LADENSIVM ἈΥΤΟΚΑΤΑΚΡΙΣΙS, THE CANTERBVRIANS SELF-CONVICTION.

OR An evident demonstration of the avowed Arminianisme, Poperie, and tyrannie of that Faction, by their owne confessions.

With a Post-script to the Personate Jesuite Lysimachus Nicanor, a prime Canterburian.

Written in March, and printed in April, 1640:

‘COR VNVM VIA VNA’
  • Summa Capitum. THE Preface showeth the unreasonablenesse of this new warre: That we have commit­ted nothing against the late pacification: That compassion, hope, and all reason call now for peace at home; that at last we may get some order of our enemies abroad: That the Canterburian faction deserve [...] not so well of England, that armes in their favour ought to be taken against Scotland: VVe offer to instruct their insupportable crimes by their owne writs: If armes be needlesly taken in so evill a cause, they cannot but end in an untimous repentance: In this nicke of time very poore wits without pre­sumption may venture to, speake even to Parlia­ments: The obstinate silence of the English Divines is prodigious.
  • CHAP. I. The delineation of the vvhole subsequent Treatise. OUR Adversaries decline to answer our first and chiefe challenge: The scope of this writt: All our plea is but one cleare syllogisme, the Major whereof is the sentence of our Iudge, the Minor, the confession [Page] of our partie, the conclusion a cleare and necessary consequence from these two premisses.
  • CHAP. II. The Canterburians avovved Arminianisme. ARminianisme, is a great & dangerous innovation of our Religion. King Iames his judgment there­of; The great increase of Arminianisme in Scotland, by Canterburies meanes. King Charles his name stolne by Canterburie, to the defence of Arminianisme. The Irish Church infected with Arminianisme by Canter­burie. The Canterburians in England teach the first & second article of Arminius. Why King James stiled Arminians Atheists: They teach the third & fourth article; also the fifth. The Arminians in England advanced: Their opposites disgraced and persecu­ted. Canterburie and his fellowes contrary to the Kings Proclamation, goe on boldly to print, let be to preach Arminian tenets. A demonstration of Canter­buries Arminianisme in the highest degree. They make Arminianisme consonant to the articles of Eng­land, and so not contrary to the Proclamation.
  • CHAP. III. The Canterburians professed affection towards the Pope & Poperie in grosse. ONce they were suspected of Lutheranisme, but at last Poperie was found their marke: To make way for their designes, they cry down the Popes An­tichristianisme, they are content to have the Popes au­thoritie [Page] set up againe in England. Their minde to the Cardinalat: They affect much to be joyned with the Church of Rome as shee stands.
  • CHAP. IV. The Canterburians Ioyne vvith Rome in her grossest Idolatrie. IN the middes of their denyalls, yet they avow their giving of religious adoration, to the very stock or stone of the altar; As much adoration of the Elements they grant as the Papists require; In the matter of Images their full agreement with Rome. About relicts they agree with Papists; They come neere to the invocation of Saints.
  • CHAP. V. The Canterburians avovv their embracing of the Popish heresies and grossest errours. THey joyne with Rome in setting up traditions in prejudice of Scripture; In the doctrine of faith, Justification, fulfilling of the Law, merit, they are fully Popish; In the doctrine of the Sacraments be­hold their Poperie; They are for the reerection of Monasteries, and placing of Monkes and Nunnes therein as of old; How neere they approach to Pur­gatory and prayer for the dead.
  • CHAP. VI. Anent their Superstitions. FEW of all Romes superstitions are against their stomack; They embrace the grossest not onely of their privat, but also of their publick superstitions.
  • [Page]CHAP. II. The Canterburians embrace the Masse it selfe. THey cry down so farre as they can all preaching. They approve the Masse, both for word & mat­ter. The Scotish Leiturgie is much worse then English; Many alterations into the Scotish, specially about the offertorie, the consecration, the sacrifice, the Communion.
  • CHAP. ULT. The Canterburians maximes of tyranny▪ THE tyrannous usurpation of the Canterburians, are as many and heavie as these of the Romish Clergie: King Charles hates all tyrannie: The Can­terburians flatter him in much more power then ever he will take: They enable the Prince without ad­vice of the church, to doe in all Eccelesiasticall affaires what he thinks meet: They give to the King power to doe in the State what ever be will without the ad­vice of his Parliament: In no imaginable case they will have the greatest tyrants resisted: What they give to Kings, is not for any respect they have to Ma­jestie, but for their own ambitious & covetous ends.

The Chiefe vvitnesses vvhich in the follovv­ing action are brought into depone.

  • WIlliam Laud Arch-bishop of Canterburie in his speech before the Starre-chamber, in his relation of his Conference with Iesuite Fisher, as it was the [Page] last yeare amplified and reprinted by the Kings di­rection: In Andrewes opuscula posthuma set out by him, and dedicated to the King.
  • B. VVhyte of Eli, in his treatise upon the Sabbath, and his answer to the lawlesse Dialogue.
  • B. Montagu of Chichester, in his answer to the gag­ger, in his appeale, in his antidiatribae, in his apparatus, in his origenes.
  • B. Hall of Exeter, in his ould Religion set out with his owne apologie, and the apologies of his Friends M. Chomley, and M. Butterfield: In his remedie of pro­fanesse.
  • Peter Heylen Chaplan in ordinary in his answer to Burton set out, as he sayes, by the command of authoritie as a full and onely Reply to bee expected, against all [...]he exceptions which commonly are taken at my Lord of Canterburie his actions, in his antidotum Lincolinense subscribed by Canterburies Chaplane.
  • D. Pottar, Chaplan in ordinary, in his charitie mista­ken, as he prints, at the command of authoritie.
  • D. Laurence, Chaplan in ordinary, in his Sermon preached before the King, and printed at the command of authoritie.
  • D. Pocklingtoune, in his Sunday no Sabbath, in his Altare Christianum, both subscribed by Canterburies Chaplane.
  • Christopher Dow, in his answer to Burtoune, sub­scribed by Canterburies Chaplane.
  • Couzine in his devotions, the fourth Edition, sub­scribed by the B. of London, my Lord high Treasuror his owne hand.
  • [Page]Chounaeus in his Collectiones Theologicae; dedicated to my Lord of Canterburie, and subscribed by his Chap­lane.
  • Shelfoord in his five pious Sermons, printed at Cam­bridge, by the direction of the Vice Chanceler D. Beel, set out with a number of Epigrames Latine and English, by diverse of the Ʋniversitie fellowes, defended yet still by Heylene, and Dow, in their bookes which Canterbury hath approven.
  • Antonie Stafford, in his female glory, printed at London, and notwithstanding of all the challenges, made against it, yet still defended by Heylene and Dow in their approven writs.
  • William Wats in his Sermon of apostolicall mortifi­cation.
  • Giles Widowes in his Schismaticall Puritan.
  • Edward Boughen in his sermon of order and de­cencie.
  • Mr. Sp. of Queenes Colledge in Cambridge, in his sermon of Confession.
  • Samuel Hoards in his sermon at the metrapolecall visitation.
  • Mr. Tedders in his sermon at the visitation of the B. of Norwitch, all subscribed by the hands of my L. of Canterburies Chaplane, Bray, Oliver Baker, or some others.

THE PREFACE.

IT is fallen out much beside our ex­pectation,Wee did expect nothing lesse then warre. that the storme of warre should now againe begin to blow, when we did esteem that the mercy of GOD and justice of our Prince had setled our Land in a firme peace for many generations, at least for many daies & ever, while some appearance of provocation should have arisen from us, for the kindling of the wrath of our en­raged enemies, whose furie, though we know well, not to be quite extinguished, yet we did surely think it would not breake forth in haste in any publick and open flame, til some new matter had been furnished, or some probable colour of a new quarrell could have beene alleadged against us.

When we have scattered that cloud of calumnies,We have commit­ted nothing that can bee pretended with any goodly colour for the breach of the late pac [...]fication. which by their tongues and pens they had spread a­broad of our rebellion, & many other odious crimes, when by our frequent supplications, informations, re­monstrances, declarations, and other writs, wee have cleared aboundantly the justice of our cause, the inno­cencie of our proceedings to all the ingenuous minde of the Yle, and to so many of our neighbour nations, as have beene desirous to cognosce of our af­faires, when our gracious and just Prince, in the very heat of his wrath, raised alone by their mis-informa­tions, even while armes were in his hand, hath beene [Page] moved with the unanimous consent of all his English Counsell of all his Commanders, and whole armie, to acknowledge us good and loyall Subjects; And after a full hearing of our cause in his Campe, to professe his satisfaction, to pronounce us free of those crimes which before were falsely blazed of us, to send us all home in peace, with the tokens of his favour, with the heartie embracement of [...]hat armie, which came against us for our ruine: When we in a generall As­sembly of our Church, with the knowledge and full consent of his Majesties high Commissioner & whole Counsell have justified our opposition to the innova­tion of our Religion and Lawes by the Prela [...]es, our excommunication of them therefore, the renewing of our Covenant, and all the rest of our Ecclesiast [...]call proceedings, when our States in Parliament were going on in a sweet harmonie, to confirme the weak­nesses, & set right the disorders of our Estate, & that no farther then clear equitie, reason, law, yea the very words of the pacificatorie Edict did permit, whē our whole people were minding nothing but quietnesse, having cast their neckes under the feet of our recon­ciled king, put all their Castles & Canons in his hand, without any securitie, but the royall Word, and re­ceived heartily all those fugitives, who had taken armes in the Prelates cause against their Countrie, ha­ving no other minde but to sit down with joy, & g [...]e about our own long neglected businesse; praising God and blessing the King. The martiall mindes among us, panting for languor to be imployed over sea, for the honour of the Crowne; in spending their bloud against the insolent enemies of his Majesties house: While these are our only thoughts; It was more then [Page] marveilous to us, that first the dumbe and obscure whisperings, and at once the loud blasts, the open threats of a new more terrible and cruell warre then before should come to our eares, that our Castles should be filled with strāgers, be provided with extra ordinarie victuals and munition, as against a present assault, or long siege: Many of our Nobles tempted to leave our cause; numbers of assayes made to breake the unitie of all our Estates; and at last our Parliament commanded to arise, the Commissioners thereof, af­ter a long and wearisome journey to Court, for the clearing of some surmised mistakes about moods and formes of proceedings, refused presence; a Parliament in England indicted (as the rumour goeth) to per­swade that Nation, our dearest neighbours, with whom our cause is common, to imploy their meanes and armes against us, that so our old nationall and immortall warres may be renewed to make sport to Prelates, & a bridge for the Spainyard or French to come over Sea, and sit downe masters of the whole Yle, when both Nations by mutuall wounds are dis­abled for defence against the force of an enemie, so potent as either France or Spaine are this day of them selves without the assistance which too like shall bee made them by the Papists of the Yle, and many more, who will not faile to joyne for their owne ends with any apparent victory.

Wee admire how it is possible that intestine armes without any necessity should be takē up at this season,Compassion hope, and all reason call now for peace at home, that at last we may gett some order of our ene­mies abroad. when all the Forces the whole Yle can spare, are most earnestly called for, by the tears of his Ma. only sister, by the bloud & long desolation of her most miserable Subjects, by the captivitie and banishment of all her hopefull Children, Prince Charles, lying dayly under [Page] the hazard of the French hang man at Paris, & Prince Robert of the Austrian at Vienne, the rest of that royall bloud, lying so many yeares with their Mother, banished in a strange Countrie: Pietie would com­mand us to put up all our homeward quarrels, though they were both great and manie, let be to forge any, where none reall can be found; Yea, hope would al­lure us to try now, if ever, our Armes on those spite­full Nations, the hereditary enemies of our Religion and of our Yle, when God hath made them contemp­tible by the cleare successe hee giveth dayly to every one that riseth against them: Banier with a wing of the Swed [...]sh Armie, dwelling in spite of the Emperour all this yeare in the heart of his Countries, a part of Weymers forces with a litle help frō France triumph­ing on the Rhene, for all that Baviere, Culen, the Em­perour, or Spainiard can doe against them: That very great and strong Armado all utterly crushed in our eyes by the Hollanders alone, without the assistance of any. The very French, not the best sea men, having lately beaten oftener then once the Spanish navies in the Mediterrian. Shall we alone sit still for ever? shal we send alwayes nought but base contemptible & de­rided Supplications to these intractable Princes? shall we feed our selves still with their scornfull promises, which so oft wee have found to our great disgrace most false? yea, rather then to beate them, by that a­boundance of power which we have, if God will give us an heart to imploy it, rather then to pull downe those tyrants, who have shed rivers of Protestants bloud, who hath lōg tred on the persons of our nearest friends, and in them, on our honour; Is it now meet we should choose to goe kill one another alone for the [Page] bearing up of Prelates tailes, and that of Prelates as unworthie of respect as any that ever wore a Mytre. Let our kindred, let our friends, let all the Protestant churches perish, let our own lives & estates run never so evident an hazard, yet the Prelates pride must be borne up, their furious desire of revenge must be sa­tiate; all their Mandamus in these dominions must be execute with greater severitie and rigour then those of their brethren are this day in Italy or Spaine, or those of their grand-father at Rome.

To us surely it is a strange Paradox, that a Parlia­ment of England,The Canterburian faction deserveth not so well of Eng­land that armes in their favour ought to be taken against Scotland. so wise, grave, equitable a Court, as in all bygone times it hath ever proven, should bee thought in danger at any time, let be now to be in­duced by any allurement, by any terrour, to submitt themselves as Varlets and Pages to the execution of the lusts, the furies and outragious counsels of Can­turberrie and his dependars, for they know much bet­ter then we, that the maine greevances both of their Church and State, have no other originall, no other fountaine on earth but those men. Who other but they have keept our most gracous Prince at a di­stance from the Countrie almost ever since he came to the Crowne? For whose cause have Parliaments these many yeares beene hindred to meet, and when they haue met, beene quickly raised, to the unspeak­able grief and prejudice of the whole land, and of all our friends abroad. By whose connivence is it that the idolatrous Chappels of both the Queenes in the most conspicuous places of the Court are so gorgeous and much frequented? Whose tollerance is it that at London three Masse-priests are to bee found for one Minister, that three hundreth of them reside in the [Page] cittie in ordinat, and six thousand at least in the coun­trie. If yee trust the Jesuites Catalogue to Rome? Whence comes their immunitie from the Lawes, who have sett up Cloysters for Monks & Nuns, let bee houses for open Masses in divers cities of the Kings dominions? Why is our correspondence with the Pope no more secret, but our Agents avowedly sent to Rome, & his Holinesse Nuntioes received here in state, and that such ones as in publick writs have lately de­famed with unspeakable reproaches the person and birth of that most sacred Queene Elizabeth. Such actions, or at least long permission of such abomina­tions doe they flow from any other but his Grace, the head & heart of the Cabbine Counsell. Did any other but hee & his creatures, his legs and armes hinder al­waies our effectual alliance with the Sweeds & French, when their armies did most flourish in Germanie for the relief of the oppressed Churches. Why was that poore Prince the king of Boheme to his dying day keept from any considerable help from Britaine? How was these young Princes the other yeare permitted to take the fields with so small forces, that a very meane power of a silly commander beat them both, tooke the one captive, and put the other in his flight to an evident hazard of his life. Who moved that inno­cent Prince after his escape to take so strange a coun­sell as the world now speake off, and when he was en­gadged, who did betray both his purpose and person to the French king, could any without the Cabbine understand the convey of such matters, and within that Cabbine does any come without his Graces per­mission? Is not that man the evident author of all the Scotish broyles? Are not his Letters extant, his [Page] holy hands interlynings of the Scotish service to bee seene, his other writtes also are in our hands, making manifest that the beginning and continuance of that cursed worke hath no spring without his braine.

When the King himselfe after ripe advertisement and all about him both English and Scots had returned in peace, who incontinent did change the face of the Court, and revive that fire, which in the heart of the Prince and all his good Subjects was once closse dead.

That a Parliament of England will not onely let such a man & his complices goe free,Wee offer to in­struct by the writ [...] of our partie their unsupportable crimes. but to serve his humour, will bee content to ingadge their lives and estates for the overthrow & inslaving of us their best neighbours, that over our carkases a path-way may be made for Bishops now, and at once for the Pope and Spaniard, [...]o [...]red on the neck both of their bodies and souls, we can̄ [...]t beleeve. Yet if any such things should be prop [...]unded (for what dare not effronted impu­dence attempt) we would require that sage Senat be­fore they passe any bloudy sentence of war against us, to consider a little the quality of that party for whose cause they take arms, we offer to instruct to the ful sa­tisfaction of the whole world of free & imprejudicat mindes, not by flying reports, not by probable likeli­hoods, not by the sentences of the gravest & most so­lemne judicatories of this land, our two last generall assemblies & late parliam: who at far greater length & with more mature advisement did cognosce of those causes then ever any assembly or parlia: among us since the first foundation of our Church & kingdom did re­solve upon any matter whatsoever; All those means of probation we shall set aside and take us alone to the [Page] mouth of our very adversaries. If by their own testi­monie we make it evident that beside bookes, cere­monies, and Bishops which make the proper & parti­cular quarrel of this nationall Kirk against them, they are guilty of grosse Arminianisme, plaine popery, and of setting up of barbarous tyrannie, which is the com­mon quarrell of the Kirk of England of all the re­formed Kirks, and of all men who delite not to live & dye in the fetters of slavery. If we demonstrate, not so much by their preachings and practises amongst us, as by their maximes, printed with priviledge a­mong your selvs, which to this day, though oft pressed thereto, they have never recanted. If wee shew that yet still they stifly avow all the articles of Arminius, a number of the grossest abominations of popery, spe­cially the authoritie of the Sea of Rome, that they urge conclusiōs that will force you without any reluctance, so much as by a verball protestation, not onely to give way unto any iniquitie whatsoever, either in Kirk or State whereto they can get stollen the pretext of the kings name, but also to lay down your neck under the yoke of the king of Spaine, if once he had any sitting in this Yle, without any further resistance, though in your Church by force that Tyrant should set up the latine Masse in place of the Bible, and in your State, for your Magna-Charta and acts of Parliament, the Lawes of Castile, though in your eyes he should de­stroy the whole race of the royall familie, though the remainder of the Nobilitie and Gentrie in the Land should be sent over by him, some to worke in fetters in his Mines of Peru, others in chayns to row all their dayes in his gallayes in the Mediterrane, for all these or any other imaginable acts of tyrannie that could [Page] escape the wicked head of any mad Nero, of any monstrous Caligula; these men doe openly take upon them to perswade that no kinde of resistance for de­fence can bee made by the whole States of a Land, though sitting in Parliament, with a most harmonious consent, no more then the Jewes might have done against Nabuchadnezar, or the Christians of old a­gainst the Pagane Emperours, or the Greeke Church this day against the grand Signieur in Constantinople, that all our forbeares both English and Scots in their manifold bickerings against the misleaders of their Prince; against the tyrannizing factions of Court, were ever Traitours and Rebels, and ought to have loosed their head and Lands for their presumption to defend their Liberties, against the intollerable insolencies of a pack of runnigate Villanes for their boldnesse, to fasten the tottering Crowne upon the head of their Kings, all such Services of our Antecessours to King and Countrie, were treacherous insurrections.

If for all these their crimes I make speake before you no other witnesses then our owne tongue,Armes needlesse taken in so evill a cause, can not but end in an untime­ous repentance. I trust they shall not remaine in your mindes the least shaddow of any scruple, to beleeve my allegations, nor in your wills the least inclination to joyne with the Counsells of so polluted and self-convicted persons.

And if to men whose open profession in their printed Bookes, let be secret practises leads to so wicked ends, so farre contrarie to the glorie of God, to the honour and safetie of our King, to the well of us all, whether in Soule, Body, Estate, Children, or any thing that is deare to us, yee would lead [Page] your armes against us; we beleeve the Lord of Hosts, the righteous judge would be opposite to you, and make hundreds of your men in so evill a cause flee before ten of ours. Or, if it were the profound and unsearchable pleasure of the God of Armies, to make you for a time a scourge to beate us, for our manifold transgressions; yet when ye had obtained all the Pre­lates intentions, when wee for our others sins were tred under your feete, wee would for all that hope to die with great comfort and courage, as defenders of the truth of God, of the Liberties and Lawes of our Countrie, of the true, good, and honour of the Crown and Royall Familie; All which as we take it, one of the most wicked and unnaturall faction that ever this Isle did breed, are manifestly oppugning; yet certain­ly, we could not but leave in our Testament to you our unjust oppressors the legacie of an untimous re­pentance; for when ye have killed thousands of us, & banished the rest out of the isle, when on the back of our departure, your sweete Fosters the Bishops have brought the Pope upon you and your Children; or when a French & Spanish invasion doth threaten you with a slavish conquesh; Wil ye not then all, & above all our gracious Prince regrate, that Hee hath beene so evill advised, as to have put so many of his brave Subjects to the cruell sword, who were very able and most willing to have done him noble service against these forraine usurpers? Would not at such a time, that is too likely to be at hand, if our Prelates advises now be followed, both his Majestie, and all of you who shall remaine in life, bee most earnest recallers; not onely of your owne Countrie-men, (many thou­sands whereof ye know have lately by Episcopall ty­rannie [Page] beene cast out from their homes, as farre as to the worlds end, among the savadge Americans,) but also the reliques of our ruine from their banishment, with as great diligence as in time of Fergus the se­cond, the inhabitants of this Land did recall our an­cestors, when by the fraud & force of a wicked facti­on they were the most part killed; and the rest sent over sea in banishment.

It were better by much, before the remeedilesse stroke be given, to be well advised, then out of time to sigh, when the millions of lost lives, when the hap­pinesse of our true Religion, when the liberties of both the nations, once throwen away by our owne hands, can not againe be recovered.

To the end therefore that such lamentable incon­veniences may be eshewed,In this nick of time very poore wittes without presumption may venture to speake to Parliaments. and your Honours the more animate to deny your power to those, who now possiblie may crave to have it abused against us, without cause, beside numbers of pressing reasons, wherewith I doubt not every wise man amongst you is come well enough instructed by his owne conside­rations, and which I trust shall be further presented in plentie by these of our Nation, who have ever beene at the head of our affaires, whom God hath still enabled to cleare the justice and necessitie of all our proceedings hitherto, to the mindes of all, save our infatuat adversaries, whom superstition and rage hath blinded. If it might be your Honours pleasure, when all the rest hath ended, I could wish, that even unto me a little audience were given, my zeale to the truth of God, to the peace of this Isle, to the honour of our deare & gracious Soveraigne, imboldneth me to offer even my little myte of information. This [Page] is a period of time, when the obstinate silence of those who are most obliged by their places and guifts to speake, must open the mouth of sundrie, who are not by much so able; verie babes, yea stones must finde a tongue, when Pharisees deny their testimonie to Christ: Dumbe men will gett words when a Father, when a King, let be a whole Kingdome, by the wic­kednesse of a few is putt in extreame perrill of ruine; An Asse will finde language when the devouring Sword of an Angell is drawne against the Master; Nothing more common then the speaches of very Oxen, before any calamity of the Common-wealth; The cl [...]iking of Geese did at a time preserve the Ca­pitoll; Amicla was lost by too much silence; The neglect of the voice of a Damosell, the contempt of Cassandraes warning, the casting of her in bands, for her true but unpleasant Speach, did bring the Troyane Horse within the walls, and with it the quick ruine both of the Cittie and King­dome.

I hope then that the greatnesse of my undertaking may purchase mee a little audience;An offer deser­ving a little au­dience. For I offer to make you all see with your own eyes, and heare with your owne eares the Canterburians to declare by their owne tongues, and write downe under their owne hands their cleare mindes, to bring into our Church Arminianisme, and compleet Poperie, and in our State a slaverie no lesse then Turkish.

If ye finde that I prove my offer, I trust I may bee confident of your wisedomes, that though Cicero him­selfe, & with him Demosthenes as a second, & Orpheus with the enchantments of his tongue and harp, as a third marrow, should come to perswade, yet that [Page] none of you shall ever be moved by all their oratorie, to espouse the quarrels of so unhappie men.

If I faile in my faire undertaking, let me be con­demned of temeritie, and no houre of your leasure be ever againe imployed, in taking notice of any more of my complaints; But till my vanity be found, I wil expect assuredly from your Honours one hearing, if it were but to waken many an able wit, & nimble pen, in that your venerable House of Convocation; Numbers there, if they would speake their know­ledge, could tell other tales then ever I heard in an out-corner of the Isle, far from the secrets of State, and all possibilitie of intelligence, how many affaires in the world doe goe.

It is one of the wonders of the world, how many of the English DivinesThe silence of the English Divines is prodigious. can at this time be so dumbe, who could well, if they pleased, paint out before your eyes with a Sun-beame all the crimes I speake off in that head & members.

It is strange that the pilloring of some few, that the slitting of Bastwick [...] and Burtowns nose, the burning of Prinnes cheeke, the cutting of Lightouns eares, the scourging of Lilburne through the cittie, the close keeping of Lincolne, and the murthering of others by famine, cold, vermine, stinke, and other miseries in the caves and vaults of the Bishops houses of inquisition, should binde up the mouths of all the rest of the Learned. England wont not in the dayes of hottest persecution, in the very Marian times, to bee so scant of faithfull witnesses to the truth of Christ, wee can not now conjecture what is become of that Zeale to the true Religion, which wee are perswaded lyes in the heart of [Page] many thousands in that gracious kirk; we trust indeed that this long lurking, and too too long silence of the Saints there, shall breake out at once in some hun­dreths of trumpets and lampes, shining and shouting, to the joy of all reformed Churches, against the camp of these enemies to God, and the King; that quickly it may be so, behold I here first upon all hazards doe breake my pitcher, doe hold out my Lampe, and blow my trumpet before the Commissioners of the whole Kingdom, offering to convince that prevalent faction by their owne mouth, of Arminianisme, Poperie, and Tyrannie.

THE MAINE SCOPE And Delineation of the subsequent TREATISE.

CHAP. I.

OUR AdversariesOur Adversaries decline to answer our greatest chal­lenge. are very unwil­ling to suffer to appeare, that there is any further debait betwixt them and us, but what is proper unto our Church, and doe arise from the Service-Book, Canons, and Episco­pacie, which they have pressed up­on us with violence, against all order Ecclesiasticall and Civill; In the meane, least they become the sa­crifices of the publick hatred of others in a subtile [Page 2] Sophisticatiō, they labour to hide the notable wrongs and effronts which they have done openly to the Re­formed Religion, to the Churches of England, and all the Reformed Churches in the main and most mate­riall questions debated against the Papists ever since the Reformation; for such as professe themselves our enemies, and are most busie to stirre up our gracious Prince to armes against us, doe wilfully dissemble their knowledge of any other controversie betweene them and us, but that which properly concerneth us, and rubbeth not upon any other Church.

In this their doing the Judicious may perceive their manifold deceit, whereby they would delude the simple, and many wittie worldlings doe deceive themselves.

First, they would have the world to thinke that we obstinately refuse to obey the Magistrate, in the point of things indifferent: And therefore unnecessarily, and in a foolish precisenesse draw upon our selves the wrath of the King.

Secondly, when in our late Assemblies the order of our Church is made knowne, and the seeds of su­perstition, heresie, idolatrie, and antichristian tyrannie are discovered in the Service-Booke and Canons, they wipe their mouth, they say: No such thing is meant; and that we may upon the like occasion blame the Service-Booke of England.

Thirdly, when by the occasion of the for­mer quarrellings, their palpable Poperie and Arminianisme are set before their eyes, and their perverse intentions, desires, and endeavours of the change of Religon and Lawes, are upon o­ther grounds then upon the Service-Booke and Ca­nons [Page 3] objected against them: they stopp their eares, or at last shut their mouthes, and answer nothing. This Challenge they still decline and misken; they will not let it be heard, let be to answer to it; And for to make out their tergiversation, and to dash away utterly this our processe, they have beene long ply­ing their great engine; and at last have wrought their yond most myne to that perfection, that it is now rea­die to spring under our wals. By their flattering ca­lumnies they have drawn the Prince againe to arms, for the overthrow of us their challengers, and for the affrighting by the terrour of armies on foot of all others elsewhere, from commencing any such action against them.

As for us,The scope of the Treatise. truely it were the greatest happinesse wee doe wish for out of Heaven, to live peaceably in all submission and obedience under the wings of our gracious Soveraigne, and it is to us a bitternesse as gall, as wormwood, as death to be necessitated to any contest, to any contradictorie tearmes, let bee an armed defence, against any whom he is pleased to defend; Yea certainly it were the great joy of our heart, to receive these very men, our mortall ene­mies, into the armes of our affection, upon any pro­bable signes in them, of their sincere griefe, for the hudge wrongs they have intended, and done to their Mother-Church and Countrie. But when this fe­licitie is denyed, and nothing in them, doeth yet appeare but induration, and a malicious obstinacie, going on madly through a desperate desire of re­venge, to move a very sweete Prince for their cause to shed his owne blood, to rent his owne bowels, to [Page 4] cut off his owne members, what shall wee doe but complaine to GOD, and offer to the worlds eyes the true cause of our sufferings, the true grounds of this Episcopall warre, or rather not Episcopall, but Canterburian broyle: for we judge sundrie Bishops in the yle to be very free of these mischiefes, and beleeve that divers of them would gladly demon­strate their innocencie, if so bee my Lord of Canter­burie and his dependants, were in any way to receive from the Kings justice some part of their deser­vings.

Howsoever, that wee may give a testimonie to the truth of God, which wee are like at once to seale with our blood, wee will offer to the view of all Reformed Churches, and above the rest to our acer [...]st and sibbest sister of England, as it were in a table, divers of these errours, which our partie first by craft and subtilitie, but now by extreame vio­lence of fire and Sword, are labouring to bring upon us; to the end that our deare Brethren, understand­ing our sufferings in the defence of such a cause, may bee the more willing at this time to contribute for our assistance from God, the helpe of their earnest Prayers, and for ever hereafter to condole with the more hearty compassion, any misery which possibly may befall us, in such a quarrell.

All our plea is but one cleare syl­logisme.Albeit truely our hopes are yet greater then our feares, if we could become so happie as once to get our plea but entered before our Prince; for we can hardlie conceave what in reason should hinder our full assurance of a favorable decision from that Sacred mouth, whose naturall equitie the World [Page 5] knowes in all causes whereof hee is impartially in­formed, since our whole action is [...] u [...]ht but one formall argument, whereof the M [...]j r is [...]he verdict of our judge, the Minor shalbe the open and [...]w [...]d Testimonie of our partie, need we feare th [...] either our judge or partie will bee so irrationall as to v [...]n­ture upon the denyall of a conclusion, whereof both the premisses is their owne open profession.

Our Major is this:The Major there­of. VVho ever in the Kings Do­minions spreads abroad Poperie, or any Doctrine opposite to the Religion, and Lawes of the Land, now established, ought not to bee countenanced, but severely punished by the King. This Major the King hath made certaine t [...] us in his frequent most solemne asseverations, not onely at his coronation both here and in England, in his proclamations both here and there,Neither shall we ever give way to the authorizing of any t [...]ng, wher­by any innovation many steal or creep into the Church but shall preserve that unitie of doctrine & disc [...]pline, established [...]n Q. Eliza­beths reign, wherby the Church of England have stood & flou [...] s [...]ed since. Proclam. dissolving the Parl of England, 1628. and therefore o [...]ce for all we have thought fit to declare, and hereby to assure all our good people, that we neit [...]er were, are, nor ever (by the grace of God) shall bee slained with popish superstition, but by the con [...]tarie, are resolved to maintain the true Protestant Christian religion, already professed within this our ancient King­dom. We neither intend innovation in religion or lawes, proclam. [...]une 8. 1638. to free al our good subjects of t [...]e least su [...]pition of any intent on in us, to in­novate any thing, either in religion or lawes, and to sati fie not onely their desires, but even their doubts. We have discharged, &c. proclam: Septemb 22. 1638. and to give all his Maj. people full assurance, that he never intended to admit any al [...]eration or change in the true religō, pofessed wi [...]in this king­dome, and that they may be truely and fully satisfied of the realitie of his in­tentions, and integritie of the same, his Maj. hath been pleased to require & command all his good Subjects, to subscribe the confession of Faith, former­ly signed by his dear Father, in anno 1580. and it is his Maj will, that this be insert and registrat in the books of Assembly, as a testimony to p [...]steritie, not only of the sinceritie of his intentions to the said true religion, but also of his resolution to maintaine and defend the same, and his Subjects in the pro [...]es­sion thereof, proclam. Decemb. 18. 1638. but also in his late large declaration, oftimes giving out his resolution to live [Page 6] and die in the reformed protestant religion, opposite to all Poperie; to maintaine his established lawes; and in nothing to permitt the enervating of them: Yea, this resolution of the king is so peremptor, & pub­lickly avowed, th [...]t Canterburie himselfe dare not but applaud thereto;If any Pre­late would labour to bring in the su­perstitions of the Church of Rome, I doe not onely leave him to Gods judgement, but if his irreligious fals­hood can bee dis­covered, also to shame and severe punishment from the State, and in a­ny just way, no mās hands should bee sooner against him then mine. in his Starre chamber speech, who can seeme more foreward then he for the great equi­tie, to punish condignlie all who would but mind to bring in any Poperie in this Isle, or assay to make any innovation in Religion or Lawes.

Wee beleeve indeed that my Lord Canterburie doth but juggle with the world in his fair ambiguous generalities, being content to invegh as much against poperie and innovation as we could wish, upon hopes ever when it comes to any particular of the grossest poperie we can name, by his subtile distinctions and disputations to slide out of our hands: But wee are perswaded what ever may be the jugling of sophisti­cating Bishops, yet the magnanimous ingenuitie, the royall integritie of our gracious Soveraigne is not compatible with such fraudulent equivocations, as to proclaime his detestation of poperie in generals, and not thereby to give us a full assurance of his abhor­ring every particular, which all the orthodox Preach­ers of this Isle since the reformation by Queene Eli­zabeth and King Iames allowance hath ever con­demned as popish errours. Our Major then wee trust may be past as unquestionable.

Wee subjoyne our Minor;The Minor. But so it is that Can­terburie and his dependars, men raised, and yet main­tained by him, have openly in their printed bookes, without any recantation or punishment to this day spread abroad in all the Kings Dominions, doctrines, [Page 7] opposite to our Religion and Lawes, especially the most points of the grossest poperie. In reason all our bickering ought to be here alone. This Minor I offer to instruct, and that by no other middes then the testimonie of their owne pens. If J doe so to the full satisfaction of all, who know what are the particular heads of the reformed Religion, and what the Tenets of Poperie [...]pposite thereto; what are the Lawes standing in all the thr [...]e Dominions, and what the contrarie maximes of the Turkish Empire, wherewith Matchivelists this day every where are labouring to poyson the eares of all Christian Prin­ces, for enervating the Lawes and Liberties of their Kingdomes: I hope that reason and justice which stand night and day attending on either side of King Charles Throne, will not faile to perswade the chearfull embracement of the conclusion,The conclusion. which followes by a cleare and naturall necessitie, from the forenamed premisses, to witt, that Canterburie and his dependars in all the three Dominions ought not to be countenanced by the King, but severally pu­nished: Let be that for their pastime a bloodie & hazardous warre, should be raised in so unseasonable a time, for the undoing of that countrie, and church, which God hath honoured with the birth, and bap­tisme, both of his Majesties owne person, and of his renowned Father, and to the which both of them as all their hundreth and six glorious Predecessours, are endebted before God and the VVorld, all their Prerogatives both of nature, grace and estate, so much as any Princes were ever to their mother church, & native Countrie.

CHAP. II. The Canterburians avovved Arminianisme.

ARminianisme how great and dangerous an inn [...] ­ [...]ation of the Reformed Religion it is,Arminianisme [...] great and dange­rous innovation o [...] Religion. wee m y learne by the late experiences of our neigh [...]ours, when that weed began to spread among [...]. The States of Holland have declared in many p [...]ssages of their Dordracen Synod, that they found it a more readie meane to overthrow both their Church and State, then all the engines, Policies, armes which the Pope, and Spaniard, in any bygan time had used [...] ­gainst them.

The Church of France the other yeare, when Ami­r [...]t, and Testard, and some few of their Divines, were but surmised to incline a little towards some small twigs of one article of Arminius, was so affrighted, that they rested not till in a generall assembly at Pa­ris, they did runne together for the extinguishing of the first sparkes, as it were of a common fire.

When Barrow in Cambridge began to run a little on this rock, how careful was my Lord of Canterburie and the Bishops than in the meeting at Lambeth, for the crushing of that Cokatrice in the egge; when that Serpent againe in the same place began, to sett up the nose in the writtes of Thomson, how carefull were the Bishops then by the hand of their brother of Salisburie Doctor Abbots to cutt off the head of that monster.

But what speake wee of the Churches Reformed? The very Synagogue of Rome, whose conscience [Page 9] is enlarged as the Hell to swallow downe the vile [...] morsels of the most lewd errours that Antichrist can present, yet did they stick much at this bone, when the Iesuite Molina began to draw out these dreggs of Pelagianisme from the long neglected pitts of some obscure Schoolemen, what clamours were raised there, not onely by Alvarez and his followers but ulso by numbers of Prelates and some great Princes, till the credit of the Iesuites in the Court of Rome, and the wisedome of the Consistorie prognosticating a new Rent in their Church, did procure from the Pope a peremptorie injunction of silence to both sides, on all highest paines: hoping if the Dominicans mouthes were once stopped, that the Iesuites by their familiar arts, and silent Policies, would at last worke out their intended point, which indeed since that time, they have well neare by fully gained.

But to King Charles eye no evidence useth to bee so demonstrative as that which commeth from the learned hand of his blessed Father. VVould wee know how gracious a Plant Arminianisme and the dressers of it will prove in England, or any where else, advise with King Iames, King Iames judgement of Ar­minianisme. who after full triall and long consultation about this emergent, with the Divines of his Court, especially the late arch­bishop Abbots gave out at last his Decreet in print, and that in Latine, not onely for a present declaration to the States of Holland of his minde against Vorstius, and a cleare Confession of his Faith in those points to the Christian VVorld, but above all to remaine a perpetuall Register for his heirs and [Page 10] successours, of his faithfull advise, if after his death their Kingdomes should be ever in danger to bee pestered with that wicked seed.

In that treatise, his Majestie doth firstDeclarat. contr. Vorst. pag. 15. Non erubescit ita crasse mentiri, ut affirmet haereses libro suo expressas á professione Eccle­siae Anglicanae non dissentire. avow all them to be grosse lyers, who doe not blush to af­firme that any of the Arminian articles, even that most plausable one of the Saints apostasie are conso­nant with the Doctrine or articles of the Church of England.Ibid. pag. 12. Gnaviter impu­dens & ferreioris. Hee stileth Bertius for such a slander, a very impudent and brazen faced man. 2.Ibid. pag. 18 Detestandae haereses novitor, exortae maturè exstinguē ­dae, & ad usque in­feros unde mana­runt relegandae. He pronounceth these Doctrines of Arminius to be here­sies lately revived and damnable to the hells, from whence they come. 3.Ibid. pag 12. Sola inscriptio cla­mat igni damnan­dum. That Bertius for the very title of his booke, The Saints apostacie, deserved burning. 4.Ibid. pag. 14. Inimicus Deo Ar­minius▪ cujus disci­puli pestes, arro­gantes, haeritici, [...] sectarij. That A [...]minius and his Schollers were to be reputed pests, enemies to God, proud, schismaticall, hereticall, Atheists. 5.Ibid. pag. 15. A Deo maledictio­nem, apud. Eccle­sias omnes infami­am, in Republicam perpetuam, distrac­tionem. The great in­crease of Armini­ans in Scotland by Canterburies meanes. Hee af­firmeth that their tolleration would not faile to bring upon the heads of their toleraters let be favou­rers, Gods malediction, an evill report, slander and infamie with all the Churches abroad, and certaine Schisme, division and tumults at home.

Shall wee then make any doubt of King Charles full contentment that we avow Arminianisme to bee such a dangerous innovation in our Religion as the Reformed Churches abroad, and his Father at home hath taught us to count it where ever it is found.

Notwithstanding this bitter roote amongst us was setting up the head of late very boldly in all the prime pl [...]ces of our Kingdome; wee have had since the reformation many bickerings about the Church [Page 11] government and Ceremonies, but in matters of Doctrine never any controversie was knowne, till some yeares agoe a favourable aire from the mouth of Doctor Laud at Court began to blow upon these unhappie seeds of Arminius. No sooner was those south-winds sensible in our climate, but at once in S. Andrews, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, and about Glasgow that weed began to spring amaine.

Doctour Wederburne in the new Colledge of S. An­drews did stuffe his dictates to the younge Students in Divinitie with these errours. This man upon the feares of our Churches censure, having fled the Countrie, was very tenderly embraced by his Grace at Court, and well rewarded with a faire Benefice in England for his labours; But to the end his talents should not lye hid, although a man very unmeete either for preaching or government, hee was at once sent downe to us, without knowledge of our Kirk, by Canterburies onely favour to be Bishop of Dumblane, for this purpose mainly that in the Royall Chappell, whereof that Bishop is alwayes Dean, hee might in despite of all our Presbyteries weive out the webbe hee had begun in S. Andrews. So at once there was erected a society of twentie foure Royall Chap­plains, who were thought fittest of the whole Cleargie of the Kingdome, to be allured with hopes of favour from Court, to preach to the State, the Deans Armi­minian tenets.

In Edinburgh M. Sydserfe did partly play his part, and for the reward of his boldnesse, had cast in his lap in a trace the Deanrie of Edinburgh, the Bishoprick of Brechan, and last of Galloway, with full hopes in a short time of an Archbishops cloake.

In the North, Doctour Forbes the onely Father of the most of those who fell away from the doctrine of our Church, came to good speed in his evill labours and for his paines was honoured with the first seate in the new erected chayre of our principall citty.

Others about Glasgow made their preaching of the Arminian errours the pathway to their assured advancement.

In our generall Assembly we found that this cockle was comming up apace in verie manie furrowes of our field; Some of it we were forced, albeit to our great griefe, to draw up & cast over the dike, which at once was received and replanted in England in too good a soyle.

We confesse that it happened not much beside our expectation, that our Arminians The Kings names stolen by Canter­burie to the defēce of Arminians. after the censure of our Church should at Court have beene to graci­ously received and sheltered in the sanctuarie of his Grace at Lambeth; But this indeed did and doth astonish us all, that any should have beene so bold as to have stolen King Charles name to a printed Decla­ration, wherein not onely our generall Assembly is condemned for using any censure at all against any for the crime of Arminianisme; Large declar. pag. 74. According to their weake and poore power they did determine cō ­troversies concer­ning predestinati­on, universal grace irresistibilitie of grace, concurrance in grace, and other such like intricate points, that some mē would be loath to live so long as they could make them understand them. But also Armi­nius articles are all utterly slighted and pronounced to be of so obscure and intricate a nature, that both our Assembly was to peart to make any determina­tion about them, and that many of our number were altogether unable by any teaching ever to winne so much as to the understanding of the very questions:Some Mini­nisters were de­depr [...]ved for Ar­mini [...]isme, a course never heard off [...]n any p [...]ace where any rule of justice was observed, that a Min ster should bee deprived for holding any Te­net, which is not against t [...]e doc­tri e of that Church wherin he liveth, and that be­fore it be prohibi­ted & condemned by that Church. Now there is no­thing in the con­fession of that Church against these Tenets. Yea, those articles are avowed to be consonant, and in nothing to bee opposite to the Confession of our Church, and are freely absolved of all Poperie.

Pag. 303. They could no answer when it was told them th se Tenets, could not b [...]e counted Popish, concerning which, or the chiefe of which as learned Papists as any in the world, the Do­minicans & Iesuites did differ as much as th [...] Pro [...]estants, and tha [...] those which doe adhere to the Augustin confession, did hold hat side of [...]hose Te­nets. w [...]ich the Arminians did hold, and yet they were very far rom beeing Papists, beeing the first Pro [...]estants, and there ore it was a [...]ainst all sen [...]e [...]o condemne that for P perie wh c [...] was held by many Pro [...]ella [...]ts Churches, and reject by many learned Papists. Because indeed (for this is the onely reason) some learned Papists finde divers of Arminius points to be so absurd, that their stomackes cannot away with them, and some of the Lutherian divines agree with the Arminians in certaine parcels of some of their articles. They must be strangers in these que­stions, who are ignorant in how many things the Do­minicans and all Papists agree with Arminius, and in how many the Lutherans disagree from him. How­ever wee were and are amazed to see Canterburie so malapeart, as to proclame in the Kings name, beside many other strange things, the articles of Arminius, to bee so farre above the capacitie of our generall Assembly, that it deserves a Royall reproofe for min­ting to determine any thing in them, and that they are no wayes contrary to the doctrine of our Church, neither any wayes Popish, and that for a reason, which will exeeme from the note of Poperie every errour which is so grosly absurd, that some learned Papists are forced to contradict it, or some grosse Lutheran can gett his throat extended to swallow it downe.

This boldnesse can not in any reason bee im­puted to our gracious Soveraigne; For how is it possible that hee upon any tollerable information, [Page 14] should ever have suffered himselfe to be induced to write or speake in such a straine of these things which so lately by his learned Father was declared in print, and that in Latine to be no lesse then here­sies, worthie of burning; yea, damnable to the very infernall pitt; whence as he sayes, they did first come up. Neither is it like that these Sentences come from the heart of D. Balcanquell the penman of them; For hee was a member of Do [...]t Synod, and brought up in the Church of Scotland, the man is not unseene in the Popish Tenets; How is it p [...]ssible that his conscience should absolve the Arminian errours of all Poperie, and all contrarietie to the Scotish confession.

May any be so uncharitable, as to suspect his late promotion in Durhame, hath altered so soone his minde? Sure not long since, both in England and Scotland, he did desire to be esteemed by his friends, one of those whom Canterburie did maligne, and hold downe for his certaine and knowne resolutions, and reputed abilitie to oppose his Graces Arminian, and Popish innovations.

His Majestie being certainly cleare of this impu­tation, and readily also Balcanquell, the amanuense, on whom can the fault lye but Canterburie, the di­rectors back? For the world knowes, that on his shoulders for common alone, the King doth devolve the trust of all Bookish and Ecclesiasticall affaires that concernes him, that at his commandement hee hath written in the Kings name that part at the least of the declination, which patronizeth the Arminians persons and cause, we doe not conjecture, but demon­strate [Page 15] by the constant & avowed course of his Graces carriage, in advancing Arminianisme at all occasions, in all the Kings Dominions.

That this may appeare, consider his practises, not so much among us, as in the Irish Church,The Irish Church infected with Ar­minianisme by Canterburie. where yet his hand is very nimble, to set these ungratious plants, and to nippe off all the overspreading branches of any tree that may overtop them; For who else in a moment, hath advanced D. Bramble, not onely to the Sea of Derrie, but to be the Kings Vicar Gene­rall?

Who sent D. Chappell first to the Universitie of Dubline, and then to his Episcopall Chaire?

Who holds downe the head of that Orthodox P [...]i­mat, and of all who have any zeale there to the truth of God?

Who caused not onely refuse the confirmation of these Antiarminian articles of Ireland, in the last Parliament, but threatned also to burne them by the hand of the hang-man? Whose invention are these privie articles, which his Creature my Lord of Derry presents to diverse who take Orders from his holy hands?

We will passe these and such other effects, which the remote rayes of his Graces countenance doe pro­duce in so great a distance; Onely behold! How great an increase that unhappie plant hath made there in England, where his eye is neerer to view, and his hand to water it.The Canterburi­ans in England teach the first and second article of Arminianisme.

In the 25. yeare, at the very instant of King James death, D. Montagu, with D. Whites appro­bation, did put to the presse all the articles of Ar­minius [Page 16] in the same fearmes, with the same arguments and most injurious calumniations of the Orthodox doctrine, as Spalato and the Remonstrants had done a little before, but with this difference, that where those had dipped their pennes in inke, D. Montagu doth write with venegar & gall, in every other line, cast­ing out the venome of his bitter Spirit, on all that cometh in his way, except they be fowles of his own feather; for oft when he speakes of Iesuites, Cardi­nals, Popes, hee annoynts his lips with the sweetest ho­ney, and perfumes his breath with the most cordiall tablets. If any doe doubt of his full Arminianisme, let them cast up his Appeale, and see it clearly,Appeal, p. 60. I professe my through & sincere dissent from the faction of novelli­zing Puritans, but in no point more thē in the doctrine of desperate pre­destination. Ibid. p. 70. I see no rea­son why any of the divines of our Church present at the Synod of Dort, should take any offence at my dis­senting, who had no authoritie that J know of to con­clude me, more then I doe at them, for d [...]ffering from me in their judgment, quisque abundet in suo sensu. Ibid. pag. 71. I am sure the Church of England never so deter­mined in her doctrine. Ibid. pag. 72, at the conference of Hamptoun-court, before his Majestie, by D. Bancroft, that doctrine of irrespective predestinati­on was stiled against the articles of Lambeth, then urged by the Pur [...]tans, a desperate doctrine, without reproof or taxation of any. Ibid. pag. 50, your absolute, necessarie, determined, irresistible, irrespective decree of God, to call, save, and glorifie S. Peter, for instance infalliblie, without any considera­tion had off, or regard unto his faith, obedience, repentance: J say it truely, it is the fancie of some particular men. in the first and second Article of Election and Redemp­tion, he avoweth his aversnesse from the Doctrine of Lambeth and Dort, which teacheth, that God from eternitie did elect us to grace & salvation, not for any consideration of our faith, workes, or any thing in us as causes, respects, or conditions, antecedent to that decree, but onely of his meere mercy; And that from this Election all our faith, workes, and perse­verance doe flow as effects. Hee calleth this the private fansie of the Divines of Dort, opposite to the Doctrine of the Church of England; For this asser­tion he slandereth the Synod of L [...]mbeth, as teachers [Page 17] of desperate doctrine, and would father this foule imputation, but very falsly on the Conference at Hamptoun Court.

Ibid. pag. 61, 64. I shall as I can briefly set downe what I conceive of this of Gods decree of predesti­nation, se [...]ting by all execution of purpose: this farre we have gone, and no word yet of predestination, for how could it be in a pa­ritie? T [...]ere must [...]e first conceived a disproportion, before there can be con­ceived an Election or dereliction: God had compassion of men in the masse of perdition, upon singulos generum, & genera singulorum, and out of his love, motu mero, no o [...]herwise stretched out to them deliverance, in a Media­tor the Man Iesus Christ, and drew them out that tooke hold of mercie, leave­ing them there that would none of him. Againe he avoweth positively, that faith goeth before Election, and that to all the lost race of Adam alike, Gods mercie in Christ is propounded till the parties free-will, by beleeving or mis-beleeving, make the disproportion antecedent to any divine either election, or reprobation.

One of the reasons why King Iames stiled Armi­nius disciples A [...]heists,Why King Iames stiled them A­theists. was, because their first article of condi [...]ionall Election did draw them by an inevi­table necessitie to the maintenance of Vorstian impie­ty; For make me once Gods eternall decree posterior and dependant from faith, repentance, perseverance, and such works, which they make flow from the free-will of changeable men; that decree of God will bee changeable, it will be a separable accident in him; God will be a composed substance of subject, & true accidents, no more an absolute simple essence, and so no more God. Vorstius ingenuitie in professing this composition is not misliked by the most learned of the Belgick Arminians, who use not as many of the En­glish, to deny the clear consequēces of their doctrine, if they be necessary, though never so absurd. However in this very place Montagu maintaines very Vorstian Atheisme, as expresly as any can doe, making the di­vine [Page 18] essence to be finite, his omnipresence not to bee in substance, but in providence,Appeale p. 49. the Stoicks among others held that paradox of old, Deum ire per omne terras tractusmaris, coelumque profun­dum. They meant it subst [...]ntially, and so impiously. Chri­stians doe hold it too, but disposively in his providence. and so making God to be no G [...]d. This, though long agoe by learned Featlie, objected in print to Montagu, lyes still upon him without any clearing. Certainly our Ar­minians in Scotland were begun both in word and writt to undertake the dispute; for all that Vorstius had printed; I speake what I know, and have felt oft to my great paines.

Arminianisme is a chaine, any one linck wherof, but specially the first will draw all the rest, yet see the other also expressed by Montagu. In the articles of grace and freewill,They teach the third and fourth article. not onelie he goes cleare with the Arminians, teaching that mans will hath ever a facul­tie to resist, and oftimes according to the Doctrine of the Church of England, actually doth resist, reject, frustrate, and overcoms the most powerfull acts of the spirit and grace of God, even those which are em­ployed about regeneration, sanctification, justificati­on, perseverance.Appeal. p. 89. S. Steven in termi­nis hath the very word [...], you resist, nay, fall crosse with the ho­ly Ghost, not suffe­ring him to worke grace in you. If the Counsell meaned it de gratia exci­tante, praeveniente operante; I think no man will deny it de gratia adiuvante, subsequente, cooperante; there is without question in the naturall will of a re­generate man so much carnal concupiscence, as may make him resist and re­bell against the Law of the Spirit. And if a man justified may fall away from grace, which is the doctrine of the Church of England, then without question your selves being judges, he may resist the grace of God offered. Not onely doeth he thus farre proceed, but also he avowes, that all the difference which is betwixt the Church of England & Rome, in this head of freewill, to be in nothing materiall, (a) & reallie long agoe to be ended and agreed amongst the most judicious and sober of both the sides.

Ibid. p. 95. Thus having with as great diligence as I could examined this question inter partes of free-will, I doe ingenuously confesse, that I can not finde any such materiall difference betweene the Pontificians, at least of better tem­per, and our Church.

For the fifthAlso the fifth. of perseverance, he is as grosse as any other Remonstrant or Molinean Iesuite, professing, that no man in this life can have more assurance not to fall away both totally and finally from all the grace he gets, then the divelsAntigag. p. 161. Man is not likely in the State of grace to be of an higher alloy then angels were in the state of glory, then Adam was in the state of innocencie. Now if Adam in paradise, and Lucifer in heaven did fall and losse their originall estate, the one totally, & the other eternally, what greater assurāce hath any man in the state of proficiencie, not of consumatiō had once in heaven, and Adam once in paradise.

Behold the Arminian ensigne fairly now displayed in England by the the hands of Montagu and White, under the conduct of D. Laud, Bishop of S. Davids, even then the President and chiefe of Ecclesiasticall affaires, of the Duke of Buckinghames secret Counsel. At the first sight of this black banner, a number of brave Champions got to their armes; pulpits over all England rang, presses swat against the boldnesse of that, but small hand full then of courtizing Divines. Their craftie leader seeing the spight of opposition, and finding it meet for a little to hold in, and fold up his displayed colours, did by the Duke his Patron perswade the expediency of that pollicie, which the Iesuites had immediately before, for that same very designe moved the Roman consistorie to practise. He obtained a Proclamation, commanding silence to both sides,Silence by procla­mation injoyned to both sides. discharging all preaching, all printing in these controversies, a stricting to the cleare, plaine and very grammaticall sense of the articles of England in these points, without all further deductions. By this means his intentiōs were much promoved, opē avow­ers of Arminianisme were by publicke authority so [Page 20] ex [...]emed from any censure, a reall Libertie was thus proclaimed over all the Land, for any who pleased to embrace Arminianisme without opposi­tion.

Hereby in two or three yeares the infection spread so farre and broad, that the Parliament was forced in the 28. to make the encrease of Arminianisme The Arminians in England advan­ced. their chiefe grievance to his Majestie; But at that time D. Laud was growne greater. He had mounted up from the Bath to London, and to make a shew there in Parliament of his power, in the eye of all the com­plainers, hee raised up Montagu to the Episcopall Chaire of his owne Diocesan, D. Carletoun, who had lately chastised him in print for his Arminian appeal. D. White his other chiftane, that all great spirits might be encouraged to run the wayes which D. Laud pointed out to them, in despight of these Parliamen­tarie Remonstrants, was advanced from Bishoprick to Bishoprick, till death at the step of Elie did inter­rupt the course of his promotion, that to Wren a third violent follower of his Arminian Tenets, way might be made for to climb up the remaining steps of the Ladder of his Honours.

Now to the end that the world may know, that my lord of Canterburie doth nothing blush at the advance­ment of such men, heare what a publicke Testimony of huge worth and deserving, hee caused his Herauld Peter Heylen to proclaime to that Triumvirat, not onely at his owne directions, (for that moderate answer of Heylens is the Iusto volumine, which his G. did promise to the World in his Starre Chamber-speach) but also in name of Authoritie; If Heylen [Page 21] lye not, who sayes: Hee writes that booke at the commandement of the state: There after the cryasse of Canterburies owne extraordinarie praisesA moderate answer, pag. 78. you will be trou­bled to finde Can­terburies equall in our Church, since K. Edwards reformation, whether yee look to his publick or pr [...]vate demea­nours. the renown of his three underleaders, is loudly sounded as of plaine non-suches.Ibid. pag 84. White, Montagu, and Wren, whom you so abuse, are such, who for their endeavours for this Churches honour, fidelitie in their ser­vice to the King, full abilities in learning, have had no equals in this Church, since the Reformation.

All these his Graces favours to his followers,Their opposites disgraced and per­secuted. would have beene the more tolerable if hee would have permitted his orthodox opposites to have had some share in their Princes affection, or at least have lived in peace in their owne places. But behold, all that crosses his way must downe, were they the grea­test Bishops in the Dominions. For who else wrought the late Arch-bishop so farre out of the Kings grace, that he remained some yeares before his death well near confined to his house at Lambeth? Who hath cau­sed to be caged up in the tower that great & learned Bishop of Lincolne? what ever else may bee in the man. What fray makes that worthie Primate Vsher to foretell oft to his friends his expectation, to bee sent over Sea, to dye a pedant teaching boyes for his bread, by the persecution of this faction, whose wayes he avowes to many, doth tend to manifest Arminia­nisme and Poperie. This their resolution to perse­cute with all extremitie, every one who shall mint to print or preach any thing against Arminianisme, they avow it openly, not onely by deeds (for why else was poore Butter cast by Canterburie in the Fleet for [Page 22] printing of B. Davenants letter to B. Hall against some passage of A [...]minianisme at the Authours di­rection as we see it set downe by Huntly in his Bre­viate) but even in open print, for when Burton com­plaines to the King that he was silenced by Canter­burie for expounding of his ordinary text Rom. 8: Whom God had predestinate those he hath called, and applying it to the present Pelagianisme and Poperie of the Arminians, Christopher Dow Chr. Dow. Answer to Burton. Mr. Burton did preach on the highest point of predestination in a controverted way with disputes and clamarous invec­tives against those who dissented frō him in opinion, his questioning & sus­pending for this cause, was nothing contrary to his Majesties declarations. Ibid. pag. 40. Bee it so that the doctrine of election, effectuall vocation, assu­rance o [...] perseverance, are by the Kings declaration suppress [...]d, rather then the peace of the Church should be disturbed, we might truely say of that time when his Majesties declaration was published, that men were uncapable of these doctrines, when men began to chyde, and to count each other Anathe­ma, as it was with our neighbours, it began to be with us, was it not time to enjoyne both sides silence? By this meanes you say, there is no Minister, not one among thousand that dare clearely preach of these most comfortable doctrines, and so soundly confute the Arminian heresie. Blessed be God that there are so few who dare, and I wish those few who dare, had shewed more obedience to his Majestie. approven by Canterburies Chaplane, & P. Helen directed to speake for Canterburie himselfe doth not stand to affirme, that this was a cause well deserving all the sufferings he complained off.

Canterburie & his followers contrary to the proclamati­on, goe on still to print, let be to preach their Te­nets.Could any here but expect of his Graces wisdome and loyaltie, when his sollicitude appeareth to dis­grace and punish without respect of persons all who in contempt, as hee saith, of the Kings proclamation will not desist from the publick oppugning of Armi­nianisme, that on the other hand the preachers & prin­ters for Arminianisme according to that same procla­mation should be put to some order; yet this is so far neglected, that all who are so affected, Cousins, Colin [...]s, [Page 23] Beel in Cambridge, Potter and Iackson in Oxfoord, and many more prime Doctours in both Universities in the cittie, in the Court, and over all the Land, boldly give out their minde to all they meete with, for the advancement of the new way, yea boldnesse in run­ning those pathes hath beene knowne to have beene the high way in all the three Dominions these yeares bygone to certaine promotion in many men who to the worlds eyes had no other singular eminencie of any good parts.

But that his Graces tramping upon the Kings Proclamation may be yet the more evident, behold how he doth dayly dispense both with his owne pen and those also of his friends to write and print for Arminianisme what they please.

White being taxed by Burtoun for his subscription to Montagous appeal, is so far from the least retracta­tion, that the fift article of Apostacie & uncertaintie of salvation, which Burton did single out of all Mon­tagous errours, as most opposite to Christian comfort, he maintaines it in his owne answer to the Dialogue; but as the custome now is under the covert of some Fathers name, at great length with much bitternesse, and casts out without provocation in his Treatise of the Sabboth, the first and second articleP. 82. The be­nefitt of redemp­tion, by the ante­cedent will of Christ is intended to all men living, though all men by reason of their own demerits doe not actually re­ceive the Fruit of it. Voluntas ante­cedens est voluntas primaria & bene­placitum Dei ex eius nativa propen­sione existens, nul­lamque sumans occasionem ex no­bis. Mr. Dow and Schelfoord use the same plainesse. Yea, in the 31. yeare that faction was so malapeart, as to set out the historicall narration, by one M. A. Ileward, wherein all the Articles of Arminius at length, with these false and bitter calumniations of our doctrine; Which are usually chanted and rechanted by the Remonstrants, are not onely sett downe as truths, [Page 24] but also fathered upon the first reformers & Martyrs of England.

That booke when it had beene out a while, was called in, not because the Doctrines were false, not because the storie was forged, as that learned Knight S. Ʋmphrey Lyne by the ocular inspection of the ori­ginall manuscript did since demonstrate, but the only reason of the calling of it backe, as his Grace makes Heylen declare to us, was, the dinne and clamour which Burtown, then one of the Ministers of London, made against it.Moderat an­swer, p. 121. The Historicall narra­tion was called in also for your plea­sure.

Canterburie himselfe is nothing afrayed to lend his own hand to pull downe any thing that seemes crosse to Arminianisme. The certainty of salvation, the assurance of election, is such an eyesore, that to have it away, hee stands not with his owne hand to cutt and mangle the very Lyturgie of the Church, other­wise a sacred peace, and a noli me tangere in England in the smallest points, were they never so much by any censured of errour: Yet if any clause crosse Armi­nianisme or Poperie, his Grace doth not spare without dinne to expurge it, did it stand in the most eminent places thereof in the very morning prayers for the Kings person:

Here there was this clause fixed since the refor­mation (who art the Father of thine Elect and their Seed) this seemed to be a publike profession, that it was not unlawfull for King Charles to avow his cer­tainty and perswasion that God was his Father, and hee his adopted Childe, elect to salvation. His Grace could not endure any longer such a scandalous speach to be [...] uttered, but with his owne hand scrap­peth [Page 25] it out. Beeing challenged for it by Burtoun, and the out-cryes of the people, hee confesseth the Fact; Onely for excuse, bringeth three reasons, of which you may judge:Star-chamber speach, p. 28 It was put out at the Ks. direction, in my predecessours time when the king had no children. First hee saith, It was done in his predecessours time; Doth not this make his presumption the more intollerable, that any infe­riour Bishopp, living at the very lugge of the Arch­bishop, should mint to expurge the Lyturgie. Se­condly, Hee pretends the Kings command for his doing.

Doth not this encrease his guiltinesse, that he and his followers are become so wicked and irrespective, as to make it an ordinare pranke, to cast their owne misdeeds upon the broad back of the Prince. Dare hee say, that the King commanded any such thing motu proprio? Did hee command that expunction without any information, without any mans advise? Did any King of England ever assay to expurge the publike Bookes of the Church, without the advice of his Cleargie? Did ever King Charles medle in any Church matters of farre lesse importance, without D. Lauds counsell?

The third excuse: That the King then had no Seed. How is this pertinent? May not a childlesse man say in his prayers, that God is the Father of the Elect, and of their Seed, though himselfe as yet have no Seed? But the true cause of his anger against this passage of the Leiturgie, seemeth to have beene none other then this Arminian conclusiō; that all faith of election in particular, of personall adoption or sal­vation, is nought but presumption:

That this is his Graces faith, may appeare by his Chaplans hand, at that base and false storie of Ap-Evan [Page 26] by Studly, wherin are bitter invectives against all such perswasions as puritanik delusions,Satan like an Angell of Light stirring up in the heart of immorti­fied persons a spi­rituall pride in a high conceit of their gifts, the assu­rance of their E­lection, illuminati­on, conversiō, ima­ginarie sense of their adoptiō, &c. yea, he is contented that Chounaeus should print over and over againe his unworthie collections, not onely sub­scribed by his Chaplane, but dedicated to himselfe, wherein salvation is avowed to be a thing unknown, and whereof no man can have any further, or should wish for any more then a good hope.Pag. 82. Salus eorum satis certa quamvis ipsis igno­ta, ex gratia & in­finita sua miseri­cordia det Deus hanc spem & sua vissi­man huius spei ple­rophoriam, amplio­rē non expectamus, And if any desire a clearer confession, behold himselfe in those oposcula posthuma of Andrewes, which he setteth out to the world after the mans death, & dedicates to the King: avowing that the Church of England doth maintaine no personall perswasion of predestination, which Tenet Cardinall Pirroun had obiected to them as presumption.Stricturae, we think it not safe for any man peremptorily to presume himself predestinat. White also in his answer to the Dialogue, makes mans election a misterie, which God hath so hid in his secret counsell, that no man, can in this life come to any knowledge, let be assurance of it, at great length from the 97. page to the 103. and that most plainly.

A demonstrati­on of Canterbu­ries Arminianisme in the highest de­gree.But to close this Chapter, passing a number of evidences, I bring but one more, which readily may be demonstrative, though all other were layd aside. By the Lawes and practickes of England, a Chaplans licencing of a booke for the presse is taken for his Lord the Bishops deed; So Helen approven by Canterburie teacheth in his Antidotum, Pag. 3. Or if you be so dull as not to apprehend that, yet must the publishing of this Libel rest in conclusion on my Lord high Thesauror the Bishop of London at whose house the booke was licentiate, which is so high a language against authoritie, against the practise of this Realme, for licenciating of bookes a­gainst the honour of the Star-chamber, on whose decree that practise is founded, &c. and for this there is reason, for the Lawes give authoritie of [Page 27] Licencing to no Chaplane, but to their Lords alone, who are to bee answerable for that which their Ser­vant doeth in their name. Also the Chaplane at the Licencing receives the principall subscrived Copie which he delivereth to his Lord: to be laid up in his Episcopall Register.

William Bray, one of Canterburies Chaplanes sub­scrived Chounaei Collectiones Theologicae, as consonant to the doctrine of the Church of England, & meet for the presse. The Author dedicated the Treatise to my L. of Canterburie, it was printed at London 1636. In this booke, the first article, which by the confession of all sides drawes with it all the rest, is set downe in more plaine and foule tearmes then Molina or any Jesuite; sure I am then A [...]minius, Vorstius, or any their followers ever did deliver,Pag. 18. Non vidio rationem in contrarium quare cum quae est ex Deo per unam eandemque actio­nem bonitatis a seipso emanantem, recta ordinatio fi­dei in Christum resipiscentiae, obe­dientiae, perseveran­tiae, sit causa salva­tionis perversa quae ex hominibus est damnationis, non in eadem unitatis ratione, electionis & reprobationis etiam causa agno­scantur. teaching in one These those three grosse errours.

1. That mens faith, repentance, perseverance, are the true causes of their Salvation; as mis-beleefe, impenitencie, apostasie, are of damnation: Doeth Bellarmine goe so farre in his Doctrine of Iustificati­on and merite?

2. That those sinnes are no lesse the true causes of reprobation then of damnation.

3. That mens faith, repentance, perseverance, are no lesse the true causes of t [...]eir eternall Election, then mis-beliefe, or other sinnes of their tempo­rall damnation. Let Charitie suppone that his Grace in the middest of his numerous and weigh­tie imployments hath beene forced to neglect the reading of a booke of this nature, though dedicate to himselfe, albeit it is well knowne that his watchfull eye is fixed upon nothing more then [Page 28] Pamphlets which passes the presse upon doctrines now controverted, yet his Grace beelng publickly upbraided, for countenancing of this Booke, by D. Bastwick in the face of the Star-chamber, and beeing advertised of its dedication to himselfe, of the er­rours contained in it, yea of injuries against the King of the deepest staine, as these which strooke at the very root of his Supremacie and that in favour of the Bishops:

When in such a place Canterburie was taxed for letting his name stand before a booke that wounded the Kings Monarchick Government at the very heart, and did transferre from the Crowne to the Miter, one of its fairest diamonds, which the King and his Father before him did ever love most dearly, no charitie will longer permitt us to beleeve, but his Grace would without further delay lend some two, or three spare-houres to the viewing of such a piece which did concerne the King and himselfe so nearly. Having therefore without all doubt both seene and most narrowly sifted all the corners of that small Treatise, and yet beene so farre from reproving the Authour, from censuring the Licencer, his Chaplan, from calling in the booke, from expurging any one jot that was in it, that the Treatise the second time is put to the presse at London with the same licence, the same dedication, no letter of the points in questi­on altered; May wee not conclude, with the favour of all reasonable men, that it is my Lord of Canterburies expresse minde to have his owne name prefixed, and his Chaplanes hand subjoyned to the grossest errours of Arminius, and so to professe openly his contempt of the Kings proclamation, for the pretended vio­lation [Page 29] whereof be causeth stigmatize, mutilat, fine excessively, imprison for time of life, very vertuous Gentle-men, both Divines, Lawyers, Physicians, and of other faculties.

What here can bee said for his Graces Apologie, nothing commeth in my minde, except one allega­tion, that the point in hand crosseth not the procla­mation, discharging to proceed in those questions beyond the grammaticall construction and literall sense of the articles of England.Arminianisme is consonant to the articles of Englād, and not contrary to the proclama­tion.

The Authour indeed in his Epistle dedicatorie avowes to his Grace that the These alleadged, and all the rest of his booke doeth perfectly agree with the English Articles in the very first and literall sense, whereof the proclamation speaketh.

Nec videantur sensum articulorum ecclesiae Anglican [...] in literali & gram­maticali nedum in affixo verborum sensu transgredi. And to this assertion the Licencers hand is re­lative as to the rest of the booke; But of this miserable apologie, which yet is the onely one which I can ima­gine possible, this will bee the necessary issue, that the grosse lye, which good King Iames put upon the bold brow of impudent Bertius, for his affirming that one article of the Saints apostasie, let be other more vile Arminian Tenets, was consonant with the articles of England, must be throwne backe from Bertius on the Kings face, and that in as disgracefull a way as it was first given; Montagew and Whit [...], with his Graces permission, did give that venerable Prince long agoe the lye at home in English, affirming the perfect a­greeance of the Arminian Apostasie with the doctrine of England.

But this affront contents not his Grace, except this barbarous medecine, under the shelter of his Archie­piscopall name be lie his Majestie over-sea, and over [Page 30] the whole world, where the Latine is understood.

Beside this shamefull inconvenience, another dan­gerous evill will necessarily follow from this Apolo­gie, to wit: That the Arminian Doctrine may not onely be tolerated in England, which yet, if King Iames may be trusted, cannot faile to draw downe upon England a curse from God, shame from abroad, horrible shisme at home, but also, since their grossest articles are declared in print and in Latine, under the shaddow of Canterburies name, to be fully conso­nant to the very litterall sense of the Articles of Eng­land, all the members of that Church may be compel­led presently without more delay to embrace those doctrines; and that any man is permitted in England to beleeve in peace the Antiarminian Articles, where­in Queene Elizabeth and King Iames did live and dye, it is of meere favour and the Princes mercie, who readily by the Archbishops intercession is di­verted from pressing the profession of those articles, according to the first and most litterall sense, which now is clearely avowed to bee after Arminius; yea, Molina his minde.

CHAP. III. The Canterburians professed affection towards the Pope & Poperie in grosse.

The faction once suspected of Lu­therianisme.IT was the opinion of many among us for a long time, that the innovating faction did minde no more then Arminianism, But at once, those who touch­ed their pulse neerer, did finde a more high humour [Page 31] working in their veynes. With Arminius errours, they began incontinent to publish other Tenets, which to all meere Arminians were ridiculous fol­lies.

The Elements of the Lords Supper began by them to be magnified, above the common phrase of Pro­testant Divines, a corporall presence of Christs hu­manity, in and about the Elements to be glanced at, a kinde of omnipresence of Christs flesh to be preach­ed, a number of adorations before those Elements, and all that was neere them, both the Altar, Bason, Challice, and Chancell to be urged, many new Cere­monies, which for many yeares had beene out of use, to bee taken in, a great bitternesse of spirit, against all who ran not after these new guyses to appeare.

This made us thinke they intended to steppe over from Arminius to Luther. In this conception wee were somewhat confirmed, considering their earnest recommendation, to the reading of young Students the late Lutheran Divines, such as Hutter, Meisner, Gerard, with their crying downe, both in private and publick of Calvine, BeZa, Martyr, Bucer, and the rest of the famous writers, both ancient and late of the French & Belgick Churches.

Their giving it out also, that their martyred Re­formers, Crammer, Ridley, Latimer, were of Luthers Schoole, & from him had learned those things, wher­in the English church did differ frō the other reformed of Calvins framing. But most of al, by my lord of Can­terburies great diligence under hand, to promove and reward that late negotiation of M. Duries with the [Page 32] Churches over Se [...], for the extenuating of the Luthe­ran errours, and procuring with their Churches, not onely a Syncretisme, which all good men did ever pant for, but also a full peace in tearmes so generall, so ambiguous, so flidderie, that were very suspitious to many, otherwise very peaceable mindes.

But at last Popery was found their mark.Those considerations moved us to thinke▪ that the factious motion might possibly end at Lutheranisme without any further progresse. But it was not long, while every common eye did observe their bowle, to roll much beyond that marke. They published in­continent a number of the Romish errours, which to the very Lutherans were ever esteemed deadly poy­son, the Popish Faith, the Tridentine justification, merit of workes, workes of Supererogation, doctrinall traditions, Limbus Patrum, the Sacrifice of the Masse, adoration of images, monastick vowes, Abbeyes and Nunries, the Authoritie of the Pope, a reunion with Rome, as shee stands.

Finding it so, we were driven to this conclusion, that as ordinarily the Spirit of defection doth not permit any Apostates to rest in any middle tearme, but carrieth them along to the extreames of some palpable madnesse, to some strong delusion for the recompence of the first degrees of their fall from the love of the Trueth, so also our Faction was carried quite beyond the bounds both of Arminiu [...] and Luther, yea of their owne so much once be­loved Cassander and Spalato, and all the lists of that which they were wont to call moderation, to drinke of the vilest abominations, and the lowest dregs of the golden Cup of that Romish Whoore: For now [Page 33] my Lord Canterburie and his followers, are not a­shamed to proclaime in print their affection to Pope­rie both in grosse and retaile. Let no man in this cast up to me any slander till he have heard and conside­red the probation of my allegations.

Poperie is a body of parts, if not innumerable,To make way for their designes, they cry downe the Popes Anti­christianisme. yet exceeding many. There is scarce any member great or small in this monster, whereto the faction hath not kythed too passionate a love. But for short­nesse, I will shew first their affection to the whole Masse of popish errours, their respect to the Church of Rome, and to the Pope the Head thereof, than in particular to the most princip [...]ll and abominable parts of that Chaos. As for the whole of that confused lump, that they may winne the more easily, to the em­bracement of it, they cast downe in the entry the chiefe wall, they remove the maine impediment, whereby Protestants were ever kept therefrom.

What ever wee speake of some very few private men, yet all Protestant Churches without exception made ever the Popes Antichristianisme, their chiefe bulwark to keepe all their people from looking back towards that Babilonish Whoore.

No Church did make greater state of that fort then the English, & no man in that church more th [...]n King Charles blessed Father. Hee was not content himselfe to beleeve and avow the Pope that great Antichrist, but also with arguments invincible drawn mainely from some passages of the Revelation, cleared now as light, by the Commentary of the Popes practises, to demonstrate to all Neighbour Princes and States of Christendome in a monitorie [Page 34] Treatise this his beliefe, for that expresse end, that from this truth clearly proved, they might not onely see the necessitie he had to keep himselfe and his Sub­jects for evermore from returning to Rome, but they also by this one argument might be forced to cast [...]ff the yoake of the Pope, when they saw him cloathed with the garments of Antichrist.

It was the continuall song of all the Bishops and Clergie in England, till D. Laud gott absolute credite with the Duke of Buckinghame, that the Popes Anti­christianisme was an engine of such efficacie as was able of it selfe alone, if well manadged to overthrow the wals of Rome.

For this I give but two witnesses, two late English Bishops both of them deponing before all England to King Iames, and he accepting their testimonie,Caeterum agen­do quam nihil a­gant, & ambitioso magnorum volumi­num apparatu non nisi lituras scribāt, disputatione ista de antichristo, liquido constare poterit; quia si causam hanc obtinuerimus esse romanum ponti­ficem antichristum, de reliquae contra­versia dubitandi, non erit relictus, locus, quia de Anti­christs doctrina, quin pernitiosa sit & impia dubitari non potest. Abbots of Salisburrie in his dedicatorie Ep [...]stle to king Iames before his Treatise of Antichrist, & Downame of Derry in the first paragraphIlla mihi imprimus que­stio, quae est de antichristo, dignissima semper est visa, in qua decti determinandi omnes tum ingenij, tum industriae nervos contenderent; illa enim de veritate quam nos in hac causa singulari Dei benificio tenemus, si inter omnes semel con­veniret de reliquis statim contraversijs actum esset, debellatumque, neque ali­quid in p [...]sterum periculi fores, quemquam [...]mnino Christianum, cui sua ca [...] esset salus, detecto jam antichristo, agnitoque adhesurum. of his booke dedi­cated also to K. James upon that same subject. Not­withstanding my lord of Canterburie, For making the way to Rome more smooth, spareth not to cause raze downe to the earth this fort. Montagu & White his non-such divines, as we heard them stiled at his Graces direction by his Herauld Heylene, will have the kings unanswerable arguments proponed by him even to forraine Princes; not onely counted weake but plaine frensies. This word doth Featlie cite from their [Page 35] Appeal.Pelag. redi. v. 2▪ tab. pag. 39. As for the Protestant arguments taken out of the Apo­calypse, to prove the pope to be the Anti­christ. Bellarmine cal­leth them deliramenta, dotages: And the ap­pealer to show more zeal to the Popes cause straineth further, & te­armeth them apoca­lypticall phrensies. Christopher Dow is licentiat by Can­terburie, to affirme that howsoever our Divines at the beginning of the Reformation in the heat of dispute did upbraid the Pope with Antichristia­nisme, yet now that heat being cooled, the matter to men in their sober blood appeares doubtfull.P. 53. Many learned in our church especially when the greatest heat was stricken betweene us and Rome, have af­firmed the Pope to be the Antichrist, yet to them that calmely and seriously consider it, it may not without good reason be disputed as doubtfull his Graces Herauld appointed to speake for his lord by the State, doth correct this simple Dow, and puts the matter out of all doubt, assuring by good scripturall proofe, by a text miserablie a­bused, that the Pope is not, was not, and can not be Antichrist.Pag. 128. I have yet one thing more to say to you in this point, S. Iohn hath given it for a rule, that every spirit that confesseth not that Iesus Christ is come in the flesh, is not of God, but is that spirit of Antichrist, whereof yee have heard. So that unlesse you can make good (as I thinke you can not) that the pope of Rome confesseth not that Iesus Christ is come in the flesh, you have no reason to con­clude that he is that Antichrist. And that in this matter there may heereafter betwixt the Canterburians and Ro­me remaine no shaddow of Controversie, their man Shelfoord, comes home to Bellarmine, well neere in omnibus, making Antichrist one single man; a Iew preaching formall blasphemies against Christ natu­res & person three yeares and an half, killing by his hands Enoch and Elias. And least any footsteppe of this beliefe should ever appeare in the church of England, Canterburie confesseth that the place of the publicke lyturgie wherein it was imported, was changed by his own hand.Star-chamber speach, pag. 32. the first place is changed thus, from, Root out that Babylonish and Antichristian sect, which say of Ierusalem, into this forme of words, Root out that Romish and Balylonish sect, of them, which say, This alteration is of so small consequence that it is, not worthie the speaking: or if there be any thing of moment in it, it is answered in the next, where the chiefe thing he sayes, is, that he was commanded to alter it by the King for to remo­ve scandall from the Papists. They are contēt to ha­ve the popes authoritie set up again in England

This scarre-crow being set aside, at once the Pope, the Cardinals and all their Religion began to His fifth sermon through the whole. [Page 36] looke with a new face. Anent the Pope they tell us first,Montag. anti­gage, pag. 41. Gens abi­um unaquaeque tandem suas sibi plumas repeten­do surtivis coloribus de­nudatam, propriis etiam quod non oportuit, im­probantque vehementer [...] circumcisā, nudam, ridendum, exsi­bilandam corniculā ex­posuerunt. that the reformers did him pitifull wrong in spoyling him, not only of those things he had u­surped, but of many priviledges which were his owne by due right, and should have beene left to him untouched. Againe they will have us to be­lieve, that the Sea of Rome was truelie Peters Apo­stolick chaire, that Peter was truelie a Prince a­mong the Apostles, that the Pope isCant. relat. of the confes. pag. 183 A pri­macie of order was never denyed to S. Pe­ter, that Rome had po­tentioren principatum then other Churches: the Protestants grant, and that not only, because the Ro­man Prelate was ordine primus, first in order and degree, which some one must be to avoide confusion, but also, &c. Ibid. pag. 154. Austen sayeth indeed, that in the Church of Rome there did ever flourish the principalitie of an Apostolick Chaire, this no man denyes. Ibid. pag. 133. No man of learning doubts but the Church of Rome had a powerfull principalitie within its owne patriarchat. Mon­tag. Antigag. pag 51. Damus à Petro ad aetatem Augustini in Ecclesia Romana Apostolicae cathedrae semper viguisse principatum. Ibid. pag. 57. Quae ratio erat olim singulorum in suis [...] Episcoporum, eadem erat in provinciis Metrapolitarum, in terrarum orbe patriarcharum, rectè autem (quis negat) consultum eratolim, & cautum per canones vetustae Ecclesiae, ut Romanus ille primus (nec hoc negatur) Epis­coporum, cui tot per occidentem suffraganei adherebant, suam sententiam rogatus ad­hiberet, ubi fides Ecclesiae universalis, aut [...] in rebus ad [...] spectantibus agitabatur, & quicquid sanciretur suo suffragio confirmaret, priusquam ratum fir­mum fixumque legis vim & efficaciam per Ecclesiam universalem obineret. Ibid. pag. 80. Monarchae sunt Episcopi in suis [...], monarchae in suis [...], Me­tropolitae Monarchae Patriarchae augustiores, sed plures per unam Ecclesiam Ca­tholicam: Praecipuae olim parti Chistiani orbis hoc est, cunctis ad occidentem regioni­bus cum authoritate quadam non illa suprema praefuit Pontifex, etsi non obstaret illa perdita ambitio etiam hodie preesset. Petets one­lie successor, that within the bounds of his owne Patriarchat he is a Prince, he is a monarch. Third­lie, that order and unitie do necessarly require one Bishop to have the inspection and superioritie over all Bishopes, and that this prerogative by good Ecclesiasticall right is due to the Pope.Cant. relat. p. 183. The Roman Prelate was ordine primus, first in order or degree, which some one must bee to avoid confusion. Montag. antid pag. 116. Certum est ratione vin­culi communis inter Christanos ratione ordi­nis praecedentis inter Pa­triarchas universalis Ec­clesiae curam ad Petri se­dim confluxisse. Ibid. pag. 51. Eclesia acies or­dinata multitudo, [...], costituta. Vbicunque multi & multiplicitas, ut ordo eluceat, & har­monia conservetur, ab uno arcessenda est origo omnis. Vnde autem me­lius origo omnis quam ab Ecclesia principali, loco debetur haec praeminentia, loci pri­matum, & illum ordinis, & propter utrumque praestantiae habeat, si voluerit Roma­nus pontifex. Inter Ecclesiae sacerdotes communio & societas ejusdemque fidei inte­grae & illibatae professio, quoàd ordinem & interdum executionem non potuit nisi ab uno aliquo fieri & derivari; Inde autem per consensum Christianae orbis derivaba­tur, hoc est, à cathedra & sede Petri Romano scilicet Episcopatis. Ibid. pag. 158. Illi certè principatum sacerdotii super omnes antiquatas tribuit, neque nos hunc abnui­mus principatum, fontem esse sacerdotti, & summi Pontificatus apicem nos non re­luctamur, est & sit. Fourthly, that all the authoritie which the En­glish Bishops have this day, speciallie his Grace of [Page 37] Canterbury, is derived to them from the Pope and Peters chair, That if this derivation could not be clearlie demonstrat, the Clergie of England might justlie refuse all obedience to their Bishops jurisdi­ction.Pokling. alt. pag. 50 Miserable were we, if hee that now sits Archbis­hop of Canterburie, could not derive his succession from S. Augustine, S. Au­gustine from S. Gregorie, S. Gregorie from S. Peter. What a comfort it is to his Grace, that he can say, Ego sum haeres Apostolorum, I, and my predecessors ha­ve kept possession. Pokling. Sunday at the beginning. Our Diocesian can de­rive himselfe the successor of an apostle, otherwise we should have taken his call for the vocie of a stranger, & not have here appeared. It is S. Augustins resolutō, Successio Episcoporum ab ipsa sede Petri, is that which among other things by him named, keepes us in the bosome of the Church, & subjects us to our Bishops ju­risdiction. Fifthly, that divers of the late Popes have been verie good men, yea, among the best of men, that those of them who have beene verie monsters of men, yet for that veneration which their high and eminent place in the Church of God, doth re­quire all the stiles of honour in justice is due to them, even holinesse it self in abstracto, that to re­fuse them this, or their other titles is but brainsick puritanisme.Montag. oreg. Eccles. p. 114. Patrum nostrorum vel avorum memoria dua summi Pontifices virri optimi & doctissimi, Hadrianus sextus, & Bellarmini avunculus Marcellus secundus. Antid. pag. 47. Romanus Episcopus Pontifex maximus quidni dicebatur, scio vocatum benedictum, scio Papam & Pastorem no­minari [...], quid si haec omnia nomina usurpabat. Orig. pag. 417. Certis quibusdam titulis, & elogiis homines [...] constitutos ab omni retro antiqualite viti prudentes etiam & religiosi honorant, istos honorum lemnistos, non est cujus­vis conculcare, sed nec palam reprehendere, aut iisdem derogate, id quod solent [...], Puritani Pontificem Romanum suam sanctitatem indigitare certissimus est character Antichristianismi: Non tibi, sed religioni dicebat olim Isidis adorator, cum asinus portans mysteria se putaret veneratum, honorem pari modo non Paulo alicui quarto Alexandro Sexto, Ioanni duodecimo & caeteris, si qui sunt pro­digia & propudia honestatis, sed religioni exhibendum contendimus, hoc est, eminentî dignitati, quâ ultra alios in Ecclesia Dei praediti sunt, sed est haec pbrenesis hominum solummodo phanaticorum.

[Page 38]6 That the dignitie of the Episcopall office, spe­cially the Bishop of Rome his eminency, was as far above the dignity of the Emperours and Kings, as the soule is above the body, or God above the creature; yea, that the stile of God was but the Popes due:Montag. antip. pag. 166. Est quidem sacer­dotium, ut rectè obser­vat Pbil. [...] & [...], itaque ut [...] Iesu Christi, ut Dei atque hominum [...] summus à C ristianis o­mnibus, Divino institu­to debetur honor & re­verentia singularis. ibid. p. 40. Fatetur ultro sacerdotium aliquo modo in quibus­dam supra regiam dignitatem eminere, cum vetustis & orthodoxis patribus [...] (inquit Chry [...]ostom) [...] (regem prius dixerat) [...], & Nazianzen, in apologi a [...]. ibid. p. 162. Allusum est a piissimo rege ad illud Exodi, Constitui te Deum Pharaonis, communicat Deus [...], seu Pontificio seu civili, sui ipsius [...] & [...] dii vocantur quis ringatur ob hanc [...], & merito quos locū ille suum voluit inter homines sustinere. 7. That Emperours and Kings did but their duety in giving reverence; yea, ado­ration unto the Pope with great summes of money by way of tribute:Montag antid pag. 40. Non est mirum si Constantinus olim Pipinus, Carolus, & alii occurrerent, de equis descenderent, venientes exceperint, religionis antistites Christianae venerationemque exhibuerint. Quid mirum Turcarum Caliphis non ita pridem tot Sultanos tantam observantiam exhibuisse tam ampla vectigalia persolvis­se: Non minora quondam principes & populi Christiani Christianis sacerdotibus im­primis Romanis pontificibus exhibuerint, exhibebunt etiamnum ad pristinos illos mores si tantum revertatur, & exempla pietatis maiorum. ibid. pag. 158. Adoravit Ioannem Iustinus, sic & Constantinus inferiores Ioanne sacerdotes, adoravit aut [...]m dicit author ille tuus dans gloriam Deo. 8 That the temporall principalities which the Pope enjoyeth this day in Italie, or elswhere, are but his just possessions, which none ought to invy him:Montag. antid. pag. 95. Habeat ille suas sibi opes & facultates, fundos habeat & latifundia, principatum & dominium per Ecclesia terras, & Petri possessiones obti­neat, dummode contentus vetuctiorum principum liberalitate, alienam non invadat possessionem. 9. That the resti­tution of the Popes ancient authority in England, and yeelding unto him all the power that this day [Page 39] he hath in Spaine or France, would be many wayes advantageous, and in nothing prejudiciall to the King:Cant. relat. pag. 202 Hee that is not blinde may see if hee wil, of what little value the popes power in France and Spaine is this day further then to serve the turns of their Kings therewith, which they doe to their great ad­vantage. 10 The old constitution of the Empe­rour, whereby all the westerne clergie is so farre subjected to the Bishop of Rome, that without him they are disabled to make any Ecclesiasticall law, and obliged to receave for lawes what he doth en­joyne, was very reasonable: Yea, if the King would be pleased to command all the church men in his dominions to be that far subject to the Pope they would be unreasonable to refuse present obe­dience:Montag. antid. pag. 156. Quod è codice allegatur Theodosiano decernimus, ne quid tam Episcopis Gallicanis quā aliarum provinciarum, contra consuetudinem veterem liceat, sine viri venerabilis Papae urbis alternae authoritate ten­tare, sed illis omnibus (que) legis loco sit, quicquid sanxit sanxeritve sedis apostolicae authoritas. Quicquid hic pontifici (sayeth Montagow) arrogatur id totum edicto debetur Theodosiano vel vetustae con­suetudini, quicquid autem per rescriptum tribuitur imperatoris ad occidentales credo solos pertinebat▪ & nec omnes, quibus juxta veterem consuetudinem Pontifex praesi­debat ut Patriarcha: Decernat imperator de G [...]rmanis episcopis, Rex Angli [...] de Bri­tannis suis, Francorum de Gallicanis, quod olim Theodosius decrevit, dicto erunt omnes obedientes. Onely by all meanes my Lord of Can­terburies prerogative behoved to bee secured, his ancient right to the patriarchat of the whole Isle of Britaine behoved to be made cleare, that to his rod the whole clergie of the Isle might submit their shoulders, as to their spirituall head and Monarch, from whom to Rome there could bee no appeale,Cant. relat. pag. 171. It is plaine, that in these ancient times, in the Church government, Britaine was neever subject to the Sea of Ro­me, for it was one of the six diocies of the West Empire, and had a p [...]mat of its own: Nay Iohn Capgraw, and William Mabinnesburrie tell us, that Pope Vrb [...]n the second, in the Councel at Bari in Apuleia, accoun [...]ed my worthie predecessor S. Anselme as his owne Compeer, and said, Hee was as the patriarch and apo­stolick of the other world, quasi comparem, & veluti Apostolicum alterius orbis & Patriarcham. Now the Britains having a primate of their own, which is greater then a Metropolitan; yea, a patriarch, if yee wil, he could not be appealed from to Rome. in any cause which concerned onely the churches of the Kings dominions; for in causes more uni­versall of the whole catholicke Church, willingly they are contented that the Patriarch of Britaine and all others should submit to their grand Aposto­licke [Page 40] father of Rome.Montag. Antid. pag. 57. Rectè cautum erat olim per canones ve­tustae Ecclesiae, ut Roma­nus ille primus Episcoporum, cui tot per occiden­tem suffraganei adhere­bant, suam sententiam rogatus adhiberet, ubi fi­dei Ecclesiae universalis, vel [...] in rebus ad politiam spectantibus, agitabatur supra. Everie one of these pon­tificall positions since the midst of Henrie rhe eights raigne, would have beene counted in England gre­at paradoxes, yet now all of them are avowed by Canterbuerie himself, in that verie booke which the last yeare at the Kings direction hee set forth, for to satisfie the world anent their suspition of his Poperie, or else by D. Montagu in his books yet un­repealed, and cleanged of all suspition of Poperie by M. Dow, under the seal of his Graces licencing ser­vant.

This much for the Pope. About the Cardinalls they tell us that their office is an high and eminent dignitie in the Church of God;Their minde to the Cardinalat. for the which their persons are to be handled with great reverence and honour,Montag. ap. pag. 56 Penitere non potuit Ba­ronium eruditissimū & laboriosissimum virum, industriae suae ac deli­gentiae, Cardinalitiame: niminde & merito qui­dem suo adeptus suscepit dignitatē. ibid. pag. 75. Virum illustri adeo no­minis celebritate & emi­nentissima dignitate cō ­stitutum, honestum, probum, preterea in vita privata rigidem severum ac tantum non [...] nusquam nisi honorifi­centissime compellavi. that their office is a reward due to high graces and vertues, that some of them though the greatest enemies that ever the reformed Churches have felt, such as Baronius that spent all his time in opposing the trueth and advancing Antichristianis­me, and BarromaeusPokling. Alt. pag. 34. The Linchonshire Minister it his jearing veine flouteth Cardinal Baromaeus, whereas, if he list to read his life he may not be ignorant that the Cardinall was a man of exemplarie holinesse and spent the greatest part of his life in fasting, prayer, almes-deeds, preaching, exhoration, and doctrine, and did detest both impietie and vanitie both in word and deed. Me thinkes his conscience should checke him for his scorn­full usage of a man who had the report of so vertuous and pious a Bishop. a bloudy persecutor of our religion and one of the fathers of Trent, that even such men are so full of grace and pietie, that it is a great fault in any protestant to break so much as a jest on their red hattes.

Where the head and shoulders are so much af­fected it is hard to restraine charitie from the rest of the bodie. These good men vent their passion no les­se towards the bodie of the present Church of Ro­me, then towards the Pope and the Cardinalls. Fo [...] [Page 41] first his grace avowes over and over againe that the Papists and wee are of one and the same religion,They affect much to be joyned with the Church of Rome, as shee stands. that to speak otherwayes, as the Liturgie of Eng­land did all King Iames dayes, were a matter of very dangerous consequent, and therefore he confesseth his helping that part of the liturgie which puts a note of infamie upon the popish religion, least that note should fall upon our owne religion which with the popish is but all oneCant. relat. p 36 The Church of Rome & Protestants set not up a differēt Religiō, for the christian Religion is the same to both, but they differ in the same Reli­gion, and the differen­ce is in certain grosse corruptions to the ve­ry endangering of sal­vation, which each side saith the other is guil­tie. of Star-chamber speach, pag. 36. My second reason is, That the learned make but three Religions to have beene of old in the world, Paganisme, Iu­daisme, and Christiani­tie and now they have added a fourth which is Turcisme Now if this ground of theirs be true, as it is gene­rally neceived, perhaps it will be of dangerous consequence sadly to avow that the popish religion is rebellion, though this clause passed in the [...]iturgie through inadvertrance in King Iames time, this reason well weighed is taken from the very foundation of Religion it selfe. ibid. pag. 34. His Majesty expresly com­manded mee to make the alteration, and to see it printed. 2 They will have us to understand though wee & the papists differ in some things, yet that this very day their is no schisme be­twixt papists and Protestants, that protestants keep union and communion with the Church of Rome in all things required for the essence of a true Church & necessarie for salvation, that though they communicate not with some of her doctrines and practices, yet this marres not the true union and communion of the two Churches both in faith and charitie. That these who passe harder censures upon Rome are but zelots in whom too much zeale hath burnt up all wisedome and charitie.Pottar p. 3. 66. Wee darre not communicat with Rome, either in her publicke Liturgie which is manifestly polluted with grosse superstition, or in these corrupt and ungroun­ded opinions, which she hath added to the faith. These make up the poperie, but not the Church of Rome. In them our communion is dissolved, but wee have still a true and reall union with that and all other members of the Church universall in faith and charitie. ibid. pag. 74. To depart from the Church of Rome in some doctrines and practices, wee had just & necessarie cause though the Church of Rome wanted nothing ne­cessarie to salvation. There is great differen­ce betwixt shisme from them and reformation of our selfe. It is one thing to leave communion with the Church of Rome, and another to leave communicating with her erros, whosoever professeth himselfe to forsake the communion of any one member of Christs bodie, must confesse himself consequently to forsake the whole. And therefore wee forsake not Romes communion more nor the body of Christ whereof wee acknowledge the Church of Rome to bee a member, though corrupted. If any Zelots hath proceeded among us to heavier cen­sures, their zeal may bee excused, but their charitie and wisedome can not hee iustified. Cant. relat. p. 192. The Protestants have not left the Church of Rome in her essence, but in her errors, not in things which constitute a Church, but only in such abuses and corruptions which worke toward the dessolution of a Church. 3 Thar the points wherein the two Churches doe differ are such as prejudge not the Salvation of either par­tie, that they are not foundamentall, and albeit they were so: yet the truths that the papists doe main­taine are of force to hinder all the evil that can cō ­me [Page 42] from their errours.Cant. relate. pag. 249. The foundation is and remaineth whole in the mids of their superstitions. Heylens answere. pag. 124. Suppose a great Prelat in the high Commission Court had said openly, That wee and the Church of Rome differed not in fundamentalibus, yet how commeth this to be an innovation in the doctrine of England. For that church telleth us in the 19. article, That Rome doth erre in matters of Faith, but it hath not told us that she doth erre in fundamentalibus. Halls old religion after the beginning: It is the charitable profession of zealous Luther, that under the poperie there is much Christian good, yea, all, that under the papacie there is true Christianity, yea, the kernell of Christianitie? Neither doe wee censure that Church, for what it hath not, but for what it hath. Fundamentall truth is like the Maronian wine which if it bee mixed with twentie times so much water, holds his strength. Rome as it is Babylon, wee must come out of it, but as it is an outward visible Church, wee neither did nor would, Butterfields Maskell. Poperie is poyson, but fund [...] ­mentall truch is an antidot. A little quantitie of antidot that is soveraigne, will destroy much poyson. Pottar pag. 62. The most necessarie and fundamentall truths which constitute a Church, are on both sides unquestioned, ibid. By fun­damentall points of Faith wee understand these prime, and capitall doctrines of Religion, which make up the holy Catholick Faith, which essentially constitu­tes a true Church and a true Christian. The Apostles Creed taken in a Ca­tholicke sense that is as it was further opened in some parts by occasion of emergent heresies in the other catholicke creed of Nice, Constantinople, Ephesus, Chalcedon and Athanasius is said generally by the Scholemen & Fathers to com­prehend a perfect catalogue of fundamentall truths, & to imply a full rejection of fundamentall heresies. ibid. pag. 109. It semeed to some men of great lear­ning and judgement, such as Hooker and Morton, that all who professe to love the Lord Iesus, are brethren, and may be saved, though with erros, even funda­mentall truths, & to imply a full rejection of fundamentall heresies. ibid. p. 109 It seemed to some men of great learning and judgement, such as Hooker and Morton, that all who professe to love the Lord Iesus, are brethren, and may be saved, though with errors, even fundamentall. Heretickes doe imbrace the prin­ciples of Christianitie, and erre only by misconstruction. Whereupon their opi­nions, albeit repugnant indeed to Faith yet are held other wise by them, and maintained as consonant to the Faith. 4 That the popish er­rours, let bee to bee fundamentall, are of so small importance as they doe not prejudge either faith, hope, or charitie, let be salvation.

Cant, relat. pag. 361 Holcat. Non omnis er­ror in his quae fidei sunt est aut infidelitas, aut haeresis. In things not necessarie though they bee divine truths if about them men dif­fer, it is no more then they have done, more or lesse in all ages, and they may differ and yet preserve that one necessary Faith intire, and charitie also, if they be so well minded, for opinions which flattereth about that one souls saving Faith, there are dangerous differences this day. Pottar pag. 38. It is a great vanitie to hope or expect that all learned men in this life should abso­lutely consent in all the particles of the divine truth, so long as the Faith once delivered to the Saints, and that common faith containing all necessary veri­ties is keeped. So long as men walke charitably according to this rule, though in other things they be otherwise minded, the unitie of the Church is no wise violated: for it doth consist in the unitie of faith, not of opinions, in the union of mens hearts by true charitie, which easily tolerateth unnecessar differences. Some points of religion are primitive articles essentiall in the obiect of Faith. Dissension in these is pernitious, and destroyeth unitie. Other, are secundary probable obscure and accidentall points: Disputations in these are tolerable. Unitie in these is very contingent and variable. As in musicall consort, a discord now and then, so it bee in the discant, and depart not from the ground, sweetens the harmonie: So the varitie of opinions and rites in divers parts of the Church, doth rather commend then prejudice the unitie of the whole. Montag. Anti­gog. page 14. Truth is of two sorts among men, manifest and confessed truth, or more obscure and involved truth. Plainly delivered in Scripture are all these points which belong unto Faith, and maners, hope and charitie. I know none of these contraverted inter partes. The articles of our creed are confessed on both sides, & held plaine enough. The contraverted points are of a larger and inferiour allay. Of them a man may be ignorant without any danger of his soule at all. A man may resolve or oppose this way or that way with out perrell of perish­ing. Cant. relat. about the end. The coruptions of Rome materially, and in the very kinde and nature, are leaven, drosse, hay and stubble, yet the Bishop thought that such as were misled by education, or long cu­stome, or overvalving the Soveraignity of the Romane Church, and did in simplicitie of heart imbrace them, might by theyr generall repentance and Faith in the Merits of Christ, attended with charitie and other verues finde mercie at Gods hands. Shelfoord pag. 235. Though there bee some differen­ce among us in ceremonies and expositions, which destroy not, yet still our head Christ by Baptisme stands upon our bodie, and the substance of the Gos­pel is intire and whole among us by retaining the articles of the Faith, the vo­lume of the New-Testament, and the practice there of by Faith and good workes. ibid. page 239. There bee differences which hinder our agreement. What then? Among the Greekes there were divers Dialects, and yet they had but one language, they held together in the maine. So though Papists have a letter more then wee, and wee one letter for another, yet wee hold together in the radix. Paul could beare with differences, expecting Gods reformation. If you bee otherwise minded God shall revaile. For the present let us bee patient, and afterward God will shew where the errour lyeth. Why should wee pre­sume so much of our skill, while wee are in our none-age, and know but in part? Have not better men then wee beene deceived? Have not dissenting Fathers and slyding Schoolists been alwayes borne with in points of Religion?Fiftly, That a generall repenrance for all un­knowne sinnes is sufficient to secure the salvation not only of these who have lived and died in the popish tenets before the councell of Trent, but even to this day not only their people, but their most learned Clergie, Popes, Cardinalls, Iesuits, living and dying in their bitter oppositions and persecu­tions of protestants, are in no hazard of damnation, though they never come to any particular acknow­ledgement [Page 44] of their sinfull opinions or practises fol­lowing thereupon.Pottar page 77. Wee hope well of these holy soules, who in former ages lived and died in the church of Rome, for though they died in many sinfull errours, yet because they did it ignorantly through unbeliefe, not knowing them either to bee errours or sins, and repented in generall for all their unknowne trespasses, wee doubt not, but they obtained pardon of all their ignorances. Nay, our charitie reacheth further to all these that this day, who in simplicitie of heart believe the Romane religion, and professe it. But we understand only them who either have no sufficient meanes to finde the truth, or else as after the use of the best meanes they can have, all things considered, finde no sufficient moti­ves to convince their consciense of errours. Chomley his defence of Hall, I dare bee bold to say that the church of Rome had not for many hundreth yeares before the councel of Trent, so good a for­me of doctrine as the Tridentin catechisme doth containe. Sixtlie, They teach us that papists may not in reason be stiled either idolaters, or hereticks, or schismaticks. His Grace in that great large folio set out the last yeare, to declare to the world the fartherst that his minde could be drawen for to oppose poperie, is not pleased, to my memorie, in his most verhement oppositions to lay to their charge any of these three cirmes, neither doe I remember in all the search my poore lecture hath made, that any of his favourits in their writtes [Page 45] these twelve yeares bygone hath layed to the charge of Rome in earnest, either idolatrie heresie or shisme, but by the contrary hath absolved them clearly in formall termes of al those three cirmes.Shelfoord. p. 300 I am not in the minde that all images are idols, but only when they are worshipped for gods. This the word idolatria signifieth the wotshipping of images, with latria, that is di­vine worship, as it is used by Divines. Cant. relat. pag. 299. They keepe close to that which is superstition, and in the case of images come near to idolatrie. Montag. apar. page 79. Et certè quamdiù palam non deficiunt, à pietate & cultu Dei proprio ad idolatriam, etiam moribus impii, vita contaminati, tolerantur in Ec­clesia non minus quam milvus & corvus immunda animalierant in arca Ecclesia [...] singulari. At nullus in arca erat idololatres, quia Christianam pietatem quatenus Christianam idololatres execratur. Montag. pag. 309. Dei cultum latriam quam appellant nec possumus alicui creaturae, nec debemus sive humanae sive ange­licae quamvis excellentissimae impendere. Hoc fatibitur Bullingerus Pontificius & tota schola non insanientium adversariorum, nolunt enim illi quovis modo cuicunque creaturae latriam nequidem cultu relativo exhiberi. Montag. Antigag. page 319. You say, that images must not have latria: so we: let your practice and doctri­ne goe together, and wee agree. Dow against Burton obiecteth that my lord Canterburie did raze out the publicke booke of fasts, this sentence, Thou hast delivered us from superstition and idolatrie wherein we were utterly drowned, his chief answere is, That men may bee good Protestants, and yet not damne all their forefathers, who lived before the reformation, as hee must doe, who saith of them, they were wholly drowned in idolatrie which though M. Burton perhaps will not, yet some men may thinke it to be a reason sufficient for the leaving out of that sentence. Of idolatrie, because they teach not the giving of latria to any image or any creature.

Cant relat. page 306. Non omnes error in his que fidei sunt est aut infidelitas aut here­sis. Pottar, page 102. Every sect hath some zelots so passionatly in love with their own opinions that they condemne all other differing from them to bee hereticall, so there liveth not a Christian on earth who in the judgement of many other is not an hereticke, ibid. page The Gyant in Gath was a true man, though much deformed with superfluous fingers and toes, but if one lose any vital part, hee is a man no longer, there is not so much danger in adding super­fluities, as is in detracting, what is essentiall and necessarie, that the Church shall never bee robbed of anie truth, necessarie to the beeing of the Church, the promises of Christ as­sureth us, but that shee shal adde no unneces­sarie truth wee have no warrant.Of heresie, because their errours taketh no part of the fundation away, but are onely ex­cesses and additions consisting with all funda­mentall [Page 46] truethCant. relat. page 316. If any will bee a leader & teaching he­reticke, and adde shis­me to heresies, and bee obstinate in both, hee without repentan­ce must needs bee lost, while many that suc­ced him in the errour onely, and no obstinacy may bee saved: I say, those howsoever misled, are neither schismaticks nor hereticks before God and are therefore in a state of salvation. Monag. Apar. pag. 28. Sectam & haeresin non faciunt ii qui constanter retinent doctrinam traditam, nec enim ille hae­reticus dicetur, qui per omnia Romanam fidem integerrimè profitetur. ibid. p. 389. Schismatici & singularitate rapti in transversus quales Scaliger, Calvinus, Pareus, & alii opinatores, quaero autem an quis ferendus sit homo novis terrae filius, qui con­tempto spretoque consensu majorum suas phreneticas observationes obtruserit Of shisme, because they goe on in the practice of their forbeares without in­troducing any late novations. 7. They declare it were very good we had present peace with Rome as she stands, her errours being but in opinions which charitie ought to tolerate, that the Church of England would gladly embrace this peace, that Cassander and the like who further this reconci­liation are the men of the world most worthie of praise, that the Iesuits and Calvinists both pury­tanes who hinder this peace, are the most flagi­tious and intollerableShel­ford page 238. Let us Christians leave off our divisions, the papists and wee call upon one God, our Father, upon one Christ, our Saviour, one holy Ghost, our sanctifier, and wee have but one meane to unite us to this holy Uni-trinitie, which is Baptisme, How then should wee not bee brethren? O blessed Iesus, raise up one to bid the people returne, blessed bee that peace maker among men, Nulla salus bello pacem te poscimus omne. ibid page 296. Why judge wee so eagerly others for holding of errours, ane asy without them? Some errours we may beare with, charitie teacheth me to judge that errours of Christians are not of intention but ignorance. For I beleeve that willingly and willingly, neither Papist, Protestant nor Lutheran would wrong their Head Christ, whom daily they professe. Montag. apar. page 45. Citius inter digladiantes Philosophos de summo bono, quam inter Protectantes & Papistas inaudita nomina superioribus sae­culis, & subintroducta nuper inauspicato de controversis inter ipsos quaestionibus con­veniet, sed viderunt posteri de dissidiis istis quae penè nihil sani, sancti nihil, in vita & moribus nobis reliquerunt, cum profani homines & politici sub praetextu & simu­latione religionis suas improbas actiones, enormia desideria soleant palliare. Post mo­ta haec certamina inter partes odiis decertatim vatinianis, atque eo deventum est u­trinque insaniae & excessus ut ferre eos nequeant zelotae & furiosi plerique utrinque theologi qui non una cum ipsis velint insanire. Quam indignis modis Cassander vi [...] usque ad miraculum eruditus ipsissima modestia & pro bitatis anima, exceptus fuerit ab importunis utrinque Consoribus, Calvino ni­mirum propter editum illum aureum libellum de officio viri pii, & plu­ribus inter Iesuitas prop­ter consultationem Pau­lo liberiorem ignorat ne­mo, quam fortunae ali­am subire Andreas Tri­cius aliique qui impu­denter noluerunt essa contentiosi. ibid. page 78. Hoc tempore tituli insilices protestantium & papislarum varianti­bus de fide ae pietate sententiis distraxerunt in diversum Christia­num orbem, si qui sint qui bellum malint aeter­num, qui velint odia exerceri immortalia traducant illi nostram quae solet odiosius exagitari tepeditatem vel [...]: Ego filius illius pacifici & pacificatoris qui fe­cit utraque unum desiecta macerie separalionis; neque certè arbitror ab hac [...] ab horret nostrae Anglicanae Ecclesiae suffragium & voluntas, quod nonnulli putant & vehementer contendunt, ibid. page 245. In Pharisaeis ad vivum depictas imagines intueamur eorum hominum qui Pharisaica nobis insituta in Christianismum retule­re, puritanos intelligo & Iesuitas, sive ut verius dicam utrumque puritanos hone­statis etiam civilis reduviae pietatis carcinomata, Christianismi dehonestamenta pa­cis & concordiae alastoras & pernities. persons of this age. All this and much more of such stufe you may see printed not onely with allowance but with ap­plause [Page 47] by the chiefe of that faction his Grace him­selfe. Montagow the first of the three none suches, Pottar in that his much beloved piece put out as he sayeth at the command of authority.Pottars Epistle to the King, it was undertaken in obedience to your Maiesties particular commandement. Shelfoorde in his pious Sermons printed by the Vniversity of Cambridge presse at the direction of the Vice-Chancellour D. Beel dedicated to the Lord Keeper of England, adorned with many triumphing Epi­grammes both latine and english by a number of the fellows, and although called in, yet no censure to this day for all the complaints against it, to our hearing hath been put either on the author or printer, or licencer, or adorners or any Doctrine contained therein, but the worst that Burton could pycke out of it is all defended by Dow and Heylen at his Graces speciall direction and subscri­bed licence as wee shall hear anone.

I hope now that all true protestants pondering the passages I have brought, beside many mo, wherewith themselves from their owne readings are acquainted, will not only absolve my alledgean­ces of rashnesse and slander, but also wonder at the incredible boldnesse of those men, who in these times wherein the Prince and state are by so many and deep tyes obliged, and according to their obli­gations hath so oft declared themselves possionat­ly zealous for the maintenance of protestant ortho­doxie [Page 48] that yet they should be so peart as to print in the royall city, and after long and great grum­blings of the people & formal challenges of divers of the learned to reprint their clear affections to the pope and Cardinalls and the whole Romish religi­on, albeit truely this their ventorious boldnesse seemes not more marveillous then their ingenuitie commendable: For they have said nothing for the pope or Rome, but that which conscience would pouse any man upon all hazards to avow, who was so perswaded in the particular heads of controversies betwixt papists and protestants as they professe themselves to bee, to the end therefore that wee may see the former strange enough passa­ges not to have dropped from their pennes by any inadvertance, but upon plaine designe and delibe­rate purpose▪ wee will set downe in the next rowme the affection they professe to the speciall heads of poperie very consonant to that which they have al­readie said of that which wee count the whole lumpe and universall masse of Antichristianisme. The speciall heads of poperie are moe then I have leasure to relate, or you can have patience to hear enumerate. Take notice therefore but of some pryme articles which Protestants use most to detest in papists, foure by name their idolatries, their heresies, their superstitions, their abomina­tion of desolation the masse. If from their own mouth I make clear that in these foure they joyne with Rome against us, it is like none hereafter shall wonder of any thing that yet they have done or said for the advancement of the popish party, and the subverting of the protestants Churches either at home, or over sea, but rather embrace their sobrietie and moderation who being minded, as they professe, doe not break out in many moe both words and deeds, for the destroying of the [Page 49] protestant schisme, and bringing all back to the Catholick Apostolick mother Church of Rome, & unto the feet of his holinesse the Vicar of Christ, the successor of Peter, under whose obedience our holy and blessed antecessors did live and die.

CHAP. IIII. The Canterbuerians joine with Rome in her grossest idolatries.

THE acts of Romes Idolatrie be many and various: None more open to the eye of beholders then these five, their adoration of altars, images, relicts,In the midst of their denyall, yet they avow their giving of religi­ous adoration to the very altar. sacramentall bread, and Saints departed: For the first, their worshipping of the stocke or stone of the altar, if wee would impute it unto the Canterburians, they will deny it allutterlie, and avow, that they may well worship God before the altar, but to worship the altar, it self, to give to it that worship which is done before it, to give to it any religious worship any cultus, any [...], any [...], any adoration, they do detest it, as palpable idolatrie. So his Grace, so Pocklingtoune, so Heylene, so Lawrence, so Montagu do oft professe: But that you may see how little faith those mens Protestations do deser­ve, and that all may know either their desperat equivocating, or else their spirit of giddinesse, which makes them say and unsay the same things, in the same pages; consider all of the five named authours, for al their denyall, printing with ap­probation [Page 50] and applause as much worshipping and adoration even of the altar, as any Papists this day living.

Begin with his Grace, you shal finde him in his Star-chamber speach, for all his denyall, yet avowing within the bounds of two pages, once, twyse, thryse,Pag. 47. A great reverence is due to the body, and so to the throne where his body is usually present. Ibid. pag. 49. Domino & altari ejus, to the Lord your God, and to his altar, for there is a reverence due to that too. Ibidem pag. 45. Therefore according to the Service-book of the Church of England the priest & the people both are called upon, for externall and bodi­ly worship of God in his Church; Therefore they which doe it not, innovat, and yet the government is so mo­derat, God grant it be not too loose, that no mā is constrained, no man questioned, onely religiously called upon, venite adore­mus. the giving of worship to the altar, and that such worship, which is grounded upon that place of Scripture, Venite, adoremus, which we suppose none will deny to be Divine ado­ration, But wee must understand, that the King, and the Church of England heere, as in all things must beare the blame of his Graces faults, that the King and his most noble Knights of the garter must be patrones to this practice, and the English Lytur­gie the enjoiner of it: But his Grace and those that have the government of the church must bee praised for their moderation, in not urging this practice upon all their brethren.Pockling. altare pag. 160. I shall intreat the pious and judicious reader, to consider with meet reverence, what is recorded among the statuts of that most noble order; non satis benè Deo atque altari reverentiam exhibuisse visi sunt, ut Deo & ejus altari proni facti debitum impenderent honorem, quoties praetergredie­tur summum altare in honorem Dei, debita genu flexione, reverentiaque consaluta­bit. Idem, in his Sunday no Sabbath at the end, If wee doe not onely bend or bow our body to his blessed board, or holy altar, but fall flat in our faces before his footstool so soone as ever we come in sight thereof, what Apostle or father would condemne us for, and not rather be delited to see the Lord so honoured. D. Pock­lingtoune with his Graces licence, proclamed the bending of the bodie and the Prostration even to it. Heylene comes up at last to his Masters back, and tels us that the adoration before the altar is the ho­nour of the altar it self, and that filling downe and kissing of the altar; for the honouring of the altar [Page 51] was a very commendable practise.Antidot Lin­colne preface to the King, altars were esteemeed so sacred, that even the barba­rous souldiours ho­noured them with af­fectionat kisses. Ibid. Pag. 86. The altar be­ing thought to be mo­re sacred, had a far greater measure of re­verence and devotion conferred upon it [...], a re­verend salutation of the table, [...], he and Pocklingtoun both page 142. com­mends that exhortati­on of the patriarch of Constantinople, in the fifth counsell, Adoremus primum sacrasanctum altare. Idem, in his answere to Bourtoun, page 137. If you look higher unto the use and practice of the an­cient Church, you can not misse a [...], an honour to the altar a [...], ad ad geniculationem aeris Dei. Laurence as he prints with Canterburies licence, but un­doubtedly by an impudent lee, at the Kings speciall commandement, doth maintaine not only veneration, but religious worshipping adoration, [...] and all,page 25. We finde in Igna­tius [...], a honour due to the altar, and in Tertullian ad geniculari aris a kneeling to the altars: and in the councell, [...], an ado­ration of the altar; and in the synodals of Odo reverentian altaribus exhibendam, and in Damascene [...]; and in another divina altaria, and in the life of Marie the Egyptian [...], casting my selfe to the earth, and worshipping the holy ground, and the Grecians triple prostrations tria [...] before the altar in the old Litur­gies. not only by a relative and transient worship as he speaks,Ibid. Although they gave a religious reverence to these places, yet they terminat that religious reverence in God not in the places: The throne is honoured for the King; hee that respects the house for the owners sake, respects not the house but him. but also, which is a degree of madnesse, beyond any thing that I ever have marked in any Papist, he will have a Divine adoration given to the altar it self without any relation, or mentall abstraction, because of the union of Christs bodie with it which sits there as in a chaire of estate even as without scruple or relati­ons, or mentall abstractions▪ wee give to the huma­ne nature of Christ, for that personall union of the godhead with it Divine adoration, whereof in it selfe it is not capable.Ibid. page 30. So much they said, but to justifie the practice of our Church: I need not say so much, for as although the humane nature of Christ receive all from the Divine, yet wee adore the whole suppositum in grosse, which consists of the humane as well as of the Divine. So because of Gods personall precense in the place, wee adore him without abstraction of his per­son, from the place, to wit, the altar. Pockling. alt page 153. Altars have beene in allages so greatly honoured because they are the seats and chai­res of Estate, where the Lord vouchsafeth to place himselfe amongst us. Quid est enim altare (as Optatus speakes) nisi sedes corporis & sanguinis Christi.

For the adoration of the communion elements,As much adoration of the elemēts they grant as the Papists require. which Protestants count an Idolatrie so horrible, that for it alone they would not faile to seperate from the church of Rome, though she had no other fault,Apologie des Egli­ses reformes par Ioan Daile chap. 20. their minde is plaine by the practice which his Grace maketh Heylene in his State an­swere defend, we do passe their adoration in the act of communicating, albeit wee think it strange to see men who once were counted moderat and wise, by the touch of his Graces patron, to be­come so insolent, as to hisse and hout at the do­ctrine and practice of the best reformed Churches, as vile and monstruous,Hale remedy of profainnesse, page 128. away with these mon­sters of opinion and praictise, in this sa­crament Christ Iesus is heer really tendered to us, and who can, who dare take him but on his knees. who in the act of receaving hath thought meet to sit or stand, rather than to kneele, we spake onlie of these their new adorations, which against the constant practice of the English church they are now begun to use, without the act of receaving, a number of low cringes towards these elements, when they take the paten in their hand, a low inclinabo before the bread, when they set it downe, another; when they take up the chalice, a third; when they set it downe a fourth,Heylens mode­rat answer, pag. 237. if bowing towards the communion table bee offensive to you at the administration of the Sacrament, I would faine know upon what reasons you stomack, that men should use their greatest reveren­ce in so great an action thinke you it fit the Priest should take into his hands the holy my­steries with out lowly reverence, or that it is an innovation so to doe? That these avowed adora­tions before the element, without the act of re­ceaving, are directed by them, not only they say to the person of Christ, whom they make their essentially present, but also unto the elements themselves; we prove it by no other reason but their former confession. Their adoration before the altar is done as they confesse unto the altar, much more their adoration before the elements, without the act of receaving must bee unto the [Page 53] elements: For I hope they will bee loath to affirme, that there is in the altar any worthinesse or aptitude or any other cause imaginable, which can make it capable of adoration, but the same causes are in the elements in a farre higher degree: The relation to Christs Body and Person, which they make the on­ly foundation of those worships being much more true, more near, more clear in the elements, then in the altar, howsoever the Popish prostrations, and adorations, before the hostie; which to all Prote­stants is so abominable idolatry, are absolved by these men, not onely by the clearing of Papists of all idolatrie everie where, but particularly by their impatience, to have the adoration of the elements to be called Popish. For in our book of Canons when in the copie sent up to the King, the adora­tion of the bread, Chap. 6. Was styled by our Bishopes the Popish adoration, my lord of Canter­burie on the margine with his owne hand directeth to scrape out the word Popish, as we can shew in the authentick manuscript of that booke now in our hands.

Concerning images,In the matter of ima­ges their full agrean [...]e with Rome. behold their assertions, first they tell us that the pullers down of images, out of their churches, were but lownes and knaves, pre­tending onely religion to their profane covetous­nesse, that they were truelie iconoclasticke and iconomachiam hereticks.Montag. orig. pag. 162. Imagines illa per Ecclesias constituta quae furorem effugerunt, ico­noclastarum. ibid. pag. 174 sub praetextu refor­matae pietatis, Deum, Ecclesiam, pietatem, per nefandissima sacrilegia eversis ubicun­que monasteriis, templis, sacrariis, & redactis in fiscum maximis reditibus emunx­erunt causantur sc. religiosi nebulones, &c. 2 That those who do pull downe or breake, or offereth any indig­nitie to a crosse to a crucifix, to a Saints image; are but madfools, that those injuries reflect upon Christ and the Saints, and are revenged sundrie [Page 54] times with plagues from heaven;Montag. antid. pag. 28. Verissimum est omninoquod affirmas [...], ut Caesaris imago in numismate, ut Mile­tii character in pala an­nuli, quod si quis Caesa­rem in charactere suo & numismate [...] in archetypum transit ea contumelia, quo modo si quis sancti alicujus ima­ginem dedecore afficiat, illum ego & [...] op­taverim, & suae temeri­tatis paenas dare. Stud­ley in his glasse for schi­smatiks about the end, tels us, that hee knew a Churchwarden for the taking downe of a crosse, which he conceived to have beene by his neigbours idolized, to have al his swine stricken with madnesse, and therafter the man in despe­ration to have drowned himselfe: Whence hee exhorts all men to beware so much as to censure their antecessors of idolatry, for erecting such monuments of their devotion 3 That the church of England (they take that church com­monly by a hudge mistake, for their owne preva­lent faction therein) doeth not onely keep innu­merable images of Christ, and the Saints in the most eminent and conspicuous places of their Sanctua­ries, but also dayly erect a number of new, long, and large ones, very curiously dressed, and that heerein they have reason to rejoice and glory, above all o­ther reformed Churches;Montag. antid. pag. 24. Haeretici nequaquam à te censeri debemus [...] asservamus enim deligenter, & cum cura Petri, Pauli, beatae virginis, sanctorum aliorum innumeras imagines, praesertim vero Iesu Christi redemp­toris crucifixi, etiam in templorum cryptis, & larariis in parietibus, & fenestris quas tamen non adoramus. Ibid. pag. 26. [...] ut cum Theodoreto loquar, impugnamus [...]. Sunt apud nos qùod aliquoties dicen­dum frequentissimae imagines in Ecclesiis per stallos, ut vocant, Canonicorum, per fenestras, ambones, vasa, vestimenta, & ipsa [...]. Pokling. altare pag. 87. In my lord of Lincolne private chappell, are to bee seene beside the altar, most richlie furnished closse to the wall under the east window, many goodly pictu­res which can not but strick the beholders with thoughts of pietie, and devotion at their entrance into so holy a place, as the picture of the passion, and likewise of the holy apostles, together with a fair crusifix, and our blessed Lady, and S. Iohn set up in painted glasse in the east window, just over the holy table, or sa­cred altar; So that I must say, That who so lives in this diocese, must bee con­demned of great impietie, that will desert his Lord, and not follow him giving a precedent of such devotion, so conformable of the rubrick of our Church. Heylens answere, page 174. For your particular instances, in the cathedrals of Durhame, Bristou, Pauls, &c. the most that you except against, are things of ornament, which you are grieved to see now more rich or costly, nor they have beene formerly. Pokling; altare pag. 24. Our Churches (by Gods mercy) are a glory to our religion, beautified with goodly glasse windowes. Ibid. pag. 87. A fair Crucifix, and our blessed Lady, and S. Iohn set up in painted glasse in the east window, just over the sacred altar. 4. That these their manifold images, they use not onely for ornament, but also to be bookes to the Laicks, both for their instruction and kindling of their affections to pie­ty, zeale, charity, imitation of the Saints; [Page 55] Widowes Schis­maticall Puritain, p. 10 Church pictures are an externall beauty of the Church, a memorie of honour to the dead, & S. Gregorie cals them Laymens books. Poklin alt. pag. 87. There are to be seen many good­ly pictures, which can not but strike the be­holders with thoughts of piety and devotion. Montag. antig page. 318 The pictures of Christ, of the blessed Virgine, and Saints, may be made, had in houses, set up in Churches, re­spect and honour may be given to them the Protestants do it, and use them for helps of pietie, in re­memoration, and effectuall representing of the prototyp. Ibid. pag. 3 [...]0. Images have three uses, assigned by our schooles, Instruction of the rude, commone faction of storie, and stirring up of devotion, these you and wee also give unto them. 5. That towards the images of Christ and the Saints, the hearts of the Godly ought to be affected with a pious devotion, with a religious reverence, and that this reverence may very lawfully bee ex­pressed, with an outward religious adoration; yea, Prostration before the image, as well as before the altar, with the eyes of the adorer fixed upon the i­mage;Montag. adtid. page 30. Christiani omnes adoramus Chri­stum, imagini & simulachro, non prosternimur coram imagine sorsan, quid ad rem vero? Invitatio est ad pietatem, ex intuitu tolle scandalum, ita si velis prosternaris, etiam oculos defigas in crusifixum ante mensam Dominicam inclinamur, in genua procumbinus, venerationem exhibemuss, non tamen mensam adoramus. 6. That the Popish distinction of duleia and latreia is good, and well grounded, that the onely abuse of images is the worshipping of them with latreia; that the Papists are free of this fault, that all their practice heere is but iconoduly, not ido­latrie, that all our contraversie with them about the worshipping of relicts, and so much more of images, (for to images, they professe a farre lesse respect then to reliques) is but the toying of chil­dren, the striving about shadowes, that long ago both sides, are really agreed, though some for their own pride and greed delight to keep this contra­versie about ambiguous words still upon foot.Montag. antid. page 16. Lateriam, illum cultum soletis appellare, neque ego nomen aut nominis rationem, vel subiectum improbavero, tum à duleia soletis di­stinguere, non alio fine, quàm quod rerum subjectarum rationes, secundum magis & minus inter se distinguanur. page 27. Tantummodo taxumus in imaginibus [...] usu & utilitatem non sollicitamus ullo pacto. page 24. Pergamus ad, Ecclesiae Romanae [...]. Montag. orig. page 40. Nolunt illi quovis pacto creatura cuicunque lateriā ne quidem cultu relativo exhiberi sed non constat quis sit ille cultus latreiae soli Deo precise & peculiariter, debitus quibus terminis circamscri­batur: quis ille qui solus creaturis debetur, quis ejus modus, gradus, mensura, partes, conditio, limitatio, omnia vacillant vel ignorantur, nec illud agitur ut constare p [...]ssint lusum diu est in hac questione & illusum per ambiguitates è privatis nempe vel con­tendendi vel ditescendi; respectibus constet autem hoc, & facilè conveniet inter nos Magnam certè graciam ab Ecclesia Christi, & partibus inter se contendentibus ini­verint, qui docerent quousque progredtin hoc sanctorum cultu, & [...] pos­sumus sine justo scandalo, animae pereulo, pietatis & religionis naufragio interim quod pueri solent, in hac re, ut in multis [...].

About reliques they agree with Papist.Concerning reliques they teach first that the carying of them about in cloaths by devout peo­ple is tollerable.Andrews stricturae For their reliques we­re we sure, they were true wee would carry to them the regard that becomes. It was rashnesse & nudiscreet­ly done of Vigilantius so to a base his termes concerning them, had they power of doing miracles we would ha­ve esteemed them so much the more, but in their own degree: yet the caring of them about in linnen cloathes, and kissing which Vigilantius did object, if he did it truely, we would rather bear with it, and excuse it is as proceeding from po­pular and privat divotion which will many times overshut it self then com­mend it. Next that those bones or that dust of the deceased Saints ought justly to be put in a casse of silk or of gold that they may be well hung about our necke and oft kissed; that they may be layed up amongst our most pretious jewels.Montag. antid. page 17. Ossa sanctorum cineres, reliquias vase au­reo, velamine precioso convolvebant. Ego certe cum Constantino, illas reliquias fasciis involuam, auro includam circumgestendas, admovebo labiis ac collo suspensa manibus oculisque crebo usupatas intuebor, vel in apothecas condam, & recludam in­ter preciofissima cermelia censendas. 3. That in those reliques there is oft found so much grace, holin [...]sse, [...]rtue, that all who touches them are sanctified by that touch.Montag. antid. page 16. Magnus Basi­lius ait [...] Martyris ossa quicunque tetigerit ob gratiam illi corpori infi­dentem, fit quadam tenus particeps sanctificationis. 4. That to these relicts a great honour yea a rela­tive worship is due albeit not a latria or divine ado­rationMontag. antid. page 16. Agnoscimus ecclesiam ve­terem sanctorū reliquiis & cineribus magnum honorem detulisse, & veneratione quadam re­lativa coluisse. Fiftly, That pilgramages to the places where those relicts stand are very expedient, that protestants doe reprove only these pilgramages [Page 57] towards the Church of the Saints which are made for greed or superstition, that papists do disallow all such as well as wee.Montag. antid. page 44. Neque pere­grinationem religiosam ad loca ut appellant san­cta quisquam improba­verit qui in rebus eccle­sia Christiana veteris non est hospes; improbat Molinaeus & meritio peregrinationes ut ap­pellant malas, inventas vel ad superstitionem, vel ad questum, vel ad ty­rannidam, quas & ipsas nemo sanus inter catho­licos Romanos non im­probaverit. 6. That all the con­traversie which here remaines betwixt papists and protestants is about just nothing even about goates woll and the shadow of ane Asse.Mon­tag. orig. page 45. ut de lana caprina, vel [...] hic rixare videantur contendentes. They come very neer to the invocation of Saints.

About the invocation of Saints whereof the learned of the papists are so ashamed that they dis­avow their owne practise thereof,Andrews structurae page 57. The Cardinall freely confessed to M. Causabon that he had never prayed to a Saint in all his life save only when he happened to follw the pro­cession, and that then he sung ora pro nobis with the Clerks butelse not. yet our men tell us first that the Saints in heaven are truely our meditators with God of intercession, as Christ is of redemption.Mon­tag. antid. page 20. Non anuerim sanctos esse orationis & intercessionis ut loqu [...] soletis mediatores, sed universum universos: precibus suis apud Deum interveniun [...] & orationibus mediantur, Cbristus solus & absque aliis est mediator redemptionis & quoad meritum passionis sua [...] intercessionis mediator. Again, that wee ought carefully to keep the Saints festivalls, to this end that we may be partakers of their intercession.Andrews stri­ctura. page 8. We agree with S. Augustine, we celebrat the memories and hold the feasts of the blessed Martyrs as well for imitation, as that wee may be par­takers of their intercession. Schelfords first sermon page [...]4. Upon the Saints dayes the Saints in heaven joine with us, now if the Saints in heaven after their manner aide us with their prayers, shall we be so base minded as not to pray with them? Ibid. page 27. In observing Saints dajes and in dedicating rem­ples to God in their name; these who neglect this holy followship have a great losse, which none can see but they who have spirituall eyes 3. That albeit for common their intercession be universall, yet that sundry times they descend to particulars, They remember the estates of their friends and acquaintance as they left it at their death, they are informed of many new particulars by the Angels which hath been upon earth, and by the Saints which after their death hath newly [Page 58] come to the heaven, and that accordig to their particular informations they frame their inter­cession.Andrews answer to Cardinall Pirron. 20 chap. Wee wil hope well that Theodosius might interceed with God for his children, wee see no cause to the contrary. Montag. antid. page 22. Memi­nerunt amicorum suo­rum & rerum ase quon­dam in terris gestarum quoeirca ad Christum in coelo recollecti poterint devia ordinaria per Ie­sum Christum apud Deum patrem amicos, familiares [...] precibus commendare & adiu­vare..

4. If wee were certaine that the Saints in heaven knew our estate it were no fault at all but verie expedient to make our prayers to them that they might interceed with Christ for us. And though wee bee not certaine of their knowledge, yet all the fault that is in our prayers to them is only some idlenesse and curiositie but no impietie at all.Montag. antid. page 229. Save all other labour in this point. Prove on­ly their knowledge of any thing ordinarly I promise you streight I wil say holy S. Mary pray for me. Ib, antid. page 23. Tu mihi proba & demonstra posse me certum esse de scientia sanctorum particulari quocunque tandum modo ac quisita ego certe quod ad me ipsum attinet sanctos defunctos beatam puta virginem, sanctis­simos Apostolos, gloriosissimos Martyres non verebor adire interpellare, alloqui, sup­plicibus precibus deprecari habeant me commedatum & adiutum suis intercessionibus apud Deum patrem per filium. Idem antid. page 200. Perhaps there is no such great impietie in saying holy S. Laurence pray for me. 5. That none ought to reprove our prayers unto our Angell keeper.Montag. invoca­tion of Saints page 99. If thus my self resolved to do infer (holy Angel keeper pray for me) I see no reason to be taxed with point of Popery or superstition much lesse of absurdity or impiety. Ibidem author. page 203. The case of Angels not guardians as being continually attendant alwayes at hand, though invisible, and therefore though we may say S. angel keeper pray for me, it followeth not, wee may say S. Gabriel pray for me. The Saint in heaven which the papists doe most idolize is our blessed Virgine to whome it is well knowne they give much more false worshipe, then true to the whole Trinitie, Concerning her the Canterburians affirme first, that she is created in another way then any of the race of Adam, that God did meditate fiftie ages upon the work of her perfect creation, that shee did live all her dayes without mortall sin yea with­out all actuall sin, yea without all originall.Anthonie Stafford Female glorie. page 3. Others of these first and purer times not without admi­ration observe that God was almost fiftie ages in the meditation of the structure of this stately palace. Montag. apar. page 301 Magno procul dubio ope­re templum illud [...] aparabatur, nec una de multis mater Domini in hunc mundum pro­cessit è materno utero. Ibid. page 338. Vicun­que conceptam in origi­nali peccato, vixisse ta­men immunem à mortali peccato cum Augustino putaverim. Staffords Femal glorie in his proe­miall verses, for Eves offence not hers she did begin to learn repentance ere she knew to sin. Idem page 20. She sent forth many a sigh for sin not having committed any, and bewailed that of which she was utterly ignorant idem page 8. The apostles sometimes were obscured with the fog of sin, but her brightnesse nothing vitious could lessen, much lesse alutterly extinguish. [Page 59] that she is now advanced above all the Angells to the highests created perfection that is possible to the daughter, mother, and spouse of God and that her very bodie is alreadie translated to the heavens.Fe­mal glorie page 28. Nothing in her was wanting but the Dietie it self. Idem in the preface, Whether we regard her person or her divine gifts, she is in dignitie next to God himself. Ibid. Great Queen of Queens, daughter, and mother, and the spouse of God Idem. page 210. Her assumption by many of the Fa­thers, by all the Romish Church, and some of the reformed is held for an un­doubted. 3. That God hath made her to bee true Ladie and empresse of the Catholike Church of all the earth, and of the heaven, and that all these honours she hath abtained by her due deser­vings and merits.Montag. apar page 312. Dominam profecto indicat Mariae no­men, nam revera facta est domina omnium creaturarum, Damasaenus ait, cum condi­toris omnium effecta fuerit mater. Ibid. page 302. Certe nulli Sanctorum dedit Deus plura, nulli majora, nullum ne omnibus quidam Sanctis, tanta, hoc est elogia matris Dei Deus impertivit qui titulus [...] omnes omnium cre­aturarum dignitates illud unicum privilegium supergreditur. Recte ait. B Thomas, beata virgo ex hoc quod est mater Dei habet quandam dignitatem infinitam. Ex his licet colligere (inquit Baradas) sanctissimam virginem infinitam haberè quondam dignitatem ex Deo, qui & è Bonaventura recitat, majorem mundum Deus facere potest majorem autem matem quam est mater Dei Deus facere non potest Fem gl. page 21. She undoubtedly deserved to be rapt up, if it were possible, a storie higher than was S. Paul. Ibid. page 80. Certainly all the ancient Fathers with one consent affirme that she deserves to be Empresse of all others who humbled her self below them all. 4. That all the Angels and Saints in heaven, let bee men upon earth are obli­ged to adore her and bow their soules unto her.Femal glorie. In the Panegyrirk, To whom do bow the fouls of all the just, whose place is next to Gods, to whom the hierachie do throng, and for whom heaven is all one song. Ibid page 3. Truely our belief may easily digest this that his omnipotencie would make her fit to bee Em­presse of this lower world. Ibid. page 17. There were no doubt some of Gra­titudes children, who lay prostrat before, & did homage to their dearest Lady. Ibidem pag. 32. The Saints glorious Empresse. 5. That she knoweth all things perfectly heere [Page 60] beneath upon the earth: For in the face of God in the glasse of the Trinity she doth behold all crea­tures.Femal glorie panegy­rick. Whose place is next to GOD, and in her face all creatures and delytes do see as darling of the Trinity. 6. That it is but prophane puritans who refuse to say the Ave Maries, and to follow the example of their pious predecessors who wont so to pray.Ibid. pag. 220. The Puritans of this land are those I mean, they reject all testimo­nies of her worth as haile Marie full of gra­ce, &c. They abhorre to hear her called Do­mina, because forsooth they challenge to themselves a greater measure of knowledge but a lesser of piety than did their antecessors by disclaming wordes and phrases familiare to antiquity. Of one thing I will assure them till they bee good Marians they shall never be good Christians. 7. That the devotions of the pre­sent Monks, Nunnes, and Princes who have en­rolled their names in the sodality of the virgin Ma­ry is worthy of imitation.pag. 23. My arithmetick will not serve mee to number all those who have registrate their names in the sodality of the ro­sarie, of this our blessed Lady. The Princes of this Isle have not beene defe­ctive in doing her all possible honour, and in consecrating chappels and tem­ples to her memory. Many holy orders also are of this sodality as the Bene­dictins, the Cistertians, the Franciscans, the Cartusians, and many others. If all those testimonies and examples of great worth and pious people will not move us to honour her, wee shall be judged both unworthy of this life here & igno­rant of that better to come. 8. That the old pious ceremonie of burning of waxe candels in all the Churches of England through the whole cleare day of her purification ought to be renewed.Ibid. pag. 153. This day the celebration whereof is instituted by the Church is called Candlemas, as much as to say, the day of lights, on which while masse was singing very many tapers were burning in the Church. Mon­tag. orig. pag. 157. Diem ab illa solemnitate celebrem vocant praesentationis: nos an­gelice the purification of our Lady, vel communi sermone potius. Candlemasday adistributione vel gestatione cereorum ardentium. Couzins did put all this in pra­ctise in the cathedral of Durham mede burn in day light some hundreths of wax candles. Peter Smart for preaching against him was deposed and imprisoned, but Couzins for his devotion advanced from a poore prebend to a Provost of a Colledge and a royall Chaplaine in ordinar.

9. That the Christians obtained that famous vi­ctory over the Turkes in Lepanto by her interces­sion at their prayers with Christ her Sonne.Femal glory pag. 226. The originall of the sodali­tie of the blessed vir­gin is derived from the battell of Naupactum gained by Iohn of Au­stria and the Christi­ans, which victorie was attributed to her intercession with her Son. All this his Grace hath permitted under his eye to be printed at London without any censure, and when [Page 61] this doctrine was challenged by Burtoun, he was rewarded with the losse of his eares and perpetuall prison. The booke which he inveighed against let bee to bee recalled, is openly excused in print at his Graces direction as containing no evill but only innocent retorications.Heylens an­swer. page 123. As for the book in tituled the Femal glory you finde not in it that I see by your collections any thing positively or dogmatickly delivered contrarie unto any point of doctrine estabished and received in the Church of England. Some swelling language there is into it and some Apostrophees I perceive by you to the virgin Mary which if you take for invocations you mistake his meaning, no invocation hitherto in point of doctrine. Yea M. Dow with his Graces licence pronounceth that book to bee free of all poperie and that upon this reason, because the author professeth his tracing the steps of Doctor Montagow whom all England must know to be above all suspition of poperie.M. Dow page 54. In all these panegyrick straines of Rhetorick (for such for the most part they seem rather than positive assertions) Stafford hath not deviat so much to the one extreame as M. Burtouns marginall hath to the other in scoffing and calling her the new great goddesse Diana. And if it bee true that he hath not digressed in any par­ticular from D. Montagu the B of Chichester as M. Burtoun makes him affirme, I dare boldly say M. Burtoun will never be able too finde the least point of Po­perie in it: For it is well know, that Bishop hath approved him self such a cham­pion against Rome, that they who have tryed his strength durst never yet come to a second encounter.

CHAP. V. The Canterburians avovv their embracing of the popish heresies and gros­sest errours.

THE nature of heresie is so subtilized by our faction, that so farre as in hew lyes it is now quite evanished in the aire, and no mo heresies are to be found on the earth. [Page 63] With the Socinian Remonstrants, they exeeme all tenets controverted this day among any Christians, from being the Subject of heresie: For they tell us, that the belief of the doctrines uncontraverted by all is sufficent for salvation.Pottar cites from Causabon these words: Put by controversies these things, wherein al sects universally doe agree, are sufficient for salvation. And howsoe­ver some of them will be content to count the So­ciniam Arianisme, and Macedoniansme to bee true heresies; yet, as wee shew before, all of them do cleare the Popish errours of this imputation. Al­wayes not to strive for words, our assertion is, that the grossest of the Roman errours which in the common stile of Protestants, wont to go for here­sies, are maintained by the Canterburians for ca­tholicke trueth. For to cleare this, cast over the books of Bellarmine, and see if his grossest tenets be not by them embraced. In his first tome, his errours about the Scriptures imperfection, and do­ctrinall traditions, seemes to be most weightie. In his second, beside these alreadie named, his de­fence of the monastick vowes of, Limbus Patrum and Purgatorie are verie palpable. In the third, his ascribing too little too the Sacramenst of the Old Testament, and too much too the Sacraments of the New, his making all infants in baptisme too be regenerat, and all non-baptized too bee dam­ned, his corporall presence of Christs bodie on the altar, his sacrifice of the Masse, auricular confessiō, extreame unction, are very grosse corruptions. In the last tome, his errours about faith, justification, merit, free-will, are among the chiefe. In all those, consider how farre our partie is long agoe declined to the left hand.

Begin with Scripture and traditions: The refor­med churches in the harmonie of their confessions lay all down one common ground,They joine with Ro­me in setting up tradi­tions in prejudice of Scripture. for their mutuall consent; the Scriptures absolute perfection, wieh­out [Page 63] the help of any doctrinall tradition: Hold me once this piller, the whole edifice of the reforma­tion must fall. To batter downe this fort, the Pa­pists plant two engines: One, that there is diverse Apostolicke and ancient traditions, both rituall and dogmaticall, which, beside Scripture with a divine faith must be firmely beleeved: An other, that Scri­pture must not be taken in any sense by us, but that wherein the ancient fathers of the church have un­derstood it, or the present church do take it. In both these very dangerous corruptions our partie joynes with Rome: They glorieHeylens antid. Lincoln page 8 [...]. sect. 2. Things that have bee­ne generally in the Church of Christ, are generally conceaved to have been derived-from Apostolical tra­dion, without, any spe­ciall mandat left in Scripture for the doing of them. Praying di­rectlie towards the East is conceaved to bee of that condition, why may wee not conclude the like of setting up the altar along the wall. Many things come into our minde by a successionall tradition, for which wee can not finde an expresse command, wich yet we ought to entertaine, ex vi Catholicae consuetudinis; of which traditions there are many, which still retaine their force among us in England. This Church (the Lord bee thanked for it) hath stood more firme for apostolical traditions, than any other whatsoever of the reformation. Samuel Hoards sermon, page 15. Wee yeeld that there are apostolical traditions rituall and dogmaticall, which are no where mentioned or enjoined in the Scriptures, but delivered by the word of mouth, by the apostles to their followers, for some of which these are reputed, the number of Canonciall books, The Apostles creed the baptisme of infants, the fast of Lent, the Lords day, the great feastivals of Easter and Whitson day, beside these, we confesse, there are and have bene many ancient Ecclesiastick traditions, from which as foundations grew those noted practices of not fa­sting on the Sunday, of adoring towards the East, prostration before the altar, of signing the baptized with the crosse, of exorcifing the partie baptised, and putting a white garment upon them, of receiving the Eucharist fasting, of mix­ing water with the wine, of sending it to such as were absent, of eating the consecrat bread in the Church, or carrying it home, of crossing themselve [...] when they went out, or when they went in, when they went to bed, or whe [...] theyr ose, when they sat down to meat, when they lighted Candles, or had any businesse of moment, to doe, that ceremonies and rites of this nature are unde [...] the power of the Church to ordaine we generally grant to our adversaries. White on the Sabboth, page 97. The reformed Churches reject not all tra­ditions, but such as are spurious, superstitious, and no consonant to the holy Scripture, but genuine traditious, agreeablee to the rule of faith, derived from the apostolicall times by a successive current, and which have the uniforme te­stimonie of poins of antiquitie, are received and honourd by us. Now such are these which follow the historicall tradition, concering the number, integritie, dignitie, and perfection of the books of Canonicall Scripture, the Catholick exposition of many sentences of Scripture, the apostles creed, the baptisme of infants, the observation of the Lords day, and some other feastivals, as Easter Pentecost, &c. baptizing and administration of the Supper in holy assemblies the service of the Church in a knowne language, the delivering of the Com­munion to the people in both kindes, the superioritie of Bishops over Priest and Deacons in Iurisdiction, and power of ordination. and triumph above all other reformed churches, that they do embrace doctrinall traditions, for which in Scripture there is no ground; And of this kinde they reckon out some of great importance; such as are, the bap­tisme of infants, the sanctifying of the Sabbath, the Apostles Creede, the giving of the cup to the people, praying in a known tongue, our knowledge of Scripture to be Scripture, the names and num­ber of the Canonicall Bookes and their distinction from Apocrypha, of this kinde they maintaine [Page 64] large as many as Rome. For at the first word the [...] speake to us of six hundrethMontag. orig. pa. 396. Vbi iubentur in Scripturis infantes ba­ptizori, aut in coena Do­mini sub utraque specie communicantes partici­pare. 600. sunt ejusmodi in rebus sacris à deo insti­tutis, ecclesiae mandatis, & usurpaatis ab ecclesia, de quibus possumus profite­ri, nihil tale docet Scri­ptura, Scriptura haec non praedicat. among these traditions, which we must embrace with an un­doubted faith; They reackon up the authoritie of the Bishopes above the Priests, prostration before the altars, worshipping towards the East, crosse i [...] Baptisme, crossing of our faces at all occasions the standing of a crucifix upon the altar, and wha [...] else they please to urge, for which they can get no Scripture warrant. To this head they referre the verie customes of the Popish church in latter times, for which they have no scribe in any write [...] let be in any Father:Montag. orig. page 276. Nihil est memoriae proditum, quod ego quidem sciam hac dei apud vetustiores, sive historicos sive patres, prohabile tamen est hanc receptam eccle­siae consuetudinem de traditione vetustiore, ant scriptis etiam patrum vetustiorib [...] nunc deperditis dimanasse. Montag. apar. page 389. Ad me quod attinet, quid à sanctis patribus per illa tempora inventum, primo & usurpatum, nulla tradi­tione priore commendatum, nullo usu veterum, ne quidem vestigiis leviter impressis, consignatum per tot aunorum decursum ad nostra usque tempora sine contradictione descenderit, non video cur non [...] & [...] vim suam obtineat & au­thoritatem. Absit enim ut universalis ecclesia vel in rebus de facto, & ecclesiasti­cis ritibus tam diu aberraverit. Ibid. page 382. Meminerimus Tertullianum olim statuisse cum applausu de hujusmodi consuetudinibus, si legem expostules scri­ptam, nullam invenies, sed traditio a praetenditur auctrix, consuetudo confirmatrix, & fides observatrix. Et Irenaeus, quid autem si neque Apostoli reliquiss [...]nt nobis Scripturas, nonne oporteret ordinem sequi traditsonis. Idem antig. page 42. That author sayes no more then is justifiable touching traditions: for thus hee sayes, The doctrine of the Church is two wayes delivered unto us; first by writing, then by tradition from hand to hand. Both are of alike value of force unto pietie. Yea, all the injunctions [Page 65] of the Bishopes must be Ecclesiastick traditions, whereto the conscience must submit no lesse then to the precepts of God.White in his ex­amination of the dialo­gue presseth not only this testimonie of Au­stine, Etiamsi Scripturae authoritas non subesset, totius tamen orbis in hanc partem consensus, instar precepti contine­at, nam & alia multa quae per traditionem in Ecclesiis observantur, authoritatem sibi scriptae legis usurpaverunt, but also that of Eusebius, Quicquid in sanctis Epis­coporum consiliis decernitur, id universum divinae voluntati debet attribui: And this of Bernards, Sive, Deus sive homo vicarius Dei mandatum quodcunque tradi­derit, pari profecto obsequendum est cura, pari reverentia suscipiendum, ubi tamen Deo contraria non praecepit homo. In the meane time Scripture must bee stiled the booke of hereticksMontag. orig. page 353. Eusebius de Se­verianis hereticis loquens, ait, Hilege, Prophetis & Euang [...]liis utantur socrarum Scripturarum sensus & sententias, ut nostri salent purtani & novatores pro suo arbi­tratu interpretantur. Chounaei Colect. page 31. Sensum Scripturarum ex pa­tribus ecclesiae deductum, traditum & conseruatum in ecclesia, & approbatum, quid­ni pro tali traditione agnoscamus, in cujus veritate acquiescendum, & à qua mini­mè discendendum sit. Montag. orig. page 318. Neque enim insanire solent sine Scripturis haeretici & mirificè easdem ad suos [...] solent applicare defen­dendos persuadendosque. a Lesbian rule.Montag. apar. page 382. Non ut nostri novatores de­ [...]dirant quibus quicquid est [...] respit & [...] & ideo refigendum est [...] vel ut amant loqui reformandum ad Dei verbum, hoc est ad Lesbiam plane regulam [...]ipsorum cerebrositatem amussitandum. In no controversies no not in Sermons any use may bee made of it, ex­cept so farre as we can backe our deductions from Scripture, by consent of the ancient Fathers or present church.Pocklingtoun altare. page 129. The godlie and learned Fathers of our church, give strict charge to private preach­ers, that they preach nothing in their preachings which they would have the people religiously to believe and observe, but that which is agreeable to the doctrine of the old and new Testament, and that which the catholick fathers, and ancient bishops have formerly taught and collected from thence. White upon the Sabboth, page 12. The holy Scripture is the fountaine and living spring, containing in all sufficiencie and aboundance whatsoever is necessarie to make Gods people wise unto salvation. The consentient and unanimous testi­monie of the true Church of Christ in the primative ages thereof is the canalis, or a conduit pipe to derive and convoy to succeding generations the celestiall water contained in the holy Scripture. Ibid. From Meisnerus hee sayeth, Iniu­riam nobis facit Beeanus scribendo, nos docere solam Scripturam esse normam & iu­dicem contraversiarum fidei, imò & spiritum sanctum, seu judicem supremum prae­supponimus, & ecclesiam ceu iudicem inferiorem libenter admittimus; ideoque soli Scripturae officium iudicandi absque omni distinctione non assignamus. Idem page 14. The ecclesiasticall storie reporterh of Nazianzen and Basille, that in their study­ing the holy Scriptures they collected the sense of them, not from their owne judgement or presumption, but from the testimonie and authoritie of the an­cients, who had received the rule of the true intellegence of Scripture from they holy apostles by succession.

In the doctrine of faith, justification, ful­filling of the Law, me­rit, they are fully po­pish.In our most important controversies anent faith, justification, fulfilling of the Law, merite, &c. they teach, first, that faith is no more but a bare knonwledge, and naked assent, that in the nature of it there is no confidence, application at all, that the souls confidence and application of Gods pro­mises, are the acts onely of hope and charity, that justifying faith is the catholicke faith, a generall assent to the articles of the Apostolick Creed, that particular personail applying faith, but presump­tion and fantasie.Shelfoord page 36 This one faith is called by Divines the Catho­lick faith, contained in the three Creedes of the apostles, Nice and Athanasius. The false faith is contrarie too this, the private faith, or fancie rather, by which men believe to besaved by them, that which is the mother and nource to vice, an enemie to all good life; and that this is no the Catholick faith, shall appear, because that faith hath not a speciall object, as a mans self, or Gods speciall favour to this or that particular man, which is hopes object, but a catholick object, which is the whole first truth, and every member of Gods books, as the school to acheth, this faith goeth but to the truth and esse of divine things. Fait giveth those truths a being and substance in our minde, but after hope layeth hold on them in the wil and affections, and applyeth them to our selves, & charitie goeth in unto them. The apostle sayeth, That hee who cometh to God must believe that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him, not a rewarder of me or thee, as if the article of faith were personall. Idem page 106. In the love of the heart lyeth the greatest apprehension. The greatest meane of our apprehending of him is by charitie, which layes hold on him in the will and reasonable affections, Chounai Collect. 82. Appli­catio ex parte hominis, non ex alia ratione procedit, quam ex amplexu amoris & de­siderii. Ibid. page 97. Det Deus hanc spem, & suavissimam hujus spei pleropho­riam. Again, they teach that justi­fication is ascribed by the Apostle to faith onely, by way of beginning inchoative, because the assent to the trueth of God, is that first vetue which the chaine of all other vertues, whereby wee are com­pleet [Page 67] lie justified, for common, doth follow.Chonnaei collect, page 69. Inchoativè per fidem iustificat Deus, dat sc. prop­ter Christum cognitionem, ex cognitione fidem, ex fide spem sive fiduciam, ex fidu­cia charitatem, ex charitate adhaesionem obediendi & complacendi defiderium, ex isto desiderio meritorum Christi salubrium applicationem, ex ista applicatione sanctifica­tionem, seu observantiam mandatorum, ex istis omnibus in actu scilicet consummato justificationem, ex illa salvationem quae omnia tum efficaciter per canalem Dei gra­tiae, ex fide tanquam ex principio seu radice, per connaturalitatem omnium ad fidem, & ad se invicem effluere videantur, quaecunque ab aliquibus horum proveniunt ad fidem, tanquam ad omnium originem referenda sunt, & in hoc sensu arbitramur Apo­stolum, 3. ad Rom. vers. 28. loquutum fide homines justificatum iri scilicet per fi­dem elicituram ex consequentiis suis operationem. 3. That charitie is the forme of faith, and that to it, the act of justification is much more reasonablie ascribed then too faith.Shelfoord page 102. Charitie is called of schoole Divines grace it selfe. It is thar law of the Spirit which freeth from death and sin. It is the maine refuge of a distressed conscience. It covereth a multitune of sins. It will not suffer them to appear: Without charitie workes are dead, as well as faith and other vertues. Hence the Schoole calleth charitie the forme of vertues. Ibid. page 106. Faith converteth the minde to God, but it is love that converts the heart and will to God, which is the greatest and last conversion; for we never seek any thing till wee desire it. Our conversion is begun in the minde by faith, but it is only halfe conversion, yea no conversion of the whole man, except the love of the heart (where lyeth the greatest apprehension) follow it: wee see salva­tion by faith, but we obtaine it not, till wee seeke it by charities desire. Where­fore I conclude, that for as much as charitie is the most neere and immediat cause of our conversion, that it is also the most precious grace of God for our good, and the greatest mean of our apprehending him is by charitie, which layeth hold on him in the will and reasonable affections, therefore this must be the greatest meane of our justification. Ibid. page 109. The fulfilling of the law justifieth, but charitie is the fulfilling of the law, where the apostle preferreth charitie to justifying faith, he compareth them in the most excellent way, and it is most manifest that the most excellent way, is the way of our justification and, conversion to God, 4. That S. Pauls justification whereby we stand before the barre of God is nought, but our conversion and sanctificati­on by our inherent righteousnesse.Shelfoord page 107. Iustification & conversion to God is all one. Idem pag. 10 [...]. Charitie is the maine refuge of a distressed conscience. Montag. antid. page 142. A sinner is then justified when hee is transformed in minde, renewed in soule, regenerate by grace. Chomley in his answer for Hall to Burtoun, is not onely content to exeeme the Popish justification from all blot of a fundamentall errour, but seemes also to make all our contraversie in this point to be but a jugling about words; yea, at last hee seemes to joine with the Councell of Trent in anathematizing our, doctrine: For thus, if I remember well, doth he speake. If any man shall say that men are so justified by the sole imputation of Christs righteousnesse, or by sole remission of sinnes, that they are not also sanctified by inherent grace of charitie, or also that the grace whe­reby we are justyfyed is only the favour of God, let him be accursed, and let him be so indeed for me. You will say this is nothing but meere jugling, I grant it, but yet it is not the direct denyall of the foundation, for here is both remissi­on of sins, and imputation of Christs righteousnesse included, which though it be sufficient to justification in the Protestant sence, yet in the Popish sense, wherein sanctification is also required, it is not sufficient. 5. That [Page 68] the fulfing of Gods Law to us in this life is both possible and easie, that if God did command us any thing which were impossible, he should be both unjust and a tyrant.Shelfoord pag. 121 That there is fulfilling of the Law in this life: Iames teacheth, if you fulfill the royall law, you do well. Were Gods Law not possible to befulfilled, the supposition should be idle, unfit for Gods word, a caption unbeseeming a writing by divine inspira­tion. To the keeping of this we must straine our soule, wee must nor flee to a naked imputation, where is required our confirmation. Hee hath predestinate us to be conform to the image of his Son. Hee hath fulfilled the Law, and so must we too. Ibid page 127. Christ hath merited, that the rigteousnesse of the Law, should be fulfilled in us, not by faith only, or by sole imputation, as the ignorant understand it, but by our actuall walking in the divine precepts. Ibid. page 136. To binde a man to things impossible, were a wrong both to nature and grace therefore the schoole verse sayeth. ‘Vltra posse viri non vult Deus alla requiri.’ God can no more in equitie now require impossibilities at our hands, then hee could at first at Adams: Neither doeth hee, if wee believe S. Paul, who sayeth, I can do all things by Christ, who hath loved me. Ibid. page 139. If God should command things impossible, then should he be more cruell then a tyrāt, who will not offer to exact of his Subjects such a tribute which he knowes can not be payed: It is tyrannicall and cruell, and therefore impossible to God to require the abilitie which he himselfe took a way, and of those too that are his friends, and in league with him. Ibid. page 147. To say that the very best works of the Saints are uncleane, impure, mortal sins, is extreame blasphemie. Can the works of the holy Ghost be impure? The least addition of evill in a good work makes it sinfull, because Bonum est ex integra causa, malum ex quolibet de­fectu. White on the Sabboth, page 157. urgeth those sayings, as from S. Austi­ne, Neque impossible aliquid imperate potuit Deus quia justus est; neque damnaturus est hominem proeo quod vitare non potest, quia pius est. Execramur blasphemiam eorum qui dicunt aliquid impossible homini à Deo esse praeceptum.

[Page 69]6. That not onely many do fulfill the Law with­out all mortall sinne, but sundry also do supererogat by doing more then is commanded, by perfor­ming the counsels of perfection, of chastity, pover­tie, and obedience:Shelfoord. page 184. By his preceps he informeth us of all the meanes that leads toward life eternal by his counsels, which go beyond his precepts (because GOD hath given man freewill to get what he can in the state of grace for the state of glory) he shewes some exceeding meanes to grow to this lifes perfe­ction, and to improve the common reward of glory for the next life, as sell what thou hast and give it to the poore, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven; heere we have counsell to change temporall riches for eternall, which are better. 2. Wee are counselled to change permitted fleshly pleasures for heavenly ple­asures, where it is said; qui potest capere capiat. 3. We are counselled to deny our selves and our lawfull liberties, (to follow Christ through the worlds dif­ficulties; these are Gods counsels which in the primitive church were) put in practice, but in our times they are put of with a non placet ibid p. 129. Of the counsels of the gospel which go beyond the counsels of the Law. S. Chrysost, say­es [...]. Christ hath commanded nothing impossible; yea, many have gone above his comman­demēts. 7. That our good works do truely deserve and merit eternall life:M [...]ntag. appeal p. 233. The wicked go to enduring of torments ever­lasting, the good go to enjoyning of happinesse without end; thus is their estate diversified to their deserving. Shelfoord p. 120. seteth downe the commensment verses of Cambridge which in merite goeth as farre a Bellarmine, Virtutū sancta & spesinsa caterva. salutē divino ex pacto quam meruere dabūt. Chomneus p. 18. goes yet further, that our workes are the as true efficiēt cause of our salvatiō, as our wic­kednesse can be of our damnation, as we heard before Montag. antig. p. 153. That a work may be said to be meritorious, ex condigno, these conditions are requi­red, that it bee morallie good, that it be freely wrought by a man in this life in the estare of grace and friendship with God, which have annexed Gods promise of reward. All which conditions I can not conceave that any Protestants doth deny to good works. 8. That our obeying the counsels of perfection do purchase a degree of glory above the ordinar happinesse,Shelforod p. 198. In that blessed estate there are de­grees of joy & glory, a starre differs from another in glory, some ground bring­eth foorth thirtie, some sixty, some a hundred fold. To this agreeth. S. Gregory, Quia in hac vita nobis est discertatiorum, erit procul dubio in illa discertio dignita­tum, ut quo hic alius alium merito superat, illic alius alium retributione transcendat. And S. Cypriam in pace, coronam vincentibus candidam pro operibus dabit in perse­cutio ne purpuream pro passione geminabit Certent nunc singuli ad utriusque honoris amplissimam dignitatem, accipiant coronas vel de sanguine purpureas. Here shineth Gods justice in distributing rewards according to the varietie of his own grace in this life bestowed, and Christians works by their owne free will to the best, end employed, and because their are certaine excellencies of workes in over­comming the greatest difficulties, therefore the schoole after the former de­monstration argueth priviledged crownes which they call aureola to be due to them which have conquered best to Martyrs for overcoming persecutions, to virgins for conquering the flesh, and to Doctors for putting the Divell to flight from their floks: All this latelie is printed by the faction, nei­ther that onely, but (which to us seemeth mervel­lous) when great popular grumblings and sundrie publicke challēges hath beene made against the au­thors of such writs. These whom Canterburie [Page 70] hath employed to apologise for the worlds full sa­tisfaction, hath not yet beene pleased to disavow any of those writers, nor to expresse the least signe of their indignation against any of their abomina­tions,Heylens answer p. 127. For Shelfoords book whatever is in that mentioned should not trouble you, if he ascribe a speciall emi­nencie unto charitie in some certaine things, it is no more then was taught to him by S. Paul who doeth prefer it, as you can not but choose to know, before faith and hope, nor doth he attribute our justification thereunto in any other sense then was taught him by S. Iames. M. Dow p. 52. And I believe if M. Shelfoords justification by charity be wel exami­ned, it will prove no other then that which S. Iames sayes, yee see how that by works a man is justified and not by faith onely, & I would demand of any rea­sonable man, whether the expresse words of that Apostle may not without asper­sion of poperie be even openly and publickely maintained, if there be no sense obtruded upon them which may crosse S. Pauls doctrine, which M. Burtoun can never prove that they did whom he charged with that assertion. but rather by swetning all with ex­cuses seeme to vent their desire to have all swalllowed downe.

In the doctrine of the Sacraments,In the doctrine of the Sacraments see their Poperie. from Bellarmins third tombe, they tell us first, that the sacraments of the old testament differ from the new, that the one confers grace, the other fore-signifies grace to be conferred, that the same distinction must be holden betwixt Iohns, and Christs baptisme.Montag. orig. p. 72. de circumcisione quae ritur quam gratiam con­ferat & primo ponitur non eo quod sit verum sacramentum veteris po­litiae in statu legis & na­turae, ideo esse operativū illius gratiae qua ab lu­untur peccata ut sit in baptismo novae legis. 2 Si quaeratur an ut baptis­mus sic & circumcisto quae figurat baptismum olim peccata visua sacra­mentali ex instituto di­vino opere operato, vel opere operantis aut alio quovis modo abolere & mundare poterat, qua de resunt diversae sententiae. Here­after he hath brought at length the Fathers, to prove that Sacramenta veteris te­stamenti non causabant gratiam sed eamsolum per passionem Christi dandam esse sig­nificabant, nostra vero & gratiam continent & digne suscipientibus conserunt, he closes, manes sunt illa disputiones & acerba contentiones nonnullorum, qua apud scholasticos & doctores nonnullos ventilantur, quas sopitas optamus nos, Ibem p. 390. Baptismus Ioannis rudimentarius ait Damascenus imperfectus, & isagogicus, Cyril­lus ut & lex vetus itaque novum baptisma post illud necessarium inquit Augustinus, post Iohannem baptizabat Paulus, post haereticos non baptizat Ecclesia, Christi bap­tismo actu remittebantur peccata, non remittebantur actu post Iohannis. Then in his own words, quid ergo? An dabat gratiam baptismus ille; sic visum non nullis perpe­ram omino, nam ubi tum [...] baptismatis Christi & Sacramentorum novifederu, quibus [...] gratiam conferre quam significant, preparatiore hoc agebat non [...] in spectantum cum re ipsa in Domini baptismo illud fiat, ab hac sententia quae est communis omnium antiquorum, si Calvinus recesserit cum sequacibus, aetatem habent, ipsi respondeant; privati cujuscunque hominis [...] non est communi prote­stantium sententiae ascribendum. Obtineat ergo per me Tridentinae synodi canon pri­mus sessionis septimae: Si quis dixerit baptismum Iohannis habuisse eandem vim cum baptismo Christi anathemasit. 2. They tell us that all baptised infants as well reprobat as elect are in baptisme truely regenerat, sanctified, justified, and put in that state wherein if those who are reprobat and there after damned should die, they would be infalliblie saved.Montag. apeal. p. 35. We are taught in the Li­turgi earnestly to beleeve, Iest it should be left to mens charity, that Christ hath received favourably these infants that are baptised. And to make this doctrine the more sure against novellists, it is again repeated in the Catechisme, that it is certainly true by the word of God, that children being baptised have all things necessarie for salvation, and if they die before actuall sin, shall be undoubtedly saved, according whereunto all antiquity hath also taught us. Let this therefore be acknowledged to be the doctrine of our Church. Whit against the dialogue. p. 95. avowes it as the doctrine of England, that all infants baptised have the holy Spirit, and are made the children of God by adoption, pressing that of S. Austine of all infants baptised. Quid dicturus est de infantibus parvulis qui plerique accepto in illa aetate gratiae sacramento, qui sine dubio partinerent ad vitam aeternam regnum­que coelorum, si continuo ex hac vita emigrarent, sinuntur crescere & nonnulli etiam apostatae sunt. Albeit this same Whyt makes this tenet in his conference with Fisher to be the judgement only of Papists and Lutherans p. 176. They differ from Lutherans and Pontificians first, in that they restraine the grace of sancti­fication only the elect. 2. In that they deny externall baptisme to be alwayes effectuall at the very instant time when it is administrate. And on the other hand they avow that all those who die in their in­fancie without baptisme, by whatsoever misse, by whosoevers fault, are certainly damned so far as men can judge: For baptisme is the only ordinary meane which God hath appointed for their salvati­on, which failing, salvation must be lost, except we would dreame of extraordinarie miracles of the [Page 72] which we have no warrand.Cant. relat. p. 56. That baptisme is ne­cessare to the salvation of infants in the ordi­nare way of the church (without binding God too the use and means of that Sacrament to which hee hath bund us) it is expresse in Saint Iohn chap. 3. Except a man be born againe by water he cannot enter, no baptisme, no entrance, nor can infants creep in any other ordinary way. And this is the received opinion of all the ancient Church, infants are to be baptised that their salvation may be certain, for they which can not help themselves must not be left only to extraordinary helps of which we have no assurance, and for which we have no assurance, and for which we have no warrant at all in scripture. Shelfoord p. 66. I can shew you of none saved ordinarly without the sacraments in regard of our Saviours exception in the 3 of Iohn. Except a man be born again of the water and the spirit, he can not enter into the kingdome of heaven. Montag. orig. p. 397. Adeo huic usui inserviunt aquae ut si tollatur lavacrum aquae alieni a Deo & faedere promissionis aeternae excludantur illi in tenebras exteriores, cum edicto divino statutum sit nisi quis renatus fuerit ex aqua & spiritu sancto non introibit in regnum coelorum. Scio hoc elusum à novatoribus, sed & Christi divinitatem ab haere­ticis negatam scio utrumque in contemptum Dei & dispendium animarum. 3. That the ma­nifold ceremonies of papists in baptisme and all o­ther sacraments are either to be embraced as pious ancient rites, or not to be stood upon as being only ceremoniall toyes.Sa­muel Hoards sermon supra, puts crosse in baptisme and sundrie other ceremo­nies of it among his rituall traditions. Montag. antid. p. 16. vestis alb, aoleum, sal, lac, chrisma, additamenta quaedam sunt ornatus causa. Ib. p. 15. Cum concilio quodam nupero non veremur profiteri ceremonias à maioribus hominibus religiosissimis usur­patas quod advarios pietatis usus valeant & exercitia quedam sunt quibus mens ex­ternarum rerum sensu & significatione ad divinum cultum ipsumque Deum attrahi­tur in Ecclesia retinendas & ubi abrogatae fuerant restituendas esse statuimus. An­drews stricturae p. 13. Chrisme, salt, candles, exorcismes, signe of the crosse epha­ta, and the consecration of the water, those being all matters of ceremonie, are therefore in the Church power on good reasons either to retaine are to alter. For their tenets in the sa­crament of the supper, wee shall speak anone of them in the head of the masse. 4. They tell us that our dispute about the five bastard sacraments is a [Page 73] plaine logomachie.Andrews stristurae. p. 11. The whole matter about the five Sacra­ments is a meer. [...] 5. They tell us that not only infants after their baptisme but even men bap­tised in perfect age who before baptisme gave suf­ficient count of their faith, yet they may not be e­steemed full Christians while they have received confirmation by the imposition of hands, and that alone by a Bishop.pokling. altare. p. 165. And because the competentes were per­sons of full age they received also consu­mation by imposition of hands ut pleni Chri­stiani inveriantur. About the orders, they tell us that they agree with the papists in their num­ber, that the reason why they want their Acolits, sub-deacons and the rest, is but their Churches po­uerty:Andrews stricturae. p. 12 The five orders is a point not worth the standing on, while the revenues of the church were able to mantaine so many degrees it can not be denyed but that there were so many, but by the Churches owne order neither by commandement nor example of Scripture, but what is this to the present estate of the Church scarce able to mantaine twon? Which can scarce wel mantaine the two orders of priests and deacons. But which in their questions is worst of all, they side here with the papists in giving to all the protestant Churches a wound which our enemies proclame to be mortall, fatall, incurable. They tie the conferring of or­dours by a full divine right to the office of bishops, they avow that the lawfull use of all ordination and outward ecclesiastick jurisdiction is by God put in the hands of their persons alone. Other re­formed Kirks therefore wanting bishops, their mi­nisters must preacù, celebrate the sacraments, ad­minister discipline not only without a lawfull war­rand, but also against the ordinance of God. When they are put in minde of this great wound given by them to all other reformed Churches, they either strive to cover it with the fig-tree-leaffs of an ima­gined case of necessity which never was, or else plainly to passe over it as immedicable.Heylens antid. sect. 3. pag 8. Let the bishops stande alone on Apo­licall right, and no mo­re then so, and doubt it not but some will ta­ke it on your word and then plead, accordingly, that thing of apostolicall institution may bee laid aside. When Bishop Andrews had learnedly asserted the episcopal order too bee of Christ institution, I have heard that some who were there in place did secrerly interceed with King Iames to have had it altered, for fear for­sooth of offending our neighbour Churches. Andrews resp. ad epist. 3. Molm p. 195. Dixi abesse ab ecclesiis vestris aliquid quod de jure divino sit, culpa autem vestra non abesse sed injuria temporum, non enim tam propitios habuisse Reges Galliam vestram in Ecclesia reformanda quam habuit Brittannia nostra: Interim ubi dabit meliora Deus, & hoc quoque quod jam abest per Dei gratiam suppletum iri. Relatum inter haereticos Aerium qui Epipha­nio credat vel Augustino necesse est fateatur, & tu qui damnes Aerium quo nomine damnas? An quod se opposuerit consensui universalis ecclesiae. Idem quisentit an non itidem se opponit ac eo nomine damnandus erit. Montag. antid. page 138. Ordina­tionis jus & autoritatem ita credimus annexam episcoporum personis ut a nemine non episcopo ordinato & consecrato possit aut de beat adhiberi, irritam ordinationem omnem pronunciamus quae non a legitimo & canonico more proficiscatur, quod si a se oriantur aliqui & non missi ingerant caelesti huic muneri & functioni manus, viderint ipsi quid sint responsuri olim summo sacerdoti cujus partes usurpant, nos nostras non aliorum tuemur vocationes. Yea not only they ty ordination and jurisdiction to the person of bishops, but of such bishops who must of necessity shew the deri­vation of al their power, from the Pope as was shown before 6. In matrimonie they will keep not only the popish sa­cramentall [Page 74] words and signes, the popish times of lent and other dysmall-dayes, except the bishops give their dispensation, but also they will have the whole matrimoniall causes ruled by the popes can­nons, yea, which is more, they avow that the Can­non-law by acts of parliament yet unrepealled, stands in vigour amongst them.Dow p. 184. By his favour I must tell him, that neither the law of God nor of the King doth dis­allow the use of the old canons and constitutious, though made in the time of popery and by the pope or popish prelats, which are not contrary to the law of God or the King. If he desire proof of this, let him consider whether the statute. 25. Hen. 8.19. do not say as much as I affirme, which having regulated diverse things touching the exercise of ecclesiasticall jurisdiction. At last the statute concluds with this proviso (provyded also that such Canons, constitutions, ordi­nances, and synodals provinciall being already made not repugnant to the laws & customes of this Realme, nor to the hurt of the Kings prerogative royall, shal now still be used and executed as they were before the making of this act, till such time as they be viewed, searched, or otherwise ordered by the said two & thirty persons or the more part of them according to the tenour of this pre­sent act. It followes then that till these thirtie two persons determine otherwi­se, old Canons may be still executed & retaine their ancient vigour & authori­tie, & when that will be I know not, but as yet I am sure it hath not been done.

Except in some few things which are directly op­posit to some late laws of the land and that Can­non-law they will haue extendid as far down as the very councel of Basil.Femal glory pag. 128. With this pious and gratefull ordinan­ce, I conclude the vi­sitation of our incom­parable Ladie, he me­anes the act of the la­te Councell of Basile, which ordained a fe­stivall fo that visita­tion. And as far up as the con­stitutions [Page 75] of the first Popes.Pocklingtoun altar. pag. 52. There is mention made of the dedication of churches under Euaristus anno 112. & under Hyginus, 154. under Calixtus 221. And before them all in S. Clemence his epistles. These testi­monies of Romane Bi­shops the Centurists do suspect: Where the doctrine and decrees of Popes, and those in the first and best times are confirmed by the doctrine and constant pra­ctice of the holy catholicke church, it seemeth great boldnesse in trhee or foure men to condemne and to brand their authoritie with the misterie of iniquitie. Which diverse of the papists themselves acknowledge to be supposi­titions, yet our men will defend them all, and with them the Canons of the apostles, the constitutions of Clemence and all such trash.Laurence, Sermon p. 18. the Apostles in their Canons, and these to, which are undoubtedly theirs. Montag. apar. p. 390. Ex antiquissimis illum facile princi­pem & primariae authoritatis, quia erat Apostolorum [...] & [...] cle­mentem nimirim [...] non preteribo, quem licet delicatuli nescio qui, ex utraque parte contendentium falsi postulant, & tanquam falsarium [...]: Nos tamen ipsius tanquam [...], contra quosvis suscipere patrocinium audemus, post doctissimum virum Turrianum.

In the sacrament of pennance they teach first, that auricular confession was evil abolished, and was ve­rie expedient to be restored.White on the Sabbath in the preface. There might also my reverend good Lord, be a verie profitable use of some private forme of pa­sturall collation with their flock, for their direction and information in particu­lar spirituall duties, such as was, privat confession in the ancient Church: Now the Presbyterian censures by their paralogisme taken from abuse, have with such loud and impetuous declamations, filled the eares and prepossessed the min­des of many people, that they are exceeding averse from this soveraigne and ancient medicine of consolation, prevention, and curing of the maledies of the soule. He approveth that of Gerardus, Privata coram Ecclesiae ministro confessio, quam auricularem vocant, quamvis non habeat expressum & peculiare mandatum ac proinde non fit absolutae necessitatis, tamen cum plurimas praestet utilitates & disci­plinae Ecclesiasticae pars, sit non postrema publico Ecclesiae consensu recepta, ideo nequa­quam temere vel negligenda vel abolenda, sed piè & in vero Dei timore, praesertim ab illis qui ad sacram synaxin accedunt usurpanda. M. Sp, Sermon printed with appro­bation. p. 18. Confesse as the church directs, confesse to God, confesse also to the Priest, if not privat in the eare since that is out of use. Male aboletur, sayeth a de­vout Bishop, it is almost quite lost, the more pitie. 2. That God hath given a judicial power of absolution to every priest, which every one of the people is obliged to make use of, especially before the communion by con­fessing to the priest all their sins without the reconcilement of any.Dow p. 35. It can not bee denyed, but that the Church of England did ever allow the private confession of sinnes to the Priest, it were very strange, if our church ordaining Priests and giving them power of absolution, and prescribing the forme to bee used for the exercise of that power upon confession, should not also allow of that private confession. M. Sp. Sermon p. 16. Since the Priest can in the name of God forgive us our sinnes, good reason we should make our confession to him: Surelie God never gave the Priest this power in vaine, he expects we should make the best use of it we can. He requires we should use the meanes we can to obtaine that blessing; now the onely meanes to obtaine this absolution is our confession to him Ib. p. 19 If we confesse in humilitie with griefe and sorrow for them, if we confesse them faithfully not concealing any. 3. That God in the heaven will certainly follow the sentence of the priest ab­solving [Page 86] on earth.Ib. pag. 15. There is another confessiō that would not be negle­cted. Hee that would be sure of pardon, let him seek out a priest, & make his humble con­fession to him: for God who alone hath the pri­me and originall right of forgiving sins hath delegat the priests hee­re upon earth his jud­ges, & hath given them the power of absolution, so that they can in Gods name forgive the sinnes of those that confesse to them. But is not this poperie, would some say, Now take the counsell that is given in the eight of Iob, Aske the Fa­thers, and they shall tell thee: aske then S. Chrysostome on Esay, and hee will tell thee, that heaven waites and expects the priests sentence heere on earth: For the priests sits judge on earth, and the Lord followes the servant, and when the ser­vant bindes or louses heere on earth, clave non errante, the Lord confirmes it in heaven, words, sayes hee, so cleare for the judiciall and formall absolution of the priest, that nothing can be said more plaine. 4. Beside a private confes­sor, it were very expedient to have in every congre­gation a publik penitentiarie, who in the beginning of Lent on ashe-wednesday might in the Kirk sit in his reclinatorie, and sprinkling dust on the head of every parishioner, enjoyn them their lent-pennance, whereby they may truly satisfie Gods judgement for their sins, & in the end of lent or Shrif-thursday before Pasche give his absolution to those who have fully satisfied,Pockl. alt. pag. 57. The bishops made an addition to the ecclesiastick canon, that in every church a penitentiarie should bee appointed to remit penitents in the church, after they have done publick pennance. This kinde of confession Nectarius abolished in the church of Constantinople, howbeit the confession, whereof Tertullian and Cyprian speaks, was never abolished, but did ever continue in the Greek church, and in the Lati­ne likewise: And to this purpose a solemn day was set apart for taking of publick pennance, for open faults, by imposition of hands, and sprinkling of ashes, name­ly Ashwednesday. This is the godly discipline whereof our church speaketh, and wisheth that it might be restored. And as Ashwednesday was appointed for put­ting notorious sinners to open pennance, so Thursday before Easter is appointed for penitents to receive absolution. This absolution they took upon their knees by the imposition of the priests hands. Ib. p. 63, & 67. The Competents begin­ning on Ashwednesday in sackcloth & ashes to humble themselves, they were all Lent long purged with fasting and prayer: They were to stand barefoot on sack­cloth, and watch on good Fryday all night Howfond a thing it is, sayeth Tertul­lian, to think to carrie away with us the pardon of sin, & not first of all to pay for our commoditie. The merchant before he deliver his wares will look to your coyne, ne sculptilis, ne rafus, that it be neither washed nor shaved; and doe not thinke but the Lord will look well to your repentance, and turne it over and o­ver, before you receive tantum mercedem perennis vitae. The Church caused tho­se to take so strict pennance, that by their great humilitiation they might make some amends for that libertie which some took to sin. Ib. p. 24. Our churches are a glory to our religion. To the chancels belongeth the vestrie lavatorie and reclimatories, for hearing confessions. Shelfoord p. 125. If the Iust shall transgresse while they are within the law, they are bound to make satisfaction by pennance, which is, secunda tabula post naufragium: Ibid. pag. 129. The law is oft brooken by sins of omission and commission. I answere, as it is oft broken of us, so it is as oft repaired and satisfied, and so all is made whole againe, and so hee is in statu quo prius: hee riseth againe so oft as hee falleth; either in nūber or vertue our sins of cōmission are repaired by repentance, our sins of omission are supplied by prayer. Extreame unction, if reports may be trusted, is alreadie in practice among them, [Page 87] but how soever, they avow in print their satisfacti­on with the Papists in this point, if so be the cere­monie be not made absolutely necessar.Montag. antig. pag. 267. That sacramen­tall unction is not to bee used. Let the sick use it if you will, we hinder you not, nor much care or enquire what effe [...] ensue upon it, but obtrude it not upō us as in sensu of the Sacram. in the time of grace.

Anent the Monastick life,They are for the ree­rection of monasteries, and placing of monks, and nuns therein as of old. consider how farre our men are from Poperie, they tell us first, that the putting downe of the Monasteries in England by Henry the eight, let be by other Protestant Princes else-where, was a worke exceeding impious, and verie prejudiciall both to the church and crown:Montang. orig. p. 303. In ecclesia Angli­cana sacerdotes licet ma­gis gaudere, & solent & debeant immunitatibus, tamen & frequentius & exuberantius, & libentius quam laici decimarum decimas, subsidia, annatas, primitias solvunt principi, ut vel inde facile discerni possit quantum detrementi regiis accesserit vectigalibus per illam desolationem monasteriis invectam per importunum Henrici octavi rigorem, & per parliamentarias impropriationes. Ibid. p. 384. Quales quales reformare potius, & ad normam veterum reducere debe­bant, [...] non quod factum facinore flagitioso & [...], araefuerunt ad ha­ras, altaria ad lupanaria transferenda, sed reprimam me. Ibib. pag. 174. Sub praetextu reformatae pietatis, Deum, Ecclesiam, pietatem, per nefandissima sacrilegia, eversis ubi­cunque monasteriis, &c. 2. That the Monks for the paterne of their orders have the Prophets and the Apostles, and spe­cially Iohn the Baptist:Montag. orig. p. 370. Ioannes primus hanc viam insistebat, illum deinceps ut in aliis sequebantur ascetae & solerogagitae. Ibid. p. 382. Ejusmodi vitae genere Ioannem jecisse fundamenta monasticae vitae, cum illustrissimo Baronio non abnuerim. 3. That their habits to their very tree-shoone hath Scripture warrant:Montag. orig. p. 369 Ioannes & interula & tunica & quocunque amictu vestiebatur, de Camelorum pilis id gestabat vestimentum, ut ipsa asperiias ad virtutem patientiae animum exerceret, nec princeps hoc institutum usurpabat Iohannes: ab omni retro antiquitate Prophetarum filii Elias, Eliseus alii eodem amictu utebantur, quin & positum in more qui rem quamcunque persuadere vellunt, habitu ipso se componerent ad illam rem efficacius insinuandam. William Wats sermon, p. 20. The sackclouth and ashes they received from Daniel and the Ninivites, and to live according to a strict rule, and order from S. Mark, & other apostles: so sayeth Cassian. Ibidem. pag. 28. Those if you censure for wil worship superstition take heed ye condemne not the authors of them, even our blessed Saviour, with his Prophets and Apostles. Ibid. p. 44. Whereas our blessed Saviour hath forbidden shooes to his disciples, he was heerein obeyed by the primitive montifiers, sandals were meere solls tyed on with strings. 4. That the Virgine Marie was truelie a [Page 78] Nunne, and that the Nunnes this day are much to bee commendid for the following of her paterne:Femal glory p. 22. The same author affir­mes that she there li­ved a [...]rettie Nunne. Ib. 23. Let us then im­agine that this holy re­cluse confined her bo­dy to this sacred soli­tude, that shee might the more freely injoy the incōceavable plea­sure shee tooke in her vowed virginitie. Ibid. pag. Shee was a votarie never to know man. Ibid. pag. 148. You who ply your sacred Arithmetick and have thoughts cold and cleare as the cristall beeds you pray by. You who have vowed virginity, mentall and corporall, approch with comfort, and kneel downe before the grand whyt immaculat Abbesse of your snowie Nunries, and present the alsaving babe in her armes with due veneration. 5. That the present Carthusians, Franciscans, and the rest of the Fraternities are very good and holy people, worthie in their very orders of Mona­stick life of our imitation:Ibid. p. 236. Many holy orders also are of this sodality as the Benedictus, the Citertians, the Franciscans, Cartusians and many other. If these examples of pi­ous and worthie people will not move us, &c. 6. That their barefooted processions through the streets, That their Canonicall houres of devotion, at midnight in their Closters, that in great Festivall Eves their goeing at Mid-night, with confluence of people to town-churches is all commendable ser­vice.William Wats Sermon. pag. 3. Mamertus Bishop of Vienne did not uncannonicallie, to appoint a solemne mortification of three dayes fast, and to make a Letanie to be sung in a barefo­ted procession. Ibid pag. 20. To go barefooted, they receaved from David and from Esaias Ibid. pag. 45. Nazianzen maketh goers barefoote to be imitators of Apostolicall spirited people. Ibid. pag. 48. In the third, fourth and fifth ages, are examples plentifull of the nightly processions of the Christians; yea, they went from their houses in the cities to some of their churches in the fields, sin­ging Psalmes all the way through the streets in the hearing of the Gentiles. Ibid. Minutius Faelix mentioneth nocturna & oeculta sacra. For this purpose the night was divyded into Cannonicall houres or certaine times of rysing to prayer, whereof midnight was one, the morning watch was another Canonicall houre, I hope that notwithstāding our devotion serveth us not to imitate the Prophets and Apostles, and the Primitives, yet wee will forbeare to take part with the old hereticks in reprehending them. Ibid. Before a greater Festivall all the de­vouter sort of Christians constantly repaired to their Churches at midnight.

In the head of Purgatorie and Prayer for the dead, thus farre long agoe are the proceeded, first,How neere they ap­proach to purgatorie, & prayer for the dead. they avow openly Limbus patrum telling us, that the Saints before Christ were not onely not in hea­ven, but truely in an infernall place, even in a lacke, where in one nook the Godly were in peace, and the wieked in torments, that Abrahams bosome was here, betweene which and hell a certaine gulfe made, but a tolerable distance. that Iacob, Samuel, and David, and other of the ancients were mour­ned for at their death, because their souls went not to heaven, but truely to a kinde of hell: their minde in these things, as their custome is, they propone in the words of some Father, that by the shelter of their authoritie they may keep off their own head the indignation of the people:Montag. orig. pag. 286. His qui in carcere erat spiritibus, hoc est defunctis, suo fato & in­ferno addictictis praedica­vit quo in loco Puritani, & novatores spiritum, non animam Christi in­telligunt. Ibid. apar. p. 476. Communem esse pa­trum sententiā, aliorum­que doctissimorum scrip­torum nostrae aetatis & confessionis sanctorum, animas ante Christi re­surrectionem non fuisse in Coelo. Olim (inquit Chrysostomus) ad infer­num deducebat mors, sed nunc assumit ad Christū Ideo dicebat olim Ia­cob, Deducelis senectu­tem meam ad infernum cum lachrymis. Ideo o­lim lugebantur mortui, at nunc cum Psalmis & hymnis efferuntur. Hyeronimi testi­monia sunt innumera, ante adventum Christi omnes ad inferos ducebantur: inde Ia­cob ad inferos discensurum se dicit, & Iob pios & impios in inferno queritur retine­ri, & Euangelium docet magnum chaos interpositum apud inferos, & revera ante­quam flammeam illam ratam, & igneam rompheam ad paradist fores Christus cum la­ [...]rone reseraret, clausa erant coelestia, Nota quoque ut Samuelem vere quoque in in­ferno fuisse credas, & ante adventum Christi, quamvis sanctos inferni lege detentos lo­cum esse ait, qui lacus vocatur & abyssus, in qua non erant aqua in qua animo reclu­duntur, sive in refrigerio, sive ad poenas. Again they tell us that Christ before he opened heavens gate to any soule, he went first downe, and loosed the souls in prison; yea, if yee beleeve M. Maxwell (who hath written much for the drawing of our Church the factions way) hee went downe to the lowest hells, and delivered thence a number of Pagans such as Aristotle, Plato, Socrates, and a world of mo: [Page 80] Montag. apar. pag. 476. Postquam eo descendit Christus, infe­rorum claustra perfodit, deripuit, vastavit, spolia­vit, vinctas inde animas liberando M. Maxwels demonstration, pag. 9. Whether the places of Scripture wherein mē ­tion is made of our Sa­viours spoiling of hell, and leading captivity captive, may perhaps bee understood of his powerful and merciful delivering from hell of some of the soules of vertuous Pagans, as of their philosophers, Lawgivers, go­vernours, kings, queens, and other private persons renowned for their wisedome prudence, fortitude, temperance bounty, chastity, justice, mercie; and generally for their civill carriage, and morall conversation, such as were Hermes, Trisme­gistus, Zoroaster, Socrates, Plato, Aristoele, Pithagoras, Homer, Phocilides. Theogrus, Epictetus, Cicero; and such as were Hercules, Theseus, Cyrus, Solon, Lycurgus, Ari­stides, Simon, Timotheus, Epaminondas, Tarrina, Camilla, Nicaula, Panthea Penelo­pe, Artemisia, and others the like: for my owne part, I doe professe such love to those vertuous wights, for their vertues sake, as I had rather condemne twenty such opinions as that of Limbus patrum, then to damne eternally the soul of one Socrates, of one Cyrus.. Our maine pillers against purgatorie they hew downe with the popish axes, when we rea­son that Scripture makes no mention of any third place betwixt Hell and Heaven; they reply, that there are many things whereof Scripture makes no mention. When we reason that Scripture makes mention expressely of two places for Souls after death, they use the popish distinction, that after the resurrection there is but two eternall places, but that before the resurrectiō there may be three tem­porall:Montag. apar pag. 135. Obiiciunt, nullus tertius locus indicatur in Scriptu­ra praeter infernum damnatorum & coelum. R [...]sp. Licet non indicaretur in Scriptu­ris esse alium locum tertium, non tamen inde sequeretur non fuisse tertium, quia mul­ta sunt quae non indicantur in scripturis. Locus ille Matthaei 25. Loquitur non de loco aut statu animarum ante Christum, sed de statu & loco finali post finem saeculi, cum duae tantum erunt absque dubio hominum societatis sempiterna. 4. When Papists urge upon us prayer for the dead, they will not contradict them; yea, they commend oblations in the Lords Supper, and prayers there for the dead in particular.Andrews stristurae, p. 56. Anent offering and prayer for the dead, there is little to bee said against it, it can not hee denyed but it is ancient. Dow, p. 56. That the ancient Church had commemorations, oblations, and prayers for the dead, the testimonies of the Fathers, ecclesiasticall stories and ancient liturgies do put out of all question. P [...]kling. alt. p. 83. Commends that Canon whereby a priest after his death was ordained to bee punished, for making another priest his executour, with this paine, that at the altar for such a One non offeretur, noc sacrificium pro dormitione ejus celebraretur.

CHAP. VI. Ament their Superstitions.

IN the church of Rome, the Canterburians use to professe corruptions of two kindes,Few of all Romes su­perstitions are against thier stomack. errours and superstitions, as for heresies or Idolatries, they are loath any such crimes should bee laid to the charge of their mother church, how many and how greivous errours they finde Rome guiltie of they had need to declare; for in the most of tho­se, werein the Protestants place the chiefe of the Romish errours, you have heard them plainlie take their part, readilie it will prove no otherwise when wee come downe to try them in the particular he­ads▪ wherein Papists are reputed most superstitious.

The superstitions which in Papists are most re­marked in their private carriage are these four: In their frequent signing of themselves with the signe of the crosse: In wearing about their neck a crucifix or some such toy of an image or relique: In saying their prayers on their beads: In abstaning from flesh on fryday, wednesday, lent; or some great feasti­valls Eave; Our men are farre from disproving of any of these practices. For the first, they avow that signing with the signe of the crosse at rysing or ly­ing downe, at going out or coming in, at lighting of candles, closing of windowes, or any such acti­on is not only a pious and profitable ceremonie, but a verie Apostolick tradition.Samuel Hoards Sermon. p. 15. Rec­kons out among his traditions, the crossing of themselves when they went out, or when they came in, when they went to bed, or when they rose, when they set down to meat, or lighted candles, or had any businesses of moment to doe Mon­tag. apeal page 286. What hinders but that I may signe my self with the signe of the crosse in any part of my boody, at any time when I goe to bed, in the morning when I rise, at my going out, at my returning home, the ancient Church so used it, and so may wee (for ought I know) without just scandall or superstition. 2. They avow [Page 82] expresly the carrying of these holy trincats about their neck, in caisses of silver or gold.Montag. antid. p. 17. Ego certe illas reli­quias fas [...]iis involvam; auro includam, circumgestandas, admovebo labiis ac collo su­spensas manibus, oculisque crebro usurpatas intuebor. Ibid. p. 24. Imagines praesertim Christi crucifixi asservamus diligenter & cum cura: sunt apud nos per fenestras, am­bones, vasa, vestimenta. 3 The saying of their prayers; yea, their Ave maries upon their beeds is to them an holy Arithmetick worthie of praise and imitation.Female glory, pag. 148. Among the other praises of his holy Nuns, this is one, You who ply your sacred Arithmetick, and have your thoughts cold and cleare as the crystall beeds yee pray by: And in his proemials, Omnis terra revibrat aeve 4. Wed­nesday, fryday, and Lent-fasts, are to them not only lawdable practices of the ancient church, but also traditions come from Christ and the Apostles which for religions cause all are oblidged to embrace.Montag. antid. p. 164. Quadragesimale jejunium li­benter ego concesserim ab Apostolis constitutum, & apud vetissimos Ecclesia proceres usurpatum. Ibid. p. 9. Doceatur esse aliquid ab ipsis Apostolis institutum, utpote jeju­nium quadragesimale; Causam non dicamquin haereseos accuser, si non ut ab Apostolicae authoritate sancitum propugnavero. William Wats sermon, page 50. Most pre­cise and severe observers were they of Lent-fast, which the whole primitive Church did believe to bee of Apostolicall institution, so that they had their Sa­viours and his Apostles example for that strictnesse. I passe their observation of Wednesdayes and Frydayes fast weckly, which Epiphanius among many oth­ers assureth to bee of Apostolicall institution, Couzins devotion: It had also beene an ancient and religions custome, to fast all the Frydayes in the yeare, except those which fall within the twelve dayes of Christmasse. The Lent which now is, and ever hath beene reputed an apostolical constitution, and wee adde out of Chrysologus, that it is not an humane invention, as they call it, but it comes from Divine authoritie that wee fast our fouritie dayes in Lent, p. 221.

They embrace the grossest not onely of their private, but also of their publick super­stitions.The popish publick superstitions are very many, but of these which that whole Church doth allow, very few comes to my minde which stand much a­gainst the stomack of our men: Those that come first to my thoughts are all pleasently digested; [Page 83] Protestants wont to deride the popish conceat of their holy ground, of their consecrat walls, and the sanctuary of their Chancels, their turnings towards the East, their manifold toies in baptisme and the Lords supper joyned with the sacramentall ele­ments, their hallowing above the Sabboth a mul­titude of Festivals, their pilgr [...]mages, their proces­sions and many such their practises. In this behold the minde of our men, they tell us first that Kirk­yards by prayers and conspersion of holy water must be made holy ground; that before these epis­eopall consecrations, no Christian buriall may be made therein, but after that the bishop hath used the pontificall ceremonies therupon, no Heretick, no Schismatick, no Excommunicat person may be brought there, no worldly, no common action there performed without the profanatiō of the ho­ly place.Laurence sermon p. 9. Christians distin­guished their oratories into an aetriū, a Church yard, a sanctū, a Church a sanctum sanctorum a Chancell, they did con­ceive a greater degree of sanctitie in one of them, than in an other, and in one place of them than another, churchyards they thought profained by sports, the whole cir­cuit both before and after Christ was priviledged for refuge, none out of the communion of the Kirke permitted to lie there, any consecrate ground prefer­red for interment before that which was not consecrat, and that in an higher esteem which was in a higher degree of consecration, and that in an higher which was neerest the altar. Halls sermon at the consecration of a buriall pla­ce p. 38. Out of the consideration of the holy designation of these peculiare places came both the tittle and practice of consecration of cemiteries, which they say is no lesse ancient than the the dayes of Calixtus the first who dedica­ted the first Cemmiteries, albeit it was decreed by the counsel of Arles, that if any Church were cō ­secrated the Church yard of it should requi­re no other hallowing but by simple consper­sion. p. 40. It is meer and necessary that tho­se places should be set aside to this holy use by a due and religious dedication, by prayers and holy actions ten­ding thereunto. if the Iews used these dedi­cations how much mo­re we. Ib. in the pre­face, an act worthy both of this common celebration and of that episcopall service of mine. Again they shew us that the church by the bishops anointing some stones thereof with oyl and sprinkling others with water, and using from the Roman pontificall some mo prayers, some mo ceremonies upon it, becomes a ground more holy: That before these consecrations though the people of God for many years have meet into a Church for divine service, yet it is no more holy then a barn, a tavern, a tolbooth; but after these consecra­tions there is such holinesse in the walls, that even when there is no divine service, men at their com­ming in, and going out must adore and all the time [Page 84] of their presence stand discovered, and never so much as sit down, were the service never so long, except upon great infirmity.Tedders sermon p. 8. It is the consecration that makes them holy and makes God esteeme them so, which though they be not capable of grace, yet receive by their consecration a spirituall power whereby they are made fit for divine service and being consecrate, there is no danger in ascribing holinesse unto them, if we beleeve S. Bernard. quis parietes istos sanctos dicere vereatur, quos manus sacratae Pontificum tantis sactificavere mysteriis. When we come to Church sayes the holy Fathers of the devotion of those primitive times, corpo­ra humi sternimus, they that shewed the least devotion did bow all the time that they were there, none presumed so much as to sit as being too bold and lazie a posture in Gods house; but only for infirmitie or some other cause were dispensed with. There were some that would not have their shooes on their feet in the temple, a shame to them that have their hats on in Gods hoase. Shel­ford. p. 51. Some profaine Gods house by going out with heads covered as if God were not present and it were not his house when service was ended. Pok­ling. altare. p. 141. Churches when they were made they were consecrate, for a man may as lawfully and Christianly administer the sacrament in a barn or town hall as in any place that is not consecrate to such holy uses, Queenscoale p. 223. S. Giles Church in the fields being newly repaired after two years ser­vice, sermon and sacraments in it in D. Montany B. of Londons time, was requi­red to be consecrat by his successor D. Lad, the people refusing the bishop, caused sequester and lock up the house for a moneth, and forces the Parish after fiftie pound fies to put up a crucifix upon the east window and receive the other orders of consecration. The fundation stones of the repaire of Pauls were so­lemnly blessed by the bishop, his main reasone for the urging of the visitation of Cambridge was, that two chappels there was not yet censecrat, notwithstan­ding of divine service in them for some score of years bygone. 3. That the Chan­cell and the Altar must not only be dedicat with prayers and unctions, but with lighted candles, burning in-cense, and many other such toies; that it must be divided from the Church with vailes to keep not only the bodies, but the eyes of the Laicks from beholding the arke and throne wherein the body of the Son of God doth sit, as in a chaire of state, that none but priests must enter there and that with their triple low adorations at their approa­ching: That it is a favour for the King or the Em­petour to win near that place for the short time of [Page 85] his offering.Pokl. alt. p. 141. Was not the altar the chiefest place which with most ceremony and devotion was hallowed? was there not a feast annuall keeped in joyfull remembrance of the dedication of every Church. Doth not S. Austine say. Novit sanctitas vestra fratres, consecrationem altaris celebramus in quo unclus vel benedictus est lapis, as he cites the place in his Sunday Quenscoale. p. 198. In the collegiat Church of Wolverhampton in the countrie of Stafford, the altar and cloaths thereof were consecrat 11. Octob. 1635. As soon as the priests come to the Church each of them made a low congie at their first entring in the Church doore and after that three congies a peece towards the altar, so they went unto the chancell where a bason with water and a towel was provyded for the priests to wash in, where also was incense burning; after they returned making three congies apeece. After the sermon every one of them had a paper in his hand which they tearmed a censer, and so they went up again to the altar: As they went they made three congies apeece, the communion being ended they wa­shed their hands and returned giving three congies as before. Ib. 220. There are diverse high altars solemnly dedicated of late in diverse colledges of Com­bridge and Oxford adorned with tapers, candlesticks, crucifixes, basons, crosses, rich altar clothes, crimson, cushons, rich hangings. Pokling. alt. page 24. Optatus saith that erant ecclesiae ex auro & argento quam plurima ornamenta. ibid. page 80. At the upper end of the Chancell was a place railed in, whereunto none were permitted to enter but the priests. The Canon is cleare. Nulli omnium qui sit in Laicorum numero liceat intra sacrum altare ingredi. A dispensation indeed there was for the Emperour to enter in hither when he would Creatori dona affer [...] but stay there he might not Laurence p. 10. Beyond these railes duo cancelli which distinguished the body of the Church from the Oracle, none out of orders ca­me. A more awfull reverence was commanded to this part being barred from common view. Ibid. pag. 29. We have the Grecians triple prostrations from their liturgies, [...] Ibid. p. 12. The same God is through all the parts of the Church, but not in the same maner through all the parts thereof, for as they are different degrees of sanctiry in them, so is the­re a different dispensation of his presence in them, Ibid. p. 15. This followes up­on the consecration, as there was a greater communication of the divine pre­sence in those places than in others, so was there a greater communication of the same presence in some parts of the temple of Salomon than in others. And as that distinction in holy places continued after Christ so did the reason of that distinction too. The whole indeed is the house of God, for albeit the Lord be without these walls yet is he more within, as we are not presumed to be so much abroad as at home, though the Church conceived him to be present in all parts of this house, yet it conceived him to be present more in one part of it than ano­ther, in respect of that peculiar dispensation of his presence to that place of the Church, as of old to that place of the temple which was within the vaile, having an altar heere answerable to a mercy seat there, as also in respect of that union betwixt this place and his humane nature. Cant. Star. Chamber speach p. 47. The altar is the greatest place of Gods residence upon earth. I say the greatest, yea greater than the pulpit, for there it is hoc ectcorpus meum, but in the pulpit it is at most hoc est verbum meum, and a greater reverence no doubt is due to the body than to the word, and so in relation answerable to the thro­ne where his body is usually present then to the seat whence his word uses to be proclamed. 4 That none of the ceremonies of the popish baptism, neither their salt, their spitle, nor exsufflation are superstitious.Vide supra cap. 5. (x). 5. That a num­ber [Page 86] of the Masse toies which yet are not in practise in England, yea all the guises of the Masse which can be proven to be ancient are all to be embraced.Lincolneshere Minister p. 163. I was shewed a latine deter­mination read in one of out Universities, ai­ming to prove, that look what ceremonies were used about the altar before the refor­mation by power and force of any generall custome, though past over in deep silence by our liturgie, are not­withstandig comman­ded us by a kinde of implicit praecept, even unto us, that live under the discipline of the En­glish liturgie. Heylene in his Antidot. lect. 2. p. 63. doth confesse the fact and doth not di­sclame the author therein, only leaves that Kings professor D. Colines as a man most able to justifie that writ. These are his words, as for your Sally on the author of the latine determination, I leave him to himself: Hee is of age to doe you reason in this, as well as in that other quarrell you have against him. 6. That who ever in the publick prayers hath their face toward the North, South, and West must be publickly called upon to turn themselves ever towards the East.Vide supra, cap. 5. B. 7. That in the Church not only in the time of prayer, but at the reading of the ten commands, all must fal on their knees, but when the creed is read all must stand upright on their feet, whē the epistle commeth, all may sit down, but when the gospel begineth, all must again arise, du­ring the time of sermon all must stand uncovered. That to these and all such pious practises we are ob­lidged by the sole example of the bishops or some few of them, even before the inacting of any law either of Church or state.Edward Bugheus, serm. pag. 9. We may not think it enough that we stand at the Creed, except we say it also with the Minister audibly with a lowd voi­ce, nor is it enough for us to stand up at the gospel, but we must also bow at the name of Iesus, not as if we were ashamed of what we did, but with due and lowly reverence, neither is it sufficient to be bare in time of divine service, ex­cept we also reverently kneell on out knees when the commands and letanie are read. Shelfoord p 20. Let us learn of our Cathedrall Churches, for there our reverend Fathers, the prelats, make their reverence to God in this wise, both at their entry and their returne, wherefore to follow their good and ho­ly paterne we are to do the like both at our comming in to Gods house and at our going out. Ibid p. 22. The fifth office of holinesse is to rise up from our seats when the articles of our faith are read, we also do more reverently to stand up at the reading of the psalmes before, after, and behind the holy lessons. We are also to stand at the reading of the gospell. The reason that the old Lytargick writters gives of this superstitious standing at the Creed and gospel more then at the reading of the lessons and epistles is, because these epistles among which they put the revelation the penteteuch and sundry other parts of the old testa­ment, containes more base doctrine then the gospel which comes behind them, as the Master comes after his servant which goes before to make way. 8. That the conscience is oblidged not only to keep religiously the greater festivities of Yule, pasch, pentecost, & the rest which are immediatly referred to the honour of the Trini­tie, but also a number of the festivals of the blessed Virgin, of the Saints and Angels: Those must not [Page 87] be polluted with any work or seculare affaire, as we desire to bee helped by these glorified persons intercession.Cousins devo­tions they offend ag­ainst the fifth com­mand that obeyes not the precepts of the ec­clesiastick governours. The precepts of the Church are first to ob­serve the feastivals and holy dayes appointed in the Church calendar vide supra cap. Yet Christs Sunday must bee no Sabbath; bowling, balling, and other such games may well consist with all the holinesse it hath, yea, no law of God, no ancient Canon of the Church doth discharge shearing of corne, taking of fish, or much other husband labour upon that day; but by the contrary acts both of church & State do warrād such labour; yea, there is so great Iewish superstiti­on in the land about Christs Sunday, that all preach­ers must be oblidged in their very pulpits to pro­clame the new book of sports, for incouragment of the people to their gamings, when the short houre of divine service is ended, and that under no lesse paine than ejection from the Ministere.Whits examinat p. 118. The injunction maketh no difference betwixt Sunday and the other holy dayes concerning working, in harvest no speciall priviledge is given it more then the rest. For King Edwards statute re­peated by Queen Elizabeth saith, It shall be lawfull to every husband man, la­bourer, fisher-man &c. upon the holy dayes aforesaid in harvest or at any other time of the yeare when necessity shall require, to labour, ride, fish, or work any kinde of work at their free wils and pleasure. Ibid. on the Sabbath p. 217. In the new testament we read of no prohibition concerning abstinence from secu­lar actions upon the Lord day more then upon other dayes. Et quod non prohibe­tur ultro permissum est. The Catholick Church for more than 6 [...]0. year after Christ, gave licence to many Christian people to work upon the Lords day at such houres as they were not commanded to be present at the publick service by the precept of the Church. In S. Ieromes dayes the devotest Christians did ordi­narly work upon the Lord-day. In Gregorie the greats time it was reputed an­tichristian doctrine to make it a sin to work on the Lords day. Helens answer. p 111. His Majestie having published his declararion about lawfull pastimes on the Sunday gives order to his bishops that publication thereof be made in all their severall diocesses, the bishops hereupon appoint the incumbent of every Church to read the declaration to the people, and finding opposition to the said appointment, presse them to the performance of it by vertue of that Canonicall obedience which by their severall oaths they were bound to yeeld unto their ordinaries, but seeing nothing but contempt upon contempt after much pa­tience and long suffering, some of the most perverse have been suspended as well a beneficio as officio for an example to the rest. 9. Pil­gramages to Sants, reliques, and barefooted pro­cessions to their Churches are preached and prin­ted. [Page 88] Vide supra caput. 5. w. Those throats which are so wide as to swal­low down all these, it seemes they will not make great bones in all the other trash which in the Ro­mish Church we challenge as superstitious.

CHAP. VII. The Canterburians embrace the Masse it selfe.

OF all the pieces of Poperie, there is none so much beloved by Papists, nor so much hated by Protestants, as the Masse, since the reformation of Religion, the Masse hath ever beene counted the great wall of division, keeping the parties asunder, who ever could free that ditch, whose stomack could digest that morsell, no man [Page 89] of either side was wont to make any doubt of his name, but that with consent of all, hee might passe for a true Papist; and no wayes in any rea­son stand for a moment longer in the catalogue of Protestants: If then I bee able to demonstrate the Canterburians minde to be for the Masse, I hope no man of any understanding and equitie will require of me any further proofe of their popery, but with good leave of all I may end my taske, having set upon the head thereof this cape-stone.

In the mouth of both sides reformed and Romish, preaching and the Masse go for reall opposites, the affection of Papists to their Masse maketh them value our preaching at the lesser rate;They cry downe so far as they can all prea­ching. the affection of Protestans to preaching maketh the Masse to them the lesse lovely: Our faction to make rowme for the Masse so far as they dare, so fast as they can, are crying downe preaching. They tell us first, that much of the preaching which now is at London, and over England is not the Word of God, but of the Divell,Cant Starcham­ber speach, pag. 47. But in the pulpit it is at most, Hoc est verbum meum, & God hold it there at his word: for as too many men use the matter, it is, Hoc est verbum diaboli, this is the word of the divel in many places, witne­sse sedition, and the li­ke to it. because indeed the best and most zealous preachers in their sermons do oft taxe Ar­minianisme and Poperie, and the wayes, whereby his Grace is in use to advanee both: This to him and his followers is doctrinall Puritanisme, much worse than disciplinary; yea, it is sedition taught by the Divell: 2. They tell us, that the most of preachers, though voyd of the former fault, are so ignorant, idle, impertinent, clamorous fellowes, that their silence were much more to be wisht than their speach.And posthuma, pag. 32. Ex quo nuper hic apud nos vapularunt canes muti exclusi sunt clamatores isti odiosi ac molesti, ex quo pessimus iste mos invaluit, ex quo pruriginoso cuipue odious, patefactus hic quicquid libet effutiendi, Ecclesia in tonstrinam versa est, non plus ibi inepti [...] ­rum quam hic, Theolo­gia in battologiam, banes non latrantes mutari in catulos oblatrantes, haud ferè scias quid optandum sit illud, ne si lentium, an hilatratus absoni, il­lud ne j [...]junium, an haec nausea. Because indeed grave and gratious Mi­nisters are not either able or willing to stuffe their sermons with secular learning, and imploy extra­ordinar paines for to gather together a Masse of tinkling words, as Andrewes was, and his admirers [Page 90] are wont to do, for to spoile preaching of that life, spirit, and power, which ought to shine into it. 3. That the preaching which them selves approve & praises, is but sermonizing in pulpits, no necessar part of the Ministeriall charge, but a practice to be used of some few of singular learning & eloquence, and that only at rare and extraordinar times, as the Bishop, or the Star-chamber-court shall be pleased to give licence.Shelfoord, pag. 91. Beside these ten kinds of preaching which a­re able to stop the mouth of all itching ea­red professors, there is yet another kinde of preaching not fit for every Minister, but for extraordinarie and excellent men, called by God and the Church, to reforme errors and abuses, to promulge to the world new Lawes and Canons. And as this kinde is to be performed by ex­traordinarie men, so it is not alwayes so needfull, but when necessitie required: for when things are setled there needs no more setling, but only preserving, Wee ought not to have many Moseses, or many Euangelists, nor many Apost­les; Were people now to bee called and converted to the Gospel, then not only this kinde of preaching, but miracles also were needfull, when much needlesse and some unsound teaching by tract of time had sued into the ark of Christs Church, by the Prelats and Priests therof: Then in the 19. year of King Henrie the eight began licences to be granted by the Court of Starchamber, to preach against the corruptions of the time; but now the corruptions are removed, the ancient and true doctrine of the primitive Church by setled articles is restored; Therefore this extraordinarie kinde is not now so necessarie, except it bee upon some notorious crimes, breaking foorth among people. 4. That the only ordinar, pro­fitable, and necessar preaching which God hath appointed, and the Church laid upon the back of Pastours, as their charge for which their tithes and stipends is due to them, is nothing but the distinct and cleare reading of the Service Booke.Shelf. p. 35. The principall part of the Ministers office is the true understan­ding, distinct reading, & decēt Ministrie of the Church service, contained in the book of Commō Prayer. This is the pith of godlinesse, the heart of religion, the spina or vertebrae, the backbone of all holy faculties of the Christiā body. Ib. p. 39. VVere these read as the Canons di­rects aptly, that is, by just distin­ctions, and by a sensible Re [...]der, observing all the rules of reading, with pronuncia­tion fit for the matter, and with due attention of the hearer, there would bee much profite and edify­ing. Ibid. pag 76. Gods Minister is thy Preacher, [...]nd the divine service of the church Book is his ser­mon. In this ser­vice & this ser­mon is contained whatsoever is necessar for salvation. Ibid p. 78. The very reading is preaching; yea, a lively and effectuall kinde of preaching. As for sermonizing in pulpits, when so it is permitted, it ought to be very short, and after the popish form, without any prayer at all, either before or after: That the custome of English preachers, who before Sermon pray for the help of the Spirit of God to [Page 91] themselves and their hearers, or after Sermon crave grace to practice what hath beene spoken is all but idle; yea, intollerable novations to be abolished:Heylans answere, pag. 165. VVhereas formerly you used to mangle and cut short the service, that you might bring the whole worship of God to your extemporarie prayers and sermons, now you are brought againe to the ancient usage of rea­ding the whole prayers, without any diminishing in regard of preaching. As for your other cavils about the using of no prayer at all after Sermon, the innovation here is on your part, who have offended all this while, not only against the Canon, but act of Parliament, by brin­ging in new formes of your owne divising. As for the forbidding of any prayer before the Sermon, if any such be, it is but agreeable unto the Canon, which hath determined so of it long ago. The Preachers in King Edwards dayes used no forme of prayers, but that exhorting which is now required in the Canon. Neither this onely, but that the most able Pastours are not to be suffered so much as in their private studies to recommend their Souls to God in their owne words, but in their very private pray­ers, are to be tyed precisely to the words of the Service Booke.Couzins devotions in the prefa­ce. Let no prayers bee used but these which are allowed by the Church, what prayers so ever any man had framed for himselfe, let him first acquaint these that are wise and lear­ned with them, before hee presume to use them: and that men may not think those rules are to be applyed to publick prayers only, and not to private, let them weigh those words in the councell of Carthage, Quascunque sibi preces, &c VVhen wee speak to the awfull Ma­jestie of God, wee would bee sure to speak in the grave and pious language of the Church, which hath ever beene guided by the holy Ghost, and not to losse our selves with confusion in any suddaine abrupt or rude dictats, which are framed by private spirits, and ghosts of our own in regard whereof our very priests and deacons themselves are in their private and dayly prayers injoined to say the morning and evening devotions of the Church, & when at any time they pray, there is a set forme of words prescribed to them to use, that they also might know it is not lawfull for them to pray of their owne heads, or suddainly to say what, they please themselves. 5. That the sermonizing which themselves permit, must bee in the greatest townes in the most solemne times but once a day, that the practice of hearing two Sermons in one day is to be corrected, that one in a month is abun­dant, and all the English Canons do require.Pokling. Sunday. Our Saviour in Capernaum on the Sabboth, preached but once a day, for immediatly after he went to dinner, Heylens answer, Pag. 168. If in the great cities and universities, sermons are li­mited to the sa­me time of the day, or as your owne phrase is, to an houre on­ly, assuredly it is neither new nor strange, nor need you bee offended at it, if by that meanes the peo­ple in those pla­ces can not hear but one sermon in the day, it being not many, but good ser­mons; not much but profitable hearing, which you should la­bour to com­mend. Shelfoord, pag. 93. Better were it for our Church and people to have but one Sermon well premeditated, in a moneth, which is insinuated by the Canon, then two on a day, proceeding from a rolling braine and mouth, without due preparation. Heylens answer, pag. 166. Your afternoone sermon on the Sunday, if performed by Lecturers, are but a part of your new fashion, and having no foundation in the Church at all, it can not be any innovation to lay them by, and if the Curate performe his duetie in catechising, you have no reason to complaine for want of sermons in the afternoone.

[Page 92]6. That over all England, Lecturers whose sermons wont to be the far best, must be presently silenced, as those whose calling the Canons Eccle­siasticall of England can not permit.Heylens answere, 163. VVhy count yee the suppressing of Lectures for an inno­vation, whereas the name of Lecturers and Lectures are in themselves a new and late inven­tion, borrowed from the new fashions of Geneva. In a word, that Sermons are the great occasion of the divisions and heart-burnings, which now trouble the Church and State, of the presumption and pride, and most sins among the people: That there­fore it were very good to returne to the old fa­shion in the dayes of poperie, before the 19. yeer of Henrie the eight, where there was none, or but few preachings, that this is the onely means to reduce the land to that old honest simplicitie, equitie, pie­tie and happinesse, which was in our antecessors dayes;Schelfoord, pag. 71. VVhen men had more of inward teaching, and lesse of outward, then was there far better living, for then they lived alwayes in feare of offending; and as soone as they had done any thing amisse, their conscience by and by gave them a nip, and a memento for it; then they confessed their sins to God and their Minister, for spirituall com­for and counsell; then they endeavoured to make the best temporall satisfaction they could by almes, prayers, and fasting; and other good works of humiliation; but now outward teaching not being rightly understood, hath beaten away this. Ibid. pag. 82. The besot­ted negligence of our delicat Puritans, is that which makes them to run so after Ser­mons: what doeth this singularitie work in them, but a contempt of government? As weak stomacks, can not well digest much meat, so the common people can not governe much knowled­ge; & when they can not digest it well, they vomit it up, they waxe proud, and wil contest with their Ministers. At what time were most heresies broached? VVas it not in the primitive Church, when there was most preaching, there­fore thereafter they did slake it. Ibid. pag. 99. Preaching by reading is the ordinaire preaching ordained by God himselfe, and his Church, and this was the ordinarie preaching in our Church before King Henrie the eight. even to that old blindnesse, wherein of necessitie, we must give our soule to be led by [Page 93] the light of Sr. Iohn the Priest, our Father Con­fessor, for all this behold on the margine their expresse declaration.

Preaching being thus far cryed down,They approve the Masse both for word & mat­ter. there will be the lesse ado to get up the Masse: For the word of the Masse is so lovelie to them, that they are deligh­ted to stile their Service Booke by that name.Pokling, Sunday, Missam facere cepi, sayeth S. Ambrose, he began the second service as our church calleth it, quidam cogunt sa­cerdotem ut ab­breviet Missam, sayeth S. August. that is, they make the priest to cur­taile divine ser­vice. And least wee should thinke that it is but with the word of the Masse, that they are reconciled, they show us next, that they finde no fault with the very matter of the Masse, if you will give unto it a cha­ritable and benigne interpretation.Montag. antid. Pag. 10. Missam ipsam non damnamus, quoàd vocem, quin nequit Missae [...] sano & recto sensu in­tellectum. Neither heere do they stand, but go on to tell us, yet more of their minde, that if transubstantiation only were removed from the Masse, they would make no question, for any thing it hath beside. And this, but most falsly, they give out for King Iames judge­ment.Pokling al, pag. 138. The King would like wel enough of the Masse, if the priests would shrive her of Transubstantiation. Yea, they go on further to embrace transubstantiation it selfe, so farre as concernes the word: And how much the matter of it displeaseth them we shall heare anone.Montag. antid. pag. 10. De vocibus, ne Missae quidem, imo ne Transubstantiationis certamen moveremus.

But to shew their minde more clearly towards the Masse, consider the Scottish liturgie; This un­happie book was his Graces invention: If he should [Page 94] deny it, his own deeds would convince him. The manifold letters which in this pestiferous affaire have passed betwixt him and our Prelats are yet ex­tant. If we might be heard, we would spread out sundrie of them before the Parlement house of England, making it cleare as the light, that in all this designe his hand hath ever bene the prime stikler; so that upon his back mainly, nill he will he, would be laide the charge of all the fruits good or evill which from that tree, are like to fall on the Kings coun­treyes. But of this in time and place; onely now wee desire to bee considered that to this houre, his Grace hath not permitted any of his partie to speak one crosse word against that book, but by the con­trary lets many of them commend it in word and writ for the most rare and singular peece, that these many ages hath beene seene in any church, for all gratious qualities that can be found in any humane writ. Heare you the personat Jesuit Lysimachus Nicanor, that is, as we conjecture by too probable signes his Graces creature, Lesty of Dun, and Con­ner, extols that booke above the skyes:Pag. 28. think no Church can celebrate the Sacrament with more puritie, sin­ceritie, gravi­tie, and none with more maje­stie then by this Book: Certainly it is purged from all stuffe, which you call Superstition, or the essentialls of the Masse, it is restored to the ancient integritie, the least thing that might tend to superstition, being thurst out of doores, as Ammon did Tamar, without hope of return: And if any superstitions would dare to enter, the doore is so fast shut, that they must despair of any entrie. VVhat needs all such uproare then without cause? I shall oblidge my selfe to made good these particu­lars: First, that you shall never bee able to finde any thing in that book, contrarie to the VVord of GOD. 2. That it containeth nothing contrary to the practise of the primitive church, but which is most agreeable there­to. 3. That all the points which you condemne are not contra­verted betweene our Classicall Divines and pa­pists but agreed upon in both si­des. 4. That the­re, is nothing in it, contrary to our Confession of Faith in Scot­land; yea, which is much, yee shall not show mee a Protestant Divine of any note, who ever did con­demne this Booke of the least point of poperie, but on the contrare, did defend and com­mend it. And yet wee did undertake to shew into it the maine, yea all the substantiall parts of the Masse, and this un­dertaking to the satisfaction of our nation was per­formed in our generall Assembly; but to those men the judgements of nationall churches are but vile [Page 95] and contemptible testimonies. I have seene a para­lel written by a preacher among us, comparing all and every particular portion of the Masse, as they are cleared by Innocent, Durand, Walfrid, Berno, and the rest of the old Liturgick Rationalists, with the parts of our Liturgie, as they may bee cleared by the late writs of the Canterburians, which ends not, till all the parts great and small of the Masse bee demonstrat in our Book either formally, in so many words, as the most considerable are, and that in the very popish sense, If you will joine to our book the Canterburian commentars: or virtually a necessi­ty being laid upon us, upon the same grounds which perswads to embrace what in those booke is for­mally expressed, to embrace also what of the Masse is omitted, whensoever it shall bee their pleasure in a new edition to adde it. This paralel is readie for the publick when ever it shall be called for.

For the present,The Scottish Li­turgie is much worse then the English. because those men make our gra­cious Soveraigne beleeve, and declare also to the world in print, that what we challenge in that book, doeth strike alike against the liturgie of Eng­land, as if the scots liturgie were altogether one with the English, and the few small variations, which possibly may be found in the Scottish, were not only to the better, but made for this very end, that this new book might better comply with the Scots humour, which now almost by birth or at least by long education is become naturally antipathetick [Page 96] to the masse, to make this their impudent fraud so palpable that hereafter they may blush (if it be pos­sible for such foreheads to blush at any thing) ever again before our King to make any such alledgance, passing all the rest of that book for shortnesse, we shall consider some few lines in some three or foure leafes of it at most, wherein the world may see their malapert changing of the English liturgie in twentie particulars and above, every one whereof draws us beyond all that ever was allowed in England, and diverse of them lead to those parts of the masse which all protestants this day count most wicked. If this be made cleare, I hope that all equitable men will bee the more willing to free our opposition thereto, of all imputations, and specially of al in­tentions to encroach upon any thing that concernes the English church. For albeit we are confident the world would have excused us to have opposed with all vehemencie the imposition upon us (a church and kingdome as free and independant upon any other nation as it is to be found this day in christen­dome) without our consent, or so much as our ad­vice, the heavie burden of foure forraigne books, of liturgie, canons, ordination, homelies, of a number of strange judicatories, high commission, episcopall visitations, officiall courts, and the like, though they had been urged in no other words, in no other sense then of old they wont to be used in England: For it is well known that those things have been the sole ground and only occasion of the grievous shismes and heavie troubles wherewith almost ever since the reformation, that gracious church hath [Page 97] been miserably vexed. But now all those things be­ing laide upon us in a far worse sense as they are de­clared by the Canterburian imposers in their own writs, yea in far worse words, as all who will take the paines to compare, may see: we trust that our immovable resolution to oppose even unto death all such violent novations shal be taken, by no good man, in evil part, let be, to be thrown, far against our intentions, to the disgrace of our neighbour church, or any well minded person therein. We have with the English church nought to do but as with our most dear and neerest sister, we wish them all happinesse, and that not only they, but all other Christian churches this day were both almost, and altogether such as wee are, except our afflictions. We have no enemies there but the Canterburian fa­ction, no lesse heavie to her then to us. What we have said against the Scots liturgie may well reflect upon them, and so far as we intend, upon them a­lone, and that for three of their crimes chiefly. First their forcing upon us, with whom they had nought to do, so many novations even all that is in England at one draught, and that by meer violence. 2. Their mutation of the most of those things to a plaine popish sense, which in the best sense that ever was put upon them, did occasion alwayes to England much trouble. 3. Their mutation of the English books not only to popish senses but even to popish words, and that in a number of the most important passages of the masse. This last here we will shew, holding us within the bounds of our few forenamed leafes, by which, conjecture may bee made of the rest.

Of all the limbs of the masse the most substan­tious for many evil qualities are those three, which ly contiguous together, the Offertorie, Our alteration in the Offertorie. the Canon, the Communion: The English at the reformation, howsoever for reasons of their own, thought meet to retaine more of the masse words then our church could ever be induced to follow, yet in those three portions of the masse they were very carefull to cast out what they knew Protestants did much abhorre in the church of Rome. But at this time, the Canterbu­rians having gotten the refraiming of the liturgie in their hands, for to manifest their affection openly to Rome, do put in expresly that, which the English reformers put out, as wicked scandals. That this may bee seen consider severally the three named portions.

The Popish Offertorie in it self is a foul practice, even a renovation in the Christian church of a Jew­ish sacrifice, as Durand confesseth.Durand. lib. 4 fol. 65. Ritus igitur synagogae transivit in religi­onem ecclesiae & sacrificia carnalis populi translata sunt in observan­tiam populi spiri­tualis. But as it stands in the Masse, it have yet a worse use, to be a preparatorie peace-offering making way for that holy propitiatorie, which in the Canon followes. It is pretended to be a sacrifice for the benefite both of quicke and dead, for the good of the whole church universall, for the help of these in Purgato­ry; but it is really intended to be a dragge, a hooke to draw in money to the Priests purses. This piece of the Masse the English did clean abolish, but behold how much of it our present reformers are pleased to replant in our booke: First, they pro­fesse in plaine tearmes the reduction of the Offerto­rie, and that not once alone, but least their designe [Page 99] should passe without observation, they tell us over againe of the Offertorie: 2. In the very fore front of this their Offertorie, they set up unto us whole fiue passages of Scripture, whereof the English hath none, all directly in the literall sense carrying to a Iewish oblation. 3. For the wakning of the Priests appitite (which of it self uses to be sharp enough) Upon the hope of present gaine to sing his Masses with the better will, they set up a rubrick, seasing and infefting the officiating Priest in the halfe of all the oblations, which hee can move the people to offer, and giving a liberty to him with his church-warden, to dispose on the other halfe also as he thinks good, expresly contrare to the Englsh, which commands all the almes of the people to bee put up in the poores box. 4. They will not have us to want the very formalitie of a Iewish offering, for they ordaine the Deacon to put the bason with the peoples devotions in the hands of the Priest, that he may present it before the Lord upon the altar, just as the Papists in this place ordaine to bring the paten with their oblations unto the Priest; that hee may set it upon their altar.Durand. lib. 4. fol. 64. Subse­quens diaconus ip­se patinam cum hostia pontifici re­presentat, & pon­tifex seu sacerdos hostiam collocat super altare. Ibid fol. 66. Sa­cerdos oblatione? manu tangit, re­praesentans illud Levitici, 14.4. ponetque manus suas super caput hostia, & accepta­bilis erit, & inex­piationem proficiciens. 5. The Priest is ordained to place and to offer up the bread and wine upon the Lords table, that it may be ready for that service, just the Popish offering, in that place of the Masse of the bread and wine, as a preparatory sacrifice for the propitiatory following. 6. The English prayer for the catholick church, is in our book cast immediatlie at the back of the offering of bread and wine, and that we may know it must bee taken for the Offertorie prayers that stands there in [Page 100] the Missall, and that for the benefite not only of the living, but also of the dead. The Masse clauses for the honour of the Saints, and help of those who are in Purgatorie, which the English scraped out, they put in againe: For as the Papists say, these Offertorie prayers for the honour of the Saints, especially of the blessed Virgin, and Apostles, and Martyrs, so they in this their Offertorie prayer commemorat all the Saints, who in their severall ge­nerations were the lights of the world, and had wonderfull grace and vertue, they might have put in particularly, as Couzins in his devotions doeth, pag. 371. The blessed Virgin Mary, the holy Patri­archs, Prophets, Apostles, and Martyrs: also they mention among the dead not onely these glorious Saints, but the rest of Gods servants, who have fi­nished their course in faith, and now do rect from their labours, the best description that can be, if Bel­larmine may be believed, of the Souls in purgatory, for whom not only thanks is given, but also prayers made, as Couzins, who is suspected to be one of the maine pen-men of our book, doeth comment this passage in his devotions, pag. 372. That at the last day, we with them, and they with us may attaine to the resurrection of the Just, and have our perfect consummation both of Soul and Body in the king­dome of heaven: There is no footstep of any of these things in the English Booke.

Our changes in the consercra­tion.The piece which followes the Offertorie in the Missall, and in our book also, is the Canon, no lesse detested by all Protestants, then admired by Papists, as Bellarmine telleth us;De missa lib. 2. cap. 17. Sacrum canonem ut sum­ma reverentia sē ­per Catholici reti­nuerunt, ita in [...]re­dibili furore [...]re­tici huius tempori [...] lacerant. Many of the Prefaces [Page 101] and prayers thereof we have word by word, and what ever we want, these men in print are bold to justifie it all, as in nothing opposite to the trueth or Protestant doctrine: So the appendix to D. Fields third Booke, Chap. 1. But wee must consider the time wherein D. Field is made to utter such speach­es, it is in the twenty eight yeare, long after the death of that learned and reverend Divine: It is in that yeare when his Grace sitting in the chaire of London, had gotten now the full superintendence of all the presses there, and could very easely (for the promoving of his designes) put in practice that piece of policie among others, to make men after their death speak in print, what they never thought in their life; or at least, to speake out those thoughts which for the good and peace of the church, they keept close within the doors of their owne breast, and withdrew from the notice of the world; it would then seeme reason to father these strange ju­stifications, of the Masse, which are cast to Fields book so long after his death, as also many passages in these posthume works of Andrewes; which his Grace avowedly sets out in the twentie ninth yeare, and those new pieces never heard of, which in the thirtie one yeare, are set out by M. Aylward, under the name of the English Martyrs, as also that writ of Overall, which Montagu puts out with his own amplifications, in the thirtie six year. These and the like pieces, must in reasō be rather fathered on those who put them foorth, then upon their pretended authors, who readily did never know such posthume children, or else did take them for such unhappie [Page 102] bastards as they were resolved, for reasons known to them selves, to keepe them in obscurity, and ne­ver in publick to avow them as their owne.

In this Canon there are two parts most prin­cipall, which the papists call the Heart, and Head thereof.Innocent lib. 4. cap. 1. Ecce nunc ad summam Sacramenti verti­cem accedentes, ad ipsum cor divini sacrificii penetra­mus. The prayers of consecration and of oblation, this head the English strikes off, this heart they pull out of their book, that the wicked ser­pent should not have any life among them. But our men are so tender and compassionat towards that poor Beast, that they will againe put in that Heart, and set on that Head, The consecration and oblation they will bee loath to want. Con­sider then these mens changing of the English book towards both those, the two incomparably worst parts of the whole Masse. First, the English scrapes out all mention of any consecration: for however we delight not to strive with the papists any where about words, yet in this place while they declare expressely, that by consecration of the elements they do understand not the sanctification of the ele­ments by the word and prayer, but a secret whis­pering of certaine words upon the elements, for their very Transubstantiation.Durand. lib. 6. Dicimus illud non conserari; sed sanctificari, differt autem inter haec, nam consecrare, est consecratine tran­substātiare, sancti ficare est; sanctum & reverendumes­ficere, ut patet in aqua benedicta. Consecration in this place being so taken by the papists, the English rejects it, and will have nothing to do therewith; but our men being more wise, and understanding their owne ends, put up in their rubrick in capitall letters formally and expressely their prayer of consecrati­on. 2. The Papists to the end that their consecra­torie words may bee whispered upon the elements for their change, and no wayes heard of the people, [Page 103] who perchance if they heard and understood them, might learne them by heart, and in their idlenesse might pronunce them over their meales, and so, which once they say was done, transubstantiat their ordinarie food into Christs bodie: For the eshewing of these inconveniences they ordaine the consecration to bee made in the outmost corner of the church, so far from the ears of the people as may be; and for the greater securitie, they ordaine their priests in the time of consecration, both to speake low, and to turne their backs upon the people: For to remeed their wicked follies, the English expresse­ly ordained their communion Table to stand in the body of the church, where the Minister in the mids of the people might read out openly all the words of the Institution. But our men to returne to the old fashion, command the table to beset at the East end of the Chancell, that in the time of the con­secration, the priest may stand so far removed from the people, as the furthest wall of the church can permit, and as this distance were not enough to keep these holy words of consecration from the pro­faine eares of Laicks, our booke hath a second Ru­brick, injoining expressely the priest in the time of consecration to turne his back on the people, to come from the North end of table, and to stand at such a place where hee may use both his hands with more decencie and ease, which is not possible but on the Westside alone; for on the South side the commoditie is just alike as in the North. On the East none can stand, for the Table is joined hard to the Wall, and whosoever stands at the West side of [Page 104] the Altar, his back is directly to the people that are behinde him. They say for this practise many things, first, That in the good holy Liturgie of Ed­ward the sixth, the priest was ordained to stand with his back to the people.Heylens an­tid. pag. 45. and 46. The Church of Rome injoyn­eth the priest to stand in medio al­taris, with his face to the East, and backe to the people; But the Church of Eng­land at the north side of the Table, albeit in King Edwards Lytur­gie the priest was appointed to stand at the mids of the altar. Againe, that al­wayes in the ancient church the priests stood in the uppermost end of the church, divided from the peo­ple behinde them, with railes, and vailes, and other distinctions.Supra saepe. 3. That Scripture is the ground of this practise, for so it was in the Jewish church, the priest when wee went into the Sanctuarie to pray, and offer incense for the people, they stood without and never did heare what he spake, nor saw what he did.P [...]kling. alt. pag. 99. The people might see the priest going into the Sanctu­arie, they might heare the noise of his bels; himself, his gesture, his actions they saw not, yet all this was done in me­dio Ecclesiae, but not among the people in the outward or in­ward Court, whe­reunto only the people were per­mitted to come. If from this practice wee would infer with Bellarmine, that the Priest in the consecration might speake in latine or in a language unknowne to the people, since God to whom he speaks under­stands all languages, the elements upon which the consecratorie words are murmured,Scottish service the words of consecration may bee repeated againe over more either bread or wine. under­stands none, and the people for whom alone the vulgar language is used, is put back from the hear­ing of the consecration; we know not what in rea­son they could answer; But this we know, that the maine ground whereupon wee presse the use of the vulgar language, not onely in the consecration as they call it, but in the whole service of God, I meane the warrant of Scripture, they openly deny and for it gives us no ground, but the old tradition of the church.VVhite on the Sabbath, pag. 97. Such traditions are those that follow the Service of the Chruch in a known language.

[Page 105]3. When our priest is set under the East wall within his raile his back upon the people, he is directed to use both his armes with decencie and ease, what use heere can be made of the priests armes, except it be for making of large crosses as the masse rubricks at this place doth direct, We do not understand: only we have heard before, that they avow the law­fulnesse of crossing no lesse in the supper then in baptisme. 4. The prayer which stands heer in the English book, drawn from the place wherein it stood of old in the masse to countenance the tran­substantiation of the bread and wine into Christs body and bloud, but standing in this place before the consecration it is clear of all such suspition: Our men are so bold as to transplant it from this good ground to the old wicked soile at the back of the consecration where it wont to stand before in the old order of Sarum. 5. In the next English prayer we put in the words of the masse whereby God is besought by his omnipotent spirit so to sanctifie the oblations of bread and wine, that they may be­come to us Christs body and bloud, from these words all papists use to draw the truth of their tran­substantiation, wherefore the English reformers scraped them out of their book, but our men put them fairly in, and good reason have they so to do: for long ago they professed that about the presence of Christs body and bloud in the sacrament after consecration, they are fully agreed with Lutherans and Papists in all things that is materiall and need­full, as for the small difference which remaines a­bout the formalitie and mode of presence, it is but [Page 106] a curious and undeterminable question, wherea­bout there would be no contraversie, did not the diuelish humor of the Puritans and Jesuites make and entertaine it.Mont. apeal. pag. 289. If men were disposed as they ought unto peace, there ne­ded bee no diffe­rence in the po­int of reall pre­sence: for the di­sagreement is only de modo prae­sentiae; the thing it self, That there is in the holy Eu­charist a reall presence is yeel­ded to on either side. For An­drews professeth to Bellarmine, nobis vobiscum de obiecto convenit, de modo lis est. Praesentiam in­quam credimus non minus quam vos, verum de mo­do praesentiae nil temere definimus. There is no such cause therefore saith he why in this point of the sacrament we should be so distracted seeing we both confesse that which is enough. This is my bedy, and contend meerly about the means how it is my body, a point of faith undeniable though it be unsearchable and incomprehensible: From Hooker he pronounceth that there is a generall agreement about that which is alone materiall, for the rest he avoweth himself to be for peace and re­conciliation and all to be so but Puritans and Iesuites whom the divel doth nourish up in a faction. Lawrence pag. 18. I like S. Ambrose, Lombard. Rosfensis and Harding who advise in this argument to forbeare the determination of the manner of presence and to cloth our rancie with indefinite and generall expressions. As I like not those that say he is bodily there, so I like not those that say his body is not there. For S. Paul saith, it is there, and the Church of England faith it is there, and the Church of God ever said, it is there, and that truly, substantially, essentially. VVe must beleeve it is there. VVe must not know how it is there. It is a mysterie they all say. The presence they determined, the ma­ner of his presence they determined not. They said he is there, but the Lord knows how. Yea they seem to have come a step further to the embraceing of the very modde of the popish presence, for they tell of a corporall presence ibi that the body is there on the altar, and that essentially, yea so grosly, that for its presence there, the altar it self, let be the elements must bee adored. 6. They make an expresse rubrick for the priests taking of the paten and chalice in his hand in the time of consecration, which taking not being either for his own participation or distribution to others, why shall we not understand the end of it to be that, which the masse there enjoynes the paten and chalice their elevation and adoration, for the elevation was long practised and professed by some of our bishops, and the adoration when the chalice and paten are taken in the priests hands is avowed by Heylene. Heylens answere p. 137. Think you it fit the priest should take into his hands the holy mysteries without lowly reverence, and that it is an novation to do so. 7. In an other rubrick of our con­secration we have the cautels of the masse, anent the [Page 107] priests intention to consecrat, expresly delivered unto us.

As for that wicked sacrifice of the Masse, Our changes about the sacrifi­ce. which the Canon puts at the back of the consecration, the English banisheth it allutterly out of their book; but the faction to show their zeal in their reforming the errors of the English church, their mother, puts downe heere in our book, first, at the back of the consecration their memento and prayer of oblation. 2. That prayer of thanksgiving which the English sets after the Communion in a place, where it can not be possibly abused, as it is in the Masse for a pro­pitiatory sacrifice of Christs body and blood, they transpose and set it just in the old place where it stood in the order of Sarum, at the back of the con­secration before the Communion. 3. The clause of the Missall, which for its savour of a corporall presence, the English put out of this prayer (may worthily receive the most pretious Body and Blood of thy Son Christ Iesus) they have heere restored. 4. That we may plainly understand, that this prayer is so transplanted and supplied for this very end, that it may serve as it did of old in the missall for a prayer of oblation of that unbloudie sacrifice by the priest for the sins of the world. Behold the first eighth lines of it, which of old it had in the missall, but in the reformation was spred out by the English, are plainly restored, wherein we professe to make and over again to make before Gods divine majestie a memoriall as Christ hath commanded. This mak­ing [Page 108] not only the Papists, but Heylene speaking from Canterburie, expones far otherwise than either An­drewes, Hooker, Montagu, or the grossest of the English Divines for a true proper corporall, visible, unbloody sacrificing of Christ, for which first the Apostles, and then all Ministers are as truely Priests though Euangelicall, and after the order of Mel­chisedeck, as ever the Sons of Aaron were under the Law, and the Communion Table becomes as true and proper an Altar, as ever was the brasen Al­tar of Moses. Heylens an­tid. pag. 6. sect. 2. The passion of our Saviour, as by the Lords ow­ne ordinance, it was prefigured to the Iewes in the legal sacrifi­ces à parte ante: So by Christs in­stitution, it is to bee commemo­rat by us Christi­ans in the holy Supper, à parte post. A sacrifice it was in figure, a sacrifice in fact, and so by conse­quence a sacrifice in the comme­morations, or immediatly upon the post fact a sa­crifice there was among the Ie­wes, a sacrifi­ce there must be amongst the Christians: and if a sacrifice where upon to doe it: For with­out a priest and an altar there can be no sacrifice. There was a bloudie sacrifice than; an unbloudy now, a priest derived from Aaron then, from Melchisedeck now; an Altar for Mosaicall sacrifices than, for Euangelicall now. The apostles in the institution were appointed priests by Christ, where they received a power for them, and their successours to celebrate these holy mysteries. Hoc facite, is for the priest, who hath power to consecrat; Hoc edite, is both for priest and people. Ibid. pag. 17. Hee maintained at length that in the Lords Supper there is a true, proper, corporall, visible, and externall sacrifice. 5. After the consecration and oblation they put to the Lords prayer with the Missals Preface, audemus dicere. Heere the Papists tell us, that their Priest by consecration having transubstantiat the bread, and by their memoriall of oblation having offered up in an unbloody sacrifice the body of Christ, for the reconciliation of the Father, doeth then close his quiet whisperings, his poore pipings, and becomes bold to say with a loud voice, having Christ corporally in his hands, Pater noster. The English to banish such absurdities, put away that naughty preface, and removed the prayer it selfe from that place: But our men to shew their Orthodoxie, repone the prayer in the owne old place, and set before it in a fair Rubrick the whole old preface. 6. The first English prayer which stood before the consecration, where the passages of eating Christs body and drinking Christs blood, could not possibly, by the very Papists themselves, be detorted to a corporall presence, yet now in our book, it must change the place, and be brought to its owne old stance, after the consecration and obla­tion, [Page 109] immediatly before the communion, as a prayer of humble accesse.

The third part of the Masse I spake of, was the communion;Our changes in the communion. see how heere out men change the English Booke: The English indeed in giving the elements to the people, retaine the Masse words, but to preveene any mischiefe that could arise in the peoples minde from their sound of a corporall pre­sence, they put in at the distribution of both the ele­ments, two golden sentences, of the hearts eating by faith, of the Soules drinking in remembrance. Our men being nothing affrayed for the peoples beliefe of a corporall presence, have pulled out of their hands and scraped out of our Booke both these an­tidots. 2. The Masse words of Christs body and blood in the act of communion, being quite of the English antidots against their poyson, must not stand in our Booke simplie; but that the people may take extraordinar notice of these phrases, there are two Rubricks set up to their backs, oblidging every communicant with their owne mouth to say their Amen to them. 3. The English injoines the Minister to give the people the elements in their owne hand; ours scrapes out that clause, and bid communicat the people in their own order, which [Page 110] imports not onely their removall from the altar, their standing without the raile, as profaine Laicks far from the place, and communion of the Priests, but also openeth a faire door to the popish practice, of putting the elements not in the profaine hands, but in the mouths of the people. 4. The English permit the Curate to cary home the reliques of the bread and wine for his privat use, but such profa­nity by our Book is discharged: The consecrat ele­ments are injoined to bee eaten in the holy place by the Priest alone, and some of the Communicants that day, whose mouths hee esteemeth to bee most holy: Yea, for preventing of all dangers the cautele is put in, that so few elements as may, bee consecrat. 5. Our Booke will have the elements after the consecration covered with a Corporall, the church linnings were never called Corporals any where, till transubstantiation was born, neither carried they that name in England, till of late his Grace was pleased by the pen of his man Pockling­toune and the like, to disgrace them with that stile. 6. The English will have the Ministers and people to communicat in both kindes; our booke injoines the Priest to receave in both kindes but the people onely in due order: This due order of the people, opposite to the communion of the Priest in both kindes, may import the removall of one kinde from the people, so much the more may wee feare this sacriledge from their hands, since they tell us, that our only ground for communicating of the people in both kindes is stark nought, that for this practice there may well be tradition, but Scripture there [Page 111] is none.VVhit on the Sabbath, pag. 97. Such traditions are those that fol­low the deliverie of the communi­on to the people in both kindes. Montag. orig. pag. 396. Vbi iubentur in Scripturis in­fantes babtiZari, aut in caena Do­mini subutraque specie communi­cantes participare; de his possumus profiteri, Nihil tale docet Scriptu­ra, Scriptura haec non praedicat. Andrews strictu­rae p. 5. It can not be denyed but reserving the Sa­crament was suf­fered a long time in the primitive church, in time of persecution, they were permitted to carrie away how great a part they would, and to keep it by them, and to take it at times to comfort them; but for the sick, it was alwayes sent them home, were the distance never so great, and against the time of extremitie, it was thought not amisse to have it reserved, that if the priest should not then be in state to go to the sick partie, and there to censecrat it for him, yet at least it might be sent him, as in the case of Cerapion. Pokling, as we have heard, made it one of the matters of that Churches glory▪ that they yet doe retaine in their Chanchels the old Repositories. Also that in diverse cases the anci­ent church did lawfully give to the people the bread alone, that the Sacrament after the publick commu­nion, was oft reserved to be sent to the sicke, to bee taken at privat occasions, and laide up in the church in a publicke repositorie. Now it is well knowne, and the Papists presse this upon us, when they would rob the people of the cup; that the wine was not sent to the sicke in a farre distance from the church, nor taken home by the people to bee used with the bread in the times of strait, nor set up in the Church in the ciboir or repositorie. These changes of the English Liturgie, which the Canter­burians have made, in some few pages lying toge­ther of the Scottish service, if they be either few or small, your self pronunce the sentence.

The last Chapter, containing the Canterburian maximes of Tyrannie.

ONe of the great causes of Protestants separa­tion from Rome, is the tyrannie of the Romish Clergie, whereby they presse upon, the very conscience of their people, a multitude of their own [Page 112] devices, with the most extreame and rigorous censures which can be inflicted either upon bodies or souls. And for the more facilitating of their pur­poses, they advance the secular power of Princes, and of all soveraigne Estates above all, that them­selves either crave or desire; alone for this end, that their clerks may ride upon the shoulders of Sove­raignitie, to tread under the feet of their dominati­on; first the Subjects, and then the Soveraignes themselves.

The tyrannous usurpation of the Canterburians, are as many and hea­vie as these of the Romist Clergie.How much our men are behinde the greatest ty­rants that ever were in Rome, let any pronounce, when they have considered these their following maximes: They tell us, first, that the making of all Ecclesiastick constitutions doth belong alone to the Bishop of the Diocesse, no lesse out of Synod then in Synod: That some of the inferior clergie may bee called (if the Bishops please) to give their ad­vice, and deliberative voice; That the Prince may lend his power, for confirming and executing of the constitutions made; but for the work of their ma­king, it is the Bishops priviledge, belonging to them alone by Divine right.Samuel Hoards sermons. pag. 7. By the Chruch I meane the Chur­ches Pilots, who sit at the sterne. Heads & mem­bers divide all bodies Ecclesi­asticall and civill, what ever is to bee done in matters of direction and government, hath alwayes beene, and must be the sole prerogative of the heads of these bodies, unlesse wee will have all common-wealths and churches broken in picees. Ibid. pag. 8. The key of jurisdiction, which is a power of binding and lousing men, in foro exteriori, in the coutts of justice, and of making lawes and orders, for the government of Gods house, is peculiar to the heads and bishops of the church. Ibid. p. 31. what was Ignatius and Ambrose, if we look at their authoritie, more than other bishops of the church: That libertie therfore which they had to make new orders, when they saw cause, have all other prelats in their church­es. Edward Boughanes serm. Pag. 17. Submit your selves to those that are put in authoritie by kings, so then to Bishops, because they are put in authoritie by Kings, if they had no other clame. But blessed bee God; they hold not only by this, but by a higher tenor, since all powers are of God, from him they have their spirituall jurisdi­ction what ever it be. S. Paul ther­fore you see as­sumes this power unto himselfe of setting things in order in the kirk, before any Prin­ce become Chri­stian, 1 Cor. 11.34. The like po­wer hee acknow­ledgeth to be in Titus 1.5. and in all bishops, Heb. 15.17. Ibid. pag. 18. Kings make lawes, and bi­shops make ca­nons. This in­deed it was of ne­cessitie in the be­ginning of Chri­stianitie, Kings made lawes for the State, and bishops for the kirk, because then there was no Christian Kings, either to authorize them to make such lawes or who would countenance them when they were made. But after that Kings became nourishing fathers to the Church in these pious and regular times, bishops made no Canons, without the assent and confirmation of Christian Kings, and such are our Canons, so made, so confirmed, Chounei collect. pag. 53. Reges membra quidem & filios. Eccesiae se esse habi­tos, reiecisse, contempsisse nonnunquam audivimus, obediunt, simulque regnant: Iura quibus guber­nari se permittunt, sua sunt, vitalitatem nativam ex praepositis Ecclesiae, tanquam ex corde recipiunt, & vivacitatem ex ipsis tanquam ex capitibus derivant. Samuel Hoards pag. 9. Nor did they exercise this power, when they were in Counsell only, but when they were asunder also: Speaking of apostles as they are paterns to all bishops. 2. That in a whole Kingdome, the Bishops alone, without the privitie [Page 113] of any of the clergie, of any of the laitie, may a­bolish all the Ecclesiastick judicatories, which the standing and unrepealled lawes, which the constant customes ever since the reformation had setled, and put in their rowme new forraigne courts, which the kingdome had never known, scarce so much as by their name.Our Chrurch Sessions, our weekly presbyteries, our yearly generall Assemblies, whereof by our standing lawes wee have beene in possession, are closse put downe by our book of Canons, and in their rowme Church­wardens, officiall courts, synods for Episcopall visitation, and generall Assemblies to bee cal­led when they will, to be constitute of what members they please to name, are put in their place. That at one stroke they may an­null all the Acts of three or fourscore National Af­semblies, and set up in their roome a Book of Ca­nons of their own devysing.So is their book entituled, Canons and Constitutions Ecclesiasticall gathered, and put in forme, for the governement of the Church of Scotland, and ordained to bee obser­ved by the clergie, and all others whom they concerne. That they may abolish all the formes used in the worship of God, without any question for threescore yeares and a­bove, both in the publicke prayers, in the admini­stration of the Sacraments, in singing of Psalmes, in preaching the Word, in celebrating of Marri­age, in visiting the sicke, and in ordination of Mi­nisters: Neither this alone, but that it is in their hand to impose in place of these accustomed formes, foure new Bookes of their owne; of Ser­vice, of Psalmes, of Ordination, of Homilies. [Page 114] All this our Bishops in Scotland have done, and to this day, not any of them to our knowledge can be moved to confesse in that deed, any faile against the rules either of equitie or justice, what ever slips of imprudence there may bee therein. And all this they have done at my lord of Canterburies directi­on, as wee shall make good by his owne hand, if ever we shall be so happy as to be permitted to pro­duce his owne authentick autographs, before the Parliament of England, or any other Judicatorie that his Majestie will command to cognosce upon this our alleadgance. Readily Rome it self can not be able in any one age, to paralell this worke which our faction did bring foorth in one yeare. It is a bundel of so many, so various, and so heavie acts of tyrannie. Certainly, England was never acquaint with the like; wee see what great trouble it hath cost his Grace, to get thorow there one poore ceremo­nie of setting the Communion table altar-wayes; for there themselves dar not deny, that it is repug­nant to the established Lawes of their church and state for any Bishop; yea, for all the Bishops being joined, to make the poorest Canon without the voices of their convocation-house, or Nationall Assemblie; yea, without the Parliaments good pleasure.VVhites ex­amination of the dialogue, pag 22. By the lawes of our kingdome, and Canons of our Church, many learned persons are appointed to be as­sistants unto bishops, and in our nationall Synods, in which all weightie matters concer­ning religion are determined, nothing is, or may be concluded, but by the common vote and counsell of the major part, of the convocation which consisteth of many other learn­ed Divines, besides Bishops. Andrews sermons of Trumpets, dedicated to the King by Canterburie. As for the Churches lawes, which wee call Canons or rules, made to restrain or redresse abu­ses, they have al­wayes been ma­de at Church as­semblies, and in her owne Coun­cels, not elsewhe­re, Heylens anti­dot. pag. 29. I trow you are not ignorant that the kirk makes ca­nons, it is the work of Cleargie men in their Convocations, having his Maje­sties leave for their convee­ning, and appro­bation of their doings. His Ma­jestie in the declaration before the articles hath resolved it so, and the late practice in King Iames raigne, what time the Book of Canons was composed in the Convocation, hath de­clared it soo to. 3. They avow that all their injun­ctions though so many and so new, yet they are so [Page 115] holy and so just, that the whole kingdome in con­science must embrace them all as the commands of God.VVhites examination, pag. 20. telleth us as it were from Eusebius, Quicqued in Sanctis Episcoporum conciliis decernitur, id universum Divina voluntati debet attribus. And from Ber­nard, Sive Deus, sive homo vicarius Dei mandatum quodcunque tradiderit, pari profectó obsequen­dum est cura, pari reverentia suscipiendum: ubi tamen Deo contraria non praecepit homo. That whoever will be so peart as to af­firm in any one of them, the least contrarietie to the Word of God, he must have no lesse censure then the great excommunication, from which he must never be relaxed but by the Bishops own mouth, af­ter his publick repentance and revocation of so vile an errour.Book of Canons, pag. 8. VVhosoever shall hereafter affirme, that the forme of worship contained in the booke of Commoun Prayer, that the rites and ceremonies of the church, that the government of y Church by archbishops, bishops and others, that the forme of con­secrating archbishops, bishops, presbyters, and deacons, as they are now established under his Maiesties authoritie, doe containe in them any thing repugnant to the Scriptures, or are cor­rupt, superstitious or unlawfull in the service and worship of God, let him be excommunicate, and not restored, but by the bishop of the place, or archbishop of the province, after his repen­tance, and publick revocation of such his wicked errours. That his bodily and pecuniall pe­naltie shall be at the free will and discretion of the Bishop.Book of Canons, pag. 37. In all this book of Canons whersoever there is no penaltie expressely set downe, it is to be understood, that, so the crime or offence bee proved, the punishment shall be arbitrarie, as the ordinarie shall think fittest. That the worthiest men of any li­berall profession get savour to losse but their eares, to have their noses slit, and cheeks burnt for contra­dicting their innovations.Canterburies Star chamber speach in his epistle to the King, I shall rather magnifie your clemencie, that proceeded with those offenders, Burtoun, Bastmijck, Prinne, in a Court of Mercie, as well as Iustice; since as the reverend Iudges then declared yee might have justly called the offenders into another Court, and put them to it in a way that might have exacted their lives. That the furthest [Page 116] banishments for tearme of life, is a priviledge which their indulgence may grant but to few.The world knowes, that numbers who have beene flying from episcopall tyrannie out of England, to the very new found lands, never to return, have beene by violence keeped back, and cast in their prisons: and wee see dayly, that numbers not onely of men, but even of sil­lie women are drawn back in Ireland from their flight, out of the kingdom to close prisons. That the vilest dungeons, yrons, whippings, bread and water, chaining to posts without all company, day or night in the coldest and longest winters, is but a part of their opposers deserving.Huntly in his Breviat re­ports, as a known case among ma­ny other, this one also, that M. Iohn Hayden a poore Devonshire Minister for preaching at Norwich a Sermon, wherein he let fall some passages against setting up of images, and bowing at the name of Iesus, was apprehended like a traitour, with the Consta­bles bills and halberts by D. Harsnet then Bishop, and brought manacled to him like a fel­lon, and committed to the common Iayle close prisoner, above thirteene weekes, where hee was like to sterve; the Bishop having taken from him his horse, papers, and all, thereafter he was sent by a pursevant to London, and keeped two full tearms. At last, by the high Com­mission he was deprived of his orders, thereafter the high Commissionars imprisoned him in the Gate house common dungeon, and Canterburie sent him to be whipped in Bredwall, and there keeped him all the long extreame cold winter in a dark cold dungeon, without fire or candle light, chained to a post in the mids of the room, with heavy yrons on his hands and feet, allo­wing him only bread and water with a pad of straw to ly on: And since on his reliefe hath cau­sed him to take an oath, and give band to preach no more, and to depart the Kingdome with­in three weeks, without returning; and all this for preaching after his first uniust depriva­tion, though no exception was taken against his doctrine. That the greatest Nobles of the Land, ought in Law to for-fault their Life and Estate, if they be so bold as to put their hand to a supplication unto their gratious Prince against their practices.Sundrie of our prime Earles and Lords did present a supplication to our King, after his Coronation, wherein the matter of their greatest complaint was, so far as ever wee heard, their challenging of the Bishops for what they had done, and were likely to doe. The copie of this privie supplication being privily convoyed by an unfriend, some two or three years thereafter, out of my Lord Balmerinochs chamber, was a dittay for which hee was condemned to die, for an example to all other Noble Men to beware of the like rashnesse, especially his Fellow-supplicants, who are all declared to have deserved by that fault the same sentence of death. Large Declaration, pag. 14. Nor could they have found the least blemish in our justice, if wee should have given warrant both for his sentence and execution, whose life was now legally devolved into our hands. Ibid. pag. 13. VVee were graciously pleased that the feare and example might reach to all, but the punishment onely to one of them, to passe by many, who undoubtedly had beene concluded, and involved by our Lawes in the same sen­tence, if wee had proceeded against them. That all this is but just severitie, and the very expedient meane to [Page 117] advance their cause, which they glory have well neere already close undone their opposites,Studley about the end of his wicked storie avowes, that sin­ce by severe pu­nishment the number of the unconformists have decayed, that their cause can not bee from God. and which they boast shall still bee used,Canterbu­rie in his epistle to the King be­fore Starchamber speach, having magnified the Kings mercie, for saving the life of Bourtoun and his companions, is bold to advise the King not alwayes to bee so mercifull, in these words, Yet this I shall bee bold to say, that your Majestie may consider of it in your wisedome, that one way of government is not alwayes either fit or safe, when the humours of the people are in a continuall change, especially when such men as those shall work upon your people, and labour to infuse into them such malignant principles, to introduce a paritie in the Church or Commonwealth. Etsi non satis sua sponte insaniant instigare. Heylen in his moderat answer, pag. 187. hath many reasons and examples, to prove that Burtoun and his like deserved no lesse than publick execution: And yet these men are so gentle to Papists, that they glory in their meeknesse to­wards them, professing that to the bitterest of the Iesuits they have never given so much as a course word. So Canterburie in his Epistle the other yeare to the King, before the relation of the conference, God forbid that I should ever offer to perswade a persecution in any kinde against the Iesuits, or practice it in the least, for to my rememberance I have not given him or his so much as course language. But alasse it is gone now beyond boasts, when they are the second time upon the very point to kill millions of the Kings best Subjects, to dash together all his dominions in a bloody warre, as pitchers one upon another for the confirmation of their intollerable tyrannie, where long it hath beene tottering, and the reerection of it where its owne unsupportable weight hath caused it to fall.

As for the power of princes,King Charles hates all tyranny the most of those this day who are Christians, and especially our gracious Soveraigne, are very well content to be limited within the bounds of the laws which them­selves and their predecessors have setled in the church and state of their dominions, to make the preservation of those laws and of their subjects li­berties ecclesiastick and civill according to them, the greatest glorie of their prerogative royall.His maje­sties speach in Parliament 28. p. 75. The peoples liberties strength­en the Kings pre­rogative, and the Kings preroga­tive is to defend the peoples li­berties. [Page 118] To give assurance of their resolution never to abo­lish any old, or bring in any new act either in church or state without the concurrence of Assemblies and Parliaments. (p) Neither to impose any taxation on their subjects goods without their free consent there to given by their Commissioners in Parlia­ment,Proclam. at Yorck April 25. 1639. VVe heartily declare and faithfully promise that, al­thogh we be now in armes, they shall be no wayes used either to force upon that our native King­dome any inno­vation of religi­on, or to infrin­ge any of the civill liberties or the laws there­of, accounting it our glory to pre­serve libertie and freedome among them according to their laws Therefore wee do once again by this renew our former promises for the mantenance of religion and laws, and this we do in all sinceritie of heart, we take God the searcher of all hearts to witnesse that as we are defender of the true Protestant religion which we from our heart professe; so we trust, we shall by his goodnesse continue in the same, and never shall permit any innovation to creep in this or any other of our kingdomes. One of the articles of Dunce pacification is this. VVe are further graciously pleased, that according to the petitioners humble desires all matters ecclesiasticall shall be de­termined by the Assemblies of the Church, and matters civill by the Parliament and other inferior Iudicatories established by law; which accordingly shall be keeped once a year, or so oft as the affairs of the Church and kingdome shall require. the extending of the prerogative to the making of new laws or abolishing of old, to the im­posing of taxes by simple proclamation without Parliament our Prince doth so far abhorre, that he condemned a certaine writ for importing his Ma­jesties intertainment of such motions; Yea his Ma­jestie by his Atturney generall called the Earl of Bedfoord and other noble personages to censure, for keeping such a writ wherein did ly so pernicious positions.The which seditious discourse and writting the authors thereof intended should be dis­persed, as if the same had been intertained by your Majestie with purpose to put it in executi­on, and to alter the ancient laws of this kingdome, and to draw all things to your Majesties absolute will and plessure, and to dispose of your Subiects goods without their consent, and to make and repeale laws by your Ma­iestise proclama­tion only with out consent of parliament, which if it should be beleeved by your people, could not but raise infinit discontentment amongst them, the consequence whereof might bee of extreame and almost inevi­table danger to your Maiesties person and to the whole frame of the kingdome. Where some Princes misled through passion & mis-information have deviat so far from the path of justice, as to intend by violence and armes the overthrow of the true religion and anci­ent Cant. relat. p. 112. In some kingdome there are diverse businesses of greatest conse­quence which cannot be finally and binedingly ordered but in, and by Parliament, and particu­lary the statute laws which must bind all the Subjects can not be made or ratified but there, the supreme Magistrate in the civill state may not abrogat laws made in Parliament, though he may dispense with the penaltie of the law quoad hic & nunc. [Page 119] liberties of their subjects, the opposition which the subjects are forced to make in this case against the oppression of their Prince, our gracious Sove­raigne hath been so far ever from counting of it re­bellion, of which crime the greatest royallists in England wont alway to absolve it,Bilson of subjection pag. 280. Neither will I rashly pronounce all that resist to be rebells: Cases may fall out even in Christian kingdomes where people may plead their right against the Prince and not be charged with rebellion: As for example, if a Prince should go about to subject his Kingdome to a forraine realme, or change the forme of the common wealth from imperie to tyranny, or neglect the laws established by common consent of Prince and people, to execute his own plea­sure; In those and other cases which might be named, if the nobles and commons ioine toge­ther, to defend their ancient and accustomed libertie, regiment, and laws, they may not well be counted rebels. Ib. By superior powers ordained of God, we do not mean the Princes privat will against his laws but his precepts derived from his laws and agreeing with his laws; which though it be wicked, yet may it not be resisted by any subject with armed violence, but when Princes offer their subjects no justice but force, and despise all laws to practise their lusts, not any privat man may take the sword to redresse the prince; but if the laws of the land appoint the nobles as next to the King to assist him in doing right, and withhold him from doing wrong, then be they licenced by mans law and so not prohibited by Gods law for to inter­pose themselves for the safegard of equity and innocencie, and by all lawfull and needfull means to procure the prince to be reformed, but in no case to deprive him where the scepter is inherited. Ib. pag. 54. Spoiles, m [...]ssacres, conspiracies, treasons, even to the destruction and murther of Princes by their owne se [...]vants, if a priest say the word, you count in your selves to be just, honourable, and Godly war: if others do but stand on their guaird to keep their lives and families from the blinded rage of their enemies, seeking to put whole towns and pro­vinces to the sword gainst all law and reason, and to disturbe Kingdomes in the minoritie of the right governours, or if they defend their Christian and ancient liberties, covenanted and agreed upon by those princes to whom they first submitted them­selves, and ever since confirmed and allowed by the Kings that have succeeded. If in neither of these two cases the Godly require their right and offer no wrong neither impugne their princes, but only save their own lives, you cry rebellious Hereticks, rebellious Calvinist, furie, frenesie, muti­nie and I know not what, ye may persue, depose, muther princes when the B. of Rome bids you and that without breach of duety, law, or conscience to God or man as you vant. And that when neither life nor limme of you is touched, we may not so much as beseech princes that we may be used like subjects not like slaves, like men, not like beasts, that we may be convented by laws before judges, not murthered by inquisirours in corners, but incontinent the fume of your unclean mouth is ready to call us by all the names you can devise. that his Majestie hath thought meet before all Europe after the example of his glorious Father, and renowned predecesrix Elizabeth, to give his countenance, aid, and powerfull assistance to them all, when their just grievances and fears were laid out before his throne. If so be King Charles had esteemed the late wars of France of the Protestants against their king, the present wars of Holland and of the high Dutches against the Spaniard and Emperour an unlawfull de­fence [Page 120] let be a traiterous insurrection of subjects against their Soveraignes, We presuppone his Ma­jesties justice would have been loath ever to have defiled his scepter by supporting them all with men and moneys, as oft he hath done, and yet doth avow the deed.

The Canterbu­rians flatter the King in much more power than ever he will take. And inable him vvithout advice of the Clergie, to do in the church what he pleaseth.While our gracious Prince is so far inflamed with hatred against all tyrannie, yet behold this wicked faction how carefully they go about by all the means they can, to draw his royall minde to that which naturally it doth so much abhore: For they tell us first, that the power of all true Kings is so simply absolute and illimitate, that for any man to reason what they may not is a crime no lesse than treason; that they are far above all lawHeylens moderat answer pag. 28. VVhat spirit leads you that you are grie­ved vvith illimi­tat povver which men of better understanding than you have given to princes. Ib. pag. 32. Prin­ces are Gods de puts, of whom should they bee limited, if ye say by the laws of the land those themselves have made, a prince in abctracto is above the laws though in concreto a just Prince will not break the laws which himself hath promised to observe otherwise we say of princes: Principi lex non est posita that they do not governe only by the law but are above it, that he is sure and hath an absolute authoritie Ibid. p. 179 I will be bold to tell you that as it is a kinde of Atheisme to dis­pute pro & con­tra what God can do and what hee can not, though such di­sputs are raised so­me times by un­quiet wits; so it is a kinde of disobedience and disloyalty to determine what a king can, and what he can not. Lysimachus. p. 3. Hence it is that princes being Legislators are above their laws, and dispense with them as they think expedient. A prince is not bound to his own laws because no man can impose a law on himself. Aberdeen duplyes p. 22. The king is above the law as both the au­thor and giver of strength thereto. 2. That the oath which a prince makes to keep the laws is but a personall deed, which can not oblidge his successor, that his oath and promise at his co­ronation to keep the laws, is to be exponed of his resolution to make his laws to be keeped by others: That all the oath and promises he makes at his co­ronation are but of his meer free-will and arbitre­ment, [Page 121] that by thē all no true covenant or paction cā be inferred betwixt the King and his subjects.Dominus Ioannes Wemius de Craigioun a man advanced by our bishops to be a lord both of Councell and Session in his book de primatu Regis printed in Edinburgh 1623. And going among them to this day with applause p. 18. Sed quid si princeps leges statuat adhibito etiam iurisiurandi sacramento, velin sua inauguratione promittat, se leges non laturum absque populi ordinumque non modo consilio, sed etiam consensu ac determinante sententia, siquidem non fuerit haec in prima regni constitutione conditio & imperii coaeva ac fundamentalis regni lex non sit (quo casu dicerem non proprie esse regnum, sed aristocratiam, vel democratiam) sed post regni constitutionem pactum tantummodo sit regis alicuius voluntarium, etiamsi forsan pollicentum ipsum obliget quoniam praestanda est sides dat a ne sine fide licet non sine iure regnet: successores tamen in regno quomodo con­stringet vix intelligimus, etiamsi inhonesta quoque sit ut ait quidam & illegittima omnis ea pactio quae inter patrem & filium, maritum & uxorem, dominum & servum, regem & subditum celebratur, quod dicto oportet hos audientes esse Ib. p. 39. Audemus dicere in monarchiis Reges supra leges esse iisque solutos, nemo enim sibi legislator, vindex aut iudex, distinctio non probanda principem quoad vim Legum directivam Legum non coactivam legibus subditum esse, non enim magis derigere quam cogere seipsum potest quis, cum actio onmis sit inter agens & patiens. Ib. 41. Si leges suas se observaturum pacto obligaverit princeps. Quod raro aut nanquam fit, etiamsi soleat prin­ceps quisque legum suarum observationem hoc sensu promittere id est, ut a subditis observentur se effecturum, ad earum observationem teneri eum confitemur, sed religionis potius quam iustitiae legalis observatione. 3. That the prince alone is the lawgiver both in church and stateIohannes Wemius pag. 26. Legum latio praecipuum est supre­mae dominationis ac maiestatis caput. Ib. pag. 74 Legum ecclesiasticarum principes latores sunt, nec differunta civilibus ecclesiastica natione cause efficientis. 4. That in maters ecclesiasticall they themselves alone without the advice of any of the Cleargie may lawfully make what canons they please, and compell their Cleargie to embrace themIohannes Wemius pag. 59. Pote­statem in ecclesiasticis [...] posse a princibus iure suo extra concilia exerceri docent quas ita tulerunt leges imperatores atque iis Regis legibus Ecclesiasticis quae legi devinae non repugnant nequit quit bona cum con­scientia obedienti­am detrestare, quamvis non ac­cessent ad earum constitutionem Pa­storum ecclesiae con­sensus. Ib. p. 93. Etiamsi extra con­cilia jubendi au­toritatem habeat Princeps, tamen libentius obse­quuntur subditi­illis principum sta­tutis, quibus pa­storum in conciliis honorantur iudi­cia. 5. That it is a part of the Kings prerogative to have power to impose upon all his subjects such confessions of faith, such liturgies, such canons as he thinks meetest without the advice of any church [Page 122] AssemblyLarge de­claration p. 222. Did not wee and our Councell be equall authority command these innovations of ca­nons & liturgie? Was not then ye Prelats practice of then as well warranted as this confession of faith, and the band annexed, which were never brought in by acts of Parliament or Assembly, but meerly by our royall Fathers prero­gative, and put in execution by the authority of his councell? 6. When it is his pleasure to call an Assembly, the members of that ecclesiastick court are onely such as he is pleased to call, whether of the Clergie or of the Laitie.Johannes Wemius pag. 66. Laicos saepe à principibus advocatos in Concilia videre est; quibus non modo consultivam sed & definiti­vam vocem permitterent. Iste fuit electionis mittendorum ad Concilia modus, ut Ecclesiarum presulibus quos vellent mittendi liberam plerumque potestatem permitteret princeps, quod illis exploratius quam sibi esset qui ad eam provinciam aptiores: Non quod principi penitus neganda sit, quod autum aut nonnulli, particu­laris personarum quae consilio eum leges Ecclesiasticas laturum adjuvent designatio. Istud enim esset princi­pum juri detrahere. Ex singulis diaecesibus moderatus aliquis numerus eruditorum ac prudentiorum Pres­byterorum, Diaconorum, & Laicorum à principe aut metropolita principis delegate eligebatur. 7. That when they are called only the Princes voice is decisive, the voice of all the rest at most but consultive, or if any of them become decisive, it is by the Princes favour or at least permission.Iohannes Wemius pag. 89. Consultivam habent vocem Pastores tanquam juris divini consulti, de­finitivam princeps ut judex; dante illis consilii, his judicii potestatem Legis latore Deo, penes quem solum summa in spiritualibus imperii residet. Ib. pag. 70. Vocem. habere qui congregantur Presbyteros non qua Presbyteri, sed qua Ecclesiarum sunt legatià principe vocati. Ib. pag. 74. Definitiva sententiae dictio corum est, qui à principe summo moderatore eos consulente, vocemque decisivam iis dante vocantur. Ib. Asserimus non agitato in conciliis fuisse saltem quae majoris momenti essent negotia, nisi quatenus ea princeps per legatos proponeret aut patribus descripta traderet. 8. That church Assemblies are only politick conventions not grounded upon any devine right, and so to be used or disused as the prince shall think expedient.Iohannes Wemius pag. 126. Nullo in scriptura mandato nititur concilia. celebrandimos; sed à principibus Ecclesiae curam suscipientibus, & cum non essent principes, à pastoribus ipsis volentibus ortum habuit. 9. That it is in the power of all Soveraignes whihher Monarchick, A­ristocratick, or democratick, to appoint for the go­vernment of the church in their dominions such officers and spirituall courts as they finde most meet and agreable to their temporall estates, to erect bishops, and put down Presbyteries, to erect [Page 123] Presbyteries and put down bishops.Iohannes VVemius p. 78. & 79. Officiorum Ecclesiae modus [...] est, & à principe pastoros Ecclesiae non consulente praes­cribi posse affirma­mamus, putantes cum serenissimo nostro Rege, summis quibusque imperitantibus concessum esse externam in Ecclesiasticis regiminis formam suis praescribere, quae ad civilis administrationis modum quam proxime accedat, dummodo à fidei veraeque religionis fundamentis ne tantillum abscedat. 10. That all this power to conclude every ecclesiastick affaire which can be subject to the jurisdiction of any ec­clesiasticall synod doth belong alike to all soveraig­nes whether Turkish, Iewish, Pagan, hereticall or Christian and Orthodox. Iohannes VVemius pag. 124. Regi omni confertur Ecclesiasticae jurisdictionis potestas per regium quod à Deo habet munus; licet Regi tantum Christiano aptitudo oû recte utendi Christi gratia donetur Tamet si primatus ecclesiastici ius perfectius administret Rex Christianus: Primatus tamen ius, officii seu vocationis non facultatis aut exercitii ratione Rex obtinet. Quae Regi superve­nit gratia regiam in eo potestatem perficit, non facit potestatem, non repellit, gratiae interna, nedum professionis externae defectus.

Concerning the Kings power in matter of Stat,They give to the King power to do in the State what ever he will, without the advi­ce of his parlia­ment. they teach first, that a Parliaments is but his arbitra­rie Councell, which in making or annulling of his Lawes, hee may use or not use as hee pleaseth.Ioannes VVemius, p. 17. Neque verò putan dum est, quia solet rex ex modesta & prudenti virium suarum diffidentia non nisi de ordinum consensu leges ferre, absolutam ideo ei im­poni, eiusque successoribus necessitatem illorum obtinendi consensus, ac si nullo modo iis liceret perse, sine eorundem suffragiis, bonas edere constitutiones, quibus qua quaeso conscientia non parebunt om­nes. Ibid. pag. 19. In Monarchia Regis sola voluntas de substantia legis est: praevia cum populo consultatio, & si utilis imò ultilissimae sit, necessaria tamen non est. Itaque cum imperatore Iusti­niano dicendum videtur; explosis ridiculosis ambiguitatibus, verum conditorem & interpretem legum esse solum principem, & legem legislatoris, non Consiliarii esse, non ex vi consensus & consilii habiti, sed ex regia legislatoris [...]i obligantem. Ibid. pag. 38. Non erubescimus Iuristaturum reiicere opinionem, qui volunt in monarchiis non obligare legem nisi à populo acceptetur, cum mo­narcha sit legislator, & lex lata qualex obliget, adeo ut ad eam acceptandam, cogendi sint subditi post legis a monarchae lata publicationem, temporisque quoàd populi notitiam pervenat sufficientis lapsum, potest sine ulla acceptatione publica legis observatio praecisem ingeri. Heylyns antid. pag. 66. The declaration of his Majesties pleasure in the case of S. Gregorie is to be extended to all other cases of the same nature. It is a maxime in the civill law, Sententia Principis, ius dubium [...]eclarans, ius facit quoad omnes. Item Quodcunque imperator per epistolam constituit, vel cognoscens decrevit, legem esse constat. Id. in his moderate ans­were, pag. 29. Only these com­mands of the King are to bee refused, which are directly against Scripture, or include mani­fest impietie. Hee learned this from his opposite the Lincobishire Mi­nister, pag. 68. I say that all com­mands of the King that are not upon the clear and im­mediat inference without all profy­logismus, contra­rie to a cleare passage of the word of God, or to an evident Sun-beame of the law of nature, are pre­cisely to bee obeyed; nor is it enough to finde a remote and possible inconvenience that may ensue. 2. When he is pleased to call a Parliament, it is his due right by his letter to ordaine such Barrons to be Commissionars for the Shires, and such Citizens to bee Commissionars for Burrowes as hee shall bee [Page 124] pleased to name.Ioannes Wemius pag. 23. Baronum ut & civium ad Comitia delegatos non ita absolute à Ba­ronum vel Civium delectu pendere volumus, ut non possit rex, quos ille maxime idoneos censuerit eligendos nominare, praesertim cum pro legibus ferendis ijsque quae administrationis sunt publicae statuendis Comitia in­dictae sunt, in quibus liberum denegare regi arbitrium, quos aestimarit prudentissimos quibuscum deliberet sibi in Concilium asc [...]scendi, esset ex rege non regem eum facere, statuumque voluntati ad regiae depressionem emi­nent à nimis subjectum. 3. That he may lawfully exact when he hath to do what portion of his Sub­jects goods hee thinks meet, and by himselfe alone, may make such Lawes for exactions in times to come, as seemes to him best.Joannes Wemius, pag. 19. Omnia fatemur quae in regno sunt regis esse, qua rex est, id est, qua paternus regni dominus, adeoque qua postulat ipsius qua rex est, aut publica regni conditio: posse regem de singulorum bonis disponere, praesertim ubi omnes in regno terrae in feuda concessae fue­rint à rege, aliquod penes se dominium retinente. Id. pag. 17. Licet non de jure omnium bona exigendo, tamen de jure in omnes leges ferendo, sine omnium consensu statuere potest. Montag. orig. pag. 320. Omni lege, divina, naturali, vel politica licite semper reges & principes suis subditis tributa & imposuerunt, & licitè quoque exegerunt, cum ad patriae & reipublicae desensionem tum ad ipsorum & familiae honestam procuratio­nem. Hanc doctrinam accurate tuetur Ecclesia Anglicana, in qua sacerdotes licet magis gaudere & so­leant, & debeant, immunitatibus tamen & frequentius, & exuberantius, & libentius, quam Laici decima­rum decimas, subsidia, annatas primitias solvunt. 4. That no Subject of his Kingdome can have any hereditarie jurisdiction, but any jurisdiction that either any of the Nobilitie, or any other Magistrate or officer possesseth, they have it alone during his pleasure; that at his presence, the power of all others must cease, and at his death evanish and be quite exstin­guished, till by his successors by new gift it be re­newed.Joannes Wemius, pag. 136. Cum regis sit in suo regno judices, & magistratus constituere, qui ipsius sint in judicando, & jubendo vicarli, potest tex juben­di, judicandique jus ac magistratus judicesque constituendi potestatem inferioribus concessam, prout regno utile esse visum ei fuerit abutentibus auferre, & nulla proprie est sub. Rege patrimonialis & haereditaria jurisdictio, rege solo jurisdictionem tanquam propriam habente, aliisque quibus eam non dat, sed communicat, tanquam depositam accipientibus. Igitur non ut terras, ita & jurisdictionem simpliciter, & ut loquuntur privative, rex alienare potest, nisi rex esse desinat. Ibid. pag. 157. Si judices sint principum vicarii, nulla est eorum principe presente po­testas, cum solius absentis teneat quis locum: & si quae est alicubi, & ali­quando videatur, non nisi jus est, [...] ­dicium regium vo­lente Rege declaran­di; ut ita ex judi­cam ore proferatur Regis sententia. Ibid. pag. 17. In statuum caetu non tam judicantibu [...] ipsis quam assisten­tibus imperium ex­ercet rex, quando­quidem praesente ju­risdictionis sente, evanescat aboram omnium jurisdic [...]o derivata, ut fluviorum perditum nomen & potestas, cum in mare discenderint, Ibid. pag. 143. Principus occasis evanescit judicum omnium tam ordinariorum quam delegatorum jus. Negari non potest tam apud Romanos quam alios in usu fuisse, ut qui in demortuorum succederent locum reges, quamprimum regnorum gubernacula capesserent, magistratuum judicumque jurisdictionem confirmarent, ut ostenderetur extinctis regibus nullam esse inferiorum authoritatem, nisi successorum edicto confirmentur, saltem patientia tacite approbentur. 5. That Scotland is a subdued Na­tion, that Fergus our first King did conquer us by the sword, and establish an absolute Monarchie for [Page 125] himself and his heires, giving to us what Lawes hee thought meetestCorbet p. 45. There was no law in the Kingdom of Scotland before the kings gave it: For before Fergus his days we were genus hominum agreste, sine legibus, sine imperio. He and his succes­sors gave lawes. Ibid. Fergus did conquere us. 6. That al the Lands in Scotland were once the Kings propertie, and what thereof hath beene given out for service, yet re­maines his owne by a manifold right.Corbet, pag. 45. Fergus and his successors di­vided the whole land which was their owne and distinguished the orders of men, and did establish a politick government: This is cleare ex archivis regiis, ubi satis constat regem esse dominum omnium bonorum directum, omnes subditos esse ejus vassallos, qui latifundia sua ipsi domino referant accepta, sui nempe obsequii, & servitii praemia. 7. That to deny any of the named parts of this power to the King, is to destroy his Monarchike govern­ment, to dethrone him and make him no King, to subject him to his people and make them his ma­sters, or at least collegs in the Empire.Joannes Wemius, pag. 18. Quo casu dicer [...]m non proprie esse reg­num, sed aristocratiam vel democratiam. Ibid. pag. 23. Hoc esset ex rege non regem eum facere. Ibid. p. 38. Quod si alicubi non habeat rex potestatem leges serendi, nisi ex populi in comitiis consensu, & sic fundamenta­liter limitato, propriè Rex non est, ac non tam acceptans est populus, quam cum Rege, ut collega Regem ferens. ibid. pag. 53. Non est imperium illud vere Monarchicum, sed principatus quidam, & imperans ille, non Monar­cha aut Rex, sed tantum Princeps, & ut Venetorum dux residente in optimatibus, aut populo imperii summa. But thanks be to God, that our gratious Prince hath so oft declared himselfe to bee farre from all such thoughts; yea, that my lord of Canterburie him­selfe, is forced whiles to let drop from his fingers cleane contrare maximes.Relat. of the Conference. pag. The statute Lawes which must binde all the Subjects can not bee made but in, and by Parliament: the supreame Magistrate in the civill state, may not abrogat Lawes made in Parliament. Ibid. pag. 158. Tiberius himself in the cause of Silanus, when Dolabella would have flattered him into more power than in wisedome he thought fit then to take to himself, he put him off thus: No, the Lawes grow lesse when such power enlargeth, nor is abso­lute power to bee used, where there may be an orderly proceeding by Law.

Even in no ima­ginable case, they will have tyrants resisted.Lastlie, they teach us in the matter of resistance, first, that do the Prince what he will, he may never be resisted by any or all his Subjects, that not only a private man must give over all defence, though most innocent of his own life against the Prince, though his most unjust violence;Ioannes VVemius. p. 21. Teneri videtur subditus seipsum fame perimere, ut principem salva­ret propter conser­vationem boni publici, singulis a dempta est adver­sus principem quae naturalis dicitur iuris defensio, seu iniuriae depulsio. but the whole state can do nought without rebellion against God, but flee or suffer, when the Prince, whether by him selfe or his officers doth destroy the true re­ligion, established by all Laws and the liberties of the land, dear bought of old & peaceably brooked in many ages, also the lives of many thousands of the best Subjects without the pretence or colour of any just cause.Canterb. re­lat. Pag. 205. vvhere the foun­dations of the faith, are shaken by princes there their ought to be prayer and pa­tience, but no op­position by force. Aberdeens duplys. pag. 25. The way for all Christian Subjects to con­quer tyrants, and the remedy pro­vided in the New Testament a­gainst all persecutions, is not to resist powers which God hath ordained, lest we be damned, but with all meeknesse to suffer that we may be crowned, It is evident by Scripture, that it is unlawfull for Subjects in a Monarchicall estate, to take armes for religion, or for any other pretence, without warrand from the Prince. The renowned Thebaean legion of 6666. Christian souldiers without making resistance as they had strenth to have done, suffered themselves rather to be slaine for their Christian profession by the Officers of Maximinian, the Empe­rours executors of his cruell commandements against them. Corbet. pag. 42. For your exam­ples from reformed churches, since we live not by examples but by Lawes, I will not stand upon them, from facts to prove the lawfulnesse of resisting is ridiculous; none of those by resisting, gained so much as by suffering, as experience too late doeth show. Againe, that all this subjecti­on must be used, not only to our native King, but to any forraine usurper who can get footing among us, and it were the Kings of Spaine, as their prede­cessors the hereticall Gothish Kings got footing in the Romane Impyre.Aberdeens Duplys. pag. 29. Such was the doctrine and practice of many other great lights, which shined in the days of Iulian the Apostate, and in the dayes of the Arrian Em­perours, and Gothick Arrian Kings. That even against them, the States of a Land with a good conscience could use no defence, though before their eyes, they should see them execut the cruell tyrannies of Ne­buchadnezar, put out the eyes of the King, kill his children, lead himself and his Nobles away to a far [Page 127] land in fetters: Though with Nero, Corbet. pag. 26. Qui Ma­rio, Cajo Casaeri, qui Augusto, ipse & Nerom, qui Vespasianis vel patrivel filio, ipsi Domitiano crude­lissimo; & ne per singulos ire necesse sit, qui Constan­tino Christiano, ipse & apostatae Iuliano. Ibid. pag. 36. If the Iewes in the dayes of Assuerus had beene of this new Scottish humour, when an utter ex­tirpation was intended by Haman, both of themselves and their religion, they would have taken Ames: but their prayers and teares were their defence in their greatest extremity. for their mere pleasure, they should set the royall city in a faire fire, or execute the plot of Haman by mur­thering all the seed of the Iewes, all zealous Prote­stants up and downe the Land in one day. Such maximes exceedingly opposite to the honour of God, the safetie of the Kings person and crowne, the welfare of the people, these men cause to bee printed and let them go about without any censure at these times, when by royall decreers, they have pulled into their hands the full commandement of all the Presses, and the absolute jurisdiction over all the Book-sellers shops in the Kingdome, and kythes frequently their zeale against any Books that give but the least touch to their mitres, by inflicting no lesse censure then fire upon the Books, pilloring and nose-sliting on the Authors, and whipping thorow the streets on the carriers.

All these extraordinary prerogatives,VVat they gi­ve to Kings, is not for any re­spect they have to Majestie, but for their own ambitious and covetous ends. whereby the faction advanceth supreame Magistrats so nere unto God, and their favorits so far above the skyes,Ioannes VVe­mius in his pre­face to the Duke of Buckinghame, Reges in divinio­rem sortem tran­scripti▪ cute & specie tenus homines, reipsa boni genii censendi sunt, in quos ut humanos loves divini honoris offines pene & consortes, oculos animosque nostros defigi convenit, Tu Heros nobilissime coruscas, velut inter ignes Luna minores, quem in summo augustioris gloriae solstitio divina prorsus virgula constitutum nemo potest diffiteri. seeme to flow not from any love they carie, either to their crownes or the royall heads that bear them, but meerlie out of their self-respect to their owne ambition and greed, that Soveraignitie being advanced to an numerasurable hight, may be a statelier horse for them to ride upon, in their glo­rious [Page 128] trivmphings above all that is called God. For otherwise, yee may see how farre they depresse all Soveraignes when they are layed in the ballance with them selves. they tell us, that the King can bee no more the head of the church, then the boy that rubs their horse heeles,Smart Ser­mon, pag. 1. M. CouZins uttered these trayterous speaches in an open and affir­mative manner; that the Kings highnes is no more supreame head of the church of Eng­land, then the boy that rubbs his horse heeles, and this as we are credibly informed hath beene proved against him by the oathes of two sufficient witnesses. 2. That the heart whence the native life & vigour of the Ecclesiastick Lawes doeth flow, is alone the Bishops and not the King.Chounaei collect. supra cap. ult. A 3. That Kings and Emperours ought to reverence; yea, to adore Bishops and to pay them tributes.Montagsupra cap. 3. O. 4. That every Bishop is a Prince and a Monarch, as farre in dignitie above the great­est secular Prince, as the soul above the body, or God above man.Montag, supra cap. tertio. (z)

FINIS.

Revised according to the ordinance of the generall Assembly, by Mr. A. Ihonston Clerk thereto:

A Post-script for the personate Iesuite Lysimachus Nicanor.

GOod Father Lies-maker, It is the common strata­geme of the Can­terburiās to slan­der all their op­posites with Ie­suitisme. you doe no new thing to paralell the Scotish Covenanters with Jesuites, it is the old and oft rechanted song of your fellows, to put Jesuites and Puritanes (which name all must be content to beare, who will not under your conduct be led back to Rome) in one categorie, to make them but two singulars under one spece, both most furious rebels, and by open prof [...]ssion most seditious traitours, yet with this difference; that the one, because more opposite to you, must partake more of the nature of the spece; The Puri­tane (as ye must have leave in this season of your Kingdome to play the nomenclat [...]rs) is growne so big a traitour, that scarce any roome is left for the Iesuite to stand beside him: Not long agoe it was the equitie of your brother Montagu, to grant the Iesuite the favour to march with the Puritane under the same colours, in the same ranke, as devils equally furious unhappily borne and fostered to keepe Rome and Eng­land asunder.

Supra chap 7. A. A.But now it is the wisedome of your grand-father Laud to marshall them much better, the Puritane must be farre ad­vanced, the Iesuite must stand at his back, that so all stroakes, all darts, may light in the bodie of the one, while the other escap­eth without any wound, so much as of a word.

In the very face of that honourable court of the Star-chamber, his Grace dare be bold to avow his advice to the King to goe with the Puritanes beyond nose-slitting, cheek-burning, fining above their worth, perpetuall prisoni [...]g; But for the Iesuites, his moderation, his Christian patience must be proclaimed to the world, hee must glorie before the King, that hee counts it unbeseeming his Grace, to serve them with so much as course [...]guage, let be to intēd their persecutiō in the least measure.

Chap. L.M. N. For ha­tred to the Puri­tanes, the Canter­burians are con­tent to turne Je­suites. Yee must therefore Master Lies maker bee content to want the honour of the invention, of this parallell, for the strategeme is old, and now become triviall, onely in this, the rare quicknesse of your wit is to be applauded, and the glory of some new invention here, is not to be denyed to the singu­lar dexteritie of your engine; Yee are the first of the Canter­buriane I know, who for the hatred of their party was content avowedly to enter the Iesuites order, and put on their habite, that from under the maske of their broad hatt, might bee spewed out on the face of the Covenanters, such a spet of pe­stiferous venome, as none would suspect could flow from any other fountaine, then the heart of a very Iesuite: Surely ye act the Iesuites part so well, tha [...] it seemeth ye have much more of him then his hatt and habit: By too curio [...]s imitation of his behaviour, ye are so habituate in his nature, that ye are not like in haste, though ye would, to lay it aside.

In this your pamphlet yee [...]ent so much impudencie, so many lies and slanders, so much spight & crueltie, so high and disdainefull pride, so salt and bitter scoffings, mockings, rai­sings, and which is worst of all, so profane and blasphemous abuse of holy Scripture, for yee make it alway the channell where through your wicked humours must runne, for the overwhelming of your enemies; In these Iesuiticke arts yee prove so excelent, that in the very first ye are of your noviciat, yee may put in for promotions per saltum: Sundrie Provincials have not all their dayes shewed such cunning as you already, if yee make a proportionall progresse, a few yeares may make you generall of the order, if so be your minde can serve you to change your nation the third time; And as ye have turned from Scottish to English, from English to Irish, yee can be content to sweare your selfe full Spaniard, at least a devoute Servant to Philip the fourth,The de­ciphering of the name Li­simachus Nicanor. for advancement of his Catholick Monarchie, though never so much to the prejudice of your old. Master K. Charles, and all Christendome beside.

Your name demonstrates your vanitie and pride, qualities familiar to your order: Yee must be no lesse then the c [...]der of [Page 3] the plea, and that by a victorie; Truely ye come in good time to the Canterburian troupes, no Christian can be so welcome to them as you, if a Lysimachus will convoy them, & break the battell of the poore Covenanters without stroake; or if some stroakes must be distribute, yet it Nicanor be on their side, it is the top of their desires. But things are not alwayes correspon­dent to their names; Etymologies are sometimes antiphrastick: who before the fight, must needs stamp their ensignes with stiles of victorie and triumph, are compelled sometimes to see their too precipitat joy and gloriation end in disgracefull dis­pleasure.

Or is this onely your vanitie in hiding of your name to proclaime it, in Lysimachus to tell us you are D. Leslie, in Ni­canor, that yee are B. of D [...]nn and Conor, though this had not beene put in the Frontispiece of your booke, yet any who had perused your former schenick writs, that comedie of your se­ven Sages, that tragick harrang to your sillie priests, which for the glorie of your name behoved to walk over-sea in a Latine gown, might easily have guessed at your stile and humour in this your last writ: Your professed abode over Sea, your im­potencie even without all occasion to keepe your selfe off the Irish oath, [...]ff these Scottish Ministers whom yee did banish from Ireland, off the excessive praises of your patron the Deputie.

These and such other passages of your booke, lift up your maske, and lead any who will, under the shaddow of the Je­suites hart, to behold D. Leslies head, that upon it, without mis­taking, may be cast all the garlants of honour, which the pen­ning of so brave a piece in so necessary a time doth deserve.

But whoever you bee, whether Leslie, or Maxwell, or Michell, The lāds griefe is the Can­terburiās joy. or who else of the faction, certainly yee are a mirrie man in a very unseasonable time; When the whole Yle is in sadnesse and dule, in feare and trembling, ye are upon your congratularie Epistles; And why not? These are the dayes yee have pan­ted long for, fire and Sword is your Element, rather then Epis­copall honour should lye in the dust; fire & water, heavē & hel [Page 4] must all goe thorow other: yet who knoweth but your singing in so foule weather may end in mourning to you, and jot to all those who now are weeping for that black storme which ye & his Grace your Prince, have raised in our clemat.

If wee in one point our ad­versaries in an hundreth are Ie­suited.The onely point wherein yee make Covenanters, draw neare to Iesuitisme is in their doctrine of the civill Magistrate, which ye branch out in 16 particulars; Is it not then your mind that whoever leaveth the Protestants in one head of doctrine, doth give to the Iesuites matter of congratulation, and a good ground to expect their totall apostasie to the popish religion; This is the onely scope of your whole booke: What then doe you thinke of your fellowes, whom I have assayed to convince by their owne testimonies of a defection from the Protestant [...] to the worst of the Iesuites, not in one head, but so exceeding many, that very few contraverted heads doe remaine, wherein they are not joyned long agoe with the Jesuites: Shall partialitie so farre predomine with you, that we Covenanters for confor­mitie with Jesuites in one point alone, must be reputed Apo­states from the reformed church of Rome, yet ye Canterburians though ye declare your conformitie with Rome in twentie, in an hundreth, yea, well neare in all the contraverted heads of Doctrine, yet no man without a great dash to a charitie, may begin so much as to doubt of your full Protestanisme.

That one point wherein ye make us Iesuited, is the doctrine of the Magistrate: This to you is the head of the Protestant Faith, and all their other teners but members following that head, your practice is very consonant to this your profession; for your new doctrine of the Magistrate is the first and most be­loved article of your Creed, which above all other ye preach and presse with extreame violence: Your new stamped oath of alleadgeance and Supremacie whereby yee would set up the King in a place so farre above the ty of all Lawes, divine and humane, as his royall heart hath ever abhorred to be ma [...]e such an idol. Good Princes in this are like the Saints in glory, all which giveth to them a degree of honour, exceeding the Sphere of man, and entrenshing upon Gods proper glorie, [Page 5] they esteeme them as they are indeed, nothing but flattering effronters of their sacred persons.

That which ye call the head of all Protestant Religion,The bounds of Prin­ces pow­er, and peoples subiectiō are points of state, not o [...] Reli­gion. rea­dily doth not concerne Religion at all: Religion indeed doth oblige the conscience to give unto all Magistrates their due honour and obedience, but the bounds and limits of that obedience, which is the onely point ye speake off, Religion meddleth not with them till the civill Lawes of States & Em­pires have clearly defined them.

No Religion will oblige a Spaniard to be so farre subject to King Philip, as a Grecian slave must be to the Great Turke, neither doth any Religion equall the Polonish Subjection to their King, with the Spanish to theirs.

Doth any Religion oblige the Electours of Germanie to be so much subiect to their Emperour, as the Nobles in Pole are to their King, or so little subject as the Venetian Senate is to their Duke, or the States of Holland is to the Prince of Orange?

The civill Lawes and Customes, set downe the limites both of the Soveraignes commanding, and the subjects obedience: Religion causeth these march-stones conscienciously to bee kept when once Policie hath fixed them.

It seemeth ye intend to make England quit their Priviled­g [...], and burn their magna charta; to make Scotland bury their Assemblies & Parliaments, that a blank may be put in Canter­buries hand to write down what Lawes he will for the Church and State of both the Nations: But thankes be to God that King Charles doth live, to be judge betwixt you and us in so materiall a question.

Yee tell us further in your preambles,The pre­sent dan­ger of this Yle to fall in hands of the Pope & Spa­niard. before ye come to your first paralell of Pope Ʋrbans hope, to make Scotland return to Rome, yee might have told us further from your companion Con, who is more acquainted with Ʋrbans secrets then other men, that the Pope hath a pretty confidence to joyne England to Scotland, that so the reduction of the whole Yle, & your I [...]e­land with it, to the Sea of Rome, may be set up as an eternall [Page 6] trophee to the honour of this p [...]pes family; Surely the ground-stones of this hope are laid on so deepe plots, that except the hand of God and the king in this present Parliament pull them up, Pope Ʋrban for all his age, may yet live to putt the triumphall cope stone upon that building.

We grant you also, that the Pope and Jesuites, as yee say, [...]re hovering above the head of us all, to fall upon the prey of [...]ll Britaine, when both parties, which your mallice will compell to fight, are wearied with mutuall wounds; in this prophecie we thinke you but too true divines, specially if ye will adde, which all without the gift of prophecie may see to be conse­quent, that when the Pope hath gotten the soules of those who out-live this warre for his part, his Sons the French or Catholik King, will not be quiet, except for their share they gett the bodies,The most hated of the cove­nanters procee­dings, their covenant it self, is appro­ved by the king. the goods, and liberties of all this poore Yle.

Your other gybes at the Covenanters proceedings yee might have holden in, if the honour of the King had any wayes been deare unto you; the worst of all our actions, even that which ye were wont to proclaime our most vile, and hellish rebellion, Sedition, Treason, and what else ye could devise, is now by our gracious Prince after a full search of it to the very bot­tome, not onely absolved of all crime, but so farre approved, that by act of Assembly, Counsell, articles of Parliament, it is commanded to be subscribed by the hearts and hands of all in this Kingdome without exception; So that new there stands at the back of that long blasphemed Covenant among the first and most conspicuous hands, not onely Roxburgh, Lawder-dale, South [...]ke, and others of the prime Counsellours, but also Tra­quair the Kings great Commissioner for that effect; We hope then that you and your like, if there remaine any sparke of re­verence in your breast towards that authoritie, which oft yee pretend to adore, will not onely for ever hereafter bridle your very loose tongues, but also eate in againe, or at last cover so farre as ye can, for hidding of your shame, these most false lies, and unchristian railings, which these two yeares by-gone in word, writ, Print, ye have vomitted out against our proceed­ings, [Page 7] especially that most hatred & slandered passage of them, the renewing of our Covenant.

The fi st point wherein ye parallell us with Jesuites, 1. paralel Wee are for Mo­narchie, but aga­inst Mo­narchical tyranny. is in our opposition to Monarchicall government. By Monarchicall government yee expresl [...] enough declare that ye understand such an absolute and illimitate power, as exeemeth the Prince from the tye of all Law▪ and puts in his hand the full libertie to make what Lawes he w [...]ll, with [...]ut the advice, let bee consent of Parliament, of Counsell, or of any others, and taketh abso­lutely all Liberty from his Subjects, though met together in Parliament to defend them elves by Armes in any imaginable oppression, even such a M [...]narchie as the great Turke, or the M [...]gor of I [...]dia, or the Ch [...]m of Ta [...]tarie, this day doth enjoy over their slaves even that strange kinde of government, which in my last Chapter I descrived in the words of your brethren. We confesse freely; that our heart is much opposite to such a M [...]narchie; yet no more then our gracious Prince king Charles & his glorious Father king Iames give us expresse warrant: The one in his fore-cited writ of his AtturneySupr [...] chap 8. Q.R. abhorring these injurious flatterers, who would impute unto him the ma­king of Lawes without his Parliament; the other in his Parlia­mentary SpeachPage 531. A king go­verning in a set­led king­dome, leaveth to bee a King, & degene­rateth in to a tirāt as soone as hee leaveth off to rule ac­cording to his Lawes. Therefore all Kings that are no tyrants, or perjured, will be glad to bound themselves within the limits of their Lawes: They that perswade them the contrarie, are vipers, and posts▪ both against them and the Common-wealth. making that Prince a perjured tyrant, who would not gladly bound himself within the limits of his laws, and these men to be taken for vipers, pests, and common enemies to Princes and people, who would assay by their flatteries to loose Princes from their pactions made with their people at their Coronation, and the setled lawes of their King­dome, yea, we show that your own great Bishop Laud (possibly as great a Royalist as is needfull) goeth before us with his own mouth, what ever he directeth you and many other of his fol­lowers to the contrary, to teach that no statuteSupra. Cap. [...]. Q Law can bee made any where but in Parliament, even in England, let bee [...]cotland, where to this day never any conquerour did dwell.

But as for true Monarchie so high as the lowable lawes any where do make it, we are in nothing opposite thereto, for what have we to doe to condemne the setled state & Lawes of any other Nation? Certainly the royall authority of our owne gra­tious Soveraigne, so far as the lowable lawes of our Kingdome doe extend it, we are sworne in our Covenant heartily to the uttermost of our power to maintaine.

As for the lawfulnesseThe lawfulnesse of defen­sive Arms of resistance in the present case of our invasion, I may not enter in this short postscript in any such question; onely ye may, if ye please understand, that it hath been the tenet of our Church since the reformation, it hath been the right and practice of our Kingdome since the first foundation, a number of instances thereof are approved in our standing acts of Parliament unrepealed to this day, it hath been the practice of all the reformed Churches abroad, wherein, by Queen Elizabeth, King Iames, & King Charles they have been all allowed, and the most of them countenanced with power­full assistance of men and money. Your self cannot deny, but in the judgement of reformed Divines, resistance in many cases is lawfull, even in Kingdomes where the Prince is tyed in the fundamentall lawes by paction to his people: That this is the State of the kingdome of Scotland, though ye may deny it, yet King James, who is like to have as great understanding in the rights of the Crowne and Kingdome of Scotland as you, or your like, gives us assurance that by a fundamentall law the King of Scotland is obliged at his coronation to paction under his great oath the preservation of the established Religion, of the Lawes of the Kingdome, of the Liberties, and priviledges of the Subjects.P. 105 In the Corona­tion, our Kings give their oath, first to main­taine the Religion present­ly pro­fessed, & punish al those that should alter or disturbe the pro­fession thereof: and next to main­taine the lowable & good lawes made by their predecessours; & lastly, to maintain the whole Countrie and every state therein. And this oath in the Coronation is the clearest, civill & fundamentall Law, whereby the Kings office is properly defined. However we love your ingenuity, who doe not dissemble but professe openly your minde, that when a faction about a Prince by divine providence is permitted to take courses for the evident overthrow both of the Religion, of the Lawes, of the Liberties, of the goods, of the lives, and all that is deare to an whole kingdome; that in those or any other [Page 9] imaginable cases of tyrannie, whole Parliaments may not pro­ceed for their defence one step beyond teares, prayers, and flight: That what ever is done more by whole and consentient nations against a faction of Court misleading the Prince, is simplie unlawfull.

Your scoffes about the questions of Bishops and Elders de­serve no answer;Our Te­nets a­bout bish­ops and ruling Elders, the king hath appro­ved. nothing doe we maintaine in them but what the assemblies of our church at our first reformation ordained, and was in peaceable practice among us ever, till men of your coat by fraudulent and violent wayes for their owne ambition and avarice, set up their novations: We have no other minde in those questions then the Church of Holland and France: All our tenets are so well cleared by that Learned Hollander, Gersome Bucerus, as none of your partie, hath yet beene bold, after 22. yeares advisement, to make any reply; yea, we main­taine no more in these questions then that wherewith our gra­cious Prince by his Commissioner and act of Counsell in our last generall assemblie hath declared himselfe to be well plea­sed; but ye are a notable deceaver, while ye would make the world beleeve that the great questions betwixt you and us are alone about Bishops and Elders, while as ye are very like (if ye be not marred) by the hands of Bishops to bring in upon us the whole bodie of Poperie, and to overthrow the whole civill Priviledges of both the Nations without any possible re­medie as your selfe in this same place doeth too evidently declare.

Upon your first parallell we make but one other remarke:The Can­terburiās in all their le­ctures of tyrannie, have the Jesuites for their Masters. Yee wrong much the Iesuites in denying them the honour to be your adiuncts in the re-erection of a tyrannick and turkish Monarchie in Christendome: Your ambition herein is too great, it were better to admitt these pregnant wits to be co­partners in your glorie, then to venture you alone upon so high a designe.

The opposition, which that worke can not but suffer, may make it breake in your hands, if ye be not supported with their effectuall assistance, in this art they are your Masters, [Page 10] yee are but meere novices; it is unjustice to dissemble from whom ye have learned, if ye deny your theifts from them, the world about you is not blinde, they see & laugh at your poore and ill contrived cunning, for who now is ignorant, that the Jesuites above all men living, have obtained long agoe the pri­viledge to sit in Machiavels chaire, that from thence they may teach every where their lectures of tyrannie, for the re-erecti­on of a spirituall Monarchie in the whole Church for the pope, in their owne societie for the generall, in the whole universe, in things temporall, a Catholick Monarchie for the Spaniard; And while these furthest ends may bee gotten and compas­sed, an absolute Monarchie for the Prince in every countrie where they can gett footing. What ever paines of old the Pope did take to weaken Emperours and Kings, for the pro­moting of his owne greatnesse, yet now, being fully assured of their constant affection to beare his Yoake, he hath this last age beene as busie as lay in his power, in lifting up of their head by the hands, chiefly of the Jesuites, to the toppe of all Tyrannie, with the extreame prejudice of their Subiects, Li­berties and Lawes.

Who else were the prime Counsellours of Philip the second, for to spoile his ancient Kingdome of Arragon of their great priviledges, and to bring them downe to the same basenesse of Subiection, wherein his great grand father Ferdinand had putt the M [...]ores of Granada? Who else did stirre him up to begin that course of tirannie with Flanders, which hath cost him more money alreadie, then this day all Europe can command, and more men then are living Spaniards?

Who else were the advisers of King Lues the 13. to spoile his ancient Kingdome of Navarre, and his Fathers best friends the Protestants, of these priviledges which they had long en­joyed peaceably under former Kings?

Who wakened the late King of Pole, to present the Yoake of tirannie to the necke of his ancient Subiects in Swaine?

Had the late Emperour any other movers to these cruell op­pressions, which first in his own hereditarie Estates, then in the [Page 11] Kingdome of Boheme, and last in the whole Empire, hee did practise to the very evident hazard of his Crowne, to the infi­nite & unspeakable afflictions of Germanie, through the mids and all the foure corners thereof; was not the maine and graund quarrell of all these Troubles, the too great affection of a Monarchick tyrannie, of an absolute domination without tye of Lawes, Oaths, Covenants, wherewith the Jesuites in­spired the heart of that man, otherwise not the worst of Prin­ces? Though therefore it be your craft for your better lurking to professe your Separation from the Jesuits in this your great enterprise of erecting in Britaine a new Monarchicke tirannie; Yet the world is not so blinde as you suppose, but seeth you clearly linked hand in hand, the Jesuites leading the ring, and you but following and dancing to their measures.

Your second paralell is wholie Jesuitick, 2 Para­lell. We are farr from subiect­ing the Crowne of our King, to will of his people. the throwing of holie Scriptures unto your wicked Scoffes at the gracious Ser­vants of God, the laying to our charge imputations, which never entred in our thoughts; Did anie of us ever teach that royall authoritie did depend upon the multitude, and that it was in their power to give Crownes to whom they would? When these men are bold to put in print before the Eyes of the world such slanders of us, what doe they instill in the eares of our King and his Servants in their privie Conferences? Shall anie wonder that so long as such men get leave to spread, without a reply, such horrible calumnies of us, that the heart of our gracious Prince, and manie about him should be much inflammed to our hatred?

What he speaketh of divine institution of Kings, wee doe believe it, that by God Kings doe reigne, it is plaine Scrip­tures; as also that all advancement is neither from the East, nor the West, but from the hand of the most High: So that all who denie to any Superiour the obedience which is due to their Lawfull commands, must sinne against God: We grant that some of our Opposites have here a conceit which we doe not well understand, they seeme to teach that royaltie alone, and that most absolute, without any limitation, is of divine in­stitution, [Page 12] that all other governments whether of republick or aristocracies are but humane inventions, opposite to the Law of nature and the first institution of God; This state-speculia­tion seemeth to us a curiositie, wherewith we have nothing to doe; it is enough for us to beleeve that our King is set over us by God as his Deputy; that since the time our old ancestours did choose Fergus for their King, oblidging themselves by their oath to be ruled by his race alone, according to the laws made, and to be made with publick consent, yea, since the days of King Kenneth the third, to be governed by his nearest heire: Our subiection to the nearest heire of that race is now simplie unchangeable:

The least motion of any such change hath as little come in the minde of our Nation in these dayes of King Charles, as in any age of the last two thousand Yeares, wherein our Fathers have shewed more constant affection to the service of his An­tecessours, then any other Nation under the Heaven this day to their royall families. W [...]at here ye rechant of our minde to a resistance and defensive warre in some cases, is nothing contrarie to this our profession; Many bickerings have our predecessours had with misleading factions, to which the Prince for a time hath given his countenance, but they were ever willing to distinguish betwixt the Prince and his mis­informers,3. Paral­lell, The Can­terburiās give to the Prince much more power o­ver the Church, then the Iesuites give to the Pope. to see them punished when their insolent tyrannie become intolerable; but the Prince setled in the full strength of his authoritie, which for a time the cloud of these grasse­hoppers did eclipse in the hearts of his people.

The third point wherein ye joyne us with the Iesuites is our denying to the King the government of the Church: In this ye doe us wrong, as in all the rest, for we reiect the Popish doctrine here; They make Princes meer sheep, they command them to follow the Pope their pastor, where ever he leads, were it to the bottome of Hell, without asking so much as Do­mine quid facis, but we esteeme it to be a chiefe part of the Magistrates office to command all Church-men to doe their dutie, and when they will not be perswaded with cleare rea­sons, [Page 13] to compell them by force to reforms the corruptions in the worship of God; But ye skift out here much further to an extravagance, wherein ye have no approved divine to be your patron.

Yee teach, that all Soveraignes are the true heads of the Churches in their Dominions; Such styles the Bishops of England since the beginning of Queene EliZabeths reigne, have ever denyed to their Princes, with their owne content­ment; Ye will have not only the Magistrate to command that which is right in the service of God, as Austine and wee doe gladly grant, but also ye make it his right, were he a professed heretick, or Pagan, to give what lawes he will to the Church, without her consent, or so much as advice: Ye give to the Prince much more, then the Iesuites will grant to the Pope, to doe in the Church even without a Counsell, what he thinkes meetest, and if it be his pleasure to call a Counsell, ye make it his only right to call either of the laitie or the Cleargie, whom he will, to be members thereof, and when these members are conveened, ye give to the Prince alone the power of judging and deciding, and to all others but of meere advice; Except so farre as the Prince is pleased to communicate to so many of them as he thinkes meete his owne decisive voice. In such a Counsell, or without it, ye make it the Princes right, to de­stroy at his pleasure all Church-Canons, Church-judicatories, and formes of divine worship, which by Lawes and long customes have been established, and to impose new Confessi­ons of Faith, new Ecclesiasticke judicatories, new Bookes of Canons, Leiturgie, Ordination, Homilies, Psalmes, by meere authoritie.

All this by your perswasion yee moved our Prince to assay, but upon better information his royall justice is now pleased to reiect all such your designes, for his Majestie hath given to us assurance, not only at his Campe, but by his Commissioner in our last Assemblie; and we hope also that at once this assu­rance shall be confirmed in Parliament, that no ecclesiastick no­vation shal over be required by his Maj: but that wherto a free [Page 14] generall Assemblie shall give their full assent. In this point therefore betwixt us and our Prince there is no discrepance, neither here had wee ever any difference with any reformed Divine:

4. Para­lell. About convoca­tion of Synods we have no que­stiō with the king.Your fourth challenge, that we deny to the King power to convocate Assemblies, yet know the contrarie, that we give to all Christian Soveraignes so much interesse in the affaires of the Church as to convocate Assemblies where and whensoever they please: But we grant that we are no wayes of your minde in this point, that the Church may never lawfully meere in any case, though Heresie and Schisme were eating up her life, and drinking her heart bloud, without the call of the Ma­gistrate, that no Church meeting at all is lawfull, no, not for prayer or Sacraments without the Magistrates permission: That all Churches must lye under an interdict and no publick meeting in them must bee, till the Magistrates, licence bee first obtained.

Is all opposition to you in these things Iesuitisme? what ever difference we have here with you, yet with our Prince in this point we are fully agreed.

Your gratious Brethren and Fathers when we had beene in possession continually after the reformation, for common, of two generall Assemblies yearlie, by their wicked dealing spoiled us of all that Libertie, so that for 38 Yeares space wee had no generall Assemblie to count of but two, both which were thrust upon us against our heart for the advancement alone of their evill purposes: Yet now, thankes be to God, our Prince being wel informed of the mischivous wrong your par­tie did to us in this matter, hath granted our reasonable de­sires, if so be the like of you, make not this grant fruitlesse unto us, as ye truely intend; The old act of Parliament for yearlie generall Assemblies, and ofter pro re nata, is acknow­ledged by the Kings Commissioner to be very reasonable, and with his consent hath past the articles of our late Parliament, so that our Prince now is very well content that from the ge­nerall Assemblie the highest Ecclesiastick Court, being so fre­quently [Page 15] to bee keept, should come no appeale at all to him.

Your fift and sixt parallell are cast together,The 5. & 6. Para­lell. We have no que­stion with our Prince, about his presiden­cie, and suprema­cie in counsels. the Kings Pre­sidencie in generall Assemblies, & Supremacie in Ecclesiastick affaires yee handle these so confusedlie with so many wicked scoffings and scurrilous abusing of scripture, that your meaning can scarce be understood.

Wee are so fa [...]re from denying to the Prince the place of royall presidencie and moderation in our Assemblies, as Con­stantine used it at N [...]o [...], and King Iames oft in Scotland, that it is one of the things our hearts m [...]st desire to see King Charles possessing in his owne person that priviledge. His royall S [...]premacie we willingly yeel [...] [...], so farre as the fun­damentall Lawes of our C [...]urch and Kingdome extend it, yea we make no question that in that sense Bilson, and the old Bishops of England understood it. But your late Commen­tarie of the K [...]ngs Supremacie, whereby ye ascrive to eve­ry Soveraigne much more then any Iesuite ever gave to the Pope, wee doe reject it with the Kings good leave, as before was said,

Your repeated cavills at our Elders, Sessions, Presbyteries, and Assemblies is not worth the answering: The frame of our Discipline established by the Lawes of our Church and State, in Holland & France, practized peaceably in the happiest times of our Church, and in daily use since the first reforma­tion without any quarrell is now ratified by our Prince:7. Para­lel. We are much for ther then our op­posites from the doctrine of the churches infallibi­litie. So your mouth should bee stopped and your tongue silent what ever boyling be in your breast.

In your seventh parallell, ye lay upon the Iesuites and our back, that which is your owne burden, ye might have knowne that the Iesuites ascrive to no Counsell any infallibilitie with­out many distinctions: And as for us, none is ignorant that we beleeve all meetings of men since the Apostles dayes to be fal­lible and subject to errour. Wee did indeed in our Covenant promise to abstaine from the practise of these novations, wher­by yee had long keept our poore Church in a flaming fire, [Page 16] till a generall Assemblie hath brought them to the touch stone of a new triall: When the Assemblie of Glasgow had passed this tryall upon them according to our desire, we embraced the Synodick Sentence, and resolve to adhere thereto, because we finde it agreeable to cleare reason, else be sure, that all the Assemblies of the world should never have obliged our con­sciences to have beleeved any thing which to us did appeare erroneous.

Such an inslaving of mens consciences was a part of your tyrannie among us: No orders from your hands could be ex­torted, till a man had sworne and subscribed simple obedience to all your decrees, not only past, but to come: An expression of any condition of consonancie to the word of God, or any other such limitation, was a certaine note of Puritanisme and disaffection to the present government. Yea such an infalli­bilitie ye wont to ascribe to a few of your Bishops, let be ge­nerall Assemblies, that ye made a Canon for the excommuni­cation of all, who should be bold to affirme the least errour in any of their workes, whether of Canons, Leiturgie, Homilies [...] or any thing else,The Ser­vice-booke, Episco­pacie, & other corrup­tions, which the King hath cō ­manded us to ab­jure, are still de­fended by our opposits. that came through their holy hands.

What here ye cavill at our reiection of your manifold cor­ruptions of the doctrine and discipline of our Church, as if we did set up so many new articles of Faith, as ye did lately, er­rours which now we doe reiect, is not worth a reply: But that open declaration which here ye make of your great affection towards the articles of Perth, Episcopacie, bookes of Service, and Canons, and great disaffection to the very confession of Faith, made by King Iames, we cannot passe without observa­tion. The inclination of your mind to these articles, we did truely suspect by many probable signes; But that with your patron, Canterburies permission, ye should so soone have beene licenced to put these, your thoughts in print wee did not ex­pect: Yee will we hope hereafter esteeme it no calumnie nor want of charitie in us, to avow, that notwithstanding our Assemblies ordinance, and the Kings Majesties command with the consent of his Counsell, to all this Nation, to subscribe [Page 17] the abjuration of these novelties, yet that our poore Church is in great danger to be pestered againe with them all, since the like of you are countenanced to print, even to this day, such ample defences of all these corruptions, and to give to the Ser­vice-booke so high a commendation, that if it be true, our re­fusing of it cannot be but a high sinne against God, and as you told us before, an intollerable insolence before the King, whom ye teach, to discipline us for that fault with a strange punish­ment; Ye will have that rejected Booke resumed and stuffed with a new supplement of more Romish stuffe, and then quickly thrust upon us with this peremptour alternative, either quietly to beare that Yoake, or presently to be banished the Land.

As for Episcopacie, ye will have us embrace it with as great faith as we doe the Bookes of Canonicall Scripture. Yee al­leadge, that Scripture is for neither of the two, that Tradition is for both; and that Tradition is to be received with no smaller assent then a divine and undoubted faith, albeit Can­terburie your patron permitt you to print all these things, yet upon your word in this place, we must take him for an arch-enemie to all poperie.

In your eight paralell,8. Paral­lell. The Can­terburiās offer ma­ny more disgraces to Kings, thē their opposits. ye object to us the excommunication of Kings; This is but your slander; We goe not so farre in fol­lowing of Ambrose course with the Emperour Theodosus, as Bilson alloweth. Of our moderation in this point we have gi­ven good proofe; For in all the troubles which your faction first and last hath moved our Princes to bring upon us, ye can­not say without a manifest lie, that ever any of us had the least thought of putting upon them any Church censure: What ye might doe, if Kings were turned your enemies, we know not, only now when they are your benefactours, farre above your deserving, we see how coursly ye serve them; they must as pro­faine laicks be kept far aback with railes from that holy place, where ye, the Lords priests with your consecrate and anointed bodies doe stand at the Altar: Emperours must light downe from their horse and adore you, they must acknowledge their [Page 18] Crownes to be so farre subiect to your Miters as a bodie is to the Soule, or a man to God.

Supra cap. 3. M. N. Readily so base persons might get a whip of your Spiri­tuall rod, if once ye were firmly established in your Episcopall Thrones, as long agoe ye would have beene, if these turbulent Puritanes, who still have beene rocking and keeping your Chaires in motion, had beene put out of the world.

What thornes Bishops have beene in the sides of Kings, especially in England, the Chronicles of that Nation doe re­cord, and above all other Bishops, these of Canterburie, the mischivous conspiracie of one of them with Henrie of Darbie against his great Benefactour Richard the second, ought never to be out of King Charles eye: No passage of the English storie is more worthie of his meditation.

9. Para­lel. We are nothing opposite to the power of Parlia­ments, but wee make Parlia­ments to be meere cyphers.In the ninth Paralell, your scoffing and railing veine flow­eth after the old manner; ye obiect our annulling of the acts of Parliament by the decrees of our Assemblie, and the ex­tending of the power of our Synods to many secular affaires: Doubtlesse ye are the men, who by your shoulders most care­fully will under-prop the decaying power of Parliaments: It grieveth much your Soules to see Parliaments slighted in any of their due rights; Alwayes remember your owne, and your brethrens Tenets, whereby ye make all Parliaments but meere ciphers the arbitrarie Counsels of the Prince, to which by his Letters he hath right to call what Commissioners he will, and hold back whom he pleaseth; with whom or without whom as he thinketh meet, it is his owne only right to make, to inter­pret, to abolish Lawes, to publish them by himselfe alone, and command them by a meere Proclamation to be received by all the Subiects, without the consent or advice of any man, further then is his pleasure to crave:

This your brethren oft in formall tearmes,Supra cap. 8. E. E. F. F. G. G, &c. and your selfe in the same page sets downe in effect. What ye speak of our encroaching upon Parliaments, is no wayes true, only some evill acts of your evidently corrupted Assemblies, where­to ye had obtained by your familiar arts of fraud and force: [Page 19] the ratification of some Parliaments, we did recognosce, and that alone in their Ecclesiastick part, with the good leave of the Kings Commissioner: As for the civill sanction of Parlia­ment, according to the ordinary Ecclesiastick proceeding of our Church in all by gone times, wee did appoint Commissio­ners from our Assembly, to supplicate the Parliament for the abolition thereof. Neither doe we meddle at all in our Sy­nods with secular affaires, remember what your selfe in your Canons doe pronounce, to be the due and lawfull Subject of Ecclesiastick jurisdiction, ye will finde that our generall Assem­blies did never take in so much matter as ye appropriate to any of your officiall Courts.

Our act anent the going of Mills and Salt-pans upon the Sabbath-day, was but a renovation, and that with the Commis­sioners consent, of an old act in a former Assemblie, whereat King Iames was present; It seemeth it grieveth you to see the Sabbath sanctified among us, that yee are but like your brother, to whom Sunday is no Sabbath, but a day wherein games of all kinde, also diverse kindes of Husband labour should publickly be allowed, for the crossing of that Jewish Superstition, whereby Puritanes abuse that Festivall. What further here ye obiect of our unwillingnesse to subscribe at the Counsels direction the Covenant, at it was dated in the yeare 1581. without the application of it to your later corruptions, which addition we had sworne before, yee will finde that we had good reason so to doe, your selfe being judge; for ye tell us that all these your corruptions, even the Service-Booke it selfe, are very consonant with that Covenant, and that the main end why the Subscription thereof was urged, was the cleane quiting of these additions formerly sworne, and now by the mercy of God fully approved by the King, by his Commissio­ner, by his Counsell, by the Assemblie, by the articles of Parlia­ment, and all, but men of your stuffe, who resolve to die, let all the world about you be never so fickle, with the untainted glorie of constant obstinacie.

In your tenth Paralell, Yee act the Iesuite so perfectly,10. Para­lell. Both out Covenāt and po­steriour proceed­ings shew us no wayes to be oppo­site to the oath of allea­geance. [Page 20] that few hereafter will hope for the praise of going beyond you in their arts: your pen drops so many Sentences, so many cursed lyes, so many blasphemous wrestings of mens words and writs. Deny we the Oath of alleadgeance, the words of our Covenant and mutuall defence, whereupon yee would build that denyall, let be that they are approved by our King as said is, doe not they stand expresly in King James Covenant, yea in the vesy first Confession of our Fait [...]?

Is not our late Covenant an expresse renewing of our oath of alleadgeance in so strict tearmes as is possible?

Did our armed defence, in that desperate extremitie which your faction put us unto, import any danger to the Kings person or Crowne? Did we not then before all the world give a sufficient proofe of our humble loyaltie and practice of our Covenant?

At the very hight of all our advantages and your too well knowne unreadinesse at that time for fighting, at the least ap­pearance of his Maj [...]sties minde, to lay by armes, to leave the prosecution of your bloudy desires, were we not content to cast our selves at his feete, to put our Munition in his hand, and all our Castles in his power, to be stockes to our feet, and roaps to our neckes; had our hearts been in the least measure so trea­sonable as you slander, would these have been our actions?

What ye speake of our Forfathers actions in Queen Regent and Queen Maries dayes, ye are into it, but answerable to your name a true Jesuite. The defence of the Religion and Liber­ties of the Kingdome against the Guisian usurpations in the minoritie of our Queen, and our Queens voluntary dimission of the government to her Sonne King James, after many un­speakable misaccidents: These and such like proceedings of our Forfathers, confirmed by our standing acts of Parliament, Iesuites of old wont to blaspheme, but all the reformed, and none more then the Bishops of England, especially Doctor Bilson, doe vindicate from their wicked aspersions, which yet ye have a stomach to resorbe; to spew them out once againe upon our face: But ye [...] are priviledged to speake all your [Page 21] pleasure, for yee are here on a Stage under the maske of a furious phrentick Iesuite, at the back of this curtaine, yee may belch out what yee will, all is conforme to the person yee sustaine.

In your eleventh, twelve, and thirteenth parellel,11. 12, 13. Para. Blinde o­bedience to mens Lawes, binding of the consciē [...]e by them, works of Supere­rogation are not ours, but your te­nets. ye doe but toy; the three faults ye object to us of blinde obedience, of binding the conscience, workes of Supererogation, we are free of them all: But see if ye can free your owne faction of any one thereof, for your brethren teach, that all men must give quicke obedience unto all their injunctions, not only in the midst of their deepest ignorance of any reason for these in­junctions, but also in the midst of never so many doubts and perplexities and strong inclinations to thinke your acts most unlawfull. Ye will admitt neither ignorance nor the greatest doubtings to bee any impediment to the present obedience of your Episcopall injunctions, how farre is this from that yee pronounce in us, blinde obedience.

Againe, yee make all the commandements of the Church to be branches of the fift command, and to be obeyed as the precepts of God, which we suppose doe binde the conscience.

For the third, yee teach more merite of workes then Bellar­mine, yea, yee proclaime that the following of the counsels of perfection, that the keeping of the three Monastick vowes doth deserve an augmentation, as ye call it, an Aureola above common happinesse.

In your fourteenth also yee cast upon us your owne dome­stick fault of Equivocation:14. Para­lell. No equi­vocation used by us in any of our proceed­ings. Are you ignorant how your bre­thren the Bishops of Scotland did swear their famous caveats: In the very time while they were dressing for our Church, their Canons and Leiturgie, which the large declaration tells us, were alwayes in hand from the 16 yeare to the 38, how oft did they swear to many who proponed to them their feares of their underminding practices, that they were utterly ignorant of all further novations to bee brought into our Church: As for these matters, wherein yee make us equivo­cators, we were farre in any of them from that Crime.

We truely without any equivocation doe thinke our Cove­nant to be for the King, and no wayes against either his perso [...] or authoritie, we thinke in our minde, that in some cases resi­stance to Princes is much better service, and one day will be so acknowledged, then present obedience: How oft have Prin­ces professed at last themselves much more beholden to those who with displayed banners hath come against their Campe, then to others, who by their flattering service and wicked perswasions, moved them to take up their unjust armes.

Ye doe well by the passages of King James writs which hee let fall in passion against some few persons as himselfe pro­fesseth to incite King Charles to destroy the whole generation of your opposits.

For that equivocation which ye obiect to some in their sub­scribing of the Covenant at the Commissioners and Counsels direction; sufficient satisfaction is given long agoe to all rea­sonable men by published writs: The matter shortly was this, one of your factious ingines, to draw us subtilie from that Covenant, wherein we did abiure Bishops, Bookes, and the rest of your novations, which were contrarie to the doctrine and discipline of our Church, was, a new subscription to the first part of this Covenant, as it was first set downe in the yeare 1580, without our late addition, wherein it was applyed to your newly obtruded novations: Upon hope by this new subscription, that not only, the formerly subscribed addition and abjuration of these novelties expressed in that addition, should be forgotten; but also that meanes should be gotten to perswade that these once abiured novations were in nothing contrary to the Kings Covenant, yea that all of them were so much conforme to it, and virtually contained therein, that all the subscrivers should finde themselves oblidged by that oath and subscription, to embrace the articles of Perth, the Canons, the Leiturgie, and all the intended novations, at least, without all doubt Episcopacie, the Fountaine whence the rest had pro­ceeded; and from which they knew they would flow againe in due time, if it alone could be gotten preserved.

This was the true intention of the Commissioner in pressing that new subscription, as his Grace did publish thereafter in print, but in the first proposition of that new oath, all such de­signe was carefully concealed, yet wise men among us, fearing and foreseing the plot, did carefully diswade that new sub­scription, as a dangerous master piece, invented for the utter destruction of the true sense of our first subscribed Cove­nant.

Their advice was heard by the most part, who thereupon refused that new subscription, yet some knowing perfectly well, that the Covenant in the 1581, did not include Episcopa­cie, or any of the late novations, but clearely enough excluded them; Since the Commissioner his Grace in the proponing that subscription, did make no declaration at all, neither of his owne, nor of his Master the Kings minde, to have Episcopacie, or any of these novations included in that Covenant, they were content at his desire to subscribe it, but with this expresse de­claration, which they required and obtained to be acted in the Counsell Bookes (so farre were they from any Equivocation) that they did subscribe that Covenant in that same sense and no other, wherein it was understood at the first framing in the 1580.

What that sense was, we had for a time too much dispute, but at last the Registers of our Church in the generall Assem­bly, being carefully cast over, it was found that the doctrine and discipline of our Church in that 80. yeare, did runne so crosse to Episcopacie, to Perth articles, to the Leiturgie, and all the rest of our troublesome novelties, that whosoever did heartily subscribe the Covenant of our Church in that sense, it behoved to have in the yeare of his first framing, did stand no lesse oblidged thereby to renounce the posteriour novati­ons, then those who had subscribed the other Covenant with the addition, wherein all these novations were expressely named: It was found even in our last Assembly, whereto Tra­quaire according to his commission from the King did con­sent, that both these Covenants, that with the application, and [Page 24] that without the application were but both one. So that your equivocation, whereupon your brethren also have too much tinkled, is cleared without the disgrace of any, but the like of you, who were the authours of all the mistake that for a time was in this matter.

15. Para­lell.The fifteenth paralell of your piae fraudes is but like the rest, the ground of this great commotion could not be the malcon­tentment of any man, for losse of what they possessed in the tyths, or any thing else of the Church patrimonie, or for want of such favour they desired to have with their Prince: All these are but sillie fables: These whose hand hath beene prime in this high affaire from the beginning, hath had very little, or no entresse at all in any part of the Church patrimonie, ye may know that the most of the tithes were in the hands of the not covenanting Lords, and that the small portion which remained with Covenanters, was made so sure to them as the King and his Lawes were able to make it.

Also it is very well knowne that the chiefe in the Covenant had so much favour of their Prince, as their heart could wish, which they constantly did brook, till their zeale unto this cause did crack their credit: Yee are exceedingly injurious to say, that we did ever slander our King with any idolatrie, with any poperie; Our thoughts of that gracious Prince [...] are farre more considerate, and our words of so sacred person more full of due regard: But indeed though we both say, preach, and print that so long as the like of you gett leave to possesse his eare, we can have little hope that any true Protestant, so farre as ye are able, shall ever gett living in quiet in this Ile, and though we avow that by the Service-booke and other novati­ons yee intended, to make us all trot backe againe unto Rome, believe us, that in those Speeches we wrong not our minde, that we speake no other then we thinke, and we hope now have given tolerable evidence for these our thoughts and Speeches, though ye and the Pope both should laugh in the Sardonian fashion, when ye are like to lose your game.

In your last paralellThe last paralell. The pa­terne of a perfect Iesuite. your motion that it may appeare to be naturall, is swifter then at the beginning, ye [...]ere overcome your very selfe, & any Iesuite J have ever read in vilenesse of lies, slanders, filthie Speeches, railings, sc [...]ffings, and blasphe­mous abuse of the holy Scripture to all this stuffe.

Ye prove a good Scholler to your Masters Petroneus Arbi­ter, Lucian, Rabelais, none that come in your way whether men or w [...]men, whether living or dead, Nobles, Pastors, Comman­ders, People may escape the fire and filth of your envenomed tongue: All your opposites, if the King can be perswaded to follow your advice, must quickly be packing out of these do­minions, as the vilest straitours, but to our nobles and leaders ye will not shew such favour; they, as ye, tel us, with R [...]villiack & Coppinger must be hanged, drawen, quartered, and buried with the buriall of an asse. That Jesuite Abernethy should have become Protestant, ye can not abide with patience, for so is the doctrine of your Society, that separation from Rome is need­lesse.

That noble gentle-man Generall Leslie Generall Leslies vindica­tion. cannot escape the scrapes of your empoysoned pe [...]; Ye are on a stage playing the part of a Fu [...]ioso, who ever commeth in your way, the first dirt and stones ye can grip must flie at their faces. When ye have searched that great personage from his birth, to his old age, nothing can yee espy in all his life whereupon to fasten your tuske, but that which among all Nations, as well barbarous as civill, hath ever beene reputed a marke of honour and matter of gloriation: When ye have curiously eyed that excellent piece, from top to toe, your malice can espy no blemish, but a skar of an old most honourable wound, which maketh him the more glorious, with all who understand the tearmes of true honour, and the dearer to every one who hath any spark of affection toward that service wherin that wound among many more was received by him: But ye & your like cannot hold in the passion of your soule, but must vent your hatred & malice, your disdainfull indignation against all the valarous acts of any in the reformed religion, against the popish partie, whether in these dayes, or the dayes of our forfathers. Ye cannot dissemble [Page 26] your passionate affection to the side of Q. Marie at our first reformation; rather ere your loyal heart had played the pranks of the rebellion, the treason, and what not of our ancestours, ye would have joyned with the enemies of our Churc [...] & State, for the cutting off of the blessed root of King Charles race, for the setling upon the throne of Britaine after the dispatch of Q. Elizabeth & K. Iames, these hereticall Schismaticks, the poste­ritie of Iohn of Austria, of the Duke of Northfolke, or of any whom it should have pleased the Pope, the Catholick King, & the Duke of Guise to have matched with Q Marie: Thus d [...]e ye and your faction stand affected toward the former age, nei­ther is your minde any better toward this present: The D [...]tch Princes & the head of their league that true Hero [...], [...]hat wonder of the world, the K. of Swaine, must all be to you but villanes & traitours, who for their zeale to the reformed Religion & Li­berties of Germanie, durst be so peart as to lift up armes to stop that very far advanced reformation of Ferdinand: The wounds that famous Lesl [...]e did get in this cause, must be slandered and made a matter of reproach to you & your like; but it is good that men of honour doe think of you & your language as it is. Who is acquainted with the world abroad, they know full well that Leslies most valarous, very wise, & happie deportments in the wars over Sea, have brought more true glorie to our Natiō then the cariage of any man, who went out of our Land these manie ages; Certainly, this brave Souldiers late conduct of our Nation in the time of the greatest danger that our land did see this hundreth yeares, was so full of wisedome, stoutnesse, mo­deration, successe, that his memory will be fragrant & blessed in all generations to our posteritie. This sight of that mans ver­tues, did draw to him so much love from all that followed his Campe, & so much honour from all the English Nobilitie, that served in the opposite armie, that we may say truely, There li­veth not in this Yle a gentle-man of comparable reputation with all sorts of men, except alone of you in the faction, by whose hearts to be hated, by whose pens to be defamed, it is an increase of contentment & praile of all honest men.

But being unable to stand any longer upon your dung hill, [Page 27] least I be suffocat with the stink therof, I must turn my back, & flie, leaving you to dwell upon these your excrements; & if so be ye cannot be drawn from them, to die & be buried; therin only my parting a little of one purpose which so oft in your whole writ ye inculcate.

Ye will have us in the doctrine of Episcopaciewe agree in our Tenets of Epis­copacie with all the re­formed abroad. to differ from all other reformed Churches, yet it will appeare to those who goe not beyond the very passages, your selfe doth bring in this matter, that betwixt us & any reformed Church there is no discrepance at all. For that Episcopacie which ye maintaine, be­side the manifold unhappy accidents that use to hang both upō the persons and office which your selfe will scarce defend, hath into it essentially, the power of ordination & all Ecclesiastick j [...]risdiction annexed, & that by a divine right to the person of one man in a whole diocesse: that ever any reformed divine, except some few, & that but lately in England, did approve let be commend such an office, it is so false as any thing can be: That kind of episcopacie, wherof the divines ye alleadge speak off, is so farre from the present English and late Scotish one, as light is from darknesse, as reformed doctrine from grosse Po­perie, contrarie both to the word of God, & all sound antiqui­tie. Beside, even that kinde of Episcopacie which they seem not much to oppose, is such an office as they make to be no way ne­cessary in any Church but removeable out of all, to which they thought never meet to give any footing in their own churches, but at the beginning did cast it out, and to this day have care­fullie holden it at the doore; This, ye cannot be ignorant, is the known practice let be the doctrin of al the reformed churches over Sea, & of all their divines without the exception of one man. Doe ye think that any of them will be offended with us for following their owne example for casting out that which they have rej [...]cted before us upon lesse occasions; For it is cer­tain that Episcopacie is no way so opposite to the discipline of any reformed church, as to that discipline which many Assem­blies & Parliaments have setled in our land; it is certain that no church over Sea, hath ever been halfe so much grieved with that unhappie office, as ours oft times hath beene; we all know [Page 28] that from it alone hath flowed all the miseries schisms dangers wherwith our church since the reformation hath been vexed, none of us is ignorant that this [...]ffice was the only horse wher­upon our later novations of Perth articles, high Cōmission, Lei­turgie, Canons came riding unto us; And now the world may see that it is only Bishops that threaten this whole Yle with the danger of the most cruell warre it saw these 500 yeares. That any reasonable man will blame us for our firm resolution to op­pose their re-entrie among us for ever, we doe not [...]ear, for be­side that our whole land is al utterly impatient of their but thē, our last two generall Assemblies, & articles of our late P [...]rlia­ment, with our Princes approbatiō, have ordained their office to be abjured by our whole nation with solemne oa [...]h & subscrip­tiō. As for our neighbour churches in Eng [...]ād & Ire [...]ād, though hitherto we have been m [...]st sparing to meddle with any thing which concerneth them, yet now since ye put us so hardly to it we can̄ot dissemble any lōger our hearty wishes, that since the bishops there, beside the manifold evils, that is in t [...]e [...]ffice, which they doe use & defend, & the needlesnes of i [...]; since I say, their bishops have been the first fountain of all our churches trouble, since they are the prime instrumēts, which now infect this Yle with Arminianisme & popery; since they have raised, & yet doe further, so hot a persecutiō against our whole nat [...]ō in I [...]land, as no reformed church to this day hath ever beē acquainted with; since after our full agreemēt with our gratious king, & neigh­bour natiō of Eng ād they without any cause, that yet we know or can hear tel of, have been the bellows to kindle the wrath of our king against us, to stir up a most blodie war for the undoing (if God prevent it not) first of the most flourishing churches in these dominiōs, & thē of the whole reformed el [...]where; we pro­fesse it our wish to God, that the king & his present parliamēt might seriously cōsider, if it were not for the good of the crown for the welfare of their natiō, for the peace of their church, that Englād after the exāple of all the reformed should rid thēselvs at least of their bishops trouble, as they did of old, without any repentance to this day, of their Abbots & Monks: This we con­ceive would much increase the joy and prosperitie of all the three Dominions.

FINIS.

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