens or wytte humayn / and alle maner werke / that is made with hondes / Alle prowesses / and alle habi­litees / alle goodes & alle humylitees And therfore I wil descriue in mater and substance couenable the vertues of eche of them / and wherof they procede particulerly and of their nature / And after we shal speke of the world / and how it is composed alle rounde But byfore alle other wer­kes we shal speke of the vij sciences whiche ought not to be forgeten / And first we shal touche of the science or arte of gramaire / whiche is the first of the seuen / And without whom the other syxe may haue no perfeccion /

¶Gramaire capitulo ¶vijo


The first of the .vij. sciences is gramaire / of whiche for the tyme that is now / is not knowen the fourth ꝑ­te / wythout whiche science / fikerly alle other sciences in especial ben of lytil recommendacion / by cause without gramaire ther may none prouffyte / ffor gramaire is the fondement and the begynnyng of clergye / And it is the yate by the whiche in thenfancye is bygonne & in contynnyng men [Page] come and atteyne to sapyēce of clergye / This is the scy­ence to fourme the speche be it in latyn ffrenshe or englis­she / or in ony other langage that men speke with / And who that coude alle gramaire / he coude make and construe euery worde / And pronounce it by example / god made the world by worde / And the worde is to the world sentence /


here foloweh of logyke ca­pitulo viijo

THe se­cōde sci­ence is logy­ke whyche is called dyale­tyque / This science proueth the. pro. and the. contra. / That is to saye the verite or trouthe / & otherwyse / And it preueth wherby shal be knowen the trewe fro the fals / & the good fro the euyll / So veryly that for the good was created heuen and maad / And on the contrarye wyse for the euyll was helle maad and establisshyd whiche is horryble stynkyng and redoubtable /

¶Hier speketh of Rethoryque capitulo ixo

THe therde of the vij sciences is callyd Rethoryque whyche conteyneth in substaunce / rightwisnes. Rayson and ordynaunce of wordes / And ought not to [Page] be holden for folye / ffor the dedytes and lawes by which [...] the iugements be made and that by rayson & after right


ben kept and mayntened in ye court of kyn­ges of princes and of barons come & procede of Rethoryque / Of this scien­ce were extrayt and drawen the lawes and de­crees whiche by nede serue in alle causes / and in alle righ­tes & droytes / who wel knewe the scyence of Rethoryque / he shold knowe the right & the wronge / ffor to doo wronge to another who so doth it / is loste & dampned / & for to doo right & reson to euery man / he is saued & geteth the loue of god his cre­atour /


Here foloweth Arsmetryque & wherof it pro­cedeth. ca. ¶xo

The fourth scyēce is called arsmetrique [Page] / this science cometh after rethoryque / ande is sette in the myddle of the. vij sciences / And without her may none of the vij sciences parfyghtly ne weel and entierly be knowen / wherfor it is expedyent that it be weel knowen & [...]onned / ffor alle the sciences take of it their substaunce in suche wise that without her they may not be / And for this reson was she sette in the myddle of the vij sciences / and there holdeth her nombre / ffor fro her procede alle ma­ners of nombres / and in alle thynges renne come & goo / And no thyng is without nombre / But fewe perceyue how this may be / but yf he haue be maistre of the .vij ar­tes so longe that. he can truly saye the trouthe / But we may not now recompte ne declare alle the causes wherfore ffor who that wolde dispute vpon suche werkes / hym beho­ued despute & knowe many thynges & moche of the glose who that knewe wel the science of arsmetrique he myght see thordynance of alle thynges / By ordynance was the world made & created / And by ordynance of the souerayn it shal be deffe­ted /


Next foloweth the scyence of Geometrye ca­pitulo ¶xio.

The fyfthe is called geometrye the [Page] whiche more auaylleth to Astronomye than ony of the vij other / ffor by her is compassed & mesured Astronomye Thus is by geometrye mesured alle thingis / where ther is mesure by geometrye / may be knowen ye cours of the sterres whiche alleway go & meue / And the gretenes of the firmament of the sonne of the mone & of the erthe / By geometrye may be knowē alle thynges & also the quātyte They may not be so ferre yf they may be seen or espyed with eye but it may be knowen / who wel vnderstode geo­metrie / he myght mesure in alle maistryes / ffor by mesure was the world made / and alle thinges hye. lowe & deep /


Here folo­weth of mu­syque / capi-

The six­the of the vij sciē ­ces is called musyque / the whiche fourmeth hym of Arsmetryque / Of this science of mu­syque cometh alle attemperaunce / And of this arte pro­cedeth somme phisyque / ffor like as musyque acco [...]deth al­le thinges that dyscorde in them / & remayne them to con­cordaunce / right so in lyke wyse trauaylleth phisyque to brynge Nature to poynt that disnatureth in mannes bo­dy / whan ony maladye or sekenes encombreth hit / But [Page] phisyque is not of the nombre of the vij sciences of phi­losophye / But it is a mestier or a crafte that entendeth to the helthe of mannes body / and for to preserue it fro alle maladyes and sekenesses as longe as the lyf is in the body / And therfor it is not liberal / ffor it serueth to hele mānes body / whiche ellis oftentymes myght lightly perysshe / and ther is nothyng liberal ne free that groweth of therthe And for as moche as sciēce that serueth to mā ­nes body leseth his franchise / but science that serueth to the soule deserueth in the world to haue name liberal / ffor the sowle ought to be liberal as thyng that is of noble be­yng / as she that cometh of god / and to god wille & ought retòrne / and therfor ben the vij sciences liberall / ffor they make the soule all free And on that other part / they teche and enseygne alle that in euery thyng ought proprely to be don And this is the very reson why thise artes alle vij ben called vij sciences liberall / ffor they make the soule liberall / & delyuer it fro alle euyll / Of this arte is musy­que thus comune / that she acordeth her to euerich so well that by her the vij sciences were sette in concorde that they yet endure / By this science of musyque ben extrayt and drawen alle the songes that ben songen in holy chirche / & alle the accordaunces of alle the instruments that haue dyuerse accordes and dyuerse sownes / and where ther is reson and entendement of somme thinges / Certes who can wel the science of musyque / he knoweth the accordance of alle thinges / And alle the creatures that payne them to doo wel / remayne them to concordance /

Hier speketh of Astronomye capitulo ¶xiijo


The vij & the laste of the vij scyences liberal is as­tronomye / whiche is of alle clergye the ende By this scyence may and ought to be enquyred of thinges of heuen and of therthe / and in especyal of them that ben made by na­ture / how ferre that they bee / And who knoweth wel and vnderstandeth astronomye / he can sette reson in alle thin­ges / ffor our creatour made alle thynges by reson & gaf his name to euery thyng / By this Arte and science we­re first emprysed and goten alle other sciences of decrees and of dyuinyte / by whiche alle Cristiante is conuerted to the right faith of our lord god to loue hym / and to serue the kynge almyghty / ffro whom alle goodes come & to whom they retorne / whiche made alle astronomye And heuen and erthe. the sonne. the mone and the sterres / as he that is the very rewler & gouernour of alle the world / & he that is the very reffuge of alle creatures / ffor with­out his playsir nothyng may endure / Certes he is the very Astronomyer / ffor he knoweth all / the good and the badde as he hym self that composed astronomye / that [Page] somtyme was so strongly frequented / and was holden for alright hye werke / ffor it is a science of so noble beyng / that who that myght haue the parfayt scyence therof / he myght wel knowe how the world was compassed and plente of other parcyal sciences / ffor it is the science abo­ue alle other by whiche alle maner of thynges ben kno­wen the better / By the science of Astronomye only / were founden alle the other .vj. to fore named / And without them maye none knowe a right Astronomye / be he neuer so sage ne myghty / In like wise as an hamer or an other tool of a mason ben the instruments by whyche he for­meth his werke / And by whiche he doth his crafte / In li­ke wise by right maistrye ben the other / the instruments and fondements of Astronomye / And the auncyent wi­semen as kynges. prynces. dukes. erles. knyghtes. and other grete lordes / by their vnderstondyng. grete trauayll. estudye. and by the hye conduyte that was in them sette by good manere alle their payne and labour to lerne and knowe the sciences & artes of clergye for to vnderstond the science of astronomye / And so longe they trauaylled that by the wille of our lord they lerned & knewe ynough ffor they knewe plente of grete affaires and werkes that happened in the world And they preysed nothing tho thin­ges that were erthely / as they that knewe wel the re­sons therof / And that tyme was the customme that yf a man were bonde / to one or moo / or yf he were comen of ly­tyl extraccion / and were riche and ful of grete goodes / yet durste he not estudye in the vij sciences liberall / for the nobles and hye men that in alle poyntes wolde reteyn [...] [Page] them princypal / and to thende that they were free and libe­rall / And by this reson they put therto for name the vij artes or sciences liberall / ffor they ben so free / that they rendre to god the soule alle free / And they ben so wel to poynt / that ther may nothyng be taken away / ne nothyng put to / how well yf ony wold or coude medle therwyth thaugh he were a good clerke and experte / ffor yf they were torned or chaunged ony thyng that myght be / alle shold be disfygured / by cause they ben so resonably and truly composed / that ther is noman lyuyng in the world / be he neuer of so moche and perfoūde science / be he paynem Iewe or Crysten / that may ony thyng or can change / tor­ne / ne take away ne defowle it in ony maner / And who that parfyghtly knewe the vij artes / he shold be byleuid in alle lawes / ffor ther is noman that coude interrupte hym of ony thing that he wolde preue / were it true or other­wyse / by cause he shold preue by quyck reson alle that he wolde were it wronge or right / Thenne is he a fool that thynketh to knowe perfyghtly ony thyng that appertey­neth to clergye / By what mystere or crafte that may come to hym / but yf it be by myracle of god that alle may doo / yf he can none of the vij sciences / ffor otherwise alle his trauaylle shold be of no valewe ne he shold not conne shewe thynge of Recommendacion ne preue by right the pro and contra / Therfore the vij sciences ben byleued in alle the lawes / there as they ben red / And ther is noman be he neuer of so dyuerse a lawe ne of so diuerse langage that yf he conuerse with peple that can nothyng of the vij sciences ne preue of their vsages ne of their partes that [Page] shal be bileuid for experte and wise / Ne ther shal neuer be paynem ne sarrasyn so moche diuerse / that a Cristen man or a Iewe may withsaye hym of thinges that he wil aleg­ge or preue / And the decretals ne the lawes be not euyl / thaugh somme peple holde euyl the constitucions that ben emonge them / bicause that other doo them and holden / ffor alle the lawes depende of the vij sciences / and alle men byleue them and reteyne them / there where as peple kno­we them And alle resons that procede of the vij sciences ben trewe in alle causes and in alle places / Thus ben not the sciences mu [...]ble / but alleway ben estable & trewe Herwith I deporte me to speke more to you herof / ffor ther is ynough here of tofore made ample mencion / And now I shal reherce to you here after of thaccidentes and of the faites of nature and that shal be short / ffor god created nature altherfirst / and tofore he created ony other thinge that apperteyned to the world And we ought to fore alle other werke saye and declare what she is / for to deuyse af­ter and descryue of the world / ffor the firmament torneth and meueth by nature / and in like wise doo alle the thin­ges that haue meuyng / Nature meueth the sterres and maketh them to shyne and growe / and also may anoye and greue as moche as she wille And by cause alle men vnderstonde not wel what this foloweth in substaunce / we shal declare a litil our matere a longe / ffor to gyue the better vnderstondyng what nature is / and how she werketh to thende that more fully ye may compryse the facion of the world by this that herafter shal be to you declared / yf ye will wel vnderstande the resons / And therfore gyue [Page] y [...] dy [...]gence for to comprise them & wel to reteyne them /

Here foloweth of Nature how she werketh and what she is capitulo ¶xiiijo

OVre lord god created alther first nature / ffor she is the thynge by whiche alle creatures and other wer­kes haue dured & lyue what someuer they bee ordeyned of god [...]nder the heuen / without nature may nothinge gro­we / and by her haue alle thinges created lyf / & therfor be­houeth nature to be firste / ffor she noryssheth & entertieneth alle creatures / & habandonneth her self where it pleseth the creator or maker / Nature werkyth in lyke wyse whan she is employed / as doth the axe of a carpenter / whan he em­ployeth it in his werke / ffor the axe doeth nothynge but cutte / And he that holdeth it addressith it to what parte he wylle / so that in thende by the axe the werke is achieuid & made after thentente of the werker / ryght so nature ma­keth redy and habandonneth where as god wylle / ffor alle thinges ben made by her / & entiertiened as god wille ma­ke them / and she werketh after this in suche manere / that yf she lacke on one syde / she recouerith it on that other / na­ture fourmeth nothing in vayn / But she werketh in suche maner that she taketh away fro nothyng his playn / ffor her werke is alway hool after that she fyndeth matere / be it in persones or in bestes / Thenne ben her werkes aboue alle other to be recomended as she that doth nothyng that in ony wise may be cōtrarye to god / but where as mater lac­keth̄ she leueth to werke / & alleway somoche ther is more of [Page] mater / somoche more she werketh / As men see of somme beestis / of whiche sōme haue two heedes and vj feet / or it hath a membre lasse than he ought to haue / of whiche he a­bydeth without veray fourme naturell / and may be called therfor a mōstre / also men see otherwhile sōme that almost lacke alle / and other that haue plente and habondaunce in their faites / Alle in like wise falleth ofte and is seen hap­pen vpon somme men the whiche whan they ben born / they haue vj fyngres on one hand / And other that haue one or ij or iij lasse than they shold haue / or them lacketh an hole memb [...] / by whiche they be of lasse valewe of that that apperteyneth to the world / and in an other shal be so gre­te habundaunce of nature or matere in body or in membre that he hath other thing than fourme humayn setteth / ffor hym lacketh a foot or a honde / Or he shal be born somtyme more or lasse / or he shal haue a legge more lenger / or shor­ter or an arme / than the other / yet ther is another thyng whiche ought not to be forgoten / ffor that one shal be born black or broun / and that other whyte / one grete / and an­other lytil / that one shal happen to be wyse and discrete / & that other folissh or shrewyssh̄ / sōme be wise & sadde in their yongthe / & in their age ben ofte folissh / sōme be foles yong & olde / And other ben wise alle their lyue yong & olde / sō ­me be fatte / & sōme be lene / somme be seek & sōme ben hool sōme be sklendre / & sōme be thyck / sōme be harde & rude / & sōme be softe & tendre / sōme be slowe & sōme be hasty / sōme be hardy / & sōme be cowardis / sōme be lame. haltyng & cro­ked / sōme ben wel fourmed in alle rightis & poyntes / A grete man i [...] ofte euyl made / And a lytil man is ofte [Page] wel made and auenaunt / ffor ther is no membre but it be wel made and apperteynyng to his body / A fair childe of­tymes in his growyng becometh fowl / Somme wil haue their willes / & other desyre it but lytyl / euerich hath his talente & his appetyte A [...]itil man engendreth ofte a grete man / & a grete man ofte getyth a lytil one / a litil man otherwhile empriseth to doo a grete thing / that right a gre­te man wil not emprise / Somme deye lightly / & other lye longe / & somme lyue aslonge til age make them to gyue ouer the world / after that / that nature endureth to them by the wille of god Also it is seen ofte emonge men that somme entende to clergye / & other gyue them to other style of science and crafte / as of carpenter mason smyth or ony other crafte in whiche he employeth his tyme / ffor e [...]y man gyueth hym self gladly to that / whiche his entendement is enclyned to / & to other crafte or sciēce than nature & vn­derstōdyng gyueth hym to / he shal neuer perfightly vnder­stōde / ne so well meddle with all as he shold to that whiche his p [...]opre nature gyueth hym to / ther ben yet other maner of peple that sette & gyue them self to do many thinges yt other may not n [...] can not do / for asmoche as their nature hath not gyuen it to them / ffor sōme pretēde to hye estates & grete richesses / & other ben content with lytil estate / & it happeth ofte that a man cometh to that / where he pretēdeth / & other can not come therto / but torneth cōtrarye to them & to their dommage / & ofte with grete payne may they come to their aboue / of yt thing yt they wolde accōplysshe / & other doo & make plente of thinges / that sōme can not ne may not doo ne make / ffor in the persones ben so many dy [...]setees / & [Page] facions not lyke and of willes / that men shal not fynde in ony contree of the worlde two men that parfyghtly be lyke / who ferre they can seche / but that they be dyuerse in somme caas / or of body or of membres or of entendement or of the visage or of their sayengis or of their faytes or dedes / ffor the puissaunce of nature is so dyuerse / that ther is nothyng that hath growyng but that she hath vpon it myght / in suche wyse that she gyueth to one somme thyng that another hath not in hym / how be it that noman can perceyue ony distaunce / Suche is the vertue of Natur [...] where plente of clerkes haue sōtyme sette their entendemēt & cure & haue strongly laboured to thende that they mygh­te better declare the fayte and puissaunce of nature / And first of alle saith Plato whiche was a man of grete re­nommce / that nature is an ouer puissaunce or myght in thinges that she maketh to growe lyke by lyke after that / that euerych may bee / And this may be vnderstanded by one man that engendreth another / & by bestes by plantes and by seedes the whiche after their semblaunces growe and after their facion / And lo this is that / that the wise platon saith whiche was a grete clerke / After hym saith Aristotle / that this was a yefte come fro the hye prynce / whan he gaf vertu to the firmamēt & to the sterres for to m [...]ue & to be / and that without god suche power ne myght not be gyuen / as the thynges that haue power to remeue to bee and to meue / Aristotle that saith this / studyed in many a booke treatyng of nature / Many other philoso­phres ther were / that said that nature proceded of vertues of hete whiche causeth alle thinges to growe & nourisshe / [Page] But for this present tyme I passe ouer for to speke of other matere Tho philosophres ensieweth better plato than Aristotle / Thus said they that them semeth / And they spack so hye lyke as afore is sayd / that fewe clerkes myght atteyne to come therto / and for to abregge it / he is not that myght parfyghtly knowe what it is / sauf god that alle knoweth & that alle seeth / and that first wold establisshe for taccomplyssh̄ alle thinges / herby may wel be knowen that god is of moche grete puissaunce / And it is of hym a right grete thinge whan he of nought and without trauayll created & fourmed so excellent a thinge & so hye and noble awerke And therfore wold he hym self create & make man to the ende that he myght be so mygh­ty & haue suche witte & vnderstādyng in hym self that he knewe by nature that whiche myght greue hym in his sowle / and lyue vnto our lord / ffor yf he wille iustely and rightfully conduyte hym self / he may well brynge his her­te to that / that nature shal not mowe greue hym in no manere / and therfore were founden the vij sciences or ar­tes / for to take away the euyl thoughtes that myghte brynge a man to the deth / whiche they may destroye by the sciences / And thus may one chaunge his [...]uyl estate / by the techynges of a good maistre / and therfore it is good for to haunte emonge the vertuous men / ffor ther men may lerne and prouffyte in dyuerse maners / Thus thēne is he wyse that is prudent in suche manere that after his deth he hath the better / and that god receyueth hym in gree Thus than he shal haue doon more for his owen prouffyt than for an other / This knowe alle men certaynly / [Page] ffor he shal resseyue alle the weel / And moche is he a fool that somoche louyth his body that he forgeteth to saue his sowle / whiche god hath lente to hym pure and clene to thende that he shold rendre it suche agayn at his deth / and that he gouerne hym not in suche wise that by his culpe & defawte defowle hym in synnes / he that so conduyteth hym self / doth in lyke wise as the euyll seruaunt dyde / to whom the maistre delyuerd his besauntes for to multeplye in good / but he dyde not iustly as he that was of euyl faith / wherfor the maistre seeyng the vntrouth of hym chaced hym away fro hym / And euer after he had shame and re­proche lyke as the gospel witnesseth and to vs reherceth Alle in lyke wyse shal it be of them that leue the good grayn for the chaff / these ben they that suffre their sowles to perisshe for the playsance of their bodyes / of whiche alle euylles come to them / herwith for this present I leue the declaracion of the vij sciences and of nature / and purpose by the grace of god to deuyse the facion of the world how it is by nature made & pourtrayed of god / whiche of one only wille created and fourmed the world and alle that is therof apendaūt / Now entende ye to this that we saye to yow /

Of the fourme of the firmament capitulo ¶xvo

GOd fourmed the world alle rounde. lyke as is a pelette / the whiche is al round / and he made the he­uen al rounde whiche enuyronneth and goth round abou­te the erthe on alle parties hooly without ony defaulte / [Page] alle in lyke wise as the shelle of an egge that enuyron­neth the white al aboute / And so the heuen goth round aboute an ayer / whiche is aboue thayer the whiche in la­tyn is called hester / this is as moche to saye as pure ayer and clene / ffor it was made of pure and of clere purete / This ayer shyneth nyght and day of resplenduer perpe­tuel / and is so clere & shynyng / that yf a man were aby­dyng in that parte / he shold see alle / one thinge and other And alle that is fro on ende to the other also lightly or more / as a man shold doo here bynethe vpon the erthe the only lengthe of a foot or lasse yet yf he had nede / Alle in lyke wise I saye to yow / who that were there / he myght see al aboute hym aswell ferre as nygh̄e / the ayer is so clere and nette / Of this hester thangels taken their bodyes & their wynges / whan our lord god sendeth them in messa­ge hether lowe in to therthe to his frendes / whan he wyll shewe to them ony thynge / And therfor seme they to be so clere to synful men in this world / that their eyen may not suffre the resplendour ne beholde the grete clerenes / as they that ben ful of obscurte and derknes / that is to saye of synnes and of inyquytees of whiche they ben replenesshid And it happeth oftymes / that whan thangels ben comen to ony man in ony place by the wyll of god for to saye & shewe their message / that whiles thangele speketh to hym He falleth to grounde as he were a slepe or in a traunce / And hym semeth he hereth not the worde of thangele but as he dremed / And is muct without spekyng / vnto the tyme that thangele repayred agayn / Thenne whan he was awaked / and comen agayn to hym self / he remembrid wel [Page] the sayeng of thangele / and what he hadde shewd to hym / Thus I saye you for trouthe that no bodyly man / may not susteyne for to see hym in no manere / for so moche as a man is made of heuy matere Ne no byrde ne fowle be he neuer so stronge ne so well fleyng may not suffre to be there / but that hym behoueth to come doun as sone as a stone / tyl that he come in to thayer where he may repryse his fleyng / yf he were not abasshid to descende / ffor there may nothing abyde / but yf it be thinge espirituel̄ / ne may not lyue there / ffor nomore than the ffysshe may lyue in this ayer where we ben in / ne susteyne hym / but right soo­ne muste dye / and shortly perisshe / but yf he be contynuel­ly nourisshid in the water / All in like wyse I say you of vs / ffor we may not meue in this ayer perpetuel ne lyue ne dwelle there as longe as we haue the body mortall /

How the four Elementes ben sette capitulo ¶xvio

THis clerenesse of whiche we haue spoken / whiche is callyd ayer spyrituel / And where the angels take their araye and atourement enuyronneth al aboute the worlde / the foure elementis whiche god created and sette that one with in that other / Of whiche that one is the ffyre / The seconde is thayer / The therde is the water / And the fourthe is therthe / Of whiche that one is fastned in that other / And that one susteyned that other in suche manere / as therthe holdeth hym in the myddle / The ffyre whiche is the firste / encloseth this ayer / in whiche we bee And this ayer encloseth the water after / the whiche hol­deth [Page] hym al aboute the erthe Alle in liche wise as is seen of an egge / and as the whyte encloseth the yolke / And in the myddle of the yolke is also as it were a drope of grece whiche holdeth on no parte / And the drope of grece whiche is in the myddle / holdeth on neyther parte / By suche and semblable regard is the erthe sette in the myd­dle of heuen so iuste and so egally / that as fer is the erthe fro heuen fro aboue as fro bynethe ffor whersomeuer thou be vpon therth / thou art liche fer fro heuen / lyke as ye may see the poynt of a compas whiche is sette in the myd­dle of the cercle / That is to saye / that it is sette in the lowest place / ffor of alle fourmes that be made in the cō ­paas / alleway the poynt is lowest in the myddle / And thus ben the foure [...]lementes sette that one within that other so that the erthe is alway in the myddle / ffor as mo­che space is alway the heuen from vnder therthe as it ap­piereth from a boue This fygure folowyng on that other side of the leef sheweth the vnderstandyng therof / and de­uyseth it playnly / and therfore ye may take hede therto /

How the erthe holdeth her right in the myddle of the world capitulo ¶xvijo

FOr as moche as therthe is heuy more than ony other of thelementis / therfore she holdeth her more in the myddle / and that / whiche is most heuy / abydeth a­boute her / ffor the thynge / whiche most weyeth / draweth most lowest / And alle that is heuy draweth therto / And therfore behoueth vs to Ioyne to the erthe / and alle that [Page] is extrait of therthe / yf so were / and myght so happene / that ther were nothing vpon therthe / watre ne other thinge that


letted & troubled the waye / what sō ­euer parte that a mā wold he might goo round aboute therthe / were it mā or beste aboue and vnder / whiche parte that he wolde / lyke as a flye goth round aboute a round apple In like wyse myght a man goo rounde aboute therthe as ferre as therthe dureth by nature / alle aboute / so that he shold come vnder vs / And it shold seme to hym that we were vnder hym / lyke as to vs he shold seme vnder vs / ffor he shold holde his feet ayenst oures / And the heed toward heuen / no more ne lasse as we doo here / and the feet toward therthe / And yf he wente alway forth his way to fore hym / he shold goo so ferre that he shold come agayn to the place fro whens he first departed / And yf it were so that by aduēture two men departed that one fro that other / And that one wente alleway toward the eest / and that other toward the weste / so that bothe two wente egally / it behoued that they shold mete agayn in the opposite place fro where as they departed / & bothe two [Page] shold come agayn to the place / fro whens they meuyd first / ffor thenne had that one and that other goon roūde aboute the erthe aboue and vnder / lyke as rounde aboute a whele that were stylle on therthe in lyke wise shold they goo aboute therthe / as they that contynuelly drewe them right toward the myddle of therthe / ffor she fastneth alle heuy thyng toward her / And that most weyeth / moste dra­weth and most ner holdeth toward the myddle / ffor who moche depper one delueth in therthe / somoche heuyer shal he fynde it / and for to vnderstonde this that I haue deuysed to you here to fore of the goynges of the flyes aboute thapple / & of the men aboute therthe / In lyke wyse maye ye see alle the manere & facion by thyse two fygures the whiche ben here to


you represented and shewde alle entierly /

BVt for to vn­derstonde the bettre / and more clerly conceyue / ye may vnderstande [...]by another ensample / yf the erthe were de­parted right in the myddle / in suche wyse that the heuen myght be seen thurgh / And yf one threwe a stone or an heuy plomette [Page] of leed that


wel▪ weyed whan it shold come in to the myddle and half waye thurgh of therthe / there ryght shold it abyde / and holde hym for it myght ne­ther go lower ne arise hyer / but yf it were that by the force of the grete heyght it myght by the myght of the weight in fallyng falle more depper than the myddle / but anon it shold arise agayn in suche wise that it shold abyde in the myd­dle of therthe / ne neuer after shold meue thens / ffor thēne shold it be egally ouerall vnder the firmament whiche torneth nyght & daye / And by the vertue and myght of his tornyng nothyng may approche to it that is poysant and heuy / but withdraweth alway vnder it / of whiche ye may see the nature and vnderstondyng by this present figure / on that other side /

ANd yf the erthe were perced thurgh in two places of whiche that on hole were cutte in to that other lyke a crosse / and foure men stoden right at the foure hee­des of thise ij hooles / on aboue / and another bynethe / and [Page] in lyke wyse on


bothe sides / and that eche of them threwe astone in to the hoole / whe­ther it were gre­te or lytyl / eche stone shold come in to myddle of therthe / wythout euer to be reme­uid fro thens / But yf it were drawen away by force / And they shold holden them one aboute another for to take place eueriche in the myddle of therthe / And yf the stones were of like weight / they shold come therto alle at one tyme / assone that one as that other / ffor na­ture wold suffre it none other wise / And that one shold come ayenst another as ye may playnly see by this fy­gure /

ANd yf their weyght and powers were not egall fro the place fro whens they shold falle / that whiche were most heuy / that sholde sonnest come to the myddle of therthe / And the other shold be al aboute her as this se­conde figure sheweth playnly on that other side /

ANd so moche may be caste therin that the hooles may be full / lyke as they were to fore / As ye may [Page] playnly see in


thys fygure / whiche sheweth to you the playn trouthe / Now thys suffyseth ynowh herof / & here after we shal speke of other thynges /

What the roun­denes of the er­the is. ca. xviijo

NOw thenne


plese it you to here for to deuy­se playnly to you how the erthe is rounde / who that myghte moūte on hye in thayr and who that myght beholde by valeyes & by playnes the hyenes of the gre­te montaynes / and the grete and depe valeyes / the grete [Page] wawes of the See and the grete flodes / they shold seme lasse tappere vnto the gretnes of the erthe / than sholde an heer of a man doo vpon an apple / or vnder his fyngre ffor neyther montayne ne valeye / how someuer hye ne depe it be / taketh not away fro therthe his roundenesse nomore than the galle leueth to be rounde for his prickis / ffor it behoueth the erthe to be rounde / ffor to amasse the more pe­ple / and we shal saye to you here after / how the world mus­te nedes be round /

Wherfor god made the world al round. ca. ¶xixo

God fourmed the world al roūd / ffor of alle the four­mes that be / of what dyuse maners they be / may no­ne be so plenere ne resseyue somoche by nature / as may the figure rounde / ffor that is the most ample of alle figures that ye may take example by / ffor ther is none so wise ne so subtyl in alle thinges ne somoche can vnderstande that may for ony thynge make a vessel / be it of woode or of stone / or of metall that may be so ample / ne that may hol­de within it so moche in right quātite as shal do the roūde Ne fygure that ony may make may so sone meue ne so lyghtly make his torne to goo aboute / that ony man can vnderstande / but that it muste take other place than this to fore / sauf only the Rounde / whiche may meue round without takyng other place / ffor she may haue non other than the firste / ne passe one only ligne or Ray fro the place where she holdeth her in / wherof ye may see the natu­re by a fygure squared sette within a rounde / o [...] another [Page] whiche is not


round / And make them bo­the to torne / the corners of them that ben not roūde shal take dyuerce places / that the rounde se­cheth not / and that may ye see by thise iij figures in one whiche ben here / of whiche that one is rounde alle aboute And the other tweyne / ye may see squared /

YEt is ther another thynge that ther is nothyng vnder heuen enclosed of what dyuerse facion it be / that may so lightly meue by nature as may the rounde / And therfore god made the world roūd / to this ende that it myght best be filled on alle partyes / ffor he wil leue no­thyng voyde / and wille that it torne day and nyght / ffor it behoueth to haue meuyng on the heuen / whiche maketh all to meue / ffor alle meuynges come fro heuen / therfore it behoueth lightly and swyftly to meue / And without it ther is nothyng may meue▪

Of the meuynges of heuen and of the vij planetes / and [Page] of the lytilnes of therthe vnto the Regarde of heuen ca­pitulo ¶xxo

Owe lord god gaf meuyng vnto the heuen / whiche goth so swyftly & so appertly / that noman can com­prise in his thought / but it semeth not to vs for his gre­tenes / nomore than it sholde seme to a man / yf he saw fro ferre an horse renne v̄pon a grete mountayne / it shold not seme to hym that he wente an only paas / and for somoche as he sholde be most ferre fro hym / somoche the lasse / shol­de he seme to goo / And the heuen is somoche hye and fer­r [...] aboue vs / that yf a stone were in thayer as hye as the sterres be / and were the most heuyest of alle the world of leed or of metall / and began to falle fro an hye aboue / this thyng is proued and knowen / that it shold not come to therthe tyl thende of an hondred yere / so moche and fer­re is the heuen fro vs / The whiche is so grete / that alle the erthe round a boute hath nothyng of gretenes ayenst the heuē / nomore than hath the poynt or pricke in the myd­dle of the most grete compaas that may be / ne to the gret­test cercle that may be made on therthe / and yf a man we­re aboue in heuen / and behelde and loked here doun in the erthe / & that alle the erthe were brennynge alle in cooles flāmyng & lighted / it shold seme to hym more lytil / than the lest sterre / that is aboue / semeth to vs here in therthe / thawh we were on a montayne or in a valeye / & therfor it may wel be knowen / that the heuen muste lyghtly meue / whan it maketh his torne and goth round aboute therthe in a day and a nyght / lyke as we may apperceyue by [Page] the sonne / that men see in the mornyng arise in thoryent or in the cest / and goth doun in the west / and on the morn erly we see hym come agayn in the eest / ffor thenne he hath perfourmed his cours round aboute therthe / whiche we calle a day naturel / the whiche conteyneth in hym day and nyght / Thus gooth and cometh the sonne the whiche neuer shal haue reste / ne neuer shal fynysshe to goo wyth the heuen / lyke as the nayle that is fixed in the whele / the whiche torneth whan she torneth / But by cause that it hath meuyng ayenst the cours or tornyng of the firma­ment / we shal saye to yow another reson / yf a flye wente rounde aboute a whele that wente rounde it self / and that the flye wente ayenst it / The whele shold brynge the flye with her / And so shold it falle that the whele shold haue made many tornes / whilis that the flye shold make one torne / and er she had gon round aboute the whele vnto the first poynt / So ye muste vnderstonde that in suche manere goon the mone and the sonne / by away that is comune to the vij planetes that ben on the heuen / whiche alle goo by the same way / alleway toward the [...]est / And the heuen torneth toward the weste / lyke as nature ledeth hym / Thus and herwith the first partie taketh his ende of this present booke / And shal folowe for to deuyse of the se­conde partye of therthe and of the fourme of the firma­ment /

¶Thus endeth the first partye of this present book /

Here after bygynneth the seconde partye of this present book / and declareth how therthe is deuyded and what par­tye she is enhabyted / capitulo ¶p o

SYth that the erthe is so lytil as ye haue herd here [...] [...]re deuised lytil maye we preyse the goodes therof vnto the regard of heuen / lasse than men do donge ayenst fyn gold / or ayenst precyous stones / how wel that in then­ [...]e that one and that other shal be of no valewe / But for somoche as we beyng in this world vs semeth that the erthe is moche grete we haue declared to yow as wel the roundenesse as the gretenes to our power and that shortly Syth we haue vnderstande how the erthe is rounde on all partes as an apple / Neuertheles it is not enhabited in alle partyes whiche is wel knowen / of no peple of the world / And it is not enhabited but in one quarter only lyke as the philosophres haue enserched / whiche put for to knowe it grete trauayll and estudye / and therfore we shal deuyse it al aboute in foure partyes / of whiche ye may take ensample by an Apple / whiche shal be parted by the myddle in foure parties right of lengthe and of brede by the core / And pare a quarter / and stratche the parell for to see and vnderstonde the facion in playn erthe or in your hande /



ANd in the ende of this lyne / lyke as she gooth right by ly­ne / we may see a cyte whiche is cal­lyd Aaron / it is sette in the myddle of the world / and was made all roūde There was foun­den first Astrono­mye by grete studye / by grete maistrye / and by grete dilygence / This place Aaron is named the ryght [Page] mydday as she that is sette in the myd [...]le of the worlde / that other heed of this lyne / whiche gooth right toward the lyfte syde / is callyd septentryon that is to saye north / and taketh his name of the vij sterres / and torneth toward another sterre that ledeth the maronners by the see / In that other lyne that is in the myddle / whiche the south cutteth in the ende toward the eest / as the Auctours saye is paradys terrestre / where Adam was in somtyme / This place is callyd Oryent / that is to saye cest / ffor fro thens co­meth


the son­ne / whiche ma­keth the day a­boute the world And that o­ther heed is cal­lyd Occydent / that is to saye weste / ffor the­re the day fayl­leth and wexith derke / whan the sōne goth doun there / thus and by this reson be named thefou­re parties of the world / [Page] of whiche the first conteyneth the eest The seconde the wes­te The therde the south / And the fourthe / the north / And this that we enseygne you / ye may see by this figur [...] to fo­re on that other syde /

THise iiij parties that I haue declared to you / whiche ben sette in a quarter of alle the erthe of the world ought to haue a round fourme / ffor Raison and nature gyue that alle the world be rounde / And therfore vnder­stande ye of this quarter as it were alle roūde / Now ma­ke we thenne of


this quarter a cercle that is al round & al hool / and late vs set­te in the myddle of this lyne that sheweth the [...]st and the weste for to sette the par­ties in her right as this presente figure that here is represented sheweth to you playnly /

Affter late eche partye be torned toward his name in therthe / of whiche eche shal be the fourth parte / and [Page] this present fy­gure


is enseyg­nement and de [...]monstraūce cer­tayne and tre­we without ony variacion ne doubtaunce /

What parte of therthe is inha [...]bited. ca. ¶ijo

Alle the er­the that is in the world enhabited is deuided in t [...] thre parties / and


therfor it beho­ueth by this re­son to make an other dyuision / Of whiche the partye toward orient is callyd Asia the grete / And taketh the name of a quene that sōtyme was lady of this re­gyon and was [Page] callid Asia / This partie named asia holdeth and contey­neth as moche space as doo the other tweyne / And therfor it is callyd Asia the grete and dureth fro the north vnto the south̄ lyke as this figure sheweth /

THat other part is called Europe & tak [...]th his name of a kynge callyd Europes / the whiche was lord of this contre / &


therfor it was so callyd / And it [...]ndureth fro the [...] vnto the north / & marcheth vnto Asie the g [...]te That other parte is affryque whiche stratcheth fro the south vn­to the weste / and Affryque hath his name of hel­le / and is as moche to saye as born away like as this fi­gure deuyseth in iij partyes of whiche figure this is the demonstrance /

Off thise thre parties of the world here tofore named holden euerych many regyons and many contrees / of whiche or at the leste / of the most noble partye we shal declare the names / And how the bestes that ben there ben [Page] most comynly called / Thus we shal saye to you the con­dicions and fourmes of somme / and in especial of them that ben most seen by men / And first we shal speke of the peple of the contrees / And after of the bestes and ffisshes lyke as the book deuyseth to vs out of whiche is drawen this Mappa mundi /

ffirst of paradys terrestre / and of the foure grete fflodes that departe fro thens capitulo ¶iijo

THe first regyon of Asia the grete is paradys ter­restre / This is a place whiche is ful of solace. of playsances and of delices / so that none that is therin may be greuyd ne haue none euyll in no maner of the world / In this paradys is the tree of lyf / and who that had eten of the fruyt / he shold not deye as longe as the world en­dureth / But noman liuyng may come theder / but yf our lord god or his angele conduyted & brought hym theder / ffor alle round aboute / it is enclosed wyth fyre brennyng the whiche goth flāmyng vnto the clowdes / Ther within­ne fourdeth and spryngeth a fontayne or welle whiche is deuyded in to four flodes / of whom that one is called vn­gages / that renneth a longe thurgh the Royame of ynde / And departeth in to many armes or braces / it sourdeth of the mon̄t that is called Ortobares / the whiche is toward thorient / and falleth in to the see Occian / The second of the four flodes is named gyon / or nylus / whiche entreth in to therthe by an hool / And renneth vnder the erthe so ferre that it resourdeth in to the longe see whiche enuyron­neth [Page] alle Ethiope so that it departeth in to vij parties / & goth rennyng by egypte so longe that it cometh and fal­leth in to the grete see / The other ij flodes of whiche that one is callyd Tygris / and that other Eufrates sourden in hermenye nygh vnto a moche grete montayne whiche is named partheacus / And thise two flodes trauerse ma­ny grete contrees so longe tyl they mete in the see moyen where bothe two falle inne lyke as theyr nature requyreth On this side paradys terrestre alle aboute ben many dy­uerse places withoute ony resorte / ffor none may dwelle there n [...] fynde place to lyue in / but there be plente of euyl beestis whiche ben fiers and crymynel and of many guy­ses ther ben / Ther ben gean̄ts rowh̄ and heery whiche de­u [...]ure & ete alle thyng as wulues don / And many other wylde beestes /

Here speketh of ynde & of thynges that be found therin / capitulo ¶iiijo

Affter comen the contrees of yndes whiche take their name of a water that is called ynde / whiche sourdeth in the north / The yndes ben closed with the grete see that enuyronneth them roūd aboute In ynde is an yle named Probane wherin ben founded ten cytees and plente of other townes / where as euery yere ben two somers & two wynters / And ben so attemprid that there is alway ver­dure / and vpon the trees ben contynuelly flowres. leeuis and fruyt / And it is moche plenteuous of gold and syluer and moche fertyle of other thynges / There be the [Page] grete montaynes of gold and of precyous stones and of other richesses plente / But noman dar approche it for the dragons and for the gryffons wylde whiche haue bodyes of lyouns / fleyng whiche easily bere a man away armed and syttyng vpon his hors / whan he may sease hym with his clawes and vngles Ther ben yet plente of other pla­ces so delectable so swete and so spyrytuel that yf a man were therin / he shold saye / that it were a very paradys /

Here foloweth the dyuersitees beyng in the lande of ynde capitulo ¶vo

THere is in the lande of ynde a right grete montay­ne / that men calle mount capien / and it is a moche grete regyon Ther ben a maner of peple without wytte & without discrescion / whiche the kyng Alysaundre enclo­sed therin / And ben named goths and magoths or gog or magog / they ete flessh all rawe be it men or wymmen or bestes as men wood. mad or demonyacks / This ynde of whiche I you reherce conteyneth xiiij Regyons / and in euerich of thise regyons ben moche peple / And also ther is therin grete trees and so hye that they towche the clou [...]des / And there dwelleth peple that ben horned / and ar but ij cubites hye / And they goon to gydre in grete cōpanyes ffor ofte they fighte ayenst the Cranes / whiche them as­saylle / But within vij yere they become aged and olde that they deye for age / This peple is callyd pygmans / & ben as lytil as dwarfes / Ryght nygh̄ vnto this contree groweth pepre alle whytte / But the vermyne is there so [Page] grete that whan they wold gadre and take it / they muste sette fyre therin for to dryue away the vermyne / and whan it is so brent / the pepre is founden al blacke scorchid and cryspe / yet ben there other peple whiche ben callyd groyne & bragman whiche ben fayrer than they to fore named / that for to saue anothers lyf / wyll put them in to a brennyng fyre / Ther is yet another maner of peple / the whiche whan their fadres and modres or their other frendes ben passyng olde and eaged / they slee them and sacryfye them / be it wrong or right and eten their flesshe / and holden them for meschan̄t and nygardis that so doo not to their frendes / ffor they holde this maner emong them for grete wele. grete worship. and for grete largesse / and therfor eche of them vse it / Toward the e [...]st is another maner of peple that worshyppe the sonne only and taketh it for their god for the grete goodes that come therby / And by cause that in alle the world they see none so fayr a thyng to theyr semyng / they byleue in hit as their god / yet ben ther other peple that ben al rough̄ / whiche eten fysshe al Rawe and drynke water of the salt see / Toward this same contre is a maner of peple that ben half bestes and half men / yet ben ther in that partye other peple whiche haue on one foot viij toes / In thise contrees is grete nombre of bes­tes right dredful and terryble / whiche haue bodyes of men and heedes of dogges / And haue so grete vngles or cla­wes that areste alle that they can holde and clothe them with the hydes and skynnes of bestes / And haue suche maner of wys as barkyng of dogges / yet ben ther other called Cyclopyens whiche passe by rennyng the wynde / [Page] & haue only but one fote / of whiche the plante is so righ [...] longe and so brode / that they couere them therwith fro the shadowe / whan the hete cometh ouer sharp on them / another maner peple ther is / whiche haue only but one eye / and that standeth right in the myddys of the fronte or forhede whiche is so reed and so clere that it semeth properly fyre brennyng / And there also ben founde another maner of peple that haue the visage and the mouth in the myddle of their breste / and haue one eye in euery sholdre / and their nose hangeth doun to their mouth / & haue brestles aboute their mosell lyke swyne / yet ben ther founden toward the ryuer of ganges a maner of strange peple and curtoys / whiche haue the right fygure of a man / whiche lyue on­ly by the odour and smellyng of an apple only / And yf they goo ferre in to ony place / they haue nede to haue thap­ple wyth them / ffor yf they fele ony stenche euyll & stync­kyng and haue not thapple / they deye incontynent /

Of the serpentes and of the bestes of ynde / ca. ¶vjo

IN ynde ben plente of serpentes / whiche ben of suche force and myght / that they deuoure and take by strengthe the hertes and buckes / yet ther is another ma­ner beste whiche is callyd Centycore whiche hath the horne of an herte in the myddle of his face. And hath the brests and thyes lyke a lyon / and hath grete eeris and feet lyke an hors / And hath a round mouth / his mosell is lyke the heed of a Bere / And his eyen ben nyghe that one that other / And his voys is moche lyke the voys of a man / [Page] Another beste men fynde there moche fyers / whiche hath the body of an hors / the heed of wylde boor / and the tayll of an Olyphaunt / And he hath two hornes whiche eueri­che is as longe as a Cubyte / of whiche he sette that one vpon his back whylis he fyghteth wyth that other / he is black and a moche terryble beste & merueyllous delyure / And is both in watre and on the londe / There ben also seen bullys whiche ben alle whyte / They haue grete hedes / and their throte is as wyde & brode that it endureth from that one eere to that other and haue hornes that remeue aboute hym so that noman may tame ne danute them / Another maner of bestes ther is in ynde that ben callyd manticora / and hath visage of a man / & thre huge gre­te teeth in his throte / he hath eyen lyke a ghoot and body of a lyon / tayll of a Scorpyon and voys of a serpente in suche wyse that by his swete songe he draweth to hym the peple and deuoureth them And is more delyuerer to goo / than is a fowle to flee / Ther is also a maner of Oxen or buefs that haue their feet all round and haue in the myd­dle of their fronte iij hornes / yet is ther there another bes­te of moche fayr corsage or shappe of body whiche is cal­ [...]d monotheros / whiche hath the body of an hors / and feet of an Olyfant / heed of an herte and voys clere and hye & a grete tayle / And hath but one horne / whiche is in the myddle of his forhede / whiche is four foot longe ryght & sharpe lyke a swerd and cuttyng lyke a Rasour / And alle that he atteyneth to fore hym and towcheth is broken and cutte / and for trouthe this beste is of suche condicion that by what someuer engyne he is taken / of grete desdayn [Page] he suffreth to be slayn and deye / But he may not be taken but by a pure virgyne / whiche is sette to sore hym where as he shal passe / the whiche muste be well and gentylly arayed / Thenne cometh the beste vnto the mayde moche symply / & slepeth in her lappe / And so he is taken slepyng In ynde ben ther other bestes gre [...]e and fyrs whiche ben of blew colowr / and haue clere spottes on the body / & ben so right stronge and crymynell that noman dar approche them / and ben named Tygris / And they renne so swyft­ly / And by so grete myght that the hunters may not escape fro them in no wyse / but yf they take myrrours of glasse and caste them in the waye where they shal renne / ffor the tygris ben of suche nature / that whan they see their semblaūce / they wene that it be their fawnes Thenne goon they aboute the myrrours so longe til they breke the glasse / and see nomore / in whiche while the hunters esca­pe fro them that ben there / And somtyme it happeth so of thise tygr [...]s that they thynke so longe and beholde their figures / that otherwhyle they ben taken so lokyng all quyck and liuyng / Yet ben ther other beestes whiche ben called Castours / whiche haue this nature in them / that whan they ben honted far to be taken / they byte wyth their teeth their owne genytoirs or ballocks / and lete them fal­le / and thus they ghelde them self / ffor they wel knowe▪ that for none other thyng they be hunted / also there gro­weth another beste lyke a Mous / & hath a lyti [...] mouthe and is named Muske or muskali [...] / In this contree ben the drye trees that spake to Alysaundre the puissaunt kynge / Another beste ther is that men calle Salemandre [Page] whiche is fedde and nourysshed in the fyre / This Sale­mnadre berith wulle / of whiche is made cloth and gyrdles that may not beenne in the fyre / There ben yet myes the whiche ben as grete as cattes & also swyft in rennyng Toward thoryent ben the lyons whiche haue mere strength and myght / in their beestes to fore and in alle their membees than ony other beste haue / And they come to fede their fawnes the iij day after they haue fawned / as they that were deed and ben as reysed agayn from deth / & whan they slepe they holde their eyen open / And whan the hunters hunte them they couer the traas of theyr feet wyth their taylle / They shal neuer do harme ne grief to man / but yf they ben angred And whan they be assayl­ [...]ed they deffende them / And whan he that kepeth them be­te and chastyseth a lytil dogge to fore them / they fere and doubte hym lyke as they knewe hym wel / and the lyon­nesse hath the first yere fyue fawnes / and euery yere after folowyng one lasse vnto her ende so declynyng / Ther is another beste whiche is lytil / and is so terryble and re­doubted / that no beste dar approche it / And by nature the lyon doubteth and fl [...]eth from it / ffor ofte it sleeth the lyon / In this partye conuerseth & repayreth another beste whiche is of dyuse colours by spottes white. black. grene. blewe and yelow / lyke as it were paynted / and is moche propre and is called panthere / and ther cometh out of his mouth so swete a sauour and b [...]eeth / that the beestes goo folowyng after it for the swetnes of his body / sauf the ser­pent / to whom this swete smelle greueth in suche wyse that ofte the serpent deyeth / and whan this beeste is otherwhile [Page] so fylled and full of venyson that he hath taken and eten / He slepeth iij dayes hool wythout awakyng / And whan he awaketh / he gyueth oute of his mouth so swete a sa­uour and smelle / that anon the beestes that fele it seche hym / This beest hath but ones yong fawnes / And whan she shal fawne / she hath suche destresse and anguyssh̄ / that she beeketh with her naylles and renteth her matryce in suche wyse that her fawnes come out / And neuer after whan the matryce is rente and broken they engendre ne brynge forth fawnes / Ther is a maner of Mares that conceyue of the wynde / and ben in a contre that is na­med Capadoce / but they endure not but iij yere / In this contre ben the Olyphauns / whiche is a beste grete strong and fyghtyng / And whan they see their blood shedde to fore them / they be most corageous and most stronge and fright in alle places & alle bataylles / vpon this oly­phaunts were wonte to fyghte the peple of ynde and of perse / ffor an olyphaunt bereth wel a tour of w [...]ode vpon his back fulle of men of Armes / whan it is wel sette on & fermly / And they haue to sore them in maner of boyell grete and large / whiche they ete / by whiche they renne on men / & haue anon deuoured them / Kynge Alysaundr [...] whiche was a good clerke & prynce of grete recōmendacōn & that wente in to many contrees for to serche & enquyre the aduentures more than he dyde to conquere / thēne whan he shold fyght ayenst them that had taught & lerned tho­lyfaūtes to fyghte in playn londe / he dyde do make vessels of copper in fourme of men / & dyde do fylle them with fyre [Page] brennyng / and sette them to fore hym to fyght ayenst them that were vpon tholyfauntes / And whan tholyfaū ­tes caste their boyel by whiche they slewe the peple vpon tho men of copper / feelyng that they were so hoot that they brenned them / Thenne they that were so taught wolde no­more approche tho men for doubte of the fyre / ffor they thoughte / that alle men had ben as hoot / as they were of copper / whiche were ful of fyre / And thus kynge alysaū ­dre as a sage prynce eschewed the parell and daunger of thise olyfauntes / And conquerd this wylde peple / and in suche wyse dompted tholyfauntes that they durst [...]oo no / more harme vnto the men / The olyfauntes goo [...]moche symply and accordyngly to gydee / And whan they mets and encountre eche other / they bowe their heedes that on [...] to that other lyke as they entresalewed eche other / They be right colde of nature / wherof it is so that whan one putteth vpon the tooth of yuorye a lynnen cloth and bren­nyng cooles ther vpon / the lynnen cloth shal not brenne / ffor assone as the coole feleth the cold he quencheth / the yuorye is so colde / The tooth of an olyfaunt is yuorye / Tholyfauns haue neuer yong fawnes but ones in longe tyme / and they bere them ij yere in their flankes / an oly­faunt lyueth CCC yere / He doubteth & fereth the wesell and the culeuure & dredeth vermyne / yf the culeuure clyue & be on tholyfaūt-it departeth not tyl it hath slayn hym / She fawneth her fawnes & hydeth them where is no woode & fawneth in the water / ffor yf she laye on therthe she sholde neuer aryse ne [...]leue / ffor as moche their bones ben al [Page] hool without Ioyntes from the bely vnto the feet / And whan tholyphaunt wylle slepe / he leneth vnto a tree and there slepeth stondyng / And the hunters that seche them and knowe the trees to whiche they [...]ne whan they slep [...] / Thenne whan they haue founden them / they sawe them lowe by the ground almost a sondre / that whan tholy­faunt cometh and knoweth nothyng therof and wold slepe and leneth to the tree / and anon he falleth with the tree vnto the grounde and may not releue hym self / Thenne he begynneth for to b [...]aye crye and waylle / that somtyme ther come many olyfauntes to hym for to helpe hym / And whan they may not redresse and reyse hym they crye and braye and make a merueyllous sorowe / And they that ben most lytil and smale goo aboute for to lyfte and reyse hym to theyr power in suche wyse that other whyle they lyfte and reyse hym vp / But whan they may not reyse ne releue hym / they goon theyr way wayl­lyng and makyng grete sorowe and leue hym / And the hunters that ben embusshed by / come & by their engyns that they haue propice for the same take hym / thus by this subtylte ben tholyfateūs taken / Wythin the ryuer & flode of ynde named Ganges goon the ecles by grete renges whiche ben .CCC. feet long & ben good mete to ete at nede Many other bestes peryllous and terryble ben ther in ynde as dragons serpentes & other dyuerse beestes whiche haue feet. heedes. and taylles dyuerse / Ther ben the basylicocks / whiche haue the sight so venymous that they sle all men And in lyke wyse doo they alle fowles and beestes / [Page] he hath the heed lyke a cocke and body of a serpent / he is kynge of alle serpents / lyke as the lyon is kynge aboue alle beestes / he is whyte rayed her [...] and there / ther is ney­ther herbe ne fruyt on the erthe wherby he shal passe / ne the trees that ben planted but they shal per [...]sshe / yf he haue by­te or slayn beste or other thynge / Neuer other beeste dar approche it / Ther is in this Regyon another maner of serpents that haue hornes lyke a shepe / Ther groweth a beest named Aspis that may not be deceyuyd ne taken but by charmyng / ffor he heerith gladly the sowne / But assone as he heerith the charme he putteth his taylle in his one cere / And that other he leyeth to the ground doubtyng to be deceyuyd by the charme / Other serpen­tes ther be / whiche be named Tygris whiche ben taken alle quyck by force of engyns / And of them men ma­ke tryacle / whiche deffeteth and taketh away other ve­nym / Other wormes ther growe there / whiche haue two armes so longe and so dyuerse that they bete and slee the Olyphaunts / This worme lyueth right longe / And whan he is olde and feleth hym feble / he consumeth hym self by fastynge / and suffreth to be enfamyned so ouer­moche that lytil abydeth of his body / Thenne he goth in to a lytil hool of somme stone whiche is wel strayt and thenne he putteth hym self out with so right grete distres­se / that his skynne remayneth al hool / And ther gro­weth & cometh on hym another skynne / And thus rene­weth his age as a wyse best that he is / Ther ben plente of other serpents that haue many precyoꝰ stones in the heedes [Page] and in the eyen / the whiche ben of right grete vertue for them that myght haue them and bere them / Now we shal deuyse to yow of stones that growe in ynde and ben there founden /

Here foloweth of precyous stones and of their vertue whiche growe in ynde capitulo ¶vijo

IN ynde groweth the Admont stone / whiche is a stone charged with many grete vertues / She by her nature draweth to her yron and maketh it to cleue to it so fast / that it may vnneth be taken fro it for the vertue that is in it / The dyamont groweth also in ynde alle hool / and it may not be broken in pieces ne vsed / but it be by the vertue of the blood of a ghoot alle hoot / yet growe there other stones of many dyuerse facions and vertues / the whiche ben of moche noble recomendacion renōm [...] and of moche fayr vertue / and first I shal speke of the Eme­rawde whiche is so playsaunt to the eye / that it recon­forteth alle the sight of hym that beholdeth it / In lyke wyse groweth in ynde an other stone the whiche is callyd Carboncle / the whiche by nyght or yf it be in derke place and obscure / it shyneth as a cole brennyng / Also ther growe Saphyres whyche by theyr vertue take away the swellyng and redenes of the eyen / Ther groweth also a stone callyd Topace whiche is of colour lyke vnto fyn golde and also is of hye vertue / yet also ther growe there Rubyes / whiche is a stone moche preysed & loued emong the peple / and is also of right more grete valewre and [Page] vertue than is the toupace / she reioyseth the sight and com­forteth it moche and specyally to them that bere it / yet ben ther also in ynde plente of other maner stones whiche ha­ue in them moche fair vertues and bountees / And who that wil more knowe of their vertues and bountees maye rede in the book called lapydayre / in whiche he shal knowe the names and vertues / ffor now at this tyme we shal make an ende of this mater / for to recounte yow the con­trees and Royames of ynde /

Here foloweth of the contrees and Royammes of ynde capitulo ¶viijo

IN ynde is plente of grete contrees merueyllously / whiche ben peopled with dyuerse maners of peple & of grete plente of bestes of many dyuerse facions and condicions / Emonge alle other ther is a contree named Perse and conteyneth xxxiij regyons of whiche the first is the Royame of Perse / where as a science called Ny­gromancie was first founden / whiche science constrayneth the enemye the fende to be taken and holde prisonner / In this contree grow [...]th a pese whiche is so hoot that it skal­deth the handes of them that holde it / and it growyth with encresyng of the mone / and wyth wanyng it discreceth at eche tyme of his cours / it helpeth wel to them that ben nygromanciers / After this Royame is another whiche is called Mesopotamye / wherin Nynyu [...] a Cyte of grete seynourye and myghty is sette and establisshid whiche is iij daye Iourneyes of lengthe and is moche large and [Page] brood / In babylone is a tour that somtyme was made by grete pride of whiche the wallis ben meruayllously grete. stronge. and hye / and is called the towr of babel / it is of heyght round aboute .iiij.M. paas vnto the hyest / In the Regyon of Caldee was first founden Astronomye / In this Regyon is the lande of Saba / and therby is the Regyon of Tharse / And after is that of Arabe / Of thise iij Regyons were lordes and prynces the thre kyn­ges that offryd to our lord sauyour Ihesu Cryste gold. encence. and Myrre / that tyme whan he laye in the Cryb­be aftyr his blessyd Natyuyte as he that was the sone of god / And this knewe they by their grete witte and vn­derstandyng of astronomye in whiche they were endowed and founded / In this Regyon of Arabe groweth then [...] ­cence and the myrre / And ther ben therin many peples and dyuerse folke / Ther is also in Egypte a Regyon whiche is called Assyrie / And the Regyon of ffenyce is there / whiche taketh his name of a byrde callyd ffenyx / of whiche in alle the world is on this day but only one a lyue / and whan he deyeth / anone groweth another of hym self / he is grete and moche fair of Corsage / and hath a creste on his heed / lyke as the pecok hath / The breste and the gorge of hym shyneth and draweth toward the propre colour of fyn golde / And he is alonge on the back also r [...]ed as a rose / And toward the tayll he is of the colour of Asure lyke vnto the heuen whan it is pure and cler [...] / and whan he is olde and eaged he withdraweth hym vnto an hye and meruayllous fair place / or montaygne where as sourdeth a fontayne right grete and large / and the water [Page] fair and clere / And ouer the welle groweth a fair tree and grete. whiche may be seen fro ferre / And he maketh vpon this tree his neste and his sepulture right in the myddle of the tree / But he maketh it of spices of so right grete odour that ther may be founden no better / And after he adressyth hym in his neste whan he hath all perfourmed it / he thenne begynneth to meue and to bete his wynges ayenst the sonne so faste and so longe / that a grete het [...] cometh in his fethers in suche wyse that it quykeneth of fyre and b [...]enneth al rounde aboute his body that he is on a clere fyre / And thus the fyre b [...]enneth and consumeth hym alle in to asshes / and out of thise asshes and pouldre groweth agayn another byrde alle lyuyng semblable to hym / After this regyon of fenyce is the Royame of da­mas where as good fruytes growe / And after damas is founden the Regyon of Anthyoche where as be founden grete plente of Camels / After cometh the contre of Pa­latyne / and after that Samarye / thenne Sebaste / and thenne Penthapolye where somtyme were founded two myghty cytees that one callyd Sodome and that other Gomor / the which god wolde they shold perisshe for the gre­te and enorme synnes that they commysed / On this par­te is the dede see in whiche is nothing that bereth lyf / there is a contree that men calle ysmaelite / whiche is enhaby­ted by xij maner of peple / & after this thenne is Egypte the grete where it neuer reyneth & conteyneth xxiiij peoples Another Regyon ther is the whiche cometh toward the north in whiche ther dwelleth̄ noman / but wymmen whiche ben as fyers as lyons / And whan nede is they fyghte [Page] frely ayenst the men / They go armed as knyghtes in ba­taylle / And b [...]ynge doun their enemyes withoute sparyn­ge / they haue fair tresses of their heer whiche hange doun byhynde them / And they be garnysshed with grete prowes­ses in alle their werkes and affayres / And ben called Amazones / But they haue men nyghe to their contre dwellyng / whom they euery yere fetche for to be in their companye viij or xv dayes longe and suffre them to kno­we them carnelly so longe that they suppose that they ha­ue conceyuyd / And thenne departe the men fro that con­tre and goon agayn thedyr that they come fro / and whan thise wymmen haue childed / yf it be a doughter they retey­ne her with them / And yf it be a sone they nourysshe it fyue or vj yere / and after sende it out of the contre / yet in other places ben many fayr ladyes whiche in betaylles & in estowrs vse alle their Armes of syluer for lacke of yron and of steel / of whiche they haue not / In the woodes of ynde ben other wymmen the whiche haue their berdes so longe that they come doun to theyr pappes / They lyue by wylde beestis / and clothe them with the skynnes of the same beestis / And ther ben men and wymmen alle naked and also Rowhe as beeres & ben dwellyng in caues in the erthe / & whan they see other men they hyde them in the caues so that they appere not oute Other peple ther ben that ben also Rowhe as swyne & whynyng / And ther ben other wymmen Rowh̄ also lyke vnto the men / but they ben moche bestyall and whyte as snowe / their teeth ben more lyke vnto houndes than to other and dwelle and abyde wel in the water / Another grete regyon ther is in whiche [Page] dwelle xliij peoples / Ther ben the byrdes whiche ben ful of deduyte / of whom the pennes shyne by nyght like vnto fyre / There ben popengayes whiche ben grene & shynyng lyke pecoks whiche ben but lytil more than a Iaye / of whom as men saye / they that haue on eche foot fyue clawes ben gentyl and the vylayns haue but thre / he hath a tayll lengre than a foot / and a becke courbed & a grete tongue and forked / who that myght haue one he myght wel lerne hym to speke in the space of two yere / Another byrde ther is in this contre whiche is named pellicane / and alle hoor whan he leueth his chekens / & cometh agayn to fede them as is of nede / hym semeth that they ben al deed / Thenne he smyteth hym self with his bylle in his breste tyl that the blood sprynge out / wherof he reyseth agayn to lyf his birdes In armenye is a maner of peple that haue al their heer whyte / In thise parties is a moche hye mountayne where vpon the Arke of Noe abood and rested after the flood was passed / After cometh the prouynce of ynde the lasse whiche is alle enuyronned wyth the see wherin ben many regions of whom for this present tyme we wil not declare the names / In this prouynce of Asie is the Re­gyon of dardane / and the contre of ffrygye in to whiche parys whan he had rauisshed helayne brought her to / wher­for the puissaunte cyte of Troye the grete was at them­pryse of the grekes destroyed by fyre and glayue / This Cyte was sette at one of thendes of grece / In thise par­tye is sette the noble Cyte of lychaonie / And nygh̄e to the same stondeth another Cyte called Cayer by whiche renneth the grete flood name herme of whiche the grauel [Page] is of gold all shynyng / ffro this parte toward thende of egypte cometh to vs the paillole whiche is of fyn golde / Ther is toward thoryent on that other syde a maner of peple that somtyme descended fro the Iewes / and ben peple of their condicion vyle. fowl. and stynkyng / they haue no wyues wedded ne holde no concubynes ne other for as moche as they may not byleue that wymmen may holde them to one man only withoute to double them with other And therfore they sette no store by wymmen / but only that they may haue generacion / Another maner of peple ther ben in this prouynce whiche ben callyd barbaryns / & ben also called Iacobyns / ffor Iacob was aūcyently their maistre And ben crysten men corrumped by the mariages and Alyaunces that they doo and make wyth the sara­syns whiche on that one syde marche on them Thise bar­baryns pourpryse wel xl Royammes / In no wyse they byleue that confession be vayllable to shewe it to ony man sauf to god only / whan they confesse them to god they sette by them fyre and encence / And they wene certaynly that their thoughtes goo vp vnto our lord in this fumee / but it is not so as they byleue / but they mysbylcue saynt Iohan baptiste the whiche first baptysed them / ffor to fore all thinges they behoued to saye their synnes to hym self And after they receyued of hym baptesme / ffor seynt Io­han baptest sayth hym self that whan one telleth his syn­nes to another that may be a synner as he is / this shame that he hath to saye his synnes is torned to hym in stede of penytence / and is to hym allegeance of his synnes / & hym ought by reson the sonner to absteyne hym fro syn­nyng [Page] / seen that he muste shewe them to another man / by whiche he may haue of our lorde remyssion and pardon of his synnes and myquytees / this witnesseth to vs saynt Ioh̄n baptyst / the whiche by the holy & blessyd sacrament of baptesme rendreth vs quyte ayenst our lord god of our synnes / & that we may be purged by very confession / good contricion & ful satisfacion euerych after his power / Ther­for thise Iacobyns ben gretly deceyued / ffor they haue euyl reteyned the holsome doctryne that seynt Iohan baptyst taught them / In this regyon is another maner of peple Crysten that byleue a lytil better in god and ben stronge and myghty in bataylle / the sarasyns doubte them moche And dar not mysdoo them / but ben to them swete and amyable / thise peple be named Georgiens / and ben good crysten men / And ben enclosed round aboute with feloun and mysbyleuyd peple / And they ben called as afore is said georgiens / bycause they crye alleway on seynt george in batayll in estours and in Recountres ayenst the sara­syns / And also they worshype and loue hym aboue alle other seyntes / They haue alle crownes shauen on their heedes / But the clerkes haue them round And the laye peple haue them square / whan they goo to Iherusalem for to worshipe the holy sepulcre of our lord Ihesus / The sar­rasyns dar not take of them ony tolle ne nothyng hurte them by cause they doubte that whan they come and re­paire agayn they sholde abye it dere / The gentyl ladyes of the contre Arme them and ride vpon good horses ren­nyng and swyfte / and fyghte asprely in the companye of the knyghtes of Georgie ayenst the sarasyns / They vse [Page] lyke lawes / & lyke termes of speche as don the grekes /

Hier speketh of the ffysshes that be foūden in ynde. ca. ixo

IN the see of ynde is a maner of ffysshes that on their skynnes growe heer so longe that the peple ma­ke therof robes mantellis and other vestementis whiche they were whan they haue taken and made them / Yet ther is another maner of ffysshe in this see / whiche ben na­med escimuz whiche ben no lengre that a foot longe / but they haue suche strengthe that in contynent that they touche a ship one of them only reteyneth hym stylle that he may not goo forward ne afterward Ther is also ano­ther maner of ffysshe that be comynly callyd dolphyns / they haue a custome that whan they fele that the tempest shal come / and that the shippes ben in daunger for to be lost and perisshid / they warne them out of the watre and shewe and playe on the wawes of the see in suche wyse that somtyme they be playnly seen In this see of ynde is another fysshe so huge and grete that on his backe gro­weth erthe and grasse / And semeth proprely that it is a grete Ile / wherof it happeth somtyme that the maronners sayllyng by this see ben gretly deceyued and abused / ffor they wene certaynly that it be ferme londe / wherfor they goo out of their shippes theron / and whan they haue ma­de their preparacions and their logys theron and lyghted their fyre and made it to brenne after their nede / wenyng to be on a ferme londe / but incontynent as this merueyl­lous fysshe feleth the hete of the fyre / he meuyth hym [Page] sodenly and deualeth doun in to the water as depe as he may / And thus alle that is vpon hym is lost in the see / And by this moyen / many shippes ben drowned and pe­risshid / and the peple / whan they supposed to haue be in sa­uete / Ther is in this see plente of other ffysshe the whiche haue heedes and bodyes lyke vnto a mayde / and haue fair tresses made of their heer / The shapp of their bodyes vnto the nauel is lyke a mayde / And the remenaunt is lyke the body and tayll of a fysshe / And somme haue wynges lyke fowles / And their songe is so swete and so melody­ous that it is meruaylle to here and they be called seray­nes or mermaydens / Of whom somme saye that they be fysshis / And other saye that they be fowles whiche flee by the see / But take it aworth / ffor at this tyme I shal de­porte to speke more of this mater / ffor to telle & recounte to yow of the meruayllous trees that growe in ynde / Of whiche ben many dyuerse and bere sondrely fruyt / as here after al a longe shal be declared to yow /

Hew foloweth of the trees that ben in ynde and of theyr fruytes / capitulo ¶xo

IN ynde groweth a tree moche grete and right faye / And is moche swete smellyng and is called pal­myer / and bereth dates / This fruyt is good and holsom Ther ben also apple trees the whiche ben ful of longe ap­ples / whiche ben of merueyllous good sauour / And they entretiene and cleue to gydre wel an hondred in a clustre And the l [...]ues that growe on this apple trees ben wel two [Page] fote longe / & a foot brode / Other apples ther growe moche grete / wherin appiereth the bytte of a man with his teeth / And ben called thapples of Adam by cause of the bytte that appiereth in them / Ther ben other trees whiche bere apples / that ben right fair without forth / And within it is as it were asshes / The vygnes bere there grapes / of whiche wyn̄ is maad / they ben so habendaunt of fruyt / And the clustres of grapes ben so grete and so full of Muste / that two men ben gretly charged to bere one of them only vpon a colestaff / Also ther growe lytil smale trees that be remeuyd euery yere the whiche bere cotoun / Also ther growe in many places canes grete and longe / whiche ben within forth ful of sugre / so moche and espe­cial that ther growe none lyke in alle the worlde / At one of the hedes of the Royame of babylone groweth the [...]ame whiche is moche dere / and crysten men that ben prisonners there delue and laboure the erthe / And the sarasyns saye that they haue ofte preuyd it / that whan they doo delue and laboure that erthe with peple of other nacions than crysten men that it lereth no fruyt ne bame that yere / And vpon the felde where the bame groweth / somme saye that there spryngeth a fontayne where the blessyd virgyne Marie bayned her sone Ihesus / And wyth the watre of this fontayne is the bame watred / and of this water may not be employed ne born in to other place / ffor in substaunce it doth nomore than other water / In this contre ben other trees the whiche in stede of leues bere wulle / of whiche is made cloth right fair & subtyle / of whiche thyn­habitauns of the contre make them robes and mantelli [...] [Page] for their weryng / yet ben ther other trees that bere a fruyt right swete smellyng / But this tree takyth his fruyt by nyght in hym / and in the mornyng it cometh out agayn when the sonne is rysen / Ther growe there plente of other trees / Of whom the cooles whan they be afyre duren in their asshes an hole yer without goyng out. or quenchyng or mynuyssyng / Also ther growe plente of Cedres and of lybans / the whiche as men saye may not rote / other trees there growe moche gloryous and right good whiche bere clowes And other that bere notemygges / And of the rynde and scorce is the canell or synamom̄ / and also ther groweth gynger / In this partye growe the good espyces of alle maner haboūdantly / Also there growe notes gre­te plente / whiche ben also grete as grete Apples / and other that ben as grete as the hede of a man / To the Re­gard of the trees that ben in paradys terrestre we knowe not what fruyt they beynge forth / But it is wel knowen of the tree / that Eue had so grete desire to ete aboue the commandement of our lord goo / & of whiche she deceyued Adam our first fader / and in lyke wyse is there the tree of lyf / of whiche we haue spoken to fore more largely / Ther ben in this right noble paradys so many other tree [...] beryng fruyt so good and so delicyous that it semeth that the glorye of our lord be therin ouerall / But ther is a meruayllous watche and kepar / ffor the Angele of god is kepar of thentree with a naked swerd in his hande contynuelly brennyng / to thende that nomen ne bestes ne euyll spirytes approche ne Auaunce them for to take in ony wyse there their delytes and playsaunces / and [Page] [...]accomplissh them ther within / And here wyth we make an ende of this purpoos for to speke of the contrees of Europe and of the condicions /

Now foloweth of Europe and of his contrees / ca. ¶xjo

SYth we haue deuysed to you of Asye and of his contrees and regyons / I shal saye to yow of Eu­rope and his condicions shortly / ffor as moche as we may ofte here speke therof / The first partye of Europe is Ro­manye and a parte of Constantynoble / Trapesonde. Ma­cedone. Thesalye. Boheme. Sapronye. Pyrre. & a moche holsom contre named Archade / In this contre sourdeth & spryngeth a fontayne in whiche men may not quenche brennyng brondes / ne cooles on fire and brennyng / In Archade is a stone whiche in no wyse may be quenchyd after it is sette a fire tyl it be alle brent in to asshes / Af­ter Archade is the Royame of denemarke / and thenne Hongrye / & sythe hosterich̄ / and thenne foloweth germa­nye whiche we calle Almayne whiche conteyneth a grete pourprys toward thoccident / in whiche pourprys ben many grete & puissaunt Royames / In Allemayne sourdeth a grete flood & ryuere named dunoe / the whiche stratcheth vnto in Constantynople / and there entreth in to the see / but erst it trauscth vij grete floodes by his radour & ren­nyng / & as I haue herd saye the hede of this dunoe begyn­neth on one side of a montayne / & that other side of the sa­me mōtayne sourdeth another grete ryuer / which is named the rijn & renneth thurgh̄ almayne by basyle / strawsburgh [Page] Magounce / Couelence / Coleyn / & nemyng / where fast by it departeth in to iiij ryuers & renneth thurgh the londes of ghelres. Cleue and holande & so in to the see / And yet er this ryuer entre in to the see / he entreth in to another ry­uer named the mase / & than loseth he his name / & is called the mase / & mase depe xl myle longe in the see / In europe is also swauen / basse Almayn / ffraunce / Englonde / scot­land and Irlonde / And aboue thise many other contree [...] whiche endure vnto the mount Ius / & thus moche space holdeth the partye of Europe / Now shal we deuyse to yow how moche Affryke conteyneth /

Here foloweth of Affryke and of his regyons and con­trees capitulo ¶xijo

AFter Europe is Affryke / of whiche the regyon of lybe is the firste / This is a londe moche riche. wel peopled and strongly garnysshid / After cometh the royā ­me of Surrye. Iherusalem and the contrey aboute / This is the holy londe where our lord Ihesu Cryst receyuid our humanyte and passyon / and where he roos fro deth to lyf / After thoppynyon of somme is that this holy londe lon­geth to Asye / After thenne cometh Grece. Cypres. Ce­cyle. Toscane. Naples. Lombardye. Gascoyne. Spayne. Cateloyne. Galyce. Nauarre. Portyngal. and Aragon And how be it that the Auctour of this book saye that thise contrees ben in Affryke / yet as I vnderstonde all [...] thise ben within the lymytes and boūdes of europe / Also ther ben somme of thise regions & contrees that take their name of somme beestes that dwelle in the same londes / & [Page] the cytees haue taken the fourmes / as rome hath the four­me of a lyon / And Troye the grete of an hors (etc) / All barbarye is in Affryke & Alysandre / And ethiope strat­cheth vnto thende of Affryke / In this contre of ethiope the peple ben black for hete of the sonne / ffor it is so hoot in this contre / that it semeth that the erthe shold brenne / Beyonde ethyope is no londe but deserte / & londe withoute bryngyng forth of ony fruyt / but it is ful of serpentes / of vermyne and of wylde beestis whiche londe endeth at the grete see /

Here shal we speke of dyuerse yles of the see. ca. ¶xiijo

SYth we haue descryuid & deuysed the londe / it is re­son that we enquyre of the yles of the see / And in especial of them that we knowe the names of whiche ther ben plente in the sce / Ther is a moche grete yle called an­dos / whiche is toward europe / & syth is the yle of colchos / where the flyes of gold was foūd lyke as to vs reherceth thystorye of Iason / Ther is another yle called Maron / in this yle was born the holy man seynt denys whiche recey­uid martyrdom in fraūce / Toward asye the grete ben the nombre of xliiij / There is one yle named delos / this yle appiered first after noes flood / ther is another whiche is called Meloth / And it is so called for the right grete melodye that is herd therin of swete songe of byrdes that ben in this yle contynuelly / in this yle groweth plen­te of whyte Marble / Ther is another yle in this contre that is called psalmos in whiche the quene sebylle was born / the whiche prophecyed of many thynges of our lord [Page] Ihesu cryst longe tyme bifore he was born of the virgyn [...] marie / and she prophecyed thise thinges at rome / where she was sent fore / In this yle was first foūden the maner to make pottes of erthe / whiche ben yet vsed in many con­trees / In this yle was born a grete philosophre & a good clerke named pictogoras / the whiche by his grete entende­ment fonde the poyntes and the difference of musyque / In affryke is also an yle in the see whiche is callid sar­dayne / where an herbe groweth whiche is of suche vertue that yf one ete of it he deyeth anon forth with all la­whyng / Another yle ther is named bosut wherin is no serpent ne vermyne / And ther is another whiche is called colombyne / where as is grete plente & foyson of vermyne and meruayllous serpentes / yet ther is another yle that is moche longe and right brode that is called alleares / In this yle was first founden the maner of meltyng of me­tals / Also ther is the yle of Meroes the whiche at the myddle of the day hath no shadewe / yet ther is a pytte in this yle that by right nombre and mesure is .vij. foot [...]edde and an hondred foot depe / And the sonne shyneth in to the bottom / Also ther is another yle whiche is called Cylla where the Cyclopiens were somtyme / Another yle is in this contre so grete as the wyse plato witnesseth̄ the whiche in his tyme was a clercke of right grete re­nommee / whiche hath more of pourpris & space than alle Europe & affryke conteynen / But sith the tyme of plato it was in suche wyse destroyed & broken lyke as it plesid our lord / that it sanke doun in to Abisme for the grete synnes that they cōmysed y were dwellars & inhabitaūs [Page] therin / And is now the see right that is called bethee / another yle is there the whiche may not be seen whan men wold goo therto / but somme goo thyder as men saye / and it is called the yle loste / This yle fonde seynt Brandon the whiche beyng therin on ferme londe sawe & fonde ma­ny meruailles lyke [...] his legende conteyneth / & who that wil knowe it maye visyte his legende & rede it / In the marches hetherward ben fonde many good yles The yle of Cypre & of Secyle ther ben & other plente that be founden in the see / of whiche I now speke not / And be not admer­uaylled of suche thinges as ye haue foūden wreton in this present booke / the whiche may seme to yow moche strange dyuse & moche diffycile to bileue / ffor our lord god whiche is almyghty maker & creatour of all thynges / & in whom alle goodes & vertues ben / h̄ath made by his only wille & playsir in the erthe many meruaylles & many werkes to be meruaylled on by cause that noman knoweth by no waye the raysons wherfore / & therfore we ought not to mysbileue in no wise that we here redde ne tolde of the meruaylles of the world vnto the tyme we knowe it be so or no / ffor the werkes of our lord ben so hye & to the men so difficile & hard that euery man may reporte hym to that / that it is / how wel that a man doth not moche amys sōtyme to gyue no bileue to sōme thinges / whan he knoweth not ye trouthe / so that it be not in erryng ayenst ye faith / ffor it is a good & prouf­fytable thing to euy man to vnderstāde & reteyne to thende that he may lerne / of whiche he be not abasshed whan he hee­reth speke of suche thinges / & can answere to the trouthe / ffor in like wise as to vs seme grete meruaille of thinges [Page] that I here reherce / In lyke wyse semeth it to them that ben fer fro vs / that those thinges of thise cōtrees ben moche dyuerse & strange / & meruaylle gretly by cause they haue litil seen of it / & therfore a man ought not to meruaylle yf he here somtyme ony thyng though he can not vnder­stonde the rayson / ffor alleway a man ought to lerne / and ther is noman that knoweth all / sauf only god whiche all seeth and alle knoweth / The geaunts that ben in som place haue right grete meruaylle / of this that we be so ly­til ayenst them / Lyke as we meruaylle of them that ben half lasse than we be / as it is tofore said / And they ben the Pygmans whiche ben but iij foot longe / And in ly­ke wise meruaylle they of vs / of that we ben so grete / & re­pute vs also for geaunts / They that haue but one eye and one foot / haue grete meruaylle that we haue tweyne / lyke as we doo of them that haue but one / And also as we deuyse their bestis and name them by their names / in lyke wyse deuyse they oures / by theires / bothe of body and of membres / yf the centicore haue an foot of an hors / in lyke wyse hath the hors the foot of a centicore / Also we may wel saye that the hors hath the body of monotheros / ffor they ben lyke of corsaige / And thus their bestes re­semble vnto oures whiche ben dyuerse of heedes of bodyes and of menbres / as oures ben contrarie to theires /

Of dyuersytees that ben in Europe and in Affryke capitulo ¶xiiijo

WE haue in thise parties many thinges that they of Asye and of Affryke haue none / Ther is toward [Page] Irlonde on the one syde a maner of byrdes that flee and they growen on trees and on olde shipp sides by the bylles And whan they be nygh rype / they that falle in the water lyue / and the other not / they ben callyd bernacles / Irland is a grete Ilonde in whiche is no serpent ne venemous beeste / And who that bereth. with hym the erthe of this yle in to another contre and leyeth it where as venymous vermyne is / there anon it deyeth / Another ylonde is in ir­londe whiche stondeth ferre in the s [...]e / where no wymmen may dwelle / and also the byrdes that ben femalles may not abyde there / Ther is another yle wherin nomen may dye in no tyme of the world / but whan they ben so olde & feble that their membres faylle and ake and lyue with payne that they may not helpe ne susteyne them self / and that they had leu [...]r dye than lyue / they doo them to be born in to another yle and ouer the water for to dye / And the trees that ben in this yle kepe their leues grene and in verdure alle tymes wynter and somer / In another yle in Islonde the nyght endureth vj monethes / and thenne co­meth the daye that dureth other vj monethes shynyng fair and clere / another place is in the same ylonde whiche brenneth nyght and day / Ther is also in Irlonde a place called seynt patryks purgatorye / whiche place is perilloꝰ yf ony men goon therin and be not confessed and repen­taunt of their synnes / They be anon rauysshyd and loste in suche wyse that noman can telle where they be come / And yf they be confessyd and repentant / and that they haue don satisfaccion and penaūce for their synnes / with­out that alle be clensed and ful satisfyed / therafter shall [Page] they suffre payne and greef the tormentis in passing this crymynel passage / And whan he is retorned agayn fro this purgatorye / Neuer shal no thyng in this world plese hym that he shal see ner he shal neuer be Ioyous ne glad­ne shal not be seen lawhe / but shal be continuelly in wayl­lynges and wepinges for the synnes that he hath com­mysed / hit may wel be that of auncyent tyme it hath ben thus as a sore is wreton as the storye of Tūdale & other witnesse / but I haue spoken with dyuerse men that haue ben therin / And that one of them was an hye chanon of waterford whiche told me that he had ben therin .v. or .vj. tymes / And he sawe ne suffred no suche thynges / he saith that with procession the Relygious men that ben there brynge hym in to the hool and shette the dore after hym / and than he walketh groping in to it / where as he said ben places and maner of cowches to reste on / And there he was alle the nyght in contemp [...]cion & prayer / and also slepte there / and on the morn he cam out agayn / [...]her whi­le in their shepe somme men haue meruayllous dremes & other thyng sawe he not / And in lyke wyse tolde to me a worshipful knyght of beuggis named sir Ioh̄n de banste that he had ben therin in lyke wyse and see none other thyng but as afore is sayd / In beytaygne that now is called Englond as is said is a fontayne and a pyler or a perron therby And whan men take water of this welle and caste it vpon the perron / Anon it begynneth to ray­ne and blowe / th [...]ndre and lyghtne meruayllously Also in ffraunce hath ben s [...]en somtyme a maner of peple that haue be horned / Toward the mountes of mount Ius ye [Page] shal fynde plente of wymmen that haue botches vnder the chyn̄ / whiche hange doun of somme doun to the pappes / and they that haue grettest ben holden for fairest / Other folke ther ben that haue botches on their backes and ben croked as crochettes / And they that see alle thise thinges ofte / meruaylle but lytyl / also it is ofte seen that in this con­tre ben born children deef and dombe / and also of them that haue bothe nature of man and woman / yet ben ther ofte seen somme children comen in to this world somme with­out handes and somme without armes /

Of the maner and condicion of beestes of thise contrees capitulo ¶xvo

THe foxe is of suche a condicion that whan he depar­teth fro the wode and gooth in to the feldes / there he lyeth doun & stratcheth hym on the grounde as he were deed for to take byrdes / whan the herte wylle renewe his age he eteth of som venymous beeste / yf the tode Crapault or spyncop byte a man or woman / they be in daunger for to dye / it hath be ofte scen / The spyttle of a man fastyng sleeth comynly the spyncoppe & the tode yf it touche them yf a wulf and a man see that one that other fro ferre / he that is first seen becometh anon aferd The wulf bereth the sheep without hurtynge or gr [...]uyng / of hym doubtyng that he wold crye / and that he shold not be folowed / and after deuoureth hym whan he hath brought hym to the wode / and yf he be constrayned to leue hym in his berynge He destrayneth hym with al his myght at his departyng [Page] The spyther or spyncop of his propre nature spynneth and weueth of his entraylles the threde / of whiche he maketh his nettes for to take flyes whiche he eteth / whan the she­ape hath two whelpes or fawnes she loueth that one moche better than that other / She berith hym that she loueth best in her armes / And that other she leteth goo / whiche whan she is hunted lepeth on the moders backe and holdeth her faste / And that other that she bereth in her armes / she be­teth falle and is ofte constrayned to saue her self / also it is so that the hounde kepeth the goodes of his lorde and maistre / and ben by hym waranted ayenst men and bestes And aboue alle other he knoweth his lord and maistre by his smellyng / & loueth hym of so right good loue that ofte it happeth be it right or wronge he wyl not forsake his maistre vnto the deth / And also is so sorowful for the deth of his maistre / that otherwhyle he loseth his lyf / In englond in som place is ther a maner of houndes that goon & seche out the theuys / and bryngen them fro thens where they fonde them / The moustele is a right lytil bes­te & sleeth the basilycock / and in longe fyghtyng byteth hym out of mesure She of her nature remeueth so ofte her fawnes fro one place to another that wyth grete payne they may vnnethe be founden / The hyrchon whan he fyn­deth apples beten or blowen doun of a tree / he waloweth on them tyl he be chargid and laden wyth the fruyt stykyng on his pryckes / And whan he feleth hym self laden as moche as he may bere he goth his way wyth them syn­gyng and makyng his deduyt / And yf he mete ony beste that wold doo hym harme / he reduyseth hym self as roūde [Page] as a bowle / and hydeth his groyne & his feet / and armeth hym wyth his pryckes aboute his skynne in suche wyse that no beste dar approche hym doubtyng his pryckes / The lambe whiche neuer sawe wulf / of his propre nature doubteth and fle [...]th hym / But he doubteth nothyng other bestes but goth hardyly emonge them /

Of the maner of birdes of thise forsaid contrees. ca. xvjo

THe Egle of his nature taketh his byrdes by the vngles or cla [...]es wyth his bylle / And hym that holdeth fastest [...] beste & kepeth them next by hym / And them that holden but febly / he leteth hem goo / and taketh none hede of them / whan the Egle is moche aged he fleeth so hye that he passeth the clowdes / And holdeth there his sight so longe ayenst the sonne / that he hath al loste it and brende alle his fethers / Thēne he falleth doun on a montaygne in a water that he hath to fore chosen / & in this manere he reneweth his lyf / And whan his bille is ouerlonge he breketh and bruseth it ayenst an hard stone & sharpeth it / whan the Turtle hath loste her make whom she hath first knowen / Neuer after wyl she haue make / ne sytte vpon grene tree / But fleeth emonge the trees contynuelly bewayllyng her loue / The hostryche by his nature eteth well yron / and greueth hym not / whan the heyron seeth the tempest come / he fleeth vp so hye tyl he be aboue the clowdes for teschewe the rayn & tempeste / The Chowe whan she fyndeth gold or syluer / of her na­ture she hydeth and bereth it away / And who somtyme [Page] heereth her voys / it semeth proprely that she speketh / The crowe weneth that he is the fairest birde of alle other / and the beste syngyng / yf her byrdes be whyte in ony parte / she wil neuer doo them good til they be all black / The pecok whan he beholdeth his fethers he setteth vp his tayll as Rounde as a wheel al aboute hym / by cause his beaulte shold be alowed and preysed / and is moche prowd of his fair fethers and plumage / But whan he beholdeth toward his feet / whiche ben fowl to loke on / thenne he leteth his tayll falle wenyng to couer his feet / The goshawke and sperhawk taken their prayes by the ryuers / But they that ben tame and reclaymed beynge that they take to theyr lord whiche hath so taught them The culuer or the dowue is a symple byrde / and of her nature nourisshith well the pigeons of another douue / And apperceyuith well in the water by thy shadowe and seeth therin whan the hawke wold take her / The huppe or lapwynche is a byrde crested / whiche is moche in mareys & fylthes / and abydeth leuer therin than out therof / who someuer ennoynteth hym self with the blode of the huppe / and happe that after leyde hym doun to slepe hym shold seme anon in his slepe dremyng that alle the deuyllis of helle shold come to hym and wold strangle hym / The nyghtyngal of her propre na­ture syngeth well and longe / and otherwhyle so longe that she deyeth syngyng / And the larke in lyke wyse dyeth ofte singyng / The swanne syngeth ofte to fore her deth / In lyke wyse doo ofte many men / Of thise thinges and of many other / moche peple meruaylle that neuer herde of suche thinges to fore / ne knowe not therof as we [Page] doo here that dayly fynde it / ffor in this book we fynde many thynges and resons / wherof men meruaylle stron­gly that neuer haue seen. lerned. ne herd of them /

Of dyuersytes of somme comyne thinges. ca. ¶xvijo

PLente and many thynges ther ben seen at eye / of whiche the resons ben couuert and hyd fro vs / of whiche the people meruaylle but lytil / bycause they see it so ofte / The quyck syluer is of suche nature and manere that it susteyneth a stone vpon it / where as water and oyle may not / ffor the stone in them gooth to the bottom / The lyme or brent chalke / in colde water anon it chauf­feth and is hoot that noman may suffre his hand on it / The rayes of the sonne make the heer of a man abourne or blounde / And it maketh the flessh̄ of a man broun or black / And it whiteth the lynnen cloth / And the erthe that is moyst and softe / maketh drye and hard / and waxe that is drye / it relenteth and maketh softe / Also it ma­keth cold water in a vessel warme / Also oute of glasse ayenst the sonne men make fyre / and out of Crystal in lyke wyse / also with smytyng of a stone ayenst yron co­meth fyre / and flammeth / The b [...]eeth of a man whiche is hoot coleth hoot thyng / And it chauffeth colde / and ayer / by meuyng / The erthe whiche is peysant and right heuy by nature holdeth hit in the myddle of thaye [...] without pi­ler and foundement only by nature / And therfor he is a fool that meruaylleth of thynges that god maketh / ffor noo creature hath the power to shewe reson wherfore they [Page] ben or not / ffor ther is nothyng how lytil it be / that the glose may be knowen vnto the trouthe sauf only that whiche pleseth to our lord god / ffor to be wel founded in clergye may men knowe & vnderstande the reson of sōme thinges / and also by nature suche thinge as by reson can not be comprehended / Thawh a man enquyre neuer so lon­ge of that is wrought in therthe by nature / he shal not mowe come to the knowelege wherfore ne how they be made / This may noman certaynly knowe / sauf god only whiche knoweth the reson and vnderstondeth it /

ffor to knowe where helle stondeth / and what thyng it is / capitulo ¶xviijo

WE haue declared to yow and deuysed the erthe with­out forth the best wise that we can / But now it is expedyent after that this that is said to knowe and en­quyre what places and what mansions ther may be within therthe / and whether it be paradys / helle. purgatorye. lymbo or other thynge / And whiche of them is best / and whiche of them alle is worste / As to the regard of me and as me semeth / that / that whiche is enfermed and closed in the erthe is helle / I saye this for as moche as helle may in no wyse be in thayer whiche is one so noble a place / Also I may frely mayntene that it is not in heuen / ffor that place is so right excellent pure and net / that helle may not endure there / ffor as moche as helle is so horry­ble. stynkyng. fowl. and obscure / Also it is more poysaūt and heuy than ony thyng may be / wherfor it may be clerly [Page] vnderstanden that helle hath his beyng in the most lowest place. moste derke. and moste vyle of the erthe / And as I haue here sayd to yow the causes why / In trouthe it may not be in thayer / and yet lasse in heuen / ffor it is in alle poyntes contrarye to heuen aboue / ffor as moche as thise two ben contrarye one to another / Of whiche places in that one is founden but alle glorye and consolacion / that is heuen / In that other is nothyng but of alle tri­bulacion / that is helle / And therfore it is withdrawen alle vnder fro that other as ferre as it may / and that is in the myddle of therthe / I saye not that helle is not in none other place where it be / ffor after the deth he hath payne and sorowe that hath deserued it / And whan suche one shal haue his payne aboue / so moche hath he the werse Alle thus as it shold be of somme man that had a grete maladye so moche that he shold deye / And that he were brought in to a fair place and plesaunt for to haue Ioye and solace / of so moche shold he be more heuy & sorowful whan he sawe that he coude ne myght helpe hym self ne take therby noo spoort ne releef / In lyke wyse shal it be of thise vnhappy caytifs that ben by their demerites damp­ned in helle / wherof we shal now herafter to yow more am­ple & largely declare / ffor to fynysshe the bettre our booke / Now yf ye wille take hede and vnderstonde / we shal deuy­se how helle is in the myddle of therthe / and of what na­ture it is of / And of the inestymable tormentis whiche they haue that ben therin put and condempned / ye haue wel vnderstanden how by nature the iiij elementes holde them / that one within that other / so that therthe is in the [Page] myddle and holdeth hym in the myddle of the firmament alle in lyke wyse is ther in the myddle of therthe a place whiche is called Abisme or swolowe / and erthe of perdi­cion / Thus moche saye I to yow of this place that it is ful of fyre & of brennyng sulfre / And it is ouer h̄ydows stynkynge. ful of ordure and of alle euyl aduenture / hit is moche large within / and bynethe it is strayt / Alle that falleth therin anon the sulphre contynuelly brenneth des­troyeth and consumeth / And that thyng tha [...] cometh therin shal neuer fynysshe ne haue ende / but alleway shal brenne without ende / Alleway it brenneth / and alleway reneweth / And alle that come therin may neuer deye / ffor this place is of suche nature that the more it brenneth / the lenger it endureth / This place of helle hath within hym alle the euylles of his partye / There deth holdeth his standard / whiche sendeth out thurgh all the world for to fetche them that ben his / who that hath Ioye of heuynesse Thyder come all euylles and all the euyll apportes / this place is called the erthe of deth / ffor the sowles that ben brought thyder / th [...]y abyde and dwelle there without ende / Certaynly they deye lyuyng / And alleway lyue deyeng / The deth is there their lyf and their vyande and mete / The deth holdeth them there at his commandement This is the right pytte of fyre that brennyth / & all in lyke wy­se as the stone is drowned in the see whan it is throwen and sonken / and neuer shal be after seen / right so ben the sowles sonken in to the bottom whiche contynuelly bren­ne & be drowned there / But for al that they dymynysshe not ne haue ende / but in suche myserye abye their folyes [Page] nyght and day / and so shall endure perpetuelly and with­out ende / ffor what someuer thyng that is spyrituel may neuer dye▪ in suche wyse that it be alle deed / but the deth wold they haue and weesshe after it incessantly / the sowle may neuer deye after that it is out of the body / but whan it is there / it shall alleway languysshe / And euer after that it is in helle / it shal haue nothing but euyll / this is the contre & the londe of oblyuion & forgetyng / ffor alle they that ben there shal be forgoten / lyke as they forgate in this world their maker whiche is ful of pyte & of my­sericorde / And therfore he hath leyd them there in forge­tyng where they shal neuer haue mercy ne pardon / in this londe so tenebrouse hydouse and ful of alle stenche / and of sorowes. anguysshes. heuynes. hungre. and thyrste shal neuer creature haue gladnesse ne Ioye Thise ben the ter­ryble gehynes stynkynge / And there is the fyre so ouer moche ardaūt ho [...]e & anguysshous that our fyre & the hete is nomore vnto the regard of that fyre of helle / than a fyre paynted on a walle is in comparison & to the regard of our fyre / There ben the flodes peryllous whiche ben of fyre and of yce so hydows. horryble. full of venyme and of fowle beestes that make so grete noyse and so grete grief payne and ennoye vnto the dolorouse sowles that ben in the sayd abysme / that ther nys creature that can or may recounte or telle the hondred parte / In this contre ther is plente of other places whiche ben peryl­lous and horryble / And of them ben somme in the see as wel as wythin therthe / In many yles that ben by the see is terryble stenche of sulphre ardaunt in [Page] grete fyre whiche is moche paynfull / Ther ben many grete montaynes of sulphre that brenne nyght and daye wher [...] as many sowles ben encombred and brenne contynuelly for to purge their synnes & inyquytees / This may thēne wel suffyse as touchynge to speke ony more of this ma­tere / ffor ther is no creature that can telle the grete tor­mentes and inestymable paynes that a man of euyl lyf receyueth for his demerites whan he is departed fro this world / ffor he goth eu from euyl to werse / here we shal cesse for this present tyme / and now saye nomore herof / And seen that we haue spoken wel a longe of one of the foure Elementes / whiche is therthe / we shal now speke of the seconde / and that is of the water that alway renneth / and after we shal speke of thayer / and after of the fyre / eue­rich in his right ordre /

How the watre renneth by and thurgh therthe. ca. xixo

THe water / that is the depe see the whiche enuyron­neth and goth round aboute the world / and of this see / meuen alle the flodes and Ryuers that renne thurgh the erthe / And renne so ferre their cours / and that they retorne and come agayn thedyr from whens they de­parted / and that is the See / And thus gooth the See contynuelly tornyng and makyng his cours that for so moche as the water is more lyght than the erthe / so moche is it aboue and is most next to ther­the / She departeth and deuydeth the contrees / and she spredeth her thurghout. alle therthe. / she falleth [Page] agayn in to the See / and spredeth agayn by the flo­des and Ryuers and goth sourdyng and spryngyng in the erthe from one place to another by vaynes / alle in ly­ke wyse as the blood of a man gooth and renneth by the vaynes of the body / and gooth out & yssueth in sōme place / alle in lyke wyse renneth the water by the vaynes of therthe and sourdeth and spryngeth out by the fontay­nes and welles / fro whiche it gooth al aboute / that whan one delueth in therthe depe in medowe or in montaygne or in valeye men fynde water salte or swete or of sōme other maner /

How the water swete or salt. hoot or enuenymed sourdeth out of the erthe capitulo ¶xxo

ALle watres come of the see as wel the swete as the salt / what someuer they be / alle come out of the see / and theder agayn alle retorne / wherupon somme may de­mand· / syth the see is salt / how is it that somme water is fresshe and swete / Herto answerth one of thauctours and sayth that the water that hath his cours by the swete erthe is fresshe and swete / and becometh swete by the swetnes of therthe / whiche taketh away from it his saltnes and his bytternes by her nature / ffor the water whiche is salt & bytter whan it renneth thurgh the swete erthe / the swetnes of therthe reteyneth his bytternes and saltnes / And thus becometh the water swete and fresshe whiche to fore was salt and byttre / Other waters sourden and spryngen bytter & black / whiche somme men drynke [Page] for to be heled of their maladyes in stede of poyson / the whiche oftymes make grete purgacions to somme peple / This is a water that spryngeth black and clere and renneth in therthe whiche is bytter and black / and it is ful of moche fylthe / wherfore men haue grete meruaylle / how it may be holsom to the body of a man / In another place sourdeth water whiche is hoot / and that ther myght be scalded therin a pygge or ghoos / whiche ben called ba­thes or baynes naturell / Of suche maner bathes ben ther in Almayne in the Cyte of Acon / and in Englond at bathe / In lorayne another atte thabbay of plounners / And at Ays in Gascoygne another / This procedeth for as moche as within therthe ben many caues whiche ben hoot and brennyng as fyre / And therthe hath plente of vaynes whiche ben alle ful of sulphre / And ther cometh other while a wynde grete and stronge the whiche cometh by the water that sourdeth / And that is put forth so strongly that the sulphre catcheth fyre and brenneth / lyke as a fornayce alle brennyng shold doo / And the water that hath his cours by thyse vaynes become also hoot as fyre / And yf it happed that the water ryght there / shold sprynge out of therthe / it sholde yssue sourdyng alle enflamed and alle boylyng as it were on a fyre / But fro as ferre as his cours renneth fro thens so moche wexeth it lasse hoot and lasse bren­nyng / and it may renne so longe & so ferre / that in thende it becometh agayn alle colde / ffor ther is nothyng so hoot but that it koleth / sauf only the fyre of helle whiche con­tynuelly brenneth / and shal brenne without ende / wythin [Page] therthe is plente of other places whiche ben ful of fowle bestes & venymous / in suche wyse that the water that ren­neth therby is alle enfected and sourdeth in somme places on therthe / but who that drynketh therof secheth his deth /

Of dyuerse fontaynes and welles that sourde on therthe / capitulo ¶xxjo

THer ben plente of fontaynes in other places that moche ofte chaunge their colour / and other of whom come myracles / but it is not wel knowen wherof this pro­cedeth / In the londe of Samarye is a wel that chaungeth and differenceth his colour four tymes in the yere / hit is first grene / and after it chaungeth in to Sangwynne and after it becometh trowble / and after alle this it be­cometh clere. nette. and right fyne / in suche wyse that men delyte them in beholdyng of it / but no persone dar drynke of it / In this partye is yet another fontayne whiche spryngeth thre or four dayes the weke good and hol­somme / And the other thre dayes it spryngeth not / but is alle drye / Ther is also a grete Ryuer that renneth sixe dayes duryng in the weke / And on the sabotte daye it renneth not / ffor assone as the sabbotte day approcheth / he rebouteth and goth in to therthe agayn / By Acres the Cyte is founden a maner of sande / and there is founden also of the glayre of the see / whiche ben medled to gydre / And of thyse two myxtyons is made good glasse and clere / In Egypte is the rede see / where the chyldren of Israhel passed ouer drye foote [Page] for to come in to the londe of byheste / This see taketh his name of therthe / ffor therthe is alle rede in the bottom & on the sydes in suche wyse that the water of this see se­meth all reed / In Perse is a ryuer longe & brood whiche in the nyght is so hard frozen / that peple may goo ouer a­foot and trauerse it / And on daye tyme it is cleer and rennyng / Ther is in Espyre a welle of whiche the nature is moche meruayllous the whiche quencheth brondes of fyre all brennyng / and after it setteth them a fyre agayn In ethiope is another whiche by nyght hath so grete hete that no creature may thenne drynke therof / And all the daye it is so colde that it is frorn alle harde / In lorayne nygh̄ vnto metz the cyte is a water that renneth there / the whiche is soden in grete payelles of copper / and it be­cometh salt fayr and good / And this water furnyssheeth all the contre of salt / And this water sourdeth of a [...]itte whiche is called the pytte of dauyd / In this contre ben other fontaynes that ben so hoot that it brenneth all that it toucheth / In the same place sourde and sprynge other that ben as colde as yce / There been baynes wel attemprid and medlid with colde water and hoot / And they that bayne them in thise baynes / their scabbes and soores beco­me all hool / yet ther be of other fontaynes right black / whiche ben holden right holsom / and peple drynke of them in stede of medecynes / and they make oftymes grete pur­gacions / and gretter than of a medycyne or a laxatyf / Another fontayne ther is toward the Oryent wherof is made fyre grekyssh with other myxtyons that is put therto the whiche fyre whan it is taken and light is so hoot / that [Page] it can not be quenchid with water / but with aysel. vryne. or with sonde only / the sarasyns selle this water right dere and derrer than they doo good wyne / Other fontaynes sourde in many other places that hele sore eyen and many soores and woundes / Other fontaynes ther be that rendre to a man his mynde and memorye / Other make men to forgete Other that refrayne peple fro lecherye Other that meue them therto / Other ther be that make wymmen to conceyue and bere children / And other that make them bareyne. and may bere none / Ther ben somme ryuers that make sheep black / and other that make them whyte as the lylye / On that other syde ther ben many pondes or stagnes in whiche may nothyng swymme man ne hoūde ne other beeste but anon it synketh doun to the bottom / Ther ben other in whiche nothing may synke / but conty­nuelly flote aboue / Ther ben yet other fontaynes hoot / that blynde the theues whan they forswere them of the trespaas that they haue commysed touchyng their thefte / And yf they be charged & born wrongly on honde without reson and thenne drynke of this water / certaynly they shal haue better sight than to fore / Of all thise thynges can noman rendre the reson / but that we ought to vnder­stonde that alle this procedeth by myracle / yet ben ther other fontaynes whiche ben stylle and clere / whiche that whan men pleye ouer them with harpe or other instrumen­tis that resowne in maner of consolacion by their sowne / the water of those wellis sprynge vp with grete bobles & sprynge ouer in the waye / Other fontaynes ben in other places whiche ben right peryllous / but for this present [Page] we shal reste herwith all / ffor to telle of this that cometh by the waters / whiche holde their-cours within therthe and also aboue / of whiche it happeth other while so grete a qua­uyng that the erthe meueth so strongly / that it behoueth to falle all that whiche is theron / thaugh it were a massy­ue tour /

Wherfor and how the erthe quaueth & trembleth. ca. xxijo

NOw vnderstande ye thenne / what it is of the me [...]uyng of the erthe / and how the erthe quaueth and shaketh that somme peple calle an erthe quaue / by cause they fele therthe meue and quaue vnder their feet / And oftymes it quaueth so terrybly and meueth that somtyme Cytees ben sonken in to therthe that neuer after be scen / And this cometh of the grete waters that come within therthe / so that by the puttyng out of the grete floodes & waters growe somme tyme cauernes vnder therthe / And the ayer that is shette fast within / the whiche is enclosed in grete distresse / yf therthe be there feble so that it may not reteyne it all within / thenne is it constrayned to opene & cleue / ffor the ayer enforceth to yssue out / wherof it happeth ofte that townes cytees and castellys ben sonken doun in to the abisme / And yf therthe be of suche force & strengthe that it openeth not ne cleueth by the shouyng or heuyng of the wyndes that ben within / Thenne therthe meueth & quaueth so meruayllously / that the grete walles and hye towres that ben theron falle doun so sodenly in therthe that it destroyeth & sleeth the peple that ben therin whiche [Page] ben not aduysed ne pourueyed of suche daungers / whiche is a grete sorow for the pour peple that dwelle where suche meschief happeth / whan they be not aduertysed at what ty­me suche tempeste shal come for teschewe it / but wyse men that doubte for to deye arme them and make them redy ayenst the deth / and gyue alle diligence for to seche to ha­ue accordaunce vnto the souerayn iuge / of their synnes & defaultes after their lawe and byleue that they haue / as they that haue none houre ne space to lyue where as they ben hool and weel at case / thus the water and the wynde maken the right meuyng and quauyng by whiche the erthe cleueth and quaueth /

How the water of the see becometh salt / capitulo xxiijo

NOw I wyll recounte and telle to yow how the wa­ter of the see becometh salt / whiche is so bittre that no persone may drynke ne the beestis in lyke wyse / hit co­meth by the sonne on hye / ffor it maketh so grete hete in somme place / that the see is chauffed so strongly that therthe whiche is vnder draweth to hym a moysture bit­tre / whiche taketh away all his sauour / ffor in the see ben right grete and hye montaynes / and depe valeyes whiche ben ful of bitternesses greuous and infected / And the erthe whiche is in the bottom of thise valeyes scumeth for the heete of the sonne vpward / whiche medleth with the water in the depe in suche wyse that it draweth the saltnes vp by the hete of the sonne / so longe til it be medlyd with that other / And thus is the water of the see salt with that [Page] other Thenne we shall here fynysshe to speke ony more of the watres fressh or salt / And shall recounte to you of the Ayer whiche is one of the iiij Elementis and of his propretees /

Here foloweth of the Ayer and of his nature. ca. xxiiijo

THe Ayer is sette aboue the water / and is moche more subtyl than the water or the erthe / and enuy­ronneth therthe on alle parties / and domyneth also hye as the clowdes mounte / This Ayer whiche enuyronneth vs on alle sydes is moche thycke / But we lyue therby / in li­ke wyse as the fysshe lyueth by the water / whiche he d [...]a­weth in / and after casteth it out agayn / In suche maner the ayer prouffyteth to vs / ffor we drawe it in / and after we put it out / and thus it holdeth the lyf within the body ffor a man shold sonner deye without Ayer / than a fysshe shold doo without water / to whom alleway the lyf is sone fynysshyd whan it is out of the water / Thayer maynte­neth in vs the lyf / by the moysture that is in hym / And by the thycknes that is in hym he susteyneth the byrdes fleeyng that so playe with their wynges and meue them so moche al aboute therin that they disporte them ledyng their Ioye therin and their deduyt / Thus goon the birdes by thayer fleyng. syngyng and preysyng their maker & creatour / lyke as the fysshes that goon swymmyng in the water / and ye may apperceyue in this maner / take a rodde and meue it in thayer / and yf ye meue it fast and roydly it shal bowe anon / And yf it fonde not thayer thycke / it [Page] shold not bowe ne ploye / but shold holde hym straight and right / how faste someuer ye meued it / Of this Ayer the euyl esperites take their habyte and their bodyes / whiche in somtyme put them in the semblaunce of sōme thinges as whan they may appere in som place for to deceyue som persone man or woman / or for to make them to yssue out of their mynde / wherof they haue somtyme the myght / Or whan by the arte of nygromancye he putteth hym in sōme semblaunce or in suche a fygure as he wille / But this is a scyence that who that geuyth hym therto to do euyl / hit gyueth hym the deth / ffor yf he taketh not hede therof / he shal be dampned body & sowle / But we shal enquyre here after / what cometh fro thayer in to therthe /

How the clowdes and rayn come comynly. ca. ¶xxvo

NOw we shal speke of the clowdes for to knowe what it is and of the Rayne also / The sonne is the foundement of all hete and of alle tyme / all in suche wise / as the herte of a man is the foundement by his va­lour that is in hym of all natural hete / ffor by hym he hath lyf / and all lyueth by hym that groweth on therthe as it pleseth to our lorde / as here after shal be declared / yf ye wyl here and wel reteyne the mater and substaūce of this present booke / ffor the sonne maketh the clowdes to mounte on hye / and after it maketh the Rayne and to auale doun / And I shal shewe to yow how it is doon & shortly / by his force / And vnderstande ye in what mane­re / whan the sonne spredeth his rayes vpon therthe & vpon [Page] the mareys / he dreyeth them strongly / And draweth vp the moisture whiche he enhaunseth on hye / But this is a moisture subtyl whiche appereth but lytyl and is na­med vapour / and it mounteth vnto the myddle of thayer and there it assembleth and cometh to gydre and abydeth there / And lytil & lytil it encreceth that it cometh thycke and derke in suche wise that it taketh fro vs the sight of the sonne / And this thynge is the clowde / But it hath not so moche obscur [...]te that it taketh fro vs the clernes of the day / And whan it groweth ouer thycke it becometh water whiche falleth on the erthe / and the clowde abydeth whyte / thenne shyneth the sonne / whiche is on hye thurgh the clowde / yf it be not ouer black / lyke as thurgh a glas­se / And also lyke a candel within a laterne / whiche gy­ueth vs lyght without forth / and yet we see not the can­del / thus shyneth the sonne thurgh the clowde whiche is vnder hym and rendreth to vs the clerenesse of the day / as longe as he maketh his tourne aboue therthe / And the clowde that alwaye so longe abydeth and taketh more moisture / so longe after / that it becometh black & moyste / thenne yssueth out the water whiche cometh to therthe / & thus groweth the rayne / And whan it is alle fallen to therthe / & the grete moisture is staunched the clowde hath lost his broun colour that he byfore helde and the derknesse of whiche she empesshid the day / Thenne apperith the clou­de clere and whyte whiche thenne is lyght and monuteth on hye somoche that in thende she faylleth and is deffeted by the hete of the sonne on hye whiche all dreyeth vp / Thenne thayer wexeth agayn pure & clere / and the heuen [Page] as blew as Azure / Of therthe groweth the rayn and the clowdes also / as of a cloth that is we [...]t / and shold be dreyd by the fyre / thenne yssueth therof a moisture like a smoke or fumee and goth vpward / who thenne helde his hande ouer this fumee / he sholde fele a vapour whiche sholde ma­ke his honde moyst and weet / yf it dured longe he sholde appertly knowe that his hande were alle weet / and that water shold droppe and falle therof / And thus I saye to yow that in this maner growe ofte the clowdes & raynes And our lord god multeplieth wel them whan it pleseth̄ hym for to make the seedes and fruytes growe that ben on therthe /

Of ffrostes and snowes / capitulo ¶xxvjo

THe grete snowes & the grete frostes comen by the grete coldes of thayer whiche is colde in the myd­dle more than it is on ony other parte / like as ye may see of the montaynes whiche ben in hye place / lyke as the montaynes of sauoye. of pyemont. or in wales / and in thise other montaynes / where ther is of custome more snowe / than is in places that ben in playn grounde / Alle this cometh of the coldnes of thayer / whiche hath lasse hete aboue / than bynethe / by cause it is more subtyl / than that whiche is bynethe / And whan the more subtyl is on hye / so moche reteyneth he lasse of hete / But the more that thayer is thycke somoche more it chauffeth / and the son­ner where the sonne may come / Of whiche cometh that yron and steel wepe more hoot by the sonne than doth the [Page] stone / ffor of so moche as the thynge is more hard and of more thyck mater / so moche taketh it the fyre more aspre­ly & sonner than they that ben of lasse force / Thus saye I to yow of thayer that is aboue on hye / whiche is more colde than this is bynethe / ffor as moche as it is not so thycke as that is whiche is nygh̄e therthe / And for the wynde that ofte groweth / whiche maketh it ofte to be in meuyng / ffor the water that renneth faste eschauffeth lass [...] than that doth that holdeth hym stylle / So doth thayer whiche is on hye / And therby groweth the colde that fre­seth this moisture anon as it is goon vp on hye / And falleth doun agayn y frorn /

Of haylle and of tempestes capitulo ¶xxvijo

BY this manere comē in the somer the grete haylles and the grete tempestes / ffor in thayer they growe / wherof oftyme cometh grete colde / so that the moisture that is in thayer brought vp / is drawen to be froen / and it is in thayer assembled and amassed / ffor the hete that cha­ceth after it / And the sonne causeth it to lose and to falle on therthe / But it falleth not so grete to the grounde as it is frorn aboue on hye / ffor it cometh doun brekyng and amenuysyng in the fallyng / And this is the tempeste whiche falleth ofte in the somer / the whiche is greuous & ennoyous to many thynges /

Of lyghtnynges and of thonders capitulo ¶xxviijo

[Page]IN thayer happen many thinges / of whiche the peple speke not gladly / ffor they retche not moche of su­che thinges of whiche they can not wel come to the know­leche / This that maketh therthe to quaue / and this that maketh the clowdes to thondre / that whiche maketh the erthe to opene / and this that maketh the clowdes to spar­kle and lyghtne whan the thondre is herde / ffor thondres and lyghtnynges ben deboutemens and brekyng out of wyndes that mete aboue the clowdes so asprely & sharply / that in their comyng groweth ofte a grete fyre in thayr / and this thondre that falleth in many places whiche the wyndes constrayne so terrybly that the clowdes cleue and breke and maketh to thondre and lyghtne and falleth doun in so grete rage by the wynde that destrayneth it so asprely that it confoundeth alle that it atteyneth in suche wyse that nothyng endureth ayenst it / And it is of so heuy nature that somtyme it perseth therthe vnto the myd­dle / And somtyme it quencheth er it cometh to the groūde after that it is of poyse / and that is not of ouer stronge nature / ffor whan the clowde is moche derke & thycke / and that ther is grete plente of water / the fyre passeth not so soone / but it is quenchid in the clowde by the grete quan­tyte of the water that is therin bifore it may perse thurgh so that it may not approche therthe / but in the straynyng & brekyng that hit maketh thenne in the clowde / groweth a sowne so grete and stronge / that it is merueyllous to here I declare to you for certayn that this is the thondre / whiche is moche to be doubted and drad / In lyke wyse as of an hoot and brennyng yron that is put in a tubbe of water / [Page] therof groweth a noyse and a grete sowne / and also whan cooles ben quenchid / But the lyghtnyng of the thondre appereth and is seen er ye here the voys or sowne / ffor as moche as the sight of a man is more subtyl than the hee­rynge / lyke as men see fro ferre ouer a water betyng of clothes or smytynge of marteaulx or hamers / the strokes ben seen of them that smyte / or the so [...] be herde of the stroke / Alle in lyke wyse may I saye to yow of the thon­dre / the whiche men see to fore and er they here it / And so moche the ferther it is aboue vs / so moche the ferther is the soun of the lyghtnyng after it is seen / er the soun be herd / And the sonner after the lyghtnyng is seen & the noys herd / somoche is the thondre more nyghe vnto vs /

For to knowe how the wyndes growe and come. ca. xxixo

OF the wyndes may men enquyre reson of them that vse the sees / And the wyndes renne round aboute therthe oftymes / and entrecounte and mete in som place so asprely / that they ryse vpon heyght in suche wyse that they lyft vp thayer on hye / And thayer that is so lyft and taken fro his place / remeueth other ayer in suche facion that it retorneth as it were afterward / and gooth cryeng and [...] brayeng as water rennyng / ffor wynde is none other thyng but ayer that is meuyd so longe / tyl his force be beten doun with the stroke / Thus come ofte clowdes raynes thondres & lyghtnynges / and the thinges tofore said / Ther ben yet other resons how these werkes co­men / But thise that beste serue to knowelege and lygtly [Page] to be vnderstonde / we haue drawen out shortly / And now shal cesse of this mater for to speke of the fyre whiche is aboue the ayer on hye /

Of the fyre and of the sterres that seme to falle. ca. xxxo

YE ought to knowe that aboue thayer is the fyre / this is an ayer whiche is of moche grete resplendour and shynyng & of moche grete noblesse / and by his right grete subtylte he hath no moisture in hym / And is moche more clere than the fyre that we vse / & of more subtyl na­ture / than thayer is ayenst the water / or also the water ayenst the erthe / This ayer in whiche is no maner mois­ture / it stratch [...]th vnto the mone / And ther is seen ofte vnder this ayer somme sparkles of fyre / & seme that they were sterres of whiche men saye they be sterres / whiche goon rennyng / & that they remeue fro their places / But they be none / but it is a maner of fyre that groweth in thayer of somme drye vapour / whiche hath no moisture within it / whiche is of therthe & therof groweth by the sōne whiche draweth it vpon hye / & whan it is ouer hye / it falleth & is sette a fyre like as a candel brennyng as vs semeth / & af­ter falleth in thayer moyste and there is quenchid by the moistnes of thayer / And whan it is grete & the ayer drye it cometh al brēnyng vnto therthe / wherof it happeth ofte that they that saylle by the see or they that goon by londe haue many tymes foūden & seen them al shynyng & bren­ning falle vnto therthe / & whan they come where it is fallen they fynde none other thing but a litil asshes or like thing [Page] or like som leef of a tree roten / that were weet / Thenne ap­perceyue they wel and byleue that it is no sterre / ffor the sterres may not falle / but they muste alle in their cercle meue ordynatly & contynuelly nyght & day egally /

Of the pure Ayer and how the seuen planetes ben sette / capitulo ¶xxxjo

THe pure ayer is aboue the fyre / whiche pourpriseth and taketh his place vnto the heuen / In this ayer is no obscurte ne derknes / ffor it was made of clene purete it resplendissheth & shyneth so clerly that it may to nothing be compared / in this ayer ben vij sterres whiche make their cours al aboute therthe / the whiche be moche clene & clere & be named ye vij planetes / of whome that one is sette aboue


that other / and in suche wyse ordey­ned that ther is more space fro that one to that other / than ther is fro the erthe to the mone / whiche is ferther fyften ty­mes than al the the erthe is grete / & euerich renneth by myracle on the firmament and [Page] maketh his cercle that one grete and that other lytil af­ter that it is and sitteth more lowe / ffor of somoche that it maketh his cours more nyghe therthe / so moche is it more short / and sonner hath perfourmed his cours / than that whiche is ferthest / that is to saye that who that made a poynt in a walle / & with a compaas made dyuerse cercles aboute / alway that one more large than another / That whiche shold be next the poyn [...] shold be leste of the other / and lasse shold be his cours / ffor he shold sonner haue don his cours than the grettest / so that they wente both egally as ye may see by this figure to fore /

THus may ye vnderstande of the vij planetes of whiche I haue spoken that that one is vnder that other / in suche wise that she that is lowest of alle the other is leest of alle & that is the mone / But by cause that it is next to therthe / it semeth grettest & most apparaunt of alle the other / & for thapprochement of therthe / & by cause it goth so nygh / it hath no pure cler [...]nes that cometh of hym self proprely / by cause therthe is so obscure / But the clernes & lyght that it rendreth to vs / she taketh alway of the sonne / lyke as shold a myrrour whan the rayes of the sōne smyteth therin / & of the reflexion ye myrrour smyteth on the walle & shyneth theron as longe as the rayes of the sonne endure in the glasse / in lyke maner sheweth & lygh­teth to vs the lyght of the mone / & in the mone is a body polysshyd and fair lyke a pommell right wel burnysshed / whiche reflaumbeth and rendrith lyght & clerenes whan the rayes of the sonne smyteth therin / The lytil clowdes [Page] or derkenes that is seen therin / sōme saye that it is therthe that appereth within / And that whiche is water appereth whyte / lyke as ayenst a myrrour whiche receyueth dyuer­se colours / whan she is torned therto / Other thinke other­wyse and saye that hit happed and byfelle whan Adam was deceyued by thapple that he ete / whiche gr [...]u [...]d alle humayne lignage / And that thenne the m [...]ne was em­pesshed and his clerenesse lassed and mynuysshid / Of thi­se vij sterres or planetes that ben there and ma [...] their cours on the firmamēt of whom we haue here to fore spo­ken / ffirst were no moo knowen but the tweyne / that is to wete the sonne and the mone / the other were not kno­wen but by Astronomye / Neuertheles yet shal I name them for as we haue spoken of them to yow / Of thyse ther ben tweyne aboue the mone and byneth the sonne / and that one aboue that other of whom / eche hath on therth propre vertues / And they be named Mercurie and Venus / Thenne aboue the mone & thise tweyne / is the sonne / whiche is so clere fayr & pure / that it rendreth lyght & clerenesse vnto alle the world / and the sonne is sette so hye aboue / that his cercle is gretter & more spa [...]youse than the cercle of the mone / whiche maketh his cours in xxx dayes / xij sithes somoche / ffor the sōne whiche gooth more ferther fro the erthe / than ye mone maketh his cours / hath CCC lxv dayes / this is xij tymes somoche & more ouer as the calender enseigneth / & yet more the fourth part of a day / that be vj houres / but for this that ye yere hath dyusly his begynnyng / that one begynneth on ye daye / & another on the nyght / whiche is grete ennoye to moche peple / this [Page] fourth part of a day is sette by cause alleway in four yere is a daye consumed / whiche is aboue in that space / the which yere is named bysexte or lepe yere / whiche in iiij yere fal­leth ones / and so is sette fro four yere to four yere alway more a daye / And thenne is the sonne comen agayn in his first poynt / And that is in myd marche / whan the newe tyme recomenceth / And that alle thynges drawe to loue by the vertue of the retorne of the Sonne / ffor in this season had the world first his begynnyng / and ther­fore thenne alle thinge reneweth and cometh in verdure by right nature / of the tyme and none otherwyse / Aboue the sonne ther be thre sterres clere and shynyng / and one aboue another / That is to wete Mars Iupiter and Sa­turnus / Saturne is hyest of the seuen whiche hath in his


cours xxx yere er he hath alle goon his cerkle / & thyse iij sterres reteyne theyr vertues in thynges here by­nethe / & ye may see yf ye beholde this figure how they be in ordre eche aboue other / whiche figu­re sheweth it well /

How the vij pla­netes gyue the names to the vij dayes capitulo ¶xxxijo

[Page]THise seuen planetes ben suche that they haue power on thynges that growe on therthe / and habounde their vertues more than alle the other that ben on the fir­mament / and more appertly werke / lyke as thauncyent sage philosophres haue enserched by their wittes / of thise seuen planetes taken the dayes of the weke their names / as ye shall here / The mone hath the monday / And mars the tewsday / Mercurye the wednesday / Iupiter the thurs­day / Venus the vryday / Saturnus the saterday / And the holy sonday hath his name of the Sonne / whiche is the most fair / And therfor the sonday is better than ony of the other dayes of the weke / ffor this day is sette and re­seruyd from alle payne & labour / And on this day shold men doo thyng that shold playse our lord / But syth in this chapytre we haue touched of the firmament / we shal speke after of somme caas that come on the heuen and therthe▪ / The sonday is as moche to saye as the daye of pees and of praysynge / ffor the creatour of alle thynges cessed this day / the whiche made and created all /

Of the meuyng and gooyng aboute of the ffyrmament and of the sterres that ben therin capitulo ¶xxxiijo

ABoue saturne whiche is the last planest / & hyest from vs of alle the vij planetes is the heuen that men see so full of sterres as it were sowen / whan it is clere tyme and weder / This heuen that is so sterred is the fir­mament / whiche meueth and goth round / of whiche me­uyng is so grete Ioye / so grete melodye and so swete / that [Page] ther is noman that yf he myght here it / that neuer after shold haue talente ne wylle to do thynge that were con­trarye vnto our lord in ony thynge that myght be / so moche shold he desyre to come theder / where he myght alle­way here so swete melodyes & be alway wyth them / wherof somme were somtyme that sayde that lytil yonge chyl­dren herde this melodye whan they lawghed in their slepe / ffor it is sayde that thenne they here the Angels of our lord in heuen synge wherof they haue suche Ioye in their slepe / But herof knoweth noman the trouthe sauf god that knoweth all / whiche setted the sterres on the heuen and made them to haue suche power / ffor ther is nothynge withyn the erthe ne withyn the see. how dyuerse it be / but it is on the heuen fygured and compassed by the sterres / of whiche none knoweth the nombre sauf god only /


whyche at hys [...] playsir nombreth them & knoweth the name of eue­riche of them as he that alle kno­weth & alle crea­ted by good rea­son / at the regard of the sterres that may be seen / they may be wel nom­bred & enquyred by Astronomye / [Page] but it is a moche maistryse / ffor ther ne is sterreso lytil / but that it hath in hym hole his vertue / in herbe / in flour / or in fruyt be it in facion / in colour or otherwyse / Ther is nothing in erthe that ought to be / ne therin hath growyng but somme sterre hath strengthe and puissaunce by na­ture / is it good or otherwyse suche as god hath gyuen to it / And for the firmamēt and for the planetes take this fygure to fore an that other syde / and ye shal see therin the sytuacion of them /

BVt syth we haue descriued and spoken of the fir­mament in this second partye of this volume / we shal speke of somme caases that come and happen on hye and also lowe / And shal speke of the mesure of the fir­mament / ffor to vnderstande the better the facion and how it is made and proporcioned / and of that whiche is aboue And also we shal speke of heuen /

¶Thus ffynyssheth the seconde partye of this present volume /

Here begynneth the thirde parte of this present volume And declareth first how the day and the nyght come ca­pitulo p o

IN this thirde and last partye of this present booke we shal fynysshe it wyth spekynge of the faites of astronomye / And I wyl declare to you first / thw the daye cometh and the nyght and for to make you vnderstande [Page] of the Eclipses / And also for to vnderstande other thin­ges / the whiche may moche prouffyte to them that wylle doo payne to knowe them / ffor to gouerne them the better after the disposicion of the tyme /

Here declareth how the daye and nyght comen

TRouthe it is that the Sonne maketh h̄is torne & cours aboute therthe in the daye and nyght and gooth egally euery houre / And also longe as he abydeth aboue therthe / so longe haue we the deduyt of the day / & whan he is vnder therthe / thenne haue we the nyght / lyke as ye went tornyng abrennyng candell aboute your heed or as ye shold bere it a lytil ferther of / Round aboute an apple / And that the candel were alway brennyng / thenne the partye that were alway ayenst the candel shold alle­way be l [...]ght / And that other partye that is ferthest fro it shold be obscure and derke / Thus in lyke wise doth the sonne by his propre nature for to be / day and nyght aboute therthe / he maketh the day to growe byfore hym / And on that other parte the erthe is vmbreuse & derke by hynde hym and where as he may not shyne / And this is the shadowe of the nyght whiche the deduyt of the day taketh away from vs / but for as moche as the sonne is moche gretter that therthe / the shadowe goth lytil and lytil tyl at thende it cometh to nought / lyke the sown of a clocke endureth after the stroke / But yf the sonne and therthe were of one lyke gretenesse / this shadowe shold haue none ende / but shold be all egal without declynyng / And yf [Page] therthe we­re


gretter than the sōne / then­ne the sha­dowe of ye sōne shold goo enlargyng and be more / as ye may see ye four­me by thi­se thre fy­gures fo­lowyng / & also ye may preue it otherwi­se without fygures / Take sō ­me derke thing that may retei­ne lyght within it / as of tree. or of stone or other thynge what it be that may be seen thurgh / thenne sette that to fore your eyen / ayenst [Page] that thing that ye wold see is it the heuen or erthe or ony other thynge / yf that thyng that ye holde is more bredder and larger than your two eyen be a sondre / it shal take away the syght ayenst that whiche is no bredder / And yf the thynge be alle egale in lengthe as moche as ye may stratche your two eyen / as moche shal it be taken fro you as the thinge shal haue of gretnes / as ye may see by this figure bynethe an that other syde / And yf the thinge haue lasse of gretnes than the lengthe is bytwene your bothe eyen / it shal take fro you lasse for to see / as wel ny­ghe as ferre / that it is of largenes of that whiche ye wold see / And whan ye put the thynge ferther fro your eyen / so moche the more may ye see of that other part ouer and aboue you / so that ye may se all / In lyke wyse is it of the sonne withoute ony doubtaunce or variacion / ffor it passeth therthe in gretnesse so that it seeth the heuen al aboute the sterres and all that is on the firmament.

Why the sterres ben not seen by day as wel as by nyght capitulo ¶ijo

THe sterres of the firmament on whiche the sonne rendreth clernes make contynuelly nyght and day their tornyng & cours wyth̄ the firmament round aboute aboue as bynethe / But them that ben ouer vs we may not see by daye / ffor the sonne. by hys grete clernes and lyght taketh from vs the sight of them / In lyke wyse as ye shold do of candellis that were ferre brennyng from yow / And yf ther were a grete fyre brennyng [Page] bytwene you and the candellis / and had grete flawme & lyght / it shold take away fro you your sight that ye shold not see the candellis / And yf the fyre were take away & put byhynde yow / ye shold incontynent see the candellis to fore you brennyng / Thus in lyke wyse I saye yow of the sterres that may not be seen by daye / as longe as the sonne maketh his torne and cours aboue therthe / And whan the sonne is vnder therthe the sterres ben seen by vs / But tho sterres that ben ouer vs in the somer on the day tyme / in wynter they be ouer vs in ye nyght / & they that be vnder vs in the wynter be ouer vs in ye somer / ffor tho sterres that we see in the somer by nyght we may not see them on the day / ffor the sonne that goth round aboute vs taketh fro tho sterres their clernes that ben on ye day tyme where the sonne is vnto the tyme that he draweth hym vnder / but alle they be lyght what someuer part they torne as wel by day as by nyght / as longe as the sonne goth aboute hye and lowe shynyng sauf the whiche ben hyd by therthe fro vs / ffor as longe at the shadowe may comprise it / the sonn [...] may gyue them no lyght / that ye may vnderstande by the figure / thus the shadowe discrea­ceth by the sonne whiche is moche gretter than therthe / and fynysheth in lassyng / And it endureth ferther fro therthe / than the mone is hye / but it faylleth aboue the mone /

Wherfor the sonne is not seen by nyght as it is by day capitulo ¶iijo

THe erthe is suche / that she deffendeth the day whiche the sonne gyueth vs / yf therthe were so clere that [Page] men myght see thurgh̄ / thenne myght the sonne be seen contynuelly as wel vnder therthe as aboue / But it is so obscure and derke / that it taketh away the sight fro vs And it maketh the shadowe to goo alle alway tornyng after the sōne


whiche maketh as many tor­nynges aboute therthe as the sōne doth / whi­che alleway is ayenst it / ffor whan the sonne ariseth in the mornyng in theest / the sha­dowe is in the weest / & whan it is right ouer & aboue vs at mydday / thēne is therthe sha­dowed vnder her And whan the sōne goth doun in the west / the shadowe of it is in the eest / and thēne whan the [Page] sonne is vnder / we haue thenne the shadowe ouer vs / whiche goth drawyng to the west / so longe til the sonne ariseth and shyneth & rendrith to vs the day / And this may ye see by thise two figures to fore an that other syde /

How the mone receyueth dyuersly her lyght and clere­nesse capitulo ¶iiijo

SYth that ye haue vnderstond what it is of the daye and of the nyght / wille ye thenne after see the fait of the mone / And how she receyuyth lyght of the sonne / She receyueth lyght in suche maner that she is contynu­elly half full in what someuer place she be / And whan we see her round / thenne we calle her full / But how moche the ferther she is fro the sonne so moche the more we see of her apparayl / and whan she is right vnder the sonne / Thenne she apperithe not to vs / ffor thenne she is bytwene ther / the and the sonne & thenne she shyneth toward the sonne and toward vs she is alle derke / And therfore we see her not / But whan she is passed the poynt and is remeuid fro the sonne / thenne begynneth her cl [...]renesse to appere to vs as she were horned / and so moche as she withdraweth her fro the sonne somoche more apperith she shynyng / and thenne whan she apperith to be half ful of lyght / thenne hath she gon a quarter of her cercle / whiche is the fourthe parte of her torne and cours that she goeth euery moneth and thus alleway her clernesse encreacyng and growyng she goth til she be alle rounde fayre and clere in semblaū ­ce of a rolle / and that we calle the ful mone / Thenne is [Page] she right vnder the sonne as she may be right ayenst the sight in suche wyse that alle her lyght is torned toward vs / Thenne is therthe bytwene the sonne & the mone / so that we may not see them bothe vpon therthe / but right li­til / but one of them may be seen / ffor whan that one goth doun in the west / that other ariseth in the eest / & soo at euen or morn may bothe be seen but not longe / ffor that one goth vnder therthe & that other cometh aboue / Thenne the mone whiche hath ben opposite of the sonne & hath goon half her cours thēne she goth on that other side approchyng the sonne / & begynneth to lasse her light & mynusshe it til it be but half agayn / & thenne hath she gon thre quarters of her cercle / & is thenne as nygh̄ the sonne on that syde / as she was at the first quarter on that other syde / & so ap­procheth ner & ner til she appere horned as to fore / & thus


she goth til she be al failled that we may see nomore thēne of her / ffor thēne is she vn­der the sōne as ye may see by thys present fygure / & I saye nomore herof / but that she is thēne bytwene ye sonne & therthe

How the eclipses of the mone happen / capitulo ¶vo

IT happeth ofte tymes that the mone muste nedes lose her lyght / And that happeth whan she apperith most full / And she becometh as vanysshed away / and der­keth lytil and lytil / til she be all faylled / ye haue herd here to fore how the mone taketh lyght of the sonne / that al­leway she hath half her lyght hole / But whan it is so that she is in eclipse / thenne hath she no lyght in noo parte / And this happeth neuer but whan she is torned right so that the sonne gyueth her ful lyght / ffor the mone goth not alway so right at doth the Sonne / ffor somtyme she passeth in her cours by suche away that therthe shadoweth her all / ffor therthe is gretter than the mone is / & therfore whan therthe is iuste bytwene the sonne and the mone / thenne she thus shadoweth her / ffor bytwene the sonne and the mone is a lygne whiche declyneth somoche to the mone by whiche the sonne smyteth his Rayes in her as longe as ther is no lettyng by therthe / ffor the more that therthe is bytwene them the more is the mone shadowed / And the lasse that it is bytwene somoche lasse is the sha­dowe / And the mone leseth the lasse of her lyght that she receyueth of the sonne / whan she is so shadowed / thus ye may vnderstonde / yf a lygne passed thurgh therthe by the poynt of the myddle of it / & stratched that one ende vnto the body of the sonne in suche wyse by right sight that it endured on that other ende vnto the mone / whiche euery moneth goth here and there / hyer and lower / yf she were so euen ayenst the sonne / thenne shold she falle euery [Page] moneth in that shadowe whiche on alle partes shold em­pesshe her lyght / whiche thenne myght not come to her for therthe in no wise / ffor the ferther she is fro the right lyg­ne / so moche hath & receyueth she the more of lyght / And whan she is so that therthe is ꝙ opposito bytwene them than loseth the mone her lyght / Thus is seen somtyme the mone in the myddle of his moneth lose his lyght & derk / whan she is most ful / And her lyght torned vnto


derkenesse whiche we calle the e­clipse of the mone / as ye may wel see and vn­derstonde by this fygu­re yf ye beholde it well /

How the Eclypse of the Sonne cometh. capo ¶vjo

IT happeth somtyme that the sonne leseth his clere­nes & the lyght in the playn daye / ffor it goth as to declyne / & is called in latyn eclipse / This eclipse procedeth bicause of defaulte of light / and it happeth in this manere [Page] that whan the mone whiche is vnder the sonne cometh right bytwene vs and the sonne / thenne in the right lygne it behoueth that toward vs the mone taketh and reteygneth the lyght of the sonne on hye / so that it semeth to vs that is defaylled / ffor the mone is not so pure that the sonne may shyne ouer her / and thurgh her as thurgh an other sterre / Alle lyke as of a candell / whiche is sette ferre fro your sight / and after ye helde your honde right to fore the candell / thenne ye shold not see nothyng therof / And the more right ye holde your hand bytwene / the more lasse shold ye see this candele / And somoche ye may sette your hand right to fore your [...]yen and so ferre / that ye shold see nothyng therof / In this maner I telle yow of the eclypse that bytwene the Sonne and the Mone is not one waye comune / but the mone goth an other waye whiche destourneth her a lytil from the Sonne / wherfore vs byhoueth to vnderstande that the mone goth oftymes whan she is bytwene vs and the Sonne som­tyme aboue and otherwhyle bynethe / here and there as she riseth and declyneth / But whan she passyth in the right lygne euen bytwene vs & the sonne / thenne taketh the mone fro vs the lyght & clernes of the sonne / in suche wyse as we may not clerly see her in that paas / ffor thenne shadoweth she therthe / and kepeth the rayes of the sonne that they may not shyne on therthe / & they that ben in this parte / haue in their sight ye shadowe behynde them But it apperith not comunely to alle men thurgh al the world / ffor the mone is not so grete nowher nygh̄ as all therthe / therfor she shadoweth not all / but only where [Page] she is in the right lygne bytwene therthe and the sonne / And thyder the philosophres were wont to goo / where as they kn [...]we it / ffor by their wyt & studye they had lerned for to approue the daye and tyme whan suche thynges shold happe / by whiche they preuyd plente of thynges / wherfore they preysed moche our lord / Thus see we here byneth the eclipse of the sonne aboue vs / whan the mone is right vnder the sonne for as moche as she is bynethe the sonne and aboue vs / And thenne the sonne passeth the right lygne and goth departyng and wythdrawyng so moche that


she appe­rith as she dyde afore / and then­ne the mo­ne departed is horned thre dayes after this Eclypse / And by this fygu­re ye may vnderston­de playnly this that ye haue herd here tofore /

Of the eclipse that [...] atte deth of our lord god ca­pitulo ¶vijo

[Page]THus as the mone taketh away fro vs the light of the sonne / So it happeth oftyme that therthe taketh away the lyght of the mone as to fore is declared / But the Eclipse of the mone may not be in no wise but whan she apperith most full / ne theclypse of the sonne may not be but whan the mone is all waned and faylled and that we calle the coniuncion / but yf god whiche may all thin­ge chaunge and deffete at is playsir make it to come or happene otherwise / lyke as it happed at suche tyme as our sauyour Ihesu cryste was on the crosse / at whiche tyme the lyght & bryghtnesse of the day faylled fro mydday vnto ye ix hour of the day / & thēne was the mone vnder therthe at the fulle as moche as she myght be / whiche thenne in no wyse myght empesshe the lyght of the sonne / & the day at that tyme was as derke and obscure as it had ben propre nyght / whiche by nature at that tyme shold haue be bryght & pure / ffor whiche cause seynt dionyse whiche at this tyme is shryned in fraūce / & thēne beyng an estudyaūt in grece a paynem like a grete clerke as he was / ffor he knewe mo­che of astronomye / whan he apperceyued this grete obscur­te & derknes / he had right grete meruaylle / & fonde by astro­nomye that this myght not be by nature ne by reson / that the eclipse of the sonne shold happe & falle in suche season / thēne saide he a derke worde in this maner / or the god of na­ture suffreth grete tormēt by wronge / or all ye world discor­deth & shal desolue & faylle / as it that muste take an ende / & thought in hym self that he was a grete god that so suffred & that he had power & myght aboue all other goddes / as he that byleuid on many goddes after his lawe / thenne this [Page] holy dionyse made an aulter in his oratorye alle aboue the other aulters & also a parte where as no persone repayred but he hym self only / by cause he wold not be reputed in mysbyleue / & whan it was made & he had seen it / he called it the aulter of the god vnknowen & worshipped & adoured hym / and helde hym for a right dere and grete god / It was not longe after this / that the holy doctour Seynt poul cam to this place where seynt dionys was / as he that knewe hym for a right grete clerke / And by commynyca­cion and prechyng of seynt poul / he was sone conuerted by the helpe of our lord whiche wrought so therin / that thenne he had very knowleche how our lord had suffred his passion / ffor they were both̄e good clerkes as is more playnly conteyned in their legendes / And thus was the noble clerke saynt dionys bycomen a good and very crys­ten man whiche all his lyf to fore had be a paynem / and he so employed his science & his tyme / fro that day forthon that it auaylled hym gretly to the helthe of his sowle / This eclipse deceyuid hym not ne this that he knewe as­tronomye / but he bycam after a man of so good and holy lyf / that he gate for his reward the blysse of heuen / ye haue herd the fayt of eclipses yf ye wyl vnderstande them well / And ye shal not fare the werse ne the lasse auaylle you / ffor to knowe it may moche prouffyte to euery persone / ffor suche demonstraūces ben signefycacōns of grete werkes & thynges that ofte after happen & falle / This fynde wel astronomyers by Astronomye / as som­tym scarcete and deffaulte of goodes / or of a grete derthe or warre / or deth of kynges or prynces / that falleth in the [Page] world / as they may enquyre and serche by their science & reson / This Eclipse that was so grete signefyed the deth of Ihesu Cryst / And it ought wel to come otherwyse for hym / than for another / ffor he was and is by right lord and kynge of alle the world / and may deffete and desolue it / and ordeyne at his good playsyr / the other eclipses co­men by nature whiche reteyne on therthe their vertues of thinges that ben to come / ffor it byhoueth alle to fynysshe and come to nought / alle that is on therthe & that shortly God made not the firmament ne the sterres for nought / whiche as sayd is goth tornyng ouer & aboue vs / And gyueth to the sterres names and vertues in heuen and in erthe / eche after his myght on alle thynges that hath growyng / ffor ther is nothyng but it hath somme power for as moche as it hath growyng / suche as it ought to haue by nature and by reson / we shal now for this present leue for to speke ony more of the eclipses / And shal re­compte and declare of the vertue of the firmament and of the sterres / ffor who so wel knewe the vertue of them / he shold knowe the trouthe of alle suche thynge that is bynethe here on therthe by reson of nature / whether the thynge were obscure and derke or not /

Of the vertue of heuen and of the sterres. ca. ¶vijjo

NOw wylle ye here of the science by the whiche men gete sapience for to knowe and enquyre the thin­ges that may happen in therthe by the werke of right na­ture whiche is figured by the world / The heuenes and the [Page] sterres ben the very instruments of nature to the world by whiche she werketh alle as god wille as wel nygh̄ as ferre / & who that coude knowe her myght / he had knowlege of alle thyng that sayd is / as wel of the sterres that ben on heuen whiche haue vertues on therthe / whiche god hath gyuen and graunted to euerich and specyally to the sonne and to the mone whiche gyue lyght vnto the world / & wythout whom nothyng lyuyng may be / ffor by them growe alle thynges that be in this world / and whiche haue ende and begynnyng / this consenteth and permyseth he that is almyghty / Alle dyuersitees that be in persones and whiche haue dyuersitees of makyng and of corsage / and alle that happeth by nature / be it in herbes / in plantes or in beestes / this happeth by the vertue celestyal whiche god gaf to the sterres / whan he first created the world / and that he sette them and endowed them wyth suche na­ture that he ordeyned them to goo round aboute the world ayenst the tornyng of the firmament / And by theyr tor­nyng and by their vertue whiche lieth in heuen / lyue alle thynges that ben vnder it / And yf it pleasyd our lord that he wold holde the heuen al stylle in suche wyse that it torned not aboute / ther is nothyng in alle the worlde / that myght meue hym / In hym shold be no vnderstondyng nomore than in a dede body / whiche feleth nothyng ne therin is no wytte ne vnderstandyng ne moeuyng as he that hath no lyf / in suche poynt shal euery thynge be whan the heuen shal leue his moeuyng / Alle thus shold they be & neuer moeue / tyl that the heuen had agayn his moeuyng And thenne shold they be otherwyse / but who that thēne [Page] myght vse his wytte & see what he shal be / moche myght he see of semblaunces and of dyuerse contenaunc [...]s in other men that myght not remeue them / ffor yf ther were no moeuyng on the heuen / ther is nothyng that myght lyue on erthe / Also god wyll that it so be / that all thyng hath establisshid by right / Thus was the wylle of god in whom all [...] vertues habounde for to fourme the worlde / ffor he made ne created neuer thynge / but that he gaf to it suche vertue as it ought to haue / Ellis he had made som­thyng for nought and without reson / but he dyde not so / ffor he neuer failled in no thinge / he made and created all the sterres and gaf to euerich his vertue / And who that wille not thus byleue / In hym is neyther memoire ne reson / ffor we see openly that the mone taketh lyght / whan we see her all full / ffor the man hath thēne neyther mem­bre ne vayne / but that it is ful / whan it is in the cours of humours and suche thinges / And in lyke wise it happeth on alle bestes / ffor they haue thenne their heedes and other membres more garnysshid of margh̄ and of humeurs / And the see also floweth and ebbeth in his cours euery moneth / wherof it happeth that they that ben nygh̄ the see / whan they knowe that the mone is ful / they wythdrawe them fro the see on hye / And saue them & theyre meyna­ge / And in this poynt they wythdrawe them and holde them in hye places vnto the tyme that the see wythdra­weth and lasseth agayn / And thus do they euery moneth But alle this happeth by the mone whiche is one of the seuen planetes / In lyke wyse is it seen of the sonne / that after the wynter whan he begynneth to mounte / he causeth [Page] the fruyt to be brought forth of therthe / and apparailleth the trees wyth leues / and alle verdure to come agayn / And the byrdes begynne agayn their songe for the swe­tenes of the new tyme / And whan he rebasshith and decly­neth / he maketh the wynter to bygynne & causeth flowres and leuys to faylle and falle so longe tyl he begynne to mounte agayn as to fore is said / Syth that thise two sterres haue suche vertues / and cause suche thynges to be don / The other whiche ben pourtrayed on the heuen / were not made to serue of nought / But to eueriche is ordeyned his vertue and his right after his nature / wherfore they make dyuersytees in thynges that ben on therthe / And the moeuynges of tyme / of whiche that one cometh soone and that other late / And the fruytes that come on therthe Somme come sone and erly / and the other late / and ben otherwhile sonner rype in one yere than in an other / and more assured of tempestes and other greuaunces / And thus chaunge in sondry maners / ffor one somer is softe and moyste / And another is drye and wyndy / Of the wynter it happeth oftymes that they chaunge / so that one is colde / rayny / and more desplaysaunt that thother / And another shal be more Ioyous & lasse damageable / Thus is seen that the one is dere of somme vitaylle or other thynges / And that other shal be plentyuous / And also it is ofte that ther is plente and good chepe in one yere / In an other yere it is had in grete chierte / & is of grete scarsete / this fallyth somtyme and ofte / Alle thise dyuer­sytes cause the sterres whiche ben on the heuen / But alle this is by the wylle of our lord / that hath sette euerich in [Page] his propre place / where he maketh naturelly his cours / and euerich dyuersly / ffor yf none other thynge had his vse in tymes sauf the sonne only wythout moo / as he that goth swyftly by the firmament euery yere / and mounteth as moche and as hye in one somer as in an another / and as moche descendeth in one wynter as in another euery day egally til that he come in to his right poynt / and Ioyneth that other after hym where he was to fore / this knowe wel Astronomyers that he gooth euery yere aboute the heuen one torne / And where he is this day / in the same place he shal be this day a yere Ther by is it knowen that yf none other had no power / thenne shold euery yere be lyk other / & euery yere alway shold be lyke as the yere to fore was / And euery moneth shold be lyke the same as eueriche shold come / that is to wyte / one Ianyuer lyke another Ianyuer / and ffeuerer lyke another feuerer / and in lyke wyse alle the other x moneths / ffor the sonne goth alle lyke in one moneth / as he shal the next yere in the same moneth / And this day shold reassemble and be lyke vnto this day a yere in alle maner thynge / that is to wete of hete / of colde / of fair wether / of rayne and of other thyn­ges euerich after their comyng all the yere duryng / Thenne sholde it falle by right nature that in all the so­mers and all the wynters that euer haue ben and shal be shold not come no dyuersytees / And all the tymes shold be lyke as they that by the Sonne shold be alway deme­ned / eschauffed and contynuelly gouerned / ffor he goth egally alway / and endeth his cours euery yere / and hol­deth his right way in one estate / as he that goth not out [Page] of his waye / Thus is he the right veyle and patrone of all the other sterres / ffor it is the most fyn of all the other by the grete clerenesse that is in hym / and in all thynges by hym / and he hath on therthe more power on thynges of whiche may be enquyred of nature reson and right than all the other sterres / yet somtyme they restrayne his hee­tes / and after they enlarge them after that they be fer or nygh̄ / as he otherwhile hath nede / lyke vnto a kynge whiche is the gretter lorde and the more myghty in hym self for his hyghnesse than ony other of his peple / neuer­theles he hath somtyme nede of them for to be holpen and seruyd of them / ffor how moche the nerrer he is to his pe­ple / so moche more is he stronge and puissaunt / And the ferther he wythdraweth fro his folke / so moche the lasse he exployteth of his werke / In lyke wyse I saye to yow of the sonne whiche is as ye may vnderstonde / the grettest / the most myghty / and the most vertuous / of whiche he hath gretter power in erthe / than ony other sterre may ha­ue / But the other haue their power euerich in his degree / But syth we haue recounted to yow the shortest wyse we may of the vertue of the firmament / we shal declare to you herafter in short how the world was mesured as wel in heyght as in depnesse / and on alle sides of lengthe and brede by them that knewe the resons of the vij scyences / Of whiche Geometrye is one / by whiche the sonne / the mone / therthe / and the firmament ben mesured as wel wythin as wythoute / how moche it is of gretenes / and how moche it is fro therthe to the firmament / and alle the gretenes of the sterres / ffor this is preuyd by right [Page] byholdyng / And they that fonde this scyence perceyuid that it myght not be knowen truly by astronomye ne the nature of the sterres withoute knowyng of their mesu­res / Therfore wolde they mesure them and preue al their gretenesse /

Wherfore and how they mesured the world. ca. ¶ixo

FYrst of alle / th̄e auncyent philosophres wolde me­sure the gretnes of the world all round aboute ther­the tofore ony other werke / by whiche they preuyd the heyght of the sterres / and the gretnes of the firmament all aboute / And they coude not fynde more greter mesure to be mesured / And whan they had mesured therthe how moche it ha [...] of largenes all aboute / And how moche it had of thycknes thorugh / they enquyred after of the mone by cause it was leste hye fro therthe & most nyhest therto / And after they enquyred of the sonne how ferre it was fro therthe / And how moche the body therof had of gretnes / And they fonde it moche more than all ther­the was / And whan they had mesured thise thre thynges the Sonne / the Mone / and therthe / They myght lightly after enquyre of the other sterres / how moche euerich is nygh̄ or ferre / And the gretenes of euerich / Of whiche they fonde none / but his body were of more gretenes than alle therthe is / excepte only thre of the planetes without more / whiche ben Venus. Mercurye. & the Mone / whiche is the thirde / and euery man may enquyre this / yf he kno­we the scyence of geometrye & the scyence of Astronomye [Page] with all / ffor that muste he knowe first to fore he may fynde and knowe the trouthe / But for as moche as alle be not good clerkis ne maistres of astronomye that may proue this / we wil recounte here after how moche the erthe is longe / And how thycke it is thurgh̄ / And also how moche the mone is aboue therthe / And the sonne also whiche is aboue the mone / And how moche eche of them hath of gretenes lyke as the kynge tholomeus hath pre­ued / and also we shal speke after that of the sterres and of the firmament / Of alle this we shal saye to you / but first to fore all I shal recounte to yow of the faytes and dedes of the kynge tholomeus / whiche knewe so many demonstraunces of apparicions / and somoche loued astro­nomye that he wolde serche alle thyse thynges / And we shal saye to you of somme thynges / whiche ben not con­trarye to yow / yf ye wyl wel vnderstande & reteyne them by whiche ye may lerne som good / And thenne after we shal mesure to you the world the best wyse we may / Now entende ye of the kynge tholomeus / and of the werkes of somme other philosophres for youre owne prouffyt /

Of the kynge Thol [...]meus and of somme other philoso­phres capitulo ¶xo

THolomeus was a kynge moche subtil in Astrono­mye / This tholomeus was kynge of egipte whiche helde the contree longe tyme / Ther were somtyme many kynges that were named Tholomeus / But emonge the other this was he that knewe most of Astronomye and [Page] that most enserched of the sterres / and more vnderstode of them than the other / of whiche he composed and made plente of right fair volumes and bookes / And many dy­uerse instrumentes by whiche was founde appertly all the gretenes of therthe / and the heyght of the firmament / And how the sterres make their cours bothe by nyght & by daye / By hym were founden first the oryloges of the chirches whiche begynne the houres of the dayes & of the nyghtes / The dayes passe fast on wherfor the chirches ha­ue grete nede to haue good oryloges / ffor to doo therby al­way the seruyse of our lord at hour competent and due as wel by day as by nyght / ffor god loueth moche for to be adoured and seruyd entierly and ordynatly euery day / ffor the Orysons that ben sayd and recyted euery day in the chirches playse more to our lord / than do they that ben said in many other places / And therfor the oryloges ben necessarye in euery chirche / And men serue god the better in due tyme and fare the better / and lyue the lenger / ffor yf they ruled soo them self to praye at a certayn hour / And at an other hour in lyke wise to ete / and other thin­ges in his right hour / it shold be a lyght thynge to doo and plese god / yf men wold applye them as wel to suche thynges / as they doo to doo that whiche confoundeth and sleeth them / that is to wete that they be all enclyned to conquere the richesses / of whiche they cesse not nyght ne daye / And wenen to prolonge their lyf therby / But they amasse and gete grete tresours / and pourchasse their deth / ffor by the grete goodes that they assemble on alle sides / they put them in suche thought and payne / that they lese [Page] ofte their wytte & vnderstandyng / and also their mynde so that they may not enclyne and thynke on thoo werkes that towche their saluacion as they ought to doo / and by suche werkes shold they be in more ease and lyue lenger / and plese better our lord / And shold also haue more hel­the of body and of sowle / but they loue somoche the wyn­nyng of the goodes of the world / that they leue that whiche shold more auayle and prouffyte them / I wote ne­uer wherfore they gete this hauoir and good / ffor they lo­se therby the ease of the worlde / by cause whan they wene to sette them in ease and to be in pees / thenne cometh deth and maketh them to dye with right grete sorowe / ffor the grete couetyse of the good and the payne that they haue made alleway to gete it without ordynaunce and mesure hath moche the more hastelyer brought them to their deth / And so ben many men deed / that yf they had ordeyned their affaires and besynesse as they ought to do at euery hour competently and by ordre / whiche yet had ben a lyue and in good helthe / And lo thus ye may see how they abregge their dayes and auaunce their deth / ffor atte lon­ge / Nature may not suffre dyuse mayntenes vnresonable ne the sodeyn agrauacions ne griefs / of whiche by theyr folyes they trauaylle nature / and it displesyth moche vnto god / And also no good may come therof / But gladlyer and wyth better wylle they traueylle and more dyligently for to wynne and gete the worldly goodes / than the loue of god / And neuer do they thynge by ordre / One day goon they erly to the chirche / and another day late or at suche an hour / as they wene that it shall [Page] not hurte them to auaunce their gayne and wynnyng / Thus go they neuer to chirche for to pray vnto god vnto the tyme that they wene that they shal wynne nomore worldly goodes / But they wynne the lasse / ffor they serue god in vayn / And god shal rendre to them their reward / and they shal bye right dere that they leue to serue hym / ffor he may rendre to them more meryte in one day / than they may gete in a thousand yere / Suche peple ben foles & euyl aduysed / whan of nought they wene to serue hym that alle knoweth and alle seeth / ye the lest thought that they thynke / yet ben ther somme / whan they goo to chirche they goo not in entencion to praye god but only for to gete the loos and goodes of the world / And praye more for their richesses / that god sholde kepe and multeplye them / than they do for the saluacion of their sowles / whiche ben in grete paryll to be perisshed / And it is a grete mer­uaylle of suche maner of peple / that thynke wel in their hertes and knowe wel that it is euyl that they do / yet for al that / they amende them not / of whiche it is grete pyte whan they so folowe the deuyll whiche is [...]o feble a thyng fro whom alle euyllis sourden / Truly the deuyl is ful of inyquyte / and withoute power and strengthe ouer ony per­sone / of hym self / ffor he may not vaynquysshe ne ouerco­me / but hym that consenteth to his wyll / for who that wil conduyte and rule hym self well / The inyquytees of hym may not noye ne greue / ne in no thynge traueylle hym / of whiche he hath cause to sorowe fore / as longe as he will dispose hym to doo well / Thenne may wel be sayd. fy. / ffor they ben more than faylled whan he ouercometh them [Page] so febly and taketh them in their euyll dedes and synnes and ledeth them to perdicōn / where neuer they shal be with­out payne / ne neuer shal haue Ioye / ne in nowise haue hope of mercy / Of this purpos we shal saye nomore now / but recounte of kynge Tholomeus / the whiche employed his tyme / in the werkes of our lord god / Out of his bookes were drawen the nombres of whiche the yeres ben ordey­ned / And of the same is founde the cours of the mone / by whiche is seen whan she is newe / Of whiche Iulius Cezar whiche of Rome was Emperour made a booke called the sommes / the whiche is ful necessarye in holy chirche / and it declareth the golden nombre of the ka­lender / ffor by the kalender is knowen the cours of the mone / and of alle the yere / by whiche is also knowen how we ought to lyue after reson euery daye / That is to wete in [...]tyng and drynkyng / and in worshipyng our lord on hye dayes and symple / and for to solemp­nyse suche dayes as holy chyrche hath ordeyned and by blessyd sayntes establysshed / By the kalender we knowe the holy tymes as the ymbre dayes / the lente / ad­uente / and the hye dayes and festes that we ben most [...]ounden to serue god / ffor to gete his inestymable Ioye and glorye / whiche our lord hath promysed vnto his good and trewe frendes whiche wyth good herte serue hym / Alle this lerneth vs the kalender / the whiche was drawen out of Astronomye / whiche the good kynge Tho­lomeus louyd so moche / and he knewe more than ony other man sauf Adam whyche was the fyrst man / ffor Adam knewe alle the seuen scyences lyberall entyerly [Page] without fayllyng of a worde / As he that the creatour ma­ [...] and fourmed with his propre handes / And so wolde our lord haue hym souerayn in beaute / in witte & in streng­the / ouer al them that shold be born after hym vnto the comyng of Ihesu Cryste sone of god / the whiche had gy­uen to hym suche vertues / Ne neuer after Adam gaf he so moche to one man / ne neuer shall / But anon as he had consented & commysed the synne deffended / he lost somoche of his wytte and power / that anon he becam a man mor­tal / And he was suche to fore er he had synned / that he shold neuer haue felte deth / Ne alle we descended of hym shold not haue had lasse meryte than he. in Ioye. in solaas [...] and in deduyt of paradys terrestre alle to gydre and born and nourysshed wythout synnes / and after in heuen gloryfyed / But syth they tasted of the fruyt whiche god deffended them / his wytte and his entendement were so destroyed and corumped by his synne / that alle we abyde entetched and foylled ther by / ne ther is nothing vnder the fyrmament / but it is werse sythen than to syore and of lasse valewe / ye the sterres gyue lasse lyght / than they dyde to fore / Thus alle thynges empayred of their goodnes & vertues by the synne of adam / which god had made for man / as he that wolde make hym maistre of all the goodes that he had made / But anon as he had cō ­mysed the synne / he felte hym so bare of his witte & enten­dement strengthe & of his beaute / that hym semed he was al naked / and that he had loste all goodes as a man put in exyle / But notwythstondyng this / yet abode wyth hym more witte. strengthe and beaute / than euer ony man had [Page] sythen / and to the regard of thise thre vertues that adam had / the kynge dauid that was so vertuous and wyse had ij sones whiche myght be compared that one to the beaulte of Adam / and that other to his wysedom / absolon myght be compared to his beaulte / and Salomon vnto his wit­te and wysedom / And Sampson the forte· vnto his strengthe / Thus were thise thre vertues in Adam so par­fyghtly that noman syth myght compare wyth hym / ne the ij sones of dauid ne sampson / ne none other / ffor as it is said tofore he knewe the vij sciences liberall better than alle the men that ben descended of hym / as he to whom his god and maker had taught them to hym and enseygned / And after that / they were sought by many a man whiche rendred grete payne for to fynde them / and to saue them for cause of the flood / knowyng that it sholde come to the world by fyre or by water /

How the scriptures and scyences were saued ayenst the flood capitulo ¶ [...]jo

SYth Adam was deed ther were many men whiche lerned the scyences of the vij artes liberall / whiche god had sente to them in therthe / Of whome somme ther were that wolde enquyre what shold bycome of the world or euer it shold haue an ende / And they founde verily / that it shold be destroyed and take ende twyes / At the first tyme by the flood of water / but our lord wold not they shold knowe / whether it shold be first destroyed by water or by fyre / Thenne had they grete pyte for the scyences [Page] that they had goten whiche they knewe / and so shold pe­risshe / but yf it were kept and ordeyned fore by their wyse­doms / Thenne they aduysed them of a grete wytte and bounte / as they that wel wiste / that after the first des­truxion of the world / ther shold be other peple / wherfor they dyde do make grete pylers of stone / in suche wyse that they myght pourtraye / and graue in euery stone atte leste one of the vij sciences entierly / in suche wise that they myght be knowen to other / Of whiche somme saye that one of thise pylers was of a stone as hard as marble / & of suche natur [...] that water myght not empayre it ne defface ne mynuysshe it / And they made other in a stronge maner of tyles all hole wythoute ony Ioyntures that fyre myght not hurte it in no wyse / In thyse grete colompnes or py­lers as sayd is were entaylled & grauen the vij scyences in suche wyse / that they that shold come after them / shold fynde and lerne them /

Of them that fonde the science and the clergye after the flood capitulo ¶xijo

AS ye may vnderstonde the seuen scyences lyberall were founden by auncyent wyse men / out of whiche alle other sciences procede / Thyse were they to whom our lorde hath gyuen them and enseygned doubtyng the de­luuye that god sente in to therthe / the whiche drowned alle creatures reseruyd Noe and them that he toke in to the Arke wyth hym / And after this the world was repeoplyd and made agayn by them that descended of them [Page] ffor after the tyme of noe / the peple began to make agayn howses and mansions / and to make redy other werkis / But this was moche rudely as they that coude but right lytil vnto the tyme that thise sciences were foūden agayn & thenne coude they better make & doo that was nedeful & propice to them / & fynde remedye for their euyllis / the first that applyed hym / and entermeted for to enquyre and serche these sciences after the flood was Sem one of the sones of Noe / whiche had gyuen his corage therto / And in suche wyse he dyde therin suche dyligence and so conty­nued / that by his wytte he fonde a parte of Astronomye / After hym was Abraham whiche also founde a grete partye / And after hym were other that vsed theyr lyf the best wise they myght so moche that they had the pryn­cyples and resons of the seuen scyences / And after cam Plato the sage and right souerayn in philosophye / And his clerke named Aristotle the wyse clerke / This plato was the man aboue al them of the world in clergye the most experte of them that were to fore or after hym / he pre­uyd first that ther was but one that was only souerayn / whiche all made / & of whom alle good thinge cometh / yet his bookes approue hyely that ther ne is but one souerayn good / that is our lord god whiche made alle thynges / And in this only veryte / he preuyd the right trouthe / ffor he preued his power / his wisedom / and his goodnes / Thise thre bountees reclayme alle crysten men / that is the fader / the sone / and the holy goste / Of the fader / he sayde the power and puissaunce / Of the sone / the Sapyence / and of the holy gost the bienueullaūce / and Aristotle whiche [Page] cam after hym holdeth plente of thynges nyghe to hym / & knewe the thynges that he had sayd / And ordeyned right wel the science of logyke / ffor he knewe more therof than of other sciences / Thise two notable clerkes fonde by their wysedom and connyng / thre persones in one essence / and preuyd it / but they put it not in latyn / ffor bothe two were paynems / as they that were more than thre hondred yere to fore the comynge of our lord Ihesu Cryste / And alle their bookes were in grekyssh lettres / After cam Boece whiche was a grete philosophre and right wise clerke / the whiche coude byhelpe hym with dyuerses langages / And louid moche rightwisnes / This boece translated of their bookes the most partye / and sette them in latyn / But he deyde or he had alle translated them / wherof was grete dommage for vs alle / Syth haue other clerkes transla­ted / But this boece translated more than ony other / the whiche we haue yet in vsage / And compiled in his lyf / plente of fair volumes aourned of hye and noble philoso­phye / of whiche we haue yet grete nede for tadresse vs to­ward our lord god / And many other good clerkes haue ben in this world of grete auctoryte whiche haue lerned and studyed alle their tyme vpon the sciences of the vij Artes / Of whiche haue ben somme / that in their tyme ha­ue do meruaylles by Astronomye / But aboue alle them that most entremeted and traueylled vpon the science of Astronomye / was Virgyle whiche compyled many mer­ueyllous werkes / And therfore we shal recounte a lytil here folowyng of the meruaylles he dyde /

Here folowe in substaunce of the meruaylles that Vir­gyle wrought by Astronomye in his tyme by his wytte / capitulo ¶xiijo

VIrgyle the wyse philosophre born in Itaile was to fore the comyng of our lord Ihesu Cryst / he sette not lytil by the vij sciences / ffor he trauaylled and stu­dyed in them the most part of his tyme somoche that by astronomye he made many grete meruaylles / ffor he made in N [...]ples a flye of copper / whiche whan he had sette it vp in a place / that flye enchaced and hunted away alle other flyes / so that ther myght abyde none in ony place ne durste none approche nyghe to that flye by the space of two bowe shote round aboute / And yf ony flye passed the bounde that virgyle had compassed / incontynent it shold deye / and myght no lenger lyue / He made also an hors of brasse / the whiche guarisshed and heled alle horses of all their maladyes and seknesses of whiche they were en­techid / also sone as the seke hors loked on the hors of brasse / Also he founded a meruayllous cyte vpon an egge by suche force and power / that whan the egge was meuyd all the cyte quaued and shoke / And the more the egge was meuyd the more the cyte quaued and trembled / The cyte in hye and lowe and in playn / The flye of copper / and hors of brasse that virgyle thus made ben in naples And the cage where the egge is in / alle ben there seen / this hath be sayd to vs of them / that be comen fro thens and that many tymes haue seen them / Also he made that in one day alle the fyre thurgh̄ out Rome faylled and was [Page] quenchid / In suche wise that no persone myght haue no­ne / but yf he wente and fette it at the nature of a woman with a Candel or otherwyse / And she was doughter of themperour and a grete lady whiche to fore had don to hym a grete sklaundre and dysplaysir / and all they that had fette fyre at her / myght not adresse it to other / but euerych that wolde haue fyre muste nedes go fetche it there as the other had fette it / And thus auenged he hym on her / for the displaysir that she had don to hym / And he made a brygge vpon a water the grettest that euer was made in the worlde / and is not knowen of what mater it is made whether it be of stone or of wode / But ther was neuer werkman so subtyl ne carpenter ne mason / ne other that coude somoche knowe ne enserche wythin therthe ne wythin the water / that they myght knowe and fynde / how that brygge was there sette / ne how it was susteyned in no maner / ne atte endes ne in the myddys / and men pas­sed ouer frely / and all wythout lettyng / He made also a gardyn all aboute round closyd wyth thayer / wythout ony other closure whiche was as thycke as a clowde / and this gardyn was right hye fro therthe / he made also two tapres and a lampe a lyght and brennyng / in suche wise that it contynuelly brennyd wythout quenchyng / and mynusshed ne lassed no thyng / Thise thre thinges he en­closed within therthe in suche wyse that noman can fyn­de it / ffor all the craft they can doo / Yet made he an heed to speke / which answerd of alle that / whiche he was de­manded of / and of that whiche shold happen and come in therthe / so on a day he demanded of the heed how he shold [Page] doo in a certayn werke / where as he shold goo vnto / But the heed answerd to hym in suche wyse that he vnderstode it not wel / ffor hit sayde that yf he kept wel the heed / he shold come agayn all hole / and with this answere he wen­te his way wel assured / But the Sonne whiche that day gaf grete hete smote hym on the hede and chauffed his brayn / of whiche he toke none hede / that he gate therby a sekenes and maladye wherof he deyde / ffor whan he had the answere of the heed / he vnderstode not that he spack of his heed / but vnderstode of the heed that spack to hym / but it had be better that he had kept wel his owne heed / And whan he felte hym self agreuyd wyth sekenesse / he made hym to be born out of Rome / ffor to be beryed in a castel beyng toward Sezyle / and a myle nyghe to the See / yet ben there his bones whiche ben better kept than others ben / And whan the bones of hym ben remeuyd / the See begynneth to encreace and swelle so gretly that it cometh to the castel / And the hyer they be reysed vp / the hyer groweth the See / in suche wyse that the castel shold be drowned yf they were not anon remysed and sette in their place / But thēne whan they be sette agayn in their place anon the see aualeth / and gooth away there as it was to fore / And this hath be oftymes proued / and yet endure the vertues of hym as they saye that haue ben there / vir­gyle was a moche sage and subtyl clerke and ful of grete engyne / ffor vnto his power he wold preue all the vsages of clerkes / as moche as was possible for hym to knowe / he was a man of lytil stature / alytil courbed was he on the back by right nature / and wente his heede hangyng [Page] doun and beholdyng the ground / Virgyle dyde and made many grete meruaylles / whiche the herers shold holde for lesynges yf they herde them recounted / ffor they wolde not byleue that another coude doo suche thynge / as they coude not medle wyth̄ / And whan they here speke of suche ma­ters or of other that they see at their eyen / and that they can not vnderstonde ne knowe not therof / anon they saye that it is by thelpe of the fende that werketh in suche ma­ner / as they that gladly myssaye of peple of recommenda­cion / And also saye it is good not to conne suche thyn­ges / but yf they knewe the science and manere / they wold holde it for a moche noble and right werke of nature / and without ony other espece of euyll / And whan they knowe not ne vnderstonde the thinge / they saye moche more euyl than well / Certaynly who that knewe well Astronomye ther is nothyng in the world / of whiche he coude enquyre by reson / but he shold haue knowleche therof / And many thynges shold he doo / that sholde seme myracles to the pe­ple whiche that knewe nothynge of the science / I saye not but ther myght be wel don euyll by hym that coude it ffor ther is none so good science / but that myght be en­tended therin somme malyce / and that he myght vse it in euyll that wolde so applye hym therto / God made neuer so good a gospel / but somme myghte torne it contrarye to trouthe / & ther is no thynge so true / but somme myght so glose that it shold be to his dampnacion / who that wolde payne hym to do euyll / how wel it is no maystrye to do yll Euery man hath the power to drawe hym self to do well / or to doo euyll / whiche that he wylle / as he that hath fre [Page] liberte of that one and of that other / yf he gyue hym self to vertues / this goodnes cometh to hym fro our lord / and yf he be inclyned to doo euyll / that bryngeth hym at thende to sorow and to payne perpetuell / Neuer shal the euyl dis­posed man saye well / of that he can not wel vnderstonde & knowe / Ther is no craft. arte. ne scyence / but it is good to be knowen whan a man wyll gyue and applye hym self therto / But late hym doo nothyng ayenst god by whiche he lese his grace / Alle thynge is knowen by As­tronomye sauf suche thynge as god wylle that it be not knowen / And so it is better to lerne that / than to lerne to amasse and gadre to gydre grete tresours / ffor who that coude Astronomye proprely / he shold haue all that he wold haue on erthe / ffor hym shold faylle nothyng what som­euer he wold / and yet more / But they had leuer haue the monoye / And they knowe not that it is of Astronomye ne wherfore monoye was founden / how wel that they ap­plye all their entendement for to haue it / But they retche not for to lerne / sauf that whiche they knowe shal redoūde to their singuler prouffyt / And yet for alle that we shal not leue / but that we shal recyte somme caas for them that haue talente for to lerne / And late hym herkne and take hede that wyll vnderstonde it /

Here it declareth for what cause monoye was first esta­blisshid capitulo ¶xiiijo

THe monoyes were establisshed first / for as moche as they had not of alle thinges necessarye to gydre [Page] That one had whete / another had wyn / and another cloth or other wares / he that had whete / had not wyn withoute he chaūged one for another / and so muste they dayly chaūge one for another / ffor to haue that they had not / as they that knewe none other mene / whan the philosophres sawe this / they dyde so moche that they establisshed wyth the lordes somtyme regnyng / a lytil lyght thynge whiche euery man myght bere with hym to bye that was nedeful to hym / and behoefful for his lyf / And so ordeyned by aduyse to gydre a thynge whiche was not ouer dere / ne holden for ouer vyle / and that it were of somme valure for to bye and vse wyth all true marchandyse one wyth another / by vertue of suche enseygne / And that it were comune ouerall and in all maner / And establed thenne a lytil moneye / whiche shold goo and haue cours thurgh the world / And by cause it lad men by the waye and my­nystred to them that was necessarye / it was called mo­noye / That is as moche to saye / as to gyue to a man al that hym behoueth for his lyuyng / Monos in grekyssh langage is as moche te saye / as one thyng only / ffor thenne was but one maner of monoye in all the world / But now euery man maketh monoye at his playsir by which they desuoy and goo out of the waye more / than yf ther were but one coyne only / ffor by this cause is seen ofte plente of dyuerse monoyes / Thus establisshed not the philosophres / ffor they establisshed for to saue the state of the world / And I saye it for as moche yf the monoye were out of grotes and pens of siluer so thenne it shold be of lasse weyght and lasse of valewe / and that shold [Page] be better for to bere by the way for poure folke / and better shold be easid for the helpe of their nedes to their lyuyng And for none other cause it was ordeyned first / ffor the monoyes be not preysed but for the gold and syluer that is therin / And they that establisshed it first / made it right lytil and lyght / ffor the more ease to be born al aboute / where men wold goo / ffor now in late dayes as in the be­gynnyng of the Regne of kynge Edward and long [...] after was no monoye curraunt in englond but pens and halfpens and ferthynges / And he ordeyned first the grote and half grete of syluer / And noble / half noble and fer­thyng in golde /

Here foloweth of phylosophres that wente thurgh the world capitulo ¶xvo

THus the philosophres by the moyen of their monoye wente where they wolde thurgh the world / And the marchantes / in their marchandyses / or in pylgremages / or in pourchacyng and enquyryng somme places that they wolde knowe of whom ther were many whiche were phi­losophres / and that wolde haue experience of alle thinges and they wente by see and by londe for tens [...]rche the very trouthe of the secrete thinges of heuen and of erthe / They rested them not by the grete fyres ne brassed not as som doo now in thyse dayes in the worlde / the whyche gyue them to doo no good ne applye to no vertues / but yf it be to haue the loos and preysyng of the world / But they wente serchyng by the see and the londe on alle parties [Page] for to knowe the better the good and the yuell / and for to conne discerne that one fro that other / by whiche they en­dured many grete trauaylles for to gete the sauyng of their sowles / And at this day alle men seche to gete Ri­chesses and tresour / and the name to be callyd maistre for to gete louyng and honour of the world / whiche so hastely faylleth / Certaynly an euyl man may not thinke on hye thynges / ffor who that is of erthe / to therthe entendeth / And who pretendeth to god / God attendeth to hym / ffor god hym self saith / who that is of therthe / speketh of therthe / And who that cometh fro heuen / vnto heuen per / tended / he wythout other is lord and sire of and aboue other / The philosophres that wel coude vnderstonde this worde / had moche leuer to suffre trauaylles and mesayses for to lerne / than tendende to worldly honours / ffor they helde for more dere and worthy the sciences and the cler­gyes / than alle the seygnouryes of the world / Plato whiche was a puissaunt and a recommended maistre of Athenes lefte his noble estate and his place / by cause he wolde of suche renommee lyue / that he serched many lon­des and contrees / And had leuer haue payne. mesayse and trauayll for tenserche trouthe / and for to lerne science / than for to haue seygnourie and domynacōn in the world ne renommee for to be maister / ffor he wold saye nothyng but yf he were certayn therof / ffor ony vayne glorye of the world / Apolynes whiche was so grete a prynce lefte his empire / and his Royamme / And departed al poure and naked for to lerne the scyences / And he was taken and solde oftymes to straunge men / Ne neuer was ther [Page] none of them so valyant of alle them that bought and solde / that he sette ought therby / so that he myght alleway lerne / And more trauaylled on alle partyes for to lerne and knowe god and the world / whiche he loued better than ony other worldly thyng / and he wente so ferre / that he fonde syttyng in a Trone of golde an hye philosophre and of grete renōmee / the whiche [...]nseygned and taught his discyples wythin his trone where he satte / and lerned them of the faytes of nature / of good maners / the cours of the dayes and of the sterres / and the resonne and sig­nefiaunce of thynges touchyng sapyence and wysedom / This philosophre was named hyarchas / After Appoly­n [...]s serched by many contrees so ferre that he fonde the ta­ble of fyn golde / whiche was of so grete renommee / that it was named the table of the Sonne / wherin alle the world was pourtrayed / Therin saw he and lerned many faytes and many meruaylles / whiche he louyd more than ony Royamme / he erred so ferre by strange londes that he passed the flood of Ganges and alle ynde / and in thende so ferre / that he myght fynde nomore waye / And where someuer he cam / he fonde & lerned alleway suche as myght auaylle and prouffyte to hym self and other for tauaūce hym tofore god / Thus the kynge Alysaundre also suf­fred trauaylles without nombre for to lerne / But he wente fro place to place in estate ryall / And with puis­saunce of peple / wherfor he myght not so wel lerne ne en­quyre the trouthe of thynges / virgyle also wente thurgh many contrees for to enquyre and serche the trouthe of alle thynges / Tholomeus whiche of Egypte was kynge [Page] was not all quyte of his parte / but wente by many con [...]trees and Royammes for to lerne experymente / and see all the good clerkes that he myght fynde / Saynt Bran­don neuer lefte for to laboure by see and by lande / ffor only to see and lerne / And he sawe plente of grete meruaylles ffor he cam in to an yle of the see / where he sawe certayn byrdes whiche spack as spyrites / whiche sayde to hym som thyng whiche he demanded of them the vnderstondyng / And so ferre he erred that he fonde one so perylous a place and so ful of spyrites in so terryble tormentis / that they coude not be nombred ne estemed / Emonge whom he sawe one that answerd to hym and sayde that he was Iudas that betrayed Ihesu Cryst / whiche euery day was tormen­ted an hondred tymes / and deye he myght not / and plente of other grete meruaylles he sawe / as alonge is recoūted in the legende of his lyf / Ther were many other philoso­phres that serched the world as moche as was possible for them to doo for to knowe the better the good and the euyll and spared for nothyng / ffor they beleuyd not lyghtly a thinge tyl they knewe it wel by experyence / Ne alle that they fonde in their bookes / to fore they had preuid it for to knowe god the better and to loue hym / But they serched by see and by lande / tyl they had enserched all / and thēne after retorned agayn to their studyes alleway for to ler­ne the vertues & good maners / And thus loued somoche philosophye / ffor to knowe them self the better in good and iust lyf / but by cause that many tymes we haue spo­ken of philosophye / and that somoche good cometh therof that a man may haue therby vnderstondyng to knowe [Page] and loue god / therfore we shal telle to yow what it sig­nefyeth /

What thynge is philosophye / and of thanswer that Pla­to made therof capitulo ¶xvjo

VEray Philosophye is to haue knowleche of god / and fyn loue of sapyence / and to knowe the secre­tes and ordinaunces of dyuyne thynges / and of humay­ne / ffor to knowe god and his power / and what a man ought to be / so that he myght conduyte hym that it myght be to god agr [...]able / who that wel knewe god and his mysteryes / he shold wel conne entierly philosophye / Alle they ben good philosophres that of them self haue kno­wleche / Of whom Plato answerd to somme that deman­ded hym in commun / and sayd to hym that he had ler­ned ynowh and neded nomore / ffor he had estudyed alle his tyme for to lerne / And it was sayd to hym / Maystre it is wel in yow for to saye to vs / somme good worde pro­cedyng of hye entendement / as ye haue don other tymes / Thenne plato how wel that he was the most experymēted of all other answerd sayeng as in his herte troubled / that he had nomore lerned sauf as moche as he that felte hym self lyke vnto a vessel that day and nyght is all voyde & empty / Thus moche answerd Plato and nomore / how wel he was at that tyme the most grete clerke that was knowen in alle the world / and of moche perfounde science They that on thise dayes wil medle / take non hede to an­swere thus / but make semblaūt to be meche grete clerkis & [Page] experte / for to gete the loos and preysyng of the world / whiche ledeth them to dampnacion / and bryngeth theyr folye in to their hedes so that they entende nomore to ver­tues than doo beestis / ffor they be not alle clerkes that haue short typettis / ffor ther be many that haue the Aray of a clerke / that can not wel vnderstande / that he redeth / ne yet somme that be prestis can not wel and truly rede neyther / And whan suche knowe ony thynge / that them seme be of valewr / Thenne wene they to knowe all / But moche remayneth of their folyssh consayte / They [...]e of the nature of proud foles that ben surquydrous / that seche nothyng but loos and preysyng of the peple / and traueylle them self for to deceyue the world / this shal they abye dere ones / It were better for them to lerne suche scyence / that shold make them to vnderstande trou­the and right / lyke as thyse auncyent wyse men dyde / the whiche so lytil preysed the world / that alle their tyme they ocupyed in lernyng of phylosophye / Thus estu­dyed auncyently the phylosophres to fore their deth for tadresse them and other to their maker and creatour / And in dede traueyllyd moche for tadresse alle peple to vertue / They ordeyned the monoyes that they bare for to haue their lyuelode in byeng and payeng / ffor men gyue not allewaye / And for couetyse of the peple that haue fere of their despences / it corumpeth right and natu­re / ffor by reson and right euerych ought to take his ly­uyng / And therfore was monoye establysshid f [...]r to sus­teyne to euerich his lyuyng whan they wente by the waye But they loue their kar [...]ynes and bodyes moche more [Page] than nede is / And reteyne and kepe more goodes and richesses that they nede for their ordynarye / whyche they lete rote and faylle by them / and see that many poure per­sones haue grete nede therof / The monoyes were not foūde for this cause / but for to haue their liuyng / vnto the tym [...] that deth cometh and taketh alle that he ought to take at the playsyr of god / And thus shold they be more [...]asyd / than they now be and euerych shold haue that hym lacked and they shold leue to doo so many synnes / But they be not so wyse / as were they / that by their witte fonde agayn Astronomye / of whom Tholomeus was one / And tra­uaylled so moche that he knewe and proued the cours of the sterres that ben on the heuen / and mesured them all on hye / wherof we haue spoken here to fore / And now we shal recounte from hensforth the gretenes of therthe and of heuene / of the Mone / of the Sonne / of the Sterres / and of the planetes / whiche thynges be not comune vn­to alle men / lyke as the kynge Tholomeus hym self me­sured them vnto the abysme / And preuyd by reson in a book that he compyled named Almageste / whiche is as moche to saye as an hye werke / Thenne wyl ye here what he saith herto / whiche many another hath also proued after hym by his booke / In whyche he gaf the crafte & scyence to proue and see it by reson /

How moche therthe is of heyght rounde aboute and of thyckenes by the myddle capitulo ¶xvijo

[Page]THe Auncyent philosophres mesured the world on alle parties / by their science. Arte. and wytte vnto the sterres all on hye / of whiche they wolde knowe the me­sure / ffor to knowe the better their nature / But first they wolde mesure therthe and preue his gretenes / And thēne whan they had mesured therthe al a boute by a crafte that they knewe and proued by right reson / they mesured it rounde aboute lyke as they sholde haue compassed it al a­boute wyth a gyrdle / And thenne they stratched out the gyrdle al alonge / And thenne that whiche wente out of lengthe of the gyrdle / they fonde it in lengthe .xx.M.cccc. and .xxvij. myles / Of whyche euery myle conteyneth a thousand paas / and euery paas fyue foot / and euery fote xiiij ynches / Somoche hath the erthe in lengthe round a boute / by this fonde they after how thycke therthe is in the myddle / And they fonde the thycknes therof lyke as it shold ben c [...]efte in the myddle fro the hyest to the lowest / or fro that one syde to that other .vj.M. and .v.C. myles By this laste mesure / whyche is after nature right / they mesured iustely the heyght of the firmament / ffor they coude nowher fynde a gretter mesure / ffor textende the gre­tenesse of alle thynges whiche ben enclosed wythin the heuene /

How the Mone and the Sonne haue eche of them their propre heyght capitulo ¶xviijo

THerthe as the aūcyent philosophres saye / after they had mesured it / they mesured ye sterres / the planetes [Page] and the firmament / And first they mesured the mone / & preuyd his gretnesse / And they fonde the body of therthe without and withinne / that after their comune mesure it was more grete / than the body of the mone was / by xxix tymes and a lytil more / And they fonde that it was in heyght aboue the erthe xxiijj tymes and an half as moche as therthe hath of thycknes / Also in lyke wyse pr [...]uyd they touchyng the sonne by very demonstraunce and by reson / that the Sonne is gretter than alle therthe is / by an hondred syxty and sixe sythes / But they that knowe nothynge herof / vnnethe and wyth grete payne wyl by­leue it / And yet it is suffysauntly preuyd / as wel by maystryse of scyence / as by verray connyng of Geome­trye / Of whyche haue ben many syth the phylosophres that fonde this first / that haue studyed and trauaylled for to knowe the trouthe / yf it were soo as is sayd / or not / somoche that by quyck reson they haue preuyd that thauncyent phylosophres had sayd trouthe as wel of the quantyte of the Sonne as of the heyght / And as to the regard of hym that compyled this werke / he sette all his entente & tyme / by cause he hadde so grete meruaylle therof / tyl he had perceyuyd playnly that / of whiche he was in doubte / ffor he sawe appertly that the Sonne was gretter than al therthe wythout ony defaulte by an .C.lxvj. tymes / and thre partyes of the xx parte of therthe / with al this that thauncyent philosophres sayde / And thēne byleuid he that / whiche was gyue hym to vnderstōde And he had neuer put this in wrytyng / yf he had not cer­taynly knowen the trouthe / & that he playnly had proued [Page] it / And it may wel be knowen that it is of grete quan­tyte / whan it is so moche ferre fro vs / & semeth to vs so lytil / Ne he shall neuer be so ferre aboue vs / but in lyke wyse he shal be as ferre whan he is vnder or on that other side of vs / And for trouthe it is fro therthe vnto the Sonne / lyke as the kynge Tholomeus hath prouyd it / ffyue hondred lxxx and v tymes as moche as therthe may haue of gretenes and thyckens thurgh̄ /

Here foloweth of the heyght of the sterres and of theyr gretenesse capitulo ¶xixo

NOw wyll I recounte to you briefly / of the sterres of the firmament / Of whiche ther is a right grete nombre / and they ben alle of one lyke heyghte / But they ben not all of one gretenes / And it behoueth ouer longe narracion that of alle them wolde deseryue the gretenes / And therfore we passe lyghtly ouer and shortly / how wel I aduertyse you and certefye / that ther is none so lytil of them that ye may see on the firmament / but that it is gretter than all therthe is / But ther is none of them so grete ne so shynyng as is the Sonne / ffor he enlumy­neth alle the other by his beaulte / whiche is so moche no­ble / ffro therthe vnto the heuen wherin the sterres ben sette is a moche grete espace / ffor it is ten thousand and lv̄ sythes as moche and more as is alle therthe of thycknes And who that coude acompte after the nombre and four­me / he myght knowe how many ynches it is of the honde of a man / and how many fe [...]t / how many myles / and how [Page] many Iourneyes / it is from hens to the firmament or heuen / ffor it is as moche way vnto the heuen / as yf a may myght goo the right way without lettyng / and that he myght goo euery day xxv myles / of fraūce / whiche is .l. englissh myle / And that he taried not on the waye / yet shold he goo the tyme of seuen .M.j.C. and .lvij. yere and an half / er he had goon somoche waye as fro hens vnto the heuen where the sterres be inne / yf the firste man that god fourmed euer / whiche was Adam / had goon fro the first day that he was made and created xxv myles euery day / yet shold he not haue comen theder / but shold haue yet the space of .vij.C.xiij. yere to goo / at the tyme whan this volume was perfourmed by the very auctour / And this was atte Epyphanye in the yere of grace .j.M.ij.C and .xlvj. That tyme shold he haue had so moche to goo / er he shold comen theder / Or yf ther were there a grete stone whiche shold falle fro thens vnto therthe / it shold be an hondred yere er it cam to the grounde / And in the fallyng it shold descende in euery hour of whiche ther be xxiiij in a day complete / xliij myle and an half / yet shold it be so lon­ge er it cam to therthe / This thing hath be proued by hym that compiled this present volume / er he cam thus ferre in this werke / This is wel .xl. tymes more than an hors may goo / whiche alleway shold goo / without restynge /

Here foloweth of the nombre of Sterres capitulo ¶xxo

TO the regard of the Sterres we shal saye to yow the nombre lyke as the noble kynge Tholomeu [...] [Page] nombred them in his Almageste / to whome he gaf the propre names / And sayd that ther were a thousand and xxij all clere / and that myght be all seen / without the vij planetes / and may be wel acompted without ony paryll / In alle ther be .j.M. and .xxix. whiche may wel be seen withoute many other / whiche may not wel be seen ne es­pyed / Ther may not wel moo be espyed but so many as sayd is / ne appertly be knowen / Now late hym beholde that wil see it / ffor noman / trauaylle he neuer somoche ne stu­dye / maye fynde nomore / Neuertheles ther is no man ly­uyng that may or can compte so moche / or can so hye moūte in ony place / though he be garnysshid of a moche gentil instrument / & right subtyl that shold fynde moo / than the kynge tholomeus fonde by whiche he knewe & myght nō ­bre them / and where eueryche sitteth / & how ferre it is from one to an other / be it of one or other or nygh̄ or ferre / and the knowlege of the ymages of them / the whiche by their semblaunce fourmed them / ffor the sterres whyche be na­med / ben all fygures on the heuene and compassed by ymages / and that all haue dyuerse beynges / And euerych hath his fourme and his name / Of whiche ben knowen pryncypally xlvij within the firmament / And of them ben taken xij of the most worthy whiche ben called the xij Sygnes / And they make a cercle rounde aboute the vij planettes / where as they make their torne / we ben moche ferre from heuen merueyllously / and late euery man kno­we that he that deyeth in dedly synne / shal neuer come the­der / And the blessyd sowle whyche is departed fro the body in good estate / not withstondyng the longe way is sone [Page] come thether / ye truly in lasse than half an hour / & vnto the most hye place to fore the souerayn iuge / which sitteth on the right syde of god the fader / in his blessyd heuen / the whiche is so ful of delytes of alle glorye and of all con­solacion / that ther is noman in this world lyuyng / that may ne can esteme [...]e thinke the Ioye & the glorye where this blessyd sowle entreth / And ther is no man that can esteme ne thinke the capacite & gretnes of heuene / ne may compare it ne valewe it / to the capacyte and gretnes of all therthe / or so moche as may compryse fro therthe to the firmamēt / As to the regard of the inestymable gretenes aboue the firmament / ffor that gretenesse is inestymable without ende and without mesure / Certes the firmamēte on hye is so spacyous so noble and so large / that of alle his wytte may not a man vnnethe thinke or esteme / the nombre of lyke masses as all therthe is / that shold fylle it / yf they were alle in one masse / who is he that coude or myght cōprehende or compryse the gretenes of them / whan they alle be assembled / And euerich as grete as all ther­the / Neuertheles we shal saye to you therof / as moche as we may wel ymagyne /

Of the gretenesse of the firmament / and of the heuen whiche is aboue it capitulo ¶xxjo

YF the erthe were so grete and so spacyouse / and so moche more for to resseyue an hondred thousand ty­mes as moche peple as euer were in this world / & euery man of them were so myghty for to engend [...]e another [Page] man euery day duryng an hondred thousand yere / and that euery man were as grete as a Geaunt / and euery man had his hows as grete / as euer had ony kynge / & woodes / Ryuers / champaynes gardyns medows pastures and vy­neyerdes euerych aboute his castell or place for to lyue wyth / And that eche had so grete foyson / that eueriche myght holde an hondred maynyes for to serue hym and euerich of this maynee helde xx other / and had therto grete romme and pourpris in their manoyr / Alle thyse myght moche plentyuously be reseyuyd within the firmament / and yet sholde ther be moche place voyde more than all they myght pourprise and take for to playe and dysporte them therin yf they wolde / Thenne ought we wel to knowe / that our lord god is moche myghty. & of a right hye affayre / whan he can make of nought so noble a thynge / as the heuene / and the Sonne / and all the other thynges that ben on the heuene / in thayer / on the erthe and in the See Suche a lord and suche a maistre ought wel to be god that can make so noble thynges / of whiche we haue very knowleche / And we ought parfyghtly to loue hym / And well may euery man thinke / that the thinge that is aboue is moche gentyl and moche noble / whan it that is vnder is so subtyl / ffor that whiche is aboue is more grete an hondred thousand tymes than it whiche is bynethe / And ouer moche more than can be knowen or may be compted by ony nombre / or may be thought / ffor this is a thynge that in no manere shal haue ende ne terme / Therfore I may wel vnderstonde / that ther is nothing that may pour­prise ne esteme in gretenes ne otherwyse this / whiche is [Page] aboue the firmament / where the heuene taketh his place / ne may be replenesshid ne fylled with nothing that may be / but yf it be wyth the goodes of our lord god fyllyd / but the right debonayre lorde is so moche full of all goodes that be fylleth alle other thynges / whiche ought to haue parte and meryte in goodes / And the euyll departeth fro the good in suche wyse that it is voyde and disgarnysshed from all goodes what someuer it be / and that it shal be / lyke as it were nought / wherof is redde herof / that synne is nought / ffor as moche as it is voyde and disgarnysshed of all goodnes / And rendred the body and sowle so moche febled and disgarnysshid of alle goodes / of alle vertues / and of alle graces / that that one is totally destroyed and perisshed wyth that other / ffor alleway the euyll cometh to nought / And contrarye the good goth alway growyng and in amendyng / And therfore ther is none euyl but synne / whiche is nought / ffor ye may vnderstande that it cometh to nought as donge / Ther is nothing / that ought to be made right / but only this that ought to be perma­nent / And therfor it is good a man to holde hym nyghe the good / ffor the good amendeth allwayes / And who that customly doth gladly the good werkes / they ben the cause to lede hym to heuene / as he that hath none other wyth­draughte ne other dwellyng place / And therfor he muste enhabite there / hym behoueth to come in to heuene for to reteyne there his place / and also for to fylle it / Ther is noman in the worlde that can doo so moche good but that he shal alway fynde his place and his repayre propice af­ter his merytes / ffor as moche as this so moche noble a [Page] place is withoute ende and without terme / in suche wyse / that no goodes what someuer they be shal neu haue terme ne ende / ne neuer shal haue defaulte / but it is contynuelly ful of alle consolacion / of alle delyces / of alle goodes / of alle Ioye / and of alle gladnesse / wythout hauyng ony thynge voyde / Of whiche they that deserue it of our lord shal haue ful possession of alle the inestymable goodes / Of helle I may frely saye to you / that ther is nothyng sauf sorowe and martirdom / truly the most anguysshous the most horryble / and somoche sorowful / that ther is no lyke / And yf so were that the chyldren that haue ben syth Adam were all dampned / yet it myght not be fylled by them / though they were twyes so many more / And they that be therin perisshed / shal be dampned and perpetuelly tormēted / ffor after that they be dampned / they shal abyde euer as longe as god shal be / whiche is wythout begyn­nyng and wythout endyng / And there they shal brenne in fyre eternel withoute hope of alegeaūce / of ony mercy of ony hope to haue ony better / but alleway werse fro tyme to tyme / As it is so that the saued sowles desire the day of dome and of iugement for to be gloryfyed in body and sowle / The dampned sowles redoubte & drede it thynkynge that after that day they shal be perpetuelly tormented in body and in sowle / And to that dredeful day they be not tormented in the body / but in the sowle / And I haue recyted this thynge shortly to this ende that it may be knowen certaynly that ther is no good deede but it shal be rewarded / ne none euyl dede but that it shal be punysshed / This is the wille of the creatour & maker of all thinges [Page] wythoute whom ther is none that in ony maner hath ony power / and he is somoche a debonayer lorde ful of souerayn puissaunce and of grete and of infynyt goodes / that ther is no comparison to hym / As he that all thynge created. made. and establisshid of nought at his playsir and will But syth we haue spoken to yow of the inestymable gre­tenesse of the firmamēt wherin the sterres be sette whiche alleway is in moeuyng / So shal ye vnderstonde that ther is an heuen aboue / where they that ben there moeue no­thyng / but ben contynuelly in one estate / lyke as somme man remeuyd hym from som place to another / the fyrst place meuyd hym not / But he that shold goo so al aboute lyke round aboute a cercle / shold ofte go fro place to place er he come to his place / and so longe he myght goo that he shold come right to the place fro whens he departed first But that place shold not meue / but holde hym alleway in one poynt / Now wylle ye thus vnderstonde of this he­uen / that ther is no maner place that is remeuyd fro the sterres ne fro the firmament / but they holde them also fermly all / as they most maye / This heuen muste be vn­derstonde by them whiche ben Astronomyers / This is that gyu [...]th to vs his colour blew / the whiche estendeth a­boue thayer / the whiche we see whan thayer is pure and clere alle aboute / And it is of so grete attemperaūce / that it may haue no violence / This is the heuen that encloseth the firmament / Now I shal saye yow all appertly / that this that ye may vnderstonde here tofore / by heeryng / may not be taken ne knowen / ne be proued yf it be trouthe or non / ne may not be by ony arte of demonstraunce / lyke [Page] as may be seen by eyen / ffor the wytte of a man hath not the power / But neuertheles we shal saye to you this / that we truly may fynde by wrytyng in certayn places / lyke as somme Auncyent philosophres haue ymagyned and thought / of whiche they fonde certayn resons /

Here after foloweth of the heuen crystalyn and of the he­uene imperyall capitulo ¶xxijo

ABoue this heuen that we may see blew as sayd is / after that thauncyent clerkes saye / ther is another heuene alle rounde aboute that aboue and bynethe / lyke as it were of the colour of whyte crystall. clere. pure. and moche noble / And is called the heuen crystalyn / And aboue this heuen crystalyn / alle rounde aboute that / is an other heuen of the colour of purple / lyke as the deuynes saye / And that is called the heuen Imperyal / This he­uene is garnysshid and ful of alle beaultees / more than ony of the other that we haue named / and there is thayer seuen tymes more fayr and more clere than is the sonne / ffro this heuen Imperyal fylle the euyl angeles by their pryde / the whiche were disgarnysshid of alle glorye and of alle goodes / And ther ben the blessyd Angeles of our lord /

Here foloweth of the Celestyal heuene capitulo ¶xxiijo

Yff ye wil vnderstande for to knowe of this heuene Celestyall / whyche is aboue alle the other / ye shal [Page] [...] vnderstonde that this place is right worthy and blessyd in alle thynges / wherfor ther may nothyng growe / but all goodnesses / and swetnesse by reson and right / This is the propre place of the holy trynyte / where as god the fader sytteth in his right worthy mageste / But in that place faylleth thentendemēt of ony erthely man / ffor ther is nowher so good a clerke that may thynke the tenth parte of the glorye that is there / And yf our lord pour­pryseth ony place / hym behoueth to haue that by right / but he is so comune ouerall / that he seeth euery man / that hath deseruyd it ayenst hym / and seeth all thynges here and there / He seeth all aboute as he that hath all thynges in his kepyng / Of whiche ye may take ensample / by s [...]mme whan ye here them speke / that alle they of whom they here the tale / they here his worde / Many men vnderstonde al at­tones / and in one tyme heere / Euery man hereth al the worde / In lyke wyse may ye vnderstande that god is ouerall and regnyng ouerall in euery place / and is in alle places anon & attones / And the lyght and clerenes that groweth of hym enlumyneth alle thynges bothe here and there / and also soone that one as that other / Exam­ple / yf ye sette aboute many thynges a lyght / also soone shal the resplendour goo on the syde by yonde it / as on the syde on this syde it / whan suche thinges haue lyke vertue / Ouer moche more ought he to haue / that all thynge made and created / And that alle goodes hath wythin hym / his heuen stratched oueral / as he whiche of all is lord and maistre / In heuen ben alle thangeles / alle tharchangeles and alle the sayntes whiche synge all to gydre tofor god [Page] glorye and lawde wyth right grete Ioye and consolacion Ther is none that may compryse / ne herte of man mortal may vnderstande what thynge is heuene / And how moche grete Ioye they haue / to whom he hath gyuen and graūted it / The beste clerk of the world / the most subtyl / and the best spekyng wyth all / that euer was lyuynge in erthe / or euer shal be in ony tyme of the world / and thaugh he had a thousand tongues spekynge / And euerych of the ton­gues spack by hym self / and also had a thousand hertes within his body the most subtyle and the most memoratyf that myght be taken and founden in alle the world and best chosen to vnderstande & to experymente / and yf this myght be and happe that alle this myght be to gydre in the body of a man / And after myght thynke alway / the best wyse that they coude deseryue & deuyse thestate of he­uen / And that euery tongue myght saye and declare the intencion of euery herte / yet myght they neuer in no ma­ner of the world saye ne recounte the thousand parte of the grete Ioye / that the pour [...]st and leest of them that shal be there shal haue / And foul be he / that shal not be there / ffor they that shal be in heuene wold not be alle the dayes of world / lordes and kynges of alle the Monar­chye of the worlde erthly thaugh all their commandemēts myght be obserued and don / not for to ben one only hour out of heuen / ffor there is the lyf perdurable / and there is the parfyght and inestymable Ioye that euer was and euer shal be / There is euery thynge establisshed and cer­tayn for euer more without ende and without begynnyng ne neuer shal faylle / ne there shal neuer be ony doubtaūce [Page] of deth ne of maladye / of sorow / of anguyssh̄. ne of deede / of angre of trauayll of payne ne of pouerte / of caytyfnes ne of ony trybulacion / that euer may happe in ony manere of the world to hym that shal haue his mansyon in heue­ne / But he shal be contynuelly in Ioye / in solace / in alle delices / and in alle goodes perdurable and wythout ende / And he shal haue more consolacion than ony man can thynke ne esteme / thaugh he employe alle his engien for to vnderstonde it / Now for to knowe what it is of heuene and of helle after our declaracion to fore sayd / and wyth this the firmamente / the sterres and the seuen planetes / I presente them to you here on that other syde of this leef by a fygure / by whyche ye may moche prouffyte / yf ye wille wel applye and employe therto your entendemente /



Her foloweth the recapitulacion of the thynge tofore said capitulo ¶xxiiijo

WYth this we shal make an ende of our book / The whiche at his begynnynge speketh of our lord god wherfore he fourmed the world / And why he loued man so wel that he fourmed hym to his semblaunce / and gaf hym power to doo wel and euyl / After why he made hym not suche / that he myght not synne dedely / And how first were founden the vij sciences and the artes / Sith it spe­keth of thre maner of peple that thauncyent philosophres put in the world / how nature werketh / and what she is / & how she dyuersefyeth in euerych of her werkes / Also ye ha­ue herde of the facion of the world and of the dyuysion of the four elementes / whiche ben round aboute / and holde them on the firmament / And how the erthe holdeth hym within the firmament / Also ye haue herde of the lytilnes of therthe vnto the regard of heuen / And also how the sonne maketh his [...]ours al aboute therthe / and the other planettes in lyke wyse / alle this haue ye herd in the first partye / In the seconde partye is declared to yow / whiche parte of therthe is inhabyted / & of the dyuysion of mappa mundi / And first it speketh of paradys terrestre / and of the contrees & regyons of ynde / & of the dyuersytees that ben ther of men / of bestes / of trees / of stones / of byrdes / & of somme fysshes that ben there / And where helle the do­lourous place is & stondeth / and of the grete paynes that they endure that ben dampned & ben there / After ye haue herd of the second element / that is of the water / of the [Page] flodes & of the fontaynes hoot and colde / holsom & euyll whiche ben in dyuerse contrees / & how the see bicom [...]th salt how the erthe quaueth & synketh / And after of the Ayer how hit bloweth & rayneth / of tempestes & of thondres / of ffyre of layte / & of the sterres whiche seme as they fylle / Of pure ayer & of the vij planettes / how the bysexte co­meth / of the firmamēt & of his tornyng / and of the ster­res that ben round aboute therin / In the thirde partye ye haue herde how the day & nyght come / And of the mone & of the sonne how they rendre their lyght / and how eche of them leseth their clerenes by nyght & by day somtyme / & of the Eclipses that thenne happe / wherby the day bycometh derke / And of the grete eclypse that fylle atte the deth of our lord Ihesu cryste / by whiche saynt dionys was after ward conuerted / & of the vertue of the firmament & of the sterres / & how the world was mesured / & the heuen & therthe Of the kynge Tholomeus & of his prudence / of Adam & of somme other / And how clergye & the vij sciences were kepte ayenst the flood / & how all this was foūden agayn after the flood / and of the merueylles that virgyle made by his wytte & clergye / and for what cause moneye was so named & establisshed / and of the philosophres that wente thurgh the world for to lerne / what thinge is philosophye & what plato answerde therto / how moche y erthe / the mone & the sonne haue of gretenes euerych of hym self / & thesta­ges of the sterres / of their nombre / & of their ymages / the heyght & gretenes of the firmament / & of the blew heuen whiche is aboue that / & of the heuene crystalyn / & of the heuen Imperial / And as ye haue herde in thende of the [Page] heuene celestyal / & of his estate / and of god whiche maye be oueral by his glorye & his bonute / of all thise thinges ye haue herde vs recounte & telle / & rendrid to you many fayr resons briefly / ffor the prynces & other peple ben no­thyng curyous to here longe gloses without grete enten­demēt / but loue better shorte thinges / as they that ben not of longe tyme / but passe briefly / ffor in a shorte tyme they be fynysshed / & ende / And alle we shal come more shortly than we wolde to nought / ffor this world passeth fro tyme to tyme lyke as the wynde / & faylleth fro day to day / & ma­kith to euerych a lytil seiournyng / ffor it is so ful of va­nyte / that ther nys but lytil trouthe therin / and it happeth oftymes that he that weneth lengest to seiourne here / is he that leest while abydeth & that sonnest taketh his ende / and therfor I counseylle euery man / that eche payne & tra­uaylle hym self to lyue wel & truly for the litil tyme that he hath for to abyde in this world full of tribulacions & myseryes / ffor ther is none that knoweth what hour or tyme ye deth shal come renne on hym / & it ofte happeth that he or she that weneth yet to lyue & playe in this world / vj or viij or x yere / that he deyeth in lasse than fyue dayes / & fyndeth hym self dampned & cast doun in to the brennyng fornays of helle / & thenne is he in a good hour born & wel aduysed / whan at his ende he is taken in the seruyse of our lord / & nothyng in the worldly voluptuositees & dampna­ble / & that his maker hath lente to hym to vnderstōde hym & that he haue tyme & space / ffor god shal rendre to hym so riche a yefte & so fayr / that he shal haue all goodes at his abandon wyth the Ioye perdurable of heuene / The whiche [Page] to vs be graūted by the creatour & redēptour of the worlde in whom alle pyte & mercye haboundeth / & in whom be alle goodes & vertues what someuer haue ben. ben· and shal ben perdurably wythout ende /

Thus fynysshith the boke called thymage or myrrour of the world / the whiche in spekynge of god & of his werkes inestymable hath bygonne to entre in mater spekynge of hym & of his hye puissances & domynacions / and taketh here an ende / ffor in alle begynnynges & in all operacions the name of god ought to be called / As on hym / without whom alle thinges ben nought / Thenne he so ottroye and graunte to vs so to bygynne / perseuere / and fynysshe tha [...] we may be brought & receyuyd in to his blessyd glorye in heuene vnto the blessyd Trynyte. ffader. Sone. and holy gost / whiche lyueth and regneth without ende in secula seculorum / Amen /

ANd where it is so / that I haue presumed and empri­sed this forsayd translacion in to our englissh̄ and maternal tongue / In whiche I am not wel parfyght / And yet lasse in frensshe / yet I haue endeuourd me therin / atte request and desyre. coste and dispence of the honou­rable and worshipful man. Hughe Bryce Cytezeyn and Alderman of london / whiche hath sayd to me that he en­tendeth to presente it / vnto the puissaunt noble and ver­tuous lorde / My lorde hastynges. Chamberlayn vnto our souerayn lord the kynge / And his lieutenaunt of the toun of Calays & Marches there / In whiche translacion [Page] I knowleche my self symple. rude. and ygnoraūt / wherfor I humbly byseche my sayd lord Chamberlayn to perdenne me of this rude and symple translacion / how be it / I leye for myn excuse / that I haue to my power folowed my copye And as nygh̄ as to me is possible I haue made it so playn / that euery man resonable may vnderstonde it / yf he aduysedly and ententyfly rede or here it / And yf ther be faulte in mesuryng of the firmament / Sonne / Mone / or of therthe / or in ony other meruaylles herin conteyned / I beseche you not tarette the defaulte in me / but in hym that made my copye / whiche book I began first to trāslate the second day of Ianyuer the yere of our lord .M.CCCC. .lxxx. And fynysshyd the viij day of Marche the same yere / And the xxj yere of the Regne of the most Crysten kynge / kynge Edward the fourthe / vnder the Shadowe of whos noble proteccion I haue emprysed & fynysshed this sayd lytil werke and boke / Besechynge Almyghty god to be his protectour and defendour agayn alle his Ene­myes / and gyue hym grace to subdue them / and inespeci­all them that haue late enterprysed agayn right and re­son to make warre wythin his Royamme / And also to preserue and mayntene hym in longe lyf and prosperous helthe / And after this short & transitorye lyf he brynge hym and vs in to his celestyal blysse in heuene Amen /

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