A Chronicle at large and meere History of the affayres of Englande and Kinges of the same, dedu­ced from the Creation of the vvorlde, vnto the first ha­bitation of thys Islande: and so by contynuance vnto the first yere of the reigne of our most deere and souereigne Lady Queene Eliza­beth: collected out of sundry Auc­thors, whose names are expressed in the next Page of this leafe.

Anno Domini. 1569.

¶Cum priuilegio.

¶ The names of the Authors that are alleged in this History.

  • ALanus.
  • Antoninus:
  • Annales of Fraunce.
  • Augustine.
  • BEda.
  • Berosus.
  • Biblia.
  • Bishop Anthony.
  • Boccas.
  • CArion.
  • Caxton.
  • Caesars Commentaries.
  • Clarenseaux king at armes
  • Conradus Vspergensis.
  • Cornelius Tacitus.
  • Cronica Cronicorum.
  • DIodorus Siculus.
  • Dionice.
  • Domes day.
  • EDward Hall.
  • Englishe Chronicle.
  • Enguerrant.
  • Eusebius.
  • Eutropius.
  • FAbian.
  • Froissard.
  • GAaufride.
  • Geoffrey of Monmouth
  • George Lylye.
  • Gerardus Mercatour.
  • Gildas.
  • Guydo de Columna.
  • HEnry Archedeacon of Huntyngton.
  • Hector Boethus.
  • Hheronimus Marius.
  • IAmes Bergamo.
  • Iohn Lidgate.
  • Iohn Hardyng.
  • Iohn Leyland.
  • Iohn Rastell.
  • Iohn Sleydon.
  • Iohn Bale.
  • Iohn Maior the Scot.
  • Iornalensis.
  • Iosephus.
  • Isidore.
  • Iustine.
  • LAnquet.
  • MAthewe of Westmin­ster the author of the booke called the Flowres of histories.
  • Marian the Scot.
  • Marlyn.
  • NEnnius.
  • Nicholas Lira.
  • Nicholas Brodyngham.
  • PAulus Emilius.
  • Peter Pictauiensis.
  • Philip Commines.
  • Polidore.
  • Policarpus.
  • Polichronicon.
  • RAbutine Frenchman.
  • Reynulph of Chester.
  • Robert Gaguine.
  • Roger Houeden.
  • SAxo Grammaticus.
  • Sebastian Munster.
  • THomas Moore Knight.
  • Thomas Lanquet.
  • Thomas Cooper.
  • Titus Liuius.
  • Trogus Pompeius:
  • VIncencius Gallus.
  • WIllyam of Malmes­bury.
  • Willyam Thorne Monke of Cauntorbury.

To the Right Honorable Sir Wylliam Cecill Knight, principall Secreta­ry to the Queenes Maiesty, and of hir priuie Coun­sayle, Mayster of the Courtes of VVardes and Lyueries, and Chauncelour of the Vniuersitie of Cambridge: Richard Grafton Citezen of London, wysheth long health wyth encrease of honor.

DOVBTLES, YOVR Honor and other maye mar­uayle, or paraduenture mis­lyke, that after so many books alreadie set forth, bearing the names and tytles of Chroni­cles of Englande, I should ac­comber the Readers super­fluouslye wyth one mo of the same matter: Neuerthe­lesse, the contentes of thys and the sayde other former bookes being compared, your wisedome can well discerne, and other shall easely perceyue, that this la­bor of mine was neyther altogether needelesse nor vnprofitable. For among so many writers, there hath yet none to my know­ledge, published any full, playne and meere Englishe historie. For some of them of purpose meaning to write short notes in maner of Annales, commonly called Abridgementes, rather touch the tymes when things were done, then declare the ma­ner of the doyngs, leauing thereby some necessitie of larger ex­plication, and referring the desirous Reader to a further serch and study. Other haue dealt but with the reignes of a few kings, & yet therof haue made long bookes, with many tedious digres­sions, obscure descriptions & friuolous dilatations: which forme [Page] of writing if it should not be reformed, coulde not in the whole be folowed without pestering the Reader with importable Vo­lumes. Other haue intermyngled the affaires of other foreyne Nations with the matters of Englande, yea, euen where the one had no concurrencie or dependaunce of the other. Others, namely straungers, as well in their bookes written purposely of England, as in discourses enterlaced in their histories of their awne Countries, and specially concerning the actes of later times, both in matters of Religion and ciuill pollicie, partly fo­lowing common reportes, and partly vsyng enuious constructi­ons haue eyther by ignoraunce or malyce slaunderously written and erred from the manifest truth: so farre as to me seemeth a better worke could not be taken in hande, then that some lear­ned Englishe man of good intelligence would by some speciall worke, written in such a language as other Nations might for the more part best vnderstand, detect, and with plaine declara­tion of the truth, confute such errors & vntruths as are written and scattred in foreyn stories concerning this realme: For some supply of all which defectes and errors conteyned in the said for­mer Chronicles of Englande, I haue to the best of my small skill & with the vttermost of my diligence, gathered this booke, con­teinyng a complete and whole history from the first entrie and habitation of the Britons in this Islande, vnto the first yere of the reigne of our soueraigne Lady Queene Elizabeth, presently reigning. Large ynough (I trust) without tediousnesse, short ynough without darknesse, meerely and onely of Englande, not mingling the same with foreyne matters impertynent to oure state, and finally true without misreporting, so farre as the folo­wing of the best Aucthors & reporters & mine awne experi­ence (hauing of long time seene and purposely noted much ther­of) could conceaue. And now hauing ended this worke, and [Page] seking to whom I might for testification of my speciall good will present it, or for patronage and defence dedicate it, and princi­pally for all iudgement and correction to submit it: Among many I haue chosen your Mastership, moued therto by expe­rience of your curteous iudgement towardes those that trauaile to any honest purpose, rather helping & comforting their weak­nesse, then condempning their simple (but yet well meanyng) endeuours. By which your accustomed good acceptation of o­thers, J am the rather boldened to beseeche your Maistership to receaue this my worke and me, in such maner as you doe those, in whome (howsoeuer there be want of power) there wanteth no poynt of good will and seruiceable affection. Wherefore at this present, not meaning to trouble your Maistership with any farther tedious matter, my prayer shall be to God for your long prosperous estate with encrease of Gods grace, and so thereby to direct your trauayles in the seruice of the Queenes most excellent Maiestie, and the common weale of this Realme, as you may alwayes leaue to the poste­ritie happy and plentifull matter of worthy report.

To the gentle Reader.

AS I HAVE (WITH MY no little trauayle) collected this History, which I name a Chro­nicle at large and mere History of the affaires of Englande, for that the same is not intermixed with foreine affayres: so most gentle & louyng Reader, I be­seche thee take these my said traueyles not only in good part, but also pardon the rudenesse of my stile & lack of learning which I acknowledge, or otherwise the same should haue beene better furnished. But for some in­struction to the better vnderstanding of mine order ob­serued in the discourse of this History: I thought best to admonish thee, that forasmuch as this Island of Briteyn (whereof the greater part is now called England) had the same time of creatiō that al the rest of the earth had: therfore I begin this booke at the creation of the world, and so continue the same with the blessed line and issue of Adam by Seth his sonne, vnto our Sauiour Christ. And by the waye, when Brute, as by the testimonie of most aucthors, first entred this Island and named it Bri­teyne: there beginneth mine History of this Realme, and from thence lyneally I proceede to the reignes of all such as succeeded Brute in state of kings, euen to the tyme of Wylliam the Conquerour, where I begin my second volume, because in the former parte (as maye at large appeere) thys Islande being first inhabited by Brute, was afterwarde conquered by the Romaynes, and then subdued and possessed by the Saxons, & lastly [Page] by the Danes, and so was it neuer in perfect state of go­uernement, vntill the last conquest of the Normanes, from whence the Histories of times doe more plenti­fully and plainely appeere. And in the discourse of this Historie, folowing the common opinion of the deuisi­on of this Islande in three partes made by Brute to hys three sonnes, Locryne, Albanact and Camber, that is to say, of the part nowe called Englande vnto Locryne his eldest sonne, and of that part nowe called Scotlande vnto Albanact his second sonne, and of that part nowe called Wales to Camber hys thirde sonne, of whose name the same part is called to thys day in welshe Cam­bry. Forasmuch, I say, as before this deuision, this Island of Briteyn was but one entier Isle, therefore professing to write an History of the Princes of this part, now cal­led Englande: I thought it not meete vtterly to omit Scotland, being a part of this Isle of Briteyn: And ther­fore in order as the Britones reigned, so I note also the succession of the kings of Scotlande, wherein I doe not professe to write of them any speciall Historie, farther then they had to doe with the kings of this Realme, or the kinges with them, but with a briefe recytall of their kings names & time of their reignes to passe them ouer.

I haue also to admonishe you concerning the num­bers that stande in the margent of this booke, from the creation of the worlde to the birth of Christ, hauing a lyne stryken betweene them. Those numbers that are aboue the lyne, are the yeres of the worlde from the creation: And those vnder the line, are the yeres before Christ. But after the comming of Christ, then the vp­permost numbers are the yeres of Christ, and the ne­thermost [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] are the yeres of euery seuerall king, and so it continueth to the ende of the booke.

Here also I must aduertise you that in the computa­tion of yeres, I folow the accompt of the Hebrues, the which I take to be most true, the which accompt, I haue at large set forth in the. 72. page of my first Volume.

Also in the ende of this booke, ye shall finde an ex­act table, wherein is expressed not onelye the reigne of euery king of this realme, sithen the time that the City of London hath beene gouerned by Bailifes, Maiors and Shrifes, and the day and yere that they first entred into their seuerall reignes: but also the names of those that then were and euer sithence haue beene Maiors and Shiriefes of London, with the yeres, monethes and dayes of their entrie into their seuerall charge. Also I haue placed in this booke two seuerall Tables, the one in the ende of the first volume, and before the conquest, which I haue deuided into seuen parts, according to the vij. Ages of the world, as may at large appere in the. 72. page of the said Volume as aforesaid, & the other at the end of the second and last volume, that is, from the con­quest to the reigne of our Souereigne Ladye Queene Elizabeth, the which Tables serue for the readye fyn­ding of anye name or speciall matter conteyned in the sayde booke, by the letter and order of the Alphabet.

And where I haue in the .xiij. yere of king Henry the first promised to place the maner & order that was first taken for the holding of the Parliament in the time of king Edwarde the thirde. I haue sithen that time for sundry good causes thought meete to omit the same, and therfore I admonishe the Reader not to looke for it.

And here to conclude most gentle Reader, I be­seeche thee louyngly and fauourablye to iudge and re­port of mee and my booke, to whose iudgement I most humbly submit the same, and such things as shall seeme to be a misse, or not so well penned and fully set foorth as by a learned and skilfullman the same might haue beene, either fauourably doe thy indeuour to amende the same, or else impute the fault to the diuersitie and variance of Aucthors, among which diffe­rences, it shall be harde to trie the truth, and thus I bid thee farewell.

Richard Grafton

Thomas N. to the Reader.

FORASMVCH AS THE EXAM­ples of good and euill doinges, in thys that the one sort doe allure to good, the other doe fraye from euill, doe tende both to one good ende in well dispo­sed mindes, it hath euer beene thought a beneficiall woorke to the societie of men to set forth in histo­rie and true report, the doings and liues of men as they haue deserued. And though vertue of it selfe be of worthynesse ynough to be loued for it selfe, and in honest mindes free from vanitie, is to her selfe sufficient recompense, yet hath God for commodi­tie of mankinde planted in nature a prayse worthye affection to be well spoken of for doing well, and shame to beare infamy for doyng euill. Thys hath made vertue cōmended to encrease: This hath restreyned those from sinne, whom conscience coulde not: This hath holden men in order for feare of the sight of men, whome the feare of God that seeth all withheld not: This hath raysed men out of drowsie idlenesse whome the sounde of Gods promises and threatnings a­waked not: This, whereby is quickened endeuour to lyue after death, is the very proofe in nature, that mans minde confesseth and hopeth for immortality.

As true reporting therfore auayleth to the encrease of well doing, so good ac­ceptation is profitable to the furtheraunce of the true reporters labour, and is the verie recompense that euerye honest trauayler in any good worke shall be sure to finde at the hands of euery one that feareth not to heere shame for his euill deedes.

And as it is reason that good be done to him that doth good to many, so where the author and gatherer of this woorke hath with his honest labors made the no­ble actes and good deseruings of many to liue in good memorie, so I thought it not reason, specially hauing among infinite other receaued commoditie by his labors, that his owne well doyngs should altogether dye in forgetfulnesse. I must there­fore good Reader, to the intent to prouoke thy fauourable receauing and con­struyng of thys worke, put thee in remembraunce how manye wayes the great la­bors of this man susteyned with great charge and perilles, haue bene to vs profita­ble, that we be not to him vnthankfull. It hath suffised him to deserue well, it shall not suffise vs to receaue without receauing well, that is, to the encouragement of him and other to deserue well. That which he of modestie maye not vtter, we of honestie maye not hide. This therefore I am to affirme, because I knowe it, and the more assuredly to affirme because many moe knowe it, and most reasonably to allege because the whole Realme hath profite by it, that the man hath not spent one quarter of hys lyfe to his owne ease or commoditie, but as a good Citezen for the benefite of the Citie of London, as a good Englisheman for the profite of the Realme of Englande, and as a good Christian for the furtheraunce of true religi­on. The Bible in English, that vnvaluable Iewell, we haue by his trauayle, first with his charge and attendaunce procuring the translation thereof, then sundrie times copying the same out with his owne hande, thirdly printing it in Fraunce with his great expense and perill, when the rage of those holy fathers which then enuyed Christian men christianity, not only would not suffer it to be done in England, but also procured the same beyng printed to be attached in Fraunce & openly burned, himselfe hardly escaping with his life. Not discouraged herewith, but still caried with zeale to doe good, he attempted the woorke againe, and to Gods great praise and to the edification of Christes Church, performed it. Sithence that, how benefi­ciall he hath beene in furthering good wittes to learning, in setting learned wittes to working, because the rehearsall in particularitie cannot but haue some affinitie with exprobration, I leaue to their remembraunce that haue tasted of it, and shall be mooued in their conscience where it maye doe him good, to testifie it. But the [Page] Citie of London may not forget, or forgetting may not be vntolde of it, or well re­membring may not suppresse it, that moe maye be mooued by his example and their thankfulnesse, to be suche Citezens as he hath beene, how he hath trauayled in their affayres from time to time, as if anye priuate man among them had but a seruaunt or factor of such faythfulnesse, policie and painefulnesse, as he hath shewed himselfe for them all, it should not for shame be forgotten, I will not saye vnrecompensed. Who knoweth not his diligence in laboring for and attending on that noble worke of that most blessed Prince, King, yea saint, Edwarde the sixt, in erecting the Hospi­talles? his labors and expences in ouerseing the same beyng erected, preferring it be­fore all his awne businesse to his great hinderaunce? It is proueable ynough if any will be so past honest thankfulnesse to denie it. And nowe lastly, beside a number of good bookes by him published, he hath for the whole realme gathered thys Chro­nycle of Englande, wherein thou mayest readily see with small trauayle and coste that which heretofore scattered in manye woorkes was chargeable to get and trou­blesome to finde, beside very much that in none heretofore hath beene vttered.

In this he hath brought things vnknowne from darknesse, vntrue reportes from error, confusion of affayres from disorder, impertynent tediousnesse to reasonable proportion, and hath made a large, playne, true and meere historie of this Realme, wherby men may be certified of truth, the Reader may haue delitefull & profitable knowlege: our Countrie men and the subiects, but specially the princes therof, dely­uered from slaunderous reportes of foreyne writers: Kings maye learne to depende vpon God, and acknowlege his gouernaunce in their protection: the nobilitie may reade the true honor of their auncestours: The Ecclesiasticall state maye learne to abhorre trayterous practises and indignities done against kings by the Popishe vsur­ping Clergie: high and lowe may shonne rebellions by their dreadfull effectes, and beware how they attempt against right, how vnhable soeuer the person be that bea­reth it: we all may be warned to thanke God for the most vertuous, wise and peace­able gouernement that we now enioye in comparison of terrible times heretofore: Eche man maye haue a glasse to see things past, whereby to iudge iustly of thinges present and wisely of things to come; To beholde the beautie of vertue and defor­mitie of vice: what sweetenesse remayneth after well doing, what stinges of repen­taunce euill doing leaueth: Men of elder honor, maye learne not to deface their forefathers prayse: The newer sort maye seeke to bring light and dignitie to their houses: and finally all men in seing the course of Gods doings, may learne to dread his iudgementes and loue his prouidence: maye see how good doings be defended, euill doings and wrongs reuenged, bloud with bloud, violence with violence, iniu­ries with miseries, and so growe into an affection to geue to eache matter his right iudgement, to eche superiour his right duetie, to eche other that which iustice or charitie wylleth, and to all well doers, & among others to this setter forth of so ma­ny well doyngs, such thankfull acceptation as his whole life employed to common benefite hath deserued. Receaue it therfore good Reader so, as thy selfe maiest haue most benefite of it, and he may in his age thinke his youth well spent in doing good to London, Englande and Christianitie. And aboue all things forget not, to geue God thankes for the Queenes maiesties most gracious reigne, so farre in comparison exceeding the tymes that here thou readest of: And beseeche him long to preserue her, without or after whome there is great daunger and small hope: and specially let euery one endeuour for himselfe, not to moue God for our sinnes to cal her home from vs to him to hastily:

Sera at in coelum redeat, diu (que)
Loeta vt intersit populo Britanno,
Neu sinat hostes equitare inultos,
Se duce, Christi.

The first Age, and first part of this Chronicle.


The first Age

IN the beginning God made Hea­uen and Earth:Moses. and Moses the deuine Pro­phet and Historiographer (who was before the incarnation of Iesu Christ. 1569.Creation of the World. yeres) sheweth vs howe that GOD deuided hys woorke of Creation into .vj. dayes.

¶ The first day he made the Light,The .j. daye and deuided the same from the darcknesse, and the light he called Daye, and the darcknesse Night.

¶ The seconde day he ordeyned the Fir­mament to be betweene the Waters,The .ij. day the which deuided the waters from the waters, that is to saye, those that are a­boue from them that are beneath.

¶ The thirde daye he gathered all the waters together that couered the face of the Earth into one place, that the earth might be drie,The .iij. day and that it might bring foorth Herbes, and Trees.

¶ The fourth day he beutified the Firmament with lights,The .4. day and ordeyned the Sonne to shine in the daye, and the Moone and Starres in the night.

¶ The fift daye he Created the Fishes in the Water,The .v. day and Fowles vpon the Earth.

¶ The sixt day he Created Beastes, euery one in his kinde:The vj. day and the same day (as the holy Scriptures doe witnesse) when the Heauen, the Earth, and [Page 2] all the furnitures thereof,Creation of Man. were created and made, God then of the slyme of the Earth made Man, that most excellent Creature vnto his awne likenesse, and similitude,Genesis .j. and breathed into him the breath of lyfe. Thus was Heauen and Earth finished with all their Apparell in sixe dayes, and the seuenth day God rested from his labors and sanctified the same,The vij. day and commaunded it to be kept as his holy Sabaoth.

3962/1 ¶After that GOD had created Man (as afore saide) he then gaue vnto him such grace that without any instructions, but onely with the endowment of his originall righteousnesse, he was perfectly learned and seene in all the liberall Artes and Sciences. He was also endewed with the knowledge of all Herbes, Trees, Metalles, Stones, Birdes, Beastes, Fowles, Fishes, Wormes, and all other Creatures. Also God gaue vnto him power ouer all things that were vpon the Earth, and in the Sea, so that vnto all Beastes, Fishes, and Foules, he gaue a proper and conueniēt name according to their natures, euē in such sort as they are called at this day. Then was he brought by the Almightie Lorde into the pleasant place of Paradise replenished wyth all delights and pleasures,S. Augustin the felicitie of which place Saint Augustine doth de­scribe in this maner.

ParadiseMan lyued in Paradise as he would, so long as he willed that God commaunded, he lyued hauing the fruition of God, of whome came his goodnesse, he lyued wanting no­thing. Hauing in his power withall, so to lyue continually. Meate was euer ready and at hand bicause he should not be hungry, and drinke for that he should not thrust: and the trée of lyfe, that age shoulde not consume and ende his lyfe. No corruption was their ey­ther in his body or came of his body, which was to the lothsomnesse or annoyance of any of his senses. He feared neither inward diseases nor outward violence. In his fleshe was most perfite health, and in euerie part of his soule no lesse tranquilitie and quietnesse. As in Paradise no griefe was felt through heat or colde, so likewise to the inhabitours thereof happened there nothing through vnlaufull desire, or feare, that might be to the impech­ment of his good and godly enclined will. In him was there no sorowfulnesse at all, nor yet any vaine mirth or gladnesse. True ioy was in him, continued by God, towards whome there issued a burning Charite out of a pure hart, a good conscience and an vnfayned faith: Betwéene the Man and the Woman, there was semblably a faithfull societie, procéeding of verteous and honest looue, and agréeable watching of minde and bodye: and finally a kéeping of Gods commaundements without griefe or grudging, to wéete, that of all the trees in Paradise he might laufully eate, so that he absteyned from the trée of the know­ledge of good and euill. Hitherto Saint Augustine.

¶Then God perceyuing that as yet there was no creature made like vn­to man which might be an helper and companion vnto him, he forthwith cast Adam into a slumber, and tooke a rib out of his side, filling the place with flesh,Creacion of the Womā whereof he made the Woman, and named her Heuah, or Eue (that is to say, lyue or be lyuing) and brought her vnto him, whome when Adam sawe, he sayde: This is novv bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh, she shall be called Wo­man, bicause she is taken out of the Man: vvherefore Man shall forsake his father and mother and cleaue vnto his Wyfe, and they tvvo shall be one flesh. And the Lord blessed and sayde vnto them. Increase and multiplie, and fill the earth and subdue it, and be ye Lorde ouer the Fishes of the Sea, the Fovvles of the aire, and of all the Beastes that moue on the earth.

¶But after that Man was placed in the highe felicitie as aforesayde, he forgetting God,The fall of Lucifer. through the craft and subtiltie of the Serpent (which a little before was driuen oute of Heauen) and by the prouocation of the Woman, [Page 3] broke the commaundement, geuen to him by God,Gene. iij. wherfore he with Eue his wyfe were driuen out of Paradise and made subiect to death, Sinne and all kindes of miserie: For the earth was restrayned, that it should no more bring foorth fruit of it selfe, but that by the sweate and painefull labors of theyr bo­dies, they should trauaile and leade their lyues. Then also came sicknesse vp­on them, and heate and colde began to assayle their tender bodyes. For after they began to sinne, God did open the power of Sathan,Gene. iij. but yet against him of the seede of the Woman: he promised that Christ should come and destroy his power, and deliuer vs from his thraldome, death and sinne. This was the first promulgation of the Gospell, at which tyme began the kingdome of Christ and the Church.Adam and Eue, ye first of Christes Church. And so Adam and Eue tooke comfort of the promise that was made of Christes comming, and of these two persons the Church first began.

¶And when Adam was thus for his disobedience and transgression cast out of Paradise, he fell to labour and tilling of the ground, according as al­mightie God had sayd vnto him, and soone after he knew his wyfe Eue (and as Iames Philip of Bergamo sayth,Iames Phil. in the suppliment of his Chronicles) he begat on her .xv. 15/3959 yeres after the creation of the Worlde two Children at one tyme, a Sonne and a Daughter, that is to say, Cain, and Calmana, and .xv. yeres next following which was the .xxx. yere of the creation of the worlde, 30/3929 he begat againe at one tyme a Sonne and a Daughter, that is to say, Abell, and Delbora.

¶ The aforesayde two brethren Cain, and Abell, were the first founders of two contrarie Cities, Babell, & Ierusalem,Babel, Ie­rusalem. by the one is vnderstand Con­fusion, and by the other, the vision of peace. Their father taught them to feare God, and to worship him with sacrifices. Cain was of a naughtye and vn­happie disposition, geuen vnto al vice and mischiefe, and was the first that til­led the earth, he offered alwayes the worst and most vile things vnto GOD: But Abell the yonger Brother, was of contrarye conditions: he gaue him­selfe to all vertue, and in all things that he went about, he thought God to be present, his occupation was the keping of Beastes, and he euer offred vn­to God of the best things that he had. For in their Sacrifices his offering was euermore consumed with fire from Heauen, but his brother Cains re­mayned vntouched: wherefore Cain (perceyuing that his brothers doyng, was more acceptable before God than his) enuied him, and ought him most damnable hatred and malice, and in the ende most cruellye and shamefullye murdered and slue him.

¶But Adam heering of the death of his sonne Abell whom he loued most derely, mourned and lamented his death,Adam mour­ned for the death of Abel an hundreth yere. and continued mourning for him by the space of one hundred yere. And as sayth Nicholas de Lira vpon the iiij. of Gene: Adam did with himselfe decree neuer more to haue knowne Eue his wyfe: But afterward by Gods speciall will and prouidence, he did knowe her, to the intent that of that lyne our Sauiour Christ should come, and not of the liue of cursed Cain.

¶And after that Adam had knowne his wyfe againe,131/3832 Seth. Gene. iiij. he begat on her his third sonne named Seth, when he was yeres of age, of whom came and discended Noe, Abraham, Isaac, Iacob, Dauid, and consequentlye our Sauiour Iesu Christ. And Adam (as saith Iames Philip) had beside Cain, [Page 4] Abell, Seth, and theyr sisters, other .xxx. Children, and liued yere.

¶Now after yt Cain had done this horrible murther aforesayd, he fled frō his father,Enoch the first Citie in the worlde. and builded a Citie in the Orient, which was the first Citie in the world, and named it Enoch, after the name of his first begotten sonne, whom he begat of his sister Calmana, in the lande of Inde after he had taken her to wife, as it was laufull for him then to doo for the multiplication and encrease of the worlde, which Calmana was borne .xv. yeres after the creation of the worlde as Cain himselfe was.S. August. And as Saint Augustine in his booke of the Ci­tie of God sayth, that as it was then laufull for the brother to take the sister to wyfe for the encrease of the worlde, so is it now most damnable to attempt or do the lyke, for that we are by the expresse worde of God prohibited and for­bidden so to doo. This Cain was a great toyler and moyler in the earth, but very couetous and full of malice withall, at the prosperitie of any other, which was the onely cause that he murdered and slue his awne onelye brother Abell as aforesaide:Cain ye first Murtherer. For the which fratricide or brother murthering, he was by the sentence of almighty God publyshed for a vagabond and a ronnagate,Gene. iiij. & so re­puted and taken all the dayes of his lyfe, as afterward it shall more plainelye appeere in the discription, or rather in the Historie of Abell. Of the foresaide Enoch came afterward a great Nacion of people, but they were very wicked full of sinne, and aboue all other thinges they did exceede in the Sinne of the flesh, which was the greatest cause that his lyne did so wonderfullye encrease and multiplie. This Cain for that God had pronounced him to be accurssed, and sayde that the Earth should not yeelde vnto him any fruite, as it is expres­sed in the .iiij of Gene:Gene. iiij. For that cause he left off from the toyle and labor of the Earth, the which before he did exercise, and sought out by his wicked imagina­tion the Mathematicall artes.Cain the in­uenter of the Mathemati­call artes. And although he found in that trauaile great vexation of mynd, and businesse, yet as the paine ceassed not, so did not his aua­ricious couetous and greedye desire cease, by rapyne, spoyle, or by any other wicked meane to attaine to treasure and ryches, to the enryching of himselfe, without regarde or respect by what meane so euer he came by the same, not sparing neyther the robbery nor spoyle of his people, nor yet the robbery of his children, nor of his childers children, and all that came of them or any of them: Of the which mischiefes he was a most chiefe and principall doctor. Also he altered and chaunged the honest and simple doings that before tyme had bene vsed by honest and good men in their exchaunges and traffiques, and caused all things to be done by weyghts and measures, and brought in craft and cor­ruption.

¶The name of Cain by interpretation is as much to say as possession, and as Saint Augustine sayth in his .xv.S. Augustin Booke of the Citie of God in the .xvij. Chapter: Cain might well be called possession, for in a little tyme he and his posteritie possessed in a manner the whole Earth, but in the ende they were drouned and destroyed by Noes flood.

3929/30 ¶Abell the sonne of Adam and brother to Cain borne with hys syster Delbora in the .xxx. yere of the age of his father Adam, that is to saye .xv. yere after Cain. This Abell in his tender age learned the feare of God and his iustice, in such sort that in all his doings and affaires, he imagined God to be present, and that he coulde doe nothing out of Gods sight and know­ledge, and therfore he endeuored himselfe to all vertue and good liuyng, and [Page 5] did sacrifice vnto God of all the chiefest and best of his Cattell. And there­fore almightie God had respect and regarde vnto him, and did multiplie and encrease his Cattell and goodes, which was the cause that his brother Cain enuied him. For the saide Cain, being a laborer & toyler of the earth, and yet notwithstanding insaciable, greedye, and couetous coulde not abide to see his brother so greatly to prosper and encrease, and therefore by the prouo­cation of the Deuill, rather desiring to be depriued of all consolation and com­fort, then to lyue and remaine in the fellowship and companie of his owne naturall and onely brother Abell, on a tyme sayde thus vnto his sayde bro­ther Abell, brother let vs go foorth into the Fieldes: To the which innocent Abell not thinking of any guile or deceit did consent.Abell slain. And when they were to­gether alone, sodainely Cain ranne vpon him and slue him, the sayde Abell being then one hundred yeres of age,Abell the first martyr the which Abell is accounted the first Martir, and the first that possessed Paradise. Cooper.

¶Afterward God called Cain and curssed him, saying: Cain,Gene. iiij. Cain accur­sed of God. what hast thou done? The voyce of thy brothers blood is come vp from the earth be­fore me, thou shalt be curssed vpon the earth that did open and receiue at thy hand the blood of thy brother Abell. And when thou shalt labour the earth it shall not yeelde to thee any fruit. Thou shalt be as a Varabond and fugitiue vpon the earth all the dayes of thy lyfe. And God set a signe vpon Cain, that is to saye a most horrible trembling and quaking of all the members and partes of his bodye and (as sayeth Lira vpon the .iiij.Lira. of Genesis) God did print a signe or marke in his forehed or face, to ye intent he should be knowne vnto all nations, and that he should not be slaine by chaunce where so euer he should be found.

¶After the death of Abell and banishment of Cain, 130/3829 Adam when he was (as aforesayde) yeres of age begat Seth, and lyued after .viij.C. yeres: which Seth as aforesayde gaue himselfe to all vertue and to the feare of God. Of this Seth (as is aforesayde) the holy Fathers were be­gotten, whose posteritie continued, but the posteritie of Cain perished in the flood as shall appeere.

¶Iosephus writeth that Adam & Seth made two Columnes or Pillers,Iosephus one of Brasse, the other of Stone, for they foreseing that the worlde should perishe and be consumed, once by water, as it came to passe at the generall flood, and afterward by fyre, which tyme is yet to come, graued in the sayde Pillers such things as they vnderstood of the glorie of almightie God, to the intent that Gods most holy worde might be preserued from perishing, and that the same should remaine to their posteritie, that those yt followed might know what God had done in the former time. And he also writeth that Adam and Seth deuyded the yere into .xij. Monethes,Adam and Seth deui­ded the yere into .xij. Mo­nethes. and did first obserue and teache the course of the Celestial bodies, for that it was impossible that mans wyt could attaine to so high and difficile things, vnlesse God almightie had shewed and declared the knowledge thereof to Adam in his creation.

¶By Abell which by interpretation is Sorow, or death, and by Seth,Abell signifi­eth Sorow or death. Seth signifi­eth Resur­rection. which by interpretation, is Resurrection, is signified the death and resur­rection of Christ, as sayth Saint Augustine in his .xv. Booke of the Citie of God. Chap. xviii.

¶Seth in the .C.v. yere of his Age begat Enos, 236/3227 and lyued after that [Page 6] viij.C. yeres. This Enos was one that altogither sought the glorie and will of God, not as many other good fathers did, but as one that most speciallye and wholy dedicated himselfe to the aduancement of Gods highe honor and glorie, and lyued not after the worldly felicitie, but after the will of God, as S. Austine writeth of him in the booke last before alleaged.

327/3636 ¶Enos the sonne of Seth in the .xcj. yere of his age begat kenan, after whose birth he liued .vij.C.xv. yeres.

395/3564 ¶Kenan the sonne of Enos in the .lxx. yeare of his age begat Malalehel, after whose birth he liued .viij.C.xl. yeres. This kenan was the fourth in order of the fathers from Adam in the Genealogie of the righteous men, but begotten in the thirde generation. For in the first generation Seth was borne, in the seconde Enos, in the thirde kenan, in the fourth Malalehel, in the fift Iared, in the sixt Enoch, in the seuenth Mathusalem, in the eyght Lamech, and in the ninth was Noe borne, who was the tenth from Adam: For according to the mind of S. Augustine, the beginning of Adam was no generation, but a formation: Neuerthelesse, the plasmation or creation of Adam is reconed among the generations, where he is accounted in the first, and Seth in the seconde, and so consequently, which maner is most vsed.

460/3499 ¶Malalehel the sonne of kenan in the .lxv. yere of his age, begat Iareth or Iared & liued after .viij.C. yeres: But here (sayth Lanquet) that which Macrobius doth only attribute vnto the Egiptians (meaning the ac­count of yeares) were better accounted by the Hebrues, among whom there was alwayes a certaine course of the yere which was obserued by ye circuite of the Sonne.Tho yeare, Moneth, and course of the Sonne and Moone, was at the begin­ning, as it is now. The yere was then of .xij. moneths as it is now. The moneth conteyned the same time that it doth now. The whole course of the Sonne & Moone was then, as it is now. The day .xxiiij. houres, as it is now, whereby worthily are refused ye errors of them which holde that the yeres of that age were ten times shorter than they are now, the which opinions the holy scrip­tures condemne to be false. For the Scripture sayth that the floud began in the .vj.C. yere of the lyfe of Noe, in the .xvij. day of the seconde moneth, and ceassed the .xx. daye of the same moneth in the yeare following, in the which place the .xij. monethes is read, whereby it appereth that there was then no fewer monethes than is now.Lanquet. And as at this time, men liued much longer than we do now: so is it true that they had far greater bodyes & were of much more strength than we are now.S. August. S. Augustine writeth (as Lanquet sayth) that he himselfe sawe in Vtica (a citie in Africa) the iawe tooth of a man of such exceeding greatnesse that it might well haue made an hundreth of oure teeth, and there he alleageth the sentence of Plinie, who sayth, that the lon­ger that time passeth, the lesser bodyes shall be engendred. And I the writer and collector of this whole Booke,A straunge Tooth. and Hystorie, did see the tenth daye of March .1564. the checke tooth of a man, and had the same in my hande, which was as great as a Hennes egge, and the same did wey ten ounces of Troy weight. And the skull of the same man, as I am credibly informed, is extant and to be seene which will holde fiue pecks of wheate, and the shinne bone of the same man is also to be seene, which is reported to be six foote in length, and of a marueylous greatnesse.

622/3337 ¶ Iareth, or Iared, the sonne of Malalehel in the C.lxij. yere of his age begat Enoch, after the birth of whome he lyued .viij.C. yeares. And in thys [Page 7] time the children of Seth suffered much violence and wrong of the children of Cain.

¶ Enoch the sonne of Iareth or Iared in the .lxv. 688/3275 yere of his age be­gat Mathusalah, and liued after .iij.C. yeres. This Mathusalah or Mathu­salem, as the holy scripture sayth, was of longest lyfe, and being borne in the viij. generation from Adam, did prefigurate the .viij. age of the world, which shall be the time of the Resurrection, which shall begin in the last day, and ne­uer after shall haue ende.

¶ Mathusalem or Mathusalah in the .C.lxxxvij. 874/3085 yere of his lyfe begat Lamech, after whose birth he liued .vij.C.lxxxij. yeares, and dyed in the yeare of the floud. He was borne in the tyme when wickednesse and malice began to abound vpon the earth, not onely amongst the children of Cain, but also among those which were called the children of the Godly. This Lamech was not onely a iust man, but also a Prophet, for he was the father of Noe, and he prophesyed of him and sayde, he shall comfort vs from the workes and labours of our handes in the earth which the Lorde hath curssed. And La­mech when he had lyued .C.lxxxij. yeres he begat Noe.

¶ Noe, when he was fiue .C. yeres of age, begat Sem, Cham, 1659/2404 and Ia­phet, and here I will returne a little to the line of Cain, and shewe what cur­sed ende he came vnto, as matter by Gods sufferance,A digressiō. that with such measure as himselfe had measured to his only & owne naturall brother, whom he had most cruelly murthered, so he likewise at the last was murthered himselfe, and that by one that proceeded out of his owne lyne.

IN The beginning of the worlde most people went naked, sauing that they were partly couered with the skinnes of some beast, & at that tyme they had no dwelling houses to defend them, neyther from the colde, nor yet from the heate, but after their owne phantasies they made with prety boughes and twigs of trees, such little pretye lodgings, as we call Cabons, or Boothes. And it so chaunced that Cain being verye olde and also werye, happened one day to lay him downe to rest in a bush that was enclosed with grene boughes as aforesaid. And Lamech one of the kindred of Cain in ye fift degree, who by reason of his great age had lost his sight, & yet at a time was disposed to go a­broad to kill some wilde Beast, and taking his Bow and Arrowes, he tooke also with him a little boy to lead and direct him where he might haue a good shot. And when they drew somewhat neare vnto the bush where Cain lay, the little boye espying the bush to wag, and seeing as it were a great thing in the midst thereof, he imagined that there lay some wilde beast, and the boy beyng afraid therof gaue knowledge vnto old father Lamech, that in a bush stāding right before him and not farre off, there lay a great and terrible beast. And Lamech vpon the report of the child stretched out his arme & drew a streight draught towarde the bush, where he slew his cosin Cain,Cain slaine that lay in the same after he had liued yeres, as sayth Philo. Of this ye maye reade more in Nicholas de Lira vpon the fourth Chap. of Genesis.

¶ This Lamech as sayth Raynulph Monke of Chester, was the .vij.Ranulphus in degree from Adam, and was of the lyne of Cain, and the most shrewe, for he was the first that brought in Bigamye and spousebreach against the lawe of God and nature, and against Gods owne doome.

¶And this Lamech had a sonne called Iuball or Iabell, who was the first [Page 8] inuenter of the Portatiue tents or lodgings,Portatiue tents. Cattaile de­uided one from another. the which first was practised and vsed by the Sepeheards and keepers of Cattell. And he also was the first that deuyded the Lambes from the Sheepe, and one kinde of Cattell from another.

Tuball. Musick.¶The same Lamech had also another sonne named Tuball, who was a great louer of Musick, and was the first inuenter of proporcions and mea­sures: But he was not the maker of the Instruments, for that was inuen­ted long time after, in the time of Pithagoras. And this Tuball by the sounde of the Hammers that Tubalcaim his Brother being a Smith did vse, did imagine the distinction of soundes.Gene. iiij. Genesis. iiij.

Tubalcaim.¶Tubalcaim the second sonne of Lamech was a warrelike Man, and be­gotten of his Wyfe Sela, this Man was a louer and inuenter of all those things that were meete or necessarie for the warres:Forging of Iron. he founde out the Arte of forging of Iron. He and his brother Tuball foreseeing the two destruc­tions of the worlde that were to come, the one by water and the other by fire did erect two great Columnes or rounde Pillers, the one of brent Brick to defende the fyre, and the other of Marble to defende the water: and therein did graue the Artes and Sciences that were by them inuented: This Tu­balcaim was the last of the lyne of Cain.

Noemia.¶Noemia the daughter of Lamech and of Sela the Sister of Tubal­caim did first finde out the vse of Linnen and Wollen, & the Spinning, Car­ding and weauing of the same, and made it into cloth, both for lightnesse and warmenesse, where before they did weare beastes skinnes as is mencioned in Cronica Cronicarum.

BVT Now to returne again to the line of the iust, where before mencion is made that Iared begat Enoch & Enoch begat Mathusalem, the sayde Enoch about this time was by God taken vp into heauen,Enoch taken vp into Hea­uen. which thing doth euidently set foorth vnto vs the immortalitie that remaineth after this lyfe, and that God wil saue those that are righteous and condemne them that are wicked.

¶Also before is vttered that Mathusalem begat Lamech, not that same Lamech of whome the storie last before is written, for he came of the lyne of Cain, but this Lamech whereof mencion is nowe made came of the lyne of Seth, and the same begat Noe, as a foresayde.

1559/2404 NOE The sonne of Lamech which came of the lyne of the iust, when he was .v.C. yeres of age, begat Sem, Cham, and Iaphet, not all at one time,Sem, Ham, Iaphet. but he was so olde before he begat any of them. This Noe was a iust & righteous Man & one that loued and feared God, by the which he ob­teined the blessing & fauor of almightie God. And after the recitall of the birth of the sonnes of Noe, foorthwith the holy Scripture declareth the occasion of the Flood, bicause sayeth almightie God, the worlde began to waxe wicked. And amonge other the great vices of the Worlde,The causes of the flood. there is recyted the con­tempt of God, Adulterie, Volupteousnesse and pleasure of the body, for thus the text hath: VVhen that Men began to multiply vpon the earth and brought foorth Daughters, the Children of God, seing the Daughters of men to be faire, tooke them to their vvyues.

¶ The holy Scripture calleth the children of God all those which discen­ded from Seth, the thirde sonne of Adam. And those the children of men [Page 9] that discended from Cain the first sonne of Adam. For Adam commaunded that the children of Seth should in no wise coople with the children of Cain, which was obserued of a long time, vntill that the zeale and loue of vertue de­cayed. And God perceyuing thereby that the wickednesse of man was great vpon the Earth, repented him that he had made man, not that there is any such passion in God, but that the Scripture so speaketh to vs after our fa­milier and worldlye maner: and therefore he threatned a destruction to the worlde by a flood, and would therefore that Noe should declare this vnto the people. C.xx. yeres before it should come to passe. In the meane tyme God commaunded Noe that he should build an Arke, that should contein in length CCC. Cubites Geometricall, euery Cubite conteyning as S. Augustine saith vj. common Cubits, which is .ix. feete, and so it was in length, two thousand, seuen hundred feete. In bredth it was fiftie Cubites, which was foure hun­dred fiftie feete, and in deepenesse from the vpper decke to the bottome .xxx. Cubits, which was two hundred seuentie feete,Cooper. and the roofe ouer it was one Cubite highe, which was .ix. feete. Cooper. This Arke was not by mannes power brought into the Sea, but by the course of the waters rysing vp, it was borne away: and rather by diuine prouidence, than by mans pol­lecye, it was gouerned from running to wreck. And Noe began to build this Arke in the .v.C.xxiij. yere of his age, and before the flood, as Berosus sayth,Berosus. lxxviij. yeres.

¶ In the .vj.C. yere of the lyfe of Noe, and the second moneth, God saide vnto him yt after .vij. dayes this flood should come, in which space he brought into the Arke his stuffe, prouision and all other necessarye thinges for him, whereat euery man laughed, & toke him as one out of his wit. But finally, as it is written in the Gospell, they were eating and drinking, they maryed and were maried euen vnto the day that Noe entred into the Arke, and woulde not know it euen vntill the flood came and destroyed them all. For Noe she­wed it vnto them, aswell in worde as in deede, and the building of the Arke was also a certaine declaration vnto them: But they were both without faith and the feare of God, for which cause they were worthely punished. Thus the time passing the seuenth day came, & that day Noe with his wife and his three sonnes and their wyues entred the Arke. And beholde,A miracle most won­derfull. sodeinlye came together vnto him Beastes of all kindes, not brought thither by mā, but euen by the miracle of God: neyther did Noe take them, but suffered them as they came to enter into the Arke, neyther came there anye moe than of vncleane beastes two, a Male and a Female. Of cleane beastes seuen, foure Males, and three Females, of the which one Male was reserued for Sacrifice after the flood, the residue were kept for generation.

¶ Thus they being entered, the Lord shut the doore of the Arke the .xvij. 1656/2307 day of the second Moneth. And behold incontinent the springs of the Sea burst out, the windowes of Heauen were opened,The flood of Noe terri­ble. the raine fell continuallye xl. dayes and .xl. nights, and the waters swelled and rose aboue all Moun­taines .xv. Cubits. All liuing creatures dyed, except Fish and such as might endure in the bowels of the earth. The waters encreased .C.l. dayes, and on the .xvij. day of October the Arke stacke vppon the Mountaynes of Ar­meny. The last day of Ianuarie, Noe opened a window, and put foorth a Crowe, which was euer goyng and comming vntill such time as the waters [Page 10] were dryed vpon the earth, and then came no more againe. After .vij. dayes he put foorth a Doue, which for that she could finde no resting place, came a­gaine at night. And after this, he taryed yet other .vij. dayes, and put foorth the Doue again, which at night returned vnto him and brought in her mouth a braunch of an Oliue tree. And he taried yet other .vij. dayes and sent foorth the Doue againe, but then she returned no more. Howbeit, yet he would not issue out, but remayned for the commaundement of the Lord, who commaun­ded him not to go foorth vntill the .xvij. day of the second Moneth, wherby it appereth that he remayned a iust yere and ten dayes in the Arke.

Berosus.¶ Berosus the Chaldean wryteth of this flood in maner following. Be­fore (sayth he) the famous flood of waters came, whereby the whole worlde perished, there preceded many yeres, which of our Chaldeans were faithful­ly obserued. They wryte that about Libanum was a great Citie of Gyantes called Enoch, who were Lordes of the worlde from the rising of the Sonne vnto the setting of the same (that is from the East vnto the West) and they trusting in their strength and hougenesse of their bodyes, with armour that they had inuented, oppressed all men. They deuised Tents, Musicall Instru­ments, and all delicacies: They fed of Mans flesh and accompanied comonly with their Mothers, Daughters, Sisters, Men & Beastes. There was no wickednesse which they omitted. Then many prophesied and preached that destruction should come, which they did write in stones, but they scorned all things. And there was one of these Gyants wiser than all the other in Siria, whose name was Noa: he with his three sonnes, Samo, Iapeto & Chem, and their wyues, Titea, Pandora, Noela, and Noegla, fearing this destruc­tion, which he perceyued by the Starres, began to make a Ship in fashion of an Arke .lxxviij. yeres before the flood. And in the same yere that the Ship was finished, sodeynely the Occean swelled, and all the Seas, Floods & Springs roase aboue the Mounteines with continuall raine that fell from the Heauens, whereby all mankinde perished (except Noe with his Familye) who were saued in the Ship, which the wa­ters bare vp to the tops of the Moun­taine Cordici, where in my tyme remayned part thereof, he­therto the wordes of Berosus.

Here endeth the first Age of the worlde, which is from Adam vnto the Flood of Noe, and is after the account of the Hebrewes .xvi.C.lvi. yeres, and after the .lxx. interpretors .MM.CC.xlij yeres.

The seconde Age, and seconde part of this Chronicle.


The seconde Age

WHen Noe had continued a yere in the Arke and more, 1658/2309 and the Waters being asswaged, and the Earth dryed, God com­maunded him to come foorth, vnto whome incontinent he builded an Aultare, and of­fered of all cleane Beastes and Birdes, a delectable Sacrifice. Then God blessed him and sayde: Encrease and multiplie the Earth.

¶ And after God instituted as it were a newe worlde againe, and first he gaue his Worde, and promised that he would neuer more destroy the worlde with water, and for the confirmation thereof,The Rain­bowe. he gaue the Rainebow for a sure token betwene him and man. For in that Bow is expressed both the colours of Water & Fyre, the one part being blew, and the other red, that it might be a witnesse of both the iudgements, the one past, and the other to come. Also then he graunted libertie to men to eate fleshe, which the holy Fathers before the flood neuer vsed.

¶ Moreouer,A new com­maūdemēt. God gaue a newe precept for externall thinges and com­maunded more plainely, that who so euer did shed any mans blood, his blood should be shed againe, of them, to whom laufull authoritie for the iudgement thereof was giuen (meaning the Maiestrates and Rulers) for that Man is made to the Image and similitude of God.

¶ This Noe was faythfull vnto God, and another father vnto man­kinde, [Page 12] hauing within the space of one hundreth yeres his issue wonderfullye encreased, being also throughly learned in the knowledge of deuine and hu­maine things, in the reuolution of tymes, in the Histories of the world passed: But most specially in Iustice & Religion,The worlde deuided into in partes by Noe. and he deuided the world into three parts, which he himselfe in the residue of his life traueiled and went through, leauing behind him in all places perpetuall monuments, both of his vertue, and also of his Empire. He planted the first Grape, and inuented the vse of Wyne,The plāting of the Grape first inuented by Noe. with the which he was made dronke, so that he lay dishonestly disco­uered: who being seene of Cham his sonne, the Father of Canaan, was of him scorned, and he in derision brought his two brethren to behold that sight. But they moued with shamefastnesse and honestie, couered their fathers mē ­bers and would not see them. The which when Noe perceyued, he blessed them, but Cham he would not cursse, bicause God had blessed him, and ther­fore he curssed Chanaan his Nephew the sonne of Cham, who as some sup­pose did deryde and mocke his Grandfather.

¶ This Noe liued after the Flood. CCC.L. yere, and for his sundrie be­nefites shewed vnto all Nations, they gaue vnto him diuers names, among the which, these as the most famous are celebrated. Noe, Gyges, Fenix, V­ranos, Coelus, Sol, Protheus, Ianus, Geminus, Innominus, Quirinus, Patulcius, Bacchus, Vortumnus, Chaos, Ileton, Seede of the world, and Father of all Gods and Princes. The Italians after his deceasse dedicated vnto him by the name of Vortumnus, a Temple, and worshipped him with deuine honours and ceremonies.

And also his wife Vesta, for her great prudence and worthy deserts ob­teyned these names following. Earth, Opis, Aretia, Vesta, Cybiles, the great Mother of the Gods, who taught the Maydens to kepe the holy Fire, whereof arose the error and ceremonies of the Virgines Vastalles.

¶ After the vniuersall Flood, the World by the children of Noe was short­ly replenished with people: For God or Nature neuer yet fayled the necessity of things: Of them there were many mighty nations as hereafter followeth.

Asia.¶ Sem the first sonne of Noe Prince of Asia, called also of some Melchi­sedech,Melchi­sedech. a iust and peaceable King, and priest of almightie God, from whome Christ lineally discended, possessed all Asia, with his children. For of Elam came first the Persians: Of Assur, the Assirians: Of Arpharat, the Chalde­ans: of Lud, the Lidians: and of Aram, the Sirians. Hetherto Lanquet.

¶ Asia is the thirde part of the worlde, deuided from Europa by the Sea called Bosphorus Thracius, & the great ryuer of Tanais: and from Affrique, by the famous ryuer Nilus,Cooper. and is in quantitie supposed to be as great as Europa and Affrique. Asia minor is a part of the other Asia, which is nowe called Turkey, and conteyneth in it these Realmes, Pontus, Bithinia, Phri­gia, Coria, Lycia, Lidia, and Licaonia. Cooper.

Affrica.¶ Cham the seconde sonne of Noe, Prince of Aphrick called also Innuus, Incumbus, Syluanus, Pana, Saturne of Egypt, the rayser and spreder of the wickednesse punished with the Flood, inhabited the South part of the World with his children. Of Canaan came the Cananites: of Phuth the Li­bians: of Mesraim the Egyptians: of Chus the Ethiopians: and of Saba the Arabians.

Isidor.¶ Affrique as sayth Isidore in the .xiiij. booke of his Ethimologies, and the [Page 13] fift Chapter, doth begin at Egipt, and so passeth Southward vnto the Moun­teyne Atlas, and toward the North, the same is enclosed with the Sea Me­diterraneum, and endeth in the Sea Gadique. Some also say that it is called Affrique of Afer, the sonne of Abraham, begotten of Cetura his wyfe, which conquered that country, and named it Affrique according to his awne name. And it is the same country that we now call Barbary, wherein is the Citie of Carthage.

¶Iaphet the thirde sonne of Noe Prince of Europa,Europa. called also Iapetus Priscus, Diris, Maurus and Athlas, receyued of his father Noe for his por­cion all the countries of Europe, from the Gades, called at this time the streits of Marock, vnto the great ryuer Tanais.

¶ Europe as sayth Isidore in the .xiiij. of his Ethimologies and .iiij. Chap. beginneth at the Ryuer Tanais, and so lyeth Westwarde by the great Nor­thren Sea, vnto the ende of Spaine.Isidore. And the East part and South part of the same is ioyned vnto the great Occean Sea, and it endeth at the Isles cal­led Gades, and it is the same part of the world wherein we doe now inhabite. But Cooper sayth that Europa is deuided from Asia with the great Seas Hellespontus, Propontis, Bosphorus, Thracius, and Pontus Euxinus,Cooper. and hath the vttermost boundes in the Northest, the Riuer Tanais, and from Affrique it is deuided by the middle Sea.

¶ Of Iaphet came these Princes and Nations: Comerus Gallus, who first reigned in Italy. Magog of whome came the Scithians, and of them the Turkes. Madaus of whome sprang the Medes. Of Ianan the Greci­ans, which were called Ianes. Of Tuball the Spanyards. Of Mosoch the Moscouites, and of Tyras the Thracians.

¶ And of this Iaphet came also Brute who first inhabited this Realme,Brute. of him called Briteyn, for Iaphet begat Ianan, and Ianan begat Sethum, and he begat Siprius of whome Cypres had his first name, and he begat Sa­turnus, and he begat Iupiter, and he begat Dardanus, and he begat Erich­tonius, and he begat Tros, and he begat Assaratus, and he begat Capis, and he begat Anchises, and he begat Eneas, and he begat Askanius, and he begat Siluius, who was the father of Brute.

¶ I finde also alleged by Berosus that Noe had another sonne borne after the flood, who was named Ionithus, or Ionichus,Berosus. Ienichus ye son of Noe. which was a great Astro­nomer, and was the first that atteined to the whole scyence of Astronomie, and thereby did deuine and shew before what should after happen to the .iiij. prin­cipall Monarchies of the Worlde:Nemroth He was also Scholemaister to Nemroth who began the building of the towre of Babilon, and at that tyme all the peo­ple of the world spake but one tongue.

¶ Sem the first sonne of Noe, 1659/2304 the which some doe affirme to be the great and highe priest Melchesidech, was borne in the yere of the Worlde as appe­reth in the mergent, when his father was. D. yeres olde, and one hundreth yeres before the flood. He builded the first citie after the flood, the which hee named Salem,Ierusalem. and at this day it is called Ierusalem (as sayth Iames of Bergamo.) And of him came .xxvij. generations, and also the Patriarches, and Prophets, and finally our Sauiour and Redemer Iesu Christ. And the sayde Sem in the .C. yere of his lyfe begat Arphaxat, of whome came the Chaldeans.

[...]6 [...]4/ [...]269¶ Arphaxat in the .xxxv. yere of his Age begat Sale, of whome came the Indians.

1724/2239 ¶ Sale in the .xxx. yere of his lyfe begat Heber, and liued after that three hundreth three yeres. In the house of Heber continued the language, which at the first, and before the building of the Tower of Babilon was called Hebrue.Hebrue.

1758/2205 ¶ Heber in the .xxxiiij. yere of his lyfe begat Phalech and Iectan, and ly­ued after that yeres. Phasech is interpreted diuision, bicause it chaunced him to be borne in the tyme of the confusion of the tongues.

1788/2175 ¶ Phalech when he was .xxx. yeres of Age begat Rue, and liued after CC.ix. yeres. The first yere of the life of Rue was the first yere of the reigne of Nemroth in Babilon, where he reygned .lvj. yeres.

Here I leaue ye line of Scin and go a little foorth with ye line of Cham who begat Chus, and Chus begat Nemroth. &c 1757/2206NEMROTH The sonne of Chus, was among all the other that issued out of Noe, the mightiest and most hardiest, and he was the first that tooke vpon him the Empire and gouernement ouer his Subiects, and his abyding was at Babilon, which Citie he builded. This Nemroth enterprised the building and erecting of an houge, great, and most highe Tower made of Bricke, which was commonly called the Tower of Babell or Babilon, and he purposed that this Tower should haue extended vnto heauen, to the entent that he would make an euerlasting memory of him selfe. But after that this Tower began to be of a great heigth, and was halfe finished, God almightye willing to abate and ouerthrow the great presump­tion and enterprise of Nemroth, confounded the speches and languages of the workemen that wrought vpon the same Tower, so that no one of them vnder­stood another.

¶ But for that the foresaid Tower is by certaine writers noted to be mar­ueylous great and houge, I thought it good to note and mencion somewhat thereof vnto you. This Tower & City of Babilon was compassed with foure walles square, euery wall beyng fiftie Cubites in bredth, and two hundreth Cubites in heigth. And the length of euery of the square walles, was .xvj. Myles (after the accompt of our Myles) so that the compasse of the foure Walles were .lxiiij. Myles. And in the same Citie were one hundreth Gates of Brasse. And the sayde Towre was builded .CC.lxxij. pace highe. But some wryte that the sayde Towre was three Myle highe. And other wryte that it was fyue Myle highe and .C.lxx. paces. And was in bredth foure Myle. And throughe the middest thereof ranne the famous Ryuer Eu­phrates, whose heade spring came out of Paradice, and that the same was buylded wyth Tyle, and Pitch in stede of Morter. Ranulph, Eliot, Cooper, and other.

Ninus.¶ Ninus the thirde King of Babilon, was the sonne of Belus, the sonne of Nemroth, that was first King of Babilon, and he reigned .Lij. yeres, and maried Semyramis, which Semyramis after the death of her husband Ni­nus reigned as Queene of Babilon .xlij. yeres, but not contented with the ly­mytes and circuite of that Realme, she made a conquest of the whole countrie of Ethiope, and adioyned the same vnto her Realme of Babilon, and she at­tempted also merueylous fierce and cruell warre against the people of Inde, and by force entered into that Countrye and conquered the same, in such sort, that after that conquest the Indians neuer had other Emperour, King, nor [Page 15] other Prince but her and Alexander the great.

¶ Mesraim, otherwise called Osyris the seconde sonne of Cham, 1794/1965 was the first King of Egypt. He is called Mesraim of Moses as apereth in the .x. of Gene. And Berosus in his booke of Antiquities calleth him Osiris.Osiris. This Osiris (sayth Berosus) did find out in Affrique the vse of Wheate,Wheate. and the ma­ner of sowing, reping and dressing of the same. And afterward he came into Egypt where he inuented the Plough,Plough. and all that euer appertayned vnto husbandrie. And from thence he passed trauayling through the rude Coun­tryes and people, who fed of Acornes and fruite, and had nothing else to feede vpon: Those also he taught his inuention. And by this meanes he became a souereigne Lorde and a great ruler through the vniuersall worlde, except vn­to them which were vnder the Empire of the Babilonians.Corne, Trees, Vines. He also did first teach the Almaynes to sowe Corne, to set Trees, to plant Vines in places most commodious. And where there was no store nor plentie of wyne, there he taught them to make drinke of Barlye, Otes, and other Grayne,Barly, O [...]es, Drinke, which drinke they called in theyr tongue, Ceruoys, somewhat applying to the name of his Sister, which was called Ceres. And furthermore at the request of the people of Italy he discomfited the Gyauntes called cruell tyrantes, for that they most tyrannously did reigne ouer that countrye. He kept him selfe out of the Realme of Tuscane, and reigned ouer the Italians by the space of xv. yeres, being resident the greatest part of that tyme in the Citie of Viterbe, which afterward was called Vetulonia. And from thence he passed by Sea into Grece, that is to say, vnto the Prouince of Peloponesse, which is nowe called the Moores lande,Eusebius. and there he reigned in the Citie of Argos by the space of .xxxv. yeres, as Eusebius writeth, and in the end returned againe vn­to Egypt. And after all these thinges thus done and finished, the malice of his brother Typhon an Egyptian, being as great as the malice of Cain was to his brother Abell, conspired by treason to slaye him, which at length he brought to passe and cut him in .xxvj. peeces and deuided the same among the conspirators, which were in number .xxvj.Bocas. After his death as Bocas in his second Booke of the Genealogie of Goddes, sayeth he was called Serapis.Serapis.

¶Laabin or Libycus surnamed Hercules, 2232/1731 commonly called the great Hercules of Libia, was the sonne of Osyris (as Berosus sayeth) who did accompany his father in all his great warres and trauailes.Berosus. And afterward for the reuengement of his fathers death, he offered open warre to all the Gyants of the world. And first he went into the land of Phenice, the which he conquered,Troy. and after he went into Frigia where afterward Troye was built, and their he slue Typheus the Gyant of that Cuntrie,Typheus. and gaue the lande to his awne sonne Athus, and with the same one faire Ladie called Omphale.Milinus. In lyke maner he discomfited Milinus king of the Isle of Can­dy. And from thence he came vnto Affrique, which now is called Barbary,Barbary and there he destroyed Antheus the Gyant and named the Cuntrie after his awne name Libia,Antheus. Libia. which before was called Phuthee of the name of Phuth the thirde sonne of Cham. And there he set vp a great and highe Colome or Piller in the memorie of his conquest. After he came into that parte of France that is called, Gaule Celtique, where he maried Galathe,Fraunce the onely daughter of Iupiter Celte, the .ix. king of the Frenchmē.Gaule Cel­tique. And in this pastime dyed Iupiter, by the death of whome, great Hercules reigned in France [Page 16] as the .x. king of that Realme with Galathe his Wyfe, where they builded a great Citie in the Cuntrie of Lauxois, the which he named Alexia, of the which Iulius Caesur maketh often mention in his Commentaries.Iulius Cesar And then purposing to go into Italy, he chaunced to light vpon a great armie, and en­tered into the Countrie of Allobroges,Sauoy. which now is called Sauoy, and first he brake and tare in peeces the harde & stony rocks, and passed ouer the same rocks and Mountaines which we nowe call the Alpes,Alpes. making away tho­rowe euen by force of people, for it was a maruailous enterprise and a thing neuer lyke to be brought to passe, that in such a streight and so harde a rock and in so high and terrible a Mountaine withall, that there should be awaye made for an armie with their Cattell and Baggages to passe cleane ouer: and there he destroyed all the Theeues and Murderers that lay hidden in those Mountaines who did much hurte to such as were trauaylers by that Region. After he had passed the Mountaines he descended into Italy and there he made warre against the Titans, which were Gyants, who within x. yeres following, after he had bidden them diuers battailes, he destroyed them and cleane droue them out of the Cuntrie. And the place where one of the battailes was foughten and they vanquished, is called at this daye, the Valley of ye Gyants nere to the Citie of Tuscanel in Tuscane.The valley of Gyants. And after this the great Hercules King of France was quietly possessed of all Italy, in the which he reigned after peaceably the space of .xx. yeres as sayth Berosus. And afterwarde when he had crowned Tuscus one of his sonnes, king of Italy, then he went into Spaigne and there dyed. And after his death the Spani­ards made for him a sumpteous and costly Sepulture in the place which yet they call Gades Hercules, where standeth the Pillers called Hercules Pil­lers. Berosus and Bergamo.

¶ Tuscus the sonne of Hercules of Libia, was by him ordeyned king of Italy, he gaue the name of the Prouynce of Tuscane in the which he had re­mayned long, otherwise called Ethruria, and before that it was called Ia­nicula, of the name of the good father surnamed Ianus, and all they that haue rule and gouerment in Italy, they call Ianigenes, that is to saye, the children of Ianus. Bergamo.

Italy.¶ Altheus the sonne of Tuscus was after his father king of Italy. And in his time Atlas Italus king of Spaigne did leaue his Realme to Sico­rus his sonne, 1817/1942 and came into Sicile, where he reigned a certaine time, and after he ariued in Italy, and there planted and placed himself as in his awne Realme,Here I leane the lyne of Chain and returne a­gaine to the lyne of Sem of the which our Sauiour Iesu Christ came. Iustine. and called all the Cuntrie by his awne name Italy. Bergamo.

RAGAV or Reu the sonne of Phalech in the .xxxij. yere of his age begat Seruch or Saruch, & lyued after. CC.vij. yeres. In this time there were .iiij. Realmes that tooke their first beginning, that is to saye, the Realme of the Scithes, wherein first reigned Tanaus, of the which the Riuer Tanais did first take his name. The second was the realme of the Amasones the which as Iustine writeth were warlike women descen­ding from the Scithes. The .iij. is the Realme of Egypt. The .iiij. is the Realme of Boheme,Amasones. the which was so called by a Prince named Bohemus, that was present at the building of the Tower of Babilon as sayth Bergamo.

Egypt.¶ And in this time Nobilitie was aduanced and tooke place, and that for dyuers and sundry causes.Nobilitie. First for necessitie: that the generation of Man [Page 17] so greatly encreased, and men prone and readie to all mischiefe, it was of force that the wickednesse of the euill must be suppressed by the honestie and discretion of the good, and therefore they chose some certaine Man more sage, wise and prudent, than other to rule the Commonaltie, to aduance and procure vertue, to defend the innocents, and to punish the wicked. And here­of is he rightly called Noble, the which in vertues before other is notable. Whereof S. Iherom speaketh,S. Iherom. I can see none other thing in Nobilitie (saith he) but that they are by a certaine necessitie compelled to be Noble, least they should degenerate from the Noblenesse of their parents.

¶ The second cause was the discord, variaunce and Brawles among the 2 people for lacke of right iudgement: wherefore it was most necessarie, that by the aucthoritie of the Nobilitie, they shoulde be compelled to concord and vnitie as by them vnto whose iudgement and aucthoritie they must obey.

¶ The thirde cause proceeded of the valyaunt courage and manly prowes 3 of certaine notable persons declared in resisting and encountring the enimies of their Cuntrie and repressing their inuasions. And such a one the people had in great reuerence and estimation and worshipped and honored him as one that had delyuered their Cuntrie from daungers, and by this meanes most chiefely did the Cuntrie yeelde and geue vnto suche worthy Men the name of Nobilitie, to them and their heyres for euer, and for this purpose were they chiefely aduaunced to the dignitie of Noble men.

¶ The fourth cause, came of abundance of ryches, that when penurie 4 and scarcetie came, then the common people were relieued and succoured of the ryche, for the which reliefe and succour the poore men had the ryche in great reuerence and estimation, and accompted them euer after as their Masters and Lordes.

¶ Therefore all such as are discended of noble Parents and Auncestors, ought chiefely & before all others to call to often remembrance these foresayd causes of true Nobilitie, that thereby they maye be the more stirred to such souereigne vertues, for the which their worthy progenitors first became No­ble, thinking themselues vnworthy the name, except they haue withall those endowments and qualities for the which the same name was first geuen vn­to them.

¶ There were also certaine personages made Noble by Gods deuine prouidence (but not many of them) and some of them continued as Noble, as Dauid, and some were ouerthrowne in short time as Saul, Ieroboam, and many other.

¶ There are many also that haue made themselues Noble by violence and tiranny. And here the olde and auncient writers of Histories doo note, that seldome or neuer among the Turkish and heathen people, there is anye roote or perpetuall successe of Nobilitie, bicause they enter by pride, & con­tinue by violence and tiranny. And euen many among the Christians haue for the verie same cause bene oppressed and confounded according to the sai­yng of Ecclesiasticus in the .x. Chapter.Eccle. 10. The high and mightie Princes for their pride and tiranny God hath ouerthrowne and cast downe, and hath ad­uaunced therevnto the lowly and meeke. And note also that no man can hate Nobilitie, for that euerie man desireth by nature to be accompted as Noble, euen as we desyre to be accompted verteous and religious. But yet manye [Page 18] verteous and holy men haue fled that vocation, for the great perill that is pro­per and annexed to the same, and this may at large and sufficiently appere in the Prophet Dauid, whome God himselfe did speciallye elect and choose. Cronica Cronicarum.

1850/2113 ¶Saruch the sonne of Ragan being .xxx. yeres of age begat Nachor and lyued after two hundred yeres.

1879/2084 ¶Nachor the sonne of Saruch when he was .xxix. yere olde begat Te­rah, or Thare, and lyued after. C.xix. yere.

1949/2014 ¶Thare or Terah the sonne of Nachor, when he was .lxx. yere olde he begat Abram, Nachor and Aram, and lyued .CC.v. yeres.

2019/1944 ¶Abram the sonne of Thare borne in Vr in the Countrie of Chal­dee, and he departed from thence, when he was .lxx. yeres of age.

Here endeth the second Age, which began at the Flood of Noe and ended at the birth of Abram, which continued .CCC.lxiij. yeres and x. dayes, but after the accompt of Septuaginta it is .ix.C.xlij. yeres.

The thirde Age, and thirde part of this Chronicle


The thirde Age

ABram was a Man more prudēt and expert in all thinges both diuine and humaine, then any other before him was.Abram. He was the first that durst mainteyne God to be the Creator of all thinges, against the opinion of all the Chaldeyes, for the which he was compelled to forsake his country of Chaldey. And soone after, he by the will and commaundement of almightie God,Gene. xij. with Thare his father, and his wyfe Sara, and his Nephew Loth departed from the sayde coūtry of Chaldey to go into Chanaan, that is to say, into the lande of Chananee, which afterwarde was called the land of Iury, or the land of promes, & he first arriued in ye land of Haran, which is in Mesopotania, there makyng some abode, where for some speciall causes he remayned vntill the death of Thare his father. And then God made his first promes vnto Abram saiyng. Get thee out of thy Countrye and from thy kyn­dred, and out of thy fathers house into a lande which I will shewe thee. And I will make of thee a mightie people, & I will blesse thee and make thy name great, that thou mayst be a blessing: And I will blesse them that blesse thee, and cursse them that cursse thee, and in thee shall be blessed all the generati­ons of the Earth.

¶ And Abram went as the Lord commaunded him: and Abram was .lxxv. [Page 20] yeres olde when he departed out of Haran to go vnto Cananee. And he tooke with him Sara his wyfe, and Loth his nephew, with all their goodes which they had gotten, and all the Soules that they had begotten in Haran, and they departed to go into the land of Canaan. And when Abram was arryued in the lande of Canaan, God spake vnto Abram and sayd, vnto thy lyne and seede I geue all this lande. And soone after Abram buylded an Altare vnto the Lord in the same place where the Lord appered vnto him, vpon the which he offe­red sondry Sacrifices vnto the Lorde. After this, there came a dearth in the lande, and Abram went downe into Egypt to soiorne there. And knowing that the Egyptians were lecherous people, & fearing also that Pharao King of Egypt would not let to kill him, to the entent he might freely haue the vse of his wyfe which was one of the fayrest women in the worlde, he streightlye charged and commaunded her, that she shoulde declare none other vnto the Egiptians (and stoutly to stande therein) but that she was the sister of Abram and not his wife.

¶And when Pharao was aduertised of the great beuty of Sara, he caused her to be taken and sent home to his house, for the which God sent vnto him many plagues, which lighted both of him and all his householde. But after, when Pharao vnderstoode by his wyse men that the aforesayde plagues hap­pened vnto him bicause of the rauishing & withholding of the wife of Abram: He foorthwith restored her vnto her husbande Abram, and did further com­maunde that his seruauntes should safely conduct her, and all thinges that belonged vnto her, to the entent that nothing should be hurt or spoyled by the Egyptians. Reade. Genesis .xii.

Gene. xiij.¶ Abram and Loth after they had bene a little time in Egypt, they retur­ned into Cananee. And in the meane tyme Loth and he so greatly encreased in cattaile, that it was impossible for the lande to mainteyne the goodes of them both in that place, and there happened much brawle and vnquietnesse betweene the Shepards, and heardes of Loth, and the heardes & Shepards of Abram, wherefore Abram spake vnto Loth and sayde. My Brother and my Friende, thou seest daylye what discordes and variaunces there happen betweene thy seruauntes and myne, for the keeping and feeding of our Cattaile, I pray thee hartely, because there shall aryse no malice nor displea­sure betweene vs two, which I would not should come to passe, for we two are brethren, choose thee a place for thee and thine to go vnto, and if thou choose the ryght hand, I will go on the left. And if thou take the left, I will go on the right hand. Then Loth beholding the Countrey round aboute, and noting the goodly playnes & Medowes that led to the flood of Iordan, which was very pleasaunt for the comfort of his Cattaile, chose that part, and so leauing the East part or Country vnto Abram, departed toward Iordan in­to the place where afterwarde was Sodom and Gomorra consumed from Heauen with Fyre and Brymstone.

¶And after the departure of Loth from Abram, the Lorde spake vnto A­bram and sayde. Lift vp thine eyes and behold from the place where thou art Northward, Southward, Eastward, and Westwarde, for all the land which thou seest will I geue vnto thee and thy seede for euer. Gene. xiii.

2036/1927 ¶ Then Abram seeing that he could haue no issue by Sara his wyfe, did by the counsayle of the sayde Sara take one of his Maydens or bondwomen [Page 21] named Agar and knew her, and she conceyued with childe and brought foorth a sonne which was called Ismaell,Saracens. and of him is come the Nation of the Sa­racens.

¶ In this time God almighte instituted circumcision to be an euerlasting couenant vnto the posteritie of Abram, and saide vnto him, Abram,Circumci­sion. thou shalt from hencefoorth no more be called Abram, but Abraham,Abraham. for I haue made thee a father of many nations.

¶ And shortlye after there apered .iij. Aungelles vnto Abraham and hee washed there fete, and standing vnder a Tree he serued them at a Table. The Tree endured vntil the reigne of Constantius the yonger. Lanquet. This man taught the Egiptians Astronomie and Geometrie, he dyed before the incar­nation of Christ. 1838. yeres. Cooper.

¶In this time also God destroyed Sodome, Gomorra, Adama,Sodom. &c. and Semois:Ezechi. xvj. The cause of that destruction as Ezechiell the Prophet sayeth was, for their iniquitie, pride, superfluity of meate, abundance of ryches and ydlenesse, and they reached not foorth their handes vnto the poore, and did abhominations against nature. This place is now called Mare mortuum, the dead Sea, whose length and bredth containeth manye Miles. And at this day it is full of Pitche and boyleth continually out in Vapours, which is a wytnesse & testimony of the deuine indignation and wrath of almightie God vpon such wickednesse. At the time of this destruction God by his Angelles preserued Lot his Wyfe and two Daughters:Loth. But hauing a commaunde­ment that none of them after they were come out of the Citie should looke back againe, it happened Loths Wyfe breaking the commaundement to looke back againe, and she was foorthwith turned into a Salt stone.Saltstone. After­wards Loth by the incest of his Daughters begat Ammon and Moab the fathers of the Ammonites and Moabites. Genesis .xix. Moabites. Ammonits

¶Isaac the sonne of Abraham by his Wife Sara, was in this time borne, 2050/1913 a Man beloued of God, of whose lignage Christ descended. He represented the figure of Christ,Gene. xxj. when God commaunded his father to offer him in Sa­crifice, whereby was signified that Christ should be an oblation which should satisfie for sinne and death. When he therefore should haue bene sacrificed by his father, and was come both to the Aultar and to his death, he exhorted his father that with a good hart he should obey and fulfill the commaunde­ment of God, saiyng. My father it were not iust, that any should be borne, if he would refuse the iudgements of God and his father, or would not shewe himselfe obedient vnto their willes. After, when he came to the age of .xl. yeres, he tooke Rebecca to Wyfe: who being a long time barrein, at the last by the fauour of God, she brought foorth two children at one birth, 2110/1855 the first Esau the Prince of the Idumeis: and Iacob although the younger, yet by the will of God, both blessed of him, and also endued by his father with the right of the first borne, and afterwarde was the father of the .xij. Patriarches. Finally, after many troubles and temptations, and being with age also made blinde, he gaue his blessing not to Esau, to whome he would, but to Iacob to whome he would not. And herein is to be noted the prouidence of almighty God, who before purposed, that it should so come to passe. And when Isaac had lyued .C.lxxx. yeres, he dyed. Lanquet. 2112/1853

¶Iacob the sonne of Isaac, surnamed Israell, that is the Prince of [Page 22] God, of whome the people of Israell had their beginning, in the .lxxj. yere of his lyfe, when he had gotten the blessing of his Father, he went into Mesopotamia to auoyde the displeasure of his Brother Esau, and there tooke a Wife: when he had serued with his Vncle Laban .vij. yeres for his Daughter Rachell: but he gaue him Lya his daughter in her place, because Lya was the elder, he alleged that it was not their custome to mary the yon­ger before the elder, and after .vij. dayes Laban gaue also vnto Iacob Ra­chell his Daughter to be his Wyfe,Rachell. and for her he serued other .vij. yeres, and Lea gaue him Bilha hir Maide to Wyfe, and Rachell gaue him Silpha hir Maide to Wyfe. And by Rachell he had Ioseph and Beniamin. By Lea he had Ruben, Symeon, Leui, Iuda, Isachar and Zabulon, and by Bilha he had Dan and Nephtaly, and by Silha, he had Gad and Assur. So that v­pon the foresaide two Wyues and their two Handmaydens, he begat the .xij. holy Patriarches from whom descended the .xij. Tribes of the Iewes. And such as are desirous to read more of his lyfe, maye resort vnto the Booke of Genesis. Chapter &c.

¶This Iacob not long before his death, prophecied most plainely of Christ and of the vocation of the Gentiles, whose prophecie was this in effect as Vincencius Gallus writeth saiyng.Vincentius Gallus. Of the stock of my sonne Iuda shall come a Virgin of whome the Lambe immaculate shall be borne, which is the Lambe of God that by grace shall saue all men, whose kingdome shall be euerlasting and neuer corrupted. Therefore the great Lorde shall appere in earth as a man, and shall take vpon him a mortall body, and shall eate as a man: his Starre shall arise in heauen, and he shall shyne in the earth as the Sonne. The heauens shall open ouer him, and out of the Temple no little sanctification of glorie shall come vnto him. He shall poure out the spirite of grace vpō vs, and you shall be his children in the truth. He shal be from Leui a Priest, and from Iuda a King, he shall be both God and Man, a Media­tor betweene God and Man: and shall take awaye all darkenesse which is vnder the heauen: and there shall be peace thorow the vniuersall world. The voyce of the euill doers shall be against him, not knowing his resurrection: But the blood of his innocencie, ye shall receiue on your heads. And in his passion, the stones shall cleaue a sunder, the Sonne shall be darkened, and all other things shall be troubled, the inuisible Spirites shall tremble, and Hell shall be spoyled: he shall open the gates of Paradise, and shall make the threatning sworde against Adam to stande, and shall geue vnto his Saints to eate the tree of life: Beliall shall be bounde by him. Then shall yee see E­noch, Noe, Sem, Abraham, Isaac, and mee your father, rysing in ioy from the right hande of God, and shall geue power to his children to ouercome pernicious Spirites: and as many on the earth as beleue on him shall also reioyce. Then shall all men arise againe, the Godly to glory and ioy: and the vngodly to shame and perpetuall damnation: & most specially he shall iudge Israell which would not beleue in him, hetherto Vincencius Gallus.

2124/1839 Abraham dyed.¶ In this tyme, Abraham that most holy Patriarche fynished his lyfe in this worlde, after whose death, there arose a great famine in the land of Ca­naan, for which cause Isaac went to soiourne with Abimelech King of Pa­lestine. 2200/1763

¶Ioseph the sonne of Iacob, and Rachell, a man most chast and verte­ous, [Page 23] was in this time borne: he in his youth, by his excellent fauour, ver­tue, and wisdome, excelled all his brethren and was of his father aboue all o­ther beloued: for which cause, and for his dreames, he was of his brethren had in great despite, and by them solde into Egypt, where after long impry­sonment, in the .xxx. yere of his age, he expounded the dreames of Pharao, by whom he was made President of all Egypt, and was called among them the Sauiour of the world. For God would by this maruelous occasion he should come into Egypt, that his power might be there knowne, & that helpe might be ministred to Iacob and his family in the tyme of famine and dearth. This Ioseph taught the Egyptians both Religion, and Ciuile pollecye, which is most woorthy to be obserued. And it is to be noted, that a man inspired with the holy Ghost (as Ioseph was) should institute so hard and so seuere a ma­ner of administration of iustice among the Egyptians as he did, and yet draw together the whole Realme of Egypt (a Countrie beyng so large and wyde) and ioyne them together as it were the members of one body without mur­mure or grudge. And here we may learne that sometyme seueritie is to be vsed to keepe the people in obedience, and the same is here approued of God, although gentle gouernement is to be commended. But to our purpose: Af­ter that Ioseph had gouerned the Realme of Egypt by the space of .lxxx. ye­res he then deceased, being of the age of .C.x. yeres, whose Bones he gaue charge in his death bed that the Hebrues should cary with them into the land of promes at their departure out of Egypt. The residue of his noble historye ye may read at large in the booke of Genesis, in the .xxxvij.xxxviij. &c.

¶Of this Ioseph, Trogus Pompeius, Trogus Pompeius. and also his abreuiator Iustine do write in this maner: Ioseph was the yongest among the brethren, whose excellent wit they fearing, solde him vnto straunge Marchauntes, by whome he was brought into Egypt. When Ioseph was in Egypt, and by diligent studie and in short tyme had learned the Magicall artes and scyences, he grewe in fauor with the king. For he was both expert in Prodigies, and also first found out the right interpretation and expounding of dreames: yea, there was nothing neither of Gods law nor mans, that seemed vnto him vnknowen. Insomuch that he foreseeyng the barrennesse of the Fieldes to come, gathered in tyme corne to prouide for the dearth that followed. And so great was his wit and experience, that his aunsweres seemed not to come of man, but rather of God: But Iustine saith that Moses was the sonne of Ioseph,Iustine. whose excellent fauor did much commend him. And the Egyptians when they were plagued wyth scabbes and filthinesse of body, were admonished that they should expell him with all the sicke people out of Egypt, least that Pestilence shoulde be more infectuous.

¶ After the death of Ioseph, the people of God merueilously encreased, and liued quietly vntill there was another king in Egypt, to whome Ioseph was not knowne: Then by reason of their great multitude and aboundance of goodes, they were of the Egyptians greatlye hated, and by them kept vn­der in miserable seruitude and bondage, which they susteyned. C.xliiij. yeres, vntill that by the mightie power of God, they were delyuered from thence.

¶ Aaron the sonne of Amram, nephew to Leui and brother to Moses, 2355/1608 was at this tyme borne. And incontinently after his birth, Amenor his then King of Egypt, who also was the .viij. Pharao, commaunded all the Hebrue chil­dren [Page 24] to be drowned: For Aaron was borne without any ieopardie, but so was not Moses.

¶ Whiles that the Hebrues were thus entangled in miserie and thraldom, God in a vision in the night apered vnto Amram promising him a sonne to be borne,Amram. who should both deliuer his people from the Egiptians seruitude, and also ouerthrow them, plague them, spoile them, and drowne them in the Sea, which vision followed to be true.Moses born Therefore when Moses was borne, hys birth was kept secret (by the will of God) and .iij. Monethes was he nori­shed at home. But his father fearing the crueltie of the Egyptians, made a little vessell of Bulrushes,Exodus .ij. well pitched within wherein he put the childe, and set it in the Riuer, commending it to the tuition of almightie God, who before had promised him to be borne. Then almightie GOD shewing that not by mannes wisedome and pollicie, but by his awne diuine prouidence his deter­minate will and pleasure is brought to good effect, saued this little helplesse and innocent childe. For he caused Termuth the daughter of Pharao to walke to the Ryuer syde to sport her, where she sawe this little vessell swimming vp­on the water. Incontinent she commaunded it to be brought vnto her, and o­pening it, founde therein a wonderfull fayre and goodly Babe, at the which she reioysed not a little, and according to the chaunce, shee named it Moses, which signifieth preserued from the water. After this, for the fauor and to­wardnesse of the childe, shee adopted him for her sonne, and caused him to bee instructed in all the learnynges of Egypt. It chaunced on a time, that the King for his daughters sake tooke the childe in his armes, and set the crowne vpon his head: which Moses as it were childishly plaiyng, hurled it to the ground, and with his feete spurned at it. But the Priest the Soothsayer, be­holding this, cryed out and sayde, that this was he, whome before he had pro­phecied should be borne which should destroy the Kingdome of Egypt, except he were by death preuented. But Termuth excused the childe, alleaging that his age had yet no discretion, and for proofe thereof, she caused burning coles to be put to his mouth, which the childe with his tongue licked, whereby hee euer after had impediment in his tongue: By this meanes their fury was for that tyme appeased.

Ethiopiās Egiptians.¶ In processe of time there arose cruell warres betwene the Ethiopians and the Egyptians: The Ethiopians destroyed Egypt, tooke their Tounes, wasted and ouerran their country,Nemphis. euen vnto Memphis their principall Citie. On the other part, the Egyptians by this necessitie compelled, fled for coun­saile to their Oracles and Diuinations: where they receyued aunswere that they must elect an Hebrue Captain of their armie, by whose helpe they should not onely expulse the Ethiopians from their borders, but also bring them vn­der their subiection. Moses both for his wisdome and personage was chosen soueraigne Capiteine of this Armie, and he so pollitiquely led his host, that vnwares he set vpon them, and at the first battaile he discomfited them and put them to flight, not withoute the slaughter of a great number of them. And when they in no place were able to resist him, they fled to their strong Citie Saba. In which, whilste they suffered the siege, & Moses often tymes pollitiquelye and valiauntly assauting them, he was of the Kinges Daugh­ter of Ethiope vehemently loued, which being no lenger hable to sustaine the force of loue, by certeyne faythfull ministers required of Moses mariage: he [Page 25] vpon condition that the Citie might be rendred vnto him, agreed therevnto, so by her meanes was the Citie geuen vp and she maried vnto him according to his promise. By this occasion he subdued all Ethiope, returning to Egypt with great triumph and victory: which prosperitie to the Hebrues was hope of libertie, and to the Egyptians cause of great feare: wherefore they sought dayly occasion how to destroy him. The which thing Moses perceyuing, dili­gently imagined how to auoyde their deceytes, and therfore denied himselfe to be the sonne of the daughter of Pharao, chosing rather to be afflicted with the people of God, then to enioy sinfull pleasure of the Worlde. Wherfore, he slue an Egiptian that oppressed an Hebrue, and fled into Madian, not farre from the Mount of Synay,Iethro. where he was receyued into the house of Iethro the priest of that Citie, who gaue to him in mariage his Daughter Sephora:Iosephus. There he continued .xl. yeres and kept sheepe. Iosephus.

¶ After this when king Pharao without all measure vexed the children of Israell, God sent Moses to deliuer his people out of Egypt, 2454/1509 who after dy­uers miracles by him done in the sight of Pharao for confirmation of his au­thoritie, at the last obtained of Pharao to lead and carie away the children of Israell out of Egypt, and he led them towarde the land of promission: But Pharao chaunging his minde, pursued the Israelites with most eger cruelty, entending to haue vtterly destroyed them, for so much as they had at that time no place of refuge, nor succour. For on the one side they were enclosed with Hilles, and on the other side with the Sea, and he their most cruell enimie followed at their backs. But here God declared that when exstreme necessi­tie happeneth, and all mans helpe and strength fayleth, then is he readie and hereth the voyce of his people. For at the prayer of Moses and wayling of the Israelites, the water of the Sea contrarie to the naturall course thereof, went back, and by the space of certaine Myles gaue way to the people to passe without daunger: which thing when Pharao and his host assayed to fol­low and were in the deepest, the Sea keeping againe his former course, swallowed him vp with all his power. Wherin God shewed a notable spectacle or example vnto vs, that we may assure our selues that he will be reuenged of the stubborne, impious, and cruell Tirantes, which vexe and persecute hys people.

Here endeth the thirde Age of the worlde, and is from Abraham to the departing of the children of Israell out of Egypt yeres.

The fourth Age, and fourth part of this Chronicle.


The fourth Age

THe fiftie daye after that the Is­raelites were thus departed out of Egypt, and were come to the Mount of Sinai, the lawe of the Decaloge or .x.Law. Commaunde­mēts was to them geuen by almighty God,Comaun­dementes. with a great and terrible magnificence. At which tyme also God gaue to them a cer­taine pollitique gouernaunce, and a speciall kingdome, in which nothing wanted that appertayned to the true worshippyng of God, Priesthood and Ciuil iustice, to the in­tent that a certaine people should be nota­bly knowne, among whome the worde of GOD remayned: and of whome Christ in tyme to come shoulde be borne: So that among this people alway remayned the Church, the Kingdome and the true worde of God, vntill after Christ had suffered. Whereby all men may know that the Church hath alway beene: and that God from the beginning of the worlde hath both reueled and preserued his worde among his people.

¶In the .xxxj. yere of the Dukedome of Moses, Atho, Prince of Meo­nia gaue vnto Dardanus part of his lande, who incontinent left all his right in Italy, and went to his newe possession, where he builded a Citie, which after his awne name he called Dardania, that after was called Troye. Vnto this place Berosus continued his Historie and finished.

¶Moses ouercame the Kinges of Amorrea, and the Moabites, and he [Page 27] deuided their lande and dyed in the Mount Nebo, beyng of age. C.xx. yeres, whose eyes were neuer dimme, nor his Teeth loose: He was buryed by An­gelles, and his Sepulture was yet neuer knowen vnto Man. Lanquet.

¶After the death of Moses the Israelites had Princes and Gouernors, 2493/1470 which were created, partly by the aucthorie of wise men, partly set vp by the speciall calling of God, by which Princes, many notable and famous thinges were done. And so God declareth that he is present, and doth continually de­fende his people, although they may seeme for a tyme to be tossed in the wa­ues of these worldly troubles and perilles. These Gouernors after the cu­stome of the Hebrues were first named Iudges.Iudges.

¶ The number of the children of Israell when they went out of Egypt,Exo. xij. were (as it is written in the .xij. Chapter of the booke of Exodus) sixe hun­dreth thousand men on foote, beside women and children.

AFter Moses, Iosua was seconde Iudge or Duke of the Hebrues,Iosua. and reigned .xxviij. yeres after the computation of the Hebrues, he brought the Children of Israell into the lande of promission: and had a great battaile against the Amorites in Gibeon, where he commaunded the Sonne to stande, and it stoode still longer then before had beene accustomed by the space of one whole day, and he had a notable victorie, for God fought for him, and he slue in that day .xxxj. Kinges, and almost all their people, and he deui­ded the land of Chananee to the Tribes of Israell. This Iosua was a Man that feared God, he was also right sage and wyse, mightie in armes, and in peace verye happye and fortunate, and finally endued with all vertues, who when he was. C.x. yeres of age ended his life.

¶After the death of Iosua, 2521/1442 the Seniors and Elders of the Children of Israell gouerned and ruled them .xvij. yeres. And Israell serued the Lorde all the dayes of Iosua, and long time after, and they knewe all the workes of the Lorde which he had done in Israell.

AFter Iosua, Othoniell iudged Israell, and gouerned them .xl. yeres. 2538/1425 This Othoniell was of the Tribe of Beniamin, and he is surnamed Zenes. He delyuered the Children of Israell out of the handes of the king of Assiria.

A Ioth the sonne of Gera, which was the sonne of Gemini, 2578/1385 of the lyne of Beniamin, iudged Israell after Othoniell, he delyuered the Israelites from Eglon king of the Moabites, whom also he slue, and he iudged Israell lxxx. yeres as is written in the booke of Iudges, the .iij. Chapter.

SAngar the sonne of Anath iudged Israell next after Aioth, the slue .vj. 2658/1305 C. Philistines with an Oxe goade, as they were entering into the land of Is­rael. And he died within the first yere that he ruled Israel, as saith Iosephus.

DEbora, or Delbora a prophetisse, a Woman of the lyne of Ephraim, 2659/1304 was ordeyned Iudge ouer Israell. She deliuered the people of Israell out of the hande of Iabin Kyng of Chanaan, which had troubled Israell by the [Page 28] space of .xx. yeres: The aforesayde Delbora after she had ruled Israell .xl. yeres,Iudges. iiij. dyed, as appereth in the booke of Iudges.

2699/1264 GEdion, called also Ierobaall iudged Israell .xl. yeres. He deliuered them from the power of the Madianites, vnder whome they were .vij. yeres, and he slue Oreb, Zeb, and Zalmana, their Princes, with. C.xx. thousand of the Madianites and Arabies. And when he dyed he left .lxx. sonnes be­hinde him.

2739/1224 ABimelech the sonne of Gedeon iudged Israell tyrannously and occupied that rome three yeres, he slue his .lxix. brethren, the sonnes of Gedeon, and at the last was himselfe slaine miserably of a Woman,Gedeons sonnes slaine. casting downe a piece of a Milstone on his head.

2742/1221 THola the sonne of Phuah iudged Israell and ruled them quietlye .xxiij. yeres, and then dyed.

2765/1198 I Air ruled Israell .xxij. yeres. This man prospered greatly in all his at­temptes, he had .xxx. sonnes, and they were Princes of .xxx. Cities, which were called the townes of Iair.

2876/1177 IEphte ruled the Israelites .vj. yeres, he delyuered them from the Philis­tines (whome for the sinne of Idolatrie) they serued .xviij. yeres. He by an vnaduised vowe sacrificed his awne Daughter.

2793/1170 AFter Iephte, Abessan ruled the Israelites .vij. yeres. He had .xxx. sonnes and .xxx. Daughters, the which he bestowed all in mariage in his lyfe tyme, and then deceassed.

2800/1163 AElon, or Ahialon, gouerned the Israelites .x. yeres.

2810/1153 ABdon or Labdon, gouerned Israell by the space of .viij. yeres, he had .xl. sonnes and .xxx. Nephewes begotten by his sonne, and afterward dyed.

2818/1145 SAmson the sonne of Manne, of the Tribe of Dan, ruled the Israelites .xx. yeres, and delyuered them from the subiection of the Philistines, vnto whome they payde tribute .xl. yeres. He was a man most strong, which with his hand strangled a Lyon,Samsons strength. and with the Cheeke bone of an Asse slue a thou­sande Philistines, putting the residue to flight. Finally, by the fraude of Da­lila an Harlot,Dalila an Harlot. he was deceyued and brought into the hands of his enimies, who blynded him, and afterwarde being brought foorth to play before the Princes of Palestine, he tooke in his armes the pillers of the house where­vpon the whole house stood, and so ouerthrewe the whole house, and slue in that place at the same present time, three thousande Philistines, and himselfe also was there slaine.

2838/1125 H [...]li came of the lyne of Ithamar, which was the sonne of Aaron, and he was iudge ouer Israell: he was also the great and high Priest after the death of Ozi, which came of the lyne of Eleazer. And in the time of Heli the Arcke of the Lorde was taken by the Philistines, and that came to passe by the fault and foly of Heli, for that he kept not his two sonnes, Ophni and [Page 29] Phinees in due order and correction, but suffered them to runne in all ryot and wickednesse. For the which at the last he was plagued, for when he heard of the death of his two sonnes and how the Philistines had taken the Arcke,Heli brake his necke. he fel backward out of his stoole and brake his neck, after that he had iudged Israell the space of .xl. yeres .j. Reg. iiij.

AFter the death of Heli, 2878/1085 Samuell the sonne of Helcana and of Anne his Wyfe, the verie true prophet of our Lord God: iudged Israell .xl. yeres, who being but a Childe was offered by his father and mother vnto God in the Temple, where he vowed vnto God. And he was in so great fauor that almightie God declared vnto him that he would translate the office of Priest­hood from the house of Heli, onely for the wickednesse of hys sonnes: and in his time the Arcke of God was restored againe by the Philistines. This Samuell by the commaundement of almightie God did annoint Saul the sonne of Cis the first king of Israell.Samuell.

¶ Here beginneth the Kinges of Israell.

SAul the sonne of Cis being of the Tribe of Beniamin, 2289/1074 Saul ye first king of Is­raell. was at the importunate sute, peticion and request of the people, made and ordeined the first king vniuersall ouer all Israell. He was a mighty man and great and high of stature, and was so high that being a­mong all the people, his shoulders were sene aboue any mans head. And as he was beu­tifull and comely in shape and proporcion of bodye, so was he also adorned and beutified with many singuler vertues, for he was pru­dent, sage and wise, and there was not found in all Israell one that did loue, feare, and obey God and his commaunde­ments, more then he did. And for this cause God did those him out before all the rest.

¶ After that Samuell by the commaundement of almightie GOD had brought Oyle to annoynt the King, hee called together the people, and speciallye all the Trybes of Israell. To whome after he had declared vn­to them the aucthoritie, right, power, prerogatiues, commaundementes, and executions that kynges shall dayly and from tyme to tyme haue ouer eue­ry of them, as his Vassalles and subiectes, and also that their request to haue a King was against the will and minde of God, and many other persuasions he vsed to haue remoued them from that opinion, but they would not, but still cryed out they would haue a king. Then he caused lots to be cast out, to know who should be King, and the lot fell vpon the Tribe of Beniamin, and to con­clude, in the ende it fell vpon Saule the sonne of Cis: by reason whereof he was immediately sought out, and annointed and confirmed King.

¶ Saule continued and perseuered in his former vertues the space of two yeres, as it may apeere in the .iij. Chapter of the first booke of Kynges:1. Regum. 3. But [Page 30] afterward he despysed and brake the Commaundementes of almightie God, geuen vnto him by Samuell the Prophet. Wherefore it was declared vnto him that his reigne and continuance should not be perpetual, but that it should be taken from his lyne and issue, and geuen vnto another. Finally, after ma­ny great iniuries, vexations, persecutions, and wronges by him done to Da­uid, which had maryed his Daughter, he was ouerthrowne in a battaile a­gaynst the Philistines in the mountaynes of Gelboe, in the which his whole armie perished. Three of his sonnes, that is to say, Ionathas, Abinadab, and Mechisne, with manye other were also slaine and murthered. And because Saule would not dye by the handes of the Philistines,Saul, Mur­dred himself after he had reigned xx. yeres, he fell vpon his awne sworde and flue himselfe, as appereth in the xxxj. Chapter of the first booke of Kinges.

NOw that we are come vnto the tyme that this our natiue country now called England was as the cōmon opinion is first inhabited by Brute, and called of his name Britaine. It were not amisse that we shewed how this land hath bene heretofore called, and by whom the same hath bene before time inhabited: But for ye herein the wryters of the Histories of this Realme do so greatly vary & are of sundry opinions, & also that almost no one of them all but speaketh doubtfully and di­uersly therof. I thought it best to passe ouer the vaine & fonde story written by the wryter of the English Historie, who sayth, that this Realme was first na­med Albion of Albine, the Daughter of Dioclesian King of Syria, who had xxxij. daughters and were maried vnto .xxxij. Kings, and in one night they did cut all their Husbandes throtes: And that then Dioclesian their father beyng wrath with them for those cruell murthers, did therefore cause them all to be put into a Ship, without any person with them and turned them to the aduen­ture of the Sea, and so by chaunce they arriued in this lande, and called the same Albion,Albion. of Albine the eldest Sister: And that afterwarde Deuilles did accompanie with them, and begat Gyauntes and Monsters of them, and so this land was first inhabited: which story as it is most fabulous and foolishe, so is it also false and slaunderous to shew that this noble Realme should haue so lewde a beginning. But sundrie other writers, wryte otherwise: saiyng, that it was called Albion of the whyte Clifes that are seene vpon the East costes. But I will passe forwarde with the report of the Historians that haue written in this our latter tyme, which say that Brute discending of the aunci­ent blood of the Troyans, and beyng the sonne of Syluius Pos [...]humus king of Troy, 2855/1108 did ariue in this Iland in the yere of the World, two thousand eight hundreth fiftie and fiue, and the .xj.C.viij. yeres before the comming of our Sauior Iesu Christ, accompting the yeres after the accompt of the Hebrues contynued in the holy Scriptures, which accompt I obserue throughout this whole Story.Polichron. Fabian. But Policronicon and Fabian say that Brute was the sonne of Siluius Aeneas, for they say Aeneas begat first vpon his wife Lauina, a sonne who was called Ascanius, & he had a sonne also by his first wife whom he named Siluius Aeneas, and this Siluius Aeneas was father to Brute: But other say otherwise, wherefore I refer it to the iudgement of the reader. But now returning to the story of Brute, this following, I find written in an olde Pamplet which hath no name.

The first entrie into the Historie of the Kinges of Briteyn

AFter the Citie of Troy, by the false coniecture and treason of Aeneas,Aeneas the sonne of An­ [...]hises. the Sonne of Anchises and other (vpon peace to be had with the Grekes for themselues, their friends, and parents, and vpon condicion also that their goodes might be reserued vnto them) was en­tered and destroyed:Priamus king of Troy Murdered. And the king thereof na­med noble Priamus taken and murdered, and Polixena king Priamus Daughter taken and behedded vpon the Tombe of Achilles,Helenus king Pria­mus sonne and Cassan­dra his daughter. and Helenus the sonne, and Cassandra, another daughter of king Priam taken and delyuered at large. And for that Aeneas at the time of the taking of the sayde Citie, had hid and conueyed from the knowledge of the Grekes the sayde Polixena,Encas bani­shed by Aga­mennon. and woulde not delyuer her but by compulsion: Agamennon, and the other Grekes commaunded Aeneas to take his goodes and friends and to depart out of that lande, and so was he banished.

¶After that Aeneas with Ascanius his sonne had bene in Sicile and there buried his father Anchises:Ascanius sonne vnto Eneas. And after that Aeneas with Ascanius had beene three yeres in Affrique, where Aeneas was louingly receyued of Queene Dido: And after the same Aeneas had taken to Wyfe Lauiny,Lauiny daughter of Latyn King of Italy. daughter of Latyn king of Italy: And after his death Ascanius his aforenamed sonne tooke vpon him as king of that region: And after that his sonne Siluius had taken to Wyfe the Neece of Queene Lauiny, and had gotten hir with childe, of whose delyuerance she deceassed, and the same childe was named Brute: And that the same Brute being of the age of .xv.Brute first borne & then banished. yeres was chased in exile out of Italy, for that by misaduenture he had kylled his father Siluius in shooting and chasing of a Dere. And therefore being exiled went into those partes of Greece where were of the progeny of the Troyans, to the number of .vij.Pandrasus King of a parte of Greco. thousand beside women & children kept in seruitude vnder king Pan­drasus king of that region: with which king Pandrasus the sayde Brute for his prowesse and amiable personage fortuned at the length to be in great fa­uour: And after that at the prayers of the sayde Troyans the same Brute with the helpe of Assaracus, brother to king Pandrasus by the father side,Assaracus brother to King Pan­drasus. in Concubinage by a Troyan woman had taken Pandrasus and put him in pri­son: (For whose delyuerance the same Pandrasus gaue vnto Brute in mari­age Innogen his daughter with Ships, treasure, victuall,Innogen the daughter of Pandrasus maried vnto Brute. and other neces­saries to seeke aduentures:) And after that Brute had made his sacrifices, prayers, and requestes to the Goddes Diana, and had receyued answere of the sayde Goddesse that he should go into France and there build two Cities, which he named Towers and Towrayn:Towers and Towrayn. And after that he had builded the sayde Cities in the remembrance of his Cossyn Turmys which was there kylled and buryed in a battell that he had with Goffare then king of Poyte­nynes:Goffare king of ye Poyte­nynes. & after diuers victories had by the sayd Brute vpon the Poytenynes in the time that Hely was highe Priest of Israell,Help high Priest of Israell. and in the yere from the creation of the worlde and before the birth of Christ. [Page 32] M.C.viij.Brute arri­ued in Albion hee arryued in this Realme then called Albion and landed in the west part of the same in a Hauen then called Totnesse, where then inha­bited certaine Gyants,Totnesie Hauen. Briteyn. whome afterwards he valiauntly oppressed and de­stroyed, and after that possessed and enioyed all this Realme, and named it Briteyn after his awne name, and called also the inhabitaunts thereof Bri­teyns.

Coryn cossin to Brute.¶This Brute gaue to Coryn his Cosyn a parte of the sayde land, which he named after his name Cornewall,Cornewall. and the people thereof Cornyshmen, which Country and people are so named at this day.

Gwendolena daughter vn­to Coryn, maryed to Locryne the eldest sonne of Brute. Loegria. Albanact.¶This Coryn had no children but one daughter, named Gwendolena, which was maried to Locryne Brutes eldest sonne. For Brute begat on his Wyfe Innogen three sonnes, Locryne, Albanact and Camber, and gaue to Locryne his eldest sonne (as aforesayde) the land on this side Humber, which the same Locryne after his fathers death named Loegria. And to his second sonne Albanact he gaue that part of the Northside of Humber, which he na­med Albania, whereof a great part is nowe called Scotland. And to hys yonger sonne Camber,Cambre. gaue he that parte of this land, which is beyonde the Ryuer of Seuerne, and he named the same after his awne name Cambria, which of the Welchmen is so called at this daye, but the Englishmen call it Wales.Wales.

¶How be it Fabian, and the English Chronicle and others say that Brute with his company after his first landing in this Island at Totnesse as afore­sayde, he searched and trauailed throughout all this land, and found the same to be maruellous ryche and plentifull of wood and pasture, and garnished with most goodly and pleasaunt ryuers and stremes. And as he passed, he was encountred in sundry places with a great number of mightie and strong Gyants, which at that time did inhabite the same: Howbeit he alwayes o­uerthrewe them and wan the victorie. But among all other, as sayeth the English Chronicle,The Eng­lish Chron. there was one that was of passing strength named Gog­magog, the which he caused to wrestle with Corineus his kinsman beside Douer: in the which wrestling the Gyaunt brake a ryb in Corineus side, by reason whereof Corineus being put in a chafe, with great strength ouer­threw the Gyaunt, and cast him downe the rock or cliffe of Douer, whereof the place was named the fall of Gogmagog, Gogmagog but sithen that tyme the name is chaunged, and the place called the Fall of Douer, and so is it called at this day.The fall of Douer. For this deede and other, Brute gaue vnto his sayd Nephew Corineus or Coryne, the whole Countrie of Cornewall, as aforesayd.

¶ Thus haue you heard the opinion of the writer of the English Chro­nicle, and of Polichronicon, Fabian, and others: But forasmuch as in these our dayes and time, a learned, wise, & famous Man whose name is Thomas Cooper now Vicechauncelor of the Vniuersitie of Oxford, hath with great industrie and trauaile searched the Originall names, and the first inhabitation of this Realme, and hath also shewed many euident and great reasons and argumentes for the proofe thereof, aswell to condempne the fond coniectures of such as slaunderously haue written of the same, as also to confirme a truth, and to declare that which is most lykely and probable: I thought it therefore very meete in this place to insert his saiyngs in his last Dictionary, which he nameth Thesaurus linguae Latinae, vpon these two Vocables, Albion & Britannia.

ALBION sayth he (the most auncient name of this Isle) conteyneth Eng­land and Scotland: of the beginning of which name,Albion. haue bene sundrie opi­nions, one late feygned by him, which first printed the English Chronicle, wherein is neyther similitude of truth, reason, nor honestie: I meane the fa­ble of the fiftie daughters of one Dioclesian king of Syria, where neuer any other story maketh mention of a King of Syria so named. Also that name is Greke, and no part of the language of Syria. Moreouer the comming of them in a Boate or Ship from Syria without any Mariners, through the Sea called Mediteraneum into the Occean: and so finally to finde this Isle, and to inhabite it, and haue generation by Deuilles, is both impossible, and much reproche vnto this noble Realme, to ascribe her first name and habita­tion to such inuenters.

¶ Another opinion is (which hath a more honest similitude) that it was na­med Albion, ab Albis rupibus, that is, of white rockes, because that vnto them that come by Sea from the East or South, the Bankes and Rockes of this Isle do apere white. Of this opinion haue I most meruaile, because it is writ­ten of great learned men. First Albion is no latin word, nor hath the analogie, that is to say, the proportion or similitude of latine, for who hath found this sil­lable, on, at the ende of a latin word. And if it should haue bene so called for the white colour of the Rockes, men would haue called it Alba, or Albus, or Album. In Italy were townes called Alba, and in Asia a Country called Albania, and neyther of them tooke their beginning of white Rockes or Walles, as ye may reade in bookes of Geography: nor the water of the Ryuer called Albis, see­meth any whyter than other water. But if where auncient remembrance of ye beginning of thinges lacketh, it may be lefull formen to vse their coniectures, than may mine be aswell accepted as Plinies (although he incomparably ex­celled me in wisedome and doctrine) specially if it may apere that my coniec­ture shall approch more nere to the similitude of truth: wherefore I will also set foorth mine opinion, onelye to the intent to exclude fables, lacking eyther honestie or else reasonable similitudes.

¶ When the Grekes began first to prosper, and their Cities became po­pulous, and waxed puyssant, they which traueylled on the Seas, and also the Isles in the Seas called Hellespontus, Aegeum, and Creticum, after that they knew perfectly the course of saylyng, and had founden thereby profite, they by little and little attempted to search and finde out the commodities of outwarde Countries: and lyke as Spanyardes, and Portyngales, and our Merchants of England haue of late done, they experienced to seke out coun­tryes before vnknowen. And at last, passing the streytes of Marrocke, they entred into the great Occean Sea, where they found dyuerse & many Isles: among which they perceyuing this Isle to be not onely the greatest in circuit, but also most plenteous of euerie thing necessarie to man, the ayre most whol­some and temperate, the earth most apt to bring foorth all things that maye susteyne: The fleshe of Beefes and Mottons most sweete and delicate, the Wooll most fine, not lacking any kinde of Metall, hauing abundaunce of Wood and Timber to builde with, also great and fayre Ryuers, with great Lakes or Meeres of fresh water, & as well in them as in the Sea, where­with the coūtry is enuironed, there was great plenty of fishes of diuers sorts most apt to be eaten: they wondering and reioysing at their good and fortu­nate [Page 34] arriuall, named this Isle in Greke Olbion, which in English signifieth happy & in latine Foelix. Like as a part of Arabia which is most fertile, is cal­led Arabia foelix. But in processe of time by resort of sundrie people hauing di­uerse languages, no maruaile though one letter were chaunged, & the first let­ter O, Olbion. turned into A, & so for Olbion, it was at the last called Albion, which worde hath no maner of signification. This chaunging of letters is not vnlikely since at this present tyme the Northren men of this Realme do vse A in wordes, where Southren men vse O, as a Bane, a Stave, a Bare, a Bande: for a Bone, a Stone, a Bore, a Bonde. And among the Grekes were lyke alte­ration of letters. And it may be the more easely borne, that one vowell may be chaunged in a word, & specially, A into O, which in some mannes mouth soun­deth often tymes lyke, then that a sillible impertinent to the proportion of la­tine, should be vnaptly added to. Notwithstanding Pomponius Mela maketh mention of a Gyaunt called Albion, whom Hercules slue in Gallia, which was the sonne of Neptunus, who mought with more reason be demed the first geuer of this name vnto this Isle, then yt the other surmises should be likely.

If any man can find matter more certeyne concerning the beginning of this Isle, I will not be offended, but congratulate with him his good fortune and diligence. Hetherto Cooper shewing howe this Realme was first called Olbion, and after Albion. And the lyke trauayle he taketh in shewing of hys opinion why this Realme was called Briteyn, & therein wryteth as foloweth.

Britannia.¶ Of the first naming of this Isle (sayth he) is yet no certeine determina­tion, forasmuch as there remayneth no auncient Historie, making thereof re­membrance, the olde Britons bookes (such as were) beyng all destroyed by ye Saxons: who endeuored themselues vtterly to extinct the honorable renoune with the name of Britons, lyke as the Gothes dealt with the Romaynes. Al­so the part of Titus Liuius, where the conquest of Briteyn is remembred, with the stories of Iulius Rusticus, and dyuerse other noble writers, that wrote speciallye of this Countrie, are vtterly perished. Such as remaine, as the Commentaries of Iulius Caesar, Cornelius Tacitus, Diodorus Siculus, and they that wrote of Cosmographie, haue omitted the originall beginning of the name. The Historie of Gildas the Briton cannot be found, who was after that the Saxons had inuaded the Realme, and therefore mought lacke such bookes as best should instruct him. As for Beda seemeth to haue seene nothing writ­ten of that matter. For where he sayth that this Isle tooke the name Britannia of the inhabitantes of Briteyn in Fraunce, it is nothing like to be true. For that Country was (not long before the tyme of Beda) named Armorica, & Ar­moricus tractus, Britannia. when this Isle was called of most auncient wryters Britannia, and (as Solinus writeth) seemed to be an other worlde, forasmuch as the West part of Gallia was thought to be the vttermost part of this World. Also Iulius Caesar writeth that the places of this Isle were vnknowne to Frenchmen sauing to a fewe Marchantes, and yet they knewe no farther than the Sea coast towarde Fraunce. Moreouer the same Britons affirme that it was left among them in remembraunce that the innermost partes of the country was inhabited of them which had their first beginning in the same Isle. This well considered with the authoritie of the wryter, both an excellent Prince, and al­so a great learned man, and was himselfe in this Isle, it is not to be doubted but that he most diligently searched for the true knowledge of the auncientie [Page 35] thereof. And if he mought haue founden that the inhabitants had come of the stock of Aeneas, of whose progeny he himselfe came, he would haue reioy­sed much for the prowesse and valiant courage which he commended in them. Moreouer, that the name came of Brutus (whome our wryters imagined to descend of Aeneas the Troyan) is no more lykely then that this Isle was called Albion of Dioclesians daughter, or of white rocks. All the olde Latyn Histories agree that the sonne of Siluius, the second in succession from Ae­neas, and of them named the sonne of Ascanius, was Aeneas, called also Siluius, wherevnto also the Grekes do accorde, but they name Siluius to be brother to Ascanius, and borne after the death of Aeneas, and was ther­fore called Posthumus. But neyther the Romaynes, nor the Grekes doe write of any man called Brutus before Iulius Brutus which expelled Tar­quinus out of Rome. Which name was also geuen to him (by the sonnes of Tarquyne) in derision bicause they tooke him to be foolish and dull wytted. Moreouer, there is so much diuersitie betwene Britannia and Brutus, that it seemeth against reason that the one shoulde proceede of the other. For if Brutus had bene the first geuer of the name to thys Isle, he woulde haue called it Brucia rather then Britannia, which hath no maner of proporcion nor Analogie with Brutus. But here (as I haue done before in the worde Albion) I will declare a reasonable cause of coniecture why this Isle was named Britannia. About .xxx. yeres hence it happened in Wilshire at Iuye Church about two Myles from Salisburie, as men digged to make a foun­dation, they found an holow stone couered with another stone, wherein they founde a Booke, hauing in it little aboue .xx. leaues (as they sayde) of verye thick Velume, wherein was some thing written: But when it was shewed to Priestes and Chanons which were there, they coulde not reade it. Wher­fore after they had tossed it from one to another (by the meanes whereof it was torne) they did neglect and cast it aside. Long after a peece thereof hap­pened to come to my hands: which notwithstanding it was all to rent and defaced, I shewed to Mayster Rycharde Pace, then chiefe Secretarie to King Henry the .viij. whereof he exceedingly reioyced. But bicause it was partly rent, and partlye defaced and blurred with wet that had fallen out, he could not finde any one sentence perfite. Notwithstanding, after long be­holding he shewed me, it seemed that the sayde booke conteyned some aun­cient Monuments of this Isle, and that he perceyued this worde Pritannia to be put for Britannia: but at that tyme he sayde no more vnto mee. After­ward I geuing much study and diligence to the reading of Histories, consy­dering whereof this worde Britannia first came, finding that all the Isles in this parte of the Occean, were called Britannia, after my first coniecture of Albion, remembring the sayde wryting, and by chaunce finding in Suydas that Pritannia in Greke, with a circumflexed aspiracion,Pritannia. doth signifie Me­talles, also reuenues belonging to the common treasure, I than conceyued this opinion, that the Grekes florishing in wisedome, prowesse, and experi­ence of sayling, as I sayd before in Albion, and finding the Isles of the great Occean full of ryche Metalles, as Tynne, Leade, Iron, Brasse, Copper, and in some places great store of Golde and Syluer, they called all those Isles by this generall name Pritannia, signifying the place, by that which came out of it, as one would saye he went to market when he went to And­warpe [Page 36] or Barow, or to the fayre, when he goeth to Sturbridge, or to his re­uenues, when he goeth to anye place from whence his reuenues do come. And yet because this Isle excelled all the other in any condition, it was of some priuately called Olbion, that is to say, more happier or richer. Thus farre D. Cooper. And thus haue you his opinion and iudgement concerning the first name and habitation of this Realme. And nowe I will returne to the Historie of Brute where I left.

¶ After that Brute had landed in this Isle as aforesayd, and that he had passed and searched throughout the land,Thamys. & comming by the riuer of Thamis, for the great pleasure that he had in that Ryuer and pleasaunt Medowes ad­ioynyng to the same, began there to buylde a Citie in the remembraunce of the Citie of Troy lately ouerthrowne & raced,Troinouāt or London. & named it Troynouant, which is as much to say as newe Troy: which name endured vntill the commyng of Lud, who was king of Briteyn about a thousand and fortie yere after. And the sayd king Lud commaunded it to be called after his awne name Luddes Towne, which nowe by shortnesse of speche we call London, and the same was builded .iij.C.Lvj.Rome. yere before Rome was builded, in the time of Heli the high priest of Iewrie.

¶ When Brute had thus builded his Citie, and saw that he was stablished in his Realme quietly: he then by the aduice of his Lordes, commaunded the sayd Isle and Countrie to be called as dyuerse Authors write, after his awne name Briteyn,Briteyn. and his people Britons, and so continued his reigne prospe­rously. In the which time he established many good lawes and ordinaunces, for the good gouernment of his people. But after this, as in this story shall apere, this Realme was conquered and brought in subiection to Straungers dyuerse and sundrie tymes, as first after Brute to the Romaynes, then to the Saxons which conquered this land, & called it Anglia (as saith Polichronicon) eyther of Angli, that is to say, people of Saxony, or of the name of a Queene of this lande that was called Angela. And some also thinke it was called Anglia of Angulus, which is in English a Corner, for that it is but a Corner in respect of the mayne and continent land of the whole worlde. Then was it in subiec­tion to the Danes, and lastly to the Normanes.

¶ Now, when Brute as is aforesayde, had set this Realme of Briteyn in order, he as the superior Lord deuided it into three partes, and gaue the same to his three sonnes, as aforesayd. And vnto Locryne his eldest sonne, he gaue this Isle of Briteyn, the which after was called middle England, wherein he had built his Citie called Troynouant, withall the Countries therevnto ad­ioyning, both East, West, and South. And because this part shoulde sounde somewhat toward the name of Locryne,Loegia. it was called Loegria, or Logiers: and therefore the Welshmen call it in their language vnto this day lloyger.

Cambria now called Wales.¶ To his second sonne Cambre, he gaue the Country of Wales, the which was first named after him Cambria. This in the East syde was sometyme departed from England by the Ryuer of Seuerne, as before is sayde. But now the Riuer named Dee at Chester departeth Englande and Wales on the Northsyde: and in the South, the Ryuer that is called Wye, at the Castle of Stringlyng parteth the sayd Countryes.

¶ To the thirde sonne Albanact he gaue the North part of this Isle of Briteyn, and called the same Albion, or more truely the sayd country tooke the [Page 37] name of the thirde sonne, and was called Albania.Albion nowe called Scot­land. This Country was af­ter named Scotlande, and so is it called to this day, and it is deuided as S. Bede sayth, from Loegria or Logires by two armes of the Sea, but they meete not. The East arme of these two beginneth about two myles from the Mynster of Eburcuring in the West syde of Penulton. The West arme of those twaine hath in the right syde (or sometyme had) a strong Citie named Acliud, which in the British tongue was named Clinstone,Acliud. and standeth vpon the Ryuer named Clint, supposed of some to be that towne, which is called at this day Burgh on the Sandes, within .v. myle of Carlistle,Burgh. where that famous Prince king Edward the first dyed, in his returne from Scotland. And of others it is iudged to be the Towne called Aldburgh in Yorkeshire set on the Ryuer of Owse, which ronneth from thence to Yorke, the space of .xij. myles or thereaboute.

¶Thus when Brute had deuided this Isle of Briteyn, as before is shewed in three partes, and geuen the same vnto hys three sonnes, and had holden the principalitie thereof noblie by the terme of .xxiiij. yeres, he dyed and was bu­ryed in London, then called Troynouant.

LOcrinus, 2879/1034 or Locryne the first and eldest sonne of Brute, was made King of Briteyn, next after the death of his father, in the yere of the worlde .MM.viij.C.lxxix. In the tyme of the reigne of this Locryne, there was a cer­teyne Duke (who as the writer of the Britons story sayth, was named Humber) who warred sore vpon Albanactus his brother, beyng the ruler of Albania, nowe called Scot­land, and slue Albanact in plaine battaile. Howe be it, as some writers af­firme, the sayde Duke was not at the tyme of his comming into Albania cal­led Humber, but Hunys, or Hunnys, King of Hunes,Humber. or King of Scithya without any other addicion.

¶ This King as before is sayde, after he had thus subdued Albanactus, he helde the lande of Albania, vntill that Locrinus with his brother Cambre gathered a great power of men of Armes together, and went against him, and by strength of the Britons chased and subdued the sayd Hunes so sharp­ly, that many of them with theyr King were drowned in a Riuer which depar­teth England and Scotland. And because vnto the wryter of the Story of Britons his name was declared to be Humber: therefore the sayde wryter sheweth that the Ryuer wherein the sayde Duke or Capitaine was drowned, tooke the first name of him, which name continueth yet to this day.Gaufride.

¶ Moreouer, after the death of Brute his father, Locryne Maryed with Gwendoloena the daughter of Coryn, Nephew vnto the aforesayde Brute.Gwendol. And it so came to passe, that after the aforesayde victory had against the king of the Hunes, or of Scithya, as aforesayd, that Locryne fell in great phancy and loue with a faire Damosell named Estrild, who was also the daughter of the aforesayde Humber, as the sayde Aucthor wryteth, and Locryne kept her vnlawfully a certeyne tyme. Wherewith his wife Gwendoloena beyng sore discontent, excited her father and her friendes to make warre vpon the sayde Locryne her husbande, in the which warre Locryne was slaine, when [Page 38] he had reigned after the agreement of most wryters .xx. yeres, and was buri­ed by his father in Troynouant leauing after him a yong sonne named Ma­dan. Fabian.

¶ But because myne Aucthor whom I here follow dissenteth in manye things from Gaufride,Gaufride. writer of the British Hystorie, I haue thought good to recite also as briefely as I can, what the sayde Gaufride reporteth hereof, to the ende that the reader may vnderstande wherein they varie, and then vse his awne iudgement touching the truth of the matter: his wordes in effect are these. When the three brethren, Locrinus, Albanactus, and Camber, had of long time peaceably reigned euery one in his awne dominion; at the length a certaine king of the Hunes named Humber, arriued with an armie in Al­bania, and geuing battaile vnto Albanact slue him, and thereby compelled the inhabitours of that Countrie to flie vnto Locryne for ayde and succour, the which thing when Locryne vnderstoode, he ioyning vnto him his brother Camber, and they both assembled together a power of all the warrelike yong men of their Countries, and met and encountered with the sayde king of the Hunes, about the water now called Humber, and in fine discomfited his host and put him to flight, and then pursued him so egerly that he was compelled to take the sayd water, wherein he was drowned, and therefore was it after the name of the king there drowned called Humber.Humber. This done, he deuided the spoyle of the field among his Souldiours, reseruing nothing to himselfe, but such treasure as he founde in the Ships, saue that he kept also for his awne store three goodly yong Damoselles of passing bewtie. Of the which three,Eastrelde. the first of them named Eastrildis, was the daughter of a certaine king of Almayn, whome with the other two, the sayde Humber had caried awaye with him from her father, after he had wasted and destroyed his lande. The which Eastrildis so farre excelled in bewtie, that none was then lightly found vnto her comparable, for her skin was so whyte that scarcely the fynest kinde of Iuorie that might be found, nor the Snowe lately fallen downe from the Elament, or the Lyllyes did passe the same: For this cause Locryne being rauished with the sight of her, determined to marry her. The which when Corineus vnderstood,Corineus. he was in a wonderfull chafe, because Locryne had promised him before to marry his daughter: he therefore taking his battaile Axe in his hande, went vnto the king and spake vnto him on this wise: Is this the rewarde that thou geuest me Sir King for so many woundes as I haue receyued in thy fathers seruice and quarell, all the time that he warred against straunge and vnknowne Nations, that thou I saye, forsaking my daughter intendest this to couple thy selfe in mariage with a damosell of a barbarous Nation? Be thou sure I will be aduenged vpon thee, so long as there remayneth any strength in this right hand of mine, which hath beene the death of so many Gyants in the Sea coastes of Tuscane. And when he had repeated these wordes twise or thrise together, he tooke vp his Axe as though he woulde haue striken the king, but both their friends perceyuing that, ranne betweene them, so that there was no harme done. And so Cori­neus being pacified, compelled the other to accomplish his promise. Thus therefore came it to passe that Locryne married Corineus daughter called Gwendoloena: Howbeit, the singuler great loue and affection that he bare vnto the saide Eastrilde could not yet out of his minde & be forgotten,Eastrilde. wher­fore [Page 39] he made a Caue vnder the ground in the Citie of Troynouaunt and en­closed her therein, committing her vnto the custody of his most neere and fa­mylier friends: For standing in dread of Corineus he durst not vse her com­pany openly, but as it is before sayde priuely and by stealth: in so much as he had the companie of her the space of .vij. yeres full, and none knewe it, but a fewe of his verie familyer and faithfull friendes, for so often as he had ac­cesse vnto her, he feyned that he would make a secret sacrifice to the Goddes of his countrie, and so he brought all men into a false beliefe causing them to thinke that it was so in deede as he sayd. But at the length it came so to passe that Estrild was great with childe and delyuered of a verie faire daughter, whom he named Habren.Habren. At the same season also Gwēdoloena was brought a bed of a man childe called Madan, which was committed to his Graund­father Corineus to be brought vp in those Artes that he was skilfull in. Af­terwards, when in processe of time Corineus was dead, Locryne put away his wife Gwendolyn, and caused Estrild to be crowned Quene.Estrilde crowned Quéene. The which thing Gwendolyn being maruellous wroth withall, went into Cornewall, and assembling together the power of the youth of the country, began to dis­quiet Locryne and to warre vpon him.Store riuer At the length they ioyned battaile and met together nere a Ryuer called Stoore, where the sayde Locryne was slaine with an Arow. Then incontinent after his death,Locryne slaine. Gwendolyn folowing the raging passions of her father, tooke vpon her the gouernement of this realme,Sabrina the Riuer of Seuerne. commaunding Estrild with her daughter Habren to be cast both hedlyng into the riuer Seuerne, called in English Seuerne. And fur­ther made a proclamation throughout all the whole realme of Briteyn, that the same water should be euermore called Habren, after ye Maydens name,Habren in Welsh, is Seuerne in English. for so euen at this day is Seuerne called in the Welsh tongue. And this did she as one desirous to make thereby the name of the yong Mayden immor­tall, because she was her Housbands daughter: The same Gwendolyn reig­ned .xv. yeres after the death of Locryne, who reigned .x. yeres. At the length when she saw her sonne Madan was of a good stature and hable to gouerne himselfe, she caused him to be crowned king, being contented her selfe to leade the residue of her lyfe in her awne country of Cornewall. Hetherto Galfrid.

IN this time Dauid, of the Tribe of Beniamin being the sonne of Isai, 2891/1072 or Iesse, was both the Kinge and Prophete of almightie God after the death of Saul:Dauid an­nointed king of Israell. For by the commaundement of almightie God he was annointed king of Israell by the Prophet Samuell, whome Saule (af­ter the spirite of God had forsaken him) partly for enuy that Dauid was so highly praysed of the Israelites, and partly fearing that he would defeate him of his kingdome, vexed with cōtinuall persecution: during which time, Dauid shewed many examples, both of Godly pacience, & also of loyall obedience to­ward his Prince. Insomuch as when Saul (by the prouidence of God) fell in his hands: he onely cut a peece of the hemme of his garmēt, in token that if he had listed at that present, he might haue slaine him, & for ye dede, afterward he greatly repented that he had bene so bold, as to cut off a pece of the garment of Saul, his souereigne Lord & King: notwithstanding yt he was his most grie­uous enimie, and euery houre sought his death. This noble king reigned ouer Israell .xl. yeres, that is to say, he reigned ouer Iuda .vij. yeres, & ouer all Is­raell [Page 40] .xxxiij. yere. He did that was right in the sight of God, and put his trust and confidence in the Lord God of Israell, so that before, nor after him, was not the lyke among the Kinges of Iuda:2. Reg. 2 He cleaued to the Lorde, and went not from his steppes, he obserued the commaundementes that the Lorde had geuen to Moses: Wherefore God bare witnesse of him, that he was a man according to his awne heart and desire: and to him God renued his promises, of the health and saluation that was to be looked for in Christ our Sauiour: and for a more certeyntie thereof, Christ of the Prophetes is called the sonne of Dauid. And furthermore, Dauid himselfe by the inspiration of God in his Hymnes and Psalmes most manifestly prophecieth of the Conception, Birth, Life, Death, Resurrection, Ascention, & heauenly Kingdome of our Sauiour Christ. Wherefore among the Prophetes and other holy men, his writinges were had in great estimation, and of like aucthoritie as were the writinges of Moses. This noble king expulsed out of Israell the Iebusites, and made Ierusalem his Citie: He vanquished the Philistines, and brought the Arke from the house of Aminadab to Ierusalem.Lanquet. Lanquet.

¶But after all this, he forgat God and committed both murder, and ad­ultery, but he most greuously repented the same, and called vpon GOD for mercy: but yet God did greuously ponish him, neuerthelesse at the last he did behold his repentance, and forgaue him, and restored him to the peaceable go­uernement, not onely of all the Israelites, but also of all their borders, and made them all tributaries vnto Israell, and finally sent him a sonne by Beth­sabe his Wife called Salomon,Salomon borne. whom Dauid in the .xl. yere of his reigne as­signed to take the charge and gouernaunce of the Kingdome of all Israell, and gaue vnto his sayde sonne Salomon a charge, that he shoulde buylde the Temple of God in Ierusalem, and gaue him also a plot and description howe he should builde the same, and then he dyed. But such as are desirous to reade more of the story, may resort vnto the Bible, and read the seconde booke of the Kinges.2. Regum.

2899/1064 GWendoloena, or Gwendolyne the wife of Locryne as before is expres­sed, which was the daughter of Corineus Duke of Cornewall, did af­ter the death of her Husbande, because her sonne was to yong, take vp­on her the gouernement of Briteyn,Gwēdoline gouerned Briteyn. and was by the common assent of all the Britons, made Ruler thereof. And hauing full possession of the same, she well and discretely ruled it to the quiet and contentation of her subiectes, and so she continued vntill such tyme as Madian her sonne came vnto his lawfull age. At which tyme she gaue ouer the rule and dominion vnto him, after she had ruled this Islande, xv. yeres.

2914/1049 MAdan, or Madian, the sonne of Locryne and Gwendolyne, tooke on him the Gouernance of Briteyn at thys tyme, who (as some write of him) vsed great tyranny ouer his Britons. Notwithstanding, all or the most part agree, that he ruled the same .xl. yeres. At the ende of which terme, he being at disport on hunting, was of wylde Beastes or Wolues slaine or de­uoured, and as Raynulph of Chester sayth, he left after him two sonnes, the one called Mempricius, the other Manlius.

2931/1032 ¶ About this tyme Salomon the sonne of Dauid by his wyfe Bethsabe, [Page 41] after the death of his father began to reigne as King ouer all Israell. And of him it is written in the .iij. Chapter and the .iij. booke of the Kinges, that he besought God to graunt him wisedome, which God gaue him in such aboun­daunce, that he excelled all that euer were before him, namely, in wisedome, pollicie, and good gouernaunce. And in the .iiij. yere of his reigne and .iiij.3. Regum. 6 Moneth called Zif, which some say is April, and some May he began to buyld the Temple of God at Ierusalem,The buil­ding of the Temple. that is to say in the foure hundreth eightie yere after the Children of Israell departed out of Egypt. But in the ende, he forgat God and delighted in fleshly lustes and pleasures, he had seuen hun­dreth Wyues that were Queenes, and moreouer he had three hundreth Concubines that were straungers and Idolaters, and they turned his heart from God to Images, and Idolatry, so that his heart was not perfect with the Lorde his God, as his fathers was. And because Salo­mon would not turne to the Lord his God, therefore God sayde vnto him, that he would rent his kingdome, but not in his tyme, but after his dayes. And Salomon reigned ouer Israell .xl. yere, and then dyed, and was buryed with his father in the Citie of Da­uid,Ieroboam. and after his death Ieroboam the seruant of Salomon reigned ouer x. Trybes of Israell, and Re­hoboham the Sonne of Salomon reigned but ouer two Tribes.Rehoboam.

Here endeth the fourth Age, which continued from the departure of the Children of Israell out of Egypt, vntill the building of the Temple which conteyned .CCCC.lxxx. yeres.

The fift Age, and fift part of this Chronicle.


The fift Age

2954/1009 MEmpricius, or Mempris the el­dest sonne of Madan, and his brother Man­lius,Mempriciꝰ after the death of their father, made great strife for the souereigne dominion of this Realme of Briteyn: But at the last Mempricius by treason, procured the death and destruction of his bother Manlius, and shortly after he tooke vpon him the sole go­uernement of this Realme of Briteyn, who in the tyme of his reigne vsed such crueltye, and tyranny towardes his subiectes, that he endeuoured to make away almost al the no­bles of his Countrie, and now thinking himselfe in rest, he waxed slouthfull and tooke pleasure in filthie and fleshly affections, and at length gaue himselfe wholy to Harlots and Concubines,Sodomy. and finally forsooke his lawfull wyfe, and exercysed the act of filthie Sodomy, and so brought himselfe into the hatred of God and all his people.Mempricius slaine wyth wild Beasts And on a tyme goyng on huntyng, when he had lost his people, he was destroyed of Wolues, after he had reigned .xx. yeres, leauing after him a goodlye yongling begotten of his lawfull wyfe, named Ebranke.

2971/99 [...]¶ In this tyme Roboham the sonne of Salomon, began to reigne onely ouer two Trybes of Israel, that is to say, the Tribe of Iuda, and Beniamin, and he was the first that reigned in Israell, the Tribes being deuided, as a­pereth in the .xj. Chapter of the third booke of the kings. And the cause why [Page 43] the other .x.Auncient fa­thers & graue councellers are to be ho­noured. Tribes of Israell did forsake to be vnder the gouernance of Ro­boham, was for that he refused and despised the counsayle of the sage, graue, and auncient fathers which were counsaylers to his father, and gaue credite to the phancies and opinions of yong men, among whom he had bene brought vs wantonly: and in the ende none followed the house of Dauid but Iuda. For Beniamin was geuen vnto Nathan, the brother of Salomon, but ne­uerthelesse they faythfully ayded Iuda, as often as they needed: and he dyed when he had reigned .xvij. yeres.

EBrank the sonne of Mempricius, 2974/989 was made ruler ouer this land of Briteyn,Ranulph. Gaufride. in the yere of the world two M.ix.C.lxxiiij. and had as testifieth Reynulph Monke of Chester, Gaufride and other writers .xx. Wyues, of the which he begat .xx. sōnes and .xxx. daughters,Geoffrey of Monmouth whose names are rehersed of Geffcey of Monmouth, wherof the fayrest was named Gwales, or after some Gualea. He sent these daughters to Siluius, which was the .xj. king of Italy, or the .vj. king of Latynes, to the ende to haue them maried to the blood of the Troyans.

¶This Ebrank was also a man of a comely stature, & of a great strength, and by his power and might he enlarged his dominion: in so much, that he wanne and occupied a great parte of Germania, by the ayde and helpe of the Latynes, and returned thence with great praye and ryches. After which re­turne he builded the Citie of Caerbrank, now called Yorke,Yorke. which should be as sayth the Aucthor of the booke named the flowers of stories, written in French in the .xxiij. yere of the reigne of the sayde Ebrank, which accompt to follow, it should seeme that London was builded before Yorke. C.xl. yeres,Lōdon buil­ded before yorke .C.xl. yeres. supposing the Citie of London to be builded in the second yere of the reigne of Brute. In his saide Citie of Ebran [...], hee made a Temple to Diana, Archflamyn, or Acchby­shop. and ordeyned an Archflamyn to gouerne the same, according to the lawes of their Gods, or as we now call him an Archbyshop.

¶Also he builded in Albania or Scotland, the Citie and Castle of May­dens, the which now is called Ed [...]ough,Edēborow. in the time that Roboham the sonne of Salomon reigned king of Israell. After which buildings finished and done, he with a great armie sayled into that part of Gallia, which now is called France, and subdued the Frenchmen, and a great parte of Germany and returned with great triumph and ryches. And when he had guyded this land of Briteyn nobly by the space of .lx. yeres, as most writers agree, he died and was buried at Caerbrank, or Yorke,Gaufride. leauing after him for his heyre his eldest sonne (as Gaufride sayth) named Brute Greneshield.

¶At this time Abia the sonne of Roboham, 2988/973 and the fourth king of the Iewes, was after his father king of Iuda, and reigned three yeres, he o­uercame Hieroboam in battaile. He had .xiiij. Wyues, and of them he begat xxij. sonnes and .xvj. daughters.

¶Asa the sonne of Abia was after the death of his father king of Iuda, 2990/973 he was iust and righteous in the keeping and obseruing of the commaundments of God, and in the ouerthrowing and destroiyng of the Aultares that were erected for to sacrifice vnto Idols, and after he dyed, when he had reigned [Page 44] xlj.3. Reg. 15. yeres, as apereth in the .xv. Chapter of the .iij. booke of the kings.

3000/963 ¶And here I finde noted in Lanquet these wordes: about this time, ac­cording to the prophecie of Heli, halfe the yeres of the worlde were fulfilled, signifying that the worlde should continue but .vj.M. yeres.

3031/932 AT this time also Iosaphat the .vij. King of the Iewes reigned next after Asa his father, and he reigned .xxv. yeres in Ierusalem, and followed the good steps of his forefathers: wherefore God blessed him with great a­boundance and ryches. He ordeyned Iudges in euerie Citie of Iuda, and commaunded the Leuits to reade the lawe of God vnto the people, that they might thereby learne to feare God.

3034/929 BRute Greneshield the sonne of Ebrank was made gouernor ouer this land of Briteyn, and reigned .xij. yeres, and is buried at Caerbranke, or Yorke, leauing after him a sonne named Leyll, as sayth Fabian, Lanquet, and Bergamo. But Rastall and Caxton saye that he reigned .xxx. yere.

3046/917 LEyll, the sonne of Brute Greneshield, after the death of his father, tooke vpon him the kingdome of Briten, and ruled .xxv. yeres. This was a iust man and a louer of peace, and in his time he builded a Citie or Towne,Carlile. which after his awne name, he named Caerleyll, now Car­lile, in the which he builded a Temple, and therein placed a Flamyn, and after dyed and was buried in his aforesayde Towne. This Leyll left after him a sonne named Lud, or as some call him, Lud Hurdibras.

3048/315 AChab King of Iuda, a wicked King, reigned twoo yeres, hee ouer­came Benadab King of Siria, and slue of the Sirians a hundred thou­sande.

3050/913 AFter him Iehoram the sonne of Iosaphat the .viij. King of Iuda reigned in Ierusalem: he walked in the wicked wayes of the kinges of Israell, as did the house of Achab, for the daughter of Achab was his Wyfe, and he did that which displeased the Lord, and slue all his brethren: Neuerthelesse, God would not destroy Iuda, bicause of his promise made vnto Dauid, who promised that he would geue him a light in his children alwaye. And in his tyme Edom fell from vnder the hand of Iuda and made them a king of their awne. And Iehoram reigned .xiij. yeres, and then dyed, and was buried in the Citie of Dauid. 4. Reg. 8.9.

Ochozias.AFfter Iehoram, Ochozias, or Ozias his sonne was the .ix. king of Iuda, he was but .xxij. yere olde when he began to reigne, and he reigned but onely one yere. And in the ende, for yeelding to Idolatrie, hee was slaine by the people of Iehu king of Israell, the same murder being done at his com­maundement.

3061/902 AThalia the mother of Ochozias to be reuenged of the death of her sonne, slue all the blood royall, sauing one little childe called Iehoas, which was the sonne of the sayd Ochozias, which was kept and hidden from her, by Ie­hosaba the daughter of King Iehoram which was his Aunt. And he was with her hidden in the house of the Lorde .vj. yere: And Athalia did reigne ouer the lande all that tyme: But in the ende she was most cruelly slaine, and yong Iehoas restored to the Kingdome of Iuda.

IEhoas, or Ioas the .xj. King of Iuda, and the first of the house of Nathan, 3067/896 reigned .xl. yeres. In the .vij. yere of his age, he was proclamed and an­noynted king, and Athalia his Grandmother was slaine as abouesayd. And as long as he folowed the good admonitions of Ioiada the high priest, he prospered: But afterward, falling into Idolatrie and other wickednesse, he slue Zacharias the Prophet betwene the Temple and the auitare,Zacharias slaine. for which deede God ponnished him by the Syrians, and after he was slaine in his bed by hys awne seruauntes.

LVd Hurdibras, or Rathudibras, or as some wryte Rudibras, 3071/892 sonne of Leyll, began to reigne in Briteyn: And after he was stablished in his kingdome, he appeased the great variance and discordes that sprang in his fathers tyme, and that beyng done, he then builded the towne of Caer­kyn, which now is called Cantorbury:Cātorbury. He builded also the Towne of Caer­guen, now called Wynton or Wynchester:Winchest. And another towne called Mount Paladoure, now called Septon or Shaftesbury.Shaftesbu. In the time of the buylding of which towne of Septon, as affirmeth Gaufride,In euery of these three Townes, he buylded also a temple, and therin placed a F [...]an [...]yn, which is a Bishop. an Egle there spake cer­teyn wordes, the which he sayth he will not wryte nor declare for any certen­tye. And when he had ruled this land nobly by the space of .xxx. yeres, he dy­ed, and left behind him a sonne named Baldud or Bladud. But in very deede the sayde Gaufride was here deceyued, taking Aquila for the name of a birde called an Egle, which was the proper name of a man, that liued in the dayes of the aforenamed Lud Hurdibras, who by reason of the great knowledge and skill that hee had in the Iudicialles of Astronomye, coulde tell before of thinges to come, and therfore was in those dayes taken for a great Prophet, insomuche that when the same King was determined to builde Septon, or Shaftesbury, and had already layed the foundation of the walles, he desyred the sayd Aquila, the Horoscope of the beginning of the said woorke first conside­red, to shew his opinion touching the continuaunce and fortune of the same Towne: And therfore it is that many report how an Egle should then speake. This Aquila is of writers called Aquila Septonius, that is to say,Gaufride. Aquila of Shaf­tisbury. And of his diuinatiōs and prophecies, there is further mention made in the .ix. booke and last Chapter of the sayd Gaufride.

BLadud, or Baldud, the sonne of Lud Hurdibras, 3100/863 after the death of his father reigned ouer Briteyn. This man as sayth Gaufride, Polichro­nicon, and others, was very well sene in the Mathematicalles, and in Negromancie, and by that Art he made the hoate Bathes in the Towne of Caerbadon, now called Bathe, the which Towne or Citie he also builded.

¶Iohn Bale in his booke of the famous writers of Briteyn,Bale. writeth of him in this wise: Bladud, surnamed the Magician the .x. king of the Bri­tones, was sent in his youth to the famous citie of Athens in Greece, there to be instructed in Philosophie and the liberall Sciences. And when he had there studied a certaine time, hearing of the death of Lud Hurdibras his fa­ther, he returned home againe, bringing thence with him foure expert Ma­sters in many Sciences, not thinking it meete that his Country shoulde lack any lenger such singuler ornaments of learning as they were.Marlyn. Staunford. These Phi­losophers as wryteth Marlin, placed he at Staunforde in a verie pleasaunt [Page 46] soyle, and made schooles for them, to the intent they should there reade the ly­berall scyences, where they had many tymes a great audience. He was a man very cunning and skilfull aswell in prophane sciences of the Gentiles, as in all wisdome and knowledge that the Grecians excelled in: But especially stu­dious and singulerly well seene was he in the Mathematicall artes and sci­ences, for the which cause, one of the Sibelles that liued in his tyme, hearing of the wonderfull fame that went of his name and doctrine, wrote and dedi­cated vnto him a booke of Prophecies, and foretellings of thinges to come. Some affirme that the same Bladud builded the Citie of Bathe, and therein made by a wonderfull arte certeyne hote Bathes, for the vse and commoditie of the people, which do remaine yet to this day, committing the conseruation thereof vnto the Goddesse Minerua, in whose honour he caused a Temple there to be erected, to the entent that beyng preserued by so mightie a God­desse should neuer faile, but continue for euer. They wryte also how that he read and taught Necromancie throughout all his Realme. But these things are verily as I suppose feined matters. Hetherto Bale. And it foloweth after in the same Aucthour: And when he had at the length prepared himselfe by Artmagique and Sorcery such winges as Dedalus made himself, he attemp­ted to flye in the ayre in the presence of the people, in which attempt he fell downe hedlong vpon the Aultare of Apollo, and so brused his body with the fall that he dyed thereof, when he had reigned .xxj. yeres, and was buried at Troynouant.Iohn Hard. Iohn Harding in the first booke, and .xxv. Chapter of his sto­rye, sheweth that the schole or vniuersitie of Stamford aforesayd was forbid­den by Austen the Monke,Austen the Monke. like as other Vniuersities of this Realme were, vnder this pretence, that they mainteyned the Arrian and Pelagian heresies, the which his prohibicion was the cause of the decay of the same Vniuersities and therefore long after his tyme, there was no common professing of lear­ning, but in great Monasteryes or Abbeyes. But William of Malmes­burye sayth, that the hoate Bathes were made by the procurement of Iu­lius Cesar Emperour, hee dyed and was buryed at Troynouant, when hee had ruled Briteyn by the space of .xx. yeres, leauing after him a sonne named Leyr.

3111/852 AMasia the sonne of Ioas was after his father King of Iuda, and reigned in the tyme that Ioas the sonne of Ioacham was King of Israell. In the beginning he gouerned very well, but yet he did not ouerthrow the hill Aul­tars where they sacrificed to their Idols,Amasia slaine. and therefore when he had reigned xxix yeres, he was of his awne people slaine.

3119/844 LEyr the sonne of Bladud, or Baldud, after the death of his father, was made ruler ouer the Britons. This Leyr was of noble condicions, and guyded his land and subiectes in great wealth and quietnesse, he made the Towne of Caerieir now called Leycester.Leycester. And albeit that this man reigned long ouer Briteyn, yet is there no notable thing worthie of memo­rye written of him, except as Gaufride sayth, that he had by his wife three daughters and no sonne, and the daughters were named Gonorilla, Ragan, and Cordeilla, the which he loued much, but most specially hee loued the yon­gest, Cordeilla by name.

Leyr.¶ When this Leyr, or Leyth, after some writers, was fallen into com­petent [Page 47] age, being desirous to know the minde of his three daughters, he first demaunded of Gonorilla the eldest how well she loued him:Gonorilla. the which calling her Goddes to record, sayde, she loued him more then her owne soule. With this answere, the father being well contented,Ragan. demaunded of Ragan the se­cond daughter, how well she loued him? To whome she aunswered, and af­firming with great othes, sayde, that she coulde not with her tongue expresse the great loue she bare to him: and added further, that she loued him aboue all creatures. After these pleasaunt aunsweres had of those two daughters, he called before him Cordeilla the yongest:Cordeilla. who vnderstanding the dissimu­lation of her two sisters and entending to proue her father, sayde: Most re­uerende father, where my two sisters haue dissimuled with thee, and vttered their pleasaunt wordes fruitlesse, I knowing the great loue and fatherly zeale, that thou euer hast borne toward me (for the which I may not speake vnto thee otherwise then my conscience leadeth me) therefore I saye to thee father, I haue euer loued thee as my father, and shall continually while I liue, loue thee as my naturall father. And if thou wilt be further inquisitiue of the loue that I beare thee: As thy ryches and substaunce is, so much art thou woorth, and so much and no more doe I loue thee.

¶ The father with this aunswere being discontent, maried his two elder daughters, the one vnto the Duke of Cornewale, and the other vnto the Duke of Albania, or Scotlande, and deuided with them two in mariage his lande of Briteyn after his death, and the one halfe in hande during his na­turall life. And for his thirde daughter Cordeilla he reserued nothing.

¶ It so fortuned after, that Aganippus,Aganippus or Aganip Kinge of France. which the English Chronicle na­meth Aganip king of France, heard of the bewtie and womanhood of Cor­deilla, he sent vnto her father and asked her in mariage. To whome it was aunswered, that the king would gladly geue vnto him his daughter, but for Dowar, hee would not depart with, for he had promised all vnto his other two daughters.

¶ Aganippus, by his Messengers beyng thus enformed, remembring the vertues of the aforenamed Cordeilla, did without promise of Dowar, take the sayde Cordeilla to his wyfe.

¶ But here is to be noted, that where this Aganippus or Aganip is cal­led in diuers Chronicles the king of Fraunce, it can not agree with other hi­stories, nor with the Chronicles of Fraūce. For it is testified by Reynulph of Chester, and by Peter Pictauiens, by Robert Gagwyne, by Bishop Antho­ny, and many other Chronicles that long after this tyme there was no king of France, neyther was it long after called France: But at this day the in­habitaunts thereof were called Galli,Galli. and afterwards were tributaries to Rome without hauing any king, till the time of Valentinianus Emperour of Rome, as hereafter in this worke shall be plainely shewed.

¶ The story of the Britons sayeth, that in the time that Leyr reigned in Briteyn, the land of Fraunce was vnder .xij. kings, of the which, Aganippus should be one, the which saiying, is full vnlike to be true, and the same maye be proued many wayes, but I passe ouer, for that it is not my purpose to vse any speciall discourse of the kings of Fraunce.

¶ Then it followeth in the History, when Leyr was fallen into age,Couetousnes the roote of all euill. the a­foresayd two Dukes, thinking long before the Lordship of Briteyn fell into [Page 48] their handes,Gaufride arose against their father (as Gaufride sayth) and spoyled him of the gouernance therof vpon certaine condicions to be continued for terme of lyfe,Maglanus the which in processe of tyme were minished, as well by Maglanus as by Henninus housbands of the aforenamed Gonorild and Ragan:Henninus. But that most displeased Leyr, was the vnkindnesse of his two daughters conside­ring their wordes to him before spoken and sworne, and now found and pro­ued them all contrary.

Leyr fleeth out of his land.¶ For the which he being by necessitie constrayned, fled his land, and say­led into Gallia for to be comforted of his yongest daughter Cordeilla. Where­of she hauing knowledge, of naturall kindnesse comforted him: And after shewing all the matter to her Husband, by his agreement, receyued him and his to her Lordes Court, where he was cherished after her best maner.

¶ Long it were to shew vnto you the circumstance of the vtterance of the vnkindnesse of his two daughters, and of the wordes of comfort geuen to him by Aganippus and Cordeilla, or of the counsayle or purueyance made by the sayde Aganippus and his Lordes,Aganippus for the restoring againe of Leyr to his do­minion: But finally, he was by the helpe of the sayde Aganippus restored a­gain to the gouernement of the Realme of Briteyn, and possessed and ruled the same as Gouernor therof, by the space of three yeres after. In which sea­son dyed Aganippus. And when this Leyr had ruled this land by the terme of .xl. yeres, as diuerse do affirme, he died and was buryed at his awne towne Caerleyr or Leycestre,Leycestre. leauing after him for to inherite the lande, his daugh­ter Cordeilla.

3149/814 AT this tyme Ozias, or Azarias, the sonne of Amasias, reigned king after his father ouer Iuda, and he reigned .Lij. yeres, and towarde the ende of his reigne he began to waxe prowde,Ozias pla­gued with Ieprosie. and would haue vsurped the Priestes office, wherfore he was striken with a leprosie, and dyed. 2. Parali. 11.

3158/805 COrdeilla, the yongest daughter of Leyr, was by the assent of the Bri­tons made Queene of Briteyn, and she guyded the landfull wisely by the terme and space of .v. whole yeres. The which tyme expired, her two Nephewes Morgan and Cunedagius sonnes of her two sisters, came vpon her land,Cordeilla slaine in prison. and made therein great waste and destruction, and at the last tooke and cast her into a strong Prison, where she beyng in dispaire of the recouery of her estate (as sayth Gaufride) slue her selfe.

3162/800 CVnedagius, and Morganus, Nephewes as aforesaide of Cordeilla, de­uided this land of Briteyn betwene them: That is to say, the Countrye ouer and beyond Humber towarde Catnessy, fell to Morgan, and the other part of ye land toward the West (as sayth Gaufride) fel to Cunedagius.

Parasites & flatterers.¶ After two yeres ended, some Pykethankes and Flaterers came vnto Morgan and sayde, that to him it was great reproche and dishonor (conside­ring that he was come of Gonorilla the elder sister, and of Maglanus her Husband: And Cunedagius was descended of Ragan the yonger sister, and Hemnius her Husband) that he had not the rule of all the land, to which lewde persons Morgan geuing credence, was enflamed with pryde and couetous­nesse,Pride & co­uetousnes. and anone by theyr counsayie, assembled a great host, and made warre vpon his Cosyn, brenning and destroiyng his land without mercy. Whereof [Page 49] Cunedag being ware, in all haste gathered his people: And after a certeyne message sent by him for reconciliation, seeyng that there was no peace to bee made, but the same must be determined by dynt of sworde, and the iudgement of battayle, he met with his Cosyn in plaine fielde: where the Goddes were to him so fauourable, that he slue many of the people of his sayde Cosyn, and at the length compelled him to flee. After which victory thus had, he pursued Morgan from Country to Country, vntill he came within the Prouince or Country of Wales, in the which the sayd Morgan gaue vnto the sayd Cune­dag another Battayle: But for that he was farre the weaker,Morgan slaine. he was there ouerthrowen, and slaine in the fielde. Which field or Country where the said Morgan fought, and was slaine, is to this day called Glamargan, Glamargā fielde. which is as much to say, as Morgans land. And thus was Morgan slaine, when he had reigned with his Nephew two yeres.

IOatham the sonne of Ozias, or Azarias was after his father king of Iuda, 3176/787 and when he began to reigne, he was .xxv. yere olde, and reigned .vj. yere. He was a good Man, and one that feared God, and obeyed his commaunde­mentes, but he did not breake downe the hill aultares, that were set vp to sacrifice vnto Idoles.

RIuallus or Riuallo the sonne of Cunedagius, 3197/766 was after his father ruler ouer Briteyn, and he ruled with great sobernesse and kept the lande in great wealth and prosperitie: Albeit that of him is left no speciall memory of anye notable act done in his tyme,Blood ray­ned by the space of three dayes. except that (as Gau­fride sayth) it rained blood in his tyme by the space of three dayes continually within the land of Briteyn. After the which raine ensued a great an excee­ding number and multitude of Flies,Flies slue many people. the which were so noysome and conta­gious that they slue many people. And after (as sayth an olde Aucthor) ensued great sicknesse and mortalitie, to the great desolation of this land.

¶ Then it foloweth in the history: that when this Riuallus had reigned after most wryters xlvj. yeres, he dyed and was buried at Yorke,Romulus greatly en­creased Rome leauing after him a sonne, named Gurgustius. And in this time the Citie of Rome was greatly enlarged and encreased by Romulus, or after the minde of Fa­bian and others first builded.

AChas the sonne of Ionathan was after his father king of Iuda, 3192/771 he was xx. yere olde when he beganne to reigne, and he reigned .xxv. yeres in Ie­rusalem, he folowed the wicked wayes of the kings of Israell.

EZechias the sonne of Achas was after the death of his father king of Iu­da, and reigned .xxxix. yeres in Ierusalem, he loued, feared, 3208/755 and serued the Lorde, and was a Prince, iust, verteous, and religious, he was diligent in the obseruing and keeping of the commaundements of almightie God, and there was not found in any of the kings that reigned before him nor af­ter him, lyke vnto him in bountie and vertue:Brasen Serpent. He brake the Brasen Ser­pent and restored againe the true honouring of God.

MAnasses the sonne of Ezechias was after his father king of Iuda, 3237/726 and he reigned .lv. yeres in Ierusalem, he was a very euill Man, and wrought much wickednesse in Iuda, he set vp Idols and worshipped them, he defi­led the Temple, and sacrificed his children vnto the Goddes, he filled Ieru­salem with the blood of Innocents, he despised the admonitions of the Pro­phets, [Page 50] and put to death the most holye Prophet Esaias,Esay the Prophet put to death. cutting him in the middle with a Sawe: wherefore God being displeased, reysed vp the king of Babilon, who with a mightie power inuaded Iurye, tooke the king by a trayne, and brought him captiue to Babilon. Then in his captiuitie he ac­knowledge God,Manasses repented. and confessed his sinnes, and tooke great repentance, through which, finding grace with God, he was restored againe to his king­dome, where he abholished all Idolatry, and restored the true honoring of God and commaunded that it shoulde be iustlye obserued, and so passed all the rest of his lyfe in the feare of God. He also repayred the walles of the ho­ly Citie of Ierusalem, and ordeyned Garrisons in all his Cities. Lanquet.

3242/721 GVrgustus the sonne of the aforenamed Riuallus was made Ruler of Briteyn after the death of his father. And this man in the Englishe Chronicle is named Gorbodyan the sonne of Reignold,Gurgustus or Gorbo­dyan. of whom there is small mencion made eyther of his reigne, or of any notable dedes done in his tyme, except that the aforesayde Aucthor doth witnesse, that he reigned xxxviij. yeres: leauing after him none heyre of his body begotten, and lastly dyed and was buried by his father at the Citie of Caerbrank,Yorke. otherwise cal­led Yorke.

3279/684 SIsillus, or after some wryters, Siluius the brother of Gurgustus (as sayth the English Chronicle) was made ruler ouer Briteyn, and reigned as sayth Lanquet .xlix. yeres, and was buried at Caerbadon or Bathe,Bathe. and left after him none heyre of his body.

3292/671 A Mon or Ammon the sonne of Manasses was king of Iuda, and reigned two yeres, and his owne seruauntes conspired against him and slue him in his awne house.

3295/668 IOsias the sonne of Amon, was after his father king of Iuda, and he reig­ned in Ierusalem .xxxj. yeres, he was a goodman and feared God, and o­beyed his commaundements, and walked in the good wayes of king Dauid, without declyning eyther to the lefte hande or to the right. He purged his la [...]de from all Idols, Images, and Woodes, and burned the bones of the Priestes of Baall, and clensed all wickednesse out of the Cities of Manasse, Ephraim, Simeon, and euen vnto Nepthalim: he repayred the Temple, that the holy thinges might be couered.The Bible restored to the people by king Iosias. The Booke of the lawe of Moses which had bene lost of a long tyme, was found againe by his meanes, which he caused to be read vnto the people. Finally, vpon to much presumption, he made warre vpon the King of Egypt, where he was wounded and dyed ther­of. 4. Reg. 23.

3326/637 IOachas the second sonne of Iosias, was after his father King of Iuda, and reigned onely three Monethes, and was taken and brought captiue into Egypt, in whose place his brother Ioachim was made King, and reigned .xj. yeres, an insolent and naughtie Prince, who not regarding the prophecies of Ieremie, burnt the bookes thereof, and was at the last slaine, and left vnbu­ried as a Beast.

3327/634 IAgo or Lago, the Cosyn of Gurgustius (as sayeth Gaufrid) as next heyre was made gouernour of Briteyn. Of this man also the writers make small mencion, eyther for the quietnesse of the time, or else for [Page 51] the rudenesse of his deedes, he reigned .xxv. yeres and dyed without issue and was buried at Yorke.

IOachim called also Iechonias reigned ouer Iuda three Monthes, and .x. 3337/626 dayes, he yeelded himselfe wyllingly vnto Nabuchodonosor, by the coun­sayle of Ieremie: who sent him to Babilon,Ezechiel ta­ken captiue with all the Noble men and or­naments and Iewels: among whome also was the Prophet Ezechiell.

IN his stede Nabuchodonoser caused Mathanias the fourth sonne of Io­sias to take vpon him the rule of Iuda, 3347/616 and made him sweare by the name of the Lorde that he should faythfully serue the Chaldeys,Mathanias the last king of the Iewes in token whereof he named him Zedechias, he was the .xxiij. and last king of the Iewes, and reigned .xj. yeres. This Zedechias brake his amitie with the king of Babi­lon, and entered into league with the Egyptians. For which cause Nabu­chodonoser returned and besieged Ierusalem by the space of one yere .vj.Ierusalem [...] the Temple vtterly de­stroyed. Monethes, and .v. dayes. After which siege, the holy Citie with the most sa­cred Temple, miserably with pestilence, famine, sworde and fyre, was de­stroyed. The king himselfe with all his Nobilitie taken, his children slaine before his face, his eyes pulled out and sente into captiuitie to Babilon .ij. Para .xxxvj. Chapt.

¶ Thus was the whole Nation of the Iewes without respect eyther of Age or kinde,The destruc­tion of the Iewes. eyther slaine or brought into Babilons bondage for their ob­stinacie against God and his Prophets, and for the sinne and transgres­sion of their Kings, Priestes, and all the people, the yere after the vniuersall Flood. M.vj.C.lxxxx. after the arriuall of Brute .CCCC.Lxxxij. after the beginning of the kingdom of the Iewes .CCCC.lviij. after the building of the temple. CCCC.xiiij. and after the building of Rome. C.xxxvij.

Here endeth the fift Age of the worlde, and is from the building of the Temple, vnto the captiuitie of Babilon, which the He­brues accompt .CCCC.xix. yeres.

The sixt Age, and sixt part of this Chronicle.


The sixt Age

[...]352/619 KInimacus the sonne of Sisillus, as some wryters haue, but more truely as sayth the olde Chronicle, the brother of La­go, was made ruler of Briteyn, as his bro­ther before him was, and passed his tyme without any notable actes or deedes, so that of him there is no more memorye than is of his brother. For the most of them that write the feates and deedes of the Britons, make but a short rehersall of these fiue kings, that is to say, from Riuallo to Gorbodug, saiyng that after Riuallo succeded Gurgustus, af­ter him Lago, & after Lago, kinimacus, and after kinimacus succeded Gor­bodug. Of these fiue kinges is made little other mention. Then it followeth in the olde Chronicle, that when Kinimacus had reigned. Liiij. yeres, he died, and was buryed at Yorke: leauing after him a sonne named Gorbodug.

3360/603 ¶ In this tyme was that most noble Prophet Daniell, and he florished in Babilon. And in his youth by his wisedome, he deliuered Susanna from death,Daniel the Prophet. & he expounded the dreames of Nabuchodonosor: And finally, he was cast into a denne among hungry Lions, whereby the power of God he was preserued from harme. Afterwarde he prophecied both of the comming of Christ, and also of the Empires of Babilon, Media, Persia, Grecia, and the Romaynes.

3383/580 ¶ The Scots as their Chronicles shew, did at this time first inhabit Scot­land [Page 53] where they liued long tyme vnder sundry Capitaines, as they call them,England in habited be­fore Scotlā [...] as the Sco­tish Cronicle doth accompt 528. yere. vntill the tyme of Fergus, sonne of Ferguard, king of Irelande, who ayded the Scottes against the Pichtes, and was the first king of Scottes, as they say.

GOrbodug succeded his father Kinimacus, in this Realme of Briteyn, 3404/559 and b [...] most wryters he reigned .lxiij. yeres, and then dyed, and was buryed at London, which then was called Troinouant,Troinouāt and left behind him two sonnes, name Ferrex, and Porrex, but some call them Ferrens, and Porrens.

IN this tyme Barachias, called also Zorobabell, Nephew to Ioachim, 3418/545 and Iesus the high Priest, with .xlv. thousand, three hundreth, three score and ten Iewes, were deliuered free from Babilon by Cyrus, and returned into their awne land: where they repayred againe their Citie,Ierusalem & the Temple againe re­payred. and cast the foun­dation of their Temple, renued their lawes and Sacrifices, albeit they were sometyme let by their borderers. 1. Esd. 4. & .vi. And in the yere of the worlde 3446. the Temple was cleane finished, and with great ioy dedicated againe vnto the Lorde, wherin they offered their Sacrifices, and celebrated theyr Phase, or feast of Passouer, in geuing of thankes to God which had turned the heart of Darius vnto them.

FErrex and Porrex his brother, 3467/496 Sonnes of Gorbodug reigned ouer this Realme of Briteyn, and continued in amitie a certain time. After which time expired, as fayth Reynulph and Gaufride. Porrex being couetous of Lordship gathered his people together vnknowne to his bro­ther Ferrex, entending to destroy him. Whereof he being warned, for lack of space to assemble his people for sauegarde of his lyfe, fled sodainely into Gallia or France, and prayed ayde of a Duke of Gallia named by Gaufrid, Gunhardus or Swardus, the which Duke ayded him, and sent him againe into Briteyn with his host of Gallis. After whose landing, his brother Por­rex with his Britons met him, and gaue to him Battaile,Ferrex slaine. in the which bat­taile Ferrex was slaine, with the more parte of his people. But here some Aucthours write that Porrex was slaine and Ferrex suruyued. But whe­ther of them both was lyuing, him did the mother of the same two brethren named, Widen, setting a parte all motherly pittie, with the helpe of her wo­men, most cruelly murdered, in the night season in his sleepe,A cruell and vnnaturall murder. and cut him in pieces. And thus ended the aforesayde two brethren, after they had reigned in Briteyn in warre and peace .v. yeres. And here endeth the lyne or ofspring of Brute, after the opinion of most writers, for as Gaufrid sayth, after the death of these two brethren, great discorde arose among the Britons, the which continued long among them, by meane whereof the people were sore vexed and noyed vnder .v. Kings, whose names I finde in an olde Pedegre to be Rudancus, that was King of Wales, Clotemis King of Cornewall, Pinnor king of Loegria, Staterius king of Scotlande, Yeuan king of Nor­thumberlande. And as sayth Guydo de Columna the Britons abhorred the lynage of Gorbodug, for so much as first the one slue the other, and chiefely for the vnnatural disposition of the mother, that so cruelly slue her awne child. The English Chronicle sayth, that after the death of the two forenamed bre­thren, [Page 54] no rightfull inheritor was left on lyue, wherefore the people were brought into great discorde, insomuch that the lande was deuided into foure partes. So that in Albania was one ruler, in Loegria another, in Cambria the third,Cloto Duke of Cornewal. and in Cornewall the fourth. But of these foure Rulers, the Eng­lish Chronicle alloweth Cloton Duke of Cornewall, for most rightful heyre.

¶ Reynulph of Chester sayth, that after the death of the sayde brethren, great discorde was in this lande vnder the gouernement of .v. kinges, but he neyther reherseth their names nor the times of their reignes, sauing that he sayth that the discorde continued vnto the cōming of Mulmucius Dunwallo. So that here appereth no time certaine, howe long this discorde and vari­ance among the Britons continued, but who so lust to looke in Fabian, in a draught by him drawne, in the beginning of his Chronicle, shall there finde that it continued nere to the terme of .Lj. yeres.

3503/406 ABout this time Esdras, by the lycence of Artaxerses came from Babilon to Ierusalem with .xvij.C.lxxv. Iewes, to repaire the lawe and Citie of God, and to teache the people: For he gathered and brought in order the bookes of the holy Scripture, before scattered and destroyed, and inuented the same Hebrew Charettes, which are vsed at this day.

3510/453 ANd here also I finde noted by Lanquet, that at this time began the com­putation of the .lxx. weekes of Daniell, euery weeke conteyning .vij. yere, which finisheth at the death of Tiberius,Daniell. 9. after whome Gaius caused his I­mage to be set in the Temple, vnder the name of great Iupiter.

3522/441 MVlmucius or Moluntius Dunwallo, the sonne of Cloten, vanqui­shed the other Dukes or rulers, and reigned himselfe ouer Briteyn. This man ruled Nobly and builded a house in the Citie of Troyno­uaunt now called London,Blackwell Hall. which house as some suppose is now called Black­well Hall. Also he made many good lawes, the which long after were called Mulmucius lawes. These lawes Gildas translated with great diligence out of the Britishe speche into Latyn. And long time after, Aluredus or Alured king of England turned the same out of Latyn into English, or the Saxen tongue.Raynulph. He also gaue priuilege to Temples, to Ploughes and Cities, and to the wayes leading to the same. Wherby as Raynulph sayth, all such malefac­tours as fled vnto them for succour and sauegarde of themselues, might not be empeched nor molested any maner of wayes of their enimies,Caxton. so that had a man done neuer so much harme (as Caxton reporteth in his story) if he might once come into the Temple, it was not lawfull for any to misintreate him, and lykewise he shoulde bee suffered therein to go safe and in peace, and afterward go into what Country he would without any harme. And if any man fortuned to set any violent hand vpon him,The foure high wayes. he then should leese his lyfe. And as some Aucthours affirme, he began the foure highe wayes of Briteyn, the which was finished and priuileged also by Belinus his sonne, as after shall be declared. The olde Chronicle testifieth that this Mulmucius, whom he nameth Molle and Caxton Douebant made the two Townes of Malmesbury and Vyes.Mulmucius the first king of Briteyn that ware a Crowne of Golde. And many other wryters affirme that after he had stablished himselfe in this land, and set his Britons in good order, he by the aduise of his Lordes ordeyned him a Crowne or Diademe of Golde, and caused himselfe to be crowned with great solempnitie after the vsaunce of the [Page 55] Pagan law. And for this cause, after the opinion of some writers, he was cal­led the first king of Briteyn. And all the other before rehersed were called Rulers, Dukes, or Gouernors. Of the same Mulmucius it is further writ­ten by Iohn Bale Doctour and others,Iohn Bale. that he was a great fauourer and supporter of all learned men, and that by him was restored to the auncient trade and maner, the science of Chiualrie, wonderfully decayed before his tyme, and in maner cleane extinguished.

¶ Finally, when he had guided the lande well and nobly the space of .xl. yeres, he dyed, and was buried in Troynouaunt, now called London, lea­uing after him two sonnes, the one named Belinus, the other Brennus.

BElinus and Brennus the two sonnes of Mulmucius, 3562/401 began to reigne ioyntly as kinges of Briteyn: and Belyn held Loegria or Logiers, which is that part that we now call England, Wales, and Cornewall. And Brennus had all the land beyond Number, with the which particion eche of them held himselfe well contented, and so was the Realme of Bri­teyn peacebly gouerned betwixt them, the space of .v. yeres, as Polichro­nica sayth, and in this meane tyme Brennus builded the Citie of Bristow. After which terme, the sayde Brennus entending to haue more lande or all,Brennus. arose against his brother Belyne,Belyn. and made vpon him sharpe and mortall warre. In the which warre Brennus was ouerset and compelled to flie the lande, and to sayle to Armorica, nowe named little Briteyn, but as Reynulph and Gaufride sayth, he went into Norway, and there maried the daughter of Elfunge or Elfyng which then was Duke of Norway. When this was she­wed vnto Belyn, he considering the sodaine departing of his brother: did in all the hast first seaze Albania, and al the other land that belonged to Brenne into his awne hand, and fortified the Cities thereof and other strong places, with his awne Garisons and Souldiours. Whereof when Brenne was ad­uertised, he in all possible hast assembled a great armie of people of the Nor­wayes, and tooke his shipping to sayle into Briteyn.Guilthdacus king of Den­marke. And as he was keeping his course vpon the sea, he was encountred with Guilthdacus king of Den­marke the which had lyen in awayte for him, for loue of a Damsell that he had maried, which before tyme was promised vnto the saide Guilthdacus by the saide Elfunge her father. When these two Nauies were met, strong shot and fight was vpon both parties: but finally the Danes ouercame the Nor­wayes, and tooke the Ship by strength, wherein the yong Damsell was, who was quickly brought vnto the Ship of Guilthdake. And so in fine Brenne with a fewe of his Shippes left, was faine to prouide for his awne safetie by flight.

¶ When Guylthdake had thus obteyned the victory,Guilthdake he entending to haue sayled toward Denmarke, the tempestes were so great, and wind so contra­ry, that he was enforced to land in Northumberland, where at that tyme was Belyn making of preparation of defence against his brothers comming. But when word was brought vnto Belyn,Guilthdake king of Den­marke taken. of the landing of the king of Den­marke with a smal company he reioyced at it, and commaunded him with his Shippes and company to be put in sure holde and keeping.

¶ It was not long after, but Brenne had newly rygged and victualled his Shippes, and hearing of the arriuall of Guilthdacus in Northumberland [Page 56] with his wyfe,Brennus sē ­deth defiance to his bro­ther Belyue. sent woordes of manace vnto his brother Belyne, willing him to send vnto him his wyfe, wrongfully rauished and deteyned by Guilthdacus king of Denmarke, and also to restore him to his Patrimony, or else he would shortly inuade his lande, the same for to waste, and as his enemy to destroye. The which request was of Belyne plainly and shortly denied. Wherof when Brenne had knowledge, he shortly after landed in a part of Albania, & made towarde his brother, and his brother towardes him: so that their hostes met nere vnto a Wood, named the Calatere, where betwene them was a mortall and terrible battayle, insomuch, that much people were slaine vpon both par­ties: But in the ende the Britons wan the fielde, and chased the Norwayes vnto their Shippes.A cruell bat­taile betwene two brethren. And as Gaufride sayth, the fight was so cruell & sharpe, that there were of both sydes slaine, to the number of .xl.M. men.

¶ After this discomfiture, Brenne was constreyned to flie, and with a very fewe in number, recouered the land of Gallia.

¶ Belinus hauing obteyned this great victory ouer his enemies, after thankes and oblations made vnto his Goddes, after the maner of the Pagan lawe: he then assembled his Lordes at Yorke, and there tooke their aduice what he should do with the King of Denmarke. In the which counsayle it was concluded,Gwilthdake king of Den­mark became tributary to England. that the aforesayde Guilthdacus should holde and do homage to the king of Briteyn for the land of Denmarke, and yerely pay vnto him a thousand pound for a tribute: which beyng done with suretie and hostages, the sayd Guilthdacus with his woman, was set at libertie, and returned into his awne Country.

¶ Now when Belyne had by this victorie possessed the quiet state of this Realme, he confirmed the lawes made before by his father, and did ordeine that iustice was ministred throughout the lande.The foure high wayes of England, paued by Belyne. And where the foure wayes begon by his father were not perfighted and ended: He therfore called work­men and set them to paue the same with stone, that they might the better bee knowen to all trauaylers.

Fosse.¶ The first of these foure wayes was named Fosse, the which stretcheth out of the South, into the North, & began at that tyme at Tomesse in Corne­wall, and passed forth by Deuonshire, Somersetshire, and so foorth by Tut­bury vpon Cotteswolde besyde Couentry vnto Leycester, and from thence by wylde playnes toward Newarke, and endeth at the Citie of Lincolne.

Watling­streete.¶ The seconde way was named VVatlingstreete, the which stretcheth o­uertwhart the waies of Fosse, out of the Southeast, into the Northeast. This began at Douer, and passeth by the middle of Kent ouer Thamis beside Lon­don, by west of Westminster, and so foorth by S. Albones, in the West syde of Dunstable, of Stratford, of Touceter, & of Wedon: by South Killingbourn, by Atherstone, and then passeth besides Bewdley ouer Seuerne vnto Gil­bertes hill, that now is called the Wrekyn, and so foorth vnto Stratton to the middle of Wales vnto a place called Cardican at the Irish Sea.

Erming­streete.¶ The thirde way was named Ermingstreete, the which stretcheth out of the West, Northwest, vnto the East Southeast, & beginneth at S. Dauids in west Wales, and so stretcheth foorth vnto Southampton.

Kykeneldes stréete.¶ The fourth and last way is called Kykeneldes streete, the which stret­cheth foorth by Worceter, by Wycombe, by Birmygham, by Lichfielde, by Darby, by Chesterfielde, by Yorke, and so foorth vnto Tynmouth, the which [Page 57] were sufficiently made. And he graunted and confirmed vnto them, all such priuileges as before were granted by Dunwallo his father. The which priuileges with other lawes by him made, such as are desirous to knowe, let them reade the translation of Gildas, made of Mulmucius lawes, out of Britishe speech vnto latine, and there he shall see the whole.

¶ While Belyne was thus occupied, his brother Brenne beyng as afore­sayd in a prouince of Gallia, taking his expulsion very grieuously, and beyng without comfort to attayne to his former dignitie, at the last resorted (being accompanied onely with .xij. persons) vnto the Duke or ruler of that Pro­uynce or Country.

¶ For ye shall vnderstande, that in those dayes (as sayeth Eutropius and other wryters) the Gallis occupied diuers Countries.Fraunce at ye first was de­uided into sū ­dry countries And therefore Titus Liuius wrote the histories of the Romaynes, made distinction of the Gallis, and nameth them that Brenne lead when he besieged Rome, and afterwards the Capitoll Senones Galli, of whome the Citie of Sene in Tuscayne tooke name, because (as testifieth the Author of Chronica Chronicarum, and other) it was first builded of the aforesayd Galles in the time of Brenne being there Duke and leader before the comming of Christ. CCC.lxxx. yeres. And for this cause the Senenses are of the aforesayde wryters reckened also among the Galles.

¶ Now when Brenne was commen to the Duke, whome Gaufride cal­leth Signinus Duke of Alebrog, the which is to be vnderstande the Duke of Armorica, now called little Briteyn, as Reynulph doth plainely declare,Amorice cal­led little Briteyn. and that he had opened vnto him all his griefe and trouble: the sayde Duke receyued him into his Courte with all curtesie and gentlenesse. And for that he was a personable & of gentle nature furnished with all that belonged to a Gentleman, he within a short time after was had in great estimatiō before a­ny other that apperteined to his Court. By reason wherof at the last he fell in loue with his daughter, and in the ende maried her vpon condicion that if he dyed without issue Male, that he then should be ruler of that Countrie, and if it happened him to haue an heyre Male, that then yet notwithstanding, to ayde and helpe him to recouer his land lost.

¶ The which condicions well and surely vpon the Dukes partie, by the assent of the Nobles of his land were assured. And the sayde Duke within lesse then one yere following dyed. After whose death, when by a conueni­ent tyme, it was knowne that the Duchesse his wife was not with childe, all the Lordes of the land did their homage to Brenne. To the which Lordes, the more to winne their loue, he departed much of his treasure, and shortly after with their assent gathered a great armie, and so in all haste sayled into Briteyn to make new warre vpon his brother Belyne, and after a little tyme landed there. Of whose landing when Belyne was informed, he in all haste gathered his Britons together in great number & made towarde Brennus, as to his mortall enimie. But the mother of the two brethren, named Con­wenna, or after the English booke Conwey,The true of­fice of a natu­rall mother. considering the mortall hatred betwene her two children, of a motherly pitie went betwene her two sonnes, and vsed her selfe so wisely and discretely, that at length she agreed them. Af­ter which agreement, both the brethren with their Lordes and friendes sped them vnto Troynouaunt, or London, and there after many things done and [Page 58] ordered for the weale of the lande, they agreed to leade both their hostes into Gallia for to subdue to them the sayde Countrie. And in as goodly haste as they might prepare for the iourney, they tooke shipping and so sayled into a part of Gallia,Belyne and Brenne were great conque­rours. brenning and wasting the Countrie without all pittie. And as sayth Gaufrid, they in short time subdued a great parte of Gallia, Italy, and Germany.

¶ Here Gaufrid doth vary from Eutropius, Titus Liuius, and other the writers of the Romaine Histories, for where Gaufrid sayeth that at suche time as Belyn and Brenne made warre in Italy, Gabius and Porsena were the Consules of Rome, that saiyng differeth farre from other. For as they affirme, at the time when Brenne besieged Rome, Claudius Aemilius, and Lucius Lucretius were Consules, & Furius Camillꝰ was at that time Dictator of Rome, and none lyke vnto the other were Consules many yeres before nor after.

¶ But truth it is, that the sayde two brethren did many great actes in the aforenamed Countries, but not all agreeable with the saiyng of Gaufrid. For where he referreth all those deedes to both brethren, the aforenamed Titus Liuius speaketh but of Brenne, as hereafter shall appere. Now when Belyn had remained a certeyne of time with his brother Brenne in those partes, by agreement of them both, Belyn returned into Briteyn, & Brenne remayned behinde.

¶ When Belyn was returned into Briteyn, he repayred certaine olde Cities and builded vpon the Riuer of Vske a Citie, and called it Caeruske, nere vnto the Riuer of Seuerne. This Citie was after named the Citie of Legions because the Legions of the Romaines were lodged in the same Citie,Caerleon. and now it is called Caerleon, which in the time of king Arthur was an Vniuersitie and had in it two hundred Philosophers, as Gaufride wry­teth, which being well learned in Astronomie and other Sciences, diligent­ly obserued the courses of the starres, and by true and infallible reasons, shewed before what straunge and wonderfull things should that time hap­pen vnto king Arthur.

¶ Also he builded in Troynouant an Hauen, with a gate ouer the same, in the Pynacle or top whereof was a Vessell of brasse, in the which was in­closed the Ashes of his brent body, when he was dead. This gate was long after called Belyns or Belynus gate,Belingsgat and at this day it is called Belyngsgate.

¶ While Belinus was thus occupied in Briteyn, his brother Brenne de­sirous to winne fame and honour, builded in Italy and in certeyn partes of Gallia certeyn Cities and Townes as foloweth.

  • Pauy.
  • Bergomum.
  • Seua.
  • Comum.
  • Brixia.
  • Verona.
  • Vincencia.
  • Milleyn.
  • Tridentum.
  • Cremona.

¶ The which Cities and Townes were builded of the Galles, or at the least were new repayred in the time that Brenne was their Duke and leader, although some writers suppose that Comum, and Cremona were builded af­ter Brenne was dead.Reynulph Reynulph sayth, that the Senons, which he meaneth by the Galles dwelling about the Citie of Sena, by the leading of Brennus ouercame the Romaines .xj. Myles from Rome, at the Riuer Albia, and [Page 59] chaced them to Rome and tooke the Citie, and after layed siege to the Capi­toll. And in a night while the warders of the Capitoll slept, the Frenchmen or Galles by a way vnder the earth came into the Capitoll and were lykely to haue wonne it.The noyse of a Gander a­woke Man­lius and sa­ued the Ca­pitoll. But a noble Romaine named Mallius or Manlius Tor­quatus, awoke by the crying and noyse of a Gander or Ganders. The which Manlius resisted the Galles, for which the Romaines long time after held a feast of Ganders the first day of Iune: Howbeit, afterward, it was called Iunos Feast,Ganders Feast. because they thought that Iuno the Goddesse had by her in­fluence geuen that grace vnto the Ganders, that they should by their noyse awake the Romaines. But yet the Galles or Frenchmen, helde the Ro­maines so shorte,A great gift not long en­ioyed. that they were compelled to giue vnto Brenne their Duke a thousande pound weight of Golde, as sayeth Titus Liuius, and he sayeth further that the Galles slue of the Senators of Rome a great many in num­ber, whome they supposed to haue bene Goddes,Furius Ca­milius a Dictator of Rome, wan againe from Brenne, all that euer Rome had lost. because of the riche appa­rell that they sate in. But shortly after this, the aforenamed Furius Camil­lus, which was called againe from the Citie of Ardea, where he was out­lawed before, and by the Commonalty of Rome in this distresse made againe Dictator, pursued Brenne and his people, and gaue to them battaile, and slue of them a great number, and wanne from them all the Golde and Ie­wels that before time the Galles had wonne of the Romaines. The which deede was done .CCC.lxiiij. yere before the comming of Christ.

¶ Now when Brenne was this discomfited of the Romaines,Brenne dis­comfited he turned his people toward the Macedones or Grekes, and deuided them into two hostes, whereof he reteyned the one with him, and the other he sent into a Countrie called then Gallacia, and after Gallogrecia, and lastly Galates.Gallacia. Gallogrecia Galates. Then Brenne ouercame the Macedones, with their Duke Sosteme, and after spoyled their Goddes and their Temples, and sayde in myrth, riche Goddes must geue to men some of their riches.Brenne o­uercame the Macedons. Also he spoyled the Temple of the God Appollo Delphicus, standing in the hill of the Mount Pernasus. Wherefore as sayth Policarpus, the people of that Countrie prayed to God for helpe, and sodainely the earth began to quake,A straunge thing. and a great parte of the hill fell vpon the host of the Galles and slue them. And after that, there fell Hailestones of such greatnesse, that it slue another part of the host,Brenne kil­led himselfe. and Duke Brennus was sore wounded, whereby he fell in such dispaire, that he slue himselfe with his awne sworde.

¶ Now for as much as I haue here shewed you the ende of Brennus, I will now returne to Belinus his brother, who as before is declared, busyed himselfe in the guyding and ordering of his Realme and people of Briteyn, and in executing many notable deedes, like as he constituted and ordeyned three Archflamyns, whose Seas, were at London, Yorke, and Caerleon. And as Master Layland sayth, he buylded the Tower of London, and did many other notable things in his dayes, the which for length I ouerpasse: and finally he dyed and after the Pagan maner,Belyne dead. was with great pompe bur­ned and buried at Troynouant in London, when he had reigned with his brother and alone, after some writers .xxvj. yeres, leauing after him a sonne named Gurguinthus, or Gurguint Brabtruc, or after some wryters Gur­guint Barbarouge, which is to meane Gurguint with the red beard.

3588/375 GVrguintus the sonne of Belyne, a Prince of great wisdome and sober­nesse and when time came succeded his father, & reigned king of Bri­teyn .xix. yeres, who following his fathers steppes, loued both peace and iustice. This king forasmuch as the tribute that was graunted to his fa­ther by the king of Denmarke, was nowe denyed to bee payed, assembled a great army, and prepared a great Nauy, and sayled into Denmark, and there wasted & spoyled the Country with sword and fyre, in such wise, that at length the king of Denmarke,Danes tri­bute. with the assent of his Baronage, graunted to pay and continue the aforesayde Tribute of a thousande pound yerely. Howbeit Gau­frid wryteth, that he slue the sayde King in battaile. After which victory thus had of the Danes, he with great triumph returned into Briteyn. And in kee­ping of his course, he encountered with a nauie of .xxx. sayle besyde the Isles of Orcades full of Men and Women, of which flote, the chiefe Capiteyn was called as most writers affirme, Bartholomew, ye which when he was brought vnto the kinges presence, shewed that he with his people were put or exiled out of Spaine, and were named Balenses, and had sayled long time vpon the Sea, to the ende to finde some Prince that would geue to them a dwelling place, and they to become his Subiectes, and to holde their lande of him, be­seching the king to haue compassion vpon them, and to graunt to them some place to inhabite in, that they should no lenger dwell in their Shippes, consi­dering their victuall was spent by reason of their long liyng vpon the Sea. After which request thus made by their Capitaine, the king with the aduice of his Barons, graunted to them a voyd and waste Countrie, which was and is the farthest Isle of al the Isles toward ye west, the which, Isle as saith the English Chronicle,Spaniardes lycenced to inhabite Ire­land. was then named Irelande, after the name of their Capi­teyn called as he wryteth Irlamall. But who so will know the first cause of the naming of this Isle Ireland, let him reade the .xxxij. and .xxxiij. of the first booke of Polichronica, and there he shall finde the more certeinty of the naming thereof, with many other thinges touching the sayd Isle.

¶ Then it foloweth in the story, after Gurguintus was returned into his land of Briteyn, he established and ordeyned to be kept the lawes made by his forefathers,Iustice. and exercised iustice to his Subiectes, and gouerned his lande well and nobly by the space of .xix. yeres, and then dyed, and was buryed at Caerleon, or after some wryters at Troynouaunt, leauing after him a sonne named Guyntelinus or after some, Guintellius.

3607/356 GVintelinus, or Guintellius the sonne of Gurguintus, was made king of Briteyn, and he guyded this lande with great meekenesse and so­bernesse. He had also a noble Wife called Marcia, who was learned in many sciences, and among other noble deedes by her done, she set foorth vnto the Britons a wholesome and notable law, which long tyme after was called Marcians lawe.Martians lawes. This lawe, for that it was good and necessary, Aluredus which long after was king of England, trāslated out of British into the Sax­ons speech, and then was it called euer after in the Saxons tongue, Marthe­helag, that is to say, the lawe of Marria. To this Wooman for her wisedome, was committed all the gouernance of the land, and (as Gaufride sayth) shee reigned as Queene of Briteyn a certeyn tyme after her Husband was deade. But the yeres of her reigne are accompted with the yeres of her Husband, or [Page 61] with the yeres of her Sonne Sisillus, so that the tyme of her reigne is not certeyne.

¶ In this time the said Guintelyn builded the towne of Warwike, which was about the tyme of the birth of great Alexander. But after that the Sax­ons destroyed it. But it was reedefyed agayne by king Guyderius.

¶ Now when Guinthelinus had reigned well and worthely the space of xxvj. yeres, he dyed, and was buried at Troynouaunt, or London, leauing after him a sonne named Sisillus, or Cecilius.

CEcilius, or Sisillus, the sonne of Guinthelyn, 3640/330 reigned king ouer Bri­teyn, but there is no notable thing written of him, but that (as the Scot­tes write) in the first yere of his reigne, a people of Almaine called Pich­tes, aryued here in Briteyn,Pichtes. and possessed those partes which we now call the Marches of both the Realmes of England and Scotland, and when he had reigned .vij. yeres he dyed, and left after him a sonne named Kimarus.

KImarus, ye sonne of Cecilius, reigned king of Briteyn, 3640/323 but of him there is nothing written, but that he was a wilde and wanton Prince, geuen to all pleasure and pastime, & reigned but thre yeres, beyng slain of his aduersaries as he was a hunting, and left after him a sonne named Elanius.

ELanius the sonne of Kymarus, reigned king after his father, but some Authours wryte that Elanius was brother to Kymarus, and some wryte that Kymarus and Elanius was but one person, howbeit: it is most lyke they were two persons, now to be short, he reigned but two yeres, but other wryte (whom I credite) as Lanquet, that he reigned .ix. yeres, and then dyed.

MOrindus the bastard sonne of Elanius (as sayeth Gaufride) was made king of Briteyn. 3652/311 This man was gotten vpon the Concubine of Elanius, named Tanguestela, and was a man of worthy fame in deedes of Chiualrye, but he was so ouercome with wrath and cruelnesse, that commonly he was the death of any that angred him. Besides this,Morindus a cruell man. he was comely of personage, and liberall in rewardes, and was also of a merueilous strength, insomuch, as he had not his lyke of any man that was within the Realme, beyng of Noble birth.

¶ In his time there came a Prince into this realme out of a Country called Mauritania, the which Prince with his cruell and fierce people wasted the land of Briteyn with sworde and fire, without all pitie and mercy. Whereof when Morindus was certified, he in all haste gathered his people, and met with him in the field, and bad him battaile, and fought in such wise, that at the last he chased the Prince to the Sea againe, and tooke many of his Soul­diers Prisoners,Cruell exe­cutions. whome to be reuenged of the tyrannie vsed by the sayde Prince, he caused to be put to death in diuerse cruell maners, as by hangyng, heading, fleayng, brenning, and other cruell executions done in his sight.

¶ Finally (as sayth Guido de columna) and other,Guydo de Columna. this Morindus on a time walking, or riding along by the Sea coast, espied a wonderful strange Mon­ster, the which of his knighthood and courage he thought to slaye. And with [Page 62] a manly force assayled the Monster,Morindus was slaine & deuoured of a Monster in the Sea. fighting with it a certeyne space: But in conclusion, he was deuoured and swalowed of the sayde Monster, after he had reigned .viij. yeres, leauing behinde him .v. sonnes, Gorbomannus, Ar­chigallo, Elidurus, Vigenius, and Peredurus.

3652/311 ABout this time the Scottes beginne their Chronicles at Fergus or Fer­gucius the sonne of Ferquard king of Ireland: who (as they write) came with a great power out of Ireland to their ayde in the tyme of dissension, be­twene them and the Pichtes, where by wisedome and prowesse he so handled the matter that he agreed those people, and obteyned such fauour, that they elected him to be their king,Fergus king of Scottes drowned. and he reigned among them .xxv. yeres, and fi­nally in passing the Seas betwene Ireland & Scotland, he was drowned.

¶ But these Histories of the Scottes, as they set them foorth are full of lyes, and agree with none other Historiens, for they saye that Fergus slue Coill king of Briteyn, when there was then no such of that name, nor many yeres after, as it maye hereafter appere. But I will take the yeres of the reignes of their kings as they write them, which were from this time vnto the comming of Cesar .CC.lx. yeres, for the which cause I haue here for the better agreement of the Historie and computation of the yeres, begonne to write of them.

3660/303 GOrbomannus the first sonne of Morindus was made king of Bri­teyn, he was a iust and a righteous man both to his Goddes and to his people, that is to saye, he yeelded and gaue to eyther part that was theirs, he gaue to his Goddes due reuerence and sacrifice, and ministred to his people iustice and equitie. And he renewed and repayred all the olde Temples through his Realme, and builded some new, and as the English Chronicle sayth,Cambridge builded. 309. yeres before Christ. he builded the Towne of Cambridge and Grantham. And in the time of his reigne the land was much more welthier than it was in the dayes of his predecessors. But finally to the great sorrow of all his people, he was taken with a grieuous sicknesse,Gorboman­nus dead. and thereof dyed without issue of his body, when he had reigned after most wryters .xj. yeres.

3671/292 ARchigallo or Artogallo, the second sonne of Morindus, and brother vn­to Gorbomannus reigned king of Briteyn. This man folowed nothing the steppes of his brother, but gaue himselfe to all quareling and strife, and imagined causes against his nobles, to pull from them their goodes and dignities, and in their places to set vp vnnoble, and men of rude birth and maner. And so from the riche, by synister meanes he plucked their riches and goodes: by which inordinate meanes, he enriched himselfe and impoueri­shed his subiectes. For which condicions his Lordes and subiectes murmu­red against him,Archigallo deposed. and at the last by one assent tooke him and depriued him of all honor and kingly dignitie, when he had reigned .v. yeres. And they ad­uaunced into the kingdome his brother Elidurus.

3676/ [...]87ELidurus the third sonne of Morindus and brother to Archigallo, was by the assent of the Britons made king. This man became so mylde and gentle to the Britons, that they gaue to him a surname, and cal­led him Elidure the meeke. And among other deedes of meekenesse, this [Page 63] that foloweth is not the least to be noted. It happened him on a day to be on hunting in a Wood nere vnto Yorke called Calater, and there he founde hys elder brother Archigallo late king, wandering in the thickest of the Wood, whom louingly & charitably he in secret maner conueyed home to his mansiō house, into the Citie then named Aldud or Acliut.Gaufrid. And (as Gaufride sayth) to the intent to bring his brother to his former dignitie, as after followeth: For when Elidurus returned home, he feyned him selfe sicke, and in all the haste sent his messengers about his realme to gather an assembly of the Barons of his land together. And when the day of assembly was come, and his Lordes according to his commaundement were present, he called them one by one, as they were of honour into his priuie Chamber, and there by his wyse and discrete wordes he gat graunt of his sayde Lords to ayde and strength him to bring his brother Archigallo to his former dignity and Regality. After which graunt by the Lordes made, he assembled a counsayle at Yorke, and there so persuaded the commons that they were content to receiue Archigallo againe to be their king. And then Elidurus when he had reigned .v. yeres,Elidurus a worthy and gētle Prince. resigned to his brother the Crowne, and all his kingly honor and dignitie.

ANd about this time Ptholomeus Philadelphus,Ptholome­us Phila­delphus. king of Egypt reigned in Alexandria. This prince aboue al other was geuen vnto study & learning. He made a Librarij in Alexandria, which hee furnished with innumerable sortes of bookes of all Sciences. Among which as chiefe was the volume of Moses law. And the king heering that the deuine lawe was in Ierusalem, he being verie desirous to haue it translated, first discharged out of bondage all the Iewes that were in his subiection, who were in number aboue one hundreth thousand persons.Demetrius Aristeus. And then he sent Demetrius and Aristeus to Eleazar the high Priest of the Iewes with great giftes to the Temple of God, desi­ring that the law might be sent vnto him, with learned men to translate it into Greke. And forthwith Eleazar sent .lxxij. interpret [...]rs,The .lxxii. Interpre­ters. who commonly are called Septuaginta interpretes. These the king honorably receyued, & sent them to Demetrius Clerk of his Librarij in Alexandrie, who prouided a place for them, where they assembled daylie to translate the holye Scripture; and in lxxij. dayes, they finished it. Lanquet.

¶ But the Aucthor of Chronica Chronicarum sayth, that when the .lxxij. were come to the king, he caused euerie of them seuerally to be enclosed in seuerall places alone, and euerie of them by him selfe did seuerally translate the lawe, which in .lxxij. dayes they finished, and the sayde Aucthor allegeth for him Saint Augustine, that when the translations were conferred together, they differed not, neither varied in worde nor sentence, the which translation was by the Iewes offered vnto the king, and the king calling vnto him the inter­preters, did first geue them thanks, and after lycenced them to depart to their Countrie, and gaue vnto euery of them in reward three sutes of Apparell, and two Talents of Golde, and one Cup of one Talent of Golde, and suffi­cient furniture for all their iourney and expences.

ANd in this tyme also Ferithias, brother to Fergus, 3678/288 was chosen King of Scottes during the nonage of his brothers children who by Feriegus his Nephew, for the desire to reigne, was slaine, when he had reigned .xv. yeres, and Ferlegus for that act fled Scotland.

Archigallo king of Bri­t [...]yn amended his life.WHen Archigallo, was againe restored to his kingdome as aforesayde, he remembred well the euill life that before tyme he had led, and the punishment that he had suffred for the same, wherfore in the eschew­ing of like daunger, he chaunged all his olde condicions and became a good and a righteous man, ministring to the people equitie and iustice, and bare himselfe so nobly and honorably towardes his Lordes and the rulers vnder him, that he was beloued and drad of all his subiectes, and so continued du­ring the terme of his naturall lyfe, and finally he dyed, when he had reigned now lastly .x. yeres, and was buried at Yorke.

3691/272 ELidurus before named, was now againe by one assent of the Britons made king: But his two yonger brethren, Vigenius and Peredurus hauing indignation at him, for that he was for his vertue and good gouernaunce so well fauoured and beloued of the Britons,Elidurus a verteous Prince, com­mitted [...] the tower of London. conspired against him of malice, and gathering an armie of Souldiours, gaue him battayle: and in the fielde tooke him, and then sent him to the Tower of Troyno [...]ant, which now is called the Tower of London, and there kept him as prisoner, when he had reigned now lastly two yeres.

3693/270 VIgenius and Peredurus the yongest sonnes of Morindus and bre­thren of Elidurus beforesayd, reigned ioyntly as Kings of Briteyn. These brethren parted the land betwene them: So that all the lande from the water of Humber westwarde fell to Vigenius:Briteyn par­ted betwene two brethren and the other parte of the land with Albania or Scotland also, fell vnto Peredurus. But as say­eth Guydo, Vigenius was not king, but alonely Peredurus, who as he say­eth, kept his brother Elidurus in Prison, by his awne assent, because Elidu­rus was not wylling to be king, as the sayde Guydo sayth. Peredurus was cruell and tyrannous to the Briteyns, and slue and intreated the Lordes in most cruell maner, so that in the ende he became so odious vnto them, that they rebelled against him and slue him.Peredurus slaine. But Gaufride sayth, and it appereth to be tru, ethat Vigenius dyed when he had reigned .vij. yeres: After whose death Peredurus seazed all the land into his awne rule, and ruled it with great sobernesse, in such wise that he excelled all his other brethren, so that Elidurus was cleane forgotten of the Britons: But at the last Peridurus was visited with sicknesse, and thereof dyed, when he had reigned with his brother and alone .ix. yeres, leauing behinde him no childe.

3693/270 MAynus yongest sonne of Fergus, after the death of his Vncle, was king of Scottes, and in his time he deuised many supersticious Ceremonies to be vsed in his Pagan law, and when he had reigned .xxix. yeres, he dyed.

3702/261 ELidurus before named, as sone as Peredurus was dead, forasmuch as he was next heyre to the Crowne, was taken out of Prison and made the thirde tyme king of Briteyn: who as before tyme he had vsed himselfe, so he continued still in ministring to all persons, right, and iustice, all the dayes of his lyfe. And lastly, beyng of a good age, he dyed when he had now reigned .iiij. yeres, leauing after him a sonne named Gorbonianus, or Gorbomannus, and the sayd Elidurus was buried at Carlisle.

GOrbomannus, or Gorbonianus the sonne of Elidure, 3705/258 was king of Briteyn, after whome succeded Morgan, and after Morgan Eme­rianus, brother to the sayd Morgan, the which Emerianus was de­priued for his cruelnesse.

PEridure being king gouerned the land well and worthely, and reigned .iiij. yeres, and is buried at Pekering.

VIGEM when he had reigned .iiij. yere, dyed.

REgin put away all maner of cruelnesse, and was gracious,Mercifull. and full of pity among the people, and reigned two yeres.

MOrgan was a cruell king, and reigned .ix. yeres, but Lanquet sayth,Mercifull. he was a mercifull king and reigned .xiiij. yeres.

EMerianus, or Ennian, brother to Morgan,Cruell. reigned as a Tyraunt ouer Briteyn, for the space of .vij. yeres, and then he was deposed.

IDwall, beyng king of Briteyn, was a good Man,Mercifull. and commendable in all his actes, he reigned .xx. yere.

RIMO A vertuous man, and he reigned .xx. yere.Mercifull.

GEroncyus sonne of Elidure was king and liued verteously,Mercifull. and had two sonnes, Cathell, and Coyll, and reigned .xx. yeres.

CATELLVS or Cathell, the sonne of Geroncius reigned .x. yeres.

COILL was brother to Cathell, and reigned .xx. yere.

PORREX the sonne of Coill reigned in Briteyn .v. yeres.

CHerimus, or Cheryn was a great Dronkarde, and he had three sonnes,A dronkard Fulgenius, Eldadus, and Androgius, and he reigned but one yere.

FVLGEN sonne to Chirimus, reigned two yeres.

ELdadus sonne to Cherin, reigned one yere. And in this time,A Monster. as sayth Lan­quet, there was a Childe borne in Rome with foure feete, foure handes, foure eyes, as many eares, and hauing both natures.

ANDROGIVS reigned after Eldadus king of Briteyn one yere.

VRian the sonne of Androgius,Lecherous. succeded his father in the Realme of Bri­teyn, and reigned .iij. yeres, and was a lecherous man, and gaue himselfe wholy to the filthie lustes of the flesh.

ELiud Cofin to Vrian, was made king by election of the people, and reig­ned .v. yeres.

ELEDANCVS was son to Vrian, who liued delicately & reigned but one yere.

CLOTHEVS was king, and reigned two yere.

GVRGVNCIVS reigned .viij. yeres.

MORIAN was a Man of great beutie, he reigned two yeres.

BLEDVD, or Bladunus, reigned after Morian two yere.

CAPENVS, sonne to Morian, reigned three yeres.

OVINVS ruled Briteyn two yeres.

SILIVS, reigned in Briteyn two yere.

Musicke.BLedgabredus succeded in the gouernement of this realme, and he was the most excellent man in musick that was in those daies, & he reigned .xx. yere.

ARCHIMALVS was king after his brother Bledgabred, & he reigned .ij. yere.

ELDOLVS reigned king of Briteyn .iiij. yere.

RODIAN reigned king of Briteyn two yere.

REDARGIVS reigned king of Briteyn three yere.

SAMVLIVS reigned king of Briteyn two yeres, & was a very good Man.

PENISELLVS reigned king of Briteyn two yeres.

PYrrus reigned king of Briteyn two yeres, and the heare of his heade was as bright as the shining Golde.

CAPORVS the sonne of Pyrre reigned two yeres.

DIuellus reigned ouer Briteyne .iiij. yeres, he was a verye wyse and ver­teous Prince.

HEly the sonne of Diuellus reigned ouer Briteyn, not full one yere, and he had three sonnes, Lud, Cassibelan, and Stennius, or rather Nen­nius,Hely. they were wise men, and valiaunt in warres. And of this man the Isle of Elye tooke (as some writers affirme) the first name: notwithstanding, Laylande supposeth it to be so called, of Eelys, which are there ingendred in great store, and therefore calleth it in latine Insula Anguillaria.

LVd the eldest sonne of Hely, was after his father King of Briteyn. This Man was honorable in all his deedes, and he builded new tem­ples and repayred the olde. He also repayred olde Cities and townes, and specially the Citie of Troynouant, where he caused many buildings to be made, and also made about the sayde Citie a strong wall. And in the west part of the sayde wall, he erected and made a strong and fayre Gate, and com­maunded the same to be called by his awne name Luddes gate,Ludgate. which at this day is called Ludgate. And for that he loued this City, he vsed much and often to lye therin, by reason wherof it was called Caerlud, or Luds towne, & after by corruption of spech, it was after called, & is so named at this day London.

¶ Bale wryteth how there fell great dissension betwene Lud and his bro­ther [Page 67] Nennius aforesayd, about the chaunging of the name of Troynouaunt into Luddes towne, or London, because it might be the occasion that the me­morie of Troy and the worthie deedes there done, should thereby be buried in obliuion, and be forgotten.

¶ This Lud also (as sayth Gaufrid) was strong and mightie in armes in subduing his enimies. He was also bounteous and liberall and kept a great houshold, by meane wherof he obteyned the great loue and fauour of all the Britons. And when he had reigned in honour .xj. yeres, he dyed, and was buried in his gate called Ludgate, and left after him two sonnes,Lud buried in Ludgate as Guydo sayth, the one named Androgeus, and the other Temancius, or Tenancius.

CAssibelan or as some wryte Cossiuelan, 3905/58 after the death of his brother Lud, was made king of Briteyn, for so much as the two sonnes before named, were to yong and insufficient to take in hande so great a charge. But as sayth the Flowre of Histories,Flowres of Histories. this Cassibelan was not made king of Briteyn, but rather ruler or protector of the lande, for the time of the nonage of the aforesayde brethren: albeit Gaufrid sayth, that after Cassibelan was set in aucthoritie, he became so noble and liberall that his name sprang farre, and by his exercise of iustice, the Britons ought to him more fauour then to eyther of his Nephewes: Howbeit, he cherished them and brought them vp according to their birth. And when they came vnto yeres of discretion, he gaue to Androgeus, the Citie of London, with the Dukedome or Ereldome of Kent, and to Temancius the Dukedome of Cornewall.

¶ In this tyme Caius Iulius Caesar, Iulius Cae­sar. who most commonly is called Iulius Cae­sar, being sent by the Senate of Rome, as felow and Consull with Lucius Bu­bulus into the countrie of Gallia, for to subdue the Galles to the Empire of Rome. The which Iulius being vpon the Sea side, as sayth Gaufrid, after he had ouercome the sayde Galles, and beholding the white Clifes or Rockes of Briteyn: enquired of the Countrie, and what people dwelled therein. And when he was sufficiently informed of all the commodities thereof, he had great will to bring the sayde Countrie vnder the obeysance of the Ro­maynes, as other Countreyes for the most parte then were. But as Bergamo writeth, the time that Iulius made warre vpon the Galles, he knew that they receyued great ayde out of Briteyn, and therefore was he the willinger to conquer it, because they should not be any more ayded by the Britons. And so hauing diligently enquired of the state thereof, he wrote to Cassibelan, willing him as he tendered his awne safetie and the quietnesse of his realme and people, that he would become tributarie vnto the Empire of Rome, like as many other Nations were.

¶ But Cassibelan hauing great indignation to become subiect, wrote vn­to him sharpe and short aunsweres, shewing that he and euerie noble man was bounde specially to keepe his Countrie and people from seruitude and bondage, the which to obserue he would doe his vttermost endeuour: with the which answere Iulius Caesar being nothing contented, in all haste made rea­die his Nauie and people, and sayled towarde Briteyn. And when the Ro­maines were come nere the land of Briteyn, and should haue landed: the Bri­tons pight sharpe stakes and long vpon the bancks, which caused them to winne the lande with great daunger. And not long after their landing, Cassi­belan [Page 68] with a strong hoste of Britons encountered the Romaines, geuing to them a fierce battaile,Iulius Ce­sar and his Romaines had the re­pulse. in so much, that they were faine to flie to their Ships for suretie, and after with sodaine tempest his Nauie being almost destroyed, he returned againe into France there to Winter. Notwithstanding (as Gau­frid and other sayth) after he had renewed his armie, and also rygged and en­creased his Nauie, he came againe the second time: But as before time, so he was now againe by the Manhood of the king and of his Britons manfully and knightly withstanded and chased away,Iulius Ce­sar had a se­cond repulse. and compelled to flee with great dishonour. In the which battaile, the valiaunt courage of the hardy and noble knight Nennius brother vnto king Cassibelan is worthy of perpetuall memorie, who manfully fighting for the defence of his Countrie and the li­bertie thereof, besides other noble deedes of armes then by him atchieued, ranne vnto Caesar and plucked his sworde out of his hande, and therewith slue Labienus Tribune or chiefe Captaine of the Romaine Nobilitie: And re­ceyuing againe as Gaufride wryteth his deathes wound by the same Caesar, dyed thereof verie shortly after,Gaufrid. and was buried at the Northgate of Troy­nouaunt, and the sayde sworde put in the Coffyn with him by his commaun­dement.

Iohn Lyd­gate.¶ Iohn Lydgate in his booke named the Serpent of Diuision wryteth that Iulius Caesar buylded in this land diuers Castelles and Cities for a perpe­tuall memorie of his name, that is to say, a Castell not farre from Douer, the Castelles of Cauntorburie and Rochester, and the auncientst parte of the Tower of London. The Castell and Towne of Cesars Bury, which now is called Sarisburie or Salsburie: he also edefied Cesars Chester or Chi­chester and the Castell of Excester.

¶For which victorie thus twise obteyned, Cassibelan entending to geue thanks vnto his Goddes, and to rewarde his Knights, in goodly haste cau­sed an assembly to be made of all his Lordes and Knightes at the Citie of Caerlud, or London, where after due obseruaunces done to their Goddes, after the vse of their Pagan lawes,A Feast made for victorie. a great and solempne feast was holden by the king to all that would come with most liberalitie and plenty, in all that was necessarie to such a feast. And the more to encrease the kings honor, and to the comforte and delectation of his Lordes and other being there present, there was all maner kinde of games and pastimes,Games. that at those dayes were exercised and vsed. During the tyme of which feast, two noble and yonge Knights among other hapned to assay eyther other in wrastling,Wrestling. Hirelda. Euelinus. wherof the one was Nephew to king Cassibelan named Hirelda, & that other was na­med Euelinus, who was allyed vnto Androgeus, Erle or Duke of London. By meane of this wrestling, deuision, or vnsitting words fell betwene them, and after wordes ensued strokes, by meane whereof partes were taken on eyther side, which ranne together in great yre and malice, so that on eyther parte, many and diuers were hurt and wounded. Among whome Hirelda Nephew to the king was slaine,Hirelda slaine. which caused great disturbance in the Court among the Lordes.

Euelinus sommoned to appere for the death of Hi­relda.¶ Now when that knowledge of the death of Hirelda was brought vnto the King: he was therewith greatly moued, and entending due iustice to be had and ministred by the aduise of his Barons caused the aforenamed Cosyn of Androgeus, who was named Euelinus to be sommoned for to appere be­fore [Page 69] him and his Counsayle, and there to acquite him of such crime as to him should be layed, for the death of Hirelda before slaine. But Euelinus by the counsayle of Androgeus his Cosyn, withstoode that commaundement, and shortly after, the sayd Androgeus and Euelyne departed the Court, without taking leaue of the king.

¶The king disdeyning this demeanour of Androgeus, after diuers mo­nicious to him giuen, gathered his Knightes together and made warre vpon Androgens. Wherfore, after many wayes and meanes sought, at the last he sawe that he was not of power to withstande the kinges great indignation,Androgeus sent Letters to Caius Iulius Ce­sar to pro­uoke him to warre a­gainst Cassi­belan king of the Britons. sent his Letters vnto Caius Iulius Caesar, then being in the Countrie of Gallia, shewing him the circumstance of the matter, and excusing himselfe of all gilt, prayed him in most humble wise, that he would shortly returne with his ar­mie into Briteyn, and he with his whole power should be readie to ayde and helpe him against the Britons.

¶Of this message Iulius was verie glad, and in all haste made toward Bri­teyn with a great power. To whome the winde was so fauourable, that in shorte time after this message, he drewe nere the lande: But (as Gaufrid sayth) before he would land, to auoyde all reason that might be wrought by Androgeus and the Britons against him,Iulius Ce­sar suspected Androgeus. he receyued from him in Hostage his sonne named Scena, with .xxx. other of the most Noble of his Lordship, and that done he landed with the helpe of Androgeus. Whereof when Cas­sibelan had warning, he forthwith made towarde the Romaines, and in a Valey nere vnto Dorobernia, now named Cauntorbury,A battell be­side Cantor­bury. there he founde the hoste of the sayde Iulius lodged, and with him Androgeus with all his power. After which knowledge had, they fiercely with their habiliments of warre vexed and grieued eche other, till at length both hostes met hande to hande, and fought cruelly, in such wise, that many fell to the ground and were slaine on both parties.Gaufride. But when the Britons (as sayth Gaufrid) had long fough­ten and knightly defended the Romaines: Androgeus Erle of Kent, came with his people in a wing vpon them, and so sharply assayled them, that they were constreyned to forsake the fielde, and place, that they before had kept: The which flight so discomfited the other,Iulius Ce­sars victory. that finally all fled and gaue place to the Romaines, who pursued and slue them without all mercie. So that Cassibelan with his Britons that were left, were faine to get them to a place of suretie, there to rest and encampe themselues that they might newly pro­uide to withstand their enimies.

¶ But to conclude, all wryters agree, that Iulius helde the king so short, that for an vnitie and concorde, hee was faine after manye losses to geue pledges and to become tributarie to the Romaines,Iulius Ce­sar made this Realme tri­butarie to Rome, in the 50. yere be­fore the com­ming of christ. and to paye yerely as Gaufride sayth, in the name of a tribute, three thousande pounde in Golde. Now when Caesar had accomplished his will and pleasure, in all thing that to him was thought necessary: He with Androgeus departed the lande with a great number of Hostages and Prisoners, and so sped him towarde Rome, where soone after he was againe by the will of the most of the Senatours made Emperour. But finally, beying Emperour, he was at the last slaine in the Senate house, by the Senators with Bodkins, as Rastell sayeth. And this tribute was thus graunted, when Cassibelan had reigned as king of Briteyn full .viii. yeres and more. And by the agreement of most wryters [Page 70] xlviij. yeres before the incarnation of Iesu Christ, or as some write fifty. And as Lanquet sayeth, this conquest of Briteyn made by the Romaines, was yeres after the vniuersall flood: and M.lvij. after the arri­uall of Brute:Lanquet. and .vij.C.ij. after the building of Rome, in the second yere of the .C.lxxxij. Olimpiade, and the .M.C.xvj. yere before the conquest of Eng­lande made by Wylliam Duke of Normandy, and .M.vj.C.xvj. yeres, be­fore this present yere of our Lorde .M.D.lxvj.

¶ Now after this conquest, Cassibelan reigned as Tributary .ix. yeres, and as sayeth Lanquet, he reigned in all, before the Tribute and after the Tribute .xix. yeres, but other write .xvj. yeres, and some other as Caxton, xvij. yeres, and then dyed, and is buried at Yorke.

3909/54 EDeir, after the death of Ewyn, tooke vpon him the gouernance of Scot­land, and ruled it .xxxviij. yeres. In the time of his reigne, as appereth before, Briteyn was subdued to the Romaines, and Scotland also troubled with sundry sedicions.

3921/42 THeomancius, or rather Tenantius, the sonne of Lud, and Nephew to Cassibelan, succeded in the realme of Briteyn. This Man in the Eng­lishe Chronicle is not named King, but his brother Androgeus. But Gaufrid sayth,A trayterous person is fearefull. that for as much as Androgeus feared the hatred of the Bri­taynes, for his treason wrought against the king and the lande: he therefore coueted to abide with Iulius Caesar at Rome, rather then to be king ouer such as he thought would neuer loue, nor fauour him.

¶The foresayd Tenancius was a noble Warryer, and ruled this land of Briteyn with great diligence and iustice, and defended it well and knightly against all Alyens and straungers, and paide his tribute to the Romaines, which Cassibelan had graunted, and lastly dyed when he had reigned .xxiij. yeres, and was buried at London.

3944/19 CImbelinus or Kymbelinus, the sonne of Tenancius, as sayeth Guydo, succeded next after him, who was brought vp at Rome among the Ro­maynes, and there made Knight, and was of the Emperour Augustus Cesaer so fauoured and beloued, that he was at libertie, whether he would pay the tribute or not. Of him is little written, sauing that all wryters agree, that in the time of his reigne, our Sauioure Christ Iesus was incarnate of the blessed Virgin Marie. And when this Cimbalyn had reigned .xxxv. yeres ouer the Britons, he dyed and was buried in London, leauing after him two sonnes, named Guiderius and Aruiragus.

¶I haue before as is aboue saide declared that our Sauiour Christ was borne in this Kings tyme, which was in the .xix. yere of his reigne, and that was in the yere of the worlde after the accompt of the Bible and of the He­brues, which accompt I folow .MMM.ix.C.lxiij.

3946/17 EWyn, the thirde sonne of Edeir succeded hys Father in the Realme of Scotland and reigned .vij. yeres. A Prince geuen all to vice and lechery, for being not content, as they write with an hundred Concubynes, with whome he might fulfill his lust, he made a law, that it should be lawfull for his Subiects to haue as many wyues as they were hable to keepe, and that the wyues of his Commons should be common to the Nobles: and that the [Page 71] Lord should haue the Maydenhead of all Virgins dwelling in his Lordship: the which lawe continued vntill the tyme of Malcolme Cammorre, & from thence, vnto this tyme, they pay to the Lord of the soyle a redemption of their Maydenhead. And when he had thus continued .vij. yeres, in exercising of his tirannie and filthy lust, he fell into the hatred of his Lordes, and was by them deposed and slaine in prison.

MEtellane, Nephew to Edeir, was chosen king of Scottes, a verteous, 3953/10 and quiet Prince, who peaceably reigned .xxxix. yere.

¶ And here I thinke meete to note to the reader, that the order that I haue kept in this my story hetherto, hath bene chiefly to expresse and set forth vnto you the pedigree and discent from Adam to Christ, in the line of the righ­teous, wherein is to be learned that all those that heard the voyce of the Lord,He that hea­reth the word of God, and doth it, shalbe happy in his deede. and obserued his lawes, prospered and were blessed of the Lord, and brought to high honour and aduauncement: And such againe as hearkened not to the worde of the Lord, were deliuered as prayes and spoyles to their enemies. And although sometyme, I haue vpon sundrie occasions made some notes of the lyne of cursed Cain and others, yet I haue chiefly obserued the lyne of the iust, out of the which almightie GOD promised there shoulde issue of the Seede of the Woman, one that should breake the Serpentes head, which Seede was ment by our Sauiour Iesu Christ, who in this tyme was borne of the Virgin Mary. And here I will as it were drawe forwarde the lyne where I left before, at the kinges of Iuda, (in the tyme that they were made captiue to Babilon, which kinges discended out of the loynes of Dauid) and will now for the perfighting of my purpose recite the ende thereof. The last king of Iuda that I haue spoken of before, was Sedechias the sonne of Io­sias, who was captiue in Babilon, from whom issued Ioachim, and successiue­ly, Iechonias, Salathiell, Zorobabell, Abiud, Eliachim, Azor, Sadoch,The ende of the lyne and issue of Iuda was Christ. Achun, Eliud, Eleazar, Iacob, and Ioseph, who maryed Mary the Virgine, of whom was borne our Sauiour Iesu Christ.

¶And the Virgin Mary discended also out of the Loynes of Dauid, as first Nathan, the second sonne of Dauid, begat Mathata, and he begat Men­na, from whome successiuely came Melcha, Heliachim, Iona, Ioseph, Iuda, Symeon, Leui, Mathat, Ioram, Eliezer, Iesu, Her, Helmadam, Cosan, Ab­di, Melchi, Neri, Salathiell, Zorobabel, Refa, Iohanna, Iuda, Ioseph, Se­mei, Mathathias, Ioseph, Iamna, Melchi, Leui, Mathat, Ioakim, and Marie the Virgine, who was borne .xv. yeres before Christ, and maried vn­to Ioseph. Flores historiarum. Polichronicon, and sondrie others.

And here for order and keping of a iust accompt, endeth the sixt Age of the worlde, or sixt part of my booke, and this sixt Age was from the Captiuitie of Babilon, vnto the Birth of our most blessed Redemer and Sauiour Iesu Christ, to whom be all honor, prayse, and glory, for euer and euer. Which age continued. 627. yeres.
¶And here also I thought it conuenient to make a recitall of the Ages of the Worlde.
  • 1 The first Age is from Adam to the Flood of Noe. 1656. yeres.
  • 2 The second, from Noe to the birth of Abraham. 363. yeres and .x. dayes.
  • 3 The third, frō Abrahā to the departing of the Childrē of Israel out of Egypt. 430. yeres.
  • 4 The fourth, from their departure, to the building of the Temple. 480. yeres.
  • 5 The fift, from the building of the Temple, to the Captiuitie. 419. yeres.
  • 6 The sixt, from the Captiuitie, to the birth of Christ. 627. yeres.

And thus it may apere, that the number of yeres from the Creation of the Worlde, vnto the birth of Christ, were 3963. yeres.

¶ And for the better satisfaction of those that knowe not the true summarie or accompt of the aforesayd Ages, I will shew by a perticuler accompt gathered out of the holy Scriptures, how the true knowledge of euery Age is collected, which may appere as foloweth The first Age conteyneth .M.vj.C.lvj. yeres and is proued thus. The first Age

ADam being yeres olde, begat Seth. Seth beyng .C.v. yeres, begat Enos. Enos beyng .xc. yeres, begat Caynan. Caynan beyng .lxx. yeres, begat Malalehell. Malalehell beyng .lxvi. yeres, begat Iared. Iared at the age of .C.lx. yeres, begat E­noch. Enoch being .lxv. yeres begat Mathusalah. Mathusalah at the age of .C.lxxxvii. yeres, begat Lamech. Lamech beyng .C.lxxxii. yeres, begat Noe. Noe at the beginning of the Flood, was .vi. C yeres olde, as appereth in the fift of Genesis. So that the whole summe of yeres of this first Age, were as is aforesayde yeres.

The seconde Age conteyneth .iij.C.lxiij. yeres, and .x. dayes, and is Proued thus. The second Age

THe Flood continued a yere and x. dayes. Sem (which was Noyes sonne) begat Ar­pharat two yeres after the Flood. Arpharat beyng .xxxv. yeres olde, begat Salah. Salah being .xxx. yeres old, begat Heber. Heber at his age of .xxxiiii. begat Phalech. Phalech beyng .xxx. yeres, begat Regu. Regu beyng .xxxii. yeres, begat Saruch. Sa­ruch at .xxx. yeres begat Nahor. Nahor beyng at the age of .xxix. yeres, begat Thare. Thare beyng .lxx. yeres, begat Abraham, and Abraham departed from Chaldee, when he was .lxx. yeres olde. So that the whole summe of yeres of this second age, as is aforesayde, is. CCClxiii yeres, and .x. dayes.

The third Age conteyneth yeres, and is collected in this maner. The thirde age

ABraham was in Charan .v. yeres, and departed in the .lxxv. yere of his age. And he begat Isaac, when he was an hundreth yere olde, and in the .xxv. yere of his de­parting. Isaac begat Iacob when he was .xl. yere olde. Iacob went into Egypt with all his family when he was. yere olde. And Israell remayned in Egipt CC.x. yeres, at which tyme Moses departed with the Children of Israell out of Egypt. So that the whole somme of yeres of this third Age is as aforesayd, yeres.

The fourth Age conteyneth .iiij.C.lxxx. yeres, and is gathered in this maner. The fourth Age

MOses remayned in the Desart or Wildernesse .xl. yeres. Iosue, and Othoniell, reigned .xl. yeres. Aioth .lxx. yeres. Delbora .xl. yeres. Gedeon .xl. yeres. Abimelech iii. yeres. Thela, xxiii. yeres. Iair .xxij. yeres. Then were they without a Capitaine xviii. yere vnto the cōming of Iephthe. Iephthe .vi. yeres. Abissam .vii. yeres. Elom x. yeres. Abaton .viii. yeres. Sampson .xx. yeres. Holy high priest .xl. yeres. Samuell, and Saul .xl. yeres. Dauid .xl. yeres. Salomon in the .iiil. yere of his reigne, began the building of the Temple. So that the whose somme of yeres of this fourth Age as aforesayd, is .iiii.C.lxxx. yeres.

The fift Age conteyneth .iiij.C.ix. yeres, and .vj. Monethes, and is collected in this wise. The fift Age

SAlomon reigned after he began the building of the Temple, xxxvi. yeres. Roboam xvii. yeres. Abia .iii. yeres. Asa .xli. yeres. Iosaphat .xxv. yeres. Ioram .viii. yeres. Ochosias one yere. Athalia the Quéene .vii. yeres. Ioas .xl. yeres. Amasias .xxix. yere Ozias .lii. yeres. Ioathan .vi. yeres. Acas .xvi. yeres. Ezechias .xxix. yeres. Manasses iv. yeres. Amon .ii. yeres. Iosias .xxxi. yeres. Ioachas .iii. Monethes. Eliachim .xi. yeres. Io­achim .iii. monethes: And then began the Captiuitie of Babilon, and not after the .xi. yere of Zedechiah (when both the Temple and the Citie were destroyed and burned) as some suppose. So that the whole somme of yeres of this fift age, are as aforesayd, iiii.C.ix. yeres, and .di. monethes.

The sixt age is from the captiuitie of Babilon, vnto the comming of Christ, and conteyneth sixe C.xxv. yeres, and is proued thus. The sixt Age

THe captiuitie continued .lxx. yeres. The children of Israell were deliuered and restored to their fréedome in the first yere of Kinge Cyrus. The Temple was begonne to be reedified in the .xj. yere of the sayde Cyrus, and finished in [Page 74] the .vi. yere of the reigne of Darius. After that Darius had reigned .xx. yeres, Ne­hemias was restored to libertie, and went to builde the Citie, which was finished in the .xxxij.Daniell. ix. yere of the sayde Darius. Also it is mencioned in the .ix. of Daniell that Ierusa­lem should be builded vp againe, and from the tyme of that building vnto the comming of Christ, should be .lxvii. wéekes, and euerie wéeke is by that text reckoned for .vii. yeres. So lxvii. wéekes amount to .CCCC.lxxxiii. yeres. For from the .xxxii. yere of Darius vnto the xlii. yere of Augustus, in the which yere our Sauiour Christ was borne, are iust and com­plet so many yeres. Whervpon we reckon that from Adam vnto Christ are 3963. yeres, vi. Months and .x. dayes. And from the Birth of Christ, vnto this present time is 1567 yeres. And the whole somme and number of yeres from the beginning of the worlde vnto this present yere are 5530. yere, vi. Monthes and .x. dayes.

ANd here is to be noted that the Ages of the worlde are not called Ages in respect of the number of yeres that they conteyned (as some doe imagine that euery age conteyned certaine thousands of yeres) but for certaine great and maruellous things that happened or were done in the beginning of euery of them.

1 In the beginning of the first Age, God made Heauen and Earth and all the Creatures that are therein, and also made Man vnto his awne Image and similitude.

2 In the beginning of the second, God sent the vniuersall Flood, and drowned all the creatures in the worlde, eyght persons onely except.

3 In the beginning of the thirde, God made his couenaunt with Abraham in Cir­cumsicion.

4 In the beginning of the fourth, God brought the children of Israell out of Egypt, thorow the red Sea, and deliuered his holy law vnto Moses out of the Mount Sinai.

5 In the beginning of the fift, was the Temple of Ierusalem builded.

6 In the beginning of the sixt. The Temple was destroyed, and all the Iewes brought captiue into Babilon.

7 In the beginning of the .vij. our Sauiour Iesu Christ was borne of a Virgin, and tooke vpon him our nature, who suffered moste cruell death and passion for the sinnes of the whole worlde.

¶ Thus haue I set foorth vnto you the Ages of the worlde, and why they are so called, and also the true computation of them as is expressed in the holy Scripture, which com­putation I obserue throughout this my Chronicle, because the same agréeing with the Scriptures must of force be most true.

WHen Caesar Augustus, or otherwise called Octauian the Emperour had stablished most sure peace throughout the world, our Redéemer and Sauiour Iesu Christ, very God and man, and the onely pacifier of Gods wrath, and the true peace maker was borne in the .xl. yere of the reigne of Augustus, after the vniuersall Flood 2305. yeres, and from the birth of Abraham 2012. yeres. And after the departure of Israell out of Egypt 1509. yeres. And from the arriuall of Brute in Englande 1107. yres. After the building of the Temple of Salomon 1029. yeres. From the building of Rome 752. yeres. After the captiuitie of Babilon 614. yeres. and in the last yere of the 194. Olimpiade. And here is to be noted that the first yere of our Lord hath but .vii. daies after some computation, for he was borne the .xxv. day of December, and the first day of Ianuarij folowing began the second yere. Lanquet.

And nowe foloweth the seuenth Age of the Worlde, and the seuenth part of this booke, which Age beginneth at the birth of Christ, and shall continue to the ende of the Worlde.

The seuenth Age, and seuenth part of this Chronicle.


The seuenth Age

IEsus of Nazareth king of Iewes and onely head of the Christians, with the Father and the holye Ghost, one Eternall God, and almightie Lorde of all things, be­gotten by his Father God in euerlasting­nesse, and in the fulnesse of time, taking flesh of the pure Virgin Marie, by the worke of the holy Ghost, and being verie God and man, according to the holy Oracles of the Prophets, to redeeme with his most preci­ous blood the streyed Sheepe, and loste grote, was borne in Bethlem a City of Iu­da: where incontinent by the glorification of the Angels, the agnition of the Shepeherds, the veneration of the wise men, the prophecy of holy Simeon, and the admiration of the Doctours, he was had in honour. And then from the .xij. yere of his lyfe, in age, wisedome and fauour both with God and man he encreased: He was in the .xv. yere of the reigne of Tiberius baptised in Iordane by Iohn Baptist, to the example of his, & so executed all things, subduing his fleshe with fasting, the Deuill with prayer, and the world with humilitie. At which time the weekes of Danyell being fulfilled, he taught euery where most constantly, euen to the Crosse, partly with his mightie worde, and partly with his effectuall workes, the kingdome of God, that is, the true knowledge of God the Father and his exceeding charitie towardes mankinde, with the sure confidence in him, the sonne of God: declaring also [Page 76] the way of helth, and the mutuall loue, with the rewardes of the faithfull and punishments of the vnfaithfull. Then for the confirmation of his doc­trine and faith, euen with a little beck he commaunded calmenesse to the E­lements, helth to all diseases, life vnto the dead, obedience vnto the quick, detection vnto thoughts, abolicion vnto sinnes, and flight vnto the Deuill. For all this, after all the passions and labours of mans miserie, which he suf­fered (sinne onely excepted) whereby he witnessed himselfe to be a very man, and after the innumerable documents and beneficiall deedes (passing mans power) openly shewed vnto his vnkinde people the Iewes, by which he de­clared himselfe to be true God, as it was before written in the Prophets: he was by the elders of the Iewes and people (his Disciple Iudas Iscarioth betraiyng him) taken, accused, endited, scorned, scourged, crowned with thornes, crucified betwene theeues, and euen then all things fulfilled, with the quaking of the earth, and darknesse of the Sonne, he dyed. After which being buried, he losed Hell, and the thirde day folowing, lyke a conquerour of sinne, death and Hell, he rose againe, from which tyme being .xl. dayes con­uersaunt with his, in the .xxxiij. yere of his lyfe, with glorious triumph he as­cended to the heauens vnto his father, from whence he came. Where being the onely Mediator, Intercessor and aduocate of his, sitting on the right hand of God his father, shall in the ende of the worlde be iudge ouer all the lyuing and the dead, rendring to euerie man according to his deseruing, to the faith­full certeyntie of lyfe, but to the vnfaithfull euerlasting death. Then good and euill segregated, with the whole worlde purged and pacified: our Lorde Ie­su Christ the onely and verie almightie Emperour of the Worlde, as he hath from the beginning, so doth he now, and for euer shall reigne, to whom eue­rie knee of celestiall, terrestriall, and infernall creatures shall bowe, and eue­rie tongue shall confesse that Iesus Christ is the Lorde, to the glory of God the father. Lanquet.


¶ And from this place foreward vnto the end of this worke, the numbers that are aboue the lyne in the Margent are the yeres of Christ, and the numbers vnder the lyne, are the yeres of the reigne of euery seuerall king.

GViderius the first sonne of Cunbalyne began his reigne ouer the Bri­tons: This man was valiaunt, hardie, welthie, and trusted much in his awne strength, and for that he thought the Romaines had the a­forenamed tribute with wrong, he therefore of a Knightly courage denyed to them the payment thereof: wherefore Claudius the fift Emperour of Rome, came into Briteyn with a great armie of Romaines (as sayth Polichronica) and wanne againe the sayde tribute without great fight, and therof came a Pro­uerbe among the Romaines, that the Britaines were neyther strong in bat­taile, nor faythfull in peace. And that done, he also subdued the Isles of the Orchades, which stand beyond Scotland within the great Occean, and af­ter returned againe to Rome, in the sixt Moneth that he came from thence.

¶ But Gaufrid sayth, that in the hoste of the Romaines, there was a Ca­pitaine named Hamo,Hamo. who entending the hurte of the Britons chaunged his Shilde and Armour, and put vpon him the Armour of a Briteyn, and by that meane being not suspect,Guiderius slaine. he entered into the thickest of the Britons, and lastly came where king Guiderius fought, and shortly after slue the king. But Ar­uiragus [Page 77] seing this sodeyne mischiefe, fearing that the Britons would haue geuen back, quickly caused himselfe to be armed with the cognisaunce and Armour of the king: And as King continued the fight with such manhood and courage, that the Romaines were at that time put to flight. And thus was Guiderius slaine of Hamo, when he had reigned ouer Briteyn .xxviij. yeres, leauing after him none heyre.

CAratak, king of Scottes, reigned .xxj. yeres, 30 a Prince more valiaunt then fortunate, he gaue his whole minde and courage to defende his Realme and subiects from the seruage of the Romaines, with whome he kept long warre, and ayded the North Britons.

ANd in this tyme Saint Paule the elect Vessell of God, 34/18 being called by a Vision, was made of an open aduersarie and cruell persecutor of the Church of Christ, the most faythful Apostle and true Doctor of the Gentiles:S. Paule. Among whome he taught the worde of God with so great fruit, and encrea­sed so largely the christian faith, that he was after worthily and rightly named the chiefe of the Apostles.

ARuiragus the yongest sonne of Kymbelyn, 45/1 and brother to Guiderius before slaine, was ordeyned king of Britons in the yere of our Lorde xlv.Aruiragus. This Man did well and knightly behaue himselfe against the Ro­maines, and slue the afore named Hamo, nere vnto a Hauen or Port of the Sea. And when he was slaine, he threw him gobbet meale into the same sea. And for this cause, that Hauen was long tyme after called Hamons Hauen, which at this day is called Southhamtō. Fabian. But here in a very old Pam­phlet, which beareth no name, I finde that in the tyme of Hengistafore men­cioned, and in the reigne of Vortiger, there was a Saxon named Varius Ham and he builded three townes, one in the South, and named it after his awne name South Hams towne, another North fro thence,Southhātō. Northhātō. Woluer­hamton. which he named North Hams towne. Another West, and by North from thence, which he na­med (bicause he had there made a staple of Wolles) Woluer Hams towne.

¶ Then sayth Reynulph, that Claudius after dyuers happes of Battaile, tooke Aruiragus to his grace, and brought his base daughter Genissa by name from Rome, and maryed her vnto Aruiragus. And because he woulde make the place of the mariage more solempne, he therefore called the Towne of mariage Claudiocestria after his awne name, and after Glouernia, of a base sonne (as some say) of the sayd Claudius Cesar called Glorus, begotten and borne in the same Citie, which afterwarde was Duke of Demecia or Southwales, and at this day it is called Glocester.Glocestre. Hector Boecius. Hector Boecius the writer of the Scottish Chronicle sayth, that Aruiragus before this mariage was made, was deuorced from his former wife, named Voada, sister vnto Care­ticus king of Scottes, of a desire that he had to be alyed vnto the Romaines.

¶ Then it foloweth, after the solemnitie of this mariage, which was with all honour finished, Claudius sent certeyne Legions of his Knightes into Ireland, to rule that Countrie, and returned himselfe to Rome.

¶ It was not long after the departing of Claudius, but that Aruiragus roade about his Realme, and with great diligence repayred Cities & townes before decayed and broken with the strength of the Romaines,Douer Castle. and as it is of some mencioned, builded the Castle of Douer, and finally intreated his sub­iects [Page 78] with such iustice and good order, that they loued and drad him more then any of his progenitors. And this in continuance of tyme made him very wel­thy, and thereof ensued pryde, so that he thought great shame to be vnder the rule or guyding of the Romaynes, wherefore, at the last he denyed the Tri­bute before graunted to Rome,A legion of Knightes is vi.M.vj.C.lxvj. wherof, when knowledge came vnto the Se­nate of Rome, in all hast a Duke was sent from Rome called Vespasian, with certeyne Legions of knightes and Souldiours to subdue Aruiragus.

¶ When Vespasianus was landed in Briteyn (as sayth Reynulph) he sped him so, that in short tyme he subdued Aruiragus to the Empire, and caused him to graunt payment of the aforesayde tribute.

¶ But Gaufride here wryteth howe Aruiragus heéring that Vespasianus was about to lande at Sandwich, met him there with a puyssaunt armie of the Britons, and by mayne force kept him off, that he could not enter the Ha­uen and land: For so great was the multitude of the sayde Britons, that the sight of them made the Romaynes afeard, insomuch that they durst not lande for feare least the other would haue sodeinly set vpon them, before they could bring themselues in aray and order of battaile, wherefore they hoysed vp their sayles, and departed from thence againe, and went to Tomes in Deuonshire and there aryued, and beyng landed, their Capitaine and Generall Vespasianus marched incontinent towardes the towne, which then was called in the Bri­tish tongue, Cair Penchuet goit, as ye would say, the Towne vnder the Wood, and at this daye is called Excestre, to the entent to besiege it. And when he had continued his siege by the space of seuen dayes, Aruiragus entending to rayse the same, sodeinly came with his armie and set vpon them, and manye went to wracke on both parties, but neither partie had the victorie of the o­ther. On the morow both the Capitaynes were made agreed by the mediati­on and meanes of the Queene Genissa. Thus it apereth that the tribute was payed againe by her intreatie, and not by any violent constreynt or coaction.

¶ After Vespasian had thus recouered the tribute, he then also made sub­iect to the Empire an Isle liyng in the Sea, which we nowe call the Isle of Wight, and after returned to Rome.

¶ When Aruiragus was thus the second tyme subdued, and brought vn­der the yoke of the Romaines, he became more mylde towardes them, so that during his lyfe, from thencefoorth, he payde the tribute with lesse grudge, and kept himselfe in their fauours, in such wise that he was of them very wel beloued. And lastly he dyed, when he had reigned .xxx. yeres, and was buryed at Glocester, leauing after him a sonne named Marius.

52 AFter the decease of Caratake king of Scottes his yonger brother Cor­breid obteyned the crowne, and reigned .xviij. yeres. He was fierce and of a valiaunt courage,Corbreid king of Scottes. and beyng confederate with the Pictes, made often times warre against the Britons.

ANd for as much as at this time, Nero that notable Tyraunt Emperour reigned at Rome, vnder whome a great number of the true Preachers and Apostles of Christ, suffered most cruell persecution, Martirdome, and death, I thought it not much impertinent to the story to make some speciall mencion of him, and namely bicause this lande as is aforesayde, was in his tyme againe made tributarie to the Empire of Rome, the saide Nero reig­ning now as Emperour. But chiefely for that he was a wicked Tyraunt and [Page 79] a cruell persecutour of the vniuersall Church of Christ.

AT this time as is aforesayde, Nero the sonne of Domicius, 56/11 being adopted to be Emperour by Claudius, which maried his mother, reigned .xiiij. yeres. This man, although he was brought vp by the reuerent, wise,Nero the Tyraunt. and learned Seneca, yet by the ineuitable corruption of his nature, he became horrible in all kinde of mislyuing, and so detestable in dissolute wantonnesse, prodigalitie, moustruous lecheryes, beastly crueltie, and couetousnesse, that he seemed to be borne to the destruction of the whole worlde. He was so greatly delighted in singing and plaiyng with the Harpe, in sworde plaiyng, and driuyng of Cartes or Wagons, that he did not onely these exercises priuately, without all measure, but also wearing the garments of Minstrels, Sworde players, and other vile personages, wandered ouer all Italy and Grece, to seeke and haunt common games, where he might trie masteries, and shewe his cun­ning in those feates: and at his returne, triumphed in the Citie of Rome, and sent into all Countries letters of commaundement to make supplications and reioysing for his victories.

¶ In vncleane lust of his body, he so furiously raged,A description of Neroes filthy & abho­minable life. that he absteyned not from his naturall Mother, Sister, ne any degree of affinitie or kindred. He tooke in open mariage a Boye of excellent fauour, named Sporus, and vsed him as his Wife, he viciously bent and gaue himselfe to filthy imbracings of his awne seruaunts, & in riotous spending of his treasure he exceeded, for he vsed to fishe with Nettes made of Golde, which shoulde be drawne with Cordes of Purple silke: He neuer ware one garment twise: he caused to be put to death his mother, his brother in lawe, his two Wyues, and his instruc­tor and Schoolemaster, the reuerend Seneca, hauing therevnto no iust cause,Seneca put to death by Nero. nor honest pretence: He commaunded the City of Rome to be set on fyre, and himself in the meane season with all semblant of ioy, sitting in an high Tower to beholde the same, played vpon the Harpe, and sang the destruction of Troy. This Nero was so wicked, that at the last he gaue himselfe openly to such naughtie and wanton lyuing, that in the night season he woulde haunte Brothell houses, and other suspitious places, and oftentimes breake vp mens houses, and eyther robbe and beate them, or else rauishe their Wyues. And after that he had committed most abhominable incest with his naturall mo­ther, he commaunded her to be put to death. And then maried Poppea, Poppea, the wife of Nero a shamelesse Harlot. a wo­man of notable incontinencie. And after all this he caused himselfe to be gel­ded and cut in the forme & shape of a woman, and so to be abused. And when the Senate had considered of the outragious life & wicked doinges of Nero, they charged him with the setting of Rome on fyre, and he to excuse himselfe charged the christians therewith, whereof folowed a most cruell persecution of the christians, and in this persecution Peter and Paule, the Apostles of Christ, with many other Martirs were put to cruell death. And by his beastly cruelnesse, there were also many noble and verteous men put to most shame­full death, among the which were the aforenamed Seneca and Lucan, Lucan a fa­mous Clerk, cruelly put to death by Nero. men of excellent learning. Finally, this wicked Tyraunt Nero was proclaymed by the Senate to be an enimie of the weale publique, and iudged to be drawne through the Citie, and to be whipped to death: wherfore he fearing to come into the handes of his enimies, fled into a Farme house of his seruants in the Countrie, where at last he was inforced to slea himselfe. Cooper.

AT this tyme the Scottes, because Corbreid Galdus the eldest sonne of king Corbreid was not of sufficient age, made Dardannus the nephew of Metallane their king, who for his seemely personage was greatly beloued of his people. In the beginning of his reigne, he vsed the counsayle of his No­bles, but after three yeres he left all iustice and honesty, and stipt into most vn­cleane vices and cruell tyranny, and lastly endeuoured himselfe to haue mur­dered Galdas with his brethren, and therefore the Scottes deposed him, and put him to death, when he had reigned .iiij. yeres.

Marius.MArius the sonne of Aruiragus, after his father was king of the Bri­tons: Which Marius as Gaufrid sayth, was an excellent wise man, and gouerned this lande very honourably, and greatly prospered and encreased in welth and ryches.

¶ In the time of the reigne of this Marius, a Duke or King of a Nation called Pictes, which descended of the Scithians, named also of some Gothes, or Hunes, came into this Isle. The aforesayde Duke or leader of the Pictes, as Gaufride sayth,Londricus a Duke of the Pictes. was named Londricus, and he landed with a great Nauy in the Prouince of Albania, now called Scotland, and there vnmercifully he began to spoyle the Country, with sworde and fire: Whereof when Marius was warned, he in all haste assembled his knightes and people, and made to­wardes them,Londricus slaine. and gaue them a strong battaile, in the which Londricus was slame, and a great part of his people ouerthrowne. In the remembraunce of which victorie, King Marius caused a great stone to be erected, and com­maunded therein to be grauen these woordes, Marii victoria, that is, the victory of Marius.

¶ This battaile as the English Chronicle fayth, was foughten at a place which now is called Stanes Moore.Stanes Moore. But wheresoeuer this stone is set, the Countrie thereabout was long after called VVestmaria, and is nowe called Westmerland.

¶ Now when the residue of the people of Londricus which were fled from the fielde, vnderstood that their hed & Capitaine was slaine: they made their humble request to the king, that he would accept them into his grace, and that he would geue them some land or country to dwell in.Marris king of Briteyn gaue Londri­cus people ye farre ende of Scotland to inhabite in. And at the last the king graunted them a place in the farre ende of Scotland, which Gaufride nameth Cathenesia, where the sayd Scottes, or Pictes first inhabited. And forsomuch as the Britons disdeined to geue vnto them their daughters in mariage, ther­fore they acquainted them with the Irish men, and maryed their daughters, and grew in processe of tyme vnto a great people. And for this allyaunce be­tweene the Irishmen and them,Reynulph. their Country (as sayth Reynulph, in the xxxvij. Chapter of his first booke) was called Irelande, and after Pictauia, and lastly Scotland. But I find in an olde written Chronicle, that when they tooke the Irish women to their Wyues, and vnderstoode not their language they were therefore called Sottes,Scotts were first called Sottes. and afterward Scottes, and their coun­trye which before was called Albania named Scotland, and this was the be­ginning of the Scottes, as it is there alleaged. Howbeit, Mathew of West­minster, Aucthor of the booke, entituled the Flowres of Histories, sayth they were called Scottes, because they were a Nation that tooke their beginning of dyuerse Nations: For Scot, sayth he, is a worde signifiyng an heape of [Page 81] diuerse thinges gathered or mingled together, according to our common speeche, thou shalt pay scot and lot, that is to say, all such duties as shall bee charged vpon thée.

¶ And when Marius had thus subdued his enimies,Marius dead. he attended and set his minde to the common weale of his lande and subiects, and continued the residue of his lyfe in great rest and quietnesse, and in the ende payde his na­turall debt or tribute, and was buried at Caerleyle, leauing after him a sonne named Coylus or Coyll, when he had reigned .lij. yeres.

¶ In this time the Citie and Temple of Ierusalem was taken, conque­red, spoyled, and destroyed by Titus, The destruc­tion of Ieru­salem and the Temple. in such wise that scarcely any man coulde iudge where the place was that it once stood in: which chaunced in the .xj.C. and one yere, after the Temple was first builded by Salomon, and the same day of the Moneth that it was first destroyed by Nabuchodonosor king of Babilon. And in the time of the siege of the same, were slaine of the Iewes xj.C. thousand, ouer and beside them which Vespasian slue in the subduing of the Countrie of Galile. And .xvij. thousand Titus sent into Alexandria there to be kept in most vile and peynfull bondage. And two thousand he brought in his triumph to Rome, of the which, parte he gaue to be deuoured of wilde beastes, and parte were otherwise most cruelly slaine: at which time apered the most terrible example of the wrath & vengeance of God, for the contempt of his worde & veritie. For what hart is so stony or hard that will not tremble for feare, when it considereth that God tooke so sharpe punishment vpon his awne people, whom before he loued most entirely, & among all other nations of the worlde, chose them for his peculier flock and Vineyarde. And shortly after Vespasian the Emperour, and Titus his sonne, triumphed at Rome for their victorie and conquest in Iudea. Cooper. But hereof ye may reade more in Iosephus, and there shall ye finde a most horrible and terrible Historie.

GAldus, after the death of Dardannus, was ordeyned king of Scottes. 79 This was the most valiaunt Prince that euer reigned among them, and was endued with many excellent and Princely qualities. At the first entry he punished the wicked counsaylours of Dardannus, and after called a parlia­ment of his Lordes, wherein many noble acts were deuised,A wicked law. and the naugh­tie lawe of king Ewyn (by the which the Wyues of the commons were free to the nobles) was repealed and fordone. Of him the Scottes made manye goodly remembraunces in the honour of his noblenesse and great victories that he atchieued.

¶ About this time Petulius Cerealis was sente of the Romaines,Petulias Cerealis a Romaine sent from Rome to go­uerne Bri­teyn. as Lieutenaunt to Briteyn, where he discomfited Galdus King of Scottes, vanquished the Pictes and the Silurians, subdued to the Romaynes the Countrie of Brigantes or Yorkeshire men, ouerthrewe and chased Vodicia the daughter of the valyaunt woman Voada, and quieted the Kentishe men, and certaine other Britons which rebelled. After this Petulius, a Romaine named Iulius Frontinus was Lieutenaunt in Briteyn, who also warred against the Scottes and Pictes.

ANd after the death of Galdus king of Scotland, succeded Lugtack, 104 an hatefull and wicked tyraunt, & was as much hated of the Scottes for his vice, as his father was beloued for his vertue.Lugtack, king of Scottes. He slue many of the rich men onely to confiscate their goods, and committed the gouernance of the Realme [Page 82] to most vniust and coueteous persons, and with their company he was most delighted. He defloured his awne Auntes, Sisters, and Daughters, and scorned his wise and graue Counsaylours, calling them olde doting sooles, wherefore in the thirde yere of his reigne he was slaine of his Nobles.

106 Mogallus King of Scottes.MOgallus, being ordeyned king of the Scottes after Lugtack, at the be­ginning gaue himselfe to follow the wisedome and maners of his Vncle Galdus, and obteyned diuers great victories against Lucius Antonius the Ro­maine Capitaine: but in his age he became hatefull in all kinde of Vices, and chiefely in couetousnesse, lecherie & crueltie. He gaue lycence to theeues and robbers to take the goods of their neighbours without punishment. He first ordeyned the goodes of condempned persons to be confiscate to the kings vse, without respect of wyues, children or debtours, for which naughtynesse he was slaine of his Nobles.

126/1 COilus the sonne of Marius reigned King of Briteyn after the death of his father. This man was from his infancy nourished and brought vp among the Romaynes, by reason whereof they were louing and kinde to him,Coilus king of Briteyn. and he to them. And for as much as he knewe the power of the Ro­maynes to be inuincible, he yelded and payde to them the tribute during his life. This Coilus also (as Gaufride sayth) was a liberall man, by reason whereof he obteyned great loue of his Nobles, and also of his commons. And as some write, he made the towne of Colchester, but other ascribe it to one Coill that was king next after Asclepiodatus. And after that this Coilus had reigned in soueraigne peace the terme of .liiij. yeres, he dyed, and was buryed at Yorke, and left behinde him a sonne named Lucius.

144 COnarus, which was the chiefe causer of his fathers death, was made king of Scottes, who dissunuled the vices whervnto he was naturally enclined: But assoone as he was established in his kingdome, he wasted all the rentes perteinyng to the Crowne, in his leude lustes, and gaue landes and riches to most vile and naughtie persons, because they fauoured his corrupt liuyng, he inuented new exactions vpon his people, and therfore was of his nobles cast in Prison, and his wicked counsaylours hanged. In his place Argadus gui­ded the Realme about .xiiij. yeres.

165 Ethodius Kinge of Scottes.EThodius the first, nephew to Mogallus, was ordeyned king of Scottes, and reigned, xxxiij. yeres. This Man was greatly delyted with hunting, and made many lawes thereof: He rewarded Argadus for his administra­tion of iustice: He quieted the Isles, and being ayded by the Pictes, he van­quished Victorine the Romaine Capitaine, and brake downe the Wall of Adrian.

180/1 LVcius, or Lucy, the sonne of Coilus, was made king of Brytons, by the ayde and aucthoritie of Marcus Aurelius Antonius then Emperour of Rome,Lucy the first christian King. who fauoured him singulerly: He was a very good Man, and folowed his forefathers steps, in all that was good, and his gouernement was so graue and discrete that he obteyned the loue of all his people. This Lucius as sundrie Authors doe write, did sende to Eleutherius then Bishop of Rome, two godly learned men named Eluanus and Meduinus with certaine Epistles and Letters, praiyng him, that he and his Britons might be recey­ued [Page 83] to the fayth of Christes Church. Whereof Eleutherius being very glad, sent into Briteyn two noble Clerkes, Faganus and Dunianus, or after some Fu­gacius and Damianus.

¶ And as the reuerend Maister Iewell, Bishop of Sarisbury, writeth in his Replye vnto Maister Hardings aunswere. Fol. 191. The sayd Eleuthe­rius for generall order to be taken in the Realme and Churches here, wrote his aduice vnto Lucius the King in this maner folowing.

Ye haue receyued in the Kingdome of Briteyn by Goddes mercy, Elutherius Bishop of Romes Let­ter. both the lavve and fayth of Christ. Ye haue both the nevv Testament and the olde: Out of the same through Goddes grace by the aduice of your Realme take a lavv, and by the same through Goddes sufferaunce, rule you your Kingdome of Briteyn: For in that Kingdome you are Goddes Vicare.

¶ Now when these learned men were come, they were honourably recey­ued of Lucius, the which by their good doctrine & verteous example geuing,Britaynes first receyued the fayth of Christ, in the yeare of our Lorde. 188. and in 1294. yeres, next after the ar­riuall of Brute. conuerted the king and a great part of the Britons. Now after that Lucy had thus receyued the fayth, he by the aduice of the aforesayd learned men, & with the instructions sent to him by the aforesayde Eleuthery, did institute and or­deyne, that all or the more part of the Archflamyns, which is to meane Arch­bishoppes, and Bishoppes of the Pagan law, which at that day were in num­ber (as sayth Gaufride and other) three Archflamins, and .xxviij. Flamyus, shoulde be made Archbishoppes and Bishoppes of the Church of Christ as foloweth.

¶ The first Sea of the first Archflamyn, was at London. The seconde at Yorke, and the thirde at Gloucester. To these three Archbishoppes were sub­iect the aforesayd .xxviij. Flamyns or Bishoppes.London. To the Archbishops Sea of London, was subiect Cornewall, & all middle England vnto Humber. To the Archbishoppes Sea of Yorke, was subiect all Northumberlande,Yorke. from the Bowe of Humber, with all Scotland. And to the third Archbishoppes Sea, which was Gloucester, there was subiect all Wales:Gloucester. In which Prouince of Wales were .vij. Bishoppes, where as nowe is but foure. And at that day Seuerne departed Briteyn and Wales.Seuen Bi­shoppes in Wales. But after the Saxons had the rule of the land, they altered much of these orders, and to be short, there are nowe but two Archbishoppes in Englande, that is Cantorbury and Yorke, wherof Cantorbury hath the premacie, and hath vnder him .xv. Bishoppes in Eng­lande, that is to say, Rochester, London, Chichester, Winchester, Salesbury, Exceter, Bathe, Worcester, Hereford, Couentry and Lichefield, Chester, Lincolne, Oxford, Ely, and Norwich. And in Wales he hath .iiij. Bishoppes, Landaffe, S. Dauids, Bangor, and S. Asaph, commonly called S. Asse. And Yorke hath but two Bishoppes in Englande vnder him, which is Caer­leyll, and Durhame.

¶ Besydes these good orders taken, the sayd Lucius destroyed the temple of the false God Apollo, which then stood in a place called the Isle of Thorney nere London, and was so called for that it was a place all ouergrowne with Thornes, and he erected and made the sayde Temple a place dedicated to the honour of God, and named it Wesminster, as it is called at this day, and en­dowed the same with such and so great priuileges, that what person soeuer could escape to the sayd Church, for what trespasse so euer it were, the same should be safe body and goodes.

¶ Now after that Lucius had thus set this realme in good order, he died, when he had reigned .xij. yeres, leauing behinde him none heyre, which was the occasion of great trouble to the Realme: For the Britons among them­selues coulde not agree vpon a Gouernour, by reason whereof there was a­mong them great discord, which continued the space of .xv. yeres, in the which time, the Empire and Senate of Rome apointed their Lieutenauntes to go­uerne and reigne ouer this Realme.

196 Satrahell king of Scottes.SAtrahell the brother of Ethodius (because his sonnes were not of sufficient age to gouerne the Realme) was ordeyned king of Scottes, he was of false and subtile wit, and geuen to such cruelty, that for feyned causes he slue all the frendes of Ethodius to the intent to defraude his heires of the crowne, wherfore he was murdered of his familiers when he had reigned .iiij. yeres.

199 DOnald, an humble and gentle Prince was chosen King of Scottes, and reigned .xxj. yeres. He was the first King that coyned any money of Gold or Siluer in Scotland,Money first coyned in Scotland. for the Scots vsed before enterchaunging of wares for chaffer, and one thing for another, and had no money of their awne, but of the Britons and Romaines, and other externall Nations.

The Britōs receyued the fayth of christ xx. yeres be­fore Scot­land.¶ About the yere of our Lorde. CC.iij. this Donalde procured certeyne wise and learned men to instruct him, his Wyfe, Children, and Subiectes in the fayth of Christ, which happened, 533. yeres after the beginning of the Realme of Scotland.

208/1 SEuerus Emperour of Rome hering of the great discorde in Briteyn, made hast from Rome, and came into this land to apease the vprores of the same. And at this time the Scottes and Pictes inuaded Briteyn, and vexed the Britons very sore:Seuerus. wherfore Seuerus caused a Wall of Turnes to be made, wherein were driuen great stakes,A wall of Turnes. which Wall as sayeth Polichronica was in length. Cxxij. Miles, and it began at the Riuer of Tyne and stretched to the Scottishe See, or from the ende of the Lordship of Deira vnto the sayde Scottishe See, or after some Writers, from Durham to the See afore­sayde.

¶ And now Fulgenius the chiefe leader and Capitaine of the Pictes issu­ed out from Albania or Scotland into the land of Briteyn, & destroyed much of the Countrie beyonde Durham. Wherefore Seuerus with an hoste of Britons and of Romaines met with the sayde Fulgenius in a place nere vnto Yorke, where after sore fight, the sayde Seuerus was slaine, when he had ruled this land fiue yeres, and was buried at Yorke, leauing behinde him two sonnes the one named Geta and the other Bassianus, betweene whome there was and euer had bene from the beginning mortall hatred and enmity.

213/1 BAssianus Caracalla, after the death of his father, began to rule thys land of Briteyn, he was a Man of nature cruel and fierce and hable to endure all paines and labours, specially in warfare. But as Gaufrid fayth, after the death of Seuerus, great strife arose betweene the Romaines and the Britons then being within the land of Briteyn. For the commons helde for their king Bassianus because he was borne of a Britishe Woman: And on the other side, the Romaines allowed Geta for their king, because he descended of a Romaine. And for this dissension a battaile was foughten be­twene [Page 85] the sayde two brethren, in the which Geta was slaine,Geta slaine. and Bassianus remayned for king ouer all the land.

¶ In the time that Bassianus was now both Emperour and king of Bri­teyn, one named Carassus a Briton of lowe birth, but valiaunt and hardie in martiall affaires: purchased of the Emperour the keeping of Briteyn, or as some write onely of the coastes of Briteyn, and promised to withstand the malice of straungers, as the Pictes and others. By meane whereof Caras­sus drewe vnto him many knightes, and specially of the Britons, promising to them that if they woulde make him king, he would cleerely delyuer them from the seruitude of the Romaines. By reason wherof the Britons (as saith Gaufride) rebelled against Bassianus, and with their Duke and leader Ca­rassus arrered against him deadly warre, conceyuing the better hope of vic­tory because he was priuily certified of the Emperours death, who was then slaine by a seruant of his awne in Mesopotamia, when he had ruled this land sixe yeres.

¶But Polidore affirmeth that this Carassus tooke on him the gouer­nance of Briteyn in the time of Dioclesian, and sayeth that this lande was in good quietnesse the space of .lxxvj. yeres, with whome the Latyn Stories seeme to agree.

CArassus reigned after Bassianus ouer Briteyn, 219/1 who as before is ex­pressed, was by the Emperour of Rome deputed for a substitute or a ru­ler vnder him. This Carassus for that he was not of power to with­stande the Pictes, or for the fauour that he bare vnto them for ayding him against the Romaines: gaue to them the Countrie of Albania,Note that Albania now called Scot­land was wholy in the possession of Carassus, and he gaue the same to the Scottes and Pictes. that nowe is called Scotland: But here is not meant all Scotlande. For as witnesseth Polichronica, that parte which was thus geuen to the Pictes, was the South parte of Albania, and beganne at Twede, and endured to the Scotishe Sea. Of the nature and kinde of these Pictes, is somewhat shewed before, in the story of Marius, but more shall bee shewed hereafter in place conuenient, both of their ofspring and maners.

¶ Nowe it foloweth when the Romaines had knowledge of the death of Bassianus, they forthwith sent a Duke from Rome named Alectus,Carassus slaine. with three Legions of Knightes to subdue and vanquishe Carassus, who in the ende slue him, when he had ruled ouer the Britons .viij. yeres, and such as are disposed may read more of this man in Fabian and others.

EThodius the seconde was ordeyned king of Scotlande and reigned .xvj. 224 yeres, he was of dull wyt, geuen to auarice and gathering of riches, and nothing meete to gouerne the Realme: wherefore his Nobles tooke vpon them the charge, and so continued all the time of his reigne.

ALectus a Duke or Consull of Rome, 226/1 sent as before is sayde from the Senate of Rome, began to rule the Britons: and first he restored the land to the subiection of Rome, and then pursued certaine of the Bri­tons that had fauoured Carassus against the Romaines. And in that doing, he vsed and exercised many tyrannies and exactions, by reason whereof he fell in grudge and hatered of the Britons. Wherefore, they entending to op­presse and subdue the power of the Romaynes, procured and excited a Noble [Page 86] man of the Britons called Asclepiodatus Duke of Cornewall to take vpon him to be their Captaine, who gathered a great hoste of the Britons, and made warre vpon the Romaines, and chased them from Countrie to Coun­trie, and from Towne to Towne: and lastly Alectus with his Romaines drewe him to London and there abode for his more suretie. Whereof Ascle­piodatus being warned, he with his Britons came nere vnto the sayde City, where by meanes of prouocation of eyther partie vsed, at the last, the Ro­maines issued out of the Citie and gaue battaile to the Britons. In the which fight many fell on eyther partie, but the more on the partie of the Romaines, among the which was slaine Alectus,Alectus slaine. wherfore a Capitain of the Romaines called Liuius Gallus, perceiuyng this mischiefe, and the great daunger that the Romaines were in, drewe back into the Citie with the Romaynes that were left aliue, and defended it with their powers. This was Alectus slaine of the Britons when he had reigned and ruled this land vnder the Romaines the space of .vj. yeres.

232/1 ASclepiodatus or Asclepiodotus Duke of Cornewall (as sayeth Gau­fride) tooke vpon him the gouernement of the Britons, and with a great armie besieged London, and kept the aforesayde Liuius Gallus and hys Romaines in streight holde, and with knightly force and violence entered the sayde Citie,This brooke came from ye place which we call nowe Moore field, and that place being then a marish ye wa­ter ran from thence tho­row London into Thames and slue the aforenamed Liuius Gallus, nere vnto a Brooke which then was within the sayde Citie, and threwe him into the sayde Brooke: By reason whereof, the same was from thence foorth called Gallus Brooke, or Wallus Brooke, and at this time the place where that Brooke was, is called Walbrooke. And after Asclepiodatus had thus vanquished the Romaines, he held this lande a certaine of time peaceably and quietly, and ruled the Bri­tons with good iustice.

¶ And in this time by the motion of some lewde and vnquiet persons, there grewe displeasure betweene the Kinge and a Duke of this lande, named Coill,Colchester. the which as some say builded Colchester and named it after his awne name in the Britishe tongue Caercolyn, but what the matter of displeasure was, is not apparaunt. But howsoeuer it was, a great number of people were arreysed and assembled on both partes, and in the ende met in the field, where was foughten a great and fierce battaile,Asclepiodo­tus slaine. wherin Asclepiodotus was slaine, when he had reigned ouer this realme .xxx. yeres.

240 ATherco after the slaughter of Ethodius his father, was chosen king of Scottes, and reigned .xij. yeres. At the beginning, he shewed some to­kens of honest towardnesse: but after he was so wrapped in all vncleane vice and effeminate lustes, that he was not ashamed to go openly in the sight of the people plaiyng vpon a Flute, and reioysed more to be a Fidelar than a Prince: Finally, being pursued for rauishing of the daughters of Nathalas, by a no­ble man of Argile, he slue himselfe.

252 NAthalake tooke on him the kingdome of Scotland, by force, murther, and tyrannie, and trusting to the counsayll of Wytches and Inchauntours, was slaine of his awne seruaunt Nurrey, whome of all men he vsed most fa­mylierly, when he had reigned .xj. yeres.

COill, Erle of Colchester tooke vpon hym the gouernaunce of Briteyn, 226/1 and ruled the same very well for a certeine tyme. But as Gaufride saith: When the Senates of Rome had vnderstanding of the death of Asclepi­odatus, they were ioyous of his death, for that he had euer bene an enemie to the Empire: But forasmuch as at those dayes ye Romaines themselues were at great dissention, they could not conueniently send any army to warre vpon this Coilus, by reason whereof he continued the lenger in rest and peace.

¶ Howbeit at length,Constancius sent from Rome to go­uerne Bri­teyn. the Senate sent a noble and wyse man called Con­stantius, who when he was arriued in Briteyn with his army, anone Coilus assembled his Britons: But before he proceded further, he sent an Ambassade to the said Constantius, for that he feared the strength and fame of him, which Ambassade declared vnto him condicions of peace, & graunt of the paiment of the Tribute: But finally, while this matter was in talke, Coilus dyed, & then the Britons for peace sake, entreated this noble man to take to wife Heleyn the daughter of Coilus, with the possession of the land of Briteyn, which by him was graunted. And thus Coilus when he had reigned .xxvij. yeres dyed.

AT this tyme Findock the eldest sonne of Athirco was made kinge of the Scottes, he kept peace with the Romaines, and Britons,263 Findock king of Scottes. and quieted the rebellion of Donald (a noble man of the Isles) by whose counsayle, through the consent of his awne brother Carance, he was afterwarde slaine, when he had reigned .x. yeres.

DOnald was king of Scottes one yere, 273 he was taken in battail by Donald of the Isles, and shortly after he dyed.

AFter the death of King Donald, great trouble was in Scotland:274 For Do­nald of the Isles tooke on him the Crowne, which was Donald the third,Donald of ye Isles king of Scotes. and vsed much Tyranny the space of .xij. yeres: He neuer laughed, but when he heard of the discorde and slaughter of his Nobles, and therefore in the end for his crueltie he was slaine of Craithlint the sonne of Findock, with. CC. of his naughtie Counsaylours.

CRaithlint the sonne of Findock, after the death of Donald the Tyraunt, 286 was made King of Scottes, and reigned .xxiiij. yeres,Craithlint King of Scottes. with great wisedom and iustice. In his tyme happened great variance betweene the Pictes and the Scottes (which continued friendes from the tyme of Fergus the first King of Scottes, to these dayes) for stealing of a Greyhounde, whereof en­sued great murder and slaughter on both partes.

COnstantius aforesayde, 289/1 tooke vpon him the gouernement of the Bri­tons, and as is abouesayde, first maryed Heleyn the Daughter of Coi­lus, last King of Briteyn, which Heleyn was very beutifull and fayre,Constanciꝰ and therewith had learning and many other vertues, and after gouerned Briteyn very wisely and honorablye: But within short tyme after, Dioclesian, and Maximinian had geuen vp the Imperiall aucthoritie, he was chosen Em­perour, and reigned Emperour and King of Briteyn .xxx. yeres, and then dyed, and is buried in Yorke, leauing after him a sonne named Constantine.

¶ This Constantius was a Man of great affabilitie, clemency, and gentle­nesse, and therewithall very liberall, endeuouring alwaies to enriche his sub­iectes, little regarding his awne treasure, thinking that to be his that the Commons had. Wherefore he sayde, that it was better that priuate persons [Page 88] had the common treasure to the vse of the weale publique, then the same to be locked vp in Princes Cofers. In feastiuall dayes when he bade his Nobles to any banket, he borowed Plate of his friendes to furnishe his Cubbardes withall. Cooper.

310/1 COnstantine the sonne of Constancius and of Helyn, daughter of king Coilus, reigned ouer Briteyn after his father, and ruled the lande with much equitie. And albeit, that at this time he was a heathen and Pagan, yet he vsed no tirannie,Cōstantine. neither did he compell the Britons to refuse their law, and to worship Idols, as other Tyraunts before had done.

¶ In this time, while Constantine ruled the Britons, one Maxencius which was the sonne of Herculeus Maximianus sometime felow in the Empire with Dioclesian, was of the pretorian Souldiours declared Emperour. Thys Maxencius did there behaue himselfe the worst of all men, and enterprised all maner of tirannie,Christians persecuted. and persecuted the christians with all kindes of torments. And when Constantine heard of the tiranny of this man. He assembled a great hoste of Britons and Galles for to oppresse his outrage and malice.

¶ And for to rule and guyde this land of Briteyn in his absence, he ordey­ned a man of might called Octauius, which then was king of Wales & Duke of Gwiscop, which some expound to be Westsex, some Cornewall, and some Wynsore, to haue the gouernement of this dominion. Now when he had pro­uided all things necessarie for his voyage, he betooke the lande of Briteyn to Octauius, and sped him forward in his iourney.

¶ After whose departure, and during the time that he was occupied in the affaires of the Empire, Octauius being Lieutenaunt in Briteyn vnder the sayde Constantine, ruled the lande to the contentation of the Britons for a certaine time. But when he perceyued that he was in fauour with them, and also that Constantine was nowe farre from him, and considering with hym­selfe also, that the sayde Constantine being then Emperour, would not, nor could not so lightly returne into Briteyn: he therefore with the helpe of hys friendes and such as he was alyed with,Octauius v­surped the gouernment of Briteyn. withstood the Romaines that were left in Briteyn by Constantine, and vsurped the rule & dominion of the land: whereof when Constantine was truely certified, in all haste he sent a Duke into Briteyn, named Trayherne, the which was Vncle vnto Helyn the mo­ther of Constantine.

Trayherne.¶ When this Trayherne was arriued in Briteyn with three Legions of souldiours or men of warre: anon Octauius made toward him with his Bri­tons,Portchester Winchester and met him nere vnto the Citie then called Caerperis, and nowe na­med Portechester, but more truely in a Fielde nere vnto the Citie of Caer­guent, which at this day is called Winchester.

¶ Now when the two hostes were met, they ioyned a most eger and cru­ell battayle, wherein was a long and terrible fight. But in the ende, Tray­herne was inforced to forsake the Fielde, and withdrew himselfe and his Ro­maynes into Albania or Scotlande. Whereof Octauius being warned, folo­wed him, and in the Countrie of Westmerland gaue him the second battaile, where then Octauius was chased and Trayherne had the victorie, the which pursued Octauius so egerly, that he compelled him to forsake the lande of Bri­teyn and to sayle into the Countrie of Norwaye for his safe garde.

¶ But it was not long after, but the sayd Octauius gathered a newe power of people, aswell of Britons as also of Norwayes, and was redye to returne againe into Briteyn. In which tyme an Erle of Briteyn that entirely loued Octauius by treason slue the sayd Traherne a little before the landing of Octa­uius aforesayde, who afterwardes reigned in this lande at the least .liiij. yeres.Trayherne slaine. but not without great and often warres made by the Romaines. And this shoulde be as most wryters doe affirme, when Constantyne with the ayde of Traherne had ruled this lande .x. yeres.Polidore. But Polidore affirmeth that this Realme was in good quiet all the tyme of Constantyne and his successors vn­to the .iiij. yere of Gracian, and maketh no mencion of this Octauius, whereby it may apere what great varietie there is euen among the best and most ap­proued story wryters.

¶ This Constantine was a right noble and valiaunt Prince, and the sonne of Helena, a woman of great sanctimony and borne in Briteyn, the which Elyn as it is reported of her, founde the Crosse at Ierusalem, on the which our Sauiour Christ suffered his passion, and three of the Nayles wherewith his handes and feete were pierced.

¶ The sayd Constantine was so mightie in Martiall prowesse,Constātine the great. that he was surnamed Constantine the great. Of whome it is further written, that when he was in his voyage or iourney, which he made against Maxencius the Ty­raunt, who was an extreme persecutor of the Christians, he saw in the night season, the signe of the Crosse shining in the Element lyke a fyre, and an An­gell by it saying on this wise: In this signe thou shalt ouercome. Wherefore receyuing great comfort thereby, he gathered such a courage, that shortly af­ter he vanquished the armie of Maxencius and put him to flight, who in the chase was drowned in Tyber.

¶ Finally this good Emperour had the fayth of Christ in such reuerence, that alway most studiously he endeuoured to augment the same. And in wit­nesse of his beliefe, he caused the booke of the Gospelles to be borne before him. And further made the Bible to be copyed out,Close crow­nes came frō Constantine ye Emperour. and sent into all partes of the Empire. Of this man, the kynges of Briteyn had first the priuelege to weare close Crownes or Diademes. He ended his lyfe at Nicomedia, where he receyued Baptisme by Eusebius Bishop there, and was buried at Constan­tinople, called before Bizance, who lust to know more of his actes and life, may read the sayd Eusebius, who hath written a speciall treatise therof extant among his other workes.

FIncormake, after the death of his Cosyn Cairthquint, 310 was ordeyned king of Scottes, and reigned .xlvij. yeres.

OCtauius Duke of the Iesses, 329/1 tooke vpon him againe to rule as king of Briteyn, and in the tyme of his reigne, he gathered such plentie of Treasure that he feared no man, and he ruled the land peaceably, saue that he was now and then as is aforesayd, troubled with warres by the Ro­maines. And of him is no notable thing written, except that when he was fallen into age, by the counsaile of the Britons, he sent vnto Rome for a yong Man of the kindred of Heleyn mother vnto Constantyne called Maximianus, to whome Octauius offered his daughter in mariage, and to yelde vnto him the Kingdome of Briteyn, the which when Maximianus vnderstood, he consented [Page 90] therevnto, and prepared in all haste for his voyage, and shortly after he with a conuenient companie landed at Southhamton, whereof Conan Meriadock beyng warned did purpose to haue fought with the sayd Maximianus, & thought to haue distressed him, for so much as he knew right wel, that by him he should be put from the rule of the land. But this purpose was letted by the commaū ­dement of the king, or otherwise, so that the sayd Maximianus, was conueyed safely to the kinges presence: and shortly after the king with the consent of the more partie of his Lordes, gaue his daughter in mariage vnto the sayd Maxi­mianus, with the possession of this Isle of Briteyn. The which mariage beyng solemnised, and ended, the said Octauius dyed shortly after, when he had reigned as the most wryters agree .liiij. yeres.

358 AFter the death of Fincormake king of Scottes, because his heyres were but children, fierce warre was arreared betweene two noble men called Angusiane, Romake king of Scottes. and Romak, for the gouernaunce of the Realme: whereof ensued much trouble in the Realme of Scotlande, and great displeasure thereby en­gendered betwene the Scottes and the Pictes, for as much as by the ayde of the Pictes Romake tooke on him the Kingdome, and vsed great crueltie three yeres.

362 Angusian king of Scottes.NOt long after the Nobles of Scotland assembled themselues and set vpon Romake their king and slue him, and then was Angusiane ordeyned king: Betwene whome and the Pictes was great warre for the death of Romake, and in the ende therof both Angusiane and Nectanus king of Pictes were slaine. Then was Fethelmake crowned king, which vanquished the Pictes, and was after slaine in his bed by two Pictes, which were his seruauntes.

366 Eugenius king of Scottes.ABout this time one Eugenius the first, was made king of Scottes. Here the Scottishe Historie maketh a long processe of the fierce & cruell warre that this king kept against Maximus the Romaine Capiteyn, and the Pictes and Briteyns, which I thinke to be of no more credit than the residue of their Historie, that they haue feyned from the beginning. For vndoubtedly, if they had put the Romaines to so much trouble as their Chronicles shewe, both in the tyme of the Conquest and after: Caesar, Tacitus, Plinie, and other woulde haue made some mencion of the Scottes, as they did of the Trinobantes, Ceni­magnes, Segontiaces, Bibraces, Brigantes, Silures, Icenes, and diuerse other.

379 ¶ The Scottes say, that in this time, after long and cruell warre made by the aforesayde Maximianus, they were vtterly extermined and driuen out of their Realme into Ireland and other Countries,Note here that the Bri­tons had the possession of all Scotland. and that then the said Maxi­mus the Romain, placed in their land the Pictes and Britons. And Hector Boe­cius sayth, it was for rebellion: But rebellion could it not be properly named, except they had beene subiectes.

383/1 MAximianus or Maximus, the sonne of Leonyn and Cosyn Germain to Constantine the great, tooke vpon him the gouernement of this lande of Briteyn. This man was strong and mightie, but for that he was cruell against the Christians, he was called Maximianus the Tyraunt. Betwene this man and Conan before named, was great enuy and strife, and diuers conflictes and battayles were foughten, in the which eyther parte of them sped diuersly: howbeit, at the last, they were made Friends. So that Maximianus reigned a while in quiet, and gathered ryches and treasure, but [Page 91] not altogither without murmure and grudge. Finally, he was prouoked and excited to make warre vpon the Galles, through which counsayle,Amorica is called little Briteyn. he with a great hoste of Britons sayled into Armorica that now is called little Briteyn, where he bare him selfe so valiauntly that he subdued that Countrie vnto his Lordship, and after gaue the same vnto Conan Meriadok, to holde of him and his successours the kings of great Briteyn for euer. And then commaun­ded the sayde land to be called little Briteyn.

¶Now for this victorie,Maximianus proclamed Emperour the Souldiours of Maximianus proclaymed him Emperour, by reason whereof, he being the more exalted in pride, passed fur­ther into the landes of the Empire, and victoriously subdued a great parte of Gallia and all Germania. For this deede, dyuers Authours doe accompt him false and periured, wherefore it should seeme that before his comming from Rome, he was sworne to Gracian and Valentinian the Emperours, that he should neuer clayme any part of the Empire.

¶Now after that worde was brought vnto the Emperours that Maximi­anus had by force of armes thus subdued Gallia and Germania: Gracianus with a great hoste came downe to resist him. But when he heard of the Mar­ciall deedes of Maximianus, he feared and fled back to the Citie of Lyons in Fraunce: where afterwardes the sayde Gracianus was slaine, and his bro­ther Valentinian compelled to flee to Constantinoble, for safegarde of hys lyfe.

¶Then Maximianus to haue the more strength to withstand his enimies, made his sonne named Victour, felow of the Emperour. And in this time that Maximianus warred thus in Italy, Conan Meriadoke, to whome as a­foresayde Maximianus had geuen little Briteyn, for so muche as he and his Souldiours had no will to marrie the daughters of the Frenchmen, but ra­ther to haue Wyues of their owne blood: sent Messengers vnto Dionotus then Duke of Cornewall and chiefe ruler of Briteyn,Vrsula com­monly cal­led Saint Vrsula. wylling him to send his daughter Vrsula with a certaine number of Virgins to be coupled to him and his Knightes in marriage, the which soone after was prepared according to the request of Conan, the aforesayde Vrsula accompanied with .xj. thousand Virgins, were sent by her sayde father toward little Briteyn,A fable. as sayeth Gau­frid and other. But truely it appereth rather to be a Fable, and the wryters herein doe not agree, and therefore I will wade no further therein. But to returne where I left.

Maximianus, being thus occupied in warres in Italy,Gwanus Melga. two Dukes na­med Gwanus or Guanius Capitaine of the Hunes & Melga, king of Pictes, the which as Gaufrid saith, were set on by Gracian and Valentinian the Em­perours, to punishe and subdue the Britons that fauoured the parte of Maxi­mianus, warred sore vpon the coastes of great Britaine, and occupied a great parte of Albania. Whereof when Maximianus had knowledge he sente into great Briteyn a Knight and Capitaine called Gracianus, the which with two Legions of Souldiours bare himselfe so valiauntlye, that in a short time he chased the sayde two Dukes into Ireland, and helde the land of Briteyn in good peace to the behoofe of Maximianus.

¶In this tyme Maximianus continuing his warre against the Empire, and entending to be Emperour. Theodocius named the elder, being then Em­perour of the East part of the worlde hering of the death of Gracian, and the [Page 92] chasing of Valentinian his brother,Maximianꝰ behedded. sped him with a great power towarde Maximianus, and shortly after at a Citie in Italie named Aquileia tooke the sayde Maximianus and him beheadded.

391/1 WHen knowledge of the death of Maximianus was come to Gracian, who then had the rule of great Briteyn, he seased the land and made himselfe king of Briteyn by strength, when or after that Maximianus had gouerned the same, as most Writers doe beare wytnesse, the space of viij. yeres.

¶This Gracian hauing nowe obteyned the souereigne aucthoritie, be­came a verie cruell Prince and exercised all tyranny and exaccion vpon the people, for which cause he was abhorred of all the Britons, and by them was slaine when he had reigned foure yeres. Then was the Realme a good space without a head or gouernor, in the which time the Britons were oftentimes sore vexed with the aforesayde Barbarous people and their forrein enimies.

397/7 Augustine whome we call Saint Augustyn.IN this time was Augustine the most famous & learned Doctor of Christes Church: he was Bishop of Hippone a Citie in Affrique. This man was of such excellent wyt, that in his childhood he learned all the liberall Scien­ces without any instructor, and in all partes of Philosophy was wonderfully well learned. At the beginning he fauoured the opinions of them which be called Manichees, but by the continuall prayer of his good mother Monica: and the persuasion of holy Saint Ambrose, he was conuerted to the true faith. They both of them being replenished with the holy Ghost, sang the Psalme, Te deum, aunswering mutually one to another. And afterwardes, in prayer writing and preaching he so much profited the Church, that to this daye hys name is worthily had in honour and reuerence of all men.

403/13 Chrisostom A And in this time also was Chrisostomus Bishop of Constantinople, and named the Noble Clerk, and for his eloquence he was called the Golden Mouthed Doctor, and yet escaped he not some persecution by meanes of Theophilus in Alexandria, for he dyed in exile.

423 Fergus king of Scottes.THe Scottes (according to their Histories) vnder their king Fergus the second, returned out of Ireland into Albion, and continuing the reigne of three kings, that is Fergus, Eugenius and Dongarde, pursued the Bri­tons with most cruell warres. But here they discent from the English Chro­nicles, as well in the computation of tymes, as in the relacion of the whole Historie,Beda. For after Beda, Gildas and other auncient and credible Writers, the Scottes came first about this time out of Ireland into that Countrie, which they afterwards named Scotland. But howsoeuer these Histories a­gree, truth it is that the Scottes being confederate with the Pictes, not long from this time, by consent of all Writers, inuaded and spoyled the lande of Briteyn so cruelly, that the Briteyns were constreyned to sende for ayde to the Romaines, promising that they would perpetually be subiect to the Em­pire: which request was heard, & a Capitaine sent with a Legion of Soul­diours,A wall of Tornes. who within a fewe dayes chased their enimies out of the land, teach­yng them to make a Wall of Tornes and stakes, ouertwhart the lande, from Sea to Sea, that is to meane from the water of Homber to the Scottishe Sea, and ordeyned them Wardeyns and keepers of the Wall (wherewith their enimies might be kept back out of the land) and then they tooke leaue of [Page 93] the Britons and departed to Rome. But Polichronicon sayeth, that the sayde Wall stretched from Penulton to the Citie of Acliud.

¶But notwithstanding the sayd Wall, the Britons were againe inuaded by the Pictes and Scottes, who spoyled the Country verye sore: So that they were driuen to seeke for newe helpe of the Romaines, who sent to them againe a company of Souldiers, which eftsones chased the Pictes, and made a wall of stone of .viij. foote thicke, and in heigth .xij. foote:A wall of stone. which thing when they had done, comforting the Briteynes, and admonishing them hereafter to trust to their awne manhood and strength, they returned again to Rome.

¶ The Scottes and Pictes yet once againe after the departure of the Romaines, entred the lande of Briteyn, and spoyled the countrie, 433 and chased the commons so cruelly, that they were altogether comfortlesse, and brought to such misery, that eche robbed and spoyled other, and ouer this the ground was vntilled, whereof ensued great scarcetie and hunger, and after hunger death.Aecius. In this necessitie they sent for ayde to Aecius the Romaine Capitaine beyng then occupied in warres in a part of Gallia. But they had no comfort at his hand.Aldroenus. And therefore were forced to send Ambassade to Aldroenus king of little Briteyne to desyre of him ayde and comfort, which they obteined vp­on condicion, that if they atchiued the victory,Constātyne Constantyne his brother should be ordeyned king of great Briteyn, for to that day they had no king. Which thing beyng graunted of the Ambassadours, the said Constantine gathered a company of Souldiours, and went forth with them. And when he had man­fully vanquished the enimies, and obteyned the victory, according to promes made, he was ordeyned king, & guyded this land .x. yeres with such manhood and pollecy, that he kept it in quietnesse & from daunger of straunge enemes.


Here endeth the Dominion and tribute of the Romaines ouer this land of Briteyn, which had continued the space of .483. yeres.

COnstantine the second, 433/1 who was the brother of Aldroenus king of little Briteyn, was crowned king of great Briteyn and guyded wel the land the space of .x. yeres, and in great quietnesse. Of this Constantyne is little written, except yt he had by his wife thre sonnes, ye which were named, Con­stancius, Aurely Ambrose, & Vter surnamed Pendragon. But for that he sawe his eldest sonne named Constancius to be dull and insolent of wit, he therefore made him a Monke in the Abbey of S. Swithines at Winchester. And the other two brethren, he betoke vnto Gwethelinus Archbishop of London to nourish and instruct. Some wryte that Constancius entred into religion of pure deuocion, without the consent or knowledge of the king his father.

¶In the Court of this Constantyne (as sayth Gaufride) there was a Pict, that was much loued & greatly fauoured of him, so that he might at all times come to the kinges presence, when he would himselfe. The which beyng an arrant Traytour,Constantin [...] slaine. and serching conuenient time to execute his detestable trea­son, by a secret meane slue the king in his Chamber, when he had reigned as king .x. yeres. The Author of the story named the flowers of stories, writeth that he slue him with a knife in a very thicke Coppes, as he was a hunting.

¶ In the tyme of this Constantyne of Briteyn, 436 their reigned also among [Page 94] the Scottes one of the same name,Constantine King of Scottes. who was named Constantyne the first, he was a wicked Prince, and geuen wholy to filthy lust and pleasure of the bo­dy, and without all vertue of pollecye or noblenesse, wherefore in the ende he was slaine for rauishing of a noble mannes daughter.

443/1 COnstantius, the sonne of Constantyne, by the meane of Vortigerus Duke of Cornewall, or as some write of the Iewesses, after called West Sax­ons, was made king of Briteyn. This man as before is mencioned, was thought by his father, for that he was dull of wit and hawtye of minde to be therefore vnmete to take the charge of the Gouernement vpon him, and ther­fore his father made him a Monke as aforesayde.Constancius first a Monk and then a king. But now it came so to passe that by the practise and procurement of Vortiger he was taken out of the Ab­bey and made king: By meane whereof the sayd Vortiger had all the rule of the lande, so that Constance had but onely the name.

¶ This Vortiger then considering the innocencye and mildenesse of the king, cast in his minde how he might be king himselfe. And among other meanes, he practised to haue about the king an hundreth Pictes, to waite and attend vpon his person as a garde,A Gard first appointed to attend on the king. which beyng brought to passe, he bare himselfe so friendly towardes the sayde Pictes, and shewed him selfe so liberall vnto them euery way, that at length he had thereby so wonne their good will and fauour, that they abashed not to say openly, that he was more worthy to be king than Constance.

¶ And in this while Vortiger gate into his possession the kinges Castels and treasure, and looke what he commaunded, that was done, though some did murmure and grudge thereat, and euer in right or wrong he fauoured the aforesayd Pictes.

¶Now when he sawe that he had wonne all their fauours, he made them all dronke on a tyme, and then declared vnto them in that case his pouertie and miserie, and that with teares, saiyng howe he was not able of his awne proper reuenew to wage somuch as fiftie Souldiours, and with that he de­parted from them vnto his lodging, as a man altogether dismayde, leauing them still drinking and quaffing in the Court. The Pictes hearing him say so, beyng nowe distempered and set in a rage by reason of Wyne, murmured one of them to another, saiyng, why do we not kill this blockish Monke, that this noble Man Vortiger, who is so good and beneficial a Lord vnto vs may enioy the Crowne. And with that they rose vp in their dronken moode, and fell vpon the king and slue him.

Constancius slaine.¶ After which cruell deede so by them done, they presented the head of Constance vnto Vortiger. Wherof when he was ware, and to thentent that the Britons should thinke that deede to be done against his minde and will, he wept and made semblaunce of all sorow and heauinesse, and caused the sayd hundreth Pictes foorthwith to be taken, and them by the iudgement of the law of the lande to be beheaded,The kings Garde put all to death. by reason whereof he was iudged not to be culpable, but innocent of the kinges death.

¶When the kings death was knowne to such persons as had the keeping of the two yonger brethren, Aurelius & Vter, they in all hast for the sauegard of themselues fled into little Briteyn, & there kept them vntill it pleased God otherwise to prouide for them. And thus as ye haue heard was king Con­stance [Page 95] slaine when he had reigned fiue yere.

COngallus, 446 the sonne of king Dongarde was ordeyned king of Scotland after the Death of Constantine. He was geuen to peace, quietnesse, and iustice, and was a good and moderate Prince.

VOrtiger after the death of Constance, 448/1 by force made himselfe king of Briteyn, and ruled, but not all without trouble. For it was not long or that the Pictes hauing knowledge of the death and destruction of their knightes and knismen, inuaded the Northpartes of the land, & did ther­in great domage and hurt. And besides this, many of the nobles of the Bri­tons perceyuing that king Constance was not murdered altogether without the consent of the sayde Vortiger, rebelled against him, and dailye sent and sayled ouer into little Briteyn to the ayde and assistaunce of the aforesayde children of Constantine, which put the sayde Vortiger to great vnquietnesse, the more for that that he wist not, nor knewe not in whome he might put his trust and confidence.

¶Now yet in all this broyle and vnquiet time,Plenty of Corne and Fruite. there was in this Realme so great plentie of Corne and fruite, that the lyke thereof had not bene seene in many yeres passed, wherewith was ioyned lecherie and pestilence, with many other inconueniences,Lechery. so that vice was accompted for small or none of­fence. The which reigned not onely in the Temporaltie,Pestilence. but also in the Spi­ritualtie and heads of the same. So that euerie man turned the poynt of his Speare against the true and innocent man,Dronkēnes and the commons gaue them­selues altogether to dronkennesse and Idlenesse,Idlenesse. by reason whereof ensued fighting, strife, and much enuie. Of which aforesayd mischiefes ensued much mortalitie and death of men,Mortality, that the lyuing scantly suffised in some Countries to burie the dead. And besides this, the king was so heard beset with the a­forenamed enemies, that he was constreyned, as sayth Polichronica, to sende for Paynems, as the Saxons,Saxons. to helpe to withstande his enimies and to de­fend his land, and also he dailye feared the landing of Aurely and Vter.

¶Vortiger being thus beset with many enimies, and then being for the exployte of sundrie his affaires at Cauntorbury, tydinges was brought him of the arryuing of three talle Ships full of armed men at the Isle of Tenet. Wherefore, first he made countenance, as though he had bene in doubt whe­ther it had bene the two brethren of Constance or no: But when the fame was blowen about, that they were none enimies: anone he caused the lea­ders and Capitaines of them to be brought vnto his presence, demaunding of them the cause of their landing, and of their Nation and Countrie: who an­swered vnto the king and sayde, they were of the Countrie of Germany, and put out of their Countrie by a maner & sort of a Lot, which is sundrie times vsed in the sayde lande, and the vse thereof grewe for that the people of that Countrie encreased so greatly, that without such prouision had, the Countrie might not suffise to finde the people that were therein: And that therefore sence fortune had brought them into this land, they besought the king that he would take them to his seruice, and they woulde be ready to fight for the de­fence of him and his Countrie. And when the king had enquired further,Hengist Horsus. he founde that they had two leaders, named Hengist and Horsus, and they and their people were called Saxons.

¶The king being thus assertayned of the maner of these strangers, & that they were of the heathen and Paganlaw, said, he was verie sorie yt they were misereaunts, but he was glad of their cōming, forsomuch as he had neede of such Souldiours to defend him and his lande against his enimies: and so re­ceiued them into his wages and seruice, as saith Gaufride and other writers.

¶Beda the holye man and faythfull Historian sayeth, that Vortiger sent for the Saxons for that they were strong men of armes, and had no lande to dwell in, the which came in three long Shippes or Hulkes, and receyued a place of him to dwell in, in the East side of Briteyn called the Isle of Tenet beside Kent:Wylliam of Malmesbury but Guilielmus Malmisburiensis in his worke De Regibus, sayth, that the Saxons came out of Germany of their awne will and courage to winne worship and laude, and not by any lot or compulsion. He sayeth also that they worshipped in those daies,The dayes called Wed­nesdaye and Friday, from whence they came first. a God named WODEN, supposed to be Mercury, and a Goddesse named FRIA Venus. In the worship of which God, the third Feriall daye in the weeke, they named Wodensdaye, which we nowe call Wednesday. And in worship of the sayde Goddesse, they called the fifte daye Frees day, which we now call Friday.

Saxons. Angles. Iewets.¶And these foresayde people were of three maner of Nations, that is to saye, Saxons, Anglys and Iewets. Of the Saxons came the East Sax­ons, West Saxons, and the South Saxons. Of the Anglys, came the East Anglys, the middle Anglys or Merceys, called Mercij, which helde middle Englande, that stretcheth Westward towarde the Ryuer of Dee be­side Chester, and to Seuerne beside Shrewesbury, and so forth to Bristow, and Estwarde towarde the See, and Southwarde towarde the Thamys, and so foorth to London, and turning downeward and Westwarde to the Ri­uer Mercea, and so foorth to the West See.

¶And of the Iewets came the Kentishmen, and the men of the Isle of Wight. Of the first comming of these Saxons into Briteyn, the writers doe varie. But to returne to the storie.

¶These Saxons with the kings power did beate downe the enimies a­foresayde, and defended the land in most knightly wise, so that the king had the Saxons in great loue and fauour: which fauour Hengistus well percey­uing, vpon a season, when he saw conuenient time, he asked of the king so much ground as the hyde of a Bull or Oxe would compasse,Bull hyde. which the king graunted him. After the which graunt, the sayde Hengist to the entent to winne a large plot of ground, caused the sayde beastes skinne to be cut into small and slender Thonges. And with the same he met out a large and great circuit of ground, vpon the which he shortly after builded a large and strong Castell.Thong Castle. By reason of which Thonge, the sayde Castell was long after na­med Thong Castle, and it was builded in Lyndsey.

¶After this, tydings went into Germany of the plentie and fatnesse of the lande of Briteyn, with other commodities belonging to the same: By meane whereof, the Saxons dailye drewe to the sayde lande, and couenaun­ted with the Britons, that the Britons should exercise and attende vpon their husbandry and other necessarie traffique, and the Saxons as their Souldi­ours would defende the lande from incursions of all enimies, for the which the Britons should geue to them competent meate and wages.

¶Then by the assignement and apoyntment of Hengist, there came out of [Page 97] Germany .xvj. Sayles well furnished with men of warre,Ronowen the daughter of Hengist. and in them came Ronowen the daughter of the sayd Hengist, which was a Mayden of excel­lent beutie. After whose comming, Hengist vpon a day besought the king that he would see his Castle, which he had newly edified. To whose request the king was agreeable, & at the day assigned he came to the Castle, where he was ioyously receyued. And there among other pastimes, the sayd Ronowen with a Cup of Golde full of Wyne presented the King, saluting and saiyng vvassayle. The King which before that tyme had heard no like salutation, nei­ther vnderstood what she ment, asked of her father what she ment by that worde vvassayle. To whome it was aunswered by Hengist,Wassayle. that it was a salu­tation of good lucke and gladnesse, and that the king should drinke after her, and adding also this aunswere, that it was as much to say, as drinke hayle. Wherfore the king as he was informed tooke the Cup of the Maydens hand and dranke: And after he behelde the Damsell in such maner, that he was wounded with the dart of the blinde God Cupide, in such wise that neuer af­ter he coulde withdrawe his lust from her: but lastly by the instigation of the Deuill, asked her in mariage of her father. And by force thereof as witnes­seth Polichron ca, he put from him his lawfull wyfe,Polichron. of the which he had before tyme receyued three noble sonnes, Vortimerius, Catagrinus, and Pascentius. Vortimerꝰ, Catagrinus, Pascencius. Then the King gaue to Hengist the Lordship of Kent, though Garangonus then Erle thereof thereat grudged with many of his Nobles and Commons.

¶ For this, and because the king had maried a Pagan woman, all the Bri­tons in a maner forsooke him and his woorkes. Notwithstanding, yet some there were, as well of the Nobles as other, that comforted the King in hys euill doyng. By which meane and other vnlawfull deedes, then dayly vsed, the fayth of Christ began sore to decay. And besides that, an heresie called the Arians heresie began to spring in Briteyn,Arians heresie. for the which two Bishops named Germanus, and Lupus (as Gaufride saith) were sent into Briteyn to reforme the people that were infected with the same, and erred from the way of truth.Germanus Lupus.

¶ Then to finish the story of Vortiger, forasmuch as the Britons with­drewe themselues from hym,Octa the son of Hengist. he was therefore constrayned to retayne with him the Saxons. By whose counsayle he afterwarde sent for Octa the sonne of Hengist, the which brought with them another companie out of Saronie. And from this tyme the Saxons sought alway occasion to extinguish vtterly the power of the Britons, and to subdue the land to themselues.

¶ When the Lordes of Briteyn saw and considered the great multitude of Saxons, & their dayly repayre into this land, they assembled them together, and shewed to the king the inconuenience & ieopardy that might ensue to him and his land, by reasō of the great power of these strangers, & they aduertised him in aduoyding of greater daunger to expel & put them out of this realme, or the more part of them: But all was in vaine, for Vortiger had such a mind to the Saxons by reason of his wyfe, yt he preferred the loue of them, before the loue of his awne natural kinsmen & frends.Vortiger. depriued. Wherfore the Britons of one will & mind crowned Vortimerus the eldest sonne of Vortiger king of Briteyn, and depriued the father of all kingly dignity, when he had reigned .xvj. yeres.

VOrtimer the sonne of Vortiger, 464/1 was by the assent of the Britons made king of Briteyn, the which in all haste pursued the Saxons, and gaue vnto them a great battayle vpon the Riuer of Darvvent, where he had [Page 89] of them the victorie. And secondarily he fought with them vpon the Foorde called Epyfoord, or Aglisphorpe. In the which fight Catrignus the brother of Vortimer, and Horsus, brother to Hengist, or Cosin, after long fight betwene them two,Catrignus. Horsus slaine. eyther of them slue other, in which fight also the Britons were victours. The thirde battaile he fought with them nere vnto the Sea syde, where also the Britons chased the Saxons, and compelled them to take the Isle of Wight for their suretie. The fourth battayle was nere vnto a Moore called Cole Moore,Cole Moore. the which was long and sore fought by the Saxons, by reason that the sayd Moore closed a part of their Hoast so strongly, that the Britons might not approche to them for daunger of theyr shot. Howbeit, in the ende they were chased, and many of them by constraint were drowned and swalowed in the sayde Moore.

Vortimer.¶And ouer and besides these foure principall battailes, Vortimer had with the Saxons sundrie other conflicts and skirmishes, as in Kent, Thet­foorde in Norfolke,Thetfoord. and in Essex, nere vnto Colchester, & left not vntill he had bereft from them the more part of suche possessions, as before time they had wonne, and kept themselues onely to the Isle of Tenet, where Vortimer be­sieged them, with his Nauie, and oftentimes fought with them by water.

Gaufride.¶And as Gaufride sayeth, when they sawe that they were not able any longer to endure the force of the Britons, and to make their partie good with them, they then sent Vortiger the father (whome they had present with them in all the Fieldes that they fought against the Britons) vnto the king his sonne, praiyng him to lycence them safely to depart againe into their country of Germany. And whiles this matter was in talke betweene the father and the sonne, they priuily conueyed themselues into their Shippes, and so re­turned home againe, leauing their wyues and children behinde them. Fabian.

Rowen prac­tised the poy­soning of Vortimer.¶ When that Rowen the daughter of Hengist perceyued the great mis­chiefe that her father and the Saxons were in, by the martiall Knighthood of Vortimer: she sought such meanes (as sayeth Gaufride and other) that Vortymer was poysoned, when he had ruled the Britons .vij. yeres.

¶Because the storie touching the end and death of the sayde Vortimer is verie notable, it shall not be amisse to recite it here in effect, as it is written by the sayd Gaufride. When Vortimer had now gotten the victorie of the Sax­ons, he beganne lyke a good Prince to restore againe vnto the Britons such possessions as were taken from them by the sayde Saxons, and to loue and honour them: And at the request of the holy man Germaine to reedefie such Churches as were by them destroyed and ouerthrowne. But the Deuill by and by enuied at his vertue and godlynesse, who entering into the heart of his stepmother Rowen, moued her to imagine his death: wherevpon she sen­ding for all the Wytches and Poysoners that she coulde hereof, caused verie strong Poyson to be ministred vnto him, by a verie familier and nere friend of his, whome she had corrupted before with many great giftes. Now when this noble warryour had receyued this deadly poyson, he vpon a sodaine be­came desperately sick, in such wise as their was no hope of lyfe in him. Then commaunding all his Souldiours to come before him to shewe to them what daunger he stood in, and how the houre of death was at hande, he deuyded among them his treasure and such goodes as his auncetours had left him. And perceyuing them greatly to lament and bewayle the miserable case and [Page 99] daunger that he was in, he comforted them, saiyng, that the waye which he should goe was commen to all fleshe, and so exhorted them that as they had before sticked vnto him like men, and had shewed themselues valyaunt and couragious in fighting against the Saxons, euen so hereafter they woulde lykewise perseuer in the defence of their natiue Countrie, against all the in­uasions of forrein enimies. That done, of a great heardy courage he com­maunded a Sepulcher of Brasse to be made spire wise, and the same to be set in that porte or Hauen where the Saxons were commonly wont to arryue, and his dead corps to be layde in it, that assoone as those barbarous people should see once the Sepulchre, they for feare might returne backe againe in­to Germany. For he sayde that not one of them all durst be so hardie as to approche the lande if they once saw the sayde Sepulchre. O most hardie and dowtie king, who desyred to be feared of them euen after his death, vnto whome he was a terrour in his lyfe time: But when he was dead, the Bri­tons performed not his commaundement, but buryed his body at London.

VOrtiger was now againe restored to the kingdome of Briteyn, 471/1 and shortly after Hengist eyther of his awne accorde, or as Gaufride wry­teth sent for by the procurement of his daughter Rowen,Vortiger re­stored to his kingdome. entred thys land againe with a great multitude of Saxons, whereof Vortiger, being informed in all haste, assembled his Britons and made towardes them. But when Hengist heard of the Britons, and of the preparation that was made against him, he then made meanes for the intreaty of peace, where in the end, it was concluded that a certaine number of Britons, and as manye of the Saxons, should vpon the next May day assemble vpon the playne of Ambrij,Sarisbury. now called Sarisbury, or as Gaufride saith, nere vnto the Abbey of Amesbu­rie, founded by one Ambrius: which day being certeynly prefixed, Hengistus vsing a new practise of treason, charged all his Saxons by him appointed, that eche of them should put secretly a long Knyfe in their hosen, and at such time as he gaue to them this watch or bye worde, Nempnith your Sexes, that is, drawe your Knyfes, that euerie one of them should drawe out his Knyfe and slea a Briton, sparing none, but Vortiger the king onely. And at the day be­fore appointed, the king with a certaine number of Britons,Treason wrought by Hengist. not ware of this purposed treason, came in peaceable wise to ye place before assigned, where he found ready Hengist with his Saxons. The which after due obedience made vnto the king, he receyued him with a countenance of loue and amitie,Dissimula­tion. where after a time of cōmunication had, Hengist being minded to execute his purpo­sed treason, gaue forth his watchword. By reason whereof anon the Britons were slaine lyke shepe among Wolues, to the number (as Gaufride writeth) of .iiij.C. and .lx. barons & noble men, hauing no maner of weapon to defend themselues withall, except that any of them might by his manhood & strength either get ye knife out of his enimies hand, or else by stones or such like weapō as they might come by, anoy them, by which meanes diuers of the Saxōs also were slaine, so yt this there trechery was performed. And among the number of these Britons yt were thus distressed, there was then an Erle called Edolfe Erle of Chester, or rather after Gaufride Edole, Baron of Glowcester, who seing his felowes & friends thus murthered (as the said Gaufrid saith) by his manhood recouered a stake out of a hedge, with the which he knightly defen­ded [Page 100] himselfe and slue of the Saxons three score and ten persons, and being ouer set by his enimies and not able to make any longer resistance was com­pelled to flie to his awne Citie. After which treason thus executed, the king remayned with Hengistus as Prisoner. Fabian.

¶But the sayde Gaufride writeth more fuller hereof in this wise. After the Saxons had accomplished their mischeuous purpose, they woulde in no wise sley Vortiger: But threatning to kill him, they kept him in a holde, and demaunded him to geue vp & delyuer vnto them his good townes and strong holdes as a raunsome for his lyfe: vnto whome the king graunted whatso­euer they requyred of him, so that he might depart with lyfe. And when he had confirmed his graunt made vnto them by an othe, then was he set at ly­bertie and delyuered out of Prison. This done, the Saxons tooke Yorke, Lyncolne, and Winchester, and wasting al the Countreys as they went, they set vpon the common people and slue them, as Wolues are wont to deuoure the siely pore Sheepe that are left alone and forsaken of their Shepheards. Now when Vortiger sawe the great murther and slaughter of his people, he gat him into Wales as a man that wist not what to doe, and howe to be re­uenged vpon this wicked Nation.

Vortiger taken.¶ Of the taking of Vortiger, and slaiyng of the Lordes of Briteyn (Guili­elmus de regibus sayth) that Hengist agreed with Vortiger and his Britons that he should enioy the Castell by him before made, with a certeyne lande therevnto adioinyng for him and his Saxons to dwell vpon. And when the said agreement was surely stablished,Treason this Hengist entending treason, desired the king with a number of his Lordes to come and feast with him within his sayd Castle, the which of the King was graunted. And at the day assigned the king and his Lords came vnto the sayd Thongcastle to dynner,Thong Castle. where he with his, was well and honourably receyued, and also deyntily serued.

¶ But when the King and his Lordes were in their most mirth, this Hengist had commaunded before,A trayterous practise not altogether vnreuenged. that his awne Knightes shoulde fall out among themselues: which beyng so done, the remnaunt of his Saxons, as it were in parting of frayes, should fall vpon the Britons, and sley them all, sauing only the king. The which thing was done, as ye heard before deuised, and the king was kept and holden as prisoner.

¶ Hengist then hauing the King as prisoner, and a great part of the rulers of Briteyn, thus as aforesayde subdued, was somedeale exalted in pride, and compelled the king to geue vnto him,Polichron. as Polichronica sayth, three prouin­ces in the East part of Briteyn, that is to say, Kent, Sussex, Norffolke and Suffolke (as sayth the Floure of Histories) But Guido de Columna sayth,Hengistes lande. that the aforesayde three Prouinces were Kent, Essex, Norffolke and Suffolke. Of the which sayde Prouynces when Hengist was possessed, he suffered the king to go at his libertie. And then Hengist began his Lordship ouer Kent, and sent other of his Saxons to guyde and gouerne the other Prouynces, vntill he had sent for other of his kinsmen to whome he purposed to geue the same Prouynces vnto.

¶ Thus Hengist beyng in the possession of this Prouynce of Kent, com­maunded his Saxons to call it Hengistes land,Mathew of Westminst. whereof as some Aucthors wryte, the whole land of Briteyn tooke his first name of England: But that is not so, as after shall be shewed in the story of King Egbert.

¶ The Lordship or kingdome of Kent had his beginning vnder Hengist, in the fift yere of Vortigers second reigne, and in the yere of our Lorde after most wryters .iiij.C.lxxvj. But Denys and other which say, it begonne .xxj. yeres sooner, aloweth the beginning hereof to be when Hengist had first the gift of the same, by reason that Vortiger maryed his daughter. This Lord­ship conteyneth the Countrie that stretcheth from the East Occean vnto the Ryuer of Thamys, and had vpon the Southeast, Southery, and vpon the West, London: vpon the Northeast the Thamys aforesayde, and also Essex, and in this Lordship was also conteyned the Isle of Thanet, which Lord­ship or Kingdome endured after most wryters, from the tyme of the first yere of the reigne of Hengist, vntill the .xxv. yere of Egbert before named, which by that accompt should be .iij.Cxlij. yeres.The king­dome of Kent continued CCC.xilj. yeres. At which season the sayd Egbert then king of West Saxons, subdued Baldredus then king of Kent, and ioy­ned it to his awne Kingdome. Howbeit Polichronica affirmeth it to endure by the space of .iij.C.lxviij. yeres, vnder xv. Kinges, whereof Baldredus was the last.Ethelbertus the first chri­stian king of Kent. The first Christen King of this Lordship was Ethelbertus or Ethel­bert, the which receyued the fayth of Christ by Austine or Augustine the Monke, in the yere of our Lorde .iiij.C.xcvj. The which Ethelbert caused the Monasterie of Saint Peter and Paule at Cantorbury to be buylded, and as some say, he first began the building of Poules Church in London. He gaue vnto Austyn and his Successors Bishoppes of Cantorbury, a place for the Bishoppes See, at Christes Church within the sayd Citie, and endowed it with many riche possessions, as more at large shall be shewed in the lyfe of Careticus.

¶This Hengist and all the other Saxons which ruled the .vij. principates of Briteyn, as after shall be shewed, are called of most writers Reguli, Reguli. Small kinge which is as much to say in our vulgare speche, as small or petie kings: So that this Hengist was accompted as a little king. The which when he had thus gotten the rule of the thre Prouinces before mencioned, he sent for mo Saxons, and gathered them together that were sparckled abroade, so that in these Pro­uinces the fayth of Christ was vtterly quenched and layde a sleepe.

¶ Then Hengist with Octa his sonne gathered a great strength of Sax­ons, and fought with the Britons and ouercame them, and chased them in suche wise that Hengist kept his Lordship in peace and warre the space of xxiiij. yeres as most wryters agree.

¶ Nowe let vs returne againe to Vortiger, the which when he sawe the Saxons in such wise encrease their strength, & the Britons dayly to decrease, for as Gaufride sayth, the Saxons had the rule of London, Yorke, Lincolne, and Winchester, with other good townes. Wherefore the king for feare of the Saxons, and also for that he was somewhat warned of the comming of the two brethren, Aurely, and Vter, sonnes of Constantyne: He therefore considering these manye and great daungers, fled into Cambria, or Wales, and there held him for the more suretie, where before he had builded a strong Castle. Of the which buylding, and impediment of the same, and of the Pro­phet Marlyn many thinges are written by Gaufride, and reported by the common voyce of the people yet at this day.

¶ Now while Vortiger was thus in his Castle in Wales,Aurely. Vter. the aforena­med two brethren Aurely and Vter prepared their nauie and men of armes, [Page 102] and passed the Sea, and landed at Totnesse, whereof when the Britons had knowledge, they drew vnto them in all hastie wise. The which sayd brethren, when they saw that they had a competent number of Knightes and men of warre, first of all made towarde Wales to distresse Vortiger.

¶ Whereof he being well warned, and knowing also that he coulde not make sufficient defence against them, he therefore furnished his Castle with strength of men and victuall, entending there to sauegarde himselfe, but all was in vaine: For the said two brethren with their army, besieged the Castle and after many assaultes, with wyldefyre consumed the same, and Vortiger also, and all that were with him.

¶ Of this Vortiger it is redde, that he lay with his awne daughter, in trust that Kinges should come of his blood. And lastly, he ended his life as be­fore is expressed, when he had reigned now the second tyme .ix. yeres.

475 COurannus, for so much as the Children of his brother Congallus were but yong, was ordeyned king of Scottes, and guyded them in good peace and quietnesse a long space:Extorcion. but at the last he was slaine for extorcion, that Tomset his Chauncelour vsed in his name.

481/1 AVrelius Ambrose, the seconde sonne of Constantine was by the Bry­tons made king of Briteyn. Of him it is written that when he vnder­stood of the deuision that was in the land of Briteyn betwene Vortiger and the Saxons,Aurelius Ambrose. and in what maner the Saxons had subdued the Britons, he in all goodly haste, with the ayde of the King of little Briteyn, sped him in­to his land, and first came to Yorke, and there chased the Saxons that helde the Citie with Octa the sonne of Hengist,Octa taken & after escaped. and tooke the sayde Octa, and kept him as prisoner a certeyn season.

¶ But howe it was, by treason of his keeper or otherwise, he brake Pri­son and escaped. And after, he with his father gathered a great hoste, and met Aurelius and his Britons,Crekinfoord battayle. at a place called Crekynforde, where was foughten a strong and mightie battaile, to the losse of both parties, but the greater losse fell vpon the Saxons: For of them was slaine foure Dukes, and .iiij.M. of other men, and the residue chased to their great daunger. Yet this notwithstanding Hengist continued his Lordship in Kent: and Aurelius Ambrose kept the Countrie called Logiers or middle England with Wales, and chased the Saxons that dwelled in the two Prouinces of East Saxon, and East Anglis out of those Countries.

Ella. Symon. Pletynger. Ci [...]a.¶ And in this tyme a Saxon named Ella, with his three sonnes, Symon, Pletynger, and Cissa, came with three Shippes or Hulkes, and landed in the South part of Briteyn, & slue many Britons, at a place then named Cuneue­shore, or Coningsborough & chased many into a Wood then called Andresleger, and after occupied that Countrie, and inhabited himselfe & his Saxons with­in the sayde Prouince, making himselfe king and Lorde thereof: By reason wherof and by his might and power, the said Prouince or Country was after named the Kingdome or Lordeship of the South Saxons. The which after most writers had his beginning the xxxii.South Saxons. yere after the first comming of Hen­gist, which was the yere of our Lorde 482. and the second yere of the reigne of Aurely Ambrose then King of Briteyn.

¶ The kingdom of the South last aboue named had on the East side, Kent, [Page 103] on the South, the See and the Isle of Wight, and on the West, Hampshire, and in the North Southerey, and conteyned Southhampton. Somerset­shire, Deuonshire and Cornewall.Ethelwald the first Christian king of the South Saxons. Of which sayde kingdome Ethelbald or Ethelwald was the fourth king, and the first christen king. This kingdome endured shortest season of all the other kingdomes: For it endured not aboue an hundred and .xij. yeres, vnder .v. or .vij. kings at the most.

¶ But now to returne where we left:Aurely inha­bited wales. Aurely which as before you haue heard, held and occupied the middle part of Briteyn with Cambria or Wales, did his diligence to repayre ruynons places, as well Temples as other, and caused the seruice of God to bee sayde and done, which by the meane of the Saxons was greatly decayed thorough all Briteyn.

¶ And after this, Aurely besieged the Saxons in the hill of Badon or Baathe, where he slue many of them. But dailye the Saxons encreased and landed in great Briteyn, as shall appere. For shortly after a Saxon named Porth, landed with his two sonnes at a Hauen in Sussex,Portes­mouth. after whose name as some wryte, the Hauen was afterwards called Portesmouth, which Ha­uen is so called to this day. And lykewise they came to lande in diuers places of Briteyn, so that Aurelius had with them manye conflictes and battailes, wherein he sped diuersly, for he was sometime victour and sometime ouer­come.

¶ It is written in the English Chronicle and other,Marlyn. that Aurely by the helpe of Marlyn did fetch the great stones now standing vpon the playne of Salsburie, (called the Stone Henge) out of Ireland,Stonehēge. and caused them to be set there as they now stand,Salsbury playne. in the remembraunce of the Britons that were there slaine and buried in the time of the treyterous communication that was had with Hengist and his Saxons as before in the storie of Vortiger is tou­ched: But Polichronica allegeth the same act to Vter his brother.

¶ In the tyme of this Aurely, as sayeth Polichronica, Hengist dead. dyed Hengist in his bed; when he had reigned ouer the Kentishe Saxons .xxiiij. yeres. After whose death Octa his sonne ruled the sayde kingdome other .xxiiij. yeres.Octa. Albeit that the Britishe bookes and also the Englishe Chronicle, saye that Aurelius slue in battaile Hengist, & then tooke to his grace Octa his sonne, and gaue to him and his Saxons a dwelling place in the Countrie of Gale­waye, which seemeth not lykely, for matter that shall after ensue, and also that which before is touched of the Pictes and Scottes in the time of the miserie of the Britons.

¶ Now it foloweth, that this Octa, neyther augmented nor minished his Lordship, but helde him therewith contented as his father had lefte it vnto hym.

¶ And finally in the ende of the reigne of Aurely,Pascentius. Pascentius the yongest sonne of Vortiger, which after the death of his father was fled into Ireland for feare of Aurely, purchaced ayde of Guiliamor king of Ireland.Guiliamore king of Ire­lande. And with a great armie inuaded this lande of Briteyn, by the Countrie of Wales, in taking the Citie of Meneuia, now called S. Dauids, and in wasting the sayd Countrie with sworde and fyre. In the which season and time Aurelius laye sicke in the Citie of Winchester.

¶ For which cause he desyred his brother Vter to gather an hoste of Bri­tons together, and to appease the malice of Pascencius and his Adherents. [Page 104] The which accordingly prepared his hoste, and at length ouercame the hoste of Pascentius and slue him and the aforenamed Guyliamour in the Fielde.

¶ Howbeit, Gaufride reporteth this storie otherwise, affirming that Pascentius the sonne of Vortiger, who for sauegarde of his lyfe, fled into Germany, came with a great armie of Germaynes out of the same Countrie against Aurelius to be reuenged vpon him for his fathers death, and gaue battaile vnto Aurelius himselfe, in the which the sayde Pascentius and hys Germaines were discomfited and put to flight. Then Pascentius who durst not after the sayde discomfiture returne into Germany, gate him into Ire­land desiring ayde of Guillomannius then king of that Countrie, who taking compassion of him, ayded him with all he might. And so by the helpe of the sayde king arriued at Meneuia, now called S. Dauids in Wales: At the which season Aurelius being sick at Winchester, commaunded his brother Vter to gather an armie to appease his malice, the which he did, and then went into Wales to meete hym, where was foughten a cruell battaile be­twene them, in the which Vter had the victorie, and Pascentius and Guillo­mannius were slaine.

¶ Now while Vter was thus gone against Pastentius, a Saxon, fey­ning himselfe a Briteyn, and a cunning man in Phisick, by the entisement of Pascentius & vpon great rewards by him promised, came vnto Aurely where he lay sicke, and by his subtill and false meanes, purchased fauour with those that were nere vnto the Prince, that he was put in trust to minister potions and Medicines vnto the king. This man of some writers is called Copa, and of some Coppa, but of Gaufride Copa. The which when he had espied his conuenient time,Treason. gaue to Aurelius a potion enpoysoned: by violence whereof he shortly after dyed, when he had reigned .xix. yeres, and was bu­ried at Stonhenge besides Amesburie.

¶In the time of the reigne of the aforesayde Aurely (Polichronica sayeth) that the kingdome of East Anglys began vnder a Saxon named Vffa,Vffa, first king of the East Anglis. in the yere of our Lorde. CCCC.xcij. The which conteyned that Prouince which we call now Norffolk and Suffolk. They had in the East and Northsides, the Sea, on the Northwest, Cambrideshire: notwithstanding dyuers wry­ters affirme Cambridgshire to be parte of the sayde kingdome, and in the West S. Emondes Diche, and Hertfortshire, and in the South Essex. Thys Lordship was called first Vffins Lordship, and the kings thereof were na­med Vffins, or as some write, they were called Vffines people, but at the last they were named East Anglis.

Redwallus the first chri­stian king of the East Angus.¶ The first christen king of this principate, was Redwallus, but he was not so constant as was meete for his Religion. His sonne named Corpwal­dus was more stedfast, which after was slaine of a misbeleuing man, and for Christes faith as some write.Sebertus was the first b [...]lo [...]r of Paules Church. But Guido sayth that Sebertus was the first Christian king of this Lordship, and that he made Paules Church of Lon­don. This Lordship vnder .xij. kings, endured vntill the Martirdome of S. Edmond the last king thereof, the which was martired in the yere of our Lorde .viij. hundreth .lxix. And of this Lordeship at those dayes was Elman or Thetford the chiefe Towne.Thetford.

THe Historie of Scotland sayth, that the Pictes and Scottes were alyed with this Ambrose, and made partakers and chiefe doers in all the victo­ries [Page 105] that the Britons atchieued against the Saxons.

VTer the last and yongest sonne of Constantine, and brother of Aurely, 500/1 tooke vpon him the Kingdome of Briteyn, and gouerned the same ve­rye honourably. This man was surnamed Pendragon.Vter Pen­dragon. The cause thereof, as sayth the English Chronicle, was for that Merlyn lykened him vnto a Dragon vnder a starre apering in the firmament: Whereof there is made long processe in the story of Gaufride, but Layland a man in his tyme very skilfull in the antiquities of this Realme, thinketh this name was geuen him for his great prudence and wisdome wherein Serpentes do excell. But how so euer it were, truth it is, that after Vter (as is aforesayde) was made king, he atchiued many victories against the Saxons, and lastlye slue theyr chiefe Capitaines, Octa, & Cosa, as Gaufride writeth of him: It is also writ­ten that he was enamored vpō the Dukes wife of Cornewal named Igerne, and for to obtaine his vnlefull lust, he sought many and dyuerse meanes: So that lastly he made warre vpon her Husbande named Garolus, or Gorleys, and at length slue the sayde Duke at his Castle called Tyntagell, standing in Cornewall, and after maryed his wyfe,The birth of king Arthur. and receyued of her the noble knight Arthur, and a daughter named Anne. And in the ende he dyed at Verolame by force of poyson, when he had reigned .xvj. yeres, and was likewise buryed at Stonage or Stonehenge, vpon the plaine of Sarisbury, leauing after him the most puysaunt and noble King Arthur.

ARthur, the sonne of Vter Pendragon, of the age of .xv. yeres, 517/1 or as some wryte .xviij. tooke vpon him the gouernement of Briteyn, and hauing continuall battayle and mortall warre with the Saxons, did meruey­lously prosper and preuayle.

¶Here sayth Fabian I would fayne declare the fame of this noble Prince to the comfort of other to follow his martiall dedes, so that I might somwhat iustifie my report by some autentique Authour, but hereof I doubt the more because of the saiyng of Reynulph Monke of Chester, which voucheth vpon William of Malmesoury, wryter of the Historyes of Kinges, as is rehersed at length in the .vj. Chapter of the fift booke of the sayd Reynulph, vnto the which place because I would be briefe I referre the reader. But somewhat yet to say to the honour of so great and victorious a Champion as was thys Arthure, I will do my endeuour, so farre foorth as I may be able to auouche my saiyng by sufficient warrandise, and therewith glad the Welshmen, that he should discende of so noble a victour, that so many dedes of honour in his dayes executed. For though of him be written many thinges in the Englishe Chronicle of small credence, and farre discordant from other writers, yet all agree in this, that he was a noble and victorious Prince in all his deedes, and testifie that he fought .xij. notable battayles against the Saxons, and had al­wayes the vpper hande: But that notwithstanding he could not auoyde them out of his lande, but that they helde theyr Countries, which they were posses­sed of, as Kent, Southerey, Northfolke, Southfolke. Notwithstanding some wryte that they helde those Countries of him as tributaryes. And the foresayd .xij. battayles as I finde written in the auncient wryter Nennius,Nennius. who liued about the yere of Christes incarnacion. 620. whose authoritie I [Page 106] preferre, wryteth thereof as foloweth.

¶ The first battayle (sayth he) was foughten in the mouth of the water of Gleyn, otherwise called Gledy.

¶ The second, the thirde, the fourth and fifth, nye vnto another Ryuer cal­led Duglesse, the which is in the Countrie of Lyneweys.

¶ The sixt vpon the Ryuer called Bassus.

¶ The .vij. in the Wood of Calidon, otherwise called Carcoite Celidon.

¶ The .viij. beside the Castle called Guynyon.

¶ The .ix. in Careillion in Wales.

The .x. in a place by the sea syde called Trayhenrith, otherwyse Rytherwyde.

¶ The .xj. vpon an hill named Agned Cathregonion.

¶ The .xij. at the hill or Towne of Bathe, where many a one was slaine by the force and might of Arthure.

¶ For as it is reported of him, he slue with his awne hande in one day by the helpe of God, an hundreth and fortie Saxons, he bare the Image of our Lady in his Shielde,Pridwen. Calaber. Rone. which shielde he called Pridwen, his sworde was called Calaber, and his Speare was called Rone, after the Britishe tongue or speeche. Iohn Frosard affirmeth, that king Arthure first builded the Castle of Wind­sour, and there founded the order of the round Table: but some thinke it was rather Winchester, for there is the Table.

Arthgall the first Earle of Warwike.¶ In this tyme also I finde mencion made of a noble and valiant man cal­led Arthgall, and he was the first Erle of Warwike, and he was one of the knightes of the round Table of King Arthure, after whome folowed by suc­cession Moruyde, and Merthrude. This Arthgal tooke a Beare for his beast because the first sillable of his name which is Arth in the Britishe speche, and is in English a Beare.

Cerdicus first king of the West Saxons.¶ About the fift yere of his reigne, began the Lordship of the West Sax­ons, vnder the Saxon called Cerdicus and Kenricus his sonne: For Dionice and other say, that this Lordship or Kingdome should haue his beginning the lxxj. yere after the first comming of Hengist, or the yere of our Lord fiue hun­dreth. xxij. which agreeth with the fift yere of Arthure aforesayd.

¶ This Lordship conteyned the West Country of England, as Wiltshire, Somersetshire, Berkshire, Dorcetshire, Deuonshire, and Cornewall, and had in the East syde, Southhamton, on the North Thamys the famous Ry­uer, on the South and West, the Sea Occean.

¶ The aforesayd Cerdicus, which of some is called Childericus, landed first at Cerdishore,Yarmouth. which now is called Yermouth, an hauen Towne in the Countie of Norffolke. And by the helpe of other Saxons which then dwel­led there, the sayde Cerdicus at length obteyned the aforesayde Countries, and named them West Saxons, and reigned therein as Lorde and king a certeyn of yeres, and after him Kenricus his sonne.

Kingilsus the first chri­stian king of the west Saxons.¶ The first christian king of this Prouince: was named Kyngilsus, and conuerted to the fayth by meanes of that verteous man Brennus Bishop of Dorchester. To whome Quichelinus brother of the aforesayde Kyngilsus, gaue the sayde Citie to make there his See, after that he also had receyued Baptisme of the sayd Berinus.Berinus bi­shop of Dor­chester. And as Guydo sayth, the sayde Quichelinus gaue after to the Byshoppe of Wynchester .vij. Myle compasse of lande to buylde their a Bishops See, the which was accomplished and finished by [Page 107] Kenwalcus his sonne.

¶ This kingdome endured longest of all the other, which were seuen in number, or sixe beside this. Some writers accompt the continuance of thys kingdome from Cerdicus to Egbert, and some to the last yere of Aluredus.521 Guydo. But Guydo accompteth the continuance of this kingdome from the first yere of Cerdicus vnto the last yere of Edward the Confessor, and by that accompt it should endure fiue hundred and .liiij. yeres:The king­dome of the west Saxons cōtinued fiue C.liiij. yeres. But most agree that it should be reconed from the first yere of Cerdicus to the last yere of Aluredus, for he made one Monarchy of all the .vij. kingdomes, in the which time passed a­way .CCC.lxxviij. yeres.

¶ But nowe to returne to Arthur, the which by a long tyme dwelled in warre and mortall battaile with the Saxons, by meane of their daylie re­paire into this lande. The which also alyed them with the Pictes and other Nations, and made their partie the stronger by that meane: But yet King Arthur brought them into such an obedience, that they knowledged him to be the chiefe Lorde of Briteyn.

¶ Finally, when he had by a long time maintained his warres against the Saxons, and specially against Cerdicus king of West Saxons: he for a fy­nall concorde gaue vnto the sayde Cerdicus (as sayth Polichronica) in his sixe Chapter of his fift Booke, the Provinces of Hampshire and Somersetshire. And when he had set his lande in some quietnesse, he betooke the rule thereof vnto his Nephew Mordred,Mordred. and with a chosen armie sayled (as sayth Gau­fride and other) into Fraunce where as sundrie Authors write, he wrought wonders.

AFter the departure of Arthur (as Polichronica sayeth) the aforesayde Mordred being desirous to be king, feared somewhat the might of Cerdicus king of the West Saxons: he therfore sought for his fauour and to obteyne his good will, gaue vnto him certaine Townes, Fortes, and Castels, and other great giftes, so that at the last he wanne him, in such sort that he consented to Mordreds request:Treason. in so much that Mordred was short­ly after at London crowned king of Briteyn, and Cerdicus was after the maner of the Pagans crowned king of West Saxons at Wynchester.

¶ Now when knowledge came to Arthur of all this treason wrought by his Nephew Mordred: he in all the haste made towarde Briteyn and lan­ded at Sandwiche, where he was met of Mordred and his people, which gaue vnto him a strong battaile at the time of his landing, and there Arthur lost many of his Knightes, as the famous knight Gawen and other. But yet this notwithstanding, Arthur at the length recouered the land and chased his enimies, and after the buriall of his Cosyn Gawen and other of his, that were there slaine, he set forward his hoste to pursue his enimies.

¶ Mordred being thus ouerset of his Vncle at the Sea side withdrewe him to Winchester: where he being furnished of newe Souldiours, gaue vnto Arthur the second battaile, wherin also Mordred was put to the worste and constrained to flee. Thirdly and lastly, the sayde Mordred fought with his Vncle Arthur at Baath, where after a long and daungerous fight, Mordred was slaine, and the victorious Arthur wounded vnto death,Mordred slaine. when he had reigned .xxvj. yeres, and after buried in the vale or Isle of Aualon, [Page 108] nowe called Glascenburie, whether he was conueyed to bee cured of hys woundes. Who so lust to know more touching the certeyntie and truth of these matters maye reade the booke of the excellent antiquary Iohn Ley­land, intituled the Assertion of Arthur, where euerie thing is more at large discoursed.

534 EVgenius the thirde, the sonne of Congallus, was made king of Scotland after Conrannus, and reigned .xxxiiij. yeres. The Scottishe Historie af­firmeth, that he with his Scottes were present in the battailes that Mor­dred fought against Arthur.

¶The Scottes say that this Mordred was king of Pictes, and that Ar­thur was slaine in battaile, and the Britons discomfited, and Guanora the Queene taken prisoner by the Scottes with great spoyle.

543/1 COnstantine the thirde, the sonne of Cador Duke of Cornewal, and Co­syn to king Arthur by assent of the Britons was crowned king, and he was by the two sonnes of Mordred grieuously vexed, for that they clay­med the lande by the right or title of their father. So that betwene him and them were foughten many and sundry battayles, but where or when, it is not shewed, neyther are the names of the two sonnes of Mordred expressed.

¶ But sundrie Authors agree that after the aforesayde two battailes thus foughten finally the two sonnes of Mordred were constreyned of pure force to flie for their safetie. And so the one fled to London, and the other tooke Sanctuarie in the olde Abbey Church of Winchester, dedicated to Saint Amphibalus.

¶Whereof Constantine being warned, left not vntill he had slaine the one within the Monastery of Wynchester, and the other within a Church or Temple of London, of the which crueltie of his, Gildas sore complayneth.

Gildas.¶When Constantyne had thus subdued his enimies and thought himselfe now in a sure and quiet state: then arose vp his awne kynsman named Aure­lius Conanus and arrered mortall battaile against him,Aurelius Conanus. and at the last slue him in the Fielde, when he had reigned three yeres, who was buried at Stonehenge. But some wryters say, he dyed by the hande of God of a great sicknesse.

546/1 AVrelius Conanus after the death of Constantine was crowned king of Briton. This man was noble and liberall, but he vsed to cherishe and make much of such as loued strife and dissention within his lande, and gaue light credence to them that accused other, were it right or wrong. And as sayeth Gaufride and other, he tooke by strength his Vncle, which of right should haue bene king and cast him into a strong prison, and after slue tirannously the two sonnes of his sayde Vncle: But his reigne continued not long, for as sayth Ganfride, he dyed in the second yere of his reigne leauing after him a sonne named Vortiporius.

¶And here is to be noted, that after this time, the Britons decreased of Lordship and rule within Briteyn, and drewe them toward Wales, so that the Countrie about Chester was the chiefest of their Lordship within Bri­teyn.Britons decayed. For dailye the Saxons landed with their companies, and occupied the principall partes of the same, as shall after appere.

¶Now in the time of the reigne of the aforesayde Aurely (as sayteh Poli­chronica, Guydo and other) beganne the kingdome or Lordship of Bernicia, vnder a Saxon named Ida in the .D.xlvij. yere of our Lord,Ida the first king of Ber­nicia, or Northum­berlande. and in the last yere of the sayde Conanus. This Lordship was in the North parte of Bri­teyn, and grewe in short while more and more, so that finally, it was named the kingdome of Northumberlande, and was first deuyded into two king­domes, whereof the first as abouesayde was called Bernicia,Deyra. and the other Deyra. The meres or markes of this kingdome of Northumberlande, were by East and by West the Occean Sea, by South the Ryuer of Humber, and so downeward toward the West by the endes of the Shires of Notyngham and Derby, vnto the Ryuer of Merse, or Martia, and by North the Scot­tishe Sea, which is called Foorth or Frith in Scottishe, and in Britishe, the Werde.

¶The Southside of this Lordship is called Deyra,Bishoprick of Durham. which is now called the Bishoprick of Durham, and the Northside was called Bernicia, which were then departed or seuered with the Ryuer of Tyne, Deyra conteyned the lande from Humber to the Ryuer of Tyne, and Bernicia included the Countrie from Tyne to the Scottishe Sea.

¶In Bernicia reigned first as is abouesayde, Ida or Idas,Ella first king of Deyra. and in Deyra reigned first Ella, which Lordships beganne both within three yeres. But in processe of time both in one were named the kingdome of Northumber­lande, which so continued, somewhile vnder one king, and some while vnder two, the space of .CCC.xxj. yeres, as sayth Reynulph Monke of Chester. And the name continued afterward vnto the Saxons and Danes, vntill the comming of Edredus brother of Ethelstane, and sonne of Edward the elder. The which Edredus in the .ix. or last yere of his reigne ioyned this to his awne kingdome. By which reason it should seeme that this kingdome endu­red vnder that name foure hundreth .ix. yeres.

¶The first christian Prince of this kingdome was named Edwynus,Edwinus the first chri­stian king of Northum­berlande. that receyued the fayth of S. Paulyne (as Guydo sayth.) In this Lordship also were included these Shires and Countries now called, Yorke, Notyng­ham Shire, Derby Shire, the Bishoprick of Durham, Copelande and other.

¶Among the many kinges of Saxones that reigned in thys Lordship, which after some wryters were to the number of .xxiij.Ethelfridus. there was one which was accompted the .viij. king, named Ethelfridus, who destroyed moe Bri­tons than all the other Saxon kings, and he was father to Oswy, called Saint Oswald.

¶ But most cruellye raged he against them in a battayle that he had be­syde Chester, where by the instigation of Ethelbert king of Kent, he slue also two thousande Monkes of the house of Bangor,A slaughter of Monkes. as sayeth Polichro­nicon in the .x. Chapter of his fift Booke, the which Monkes were come together to praye for the good speede of the Britons. And besyde this num­ber of Monkes, there were fiftie that fled, whereby they with their leader Bruciuall were saued. Of such a number of Monkes in one house, might be demed a wonder: But Reynulph and Guydo also do affirme that in the house of Bangor at those dayes, were three tymes seuen hundreth Monkes which liued by the trauayle of their handes.

Gaufride.¶ The cause of the great slaughter of the aforesayd Monkes is declared by Gaufride in the .viij. booke and .iiij. Chapter, who wryteth thereof as folo­weth. Their Abbot sayth he named Dionotus, was a man singulerly well learned in the liberall sciences, who when Austyn required the Britishe Bi­shoppes to submit themselues vnto him, and perswaded him to take paynes with him to preach the Gospell vnto the Englishe Nation, proued by diuerse reasons that they ought not to yelde any such subiection vnto him, forasmuch as they had an Archbishop of their awne, nor yet to preach to their enemies the Saxons, which seased not dayly to take from them theyr awne naturall Countrie, for the which cause they hated them deadly, and weighed not what fayth or Religion they were off, neyther did they communicate with them in any thing more than with Dogges. Therfore when Ethelbert king of Kent saw how the Britons disdeyned to submit themselues vnto Austyn, and con­temned his doctrine, and preaching, beyng highly displeased therewith he in­censed Ethelfride king of Northumberland, and other of the Saxon kinges also, to assemble a great power of men of armes, and then to go to Bangor and destroy Dionotus, with the Clergie there, & all the sayd religious persons that had so dispised the sayd Austyn. The which Princes folowing his aduice and counsayle, gathered together a wonderfull great army, and so marching forwardes towardes Wales, came into the towne of Chester, where Bruei­nall head ruler of that towne wayted for theyr comming: Whether also came at that same season an innumerable sort of Monkes and Heremites out of diuerse Prouinces of the Britons, but especially out of the Citie of Bangor, to pray to God to saue and defende their people.

¶ Nowe when Ethelfridus king of Northumberlande had arrered a great power out of all quarters, he set vpon the sayde Bruciuall, who by reason he had the lesse number of Souldiers, was constreyned to forsake the Citie and flie away, but not before he had slaine a great number of his enemies. Now when Ethelfridus had taken the City, and vnderstood the cause of the comming of the sayd Monkes, he commaunded them first of all to be set vpon, and so were there of them the same day a thousand and two hundred martyred. He­therto Gaufride.

Oswald or Oswy [...]ue x [...]. Lordships to [...]unde .x [...]. Abbeyes.¶ The aforenamed Oswy or Oswolde, was after king of this Prouynce, which gaue with his daughter Elfleda a Nonne .xij. Lordshippes vnto the Church, to buyld therewith .xij. Monasteries, whereof .vj. of the sayd Lord­shippes were in Bernicia, and .vj. in Deyra, as sayth Guydo and Reynulph in his fift booke, and .xvj. Chapter.

548/1 VOrtiporius the sonne of Conanus, reigned after his father ouer the Britons: Of this man is no notable thing written, but that Guydo sayth he was a victorious knight, and that in sundry battayles he dis­comfited the Saxons.

¶ In the tyme of the reigne of this king, a Saxon named Ella the sonne of Iffus, began to reigne on the Southsyde of the Kingdome of Northum­berland called Deyra, as before is expressed.

¶ When Vortiporius had ruled the Britons foure yeres, he dyed, leauing none heire of his body.

¶ And forasmuch as all writers agree that the kinges of West Saxons, [Page 111] at length subdued all the other kingdomes in Briteyn, and made the whole lande of Briteyn but one kingdome or Monarchy, and all other aswell of Britons as Saxons left off: Therefore I entende to bring in the name of euery king of the West Saxons from the first Cerdicus or Childricus, and ioyne them with the kinges of the Britons, for so long as hereafter the sayde Britons continued their reigne within any part of Briteyn.

MAlgo a Duke of Briteyn, and nephew to Aurely, 552/1 reigned ouer the Britons. This Malgo by the testimonie of many wryters was the comlyest and most personable man of all the Britons that then lyued,Malgo. and therewithall was a hardie knight. And he so withstood the Saxons, and kept them vnder, that they dammaged not the lande, the which he then had possession of, and as Gaufride sayth, he subdued sixe Prouynces, that is to say, Ireland, the Isles of the Orcades, Gothland, Iseland, Norway,Iseland. Orchades. and Den­marke, and held them in quiet possession.

¶ In the tyme of the reigne of this Malgo, reigned in the Lordeship or kingdome of Kent Ethelbert, who (as sayth Reynulph) assembled a great armie, and gaue battayle vnto Ceaulmus sonne of Kenricus, and then king of West Saxons, the cause whereof is not expressed. But this battayle was the first battaile that was foughten betwene the Saxons, after that they ob­teyned land and dwelling within Briteyn, which was foughten in a place called Wilbaldowne. And in that fight were slaine two Dukes of Ethel­bertes, and himselfe with his people put to flight and chaced.

¶ Also the sayd Reynulph witnesseth that the yere folowing Cutwolphus the brother of Ceaulmus before named, fought strongly against the Britons at Bedford, and recouered from them foure Cityes or townes, named Li­ganbrough, Egelsbrough, Besington, and Euysham.

¶ But now to returne to Malgo king of the Britons, the Authour of the Flowre of Histories sayth, that notwithstanding the many vertues, the which God had endued him with, yet in the ende he forgat God, forsaking all ver­tue and gaue himselfe to sundrie vices and sinnes,Sodomy. namely to the abhominable sinne of Sodomy: whereof ensued to him the wrath of God, wherby he was afterward fore persecuted of his enimies the Saxons.

¶ It was not long after the aforenamed battaile done at Bedforde, but that the aforesayde Cutwolphus dyed: But yet his sayde brother Ceaulmus desirous of honour, mainteyned his warre against the Britons, so that after he made a newe voyage against them, and gaue them another discomfiture, and tooke from them the Cities of Bathe, Gloucester, and Worcestre, which should be as Reynulph accompteth in the .xxix. yere of the reigne of Malgo.

¶ About the .xxxiij. yere of his reigne Ceaulmus before named, gathe­red his Saxons, and fought with the Britons at a place called Fechanlege: where after long fight the sayde Ceaulmus chased the Britons, and wan of them victory: but his brother called Cutha, was slaine in the fight, for whom he made great sorow. Thus in his latter dayes, Malgo beyng oppressed and pursued of his enemies, lastly dyed, when he had reigned .xxxv. yeres.

COnwall was made king of Scottes, and reigned .x. yeres. 568/17 He was a Man of great deuocion, and gaue much to Churches. He made many lawes concerning the libertie of Priestes. In his tyme Saint Colme of Ire­land, [Page 121] and Mungo the holy Bishop of Blasquew were in Scotland.

578/17 KIncatill brother of Conwallus reigned in Scotlande foure Monethes, and after him Aidane .xxvij. yeres. In his tyme variaunce happened be­tweene the Pictes and Scottes, because that Lerudeus Kinge of Pictes would not restore to Aidane certaine Traytors which fled out of his land.

586/1 CAreticus, or Carencius, as some call him, after the death of Malgo, reigned ouer the Britons. This Man was a louer of ciuile battayle, and was in maners and condicions the worst of all men,Ciuile bat­taile. and therefore was hated of God and his subiectes, in such wyse as they excited and prouo­ked the Saxons to warre against him (as sayth Guydo) and chased him from Citie to Citie, and from Towne to Towne, vntill they had recouered from him all such land as his predecessor Malgo, had holden before him.

¶ But Polichronicon addeth more therevnto, and sayth, forasmuch as the Saxons knewe of the dissension betwene Careticus and his Britons, they in all haste sent into Ireland for the King called Gurmundus,Gurmundus king of Ire­lande. King of the Affricans, and he warred so sore vpon the Britons, that lastly the sayd Care­ticus was faine to take the Towne nowe called Sicester, and therein besie­ged him with his Britons a certaine time,Sicester. where, by dailye skirmishes and assaultes he lost many of his people.

¶ When Careticus had a season assayed and prooued the strength of hys enimies, and sawe that they still encreased and his people lessened and mini­sued: he sodainely left that Towne, and with a certaine number of Britons tooke ouer Seuerne water and so into Wales, then called Cambria, which should be in the thirde yere of his reigne.

¶ Truth it is, that after Careticus and his Britons were thus driuen in­to Wales, yet he lefte not continually to make assaultes vpon the Saxons that were nere vnto him.

IN this time, or sone after, Ethelfridus ruled the North Saxons, for as sayeth Guydo, he began the reigne ouer Deyra and Bernicia, in the yere of our Lorde fiue hundred .xciij.Ethelfridus the sonne of Ethelricus. This is Ethelfridus the sonne of Ethelricus that pursued so sore the Britons, & slue so great a number of the Monkes of the Towne of Bangor as is before rehersed, the which daylie warred vpon the Britons, and the Britons vpon him, so that he destroied & subuerted much of Christes fayth, with the helpe of the aforesayd Gormond: insomuch as the Bishops of London and Yorke,Bishops fled out of this Realme. with other ministers of the Church, fled into diuers Countries, so that their Church dores were shut vp after them, or else occupied in the worshipping of their Idolles and false Goddes.

Fayth of Christ decay­ed in Eng­lande.¶ Thus the fayth that had endured in Briteyn from the time of Lucius the first christian king in Briteyn till this day, neere vpon the space of foure hundreth yeres and odde, was almost extinct throughout all the lande.

¶ And when the aforenamed Gurmond had finished his tirannie within the lande of Briteyn, then he sayled into France, where he was after slaine (as sayeth Polichronica) albeit the French Chronicle speaketh nothing of any such man during this persecution, as witnesseth Guydo.

Persecutiō.¶ During also this trouble betweene the Saxons and the Britons, the Lordship or kingdome of the East Saxons beganne to take place, as after shall be shewed.

¶ In this time also Ethelbert reigned in Kent, and bare himselfe verie valiantly, in such wise that he enlarged his kingdome to the bounds of Hum­ber.Gregory Bi­shop of Rome In which time Gregory, who for his notable deedes was surnamed the great, was made Bishop of Rome: This Gregory as before is touched in the storie of Ethelbert, hauing compassion on the Countrie from whence so fayre children came, as he before had seene, and thinking it not meete that it should be inhabited with Pagans or people of misbeliefe, sent into Briteyn a learned man named Austyne, with other of his brethren, to preache to the Anglis the fayth of Christ. But as sayeth Antoninus in the thirde Chapter,Antoninus. and xij. title of his aforesayde worke: when Austyne was three dayes iour­ney gone and passed, such a sodaine feare entered into him and his felowes that they turned againe. Then Gregory comforted the sayde companye, and sent them with Letters to the Bishop Arelatensis, wylling him to helpe and ayde him in all that to him needed.Austyn sent into Englād to preache. The tenour of which Letters and other sent to Ethelbert king of Kent, with their aunsweres, are written with o­ther questions in the Register of Gregory, and in the bookes of Beda and other.

¶ Austyne being thus comforted, sped him on his iourney and landed on the East side of Kent in the Isle of Thanet with .xl. of his felowes, whereof some were Interpretours, or such as could speake all languages. Nere vnto the place before named, where Austyne landed, stood at those dayes, the ma­nour or Palace of the sayde king Ethelbert, where at this daye appere some of the ruynous walles, and is called of the inhabitaunts of that Isle,Richbourgh Rich­bourgh. It is apparaunt betweene the Isle and the Towne of Sandwiche, vpon a Myle and a halfe from the sayde Towne, Eastwarde from Caun­torbury.

¶ Then when Austyne was landed, he sent the sayde interpretours vnto Ethelbert, saiyng that they were sent from Rome for the saluation of the king and his Realme. The king before time had heard of the fayth of Christ, for he had to wyfe a French woman that was christened, named Berta, and had receyued her vpon condicion that he should suffer her to lyue after her lawe.

¶ Then after a certaine time, the king spake with Austyne, but that was without the house, after the maner of his lawe, who against the comming of the king arrered and displayed a Banner of the Crucifixe, and preached to him the worde of God. Then the king sayde, it is fayre that ye promise, but for that it is to mee straunge and newe, I maye not so soone assent vnto you. But for that ye become so farre for my sake, ye shall be well entreated, and haue all things that shall be vnto your necessarie, and we graunt you leaue to conuert of oure people as many as ye can. And when they had receyued this comfort of the king, they went with procession to the Citie of Cauntorbury,Procession. singing Alleluya, where they led their liues, like as holy fathers did first begin in the Primatiue Church, infasting, praiyng, watching, and such lyke god­ly exercises. Fabian.

¶ At length,Ethelbert conuerted to the fayth of Christ. when the king had well considered the conuersion and god­ly lyfe of Austyn and his felowes, he heard them the more gladly, and lastly, by their good exhortacions & ghostly loue, he was conuerted, and christened in the yere of our Lord fiue hundreth .xcvj. and the sixt yere of his reigne,Polichro. as sayth Polichronicon.

Christes [...]hurch in Caūtorbury.¶Then the king gaue to Austyn a place for his Bishops See, at Christes Church in Cauntorburie, and builded the Abbey of S. Peter and S. Paule, on the East syde of the sayde Citie,Saint Au­stynes in Caūtorbury. where after Austen and all the kinges of kent were buried, and that place is called now Saint Austynes.

¶Then Austyn sayled into Fraunce to the Bishop of Arelatensis, and was of him consecrated Archebishop of Cauntorburie.

¶Now when Gregory was certefyed of the good expedicion of Austyn, he sent to him mo helpers,Melitus. Iustus. Paulinus. as Melitus, Iustus, and Paulinus, with bookes and an­sweres to Austynes questions: that was, that all such goodes as fell to the Church, should be deuided into foure partes: The first part should go to the house and maintenance of the Bishoppes housholde:A charitable diuident. The seconde to the Clergie, the thirde to the amendment of the Churches, and the fourth to the reliefe of poore people and deedes of mercie.

¶When Austyn had baptised a great part of the kingdome of Kent, he af­ter made two Archbishops by the commaundement of Gregory,Archbyshops to Caunter­burie & yorke the one at Cauntorburie, the which before was at London, and the other at Yorke, as sayth the wryter of the flowers of stories: and by the helpe of Ethelbert, he assembled and gathered together the Bishoppes and Doctours of Briteyn, that were before disparkeled. The place of the assembly was long tyme after called Austynes Oke,Austynes Oke which is expounded to be Austines strength, & is in the Marches or confines of the people then called Wictij, now Wigorniensis, that is to say Worcester. For this synode, as Bale writeth was holden in Worce­stershire.

¶In this place, he charged the sayd Bishoppes, that they should ayde him to preach the worde of God to the Anglis, and also that they shoulde among themselues amend certaine errors then vsed in the Churche, and specially for the tyme of keping their Easter, the contrary whereof, the Bishoppes of Briteyn held an opinion vntill (sayth Fabian) that Austyn by his prayers she­wed there a Myracle by a blinde Angle or Saxon.Miracle.

¶ After the which Myracle shewed, the sayd Bishoppes applyed them to the will and minde of Austyn in that matter: But for all this, there were of them that sayd, that they might not leaue the custome which they so long had continued, without the assent of all such as had vsed the same. Then he gathe­red a Sinode, to the which came .vij. Bishoppes, but they agreed not.

¶ The Authour of the flower of stories, sheweth howe Austyn hauing conference with the Britishe Bishoppes and Clergie, coulde in no wise per­swade them at the first, to receyue his doctrine: And beeing by him required to come to a second Synode or counsayle, as they were goyng to the same, they came first vnto a discrete godly man, which had of a long time ledan An­chores lyfe amongest them, to aske him counsayle, whether at the preaching of Austen they should forgo their olde tradicions or no? who aunswered on this wyse: if he be a man of God, folowe him. To whom they sayd againe, & howe may we knowe that? you knowe (sayth he) that the Lorde gaue this commaundement, saiyng: Take my yoke vpon you, learne of me because I am lowely and meeke in heart, then is it likely that he beareth the yoke of Christ him selfe, and also offereth the same vnto you to beare. But if he be proude and hye minded, you may be sure that he is not of God, neyther ought you to take any regarde vnto his wordes. Then sayde they againe, and how [Page 115] may we discerne this? Prouide (sayth he) that he and his may come first in­to the Sinode, and if when you come, he arise vp and reuerence you, then you may be sure that he is Christes minister, and is to be heard obediently of you: But if he dispise you, and thinke himselfe to good to geue any such reuerence vnto you beyng the greater part, dispise you him againe. And it so fortuned afterwardes, that Austyn beyng set downe before they came in, sate still in his Chayre, and made them no countenaunce at all, neither yelded any reuerence vnto them. The which thing they beholding, were by and by in a chafe, and notyng him to be hautye and proude, endeuoured themselues, to contrary and speake against al that euer he spake: But who so desyreth to read more here­of, shall finde the same set out at large in Fabian in his fift part and .C.xix. Chapter.

These folowing were the names of the British Bishoppes that were in those dayes.

The B. of
  • Henfortēsis
  • Tanensis
  • Paternensis
  • Bāchorensis
  • Hereford
  • Cardiffe
  • Llandaffe
  • Bangor
  • Elinensis
  • Wiccensis
  • Morganēsis
  • S. Asaph
  • Worcester
  • Morgan

And all these were vnder the Archebishop of Meneuia, called at this day Saint Dauyes.

¶ Ethelbert as diuers writers doe write being now confirmed in the faith,Ethelbert foūded Pau­les church in London, but some say Si­gebert foun­ded it. among other chargeable and costlye deedes began the foundation of Paules Church within the Citie of London, and ordeyned it for the Bishops See of London. For the Archbishops See that before tyme had beene there, was by Austyne and Ethelbert at the sute and request of the Citizens of Cauntor­burie, translated to Cauntorbury.Archebishop­rike of Lōdō translated to Cantorbury. But of the building of the Church of S. Paule, dyuers opinions be. For some write that it was builded or begonne to be builded by Sigebert king of East Anglis, but more truely king of Essex. This Ethelbert also foūded the Church of S. Androw in Rochester in Kent.

¶Also (as Fabian sayth) he excited an inhabitaunt or Citizen of London to builde a Church or Chappell in the worship of Saint Peter in the West ende of London then called Thorney (and now the Towne of Westmynster,S. Peters at Westminster. the which at that time was exceedingly forgrowen with Thornes, Bushes and Bryers,The building of Westmin­ster.) where the sayde Citizen began to builde the Church of West­mynster, which afterwarde was by Edwarde the Confessour enlarged or new buylded. But by king Henry the thirde it was newly edified and made as it is now a bewtifull Monastery, and he endued it with goodly possessions and riche Iewels.

¶And as Reynulph sayeth, this king when he had reigned .lvj. yeres o­uer the Lordship of Kent, dyed in the .xxj. yere after that he had receyued the fayth of Christ.

A Idane king of Scottes, 595 being confederate with the Britons about thys tyme warred fiercely against Ethelfride king of Northumberlande and the Pictes, and ouerthrewe them in two great battailes,

KEnneth Keir the sonne of Conwallus was ordeyned king of Scotlande, 606 and reigned onely foure Monethes. And after him Eugenius the fourth of that name, xv. yeres. He was a iust and verteous Prince, and instructed in his youth by the holy man Colme. He commaunded all Iuggelers, Myn­strels, [Page 116] Scoffers and such idle persons eyther to auoyde his lande,Minstrels, Iuggelers, & Scoffers ba­nished as va­gabonds. or else to finde some honest craft or occupation to lyue by.

¶During also the aforesayde persecution of the Britons, before anye ruler of them were specially named, began the reigne of the East Saxons (as sayeth Reynulph) vnder Sebertus their first king.Sebertus first king of the East Saxons. Albeit that Guydo de Columna sayth, that it began when the kingdome of the East Anglis began. This kingdome, that is to say, Essex, hath on the East side the Sea, on the Weast Middlesex and London, on the South the Thamys, and on the North Suffolke, and endured two hundreth yeres, as most writers affirme.

Sebertus conuerted to the christian fayth.¶The first christian king of this Lordship was the aforenamed Seber­tus, conuerted by the meanes of Molitus Bishop of London, as sayth Guy­do: But after his saiyng this Sebertus should be the thirde king of Essex. All writers agree that the kings of this Lordship were most commonly na­med vnder kings, or Pety kings, & were subiects vnto the kings of Mertia.

¶But now to returne to the Britons, which in all this time occupied a part of Cornewall and the Countries of Cambria, as Northwales & South­wales, and there held them in making of assaultes vpon the Saxons as be­fore is sayde, the which so continued by the space of .xxiiij. yeres. At which tyme the Britons of one assent chose for their souereigne and ruler the Duke of Northwales named Cadwane.Cadwane.

613/1 CAdwane Duke of Northwales, was by one assent of the Britons made their Lorde and gouernour.

¶Ye haue heard before what discorde and trouble was among the Britons in the time of Careticus last king, and long after, by reason wherof the Saxons wanne the more lande. And as before it is shewed that Ethel­fride king of Northumberlande ouerset the Britons at the Citie of Chester, and forced them to flee ouer Seuerne, and so into Wales, where they then chose or elected this Cadwane to be their Duke and leader. The which af­ter he was put in aucthoritie, assembled his Briteynes and came againe into Briteyn, and gaue battaile vnto the sayde Ethelfride, in the which they sped diuersly, so that some season the Saxons wanne, and sometime the Britons: But the Britons helde Chester and other good Townes, which they reco­uered at their last comming.

¶It should seme by the meaning of Reynulph, that this Cadwan should at the length slea the sayde Ethelfride and Osricus, both kings of Bernicia and Deyra. But Guydo and Gaufride saye, that after this Cadwan had the better of Ethelfride, it was agreed by Mediatours that Ethelfride shoulde enioy all the lande ouer and beyonde Humber into Scotland: and Cadwan also should haue the lande from Humber toward the South. To the which saiyng agreeth the Englishe Chronicle, affirming also that he should be the sonne of Bruciuall King of Leycester,Bruciuall king of Ley­cester. the which of other Writers is not testified.

¶It is also there shewed, that after the sayd accorde betwene Ethelfride and Cadwan, that then they continued during their lyues as two most speci­all friendes and louers, during the reigne of this Cadwan, the two sonnes of Colricus, Kingilsus and Quichilinus after the death of their fathers brother, Colwolphus ruled ioyntly the principalitie of the West Saxons. The which [Page 117] in their beginning fought against the Britons at Abyndon beside Oxford, and wanne of them the Towne and other holdes, which the Britons in that Countrie occupied. But by agreement of writers, this Cadwane was not at this conflict, neyther medled he so farre within the lande. But as it should seeme by Guydo, these Britons shoulde be some company that shoulde lyue vnder the tribute of the Saxons, the which for the manhood that they had heard reported of Cadwan, rebelled against the Saxons.

¶Then it foloweth, when this Cadwan had thus continued his amitie with Ethelfride, it fortuned, that this Ethelfride for hatred or otherwise, put from him his wyfe being great with childe, and tooke to him another. Wher­fore this woman being remedilesse, calling to minde the great loue that was betwene her husbande and Cadwan, she went vnto him and most instantly besought him to reconcile hir Lorde and husbande, that she might be resto­red to his companie. But for that Cadwan, after many meanes and requests made, coulde not bring it about, he therefore tendring her necessitie kept her in his Court vntill she was delyuered of a man childe, whome she caused to be called Edwyn.Edvvyn. And soone after was the wyfe of Cadwan delyuered of a sonne, whome the father named Cadwalyn.Cadwalyn. But the Authour of the Flowre of histories sayeth, that these two children were borne long before this time. The which should seme to be true,Mathew of Westminster. for so much as this Cadwalyn was of lau­full age to gouerne this lande when his father dyed, the which he coulde not do if he had bene borne but now, and of this ye may reade more in Fabian, in his fift booke and .C.xxviij. Chapter.

¶ But to returne to the storye of Cadwan: About the .xiiij. yere of his reigne Quinchelinus that was brother vnto Kyngilsus, and ioyntly ruled the West Saxons, sent vpon an Easter day a Ruffian called Eumerus, to slea Edwyn king of Northumberland. This Cutthrote ruffian came to a Citie beside the water of Darewent in Darbishire, & wayted his tyme, and at the last finding the king smally accompanied, entending to haue runne through him with a sworde enuenomed: But one Lylla the kinges trustie seruaunt, beyng without eyther shilde or other weapon to defende his Maister, start betwene the king and the sword, and was striken through the body and dyed,A vile Treytour and the king also was wounded with the same stroke: and after also he woū ­ded another which was a Knight, and then was he taken, and confessed by whom he was apointed to woorke that treason. The knight and the Kinge that were wounded, lay long sicke before they were healed. And the night fo­lowing the Queene was deliuered of a Daughter, the which King Edwyn caused to be Christened of Paulinus Archebishop of Yorke, in token that he woulde fulfill such promise touching the receyuing of baptisme as he before had made. And she was named Enfleda.Enfleda.

¶ And after Whitsontide then next folowing, Edwyn beyng scantly whole of the wounde, assembled his hoste, and made toward the kinges of the West Saxon, and after a great and sore fight, he vanquished and ouerthrew them. But for all this victory he forgat to be thankefull vnto God, the geuer not on­lye of his health, but also of the same victory. And afterwarde he receyued letters of exhortation from Boniface then Bishop of Rome, to take vpon him baptisme: And the sayd Bishop likewise exhorted the Queene,Tokens sent from the By­shop of Rome and sent vnto her a Glasse to looke in, with a combe of Iuory richely garnished, and a shirt [Page 118] for the King wrought in sundrie places with letters of Golde: But all this preuayled nothing at all.

¶ How be it, it was not long after, that the King assembled his counsaile, and by theyr agrement he was of the sayde Paulinus baptised within the sayde Citie,Ewyn the first christian king of Nor­thumberland. the .xj. yere of his reigne, and the yere of our Lorde. 627. He was the first Christian king that reigned in that Countrie. And after him, many of his Lordes and subiectes were also Christened of the sayde Paulinus, and the Flamyns or Bishops which were worshippers of false Goddes, were con­uerted and made the Ministers of Christes Fayth. In token whereof, they armed themselues as knightes, and bestrydde good horsses, where before by their law, they might vse no armour, nor ryde but onely on a Mare. Fabian.

¶ From this tyme forwarde by the terme of .vj. yeres, during the lyfe of king Edwyn,Christening first vsed in Ryuers. Paulinus christened continually in both the Prouynces of Ber­nicia, and Deyra, in the Ryuers of Gueny, and Swala, which he vsed for his Fontes, and Preached in the Shire of Lyndesey, and builded a Churche of Stone at Lincoln, the which of some is supposed to be the Minster Churche. And in this tyme was so great peace in the Kingdome of Edwyn, that a wo­man might haue gone from one towne to another without griefe or anoy­aunce. And for the reliefe and refreshing of wayfaring men, this Edwyn or­deined at cleere Welles and Springes,Cuppes of Iron. certeyne Cuppes or Dishes of Iron and brasse, and caused the same to be fastned vnto them with small cheynes, and no man was so hardy to take away any of those Cuppes, he kept so good iustice, and therewith was knightly of his deedes.

Eubonia now called the Isle of Man.¶ He was the first that wanne the Isle of Eubonia, now called the Isle of Man. And by his meanes Orpewaldus, or Corpewaldus the sonne of Red­waldus king of the East Angles, or Norphis, to whom Edwyn had fled for succour, was conuerted to the true fayth, & a great part of his men with him.

¶ And about this season began the kingdome of Mertia or middle Eng­land, vnder the strong Saxon or Panyme called Penda, which Lordeship conteyned Huntingtonshire, Herefordshire, Glocestershire, and other, and that was the greatest of all the other Kingdomes. And at that tyme reigned in diuerse partes of this land seuen kinges: Sibertus among the East Sax­ons: Redwold king of East Angles, nowe called Essex, Norffolk, Suffolk, and Cambridgeshire: Ethelbert king of Kent: Ethelwolphus king of Sus­sex: Kingilsus, and Quinchelinus king of West Saxons: Penda, of Mer­tia, and Edwyn of Northumberland.

¶ And for that this Edwyn excelled the other kinges, they enuied at him, and specially Penda king of Mertia, the which prouoked Cadwan king of Britons against him. So that they two assembled a great hoast against Ed­wyn, and lastly met in a place called hatfield, and after sharpe and sore fight on both sides, there Edwyn was slaine, when he had reigned ouer the Nor­thumbers .xvij. yeres. Fabian.

¶ When these two kinges Cadwan, & Penda, had thus ouercome the king, and slaine both him & many of his people, they became so cruell to men of that countrie,Paulinus. yt they destroyed therin great numbers of people, not sparing, men, women, children, religious persons, nor other. Wherfore Paulinus the Arche­bishop, beholding their cruelnesse, tooke with him the Queene, and Enfleda her daughter, & fled by water into Kent. And because the Bishoprich of Ro­chester [Page 119] was then voyde, by reason that Romanus the last Bishop was deade: Paulinus was there ordeyned and made Bishop of that See, and there dyed, and also as Reynulph sayth, he left there his Pall, and the Archbishoprick of Yorke was void .xxx. yeres after. But the Queene which was named Ether­berga, sayled into Fraunce, and became there a Nonne, and lykewise her daughter Eufleda kept her possession, and was after Abbesse of Stemshalt in the Vale of Whytbie.

¶ After the death of Edwyn, Osricus that was the sonne of Elfricus,Osricus. which was brother to Ethelfridus, tooke vpon him to be king of Deyra, and Eaufricus the eldest sonne of Ethelfrida, was made king of Bernicia, both the which reuolted from Christes fayth, and became Myscreantes. For the which the wrath of God shortly after fell vpon them, for they were both slaine in the yere folowing, of the aforenamed Cadwan and Penda.

¶ And when the sayd two kinges were thus slaine,Oswalde. Oswalde the second sonne of Ethelfride began his reigne ouer the prouince of Bernicia, as chiefe of that Kingdome of Northumberland, and had the rule of Deyra likewise, whereof when Cadwan was ware, he gathered his Britons, and thought to haue slaine him, as he had before slaine his brother Eaufricus. But when Os­walde was warned of the great strength that Cadwan had, he made his prayers to God, and besought him meekely of helpe to withstand his enemye for the saluation of his people. Then after he had thus prayed, the two ar­myes met in a fielde named at that tyme Denysborne or Denyslake, where was foughten a strong battaile, and in the ende Cadwan was slaine,Cadwan slaine. and his people chased, the number whereof did farre exceede Oswaldes hoste. And thus ended the sayde Cadwan when he had reigned ouer the Britons .xxij. yeres, leauing after him a sonne named Cadwallyne.

FErquhard the eldest sonne of Eugenius was king of Scottes .xij. yeres. 622 In the tyme of this mannes reigne, by his negligence was great diuision, and debate among the Nobles of the Realme, and for his cruelty and negli­gence in the affayres of the common weale, he was of the Lordes disgraded, and cast in Prison, and for sorrow thereof slue himselfe.

MAhomet, of Arabia,625 Mahomet. at this time when there was great confusion of things both in the East and West, then began his errour, he came out of a base stock, and being fatherlesse, one Abdemonaples,Abdemo­nalpes. a man of the house of Ismaell bought him for his slaue, and loued him greatly for his fauour and wyt: For which cause, he made him ruler of his merchandise and other businesse. Then one Sergius a Monke,Sergius a Monke. which for Heresie fled in­to to Arabia, who instructed him in the heresie of Nestorius. In the meane sea­son, his master dyed without children, leauing behinde him much ryches, and his wyfe a riche Wydowe of fiftie yeres of age, whome Mahomet maried, and when she dyed, he was made heire, and greatly encreased in ryches: And for his magicall artes, was had also in great admiration and honour of the foolish people. Wherfore by the counsayle of Sergius, he called himselfe the Prophete of God, and shortly after, when his name was published, and then taken to be of great authoritie, he deuised a lawe or kinde of Religion, called ALCARON, Alcaron. in the which he tooke some parte well neere of all the he­resies that had bene before his time. With the Sabellians he deuyded the [Page 120] Trinitie: with the Manichees, he affirmed to be but two persons in the dei­tie: he denied the equalitie of the father and the sonne with Eunomius: and sayd with Macedone, the holy-Ghost was a creature: and approued the mul­titude of wyues with the Nicolaites: He borowed of the Iewes, circum­cision, and of the Gentiles much superstition, and somewhat he tooke of the christian veritie, beside manye Deuelishe phantasies inuented of his awne braine: Those that obeyed his lawe, he called Saracens. When he had ly­ued fourtie yeres, he dyed of the falling sicknesse, the which he had of long time dissembled, feynyng that when he was taken therewith, the Aungell Gabriell appered vnto him, whose brightnesse he coulde not beholde. Cooper.

631 Donewald Kinge of Scottes.DOnewald the thirde sonne of Eugenius was ordeyned king of Scottes, and gouerned the realme verteously and wisely .xv. yeres.

635/1 CAdwallyn, the sonne of Cadwan, after the death of his father tooke vpon him the gouernement of the Britons, and he was valiaunt and mightie, and warred strongly vpon the Saxons, which were neere a­bout him, and he wanne from them both Castelles and Townes, and droue them back into the lande toward London: whereof, he [...]ing Penda king of Mertia, assembled his Saxons and made towarde the sayde Cadwallyn: But he was in the ende distressed, and glad and fayne to seeke and purchase his fauour and friendship, and to lyue vnder his tribute.

Penda.¶ And after this Penda was in great fauour with Cadwallyn, insomuch as he tooke parte with him against the other Saxon Kings. And about this time Kyngilsus one of the kings of the West Saxons, was by the preaching of Berinus conuerted to the right beliefe, and christened of him at the Citie of Dorchester, within .vij. Myles of Oxforde. And Oswald king of Nor­thumberland, or rather king of Bernicia, was his Godfather, & wedded his daughter afterwarde. And then that Citie was geuen to the Bishop, to the ende that he shoulde there ordeyne his See, where the sayde Berinus sate xiiij. yeres after, and there was buried, vntill Beda Bishop of Winchester trāslated his body to the City of Winchester, albeit, the Chanons of Dorche­ster said, that ye body of Beryne was not taken thence but another in the stead thereof, & yet in token that it was not remoued thence a Beare of a wonder­full worke stood of late daies ouer that graue where this holy man was first buried. It should seeme that this Citie of Dorchester, is now called Dorset. This See was in the time of William Conquerour translated to Lyncolne.Dorcester, Lincolne.

¶About this time Sigebertus or Sigisbertus king of the East Anglis set vp certaine scooles in diuers places, and ordeyned ouer them Scoolemasters and Vshers, as he sometime had seene in Fraunce. And after the opinion of many writers one of them was by him erected in Gtrantbridge,Cambridge being then the head Citie of his dominion, now called Cambridge, the which in pro­cesse of time grew to be a famous Vniuersitie, as it is now at this day. And the sayde Sigebert was conuerted to the faith of Christ, by that holye man named Felix a Burgonnion: and finally the sayd king betooke his kingdome vnto his Nephew Egritus, & became himselfe a Monke in an Abbey which he himselfe buylded.

¶ But when Penda king of Mertia warred after in that Countrie, the sayde Sigebert was against his wyll pulled out of the foresayde Monastery, [Page 121] and went in armes, or as some write vnarmed with a whyte rod in his hande nycely, and so was slaine,Sigesbert slaine. and well neere all his hoste that came with him to that Fielde.

¶ After the death of this Sigisbert, Anna was made king of East Anglis.Anna.

¶ About the .vij. yere of the reigne of Cadwallyne, a Saxon reigned in Kent named Ercombertus, who helde that principate .xx. yeres nobly.Ercōbertus. And among other of his famous deedes, he reuiued and quickned againe the faith of Christ, that in some places of his kingdome was sore apalled. For he de­stroyed the Temples of false Gods thorough all that Countrie and ordeyned by the aduice of his Clergie the time of Lent to be fasted.The institu­tion of the time of Lent. He wedded the daughter of Anna king of East Anglys, named Sexburga, of whome he receiued a daughter & named her Eukendoga, the which after was a Nonne in a Monastery in France.

¶ About this time, as it were about the .viij. yere of Cadwallyne, dyed Kyngilsus king of the West Saxons, when he had reigned with his brother and alone .xxxj. yeres. And Kenwalcus his sonne was king after him,Kenwalcus. the which at the beginning of his reigne would not be christened, and forsooke his wyfe the daughter of Penda, and tooke to him another. Wherfore Pen­da to be aduenged for his daughters cause, gathered his host and chased Ken­walcus out of his kingdome, and kept him thence three yeres. In the which time, he was with Anna king of the East Anglis and was christened of Felix, and after by the helpe of the sayde Anna recouered his kingdome.

¶When Kenwalcus was thus restored to his lande, he made a Bishops See at Wynchester, and ordeyned there a Bishop named Agilbert,Agilbert. a French­man borne, but he came out of Ireland. The which when he had sitten there a certaine of time, he was deposed and put from thence, but the cause why, I know not, and in his place was set one named Wyn,Wyn, of whō the towne of Winchester tooke his name. of whome sayeth Poli­chronichon, the Citie tooke the name of Wynchester, as it were Wynnes Ci­tie. But he was also deposed: And then was Leutherius Bishop, and after Leutherius succeeded Cedda: And after him Theodorus Archebishop of Cauntorbury ordeyned two Bishops to the Prouynce of West Saxon. The one at Winchester, and to that was subiect two Countyes, Southrey and Southhampshire. And the other See he ordeyned at Sherborne, to the which were subiect sixe Counties, that is to saye Barkeshire, Wyltshire, Somersetshire, Dorsetshire, Deuonshire, and Cornewall, but in Wylliam the Conquerours time, the See of Sherborne was turned to the See of Sarisbury, as was also the See of Rammesbury.

¶ It was not long after but that Kenwalcus warred with the king of Britons, the which fought with him at a place called Whyte Gosneborough,White Gosneborough. and was of him there ouercome. Then Cadwallyne assembled a newe hoste of Britons, and met with Kenwalcus at a place called the hill of Pent, where after a long and sore battaile, the Britons were put to flight.

¶ Ye haue heard before how Oswald was made king of Northumber­land, the which continued his lyfe in iustice and vertue as a king should do, by the space of .ix. yeres: But Penda king of Mertia, who to him and to all christian men had great disdeyne and enuie, about the .ix.Oswalde, Meserfielde yere of Cadwallyne made warre vpon Oswald, and slue him in a field called Meserfelde, where after his death (as Fabian sayth) God shewed for him many miracles. But [Page 122] after one yere of his death Oswy his yonger brother recouered the king­dome, and buried his head in the Churchyarde of Lyndesar, for the bodye was conueyed by the Pagans, and deuyded in sundrie peeces.

¶ When Oswy had a season ruled his kingdome, he by vnlawfull meanes procured the death of Oswyn king of Deyra. This Oswyn was the sonne of Eaufricus eldest brother of Oswald, which Oswyn was good of condition and therewith both meeke and mylde,Oswyne. slaine. and being thus slaine, as is aforesayde, the sayde Oswy tooke to him as felow of that kingdome his brothers sonne Odylwald, the sonne of Oswald. This Oswald gaue vnto Cedda Bishop of Wynchester before named, a grounde in a place of the North Countrie in the high hilles called Lastyngery, for to buylde an Abbay vpon, which he there buylded, and after taught his brother Chymbillus how he should rule and gouerne that place.

Penda.¶ Nowe Penda Kinge of Mertia, which forgat not the strengthening and fauouring that Anna Kinge of East Anglys had shewed to Kenwalcus his daughters husbande, and his enemye, and therefore desirous to be reuen­ged on him, gathered a power of men of warre and went against the sayde Anna, and slue him in plaine battaile.

¶ After the which victory, the sayd Penda, beyng puffed vp with pryde, and glory, went forward with his host into Northumberlande, entending to slea Oswy,Oswy. as before he had slaine his brother Oswald. Wherof when Oswy had knowledge, he assembled his power and made towardes him. And for affinite of mariage that was betwene their children, and other causes as af­ter shall apere Oswy offered vnto him many great offers, to the intent to haue had him to haue stayed from battaile, and to haue had peace with him.

¶ When Oswy perceyued the obstinacie and pryde of Penda, and sawe that by no reasonable meanes he coulde moue him to peace, he sayde, seeyng this Paynym will not receyue our giftes and proffers that we haue offered vnto him, we will now offer it to him that can receyue them. And foorthwith he made his vowe vnto God,Vowe. that if he had the victorye ouer his enemies, he woulde offer his daughter Elfleda vnto him, with sufficient possessions for to buylde .xij. Abbeys. And shortly after, he ioyned in battaile with Penda, in the countrey of Leedys, not farre from Yorke, which battail was so sore foughtē that the lyke was not seene many yeres before: But in the ende Penda was slaine,Penda slain and .xxx. of his chiefe Capitaynes, and yet he had three tymes the number of people that Oswy had. And those that escaped the shot and sword, were for the greatest part drowned in the Ryuer Wynwed, which was nere vnto the place of that battaile. And among the Prisoners that were taken at this fielde, the wife of Penda was one, and her sonnes Vncle named Egfri­dus was another. Fabian.

¶ Then Oswy yelded his thankes vnto almighty God, and according to his former promes, he offered his daughter Elfleda beyng of the age of three yeres vnto God, and tooke her to the Lady of Hilda, Abbesse of Hertsey, or Hertes Islande. And after that the sayde Hilda remoued to the Abbey of Stremshalt in the vale of Whitby .xxx. Myle from Yorke, where she was af­ter Abbesse, and so was Elfleda also. And Oswy as he had promised gaue landes and rentes to builde .xij. Abbeyes, whereof sixe were in Bernicia, and sixe in the Prouynce of Deyra.

¶ This aforenamed Penda had dyuerse sonnes, as wryters report, that is to say, Wolferus, Weda, Egfridus, besyde other not mencioned. To this seconde sonne Weda, Oswy had before time maryed a daughter of his by con­sent of Penda his father: Wherefore, by the helpe of Oswy his father in law he was made King of South Mertia, the which Lordship is seuered from the North Mertia by the ryuer of Trent, & it conteined by the recorde of Be­da fiue thousand housholdes. This Weda also promised when he maryed the sayd daughter of Oswy, that he would become a Christian man, the which he perfourmed after the death of his father. But when he had scantly reigned three yeres ouer the sayde South Mertia, he was by treason of his wyfe slaine (as sayth Fabian) but he sheweth no cause. And after that Kingdome fell to Wolferus the other brother,Wolferus. the which had wedded the daughter of Ercombert king of Kent, named Ermenilda.Ercombert king of Kent. This Wolferus was shortlye after christened, so that he is accompted for the first Christined king that reig­ned in Mertia, and was father to Keneredus, and to Wereburga.

¶ And for that it is long sithen I spake of Kenwalcus king of West Sax­ons,Kenwalcus. it is to be noted that after he had ouercome the Britons (as before is shewed) and at that tyme had not perfited the Bishops See of Winchester, he then busied himselfe thereabout.Kingilsus. And according to the will of Kingilsus his father, he gaue to the sustentation of the sayd See, all the land which lay within .vij. miles of the sayde Citie (as sayth the floure of Histories) and fini­shed it some deale to his purpose, but farre from that it is nowe.

¶ Soone after that Kenwalcus had ended this worke, he made warre vpon Wolferus of Mertia. But in that iourney fortune was not friendlye vnto him, for he lost thereby and wanne nothing of his entent and purpose.

¶It was not long after, but Ercombert king of Kent dyed, and his sonne Egbert was king after him .ix. yere.Mortalitie. And shortly after chaunced great mor­talitie and death throughout this land of Briteyn, the which continued and encreased more and more during the life of this Cadwallyn, and the lyfe of Cadwallader which folowed him. In the which season or beginning of this mortalitie and sicknesse, dyed many Bishops in this lande, insomuch that Vi­talcanus then beyng Bishop of Rome ordeyned Theodorus Archebishop of Cantorbury to haue the rule of the Churches of Briteyn. Somewhat before this tyme, Benet that was in good fauour with king Oswy, and descended of riche kindred, forsooke seruice and house and all his kindred, and became a Monke.Glasing first brought into this land. This Benet was he that first brought the craft of Glasing into this land, and tooke to his scholer Beda, when he was but .vij. yeres of age, and taught him during his lyfe.

¶And here for that speciall mencion is made a little before that Benet was the first that brought into Briteyn the Arte and craft of making of Glasse, I thought it well to adde this note thervnto,Reynulph. which I find written in Reynulph in his fourth booke and fourth Chapter. That in the tyme of the reigne of Tiberius Emperour of Rome,Tiberius Emperour of Rome put to death him ye inuēted glasse to abyde the Hammer, which was not long after Christes incarna­tion, a certeyn craftes man had found out the Art of myxture and melting of Glasse in such sort, as he made the same malliable, that is to say, to abide the Hammer as Tynne and other metalles do: And he came to the Emperour thinking to haue receyued some rewarde, and shewed it vnto him. The Em­perour when he saw it, caused some of his awne Glasses to be fet and broken, [Page 124] and the Artificer forthwith amended them. And when the Emperour had well considered of the man and of his cunning, he demaunded of him if there were any man liuing beside himselfe that could do the like,Glasse made to adiot to Hammer, and he simply an­swered, none that he knewe or euer heard of, and the emperour aunswered, neither shalt thou euer do it againe, for this Art would make golde and other precious metall to be of no valure: wherefore he commaunded him to be be­hedded, and it was done, which certainly was a tyrannous deede, namely for that he would attempt to suppresse the giftes of God.

¶ Nowe I will returne againe to Oswy: the which when he had long reigned ouer the Norththumbers, he made Cedda that was Abbot of La­stingay, Archebishop of Yorke, more of wyll then of good skill, and put out Wilfride the Archebishop of that See: But it was not long after but that Cedda was depriued of that dignitie, by the authoritie of the Archebishop Theodorus, as he depriued other at that tyme, which came to their benefi­ces against the lawes of the Church, and made him by great instaunce after this, Bishop of the West Saxons. And about the .xxx. yere of the reigne of Cadwallyn, Cissa that was father to Iue king of West Saxons builded the Abbey of Abingdon. Fabian.

Monkes religious.¶ In these dayes the Monkes and Clergie of Briteyn set all their minds to serue God, and not the worlde, and were wholy giuen to deuocion, and not to filling of the Paunch and pampering of the bodye: wherefore they were then had in great reuerence and honour,Monkes had in great re­uerence. so that they were then recey­ued withall worship. And as they went by the streetes and wayes, men that sawe them, woulde runne to them and desire their blessings: and well was him then that might geue vnto them possessions,Decay of Religion. and to builde them houses and Churches. But as they encreased in ryches of worldly treasure, so they decreased in heauenly treasure, as in the dayes of Aluredus some deale be­gan, and sithen that time hath sprong not all to the pleasure of God. Then they applyed nothing that was worldlye, but gaue themselues to preaching and teaching of the worde of our Sauiour Iesu Christ, and folowed in lyfe the doctrine that they preached, geuing good example to all men. And besides that, they were vtterly voyde of couetousnesse, and receyued no possessions gladly, but were inforced therevnto. Fabian.

¶At this time Oswy king of Northumberlande dyed and Edfridus hys sonne was Kinge after hym and reygned fiftene yeares, after hys father had reygned with hys felowes Oswyne and Oswalde, twentye and eyght yeares.

¶ Then dyed also Kenwalcus king of West Saxons, about the .xxxix. yere of Cadwallyne, when he had reigned ouer them .xxx. yeres, and his sonne Kenewynus succeded him, but entred not into possession before Sex­burga his mother had ruled that Prouynce one yere.

¶Ye haue heard before howe Wilfride was deposed & put out of the See of Yorke, wherfore he went to Rome and complayned vpon him to Agathon then Bishop of that See, and was well allowed in some things. But the king and Theodorus had there such Procters and friends, that he fayled of his purpose, wherefore he returned to the South Saxons, and after he had preached among them .xv.The arte of Fishing. yeres, he then taught them the arte or craft of Fishyng.

¶ Egfridus or Edfridus king of Northumberlande, claymed the lande that Etheldred king of Mertia helde, for the which diuers assemblies of in­treatie were had, but they tooke none effect, wherefore eyther partie ga­thered his strength, and met vpon a playne, neere vnto the Ryuer of Trent, where was foughten betwene them a long and sharpe fight: In the which among a great number on both parties, was slaine the brother of Egfride named Elswinus, but yet the saide Egfride had the better. Then after this battail, meanes of peace was againe made, so that finally Egfride had great sommes of money in recompence of his brothers death, and so the sayde two kings agreed and rested afterwards in quiet.

¶Sone after this time,Theodorus holdeth a Sinode. Hatfielde. Theodorus for diuers causes kept a Synode or Counsaile of Bishops and other men of the Church, at Hatfielde: By auc­thoritie of which counsaile (sayth Fabian) he deuyded the Prouynce of Mer­tia that Sexwolphus then ruled alone, into fiue Bishopricks, that is one to Chester, the second to Worcester, the thirde to Lichefielde, the fourth to Cedema in Lyndesey, and the fift to Dorchester.

¶About the .xlvj. yere of Cadwalyne, Kenewinus king of West Sax­ons had occasion of warre against the Britons, so that they met neere vnto the West See, where after a sharpe skirmishe, the Britons were chased. And sone after Edfridus king of Northumberlande made warre vpon the Pictes or Scottes, because they fauoured & ayded the East Anglys against him. But in the ende by colour of fliyng back,Egfride slaine. they brought Edfride into a streyte among hilles and mountaines, and slue him there with a great parte of his people. And after his death a bastarde brother of his, named Alfri­dus, the bastarde was king of Northumberlande and reigned among them xviij. yeres.

¶And shortly after, dyed Cadwalyne king of Britons,Cadwalyn dead. when he had reig­ned .xlviij. yeres, and many other things are written of him by Gaufride, but neyther by Reynulph nor by any other authour of good authoritie, and there­fore I passe them ouer.

FErquhard called Ferquhard the second, 646/12 the sonne of the late king Ferqu­harde was made king of Scottes, and reigned .xviij. yeres. This man in his priuate lyfe was verie liberall aboue his power, but when he was auc­thorised king, he became a cruell coueteous and glottenous Tiran, where­fore he was striken of God with a vile and peinfull sickenesse, whereof he dyed.

MAldwyn the sonne of Dowald was aucthorised king of Scottes, 665/31 and reigned .xx. yeres: he made peace with the Pictes and Saxons, and at the last was murdred of his wyfe for suspicion of Adultrie.

CAdwalader, began to rule the Britons and also the West Saxons. 683/1 He made warre vpon Lotharius king of Kent, and destroyed much of that Prouince, and wanne the Isle of Wight,The Isle of Wight. and gaue the fourth part to S. Wilfride, in the which fourth part were accompted three hundred housholds.

¶The whilest that Cadwalader was busied in one part of Kent, his bro­ther named Mulkyn with a certaine of Knights were besieged, and lastly brent in another parte thereof. In reuengement whereof, Cadwalader of newe destroyed the more parte of the sayde Prouynce. And the sayde warre [Page 126] continuing Lotharius aforenamed was wounded and dyed, after whome Edricus was king, and reigned but a short tyme.

¶ Then Cadwalader made warre vpon the king of Southsex named A­thelwalde, and slue him in plaine battaile, and after made his Prouynce sub­iect to him.

¶ When Cadwalader had ruled the Britons, and also the west Saxons by the terme of three yeres, he then (as sayth Reynulph Monke of Chester) of pure deuotion renounced the pompe and pride of the world, and went on pilgrimage to Rome, where of Sergius then Bishop of Rome, he was con­firmed, and after made a whyte Monke, and so continued all his lyfe tyme.

Nicholas Brodugan.¶ But other write as namely Nicholas Brodrugan in his Epitome, that king Cadwalader reigned ouer Briteyn in great peace and tranquilitie .xij. yeres. And then there happened so great a death among his people, that in maner the lyuing did scarsely suffise to burie the dead, and therefore he fled into little Brtteyn, whose Cosyn Iuor and Iue, being repulsed out of Eng­lande by the Saxons, went into Wales, where among the Britons, they and their posteritie remayned Princes. And now vpon this great death and cru­ell warres among the Saxons, the Scottes thought to slip the Coller of obedience, and entered into league with Charles then king of Fraunce, the articles whereof folow in the historie of Achaius king of Scottes.

¶ And here endeth the lyne and gouernement of the Britons, nowe cal­led Welshmen,Wallo or Gallo. which tooke that name of their Duke or leader called Wallo, or Gallo, or else of a Queene of Wales, named Galaes, or Wales. But how soeuer that name came first to them, nowe they are called Welshmen, which sometime were named Britons,Welshmen or brutons, and descended first of the Troy­ans (sayth Fabian) and after of Brute, and lastly of Mulmucius Dunwallo: Albeit they were mingled or medled with sundrie other Nations, as Ro­maynes, Pictes, and others. And now they be English, that in their begin­ning were named Saxons or Anglis.

¶ And after the departure of Cadwalader, this Realme was called Eng­land, and the Inhabitantes therof were called Anglis, or English men. And this happened 1972. yeres, or as sayth Fabian 1822. yeres after that Brute first arriued in this Islande: And after the conquest of Cesar 735. yeres: And from the entring of the Saxons vnder their leaders Hengist and Hor­sus in the tyme of Vortiger 235. yeres.

686/4647 ¶ Thus then apereth by the former processe of this worke, that the last yere of Cadwalader, was the yere of our Lord sixe hundreth .lxxxvj. which maketh the yere of the worlde foure thousand, sixe hundreth .xlvij. So that as Fabian sayth, the Britons had the rule of the more part of this land, reco­ning from Brute vnto this tyme, a thousand .viij.C.xxij. yeres. And now the Saxons or Anglis began fully to reigne, and to haue the whole dominion of this Realme.

AFter the departure of Cadwalader (as Fabian sayth) this land of Bri­teyn was in great dissention, by meane of variaunce betwene the Bri­tons and Saxons, and the sayde contencion continued .xj. yeres. And beside this, the great death and mortalitie before mencioned, vehemently and greatly encreased, and by reason thereof folowed great scarcitie, whereof en­sued [Page 127] hunger, and vniuersall famine through the Realme:Famine. So that by the oc­casion of one thing and other, the people of this Realme were wonderfully minished and decayed, and that so many and so much (as sayth Gaufride,A pittifull and horrible plague. and also the English Chronicle) the quicke bodies suffised not to burye the dead.

EVgenius the fift of that name was king of Scottes, 685/3 and reigned foure yeres. In his tyme, as sayth the Historie of Scotland, he warred vpon Edfride king of Northumberlande, and slue him in battayle.

IEwe, or Iuas, discending of the blood of the Saxons, 687/1 was ruler or king of west Saxons, next after that Cadwalader had renounced the pompe of the worlde. He ruled the west Saxons verye honourably, and mainteyned such warre against the kentish Saxons, that they of Doro­bernia or Cantorbury, graunted him to haue peace, and also gaue vnto him for a recompence of the death of Mulking brother to Cadwalader before slaine, three thousand pounde.

¶In the .xj. yere of the reigne of this Iewe, chaunced the wonder & mer­uaile that is written in Polichronica, in his fift booke, and .xxj. Chapter,Brigthwal­dus raised frō death to lyfe. and he allegeth Bede for his Authour, of one Brigthwaldus, the which after that he had beene a long while dead, was restored againe to lyfe, and tolde manye thinges of great wonder to many men. Whereby he caused great almose, and many deedes of charitie to be done.

¶ In the .xvj. yere of this mannes reigne, Ethelredus before mencioned, 701/16 which was king of Mertia, forsooke his worldly honor, and became a Monk at Bardeney, when he had long tyme ruled the men of Mertia.

¶ In the .xxiij. yere of this Iew, 708/23 Colredus then king of Mertia assem­bled his people, and warred vpon Iew. Wherof when Iew had knowledge he likewyse gathered his people together, and they met to both their harmes at a place called Wodensburgh: where after long fight, eyther of them sped so vnhappely, that it was not knowen whether part had greatest dammage.

¶ Nowe when Iew had ruled the west Saxons nobly by the space of xxxvij. yeres, by the importunate labour of his wife Ethelburga, 721/37 he renoun­ced his honourable estate, and tooke on him the wede of a poore man, and be­came a Pilgrime to Rome. And Ethelburga his wife made her selfe a Nonne in Barking .vij. myles from London.

¶ Also some Authours write that this Iew was the first king that graū ­ted of euery house that had fyre burning in it a penny,Rome scot, Peter pence. to be payed to the Bi­shop of Rome & his successors, and it was called Rome skot, or Peter pence.

¶ And as Fabian sayth, when he should renounce his estate and gouern­ment, he resigned the same vnto Ethellardus his Nephewe.Wellles College. This man also as sayth Cooper, builded the Colledge or Cathredrall Church of Welles, and the Abbey of Glascenbury.

EVgenius the sixt of that name, reigned .x. yeres in Scotland. 688/3 He made peace with the Northumbers, and hated exstremely the Pictes.

AMberkeleth, a cruell Tyrant, reigned in Scotland two yeres, 698/13 and was slaine by one of his seruaunts, as he was goyng with an army against the Pictes.

EVgenius the .vij. was king of Scottes .xviij. yeres. 700/15 He was mightye of body, and of honest maners: he made peace with the Pictes, and caused the [Page 128] Actes of his auncetours to be put in wryting,A worthie note. and commaunded that Histo­riographers should be found of the common cost.

716/31 MOrdack was King of Scotland, and reigned .xvj. yeres. In his tyme the foure diuerse Nations reigning in Albion, had peace betwene them­selues, that is, the Britons, the Anglis, the Scottes, and the Pictes.

¶ And about this tyme Germanie receyued the fayth of Christ.

724/1 EThelard the Nephewe of Iewe, reigned ouer the west Saxons: Of this Man is little written, sauing that he reigned fiue yeres, and then dyed, leauing behinde him none issue of his body. And in his tyme, the reuerend and holy Priest Beda,Beda that reuerend father. was famous, who wrote his booke called Anglica Hystoria to Offrike king of Northumberland.

729/1 CVtbert the Nephewe of Ethelarde, reigned ouer the West Saxons next after his sayd Vncle, of whome also is little mention made, sauing that in the sixt yere of his reigne,Beda dyed. holy Beda dyed, who in his tyme wrote lxxviij. bookes. And this Cutbert when he had reigned .xvj. yeres, departed out of this worlde also. This man made often warre vpon Ethelwalde of Mercia, and sped therein dyuersly.

733/47 EDfine the sonne of Eugenius the seuenth, reigned in Scotland .xxx. yeres: This man was geuen to iustice and peace, and kept the league that was made with the Britons, Englishmen, and Pictes.

745/1 SIgebert the Cosyn of Cutbert, reigned ouer the west Saxons. He was cruell and tirannous to his subiects, and turned the lawes and customes of his forefathers, after his awne will and pleasure. And because a noble man of his Realme named the Erle Combranus, did some­deale sharpely aduertise him to chaunge his maners and to be more prudent and temperate towarde his people, he therefore maliciously caused him to be put to most cruell death.Tirannie.

¶ Now for as much as this king Sigebert continued in his malice and cruell condicions, and would not amend, his subiects conspired against him, and depriued him of all kingly dignitie: so that he fell after into great desola­tion & miserie,A plague due to a tyraunt. for being on a season found in a wood or desolate place, wan­dering alone without all comfort: he was by a Swynheard or villaine, mur­dred & slaine, in the reuengement of Earle Combranus death, whom Sige­bert being king had before most cruelly caused to be put to death in the same place: vnto the which Earle the sayde vyllaine had beene sometimes belon­ging. And thus was Sigebert deposed and murdered, when he had reigned two yeres.

748/1 REnulph of the lyne or blood of Cerdicus the which Cerdicus was the first king of the west Saxons, tooke vpon him the rule and gouern­ment of the sayde West Saxons. The vertue of this man passed hys fame: For after that he with the agreement and consent of his people had depriued Sigebert their king from his regall authoritie, he then first of all appeased dyuers murmures and grudges that kindeled among his subiects, for the sayde depriuation, and so set his Lordeship in great quietnesse, and rest [Page 129] touching their ciuile discorde.

¶ About the .viij. yere of the reigne of this Kenulphus, 756/8 Offa slue a Ty­raunt named Beoruredus, who before had slaine Ethelwald king of Mertia. After whose death the sayde Offa, Nephew to the sayde Ethelwald, reigned as king of that Prouynce.

¶Of this Offa is tolde many things, whereof something I entende to shewe. He had warre with the Northumbers, and them for a tyme sub­dued. He also had warre with Etheldrede king of East Anglis,Egbert king of Kent un­prisoned. and with Egbert otherwise called Pren king of Kent, whome he tooke prisoner, and led him bounde with him into Mertia.

¶Then after these victories, Offa buylded the Church of Winchecomb.Winchcōb Churche. In the time of the which buylding, and in the presence of .xiij. Bishops and many other great estates, he discharged the sayde Egbert of imprisonement,Egbert king of Kent en­larged. and set him at libertie, for ioy whereof the people there present, made such a shouting and cry of reioysing and gladnesse, that al the Church rang thereof.

¶This king had such displeasure to the Citizens of Cauntorburie, that he remoued the Archebishops See, by the agreement of the first Adrian then Bishop of Rome, vnto Lichefielde.The Arche­bishops See of Caunter­burie remo­ued to Lich­fielde. He furthermore chased the Britons or Welshmen into Wales, and made a strong Dyke betwene Wales, and the vtter boundes of Mertia, or middle Englande, the which to this daye is na­med Offdiche. And after he builded there a Church, which long time after was called Offkirck: he also buylded the Abbey of Saint Albons. Besides this it is written of him that he maried one of his daughters to Brigthricus that was king of west Saxons. And for that in his time there was variance betwene him and the Frenchmen,Passage of Merchantes forbodden. and that passage and traffique of Mar­chaunts was forboden: therefore he sent the famous Doctor Anselmus vn­to Charles the great, then king of France to intreat of peace. Which Charles had the sayde Anselmus euer after in such fauour, that he became hys Dis­ciple. Fabian.

¶ But nowe let vs returne to Kenulphus, who before time had often warre with Offa, and also had with him many conflicts, 759/11 but lastly they were agreed. About the .xj. yere of this Kenulphus, Egbert king of Northum­bers, renounced his kingly dignitie, and became a Monke.

¶And finally, when Offa had reigned ouer Mertia .xxxix. yeres. as saith Guydo, he left the kingdome to his sonne, who also was named Kenulphus, or as some write Egfurtus, and went himselfe to Rome.

¶And the foresayde Kenulphus king of the west Saxons kept strongly his Lordship against the power of all his enimies, and had his subiectes in due order of obedience. Lastly,Lechery. he was surprised with the loue of a woman that he kept at Merton, whose companie he haunted more secretly, then stoode with his honour. Whereof hauing knowledge, a kinsman of Siges­bert late king, entending to reuenge the deposing and murthering of his kynsman, awayted the tyme, and beset the house where Kenulph and his Pa­ramour were smally accompanied. But so soone as the sayde Kenulph had espied his enemies, he set vpon them, and as Reynulph sayeth,Murder. Clito. though they were in number .lxxx. yet fought he with them a long while, but in the ende he was slaine of Clito his enemie.

¶ It was not long after or worde sprang of the kinges death: wherfore [Page 130] Offricus then beyng maister of the Kinges Souldiers and garisons, armed himselfe, and tooke with him a certaine of the sayde Cheualrye, and pursued the sayd murderers, and at the last encountered with them, and slue the sayde Clito their Capitaine,Murder vp­on murder. with the more part of his companie. And that done, he retorned to Merton, and there tooke the Corps of Kenulph, and with great solemnitie conueyed it to Winchester, where it was with all reuerence bu­ried, when his father and he had ruled .xxxj. yeres.

761 EVgenius the .viij. was king of Scottes, and was slaine of his Lordes for his couetousnesse, filthy lust, and cruelty, when he had reigned three yeres.

764 FErgus the thirde was made king of Scotland, and reigned three yeres: He was a foule dronken glutton, and so outragiously geuen to Harlottes, that he neglected his awne wife,Lechery. and brought her to such penurye, that shee was faine to serue other noble women for her liuing.Murder. Wherefore, she mur­dered him in his bed, and after slue her selfe also.

768 SOluathius reigned in Scotland .xx. yeres, and then dyed of the Goute. In his tyme rebelled Banus of the Isle of Tyre, and Gillowham of Gal­loway, which were brought to due obeysaunce.

778/1 BRithricus of the blood of Cerdicus, began his reigne ouer the west Saxons, in the yere of our Lorde .vij.C.lxxviij. This Man before tyme had maryed one of the daughters of Offa king of Mertia, as be­fore is touched, by whose ayde and power, he put out of his rule Egbert the sonne of Alcumundus, the which Egbert at that day was an vnder king or ruler in the Lordeship of west Saxons, which Egbert was discended of the blood of Genulphus, of whome some part of the story is declared in the .xxv. Chapter of the fift booke of Polichronicon. Polichroni. And after he was thus of Brithri­cus expulsed, he sayled into Fraunce, and there exercised himselfe in the feates of warre with the knightes of Charles court the French king during the life of the sayde Brithricus.

779/2 ¶ About the second yere of this Brithricus, was seene in great Briteyn a wonderfull sight: For sodeynly as men walked in the streete, Crosses lyke vnto blood fell vpon their clothes,A straunge & terrible sight. and blood fell from heauen lyke droppes of raine.

788/9 ¶ This after some expositors, betokened the comming of the Danes in­to this lande, the which entered shortly after. For as sayth Reynulph, about the .ix.The first en­tering of the Danes. yere of Brithricus the Danes first entered this land. In defence wher­of, this said king sent forth his Steward of his houshold, with a small compa­nye, which shortly was slaine. But by the strength of Brithricus and the other kinges of the Saxons, they were compelled to auoyde the land for that time.

¶ Brithricus thus well and knightly ruling his lande, his wife named Ethelburga,Ethelburga. not contented with him as she ought to be, sought diuerse wayes and meanes howe she might bring her Lorde out of lyfe, so that finally shee poysoned him with many other of his famely:Poysoning. wherefore she fearing ponish­ment, fled into Fraunce, and by such frendship as she there had, was well che­rished in Charles Court the French king surnamed the great.

¶ Of her it is tolde, that when he had information of the vnstablenesse of this womans condicions, he at that season beyng a Widower, and at a time talking pleasantly with her, sayde: Nowe I put to your choyse, whether ye [Page 131] will haue me vnto your wedded Lord, or else my sonne standing here in your presence: and him that you choose, him shall ye haue and enioy for your hus­band: But she chose the sonne, and left the father. Then sayd the king, if thou haddest chosen me, thou shouldest haue had my sonne: but for that thou hast forsaken me, thou shalt haue neyther of vs. And after he closed her in an Ab­bey, where in processe a lewde man kept with her such companie, that shee was voyded that place, and after demeaned her selfe so viciously, that in pro­cesse of tyme she fell in such pouertie, that she dyed in great penury & misery.

¶ Nowe because of the misdemeanor of this Woman, that shee had thus vnnaturally slaine her Lorde and husbande, the king of Anglis,The names and prehe­minence of Queenes forbodden. and specially of west Saxons, would not suffer their wynes to be called Queenes, nor yet suffer them to sit by them in places of great honour or kingly seate, by a long tyme after.

¶ Thus as before is shewed, dyed Brithricus, beyng empoysoned by his awne wyfe, when he had ruled the west Saxons .xvij. yeres.

AChaius was ordeyned king of Scottes, and reigned .xxxij. yeres.788 A league be­twene Frāce and Scot­land. In his tyme was made the solemne league betwene Scotlande and Fraunce, against the Saxons or Englishmen: which tooke such effect, that euer sithen that day, the Scottes haue more enclined to the French men, than to Eng­lishmen.Articles be­tweene the Frenche men and Scottes. And here I haue entered the Articles of the sayd league as they are written by Hector Boecius in his Scottish Chronicle.

¶ First that the Amitie and confederacie of French men and Scottes to be made for euer, both for the people present, and to come.

2 The Iniurie of Englishmen done to any of those people, shall be perpe­tually holden as common to them both.

3 When French men are inuaded by English men, the Scottes shall send their armie in defence of Fraunce, so that they be supported of mony and vic­tualles by Fraunce.

4 When the Scottes are inuaded by English men, then the French men shall come vpon their awne expenses to their support.

5 And if any priuate person, eyther Frenchman or Scot support the Eng­lish men, against any of them, with counsaile, money, or victualles, or remaine among them during the tyme of battayle: the doer thereof shall be holden a Traytor and an enemy to them both.

6 None of these two people shall take peace or truce with the Englishmen, but by the aduice eyther of other. Hector Boecius .x. Booke. iii. Chapter.

EGbert, or after the Englishe Chronicle Edbright, 795/1 the sonne of Alcu­mundus, reigned ouer the west Saxons. This man as is before sayd, was driuen out of the lande of Briteyn by the force of Brithricus. But he hauing knowledge of his death, sped him out of Fraunce, and in so knight­ly wyse behaued himselfe, that he obteyned the gouernement abouesayd, and was made king of west Saxons.

¶ Bernulphus king of Mertia had this Egbert in great derision,Bernulphus and vsed against him sundrie scoffes, and made of him trifling and rayling rymes, the which for a tyme he paciently suffered. But when he was somwhat stayed in his kingdome, and had proued the heartes of his subiectes, he at the last assembled his Knightes and Souldiours, and gaue vnto Bernulphus a bat­tayle [Page 132] in a place called Elindone,Elindone. in the Prouince of Hampshire. And albeit that in that fight was great diuersitie of number, as .vj. or .viij. againe one, yet Egbert had the victory: For his knightes were leane, pale, and long bre­thed, so that they might endure to fight long: But Bernulphus Souldiours were fat, corpulent, grosse and short breathed, and therfore could not endure.

¶ Here is to be noted, that after the death of Offa king of Mertia, or mid­dle England (of whom somewhat is spoken in the story of Kenulphus) reig­ned his sonne Egfertus, and after Egfertus reigned Kenulphus, the which was father vnto Kenelme, and vnto the two fayre Virgines Quindreda, and Burgemilda. And after Kenulphus reigned the sayd Kenelme: And after Kenelme, Colwolphus, and after him Bernulphus before named.

¶ And nowe to returne to Egbert, who when he had as before is sayde ouercome Bernulphus, he seased that Lordship into his awne hand: and that done, he made warre vpon the kentish Saxons, and at length obteyned also of them the victorie. And lykewyse, he subdued the Northumbers, and caused the kinges of these three Kingdomes to liue vnder him as tributaries, and ioyned them to his Kingdome.

¶ This Egbert also wanne from the Britons or Welshmen, the towne of Chester, which they had kept in their possession vntill that daye. For the which victoryes thus by him obteyned, he shortlye after called a counsayle of his Lordes at Winchester,Briteyn. and there by their aduises, he was crowned king and chiefe Lord of this land, which before this day was called Briteyn: But nowe he sent into all the Costes of this lande his commaundementes and commissions,Anglia first named. that from that day forwarde the Saxons should be called Ang­lis,England. and the land Anglia, in Englishe, England.

819/24 ¶ About the .xxiiij. yere of the reigne of Egbert, Kenelme before men­cioned the sonne of Kenwolphus was admitted for king of Mercia, beyng then but a childe of the age of .vij.Treason. Quendreda yeres. The which by treason of his sister Quendreda was slaine in a thicke wood, by a tyraunt called Hesbertus.

824/29 ¶ In the .xxix. yere of the reigne of Egbert, the Danes with a great hoste entered the second tyme into this land, and spoyled the Isle of Shepey in Kent,The entrāce of the Danes. or nere to Kent. Whereof, when king Egbert had knowledge, he as­sembled his people and met with them at a place called Carrum: But he wan in that fight little worship, for the Danes compelled him and his knightes to forsake the fielde. And beyng encouraged by that victory, they drewe west­warde, and made a confederacie with the west Britons, that liued in serui­tude: By whose power they assayled Egberts landes, and did much harme in manye places of his dominion and else where, so that after this day they were continually abiding in one place of the Realme or other, vntill the tyme of Herdikenitus or Canutus fortis the last king of the Danes blood, so that ma­ny were maryed to Englishe women, and many that nowe are, or in tyme passed were, are discended of them. And albeit they were many and sundrye tymes chased and driuen out of this land, and chased from one country to ano­ther, yet that notwithstanding, they euer gathered new strengthes & power, so that they abode still within the land.

¶ Of the king of these Danes, and of what people they be discended, dy­uerse opinions of writers there be, which here I passe ouer, because after­ward I purpose somewhat at large to say more therein.

¶ Nowe it foloweth, in the tyme of the persecution of these Paganes, and Danes, Egbert dyed, when he had well and nobly ruled the west Sax­ons, and the more part of Englande the terme of .xxxvij. yeres, 832/37 and was bu­ried at Winchester, and left behinde him a sonne named Ethelwolph, other­wise called Edelphus.

COnwallus, succeded Achaius in the kingdome of Scotland, 819/25 and reigned fiue yeres.

DOngallus reigned in Scotland sixe yeres, 824/30 & as he was going with an ar­mie against the Pictes (in the quarrell of Alpine a Scot, which claymed the crowne of the Pictes) he was drowned in a ryuer.

ALpine the sonne of Achaius was made king of Scottes:829/35 He pursued the warre against the Pictes, and slue their king Feredech, but not long after he was vanquished and slaine by Brudus king of Pictes, when he had reig­ned foure yeres.

EThelwolph, 832/1 or Edelphus the sonne of Egbert reigned ouer the Sax­ons or Anglis, in ye yere of our Lord. 832. This man in his youth was very willing to be a priest,Ethelwolph and was entered into the order of Subdea­con. But after he was maried to Osburga his Butlers daughter, a womā of low birth, but in an old writtē Chronicle, I find yt he was maried to Iudith, daughter of ye French king, which was Lewes ye first, by whom he had foure sonnes, Ethelwald, Ethelbert, Etheldread, and Alurede, the which after their father, reigned as kinges of Englande, the one after the other as shall apere.

¶ This Ethelwolph after he had bene a while king, went to Rome, and tooke with him his yongest sonne Alurede, or Alfrede, and taryed there the space of a yere. In the which season he repayred the Saxon schole,A Schole at Rome buil­ded by the Saxons. the which before tyme was there founded by Offa king of Mercia (as saith Guydo) but more truely by Iewe king of west Saxons, as sayth Mathew of Westmin­ster. And for that he graunted of euery house in his Kingdome a pennie,Peter pēce. as in his story before is shewed: But this schoole was sore decayed, and the house thereof lately brent, the which this Ethelwolph newely repayred, and set it in much better order than before it had bene.

¶ This king also to reforme the grieuous corrections that he sawe there executed to Englishe men for spirituall offences, as in wearing of Irons and Guyues,Euery house that had fire a peny. he graunted of euery house of his lande wherein fyre was brent a pennie, as Iewe before had done, for the mittigating of the sayd corrections. By the which it should seeme, that there was two pence graunted of euerye house throughout the land. For this Rome skot,Rome skot, or Rome shot. or Rome shot as it was then called, was of euery house a penny and no more. And therefore it is mista­ken of the writers, that alege the dede to the one king for the other: Howbe­it, it may stande by reason, that Iewe made the first graunt, and this king confirmed the same. But the Author of Chronica Chronicarum sayth,Chronica chronicarū, that Ethel­wolph graunted to Saint Peter the Peter pence, and speaketh no worde of Iewe, nor of none other.

¶ It is also shewed by Polichronica, that this king for the acquiting of the Churches of England, of all maner of kinges tribute, payed yerely to Rome three hundreth Markes: that is to saye, to Saint Peters Church, an hun­dreth Markes, to the light of Saint Paule, an hundreth Markes, and to the [Page 134] Bishop of Romes treasure, an hundreth Markes. And ouer and besydes all this,Deuotion. of his deuotion he gaue to the Church of Rome, the tenth part of his mo­uable goodes.

¶ When Ethelwolph had thus sped his businesse at Rome, he retorned by Fraunce,Charles the Balde. where at that tyme was king of that land Charles the Balde, of whome he was ioyously receyued. And after he had disported him there a season, he maried the daughter of the sayde Charles in the .xx. yere of his awne reigne.

Iudith daughter to Charles the French king.¶ Then Ethelwolph taking leaue of the Frenche King, tooke shipping and landed in England with his wife Iudith by name. And for that he con­trary to the lawe (made in Brithricus time) set his wife in the kinges throne and magnified her like a Queene,The name & honour of Queenes re­stored. the Lordes of his land arose against him, and tooke from him a great part of his dominion, and made his eldest sonne ruler thereof, the which was done altogether in the reproch of Ethelburga, that slue her Lorde Brithricus as before is shewed. But in the end, the mat­ter was appeased, and he to his kingly honour was restored. And in the yere folowing died the said Bertulphus king of Mertia. After whose death, Bur­dredus was made king of Mertia, or middle England, who before had spou­sed the daughter of this king Ethelwolph.

¶ In the latter dayes of this Ethelwolph, the Danes did much harme in Lyndsey, and also in Kent, and from thence came to London, and robbed and spoyled the Citie. Wherefore Ethelwolph gathered his people, and at the last met with them in Southrey, vpon a downe called Oclea, and there discomfited them, not without shedding of great plentie of the Anglis blood, and forced them to take the Sea, so that afterward they landed in East Ang­lia, as shall appere. And nowe this good king ended his life when he had reigned .xxij. yeres.

835/4 KEnneth reigned in Scotland .xx. yeres, he mainteyned hys warre against the Pictes so fiercely, that he vanquished them in diuers great battayles and slue their king, and lastly chased them vtterly out of the bounds of Scot­land .1151. yeres (as sayth the Scottishe Chronicle) after they began to haue dominion in that Countrie, and from the comming of the Scottes into Albi­on (after their opinion) a thousande three hundred .xxj. yeres.

855/1 EThelwald the sonne of Ethelwolph after his father reigned ouer the west Saxons or Anglis. This man was very wicked, and maried the woman which his father sometime kept for his Concubine, or as some write his stepmother: But to be short, there remayneth in story no wor­thy thing written of him, but that he reigned not aboue one yere, & then dyed, but howe he came to his death as testifieth Reynulph it is vncertaine, except it be as one writer sayeth that he was slaine of the Danish princes, Hunger and Hubba.

856/1 DOnalde the fift of that name (a vicious and wicked Prince) reigned in Scotlande .vj. yeres. In his tyme Osbret or Osbright and Ella which were kings of the Anglis and Britaines made warre vpon the Scottes, tooke their king and subdued all the Countrie from Striueling to the Irish Seas,Scotland conquered. and from the water of Fryth and Clyde to Cumber, with all the strengthes thereof. The Englishmen had the landes betwene Sterling and [Page 135] Northumberlande. This was Clyde March betweene the Scottes and Britons one the one side, and the water of Frith named the Scottish Sea March betwene them and the Englishmen on the other side: and Sterling common March to three people. Britons, Englishmen, and Scottes. And in the Castle of Sterlyng the sayde king Osbright caused his first money to be coyned, which yet we call Sterling Money.Starling money. And the Englishmen did there build a bridge of stone for passage ouer the water of Frith, in the midst whereof they made a Crosse, and vnder the same writ these two Verses.

I am free Marche, as passengers may ken
To Scottes, to Britons, and to Englishmen.

¶ Nicholas Bradyngham in his Epitome sayeth, that after Ethelwald their reigned one Osbright king of Briteyn, who conquered Scotland, and at the last an agreement was taken that from thenceforth the water of Frith should be the March betwene the Scottes & Englishmen in the East parts, and should be named the Scottish Sea. The water of Clyde to Dunbriton, to be Marche in the west part betwene Scottes and Britons. And at Dun­briton was a Castle called Aclude, and now Dunbriton. So that the Bri­tons had all the landes from Sterling to the Irish Seas, and from the wa­ter of Frith.

EThelbert the seconde sonne of Ethelwald reigned ouer the greater parte of England. 856/1 And in his time the Danes with more strength en­tered the west part of this land, and robbed and spoyled the Countrie before them, vntill they came to Winchester, and tooke the Citie by strength, and did therein what they would: but the king made such prouision, that by him and his Dukes they were forced to forsake the Citie. And as they went toward their Shippes, they were fought withall, and a great parte of them slaine and taken.

¶ Of this king, nothing else is left in memorie, but that he dyed when he had reigned sixe yeres, and was buried at Sherborne, leauing after him none issue.

COnstantine the second, a good and verteous Prince, 860/1 reigned in Scot­lande .xiij. yeres.

ETheldred the thirde sonne of Ethelwald tooke vpon him the gouern­ment of the west Anglis. 863/1 And in the beginning of his reigne the Danes landed in East England, called Norffolke and Suffolke:Danes lāded in Norffolke & Suffolke, but they were compelled to forsake that Countrie, and so to make againe into their Shippes, in the which retire they were foughten withall and many of them taken and slaine, and then they sayled Northward, and landed in Nor­thumberlande, where the two kinges that reigned there, met with them, and gaue them battaile, their names were Osbright and Ella, and there was a strong fight: But the Danes with the help of such as inhabited in the Coun­trie, wanne the Citie of Yorke and held it a certaine time.

¶Then the people of Northumberlande, varied within themselues, and were more readier to ayde and helpe the Danes, then to lyue vnder the go­uernment of the king of west Saxons. For her is to be noted, that all such kings as reigned there after Egbert, were tributaries, and therefore op­pressed [Page 136] the people that lyued vnder them.

¶ Wherfore Etheldredus hering of the ayde and comfort that the Danes had there, assembled his people and sped him thetherward, and sent vnto the aforesayd two kings that had the rule of that Countrie, commaunding them also to prepare their people against his comming. But howe it was, or the king came with his hoste, the Danes so prouoked the Northumbers to bat­taile, that they met in playne fielde, and fought a long fight: But in the ende the Danes wanne the price, and slue both the aforesayde kings with a great multitude of their people.Achad or Achut, a Towne or City by west the arme of the Sea that departeth Englande and Scot­lande, and it standeth at the ende of the wall that was made to deuide Eng­lande and Scotlande, and it is thought not to be farre from Carlile. After which victorie, they subdued much of the sayde Countrie and destroyed the towne of Acliut, the which as sayth Beda, was one of the strongest townes of the North.

¶ When Etheldred had prepared all thing for the warre, and was set forward towarde the North, worde was brought vnto him of the great dis­comfiture of the Northumbers, and also of dyuers of the sayde Danes, with other that were come to Mertia, and howe that they had wonne the Towne of Notyngham, which tydings letted him of that iourney, and so the Danes kept possession of that Countrie, in suche wise that no Angle had rule therof vntill the time of Adelstone, or as some write, vntill the time of Edredus, so that they helde it in possession the terme of .xl. yeres.

¶Then the Danes being thus possessed of the North Countrie, manned the same, and fortefied the strong holds thereof. And the other companie of them came downe into Mertia or middle England and wanne a part therof with the aforesayde Towne of Notyngham, and dwelled there the more part of the yere following.

¶Wherefore king Etheldred with the ayde of Burdredus, then king of Mertia, layde siege vnto the Towne: the which when the Danes percey­ued should be wonne, they refused the towne & tooke the Tower or Castell, and defended it in strong maner, in so much that they helde it vntill a peace or appointment was concluded betweene the two kings and them: which was, that they should go free where they woulde, and carie with them their horse & harneys without any pillage. And when this peace was thus made, eyther of the kings departed to their awne, and the Danes returned into Yorke and dwelled there the yere following.

¶And in the yere following, a certaine number of the sayde Danes, ta­king shipping in the North, purposed to sayle into East Englande, and vpon the Sea, they chaunced to meete with a great Flote of Danes, whereof the Capitaines or chiefe leaders,Hungar Hubba. were named Hungar and Hubba: The which by exhortation of the other comming out of the North, made all one course, and lastly landed in East England or Norffolke, and in processe of time came vnto Thetfoord.

¶ When Edmond king of the Prouynce heard hereof, he assembled an hoste, and gaue vnto them battaile. But Edmond and his hoste was forced to forsake the fielde,Fremingham Castell. and Edmond with a fewe persons fled into the Castle of Fremingham, whome the Danes pursued: But he in short tyme after yelded himselfe vnto the persecution of the Danes. And for that this vertu­ous Man Edmond woulde not denie,The martir­dome of king Edmond. or renie Christ, and his lawes, they therefore most cruellye bound him vnto a Tree, and caused him to be shot to death, and in the ende caused his head to be smitten from his bodye, and cast [Page 137] amongest the thickest of the Bushes, as sayth Fabian.

¶ Then his friendes with great solemnitie caried the body vnto the Ab­bey, then called Eglidon, or Eglysdon,Saint Ed­mōds bury. and nowe called Saint Edmondes bury, and there buried him in the yere of our Lord .viij.C.lxix.

¶ But now to returne againe to the Danes. When they had as before is sayd martired this godly Man Edmond, and robbed and spoyled that Coun­trye, they tooke againe their Shippes, and landed in Southerey, and conti­nued their iourney vntill they came to the towne of Reding,Reding. and wanne the Towne and Castle.

¶ And as Polichronicon sayth, the thirde day after they came thither,Hungar Hubba. Englefield. Hun­gar and Hubba, as they went in purchasing of prayes, were slaine at a place called Englefield, which Captaines of the Danes beyng thus slain the rest of them kept close together, in such wise that ye west Saxons could take of them none aduauntage. But within fewe dayes after, the Danes were holden so short, that they were forced to issue out of the Castle, and to defende themsel­ues in plaine fielde. In the which by the comfort of king Etheldred,Danes dis­comfited. and of Alured his brother, the Danes were discomfited, and many of them slaine: whereof the other beyng ware, fled againe to the Castle, and kept them with­in the same a certeyne tyme.

¶ Then the king commaunded Ethelwold who at that tyme was Duke of Bareoke, or Barkshire, to attend with his people vpon that Castle,Barkshire or Bareokshire. and to see that the Danes brake not out at large, while he went into other partes of that Countrie to subdue other of the sayde Danes. But when the Danes knewe of the kinges departure, they brake out, and tooke the Duke vnpro­uided, and slue him and most of his people, and caused the rest to withdrawe themselues from that towne and Castle.

¶ It was not long after, but that the king was certified of the death of Ethelwolde Duke of Barkeshire, and of the discomfiture of his people, and of the great victorie of the Danes: which vnto him were heauie newes. And foorthwith also, he heard that a Dane was landed named Osricke,Osrike. whome Polichronicon nameth to be the king of Denmarke, the which Osricke in a short tyme had gathered together by the helpe and assistance of the other Da­nes a great hoste, and were embattayled vpon Ashedowne.Ashedowne

¶ Vnto this battayle Alured was sent for, to his brother the king with great spede, that he should set forward vpon the Danes. But before he could be ready, the hostes of the Anglis, and the Danes were ioyned together with great violence. And although the Danes had wonne the hill, and the christian men were left in the valley: yet by the grace of God,Osrike slaine. and manhood of them­selues, the christian men recouered the hil of the Danes, and slue their Duke or king called Osricke, and fiue of their Dukes, with many of their people, and chased the rest vnto the towne of Redyng.

¶ Wherefore the Danes reassembled theyr people, and gathered a newe hoste, so that within .xv. dayes, they met at a towne called Basingstoke,Basing Stoke. and there gaue battaile vnto king Etheldred, and had the better. Then the king gathered his people, the which at that fielde were sore scattered, and sepera­ted, and with fresh Souldiours to them accompanied, met the Danes with­in two Monethes after, at a Towne called Merton,Merton. and gaue vnto them a sharpe battayle, so that many people were slaine on both parties, that is to [Page 138] say, aswell of the Christians, as of the Danes. But in conclusion, the Danes had the honour of the fielde, and the king of Anglis was wounded and faine to saue garde himselfe by pollecy, because might and strength fayled him.

¶ After these two fieldes thus wonne by the Danes, they obteyned and enioyed a great circuite of grounde, and destroyed man, woman, and childe, that to them were disobedient. And Churches and Temples they turned to the vse of Stables and other vile occupations. And to this great sorow was yet added another.

¶ For where the King hoped well to haue recouered his losses by the ayde and helpe of his subiectes, aswell of other partes of the lande, as of hys awne which was the west Saxons, he sent his commissions into Northumberland, into Mercia, and East Anglia: But he had of them small or little comfort, & in effect it was no comfort at all, so that the Countrie of west Saxons was brought into great desolation. For the king was beset with enemies on euery syde, and besydes that, his knightes and Souldiours were tyred, and weried with ouer watching and labour. The number of which aduersities and troubles entring, and deepelye sinking into the kinges minde, with his sore broose and hurt ensuyng of the wound taken at the battaile besyde Merton, shortened his dayes, so that he dyed when he had reigned in great vexation and trouble of the Danes .viij. yeres, without issue of his bodie, and was bu­ryed at Winbourne: By reason whereof, the rule of the lande fell vnto his brother Alurede.Exceter. Some write that he first founded the Cathedrall Churche at Exceter.

872/1 ALurede the fourth sonne of Ethelwolphe, and brother to Etheldred reigned ouer the west Saxons. This Alured was borne at wantage, x. Miles from Oxforde then a Towne of the king of the west Sax­ons, who as some write was .xij. yeres of age before he was set to schole: but for all that, he spent so well his tyme, that he exceeded all his brethren that were long set foorth to schole before him. And by the counsayle of a verteous and well learned Monke named Neotus,The founder of the Vni­uersitie of Oxford. and other learned men of that tyme, he founded the Vniuersitte of Oxford, and fraunchised the same with many great liberties and priuileges. But the historie of that Vniuersitie of Oxforde seemeth to make it to be of a much greater antiquity, and to referre the beginning thereof vnto certaine Greeke Philosophers that came into this Iland with Brute and the Troyans, and afterwards placed themselues in a place not farre distaunt from Oxforde, called corruptly Crekelad for Grekelade. The which Philosophers being afterwarde allured with the pleasaunt situation of the place, remoued from thence to the soyle where Ox­forde nowe standeth, and there taught the liberall Sciences. And the same schole being at the length decayed, and brought to extreme ruyne by ciuill warre and alteration of time: Alfred (say some) otherwise called Alurede as a seconde founder restored againe vnto the auncient state, who besides many other godly actes done for the encrease and maintenance of good learning, founded there a College, named the Myckle Vniuersitie Hall, nowe called the Vniuersitie Colledge: and in the same ordeyned a Gouernour by the name of a Master and a societie of .lxxviij. felowes, wherof there were .xxvj. Diuines .xxvj. Philosophers .xxvj. Grammarians, to the mainteyning and [Page 139] sustenance of the which number, he appointed a competent yerely reuenew to be payde out of the Kings Cofers, by his heires and successours for euer, the which payment did still continue, as the monuments and auncient wry­tings of the sayde College doe testifie, vntill the comming of Wylliam the Conquerour, who was the first that vpon displeasure conceyued against the students and scholers there, withdrewe the sayde payment.

¶Also he translated manye lawes, and namely the lawe of Mertia, and other out of the Britishe speeche into the Saxon tongue. He was also verye cunning and skilfull in building and making of Plottes, and excellent in hunting. He was of goodly stature and the best beloued of his father of all his other children. In his youth he was somewhat giuen to the pleasure of the fleshe, which hindered him from many a verteous purpose, for the repres­sing whereof, he euening and morning and oftentimes in the night season woulde resort vnto Churches and there deuoutly praye a long season, and at the last he fell into an exstreme sicknesse called Ficus.Ficus. For it is sayde that he desired of God that his fleshe might be chastised with suche a sicknesse, whereby he might serue God the better, and yet not to be vnapt to worldly businesse. And when he was cured of the aforesayde sicknesse, then he fell in­to another more grieuous than that, the which continued with him from the .xx. yere of his age, till he was .xlv. But yet notwithstanding he wedded a noble woman named Ethelwyd, aby whome he had two sonnes, Edward surnamed the Elder, and Egelward, and three daughters: Elfleda that after was Lady of Mertia, Ethelgotha which was made a Nonne, and the third was called Elfrida. And he caused all his children as well daughters as o­ther to be brought vp in science and learning, and for that purpose reteyned the learned man Asserius and Meneuia and other.

¶ Nowe after this Alured was admitted king, he considering the great daunger that his lande was in, gathered vnto hym his Lordes, and those whom he coulde not winne without strife, he wanne by strength and power: So that shortly, he assembled a great hoste, and in the seconde Moneth that he was made king, he met with the Danes on Wylton hil on the South part of Wilye Bourne, and there gaue vnto them a great battaile, but not with­out great daunger and losse of men on both partyes. Fabian.

¶Mathew of Westmynster, Author of the flowres of stories, sayth that the victory fell vnto the Danes, because Alureds army was much fewer in num­ber than the other were: For the force of the nobles and people of the west Saxons was then sore minished and abated, by reason of .ix. battailes that had bene foughten against the sayde Danes the yere past on the Southside of Thames, beside diuers roades and skirmishes made by their horsemen. After the which victorie, the Danes returned to London and wintered there, and thether came also vnto them, Buthredus king of Midddle England, and friendly compounded with them for mony and tooke a truce.

¶Then he renued his people, and in sundrie places fought with the Danes in the first yere sixe tymes: By meane whereof his people were so sore minished and weakened, that he was forced to take peace with his eni­mies, vpon condicion that they should auoyde the Countries and Prouinces that he had dominion of.

¶Vpon which agreement firmelye concluded, the Danes for a tyme [Page 140] voyded these Countries, and drewe towards London, and rested them about that coast the greatest parte of the yere folowing: and from thence to Lynd­sey in robbing and spoyling the Townes and Villages as they went, and holding the common people in seruitude and bondage, and so continued the space of two yeres and more. But before the thirde yere was ended, they went vnto Repindon, and there put downe or slue Burdredus then king of Mertia,Colwolphꝰ and they delyuered the kingdome vnto a seruant of his named Col­wolphus, vpon condition that he should kepe it to their vse. And then they be­sieged a towne thereby called Hambourgh, and assaulted it right sharply. After the which assault the inhabitaunts of that Towne of Hambourgh fled vnto Winchester. Fabian. But this storie in all pointes agreeth neyther with Huntyngdon, nor the Aucthour of the Flowres of stories and other aunci­ent Wryters.

¶ Then the king made againe peace with the Danes, as he had done of­tentymes before, and in trust thereof he roade with the fewer people, where­of the Danes hauing knowledge, layde bushementes for him, and set so nere him, that they slue a great part of his companie, in an euening as he rode to­warde Winchester. But Polodore wryteth, that this was done in a Ma­nour of the kinges not farre from London, whether the kinge came at that tyme to recreate himselfe with hunting.

¶ And for this treason, Alured was sore amoued against them, and in as secrete maner as he might, he assembled a chosen companie of knightes, and Souldiours,The Danes distressed. and as Guydo sayth, fell vpon them sodeynlye and distressed a great number of them, and left them not til he had chased them vnto Chester, or as some say to Exceter, and there kept the Danes so short, that he con­streyned them to geue to him pledges to kepe the peace, and to dwell no len­ger there then they could prouide shipping to sayle into Denmarke.

¶ After the which agreement, the king returned to Mertia, or middle England. And for that he heard that Colwolphus was dead, to whome the Danes had taken that Lordship to keepe, he therefore seased that Kingdome and ioyned it to his awne. By reason whereof the kingdome of Mertia sur­ceased,Penda. which had continued from their first king named Penda vntill yt time.

¶And in the fift yere of the reigne of Alured, the Danes (as affirmeth Poli­chronicon) sayled from Werham toward Excetor, in the which iourney they lost. C.x. of theyr small shippes by a tempest on the Sea: But some of them remayned and occupyed the kinges towne of Chipnam, and the Countrey thereabout, and chased the Anglis and put them to flight, or made them as subiectes vnto them. And so sore their power encreased, that the Anglis lost and decayed dayly, and they preuayled the more a great deale, by reason of the landing of a Prince of the Danes,Gytrus. called Gytrus, which was named king of Denmarke.

¶ King Alured beyng thus ouercome with a multitude of enemies, did lead an vncerteyne, troublesome and vnquiet lyfe, and hauing very fewe fol­kes about him would walke about in the Wood Countrye of Sommerset­shire,A poore lyfe of a king. and had skant to liue withall, but lyued of suche as he and his people could get by hunting and fishing.

¶ How be it, at the length he was well comforted, and shewed him selfe more at large, so that dayly resorted to him men of Wiltshire, Somersetshire, [Page 141] and Hampshire, vntill that he was well and strongly furnished. Then as sayth a wryter called William of Malmesburye de Regibus, the king put him­selfe in a great ieoperdie: for he put on him the garment of a Minstrell,A straunge enterprice of a king. and with his Instrument of Musicke he entered the tentes and Pauilions of the Danes, and in shewing to them his pastime, with ieastes and songes, he espi­ed all their slouth and idlenesse, and also heard much of their counsayle, and after returned againe vnto his company, and tolde to them all the maner of the Danes.

¶ Then the king with a chosen companie fell vpon them by night, and distressed, and slue of them a great multitude, & chased them from that coast. And when he had thus chased the Danes, by counsayle of his Knightes, he buylded there a Tower, and named it Edeling, that is to say,Edelyng. a Tower of no­ble men: Out of the which Tower he and his souldiours made many assaul­tes vpon their enemies and did to them much griefe and domage, and at the last clerely aduoyded the Countrie of them betwene that and Selwoodes.

¶This Edeling standeth in a greene Maresse or Moore, so that men can not come at it without Ship, or Boate, and it conteyneth no great ground, but yet therin is Venison & other wilde beastes, and foule, & fish great plenty.

¶ Thus king Alured dayly pursued his enemies, by the helpe of God and his Subiectes, who heering of his victories and manfull deedes, drewe to him continually out of all Coastes: By whose power & strength he helde the Danes so short, that he wanne from them Winchester, and many other good Townes, and compelled them at the last to sue for peace,Peace taken with the Danes. the which was con­cluded vpon certeyne conditions, whereof one and the Principall was, that theyr king named as before is sayde, Gytrus, shoulde be Christened, and a certeyne of his Dukes with him. And for that the king would haue the Da­nes banished out of the West partes of Englande, he graunted to him East Anglia, to abide and dwell in.

¶ Then this Prince of Danes, according to the couenauntes,The Danes christened. was chri­stened at Winchester, (or as Mathew of Westminster sayth, at a place called Alre, not farre from Edeling aforesayde) and .xxx. of the greatest of his Dukes with him. And to the Danish Prince, king Alurede was Godfather at the Font stone, & named him Athelstane.Athelstane And after he had a season feasted the sayd Danes, he according to his promes gaue vnto their king the Coun­trie of East Anglia, which then conteyned, Norffolke, and Suffolke, and a part of Cambridgeshire. And also, as sayth Polichronicon, he graunted to the Danes that were christened, the Countrey of Northumberlande. And the other that would not be christened departed the land, and sayled into France, where they rested them with their cosyns and kinsmen, and at those dayes they wasted and spoyled the Country of Fraunce in most despitefull maner.

¶ When this Danishe king Athelstane, had the possession of the Coun­tries aboue mencioned, then were all such Anglis, as inhabited there vnder his obedience. And albeit that he helde the sayde Prouynce as in fee of the king, and promised to dwell there as his liege man, yet that promise notwith­standing, he continued lyke a Tyraunt, by the terme of .xi. yeres full, and in the .xij. yere he dyed.

¶ About the .xv. yere of the reigne of Alured, the Danes which before as ye haue heard, sayled into Fraunce, returned nowe againe into England, and [Page 142] landed in Kent, and at the last came to Rochester, and besieged that Citie, and lay there so long, that they builded a Tower of Tymber, and not of Stone, against the gates of the Citie. But by the strength of the Citezens that tower was destroyed, and the Citie defended vntill king Alured reskewed them. The which had made such purueyaunce for the distressing of them by water, and land, that they were so nere trapped, that for feare they left their Horses behinde them, and fled to their Shippes by night. But when the king was thereof ware, he sent after them, and tooke .xvj. of their Shippes, and slue many of the sayde Danes. After this iourney the king returned to London and repayred certeyn places of the same, which the Danes had hurt & febled.

¶ And in the .xxj. yere of the reigne of this king, the Danes landed in foure places of this Realme, that is to say, in the East England, & the North, and in the West in two places. But by reason the king before their landing had warning of the death of Athelstone the Danishe king of East England,Athelstane dead. and of other complaintes of the Danes, he therefore went thether himselfe, and in the tyme of his there beyng, the aforesayd newes came to him.

¶And so soone as he heard thereof, and that some of the Danes were landed in that coast, and knewe well that the further that they drewe into those partes, the more they shoulde be ayded and strengthened: he therfore sent messengers in all hast vnto Etheldred Erle or Duke of Mertia and the borderers thereabout,Etheldred. to make resistaunce against the Danes which landed in the west. And that done, the king sped him towarde his enemies and set on them so egerly and sharpely, that in the ende he droue them out of East Anglia. And then they landed in Kent, whether also the king and his people folowed, and likewise draue them from thence. Howbeit, of anye speciall fight or battaile, authours make no mention. After this againe the Danes tooke shipping and sayled into Northwales, and there robbed and spoyled the Britons, and from thence returned by Sea into Est England, and there rested them, for so much as the king was then gone westwarde.

¶ In this meane tyme, the aforesayd Danes had wonne the Towne of Chester, but the Countries adioinyng therevnto, came so sore and so thicke vpon them, that the Danes were compelled to keepe them within the sayde Towne or Citie, and to defende themselues therein as well as they coulde. But their holding and keeping of that Towne continued so long, that they were compelled to eate their Horsses for hunger. And at the last by apoint­ment they gaue ouer the Towne, and went thence to Northumberland.

¶ And in the while that the king with his hoste sped him thetherward, they leauing their strong holdes & Castels garnished with men and victuall, tooke againe shipping, and fet their course in such wise that they landed in Sussex, and so came to the Towne of Lewes, and from thence toward Lon­don and they builded a Tower or Castell nere vnto the Ryuer of Lewes. But the Londoners hearing of their doings,Londiners. made out a certaine number of men of armes, who hauing the ayde of the Countrie, put the Danes from that Tower, and afterward did beate it downe to the grounde.

¶And shortly after, the king came downe thether, and for that he thought that the sayde Ryuer would be a meane to bring enemies eftsones into that Countrie, therefore he commaunded the streame to be deuyded into dyuers streames, so that by reason thereof, where a Ship might haue sayled in tyme [Page 143] passed, then a little Boate might scantly rowe. And now by reason of the pre­sence of the king, the Danes were enforced to flie and to auoyde that Coun­trie, and from thence tooke againe their way toward Wales, and kept along the Ryuer of Seuerne, and vpon the border thereof they builded them a Ca­stell nere vnto Wales, and so rested them there for a time.Three great plagues, warre, pesti­lence moreyn of Cattell. And three yeres after this land was vexed with three maner of plagues, the one was warre with the Danes, the other was death and pestilence of men, and the thirde Moreyn of Cattell. The which troubles & aduersities notwithstanding, the king honourably and valiauntly resisted his enimies, and gaue God hartye thankes whatseouer came, and susteyned it with great humilitie & pacience.

¶ And finally, this martiall Prince continuing in all prowes and ver­tue, at the last dyed, when he had ruled this lande .xxviij. yeres, and first was buried at Wilton, and after certaine yeres remoued and caryed vnto Winchester, leauing after him a sonne named Edward the Elder, for the o­ther brother called Egelward dyed before his father.

EThus reigned in Scotlande two yeres, he was so swift that in running, 876/5 he coulde ouertake a Harte or Greyhounde.

GRegour reigned in Scotland .xviij. yeres. This was a sage, wise, 878/7 and puyssaunt Prince, and a man of great prowes. He recouered Fiffe and Louthian, & the countries that were taken from the Scottes, by the Danes and other enimies, he also droue the Danes out of Northumberland (as af­firmeth the Scottish history) and made that Prouince tributarie to him: he tooke from the Briteyns Chumber and westme [...]lande, and vanquished and subdued the Irishmen.

DOnald the .vj. reigned in Scotland .xj. yeres. He made a lawe, 894/23 that all men that did forsweare themselues, or spake of the Deuill, should be bur­ned in the lips with a hoate. Iron.

EDward surnamed the Elder, 901/1 the sonne of Alured began after his fa­ther to gouerne the Realme of England. This man was not so well learned as was his father, but in honour, fame, and martiall prowes,This was Edward the Martir. he was nothing inferiour. Howbeit, Wylliam of Malmesbury in the .xiij. Chapter and second booke of the story of Kinges, affirmeth that he was ex­celently learned, and folowing the diligence of his father king Alphrede, cau­sed his base sonne called Ethelstane, who afterwards succeded him, to be well instructed in the Latyn tongue. He was also very profitable to the com­mon weale in building and repayring many Castels, Townes, and Cities, which were rased and broken by the Danes, he adioyned to his Lordship all this lande, sauing only Northumberland, which was possessed of the Danes. By his first wyfe he had a sonne named Ethelstane the which was king af­ter him. But the Authour of the flowers of Histories sayth,Ethelstane sonne of king Edward. that he begat Ethelstane of a Concubine named Egwine. By his second wyfe he had two sonnes, Edredus, and Edwynus, and .vij. daughters. And of the thirde wife,Edredus. Edwynus. he receyued two sonnes, Edmond, and Edred, and two daughters, Edburga, and Edgina.

¶ The first of these three wyues was called Edwyna, the second Edgi­na, and the thirde Ethleswida. Of the aforenamed seuen daughters, which he had by his second wife, one named Alunda,Alunda. was maryed to the first Otto [Page 144] the Emperor,Algina. Charles the simple king of west France. and another named Algina, was maried to Charles the Sim­ple, King of west France, & the yongest of his daughters as sayth Reynulph, he wedded vnto Lewes king of Guyan, but hereof speaketh nothing the Frenche Chronicle.Lewes king of Guyan. He set his sonnes to schoole, and his daughters to wooll worke, taking example of Charles the Conquerour.

¶ But because there is diuersitie among writers touching the names of his wiues and children, and also of the number of them, he that findeth fault with the Author whom I folow, may read Mathew of Westminster in the lyfe of Edward the sonne of Alphred, and Reynulph in his sixt booke, and fourth Chapter, and there he shall see howe, and wherein they disagree, and so try out what is most probable and lykely to be true: But yet that the rea­der may haue some present tryall hereof, I will shewe what the Aucthour called Mathew of Westminster, which compiled his story at the commaun­dement of Richard the seconde, wryteth hereof, whose wordes are these.

¶ King Edward sayth he, of his first wife named Egwina, begat his el­dest or first borne sonne Ethelstane: of his wife Edgina, he begat Edredus, Edwinus, and sixe daughters, of the which he maried one vnto the Empe­ror Otho, another to Charles, king of the west French men, & the third vnto Schitericus, Duke of Northumberland. Of his thirde wife named Ethel­witha, he begat Edmond and Eldred, which reigned both after Ethelstane. He begat also by the sayd thirde wife, two daughters, that is to say Edburga, which was professed a Nonne, and lyeth buried at Winchester, and Edgina the fayre, which maryed with Lewes king of Aquitaine. But Polidore agre­eth not herewith, but sayth much otherwise.

Clito Ethelwoldus.¶ In the fift yere of his reigne, Clito Ethelwoldus a neere kinsman of his (for he was Cosyn germaine vnto him on the fathers syde, but as Poli­dore sayth his brother) rebelled against him, and occupied the towne of Win­borne besydes Bathe,Winborne be­side Bathe. and tooke thence by force a Nonne thinking to marry her, and went thence vnto the Danes dwelling in Northumberland, and pro­uoked them to ryse against king Edwarde. But the king pursued him so sharpely, that he constrayned him to leaue that Countrie, and so he sayled in­to Fraunce, and left the Nonne behynde him, the which the king caused to be restored againe to the house that she was taken from.

Clito with his company landed in England.The next yere folowing, the sayd Clito with his companie landed in East England, and gathered to him the Danes of that Countrye, and with theyr ayd destroyed and pilled the Countrie about Crekinford, and Crickland. And then he passed the ryuer of Thames,Crekinford Crickland. and spoyled the land vnto Bradenestoke or rather Basingstoke, and so from thence returned againe into East Anglia aforesayde.Bradenestok Basingstoke. But where mine Authour hath here Crekynfoord, and Crick­lande, Reynulph hath Crecanefoorde otherwise called Kreklade, whome I do rather alowe.

¶Now the king folowed still his enemies, and spoyled their landes which they helde by composition of him from the Ryuer of Owse, to the border of Saint Edmondes lande, commaunding the knightes of his hoste, that none should drag or tary after his armye, for feare least the enemies should snatch them vp. But the Kentish men trusting to much in their awne strength, came not away as the king commaunded: Wherefore the Danes wayting theyr praye, fell vpon them by bushments, and slue a great number of them, [Page 145] wherewith the king was sore discontented.

¶ Sone after, both the Armies met, whereafter long and cruell fight,Clito slaine Clyto with a great number of the Danes were slaine, and the residue con­streyned to flie, and to crie and seeke for peace,Peace vpon condicions. the which was graunted vnto them vpon certeyne condicions, namely, that they shoulde keepe them within the boundes to them limitted, & besydes that to pay yerely a certeine summe of money in way of Tribute. After which peace so stablished with them, the king repayred Cities, Townes, and Castels, that by the sayde Danes were battered and broken.

¶ And in the .viij. yere of his reigne, king Edward repayred the walles and also the Citie of Chester. To the which were great helpers,Chester re­payred. Etheldredus Duke of Mertia, and Elfleda his wife, daughter of Alured, as before is she­wed, and sister of this king Edwarde. And after the king builded a strong Castle at Hereforde in the edge of Wales.Hereford Castle. And he enlarged so greatly the Walles of Chester, that the Castell which before time was without the wall, is now within, and the sayde Citie of Chester is at thys day much more bew­tified and enlarged.

¶ In the .xij. yere of his reigne the Danes repentyng them of theyr co­uenantes before made, and mynding the breach of the same,Totten Hall, Wodnes field. assembled an hoste and met with the king in Staffordshire at a place called Toten hall, and soone after at Wodnes field: At which two places the king slue two kinges, two Earles,Etheldredus duke of Mertia dead. and many thousandes of the Danes that then occupyed the coū ­trye of Northumberland. And soone after, dyed the noble man Etheldredus, Duke or Earle of Martia or middle England, after whose death, the king forsomuch as he had often proued her wisedome,Elfled ruled Mertia. tooke the rule of that coun­trie to his wife Elfleda (London onely excepted) the which he tooke vnder his awne rule.

¶ In the .xiij. yere of this king,Danes sore vexed Bri­teyne. a great nauie of Danes which in the time of Alured were driuen into fraunce nowe returned againe, and sayled about the west countrye, and landed in dyuerse places, and tooke prayes, and went to their Shippes againe. And at one tyme among other, they robbed and spoyled at a place called Irchinfielde, and tooke a Britishe Bishop,Irchinfield. and cary­ed him to their shippes, and finally raunsomed him at .xl. pound. But assoone as king Edward had knowledge of their beyng in that place, he assembled his people and made towardes them by lande, and sent another armie by wa­ter to encounter with the Danes Shippes vpon the Sea: whereof the sayd Danes hauing knowledge, fled to Irelande, and by that meanes both esca­ped the king by land, and his name by Sea.

¶ Then the king for the strengthening of that country made a Castell at the mouth of the water of Auene, and another Castle at Bokingham,Auene wa­ter. and the thirde nere therevnto, that is to say,Bokynghā Castle. on eyther side of the Ryuer of Owse one. And after this he returned into Northamton shire, and Bedfordshire, and fought there with the Danes of those Countries, and at the length sub­dued them and their leader or Duke called Turketillus.

¶ In the .xvij. yere of this king, Elfleda Lady of Mertia, gathered toge­ther her knightes: And where the Britons or Welshmen brake into the land about Brekenocke, she with her people withstoode them, and among other prisoners and prayes, tooke there the Queene of Welshmen.

¶ And the yere folowing, King Edward builded or newely reedefyed the Townes of Tocester,Tocester, Wigmore, Temesfoord and Wigmore, and destroyed the Castell that the Da­nes had made at Temes foord. And the sayde yere the noble Ladye Elfleda wanne the Towne of Darby from the Danes, where they put her in suche aduenture, that foure knightes which were called the Gardians of her body were slaine fast by her.

¶ And in the .xviij. yere of his reigne dyed that noble Princes Elfleda, in the Moneth of Iune, and was buryed in the Monasterye of Saint Peter, which her Lorde and shee before tyme had buylded within the Towne of Gloucester, which Monasterie was after throwne downe by the Danes.

¶ When Elfleda was dead, her daughter named Elswyna helde the Lord­ship of Mertia for a season: But for that the king considered it to be a thing ouer chargeable for her gouernement, he therefore discharged her thereof, and ioyned it to his kingdome, but not all without some strife. For dyuerse Townes she kept of the king for a tyme, as Notyngham, Tomworth, Der­by, and other, he supposing that the daughter would haue defended them, as the mother by her lyfe had done, but at the last they came all to the kinges subiection.

¶ When king Edward had reconciled the aforesayde Townes, he then builded a new Towne, right against the olde Towne of Nottingham, on the South syde of the Ryuer of Trent, and made a Bridge ouer the sayd Riuer betwene the sayde Townes. And as sayth Reynulph, the yere folowing in the sayd Citie or Towne of Nottingham, there were two kinges, that is to say of Scotland and Wales, that yelded themselues vnto king Edward. And sundry Aucthours,King Ed­ward posses­sed all Scot­land. as Marian the Scot, William of Malmesbury, Henry of Huntington, and other, doth shew that this king Edward subdued the kings of Scotland, and of Combris, about the .ix. yere of his reigne. And of the sayde Authours it is also witnessed, that about the .xx. yere of the sayde Ed­wardes reigne, the sayd kinges of Scotlande and Combrys, chose king Ed­ward for their chiefe Lorde and Patrone, which should be aboute the season before expressed.

¶ Then this noble Prince, after all thinges were set in order as afore­sayde, he builded on the North parte and in the ende of Mertia, a Citie or Towne, and named it Thilwall, and strengthened it with knightes. And after he repayred the Citie of Manchester, which was sore defaced with the warres of the Danes. After which notable deedes by this puyssant prince fi­nished, with the mariage of his children, and many other thinges which I passe ouer for length, this noble Prince sickened, and dyed when he had vic­toriously reigned ouer the greatest part of this lande .xxiiij. yeres, and was buried at Faringdon, leauyng after him dyuers sonnes, as is before rehersed, of the which Ethelstane was the eldest.

¶ Marion the Scot in hys Chronicle doth wryte that thys Edwarde subdued Constantine king of Scottes, which reigned in his tyme, and that he helde the Realme of Scotland vnder the obedience of the aforesayde king Edward, the space of .xxiij. yeres.

904/4 COnstantine the thirde of that name was ordeyned king of Scottes, and reigned .xl. yeres.

AThelstane, or Adelstane, the sonne of Edward the elder, 925/1 after the death of his father tooke vpon him the gouernement of this Realme. He was a worthy Prince, valiant, and politique in all his actes and doinges.

¶ In the seconde yere of his reigne, for an vnitie and peace to be had be­twene the king and the Danes of Northumberland, he maryed his sister to Sithricus their king, vpon promes that he would be Christened, the which he performed, but shortly after he put away his wyfe, and returned to Paga­nisme, and finally dyed miserably.

¶ And when he had thus accorded with the Danes of Northumberland, soone after he made subiect to him Constantine king of Scottes,Constantine Kynge of Scottes. and the whole Realme of Scotland at Broningfielde, where also he discomfited the Danes, & slue Malcolme Deputie in that behalfe to the king of Scots, with xx. thousand Scottes, in the which battayle the Scottes confesse to haue lost more people than were remembred in any age before. And this Athelstane folowed this his good lucke throughout all Scotland, and wholy subdued it,Scotlande conquered. and beyng in possession of it, gaue land there liyng in Annandale by his dede, the Copie wherof foloweth. I King Athelstane, geues vnto Paulan, Oddam and Roddam, as good and as fayre, as euer they mine vvere, and thereto vvitnesse Mavvde my vvife. By which course wordes, not onely appereth the plaine simplicitie of mennes doyngs in those dayes, but also proue fullye that he was then seazed of the whole Realme of Scotland.

¶ And after this conquest, the sayde Constantine so humbled himselfe vn­to the King, that he restored him to his former dignitie. Wherefore,The right honour of a King. the sayde Constantine sayde in the prayse of a king, that it vvas more honour to make a king than to be a king.

¶ It is also witnessed by Reynulph, and other, that this Athelstane,Otho Em­perour of Al­maine. or Adelstane, should marry one of his sisters named Edith vnto Otho the first of that name Emperour of Almaine, and (as some wryte) receyued from him many precious Iewelles: But of this speaketh nothing the Chronicles of the Romaynes. Howbeit, it is shewed there, that the aforesayde Otho had a wyfe named Alunda, which as before is sayde in the story of King Edward the elder, might be the daughter of the sayd Edward, & of Edgina his second wife, and sister vnto this king Athelstane. But Vincencius sayth, that Hen­ry Duke of Saxony, which was father vnto the first Otho, sent vnto Athel­stane, requiring of him his sister to marry vnto his sonne Otto: By which reason it maye be truely sayde that Otho or Otto maryed the eldest sister of Athelstane, but not Edith.

Of the aforesayd Iewels sent by Otto,Onychytes a precious stone, of great value. one was a precious vessell of stone called Onychites, which was of such cleerenesse and also so finely and artifi­cially wrought, that it appered to mans sight that grene corne had growne within it, and moued and waued as corne doth standing in the field: More­ouer in it appered Vynes burging and bearing of fruite, and men also to fight, mouing and stirring. He also receiued the great Constantines swoord, wherein was grauen in great letters of Golde the name of the owner: and the hiltes thereof were couered with great plates of Golde, and one of the Nayles was fastened to the Crosse of the sayde sword, that crucified and nay­led Christ to the Crosse. Fabian. But Reynulph sayth otherwise. He also re­ceyued the Speare of Charles the great, which after the opinion of some [Page 148] Wryters, was the Speare wherewith Longeus opened Christes side. And the Baner of Saint Morice, with a part of the holye Crosse, and a parte of the Crowne of Thorne that our Sauiour Christ was crowned with. Of the which Iewels,Athelstane ye first annoyn­ted king of Briteyn. king Ethelstane gaue part vnto S. Swithines of Winche­ster, and some he gaue vnto the Abbey of Malmesbury. And some write that this Athelstane was the first annointed king at his coronation. Fabian.

¶Now it followeth in the Historie, how Constantyne king of Scottes, for all his humilitie, and for all the princely fauour that he had shewed vnto him by king Athelstane, forgetting altogither both fayth and loyaltie, as the maner and custome of the Scottes is, reuolted and brake couenaunt wyth the king. Wherefore king Athelstane assembled his knights and power, and made towarde Scotlande, and in his waye he turned to the Towne named Saint Iohns of Beuerley and offered there his knyfe vpon the Altare sai­yng, that if he returned with victorie, he woulde redeeme his knyfe with a noble price, and that being done, he marched forward on his iourney, and in conclusion, discomfited the Scottes, and brought them againe into due sub­iectiō. And after according to the promise before made, he returned to Yorke, and so to Beuerley, where he redeemed his knife worthily as before he had promised by endowment and great priuileges graunted vnto that towne.

¶ And Reynulph in the vj. Booke, and vj. Chapter, sayeth that king A­thelstane after he had subdued the Scottes being then with his Lordes and familiers, neere vnto the Castle of Dunbarre, prayed to God that in that Countrie he might leaue some remembrance or token, that those that were then liuyng, and also such as should come after, might know that the Scots by right should be subiects to Englishmen. And forthwith he toke his sword in hande and smote vpon a great stone standing neere vnto the sayde Castel,ye may be­leue this if ye will. with which stroke the stone did cleaue an Elle in length, which in the tyme of Edward the third was there to be seene, as Fabian sayeth.

¶ Ye haue heard before, that King Athelstane, after the death of Sithe­ricus king of Northumberland, seased that lande or Prouynce into his awne hande, and put out his sonne: which after allyed himselfe with Constantine king of the Scottes and maryed his daughter. By whose prouocation and stirring, he gathered a company of Danes, Scottes, and other, and entered the mouth of Humber with a strong Nauye. Whereof king Athelstane when he had knowledge, did in all goodly haste prepare his armie, and at length met with him and his people, at a place called Brimford, where Athelstane obteyned a great and notable victorie. For after the king by the helpe of God had defended the subtile assault made vpon him by night by his enemies, he in the morning by the helpe of his brother Edmond, and Oddo the Archbishop chased his sayd enemies,Constantine kinge of Scottes slain and slue there Constantine king of Scottes, and fiue petye, or vnder kinges, and .xij. Dukes, with the greatest part of all the straungers that were there gathered at that time: The which battaile should be done by the meaning of the sayd Reynulph, about ye last yere of his reigne.

¶ It is also written of dyuerse Aucthours, that the king after this victo­rye, subdued also the North Briteynes that dwelled at Hereford, and there about, and compelled them to pay him yerely three hundred pound of Siluer xxv.C. head of Neate, and .xx. pound in Golde. But Guido sayth, that the king caused at Hereford Citie, to come before him all the rulers of the North [Page 149] Briteyn, and there had with them such communication,Tribute. that he forced them to graunt vnto him as a yerely tribute .xx. pound of Golde, three hundred pound of Siluer, and .xxv.C. heade of Neate, with Dogges, and Hawkes to a cer­teyne number. After which victories, he went vnto Exeter, and repayred it and the walles thereof sufficiently.

¶ Iohn Lidgate a Monke sometyme of Saint Edmondes bury,Iohn Lyd­gate. made a goodly treatise of this King Athelstane, shewing that he was in so great per­secution of the Danes, that he was constrayned to call at Winchester a great counsayle of his Lordes. Where, after long debating of the matter, and dy­uerse Ambassades and messages sent about by the king, and the Danes: It was firmely concluded,Colbrond a Giant which was a Dane. that the king should prouide him a Champion to fight with Colybrond or Colbrond, a Gyaunt and Dane, which the Danes had appoynted for theyr Chiefteyne. Wherefore the king in searching through his landes for such a knight, and none could finde, was in great daunger and distresse of heauinesse. And forsomuch as he well perceyued, that mannes power fayled, he by the aduice of his Lordes Spirituall, and Temporall, fell to fasting and prayer, and continued therein by a certeyne of tyme wyth perfect and charitable deuotion.

¶ In the tyme of which sayd abstinence, a vision was shewed vnto Athel­stane, comforting him, and also commaunding him, that earely vpon the next morning, he should stande at the North gate of the Citie of Winchester,This man was Guy of Warwike. and there he should finde amongest the number of the poore people, a man clo­thed in Palmers wede whome he should choose for his Champion.

¶ After which vision thus to him shewed, he did according, and founde a man of goodly stature, & some deale striken in age, and apparelled as he was tolde in the vision. Wherof the king first gaue vnto God his heartie thankes, and after made request to this man, that he would take vpon him this Com­bate for the defence of the lande: And the man layd for himselfe many causes and considerations, as well for his age as otherwise, that he ought to be hold excused to take vpon him such an enterprice. Howbeit, after much discoursing at the last he graunted the king to fulfill his request and commaundement.

¶And at the day assigned and appoynted, he met in the fielde with the a­forenamed Gyant,Hide Mede beside Win­chester. called Colbrond without the Gate of the Citie in a Me­dowe, called Hide Mede, where betweene them two was foughten a long and cruell fight, so that the king was in great feare of his Champion. But finally by the helpe of God, the man wonne the honour of that fight,Colbrand the Giaunt slain by Guy of Warwike. and slue that Gyant that was of exceding stature, & also of great and passing strength.

¶ Which victorie by the man thus obteyned, with the helpe and fauour of God: the king then with his Baronny fet the Man into the Citie of Winche­ster with solempne Procession, & conueyed him vnto the Cathedrall Church of the same, where he thanked God with great deuotion,Guy of war­wicks Axe. and offered there the Are with the which he had slaine the Danes Champion. After which obla­tion with due reuerence, and other obseruaunces by him and other finished: The king caused him to be conueyed vnto his Court, where he taryed that night with much entreatye. And in the morning earely he made such meanes that he would needes depart, and that in the same apparell that he came the­ther. When the king was aduertised that this man would so hastely depart, whome he entended to haue holden with him in his Court, and to haue en­dowed [Page 150] him with riche possessions: He commaunded him to be brought vnto his presence.

¶And when he sawe that he could not cause him to tary, he requyred him to shew vnto him his name: wherof also he besought the king to pardon him. Wherfore the king considering his hasty departing, with many other thinges in him to be considered, was then the more desyrous to haue of him some knowledge. And therfore the king was earnest in his desyre and request, and would haue no nay, but that he should declare his name: Then the man per­ceiuyng that without the kinges displeasure he could not depart without dis­closing of his name, sayde, he might not discouer his name within the walles of the Citie, without the offence of his conscience.

¶ Wherfore, the king graunted to go with him vntill he were in the brode fieldes: Vpon which graunt thus made, the king commaunded dyuerse great giftes to be to him presented, which all he vtterly refused. Shortly to con­clude, the king with a certeyne of his Lordes conueyed this sayde man vnto the Townes ende: And when he was thether come, he there requyred him of the performance of his promes. And then the man kneling on his knee, be­sought the king of his especiall grace, that he woulde put apart his Lordes and other, so that he might shewe his name vnto him onely.

¶ Which beyng done, he besought him that he would kepe his name se­cret for the space of .xxiiij. houres: the which the king graunted vnto him, and then he sayd, that he was his naturall liege man, and subiect, and that his name was Guy of Warwike.Guy of Warwick. Of which tidynges the king was very ioyous, and offered him then of newe, many riche rewardes and giftes: But all was in vaine, for he would receyue nothing, so that the king and he lastly departed with weping eyen. And after the sayd Guy of Warwicke purchased in a Wil­dernesse a lodging in an Hermitage, where, by the terme of two yeres and more, he dwelled and kept and hard life. And he heering that Dame Felice his awne wife fed dayly .xiij. poore men for Christes sake, he went thether sondry tymes, and fet there his Almose, his sayde wife then liyng at the Castell of Warwike, not knowyng of any man what he was, vntill at the last, he was visited with sore sicknesse, and that he knewe well he should dye: Wherefore he sent his wedding ring vnto his wife, requyring her in all the haste to come and speake with him, which shee obeyed in humble wise, and sped her vnto the sayde Hermitage with all womanly diligence,Guy of war­wike dead. and founde him dead at her comming, whome shee besprent with many a salt teare. And as shee was enformed of the Messenger, at the tyme when he dyed, he determined to be buryed in the same place, and euen there she did bury him. And moreouer, as sayth the aforesayde Aucthour, he admonished his sayd wyfe, by the sayd mes­senger, that she should prouide, for she should die within .xv. dayes next after: which shee also obeyed, and made such prouision that shee was buried in the same place. All which matter the sayd Iohn Lydgate affirmeth, that he tooke out of a certeine booke of Giraldus Cambrensis, otherwise called Siluester Giraldus, which wrote many thinges of the Princes of Englande, as Reynulph also and others doe witnesse.

¶ All which sayd treatise is shewed at length in meter of .viij. staues, by the diligent labour of the sayde Iohn Lidgate, the which I haue here omit­ted for breuitie sake. This Athelstane by the recorde of sundrie wryters, [Page 151] brought againe this land into one Monarchy, and reigned as king thereof xvj. yeres, and was buried at the Monastery of Malmesbury, leauyng after him no childe, & therefore the rule of this land fell vnto Edmond his brother.

EDmond the brother of Athelstane and sonne of Edwarde the Elder, 940/1 reigned next after his brother.

¶In the first yere of his reigne, the Danes of Northumberlande rebelled against him: And for to make their partie the stronger,Danes re­belled. they sent for a Prince of the Danes named Aulaffe, then being in Irelande, the which brought with him another prince or ruler of ye Danes named Reignald,Reignald a Captaine of the Danes. with a great hoste of Danes and other straung Nations, and entered the foresayd Countrie, and warred vpon the next borders, in wasting and spoilyng the inhabitaunts of the same.

¶ When king Edmond had knowledge hereof, anone he assembled hys people, and sped him towarde the Countrie, and at the last fought with the sayde two Princes of the Danes, and chased them from Towne to Towne, vntill he forced them with all their company of straunge Nations to forsake vtterly that Prouince, and further he did beate downe the Countrie of Com­berlande, that had much fauoured and ayded the sayde enimies against him, and tooke therein great prayes, and deuyded the spoyle amongst his knights. And that done, eyther for the good seruice that Malcolyne king of Scot­lande had in his voyage done vnto the king, or for the truth & allegeance that he in tyme following should beare vnto him, or for both, the king gaue there to the sayde Malcolyn the Countrie of Comberland,Malcolyne king of the Scottes had for his ser­uice done to King Ed­mond, geuen vnto him the Countrie of Comberland and seased the residue of the Lordship of Northumberlande, and ioyned it vnto his awne kingdome. But yet the Danes returned againe in the time of Edred the next king, as after shall be shewed, so that as yet the ende of his kingdome, is not to be ac­compted. But Polidore alloweth not them that ascribe the vanquishing of the Northumbers vnto this Edmond, affirming that to haue beene Athel­stanes deede, who also subdued the Scottes: and so as it seemeth is of opi­nion that the kingdome of the Northumbers, ended in the sayde Athelstanes tyme.

¶ This king Edmond had a noble woman to his wyfe named Elgina,Elgina the wise of king Edmond. of whome he receyued two sonnes, named Edwyn and Edgar.

¶ This king Edmond, as sayeth Henry Archdeacon of Huntingdon, had warre oftentymes with the Danes, who held many good Townes in middle England, as Lyncoln, Nottyngham, Darby, Stafford, and Leyceter, the which by his knightly manhood, he wanne from them, and he also amended many things within the Realme that had beene long time out of frame, by meane of the Danes: and as Polydore sayth, established many good lawes very profitable for the common wealth. Of the ende and death of this Ed­mond, there are diuers opinions, for Marianus the Scot sayeth, that while this king Edmond endeuoured himselfe to saue his Sewer from his ene­my, that would haue slain him in a towne or place called Pulkre Church,King Ed­mond slain. the king in parting of the Fray, was wounded to death, and dyed shortly after.

¶ But Wylliam of Malmesbury de Regibus sayth, that the king being at a Feast at the foresayde Towne or place, vpon the day of Saint Augustine, espyed a Felon, sitting in the Hall named Leof, which he before tyme for his [Page 152] Felony had exiled, and therfore he lept ouer the table and plucked that theefe by the heare of the head to the ground. In which doing the sayde Felon, with a knife wounded the king to death,A straunge tale of the death of a king. and also with the same knife wounded many other of the kings seruaunts, and at length was himselfe all to hewen in peeces. Fabian. If this be true, it should seeme that kings at those dayes were neyther so honorably garded nor accompanyed, nor yet kept so prince­ly estate, as they now vse.

¶ But which of these two meanes was vsed in the kings death, it appereth not certainely, but all wryters agree that he dyed when he had reigned .vj. yeres and more, and was buried at Glascenbury, the which before he had sumpteously repayred, and left after him two yong sonnes, as before is re­membred Edwyn, and Edgar, but for that they were to yong to rule the land, therefore the rule thereof was committed to Edredus their Vncle,Edwyn, Edgar. and bro­ther to their father.

944/5 MAlcolme the first and the sonne of Constantine reigned King of Scottes xv. yeres, and at the last was slaine by conspiracy of certaine Traytors.

946/1 ELdred or Edred the brother of Edmond and sonne of Edward the el­der, was made king, for yt the children of king Edmond were thought to yong to gouerne.

This Eldred was annointed king of Oddo or Otho Archbishop of Caū ­torburie, in the Towne of Kingstone vpon Tamys, and soone after, he war­red vpon the Danes that then were entered into Northumberland (or after some writers,Rebelliō of the Danes. that then were there dwelling vnder tribute of the king) sub­dued before of Edmond his brother, and be them downe, and caused them to holde and obey vnto their former couenaunts. And the Scottes then also be­gan to varie, but he brought them vnto due obedience.

¶ After a certaine terme, the Danes of Northumberlande, which euer continued full of guyle and doublenesse, not being content to holde and keepe the couenaunts before made and promised vnto Edred the king,Yorke taken by ye Danes. called vnto them their olde accessaryes and helpers, and bereued from the kings subiects the Citie of Yorke and other strong Townes and Castels, to the great hurte and anoyance of the Countrie, and vtter displeasure of the king.

¶ Wherefore, he being therof aduertised, in goodly and conuenient haste, assembled his people, and sped him thether, and destroyed much of the land. And in that furie brent the Abbay of Rypon,Rypon Ab­bey brent. which the Danes kept for a Fortresse and strength, and wanne from them muche of their strengthes which they before had wonne, and brought them againe vnder his subiection.

¶ When this king Edred had thus sped his iourney and was returning into England, nothing suspecting the sayde Danes, a company of them by the exciting of Hircus a king or prince of the Danes, then folowed the kings hoste,Danes ha­uing to their Capitaine one named Hircus did again rebell. and before he came at Yorke set vpon the kings rereward, and destroy­ed and slue many a man. For the which doing the king was sore amooued, and turned his people againe, entending to haue destroyed the Countrie vtterly.

¶ Wherof the Danes beyng ware, so lowly meked themselues vnto him, and presented vnto him such giftes, that the king refrayned of that great yre that he purposed to them. But amongest other Articles that he bound them [Page 153] vnto, one was, that they should banish and vtterly refuse their foresaid Duke or king called Hercus:Danes that inhabited Northum­berland were againe ouer­come and put from gouern­ment for euer which thing with dyuers and many other they graun­ted and firmely bound themselues to keepe, as well by hostages taken, as by other surety, and the king returned into England, and ioyned this kingdome to his other. So that here is reconed the ende of this kingdome, which endu­red iiij.C.ix. yeres.

¶ In the same yere that the king had thus subdued the Danes, a strong sicknesse tooke him, so that he dyed, and was buried in the Cathedral Church of Winchester, in the .xxviij. yere of his age, & when he had reigned .x. yeres.

¶ Polidore sayth, that when he had quieted the Realme, and vanquished his enemies, he became a great benefactor vnto religious houses, but speci­ally vnto the Abbey of Abindon, who thinking to please God therby, & to gra­tefy Ethelnoldus then Abbot there accompted for a very holy man, and at the request of his mother Edgina, repayred the same Abbey, first foūded by king Iua, as before is said, and at that season sore decaied, and in maner destroyed.

EDwyn the eldest sonne of Edmond, brother of Athelstane, 955/1 tooke on him the gouernement of this Realme.

¶ This Edwyn was crowned at Kingstone beside London of the Archebishop of Cantorbury: The which selfe daye of his Coronacion,Kingstone or kings tou [...]. brake sodeynly from his Lordes, and entered into a secrete Chamber, and there oc­cupyed himselfe sinfully, and rauished another mannes wife, beyng his nere kinswoman, whose husband as one Aucthour doth testifie, the king had cau­sed to be slaine before, for that he would haue the vnlawfull vse of her bewtie, and not considering the allyaunce of affinite & kyndred betwene them. Some write that he committed the sayd Act in maner openly lyke a brute Beast, and Guydo sayth that Edwyn contrary to the lawes of the Churche, helde a wo­man as his Concubine. Wherefore Dunstone who a little before was made Abbot of Clastonbury, first monished him of his fault, and afterwardes accu­sed him vnto Oddo Archebishop of Cantorbury, by whose power the kinge was caused to refuse and forsake the company of the woman. For the which Edwyn bare great malice vnto Dunstone, and at length by his extort power,Dunstone banished. he banyshed him the lande, and forced him for a season to kepe himselfe in Flaunders. And for the malice that he bare towarde him, he did much dis­pleasure to all the Monkes of England, by banishment, and otherwise. Inso­much, that at Malmesbury he put out the Monkes, and set in secular priestes in their steede. Fabian.

¶ But Mathew of Westminster wryteth, that Edwyn had to his Para­moure, the daughter of a noble woman of the Realme, and the mother also at his commaundement. And that on the day of his Coronation, he arose so­deynly from the Table, as he was feasting with his Lordes and Nobles, and departed vnto his preuy Chamber, where those two gentlewomen were, to the entent he might dally with them, and satisfie the sensuall appetite and beastlye pleasure of the body. The which fact of his, sore displeased all his sayde Nobles: and therefore they sent incontinent Dunstone vnto him, to perswade with him to returne againe, and to be mery with them at the table, who as he was by them commaunded, taking his kynsman Bishop Cynesi­us with him, entered into the kings Chamber, where they found the Crowne [Page 154] of the Realme, all of glystering Golde very riche and bewtifull, plucked off his head and hurled after a retchelesse sorte on the ground a prety way from him: And the king himselfe tumbling in the dust betwixt the mother and the daughter, vnto whom the sayd Dunstone sayd on this wyse. My liege Lord, your Princes and Nobles haue sent vs vnto you, to besech you to returne a­gaine vnto your Hall, where is a meete seate for your Royall person and estate, and there to solace your selfe, and to make mery with them, and then blamed the lewdenesse and folly of the Women: and perceyuing the King so vnwilling to aryse, he caught him by the hande, and so brought him backe againe with him vnto the feast Royall, storming and chafing like a mad man. After this one of the Harlotets called Algina rose vp in a great chafe and fume saiyng, how he was a rashe and a sawcie Messenger, that thus would presume to enter into the kinges preuie Chamber, not beyng called. And so from thence foorth, the same woman neuer ceassed to persecute Dun­stone, till she had brought him into the kinges deadly hatered, and highe dis­pleasure: And it foloweth in the same Writer, howe by the consent of King Edwyn after she had spoyled his Abbey of all his mouables, shee caused him at length to be banished out of the Realme by the kinges commaundement. After the which banishment, he was faine to flie into Fraunce for his sause­gard, during the tyme of his sayde exile. And howe there were certeyn tor­mentors sent beyond the Seas to haue put out his eyes, if they could haue met with hym.

¶ It is read of him, that he tooke such precious Iewels as Athelstane had receyued before from Otho the Emperour, geuen vnto Winchester and Malmesbury, and gaue them vnto alyauntes and straungers. And thus was he not onely vnkinde to Monkes, but also vsed such tyrannie, and other vn­lawfull meanes to his subiectes, that lastly they abhorring his wicked lyfe, and detestable maners, rebelled against him, and specially the inhabitantes of the Countrye of Mertia,King Ed­wyn depo­sed. or middle Englande, and also the Northumbers and put him clerely from all kingly honour and dignitie, the which deposition greued him so much that he died for sorow, when he had reigned foure yeres, and was buried at winchester, leauing none heyre of his body, and therefore the rule of the land fell vnto Edgar his yonger brother.

959/1 EDgar, the seconde sonne of Edmond, and brother of Edwyn the last king, beyng of the Age of .xv. yeres, tooke vpon him the rule of this Realme. In the beginning of his reigne, he called home Dunstone that before was exiled of king Edwyn.King Edgar vnited all the prouinces of this realme into one kingdome, where before they were deuided into seuen king­domes. Then he made Dunstone that was Abbot of Glascenbury, Bishop of Worceter, and he ioyned and vnited toge­ther all the Prouinces and Lordships of England, and made them one Mo­narchie, and one Kingdome.

¶ In many places he put away Clerkes and Priestes that liued vicious­ly, or as some wryte that had wyues, and set there for them Monkes. And as sayth Guydo, Reynulph, and other, he buylded and repayred to the num­ber of .xl. houses of Religion, whereof Abyndon, Peterborough, Thorney, Ramsey, & Wilton were percell of them. And at Winchester, he put in Mon­kes, where before were maryed Priestes.

¶ The cause wherfore (as sayth Fabian) was, for so much as the Priestes [Page 155] were negligent in the deuyne seruice, and set Vicars in their places, while they liued at theyr pleasure in other places, and spent the Patrimonie of the Church after their sensuall will.

¶ Then king Edgar gaue to the Vicars the lande that before longed to the Prebendaryes, trusting thereby that they would do their duetyes: But it was not long after, but that the sayd Vicars were as negligent as the other, wherfore the king aduoyded the Priestes and placed there Monkes, though some of his Prelates were not contented therewith.

¶ This Edgar kept such iustice and did so sharpe execution vpon Male­factors,Execution of iustice hath worthy commendation. that neuer before his dayes were vsed lesse felonyes or robberyes then was in his tyme. And to the entent that he would haue the rauenous beastes destroyed throughout his lande, he caused Ludallus Prince of Wa­les, to yelde to him yerely by way of Tribute three hundred Wolues.The destruc­tion of Wolues. By meane whereof, within foure yeres after, in Englande and Wales myght skantly be found one Wolfe alyue.

¶ Polidore here noteth that the Welshmen, which could neuer willingly abyde to be gouerned of the Englishe Nation, founde the meanes at the length to make themselues a Prince of their awne Nation, as in this kinges tyme they had to theyr Prince and gouernour Ludallus, and long tyme af­ter dyuerse other in dyuerse kinges dayes, which were tributaries vnto the kinges of England: But when they first obteyned this benefite of the sayde kinges, the sayde Polidore confesseth that he hath not found in any auncient Chronicle or autentike Wryter.

¶It is written of sundrie Authours,Kynadus king of Scottes. that Kynadus king of Scottes de­spised Edgar, for that he was little of stature, whereof king Edgar beyng warned desyred the sayde Kynadus to dynner, and made to him good counte­nance. After which dyuer ended, he tooke the sayde Kynadus by the arme, and so with him helde company vntill they came to the Fields: where being disseuered from their seruauntes: Edgar drewe from vnder his garment two swordes, and desyred Kynadus to take the choyce of them,A chalenge made by Ed­gar vnto Kynadus the Scottishe King. and sayde vn­to him, nowe thou hast good leasure to saye thy strength with mine, which before tyme thou hast so much despised: Nowe let vs proue which is more worthy to be subiect to other: It is not sitting for a Knight to make great boast at the boorde, and to doe little in the field.

¶ When the Scottish king heard the king thus chalenge him, he remem­bred well his wordes before spoken, and perceyued that they were disclosed vnto Edgar, whereof being somewhat abashed, he answered so humbly and behaued him selfe so lowly and gently, and gaue vnto the king such pleasaunt wordes, that he forgaue the trespasse.

¶This Edgar among other of his Politique deedes, vsed in the Somer tyme, to scoure the Sea with certaine Shippes of warre,Edgar in Sommer scoured the Sea with his shippes, and in Win­ter laid them vp. and had a great number alwayes in a readynesse. And against the Winter, he prouided to lay vp the sayde Shippes in sure Hauens, and had readie in his awne seruice and in his Lordes, a certaine number of Souldiours that were alway rea­dy to man the same, when the king had neede of them. And his Shipmasters were in wages with him throughout the yere, who euer attended vppon the Shippes, to see that nothing lacked that was necessarie. By meane wherof he kept his lande in great quiet from outward enimies. And in the Wynter [Page 156] he vsed to ryde ouer the lande, and to vnderstande how his officers intreated the people. And if any were accused of extorcion or other crymes, and that duely proued against them, he did vpon all such, sharpe correction.

¶ And for so much as in his dayes, great multitude of Danes dwelled in dyuers places of England, which vsed many vices, and specially great drin­king, whereof ensued dronkennesse and many other vices, to the euill exam­ples and hurtes of his commons and subiects:A pollecie for the staye of Dronkards. He therefore ordeyned cer­taine Cuppes with pinnes or nayles set in them, and ordeyned and made a law, that whatsoeuer person dranke past the marke at one draught, shoulde forfeyt a certaine payne:A good pre­sident for the making of penall lawes, and bestow­ing of the forfeytures. wherof the one halfe should fall to the accuser, and that other halfe to the ruler of the Borough or Towne that the offence was done in, where the same should be examyned and tryed.

¶ It is tolde of this Edgar by dyuers Authours, that he vpon a season being at Chester, entred the ryuer of Dee, and there sitting in a Boate, tooke the rule of the sterne,King Edgar had vnder him seuen kings within this Realme. and caused .vij. Kinges, which Guydo calleth Reguli, that is small or vnder kings, and commaunded them to rowe him vp and downe the Ryuer, vnto Saint Iohns Church, which lately was an Abbey of black Monkes, and from thence to his awne Palace, in token, that he was Lorde and king of so many Prouynces.

¶This Noble Edgar had two Wyues: By the first that was called E­gelfleda the whyte, he had a sonne that was named Edward, who was after king,Ethelfleda the mother of Edward, and wyfe of Edgar. and slaine by treason as afterwards shall be shewed. And vpon his se­cond Wyfe Elfrida or as the English Chronicle calleth her Estrild, he begat a sonne named Egelredus or Ethelredus, and after the Englishe Chronicle Eldred, which was king next after Edward the Martir, and of Wilfride, which of some is called a Nonne,Edith the daughter of Wilfride, Which Wil­fride was a Nonne and Concubyne to king Ed­gar. he had a daughter named Edith, but shee was base and not in Wedlock. For as Guydo sayeth, this Wilfride, knowing that the king cast to her vnlawfull loue, put vpon her the habite of a Nonne, thinking thereby to withdrawe the kinges loue: But that notwithstanding, she was brought to the kings bed. For which deede he was greatly blamed of the Bishop Dunstane, and by him enioyned to doe therefore seuen yeres penance. And the aforenamed Wilfride, after the childe borne, lyued ver­teously, as sayeth Fabian. Of her daughter Edith, it is read that at lawfull age she was at Wilton shorne a Nonne.

¶ Edgar, thus ruling the lande after the death of his first wyfe Egelfle­da, worde was brought to him of the bewtie of a yong Damsell named El­frida, or Estrild, daughter of Orgarus Erle of Deuonshire: wherefore he sent a Knight of his Courte named Ethelwold, to espie whether the Mayde were of such bewtie, as shee was reported of, or not, charging him, if shee were so bewtifull, that then he should aske her to wyfe for him.

¶But this Knight hauing sight of this Mayden, was so wounded with the darte of blinde Cupide,Ethelwold vsed dissimu­lation with the king hys Master. that he forgate his truth and allegeance, which he did owe to his Master and souereigne, and returned, shewing to the King, that shee was nothing of the bewtie as she was reported to be, but of meane fayrenesse as other women are. Wherfore he besought the king, considering she was her fathers Heyre and a good mariage, that he woulde be so good Lorde vnto him, as to write vnto her father, that he might haue her vnto Wyfe. The which the King graunted, and at the last he obteyned her and [Page 157] maryed her.

¶In processe of tyme the fame of this woman sprang so wyde, that at the last it came to the vnderstanding of king Edgar:Déepe dissi­mulation. wherewith the king notwithstanding, he were in his minde discontented with Ethelwold, which had so deceyued him, yet kept he good countenance and made semblance as though he had nothing forced of that matter at all.

¶And vpon a tyme, as it were in game, warned this Ethelwold that then was an Erle by reason of his wyfe, or otherwise, that he woulde one night come and lodge in his house, and appointed the tyme when it should be. The Erle being nothing contented with this monition, ranne home almost dead for feare, and prayed his wyfe of helpe in that tyme of neede, and that shee would in all that she might make her selfe as foule and as vnseemely as shee could, and shewed to her all the residue of the matter. Then the woman cast in her minde, the great displeasure that might ensue towardes her against God, to make that foule, which he had made goodly and fayre, and also to her Lorde and husbande against the king, thinking that he should cause her thus to do, to the entent to mocke and deceyue him. Wherefore,Ethelwold was fowly deceyued, for Women are not trusty in considera­tion of the premisses, shee trimmed and decked her selfe in most costly and shewing apparell. And ouer that, if Dame Nature had any thing forgotten or misprinted in her, she left not what might be done by womans help to haue it amended and reformed, and at the kings comming receyued him with all ioye and gladnesse. By which meanes, this yong amorous king was soone caught in the Deuils snare, so that he set reason aparte and folowed his awne sensualitie. And for to bring his purpose the better about, he kept forth a coū ­tenaunce as he had bene well contented with all thing, and desyred the Erle, that he would ryde with him on hunting, into the wood of Weluerley, that now is called Horsewood, where he awayting his tyme,Ethelwold slaine and murdered. strake the Erle tho­row the body with his shaft, so that he dyed soone after. And then he maried this Elfrida or Estrild shortly, and had by her Egelredus. For the which deede sayth Reynulph, this Elfrida buylded a house of Nonnes at Warwell. But some write that it was for the slaiyng of her stepsonne Edward.

¶ Then Edgar, was crowned king at the Citie of Bathe,Coronation or as some write at Kingstone of Dunstone Archebishop of Cantorbury, and Oswolde Archebishop of Yorke, when he had ruled this land .xij. yeres, but Polidore sayth, that Dunstone was not at his sayde Coronation, but remayned yet a banished man. The cause why it was so long or this Edgar was crowned, was sayth Guydo, for his vnlawfull lechery,The simpli­citie of kings in those dayes and specially for the offence done with Wilfride. For the which deede he was enioyned .vij. yeres penaunce, during the which tyme of penance, he was kept from the sayd annoyntment.

¶ It is also reported of this king Edgar, that he beyng vpon a season at the Towne of Andouer besyde Sarisbury, and was enamoured of a Noble mannes daughter, which was of passing bewtye, made such meanes by force or otherwise, that the parentes were agreed that the king should haue his pleasure. But the mother beyng subtyll of wyt, bethought her of a wyle,Women are wily. and when night came, sent a seruaunt of hers, which was both comely and fayre, vnto the kinges bed. In the Morning, when the day began to waxe cleere, the woman began to styrre, and would haue departed from the king: But the king stayed her, and asked the cause of her so hastie departing: The [Page 158] woman aunswered,The king deceyued. I must be at my worke with my felowes at mine houre, to kepe my taske. And when the king had questioned with her further, he learned that she was a bond woman, and she asked of the king freedome for that nightes seruice. The king at this had good game, and cherished that Damosell so after, that he made her Lady of Ladies. For these insolent and wanton deedes, it is sayd, that by the counsayle of Dunstone, he buylded and repayred so many Abbeyes and houses of religion as is before named. Fabian.

¶ Thus this noble Edgar, passing his tyme in vertue, and sometymes medled with vice, at the last had knowledge of the rebellion of the Briteynes or Welshemen: wherefore he assembled his knightes, and entered the land, and did them great harme and waste. And among other prayes, he spoy­led the Countrey of Glamorgan and the Countrey of Ono: But the king dyed within ten dayes after, when he had reigned the full terme of .xvj. yeres, and was buryed at Glascenbury, leauing after him two sonnes, Edward the Martyr, and Egelredus by two sundry wyues. And here Fabian setteth foorth a story of a lewde and false Iudge, the which the Reader may there finde set out at large.

959/2 INdulph reigned in Scotlande .ix. yeres: He kept peace with the Englishe men, and vanquished the Danes that inuaded his Realme.

966/8 KIng Duffus reigned among the Scottes foure yeres, and was slaine by the treason of a noble man called Donewalde. After his death apered nei­ther Sonne, Moone, nor Starre, the space of .vj. Monethes.

972/14 CVline a vicious and wicked Tiraunt reigned among the Scottes. He de­flowred his awne sisters, and rauished other mennes wyues, and daugh­ters, wherefore he was slaine the fift yere of his reigne.

975/1 EDward the sonne of Edgar, reigned after his father: And here ye shal vnderstand, that after the death of Edgar, great strife arose among the Lordes, for the admission of their king. For Elfrida or Estreld, with Alphride Duke of Mertia, made diuerse friendes to haue her sonne Egelre­dus promoted vnto that dignitie, a childe of seuen yeres of age, that she and he might rule the land together. But Dunstone with the ayde of other Bi­shoppes, and of the Erle of East England, or Essex, so withstood that doyng, that he crowned this Edward king at the Towne of Kingstone, to the gree­uous displeasure of the sayd mother Elfrida, and other of her affinitie.

¶ In the tyme of this Edward apered a blasing starre, after the which en­sued many inconueniences,Sicknesse, hunger, mo­reyn and ma­nye other plagues. aswell to men as to beastes, as sicknesse, hunger, moreyne, and other lyke calamities: But none of these thinges fell in the dayes of this Edward, but after his death. The aforenamed Alphride, Duke of Mertia, which in all thinges fauoured much the dedes of the Queene, put out the Monkes at Winchester, that king Edgar had ther set in, and brought in for them wanton Clearkes, or as Reynulph sayth, Clerkes with Concu­bines (or rather that had lawfull wyues.These I thinke were priestes with their wyues.) But Bunstone, and the Erle of Essex withstood that doyng, and helde against the Duke and such as fauou­red his partie: For the which arose great strife betwene the Priestes, and the Monkes of England. For the Clerkes that were before tyme put out by Edgar, sayd that it were a wretched and curssed deede, that a newe common company vnknowen, shoulde put out olde landishe men from their places: [Page 159] and it shoulde not be pleasing to God that had graunted the place to the olde dwellers, neyther ought any good man to alowe such doyng, for the yll en­sample that thereof might ensue. The Monkes sayde, that Christ allowed neyther the olde dweller, nor yet the person: But who so woulde take the crosse of penaunce vpon him, and folowe Christ in verteous liuyng he should be his disciple.

¶ For this matter was there holden a generall counsayle of Bishoppes, and all the Clergie of England, at winchester, but for all this the strife ceased not. In so much that a newe assembly of the Clergie and other was apoyn­ted after at a place called the strete of Calue, where the counsayle was kept in an vpper loft.Dunstone was sore a­gainst priests wyues. In thys counsayle Dunstone was grieuously despised and rebuked of some vnskilfull men (as sayth Fabian.) And while they were there in this great deuision and argument, which way should be admitted and alowed, sodeynly the Ioystes of the loft fayled, and the people fell downe,Some write that this was done by a de­ceytfull prac­tise, and after was taken for a miracle. so that many were slaine, and the people greatly hurt: But Dunstone with few other that tooke his part escaped vnhurt. This wonder and other caused silence among them that entended to mainteyne the aforesayd quarell, so that Dunstone had all his will.

¶ But to returne to the tyme of the reigne of king Edward, he came vp­pon a tyme from hunting in the Forest, nere vnto the Castell of Corfe,Corfe castel in the West Countrie: where he losyng his companie and seruauntes, resorted vn­to the Castle aforesayde, where at that tyme his Stepmother with her sonne Egelredus kept her houshold.

¶ When the Queene was warned of his comming,A traiterous deuice of a mother in law anone she called vn­to a seruaunt of hers, whome she much trusted, and tolde to him all her coun­sayle, shewing to him further, how he should behaue himselfe in the accom­plishing of her will and minde. And that done, she went towarde the King, and receyued him with all gladnesse, and desyred him to tarie with her that night: But he in curteous maner excused himselfe, and for speede, desyred to drinke vpon his horse sytting, the which was shortly brought.

¶ And while the Cup was at his mouth,A vile mur­ther. the seruaunt strake him to the heart with a sword, or long dagger sharpe on both sydes. After which stroke by the king receyued, he set spurres to the horse, and thought to ryde to the place from whence he came, or else such a way as he thought to mete with his companie. But he bled so sore, that for faintnesse he fell from his horse,Kinge Ed­ward mur­thered. hys one foote beyng fast in the Styrrop: By reason wherof, he was drawen of the horse ouer wayes and fieldes, vntill he came vnto a place then named Coris­gate, where he was found dead. And for that the maner of his death was vn­knowne, and also he for king not knowen, he was buryed vnworthely at the Towne of Warram, and there rested by the space of three yeres after. In which tyme and season, God shewed for him dyuerse myracles, as sight to the blinde, health to the sicke, and heering to the deafe, with diuerse other, as sayth Fabian. But Polydore wryteth, that his Stepmother Elfrida cau­sed the dead corps to be caryed in, and buryed in a secret place, where it was after found by miracle.

¶ At the last the same Elfrida sore repenting her fact, entended to visite him by way of pilgrimage. But how or for what cause she entended inwardly I can not say, but the horse or beast that she rode vpō, might not come nigh the [Page 160] place by a certeyne space, for beating, nor for any other thing that might be done for him by man.

Septon now called Shaf­tesbury.¶ But after this, by her meanes, or as Mathew of Westminster sayth, by Elforius Duke of Mertia, or middle Englande, he was translated from thence to Septon, that now is called Shaftesbury, and there buryed with great honour.

¶And as it is sayd for a testimony of her great repentance, she founded two Monasteries of women,Ambrisbury the one at Ambrisbury, and the other at Warwell. In the which place of Warwell in her latter dayes,Warwell. she refusing the pompe of the worlde, helde there a solitary and streyt life, and ended her life with great penance and repentance, and was there buryed when she was dead.

¶ Thus as ye haue heard, was this yong king Edward murdered, when he had reigned foure, or as some wryte three yeres, leauing behind him none issue, wherefore the rule of the lande fell to Egelredus his brother.

977/3 KEnneth reigned in Scotland .xxv. yeres. In his tyme, the Danes arriued in Angus with a great company, and wasted the Countrie very sore, with whom the Scottes met,Kenneth king of Scottes. and after sore fight and great slaughter, by the man­hood of one Hay (an vplandishman, and his two sonnes) obteyned the vic­tory. This Kenneth was slaine by meane of a Lady called Fenella, because he had poysoned Malcolme Prince of Comber.

978/1 EGeldred or Etheldred the sonne of Edgar, and Elfride his last Wyfe, after the death of Edward his brother reigned ouer this Realme. And in the beginning of this mans tyme, the grounde waxed barrein and all the miseries before signified by the appering of the blasing starre in the dayes of Edwarde, now began to take place and encrease vpon the earth. This king as his other progenitors before him were, was crowned at King­stone, of Dunstane, and Oswald, Archebishops. To whome as it is written in the lyfe of Dunstane among his prophecies,Dunstones prophecies. Dunstane shoulde saye at the day of his coronation. Thou commest to this kingdom by the death of thy bro­ther, in whose death Englishmen conspired with thy wicked mother, they shall not be without bloudshedding and sworde, vntill there come people of an vnknowne tongue, and bring them into thraldome. And this trespasse shal not be clensed without long vengeance.

¶ This Egeldred was a man of goodly visage and tall of personage, but his nature was mixed with Lechery, crueltie, and dyuers other vices. It is also read that when Dunstane should christen him, as he helde him ouer the Fonte, he fyled the same with his ordure, and that then Dunstane sware by God and by his mother,An angrie Bishop. this childe shall be vnkinde both to God and hys Churche. Fabian. Although myne Aucthour wrote this as matter in that tyme whiche he thought to bee true, yet iudge you nowe thereof as you thinke best.

¶In the second yere of his reigne, a cloude was seene in England in the morning tyme the which appered halfe lyke blood,The Danes arriued in Kent. Corne­wall, Sussex, and diuerse other places of this realme and the other halfe lyke fyre, and chaunged after into sundrie colours, and at the last vanished away.

¶In the thirde yere of his reigne, the Danes allured by his cowardise, and chiefly for that he was vnskilfull of armes, arriued in sundrie places of his lande, as in the Isle of Thanet beside Kent, also in Southhampton, [Page 161] Cornewall and Sussex, and in those coastes much harme: and afterwards, some of them came to London, but there they were put of: howbeit, they de­stroyed a great parte of Chester and Chestershire.

¶And in the ende of the same yere,London, a great parte thereof con­sumed by fire a great parte of the Citie of London was consumed with fyre, but how it began is not expressed. But ye shall vn­derstande, that at this daye the Citie of London, had most housing and buyl­ding from Ludgate toward Westmynster, and little or none where the chiefe or hart of the Citie is, at this day, except in dyuers places were housing,From the little Con­d [...]t in Chep vnto Fleete bridge and Holborne bridge was the first and chiefest [...]arte of the Citte of London. but they stood without order. So that many Townes and Cities, as Cauntor­bury, Yorke, and other, diuers in England passed London in building at those dayes, as I haue sene and knowen by an olde booke in the Guildhall in Lon­don named Domes day. But after the conquest it increased, and shortly after it passed and excelled all the other. Fabian.

¶About the .viij. yere of his reigne, the king maried Erle Egbertus daughter, named Ethelgina or Elgma. Of the which he begat a sonne, and named him Edmond, which after was surnamed Ironside, and two other sonnes named Edwyn and Ethelstane, and a daughter named Edgina.

¶In the .ix. yere of this king, for strife and displeasure that was betwene the Bishop of Rochester and him, he with his knightes besieged the sayde Citie: whereof Dunstane sent to the king, admonishing him, that he should refraine from that crueltie,Golde was of more force then Dun­stane. and to suffer the Bishop and his Citie to be in peace. But this message abated nothing at all the kings courage. Then the sayde Dunstane sent vnto him an hundreth pounde in Golde, wylling him to refrayne of that enterprise, the which he receyued and brake vp his siege.

¶About the .xj. yere of his reigne, Dunstane died,Dunstane dead. but it was not long after his death, before the Danes entred into many and sundrie places of the land, in such wise as the king was to seke to which coast he should go first to with­stande his enimies. And in conclusion, for the aduoyding of more harme, he was compelled to quiet them with great summes of money:The Danes sore spoyled this realme. But when that money was spent, they fell to new robbing of the people. Then the king graunted more money: But for all that the Danes robbed and spoyled the Countrie of Northumberland and at the last besieged London. The which their outrage troubled the king very sore bicause he thought they would now haue beene quiet.

¶And for the encrease of the kinges sorrow,Elfricus a Traytour. Elfricus that then was mai­ster or admirall of the kings Nauie, fled as a false traytour vnto the Danes. And after that was reconciled: and fled yet againe the second time vnto them.

¶Wherfore the king to be aduenged on the father,King Egel­dred puni­shed the sōne of Elfricus in pulling out of his eyen for the offēce of his father. commaunded the eyen of hys sonne Algarus to be plucked or done out of his head.

¶But while this persecution thus contynued, by meanes of Elphegus Bishop of Winchester, a peace was concluded for a tyme betweene the king and the Danes. And the Prince or chiefe Capitaine of them named Aulaff, was so exhorted by the sayd Bishop, that he became a christen man, to whom the king was Godfather, so that shortly after, the sayde Aulaff returned to his awne Countrie, without doing of any more hurte,Bloudy Fluxe, and brenning Feuers. so that for a whyle the warres of the Danes seased. But while they rested, the bloudy Fluxe with brenning Feuers so vexed the people thorow the land, that many dyed therof.

¶And now againe the Danes assayled this land, and did in diuers places [Page 162] great harme, so that for lacke of a good head or gouernour many things in the lande perished.Diuision and dissension a­mong the Lordes. For the Lordes were at such dissension one with another, that when they were assembled to speake or treate of peace betwene that one Lorde and that other, and if any good thing were deuysed for the hurt of their enemies, anone the Danes were warned thereof by some of the same coun­saile: whereof were suspected Elfricus and Edricus.

¶And to this sorrow was ioyned hunger and penury, amongst the com­mons,A misera­ble realme. that euery one of them was constreyned to plucke & steale from other, so that what by the pillage of the Danes, and inward theeues and bribours, this land was brought into great misery and mischiefe.

¶The king being thus wrapped in miserie, left not to gather of his sub­iectes what he might,How one mi­serie begat another. as well by vnlawfull meanes as otherwise. For sayth Reynulph, he would for feyned or small causes disherite men of their posses­sions, & after cause them to redeeme their awne with great sūmes of money.

¶And besides this, he gaue himselfe altogether to lechery, and to the fil­thy lust of the body: By which vngracious meanes, he brought this lande into such ruyne,Sinne and mischiefe come toge­ther. that what he might not helpe by strength, he redemed with great summes of money. So that from the first entrie of the Danes, as wit­nesseth Reynulph in his .vj. booke and .xviij. Chapter, and Guydo and other Authors, and from the first tribute often thousand pound, he brought it at the last in processe of fiue or sixe yeres, to .xl. thousand pound. The which yeerely during his lyfe and after, to the comming of king Edward was leuied of his subiects,A tribute called Dane Gelt. and named for the continuance therof Dane Gelt, which is to meane, money payde to the Danes, or Dane money.

¶ In the .xv. yere of his reigne dyed Oswald Archbishop of Cantorbu­ry,A misera­ble Englād and sone after dyed Ethelgina the Queene. And thus the land continued vnder the greuous Tribute of the Danes, and also the Englishe men sustey­ned of them great numbers of vilanies and iniuries, as partly hereafter shall appere. The king at this tyme by counsayle of his familiers, about the .xxj. yere of his reigne maryed Emma the daughter of Richard Duke of Nor­mandy:Emma the daughter of Richarde Duke of Normandy. The which Richard was the thirde duke of Normandy, and the first of that name, and also was surnamed Richard without feare, or Richard the hardy, by whome he had issue Edward the Confessor, which after was king of Englande.

¶ By this mariage, Egeldred began to looke a loft, and thought much of himselfe, and toke vpon him with much more courage then before he had done. Wherefore he sent into all the good Boroughes, Townes, and Cities of his land,The Danes murdered. secret and streight commissions, charging all the rulers, that vp­on on a certeyne day, which was the day of S. Brice, at an houre assigned in euery place of this land, the Danes should be slaine, and so it was done. And as the common fame telleth, this murder began at a little Towne in Hert­fordshire, within .xxiiij. Myles of London called Welwen: For the which deede it tooke the first name, because that the weale of that countrie (as it was then thought) was there first wonne. But who that doth well consider the sequele of the Storye, shall finde little wynnyng or weale that ensued of thys deede.

¶ But before I proceede further, I will here touche somewhat of the pryde and abusion of the Danes, which they exercised in Englande, as I [Page 163] haue sene in an olde Chronicle.The crueltie of the Danes The Danes by strength caused husbandmen to eare and sowe their land, and to do all other vile labour that belonged vn­to husbandry, and the Dane helde his wyfe at pleasure, with daughter and seruaunt. And when the husband man came home,Miserable bondage and villanie. he should scantly haue of his awne as his seruauntes had, so that the Dane had all at his commaun­dement, and did eate and drinke his fill of the best, when the owner had scant hs fill of the worst. And besydes this, the common people were so of them oppressed, that for feare and dreade, they called them in euery such house as they had rule of, Lord Dane: But in processe of tyme,Lord Dane, of the which sprang this worde Lur­dane. after the Danes were voyded the lande, this worde Lord Dane, was in dirision and dispite of the Danes turned by Englishe men into a name of opprobry called Lurdane, which yet is not forgotten, for if one Englishe man will rebuke another, he will for the most part say, thou srt but a Lurdane.

¶ But nowe to returne to our first matter: Truth it is when the Danes were thus murdered throughout Englande, tydinges thereof sprang into Denmarke: which kindled in them such a fury,Swanus king of the Danes en­tered into England. that the king thereof named Swanus, assembled shortly a great hoste and nauie of Shippes. And with­in short tyme after, he with his Danes landed in Cornewall. And by trea­son of a Norman named Hughe, which by fauour of Queene Emma was made Earle of Deuonshire, the sayde Swanus tooke Exceter, and after bet downe the walles.

¶ The he entered further into the land: In which season the king sent vnto Edrycus, charging him to assemble the west Saxons, and to withstand the further entry of the Danes: The which according to his commission as­sembled the west Saxons, and made good countenance to withstand the sayd enemyes: But when the hostes should ioyne, were it for feare or for treason, he fayned himselfe sicke, and fled from his people. The which for lacke of an head were faine to geue backe to their great hurt, and to their enemies great aduauntage and comfort.

¶ Wherefore the Danes, then resorted to Sherborne and Wylton, and anone spoyled both those townes, and the refreshed them: But Swanus had vnderstanding,Swanus fled to his shippes that the king was comming towardes him with the power of his lande, he therefore departed thence, and returned with great pillage vnto his Shippes, and sayled about the land, and at the last landed in Norffolke: Where he wasting and spoilyng the Countrie,Swanus lā ­ded in Norf­folke & spoiled that countrie. came to the Citie of Norwich, the which he robbed and destroyed, and after went to Thetford, and did lykewise to that Towne, and fyred it, and spoyled all the Countrye nere there about.

¶ But soone after, a noble man of that Countrie called Duke Vskatell,Vskatell [...] noble man of Norffolke, & named a duke gaue the Da­nes a foyle, & repulse, and Swanus fled into Dēmark met with the host of Danes, and gaue vnto them a hard and sharpe battayle, and slue many of the enemies and put them backe. For this and for hunger that then assayled this land, Swanus returned to his Shippes, and depar­ted againe into Denmarke, and taryed all the Winter folowing. In which season he made great prouision to reenter the land of England.

In the .xxv. yere of the reigne of the king,Swanus re­turned againe into England with a great power. the aforesayde Swanus with a strong army landed at Sandwich, and spoiled all the country nere vnto the Sea syde, and rested him there, vntill he heard of an armie comming against him. And whe he was ware thereof, he returned to his Shippes againe: [Page 164] and heering that the king was farre Westwarde, he landed in Sussex, and spoyled it wonderfull sore, and there also he was warned of the comming of the English men, and then anone he tooke shippinig againe. So that when the Englishe men had thought to haue met with him in one coast,Admiralles of the Sea were as it a­pereth blin­ded in this tyme. then would he flie and land in another. And when the king prouided to meete with them on the Sea, eyther they would fayne themselues to flie, or else they woulde with giftes blynde the admirall of the kinges of Nauie.

¶ By which subtiltie and craftly meanes, they weryed and tyred the host of Englishe men. And where euer they went they slue, brent, and robbed, without all compassion and pitie.

¶ The king then beyng at Shrewesburie, & heering of the great sleight and crueltie of the Danes, called his counsayle to take aduice what were best to be done for the defence of his enemies. Where it was concluded, that the king to haue peace with the Danes,A great tri­bute payed to the Danes. should pay vnto them .xxx. thousand pound. But while this was in doyng, the Danes destroyed a great part of Barkshire.

Swanus re­turned againe into Den­marke.¶ But when this peace was thus made, Swanus with his company re­turned into Denmarke. And the yere folowing, the king made Edrycus a­forenamed, Duke of Mertia. Thus Edricus beyng but of base birth was made riche, he was of tongue false, and subtile of wit, soft and eloquent of speeche, vntrustie, and inconstant of thought and promes, as of him somthing before is shewed, and after more shall apere.

Turkillus a Prince of the Danes lāded in Kent.¶ In the .xxvij. yere of the King, a Prince of the Danes named Turki­lus landed in Kent. The which so grieuously warred in that countrie, that the Kentishmen were faine to make their peace, and so he departed. But yet the persecution of the Danes seaced not: For in one countrie of England or other, they euer were robbing and pilling the English men. So that all the Countrye along the coast, from the North part of England, vnto the Isle of wight, was by them eyther vtterly destroyed, or greatly empayre. And when the king entended to make prouision for to withstande them, euer Edrycus would counsayle him to the contrary,Edrycus a faile traytor. shewyng him that he should spend his treasure, and trauayle his people in vaine. By meane whereof the Danes entered fiftie mile into England, and brent and destroyed diuerse Villages, and Townes. So that they encreased and waxed passing riche, and the Eng­lish men, nedy, bare, and poore. Thus continuyng this misery, Swanus then being in Denmarke, and heeryng of the encrease of his people within Eng­land repented him of his former couenantes,Swanus a­gaine entered England. and thought that the whole do­minion of England should of right belong to him. For the which he prepared his armie and nauie in most defensable wise, and sped him into England, and to the ryuer of Humber, and landed in Northumberland, where the Earle and ruler of that Countrye with all the other rulers of the same, sware fealty vnto the sayde Swanus, and promised to kepe that Countrie vnto his vse. And when he had done his will in that Coast, he entred againe the water, and by the Ryuer of Trent, he passed to Gaynsburgh, and so by North Watling­streete, and subdued the inhabitauntes of that Countrie, and forced them to geue him pledges.Canutus the sonne of Swanus. Which pledges, with also his nauie, he betooke vnto Ca­nutus his sonne, while he went further into the land. And he and his people kept on theyr Iourney vntill they came vnto Mertia, killing and sleiyng the [Page 165] men of that prouince, and reserued the women to vncleane liuyng, aswell the religious as the other, and tooke by strength Winchester, and Oxford, or ra­ther Exceter, and did in them what him liked.

¶ And after he had thus passed the lande, he drewe the next way toward London: But in passing the Ryuer of Thames he lost some parte of his peo­ple, eyther for lack of a Bridge or for ieoparding their passage vnaduisedly. And so in fine he came to London and besieged it, where at that tyme the king was. Wherefore Swanus left the Citie, and drewe into Essex,Cauntorbu­ry besieged by Swanus king of the Danes. and againe by water passed into Kent and so towarde the Citie of Cauntorbury without any let, welding the Countrie at his will, and lastly besieged that Citie. The which manfully defended themselues against their enimies by the space of .xx.Almaricus a Deacon, a Traytour. dayes, and then was the sayde Citie taken by the treason of a Deacon named Almaricus, the which before tyme Elphegus then Archbishop of that See had preserued from death. Fabian.

¶ Polidore affirmeth that the Danes besieged the Citie of London, and the Londoners though they were somewhat dismayed at the first, by reason of the sodaine feare, yet they so manfully defended themselues, that at the length they were not afeard to set open the gates of the Citie, and to go out themselues in great multitudes and fight with their enimies: And so valiant­ly behaued they themselues against them, that they slue many of them, and in fyne compelled Swanus or Sweno their king to get him awaye with the residue of his armie with such hastie expedition, that he ceased not trauailyng day and night vntill he was two dayes iourney from London, and then went he to Bath and there taried,Tribute redemed. where he was so sore distressed for lack of victu­alles, that he was fayne to let Egeldred redeeme the tribute, the which he had a little before graunted and bounde himselfe to paye. And hauing re­ceyued of him a great summe of money for the redemption thereof, he re­turned into Demmarke, minding ere it were long to repayre to this lande a­gaine with a greater armie then euer he had before.

¶Mathew of Westmynster wryteth also that after the saide Swanus or Sweno was in dispaire to winne the Citie of London, both because of the losse of his Souldyours that through rashnesse & misaduenture were drow­ned in the Thamys, and also the manly resistance made by the Londoners in defending themselues, he gate him awaye with speede, and went first to Wallyngfoord and then to Bathe, exercising much crueltie all the waye as they went, and lefte nothing vndestroyed, and at Bathe rested him a space to refreshe his armie, whether Almarus then Erle of Deuonshire, with all the Nobilitie of the west Saxons together wyth their seruantes and re­tynue, fearing his tirannie, came vnto hym and delyuered hym hostages, praiyng withall that they might, be at peace with him. And afterwardes, when he saw that he might nowe do what he woulde, and that no man durst chalenge the Crowne and fight with him for the same, he caused himselfe to be proclaymed king of England. But the sayde wryter maketh mention ney­ther of the scarcitie of victualles that shoulde then be amongest the Souldi­ours, neyther of the redemption of the sayde tribute, nor yet of his sodeyn re­turne into Denmarke: But here to returne to mine Authour.

¶Then the Danes first spoyled the Citie of Cauntorbury, and tooke the Archebishop and put him in a strong prison, and then set the Citie on fyre. [Page 166] And the Monkes of Saint Austynes Abbey they tythed,Monkes tithed. that is to saye, they kylled nyne, and the tenth they kept alyue, the which after were solde and set to all seruile labour.Antoninus Vincent. And as witnesseth Antonynus and Vyncent Hisorio­graphers, they slue and brought in seruage aboue the number of nyne hun­dred persons of religion. They slue of men, women, and children, in the Citie of Cauntorbury aboue eyght thousande, and that with much crueltie as is shewed in the .vij. Chapter, & xvj. Title, of the worke of the sayde Antoninus.

Elphegus ye Archebishop of Cātorbury stoned to deth by the cruell Danes.¶ And finally, for that this Bishop Elphegus, would not condescende to geue vnto them, as sayth Reynulph, three thousand pounde, or else as Poly­dore sayth, bicause by his preaching and godly lyfe, he went about to conuert these barbarous people vnto the fayth of Christ, after they had kept him in harde prison by the space af .vij. Monethes, vpon an Ester euen, they after many vilanyes vnto him done at Greenewich within three Myles of Lon­don, stoned him to death, where he laye in the fielde vnburied a certaine of tyme, and after was caryed to London, and buried reuerently in the Church of Saint Paule. But afterward in the tyme of Canutus, he was taken vp againe, and caried to his awne Church.

King Egel­dred sent Em­ma ye Queene and her two sonnes Al­phred & Ed­ward vnto Richard the fourth Duke of Normādy, which was brother vnto the sayde Emma.¶ The king fearing the ende of this persecution, sent Emma the Quene, with her two sonnes Alphred and Edward vnto Richard the second of that name, then fourth Duke of Normandy, which was brother vnto the sayde Emma, with whome also he sent the Bishop of London.

¶ In the .xxxiiij. yere of the king, when the Danes had wonne a great parte of the Countrie of west Saxon, they returned againe to London warde: whereof hering the Londoners sent vnto them giftes and pledges.

¶ In all this season I finde no mention that euer the king gaue vnto the Danes any notable battayle, but kept him in holdes and places for his awne sauegarde, and to the small benefite or aduauntage of his Realme. And at the last he was chased vnto the Isle of Wight, where, with a small company he kept himselfe secret a great part of the Winter, and finally without battaile or comfort, sayled ouer to his wyfe into Normandy, and there helde him a certeyne of tyme.

Swanus being certifi­ed that the King was fled began to vse many ex­actions vpon the people of England.¶ When Swanus was asserteyned of the departure of the king out of the land, he was enflamed with excedyng pryde, so that he arrered excedyng im­positions of the people & grieued them wonderfully. And among other of his Tirannyes he demaunded a great summe of money out of S. Edmondes landes, which the rulers denayed, for so much as they claymed to be free of all kinges Tribute. Wherfore he entered into that territory, and wasted and spoyled the Countrie, and besydes that, despised that holy martyr, and threat­ned the place of his Sepulchre:Swanus the Danish Ty­raunt slame by Gods prouidence. But the men of that countrie fearyng this Tyrant, gaue them to fasting and prayer, so that shortly after he was slaine or sticked in an Euening amongest his knightes, with the sworde or dagger of Saint Edmond in the Towne of Thetford, as sayth Guydo, but Reynulph and other,The misera­ble death of Swanus Kinge of Denmarke. in the Towne of Gaynesborough, where he dyed yellyng and cri­yng the third day after: But Saxo Grammaticus sayth, that the sayd Swanus or Sweno, beyng conuerted vnto the Christen fayth dyed at the length very repentauntly and lyke a good christian man: And that he suffered Etheldred after that peaceably to reigne all his lyfe time as king of this lande by a com­position betwene them.

¶ In feare whereof Canutus his sonne, after that he was king,S. Edmōds buty enclosed by Canutus Sonne of Swanus. closed in the lande of that holy Martir with a deepe diche, and graunted to the inhabi­tauntes thereof great fredome, and quit them of all kingly taske or Tribute. And after builded a Church ouer the place of his Sepulture, and ordeyned there a house of Monkes, and endued them with fayre possessions. And after­ward it was vsed that kinges of England when they were crowned,Kinges of this Realme were accustomed to offer their Crow­nes to Saint Edmondes shrine, and to redeme them againe with a great sūme. sent for an offering their Crownes vnto S. Edmonds shrine, & redemed them again with a condigne price. Fabian. The which Polydore thinketh not to be true.

¶ Nowe when king Egeldred was certified of the death of Swanus, he by the procurement of his friendes returned home againe to his awne: But the Nobles of the Realme condicioned with him, that he should reforme his olde maners. And for performance thereof, he sent his sonne Edward into Englande before him, and in the Lent folowing the king came himselfe, and with his people sped him toward Lyndsey, where Canutus was at that tyme resiant, not prouided for the kinges so hastie comming.

¶ Wherefore Canutus, beyng not purueyed to withstande the king, fled to Sandwich in Kent. And for that he there proued such persons, as before tyme his father and he had take pledges off,Canutus the sonne of Swanus fled into Denmarke. and finding them not firme in their promyses, he caused all theyr noses and handes to be cut off, and then sayled into Denmarke, and returned the next yere with a great Nauye, and sayled about the land, and tooke prayes in the South countrye, whereof the Kinges eldest sonne named Edmond, made prouision with the ayde of Edry­cus to go against him.

¶ But when he should haue met with Edrycus at a place assigned,Edrycus a false traytor. and his hoste, he was of him deceyued, and therfore was compelled to geue place vnto his enemies. And as it was after knowne, the sayde Edrycus had pro­mised his fauour and ayde vnto the sayde Canutus. By reason whereof Ca­nutus entered the Countrie of West Saxons, and forced them to sweare to him fealtie, and to geue to him pledges.

¶ In this season, the king beyng at London,The death of King Egel­dred. was taken with a greuous sicknesse and dyed, and was buryed in the Church of Saint Paule, where at this day in the North Isle behynde the Quyer, apereth a token in the wall of his Sepulture, he reigned .xxxvj. yeres, leauing after him two sonnes, Edmond, and Edward.

COnstantine the fourth, reigned among the Scottes thre yeres, 1000/23 by meane of him, and of Malcolme the sonne of Kenneth, the Realme of Scotland was miserably tormented with ciuile warre.

GRime reigned in Scotlande .ix. yeres, 1002/25 and against him Malcolme made fierce warre for the Crowne, which was appeased by the counsayle of a Bishop called Fothadus.Grime king of Scottes. But the Scottes not contented to sustaine the Ti­rannie of their king Grime, rose vp against him, whereof ensued much trou­ble in Scotland. Malcolme vanquished and slue Grime, and tooke on him the Kingdome, and reigned .xxxj. yeres. To him the Lordes of Scotlande graunted first the wardes and mariages of their heyres.Wardes and mariages of the heyres first graūted to the king in Scotland. And not long after Olanus, and Ouetus, two Capitanes of the Danes inuaded Scotland, and vanquished king Malcolme, and subdued Murrey: But not long after, Malcolme repayred his army, and discomfited the Danes, and slue Quetus.

& And shortly after, Camus another Capitaine of the Danes, inuaded [Page 168] Scotlande,Camus stand. and nere to Ferrey was discomfited and slaine, and the place to this day is called Camus stand. Fabian.

¶ Then Canutus by the commaundement of Swanus, brake into Scot­land, with whom the Scottes fought a terrible battail, to the great damage, losse, & hurt of both partes: But after this battaile a peace was concluded.

1916/1 EDmond Ironsyde, the sonne of Egeldred, or Etheldred, and also Ca­nutus, the sonne of Swanus king of Denmarke, did by the consent of certeyne of their friendes on eyther syde, take vpon them the gouerne­ment of this lande. The Londoners with the assistance of some Lordes of Englande fauoured Edmond: But the more part of the Lordes fauoured Canutus, and specially the spiritualtie that before tyme had sworne fealtie to his father. And he then beyng at Southampton swore vnto them, to be a true and good Iustice, and to entreate the people soberly and righteously.

¶ Then Edmond beyng of the Archebishop of Yorke crowned at London and the solemnitie finished and ended, he sped him to West Saxon, and sub­dued that Country.Canutus as­saulted ye city of London. In which tyme Canutus drewe with his people to Lon­don, and would there haue entered: But that was forbodden him of the Lon­doners. For the which he layde his ordinance about the Citie, entendyng to haue entered perforce: But it was not long or he was faine to breake his siege and to depart thence.

¶ When Canutus was put off from London, he drewe Westwarde, and in short tyme after met with king Edmond in Dorsetshire, besyde Gylling­ham, where betwene them was foughten a strong and cruell battaile: But in the ende Canutus was ouercome, and compelled to forsake the fielde.

¶ After this, they met againe in Worcester shire, or as Polydore sayth, at Andouer in Wiltshire,A cruell fight. where they fought a more strong and fierce battaile: For this was so strongly foughten on both partes, that men could not iudge which part had the better, nor which the worse: But as Reynulph sayth, ey­ther of them departed from other, eyther for werynesse of fight, or for lacke of the day.

¶ But on the Morowe folowyng, both hostes met againe and fought egerly. The which fight continuyng, Edricus espiyng king Edmond to be at a vauntage of wynning of the fielde, sodeinly pight a dead mannes heade vpon the head of a Speare,Edrycus a vile traytor. and cryed to the hoste of English men, flye, flye, you English men and saue your selues, lo, here is the head of Edmond your king. But Edmond beyng thereof warned, sped him to that part of the field, and behaued himselfe so comfortably amongest his men, that by his knightly courage, his people recouered that which before they had lost, and conti­nued the battaile vntill night, and caused Canutus to flye that Countrie, and to returne againe towarde London.

¶ Then king Edmond beyng aduertised that Canutus was returned toward London,Brentford which we nowe call Brainford. he folowed him and passed the Ryuer of Thamys, and de­liuered the Citie from the daunger of the Danes, and after encountered the Danes at a place called Brentford within seuen myles of London, where he had with them a cruell fight, and at length discomfited them. Fabian.

¶ But because the Aucthor whom I here folow leaueth many thinges vn­touched worthy of remembrance, which were done after the sayde battaile [Page 169] foughten by Andouer, I haue here thought good to supplye his defect by Polydore, who wryteth hereof, as foloweth: When Canutus was this dis­comfited, he traueyled all night long to Winchester warde, and gate him to a place of safetie: But Edmond as some do write pursued him not, but tur­ned to Sarisburie to rescue the Citizens there besieged of another company of Danes. Thether also shortly after came Canutus, where not farre from the same Towne they pitched a newe fielde, and as men hauing nowe ga­thered a new courage & refreshed themselues, fought very fiercely and egerly together, but with equall fortune tyll night came that parted them beyng we­ryed with long fighting. The next morning the Englishe men anone after the Sonne risyng, stoode ready aranged in battaile ray, awaytyng the com­ming of their enemies, vntill Canutus came and set vpon them. Then fought they together verie fiercely, but doubtfully withall, and in such wise that ma­ny went to wrecke and were slaine on both sydes. And when it drewe to­wardes the euening they gaue ouer on euen hande, neyther partie hauyng victory of other. On the next morowe both the hostes rested themselues, and tooke their repast, & gathered together the deade corpses of them that were slaine the day before, and burned them as the maner was then to do. And all this while they neuer vnarmed themselues. There were slaine at that time aboue .xx.M. on both parties. The night folowing Canutus dislodged as priuely as he could, & marched towards London:London besieged. The which city his Fleete had now in a maner besieged by water. But assoone as this theyr fliyng was once discried by the day light, Edmond folowed him at the heeles, and with a little ado raysed the siege: Wherefore, he entered the Citie triumphauntly, with great ioy and solempne pompe. Canutus beyng thus disapoynted of his hope, hauing gotten great prayes and bootyes out of the Countries there a­bout, departed thence to see his shippes which were newely entered into the Riuer of Rochester, called in olde tyme Medeganara, and nowe Medway, where the sayde Canutus taryed a season, partly to encrease his armie, and partly to learne by espyals the secret purposes of his enemies, the which he soone vnderstoode. For Edmond whose nature was not to sleepe hys mat­ters, hauing assembled his power with incredible celeritie, lay in campe not farre from Canutus, & there made a long exhortation vnto his Souldiours, the effect wherof was, that they should call to minde the number of battayles that they had foughten with the Danes already, and remember withall that the time nowe serued if they would play the men, to represse their cruelty and violence: and therfore he moued them in most earnest maner, that they would not cease to pursue and vrge them, till they had with one battaile cleane van­quished and conquered them, that an ende might once be made of their long and great trauayles. The Souldiours beyng incensed with this exhortation, and also wery of the intollarable pride and hautinesse of their enemyes which dayly molested and prouoked them, went with a fierce courage to set vpon them. In like maner Canutus, who had commaunded his Souldiours be­fore, to be dayly and hourely in a redinesse against the comming of the Eng­lish men, came into the field, and ioyned battail with them, where they fought more then foure houres together, but at the length the Danes began to geue backe. The which when Canutus perceyued, he commaunded his horsemen to rescue them in the foreward. But whiles it so chaunced that some of them [Page 170] gaue backe for feare, and some made no haste thether, the whle army brake aray, and then feare hauing the vpper hand of shame, they fled away. There were of the Danes slaine at that tyme three thousand and fiue hundred, of the which number many were Dukes, and Capitaynes of great birth: But of Englishe men .vj.C. at the most, and they all footemen. King Edmondnes in­tent and purpose was to haue had the vse and fruition of that victory, that is to say, so narrowlye to haue pursued his enemies, that he woulde then haue cleane destroyed them, that which vndoubtedly had beene done, if fortune had not bene against him. For whiles after this great battayle he was in great consultation about the pursuyng of his sayde enemyes, he thought it would be greatly for his aduauntage, if he both rested himselfe the residue of the same day, and the night folowing, and permitted his Souldiours to do the lyke. And so this little time seemed sufficient vnto Canutus to saue himselfe, but not to Edmond. In like maner on the next morow, king Edmond assone as it was once day, mindyng to haue the spoyle of the fielde, brought his Soul­diours out of the Campe, to the entent they should afterwardes pursue their enemyes, and the rather because he had intelligence howe they that were the day before dispersed, were nowe gathered together againe, and had passed the ryuer of Thamys, marchyng as fast as they could towardes Norffolke, and Suffolke. Wherefore king Edmond hasted thether wth all he myght, to ayde his people there against his sayde enemies. And so vpon a watch­worde geuen he set vpon them. And albeit some layde vpon the hindmost, and some stroke in the middest, aswell on the right hand as on the left, yet the Danes for all that gaue not backe. Euery Captayne encouraged his awne Souldiours to sticke vnto it manfully: But specially king Edmond admoni­shed his Captaines that they should cause their Souldiours to kepe array, ceassyng not to say vnto them with a loude voyce that the same day if they woulde play the men a little while, they should confirme vnto them all their former trauayles & victories, or else should be the beginning of most greuous sorowes and miseries, if they gaue neuer so little backe. By the which words the Souldiours were sodeynly so animated to fight, that the Danes began a little to shrinke and geue backe. The which when Canutus perceyued, by and by he set vpon the left wing of Edmondes hoste, the which were likeliest to do most harme, and so releued his distressed Souldiours, and that did he with such violence and manly courage, that he felled and layde on the ground as many as were in his way: By reason whereof it came to passe, that a great number of the English men nowe weried with long fightyng, and hee­ring the rumor of the great slaughter of their company on euery syde, sodeyn­ly fled away for feare. The which when King Edmond perceyued, he gate before them, and stayed them for a whyle: But when at the length his whole armye was quite disordered and out of aray, it was not then possible for him to set them in araye, and bring them into the fielde agane which they had once forsaken. Here the English men, when the streytes and passages were all stopped by theyr enemyes, so that none of them had any minde to make re­sistance, or hope to flye away and escape, were almost all slaine, specially such of them as were the best and worthyest Souldiours.

¶ Now king Edmond with a verie few with him, neuer ceassed iourney­ing Westward till he came to Gloucester, whome Canutus chased the space [Page 171] of two houres, but could not ouertake him.

¶This losse and discomfiture, though it greatly weakened and dismayed the Englishmen, specially because London and manye other good townes and places were then for feare, rebelled vnto the Danes: yet king Edmond vsed neuerthelesse diligence in preparing a newe armie, and so did likewyse Canutus, which at length came vnto his enimie by long and great iourneys. For they knewe well that if they did fight againe, they should with one bat­taile trie who should haue all. And king Edmond was nowe vtterly deter­mined at the next conflict to put himselfe in exstreme hasard, and eyther to wynne all or lose all. And therefore both the armies being nowe readie to fight, stood so nere together that the one might see the other, not farre from Seuerne side. At what tyme Edricus (as some reporte) began to perswade with the two kings, that they should common together before the beginning of the battaile, to see whether they coulde fall to any agreement betweene themselues, because he knewe right well that this thing should be as much for the commoditie of the Danes as of the Englishmen. For now he that be­fore time was wont to be the chiefe worker of all trechery and mischiefe, be­ganne to counterfeyt honestie, in going about to set an vnitie and peace, be­twixt the two sayde most redoubted and valiant princes. The which princes not mislyking with his counsayle, for that present season, refused not to fol­low it, albeit they thought it would be to small effect and purpose. And so they communed together a little while, not without the great expectation of the beholders what would be the ende and come of it. But where vpon they concluded among themselues it is altogether vncertaine. Some saye that peace was agreed vpō condition that Canutus should haue Mertia or mid­dle England, and Edmond all the west part of the realme.

¶And in this time Emma the wyfe of Egeldred,Emma sent her two sōnes Alphred and Edward vn­to her brother Richard duke of Nor­mandy. fearing the fortune of warre, sent her two sonnes Alphred and Edward vnto her brother Richarde the second of that name and fourth Duke of Normandy.

¶But Edricus, which as before is sayde was euer subtile of wyt, consi­dering the good fortune of king Edmond and his knightly courage, thought that at length he should ouercome the Danes. Wherefore to saue his lande, and to bring about his malicious treason,Edricus by subtiltie ob­teyned the kings fauour he sought the wayes and meanes how he might stand in his grace and fauour, and at length obteyned his en­tent, and swore to him to be his true subiect.

¶When king Edmond had a whyle stayed at London, he then made to­ward the Danes that then were in Kent,The Danes discomfited at Otford in Kent. and met with them at a place cal­led Otford, and there discomfited them, and chased Canutus to the Isle of Shepey. And there he tooke shipping and sayled about the lande, and at the last entred into the Countrie of Mertia, and spoyled a parte thereof.

¶ Then the two hostes met soone after at a place called Ashedowne,Edricus a­gaine as a traytor re­uolted to the Danes. whereafter a long sight Edricus with his retinue fled to the comfort of the Danes: By meane whereof king Edmond was put to the worsse, for many noble men were slaine vpon his party: among the which the Bishop of Lyn­coln, and the Abbot of Ramsey were two, and were come thether to haue intreated a peace betweene the two princes.Edricus had a subtile wit But when this was layde to the charge of Edricus, he by his vntrue meanes, so excused himselfe, that no man myght charge him wth any default.

¶ Thus this mortall warre continuing betwixt these two martiall prin­ces, to the great desolation and mortalitie of the people, one of the Knightes of the partie of king Edmond,A good ora­tion. gate him to an high place, where he might be somewhat heard of the hoste, and spake in this wise: daylie we dye, and no man hath the victorie: For Edmond maye not be ouercome for his great strength, and Canutus maye not be ouercome for fauour of fortune. What shall then be the fruite of thys continuall strife? none ther but when the Knightes bene all slaine on eyther partie, then the Dukes compelled by nede will accord, or else they must fight alone without Knights. Then seing thys must be the ende, why do they not one of these two? If they accord? why is not this kingdome sufficient for twaine, that sometyme suffised for .vij. If their coueteousnesse and greedie desire of Lordships be so great, that eyther hath indignation to take and part with other, or else the one to be vnder that other, then let them fight alone, that will be the Lordes alone, least if all men fight, all men be slaine, by meane whereof no men shall be left to be vn­der the Lordship or leading of Dukes, nor yet to defend kings against their strong enimies or nations. Fabian.

¶ Some sayth Polidore, whome it repenteth not me to follow, doe write that the matter was done after this maner. One of the Capitaines, whe­ther it were Englishman or Dane, it is not knowne, hauing first lycence graunted him to saye his minde, spake in the presence of both the kings on thys wise.

¶ O most doubtie and valiant Emperours, you haue nowe fought long ynough one against another: There hath beene bloud ynough shed betwixt you both. Your valiantnesse and the manly courage also of your Souldiours is sufficiently tryed. And yet can neither of you awaye with good or euill for­tune. For if it so chaunce that one of you haue the vpper hande of the other, he more fiercely pursueth his vanquished enimie: Agayne, if his fortune be to be ouercome, yet prepareth he a freshe battaile against his vanquisher. O what wilfulnesse is this of yours (noble Princes) that can not be ouercome and perswaded by reason? doe you more regard warre then peace? Whether rageth this your greedie desyre of Empire? If you fight for a kingdome, and that be your quarrell and the cause why ye thus warre one against ano­ther, deuide you then this most flourishing and wealthie Realme betwixt you, the which in times past was counted sufficient to maintaine .vij. kings: But if glorie doe pricke you to hasard the vncertaine chaunce of Empire or seruitude, deuise you some wayes by your selues whereby the matter maye be determined without any great slaughter or bloudshed which of you both shall haue the souereintie. Thus spake this Capitaine vnto them. But the latter sentence pleased king Edmond, and so did it Canutus also whome fortune fauoured. And so by his perswasions they accorded at the length to trie the matter in their awne persons by dynt of sworde, hetherto Polydore.

¶These wordes thus spoken, were right well allowed of both hostes, for at this time,A truce taken. a truce was made betweene both the princes for a certaine tyme, after which tyme ended, were it by the occasion of these wordes, or o­therwise, the sayde two princes Edmond and Canutus, agreed to trie their quarels betwene them two onely.

¶ And for this was assigned by both their agrements, a little Isle then [Page 173] called Olney nere vnto Gloucester. In which place,A Combate betwene two Princes. at the daye and tyme appointed, the two Champions met without company or assistance within the sayde Isle, the hostes of both parties standing without the Isle, and there abyding the fortune of this combate. There eyther proued other, first with sharpe Speares, and after with kyne and cutting swordes. What shall I of this make any longer processe, when eyther had other well proued and assayed, by receiuyng of harde and sore strokes, by the first motion of Canu­tus, as most Writers testefie, they at the last agreed and kissed together as louers, to the great comfort of both the hostes.

¶And shortly after,This realme was deuided betweene king Edmōd & Canutus. by the aduise of both their counsayles they condiscen­ded and agreed vpon a particion of the lande, which immediatly was done to both their contentations, and they loued after, as two brethren, during their naturall lyues.

¶ But the Serpent Idre, of enuy and false conspiracie which euer bur­ned in the heart of Edricus, was kindeled so sore, that of pure force it must breake out into a light flame, so that what he might not accōplish by his awne person, he fulfilled by his awne sonne, as testifie diuerse Authors. For as af­firmeth Guydo, this sonne of Edrycus awaityng his time,Edricus his sonne slue king Edmōd with a speare as he sate in a house of easement. espyed when the king was at a house of easement to purge nature, and with a Speare strake him int the fundament, and so into the body, whereof king Edmond shortly after dyed at Oxenford. Notwithstanding there is great diuersitie amongest wryters touching his death which for breuites sake I omit. For Marian sayth, that he dyed at London by naturall sicknesse.

¶ The king thus being slaine, anone Edrycus thinkyng thereby to be great exalted, sped him in all hast to Canutus, and saluted him as king, and shewed him of this treason, onely done for his loue.

¶ When Canutus had well considered the confession of this Edricus, he lyke a discrete and righteous Prince, sayde vnto him in this wise. Edrycus, for that thou hast for the loue thou bearest to me, slaine thine naturall Lorde, which I most loued, I will exalt thine head aboue all the Lordes of Eng­land. And forthwith commaunded him to be taken, and his head to be striken off, and pight vpon a Speares head,A iust re­warde for a Traytor. and after set vpon the highest gate in London. But the Aucthour of Polichronicon sheweth in the .xviij. Chapter of his sixt booke that Canutus after the death of Edmond gaue vnto Edry­cus the Lordship of Martia or myddle Englande, and by his counsayle exi­led Edwyn the brother of Edmond called the king of Chorles, and through his counsayle also executed many cruell deedes.

¶ Finally, howsoeuer this noble Prince came to his death, it is agreed that he dyed, when he had reigned one yere, and somewhat more, and is bu­ryed at Glascenbury, by his Grandfather Edgar, and left behynde him two sonnes, that is to say, Edmond, and Edward, as sayth Fabian.

CAnutus or Knot, 1018/1 by the death of king Edmond had the whole gouer­nance of the Realme, and forthwith he assembled a counsayle at Lon­don, and then was consecrated and annoynted king, of Alurede Arche­bishop of Cauntorbury, where among ther thinges that were debated in the counsayle, a question was moued, whether in the composition made be­twene Edmond, and Canutus, any speciall remembraunce was made for the [Page 174] children or brethren of Edmond for any porcion of any part of the land.

¶ Wherevnto, it was aunswered of the Lordes, naye, affirming further­more with an othe (for the kinges pleasure) that they to the vttermost of their powers would put off the blood of Edmond in all that they might.Flatterers. By reason of which aunswere and promes, they thought many of them to haue stand in the great grace and fauour of the King, but it turned all otherwise.

¶ For many, or the more part of them, specially such as Canutus percey­ued and knew, were sworne before to Edmond and his heyres, and also were natiue Englishmen, he mistrusted and disdeyned euer after. In so much, that some he exiled,Dissemblers well rewar­de [...]. and some were slaine, and some by Goddes punishment dyed sodeynly, and came to a miserable ende.

¶ But shortly after by the counsayle of dyuerse of his Lordes, he outlawed Edwyne the brother of Edmond surnamed king of Chorles. But yet he was afterwarde reconciled to the kinges fauour, and lastlye was slaine by one of his awne seruauntes.

¶ Canutus also by the sayde counsayle, sent the two sonnes of Edmond, named as before is sayde Edmond and Edward, vnto his brother Swanus then king of Denmarke,Edmond and Edward the sonnes of king Ed­mond, were sent to Swa­nus king of Denmarke. to be slaine after the opinion of some wryters: But he abhorring that deede, sent them to Salamon then king of Hungary, as sayth Guydo and other. Where in processe of tyme Edmond dyed, and hys brother Edward maryed Agatha the daughter of Henry the fourth, then Emperour of Almaine.

¶ Of the which Edward and Agatha, proceded Margaret that after was king of Scotland, and Christian that was a Nonne, and a sonne na­med Edgar, and surnamed Etheling: or as Polydore wryteth two sonnes, Edmond and Edgar.

¶Canutus, after he had set certaine things in some order within ye realme, he then deuyded the same into foure partes.Canutus de­uided the go­uernement of this realme into foure partes. That is to say, the first and prin­cipall parte, which at those dayes was west Saxon, he held vnder his owne guyding. East England the which conteyned Norffolke and Suffolke, he betooke to the rule of the Erle Turkillus a Dane, or as Polydore calleth him Thrugillus. Mertia he betooke (as some write) to the subtile Erle Edri­cus. And the fourth part which was Northumberland, he betooke to a Dane named Hircius. But lyke as the man of Indee, can at no time chaunge his colour, so this Edricus neuer chaunged his false maners. And notwithstan­ding the great benefits that he daylie receyued of his princes, euen lyke as he had bene false and deceyueable to other princes before, euen so now he v­sed himselfe toward Canutus.

¶ Wherefore he being accused and prooued faultie, was commaunded of the king to haue iudgement:Edricus the false Tray­tour put to death. The which was done immediatly, and his head for dyuers causes smitten off, and the same head with the body, for spite, cast into a foule and filthie place. But Reynulph Monke of Chester sayeth, that he was slaine by the kings agreement, within his palace at London, and his body with the head throwne after into the Towne Diche: Thus with shame he ended, that in falshood and dissimulation continued most of his life.

A Parlia­ment.¶ In the .xv. yere of his reigne, he called a Parliament at Oxenforde, where among other things, it was enacted, that Englishmen and Danes should holde and firmely keepe the lawes of Edgar late king.

¶And in this tyme dyed Swanus,Swanus king of Den­marke dead and Canu­tus succeded him in the sayde king­dome. that was brother to Canutus king of Denmarke without issue, wherefore that land fell vnto Canutus. For the which cause, he with a strong armie sayled thether to take the possession, and to set the Countrie in an order, or after some writers, to appease and with­stand the Vandales that then had pierced that lande, and done therein much harme. Wherein Goodwyn the Erle, whose daughter Edward the confessor after maryed with a certaine number of Englishmen,Erle Good­win. fell vpon the Van­dales by night, and distressed them in suche wise that Canutus had of them his pleasure. For this deede the king had Erle Goodwyn euer after in good fauour and loued Englishe men more specially.

¶ But Polydore reporteth this storye touchyng the kinges goyng into Denmarke farre otherwise, after this maner. When the Parliament (sayth he) was ended, he determined with himselfe to reforme many misorders in the common welth, and to bewtifie and furnishe the Realme with Nobilitie, and to do things that generally should redound to the great wealth and com­moditie of all English men. But it so fell that he was sodeinly certified of the inuasion made by them of Norway into Denmarke, and desyred with­all of his people there to come and ayde them with all speede. The which thing seemed vnto Canutus to be a matter of no small importance. For when Olanus king of Norway heard how the power of Canutus dayly encreased in such wise as he thought was daungerous for his estate, beyng afearde that he would make clayme vnto the sayd kingdome of Norway, which som­tymes belonged vnto his auncestours, and therefore desyrous to cut off, and empeach his victoryes, he together with his brother Harolde, a right dough­ty knight, inuaded the Realme of Denmarke, destroiyng and wastyng the Countrie euery where as he went, dayly fighting and skirmishing with the Garrisons that lay in sundry places of that Countrie, in such wise that it was thought he would in short space winne all, if speedy resistance were not madē to deliuer the Realme from such an iminent daunger. Wherefore Canutus mustered both Englishmen and Danes with a tryce, and hauing nowe all thinges redyly prepared for warre, tooke shipping, and the winde seruyng him well, was soner arriued in Denmarke then a man would haue thought, where he found his enemies in armes, and the Country wasted and destroy­ed on euery syde. Then commaunded he his Banners and Pennons to be displayed, and his Standard to be aduaunced and the army to follow, where euery thing was done as soone as it could be spoken.

¶ And here nowe were the Englishe men specially desyrous to do some noble deedes of armes, as well thereby to winne honour and shewe their manly courage and prowesse, as to purchase themselues the greater grace and fauour with their prince. Then met the two armies and fought so fierce­lye together, that they filled the Elament with great cry and noyse that they made. Long it was or it apered to whether partie the victory should encline. At the length the English men so fiercely assayled the enemies that they ouer­came them. On the Morow Canutus pursuyng his enemies, tooke his iourney towardes Norway. And when he was entred into the Countrye, there met him incontinent Ambassadors, which were sent vnto him to intreat of peace, and submission, and to desyre him of a generall pardon, whome he heard very curteously, and after he had receyued Hostages of them, he par­doned [Page 176] them of all trespasses and offences whatsoeuer they had done against him: And so was the kingdome of Norway recouered againe. Olanus des­peyring nowe of victory fled for succour vnto his father in lawe the Duke of the Easterlynges that he might lyue with him more safely in exile: The which Olanus whiles he went about to disturbe the quiet state of another mannes kingdome, lost his awne: yet to say the truth, the same Eodly and innocent man lost nothing at all, in asmuch as in all these his aduersities and troubles, he behaued himselfe alwayes in most honest and verteous wise, and therefore was counted of all men a very holy man. And it foloweth a little after in the same wryter: In this battaile Canutus proued the Loyaltie and manly prowesse of the Englishe men, whome for that cause, he euer after­wardes loued out of measure, and rewarded them with great giftes accor­dingly.Canutus maried Emma ye late wife of Egelredus & had by her a sonne named Hardicanutꝰ And when the king had thus taken order with his affayres in Den­marke, he returned shortly into England. And soone after he maried Emma the wife lately of Egelredus, of the which he had a sonne, & named him Har­dycanutus, and after the English Chronicle, Hardyknought.

¶But Polidore wryteth that this mariage was concluded on in the former Parliament. For Canutus hauing none issue, but onely two sonnes base borne, and begotten of a Concubine of his named Aluina, of the which two sonnes the one was called Harold, and the other Sweno: And desirous to haue suche issue as might lawfully succede him, maryed Emma the wyfe of Etheldred, which with her sonnes Alfred and Edward were banished the realme & lyued in Normandy with Richard her brother Duke of that coun­trie, vnto the which Duke the sayde king maried also his sister Hestritha, at the same tyme.

Malcolme kinge of Scots ouer­throwne and brought to subiection to the king of England.¶In the .xvj. yere of his reigne, the Scots rebelled against him: wher­fore he with a great armie entred Scotlande, and at length ouercame the king of that lande, named then Malcolme and brought them againe to hys subiection, as sayth Marian the Scot. By reason of which victorie, Canu­tus was then king of foure kingdomes, of England, of Scotland, of Den­marke, and of Norway.

¶Then as sayth sundry Authours, after that he had betaken this land of England to the guyding of Leofricus,Leofricus, Egelnotus. Egelnothus and other, he then retur­ned into Denmarke. And from thence he went in pilgrimage to Rome in the .xvij. yere of his reigne, and redeemed the Schoole of Saxons free of all former Tribute graunted as before in the stories of Iew and Offa is some­deale touched:Rome scot redéemed. which redemption of Tribute (as sayeth Guydo) was called Rome Scot, as ye maye reade more in Fabian.

Canutus king of foure kingdomes.¶ After his returne from Rome, he beganne somewhat to swell with pride: But to say truth, he was a king of great magnificence, and he vsed such iustice mixed with temperance that in his daies, in the west partes of the worlde, there was no Prince of renowne lyke to Canutus and besides that, he was greatly beloued and drad of all his subiects.

¶Thys king Canutus when he had reigned ouer this Realme .xix. yeres, he dyed and was buried at Winchester,Canutus dead and left behinde him two sonnes. leauing after him two sonnes begot­ten vpon his wiues, the eldest named Harold, and the yongest Hardikanitus, the which while his father lyued, was made king of Denmarke. Fabian.

But Polydore sayeth that Canutus dyed in Normandy, and was buried [Page 177] at Roane, whose wordes are these: It was not long after, but Canutus was enforced to make great warre vpon Richard Duke of Normandy, bi­cause he hauing no feare nor regarde vnto the Lawes, had caused himselfe to be deuorced for a verie light and trifling matter from his wyfe Estritha sister (as is aforesayde) of Canutus, who being desyrous to be reuenged vpon the sayde Duke for the same iniurie, prepared a great Nauie and sayled vnto Normandy. Nowe his armie was scarcely set a lande and encamped in the enemies Countrie when worde was brought him of the death of his sonne Sweno Lieutenaunt or Lorde Deputie of Norway, whome he speciallye loued, the which thing so wounded his hart with anguishe and sorrow, that he fell into an Ague, whereof he dyed shortly after. Then (as it foloweth in the same Authour) his funerall obsequy being finished at Roane: the Soul­diours vpon safe conduyt and lycence graunted them to depart in safetie, re­turned home againe into England.

HArolde the base sonne of Canutus and of Elgina, or Algina, 1038/1 after the death of his father reigned ouer England. This man for his nymble­nesse and swiftnesse of foote, was surnamed Harefoote.Harold harefoote. In his begin­ning there was great strife among the Lordes, in a Parliament holden at Oxford, for that some were in doubt of his birth, and whether he were the kings sonne or not, and specially Erle Goodwyn which did the vttermost of his power to haue set him by, and to haue preferred his brother Hardikini­tus the sonne of Etheldred and Emma, or anye of the sonnes of Etheldred and Emma that were in Normandy vnto that honor. But Leofricus whom Canutus so much loued and trusted, with the ayde of the Danes and Londo­ners, so stoutly withstoode Goodwyne and hys sonnes, that they fayled of their purpose.

¶Assoone as this Harolde was crowned,Emma the Stepmother of Harold is banished. he gate him in all haste to Win­chester, and there tirannically seased vpon all the goodes and treasure which Canutus had left vnto the sayd Emma, and then banished her the lande. The which Emma sayled then into Flaunders, and there of Baldwyn the Erle was reuerently and curteously receyued, and obteyned of him the Castell of Bruges, where she made her aboade during the lyfe of this Harolde. The cause why she went not into Normandy, was because William then Duke there was by reason of his tender yeres and minoritie, not able to gouerne of himselfe, but was vnder the tuition and gouernance of others.

¶ This Harold continued his life and reigne with little fruite, and lesse profite to the land, nor yet of the Subiectes, so that of him, either for vice that was in him, which learned men thought not meete to put in memory, or else for the rudenesse of his lyfe, and spending vainely of his tyme, which was not worthy of memory, nothing at all is put in remembraunce,Harold dead. but that he dy­ed at London, or as some write, at Oxenford, and was buried at Westmin­ster, when he had reigned three yeres and odde Monethes, leauyng after him none heyre, and therfore his brother Hardikinitus which was king of Denmarke, was king next after him.

DVlcane king of Scottes reigned at this time, seuen yeres, and was slaine by his brother Germayne Makebreth. 1040/3

1041/1 HArdikinitus, or Hardiknot, the sonne of Canutus, and of Emma, was nade king of Englande: This man after the death of his brother Ha­rolde was sent for into Denmarke, or as some write into Flaunders, where he was with his mother Emma, and was most ioyously receyued and crowned at London of Ethelnotus, then Archebishop of Cauntorbury: But he was of such a cruelty, that he sent Alfricus then Archebishop of York, and Erle Goodwyn vnto Westminster,A cruell re­uengemēt. commaundyng them for the iniury by his brother Harolde done vnto his mother Emma, that they should drawe the Corps and dead body of the sayd Harolde out of the ground, or place where it was buried, and cause it to be throwne into the ryuer of Thamys, which was done according to his commaundement. The which Corps after, as sayth Guydo and other, was found by a Fisherman, and buried vnreuerently with­in the Church yarde of Saint Clement standyng without the Temble barre of London.

¶ And as Reynulph sayth, for a more cruelty, he caused first the dead hed of his sayde brother to bee smitten off from the bodye, and then throwen into the sayde Ryuer.

Dane Gelt.¶ This king also leuyed the aforenamed Tribute named the Dane gelt, and spent it to the little profite of the Realme, but gaue the same vnto Mariners and Shipmen, and to sundry lewde persons, he gaue great and vnsitting fees and wages,Greesse of fare. and was of such prodigality, that his Boordes and Tables were couered foure tymes in the daye, and the people serued with great excesse both of meate and drinke.

¶ Nowe for the leuiyng of the aforesayde Tribute, the Commons great­ly grudged,Murther & mischiefe. so that in Worcester two of his seruauntes, which were assigned to gather that money, were there slaine. For the which murder the king was so sore displeased, that he brent a great part of that Towne.

¶ Some Aucthours write that the king betooke all the rule of the lande vnto his mother Emma,Erle Good­wyn a subtill man. and to the Erle Goodwyn, the which Goodwyn had maried the daughter of Canutus, gotten vpō his first wife Elgina: by whom many things were misordered, & specially by the subtilty of ye Erle Goodwin.

¶ This Erle had many sonnes, as sayth Reynulph, in his sixt booke, and xxv. Chap. By his first wife that was king Canutus sister, & not his daugh­ter,A plague a­mong Erle Goodwyns wyfe and children. he had one sonne: The which with the stroke of a horse was throwne into the Ryuer of Thamys and drowned: and the mother was smitten with a blast of lightning, and so dyed. Of whome it is there remembred that she was so vngracious, and of so vile condicions, that she set yong women to whoredome, for to gather by that vnlawfull meane riches. After which wife so dead, he maryed the seconde, of whome he receyued sixe sonnes, that is to say, Swanus, Harold, Tostitus, Wilnotus, Sirthe, & Leofricus, & a daugh­ter named Goditha, which after was maryed vnto Edward the Confessor.

Alphredus▪ Edvvard.¶ The two sonnes of Egelredus, that is to say, Alphredus, and Edward, which as ye before haue heard were sent into Normandie by Emma theyr mother came in the time of the reigne of this king into England to visite and see theyr mother, and brought with them a great number of Normans. Then this Goodwyn imagined in his minde, howe he might preferre his daughter Godith to one of these brethren, and thought with himselfe that the eldest woulde disdaine that mariage, and therefore he thought to ioyne her to the [Page 179] yonger, and to make him king, and her Queene,A trayterly practice of Goodwyn and to that purpose he com­passed the death of the elder.

¶ And first Goodwyn practised with the Lordes of England, and sayd, it was a great ieopardie for the lande, to suffer so many straungers to enter the land without licence, wherefore it were necessary that they were restray­ned in tyme. By which meanes he gate aucthoritie to order the matter in such sort as to him should seeme best, and that of his awne power, because he was of most might next vnto the king: Wherefore he went and met with the sayd Normans, and slue of them the greatest number. For vpon Guyld downe,Normans cruelly mur­dered by Goodwyn. he slue alway .ix. and saued the tenth. And yet because he thought there was to many of them liuyng, he eftsoones tithed them againe, and slue euerye tenth knight of them, and that by most cruell death,Alphred had his eyen put out and was sent to Ely, and there dyed. as windyng theyr guttes out of their bodies (as sayth Reynulph) and among other, put out the eyen of the el­der brother Alphred, and sent him to Ely, where he dyed in short tyme after: But Edward was conueied some other way, and was brought to his mother. But she fearing the treason of Goodwin, sent him sone ouer the Sea againe.

¶ When Goodwyn was after accused for this cruell deede, he excused him selfe, and sware depely that he was forced of the king so for to do.

¶ Then it foloweth, that this Hardikinitus beyng at a feast or mariage dinner at Lambeth besyde London, mery and iocund,The death of king Hardi­kinitus. while he stood drinkyng he fell downe sodeynly and dyed, or waxed dumbe, and lay vntill the .viij. day after, not without suspicion of poysoning as some wryte, when he had reig­ned two yeres and was buried at winchester, leauing after him none issue.


¶ Here endeth the line or of spring of Swanus, and all the other Danes that ruled in England, so that af­ter this king, the blood of the Danes was cleerely extinct and put out from all kingly dignitie within this Realme of England. And also the persecution of them seased cleerely after this kinges death, the which had continued to reken from their first landing in the tyme of Brithricus king of west Saxon, and the .ix. yere of his reigne, by the terme of .CC.Lv. yeres.

EDwarde the sonne of Egeldred or Etheldred and of Emma his last wife, 1043/1 reigned ouer the realme of England next after the death of Har­dikinitus: The which Edwarde,This was Edward the confessor. immediately after the death of his brother in lawe aforesaide, was sent for into Normandy, and pledges layde for him, that he without fraude should be made king. And then he came with a fewe straungers. But Marian the Scot sayth that some of the Lordes had sent for Edward the outlawe, sonne of Edmond Ironside for to be theyr king, but after the affirmance of the same Aucthour, when he knewe we that Ed­ward his nephew was in possession of the land, he would meddle no further.

¶ Then this Edward by the great aduice of Goodwyn Erle of west Sax­on, and Leofricus Erle of Chester, was chosen king at London, and of Ed­sius, or Cadsius Archebishop of Cantorbury,King Ed­ward maried Goditha the daughter of Erle Good­wyn. and Alfricus Archebishop of Yorke on Easter Monday folowing consecrated at Winchester, and in pro­cesse of tyme after, he wedded Goditha the daughter of the Erle Goodwyn, which he had by his wyfe Thira, sister vnto Canutus the second, that of Guy­do is called Editha, the which he entreated in such wise, that he put her not from his bed, nor yet had carnally with her to do. Whether it were for hate of her kinne, or for loue of Chastitie, the truth is not shewed: But all Wryters agree that he continued his life without the vse of Women.

Dane Gelt discharged.¶ This king discharged Englishe men of the great Tribute called Dane gelt, the which before is often mencioned, so that after his time it was more gathered. And also he subdued the Britons or Welshmen that made warres within the boundes of the lande or fonters:Griffyn a re­bellion in Wales. But soone after theyr Duke or leader called Griffin, or Griffith, with the ayde of the Irishe men entered the Ryuer of Seuerne, and tooke manye prayers, and departed a­gaine without fight.Emma the mother of king Ed­ward accused of meōtenēcy with the Bi­shop of Win­chester.

¶ In the tyme of the reigne of this Edward, Emman his mother was ac­cused to be familier with Alwyn or Adwyne, Bishop of Winchester. Vpon which accusation, by counsayle of Erle Goodwyn, he tooke from her many of her Iewelles, and caused her to be kept very streghtly in the Abbey of War­well, and the Bishop he committed to the examination and correction of the Clergie: notwithstanding, Polidore saith, they were both committed toward in Winchester. But his mother more sorowyng the defamation of Alwyne the Bishop, than her awne estate, wrote vnto diuerse Bishoppes, & besought them of iustice, affirming that she was ready to abyde all lawfull and most sharpest tryall.

¶ Then dyuerse of the Byshoppes made labour to the king for her, and for the Bishop. But Robert then Archebishop of Cantorbury, beyng with their labour discontented, sayde vnto them in this maner. My brethren By­shoppes, sayde he, howe dare ye defence her, that is a wilde beast and not a woman?A beastly Bishop. she hath defamed her awne sonne the king. Fabian, and called her lecherous Lemman the Bishop, Christ her God. Polydore.

¶ But be it so, that the woman would purge the Priest, who shall then purge the womā, that is accused to consent to the death of her sonne Alphred, and procured venome to the empoysonyng of her sonne Edward? But how so it be,A cruell penance. that she be giltie or giltlesse, if she will go bare footed for her selfe o­uer foure ploughe shares, and for the Bishop ouer fiue ploughe shares bren­nyng, and fire hote: then if she escape harmelesse, he shall be assoyled of thys chalenge, and she also.

¶ This was of her graunted, and the day of purgation assigned: At which day the king and a great part of his Lordes were present,It is most lyke that he durst not be there for shame that he awarded such a tryall to a kings mother but this Robert the Archbishop made default and was not there, were it for pitie or other­wise. This Robert was a Monke in an house in Normandy, and came ouer by the sending for of the king, and was first made Bishop of London, and af­ter Archebishop of Cantorbury.

¶ Then shee was blindefolde, and led vnto the place betweene two men, where the Irons lay glowying hote,A great mi­racle if it were true. and passed the, ix. shares vnhurt. Then at the last she sayde, good Lord, when shall I come to the place of my purga­tion. When they vncouered her eyes, and shee sawe that she was past the paine, she kneeled downe and thanked God. Fabian.

The Arche­bishop was glad he was gone.¶ Then the king repented him, and restored vnto her, and the Byshop also, that which he before had taken from them, and asked them forgeuenesse: But the Archebishop of Cantorbury fled into Normandy.

¶ Polydore wryteth that king Edward was offended with his mother, for other causes aswell as for that she was suspected of the incontinent liuyng with the sayd Bishop: For it was layde vnto her charge that she was maried vnto Canutus beyng both a straunger and an enemy vnto the Realme: And [Page 181] that she succoured not her children in the tyme of theyr exile and banishment, and lastly because there went a brute that she should imagine their deathes.

¶ It was not long after, that king Edward gathered a strong nauie at Southampton, or to saye more truely at Sandwich, forsomuch as he was warned that Swanus king of Denmarke entended to make warre vpon hym. But Reynulph fayth that he gathered this Nauie to withstande Ha­rold Harfagar, then king of Norway which entended to haue entered Eng­land. But he was letted by the aforesayde Swanus, that shortly after made warre vpon the sayde Harold and other.

¶ It is also reported of this king that being on a tyme in a certaine exta­sie of minde or high contemplation in the time of seruice, he fell sodeynly into a great laughter, contrarie to his wonted and accustomed maner. And when the standers by meruayled thereat, and asked of him what was the matter that he so did: he answered how the Danes and Norwayes were about by common consent to haue inuaded England with a great Nauie, and as they were in a readynesse to hoyse vp their sayles and to set forward, one brought foorth a Bolle full of Mede or Methe to drinke vpon a bone voyage:Dronkennes causeth mat­nes and mis­chiefe. and after that came Bolle after Bolle, so that after drinke came dronkenesse, and after that iangeling, and then strife, and at the last fighting: in the which many were slaine, and the rest returned to their awne home, so that they are now dispersed and gone from their purpose, and I trust (sayth he) that in my tyme forrein Nations and straungers will neuer inuade and disquiet thys Realme againe.

¶ In the .x. yere of his reigne (as sayeth Reynulph) and in the Moneth of September, Eustace Erle of Boloygne came a lande at Douer, which Erle had wedded king Edwards sister. And it so came to passe, that when this Erle was landed he conueyed himselfe in so secret maner from his com­pany that none of them could tell what was become of him, and they thought he had bene slaine in the towne: And in this search made for him, the hurly burly was such that a Citizen of the towne of Douer was slaine.How a folish act begat a great fray. By meane whereof the people arose, and in the questioning of this mans death, they ranne at length vpon the Erles company, and slue .xx. of his men, and woun­ded many mo: then the Erle appered and tooke his mens parte: But in the ende he was fayne to withdrawe himselfe with a fewe persons, and roade vnto the king then being at Gloucester, or as Polydore sayth, at Cauntorbu­ry, and made vnto him a greeuous complaynt of the men of Douer.

¶ But Mathew of Westmynster reporteth this storie otherwise, saiyng: About this time Eustachius Erle of Boloygne, who had maried king Ed­wardes Sister named Goda, landed with his treyne at Douer, where hys Souldiours as they sought for lodging after a proude and vndiscret maner fortuned to kyll a Townes man. The which outrageous fact when another Burgesse of the same towne perceyued, he kylled him againe that had done the murther. By reason wherof the sayd Erle and his company were greatly moued, and in their rage slue much people both men and women, besides chil­dren and olde folkes that were troden to death with men and horses. But when the straungers saw that the Burgesses came still m [...] and mo, flockyng on euery syde to rescue their neighbours, they toke their heeles like cowards and .xviij. of them beyng slaine in the flight, the rest sled to Gloucester where [Page 182] the king lay. Howbeit, Polydore sayth that this conflict was at Cauntorbury and not at Douer: But nowe to returne to the matter. After this ryot, Erle Goodwyn,Erle Good­wyn sent by the king to take order with the men of Douer for the death of ye straungers. forasmuch as to him was committed the rule of Kent, was char­ged to ryde thether, and to take wreche vpon the inhabitantes of that towne. But he withsayde that commaundement, and counsayled the king to send for the Wardeynes of the Castle of Douer, and the Rulers of the Towne, for to aunswere vnto such matters as should be layd against them, and if they were guiltye, to punish them, or else not.

¶ This Counsaile of Goodwyn pleased nothing the king, nor such as were about him, wherefore many mo Lordes where sent for. Among the which Leofricus Erle of Chester, & Seward Erle of Northumberland were two.

¶ After which assembly of the Lordes Erle Goodwyn had such monition of some of the counsayle, that he withdrewe himselfe from the Court, and ga­thered to him strength of knightes out of dyuerse shires, as west Saxons, and Kent, and houed at Beuerston vntill his sonnes came vnto him with mo peo­ple. Sone after, came vnto him his eldest sonne Swanus, and brought with him a faire companie, that he had arrered in Oxenfordshire, and Gloucester­shire: And Harolde his other sonne with a felowship that he had assembled in East Englande and Huntingdonshire, so that of these people were made a great hoste.

Goodwin ac­cused for vn­lawfull as­semblies.¶ Then Goodwyn was accused to the king for gathering of so great an hoste: But he excused him and sayde, it was done to withstande the Welshe men, the which prooued contrary. Then he was commaunded to send away the people, and to come himselfe with a certeyne number vnto the Court: but that he refused.

¶ Then the king and his Counsayle beyng at London, Goodwyn and Harolde, was againe sent for, and charged to come to the Court with .xij. personnes to attend on them, and no mo, and to render into the kings handes all knightes fees that he and Harold his sonne had within England. To this by them was aunswered,A lewde aun­swere of a subiect. that they might not come to the counsayle of Trea­chors & guilefull men, and that also with so fewe men in number they might not without perill or shame passe by the Country.

¶ Nowe during this tyme, a part of Goodwynes knightes withdrewe them, and his power began to deminishe, and the king in this meane season had gathered a strong host.Goodwyn an obstinate rebell. Then Proclamations were made that Good­wyn should come to the Court, as before is sayde, or else to auoyde the lande within fiue dayes. Wherefore, Goodwyn considering the ieopardie that he was in,Swanus, Tosty, and Gurth, ye thre sonnes of Goodwyn fled wt theyr father into Flaunders. tooke with him three of his sonnes, that is to say, Swanus, Tosty, and Gurth, or Biorno, and sayled into Flaunders, where he was receyued of the Erle Bladwyn, whose daughter Swanus his sonne had before ma­ryed, named Judith. And Harold and Leofricus, two of his other sonnes with a fewe shippes sayled out of Bristowe into Ireland. Fabian.

¶ Of this foresayde variance betwene the king, Erle Goodwyn, and his sonnes, I finde much diuersitye among wryters: For Mathewe of West­minster somewhat dissenting from my Authour, wryteth hereof as foloweth. Erle Goodwyn beyng greatly moued for the sleiyng of his men at Douer, assembled a great power out of Kent, Sussex, and the West Saxons. And so did likewise his eldest sonne Swanus out of his Seignory or honour, that [Page 183] is to wete, out of Oxfordshire, Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, Sommerset­shire, and Barkeshire, as did his sonne Harold also out of his honour of East England, Grantbridge, and Huntyngdon. When King Edward was infor­med hereof, he also assembled a great army, because he would be in a redinesse to fight with his enemies if neede were. Then came Goodwyn with hys army into Gloucestershire, and sent his messengers vnto the king to require him to deliuer Eustachius and his company vnto him, and if he refused so to do, then to shewe him that he would proclayme open warre against him. Vn­to whome the king beyng now in a redinesse and well furnished of all things necessary for warre, sent aunswere againe, that he would not sende him Eu­stachius, chargyng the sayd Goodwyn further, forsomuch as he had raysed an army against him, and without his leaue and licence disturbed the peace of his Realme, personally to apere at the Court at a day apoynted, and there to make aunswere to the sayde iniury, and misdemeanour before him and his Counsayle. But as Goodwyn durst not fight against the king, because hee thought himselfe to weake, so likewise would he not make his personall ape­rance as he was required. Wherefore, the sayd king by the decree and sen­tence of his Counsayle, banished him the Realme, with his fiue sonnes: who shortly vpon his banishement, with his wife Gina, and Tostius or Tostio his sonne, and his wife Iudith, the daughter of Baldwyn Erle of Flaunders, and two other of his sonnes, that is to say, Swanus, and Gurth, taking wyth them great store of treasure, tooke shipping, and sayled streight into Flaun­ders vnto the sayde Erle. His other two sonnes Harolde, and Leofwinus, went vnto Bristowe, and from thence gate them into Irelande. After that the king put away Edith the Queene, onely of displeasure conceyued agaynst her father, and appoynted that she should be kept in safe custody in the Abbey of Redwell by the Abbesse there, without any honourable entertaynement, hauyng one gentlewoman only to wayt vpon her. Hetherto Mathew. &c.

¶ When the king was asserteyned that the Erle Goodwyn with his fiue sonne was in this maner departed out of his land,Goodwen outlawed by the aucthori­tie of parlia­ment, and his three sonnes. he shortly after called a Parliament, and by the aucthoritie of the same banished Goodwyn and his three sonnes that were gone with him. And that done the king put his awne wife which was the daughter of Goodwyn called Edithe, a Lady of singuler vertue and learning, into the Abbey of Warwell with one mayden to be safe­ly kept, and tooke from her such Iewels as she had, as sayth Marian. And so Goodwyn and his said sonnes continued two yeres banished.Goodwyn & his people became pirates and theeues. In the which season he or his retinue tooke dyuere tymes prayers in the Marches of Eng­land and in the ende drew to him such strength, that he was purposed to haue entered the land with force, and to haue warred vpon the king. But by me­diatours that fauoured Erle Goodwyn,Goodwyn a­gaine restored to fauour. a peace was made betwene the king and him, so that in the ende he was receyued to grace with his sonnes, and his daughter the kinges wife restored to hir first and former honour. And for this peace to be continued for Goodwynes part was deliuered for pledges, a sonne of his called Wilnotus, and a sonne of Swanus, named Hacum, or as Polydore writeth, two sonnes of Goodwyn, named Tosto, and Biorna. The which two pledges, king Edward sent to William Duke of Normandy to be kept. And Algarus the sonne of Leofricus Erle of Chester, to whome the king had geuen the Erledome of Harolde, & he ruled it discretly in the tyme [Page 184] of his absence, and at his returne, delyuered it to him againe, gladly and without grudge.

Wylliam Duke of Normandy came into England, to visite and see the king.¶ During the tyme of this Banishment of Goodwyn, William Bastard, Duke of Normandy, came with a good company into this land, and was ho­nourably receyued, to whome the king made great cheere.

¶ And after he had taryed here a certeyne of tyme to his contentation, and pleasure, he returned to his awne with great giftes and rewardes. And Emma the kinges mother dyed shortly after,Emma the kings mo­ther dead. and was buried at Winchester. And Swanus the eldest sonne of Goodwyn went to Ierusalem, and from thence toward Licia, and dyed by the way of colde that he had taken in goyng barefoote. Then the Normanes that had geuen to the king euill counsaile against Englishe men, were by Goodwyn and his friendes exiled. Among which, Robert Archebishop of Cantorbury that has spoken sore against them was one, of whome Fabian speaketh.

The Scots rebelled.¶ In the .xiij. yere of this king, the Scottes rebelled against him. Wher­fore Seward Erle of Northumberland by the kinges commaundement ga­thered a great host, and entered that land, and behaued him so manfully, that in the ende he subdued the Scottes, and chased the king out of his Country, so that after king Edward gaue that kingdome vnto Malcoline,How king Edward gaue ye king­dom of Scot­land to Mal­colyne, to hold the same Realme of him and his heyres, as chiefe Lords of Scotland. sonne of the king of Cambris, or Cumberland, to be holden of him and his heyres kings, as chiefe Lordes of Scotland.

¶ Vpon Easter Monday the sayd yere, Goodwyn sittyng at the kinges Boorde, with other Lordes in the Castle of Windsore, or as some report, of Winchester, it happened one of the kings Cup bearers to stumble, and to re­couer againe, so that he shed none of the drinke: whereat Goodwyn laugh­ed and sayde, nowe that one brother, hath susteyned that other, whereby he meant, that the one foote or legge had stayed the other from falling. With which woordes,A wise reply of a king. the king marked him and sayde. Right so my brother Al­phred should haue holpen me, had not Goodwyn beene. The Erle then con­ceyued that the king suspected him of his brothers death, and sayde vnto the king in defending his vntruth: Sir, I perceyue well that it is tolde thee that I shoulde be the cause of thy brothers death. So mought I safely swalowe this morsell of bread that I heare holde in my hande, as I am giltlesse of the dede?A notable plague and iust iudgemēt of God. But he had no soner spoken the word, and put the bread in his mouth, but he was choked. Then the king commaunded him to be drawen from the boord by the legges, & so was he conueied to Winchester, & there buried. Fab.

¶ Mathewe of Westminster sayth, that the king when he sawe him fall downe strake dead before him, spake vnto them that were present, saiyng: haue away this dogge and traytour, and burye him in some common highe way, for he is not worthy of Christian buriall. Then his sonnes that stoode by drewe him from the Table, and vnwares vnto the king, buried him in the olde Abbey of the same Citie.

¶ But Marian the Scot sayth, that as Erle Goodwyn sate at the kinges Table on Easter Monday, he was sodeynly taken with a Palsey, or some o­ther sicknesse, and dyed the thirde day after: and his Lordshippes were ge­uen vnto Harolde his eldest sonne then liuyng, and Haroldes Erledome was geuen to Algarus the sonne of Leofricus, which was the Erledome of Ox­forde after some wryters.

¶ It was not long after that king Edward sent vnto the fourth Henry then Emperour of Almaine, Aldredus Bishop of Worcester with other no­ble men,Edward the sonne of Ed­mond Iron­side, returned into Englād, and shortly after dyed. praiyng him that he would sende into England his Cosyn Edward the sonne of Edmond Ironside, for so much as he entended to make hym as Heyre. The which request was fulfilled, so that he came into England sone after, the which as ye haue heard before was named Edward the outlaw. But as sayth Guydo and other, the yere after he came into England, he dyed at London and was buried at Westmynster.

¶ The yere following king Edward through euill counsaile exiled with­out gilt Algarus the sonne of Leofricus,Griffyn prince of Wales, re­belled. the which did associate himselfe with Griffyn king or Duke of Wales, and destroyed the Countrie of Her­forde, and did much harme to the Towne, and set the Mynster on fyre, and slue .vij. Chanons therof. Then the king sent Harold against him, the which chased the Welshmen into their awne boundes,Algarus was againe reconciled to the kings grace. and recouered the sayde Towne by appointment, holden by the sayde Algarus, and trenched it about and amended all hurtes before done by the Welshmen, and lastly reconciled the sayde Algarus and his company vnto the kings grace.

¶ About the .xv. yere of king Edward dyed the Noble Duke Seward, ruler of Northumberlande of a Fluxe, of whome Guydo reherseth dyuers notable actes whiche I passe ouer.Seward ru­ler of Nor­thumberland dyed with a va [...]lant cou­rage. Of him it is read that when he sawe well he should dye, he caused his armour to be put vpon him, and so armed and sitting in a Chayre, sayde, thus it becommeth a knight or man of honour to dye, and not liyng in his bed as another meane man, and so he dyed and was buried at Yorke, or as Reynulph writeth died at Yorke and was buried in the Abbey of Galmahan which he himselfe had founded. And his Erledom was after geuen to Tosty sonne of Goodwyn.

¶ In the .xvj. yere of this king dyed also the good Erle Leofricus Erle of Mertia and of Chester, & was buryed in the Abbay of Couentrie the which before he and his wyfe Godina had builded. This man purchased manye great priuileges for the towne of Couentrye & made it free from any maner of Tolle, except onely of Horsse. For the which also to haue free, the common fame telleth,Couentrie made frée. that after long request made to the king by his wyfe named Godina, he graunted her to haue it thereof freed, if that she woulde ride na­ked thorow the Towne, which she did, by meane whereof, it was freed.

¶ But Gaufride sayth that this gentle and good Lady did not onely for the freeing of the said Citie and satisfying of her husbands pleasure, graunt vnto her sayde Husband to ryde as aforesayde: But also called in secret maner (by such as she put speciall trust in) all those that then were Magistrates and rulers of the sayde Citie of Couentrie, and vttered vnto them what good will she bare vnto the sayde Citte, and how shee had moued the Erle her hus­band to make the same free, the which vpon such condition as is afore men­cioned, the sayde Erle graunted vnto her, which the sayde Lady was well contented to doe, requiring of them for the reuerence of womanhed, that at that day and tyme that she should ride (which was made certaine vnto them) that streight commaundement should be geuen throughout all the City, that euerie person should shut in their houses and Wyndowes, and none so hardy to looke out into the streetes, nor remayne in the stretes, vpon a great paine, so that when the tyme came of her out ryding none sawe her, but her hus­bande [Page 186] and such as were present with him, and she and her Gentlewoman to wayte vpon her galoped thorough the Towne, where the people might here the treading of their Horsse, but they saw her not, and so she returned to her Husbande to the place from whence she came, her honestie saued, her pur­pose obteyned, her wisedome much commended, and her husbands imagina­tion vtterly disapointed. And shortly after her returne, when shee had a­rayed and apparelled her selfe in most comely and seemely maner, then shee shewed her selfe openly to the people of the Citie of Couentrie, to the great ioy and maruellous reioysing of all the Citizens and inhabitants of the same, who by her had receyued so great a benefite.

¶Then Algarus his sonne was Erle after him. But Mathew of West­mynster wryteth that his wyfe Godina obteyned the sayde liberties of the Erle her husbande then Lorde of the sayde Towne.

¶ Harold the eldest sonne of Goodwyn was now in great authoritie, and ruled much of the kings armie.Algarus a­gaine accused and banished the realme. The yere folowing Algarus was accused by malice, and was banished the lande. Wherefore he fled againe to Griffyn Duke of Wales as he before had done, of whome he was ioyously receyued and mainteyned. The king being thereof informed, sent Harold into Wales to make warre vpon Griffyn, the which quit him in so knightly wise, that he chased the Welshmen, brent the sayde Griffyns palace at a place called Rut­lane, and destroyed his nauie, and then returned into England about myd­lent. But about the Rogation dayes the sayde Harold and his brother Tosty were sent thether againe with a strong armie: at which season they destroy­ed a great part of Wales, and in conclusion brought the Welshmen vnto due subiection, and forced them to geue pledges for the continuance of the same. And that done pursued so sore vpon Griffyn by the commaundement of the king,Griffyn prince of Wales slaine. that in the ende, his awne people for to purchase their owne lyues slue him, and sent his head vnto Harold in the Moneth of August: so that after the death of this Griffyn, by the commaundement of the king, the Countrie of Wales was committed to the guyding of the two brethren of Griffyn, the which fauoured more the kings partie in the time of warre, than they did their brothers.Algarus once againe reconciled to the kinges fauour. And this warre in Wales thus brought to an ende, Harold by his pollecie reconciled againe Algarus Erle of Mertia to ye kings grace, so that he continued in his fauour during his lyfe after.

¶In the .xx. yere of the reigne of the king: Harold sayled toward Nor­mandy to visite his brother Wilnotus and Hacun his Nephew, the which as ye before haue heard, were layd there for pledges for the peace to be holden vpon Erle Goodwynes side against the king. But he in his course of sayling was wether driuen by tempest into the Countrie or Prouynce of Pountith, where he was taken as a prisoner of the Duke there, and sent vnto Duke Wylliam of Normandy:Harold takē and brought into ye keping of Willyam Duke of Normandy. The which forced hym to sweare that he in tyme folowing should mary his daughter, and that after the death of king Ed­ward, he should keepe the lande of England to his behoofe, according to the will and minde of king Edward as some writers affirme. And it is further written that Harold to be in the more fauour of Duke Wylliam, shewed him that king Edward had in the presence of his Barony of England, admitted the sayde Wylliam for his heyre, and couenaunted with him, that if he ouer lyued the king, he would in safe wise keepe the lande to his vse. For the [Page 187] which tydings and promise, the sayde Wylliam graunted him his daughter to wife, which then was vnder lawful yeres of mariage with a great dower.

¶ And for to cause Harold to be the more constant in his promes, he deli­uered to him Hacum his Nephewe and sonne of his brother Swanus, the which he much desyred, and kept still Wilnotus the brother of the sayde Ha­rolde. After which couenaunts, sufficiently stablished and enacted: Harold departed from Duke William with great and riche giftes, and shortly after landed in England. And at his comming to the kinges presence, he shewed to him all that he had done in the aforesayd matters, wherwith the King was well contented, as affirmeth Fabian mine aucthour.

¶ Mathew of Westminster reporteth the matter thus. Tostius Erle of Northumberland, tooke his brother Harold by the heare as he was bring­yng a Cup of wine vnto the king, and pulled him downe vnto the ground, all that stood by and behelde it merueylyng thereat. Then Harold againe desi­rous to be reuenged vpon him for that vilanye, tooke him in his armes, and floong him on the pauement: But by and by the kinges Garde ranne betwixt them, and parted them. After the which altercation, Tostius departed the Court in a great rage, and comming to the Citie of Herford, where Harolde had prepared a great feast agaynst the kinges commyng, slue all his brothers seruauntes that he found there, and mangled and cut them in peeces, and in­to euery vessell of Wine, Meethe, Ale, or any other kinde of drinke else, hee casteyther a legge, an arme, or some other peece of the bodyes so mangled, sendyng the king woorde withall, that whensoeuer he came to his brothers house, he should be sure to finde powdred fleshe ynoughe to serue him, but if he would haue delicates, he must then be faine to prouide them himselfe. The which mocke of his when the king heard thereof, he commaunded him for his sayde detestable fact and lewdenesse to be banished the Realme. But as Polidore wryteth, he was offended with him, and sayd vnto him as foloweth: Tolde I not thee before that this mischiefe and inconuenience would ensue hereof vnto this Realme by thy meanes, if thou wentest to William of Nor­mandy: But God eyther turne this harde desteny from vs, or else if it must needes come to passe, graunt that it chaunce not in our dayes.

¶ This cruell deede sprang wide, so that for it he was hated of all men, in somuch that his awne Tenantes, the men of Northumberland, of which pro­uince he then was Lorde of, arose against him, and in the ende chased him in­to Flaunders, with a fewe personnes then awayting vpon him.

¶ But the verteous king Edward not beyng contented with the commons doyng, consideryng it to be done without his aduice or commaundement, sent thether Harolde to do correction vpon the heades or Captaynes of the Nor­thumbers: Wherof they beyng asserteyned, continued their strength and met with Harolde, and his people,A stout speck of subiectes. and made them to vnderstand that they were freely borne, and freely norished, and that they might not suffer the cruelnesse of any Dukes.

¶ When Harolde had receyued this message, and had well regarded the strength of the Northumbers, he perceyued that without great effusion of blood, he could not correct the misdoers: Wherefore it seemed to him better to fauour the Country, then to take heede of the singuler profite of his bro­ther, so that he returned to the king with this aunswere, and purchased their [Page 188] pardon of him, and also so laboured the king, that he assigned them another Duke or Erle that was named Malcharus. And Tostius his brother with his wife and children remayned in Flaunders during the kinges life.

The commō lawes of this Realme.¶ This king also purged the olde and corrupt lawes, and picked out of them a certain, which were most profitable for the commons, and those were called the common lawes of this Realme, for the institution whereof, there happened many commocions and much trouble.

¶ And nowe for an ende of this story, this king dyed the fourth day of Ia­nuary, when he had reigned .xxiij. yeres .vij. Monethes, and odde dayes, and was buried at Westminster, and left after him no childe, for he was accomp­ted for a virgine when he dyed.

¶ It is written of him also that he was wont by touch of hand, to heale such as were diseased of the kinges euill, & that of him other kinges and princes of this Realme haue as it were by inheritance receyued the gift of healing that disease, by touch of hand and certeyne prayers, and ceremonies vsed withall, like as they receyued also the custome to halowe and consecrate Rynges on Good Friday, which were reputed good and auaylable against the Crampe.

1044/2 MAckbeth reigned among the Scottes .xvj. yeres, which at the beginning did many thinges to the profite of the Realme: but afterward he became a cruell Tyrant,Mackbeth King of Scottes. and was vanquished and slaine by Malcolme, by the ayde of the Englishe men.

1061/19 IN this yere of our Lorde, Malcolme recouered the crowne of Scotland, and reigned .xxxv. yeres.

1066/1 HArolde the second sonne of Erle Goodwyn, and last king of Saxons. This man forgettyng his promes before made to William Duke of Normandy, tooke vpon him as king, and was crowned of Aldredus then Bishop of Yorke, or as some wryte, set the crowne on his awne heade without any consecration or ceremonies. Albeit, as Guydo affirmeth, some of the Lordes entended to haue made Edgar Adeling king, which Edgar as affirmeth the sayde aucthours, was sonne to Edwarde that was the sonne of Edmond Ironsyde, and named of some Edward the outlawe. But because this Edward was yong, and chiefly considering the strength and riches of Harolde, therefore Harolde obteyned the Crown. Howebeit Marian sayth, that king Edward before his death, ordeyned that Harolde shoulde be king after him.

¶ Soone after the king was crowned, he began to reuoke euill lawes, and customes, and established good lawes.

¶ In short tyme after that Harolde was made king, Tostie his brother which as aforesayde was chased into Flaunders, made him a Nauye of .lx. small sayles of Shippes, or as Mathew of Westminster saith, of .xl. and say­led about the Isle of Wight,Tostius ro­ued about the Realme, and did much hurt. and tooke prayes within the sayde Isle, and in diuerse places of Kent. And from thence he sayled into Lynsey, and did there much harme both with fire and sworde. But sone after he was chased thence by Edwyn, and Malcarus, Erles of Martia and Northumberlande: And then he sayled into Scotland, and finding little comfort there, he went from thence into Norway to desyre ayde of King Harolde, who there reigned at that tyme.

¶ When Tostius was thus with his robbers chased, then Harold Har­fagar king of Norway moued therevnto by Tosto, with a great Nauie of thre hundreth shippes and mo, entered the mouth of the riuer of Tyne.

¶ When Harolde of England had knowledge of this great Nauie of the Norwayes, he sent vnto the aforenamed Erles of Mertia, and Northum­berland, commaunding them to withstand their landing, while he gathered his strength. Then the aforesayde Erles sped them toward the Norwayes, and gaue vnto them a sharpe and a strong fight, but in the ende the Englishe men were put to the worse, and were faine to geue backe, so that the enemies entered further into the land. The king heering of the discomfiture of hys people, made the more hast towarde his enemies,Semisford Bridge. so that within sixe dayes after he came to Semysford Bridge.

¶ In this foresayde place both hostes ioyned and fought a most sharpe and cruell battaile,A cruell battaile. wherein was ouerthrowne manye a lustie knight vpon the Englishe partie, but many mo vpon the Norwayes, so that in the ende Harold their king was slaine,Harold Har­fager slaine. and that of the hande of Harold king of Eng­land, as saith Guydo, and Tostius was also slaine in the same fight. Olanus brother to the sayde Harold Harfager,Olanus the brother of Harold Har­fager & Pau­linus ye duke of ye Isles, taken prisoner. with Paulus Duke of the Isles or Orkeies were there taken prisoners. The which ye king caused to be sworne vnto him that they should keepe all such promises as they there to him made, and tooke good pledges for the same, and after suffred them to returne from whence they came. Fabian.

¶ It is also specially remembred of the sayde Authour that one Knight stood vpon the aforesayde Bridge, and with his Axe defended the passage,A valiaunt Knight. Maugre the whole host of the Englishmen, and slue .xl. Englishmen or mo with his Axe, and might not be ouercome vntill an Englishman went vnder the Bridge with a Boate or Whyrry and sticked him vpward with his speare through an hole of the Bridge.

¶For this victory,Harold in­flamed with pride and co­uetousnesse. Harold was highly enflamed with pride and also with couetousnesse, so that he deuyded not the prayes of his enimies among hys Knightes, but he kept them to himselfe, or gaue parte vnto such Knightes as he fauoured, and spared it from them that had well deserued, by reason whereof he lost the fauour of many of his Souldiours.

¶In this time the daughter of Duke Wylliam, the which Harold should haue maried, died within age,Haroldes excuses to William duke of Nor­mandy. but not before Harold (sayth Polydore) was king, wherefore Harold thought himselfe the more discharged of his pro­mes before made to her father. But William warned Harold of couenants broken, and mixed threates with prayers and peticions. Wherevnto Harold aunswered, that a nice foolishe couenant ought not to be holden, namelye the behest of other mennes right and kingdome, without the whole assent of the Senatours of the same lande. And furthermore, a lewde othe might and ought to be broken, and specially when it is compelled to be sworne for neede or for dreede.

Vpon these aunsweres receyued by Duke William from king Harold,William duke of Nor­mandy ma­keth his pro­uision to come into England. in the meane while that messengers went and came, Duke William gathered his Knightes, and prepared his nauie, and all other thinges necessary vnto the warre, and had the assent of the Lordes of his lande to ayde and assist him in his iourney. The like preparation also (sayth Polidore) was made by [Page 190] Harold to defende the realme from the inuasion of the Normans.

Alexander Bishop of Rome sēdeth vnto Williā duke of Nor­mandy a Bā ner to carry with him in his Ship a­gainst Eng­land.¶And moreouer he so informed the Bishop of Rome then named Alex­ander the second, that he confirmed him in taking of that voyage, and sent vn­to him a Banner, the which he willed him to beare in the Ship that he him­selfe should sayle in. And so hauing all thinges in a redinesse, he sped him to the sea syde, and tooke shipping in the Hauen of Saint Valery, where he ta­ryed a long tyme before he could haue a meete and conuenient winde: for the which the Souldiours murmured and grudged, and sayd it was a madnesse and greatly displeasing vnto God, to desyre a nother mannes kingdome by strength, & namely when God withstandeth it by the working of his Elemēt.

¶ At the last the wind came about, and he tooke shipping, and helde his course towarde England vpon this ground and title folowing.

The ground & chiefe cause of William duke of Nor­mandies cha­lenge of the Realme of England.1 The first and principall was to chalenge his right, and to haue the domi­nion of the land that to him was geuen of king Edward his nephew.

2 The seconde was to be reuenged of the death and cruell murther of his Nephew Alphred, and brother of king Edward, which he ascribed wholy vn­to king Harolde.

A reuēgemēt for the bani­shing of Ro­bert Archbi­shop of Can­torbury.3 The thirde was, for to be reuenged on the wrong that was done vnto Robert, that was Archebishop of Cauntorbury, which as he was enformed was exiled by the meanes and labour of Harolde in the tyme of king Ed­ward, as is aforesayde

The landing of William duke of Nor­mandy.¶ Duke William keping his course, at the last landed in Sussex, at a place called Peuenessey nere vnto Hastings. And in his goyng out of his ship, & ta­king the land, his one foote slipped, & the other stack fast in the sand: the which one of his knightes sawe, & beyng nere vnto him, sayd: now Sir Duke thou holdest Englande, and thou shalt soone be turned from a Duke to a King.

A good pol­lecy.¶ The Duke entering further into the lande, made his proclamations that no man should take any prayes, or do any force to the people: for he sayd that it was reasonable that he should spare that thing that should be his awn.

Harold was now in the North parts¶At this time Harold was king in the North partes of England, and had knowledge of the landing of the Normanes, & he made all the haste towards them that he might, and gathered his strength out of the Countries as he came. But the Duke passed still forward, and at the last came to Kingstone, where he and his armie passed ouer the Thamys, and made such good speede that he came to London before the king, where he was holden out vntill he had put in good pledges, that he and his people should passe through the Ci­tie without tariyng, the which he did, and so went through the Citie, and pas­sed ouer London Bridge, and so returned againe into Sussex.

¶King Harold entending to know the strength of his enemies sent spies into the Dukes hoste,An vnskil­ful messen­ger. the which made report vnto the king, that all Duke Williams Souldiours were priestes: For they had their vpper lippes and cheekes shauen, and the Englishmen at those dayes vsed the heare of their vpper lippes shad and not shauen. But Harold vnto that aunswered and sayde, they be no priestes, but are stoute and valyaunt Knights.

¶ Then Gurth, or rather Biorno, one of the yongest brethren of Harold, counsayled him that he should stand a parte,Good coun­sail is not al­wayes re­garded. and suffer him with other of his Lordes to fight with the Normanes, forsomuch as he was sworne vnto the Duke, and they were not, saiyng moreouer, that if they were slaine or ouer­throwne, [Page 191] that yet he might defende his quarell, and fight for his Country.

¶In this meane time,Thre offers made vnto king Harold by William duke of Nor­mandy. Duke Wylliam sent a Monke vnto king Harold and made him three offers. The first that according to his othe he should ren­der the land, or delyuer it vp vnto him as his awne proper possession, and that done, to take it againe of him, and to hold it of him as in Fee, and so to reigne vnder him for terme of his lyfe, and after hys death to returne it to hym a­gaine, or to such a one of his sonnes as he would assigne it vnto.

¶Secondly, to leaue the kingdome without any more strife.

¶Or thirdly in exchewing of the shedding of christian mens bloud, that he would defend his quarrell in his awne person against the Duke, and they two onely to trie the matter by dent of sworde.

¶But Harold refused these offers, and sayde he would trie his quarrell by dent of swordes, and not by one sworde, and that he and his Knights and Souldiours would defende their Countrie against all straunge Nations, praiyng God to iudge the right betwene them twaine.

¶When Duke Wylliam had receyued this aunswere from Harold, and saw well that there was no meane, but to abide fortune in battaile,Good coun­sayle if it were true. he char­ged his people that might watch, to occupie themselues in prayer, and speci­ally the Priestes and the religious people, where the Englishmen gaue themselues to drinking and surfeyting. Fabian.

¶Then vpon the morrow being Saturday, and the .xiiij.Battail Ab­bey in Sus­sex. daye of Octo­ber, both hostes assayled other in the place where stood the Abbay of Battaile in Sussex. In the beginning of this battaile a Norman called Thilfer splay­ed a Banner before the hoste of the Normans and slue an Englishman that came against him, and after that another, and so the thirde,Thilfer. and at the laste was slaine himselfe.

¶Then the Holberds smote together with a great showt and cry, and they fought sore a long season. And the Englishmen defended themselues manful­ly, and the better for that they kept them whole & close together without scat­tering or spreding abrode. The which when Wylliam perceyued, he gaue a signe vnto his knightes, that they should geue back, and made a countenance as though they did flie. Then the Normans enbatteled their footemen, & set Horsemen for winges on euerie side. By the which, while the Englishmen were disseuered, and soone out of array, the Normans turned againe vpon the Englishmen, and slue them downe on euerie side.

¶This battaile was sore foughten of the Englishmen, so that Duke Wyl­liam was thrise felled that day, by reason that thre horses were slaine vnder him. Lastly, Harold was wounded in the eye with an arrowe,King Harold slaine and William the Conquerour had the vic­tory. and fell to the ground and was slaine, and his people scattered, so that well was he that might saue him selfe by fliyng. Then Duke William buryed his men that there were slaine, and suffered his enemyes to do the same.

¶ When the death of Harold was knowne to the Erles of Mertia and of Northūberland, the which for streightnesse of way could not bring their peo­ple to that field, or else for that they wilfully withdrew themselues from Ha­rold, because he did none otherwise depart the prayes amongst them & their knightes at the former field of the Norwayes:Agatha Ha­roldes wife committed to Chester. then they drewe the next way to London, and tooke Agatha Haroldes wyfe, and sent her to Chester. And [Page 192] they and Aldredus Bishop of Yorke with the Londoners, were agreed and promised eyther to other that they would make Edgar Atheling king, and defend his right to the vttermost of their powers. But that promes notwith­standing, when they heard of the great strength that dayly fell to duke Wil­liam, and of his prouisions, they were faine to breake that apointment. And the sayde Erles submitted themselues, and gaue vnto him pledges, and be­came to him his liege men by homage and fealtie.

¶And thus when Harold had ruled the lande, from the fift day of Ianu­ary to the .xiiij. day of October, he was slaine, when he had reigned nine Mo­nethes and odde dayes, and was buryed at the Monasterie of Waltham, which he before had founded.

The ende of the gouerne­ment of the Saxons.

¶ And here endeth the gouernement of the Saxons, the which continued from the first yere of the reigne of Hengest in the yere of our Lord .475. vnto this conquest, which was the space of .590. yeres.

NOwe for as much as it pleased almightie God to suffer this Duke to conquere so noble a land, and to be Lorde and souereigne ouer so many noble inheritours as then were, and nowe are within the same. I thinke it therefore conuenient to shew the dissent of the same Duke, and howe nere of blood he was vnto king Edward that last dyed.

The Pede­gree of Wil­liam Con­querour.¶ Rollo who was first an Heathen, and after christened and named Ro­bert, who maried Silla the daughter of Charles the Simple, sometime king of Fraunce, and had for her dower the Duchy of Normandy, which he ruled xiiij. yeres, and the sayde Robert had by Silla a sonne named William, the which afterward was called Longa Spata, that is to say, William with the long Sworde. This William was Duke after his father .xxv. yeres, and left after him a sonne named Richard, which was named Richard the Hardy, and was the thirde Duke, and reigned .lij. yeres and had by his wife a sonne named Richard the good, and Emma that was wyfe to Egeldred and mother to the last Edward the king. After him the good Richard was Duke, and reig­ned .xxviij. yeres, and left after him two sonnes, Richard, and Robert. The first sonne after two yeres, was slaine by treason of his brother Robert, so that Robert was then Duke, and reigned .ix, yeres: The which Robert was father vnto this Duke William, and begat him of his concubine, called Arlet. And this William was the seuenth Duke of Nor­mandy, and ruled it before he conquered England .xxx. yeres. And thus it may apere that Emma was Aunte to Duke Robert, father of William Conquerour, and Em­ma was mother vnto king Edward, and so this duke William and king Edward of England were by the fathers syde cosyn Germaynes remooued.

A Summarie of the afore­said Hystorie.

IN the former part of this Hystorye it may ap­pere vnto you (that after the opinion of most wryters) Brute did first inhabite this land,Briteyn first inhabited by Brute. and called it then af­ter his awne name Briteyn, in the .2855. yere after the creation of the Worlde, and in the .1108. yere be­fore the birth of our sauiour Christ.Conquered by the Ro­manes. And the same land of Briteyn was conquered by C. Iulius Cesar, and made tributarye to the Romaynes in the fiftie yere be­fore Christes Incarnation, and it so continued .483. yeres. And the Briteynes reigned without Tribute, and vnder Tribute, from Brute vntill the fourth yere of the reigne of King Cadwalader, which was in the yere of our Lorde .686. And so the Briteynes had con­tinuance of the Gouernement of this land the space of 1794. yeres. And then was the kingdome of Briteyn deuided into seuen kingdomes.Briteynes receyued the faith of christ And Briteyn receyued the fayth of Christ in the seuenth yere of the reigne of King Lucy, which was in the .C.lxxxvii. yere after the birth of Christ. And after the Britons,Conquered and ouercom by the Sax­ons. entered the Sax­ons in the third yere of Vortiger, and in the yere of our. Lord .450. and they gouerned vn­till the last yere of king Athelstane, which was in the .938. yere of Christ. And so the tyme of the Saxons first entraunce into this Realme, and the tyme of their Gouernement, was the space of .487. yeres. But yet in the time of the Gouernement of the Saxons, that is to say, in the .ix. yere of the reigne of king Brithricus, which was in the yere of our Lord 787. The Danes entered into the Realme,Conquered & ouercome by the Danes. and spoyled and persecuted the people therein most grieuously: And at the last Sweno, or Swayn the Dane, obteyned the possession and kingdome of this Realme, in the yere of our Lord .1012. and he reigned thrée yeres. And after him reigned Canutus his Sonne .xix. yeres. And after him Harold his sonne thrée yeres. And after him Hardikenitus the sonne of Canutus, who reigned thrée yeres, and was the last king of the Danes, for then the Danes were vtterly expulsed and dryuen out of the Realme, which was in the yere of our Lorde .1042. And thus it may apere that the Danes reigned kinges of this Realme the space of .xxviii. yeres. And it maye also apere, that from the time of the first entery of the Danes into this Realme,Conquered & quietly pos­sessed by the Normanes. vnto their last expulsion, was yeres. And finally, the Normanes entered this lande, and made a Conquest of this Realme, as before is expressed, in the yere of our Lord .1067. Which is sithen vnto this present yere of our Lorde .1568. the number of fiue hundreth yeres.

A Table for the first Volume of this Chro­nicle, that is to say, from the Creation of the Worlde, vnto William the Conquerour.

  • AAron. 23
  • Abdon. 28
  • Abdemonaples. 119
  • Abell. 3. 5
  • Abessam. 28
  • Abia the sonne of Roboam. 43
  • Abimelech 28
  • Abram 18. 21. 22
  • Achab. 44
  • Acliud. 37. 136
  • Adam and Eue. 3. 5
  • Aecius. 93
  • Aelon. 28
  • Aeneas. 31
  • Affrica. 12
  • Aganippus. 47. 48
  • Agatha Haroldes wyfe. 192
  • Ages of the worlde. 72. 73
  • Agilbert 121
  • Aioth. 27
  • Albanact. 32
  • Albion. 30. 33. 37
  • Alcaron. 119
  • Aldroenus 93
  • Algarus reconciled. 185. banished. 186. and a­gaine reconciled. 186
  • Alectus. 85
  • Alexander Bishop of Rome. 190
  • Almaricus a traytour. 165
  • Alpes. 16
  • Alpine king of Scottes. 133
  • Alphred had his eyes put out. 179. 184
  • Alured. 138. 140
  • Amasones. 16
  • Amasia slaine. 46
  • Amberkleth Scot 127
  • Ambresbury. 160
  • Ammon 50
  • Ammonites. 21
  • Amorica. 57. 91
  • Amram. 24
  • Androgius. 65
  • Androgeus. 68. 69
  • Angles. 96
  • Anglia. 132
  • Angusian Scot. 90
  • Anna. 121
  • Antheus. 15
  • Antoninus. 113
  • Archimalus. 66
  • Archebishoppes. 83. 114. 129
  • Archigallo. 62. 64.
  • Arcke of Noe. 8. 9
  • Archflamin. 43
  • Arians. 97
  • Aristeus. 63
  • Arthgall the first Erle of Warwike. 106
  • Arthur. 105
  • Articles concluded betwéene the Scots and French men against England: 131
  • Art of fishing. 124
  • Aruiragus. 77. 78
  • Asa. 43
  • Aschanius. 31
  • Asclepiodatus. 86
  • Assaracus. 31
  • Ashedowne. 137
  • Asia. 12
  • Athalia. 44
  • Athelstane his deede. 147. 148
  • Athirco king of Scottes. 8
  • Aureli. 101. 102. 103
  • Aurelius Conanus. 108
  • Augustus Cesar. 70
  • Austyn the Monke. 46
  • Austyn came to preach. 114
  • Augustyn called S. Augustyn. 92
  • Austynes Oke. 114
  • Aydane Scot. 115
  • Azarias. 48
  • BAbell, or Babilon. 3. 14
  • Barachias. 53
  • Barbary. 15
  • Barkshire or Bareokeshire. 137
  • Barly. 19
  • Bassianus Caracalla. 84
  • Basingstoke. 137. 144
  • Bathe. 50
  • Battaile Abbey in Sussex. 191
  • Beda. 128
  • Belinus. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59
  • Belynsgate. 58
  • Berinus. 106
  • Bernulphus. 131
  • [Page]Bishoppes. 83. 112. 115. 121
  • Blackwelhall. 54
  • Bladud or Baldud. 45
  • Bledud. 66
  • Bledgabredus. 66
  • Blood rayned. 49
  • Bloody Flux. 161
  • Bokyngham Castle. 145
  • Brasen Serpent. 49
  • Brennus. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59
  • Brentfoord or Braynefoorde. 168
  • Briteyn and Britones. 34. 36. 64. 83 decayed. 108
  • Brithricus. 130
  • Brightwaldus. 127
  • Bruciuall king of Leycester. 116
  • Brute. 13. 31. 32
  • Brute Gréeneshield. 44
  • Bull hyde. 96
  • Burgh. 37
  • CAdwalyn. 117. 120
  • Cadwane. 116. 119
  • Cadwalader. 125
  • Cain. 4. 5. 7
  • Calabre. 106
  • Cambridge. 62. 120
  • Cambre. 32
  • Cambria. 36
  • Canutus. 173
  • Capenus. 66
  • Caporus. 66
  • Caratak king of Scottes. 77
  • Carassus. 85
  • Caraticus. 112
  • Cassibelan. 67
  • Castell of Maydens. 43
  • Catagrinus. 97
  • Catellus. 65
  • Cauntorbury. 45. 68. besieged. 165
  • Catrignus. 98
  • Cealmus. 111
  • Cecilius. 61
  • Cerdicus. 106
  • Charles the Balde. 134
  • Cherimus. 65
  • Chester. 145
  • Chichister. 68
  • Christes Church in Cauntorbury 114
  • Chrisostome. 92
  • Christening in Ryuers. 118
  • Christains persecuted. 88
  • Cimbelinus. 70
  • Circumcision. 21
  • Cissa. 102
  • Ciuile battaill. 112
  • Clito. 129. 145
  • Clotheus. 65
  • Cloto Duke of Cornewall. 54
  • Coill. 65
  • Coilus. 82. 87
  • Colbrand a gyaunt. 149
  • Colchester. 86
  • Colemoore. 98
  • Colwolphus. 116
  • Commaundementes. 26
  • Combate 173
  • Conarus. 82
  • Congallus. 95
  • Conrannus 102
  • Constantyne Scot. 94. 135. 146. 148. 167
  • Constantine. 88. 89. 93. 94. 108
  • Constantius. 87. 94
  • Conwall Scot. 111. 133
  • Corbreid Scot. 78
  • Cordella. 47. 48
  • Corfe Castle. 159
  • Corineus 38
  • Corine. 32
  • Corne 15
  • Cornewall. 32
  • Councelours contemned. 43
  • Couentrie made free. 185
  • Crathlyn Scot. 87
  • Creation of the World. 1
  • Creation of Man. 2
  • Crekynfoord. 102. 144
  • Crickland. 144
  • Crosses of blood. 130
  • Cuthbert. 128
  • Culyne king of Scottes 158
  • Cunedagius. 48
  • Cuppes of Iron. 118
  • Cutwolphus. 111
  • DAnes made tributary to England. 60 landed in Norffolk & Suffolke. 130. 132 135. discomfited. 137. 104. 341. 145. 152. 160. 162. 164
  • Dane Gelt. 162. 178. discharged. 180
  • Daniell the Prophet. 52. 54
  • Darwent a Ryuer. 97
  • Dauid annointed king. 39
  • Debora or Delbora. 27
  • Demetrius. 63
  • [Page]Deuotion. 134
  • Deyra. 199
  • Dinellus. 66
  • Dissimulation. 99. 157. 174
  • Destruction of the Temple 51
  • Distruction of the Iewes. 51
  • Diuision. 162
  • Donald Scot. 84. 87. 120. 125. 133. 134. 143
  • Donstone. 153. 158. 159. 160. 161.
  • Dorchester. 120
  • Douer Castle. 32
  • Dronkennesse. 95. 181
  • Drinke. 15
  • Duffus king of Scottes. 158
  • Dulcane king of Scottes. 177
  • EBrank. 43
  • Edenborough. 43
  • Edeir Scot. 70
  • Edgar. 154
  • Edmond the Martyr. 136
  • Edmond Ironside. 168
  • Coward confessor. 179
  • Edward the sonne of Edmond Ironside. 185
  • Edward 143. 146. 158. 179
  • Edfine Scot. 128
  • Edricus a traytor. 164. 167. 168. 171. 173. 174
  • Edwyn and Edwinus. 109. 117. 118. 153. de­posed. 154
  • Edolfe Erle of Chester. 99
  • Egbert. 129. 131. 133
  • Egeldred. 160
  • Egfride. 125
  • Egipt. 16
  • Egiptians. 24
  • Ella king of Deira. 102. 109
  • Elanius. 61
  • Eldadus. 65
  • Eldolus. 66
  • Eledancus. 65
  • Elfricus a traytour. 161
  • Elidurus. 62. 64
  • Elgina the wife of king Edmond. 151
  • Eliud. 65
  • Elphegus Archebishop of Cauntorbury sto­ned to death. 166
  • Elutherius Bishop of Rome. 83
  • Emirianus. 65
  • Emma the Quéene. 166. 171. banished. 177 accused of incontinency 180. 184
  • Enfieda. 117
  • England. 53. 132
  • Englefielde. 137
  • Enoch. 4. 8
  • Ercombert. 121. 123
  • Ermingstréete. 56
  • Esau. 21
  • Esay the Prophet. 50
  • Estrild. 37. 38. 39
  • Ethelbert. 101. 113. 115. 135
  • Ethelburga. 130
  • Ethelfridus. 109. 112
  • Ethelard. 128
  • Ethelwald. 193. 134
  • Ethelwolph. 133
  • Etheopians. 134
  • Ethodius. 82. 85
  • Euelinus. 68
  • Eubonia now called the Isle of man. 118
  • Eugenius Scot. 90. 108. 127. 130
  • Europa. 13
  • Ewyn Scot. 70, 81
  • Excester. 68. 138
  • Extortion. 102
  • Ezechiell. 51
  • FAble. 91
  • Faith decayed. 112
  • Famine. 127
  • Fergus Scot. 53. 62. 92. 130
  • Ferithias Scot. 63
  • Ferrex and Porrex. 53
  • Ferquard Scot. 125
  • Fincormake Scot. 89
  • Findocke Scot. 87
  • Fishing. 124
  • Flatterers. 174
  • Flyes. 49
  • Fyre. 161
  • Flood of Noe. 8. 9
  • Forging of Iron. 8
  • Fosse. 56
  • Fraunce. 15
  • Fria. 96
  • Fremingham Castle. 136
  • Friday. 96
  • Fulgen. 65. 84
  • Furius Camillus 59
  • GAlates 59
  • Gallogrecia. 59
  • Gallacia. 59
  • Ganders feast in Rome. 59
  • Garde for the king. 94
  • Gaule Celtique. 15
  • [Page]Gedeon. 28
  • Germannus 97
  • Geroncius. 65
  • Geta. 85
  • Giauntes. 16
  • Glasing. 123
  • Glamorgan field. 49
  • Gloucester. 77. 83
  • Goffare king of the Poytenynes. 31
  • Gogmagog. 32
  • Gonorilla, 47
  • Gorbodian. 30
  • Gorbodug. 53
  • Gorbomannus. 62. 65
  • Goodwin an Erle. 175. 179. 181. 182. 183
  • Godina ye wife of Leofricus fréed Couētry. 185
  • Grantham. 62
  • Grantbridge. 120
  • Grape. 12
  • Griffin a rebell. 180. 185 slaine. 186
  • Gregori bishop of Rome. 113
  • Grime Scot. 167
  • Guiliamore. 102
  • Guy of Warwike. 149. 150
  • Guyderus. 76
  • Gurguncius. 66
  • Gurgustus. 50
  • Gurguintus. 60
  • Gurmundus. 112
  • Gwanus. 91
  • Gwendolyn. 32. 37. 40
  • Gwilthdacus. 55
  • Gitrus. 140
  • Gwyntelinus. 60. 61
  • HAbren. 39
  • Ham. 8
  • Hamo. 76
  • Hardikinitus. 178
  • Harold. 177. 188
  • Harold Harfagar slaine. 189
  • Helf. 28. 29. 31. 66
  • Helyes prophecy. 44
  • Henninus. 48
  • Hengist. 95. 96. 100
  • Hereford Castle 145
  • High wayes. 54
  • Hide Mede. 149
  • Hirelda. 68
  • Historiographers. 128
  • Horsus. 95. 98
  • Humber. 37
  • Hubba. 136. 137
  • Hunger. 136. 137
  • IAcob. 21
  • Ido king of Bernicia 109
  • Idlenesse. 95
  • Idwall. 65
  • Iago or Lago. 50
  • Iair. 28
  • Iaphet. 8
  • Iechonias. 50
  • Iehoram. 44
  • Iepthe. 21
  • Ieroboam. 41
  • Ierusalem. 3.13. destroyed. 51. repayred. 53 vtterly destroyed. 81
  • Iesus. 75
  • Iethro 25
  • Iewe. 127
  • Iewettes. 96
  • Indulph Scot. 158
  • Innogen. 31
  • Ioachas. 50
  • Ioachim. 50
  • Ionichus. 13
  • Ioseph. 22
  • Iosephus. 25
  • Iosias. 50
  • Iosua. 27
  • Ireland inhabited. 60
  • Isaac. 21
  • Iseland. 111
  • Italy. 16
  • Iudges. 27
  • Iudith Daughter to Charles the Frenche king. 134
  • Iulius Caesar. 16. 67. 69
  • Iustus a preacher. 114
  • KEnneth Keir Scot 134. 115. 160
  • Kenulph. 128
  • Kenwalcus. 121. 123
  • Kickneldes streete. 56
  • Kimarus. 61
  • Kimbelinus. 70
  • Kingilsus. 106. 123
  • Kimmacus. 52
  • Kynadus Scot. 155
  • LAuiny. 31
  • Lawe geuen. 26
  • League betweene Fraunce & Scotl. 131
  • [Page]Lechery. 45. 129. 130
  • Legion of knightes. 78
  • Lent. 121
  • Leicester. 46. 48
  • Leofricus. 176. fréed Couentrie. 185
  • Leyer. 46
  • Leyll. 44
  • Libia. 25
  • Lilla a treytour. 117
  • Lyncolne. 120
  • Lynnen and wollen. 8
  • Locryne. 37. 38
  • Loegria. 32. 36
  • London. 36. 43. 83. 161. besieged. 169
  • Londricus. 80
  • Lord Dane or Lurdane. 163
  • Loth or Lot. 19
  • Lucifer. 2
  • Lucius first Christian king of Friteyn. 82
  • Lud. 56
  • Ludgate. 66
  • Ludhurdibras. 45
  • Lugtake Scot. 81
  • Lupus a Bishop. 97
  • MAdan or Madian. 41
  • Maglanus. 48
  • Mahomet. 119
  • Malcolyn Scot. 151. 152. 176
  • Maldwyn Scot. 125
  • Malgo. 111
  • Manasses. 49
  • Marlyn. 45. 103
  • Mary the Virgin. 71
  • Marius. 80
  • Martia. 60
  • Martians lawes. 60
  • Mathanias. 51
  • Mathew of Westminster. 117
  • Marimianus. 90
  • Maynus Scot. 64
  • Melchisedech. 12
  • Melitus. 114
  • Melga. 91
  • Memphis. 24
  • Mempricius. 42
  • Merton a towne. 137
  • Meserfielde battaile. 121
  • Metellane Scot. 71
  • Melinus king of Candy. 15
  • Minstrels banished. 116
  • Miracles. 9. 114
  • Moabites. 21
  • Mogallus. 82
  • Money first coyned in Scotland. 84
  • Monkes religion. 124
  • Monkes slaine. 109. tithed. 166
  • Mordak Scot. 128
  • Mordred. 107
  • Morgannus. 48
  • Morgan slaine. 49. 65
  • Morian king of Britons. 66
  • Morindus. 61. 62
  • Mortalitie. 123
  • Moses. 24. 27
  • Mulmucius. 54
  • Murder vnnaturall. 53
  • Murder. 129. 130. 159. 178
  • Musick. 8
  • NAchor. 18
  • Nathalack Scot. 86
  • Nemroth. 13
  • Nero the tyrant. 78. 79
  • Newe Troy. 36
  • Ninus. 14
  • Nobilitie. 16
  • Noe. 8. his Arck. 11
  • Noemia. 8
  • Normans cruelly murdered. 1 [...]9
  • Northamton. 77
  • OChozias 44
  • Octa. 97. 102. 103
  • Octauius. 88. 89
  • Olbion. 34
  • Onichites. 147
  • Oration. 172
  • Orchades. 111
  • Osiris. 15
  • Osricus. 119. 137
  • Oswold, or Oswy. 110. 119. 121. 122.
  • Othoniell. 27
  • Otho Emperour. 147
  • Otes. 15
  • Ouinus. 66
  • Oxford. 138
  • Ozias. 48
  • PAndrasus. 31
  • Parliament. 174
  • Paradice. 2
  • Parasites. 48
  • Passage forboden. 129
  • [Page]Pascentius. 97. 103
  • Paule the Apostle. 77
  • Paulinus. 114. 118
  • Penall lawes. 156
  • Penda. 120. 122. 140
  • Penance. 180
  • Penisellus. 66
  • Peredurus. 64. 65
  • Persecution. 112
  • Pestilence. 95
  • Peter pence. 127. 133
  • Petulus Cerialis. 81
  • Pichtes. 61
  • Pirrhus. 66
  • Plague. 127. 128. 158. 162
  • Pletynger. 102
  • Plough. 15. Ploughshares. 180
  • Porrex. 65
  • Portchester. 88
  • Portesmouth. 103
  • Poysonyng. 130
  • Priamus. 31
  • Pride. 48
  • Pridwen. 106
  • Priestes. 158
  • Pritannia. 35
  • Procession. 113
  • Ptholomeus. 63
  • QVéenes abaced. 131 and againe restored. 134
  • RAchell. 22
  • Ragan. 47
  • Rainebowe. 11
  • Redargius. 66
  • Redyng. 137
  • Redwallus. 104
  • Regin king of Britons. 66
  • Reguli. 101
  • Religion decayed. 124
  • Reuengementes. 190
  • Richebourgh. 113
  • Rimo. 65
  • Ripon Abbey. 152
  • Riuallo. 49
  • Roboham. 41
  • Rochester. 68
  • Rodian. 66
  • Romeskot. 127. 133. redéemed. 176
  • Rome. 36. 49. 69
  • Romack Scot. 190
  • Romulus. 49
  • Roane. 106
  • Ronowen Hengestes daughter. 97. 98
  • SAbrina. 39
  • Salomon. 40. 41
  • Saltstone. 21
  • Sampson. 28
  • Samuell. 29
  • Samulius. 66
  • Sangar. 27
  • Saracens. 20
  • Sarisbury. 68. 99
  • Saruch. 18
  • Sauoy. 16
  • Saul the first king of Israell. 29. 30
  • Satrahell. 84
  • Saxons. 95. 96
  • Scots when they first inhabited Scotland. 53 and why they were first so named. 80. 85 90. conquered. 134. 146. 147. 176. rebell. 184. conquered. 184.
  • Sebertus. 104. 116
  • Sem. 8
  • Semisfoord bridge. 189
  • Senones. 58
  • Septon now called Shaftesbury. 160
  • Serapis. 15
  • Sergius a monke. 119
  • Serpent of Brasse. 49
  • Seuerus. 84
  • Seuerne. 39
  • Sewarde Erle of Northumberland. 185
  • Seth. 3. 5
  • Shaftesbury. 45
  • Sicester. 112
  • Sigebert or Sigisbert. 121. 128
  • Silius. 66
  • Sisillus. 50. 61
  • Symon. 102
  • Sodom. 21
  • Sodomy. 42. 111
  • Soluathius Scot. 130
  • Southampton. 77
  • South Saxons. 102
  • Spanyards inhabited Ireland. 60
  • Stanes moore. 80
  • Staunford. 45
  • Sterlyng money. 135
  • Stonehenge 103
  • TEmple buylded. 41. destroyed. 51
  • Tentes portatiue. 8
  • Thamys 36. Temes foord. 146
  • Thare. 18
  • Thetfoord. 98. 104
  • Theomancius. 70
  • Theodorus. 125
  • Thong Castle. 96. 100
  • Thola. 28
  • Tiberius. 123
  • Tochester. 146
  • Tirannie. 128
  • Tostus a cruell murderer. 187
  • Tokens sent from the Bishop of Rome. 117
  • Tooth that is straunge. 6
  • Totnesse hauen. 32
  • Tottenhall. 145
  • Towres and Towrain. 31
  • Trayherne. 88
  • Treason. 99. 100. 104. 107. 132. 159. 179
  • Trées. 15
  • Tribute. 69. 149. redeemed. 165
  • Troy. 15. 36
  • Troynouant. 36. 53
  • Truce. 172
  • Typheus. 15
  • VEspasianus. 78
  • Vffa. 104
  • Vigem. 65
  • Vigenius. 64. 65
  • Vincentius Gallus. 22
  • Vine planted. 12. 15
  • Vortiger. 95. depriued. 97. 99. 100
  • Vortimer. 97. 98
  • Vortiporius. 110
  • Vowe. 122
  • Vrian. 65
  • Vrsula. 91
  • Vter. 101. 105
  • WAles. 32
  • Walbrooke. 86
  • Wall of Torues. 84. 92
  • Wall of stone. 93
  • Wallo, or Gallo. 126
  • Wardes and mariages. 167
  • Warwell. 160
  • Warwike. 61
  • Wassayle. 97
  • Watlingstreete. 56
  • Wednesday. 96
  • Welles Colledge. 127
  • Welshemen. 126
  • West Saxons. 107
  • Westminster. 83. 115
  • Wheate. 15
  • White Gosneborough. 121
  • Wigmoore. 146
  • Wilbaldowne. 111
  • William Duke of Normandy. 184. 189. 190
  • Win Bishop of Winchester. 121
  • Winchester. 45. 88. 121
  • Winchcombe. 129
  • Wine. 12
  • Wiues common. 81
  • Woden. 96
  • Woodnes fielde. 145
  • Wolferus. 133
  • Wolues destroyde. 155
  • Woluerhampton. 77
  • Women are wilye. 157
  • Wrestling. 68
  • YArmouth. 106
  • Yorke 15. 43. 83. taken. 152
  • ZAcharias slaine. 45
This ſeconde Volume, …

This seconde Volume, beginning at William the Conquerour, endeth wyth our moste dread and soueraigne Lady Queene Elizabeth.

Seene and alowed according to the order apointed.

Cum priuilegio Regiae Maiestatis.

Anno. 1568.

To the Reader.

NOwe haue we passed the Historie of the Britons, Romaynes, Saxons and Danes that reigned ouer this noble Realme, in the which tyme by reason of the continual warres and ma­nifold spoyles and conquestes, from time to time here practised, and long continued, the olde and auncient wry­ters of the said Hystoryes, and all their worthy and learned mo­numents were in maner wholy destroyed & defaced, and ther­fore but by the helpe of Gildas, Gaufride, Bede and a fewe o­ther, the remembraunce of the Gouernement, and of all the no­ble actes of this land had like to haue bene buried with vtter ob­liuion: But nowe, as we are come vnto the time of more rest: so by Gods sufferance shall follow a more large and ample hystory, praiyng most hartely the gentle Reader to beare with my rude stile and lacke of learnyng and knowledge, which if it were as great as my good will is, the same should want no necessarye fur­niture: But he that performeth and freely offereth that which he hath, is (as you knowe) bound to no more: and thus much after this sort, for this tyme with your fauour, may suffice.

The Historie of king Wil­liam the Conquerour.

WILLIAM the Conquerour, Duke of Normandie, and bastard sonne of Robert the sixt Duke of the same Duke­dome, 1067/1 and nephew vnto Edward the Con­fessor late king of England as before is she­wed, began his dominion ouer this Realme of England the .xv. day of October, in the yere of our Lord .M.lxvij.William Conquerour crowned. and was crow­ned king of the same at Westminster vpon Christmasse day next folowing of Aldredus Archebishop of Yorke: because at that time Stigandus Archebishop of Cauntorbury, was then absent, and durst not come in the presence of the king, vnto whome the king ought no great fauour, as hereafter shall apere.

Some write that the sayde Duke required the aforesayde Stigand to consecrate him, because the office of consecrating of kings had alwayes ap­perteyned vnto the Archebishops of Cauntorbury. But forasmuch as he had aspired vnto the crowne by violence and vnlawfull meanes, the sayd Sti­gand would not be present at his coronation, nor in any wise assent thervnto. Some againe say that the Duke refused to be crowned of him, because he was no lawfull Bishop, inasmuch as he receyued his Pall of Benet the tenth who was an vsurper of the Popedome, and not a lawfull Pope as they then tearmed him. And some againe make the cause of his reiection to be the cor­rupt life of the sayde Stigand. Polidore wryteth that immediatly vpon the ouerthrow of king Harold, duke William marched towards London, where Edwin Erle of middle England, and Marcarus or Marcatus Erle of Nor­thumberland, earnestly mindyng the conseruation of their country, and to de­fende the libertie thereof, moued the nobilitie and commons to crowne Ed­gar Atheling, who onely was left aliue of the blood royall of the Realme. Vnto the which sentence although many did accorde, yet there were some of diuerse opinions concernyng this matter: But for all that, at the last they laid all their heades together and aduysed them selues howe and which way they might honestly submit them selues vnto the sayde Duke. But afterwardes, when he was come to the Citie, they made an ende of consulation, and euery man for feare submitted himselfe and receyued him as though they had bene right ioyous of his comming, deliuering him hostages, & praiyng him with­all to receyue them to grace, and that they might be at peace with him: To whome the sayde Duke aunswered againe right curteously, making them many large and fayre promises, and that done, he was by them (although all were not like ioyfull at that solemnitie) crowned king vpon Christmasse day as aforesayde. But I finde written by one Thomas Thorpe Monke of Cauntorbury, among other things by him verie well noted and collected, of the beginning of the gouernance of william the Conquerour this story folo­wyng. [Page 2] After (sayth he) that the sayd Duke William had obteyned the vic­tory, and had slaine king Harolde, and in like maner had taken the Citie of London, streight wayes he directed and bent his iourney towardes the Ca­stell of Douer, to the entent he might conquere that also, with the other parts of Kent.Stigand Archebishop of Cantorbu­ry preserued the liberties of Kent. The which beyng perfitely vnderstood: the Archebishop Stigand, and the Abbot Egelsyne, beyng then the chiefe potestates and gouernours of all Kent, vnderstanding all the Kingdome and Realme to be in an euill case, and that where as before the commyng of the sayde William there were no slaues or bondmen, now that all, aswell noble as meane men were brought vnder the perpetuall seruyle yoke of the Normanes, by their neighbours daungers, taking an occasion first of their countries safegard & of their awne, gathered together at Cauntorbury the whole people and force of Kent, to whome they declared the daungers hangyng ouer theyr heades, the misery of their neighbors, the insolency of the Normanes, and the hardnesse of ser­uile condition: And the whole people rather desyryng to ende their haplesse lyfe,A wise and very good policye. then to beare the vnacustomed yoke of seruitude, with a cōmon consent decreed to meete Duke William, & to fight with him for their auncient lawes and libertyes. The aforenamed Stigand the Archebishop, and Egelsyne the Abbot, chosyng rather death in warre, then to see the miseries of theyr Nation, beyng hartened by the examples of the Machabees, were made Capitaynes of the Armie, and at the day apoynted, all the Kentishemen met at Swanescome, beyng hidden in the woodes, and wayted the comming of the aforesayd Duke William. And because sufficient warinesse, and heed ta­kyng in doubtfull cases doth no harme, they by their former talke were a­greed among themselues, that when the Duke approched nere, all passages beyng shut vp, least any wayes he should escape, that euery seuerall person, aswell horsemen as footemen should carye a greene bough in his hand. The next day after, the Duke comming into the fieldes and territories nere vnto Swanescome, and seeyng all the country ready set to hedge him in, and mar­king also a moueable wood with moderate pace drawing nere toward him, not without astonishment of his mynde, much maruayled at it. And assoone as the Captaynes of the Kentishemen espied Duke William enclosed in the middest of their armie, they caused their Trumpets to be sounded, and their Banners to be displayed, and threwe downe their Boughes, and with their Bowes beyng bent, and their swordes drawen, and with their speares and other kinde of Armour, beyng set in a readinesse, shewed themselues ready to fight it out. At the which sight Duke william with his adherentes & com­plices, not without cause were much amased. And he that a little before per­swaded himselfe to haue helde all England in his fist, now doubted much of his awne lyfe.Bolde and wise messen­gers. The Archebishop Stigand therefore, and the Abbot Egel­syne were incontinently sent foorth to Duke William on the part and behalfe of the Kentishmen, who did their message vnto him after this sort. Sir Duke beholde here the people and inhabitants of Kent commeth foorth to meete thee, and to receyue thee as their liege Lorde and gouernour, requiryng peace at thy handes vnder this condicion, that all they and theyr posteritie may quietly and peaceably enioy their auncient libertyes, and that they may vse still their olde and accustomed lawes, otherwise they are nowe in a rea­dinesse presently to bid thee battayle, beyng readyer here altogether to [Page 3] leaue their lyues, then to depart from their auncient lawes and customes, or to submit themselues vnto slauish seruitude, which they haue not yet bene acquainted with. The Duke perceyuing himselfe to be entrapped, and in a streight, debating a while this matter with his wise Capteynes, noting also wisely that if he should susteyne a repulse or any hinderance at these peoples handes, which were accompted the key of England, that then all the bottom of threde which he a little before had sponne, were vntwisted, and that all his hope and securitie were turned into daunger, did not so willingly as wise­ly graunt all that which the Kentishmen demaunded of him, and sure pledges therevpon geuen from eyther parte to other. And then the ioyfull Kentishe men did conduct the gladded Normanes, and yelded to them the Countie of Kent and noble Castell of Douer, and so the auncient liberties of Englishe men, and their Countries, lawes, and customes, which before the comming of William Duke of Normandy, were equally held through the whole realm of England, now was onely in the Countie of Kent, and that by the industry of Stigand Archebishop, and Egelsyne the Abbot of the Monastery of S. Austyns in Cauntorbury as aforesayd, and is vnto this day inuiolably obser­ued and kept, namely that tenure which at this day is called Gauell kynde. Thus farre William Thorne.

The names of the Gentlemen that came out of Nor­mandy with William Duke of that prouynce when he conquered this noble Realme of England. The which I haue taken out of an auncient re­corde that I had of Mayster Clarencius King at armes.

  • AVmarle
  • Aynecourt
  • Audeley
  • Angilliane
  • Argentoun
  • Arondell.
  • Auenant
  • Abell
  • Auuerne
  • Aunwers
  • Angers
  • Angenoun
  • Archer
  • Annay
  • Asperuile
  • Abbeuile
  • Andeuile
  • Amouerduile
  • Arcye
  • Akeney
  • Albenye
  • Aybenar
  • Amay
  • Aspermound
  • Amerenges
  • BErtram
  • Buttcourte
  • Brehus
  • Byseg
  • Bardelf
  • Basset
  • Bygot
  • Bohim
  • Bailife
  • Bondeuile
  • Barsabon
  • Basteruyle.
  • Bures
  • Bonilane
  • Boyes
  • Botteller
  • Bourcher
  • Brabayon
  • Berners
  • Breybuff
  • Brande
  • Brong
  • Burgh
  • Busshy
  • Banet
  • Breton
  • Bluet
  • Bayons
  • Browne
  • Beke
  • Bykard
  • Banaiter
  • Baloun
  • Beauchamp
  • Braye
  • Bandy
  • Bracy
  • Boundes
  • Beseoun
  • Broylem
  • Broyleby
  • Burnell
  • Belet
  • Bawdewyn
  • Beaumont
  • Burton
  • Berteuilaye
  • Barre
  • Busseuyle
  • Blunt
  • Beauper
  • [Page 4]Beuyll
  • Bardnedor
  • Brett
  • Barett
  • Bonrett
  • Baynard
  • Berneuale
  • Bonett
  • Barry
  • Brian
  • Bodyn
  • Berteuyle
  • Bertyn
  • Berneuyle
  • Belewe
  • Beuery
  • Busshell
  • Boranuyle
  • Browe
  • Beleners
  • Buffard
  • Boteler
  • Bonueyer
  • Boteuyle
  • Beelyre
  • Bastard
  • Baynard
  • Braysard
  • Belhelme
  • Brayne
  • Brent
  • Braunch
  • Belesus
  • Blundell
  • Burdell
  • Bagot
  • Beaumyse
  • Belemys
  • Beyfyn
  • Bernon
  • Boels
  • Belefroun
  • Brutes
  • Barchampe
  • CAmoys
  • Caumyle
  • Chawent
  • Chauncy
  • Couderay
  • Coluyle
  • Chambulayne
  • Chamburnoun
  • Comyn
  • Columber
  • Cribett
  • Crenquer
  • Corbyne
  • Corbet
  • Chaundos
  • Chaworth
  • Cleremaws
  • Clarell
  • Chopys
  • Chaunduyt
  • Chantelowe
  • Chamberay
  • Cressy
  • Courtenay
  • Cunstable
  • Cholmeley
  • Campeney
  • Chawnos
  • Comyuyle
  • Champayne
  • Careuyle
  • Carbonell
  • Charles
  • Chereberge
  • Chawnes
  • Chaumont
  • Caperoun
  • Cheyne
  • Cursen
  • Conyll
  • Cheyters
  • Cheynes
  • Caterey
  • Cherecourt
  • Cammyle
  • Clerenay
  • Curlye
  • Cuylye
  • Clynels
  • Courteney
  • Clifforde
  • DEnauile
  • Dercy
  • Dine
  • Dispencer
  • Denyce
  • Diuell
  • Denans
  • Dauers
  • Doningsels
  • Darell
  • Delabere
  • Delapoole
  • Delalynde
  • Delahill
  • Delaware
  • Delawach
  • Dakeney
  • Dauntrye
  • Desney
  • Dabernoune
  • Dauncy
  • Dauoros
  • Dauonge
  • Duylby
  • Durange
  • Delaroune
  • Delauoyre
  • Delahoyd
  • Delee
  • Delawnde
  • Delawarde
  • Delaplanche
  • Damnot
  • Danwaye
  • Dehuyse
  • Deuyle
  • Disard
  • Doynell
  • Durant
  • Drury
  • Dabitott
  • Dunsteruyle
  • Dunchampe
  • Dambelton
  • EStraunge
  • Estuteuyle
  • Estriels
  • Esturney
  • FErerers
  • Foluyle
  • Fitzwater
  • Fitz marmaduke
  • Fleuez
  • Filberd
  • Fitz Roger
  • Fitz Robert
  • Fauecourt
  • Ferrers
  • Fitz Philip
  • Filiott
  • Furnyneus
  • Furninance
  • Fitz Otes
  • Fitz William
  • Fitz Roand
  • Fitz Payne
  • Fitz Anger
  • Fitz Aleyn
  • Fitz Raufe
  • Fitz Browne
  • Foke
  • Freuyle
  • Frount de Boef
  • Faconbirge
  • Forte
  • Frisell
  • Fitz Fouke
  • Filioll
  • Fitz Thomas
  • Fitz Morice
  • Fitz Hugh
  • Fitz Henry
  • Fitz Wareyn
  • Fitz Raynold
  • Flamuyle
  • Foemay
  • Fitz Eustache
  • Fitz Lawrence
  • Formiband
  • Frison
  • [Page 5]Fyuer
  • Furniuale
  • Fitz Geofrey
  • Fitz Herbert
  • Fits Peres
  • Fichet
  • Fitz Resewys
  • Fitz Fitz
  • Fitz Iohn
  • Fleschampe
  • GVrney
  • Gressy
  • Graunson
  • Gracy
  • Georges
  • Gower
  • Gangy
  • Goband
  • Gray
  • Gaunson
  • Golofre
  • Gobion
  • Grensy
  • Graunt
  • Greyle
  • Greuet
  • Gursly
  • Gurley
  • Grammory
  • Gernoun
  • Grendon
  • Gurdon
  • Gynes
  • Grynell
  • Greneuyle
  • Glateuyle
  • Gurney
  • Giffarrde
  • Gonerges
  • Gamagez
  • HAuntenay
  • Hansard
  • Hastyngs
  • Hanlay
  • Hurell
  • Husse
  • Hercy
  • Heryoun
  • Herne
  • Harecourt
  • Henour
  • Honell
  • Hamlyn
  • Harewell
  • Hardell
  • Haket
  • Hamond
  • Harecord
  • IArden
  • Iay
  • Ihenyels
  • Iarconuyse
  • Ianuile
  • Iasparuyle
  • KAnut
  • Karre
  • Karrow
  • Koyne
  • Kyrmaron
  • Kiriell
  • Kancey
  • Kenelre
  • LOneny
  • Lacy
  • Lynneby
  • Latomer
  • Loueda
  • Louell
  • Lemare
  • Leuetotte
  • Lucy
  • Luny
  • Logeuile
  • Longespes
  • Louerace
  • Longchamp
  • Lastales
  • Lonan
  • Ledet
  • Luse
  • Lotterell
  • Loruge
  • Longuale
  • Loy
  • Lorancourt
  • Loyons
  • Lymers
  • Longepay
  • Lamnall
  • Lane
  • Louatote
  • MOhant
  • Mowne
  • Maundeuile
  • Marmylon
  • Moribray
  • Moruyle
  • Miriell
  • Manlaye
  • Malebraunche
  • Malemayn
  • Musse
  • Marteyn
  • Mountbother
  • Mountsoler
  • Maleuyle
  • Malett
  • Mounteney
  • Mountfichet
  • Maleherbe
  • Mare
  • Musegros
  • Musard
  • Moyne
  • Mautrauers
  • Merke
  • Murres
  • Mountagu
  • Mountfort
  • Mantelet
  • Manduct
  • Mawle
  • Meuels
  • Mortmale
  • Monchenesey
  • Mallory
  • Maruy
  • Monhermon
  • Muset
  • Meneuile
  • Manfe
  • Manteuenat
  • Menpyncoy
  • Mayne
  • Maynard
  • Morell
  • Maynell
  • Maleluse
  • Memorous
  • Murreys
  • Morley
  • Mauleuerer
  • Meyne
  • Mount Martyn
  • Myners
  • Mauclerck
  • Mountkenell
  • Monet
  • Mayntener
  • Meletake
  • Mortimer
  • Mortimayn
  • Mamuile
  • Mangisere
  • Maumasyn
  • Mountlouell
  • Mawreward
  • Mounthaut
  • Meller
  • Mountgomery
  • Manlaye
  • Manlard
  • Mendre
  • Martynast
  • Mare
  • Manwaryng
  • Mantell
  • Malemys
  • Malecheyr
  • Moryn
  • [Page 6]Meluin
  • Marceans
  • Mayel
  • Morton
  • NOers
  • Neuile
  • Newmarche
  • Norbet
  • Norice
  • Newbrough
  • Neyremet
  • Neell
  • Normauyle
  • Neosmarch
  • Nermitz
  • Nembrutz
  • OTenell
  • Olibef
  • Olifaunt
  • Oseuell
  • Oysell
  • Olifard
  • Ormall
  • Oriall
  • PYgot
  • Pery
  • Perepoynt
  • Pershale
  • Power
  • Panyell
  • Peche
  • Peuerell
  • Perot
  • Picard
  • Pynkeny
  • Pomeray
  • Pounsey
  • Panely
  • Payfrer
  • Plukenet
  • Pekeney
  • Paney
  • Phuars
  • Punchardon
  • Pinchard
  • Placy
  • Pugoy
  • Patefyne
  • Playce
  • Pampilion
  • Percelaye
  • Perere
  • Potterell
  • Penkeney
  • Peccell
  • Penell
  • Putrill
  • Pettyuoll
  • Preans
  • Pantolfe
  • Peyto
  • Penicorde
  • QVincy
  • Quintine
  • ROs
  • Ridell
  • Ryuers
  • Ryuell
  • Rous
  • Russell
  • Raban
  • Rond
  • Rye
  • Rokell
  • Rastok
  • Rimuile
  • Ronger
  • Ract
  • Riper
  • Regny
  • Richemond
  • Rochford
  • Reymond
  • SOuche
  • Sheuile
  • Senchens
  • Senclere
  • Saint Quintine
  • Saint Omer
  • Saint Amond
  • Saint Legier
  • Someruyle
  • Syward
  • Saunsoner
  • Sanford
  • Sanctes
  • Sanay
  • Sanlay
  • Sules
  • Sorell
  • Somerey
  • Saint Iohn
  • Saint George
  • Seyntlesse
  • Sesse
  • Saluyn
  • Say
  • Solers
  • Sanlay
  • Saint Albyn
  • Saint Martyn
  • Somdemale
  • Segnyn
  • Saint Barbe
  • Saint wyle
  • Souremount
  • Soreglis
  • Sandeuyle
  • Sauncey
  • Syrewast
  • Saint Cheuerol
  • Saint More
  • S. Studemor
  • TOget
  • Tercy
  • Tuchet
  • Tracy
  • Trusbut
  • Traynell
  • Taket
  • Trussell
  • Ta [...]oot
  • Tonny
  • Trays
  • Tollemach
  • Tolous
  • Tanny
  • Touke
  • Tibtote
  • Turbeuyle
  • Turuile
  • Tomy
  • Trenscheuile
  • Trenchelyon
  • Tankeruile
  • Tryuet
  • Tolet
  • Trison
  • Trauers
  • Terdeue
  • Turberuyle
  • Tyrrell
  • Tynneuile
  • Torell
  • Tortechapell
  • Trusbote
  • Treuerell
  • Tenwys
  • Totelles
  • Tauerner
  • VEre
  • Verdon
  • Vesty
  • Vernam
  • Valance
  • Verder
  • Vauasour
  • Verdonell
  • Vendore
  • Verley
  • Venables
  • Venoure
  • Vilan
  • Verlaund
  • Veyrny
  • Vermels
  • Vercere
  • [Page 7]Valenges
  • Venycorde
  • Vrnall
  • Vnket
  • Vrnafall
  • Vernoys
  • Vancorde
  • Vaberoun
  • Vasdorell
  • Vschere
  • Veffay
  • Vanay
  • Vyan
  • WArde
  • Wake
  • Wely
  • Wardebys
  • Wate
  • Wyuell
  • Weyrney
  • Watelyn
  • Walanger
  • Walers
  • Wanuruyle
  • Wateuile
  • Wafyr
  • Waspayle
  • Waren
  • Wyuyle

Nowe when as king William had possessed the imperiall Crowne and Diademe of this Realme of England as aforesayde: He then as a conque­rour altered and chaunged the whole state and gouernement thereof.King Williā aduaunced his awne country men. And first by displasing of such as before had borne rule, he aduaunced the Lordes and people of his awne Nation vnto the highe and principall offices and dig­nities thereof, insomuch that Reynulph sayth, that there was skant left in England a Lorde that was an English man, and that then it was a shame to be called an English man. Polli. 7. Cap. 4. And after he caused a Proclama­tion to be made, that all former grauntes, liberties, and priuileges geuen or graunted by any Prince or King of this Realme aforetyme, should be from thence forth vtterly voyde to all constructions and purposes, except suche as should be renued and confirmed by him, by reason whereof, all degrees of people in the Realme, namely all fraternities, corporations, and bodies poli­tique, were forced to become newe suters to him, and compelled to make newe fines at his will and pleasure:King Williā gathered great tresure. Lawes at­tered. And by this meanes he gathered into his possession the greatest part of all the ryches and treasure of the lande, as well of the Clergie, as of the Laytie. That done, he chaunged the lawes of the Realme, and made such newe lawes as were profitable to himselfe, and grieuous to the people, and he caused those lawes to be set forth in the Nor­man language to aduaunce his awne tongue as a worthy and famous spech, and condemning ours as vile & barbarous: The which lawes are yet wyth vs in the same tongue.

While king William was thus occupied as abouesayde, it so chaunced that the people of Normandie began to quarrell among them selues,A rebellion in Normādy and there was such parttakyng among them, that if it had not beene looked vn­to in tyme, it had lyke to haue turned to the destruction and confusion of the whole Duchy. Wherefore King William for the pacifiyng therof was forced to gather an armie, and to leaue England for a while,King Williā sayled into Normandy. and sayle into Nor­mandie. And at his departure out of Englande, when he had set thinges in good order to his minde, he betooke the gouernement of the Realme to hys brother on the mothers syde named Odo, Bishop of Bayon, and in the Lent next folowyng he sayled into Normandy, & led with him the chiefe Lordes & rulers of England, for feare they should haue made any commocion or sturre in the tyme of his absence, with all those also that lay for hostages and pled­ges. Among the which number, were the Erles Marcarus, or Morcatus,Marcarus & Edwyn Er­les of Nor­thumberland and Mertia. and Edwyn aforesayde, Dukes of Northumberland, and Mertia, and also Stigandus Archebishop of Cauntorbury, and Edgar Ethelyng. To the which Stigandus, king william shewed great reuerence and countenaunce of much loue, and hartie fauour, but all proued great dissimulation, as after [Page 8] appered by his deposyng, and emprisoning at Winchester a long tyme. And beyng arriued in Normandy, he passed through the countrie triumphauntly, and like a conquerour. But Polidore sayth that the cause of his goyng the­ther was, that for as much as he sawe how that from thencefoorth he should be altogether occupied about the affayres of this Realme, and settyng of or­ders in the same, he would first set such a stay in his Duchy of Normandie, that nothing might lightly happen afterwardes, by reason whereof he should be compelled to make his repayre thether againe.

1068/2 The next yere when king William had sped his businesse in the sayde Countrie, he returned into England with great pompe, and shortly after set a sore tare vpon the Englishe men,Taxes begat rebellion. yea, so grieuous was he vnto them, that he neuer ceased to burthen them with newe taxes and impositions. Of the no­bles he made so little accompt, that he seemed thereby howe he minded no­thing else but their vtter destruction. By reason whereof in some partes of the land was there rebellion against him, namely in Deuonshire, & in Nor­thumberland, but at the last he compelled them by force to obedience, and delt very cruelly with them. Many both of the Nobilitie and Commons he depri­ued as well of goodes as of aucthoritie and rule, and conferred the same vnto the Normanes and that for very small and light causes.

For these, and for other sterne and cruell deedes done by hym, the sayde Nobles were sore moued against him. And for that cause many of them fled the lande, some into Norway, and some into Denmarke, and some into one Countrie,Edgar Atheling [...] other fled in­to Scotland. and some into another. Marcarus, or Marcatus, Erle of Nor­thumberland, and Edwyn Erle of middle England, with Edgar Athelyng, and dyuerse other, as Edgars mother, and his two sisters Margaret, and Christian fled into Scotland. But another Chronicle (sayth Fabian) wry­teth that Edgar entending with Agatha his mother and his two sisters to haue sayled into high Almayne or Hungary where he was borne, was by tempest of the Sea, dryuen into Scotland: where of Malcolyne or Mal­colme then the thirde Scottishe king of that name, they were ioyously recey­ued. And in processe of tyme, the sayde Malcolyne cast such loue vnto the said Margaret, that he tooke her to wife, as before is touched in the story of Ca­nutus. Of the which Margaret the sayde Malcolyne receyued two daugh­ters, and six sonnes, wherof three, that is to say, Edgar, Alexander, and Da­uid, were kinges of Scotland one after an other next after their father. And Molde one of the sayde daughters,Molde the daughter of the aforesayd Margaret Queene of Scots was maryed to Henrie the first king of England of that name. was afterwardes maried vnto Henry the first of that name king of England, and the other daughter Mary was ma­ryed to Eustace Erle of Boloygne. Of Molde the first daughter, king Henry receyued two sonnes, named William, and Richard, the which both dyed be­fore their father, as after shall apere. And he receyued also two daughters named Molde and Mary, which Molde or Mawde was maried to Henry the fourth of that name, Emperour of Almaine. After whose death she was againe maryed to Geoffrey Plantagenet Erle of Aungeow. Of whom dis­cended Henry surnamed Shortmantell, afterwards king of England by the name of Henry the second. And the other daughter Mary, was maryed to the Erle of Bloys, of whome discended Mawde, or Mary that was wife vn­to king Stephen.

Nowe when king William had leuyed suche taskes vpon the Englishe [Page 9] men as is before sayde, and espied their grudgyng thereat, and also when he considered howe his Lordes were departed, he then had a neerer eye to the Lordes that remayned, and kept them a little strayter: But it was not long after, but that Marcarus was reconciled to the king, and yet after fayled and forsoke him againe. For this & other causes, king William highly aduaunced himselfe and his people with the possessions of this Realme, insomuch as they were greatly enriched, and the Englishe men in maner vtterly decayed.King Williā made foure Castles. Then caused he foure Castels to be made, whereof two were set at Yorke, the thirde at Notingham, and the fourth at Lyncolne, and manned them all with Normanes, or as Polydore sayth one at Notingham, an other at Lyn­colne, the thirde at Yorke, and the fourth at Hasting where he first landed. And this did he because that these foresayde places which were very commo­dius for the enemies, beyng thus manned and fortifyed might make all men afearde, & to beware how they went about to disturbe the state of the realme by any newe deuised treason. And to make the people more quiet, and lesse able to rebell, he caused all their weapons and armor to be taken from them, and ordeyned also that euery housekeper should be within his awne dores by eight of the clocke at night, and then to couer or rake vp his fyre, and go to bed. And because they should not passe that houre, he caused a Bell to be rong in euery towne and village iust at .viij. of the clocke, the which is vsed in most countries of England yet at this day, and is called in the Norman language, Couer le fue, which we now corruptly call Curfur.

About the thirde yere of his reigne: Harolde, 1069/3 and Canutus sonnes of Swanus king of Denmarke, came and sayled into the North part of Hum­ber with a strong nauie of two hundred sayle and more,Swanus king of Dē ­marke with his Danes landed in the North. and in all haste drew them towardes Yorke. Whether Edgar Athelyng came vnto them bring­gyng with him such English men as had before fled into Scotland, by whom his power was encreased. Then the Normanes which had the rule of the towne and Castelles aforesayde, fearing that the Englishe men would ayde the Danes, and with the houses of the Suburbes of the towne, haue filled the towne ditches, set the Suburbes a fyre: Whereof the flame was so big, and with the winde so strong, that it tooke into the Citie, and brent a parte thereof with the Minster of Saint Peter. In tyme of which fyre the Danes by fauour of some of the Citizens entred the Citie. Eabian. and slue more than three thousande of the Normanes.

But Polidore reporteth the matter touching this inuasion of the Danes farre otherwise as followeth: Whiles these thinges were done in England, the Englishe Lordes that were fled into Denmarke, ceased not to moue Ca­nutus the fourth then king of that Countrie, to warre vpon the Normanes, and to inuent newe causes whereby they might the soner incense him there­vnto, saiyng how the crowne of England ought of right to apperteyne vnto the kinges of Denmarke, as vnto them vnto whome the possession thereof had beene in tymes past no lesse profitable than honourable: and for that cause it should not stande with his honour, to suffer the same to be vniustlye possessed of a newe Lorde that had no right or iust title therevnto, specially sith the time selfe serued so well for the purpose, in the which the Norman was so farre as yet from benefiting eyther the Englishe Nation, or such as bordred on them, that he nowe played the open tyraunt, and was hated of [Page 10] them all: And sayde further, that forsomuche as there was so great hope of victory and successe, specially if he would preuent his enemie, and take suche holdes and places as were very fit for his purpose, it behoued him not to stay or sleepe the matter. This done, Canutus beyng much moued with these and such lyke perswasions, determined with himselfe to make warre against the Normanes. And it foloweth in the same wryter: I am not ignoraunt howe it is reported in the Englishe Chronicle, that this warre against the Normanes was not made of Canutus, but of his brother Harold by his per­swasion: The which thing Saxo Grammaticus a wryter of the Danish History doth not affirme, neyther is it likely to be true, because Harold was a quyet man of nature, and one that much desyred to eschew the trauayles of Mar­tiall affayres and lyued not scarcely two yeres after he was made king, so that out of doubt it is, that he neuer durst be the aucthour of so great a war­fare, neyther had he tyme or leysure therevnto. Netherto Polidore. But to returne to the matter.The Danes are chased to their shippes. It was not long after, but king William ouerthrewe them in battaile, and chased them to their shippes, and tooke so great displea­sure with the inhabitants of that Prouince for reuolting to Canutus, that he destroyed the land liyng betweene Yorke and Durham in such wise,Yorke & the countrie roūd about vtterly destroyed. that .ix. yeres after it lay vnlaboured and vntilled, except the land of Saint Iohns of Beuerley onely.

And of the famyn that the people of that Countrie sustayned afterward, great wonders are reported:Famyn. For it is written that they were for necessitie compelled to eate all kinde of Vermine, as Cattes, Rattes, Dogges, and such lyke, so harde and streit they were kept by the warre of the king. And in that yere also Molde, or Mawde the wife of king William was crowned Queene of England, of Aldredus Archbishop of Yorke, and was also dely­uered of a fayre sonne named Henry, who was afterwardes king of Eng­land and called Henry the first of that name.

10 [...]/4In the fourth yere of the reigne of this king, the Scottes with Malco­lyne, or Malcolme their king entered Northumberland, and wasted and de­stroyd sore that Countrie, and slue therein much people, and many they toke prisoners, and helde them as bonde men.

After this, king William (whose greedy and couetous appetite and de­syre of treasure beyng not yet quenched with the former great taskes or pay­ments set vpon the people of this Realme) did by counsayle proceede further to enquire and search of all the Abbeyes in England, to vnderstand what ry­ches was in them, & after an Inuentary taken thereof, caused the same to be brought into his treasurie.The building of the newe Forest. And the same yere he caused the newe Forest to be made in the Countrey of Southamton, for the finishing whereof he was enforced to pull downe diuerse townes and Churches .xxx. myles of length, and stored the same with wilde beastes, and then made sharpe lawes for the maintenance and encrease of them, as the losse of eyen, and other lymmes.

And soone after there was a sinode or counsaile holden at Winchester of the Clergie of England.Stigand Archebishop depriued. At the which counsayle were present two Cardi­nalles, sent from the second Alexander then Bishop of Rome. In this coun­sayle, Stigandus Archbishop of Cantorbury aforesayd, was depriued from his dignitie, and that for three causes, as Fabian sayth. First for that he had holden wrongfully that Bishoprike, while Robert the Archebishop was li­uyng. [Page 11] The second, because he receyued the Pall of Benet the .x. Byshop of Rome, who was compted an vsurper of the Papacie. The thirde,Stigandus Archebishop of Cauntor­bury. for that he occupied the sayde Pall, without the aucthoritie of the Court of Rome. Po­lidore addeth a fourth cause, which was for that contrary vnto the Canons, he helde the Bishoprike of Winchester with the See of Cauntorbury.

And when Stigandus sawe himselfe brought into this thraldome, he then thought good to proue what the king who had before in the tyme of his prosperitie pretended so much frendship and good will towardes him, would do for him in this case.Dissimula­tion. But where before he made him a louyng and friendly countenaunce, and did vnto him great reuerence, then he chaunged all his mildenesse into stoutnesse, and excused himselfe by the Bishop of Romes auc­thoritie, so that in the ende Stigandus was depriued of his dignitie, and af­terwardes committed to perpetuall prison in Winchester, where he dyed shortly after his sayd deposition.

It was reported of this Stigandus, that he was so couetous and spa­ring, that he woulde spende nothing more than he needes must, and vsed to sweare by All halowes, that he had not one pennie to blesse himselfe withall: But that othe was not found true, for after his death, there was found a lit­tle key about his necke, by reason whereof there was founde great treasure vnder the earth in mo places than one, as sayth Fabian.

In this counsayle also were put downe diuerse other Bishops, Abbots,Bishoppes depriued. and Priours, by the meanes of king William, and all to the entent that he might preferre Normanes to the rule of the Church, as he had preferred his knightes to the rule of the Temporaltie, and by that meane stand in the more suretie of his estate, and bring riches and treasure to his possession.

In this counsayle also, Wolstane that then was Bishop of Worcester,Wolstane bi­shop of Wor­cester. was an earnest suter vnto the King for certeyne possessions fallen into hys handes by the death of Aldredus last Archbishop of Yorke, which were with­holden from his See by the sayd Aldredus. But the king would not seme to vnderstand his sute, for hurting the Church of Yorke. Fabian.

And shortly after the king gaue that Archebishoprike vnto Thomas a Chanon of Bayon, who was the first that buylded the Mynster of Yorke, and sent for Lanfranke then Abbot of Cane,Lanfranke. and gaue vnto him the Archbishop­rike of Cauntorbury. This Lanfranke was an Italian borne, and a very good deuine, and right expert withall in the gouernement both of Spiritu­all and Temporall thinges. And soone after that he was made Archebishop of Cauntorbury, Thomas that before was chosen Archbishop of Yorke came vnto him to be sacred of him as the auncient vsage and custome was. Of whom Lanfranke required an othe, and required his profession in writyng concerning his obedience vnto the See of Cauntorbury. Thomas answered and sayde, that he would neuer do that, except he might therof here sufficient aucthoritie and skilfull reasons, by the which it might apere that he should so do without any empechement or preiudice of his Church of Yorke.

Then the King callyng Lanfranke before him sayde, that the sayd Lan­franke trusted more in his cunning, than he did in good fayth or reason: But he aunswered so reasonably vnto the King, that in the ende, Thomas by the Kinges commaundement was faine to come againe to Lanfranke to be sa­cred, and wrote his profession with his awne hand, of his obedience, and read [Page 12] it, in the which was conteyned, that he shoulde be obedient in all that belon­geth to the worship of God and all Christian faith, which done he was sacred, and so departed. And shortly after Lanfranke required the like othe and pro­fession of all the Bishops of England.

1071/5 In the fift yere of this Kinges reigne, Edwyn and Marcarus or Mor­catus, Erles of Mertia and Northumberland, beyng in feare and daunger of their liues, voyded the kinges Court secretly, and rebelled for a little time: But at length it turned to both their harmes.Marcarus & the bishop of Duresme fled to the Isle of Ely. For Edwyn was slaine as he went toward Scotland, or as some write in Scotland of his awne company, and Erle Marcarus, with the Bishop of Duresme named Egelwinus, tooke the Isle of Ely for their sauegard. But the king helde them so short, that in processe of tyme they were faine to yelde and submit themselues to the kings grace and mercie. Then he sent the Bishop to the Abbey of Abingdon, to be kept there as prisoner, where he was so daintily fed, that at the length he dyed for hunger. But some writers report, that he was so high hearted and loftie of courage,Egelwinus Bishop of Duresme starued with hunger. that after he knewe that he should remaine there as Priso­ner, he would neuer eate meate more, and Erle Marcarus was had to the Tower of London. But Polidore sayth he scaped out of the Isle in a ship, and fled into Scotland, which was the cause why the king warred anon af­ter vpon the Scots. For in the sixt yere of his reigne, he went with a great armie against them, and subdued Malcolme their king, and compelled him to do him both homage and fealtie. He also disherited Gospatrik Erle of Com­berland, and exiled him the land, and gaue all Comberland with the honour of Carlisle to Raufe Meschynes, and made him Erle thereof. Also aboute this tyme, king William made the newe Forest in the Countie of South­hamton:The newe Forest. And for the enlarging of the same, he ouerthrewe Townes and Churches a great number by the space of .xxx. myles, and replenished the same with Deere, and then made sharpe lawes for the encrease and mainte­naunce thereof.

1073/7 In the seuenth yere of king William, Thomas Archebishop of Yorke, not beyng content to be vnder the rule and obedience of Lanfranke Archebi­shop of Cauntorbury, appealed to the Court of Rome, so that the sayde two Archebishoppes apered both in proper person before Alexander Bishop of Rome.Lanfranke. In whose presence Lanfranke, was so well fauoured, that where Thomas aboue named, and Remigius Bishop of Dorchester, were for iust causes depriued of their Croyses and Ringes, he by his fauour and meanes (as sayth Fabian) restored them to their former dignitie. The cause of Tho­mas his depriuation was, for that he had holpen Duke William towarde his iourney into England: for the which the said Duke promised him a Bis­shoprick if hee obtained victory. And the other was depriued for that he was proued a Priests sonne.

The prima­eye of Caun­torbury.Then Thomas moued the cause of the Primacie of Cauntorburie, and of the subiection that to him should belong, and sayde that these two Sees were farre asonder, that is to say, Cauntorbury and Yorke, and that neyther of them by the constitution of Gregorie shoulde be subiect vnto another, but that the one is more worthie than the other, forsomuche as hee is of elder tyme. To this aunswered Lanfranke and sayde that the constitutions of Gregorie made no mencion of Cantorbury, but of Yorke and London. Then [Page 13] the Bishop of Rome remitted this matter to be determined before the king, and the Bishops of England, and he gaue the Pall to Lanfranke.

But because this worde or terme Pall is to many vnknowen,What a Pall is. I will therefore here shew vnto you what thing it is. This Pall is an indowment that euery Archbishop must haue, and he is not in full aucthoritie of an Arch­bishop (by the Bishop of Romes ordinance) vntill he haue receiued the Pall, and it is a thing of white Sylke, the bredth of a Stole that the Priest was wont to weare at his masse, but it is of another fashion. And that ye may the better knowe it, if ye looke vpon the armes of any Archebishop, there ye shall see it set out in white with a great many of blacke crosses vpon it.

Nowe when Lanfranke had thus finished his businesse at Rome, 1074/8 he with the other two Bishoppes returned into England, where this matter hangyng in variaunce betweene the sayde two Archebishoppes was had in communication. For triall whereof Bedes History was brought foorth: wherein it appered, that from the first Augustines time, to Bedes last dayes, which was. C.xxxix. yeres, the Archbishop of Cauntorbury had the Prima­cie of all the Bishoppes in England. Fabian.

When Thomas had heard all these allegations, he denyed all,The conten­tion betwene the Archebi­shop of Can­torbury, and the Archbi­shop of York, which of thē should be chiefe. and laid for him the Epistle, in the which Gregory Bishop of Rome demed that the Church of Yorke, and of London should be euen Peres, and neyther of them subiect to the other.

To this was aunswered by Lanfranke, that he was not Bishop of Lon­don, nor this question was not moued for the Church of London. But Tho­mas sayde that Gregorye had graunted to Augustyne power to haue vnder him all the Bishoppes of Englande, and that London at that day was the principall See of all England. Albeit that the Bishop of Romes minde was that betweene London and Yorke should be no diuersitie of honour, because they beyng Archebishoppes might lyue in an vnite to the good example of all other. And though Augustyne chaunged the See from London to Caun­torbury, yet Gregory would not that Augustynes successors should be aboue the Bishoppes of Yorke. For he woulde haue then set in his Epistle these wordes folowyng: I graunt to thee Augustyne and to thy successors: But for that he would there should no such power stretch to his successours, therefore he made no mention of them.

Lanfranke, to this aunswered and said: If that aucthority were graun­ted to Augustine alone, and not to his successors, it was a simple gift that the Bishop of Rome gaue to Augustine that was so familier with him, & name­ly while Augustyne sacred no Bishop of Yorke while he lyued. 1075/9 For the See was full during his life, by reason whereof he put not his aucthoritie in exe­cution. But priuileges of Bishoppes of Rome confirmeth this dignitie to Augustines successors of Cauntorbury, and demeth that it is skill and good reason, that all the churches of England shoulde take light and knowledge at that place.

By these reasons and other, Thomas was at length ouercome, & graun­ted gladly that the farther brinke of Number shoulde be the beginning of his Diocesse. And furthermore it was there demed,The Archb [...] shop of Yorke tudged sub­iect to the Archebishop of Cātorbury that in all thinges concer­nyng the worship of God and the fayth of holy Churche, the Archebishop of Yorke should be subiect to the Archebishop of Cauntorbury: So that if the [Page 14] Archebishop of Cauntorbury would call a counsaile in any part of England, the Archebishop of Yorke shoulde be thereat with all the Bishoppes of his Prouince, and be also obedient vnto his lawfull hestes. And at all seasons when the Archebishop of Cauntorbury should be sacred, the Archebishop of Yorke with the Bishops of his Prouince should come to Cauntorbury and consecrate him there. And if the Archbishop of Yorke should be stalled or sa­cred, then shall he come to Cauntorbury, or else where in Englande, where the Archebishop of Cauntorbury shall assigne him, and there to be sacred of him, and he shall make to him an othe, with profession of obedience.

Lanfrankes vaine glory.When Lanfranke heard this iudgement geuen, he reioysed inwardly. And to the entent it should remaine of recorde, that his successors should not neede to pleade that matter, he therefore caused it to be regestred in moste substanciall wise. And besides that sent a Pistle for that cause to Alexander the aforenamed Bishop of Rome of all this doyng, with the profession of Thomas the Archebishop aforesayd. Of this Lanfranke are by dyuerse wri­ters many notable thinges written, sayth Fabian.

1076/10 In the .x. yere of this kinges reigne, Roger Erle of Hereford who had geuen his sister in mariage vnto Raufe Erle of Norffolke and Suffolke a­gainst the kinges minde. The sayde Roger together with the sayde Raufe conspired against the king, and caused Walrefe Duke of Northumberlande, and Erle of Huntyngdon, and Northamton, by their subtile perswasions to be agreeable to their vntruth.Treason will breake forth. But at the last, when this Duke Walrefe had well vnderstand the purpose that they went aboute, he went to Lanfranke and shewed him all the matter: By whose counsayle he shortly after sayled vnto the king then beyng in Normandy, and disclosed the same vnto him, and put himselfe wholy in his grace and mercy.

1077/11 When the king had heard these tidyngs, he made good semblance vnto the Duke Walrefe, and sped him the faster into England: But howsoeuer it came to passe, the two sayde Erles were warned of the disclosyng of thys matter, in such wise as they gathered to them such strength that ye king could not haue them at his pleasure, but as he was fayne by strong hande to chace and outlawe them.Duke Walref an accusar of Traytors behedded. And for that he fayled of his purpose of them, he impri­soned Duke Walrefe at Winchester, and lastly caused him to be behedded, more of tyranny than of iustice.

1078/12 In the .xij. yere of his reigne was holden a great counsayle or Synode of the Clergie of the land in S. Paules Church of London, where amongest many thinges ordeyned for the rule of the Church of England,A Synode of the Clergie. dyuerse Bi­shops Sees were translated from one place to another, as Selwy, to Chi­chester,Bishops sees translated. Kyrton to Ereter, Welles to Bathe, Shereborne to Sarisburye, Dorchester to Lyncolne, and the See of Lichefield to Chester, which things thus ordered with many other for the Church, the said coūsail was desolued.

1079/13 Osmond or Oswald Bi­shop of Sa­risbury.In the .xiij. yere of his reigne, after the death of Harman Bishop of Sarisbury, succeeded Osmond, or Oswald the kinges Chauncelor, the which builded there a newe Church within the kinges Castell, and brought thether Clerkes that were garnished with vertue and cunning. And he himselfe wrote and bounde bookes, that were ordeyned and made for the more de­uout and solemne settyng out of the deuine seruice of the Church,Sarisburie vse. as the or­dinall and other, and it was then called Sarisbury vse. And at this tyme the [Page 15] king gaue the Erledom of Northumberland to Walter Bishop of Dutham, who afterward was slaine by the men of Northumberland.

In the .xv. yere of his reigne, 1081/15 Robert the eldest sonne of king William the conquerour, because he might not haue the Duchy of Normandy, which his father had sometime assigned & geuen vnto him,Robert the eldest sonne of king William rebelled a­gainst his father. and after for his wilde­nesse did resume it againe: He with the ayde and fauour of the French king Philip, & Lewes his sonne, toke prayes in that Duchy, and put his father to much trouble. In so much that at length the father & the sonne met in plaine fielde with two great hostes, and eyther with other fought a cruell Battail.

It is read that during this battaile, king william was throwne from his horse, and in great ieopardie of his lyfe. Whereof his sonne Robert beyng ware, was so moued with pitie that he rescued his father, and deliuered him free from all the daunger of his enemies. But howe soeuer it fortuned with the king: The truth is, that many of his men were slaine, and his se­conde sonne William Rufus sore hurt, so that in the ende king William was faine to refuse the fielde, and gat at that tyme none aduauntage of his sayde sonne. For the which dede and rebellion thus made by the sonne, the father accursed him after the opinion of some wryters.

While king William was thus occupied in Normandy, 1082/16 the Northum­bers rebelled, and slue in their rage Walter the Bishop of Durham, but the cause is not expressed, whose death Odo Bishop of Baion shortly after re­uenged. After the aforesayde battaile in Normandy, king William retur­ned into Englande, bringyng with him the sayde Robert his sonne, whome he incontinent vpon his returne sent with an armye against Malcolme king of Scottes, for that contrary to the league betwixt them, he had made in hys absence dyuerse roades into the borders of England. But when Robert vn­derstood that the sayd Malcolme was retired into Scotland, he ceased to pursue him any further, and therefore retyred he vnto the water of Tyne, where he lay in campe a season, and there builded a forte, where as at thys day standeth newe Castell vpon Tyne:New Castell vpon Tyne. But the towne and wail was buil­ded afterwardes by king Iohn, who gaue many great priuileges and liber­ties vnto the same, which was before but a small fisher towne without walles named Pandon.

In the .xvij. yere of king William,1083/17 Thurstone Abbot of Glascenbury & his monke fought toge­ther. there fell an vnhappy strife betwene Thurston Abbot of Glascenbury a Norman, and his Monkes, the cause whereof (in part sayth Fabian) was, that the Abbot despised and would haue set apart such song and offices as by Gregorie Bishop of Rome & Augustine his disciple, of olde tyme was to them assigned, and would haue compelled them to haue folowed the vse of William of Fescampe. And besyde that, this Thurstone wasted and inordinatly spent the goodes of that place, in lechery, and by other insolent meanes, and withdrewe from the Monkes, their olde and accustomed diet. For the which causes, first began great wordes wyth chyding, and after strokes and fightes, so that the Abbot gate vnto him ar­med men, and fell vpon the monkes, and slue two of them at the high altare, and wounded .xviij. of them, and the Monkes with Formes and Candle­sticks defēded themselues in such wise, that they hurt many of ye armed men.

After complaint was brought hereof before the king, by whose iudge­ment, Thurstone was againe returned into Cadonie, from whence he was [Page 16] brought, and the Monkes were spred abrode into dyuerse houses through England. But it is sayde that in the tyme of William Rufus, this Thurston obteyned the rule of the Abbey againe for the price of .D. pound.

1085/19 In the .xix. yere of his reigne, king William raysed a newe maner of Taxe: For he caused to be gathered through England of euery hyde of land vj.A new tax. shillinges. An hide of lande conteyneth fiue Yardes, and euery Yard con­teyneth foure Acres,An Hide of land and so an hide of land conteyneth .xx. Acres, an Acre conteyneth .xl. perches of length, and foure in bredth, and foure Acres make a Yarde,A knightes fée in land. and fiue Yardes make an Hide, and .viij. Hides make a knightes fee. By the which reason a knightes fee should conteyne .C.lx. Acres, and that is accompted for a plough land for a yere.

A great and streyght in­quirie.And not long after he caused to be searched howe much lande eche of hys Barons helde, howe many knightes Fees, howe many townes, and what number of men and of beastes were within this land: whereof he commaun­ded a booke to be made, which also was done, and that afterward turned this land to sundry griefes and plagues, as after shall apere.

1086/20 In the .xx. yere of his reigne, Canutus king of Denmarke, with the helpe of the Fleminges came with a great armie toward England: But by the prouision of the king,Canutus a Dane with ye helpe of the Flemings landed in England. they were so feared, that they wer let of that iorney.

Then king William gaue to thre of his Chapleynes thre Bishoprikes. To Morice he gaue London, to William he gaue Thetford, and to Robert he gaue Chester, which Robert was after remoued to Couentrie. Of this Robert reporteth Reynulph that he scraped from one Beame of his Church in Couentrie fiue hundreth marke,Couentrie. to fill the hande of king William. For Leofricus that was Duke of Mertia in the time of Edward the Confessor, had adourned that Church, with great riches of Golde, Siluer & Iewelles.

In this yere Edgar Atheling, which was reconciled to the kinges fa­uour, by lycence of the king, sayled into Apulia.

Now began the aforesayde plagues to spring: For great moreyne fell vpon brute beastes, and brenning Feuers among the people, and also great hunger and barennesse of the earth. Also in this yere great hurt was done in many places of the land by fyre, and specially in the City of London, wher­vpon the sixt day of Iuly the Church of Saint Paule in London was brent,Paules brent. and all that was therein, as in a table hangyng on the North syde of the Quyere may apere. And it was in the tyme that Morice was Bishop of London. And lykewyse was brent a great part of the Citie of London at the same tyme.

At this tyme king William beyng in Normandy prepared for warre against the French king: But shortly after he fell sicke, and kept his Cham­ber at Roan a long tyme, wherefore Philip the French king beyng merely disposed, sayde that william lay in Childebed, and norisshed his fat belly. The which wordes when they came to king Williams eares, he was much amo­ued therewith, and sayd, when I am churched I wyll offer vnto him a thou­sand Candelles light, with the which he shall holde himselfe smally contented. The which promise, he after performed. For in the moneth of Iuly folowing, when corne, fruite, & grapes were most flourishyng, he entered into Fraunce with a great armie, and set on fyre many Cities and townes on the west syde of Fraunce, and at the last came vnto the Citie of Meaux, and fyred it, and [Page 17] brent a great part thereof, with the Church of our Lady, wherein he brent a woman beyng closed in the Wall of the sayde Church, as a recluse.

In this heate, or as some say by the leaping of a horse, king William tooke such a disease and sicknesse, that it was shortly after the cause of hys death. And when he felt himselfe thus grieued, he called his sonnes before him, and exhorted them in his best and most louyng maner, that they should charitably loue and fauour eyther other of them, and to holde together as lo­uyng brethren, and so afterward made his testament and last will.

He had fiue children, Robert the eldest,King Williā had fiue chil­dren, & what came of them. to whome he gaue the Duke­dome of Normandy, Richard, the second, who died in his youth, William Ru­fus the thirde, to whome he gaue the kingdome of England, and Henry the fourth that also succeded him in the same Kingdome. And one daughter na­med Adela, who he gaue in mariage to Stephen Erle of Bloys or Bonony, who got on hir Stephen that after was king of England. But other write that king Henry the first maryed Molde the daughter of Margaret Quene of Scottes, and by her had issue two daughters, named Molde, and Mary. And Molde was first maryed to Henry the Emperor, and after to Geoffrey Plantagenet, by whome she had issue king Henry the second. And Mary was maryed to Eustace Erle of Bloys, by whome she had issue king Ste­phen. So that king Henry the seconde came of the elder sister, and Stephen of the yonger sister. The which Molde and Mary were the daughters of Margaret the wyfe of Malcolyne, or Malcolme king of Scottes, which was sister to Edgar Atheling, and of Edward the outlawe, which was the sonne of Edmond Ironsyde.

After that king William had aduertised his sonnes as aforesayd,Charitie is most vsed in the extreeme pangues of death. and had made his last will and Testament, he then deliuered out of Prison his awne brother the Bishop of Bayon, Marcarus Erle of Northumberland, Wilno­tus the sonne of Harold, or as some do write he was the sonne of Goodwyn, which was sent to William by Edward the Confessor to remain for a pledge for his sayd father Goodwyn. And shortlye after these thinges with other were done, he dyed the .viij. day of September, when he had reigned king of England .xx. yeres, x. Monethes, and .xxviij. dayes, and in the .lij. yere of his Duchye, and the .lix. yere of his lyfe, or as Polidore wryteth .lxxiiij. and in the yere of our Lorde. 1087.

¶ After his death, men spake of him as they do of other Princes,The discrip­tion of King William the Conqueror. and said that he was wise and guileful, riche and couetous, and loued well to be mag­nifyed and praysed, a fayre speaker, and a deepe dissembler, a man of good­ly stature, but something fatte in the belly, sterne in countenaunce, & strong in armes, and therewith couragious and bolde, and had greate pleasure in hunting and making of great feastes. But he passed all other in leuiyng of Taskes, which condicion his subiectes construed three maner of wayes, and sayde, that eyther it was to excell all other in ryches, or else to withstand and defend his enimyes, or to staunche the appetyte of his couetous mynde. He builded two Abbeyes in England, one at Battill in Sussex, where he wan the fielde against Harolde, the which was called vntill the suppression thereof the Abbey of Battaile. And the other he set in Southwarke besyde London, vpon the Southsyde of Thames, and named it Barmondsey. And he buil­ded also one in Cane in Normandie where he was buried, and dedicated the [Page 18] same vnto Saint Steuen.

And when all ceremonies apperteyning vnto the Funerall were finished and done, and that he should nowe be layd in his tombe, there sodeinly step­ped foorth one that resisted and woulde not suffer him to be buryed in that place, saiyng with a lowde voyce, how that the ground where they purposed to bury him, was percell of his auncient inheritance, which the Duke in his lyfe tyme had wrongfully taken from him perforce, and against his will for the buylding of that Abbey, and had neuer made him any recompence or a­mendes for the same, and therfore would not to die for it assent ne suffer that he shoulde there be buryed, onelesse he were first recompenced and agreed with accordingly, wherevpon they were faine to see him recompenced before he could be enterred, so that maruell it was that so great and noble a conque­rour as he was when he was aliue, could not after his death atteyne somuch ground as might receyue and couer his poore Carkas, without great adoo and businesse.

The sayde king had to Issue (sayth Polidore) by Mawde his wife, Robert vnto whome he bequethed the Dukedome of Normandy: Richard, who dyed very yong: William Rufus, and Henry which were afterwardes kinges of England one after another. Of this Henry he prophecyed before (as the fame went) that he should rule both England and Normandy toge­ther after his brethren, vnto whome he gaue by testament a great part of his treasure. He had also fiue daughters, that is to weete, Cicill which was made a Nonne, Constance whome Alley Duke of hether Briteyne maried, and Adela the wyfe of Stephen Erle of Bloys, mother to king Stephen, who reigned after the sayde king Henry: The names of the other two are not remembred of writers, which dyed ere they were mariageable, one of the which as is before mencioned should haue beene the wife of Harolde, if fortune had not beene against it.

It is also reported that when this king lay at the poynt of death, and should now depart the world, he much repented him of the cruell handelyng of the English men, specially because he had bene by them so much encreased as well in honour as Empire.

And although this king helde Englishemen in great subiection, and as is aforesayd suffered almost no Englishe man to gouerne or rule within the Realme: Yet it should appere he some deale fauoured the Citie of London, for at the speciall sute and request of the right reuerend father in God Wil­liam then Bishop of London, the sayde Conquerour in the first yere of his reigne graunted vnto the Citizens of London their first Charter and liber­ties, in as large forme as they enioyed the same in the tyme of Saint Ed­ward the confessor that reigned before the Conquest. And the Citizens to shewe themselues thankefull vnto the sayde Bishop for his great loue and fauour, did not onely accompt him as a deere and speciall friend vnto them so long as he liued, but also after his death and buriall, beyng enterred in the middle Isle of the West ende of Paules Church, they fixed on his graue stone this Epitaph folowyng.

The Epitaphe of the reuerend father in God William Bishop of London, who of his great loue and charitie towarde the Citizens of the same, did first obteyne for them of William the Conquerour theyr Charter, liberties and priuileges, as by the inscription of the sayde stone may apéere, the contentes and effect whereof foloweth, first in Latine, and then in Englishe.

GVilielmo viro sapientia & vitae sanctitate claro, qui primū diuo regi & cōfessori familiaris, nu­pèr in episcopū Lōdinensis erectus, nec multo post apud inuictissimū principem Guilielmum Angliae regem eius nominis primum, ob prudentiam, fidemue singularem in consilium abhibitus: amplissima huic Vr­bi celeberrimae priuilegia ab eodem impetrauit, Senatus populusue Londinensis bene merenti posuit. Sedit Episcopus annos. 16. decessit anno à Christo nato. 1067.

Haec tibi, clare pater, posuerunt marmora Ciues:
Praemia, nòn meritis, aequiperanda tuis:
Hic sibi nam populus te Londinensis amicum
Sensit, & huic Ʋrbi nòn leue praesidium.
Reddita libertas ductè: donata (que) multis
Te duce res fuerat publica muneribus,
Diuitias, gemmas, formam, breuis opprimit hora
Haec tua sed pietas, & benefacta manent.

The same in Englishe foloweth.

TO William a man famous in wisedome and holynesse of lyfe, who first wyth Saynt Edward King and Confessor be­yng familiar, of late preferred to be By­shop of London: and not long after, for his wisedome and sincere fidelitie admit­ted to be of Counsaile with the most victorious Prince William king of England of that name the first, who obteyned of the same great and large priulieges to this famous Citie. The Senate and Citizens of London to him hauing well deserued, haue made this. He conti­nued Bishop .xvj. yeres, and dyed in the yere of Christ a thousand three score and seuen.

These Marble monumentes to thee thy Citizens assigne
Rewardes (O father) farre vnfit to those deserts of thine.
Thee vnto them, a faythfull friend, thy London people found,
And to this towne, of no small weight, a stay both sure and sound.
Their liberties restored to them, by meanes of thee haue bene,
Their publike weale by meanes of thee, large gifts haue felt and sene
Thy riches, stock and beuty braue one houre it hath opprest
Yet these thy vertues and good deedes, with vs for euer rest.

The aforesayde Charter is written in the Saxon tongue.

William Rufus.

WIlliam Rufus, 1087/1 or William the Red, the thirde sonne of William the Con­querour, began to reigne ouer this realme next after his father, the .ix. of September, in the yere of our Lorde .M.lxxxvij. Who beyng in Normandy at hys fathers death, departed thence before his funerall obse­quy was finished and done, and in all haste addressed him into England, where he was sooner arryued than he was looked for, and being come into the Realme, he by and by made Lanfranke then Archebishop of Cauntorbury (in whose friendship and faythfulnesse he had reposed no small trust and confidence) priuie to all his counsayle, praiyng him withall to put to his helping hand, that he might be crowned king as shortly as might be, according to his fathers Will and Testament: The whiche was at the last brought to passe by the importune laboure and sute of the sayde Lanfranke, who for his learning was highly esteemed, aswell with the Nobilitie as also of the Commons of the Realme, but yet not without much ado: For a great many bare better good will vnto his brother Robert than vnto him, because he was of a more mylde and gentle nature, and besyde that he was the elder brother, and therefore ought by lawe and conscience to haue beene preferred: But yet the matter was so wrought by the wisedome of Lanfranke, promi­syng all thinges in his name, that might by any meanes purchase him credite or fauour with the people, that all in maner assented vnto his coronation, and so was he by him the sayde Lanfranke, with the assistance of diuerse other Bishoppes, whose names are all rehersed by Mathewe of Westminster an­noynted and crowned king at Westminster, the first day of October, the yere of our Lord abouesayd.

Reynulph Monke of Chester that wrote Polichronicon sayth, that Robert Curthose eldest sonne of William the Conquerour, was at the tyme of hys fathers death in Almaine, gatheryng of a great host against his father. And afterward heering that he was dead,Robert Cur­those the bro­ther of Ru­fus entered Englād wt a great power. and that he had preferred his yonger brother to the kingdome of England, was therefore greatly amoued, inso­much that he layde halfe his Dukedome to pledge vnto his brother Henry to mainteyne warre agaynst king William. The which thing done, he gathe­red a great army, and shortly after landed at Hamton.

When William Rufus had vnderstanding thereof, he in all hast sent vn­to him messengers, to whome he gaue in commission to say as foloweth. Thy brother William prayeth thee to take no griefe with that he hath done, for he calleth himselfe not king, but as vnder king to reigne vnder thee, and by helpe of thee that art greater than he, and his elder brother. And if thou consider it well, he hath nothing misvsed himselfe against thee, for he hath ta­ken vpon him the gouernement of this Realme for a tyme because of thyne absence. But for that he is now in aucthority and crowned by thy sufferance, [Page 22] he prayeth that vnder thee he maye so continue, paiyng to thee yerely three thousand Markes, with condicion yt whosoeuer ouerliueth other, may enioy the kingdome. When Robert had heard this message vnto the ende, he wagged his head,Robert Cur­those was soone dispat­ched with faire wordes. as he that conceyued some doublenesse in this report. But for that he was liberall, and alowed more honour than he did his profite, as in other things folowing of his deedes it shall apere, therefore he lightly as­sented to all that was desired, and returned shortlye after into Normandy with pleasant wordes and many fayre promises without profite.

1088/2 This yere in the beginning of Sommer, Odo Bishop of Bayon, which as before ye haue heard was deliuered out of Prison by William Conque­rour,Odo bishop of Bayon brother to king William conquerour came into England, whom the king ioyfully receyued, and gaue vnto him shortly after the Erledome of Kent. But he tooke vpon him in processe of tyme to rule, in such wise as the king grudged at his doyng. And for this the king and his vncle fell at vnkindenesse, so that he withdrewe himselfe from the king,The Lordes conspired a­gainst king Wylliam Rufus. and alyed him with the bishop of Duresme, the Erles of Nor­thumberland, Shrewesbury, and others. The which beyng confederate to­gether, conspired against the king, and made his brother Robert Curthose against him, and wrought many thinges to his displeasure and hurt. And amongest all other damages by them done,Rebellion. Roger de Mount Gomorik, Erle of Shrewesbury, destroyed the Countrie and northwest parts of Eng­land to Worcester towne, by the ayde and helpe of the Welshemen: But in the ende, the Welshemen were so feeble and weake, that a fewe knightes discomfited a great armie of them.

When king William perceyued that almost all the Normanes tooke part against him, he then beyng forced by necessitie, drewe to him the Eng­lishe men, and fauoured them by giftes and easy lawes: So that by theyr strength he did in the ende reconcile the Erle of Shrewesbury, and chased some other of his enemies, and shortly after occupyed the strong Castelles and holdes in Kent, belongyng to Bishop Odo his foresayd vncle, and in the ende compelled him to yelde himselfe and to forsweare England. And that done he besieged Rochester,Robert Cur­those was a­gaine recon­ciled vnto his brother Rufus. wherein the Bishop of Duresme, the Erle of Northumberlande, and other noble men were gathered, and wan it at the last by yeldyng, so that his enemies were vnto him reconciled also, and in like maner was his brother Robert, who then again taking his leaue of the king returned into Normandy.

1089/3 In the thirde yere of his reigne dyed Lanfranke, when he had beene Archebishop of Cantorbury .xviij. yeres. By whose meanes the Monkes of England were brought to the vse of their Religion,Lanfranke deade. which before liued like seculer priestes, and not like religious men. Fabian.

About this tyme Robert Curthose Duke of Normandy entendyng to take his voyage into the holy land, layed his Dukedome to pledge vnto hys brother William for ten thousand pound. For the leuiyng whereof, Kyng William set a taske vpon his commons and subiectes, and raysed a farre ex­ceeding summe, vnder colour of the same, so that Bishops melted their plate, and the temporall Lordes spoyled their Tenantes for the payment thereof. But as some wryte these thinges were done a good space after.

At this tyme also, the king of Scots brake the peace before made with William Conquerour, and wasted and tooke prayes in the Country of Nor­thumberland. [Page 23] Then the king prouided a Nauie, and sayled thether in the Winter tyme: But by the tempest of the sea, halfe his Nauie or a great part thereof was drowned, and many of his knightes were lost for colde and hunger. But yet in the ende after diuerse skirmishes and bickeringes,The homage of Malcoline kinge of Scots done to king Wil­liam Rufus. by me­diation of friendes, a peace was concluded: So that Malcolyne or Mal­colme then kyng of Scottes should be obedient to king William, vnder the same othe that he was before tyme sworne vnto his father, and king William should geue him yerely in the way of a fee .xij. Markes of Golde.

In the fourth yere of his reigne, and the fift day of October, 1090/4 a passing great tempest chaunced in sundrye places of Englande, and specially in the towne of Winchecombe.A great tempest. For there by tempest of thunder and lightning a part of the steple of the Church was throwne downe. &c.

Also this yere by force of the sayde tempest there was great hurte done at London, insomuch as Reynulph sayth, it blewe downe there .vj. hundreth houses, and other like mischiefes were done in sundry places by the sayd tem­pest. And the same tyme was the roofe of Bowe Church in London blowen downe which killed two personnes, as Fabian sayth.

In the fift yere of his reigne, he went into Northumberland, 1091/5 and repay­red such holdes and Castelles as the Scottes by their warres had eyther ra­sed or else hurt and appayred, and caused a newe Castell to be made at Car­lyll and repayred the same Towne which the Danes two hundreth yere pas­sed had destroyed.The roofe of Sarisburye church brent wt lightning. In the same yere the maine roofe of the great Churche of Sarisbury was consumed and brent with lightnyng. And after the king returned vnto Gloucester, where he was grieuously vexed with sicknesse, so that he thought he should haue dyed. In the which tyme he tooke great re­pentaunce, and promised that if he might escape, he would amend his liuyng and become a new man: But after that he was restored to health,Anselme made Arche­bishop of yorke. that pro­mes was soone forgotten. In this yere also the king gaue to Anselme the Archebishoprike of Yorke. Fabian.

In the .vj. yere of his reigne were exceedyng floodes, 1092/6 whereof the like had not in many yeres before beene seene. And after that ensued a wonder­full frost, which frose the great streames in such wise that Horsse and Cart passed ouer them. And in the ende when the Ise melted and brake, the payse and weight with the passage thereof brake many a strong bridge both of tim­ber and stone.

About this tyme, the Welshmen with their king or Duke named Rees,Rees king or Prince of the welshe men rebelles, & was slaine. brake out vpon the Englishe men in the border where standeth the Castell of Brekenoke, and there made masteryes for a while: but in the ende hys people were chased and slaine, and he wounded vnto death, so that he dyed the third day folowyng. This Rees is accompted to be ye last king of Wales, for after this day they were so quayled and brought to subiection, that they were vnder more stedfast obedience of the kings of England then they were before tyme: howbeit they rebelled full often as after shall appere.

And in the yere folowyng, king William to haue the Countrie in more quyet, hewed downe muche of the Wood,Wales brought to quietnesse. and builded in sundrie places of Wales strong Castelles and pyles, by meane whereof, they were plucked more and more to obedience and quyetnesse, and specially in the dayes of Ed­ward [Page 24] the first, and Edward the thirde.

At this time Malcoline, or Malcolme king of Scotland came vnto Gloucester,Malcoline kinge of Scots again rebelled. to commen with the king of dyuerse matters, and to make a fi­nall agreement. But because king William would haue deemed him in his Court, therefore the same Malcolyne departed from the king in great dis­pleasure, for the which and for other causes the warre betweene England and Scotland was reuyued, so that shortly after the sayd Scottish king with his retinue fought with an Erle named Robert Moubraye, which then was Erle of Northumberland, and there was slaine with his eldest son Edward. How he was slaine Hector Boethius sheweth in the .xij. booke of the Story of Scotland on this wise: When they within the Castell were now ready to yelde and brought to extreeme necessitie, and in maner famished for lacke of victualles, a certaine aduenturous and couragious Englishe knight beyng mounted on a very swift Gelding, hauyng a speare in his hande, at the ende whereof were fastened the keyes of the Castell, rode vnto the kinges campe, makyng semblant as though he had bene come to giue vp the Castell vnto the king. When the Scottes sawe this, they drewe together, and for ioye made a great showte and noyes, thinking their long trauayles and paynes had nowe bene at an ende, and then brought him where the king lay, who heering this noyes came out of his tent to knowe what the matter was. The Englishe knight when he sawe the king, helde downe his speare as though he woulde haue deliuered him the keyes: And whilest euery mannes eyes and mynde was fixed thereon, he in the meane time sodenly thurst his speare into the kinges left eye, and so wounded him therewith, that he there present­ly fell downe starke deade: and that done, he foorthwith dashed his spurres into his horse and fled into the next woodes, and so escaped. And it is sayde that when king Rufus heard of this aduenturous deed, he sent for the sayde knight, and gaue him certeyne of his landes and reuenewes in Northum­berland, and commaunded him euer afterwardes to be called Perseye, be­cause he had perced or bored out the kinges eye, of whome (sayth he) that fa­milie tooke their beginning, which haue bene sence that tyme Erles of Nor­thumberland. When the king was slaine, the Scottes departed and went euery man his way, and so the siege brake vp and ended. Edward the sayde Scotishe kinges sonne was slaine before in a skirmishe at the same siege. Hetherto Hector Boethius.

For sorowe whereof, Margaret Queene of Scotland, and sister vnto Edgar Atheling (as before in the story of William the Conqueror is shewed) died soone after.Edgar the son of Mal­colyne made Kinge of Scots who did homage for the same. Then the Scottes made Donwalde or Dunkard the bro­ther of Malcolyne their king, and put by his sonnes. But king William made Edgar the sonne of Malcolyne king of Scottes, and he did vnto him homage for the same kingdome.

Polidore setteth out these warres and the causes therof, and such things as chaunced in Normandy betwixt king William and Duke Robert his bro­ther, and the rebellion of the Welshemen that folowed shortly after on this wise:Robert duke of Normādy chargeth king William his brother with periury. When the businesse of Scotland (sayth he) was thus quieted, Robert Duke of Normandie who alwayes bare a grudge to the king his brother, for that he was by him defeated of the Crowne, sent Ambassadors vnto the sayd king, & by the same charged him with periury for that he had not firmely [Page 25] kept and holden the cōditions of peace that were agreed vpon betwixt them, wherewith Rufus beyng highly displeased, reysed forthwith a great arme, and sayled into Normandy, purposyng so to trye the matter with him, that he would rather hazard his estate at once, then thus dayly be troubled and vn­quieted by him: Howbeit his wrath beyng shortly after asswaged, he sought not to fight with him by and by: but after he had once or twice lightly ouer­runne the Countrie thereabout without any great damage or hurt doyng, he fell to a communication with him, where after long conference, they were at the length both contented by the intreatie of their friendes, to commit the ef­fect of all matters in controuersie betwixt them, to the hearyng and arbiter­ment of certeine most graue and honourable personages, who (the causes and allegations of both the sayde parties,A sentence geuē on the be­halfe of duke Robert a­gaynst king William his brother. first deliberately heard and deba­ted) gaue sentence for the Duke, awarding that the king should pay him a certeyne summe of money in the name of a mulcte or penaltie, for that he had thus contrary to the league betwixt them ouerrunne and wasted his Coun­trie. But when the king vnderstoode their awarde, he was by and by in a great chafe, and sayde that he would in no wyse stande vnto it: Therefore both the sayde partyes beyng greatlye mooued eyther with other gaue o­uer talking and fell to fighting. The king toke perforce the Castell of Bure,Warres re­nued betwene king William and Duke Robert his brother. and Robert by the aide of king Phillip of Fraunce, set vpon those Holdes and Castells which king William helde in Normandy, by vertue of the former composition betwixt them, and first of all he wanne by assault the Castell of Argenton,Argenton Castell. wherein he toke prisoner Roger Lieuetenant or deputie of Poi­ters, and with him .lxxx. men of armes, and with like successe also wan he the Castell of Vlmes.Vlmes castle At the length the king considering with himselfe howe there needed a greater force to subdue his aduersaryes, and spedily to finishe the warres that were comming vpon him, commaunded in all hast an armye of .xx. thousand men or thereabout to be leuyed in Englande, and spedily to be conueyed ouer vnto him: nowe when all this multitude were assembled and come together at Hastinges in Sussex at the tyme appoynted, where the kinges Shippes lay at Anker to receyue them, and that they were nowe in readinesse and willyng to depart: The kinges Agent met them there also, geuyng intelligence vnto the Capitaines that they should signifie vnto the rest, howe the Princes pleasure was of a speciall desyre he had to spare hys people, and deliuer them from further paynes and trauayles of warrefare by them to be sustayned,Though Polidore write this, yet it se­meth noe to be true. that euery Souldiour there prest should pay ten shil­lynges, and therevpon to be discharged from that voyage, and to returne home againe, the which thing the more part of them was better wyllyng to do, then to commit themselues vnto the daungers of the sea, but the intent and purpose of the Prince was to fight against his brother, rather with a golden weapon, than with one of yron or steele,King Williā stayed the French king with riche giftes. thinking vnder pretence of those warres to gether such a masse of money of his subiectes, as should both be sufficient to bye peace, and also to enrych him selfe. Therefore when both the armyes were nowe in a redinesse to fight, and that king William had found the meanes so to pacify Phillip the French king with gifts & rewards,A peace con­cluded be­twene king William and his brother Robert. that he would no more ayde the sayde Duke, then by and by the whole staye and strength of his warres was quite fallen downe, and for wantyng the French kinges ayde, he was of necessitie compelled to sue vnto the king his [Page 26] brother for peace and at the length obteyned it.

When king William had thus finished the warres of Normandy after his mynde, he foorthwith returned into Englande, where anon after chaun­ced vnto him greater businesse than he had before. For the Welshemen hea­ryng of the variaunce that begunne to growe betwixt him and his brother, armed themselues mindyng to rob and pill the Countryes adioynyng vnto them after their accustomed maner.The welshemen rebell. And so entryng into the Marches, they burned houses and villages, draue away Cattell, tooke prisoners, and slue aswell Normanes as Englishe men: and finally rased townes and Castels where so euer they came. When the king was hereof enfourmed, he assem­bled a power in all haste to helpe his distressed people, and to kepe the coun­trie from vtter spoilyng and wastyng, and hauing vsed great speede in hys iourney, he set vpon them on a sodein: But for all that the Welshmen did not onely manfully abide the brunt of the assaultes, but also enforced the king to geue back & retyre, and that with no small losse and domage, wherefore being now three dayes iourney on his way, in his retyre he determined with him­selfe to yelde vnto fortune for the tyme present, and so departed vnto London to prepare a stronger power. After whose departure, the Welshe men wax­ed so prowde and gathered such a courage vnto them, that they besieged the Castell of Mount Gomericke of all the fortes and Castelles in Wales the strongest, and afterward notwithstandyng it was for a whyle manfully de­fended by the kinges garison attempted to race it, and at length hauyng bea­ten downe the Walles thereof they toke it, and very cruelly slue all that they found therein:Castell of mount Go­mericke ta­ken. But the king being this while letted by treason newly sprong vp against him in his awne land, & determinyng first to suppresse that before he prepared any resistance against them, went into Northumberland where the Authours of this newe conspiracie put themselues in armes against him:Robert Erle of Northum­berland con­spireth [...] gainst ye king For Robert Erle of that Countrie who had oftentymes before required the king to consider the good seruice he had done what tyme he beyng generall of the armie, the Scottish king was slaine in maner aforesayde, and percey­uyng the king not to be so redye to rewarde him for that worthie deede as he looked he should haue bene, was therewith so moued, that beyng sent for by the kinges letters, he openly refused to go vnto him. And in the meane season ceased not priuily to deuise howe and which way he might depriue him of the Crowne: But the conspiracie beyng by chaunce shortlye after disclosed, the king toke dyuerse of the Conspirators vpon a sodeine and put them to death: But Robert for that he knew himselfe guiltie, and therefore feared least he should be punished according to his deserts, fled away, whom the king pur­sued to the Castell called at this day the Castell of Banburghe,Banborough Castell. whether he was gotten for succor with his wife and children, which the king forthwith besieged, and because the same beyng most strongly defended aswell by na­ture as mans industrie and policie seemed impregnable, he began to close it with a wall of Plankes or Bordes, so that no man might enter in or issue out of it. But when Robert distrusting his state and case, or at the least wyse the fidelitie of his friendes, sawe the boorde worke begon, he priuely conueighed himselfe out in the dead of the night, but yet not so priuilye but the kinges scout perceyued it and pursued after,Robert Erle of Northum­berlād flieth. and beyng constreyned to go vnto Tin­mouth, he there tooke sanctuary in the Churche of saint Oswine the martyr, [Page 27] out of the which he was by and by drawen by violence, and taken prisoner, and so brought vnto the King: Nowe when the rest that were within the Castell ceased not yet to make resistance and to defende themselues, the king to beate a greater terror and feare into them, caused Robert to be brought before the Castell gate that they within might see him, and made proclama­tion withall, that vnlesse the sayde Castell were yelded, foorthwith his eyes should out of hand be plucked out of his head, the which thing they beholding and fearing aswell their awne partes as the Erles, at the last yelded them­selues and gaue vp the Castell, of whom part were banished, and some had their eares cut off, and other some one of their eyes put out to make the rest to beware by their example, and so sent home: but Robert was had to the Castell of Windsor, and there cast in prison: When this businesse was at an ende, king Rufus bent all his whole force against the Welshemen, who still continued in their outrage besides all measure, and adressyng himselfe wyth his armie with all hast to Wales warde, when he sawe that the Welshemen would at no hand geue him any oportunitie to fight with them, but hid them­selues in woodes of purpose, he then began to waste and destroy the country next adioining, and attempted to passe through those places euen where most daungerous and hardest passage was, to the intent he might come where the enemies were, and fight with them. But contrarywise, the Welshemen kept either the mountaynes or woodes, who beyng sufficiently prepared and fur­nished for the tyme, set vpon the kinges armie, sometymes here, and some­times there, euer as they espyed any aduantage, in such wise, that they either wounded or slue very many of them. The which was the cause that the king desirous to be aduenged on them, pursued them more feruently then circum­spectly, through mountaynes and marishes more to his losse and damage, than to the losse and anoyance of his enemies: who after he had lost many of his men and horses, and saw there was no hope for him to do any good there gaue ouer his purpose againe, and made an ende of those warres. Hetherto Polidore.

In the .vij. yere of the reigne of king William, 1093/7 Anselme that was Arch­bishop of Yorke was remoued to Cauntorbury as affirmeth one Chronicle: But Reynulph and Guido say, that Hugh Lupus Erle of Chester beyng sick and diseased, in the .vj. yere of the reigne of William Rufus, sent into Nor­mandie for Anselme then Abbot of Berry or Beccy for thre causes. The first, to visite and see him, and to be reconciled of him, as the man that he moste trusted. The second cause was that he should relieue some Abbeys of Eng­land, whom the king had vexed with grieuous tribute. And the third, that he should found an Abbey in Chester, which place he after buylded, and made one Richarde his Chapleyn first Abbot there, and soone after he was made Archebishop of Cauntorbury:Pestilence. whereby it appereth that the sayde See was voyde ouer the terme of three yeres. And at this tyme,Tillage be­yng left, fa­mine doth folow. England and Nor­mandy were sore visited with the plague of pestilence, and the same was so great, as some write, that many lay vnburyed, and the tillyng of the ground was put off for that yere, and thereafter ensued great and extreme hunger.

This yere also the Scottes slue their king Edgar, 1094/8 and restored againe to the rule of the lande the aforenamed Donwald. And many straunge and wonderfull sightes were seene this present yere in the Skie, as hostes of [Page 28] men fightyng, and flames of fyre brennyng, and shotyng out of the Elament, and other monstruous thinges, as sayth Fabian.

1096/10 In the .x. yere of this king, strife and dissention fell betwene hym and Anselme Archebishop of Cauntorbury, because Anselme might not be suffe­red to call his Sinodes, and correct his clergie but as the king would. The king also chalenged the inuestiture of Bishoppes, and tooke of the Spiritu­altie and Temporalty great taskes and tributes, the which he spent vpon the walling of the Tower of London,Westminster Hall builded. and the making of Westminster Hall as some wryte. But Iohn Rastall sayth in his Chronicle that it is not lyke to be true that the great Hall of Westminster that is now, was buylded by this king, but rather in the tyme of king Richarde the second. For sayth he, the Armes that are there both on the timber and on the stone worke, which is the three Lyons quartered with the flower de luce, and the white Hart for his badge, were the armes of king Richard. For there was neuer king of England that gaue the flower de luce which was the armes of Fraunce be­fore king Edward the thirde. And therefore it manifestly apereth that the great Hall which is nowe, was not builded by Rufus, except it were that he made the foundation thereof: But if Rufus made any Hall there, it was that which is aboue the stayers that we nowe call the white Hall. And besydes all this, the kinges seruauntes grieued and pilled Englishe men vnreasona­bly. And to this miserie was ioyned the couetousnesse of Reynulph that was sometime Chapleyn vnto William Conquerour, the which at this day was the kinges procurator, and gathered his taskes ouer all England. He was so couetous and so euill disposed, that he would leuy three taskes for two. He pilled the riche, and bare downe the poore, and caused many men to lose their landes for small causes, and therefore the king did greatly fauour him. And by hys meanes, Bishoprikes were bought and solde as commonly as other marchandices. Also at this time priestes vsed bushed and breyded heades, long tayled gownes and blasyng clothes shinyng,The behaui­our of priests and golden Girdelles, and road with guilt Spurres, with vsyng of dyuerse other enormities. All which vices Anselme would haue corrected, but he lacked assistance of his brethren the Bishops, for the which cause and other he departed the land: Wherewith the king beyng miscontented, sent after him suche personnes as robbed and spoyled him, and intreated him in most cruell maner. For the which deede, Raufe Bishop of Chichester blamed the king, and also rebuked all such Bi­shops as had refused the party of Anselme, & had fauoured the king in causes concernyng the aforesayde variaunce.Fines for fornication. And furthermore he withstoode the king and his officers in takyng of fynes of priestes for the cryme of fornica­tion, for which causes the king with the sayd Raufe was sore amoued, and discontented, and obteyned such fauour that he suspended many Churches of his diocesse. But in the ende, Raufe demened him in suche wise that he had his awne will, and his Churches enlarged and freed that before were stop­ped with Thornes. And the king gaue vnto him the fynes of priestes within his Diocesse, and endued the See of Chichester with many great giftes.

And vpon a tyme as king William was ridyng towarde his disport of huntyng, sodeynly a messenger came vnto him, & sayde that the City of Cene­mona or Constancia in Normandy was besieged of the French men: where­fore he without long tariyng or aduisement, tooke the streight way to the [Page 29] sea syde, and sent to his Lordes, charging them to folowe. When the sayde Lordes came to his presence, they aduysed him to tary vntill his people were assembled. But he would do nothing after their counsayle,The despe­rate goyng into Normā ­dy of William Rufus. but sayd such as him loued would surely folowe, and so went to Ship, setting aside all perils.

The mayster of the Ship was afrayde, and saw the weather so darke and clowdie, and the Sea somewhat rough by reason of the south wind that then blewe,A noble cou­rage of a king that he counsayled the king to tary vntill the wynde would blow more fauourably: But he commaunded him to make all the speede he coulde vpon paine of his lyfe, saiyng that he neuer heard that anye Kinge was drowned. And so he passed the sea and landed in Normandie a good while before there was any brute of his comming, and there gathered vnto hym his Knightes.

When the Captaine of the Siege (whose name was Helias) knewe of the kinges landyng, he feared, and anone began to breake the siege: But by treason he was taken and brought to the kinges presence. To whome the king shewed such pitie, that he suffered him to be at his libertie, which after the opinion of William de Regibus, was done more of pride than of compassion. Polidore wryteth that when the capteyn was brought vnto the kinges pre­sence, he iested at him as one that had no courage nor mannes stomack. Then the sayde Capteyne turning him vnto the king sayde boldely againe. Sir king, thy fortune is nowe to take me prisoner, but if I were at libertie I would make thee to vnderstand that I were not a man so little to be passed on as thou makest me. And with that the king commaunded him to be set at libertie and then sayd vnto him, now go whether thou wilt, and do the worst thou canst against me: But (sayth he) it is not red that he euer attempted any thing against the king afterwardes.

In the .xj. yere of his reigne, 1097/11 at a towne called Finchester in the country of Barkeshire, a Well cast out blood as before it had done water. And after by the space of .xv. dayes great flames of fyre were seene in sundrie places,A straunge thing. and at sundry tymes. This yere also the two Erles of Shrewesbury and of Chester who were both named Hugh, by the kinges commaundement ente­red with their knightes the Isle of Angle say, which was the chiefe refuge of the Welshe men, and slue there a number of them, and shewed there such crueltie besydes, as the like had not bene heard of before, for vnto some they put out their eyes, to some they cut off their noses, handes, legges, or armes, and some againe they gelded, so that no kinde of cruelty was left vnpractised.

Among the which a priest named Kynradus was drawen out of a Church and serued in the same maner, and had also his tongue cut out of his heade, and one of his eyes put out. In which season and tyme the King of Norway wanne the Isles then called Orcades, and nowe Orkeyes, and after came with his strength vnto the aforesayd Isle of Anglesay to rescue the people of the Isle, where at the same season were the sayde two Erles.Hugh Erle of Shrewes­bury slaine. Then betwene them was a mortall fight, in the which Hugh Erle of Shrewesbury was stryken with an arow in the eye, and dyed within .viij. dayes after. But as sayth Guydo, the Danes were chased, and the Englishe men had the victory, but as other do wryte there was no notable thing else there done besides the death of the sayde Erle.

King William at this tyme was much in Normandy, because that Robert [Page 30] his brother was all this while in the holy land, of whose actes some mention shall be made in the story of Henry the first. And William had much paine to rule the Normanes, for they rebelled often against him.

1098/12 Robert Losaunge that sometyme had bene Abbot of Ramsey, and then by the gift of a thousand pound to the King, was made Bishop of Thetforde, repented him after, and bewayled that vnskilfull deede, and tooke his way to Rome, and did for it his adioyned penance, and after returned into Eng­land, and turned his See from Thetford to Norwiche, and founded there a fayre Monastery of his awne goodes, and not of the patrimonie of Christes Churche: But therein resteth a doubt, for he was first Abbot and then Bi­shop, sayth Fabian.

After that king William as before is sayde, was returned out of Nor­mandie, many wonderfull prodigies and tokens were shewed in England, as the swellyng or risyng of the water of the Thamys, in suche wyse that it drowned many townes, and did much harme by out passyng of his boundes in dyuerse places about London and else where, with dyuerse other thinges which I passe ouer.

1099/13 In the .xiij. yere of his reigne and the beginnyng thereof the thirde day of August as sayth Reynulph, or as some other write vpon Lammas day, thys king William beyng at his disport on huntyng within the newe Forest, now called the Forest of Windsore,Forest of Windsore. or rather as Reynulph sayth in the new Forest in Hamshire besydes Sarisbury by glaunsyng of an arrowe, which a knight named Sir Walter Tirell a Frenche man did shote at a Deere,The death of king William Rufus. and hit the King, and wounded him to death, so that he gaue but one grone and dyed pre­sently, when he had reigned .xij. yeres, xj. monethes lackyng .viij. dayes. And it is written by Iohn Hardyng, that king Rufus to enlarge the a­foresayde Forest did pull downe foure Abbeyes, xvij. parishe Churches, and all the townes to them belongyng. Water Hennyngforde wryteth, that in the place where the king was slaine had beene a Church in olde tyme, the which Church with other in his fathers tyme was pulled downe, and de­stroyed for the enlargyng of his said Forest, and that in the same Forest by a like chaunce was slaine also a little before Richard the kinges nephew, sonne vnto Robert Duke of Normandy of a knight of his awne.

After this deede, the sayde Walter escaped and saued himselfe, for fewe they were that pursued after him. And so the king thus wounded was layde in a horse Litter, and conueyed to Winchester, and was there buryed in the Church of Peter and Paule.

Henry of HūtingdonOf this William, reporteth Henry of Huntingdon and sayth that though this man were light in some things, yet he was stedfast and stable of his pro­mise, so that what he promised good or euill it should be performed, & though he were named couetous, yet it should apere by this that foloweth, that he sometymes shewed himselfe liberall: For thus wryteth he of hym.

Vpon a certaine time, when the Abbot of an Abbey in England was dead, two Monkes of the same place, the which before had gathered money toge­ther, made their friendes to king William, and offered large offers either of them to be promoted to that dignitie. There was also a thirde Monke, the which of meekenesse and humblenesse folowed the other two, to the entent that vpon him that the king should admit for Abbot, he would haue geuen at­tendance, [Page 31] and as his Chapleyn to haue returned with him. The king called before him the two Monkes seuerally, and either out profered other: And at the length he cast his eye asyde, and espyed the thirde Monke,Money bid­den for Ec­clesiasticall promocions. the which he supposed had come for the same cause. Then the king called him and as­ked him, if he would geue any more than his brethren had profered to be Ab­bot. But he aunswered to the king and sayde, that he would offer, neyther yet geue for it one penny, nor woulde haue so great a charge by any wrong­full meane. When the king had well considered of this thirde Monkes aunswere, he sayd that he was best worthie to be Abbot, and to haue the rule of so holy a charge: and so he gaue vnto him that promocion, without taking of hym one pennye.

This king William was variable and inconstant of his behauiour, very couetous, and therewithall cruell, and burdened the people with great taxes. Furthermore he neuer maryed but vsed concubines continually, wherefore he dyed without issue legittimate, when he had reigned as afore­sayd fully .xij. yeres, and almost xj. monethes.

Of this king it is written that he was wastfull and sumptuous in hys apparell, an example whereof is brought in by a certaine wryter to the great reproofe of excesse of apparell vsed in these our dayes. For when his Cham­berleyn on a tyme brought him a newe payre of Hosen, he demaunded of him what they cost, who aunswered three shillings, wherat the king beyng some­what moued, commaunded him to prepare him a paire of .xiij. shillinges iiij. pence. Nowe if kinges were then thought to exceede that bestowed a Marke vpon a paire of hosen, what is to be thought of many meane men which in our tyme bestow so much of one payre as that king did vpon twentie.

Henrie the first.

HEnrie the first of that name, 1100/1 and the fourth sonne of William Conquerour, which for his learnyng was surnamed Be­auclercke,Coronation of king Hen­rie the first toke vpon him the first day of Au­gust the yere of our Lorde M.C. the go­uernement of this Realme of England, and was crowned king thereof very shortly after at Westminster, of Thomas Archebishop of Yorke, or as Polydore and some other say, of Mawrice Bishop of London.

His elder brother Robert Duke of Nor­mandie was at that season not yet returned from the warres of Siria, and therefore had he the better oportunitie to bring is purpose aboute. For manye there were both of the nobles and others which fauoured the sayde Duke, and woulde [Page 32] haue done their endeuour to haue crowned him king if he had bene present: And for this cause he found the meanes, what by geuyng of great rewardes, and what by fayre wordes and large promises to preuent him: But no one thing moued the whole Realme more to agree vpon him, then the faythfull promise he made to abholishe his fathers lawes, which were deemed of the people to be both against equitie and conscience. But first of all, so soone as he hearde of his brother Rufus death, he seazed vpon his goods and moue­ables, whereby he became the stronger, and better able to go thorowe with this enterprise.

This king in his youth had so well applied his study, that he was well sene in the seuen liberall sciences. And he at his entery reformed the ministers of the Church, and the dignitie of the same which had bene corrupted by his brother and he restored againe and vsed saint Edwardes lawes with the a­mendment of them, besydes the reformation and amendment of sundry and diuerse other abuses in the common welth.

He banished out of his Court nicenesse and wantonnesse, and commit­ted Reynulph Bishop of Duresme,Reynulph bishop of Duresme. a man hated of all men for oppression, bri­bery, and diuerse other notable crymes, and a chiefe Counsaylour and per­swader also of the king his brother in all his lewde and vngodly attemptes to the tower of London,Wantonnesse banished out of the kinges Court which betokened good gouern­ment. the which before as you haue heard was so great with his brother William: and he sent for Anselme that was Archebishop of Cauntorbury, which before was fled for the feare and wrath of William Ru­fus, and gaue the Bishoprike of Winchester then miserablye spoyled vnto Gyfford, a right graue and learned man, and conferred also the rule and go­uernement of such Abbeyes as had bene of long tyme vacant vnto Monkes. Furthermore he remitted all such taxes and paymentes as had bene by hys father and brother newely raysed vpon the people.

This king corrected and reformed the olde and vntrue measures that were vsed in this Realme,Measures made and re­formed b [...] king Henry the first. and caused a yarde of the length of his awne arme to be made and vsed (and the same thing at this day is most metest to be refor­med, for now almost no countrie kepeth eyther weight or measure one with the other to the great hurt of the Realme) and lykewise he reformed manye thinges that before his tyme had bene abused.Henry the first a frugall man. Also he abhorred the excesse of meates and drinkes, and vsed to fight more with good counsaile than with the sworde.

1101/2 In the second yere of his reigne, Robert his brother that by all this time had bene occupied in warres vpon Christes enemies, hauing worde of the death of his brother William,Robert the eldest sonne of William Conquerour once againe claymeth the Crowne. and howe his brother Henry had taken vpon him as king, returned into Normandye, and there made preparation for to come into England.

In this time also Reynulph Bishop of Duresme brake out of the tower of London, and went to Robert Duke of Normandy, who stirred and pric­ked forwarde the same Duke Robert in all that he might to warre vpon his brother Henry,Reynulph bishop of Durisme a lewde bishop. so that he assembled a strong armye of knightes, and tooke shipping, and shortlye after landed at Portesmouth. But by mediation of friendes, a peace was made, and that in such condicion, that he should haue yerely three thousande Markes payed vnto him as a tribute, as before was promised hym by William Rufus his brother, with condicions of succession [Page 33] and other thinges the which for length I passe ouer.

Thus Robert beyng contented, contrary to the mindes of his Lordes, after a while that he had disported himselfe in England,Robert duke of Normādy. he returned to Nor­mandie, where of his Lordes he was for this and other vndiscrete dedes by him before done, as after shall be shewed, little, or lesse and lesse set by. For albeit by his fathers lyfe he had offended, and vtterly displeased him as before is touched, yet by his manhood and manfull deedes, he wanne the heartes of the people, specially for the worthie actes he did at the winnyng of the Citie of Acon vpon the miscreantes and Turkes.

This Robert was wise in counsayle, strong in battaile, and also right liberall, and in hys returne from Hierusalem hee maryed the daughter of William, or as Polidore sayth, Roger de Auersana Lorde of Apulia, with whome he receyued great summes of money for his dower, the whiche by meane of his liberalitie was not long vnspent. Then fortune began to frowne vpon him, and set his awne Lordes against him,Fortune frowneth ma­ny tymes vp­on Princes. who sent vnto king Henry of England, and moued him to come into Normandy against his bro­ther, and they would deliuer vnto him the countrie and Duchie of Norman­die, and take him for their chiefe Lorde and gouernour: wherevnto as sayth the English Chronicle, king Henry soone consented.

But or euer this warre began betweene them, this king Henry had ma­ryed the foresayde Molde or Mawde the daughter of Malcolyne or Mal­colme king of Scotland, and of Margaret his wife daughter of Edward the outlaw as is expressed in the beginning of William Conquerour. Of the which Mawde, he receyued two sonnes, and two daughters, that is to say, William, and Richard, Mawde and Mary.

Polidore sayth, he begat of his first wyfe William, which was after drowned in the sea, and Mawde the Empresse. And a concubine a daugh­ter named Mary, & a sonne called Richard, the which were likewyse drow­ned. And of a nother concubine Robert, whome he created Erle of Glou­cester: But Hector Boethius wryteth, howe there was issue betwixt them these folowyng, William, Richard, Enfemia, and Mawde.

About this tyme the Church and Hospitall of Saint Bartholomewe,The Hospi­tall of Saint Bartholo­mewes first founded. in west Smithfielde of London was begon to be founded by one of the kinges Musitians named Rayer, and after performed by Rychard Whytyngdon Ci­tezen & Alderman of London, a man of worthie fame. 1102/3 This place of Smith­field was at that tyme a laystow of all dong and filth, and the place where fe­lons and other transgressors of the kinges lawes were put to execution.

After this Duke Robert of Normandie came into Englande to his bro­ther, and he was here honourably entertayned,1103/4 Robert duke of Norman­die landeth in England. and in the ende at the request of his sister the wife of king Henry, or rather (as Polydore wryteth) beyng ouercome with the fayre wordes of his sayde brother, he released vnto hym the aforenamed tribute of three thousand Markes: but by euill tales, and co­uetousnesse of seignorie, this brotherly loue lasted not long, but such a vary­aunce fell betweene them,Vnnaturall warre. that king Henry with a strong armie sayled into Normandie, and helde his brother with so sharpe warre, that he chased him from one country to another, and wanne from him the Citie of Roan, Cane, Valoys, and all the good townes of Normandy, and at the last constreyned him to seeke helpe of the French king, and after of the Erle of Flaunders, [Page 34] but he fayled of them both. Then sayth Polidore, when he considered with himselfe how vnable he was to match with the king his brother, and saw also how he was distressed on euery side, by reason wherof diuerse of his Lordes and Subiectes forsooke him, and tooke parte with his sayd brother, and that his enemyes dayly encreased, and his power decreased, and waxed lesse and lesse, he determined with himselfe no longer to trye the matter by battayle and force of armes, but to repose all hope of pacification in brotherly charity. And because he thought it would little preuaile to send any Ambassadors for the matter, he beyng accōpanied with a few persons went himselfe into Eng­land, the said king then liyng at Northamton, where the Duke made humble sute vnto him, that he might be at peace with him, vsyng all the perswasions he could to induce him therevnto, and submitted himselfe and his Dukedome and all that he had besydes, wholy to his order, grace, and mercy, with the which request and humble submission of his, the king was nothing at all mo­ued, insomuch that he turned from him in a fume, mutteryng with himselfe certaine threatning wordes against him. And this straunge countenaunce shewed he, eyther because of his brothers inconstancye, whereof he had had often experience, or else for that he was nowe fully bent and mynded to pur­sue him with most extreme crueltie, euen to death or vtter destruction. When Duke Robert saw this, he detesting the prowde and stately behauiour of his brother, departed the Court and returned into Normandy with all conueni­ent speede, fully determinyng, rather than to suffer his honour thus to be de­steyned, to put him selfe in daunger either of death, or else of perpetuall serui­tude. For he well perceyued, it booted not to put any longer hope or trust in brotherly loue. Therfore with such power as he could make, he gaue battaile vnto his brother Henry,Robert duke of Norman­die taken prisoner. who folowed him with a newe armie, in the which battaile he was taken prisoner and sent ouer into England, and put into the Castell of Cardiffe in Wales, where he remayned as prisoner so long as he liued, and when he was dead, he was buryed at Gloucester.

Mathew of Westmynster wryteth that at the first he was not streightly kept as a prisoner, but was permitted by the kinges licence to hawke, hunt, and vse al other pastimes what he would for his disport & recreation, hauyng his keper with him, and was also allowed such apparell & dyet as was con­uenient for his estate, vntill at length he practised to haue conueyed himselfe away: And beyng taken againe (as sayth the aforesayde wryter) he by the kinges commaundement had both his eyes put out, but in such wyse that the balles of them were saued. Touchyng his death it is further reported of the same Author, how king Henry hauyng on a time made a scarlet Robe with a hoode (as the fashion then was) for himselfe, & puttyng it on to assay whether it was meete for him or no, and peceyuyng the sayd hoode to be somewhat to little for his head, bad the yoman of his Wardrop to sende it vnto his brother Robert, because (sayth he) his head is somewhat lesse then mine. And when the Messenger that brought it was demaunded of Duke Robert whether any had euer worne it before or no, and the sayde messenger vnaduisedly she­wed him what the king had done and sayd: Then sayd Duke Robert, nowe may I well thinke that my most wretched lyfe hath bene ouerlong prolonged sith the iniurious king my brother hath so little regard of me, that he clotheth me with his cast apparell, and after that he would neuer eate nor drinke, but [Page 35] pyned away for hunger and sorow.

Nowe when king Henry had fynished his warres in Normandy he re­turned into England, and at that tyme Robert of Bolisme which was the eldest sonne of Hugh of mount Gomericke Erle of Shrewesbury arose a­gainst the king, and manned his Castelles of Shrewesbury, of Brugges,Robert of Bolisme erle of Shrewes­bury rebelled of Arondell, and of Tekynhill, and incouraged the Welshemen against the king. But the king pursued the sayd Robert so egerly, that within .xl. dayes he wanne all those Castelles, and slue many of his men, and gate the fauour of the Welshemen by giftes and pleasant wordes, and also compelled the sayde Robert to forsake England: the which sayled into a corner of Nor­mandye, and kept him there secretly, vntill such tyme as William Erle of Cornewall came thether vnto him, which William was also Erle of Mor­tom in Normandy. When these two Erles were met, they gathered to them a great strength of Normanes, and did great harme within the Prouynce. 1104/5 Wherefore the king sailed thether and made sharpe warre vpon them, in the which he lost manye of his men: But in the ende hee put from them their strength, and tooke them both Prisoners, and so kept them duryng their ly­ues. And that done he set that Countrie in good rest and peace, and after re­turned into England.Lawes made against ruffi­ans and theeues. After which returne the king made sharpe lawes a­gainst theeues and other that vsed vnlawfull doynges. In the which lawes was conteyned, losyng of lyfe, of eyes, of stones, and other members of man, as the fault and offence required.

And shortly after,Anselme Archcbishop of Cātorbury Anselme Archebishop of Cauntorbury assembled a great counsail at London of the Clergie of England: By aucthority of which counsail, diuerse Abbottes & other were put from their dignitie,Priestes put from their wiues by Anselme Bishop of Cātorbury for that they had taken before tyme their Abbeyes by vnlawful meanes. And among all o­ther decrees one was, that priests should forgo theyr wiues, as saith Fabian.

Then strife fell betwene the king and Anselme, for that that he would not sacre the priestes that had taken inuestiture of the kinges handes, which be­fore was forbidden vpon paine of curssing.Anselme go­eth to Rome to complaine of the king. But Giralde Archebishop of Yorke for the pleasure of the king, sacred such Bishoppes: Wherefore An­selme beyng discontented, departed the land, and went to Rome to complaine of this and other thinges to the Bishop thereof, which then was named Pas­call the second. And about this tyme Sir Robert le Fitzham Erle of Glo­cester buylded the towne of Tewkesburye, and there was buryed, and also buylded the Castell of Bristow.

In the sixt yere of the king, 1105/6 the Countrie of Flaunders was sore ble­mished and hurt by meane of the sea, so that the Fleminges were enforced to seeke for succour and place of dwellyng,Flaunders ouerflowen with the sea. and required of the king to haue ly­cence that they might inhabite in the East part of Twede, the which to them was graunted. But after a certeyne of yeres they were remoued into west Wales, where they remayned a long while, but after they spred all Eng­land ouer.

In the .vij. yere of his reigne, 1106/7 vpon a Fryday at night in the first weeke of cleane Lent, was seene a straunge and wonderfull starre betweene the South and the West, the which nightly apered at an houre, and continued so by the space of .xxv. dayes. And right against that,Straunge & wonderfull fightes. on the East part appered a great flamyng beame of great brightnesse, whiche stretched towarde the [Page 36] sayde starre. And vpon Maundy thursday next folowyng, were seene two Moones, the one in the East and the other in the West.

Anselme re­turned from Rome.This yere also Anselme by the kinges agreement returned from Rome, and shortly after called a conuocation at London, in the which by the Bishop of Romes aucthoritie,A cōuocation at London. it was newly enacted and confirmed, that no temporal man after that day should make any inuesture with Crosse and Ryng.

1107/8 In the .viij. yere of his reigne, the fourth Henry Emperour of Almaine, the which was affianced to Molde the eldest daughter of this king Henry, when she was of the age of fiue yeres, emprisoned Pascall Bishop of Rome and dyuerse of the Cardinalles.

1108/9 In the .ix. yere of his reigne, the Archbishop Anselme professed Gerard Archebishop of Yorke to the yoke of obedience, as he was before taught by Lanfranke his predecessor. And the .x. day of August folowyng, he sacred fiue Bishoppes at one tyme, as of Winchester, of Sarisbury, of Exceter, of Herford,Ely the Bi­shops See first insti­tuted. and Glamorgan. And king Henry ordeyned a bishops See at Ely, and to the Bishoppes See at Lyncolne he gaue his awne towne of Spal­dyng, for he had minished that See by the erection of Ely.

1109/10 In the .x. yere dyed Anselme Archebishop of Cauntorbury, after whose death the See was voyde fiue yeres, and the goodes of the Church spent to the kinges vse.Anselme dyeth. And when he was prayed to helpe the Church that was without an head and a pastour, he vsed to aunswere that his father and also his brother had accustomed to set there the best proued men that they coulde finde, and to the entent that he might do the same, he toke the more tyme and leysure. And with such mylde aunsweres he put off the tyme, and filled his Cofers with the great summes of the Benefice. And at this tyme, the king maried his brother Roberts bastard sonne, to Mabell daughter and heyre of Robert Fitzham, and made him the first Erle of Glocester, who after buyl­ded the strong Castell of Bristow.

1110/11 About this tyme (as sayth the Frenche Chronicle) a controuersie began betwixt the king, and Lewes king of Fraunce sonne vnto Philip the first. This Lewes was surnamed Lewes the great, eyther for the bygnesse of his person, or else for the greatnesse of his dedes. This Lewes sent vnto King Henry beyng in Normandy, and gaue vnto him monition to do his homage for the Duchy of Normandy, and also that he should restore vnto him, or else beate downe the Castell of Gysours, 1111/12 and also make recompence and restitu­tion vnto him for the hurtes and harmes that his Normanes had done in those partes. But all this of king Henry was denied, and shortly after skir­mishes and bickerings began betwene the sayde two Princes, king Henry then liyng at the said Castell of Gysours, and Lewes at a place called mount Calue. But this encreased in such wise, that shortly after, eyther of the Prin­ces sought for places of more rowme, and their knightes met sundrie times. But of any notable battaile betwene them I find no remembrance although the same warres continued two yeres. In the ende of which two yeres Wil­liam the eldest sonne of king Henry, beyng a childe and within age, contented so well the minde of Lewes, that he refrayned from his warre for that time.

1112/13 In the .xiij. yere of his reigne, at Shrewesbury, and at Notyngham was a great earthquake from the mornyng vnto night. The Riuer of Trent in the moneth of Iune flowed not for the space of a mile so as sayth Guydo, [Page 37] that men might there haue gone drieshod ouer it, as though the water had bene gone another way, and this continued the space of one whole day. And soone after appered a blasyng starre, wherevpon folowed an hard Wynter, great death of the people, and scarcetie of victualles by the great Moreyn of beastes that ensued. And in this yere also the king founded the Abbey of hide without the walles of Winchester, that of olde tyme was within the walles, and first founded by king Alphred called the new Abbey of Winchester.Worcester brent. The Citie of Worcester was in this yere almost all consumed with fyre. And in this time began the Parliament in England first to be instituted and ordey­ned for reformation and gouernement of this Realme. The maner whereof as I haue found it set foorth in an olde Pamphlet, I entende at large to set forth in the reigne of king Edward the third, where and when Parliaments were yerely and orderly kept.

In the .xiiij. 1113/14 yere of his reigne he subdued the Welshemen (sayth Poly­dore) and that not without great slaughter of them, which before by often breakyng out into the frontiers and marches of Englande, wasted those Countryes very sore.

Aboute this time also (sayth the same wryter) Henry the fourth of that name Emperor, vnto whom Mawde the kinges daughter was fianced, sent vnto king Henry for his wife, beyng now able to company with a man, who to prepare a conuenient dowry for her, seassed a great payment vpon the peo­ple to be leuyed by the Acre, that is to say vpon euery Acre of land that any man helde a certaine porcion: By reason whereof he gathered a great masse of money, the which he sent with her to the afore sayd Emperour.

In the .xv. yere of his reigne, 1114/15 the king entended to haue promoted Fa­bricus, Abbot of Abyngdon vnto the See of Cauntorbury but in a smode or counsaile of Bishoppes kept at Winsore, the kinges minde was chaunged, and to yt See was then admitted Raufe that was before bishop of Rochester

And the same yere one Thurston was chosen Archebishop of Yorke,Thurston Archebishop of yorke de­nyed obedi­ence to the Archebishop of Cātorbury the which denyed his profession of obedience, that he should owe vnto the See of Cauntorbury, wherefore at length he was depriued of his dignitie. But after by labour that he made to Pascall Bishop of Rome, the sayd Bishop of Rome wrote to the king that he should restore him againe to the sayd See: By the which meane he was restored,Contention for the Pr [...] ­macye. but yet disdeyned he to do his lawfull obedience vnto the sayde Raufe Archebishop of Cauntorbury. Then the strise was againe renued which Lanfranke before had appeased, and at the length brought in argument before the Bishop of Rome. The which at the kinges request promised that he would nothing do, nor ordeine that should preiudice the Archebishop of Cauntorbury, or the dignitie of his Church. But in conclusion the sayd Bishop of Rome gaue such a defuse sentence in this mat­ter, that he left the strife vndetermined. And when the kinges procurators and the Archbishops of Cauntorburies also were absent, were it for mede or for fauour, the Bishop of Rome was so bent, that he forsooke the olde rule vsed before his dayes, and sacred the sayd Thurston himselfe,Thurston made Arche­bishop of Cantorbury. and gaue him the Pall. For this dede the king was sore discontented with Thurston, and forbad him the entery of his land. Wherefore the Bishop of Rome wrote shortly after to the king, willing him to suffer Thurston to occupie the See peaceably, or he should be accurssed, and suspended by the dignitie of the office [Page 38] of Cauntorbury, and so Thurston quietly enioyed his See by that meanes.

1116/17 In the .xvij. yere of his reigne, the warre againe betweene him and Lewes the French king was renued, and the occasioner thereof, as sayth the French Chronicle,Warres a­gaine renued with France was Thibauld Erle of Charters or Champaigne, which Thibauld was grieued by the French king, and for necessitie requyred ayde of the king of Englande, to whome the king as his kinsman sent ayde and succour. And afterward the king sayled ouer with a strong army, and sent a noble man named Stephen into the Lordship of Brye, to defend it against the French king. When Lewes vnderstoode that king Henry was landed in Normandy with so great a power, he in all the hast assembled a great and strong power, and came towardes him. But there were such strong Holdes so well manned with Normanes, and also so great and deepe riuers that the French king coulde not come at king Henry. But at the last he wanne a towne named Lingues in Cause, in the which towne was a bridge to passe ouer the ryuer of Thee, and so into Normandy.

When a certeyne of the knightes of Lewes had thus wonne the towne aforesayde, the sayde Lewes with his people sped him shortly after and res­cued his foresayde Knightes, and then spoyled and robbed the Towne which was riche, bicause it had beene in rest and quiet many yeres before. He also slue and tooke prisoners all the Normans there dwelling, and put in their steed Frenchmen.Male assise Castell. And that done, he sped him towardes king Henrie, the which was at a Castle called Male assise, & there made prouision for the de­fence of the Frenchmen. And when he had garnished and furnished it to hys pleasure and contentation, he then departed from thence. And shortly after the French king came thether with his whole army of Frenchmen, and after many sore and cruell assaultes, he wonne the sayde Castell, and bet it downe to the grounde. After which victorie, as sayth the French Chronicle, there chaunced to the French king manye misfortunes. For shortly after among manye other mischaunces, a Noble Capitaine of his named Angueran de Chaumounte, the which had done much harme in Normandy to king Henry and had wonne there sundrie Castels and strong holdes, dyed sodeynlye. And in short time after Baldwin Erle of Flaunders, a man of great strength, and puyssaunce as he besieged a Castell was wounded in the face, and died with­in sixe dayes after. 1117/18 Then Fauques Erle of Aungeros, in whome also thys Lewes affied muche and trusted, married his daughter vnto William the el­dest sonne of King Henry, and refused the French kings parte, and ayded and assisted king Henry in all that he might, so that daylie the power of Hen­ry encreased, and the French kings minished. Finally, these two Princes met with both their armies in plaine field and fought a deadly and cruell bat­tayle,A cruell battaile. where in the ende the French king was ouercome, and lost muche of his people, & was compelled to flee vnto a place called Andeley for his safe­garde. But this ouerthrowe of the Frenchemen is by them excused in the most fayrest maner, so that they (as Fabian sayeth) excuse themselues and saye, that King Henry set vpon Lewes when he was not ware, and hys Knights at that tyme were all out of order & aray: and also that king Henry had a farre greater number then the French king had, with other wordes in the praise and commendation of themselues, which is to their rebuke.

But Reynulph of Chester sayth that King Henry ouercame the French [Page 39] King in the playne field royally.

Now it followeth in the storie, when these two Princes were agreed, 1118/19 William the sonne of King Henry did homage vnto the French king for the landes of Normandy, by the agreement of his father:Homage. for the king thought himselfe to good to be vnder the obeysaunce of the French king. Then king Henry caused his free men of Englande and of Normandy, to doe homage lykewise vnto his sonne Wylliam.

And sone after Fauques before named, lefthis Erledome of Angers, in the guyding of King Henry, and went himselfe into the holye lande, and wylled in his Testament, that if he returned not againe, that then the sayde Erledome should remayne vnto his sonne in lawe Wylliam, sonne of King Henry which had maried his daughter.

About the twentie yere of the reigne of King Henry, 1119/20 Queene Molde or Mawde his wyfe dyed in Normandy, the which in her youth, was set by her father the king of Scottes, into a Nonnery and there did weare and vse the vayle and habite of a Nonne. For the which cause when king Henry was agreeable to take her vnto his wife, this matter fell in great disputation, and Anselme then Archebishop of Cauntorburie was sore against that mariage for a tyme: But afterwarde it was sufficiently proued that shee was there wearyng the habite but neuer professed the order. And hir father had so de­uised it to the entent to aduoyde vnworthy wooers.

When king Henry had continued in Normandy almost three yeres, he tooke shippyng at Harflete in Normandy, and sayled happely into England the same day, that is to say, the .xxiiij. day of Nouember. And shortly after William Duke of Normandy with Richard his brother, Mary his daugh­ter, Richard Erle of Chester, with his wyfe the kinges nece, and the Arche­deacon of Herforde and other to the number of one hundreth & thre score per­sonnes, tooke shippyng at the same port, and were all drowned,A pitifull chaunce. a Boother only excepted: which misfortune chaunced partly by the violent rage of tem­pest, and partly by the ouersight of the maister and other, which in the night had quarelled among themselues, by reason whereof they ranne vpon a rock as sayd the Boocher. From this daunger William Duke of Normandy esca­ped, and was in the Shipboate nere vnto the land: but when he heard the lamentable cry of his sister, he commaunded the Rowers to returne and saue her, which done by what misfortune I can not tell, after she was receyued in­to the Boate, were it by tempest, or ouercharging of the Boate, or other­wise, they were all swallowed of the sea, so that none of them was after foūd, but part of their goodes.

In the .xxi. yere of his reigne, 1120/21 king Henry made the Parke of Wood­stock besyde Oxenford, and walled it with stone, besydes other pleasures to the same belongyng.Woodstock parke. And about this time Fauques Erle of Angers retur­ned out of the holy land,Fauques Erle of Angiers. and maryed the sister of her that before he had mari­ed vnto William Duke of Normandy, vnto the sonne of Robert Curthose, and gaue with her the Erledome of Cenomanna. And strife began to kindle betwene king Henry and the said Fauques,Robert Curthose for the withholding of the dower or ioynter of his first daughter maryed vnto William the kinges sonne, and for the cruell handlyng of Duke Robert of Normandy, whom the sayd Fau­ques loued intyrely.

1122/23 In the .xxiij. yere of the king, Raufe Archebishop of Cauntorbury died, and a Clerke named William was placed in the See after him. And the king in this yere began the foundation of the Abbey of Readyng.Iohn a Car­dinall of Rome, taken with incon­tinencie. And Iohn Cre­mensis a priest, Cardinall of Rome was sent from Calixt the seconde of that name then Bishop of Rome, for certeyne matters concernyng the said bishop of Rome. In which tyme of his beyng here, he made sharpe processe against such priestes as had eyther wyues or else kept concubines,Priestes wi­ues and con­cubines. and rebuked them by open publication, and otherwyse, so that he gat himselfe thereby small or little fauour. But this Cardinall was so feruent in the correction of other mennes vices, that he forgat to looke vpon his awne life. For in the night or euenyng of the same day that he had blowen his horne, and sayde, that it was a most detestable offence before God,A chast Car­dinall. to aryse from the syde of a strumpet, and then to sacre the body of Christ,A simple ex­cuse and an vntrue. he himselfe was taken with a strumpet to his open shame and rebuke, but he excused the matter (sayth Mathew of West­minster) saiyng that he was no priest but a corrector of priestes.

1124/25 In the .xxv. yere of his reigne was called a counsail at London, where the spiritualtie consented that the kinges officers should punish priestes that had Concubines. But the sayd officers tooke money and suffered the Priestes to liue at their pleasures. Which offence at this day is so clerely renounced of all Spirituall men, that there are no fynes at all taken nowe, neyther yet cor­rection necessary done for the same, neyther duely punished any other where in England,Bridewell. except it be in one house called Bridewell in London, where al­so (as some say) there is but to much fauour shewed, chiefely to such as can make any friendes.

1126/27 In the .xxvij. yere of his reigne, the Gray Fryers came first into this Realme of England, and had their first house buylded at Cauntorbury. And about this tyme also dyed Henry the fourth Emperour of that name,Grey Friers when they came first in­to England. which (as before is touched) maryed Molde the daughter of king Henry. After whose death the sayd Empresse came vnto her father in Normandy. Nowe when king Henry was asserteyned of the death of Henry the Emperour, for somuch as he had none heyre male, he caused soone after the most part of all the Lordes spirituall and temporall in England, to swere in his presence that they should kepe the land of England to the vse of Mawde the Empresse, if he dyed without issue male, and that she then suruyued.

1127/28 In the .xxviij. yere of the king, Geoffrey Plantagenet the sonne of Foul­ques Erle of Angeow, maryed Molde the Empresse. Of the which two dis­cended Henry the seconde,Dane gelt released. which after Stephen was king of England. And after the king was returned into England, he released vnto the Englishmen the Dane gelt, which was by his father and brother receyued and taken.

1129/30 In the .xxx. yere of his reigne dyed the Erle of Flaunders, and as Rey­nulph sayth, king Henry was by the agreement of the Frenche king made Erle, as next heyre and inheritor vnto the sayde Erledome.

1131/32 In the .xxxij. yere of the king dyed Robert Curthose the kinges brother, the which he had kept as prisoner in the Castell of Cardiffe from the fourth yere of his reigne, whose dead carkasse was buryed at Gloucester.

1134/35 In the .xxxv. yere of his reigne, was borne of Molde the Empresse, Henry shortmantell, or Henry the seconde, and about thys tyme was by the king founded the Bishoprike of Carlill, and a great part of London brenned.

Now for a finall ende of this story, 1135/36 king Henry in the beginning of the xxxvj. yere of his reigne, he beyng in Normandye fell from or with his horse, whereof he tooke his death. But Raynulph sayth, that he tooke a surfet by eatyng of a Lamprey, and thereof dyed, when he had reyned full .xxxv. yeres and odde monethes, and was buryed at Redyng Abbey whereof he was the founder, as he was also of the Abbey of Ciceter the which Mathew of Westminster calleth Ciremester.

King Stephen.

STephen Erle of Boloigne, 1135/1 sonne of the Erle of Bloys and Adela daughter to king william the Conquerour, and nephewe vnto king Henry the first, tooke on him the gouernaunce of this Realme of England, the second day of December .1135. through the counsayle and ayde of many Lordes of Eng­land, contrary to their othe made to Mawde the Empresse.

This was a noble man and hardy. But yet contrary to his othe yt he made to Molde or Mawde the Empresse as aforesayde, hee tooke vpon him the Crowne of this Realme, and was crowned on Saint Stephens day in Christmas weeke at West­minster of William Archebishop of Cauntorbury,King Steu [...] crowned. which Bishop in lyke ma­ner had made the lyke othe vnto the sayde Empresse, in the presence of the king her father as before is touched: In punishment of which periury as men suppose, the sayd Archebishop dyed shortly after.

The Lordes also of the whole realme as abouesaid had made like othes,Periury. and committed the lyke periury, and therfore scaped not punishment. A great part of this periury (as sayth one aucthour) was this: One Hugh Bygot Steward sometyme of king Henry the first, immediately after the decease of the sayde Henry came into England, and before the sayde Archebishop and other Lordes of the land, he tooke wilfully an othe, and sware that he was present a little before the kinges death, when king Henry admitted and chose for his heyre to be king after him Stephen his nephew,Wilfull per­iury punished because Molde his daughter had displeased him: wherevnto the Archebishop & the other Lords gaue to hasty credence. But the sayde Hugh escaped not vnpunished, for he dyed miserably in a short tyme after.

When king Stephen was crowned he sware before the Lordes at Ox­enford that he would not holde in his hande the Bishoprikes and benefices that were voyde,Dane gelt. and that he would forgeue the Dane gelt as king Henry before him had done, with sundrie other thinges. And because this Stephen feared the commyng of Mawde the Empresse, he therefore gaue licence vn­to [Page 42] his Lordes that euery of them might buylde a Castell or strong fortresse vpon his awne ground. 1136/2 And soone after hee agreed with Dauid king of Scots who with Henry his sonne did homage vnto him for Scotland. The same tyme Stephen gaue also vnto Henry the sonne of the sayde Scottishe king,Homage of the Scottes. the Erledome of Huntyngdon and the towne of Bedford.

1137/3 In the which tyme the king layed siege to the Castell of Bedford, the which was possessed and manned of the Scottishe king and wanne it. And that done he then made a voyage into Scotland, where he did not muche ey­ther to his pleasure or profite. But yet Polydore wryteth, that whilest king Stephen made himselfe readie to set vpon the Scottishe armie, who were come to defende the borders of the Countrie: Dauid perceyuing himselfe to weake, and not able to withstand his power, sent his Ambassadors vnto him to entreate a peace, which at the length was graunted him vpon condition that he would be content to delyuer his sonne in hostage for the sure perfor­maunce and holding of the Articles and couenants concluded betwixt them, the which was done.Alexander Bishop of Lincolne. Then in his returne homeward he toke Alexander Bi­shop of Lincolne & kept him in durance vntill he had giuen vnto him the Ca­stell of Newarke. And then he chased Nigellus Bishop of Ely. But sayth Polidore, after he had thus finished the matter with the Scottes, in hys re­turne againe into England he went to Wales and there besieged and wanne Ludlow the head towne of those partes, the which he founde possessed of his enimies, where Henrie prince of Scotland as he was in fight neere vnto the towne walles, was sodeynly of the aduersaries that were within the towne plucked from his Horsse with a crooked engine of Iron, and there­with had beene taken vp into the towne, if God had not so prouyded that the King came foorthwith and rescued him in that present daunger.

About this tyme also he tooke suche displeasure with his louing friend, Roger Bishop of Sarisbury,Roger bishop of Sarisbury for that he suspected him as he did all those that had lately buylded any Fort or Castell to fauor the Empresse part, that he cast him into prison vntill the sayd Roger had rendred vnto him his two Castels: of V [...]ses and Sherborne the which himselfe had builded. For the which the sayde Roger in remembring the great ingratitude of the king, tooke suche thought that he dyed shortly after, and left behinde him in readie coyne in his sayde Castels fourtie thousand Markes, which after his death came to the Kings Cofers, and with that treasure (sayth Reynulph) he found the meanes to marry his sonne Eustace to Lady Constance the French kinges sister.

11 [...]8/4About the fourth yere of his reigne, Dauid king of Scottes repenting him of his former agreement made with the king, entred of newe within the boundes of Northumberland about the ryuer of Thayse towarde the Pro­uynce of Yorke,Scottes rebell. and brent and slue the people, and spoyled the Countrie in most cruell wise, not sparing neyther man woman nor chylde. Against whom Thurston Archbishop of Yorke by the kings commaundement was sent,Thurston Archebishop of Yorke o­uerthrew the king of Scottes. who with his power did acquite himselfe so valiauntly, that he ouerthrewe the hoste of the Scottes, and slue ten thousand of them, and in fine compel­led them to withdrawe againe into Scotland. Reynulph.

1139/5 In the s xt yere of his reigne, and in the Moneth of Iuly, Mawde the Empresse with her brother Robert and other of her friends entred the lande at the hauen of Portesmouth, and from thence went to Arundell and tooke [Page 43] the Castell there. Then Robert Erle of Gloucester leauing her in the sayde Castell, hauing with him onely ten horsemen, with so many Archers on hors­backe, passed through his enimies Countries and sped him to Gloucester, as well to signifie vnto the people the landing of his sister the Empresse, as to cause an armie to ayde hir. And though the same towne were at his com­ming manned with the kings power: Yet when the townesmen vnderstood that he was come, they of their owne accorde put the kings Garrisons out of the towne and receyued him, that done the sayde Erle not onely assembled an armie there, but found the meanes also that the places and Countrie ad­ioinyng, willyngly submitted themselues vnto the Empresse.

Now when king Stephen who then layde siege to Wallyngford Castel vnderstood that the Empresse was landed, he incontinent brake vp his siege, and with his whole power spedely addressed himselfe to the towne of Aron­dell and besieged the Castell. But when he had there continued his siege a certaine space, and nothing was yet done accordyng to his expectation, some of them which were secrete friendes and ayders of the Empresse, ceassed not to beate into his head that the same Castell was impregnable, and therefore his liyng there was but in vaine, saiyng further, that it were best for him to leaue his siege and suffer her to issue out, and to go to some other holde or place where he might more easily come by her, the which was done to this only ende, that she beyng now in the case that she was, not able to hold out a­ny longer for lacke of victualles, might escape the present daunger she was in, and flie to some other place of more suretie, where shee might make her selfe more strong against her enemies. And so Stephen folowyng this de­ceyuable counsayle, departed incontinent with his armie so farre that the enemies should not feare to issue out whether they would. The which thing the sayd Empresse perceyuyng, departed thence in the dead of the night, and so kept on her iourney to Bristowe, whether there came to her shortly after her commyng great succours out of all partes of the Realme: The whiche when king Stephen was enformed of, he repented him (but to late) that he had folowed the former euill counsayle. Wherefore he hastened him towards Bristowe to the entent to lay siege to the towne, and there to enclose his ene­mie if he might by any meanes. But the Empresse hearyng of his comming, and vnderstanding his purpose, departed thence, and went first to Gloucester and then to Lyncolne, where she victualled the towne, and so fortefied it with men and munition, that she might safely there tary till eyther she were rescu­ed by the Erle her brother and others of her friendes, or else by the fauour and ayde of the Commons, be restored to her right without bloudshed & bat­tayle, and king Stephen deposed. But he beyng aduertised what was there by her done, pursued after withall haste and besieged the same Citie.

After which season the Erle Robert, and Reynulph before named with a great power of Welshemen, and the power of the Empresse, came agaynst the king intendyng to rayse the siege. Where when both armies were redye to ioyne. The Erle Reynulph of Chester spake to his knightes and sayde,Strife who should fight first in battel. I requyre you, that I that am cause of your perill, may be the first that shall en­ter into perill. Then aunswered Erle Robert and sayd, it is not vnworthie to thee that askest the first stroke and dignitie of this fight: for vnto thee it is sittyng, for noblenesse of blood and vertue of strength in the which thou pas­sest [Page 44] other men: But the kinges false othe moueth men to warre and fight, wherein we must nowe eyther winne the maystry or be ouercome. And hee that hath none other succour, is constreyned to defende himselfe by knightly and strong dedes of armes and of manhood, and so shall we ioyne with them that are blemished with guile & wickednesse, as Robert Erle of Mel­lent, the Erle also of Albemarle, and Simon of Hampton, the which is a man of great boast and small might.

The oracion of Erle Baldwin.Then king Stephen prepared to set forward his people, and Erle Bald­wyn had wordes of comfort to the kinges people, and sayde: Vnto men that shall fight there are three speciall thinges to be considered. The first is the quarrell,Thre things are requisite to such as fight in bat­tayle. least men fall into perill of the soule. The second is the number of men of armes, least men be ouerlayde and oppressed with to great a multi­tude. And the thirde is, the lustinesse, courage, and strength of knightes, that the matter quayle not for lacke of stoute, hardie courage, and assured fightyng in the tyme of neede. As touchyng which three poyntes, I trust we be well sped. And furthermore if we note well what enemies we haue. First we haue against vs Robert Erle of Glocester, who vseth great threates, and performeth small deedes. In mouth and countenaunce lyke a Lyon, but in heart a very sheepe. He is glorious in speeche, and darke in vnderstandyng. There is also Reynulph Erle of Chester, a man without reason, and full of foolishehardinesse, redy and prompt to all conspiracie, and vnstedfast in al his deedes and attemptes: hastie and furious of heart, and vnware of perilles. He assayeth oft to atchieue great deedes, but he bringeth none to effect. And what he fiercely and freshely beginneth, he cowardly and fayntly forsaketh, as infortunate and vnhappy in all his dedes, and is ouercome in euery place, for he is a companion with banished men and sculkers, and the mo of them that are in a company, the sooner they be ouerthrowne: and feeble they be in fightyng, for eyther of them putteth his trust in his felow, whyle he hymselfe is ouerthrowen.

A terrible Battaile.But, before he could finishe his wordes, the crie of the enemies wyth noyes of Trumpettes, and neeyng of horses were heard on euery syde, the battayles approched and ioyned together, and forth flew the arrowes, and a grifely and cruell fight was vpon both sydes so long as it endured. By rea­son of which fight and the slaughter thereof, the greene fielde was turned in­to a perfite red, so that many a pale and wanne visage was there sene yelding vp of the ghost, with armes and legges disseuered and departed from the bo­dyes. A long while this fight stood in doubt, whether partie should obteine victory. But in the ende king Stephens partie gaue backe and fled, but hee valiauntly abode in the fielde with a fewe of his knightes and was taken, and so he was brought vnto the Empresse:King Ste­phen taken prisoner. the which commaunded him to be conueyed vnder sure keepyng vnto Bristow, where he was kept as a pri­soner, from Candlemas vnto holy Rood day then next ensuyng.

When the Empresse had wonne this victorye, and had committed the king to warde, as before ye haue heard, she was not therewith a little exal­ted, but thought in her mynde, that she was in a suretie of the possession of the whole Realme: But she was deceyued, for the Countie of Kent tooke partie with king Stephen. And after this victory she departed thence, and toke the towne of Cicester, and afterwardes went vnto Winchester, where shee was [Page 45] solemply receyued of the Bishop and the people with procession, and from thence came to Wilton, to Oxford, to Reding, and to Saint Albones,The trium­phing of Mawde the Empresse. into the which Cities and townes she was ioyfully receyued withall honour, but es­specially was she welcomed of Theobaldus then Archebishop of Cantorbu­ry, and many of the nobilitie besydes. Lastly, she came to London for to en­ter the state of the land, and while she remayned there,A large pro­mise which was neuer purposed to be performed. the Quene king Ste­phens wyfe made earnest labor for the deliuery of the king her husband, pro­mising that he should surrender the land into her possession, and he to become a religious man, either else a pilgrim to his lyues ende. But all was in vaine, for she could purchase no grace as then vpon no maner of conditions.

The Citizens of London also made great labour that they might vse the lawes of king Edward the Confessor,The Em­presse was somewhat to streyght laced. as they were graunted by William the Conquerour, and not the lawes of her father, which were of more streight­nesse, whereof in no wyfe they could get any graunt.

For this the Citizens were discontented, and knowyng that the Coun­trye of Kent which fauoured king Stephen would strength theyr party,The fleyng of the Em­presse. pur­posed to haue taken her. But she beyng thereof warned, departed in haste, and left behinde her her store of housholde, and so fled vnto Oxenford, where she abode, but her people was deuyded and scattered. And in this while she sent vnto Dauid the king of Scottes and her vncle for to ayde her, who in all haste came vnto her, and so went to Winchester, where she layde siege to the Bishoppes Tower, the which, the Bishop beyng the Kinges brother at that tyme helde with great strength.

Then the Queene with the ayde of her friendes, that is to say, of Ken­tishe men and other, made a strong hoste, whereof was chiefe Capitayne a Knight named Guylliam Ypres.A wise and couragious woman. When the Empresse heard of the great strength of the Queene, and sawe that her awne dayly minished rather than encreased, was in such feare that she caused her selfe to be caryed in a horse Litter to Gloucester as though shee had bene dead. But Erle Robert her brother was taken soone after, and put in prison, and Dauid king of Scots heeryng of this returned into Scotland.

Then meanes was made vpon either side for the deliuery and exchaunge of prisoners, so that in ye end it was agreed,Prisoners exchaunged. that the king should be deliuered for Erle Robert. But before this agreement was fully concluded, great losse and mischiefe was done within this Realme euery way,Pilling and spoyling of the Realme. for the Empresse pilled and spoyled on her partie, and the Queene by manaces and promises borowed and tooke vpon the othersyde, and the Souldiours stale, extorted, and spoyled vpon both parties, so that riche men were made needy, and the poore oppressed on euery side.

In this meane while the Empresse returned againe to Oxenforde,The returne of the Em­presse vnto Oxenford. and victualled it and manned it in her best maner. And lastly the king was deli­uered vpon holy Rood day in Haruest, and soone after he compassed Oxen­ford with a great armye, from the tyme of Michaelmasse vnto Christmasse next folowyng, at which tyme and season, the Empresse vsed a newe guile for constraint and necessitie of victuall.

In that tyme great plentye of snowe fell vpon the ground,A prety in­uention. and the frost was therewithall so great, that Thames with other great riuers were then frosen ouer, so that man and horse might passe vpon the Ise. The Empresse [Page 46] then constreyned by neede (as aforesayd) apparelled her and her company in white clothing,A hard scape. which a farre of semed like snow, and so vpon a plumbe going together as neere as they might,The maner of departure of the Em­presse. escaped the daunger of their enemyes, and so came first to the pyle or Castell of Shereborne, and then to Wallingford. And from thence in short time, she departed with a small company into Nor­mandy vnto her husband.

So soone as the Empresse was thus departed from Oxenford the towne was yelded vnto the king, where the king had much of the Empresse stuffe, aswell harnesse as other stuffe of houshold. Then the king entended to haue pursued her, but tidynges came vnto him that Reynulph Erle of Chester with an hoste of Welshemen was commyng towardes him: But by media­tion of friendes this Reynulph in the ende was reconciled to the king,Parliament at North­hamton. and was with him fully agreed. But shortly after sayth Reynulph, in a Parlia­ment holden at Northamton, he was taken of the king by a traine, and not deliuered againe before he had geuen vp the Castell of Lincolne.

1144/10 About this tyme as certeyne write, the Iewes then beyng in England crucifyed a childe named William in the Citie of Norwiche in derision of the Christian religion.Iewes cru­cified a child. And in the time of Henry the second, about the .vj. yere of his reigne (as sayth Reynulph) they crucifyed another at Gloucester.

1146/12 In the .xij. yere of his reigne, king Stephen was againe crowned at Lincolne after the geuyng vp of the sayd Citie where neuer none of his pre­decessors had bene euer crowned before.

Robert Erle of Gloucester made also new warre vpon the king, at Wil­ton,Robert Erle of Gloucester well rewar­ded of the king. so that he was in great perill, and like to haue fallen into Roberts daun­ger, and escaped but verye narowly. And there was taken a Barron of the kinges named Sir William Martell, for whose raunsome and deliuery, the king gaue after to the sayd Erle the Castell of Sherborne. And that done, the sayd Erle Robert began to buyld a strong Castell at Faringdon: Whereof the king beyng enformed, assembled his knightes and sped him thetherward, by meane whereof the worke was for that tyme empeached and let. These thinges done (sayth Polidore) the rage of warre ceased for a tyme. In the meane while, the king went vnto London, and there helde a Parliament, in the which he spake vnto his Nobles and Prelates as foloweth.

Where you haue hetherto (my most deare and trusty Lords all) followed me as chiefe and head Capitaine in defending your libertie, I desire you that you will not nowe forsake me but do the lyke hereafter, and continue as loyall and faythful vnto me your souereigne liege Lord, as you haue hether­to bene: for as concerning me, though I haue not yet (I confesse) done my duetie in the princely regiment committed vnto me, accordingly yet certes it hath not bene for want of good will, but for that time hath not serued thervn­to, neyther can I now accomplish the same without your ayde and assistance. And because you shall not thinke that hetherto little or nothing hath beene done of any importaunce: you shall vnderstand that our enimies are already so weakened by my meanes, that will they nyll they, they must needes yeeld them shortly to our grace and mercie. There remayneth onely that you will for your partes helpe to maintaine those warres which by oure consent and counsayle were first begonne and taken in hande by mee, for the defence of the common wealth. And manye other wordes spake he vnto them of lyke [Page 47] sentence, to the entent to moue them to contribute to the aforesayde warres as the present necessitie should require.

When he had thus spoken euery man promised wyllingly to ayde him with that they might, aswell for their awne safetie, as for the defence of the com­mon libertie of the Realme. The Bishops and Priestes also, because it was not lawfull for them to fight, were contented yet to ayde him with money. For the which thing, he being desyrous to gratefie them againe, caused it to be ordeyned and enacted in the Parliament, that whosoeuer from that daye forwarde layde violent handes vpon any that was within holy orders, or did arrest any such, for what cryme soeuer it were, or take them prisoners with­out the ordinaries processe and expresse commaundement, should be accoun­ted accurssed, and neuer to be assoyled againe, but of the Bishop of Rome.

In the .xv. yere of his reigne, 1149/15 the Ryuer of Thamys was so strongly ouer frosen that Horse and Carte passed ouer vpon the Ise.

It is also written by Robert a Chronicler that king Stephen concey­uing great displeasure against the Citie of Worcester, because they recey­ued the Duke of Gloucester and Mawde the Empresse, did therefore cause the same Citie to be set on fyre and brent to coles.

In the .xvij. yere, Reynulph Erle of Chester dyed, 1151/17 and was the fourth Erle after the Conquest, and his sonne Hugh was Earle after hym, which was a man of great strength and power.The death of Groffrey Plātagenet. And in the same yere (as sayeth Guydo and other) dyed Geoffrey Plantagenet husband of Mawde the Em­presse. After whose death, Henry short Mantell that was the sonne of the sayde Geoffrey and Mawde, was made Duke of Angeow and Normandy, who in fewe yeres after maried Elianour the daughter of the Erle of Poy­towe, the which Elianour was before maried vnto Lewes king of France, and from him deuorced for neerenesse of blood, when he had receyued of her two daughters named Mary, and Alice, as sayth the French Chronicle. And so this Henry was Erle of Angeow by his father, and Duke of Normandy by his mother, and Erle of Poytowe by his wyfe.

It was not long after, that Eustace the sonne of King Stephen, wyth aide of the French king, warred vpon Henry Duke of Normandy, the which (as some write) was practised by Stephen his father, to the intent to let or stop him that he should not come into England to clayme his inheritaunce. But Duke Henry defended himselfe so knightly, that the saide Eustace wan thereby lyttle honour and lesse profite.

An olde Chronicle sheweth that king Stephen entended to haue crow­ned the sayd Eustace his sonne king of Englande by his dayes, but the By­shoppes refused that deede by the commaundement of the Bishop of Rome.

In the .xviij. yere, the king layde siege vnto the Castelles of Newbury, 1152/18 of Walyngforde, and of Warwike & Warwell, the which had bene kept by the Empresse friendes, from the time of her departure vnto that day, and hoped of reskues by Henry Duke of Normandy. But the king then wan the Castelles of Newbury and of Warwell, but Warwike and Wallyngford de­fended themselues vntill the commyng of Henry the Duke,The landing of Henry Duke of Normandy. the which in the ende of the sayde yere with a great armye entred England, and first wanne the Castell of Malmesbury.

And thence he went to London, and wanne the Tower, asmuch by pol­lecy [Page 48] and by fayre promises, as by strength. And such stuffe of victuall and ar­mour as he found therein, he sent to Walingrord. And that done, he went to the towne of Walyngford, and wanne suche holdes as were thereabout, and diuerse other townes and Castelles mo. Then king Stephen with his power drewe towarde the Duke. And finally, by meane of mediators, as Thibalde Archbishop of Cauntorbury and other, both Princes to common of peace, met nere vnto the water of Vrine, or Vrne. But as fast as some labou­red for peace, so fast other laboured to haue warre, so that at that communi­cation the peace was not concluded.

After the king and the Duke were departed, the king went toward Ips­witch in Suffolke: And the Duke tooke the way towarde Shrewesbury, where he wanne the Castell of the sayd towne. From thence he went to No­tyngham, and wan that towne, but would not meddle with the Castell, be­cause he thought it to strong to be wonne. Wherefore the Souldiours that held the said Castell, seeing that the towne toke partie with the Duke, brake out in the night, and set the towne on fyre, and brent a great part thereof.

Eustace the sonne of king Stephen drowned.In this meane tyme Eustace the sonne of king Stephen, was by misad­uenture drowned, and was buried at Feuersham in Kent, in the Abbey yt his father before had builded,Thibald Archebishop of Cātorbury howbeit for al this Thibald Archbishop of Cātor­bury let not to labor & conclude the peace betwene the king & the Duke, and endeuored himselfe therin so diligently, that with the assistance of other of the Nobles,A peace con­cluded be­twene king Stephen and Henry Duke of Normādy. in the yere folowing a peace was concluded at Walingford, vpon di­uerse conditions: wherof one was that the king should continue as king du­ring his life, and that immediately after the conclusion of this peace, the sayd Henry should be proclaymed in all the chiefe cities & townes of England for heire apparant,Henry Duke of Normādie proclaymed heyre appa­rant. & be king after the death of the said Stephen, & that the king should take him for his sonne by adoption & rightfull heyre vnto the crowne. To the which couenauntes iustly to be holden, the king was first sworne, and then his base sonne William and after his Lordes spirituall and Temporall, and so went both vnto London, where they were roially receiued. And when the king had feasted the Duke, and geuen vnto him riche gittes, he tooke his iourney toward Normandy.Duke Henry returned into Normandy. But the English Chronicle sayth that the accord was made vpon the deuision of the land betwene them, that is to say, that both should reigne together, and either of them to enioy halfe the lande. But how that deuision was made, or which part of the land eyther of them should holde, no mention thereof is made. And the former accorde should be concluded .viij. 1153/19 dayes folowyng the Epiphany of our Lorde in the towne of Oxford: and the king dyed in the moneth of October folowyng, when he had reigned .xviij. yeres .x. monethes and .xxiiij. dayes, leauyng no lawfull issue behynd him, and was buryed in the Abbey of Feuersham whereof he hym­selfe was founder.

Of dyuerse authours, as Reynulph and other, it is recorded that this Stephen liued in great vexation and trouble all the time of his reigne.

And as before ye haue heard in the latter ende of the story of king Wil­liam the Conquerour, that king Henry the second, and king Stephen, came of two sisters, after the opinion of some wryters which were the daughters of king Henry the first who had maryed Molde the daughter of Malcolyne king of Scottes, whereof the elder was named Molde maried to Geoffrey [Page 49] Plantagenet of whome he begat king Henry the second: And the other sister named Mary was the mother of king Stephen:By king Hē ­ry the second the blood of the Saxons was restored againe. So also is it to be vnder­stand, that by king Henry the seconde returned the blood of the Saxons to the crowne of England, and so it did by Stephen, but yet more properly by king Henry the first, as by the discent of his mother expressed before in the ende of the story of William Conquerour may apere. By which reason it fo­loweth,The blood of the Normās how long is reigned o­uer vs. that the blood of William Conquerour reigned ouer England but lxviij. yeres, one moneth and .xvj. dayes, if it be accompted from the first yere of king William Conquerour, vnto the last yere of king Hen­ry the first: But if we reckon it to the ende of the reigne of king Stephen, then was it .lxxxvij. yeres, and .xij. dayes.

Henrie the seconde.

HEnry the seconde of that name, sonne of Geoffrey Plantagenet Erle of An­geow, and of Molde or Mawde the Em­presse daughter of king Henry the first, began his reigne ouer the Realme of England the xxv. day of October M.C.liiij.

This king was somedeale red of face,The discrip­tion of king Henry the second. and broad breasted, short of body, and therewith fat, the which to asswage he tooke the lesse of meates and drinkes, and much exercised him­selfe in huntyng, hawkyng, and such lyke pa­stimes. He was harrish of voyce, but yet elo­quent and well learned, and also noble and valiaunt in knyghthood, wise in counsayle, but dread ouermuche destinies. He was free and liberall to straungers, and heard and holdyng from his fa­miliers and seruauntes. And whome he loued or hated entirely, hard it was to turne him to the contrary. He loued rest and peace, to the ende he might the rather folow his pleasure, with mo vices rehersed by Gerald and others, the which for length I passe ouer.

Howbeit as Reynulph witnesseth he was not barren of all vertues,Henry the se­cond a coura­gious prince. for he was of so great a courage, that he would often say, that all the worlde suffised not to a couragious heart. And he encreased his heritage so mightily, that he wanne Irelande, anone after his coronation by strength,Ireland ioy­ned to the crowne of England. and tooke the king of Scottes prisoner, and ioyned that kingdome of Scotlande to hys awne. From the South Occean, vnto the North Islandes of Orcades, he closed all the landes as it were vnder one dominion, and spred so largely his Empire,Henry the se­cond greatly enlarged his dominion. that we read not that any of his progenitors had so many Prouyn­ces and Countreys vnder their gouernance and rule. For besyde the Realme of England and Scotland, he had in his rule Normandy, Gascoyne, and Guyan, Angeow and Poyters: and he made subiect to him Aluerne and o­ther [Page 50] landes. And by Elianor his wyfe he obteyned as in her right, the Erle­dome of Tolous.

King Henry the seconde had by Elia­nor his wife ix. children.Of the which wife he receyued sixe sonnes, and thre daughters, the which fiue sonnes had to name, William, Henry, Richard, Godfrey, and Iohn, but what the sixt was called is not remembred of wryters. The eldest of the maydens was named Molde or Mawde, and was maryed to the Duke of Saxon, the second Elianor, maryed to the king of Spaine, and the thirde na­med Iane, maryed to the king of Sicile.

Princes are subiect to tyme.This Henry was prosperous in his beginnyng, and infortunate in the ende, and specially in the last fiue yeres of his reigne, for in the first of those fiue yeres, his strength began to minishe: The second yere he lost a voyage in Irelande: In the thirde, he lost Aluerne, warryng agaynst the King of Fraunce: In the fourth yere he lost Briteyn, and in the fift the Citie of Ce­nomanna, and Turon, with many Holdes to them belongyng.

When tidynges was brought vnto this Henry of king Stephens death, he fortuned to lye at the siege of a Castell which was withholden and kept from him by the frenche king. And beyng aduertised by his counsayle forth­with to breake vp his siege, and to hasten him into England to take possessi­on of the Crowne, least happely any styrre or businesse might arise by protr