ENGLAND'S Improvement BY SEA and LAND TO Out-do the Dutch without Fighting, TO Pay Debts without Moneys, To set at Work all the POOR of England with the Growth of our own Lands.

To prevent unnecessary SUITS in Law; With the Benefit of a Voluntary REGISTER.

Directions where vast quantities of Timber are to be had for the Building of SHIPS; With the Advantage of making the Great RIVERS of England Navigable.

RULES to prevent FIRES in London, and other Great CITIES; With Directions how the several Companies of Handicraftsmen in London may always have cheap Bread and Drink.

BY ANDREW YARRANTON, Gent.

LONDON, Printed by R. Everingham for the Author, and are to be sold by T. Parkhurst at the Bible and three Crowns in Cheap-side, and N. Simmons at the Princes Arms in S. Paul's Church-yard, MDCLXXVII.

LICENSED.

Roger L'estrange.
[...]

TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE ARTHUR Earl of Anglesey, Lord Privy-Seal: And to the RIGHT WORSHIPFUL Sir THOMAS PLAYER, Knight, Chamberlain of the City of London.

Right Honourable and Right Worshipful,

THat I here not only present you with these my weak Endea­vours, for the vigorous Im­provements of those unparal­lel'd Advantages, which the situation of our Climate, the Nature of our Soil, and the Constitution of both our People and Govern­ment affords us, in order to the making us every way great, beyond any Nation in the World; but have also at their peeping abroad into the severe [Page]light, taken the boldness to seek their shelter un­der the secure umbrage of your joint Protections: your own real worth, which has deservedly pur­chased each of you such great Honour and Esteem in the Breasts of all the Nation, is the only Ar­gument that I shall plead for this presumption, it being sufficient security for my Pardon. I could not imagine which way what I lay down in my Book, as matter of Fact, should in this unstea­dy Age ever come to be put into Practice, with­out the favour and encouragement of those who might not only obtain for it a free Access to his Majesty, but such also whose very smilings on its Design might be a sufficient Shield to guard it against all the Arrows of Obloquy and Envy, that are usually shot at the Projector, be the Un­dertaking never so Noble. My humble Address therefore to both your Honours is, That as one may be an Advocate for it to the Prince, whose increase of Wealth, Strength, and Honour are the chief things aimed at in this Undertaking; so the other may procure for it a favourable Recepti­on amongst those honourable Gentlemen of the City, whose Wealth and Grandeur are the chief support of Trade, and consequently of Eng­land; the Improvement of which hath been my [Page]whole study for many years, and which I now make publick meerly out of a real love to my Country, whose future flourishing is the only Reward I ever hope to see of all my Labours. Might I once but see our Titles to Lands and Houses secured, our Rivers made communicable, the Poor provided for by Bank Granaries, the Manufactures of the Land incouraged, and as the result of all our Trade upon the Increase; I should not doubt then in few years to see this Kingdom enricht above Ten Millions per An. which is but a moderate Account of what Profit must inevitably arise from a due Execution of these Reasonable Proposals. I have chalkt out the Way, and given a fair Prospect of the whole, and I hope clearly Evidenced that it is all feasi­ble, and matter of Fact. That God may there­fore give his blessing on your Pious Endeavours, for the promotion of so Glorious a Work, as it is the unanimous Prayer of the Nation in Gene­ral, it is also, and always shall be, the humble Petition of

Your most obedient Servant, A. Y.

TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THOMAS Lord WINDSOR.

My Lord,

FRom the great Incouragement your Lord­ship hath been pleased to afford me, in those indefatigable Pains you have ta­ken in the Survey of several Rivers, and contriving with me effectually which way these might be rendred so far Navigable, that the Publick might thereby receive a general Advan­tage, I am emboldened to make my humble return of Thanks in this small Dedication; in which should I (as the usual Custom is) enumerate your Lordships Favours wherewith you have been plea­sed to honour me beyond my Desert, although in so doing I should only discharge my Duty, yet the captious Reader would be apt to mis-interpret my grateful Acknowledgments for crafty Insinua­tions, [Page]as if design'd only to court your Noble Pro­tection: And by declaring to the World how far your Lordship hath dived into these Mysteries of Navigation, and what a fair Prospect you have given your Country of the great Profit necessari­ly arising from those Ʋndertakings, I should give my Adversaries occasion to suspect, that I make use of so unquestionable a Testimony for one part of my Book, meerly in design to wheedle them into an easier credence of the whole. But I hope Your Lordship is assured, that I have a greater vene­ration for your Honour, than to make a Stale of either your Name, Favour, or Authority; or that I should presume to abuse them on any occasion, as young Swimmers do their Bladders, with which they too too often boldly adventure beyond their depth. I know indeed some speculative Gentle­men have of late plunged themselves so far into the deep, that they have not only sunk in their Ʋndertakings to their everlasting reproach: but their Ignorance buoyed up with Pride being the only thing that hath been able to keep above water, they have given the World sufficient Tests of the vast difference betwixt Speculative Notions and Pra­ctical Experiments. But what I here Present Your Lordship hath been for the most part alrea­dy [Page]experienced in Neighbour Nations, and the rest sufficiently proved, by such undeniable Demonstra­tions, that I doubt not in some few Years to see England (in spight of my Opposers) a flourishing Kingdom. Which, together with Your Lordships pardon for this rude Address, and the continuance of your Favour to protect me in this bold Ʋnder­taking, is all that is aimed at, or desired by,

My Lord,
Your Honours faithful and most humble Servant, Andrew Yarranton.

To Sir Walter Kirtham Blount, Baronet, Sir Samuel Baldwin, Sir Timothy Baldwin, Knights, Thomas Foley, Philip Foley, Esquires, Thomas Smith Esquire, Joseph Newbrook, Sa­muel Whyle, Nicholas Baker, John Finch, and Nicholas Harrison, Gent.

My Noble Patriots,

THat I have not return'd you an earlier Account of those Travels, in which out of a pure love to your Country you were pleased some years since to employ me, I had rather in few words submit to your just Reprehension, than, by making a tedious Apo­logy, tell my Readers a long story, that little or nothing concerns them. It is I hope sufficient that I acquaint them, that if from the Remarks I have made on the Ballance of Europe, or my stu­dious prying into the curious intreagues of Trade, and the thriving Politicks of our Neighbour Na­tions, any Advantage shall arise unto us in this [Page]Kingdom, they must with me return their Ac­knowledgments wholly to you, whose Generous Souls not only engaged me at first in the Under­taking, but also wholly maintained both me and my Interpreter throughout my Travels, in the quest of such things, as my own Fortune would have proved too slender to have otherwise acqui­red. But that I may not be condemned with the Sluggard for laying up my Talent in a Napkin, I herewith present you also an account of my choi­cest Observations and Practice for this twenty five years in Trade; in which such Secrets as the be­nefit of your Moneys gave me the advantage of finding out abroad, are at length by great pains and study rendred all practicable here at home, and so adapted to our own Climate and Constitu­tions, that nothing but Sloth or Envy can possib­ly hinder my Labours from being crown'd with their wisht for Success: Our habitual fondness of the one hath already brought us to the brink of Ruine, and our proneness to the other almost discouraged all Pious Endeavours to promote our future Happiness. People confess they are sick, Trade is in a Consumption, the whole Na­tion languishes, and the Physick prescribed is ve­ry proper and good, but some like not the Sea­son, [Page]and fain would put it off (like Repentance) still a little longer, until at length it be too late. Others fancy not the Doctor, and so resolve not to like it because his Advice. All that I shall say to both these is, That the Obstructors of our Happiness will purchase to themselves as many hard Thoughts from their ruin'd Posterity for hindring the increase of Wealth, Honour, and Ho­nesty amongst us, as your Wisdom will create you Blessings, for your study, care, and liberal Expences to promote so Noble a Design. And if by what I here present you, you find I have discharged my Trust like a faithful Steward, your Approbation, as it will be the best Security against the Captious, it is likewise the highest Ambi­tion of,

Gentlemen,
Your sincere and most humble Servant, Andrew Yarranton.

THE EPISTLE TO THE READER.

REader, thou must take notice that all Kingdoms and Common-wealths in­crease in Strength and Riches, ac­cording as they are situated for Trade, and do convenience themselves with just and equal Laws and Customs, whereby they out-do the rest of their Neighbours. We see of late years what great Contests and bloody Wars have been betwixt England and Holland, and all to obtain the Mistress called Trade: Sometimes the English Merchants complaining how the Dutch out-trade them, and that they are not able to live. And so in process of time they and others under pretence of ascertaining the Merchants Rights blow up a War betwixt England and Holland, which hath seldom been composed with a Peace but the Merchant goeth by the worst, and the People of England seldom bettered, or the Trade advanced. And it being my fortune to be travelling, and at Draysden the Duke of Saxony's Court, when the [Page]sad News came of the Dutch burning our Ships at Chattam, I made it then my business amongst other things I was employed in, to observe as far as I could how and which way the Trade of England might be improved and advanced. And when I had made my Observations of the Trade there, and how far it was to be taken notice of in order to the establishing of the like in England, to set the Poor on work, which was the Linen, Thread, Tape, and Tin-plates, I came for Holland, being the time the Treaty was at Breda, where the Triple League was concluded, (viz.) between England, Holland, and Swetheland. And there spending some time in the observations of their Laws, Customs, pub­lick Banks, Cut Rivers, Havens, Sands, Policies in Government and Trade, with their Natural Fortifications both by Sea and Land; weighing and considering all things, I was then satisfied we could not beat the Dutch with fighting. And by long studying and weighing every part of their Condition, and also knowing some of our failings in the advance of Trade, and our weak Laws condu­cing thereunto, I did see that all was out of joint; and pursuing the Causes thereof, in a small time it appeared to me that although we could not beat them with fighting, yet on the other hand it [Page]was as clear to me that we might beat them without fighting; that being the best and justest way to subdue our Enemies. My fancy growing higher and higher, and knowing it might be acceptable service to the Publick Good of the Kingdom, I discoursed all parts and points now writ some hun­dreds of times, with some Lords, some Judges, Law­yers, Gentlemen, Merchants, Sea Officers, and Courtiers; and upon all that I could hear, and receiving all that could be said against it, I was the more confirmed it might be done; upon which I was incouraged by many, and some of them Law­yers, who offer'd me their assistance and help to make it ready for the Press, which I was preparing for. But before I could compleat my intentions I received a Letter from a Friend in Flanders, wherein he acquainted me that there would be Wars between France and England, and Holland, and that the Dutch would be in great danger, and in process of time Flanders also, and that France and England would join against Holland: Ʋpon which I made a Map, and put the English in two Squadrons at half Sea, and the French in one Squadron with them, and I put the Dutch in three Squadrons within their Sands and natural Holds, and did in the same Map underwrite the Reasons [Page]here set down in this Treatise (why we might beat them without fighting) which Map was done three Weeks before the Breach was, which is ready to be produced, if by any desired: And I did then at Whitehall, and in many other places, shew by dis­course the little fruits we might expect, and the great danger might ensue in breaking the Ballance of Europe, it being then so indifferently settled. But the Ballance being now broke, and under­standing the Dutches preparations, (as to build Great Ships,) I am satisfied they aim at a larger Trade than ever, when opportunity offers it self, and will endeavour to carry the Flag in the East­ern Seas, and it's possible some where else, if not prevented by the English. Therefore these few Sheets are set abroad to shew the World how they may be Beat without Fighting; and by no other ways than the Free Lands of England being put under a Voluntary Register by Act of Parliament: From the Credit whereof spring Banks, Lumber­houses, with all Credits necessary to drive Trade, Cut Rivers, the Fishery, and all things else that Mo­neys are capable of; and it will drive away the great fears and complaints rooted in the hearts of the People, as the decay of Trade, the growing Power of the French, and much more.

ENGLAND'S Improvement BY SEA and LAND.

The true way to beat the Dutch at Sea without Fighting.

TO Beat the Dutch with Fighting is difficult, by reason of the great Advantages they have by their Sands and Holds all along the German Shore, from the Mouth of the Texel, and other Holland Rivers, un­to the Mouth or Influx of the Elbe: And within these Sands and Holds they lye close and safe as long as they please, and we cannot come at them with our Ships; the Reason is, we draw five Foot Water with our Ships more than the Dutch do with theirs; and we must lye beating at Sea, and receive all Storms and Accidents that the Seas and our Ships are lyable to, while [Page 2]the Dutch are at Anchor within their defensible Sands and Holds, and upon their own Coasts, and there with ease may take in and be supplyed with all manner of Ammu­nition, Provision, and Men, with all other things they stand in want of. And when the wind blows strong at East, we must bear away, and cannot keep our Station. The same wind that blows our Ships off, blows the Dutch out, and if they have a mind to follow us, they may; and when we are within some of our Bays they may come at us with ease: And as I said before, the reason is, we draw five Foot Water more with our Ships, than the Dutch do with theirs: They build for their Shores and Harbours, and we build for ours; and we see by experi­ence they make their Sea War only defensive, and so will do untill they find themselves strong enough to ven­ture to fight at half Sea. And what a comfort is it to the Dutch, to see their Fleet lye, safe at Anchor near their own Shores, and their Enemies blown off by Storms and great Winds, and their Coasts in two hours time free, clear, and safe from any Enemies? And when such an Accident falls out, they may immediately put to Sea their several trading Fleets.

Now that they have such Natural defenses by reason of their Holds and Sands, was very difficult to make Gen­tlemen of great parts and knowledge believe. But these Natural fortifications and (I may say) preservations are not only the protection of the Dutch, but of like benefit to all the People Inhabiting the German Shore, from the Mouth of the Texel and other Holland Rivers, unto the Mouth of the Elbe: And the Dutch may now and at all times by the help of these Sands and Holds sail with their Smacks and small Vessels, of which they have great numbers, forth of the Texel clear along the Friezland [Page 3]and Bremen Shore into the Emes, Weser, and Elbe, to fetch in all manner of Provisions for Holland, which may be had plentifully down the Emes, Weser, and Elbe; and from Hamburgh all manner of Naval Stores, while the English or French must look on, and cannot possibly come at them.

And if their Men of War are so secured by their Sands and Holds, and that the Smacks and small Vessels may creep Eastward by help of them, and fetch in Provisions and Naval Stores uninterrupted; Then it is very clear and evident, they are not to be beat, War being made upon them, they acting their parts only defensive.

I could say something of their Natural and Artificial fortifications in Holland, Zealand, and Friezland, having Surveyed many of their great Towns. For it is of great advantage to the Naval Power of Holland, that their three Maritime Provinces are so strengthned by Art and Nature. And it is of like great advantage to the three Maritime Provinces that their Naval powers and force are so defensively secured by the Sands and Holds upon theirs and the German Shores.

I have several years in Publick in the hearing of some hundreds of Gentlemen given the same reasons which now I here put in Print; And I have often heard many Gentlemen say and swear they might be fetched forth and destroyed, and such discourse was only by Persons Dutchify'd; Some of which Persons, as they since have told me, did intend to get me secured for setting but the strength of the Dutch; and speaking of a Publick Register, as they then thought, was speaking against the Laws. But since those Gentlemen are my Converts, and have pressed me hard several times to know what was the rea­son [Page 4]applicable unto the German Shores than to the English. I promised them that it should come forth in Print, for their and all other Gentlemens satisfaction; and I am sure it is worth the knowing: And it is as necessary to be per­fectly known by all Ministers of State in Europe, as it is for them to know where the Ballance of Europe is best to be lodged for their Princes good. And I affirm that this ought by many Princes, who intend a Sea War, to be the first thing taken into consideration. For whosoever will make a Sea War must not promise himself success against all Reason.

In discovering to you the true Reasons of these Sands and Holds, I must shew you the length of the Rivers of Germany and England, with the nature of the Land and Soyl the Rivers run through, with the advantage the Winds give in making these Holds and Sands; and how the Winds clear our Sands, and help to deepen our British Rivers.

Most People think it very strange, That in our three great Rivers in England, (viz.) Thames, Humber, and Severn, we should have five Foot Water more at the Mouth or Influx than is at the Influx of the Texel, Rhine, Emes, Weser, or Elbe, upon the German Coast; none of our Rivers running above one hundred and fifty Miles, and some of the German Rivers running one thousand Miles; And it stands to Reason, the farther the Rivers run, and the more Water is in them, the deeper they should be at the Influx.

First, you must observe how the Winds blow, and how the Rivers lye to be Commanded by them. And secondly, you must consider from whence the Rivers come, and whither they run, either through Clay, Gra­velly, or Sandy Lands. The Winds blow at South and [Page 5]West two Thirds of the year, and these Winds are great and strong, and have their Gusts and force upon the Mouths of the German Rivers; and when there are great Rains in Germany, and upon the Borders of Poland, where are great Sands, it brings them down into the Elbe, and so down to the Mouth or Influx therof; where often it meets with a South or West Wind, and the Tide and Wind coming in both together, force the Sands into Beds, which by degrees increase to great Banks, and so alter the Channel, and in process of time work them­selves by new Freshes down the Elbe into the Sea, and then the Winds and Tide trouls them, and give them a settlement along the Shores. And the like it doth at the Mouth or Influx of all the great Rivers on the German and Holland Shores. And as long as the Winds blow, and the Rivers run as now they do, these Natural forti­fications and preservations by Sea shall be to the People inhabiting the German and Dutch Coasts.

The true Reasons now being made plain, I desire the Reader to consider (if this I have said be true) which is more adviseable; an hazardous War by Sea, or to bring to pass the things that will beat the Dutch without fighting?

The Reason wherefore the British Rivers draw five Foot Water more than the German Rivers do at the Mouth or Influx is, because they run not above one hundred and fifty Miles, and through Clay, and Gra­velly Land, which sort of Soyl sends but little quantity of Sand down into the great Freshes. And our South and West Winds being great, and blowing, as I said be­fore, two parts in three in the year at those Points, force out the Sands, and send them into the Ocean; And up­on some certain Tides, force them over to help to aug­ment [Page 6]the Holds on the German Shore. Observe but the Mouth of the River Dee that runs by Chester which lyes in the Face of the South and West Winds, and there you will find the Winds and Tides have done the like; By which at this present a Vessel of twenty Tuns can­not come loaded to that Old Noble Town of Chester.

But now it is time to begin to shew you how we may beat the Dutch without fighting? To beat the Dutch with fighting, so as to force them from their beloved Mistriss and delight, (which is Trade and Riches thereby) hath been the design of most of their Neighbours for this forty years last past, who thought thereby to bring that Mistress of Trade to leave that People, and betake her self to a place of better Ports, and healthfuller Air. To which purpose upon the end of War betwixt England and Holland, many advantageous Articles have been agreed upon, and some good Laws made to encourage Trade and the Merchants: But I see although we get this Mistresses Love, it is but for a short time; she is still endeavouring to be gone, and seat her self in that dull and flegmatick Air. And the Reasons wherefore she doth so, and will do so, I will here discover unto you.

All Kingdoms and Common-wealths in the World that depend upon Trades, common Honesty is as necessa­ry and needful in them, as Discipline is in an Army, and where is want of common Honesty in a Kingdom or Commonwealth, from thence Trade shall depart. For as the Honesty of all Governments is, so shall be their Riches; And as their Honour, Honesty, and Riches are, so will be their Strength; And as their Honour, Honesty, Riches, and Strength are, so will be their Trade. These are five Sisters that go hand in hand, and must not be parted. All people that know any thing of Holland, [Page 7]know that the people there pay great Taxes, and eat dear, maintain many Souldiers both by Sea and Land; and in the three Maritime Provinces have neither good Water nor good Air: And that in some of the Provin­ces they pay Fifty years Purchase for their Lands, and are many times subject to be destroyed by the devouring waves of the Sea's overflowing their Banks. And not­withstanding all these strange, and unheard Inconveni­ences, yet they will not quit their Station, and remove to places of more safety and less Taxes (though never so civilly treated.) The Reason whereof is, First, They have fitted themselves with a Publick Register of all their Lands and Houses, whereby it is made Ready Mo­neys at all times, without the charge of Law, or the ne­cessity of a Lawyer. Secondly, By making Cut Rivers Navigable in all places where Art can possibly effect it; thereby making Trade more Communicable and Easie than in other places. Thirdly, By a Publick Bank, the great Sinews of Trade, the Credit thereof making Pa­per go in Trade equal with Ready Money, yea better in many parts of the World than Money. Fourthly, A Court of Merchants to end all differences betwixt Mer­chant and Merchant. Fifthly, A Lumber-house, where­by all poor people may have Moneys lent upon Goods at very easie Interest. As I have shewed you their Strength before, now in these five Particulars you may see their Policie, upon which lies all their Happiness and Wel­fare. By these Policies of the Dutch, and the want of our Lands being put under a Register, One hundred pounds a year in Holland at this present time will raise a Family sooner, and drive a better and more profitable Trade, than a man can do of a Thousand pounds a year in England. But if we write by their Copies, we shall [Page 8]do the great things they now do, and I dare say out-do them too.

Now I will demonstrate to all men unbiassed the truth of what I assert, and shew them the Condition the Gen­tlemen and People of England are in at this day; and al­so the Condition the Dutch are in at this day in all their Provinces. Let a Gentleman now in England that hath a Thousand pounds a year Land, that owes Four thou­sand pounds, come to a Money Scrivener, and desire Four thousand pounds to be lent him on all his Land, and produce his Writings, and the Estate hath been in the Family Two hundred years; I know at this day the Answer will be, that by the Law of England as it is now practis'd, no man can know a Title by Writings, there being so many ways to incumber the Land privately: And therefore the Answer commonly is, Bring us Secu­rity for the Covenants, and we will lend you the Moneys. The Gentleman gets such Friends as he can procure to be bound for his Covenants, whom if they accept, then the Procurator and Continuator have their Game to play: But if he bring not such Security as they like, he goeth without this Four thousand pounds; which is a sad and lamentable case, he having Lands worth a Thousand pounds a year. And now he is put to his shifts, his Cre­ditors come upon him, the charge of Law-suits comes on, all his Affairs are distracted, his Sons and Daughters want Money to set them into the World. At last it is possible he gets Two thousand pounds a piece of two se­veral Persons, of one at York, and of the other at Lon­don, and Mortgages all his Lands to each man: This con­tinues private for some years: The while the Gentleman strives what he can to be honest, and prepare Moneys to pay off one of the Mortgages: But it commonly falls [Page 9]out otherwise, either through bad Times, or decay of Tenants, great Taxes, or the Eldest Son matching con­trary to his Father's will, or oftentimes it is worse, he is so debaucht no one will match with him: Now the Gen­tleman's miseries come on, and what must he then do? for the persons that have the Lands Mortgaged will not stay, because by this time it is discover'd the Land is twice mortgaged. I tell you the Lawyers Harvest is now come in, and the Estate torn to pieces, and the Gentleman, his Wife and Family, and it may be Credi­tors too undone. For seeing all is in danger to be gone, the Friends of the Wife Trump up a former Title to the two Mortgages, and fence to get all the Estate that She­riff, Bayliffs, Sollicitors, and Lawyers leave, to be to the Uses intended or pretended in the Private Settlement. But you will ask me, What the poor Gentleman shall do to secure his Person? I will tell you what some have done, and many more I know must do, even turn over either to the Fleet or Bench. O Pity, and Sin, that it should be so in brave England! First, Pity that a poor Gentleman cannot have Moneys at such interest upon his Land, as the Law directs, to pay his just Debts, and for the good and comfort of his Family. Secondly, It is a Sin, that a Gentleman of a Thousand pounds a year should be the occasion of ruining so many Families as he does, by putting them to such vexatious Suits for their Moneys lent, and it may be at last lose all.

And that you may further see the badness of the Land Security at this day, take these two Accompts. In the Country where I live, I have been a Commissioner in the Third part of the greatest Estates in the County, wherein I have seen the Settlements two ways, and ma­ny of them proved which are lying dormant, and so [Page 10]will do. The Civil Wars were the occasion of these Settlements. And in the next County an Attorney (Ni­cholas Phillpot of Hereford) about four years since put out in print two Sheets, to shew Reasons wherefore a Regi­ster of Lands is needful: And amongst the rest, this is one: For, saith he, in the County where I live, I know men that have deceived, and are deceived, to the value of Forty thousand pounds, besides what all others know. And whoever perfectly knows that Country will say, none in England out-does it as to benefit the life of man: But Ho­nour and Honesty being decayed, Riches will not stay. I am sorry I must make such a Discovery of the badness and uncertainty of Titles, but if the wound be not search­ed to the bottom, there will be no hope of a Cure.

In this posture as you see are many poor men in Eng­land, which cannot borrow Four thousand pounds of a Thousand pounds a year Land. I pray let us see what a posture a Dutchman stands in, that hath One hundred pounds a year, and wants Four thousand pounds.

Now I am a Dutchman, and have One hundred pounds a year in the Province of West-Friezland near Groningen, and I come to the Bank at Amsterdam, and there tender a Particular of my Lands, and how tenanted, being One hundred pounds a year in West-Friezland, and desire them to lend me Four thousand pounds, and I will Mort­gage my Land for it. The Answer will be, I will send by the Post to the Register of Groningen your Particular, and at the return of the Post you shall have your Answer. The Register of Groningen sends Answer, It is my Land and tenanted according to the Particular. There is no more words, but tell out your Moneys. OBSERVE all you that read this, and tell to your Children this strange thing, That Paper in Holland is equal with Mo­neys [Page 11]in England. I refuse the Moneys, I tell him I do not want Moneys, I want credit, and having one Son at Venice, one at Newemberge, one at Hamburgh, and one at Dantzick, where Banks are, I desire four Tickets of Credit, each of them for a Thousand pounds, with Let­ters of Advice directed to each of my Sons, which is im­mediately done, and I Mortgage my Lands at Three in the Hundred. Reader, I pray Observe, that every Acre of Land in the Seven Provinces trades all the world over, and it is as good as ready Money; but in England a poor Gentleman cannot take up Four thousand pounds upon his Land at six in the hundred Interest, although he would Mortgage a Thousand pounds a year for it. No and many Gentlemen at this day of Five hundred pounds a year in Land, cannot have credit to live at a Twelve­penny Ordinary. If this be so, it is very clear and evi­dent, that a man with One hundred pounds a year in Holland so convenienced as their Titles are, and at the paying but three in the Hundred Interest for the Moneys lent, may sooner raise Three Families, than a Gentleman in England can either raise One, or preserve the Family in being, for the Reasons already given. But were the Free Lands of England under a voluntary Register, all these Miseries would vanish, and the Lands would come to Thirty years Purchase, which I shall shew you in its proper place.

But I know you would understand the Reason, why a West-Friezland man may have Four thousand pounds up­on a Hundred pounds a year?

I Answer, Because there the Land is worth Fifty years Purchase. And after the Four thousand pounds is lent, the Party that owns the Land may, if he please, at the smaller Bank at Groningen take up Six hundred pounds [Page 12]more in Bank Dollers, upon the same Hundred pounds a year: For Credit is given to the value of the Land within Two years Purchase of what the Land goeth at.

I can both in England and Wales Register my Wedding, my Burial, and my Christening, and a poor Parish Clerk is intrusted with the keeping of the Book; and that which is Register'd there, is good by our Law: But I can­not Register my Lands to be honest to pay every man his own, to prevent those sad things that attend Families for want thereof, and to have the great benefit and advan­tage that would come thereby. A Register will quicken Trade, and the Land Registred will be equal as Cash in a mans hands, and the Credit thereof will go and do in Trade what Ready Moneys now doth. Observe how it advanceth Trade in Holland, and of how little Advan­tage it is to the Trade of England. I having One hun­dred pounds a year in Holland, meet with a Merchant up­on the Exchange at Amsterdam, and agree with him for Goods to the value of Four thousand pounds for six Months: If he demands Security, I go to the Bank, and give him Security by a Ticket of my Land, and by the Credit of that Ticket the Merchant is immediately in Trade again as high as the Commodity was he sold. But if I make a Bargain at London for Four thousand pounds worth of Goods for six Months, the next discourse is, What Security? Then the Buyer and the Seller agree to meet at the Tavern at Four of the Clock in the After­noon: There the Buyer produceth his Security, many times not approved of; so the Merchant cannot put off his Commodities, nor the Chapman have the Goods he stands in need of. But if the Buyer or any Friend of his, that would Credit him, had Land under a Register, then a Ticket upon such Lands given to the Merchant would [Page 13]be equal to him as Ready Moneys; and I say better too.

It is the common mistake of the world who cry up the Dutch for a great Cash in Bank, it is not so, it is a great mistake; For it is a Bank of Credit, and Paper is in that Bank equal with Moneys, the Anchorage, Fund and Foundation being laid Safe: And that is the Lands being under a Register, from whence issue these delightful Golden Streams of Banks, Lumber-houses, Honour, Honesty, Riches, Strength and Trade. You may read in Sir William Temples Book of his Observations of the Nether-lands this Expression:

When the States send to Persons who have lent them Moneys to come and receive their Moneys and Interest, saith he, they come with Tears in their Eyes desiring them to continue it longer: And the Reason is, they know the Security is good. And when ever they give Notice they will take up a Sum of Moneys, there is great striving who can get in his first.

But you will say, I talk that Gentlemen of England cannot have Moneys for Land; It is not so: And that I say Lawyers know no Titles, I ought to have my pate crackt; for money is plentiful, and Lawyers are cunning enough to spy out good Titles.

As to both I would it were true, for the sake of the poor Gentlemen, and the Lawyers too. But as to the greatest part of them, that have Thousand pounds a year, the World knows they are so far from borrowing Four thousand pounds, that they cannot borrow Four hundred pounds; and I dare say some Lords also.

Nay, to my knowledge three eminent Lawyers have been put to much charge and trouble, in their Estates lately purchased by them, in Montgomery, Hereford, and [Page 14] Worcester Shires, by reason of former Incumbrances. Now if an Eminent Lawyer cannot purchase an Estate with­out so much trouble, hazard, and charge, upon a Title settled at least fifty years ago by all the Judges of Eng­land, and in the Exchequer-Chamber; upon what Se­curity can the Bankers be understood to lay out their Mo­ney safe? And the poor Country-men are yet in a worse condition.

I will now shoot a Granado into London, not to fire them, but I hope 'twill make them look about them, and enquire after the Engineer, and demand how such com­bustible matter can be made, and do good and no harm, and how it may be fixt, so that Lumbard-street and there­abouts may both preserve and encrease their Credit. I will now shew you the Condition of London, as at pre­sent it stands, and how it would have been, if the Hou­ses new built had been by Law to be Registerd at Guild-Hall. Admit the Green Dragon Tavern in Fleet Street were mine, and Set at One hundred pounds a year, and I owe six hundred pounds, and go to the Scriveners and desire them to lend me six hundred pounds upon the Green Dragon Tavern. I Shew them the Purchase of the Ground Rent, the Patent from the Judges taken in, and all other Titles bought. I presume I cannot have the Six hundred pounds upon my house, but I must give great Security for my Covenants. I present such Security as I can get, which will not be accepted. Now for want of this six hundred pounds, on a sudden to pay my Debts, I am undone, Wife, Children and many more whom I owed moneys to, my Goods seized, my House taken from me, and it's possible a Prison too, or a Sta­tute of Bankrupt taken out, to the Ruine of all. But if it had been foreseen when the Act past for the building [Page 15]the City, that there had been put into the Bill these few Lines, Be it Enacted by the Kings most Excel­lent Majesty. &c. That all Houses which shall hereafter be new built in and near the City of London, destroyed by the late dreadful Fire, may (if they please) he Registred by the Owners at the Guild-Hall within the City of London; And all such Houses so Registred, shall be a good Title to the Party Registring such Hou­ses, and shall Barre all persons whatsoever, The King not Excepted; Provided there be no Claym entred within six Months next after the Registring of such House and Houses; And such Clayms as are entred shall be pro­ceeded upon in the said City, and no where else, in due form as the Law directs. And if this had been done, I then go to any Scrivener that deals that way, and desire to borrow a Thousand pounds on the Green Dragon Tavern in Fleetstreet, being Rented at One hundred pounds a year; there will be then no more to be done, but their Servant is sent to the Guild-Hall to see whose the Green Dragon Tavern is, and he brings word it is mine; There is no more ado, I say, but the Thousand pounds is told out, and I give Security for it by a Mortgage put into the Register of my House. Then I go and pay my Debts, prevent Law-suits, preserve my self, Wife, Children, and Reputation, and all is well: And that which is best of all, the Party lending the Mo­neys is safe, well and surely secured. It is possible great part of the Thousand pounds lent might be the Moneys of poor Widows and Orphans, here are both to the Lender and borrower great Advantages; To the one there is undeniable Security, and to the other present Re­lief [Page 16]upon all occasions. The wanting whereof hath been the ruine of some thousand Families since the firing of London. And this is that which will encrease and enli­ven Trade; and the Houses Registred will be equal with ready Moneys at all times, according to the value of the Houses. And if this we treat on had been done, there needed not one House to stand empty and untenanted, as now they do; nor the Trade to depart out of the City, as it hath done since the Fire. I desire and heartily wish that the Governours of the City would prepare a Bill against the next Sitting of Parliament to put the new Buildings under a Register. I will not Prophesie that a Bank shall rise in London equal with that of Amsterdam, London being put under a voluntary Register; but I will make it out, when ever the Heads of the City please to desire it, That if London, with the Free Lands of Mid­dlesex, Essex, Kent, and Surrey were under a voluntary Register; two of the Ridings of Yorkshire, Lincolneshire, Suffolk and Norfolk were under another voluntary Regi­ster; Glocestershire, Somersetshire, and Monmouthshire under another voluntary Register; and Devonshire under another; then there would be as great a Bank at London as at Amsterdam, and would be able to do much more in Trade, Credit, and all great things, than they can; and as great a Bank at Bristol as at Hamburgh, and would be able to drive as great a Trade, and set up the neglected, and I may say decayed Trade of Fishing upon the Coast of Wales and Ireland; and as great Banks at the two Towns of Lynne in Norfolk and at Hull in Yorkshire, and drive as good a Trade as at Dantzick, and enliven the Clothing Trade now brought very low, and set on foot that great and desirable Rich Trade of Fishing on their Coasts, which so advantageously offers it self. (O yes, [Page 17]O yes, O yes, what is become of the Moneys given vo­luntarily for the setting forward this good work of Fish­ing about twelve years since? If any one will help me to the twenty shillings I gave, I will give him nineteen for his pains.) And as great a Bank at Exeter as at No­remberge, and give life and strength to the great Wollen Manufacture in all the West of England. For no great things can be done without a Bank, and no Bank can be of any benefit to Trade, and the Publick, but where there is a Register.

And I would have the mistaken world know, that a Bank is as safe and practicable in a Kingdom, as in a Common-wealth, and particularly in an Island that is convenient for Trade. And the Reason why it is so, is, because it is a Bank of Credit, not of Cash, as is the Chamber of London, and the East-India Company, whose Treasures are abroad in Trade and increasing, and only the Books in the Offices. I say it is impossible to keep a Bank from rising in this Kingdom, nay many Banks, if we were under a voluntary Register. But now the Land Credit and the City Bank Credit are both disparaged; therefore it is impossible that Trade can any way be se­cured or bettered. And for persons behind-hand and in debt they must expect misery.

Of late years the monied Men in England sent their Moneys into Lombard-street, and there received a Note from a Goldsmiths Boy, which was all they had to shew for their Moneys. And certainly there was a Reason wherefore the great monied men did take such slender Security for their Moneys; The Reason was, because the Land Security was so uncertain and bad, and it was so troublesome and chargeable getting their Moneys again when they had occasion to use it, that forc't them [Page 18]to Lombard-street. For two parts in three that put their Moneys into these uncertain Banks, know better how to lay their Moneys out in Land Security, than any of the banking Goldsmiths or Merchants either. But the Land Security being not good, the Moneys tumbled into the wrong Channel. And all persons that have designs to get considerable Sums of Moneys into their hands for in­tended designs, or hazardous adventures, apply them­selves to the Money-Bankers, and there make their ap­proaches by noble Treats, great Offers, with large Inte­rest, with Country Baronets, Knights, Esquires, and it's possible some Citizens also for Security; and at last creep into the credit of borrowing great Sums of Money upon Land Mortgaged twice or thrice before, for in the Country none could be borrowed. At length the Banker calls for his Moneys, but none can be paid. The Banker dares not adventure to sue; but all that he dare do, is to employ a Lawyer only to whisper (not to make a noise) or give him some private Duns; for if he sues or falls on, that would cause the person that credited the Banker to call in his Moneys, and so the Banker's Credit would be spoiled; therefore all is to be silent and hush. The Banker by this time seeth and knoweth his condition, now he casts about how to preserve himself from the Storm ap­proaching, and it is possible some considerable Creditor by this time spies some bad Bargains made by the Banker, and calls in his Moneys: His earnestness puts on others to do the like, and then all his Creditors crowd to him as Pigs do through a hole to a Bean and Pease Rick. Now the Banker stands upon his guard, speaks fair to some, prevails with others to have patience a while; and in the mean time he advises not his Creditors, but his own interest. Now by the importunity of his Wife and [Page 19]Friends, he secures perhaps Two or Three Thousand pounds free from all Peoples approaches. Then you shall have him make Offers, and prays Time, proffers his Books to be surveyed, and saith that he will be just, and hath husbanded the Moneys with justice and honesty. The Books are presented, the major part of the Creditors proclaim that there is Estate sufficient to pay all. So the minor Creditors must be concluded. And then Time is given to pay by degrees, and Bond is given for the Pay­ment: But by whom? Even by the Bankers themselves. A brave Security! but if their Books were surveyed by Persons that know Men, and the Securities that are gi­ven, it is not to be questioned but Sir Foplin Flutter and Esquire Nipp have good part of the Moneys upon the Mortgages of Lands, Mannors, and Tenements, and great part as easie to be recovered as it is to bring Penmen­moor and Gore Agoluath together, being the two great Mountains in North Wales. And it is possible that great part of those Moneys are ventured to Sea by Merchants; and rather than their Friend the Goldsmith shall suffer, he shall shut up Shop and go to Sea with his Merchant, and bring home the supposed lost Estate, and at his return pay God knows what.

It is probable that any man that sends his Moneys into any of these Banks will conclude it impossible to employ so great Cash, as they are intrusted with, any other way than by lending upon Land Security, or to Merchants to venture to Sea, or to Citizens and others upon Personal Security. And if the Cash can be employed no other way, then the Lender must conclude the Banker is not able to secure the Moneys, but must run the hazard of bad Security by Land, and such hazards at Sea as attend Merchants, with the badness and uncertainty of Personal [Page 20]Security. And it is not to be imagin'd there being such great Cash put into the Bankers hands, that they should stand to the loss of all moneys misventur'd by trusting and bad Securities: And it must be madness for the Bankers to keep the moneys in their Chests by them, unless they in­tend to keep part for themselves, and pay part, and then lay the Key under the Door. I beg this one question of such Country Gentlemen as have put their moneys into the Bankers hands, Whether they do not know better how to lay out their moneys on Land Security than the Bankers do? Yes I know they do ten to one better; for they partly know Titles that may be indifferent certain, and know the Reputations of the Persons better than the Bankers, as I have set down before. And if there can be no Security given to the Bankers more than I have set down, then in the name of God let them that have a mind to proceed further with them go on and prosper if they can.

But it will be Objected, That I am no Friend to the way of Banking as now it is. I do profess it, and have been of the same mind this ten years last past; and have declared before some of the Bankers and many Persons of Quality besides, that this way of banking would endan­ger the Kingdom. And when I saw it convenient, which was in January last, I gave Reasons in Publick Coffee-houses for my Opinion, some of the Bankers being pre­sent. Their way of Dealing I knew, and what Security they took, which was impossible should run long. And as the Land and Personal Security is at this day, no living man, although never so knowing in the Laws or in Men, can take a great Cash into his hands, and pay six in the hundred for it. Is it not a sad thing, that a Banker's Boy should take up more moneys upon his Notes in one day, [Page 21]than two Lords, four Knights, and eight Esquires in twelves months upon all their Personal Securities? Unless we are cutting off our Legs and Arms to see who will feed the Trunk. We cannot expect this from any of our Neighbours abroad, whose interest depends upon our loss. Were it not much better that those Lords, Knights, and Esquires that now pay eight, nine, and ten pounds in the Hundred for their moneys, and are contented to sell their Lands at sixteen years Purchase, after Law-suits and troubles attending the Law have destroyed the one half, should bring up their Lands to thirty years Pur­chase, and Moneys down to three and a half in the Hun­dred, and redeem the old Credit paid by the People to them?

And I must here beg the Gentlemens pardon that wear the Gold Chains in the City of London, if I Petition them to take into their Care the true interest of that Ancient Noble City, which is by using such means as may bring it under a voluntary Register, where a Bank will sudden­ly rise, and such a Bank as will be for the benefit and ad­vantage of the whole Kingdom, and Trade Universal.

Suppose all the houses in Lombard-street be put into a Register, the title thereby safe and secure, let them be the Credit, Anchorage, Fund and Foundation to build your Bank upon. Then admit the houses in Lombard-street are worth ten thousand pounds a year, and valued at twenty years purchase, which they will go at, and much more; Then the Bank credit that is to secure the Lender will be 200 thousand pounds. I say this being lyable to make good all Moneys the Bankers shall receive and take up, then there is no fear but the Lender will have his ends answered and his Moneys well secured. And it is certain such an Anchorage, Fund and Foun­dation [Page 22]being once laid, will mount that Bank within Two Months to six hundred thousand pounds, (and higher it ought not to go.) Then out comes the Moneys unimployed from all persons in or near London; Even Servants, Men and Maids, will tumble in their Moneys as fast at one end of the Bank as it can be told out; And at the other end it is tumbled out again into Trade to Mer­chants and such as stand in need of ready Moneys, and thereby Trade is made easie and much convenienced. And then it will be true with us what Sr. William Temple saith of the Dutch in his Book of his Observations of the Nether-lands, That when the Bankers there send to the people that have lent them Moneys to come and fetch their principal and interest, then, saith he, they come with Tears in their Eyes desiring them to continue it. But in England many times Men may cry out their Eyes before they get either principal or interest. What a comfort would this be to Widdows and Orphans, and all such as know not how, or dare not set out their Moneys at in­terest, their Moneys now lying dead on their hands, if this were done? And by this Bank, and it's Credit will spring up a Lumber-house, nay many in the City of London to force Trade, to give to people one Commodity for the other, the things now offer'd at by many Gentle­men at Devonshire house. But they having no Fund, Ancho­rage and secure Foundation, it can come to nothing; these Lumber-houses grow out of the sides of the grand Banks, which are in all parts and ever shall be the Anchor and Cable of all smaller Banks. If it shall please God once to raise a Bank in London of six hundred thousand pounds Fund and Anchorage, out of such a Bank will sprout out many Lumber houses and smaller Banks, to quicken Trade. And certainly then the Moneys will be lent at [Page 23]four in the hundred, and ready Moneys at all times upon unperishable Commodities, even to three parts of four of the Value, as doth the King of Swetheland with his Iron and Copper at Hamburgh. I could write a whole Vo­lume of the advantage it would be to our English Trades, the growth and manufactures of our own Kingdom: But you shall have a touch or two. When I speak of putting all the poor of England at work with the growth of our own Country (here to be manufactured) I do know four persons in England, the Father and three Sons, that are in a great Trade, and I believe they Return more moneys in Trade than any two Merchants or Traders in England, which have their moneys at five in the Hundred. And I have heard many say, that they had rather let them have their moneys at four in the Hundred, than any others at six, because it was safe, and they could have it again when they pleas'd. But the Reason of all this is, the Anchorage is safe, they having a great real and personal Estate. And thus it will be with any Bank that shall be settled upon a good, secure, and unperishable foundation, into which moneys will be tumbled at small Interest.

Now I have shewed you what the Credit and Advan­tage of a Bank well settled will be of one Street in Lon­don; but what will the Credit of a Bank be, if once all the new buildings in and near the City of London, de­stroyed by the late Fire, come under a Register! O you with Gold Chains, I will tell you half the Houses in the City cannot miss coming into the publick Bank, to build and help to lay a Foundation to that rich, that desirable, that just, beneficial and honourable thing: And the other half of the Houses will be good Security to the Owners to take up moneys upon them, to serve their occasions, and drive their Trades with ease. Then the [Page 24]Houses will rise in their Rents, the Trade will return to the City, the Rats and Mice will leave the Houses (now only inhabited by them) Honour and Honesty will re­turn. I have met with many that make these Objections. First, The Lawyers will be against it. Secondly, All Gentlemen in Debt will be against it. Thirdly, All the Lawyers in the House of Commons, and Gentlemen in the House in Debt will be against it. And, Fourthly, It will undo thousands of People, for in producing their Writings holes will be pickt in their Titles.

As to the first, If the Lawyers Estates will rise in Pur­chase from sixteen to thirty years, then certainly his Fa­mily will be better provided for by that way, and I was saying, more justly than now practised: And if I do not mistake, it will make Trade much more large in the Kingdom than now it is, which makes more for the Law­yers. And let the Lawyers and all others consider, the Free Lands of England are not the one fifth part; and so all that is desired is but two Feathers out of their Goose, and there will be sufficient plucking and picking work besides. And for ten years there will be more Law than ever to clear up Titles, to make them fit to come into this voluntary Register. The benefit of all these things certainly will be much more to the Lawyers Advantage than what they get by their present practice. As to the Second, "The Gentlemen in debt will be against it; I say no they will not, for it will pay their debts without Mo­neys, and that is their Interest, the undeniable truth of that you have at large in this discourse. As to the Third, you say, ‘The Lawyers and Gentlemen in the house of Commons in debt will be against it.’ My answer to that is, That two worthy Members of the house of Commons whose estates are encumbred, say, they are wholly convin­ced [Page 25]of the absolute necessity and the advantage of a Re­gister, and will carry the Bill into the House when a fit opportunity offers it self. And I question not, but before that time all the People of England, especially those poor Cities and Towns that depend upon Trade, and want Credit and Stock, will discourse their Parliament Men in these things hinted at, who thereby will see the necessity of a Register. As to the Fourth Objection, and indeed it was a string that the Lawyers held hard at, ‘That it would undo thousands of Families, because that by pro­ducing their Writings holes would be pickt in their Ti­tles, and Gentlemen would not Let their Estates be dis­covered.’ I say here is a Salve to cover all this Sore; that is, the Register is voluntary, not compellable, so he that will Register may, and he that will not may chuse; and there will be Lands Registred sufficient to encourage Trade upon a sudden. And those that will make use of the Lawyers, and the Charge attending the Law, may pursue their old way; and I will promise them the per­sons that have Registred will not be angry with them. But I will plainly shew you how the person Registring (who possibly owes Ten thousand pounds, and hath made three or four Mortgages of a Thousand pounds a year) will pay his Debts without Moneys, and will then see the Lawyers Objections are only made for their own good, that they may pick some more Feathers off him.

Now suppose the Mayor of Warwick having a Thou­sand pounds a year owes Ten thousand pounds; he comes and Registers his Lands, and when the Law saith, it shall be a good Title, no man having entred a Claim, then the Mayor of Warwick's Land is a good Title. By this Credit the Mayor shall have his Land rise price within six Months to six and twenty years Purchase. The Mayor sells off [Page 26]so much Land as pays the Ten thousand pounds, and hath as much in value left as he had before, (and his Debts paid,) and hath then freed himself from all the Charge that attends the Law, and is also able to provide for his Family, and be an Instrument for the good of the pub­lick and place where he lives. Whereas before, having but a Thousand pounds a year, and owing Ten thousand pounds, he was valued worth nothing, his Family neg­lected and not provided for, and all his business was to fence with the assistance of Lawyers, to keep off and pro­long the Consumption which his Estate was then lia­ble to.

Then suppose the Mayor of Coventry hath One thou­sand pounds a year, and oweth Ten thousand pounds, and hath mortgaged his Lands to four several persons, one knowing not of the Mortgage to the other: He ob­serving what the Mayor of Warwick hath done, that he hath paid his Ten thousand pounds, and freed himself from all Incumbrances, (and hath as good an Estate as before,) what do you think he will do? I tell you what he will do, he will go to all persons he hath mortgaged his Land to, and confess the truth, and desire them to come with him, and all Register their Titles, when the Law saith that these Titles shall be good: Then the Mayor of Coventry by virtue of these Registred Lands, doth the same thing that the Mayor of Warwick did before. And I wish that the Members of Parliament for Warwick, Wor­cester, and Hereford Shires, would seriously consider of what is here asserted; and if they are convinc't of the truth hereof, let them pursue the ends for the obtaining of it, and they will quickly find the benefit thereof.

All Scotland is under a Register, and worth twenty four years Purchase; and on the other side in the North [Page 27]of Ireland, although but three Hours Sail, is worth but eight years Purchase; and in England on this side Twede, it is worth but sixteen years Purchase; the Register is the Cause. The Mannor of Taunton Dean in Somerset­shire is under a Register, and there the Land is worth three and twenty years Purchase, although but a Copy­hold Mannor, and at any time he that hath One hundred pounds a year in the Mannor of Taunton, may go to the Castle and take up Two thousand pounds upon his Lands, and buy Stuffs with the money, and go to London and sell his Stuff, and Return down his moneys, and pay but five in the hundred for his moneys, and discharge his Lands. This is the Cause of the great Trade and Riches in and about Taunton Dean, (O happy Taunton Dean!) What Gentleman can do thus with Free-lands? No, it is not worth sixteen years Purchase all England over, one place with another; and if not timely put under a Register, it will come to twelve years Purchase before long. Now you see a Register is practicable in Scotland and also in England; And if it were so by Act of Parliament in these particular places I have formerly mentioned in this Trea­tise▪ there would be no Complaint for want of People or Trade in England.

Methinks I hear some object and say, Although Scot­land be under a Register, yet that is a very poor Coun­try. There are many reasons to be given wherefore Scotland might be very poor; And if it were not under a Register the Land would not be worth eight years pur­chase; But being under a Register you see how much it exceeds the Lands in England in purchase. Scotland is ruled by a Commissioner, and there you cannot expect that which you may where the Monarch keeps his Court. For here the Merchants have access with speed [Page 28]and ease to have their grievances heard and redressed. But in tributary Kingdoms there ever were and ever will be self-interest Parties to keep as much as in them lyes, the Peoples grievances from the Princes knowledge, provided they can thereby feather their own Nests. Wit­ness Flanders and the Vice-roys that have been sent by the Spaniard to govern there. But Scotland is not under half the Improvement, or ever will be, as England is; For in England there are large Rivers, and well scituated for Trade, great Woods, Mynes, good Wooll and large Beasts. In Scotland very little Woods, few Iron Mynes, course Wooll, and often great part of the Sheep are starv­ed. And no Northern Kingdom is or ever will be of any great Riches, or are capable thereof: But such will as have these things abounding in them, good Ports, advan­tageous Laws for Trade, good Wooll, and good quan­tities thereof, much and well Wooded, with plenty of Iron, Stone and Pit Coales, with Lands fit to bear Flax, with Mynes of Tin and Lead. Scotland is a thin and lean Kingdom, and wanting in these things. England is a fat Kingdom, and hath all these things in it. Yet the Lothean Lands in Scotland are twenty four years purchase. At Edinburgh there is a Grand Register, and in each County a particular one, and no man can be there de­ceived in a Purchase unless it be his own fault. England is at sixteen years Purchase. The reason is obvious why Scotland must be so, and why England is so. But a vo­luntary Register in England will cure all, and put us six years purchase above Scotland. For as I formerly said, as our Honour and Honesty is, so will be our Riches; and Riches bring Trade, and Trade brings strength to an Island. And for want of good Titles let the world judge what a Condition we are coming into.

I will give you one small Instance, what the poor decayed Trade and Clothiers of England would be able to do in easing themselves, and making their Trade com­fortable, if they had but the Authority of the Law to Register all their Houses and Lands. Take it from the City of Salisbury, there I make the Precedent, and as it would be with them, so it would be with all the Towns in England who deal in the Wollen and Iron Manufacture. Suppose the Clothiers in and near Salisbury have two thou­sand pounds a year in free Lands, and their Lands were by Law fixt under a Register, then the Anchorage and Foun­dation of a Bank will be at least fifty thousand pounds; And immediately tumbles into them all the idle Moneys, nay Moneys now under Ground, (and good part of the plate) ten Miles round; The Usurer will pray, and the Men and Maid-servants will beg to take in their Moneys. Immediately one hundred thousand pounds will be brought in, and at four in the hundred. What will this do to the poor Clothiers? Nay what will it do to each Gentleman, and all men near Salisbury that have or keep Sheep? I say the help and present Credit of this great Bank and Cash will raise the price of Wooll, and set the Poor at work; Thereby enabling the Tenants to pay their Rents, keep the poor of the Parish, bring the Clothiers and the City into a Comfortable Condition; but most of all it will prevent the Trade departing this Kingdom, which of necessity it will do, if not timely prevented. For the Irish Wooll carried away with their Beef to Holland, France and Germany, their making Cloth of cheap Wooll with cheap Victuals, with Moneys at three in the hundred, will out do us, and undo us too if [...] prevented. Eight years since I discovered [...] of the Worse Manu­facture, [Page 30]and the Reasons, which he made publique in his first Book.

The same that may be done at Salisbury by this way, may be done by all the Towns in England that depend up­on any of our own Manufactures. And in this case here's nothing desired, but that Men thus qualified with Lands may employ it by the Authority of the Law to the good of themselves and mankind, and to be justly honest to all.

Now methinks I hear many of Salisbury say, But how may this be done which you say? I tell you how: desire your Parliament Man to draw you up a Bill and carry it into the House the next sitting. But you will say, he will not do it. Then get your Bishop to do it. You will say, he is no Lawyer. Pray tell him it is easier than ma­king the River Navigable. But a Register and the River Navigable together will do rarely well. Well, if the Bishop will do the one, I will do the other; I will only tumble over a few papers wherein are my Observations when I surveyed the River.

The Preamble of the Bill to be carried into the House of Commons, for put­ting the City of Salisbury and the Free Lands within ten Miles thereof, under a voluntary Register, with some Heads of the said Bill.

WHereas there past an Act of Parliament in the [...] Year of his Ma­jesties Reign that now is, for making the Ri­ver [Page 31] Avon Navigable, from the City of Salisbury to the Town of Christ-Church, and so into the Sea, so as Boats, Barges, and Lighters may come up the said River to the City of Salisbury, and so down again into the Sea, for carrying and recarrying of Wood, Coles, Corn, and all other Commodities to and fro; And whereas the said River is begun to be made Navigable, and some considerable Sums of Money are laid out about the said Work, which if once finished will tend much to the benefit and fur therance of Trade to the said City and Country there­abouts: And whereas there hath formerly been a great Trade in the said City and Coun­try adjacent, in the making and working in the Wollen Manufacture, which is now much de­cayed, and if not timely prevented will be worse; the occasion whereof is the want of pre­sent Money (and Credit) for the Clothiers to drive their Trades, to be by them had when wanted, and that at low and easie Interest; And finding that in many places beyond the Seas Trade is much advanted by the Lands being under a Register, and in Taunton Dean in England the Town and Mannor there being un­der a Register, hath in a strange manner given life, ease, and benefit to the Trade there and thereabouts, whereupon that place is much enviched; And to the end that the River of Avon when made Navigable, may answer the Charge of making it so, and the wollen Trade in Salisbury and thereabouts may be encouraged, Wherefore be it Enacted by the Kings most Ex­cellent [Page 32]Majesty, by and with the consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and the Commons in this present Parliament Assem­bled, That from and after the twenty fifth day of June, one thousand six hundred seventy and seven, all manner of person or persons that shall desire it, may and shall have their Free-hold Lands and Houses. Registred at the Regi­sters Office within the City of Salisbury, which shall lye within the said City, and within ten Miles thereof, accompting two thousand yards to the Mise: Provided such Houses and Lands so to be Registred with their. Names, Metes, and Bounds be first set up and affixed three Lords Days upon the Church Door of the Pa­rish where such Lands are; And that the Mi­nister with one of the Church-Mardens, and one of the Overseers of the Poor, first certifie under their Hands and Seals the doing of the same, with a true Copy of the Paper so affixed, to the Register, with forfeiture of twenty pounds and three Months imprisonment to any person or persons that shall take down or deface the said Writing, during the time it is ordered by the Law to be up: And then all Free-hold Lands and Houses thus Registred shall be a good and perfect Title unto the per­son Registring the same, and to his Heirs for ever: And no Sale, Mortgage, or Lease, or any other thing whatsoever shall be good as to the Land Registred, unless Registred in the said Court, Provided that all persons whoso­ever may at any time within [...] Months next [Page 33]after any Land is so Registred, make their Claim, and upon such Claim proceed in the said City and not elsewhere, by due course of law to recover their Right; any thing in this Law to the contrary notwithstanding. And be it further Enacted, That all Bonds and Bills to be entred into from and after the Twenty fifth day of June, which shall be in the year of our Lord God One thousand six hundred seven­ty and seven, may by the person or persons ha­ving right to the said Bond or Bonds, trans­fer and assign the said Bond and Bonds, and the Assignment being made and executed shall transfer the whole property of the said Bond or Bonds to the party to whom such Bond or Bonds are assigned, and the property with the Assignment shall pass and be good from man to man, in the nature of Bills of Exchange, whereby one Bond may pay and run through the hands of many persons, and thereby prevent the Charge of Law, and the Ruine of many Families for want thereof. Observe what is here set down for Salisbury, is to shew you, That all the Towns of England lye under the same advantage.

But I know some hard Questions will be asked me now; As First, Who shall keep this Register? Secondly, Who shall chuse the Register? Thirdly, How shall he be chosen? Fourthly, Who shall pay him for his pains? And Fifthly, What Security shall he give to perform his Trust?

As to the First, let the Register be kept by two Gen­tlemen whom you have experience of for Honour and Honestie. Secondly, let the Register be chosen by the [Page 34]Major voyces of all the Free-holders in and within ten Miles of the City of Salisbury, who have forty shillings a year and upwards. Thirdly, Let him be chosen by the way of the Baletting Box. I will tell you how that is: Every Free-holder must have Bowls given them of several Colours, when they see who stand to be Registers. Then let A. be for the White Bowle, B. for the Black Bowle, C. for the Red Bowle, D. for the Green Bowle, and so on; and when the Parties appear, each Free-holder drops into the Baletting Box one Bowle in a piece of Paper that none can see the Colour, either Black, White, Red or Green. So he that hath most Bowles is the man. And by this way no man knows how to find fault with his pretended Friend, or knows who is his Enemy. And certainly this way would drive out base interests and prefer men of Honesty, and Honour. And for chusing of Parliament men and all publick Votes in Corporations, it were happy it were so; for great things are done in some parts of the World by this little Policie. To the Fourth, [who shall pay him for his pains.] I say he ought to have it out of the Lands Re­gistred; but have a care of allowing too much. And as to the Fifth, [what security,] get as honest and as rich a man as you can, then the slenderer Security will serve. I have given you my thoughts, but I am but a Country High-shoe. But there are three worthy Gen­tlemen of the Long Robe who make it great part of their business to fit some papers to answer all the ends proposed, and I have promised them I will get together what materials I can fit for to raise the Fabrick. And you see I have brought the great p [...]st from Holland, and one side-piece from Germany, another side piece from Scotland, and one [...] from T [...]un [...]n [...]an▪ And I [Page 35]will find a great piece to make Sparrs, and other finish­ing things, or else I will go into the Inner Temple to the Registers office there, and write by the Copy of Sir Var­modens

Reader, by this time I hope I have convinced thee of the necessity of the Free-lands being put under a voluntary Register; And I will now shew to all men the true Rea­sons of the bad Securities by Land at this day. Until about thirty years past the Conveyances and Settlements of Lands were three wayes, viz. First, by a Deed inrolled in Chancerie, which creates a Possession. Secondly, a Deed and Fine, which doth the same. Thirdly, by a Deed executed [...]ith Livery and Seisin upon the Land. Two of these are upon Record, and the third was an Act which was done publickly, whereby the Country might have notice of the transferring the Land, and then there was possibility of Titles to be known. But now by the occasion of the late Warrs, and things relating thereunto, there are three things that give liberty to all men to de­fraud whom they please, and it is not in the power of man to prevent it. First the settlement by Lease and Release, a thing that unhinges the whole Free-hold Lands of England. For whereas before the people had the other three ways to settle their Estates, two of which were upon Record, the third of publick Acts in doing of it, by which the Country might take notice thereof; now this private pocket-settlement called Lease and Re­lease, may be done in any Corner privately, and shall be good against all persons. The way is this: First, a Lease is made for a year of the premises, which by the practice of the Law gives a possession; then in another Deed the Lease is recited, and a Deed of Release made, both which Convey the [...]ee. This may be done in Ire­land, [Page 36]and the Lease left in the hands of the person whom it was made to; and the Grantor brings away the Re­lease with him. The year is expired, then the Lands are sold, and a Bill in Chancery is preferr'd, and the partie swears no Incumbrance, and gets a great sum of Mo­neys; then delivers the Release to the party that had the Lease for the year. Then the Title is vested in the Lease and Release. Then he comes and Ejects him that bought for valuable Consideration, because he had the proper Title. I could name six persons that were served so, and one of them not under the degree of a Sergeant at Law. And pray now what Lawyer knows a Title? The Se­cond sort are the private Settlements made to p [...]rsons be­fore or in the War; they were done by the Royalists to preserve them against the Parliament party; the like did the Parliament party do to preserve them against the Kings party; the like doth the Romanist at this day. I have been a Commissioner in many of these Titles, and they are still kept on Foot to play fast or loose as they please; some of which are every Term heard of in West­minster Hall. The Third are Bonds given to the King, although made in an Ale-house or Tavern, and never Re­corded in the Exchequer, nor in any Court else; yet these Bonds are a Judgment in Law, and by virtue there­of will be first served, (and before all men else.) And at this day many Gentlemen (and others that I know) have sold Land since they entred into these Bonds, and the Bonds not satisfied. I speak this with honour to the King's Prerogative, and affirm that it would be more for his Majesty's advantage also, if Estates were Registred, for he would then see what Security he has for his Money, whereas his Majesty himself is many times a loser, by trusting upon insufficient Security. And it is now a [Page 37]common practice to convey away all Lands before a man becomes bound to the King.

Besides all these Uncertainties of Titles of Land, it is brought so to pass at this day, that whatever Moneys is or hath been borrowed, by Companies Incorporated, or upon the Credit, or under the Common Seal of Cities or Corporations, none can be recovered by Law. I hope now no Gentleman of the Long Robe can pretend to know a good Title from a bad, and therefore will be now willing to let the Free-lands of England to be put under a voluntary Register.

But I hear some say, That for all that hath been said in this Discourse they are not satisfied, the Dutch will be beat without fighting. Well then, I will give you some more satisfaction. I pray observe what the Dutch and En­glish have been doing for this many years; it has been courting and fighting for this Mistress called Trade. And observe how the Dutch have fitted her with all that she can desire; as with a Register of Lands, Banks, Lumber­house, cut Rivers, easie Ports in point of Customs, a Court of Merchants: And these give her delights, and she hath no mind to depart from them. And her long continuance hath made her Lovers vastly rich, and the Towns where she maketh her abode, both populous and great. And though in the Three Maritime Provinces they have neither good Water nor good Air, yet are their Lands at fifty years Purchase. Now observe, Eng­land lyes within twenty Hours sail of Holland, and is stored with many and much better Ports than Holland hath: And our Ships by reason of the deepness of our Rivers, can go out and come in with much greater Bur­dens than theirs can, and we lye as well to the Baltick as they, and much better to the Mediterranean, East and [Page 38]West Indies, than they do. And in England are Noble Seats to be purchased, and a good Air. Now Reader, dost thou think, that the great Dutch Merchants and others rich in Cash, would stay there, if we had here publick Security for our Lands, that they might purchase safely here? I say they would come over in Swarms, and would willingly give thirty years purchase for Lands here. So that the great Merchants coming from thence, and buying Estates here, will bring away the great Riches from thence, and so increase Trade here; and thereby the Dutch will decline gradually every year more and more, and within very few years their beloved Mi­stress will depart, and will come and settle her self with us. And as we are an Island which God and Nature hath fitted for Trade, if we once fit our selves with Laws an­swerable, then the greatest part of the Trade of Europe will be with us. And if this doth not convince the Rea­der, that hereby we shall beat the Dutch without fighting, and pay our Debts without Moneys, I have no more to say.

Beside the Advantages aforesaid, let me tell you that I have found out two places, one in Ireland, the other in England: In that in Ireland are great and strange quan­tities of Timber to build Ships, and places to build them, and at three fifths of the Rates the King now builds at, with convenient places to lay up the Ships, and thereby to be ready upon all occasions. That in England is con­venient to build Ships at, and at very easie Rates, and is as good a Harbour to lay them up in as any is in Eng­land, and in the very Eye of France. And I desire it may be seriously considered. And that the truth may be demonstrated of what I say, I have affixed two sheets in Maps to this Book, whereby the truth asserted may be made the more clear.

About two years since, I was prevailed upon by some of the Money Bankers, and some Gentlemen to go over in­to Ireland to Survey some Iron works, Woods and Lands which they were in proposition for, with Sir Robert Clayton and Mr. Morris, being Works, Lands, and Woods lying near the River Slane in the Counties of Wexford and Wicklow, and formerly set on Foot by Sir John Cutler, Sir Edward Heath, Mr. Abbot the Scrivener, Docter Yates of Oxford, and Mr. Timothy Stamp, and from them Conveyed to Sir Robert Clayton and Mr. Morris, to advance a sum of Moneys, and to manage the Works and to give an Accompt: But the Parties differ­ing, and some bad Titles made with suits at Law had so unhinged and debased the whole affair, that nothing possibly could be done, unless we could come upon some new Foundation. So my self and servants spent some time in Surveying the Woods, Lands and Works, in which I did evidently perceive the Design at the first was very rationally laid, but unfortunately destroyed. I then considered what might be done. After I had surveyed the River Slane, and the Brooks and Rivulets running in­to the same, and the Woods adjoyning unto them, with that noble great and good Wood called Shelela, I then did perfectly see what a great shame it was that such quantities of Timber should ly rotting in these Woods, and could not be come at, the Mountains and Boggs having so lockt them up, that they could not be brought to any Sea-port to be imployed in building of Ships. But my self and those I employed having spent much time in the surveying the said River Slane and the Rivu­lets running into it, we found that they may be made so Navigable for Ten thousand pounds, as all those Woods may with ease and at very cheap Rates be brought down [Page 40]the Slane to Wexford, and to other places near thereunto, to build Men of War and other Ships. And I know in the Woods near unto the Slane, that may come down that River, (if once Navigable) there is Timber suffici­ent to make a hundred Men of War (and some hundreds of Busses) and as good Timber as any is in England, (I was going to say better) and not one stick wanting that Oak is capable of doing: And the first lengths of Masts also, (and they will serve well for that use.) And as now these Woods are (and as they will for ever be, unless by some such way relieved) they will never bring the Own­ers Twenty thousand pounds, (nor Ten I verily believe.) But if the Slane were made Navigable and the Rivulets running into it, these great quantities of Timber might be employed in building Ships for the Royal Navy, and may if his Majesty please, be kept either in an Admiralty at Wexford, or in some Port near, or in Milford Haven, and there they will be ready to sail upon any occasion, ei­ther to preserve the West India Trade, or into the Medi­terranean, and thereby give great comfort to all Trade that is used in those Seas; as also incourage the People, and drive away their present fears. And I am very well satisfied that Ships of all Rates will be built at Wexford or thereabouts at three fifths of what the King now pays for building; and there they may be also Gun'd and Victu­alled. The Woods are the Earl of Angleseys, the Lord Baltimores, Sir Laurence Esmonds, the Lord Arons, and Shelela the Earl of Straffords, with many other small Woods. Here you have the Map of the River and Ri­vulets, with some small Signs of the Woods before men­tioned.

The Second place convenient for the building of Ships, is at Christ-Church in Hampshire. About eighteen Months [Page]

[map]

[Page 41]since I was taken down by the Lord Clarendon to Salis­bury to Survey the River of Avon, to find whether that River might be made Navigable: As also whether a safe Harbour could be made at Christ-Church for Ships to come in and out, and lye safe. After I had surveyed the Ri­ver, I found it might with ease be made Navigable. I then with several others went to Sea several times, to sound and find the depths, and to discover what the An­chorage was. At last I found in the Sea great quantities of Iron Stones lye in a Ridge. For in the Sea, pointing directly upon the Isle of Wight, observing it at low Wa­ter, I found that Ridge of Iron Stones was the cause that forc't the ground Tide about the point, which had carri­ed and lodged the Sands so, as it had choaked up the Harbour: But the Stones near the Shore lay so great and thick, that they were the occasion of lodging the Sands by them, near the Western Shore, and so of preserving a place which is very deep and good Anchorage, and within one hundred Yards of the Shore, which gives un­to that River the advantage of making there as good an Harbour, as to the depth of Water it will draw, as any is in England, where a Boy and a Cord two Inches Dia­meter will be sufficient to hold a Ship; the Harbour be­ing a great Inland Lake or Pool, and well defended from all Winds. When my self and some were well satisfied of the conveniency of the place for a Harbour, I waited upon the Lord Clarendon and some other Gentlemen to Sea, and there did discover to them the Reasons at large, having convinc't them upon the place, of the fitness and conveniency in making a Harbour there. They then pro­ceeded to do something in Treating about the River: At which time I observed two great things that place was capable of. The First is, At that very place where the [Page 42]Harbour may be made, there may at any time safely come in and quietly ride at least 50 or 60 fifth and sixth Rate Frigats; and that which is more strange, within three hundred yards of the place there is a Hill or Promontory, which was an old Camp of the Romans or Saxons, as it is said, which will lodge a hundred thousand men, and in three days may be made so defensible, that no Army (be it never so great) will be able to annoy them, all parts of the said Camp being defended by Sea except about three hundred yards, and that is intrenched by a very vast Ditch, yet very useful; and Relief by Sea may be brought to this place every Tide, and no Party by Land, as it is now, can give any opposition. And to me it is very strange, that notice long since had not been taken of it, and some Forts built there. The Second thing I there took notice of, was, The great Advantage his Ma­jesty might make of that place when the Habour was opened, for the building of fifth and sixth Rate Frigats. A place none can be better, with these Advantages. First, Within the Harbour is a convenient place to build Ships. Secondly, The Timber will be carried down Avon to the place for building, for four Shillings the Tun or Load; the Timber coming out of New-Forest, the River running by the Forest side, and at present His Majesty sends the Timber out of the Forest to Portsmouth to build, and pays for a Load to Redbridge fourteen shillings, and from Redbridge to Portsmouth by Water eight shillings the Load. Thirdly, This place is and may be made by Art, with the laying out of two thousand pounds upon a Fort, a full defence against any Enemy landing, and secure all his Majesties Ships that shall be laid in there from the at­tempts of any Enemy whatsoever, and will there be fit and ready almost with any Wind to sail out. It lyes over [Page]

[figure]

[Page 43]against the very heart of France, and such Ships may there go to Sea and be about their work, when others cannot come about, for contrary Winds.

The Third great advantage is, that there the King may have all his Iron made, and Guns cast at very cheap Rates. There is the Iron Stone in the Sea, by the Har­bour mouth, and the King hath vast quantities of Woods decayed in New Forest; of which at this time Charcoal is made, and Shipt away to Cornwall and other parts. If two Furnaces be built about Ringwood to cast Guns, and two Forges to make Iron, and the Iron Stone be brought from the Harbour mouth out of the Sea up the River to the Furnaces, and the Charcole out of New Forest to the works, there being sufficient of decayed Woods to supply four Iron-works for ever; by these means the King makes the best of every thing, and builds with his own Timber being near and convenient; whereas now the charge and carriage makes the Timber 07 of no use to him. And having Iron Stone of his own for gathering up, and Wood of his own for nothing, he will have very cheap Guns and Iron. And all these things set together, this is a business befitting a King to have. And as I said, this Fort will be made, and answer the ends I here lay down, for two thousand pounds, and the Iron works built and Docks to build three Ships at one time for eight thousand pounds. The discovery more particular of the place of the deep Water and Fort to be made, and the Harbour within, with a description of the Camp adjoyning is here in the Map affixed.

Now Reader, I hope I have made good my promise of discovering two places convenient to build Ships in, and at easie Rates, and also to lay them up safe, and in places that are eminently convenienced for quick getting out and [Page 44]could say much more of these two places as to publick be­nefit, but it may be, and it is not to be questioned, I shall meet with Enemies for saying so much, for I know now almost all men are Sacrificing all things to their own Nets and Drags, or to such Great ones as they lye under. However if his Majesty please to Command me, I will go to Christ-Church with any knowing person, and there up­on the place shew him all that is here affirmed, (and the Reasons:) the like I will do as to the Slane in Ireland, and the Woods I so commend, joyning thereunto; and upon the place demonstrate and make out how the River Slane and Rivulets running into the same, may be made Navi­gable; and shew the great quantities of Timber that may thereby be brought down to build Men of War, the places convenient for building them, and that no King or Prince in Europe hath such an advantage to build Ships as the King of England may have with that Timber in Ireland.

The Way to employ and set at Work all the Poor of England, both Man, Woman, and Child, that are capable and able to work, and all to be done by improving two of our own Manufactures (the growth whereof is all of our own Island;) the one the Linen, the other the Iron Manu­facture.

AS to Linen Cloth of all sorts, what vast quantities are yearly brought into England, and here made use of, and by us sent unto our Islands, and to many other places, the making of which sets at work abun­dance of People in other Nations; as also Threads, Tapes, Twine for Cordage, and wrought Flax? Now who [Page 45]makes the fine Linen Clothes, and where have they the Materials? I say the fine Linens are made in Holland, and Flanders, that is, woven and whitened there, but the Thread that makes them comes out of Germany from Saxony, Bohemia, and other parts thereabouts, and is brought down the Elbe and Rhine in dry Fats for Holland and Flan­ders; and there the Merchants have at this day, and so will ever have, a vast Trade in these Commodities, un­less that Trade of Linen be advanced in England, and in­couraged as I shall set down. But, First, Observe that the People of Holland eat dear and pay great Rents for their Houses, and so they do in Flanders; but the weav­ing and whitening of the Cloth is not above the tenth part of the labour. For the great labour is in preparing the Flax, as pulling, watering, dressing, spinning, and winding, and all this is done in the upper parts of Ger­many, and thereabouts; there Victuals are cheap, and in all these parts there is no Beggar, nor no occasion to beg; and in all Towns there are Schools for little Girls, from six years old and upwards, to teach them to spin, and so to bring their tender Fingers by degrees to spin ve­ry fine, which being young are thereby easily fitted for that use. Whereas People overgrown in age cannot so well feel the Thread. Their Wheels go all by the foot, made to go with much ease, whereby the action or moti­on is very easie and delightful. And in all Towns there are Schools according to the bigness, or multitude of the poor Children. I will here shew you the way, method, rule, and order how they are Governed.

First, There is a large Room, and in the middle there­of a little Box like a Pulpit. Secondly, There are Benches built round about the Room as they are in our Play­houses; upon the Benches sit about two hundred Chil­dren [Page 46]spinning, and in the Box in the middle of the Room sits the Grand Mistress with a long white Wand in her hand. If she observes any of them idle, she reaches them a tap; but if that will not do, she rings a Bell which by a little Cord is fixt to the Box, and out comes a Woman; she then points to the Offender, and she is taken away into another Room and chastised. And all this is done without one word speaking. And I believe this way of ordering the young Women in Germany is one great cause that the German Women have so little of the twit twat. And I am sure it would be well were it so in England. And it is clear, that the less there is of speaking, the more there may be of working. In a lit­tle Room by the School there is a Woman that is prepa­ring and putting Flax on the Distaffs, and upon the ring­ing of the Bell, and pointing the Rod at the Maid that hath spun off her Flax, she hath another Distaff given her, and her Spool of Thread taken from her, and put into a Box unto others of the same size to make Cloth.

And observe what Advantages they make of suiting their Threads to make Cloth, all being of equal Threads. First, They raise their Children as they spin finer to the higher Benches. Secondly, They sort and size all the Threads so, that they can apply them to make equal Cloaths. Whereas here in England one Woman, or good Housewife, hath it may be six or eight Spinners be­longing to her, and at some odd times she spins, and also her Children and Servants, and all this Thread shall go together, some for Woof, some for Warp, to make a piece of Cloth. And as the Linen is Manufactured in England at this day, it cannot be otherwise. And is it not a pity and shame, that the young Children and Maids here in England should be idle within [...], begging ab [...]o [...]d, [Page 47]tearing Hedges, or robbing Orchards, and worse, when these, and these alone, are the people that may, and must if ever, set up this Trade of making fine Linen here? And after a young Maid hath been three years in the spinning School, that is taken in at six and then continues until nine years, she will get eight pence the day. And in these parts I speak of, a man that has most Children lives best; whereas here he that has most is poorest. There the Children enrich the Father, but here begger him.

Joining to this Spinning-School are three more Schools, ordered as this spoken of is. One is for Maids weaving Bone-lace, another for Boys making Toys, some cutting the Heads, some the Bodies, some the Legs; the third is for Boys painting the Toys and slit Pictures.

I know these Questions will be put or asked: First, Where would you have this Trade settled in England? Secondly, How shall there be Flax provided for to manage this Trade? And, Thirdly, Where shall be Stock at first, and where can we have places to whiten? I Answer, Warwick, Leicester, Northampton, and Oxford Shires are the places fit to set up this Manufacture, because in these Countries there is at present no Staple Trade, and the Land there for Flax is very good, being rich and dry, wherein Flax doth abundantly delight. And I affirm, that the Flax that grows in these parts, shall do any thing that the German or any other Flax can do, provided it be ordered accordingly. As to the second and third, (as to Flax and Stock) let each County begin with two thou­sand Pounds Stock apiece immediately to provide Houses as before set down, and employ it as is directed. And for places to Whiten, near all the great Towns there are Brooks or Rivers where bleeching places may be made in [Page 48]the Lands adjoining, as is in Southwark by help of the flowing of the Thames. And for Men and Women to Govern the Trade, I know in every Country there are Men sufficient to direct and order it.

I know it will be much inquired into by many, why Warwick, Leicester, Northampton, and Oxford-shires should be the places fixed on for the Linnen Manufacture before all other Counties in England? I answer, there are no Counties in England so capable of making the Commo­dity so good and so cheap as these. First, their Land is excellent good to produce Flax. Secondly, they are in­land Counties, and have no staple Manufacture at pre­sent fixt with them; whereby their poor are idle and want imployment. Thirdly, they are Counties the best furnished at all times with Corn and Flesh of any Coun­ties in England, and at cheapest Rates. Fourthly, they are in the heart of England, and the Trade being once well setled in these Counties will influence their Neigh­bouring Counties in the same Manufacture in sending their Flax and threads with ease and cheapness down the Rivers Thames, Avon, Trent, and St Eades: all which Navigable Rivers come into these Counties. And I af­firm it is not possible to set up this Trade in any other part of England with success but in these places, because in most part of England there are fixt Manufactures al­ready that do in great measure set the poor at work. In the West of England clothing of all sorts, as in Glocester, Worcester, Shropshire, Staffordshire, and a small part of Warwickshire: In Derby, Nottingham and Yorkshire, the Iron and Wollen Manufacture: In Suffolk, Norfolk, and Essex, the Wollen Manufacture: In Kent, Sussex and Surry, some Cloth, Iron, and Materials for Shipping. Then to Counties to raise provisions and to vend them [Page 49]at London to feed that great Mouth, are Cambridge, Hun­tington, Buckingham, Hartford, Middlesex and Berks. And if you rightly weigh and consider how England is fixed in all parts as to the Growth, Trade, Manufacture, and vending thereof, there are no Counties in England that this desirable gainful improvement of the Linen Ma­nufacture possibly can be managed in, with the like suc­cess, as in the forementioned Counties. For as Common Honesty is necessary for Trade, and without it Trade will decay: so any Manufacture fixed in any place where it may be better accommodated, thither it will go, and so remove from the place where it was first set up; and the discouragments it received there many times keep it from fixing any where else. About seven or eight years since there was a Proposal of setting up the Linen Ma­nufacture in and near Ipswich, a Town of two hundred void houses, to be had for little, and near the Sea: but I coming to that Town was prest hard to give my Opini­on, whether the Linen Trade might be there set up with success? After I had rid about the Town as far as Catta­way Bridge, and observed the Influence that the Colchester Trade had there; as also the Stuff and Say Trade, where­by the Poor were comfortably supplyed: I then found it was impossible to go on with success, and gave my reasons, upon which all was laid aside, and my reasons approved of. I did also acquaint one of the Grandees of the Linen Trade at Clarken-well, that that Trade would eat out its own Bowels, Stock and Block would come to nothing. And so it shall do in the Countries I name, and in all other places in the World, being a new Manufacture, unless the Publick Authority take care and cherish it, for at least seven years. The way how, I will set down when I have finished my Discourse of this and [Page 50]the Iron Manufacture; for it is as fit to be done for the incouragement of the Iron Manufacture, as for the Li­nen Manufacture. And observe, I pray you, these Coun­ties I now name for the Linen Manufacture, employ more hands at work by their growth, than any eight Counties of England do by the growth of theirs, and all employed abroad in other Counties, not in their own. And the great cause of Strength and Riches to England are those great quantities of Wool which grow in their great Pastures, and are sent abroad into the West and other parts, and there Manufactured, where they keep at work infinite quantities of poor people, as Spin­ners, Carders, Weavers, Dressers, Dyers. Yet I have seen two pieces in Print, each making great complaint, that by the late Inclosures in these Counties, a Dog and a Boy do manage as much Lands as formerly employed ten Teams, and kept forty persons at work all the year. Never considering that the Land inclosed is treble the benefit to the Owner (after the Ministers and Poors part was thrown out) over what it was before it was inclosed; and that the product of the Wool proceeding from the same Land, does set at work five times the number of people in other places of the Kingdom. And so it will be with the Linen Manufactures, if once well settled in these four Counties, and incouraged by a Publick Law. Then these Counties will be as Germany is to Holland and Flanders: There the Flax will grow, and be Manufactu­red easily and cheap; part whitened there, and the Thread and part of the Flax sent down the Navigable Rivers to the several Towns to be woven and spun. And so there will be employ for the greatest part of the Poor of Eng­land. And in such Towns where it meets with a settled vo­luntary Register, thence never will it depart.

But I must now name you some Lands in these Coun­ties very fit for Flax, thereby to make you know the fit­ness of the rest, with its quantities; as also show you the quantities of Flax that may grow upon one Mannor in Warwickshire, and the number of poor people it will em­ploy: by which Demonstrations you may judge what may be done in the four Counties named in this Design offered at.

For this twelve years last past, I having my London Road through Warwickshire, made my Observations of the Land there, and the fitness of it to bear Flax; but more particularly of the Mannor of Milcott, being the Earl of Middlesex's near Stratford upon Avon. Which Mannor is about three thousand Acres, and to the value of three thousand pounds a year, as I am informed. The Land in this Mannor is sound, rich, dry, and good, and that is the true Land to bear Flax. And in this Mannor some years there are sown some hundred Acres of Flax: But if the whole Mannor were sown with Flax, it would employ nine thousand people in the Manufacturing there­of, as to sowing, weeding, pulling, watering, dressing, spinning, winding, weaving, and whitening. One part of which labour would be done upon and near the place; the other would be done in remote parts, the Flax and Thread being carried down the River Avon into Severne, and so conveyed with ease to Bristol, Wales, and other parts, to set the Poor at work, which want employment; and so the small Towns will set their Poor at work by the same Rule as they do in Germany, and then there will need no Relief from the Parish for the Poor, nor will there be any complaining in the Streets. One Acre of Land will bear three hundred weight of Flax. This three hundred weight of Flax well drest and made fine, will [Page 52]make four hundred Ells of Cloth, worth three shillings the Ell, which will be in value when it is manufactured threescore Pounds. You must observe, the finer the Thread is, the less Flax goeth to make it, and the more Cloth it will make. And so there being the labour of three persons to manufacture the Flax that comes of this one Acre of Land, this Mannor will employ nine thou­sand persons. Now there are at least Ten thousand Acres of Land besides this, very good for Flax in Warwickshire, and no less quantity in any of the three other Counties, every way as good. Now, Reader, I pray Answer me, whether here be not work sufficient upon the growth and product of our own Land, nay in four Counties where no Manufacture is, to set the greatest part of the Poor of England at work; besides the great advantage it will bring to the Owners of the Lands; and the great en­riching of the Country, by fixing so great a staple Trade there, and bringing a multitude of People also, which is, and ever will be a great enrichment to the place where they are. Witness the West of England by the Woollen Ma­nufactures; and Buringham, Sturbridge, Dudly, Wassal, and thereabout, for the Iron Manufactures. And I dare af­firm, take Dudly to be the Center of ten Miles round, considering the badness of the Land, it is there twice as dear as it is in the four Counties here named. And with­in ten Miles round Dudly, there are more people inhabit­ing and more Money returned in a year, than is in these four rich fat Counties I mention. And by this Manu­facture we should prevent at least two Millions of Money a year from being sent out of the Land for Linen Cloth, and keep our people at home who now go beyond the Seas for want of imployment here. For where ever the Country is full of people, they are rich; and where [Page 53]thin, there the place is poor, and all Commodities cheap.

I could put something further into the Heads of the Gentlemen of these Counties, wherein they may have much more added to this prescribed Linen Trade: but then I fear their Neighbouring Gentlemen will fall at Difference, why one should have so much benefit and the other so little, as they did when I surveyed Trent for them in the year one thousand six hundred sixty five, and a Tax shall be laid upon the Stock settled, as they did upon mine and Partners, as soon as I had made the Ri­ver Avon Navigable, and brought Barges to Strat­ford.

I know many will say, This is a very good way to im­ploy the poor, but what shall they do for Looms, Slayes, and Wheels for to spin and weave this Flax, and how shall we make our Flax fine, so that we may make fine Cloth, and what shall we do for places to whiten it at, for it is said that no place will do it well but at Haerlem in Hol­land, and that is because of the water in the Mere join­ing unto the Town.

As to the first, thou mayest have the Looms, Wheels, and Slayes at first out of Germany and from Haerlem: Two Looms, Two Wheels, and ten Slayes will be suffi­cient to make others by; and all these thou mayest have for twenty pounds. As to the Second, there is much in preparing and fitting of the Flax, so as to make it run to a fine Thread. This is the way they do it in Germany, and thou mayest write by their Copy. Thou must twice a year beat thy Flax well and dress it well, and take out of it all the filth, and so for as long as thou hast it in thy possession, if it be ten years; and the longer thou keepest it, the finer it will be, for beating and often dressing will [Page 54]cause the Harle to open, and at last it will be strangely fine. There must also be a Stove in the Room where the Flax is, with Fire in it in all moist times, which keeps the Flax dry and prevents Moistness, which is a­nother great cause which makes it so fine. I have seen Flax in Saxony twenty years old thus hous-wife't, which was as fine as the hairs of ones head. It is true there what the old saying is here, That Wooll may be kept to Dirt, and Flax to Silk.

And as to the Second, It is true that their Hollands and Clothes are whitened at Haerlem, and by the very sides of the Lake, and Cuts are conveniently made, and the Lake is much of a height at all times, and so it feeds the Cuts with water, that with ease they may Sprinkle the Clothes as there is Occasion; also it is well fitted with Houses by the sides of the Cuts to boyl the Yarn, and prepare it the sooner to be white. These are good things, and by the situation of the Place and conveniency of the Mere it doth much advance the business. Rich Mer­chants are there seated, that drive great Trades, and there they have a Bank, and their Moneys at three in the Hundred. But as to Haerlem Lake, it is subject to be mixed with Salt-water, which is brought in the Ships daily from Amsterdam, and there pumpt out into the Lake. And all that can be said for that Water being bet­ter than any other Water in Holland is this, that it conti­nually stands in a Pool or Lake, and by the influence and heat of the Sun is made soft, and so very fit for scouring, and the like is not in any part of Holland else. But in England we have many places very fit, and by Nature convenient, and with a little Art, as good as Haerlem, if not better. And for Instance take two places, one at [Page 55] Stratford upon Avon, the other at Coventry. At Strat­ford upon Avon near the Bridge in the Lands of Sir John Clapton, by virtue of the Mills pounding high, or at a rise of Water, he may lead the Water along his own Land, until it come so high that no Flood will reach. There Cuts may be made in his Land, and Houses built with spare pieces to bleech the Cloth on, the Water be­ing taken into the Cuts about the end of March, and so continued therein, whereby the heat of the Sun will more and more soften and fit it for bleeching. The second place is Coventry; Almost round the City the Lands and Waters lye so convenient, that it exceeds Haerlem; for Haerlem Lake lyeth but upon one Quarter of the Town, and the Waters lye at Coventry about three parts of that Town. And I am sure Coventry ought to be the chief­est place of this intended Linen Manufacture, and in few years would exceed Haerlem; God and Nature ha­ving fixed them right for it, both as to Land fit to bear Flax, good whitening, a large City in the very Centre of England, and their Woollen Manufacture being now wholly decayed. And in this City a Bank, by virtue of a voluntary Register, is absolutely necessary, and then the Gentlemen in the four Counties named may make their Sons Linen Merchants, and thereby be a means to help to beat the Dutch without fighting.

I have been something long upon this Theme, because I hope and believe I may see something of the Improve­ment, by the Linen Trade, come to pass.

But some other Questions will here be asked: As, who incouraged you to make this Discourse of the Linen Im­provement, and who paid you for your pains in travel­ling to find the things here writ? I answer, I was an Apprentice to a Linen Draper, and so I knew something [Page 56]of Linen; and finding the Poor unimployed, I with my Wife did promote the making of much fine Linen with good success. And being employed and my Char­ges born by twelve Gentlemen of England, to bring in­to England a Manufacture out of Saxony and Bohemia made of Iron and Tin, there I did see what I here set down; and in Holland and Flanders I tryed and observed their way and manner of Trade in the Linen Manufa­cture: All which take you for nothing.

The second Manufacture to be incouraged to set the poor people at work, being the growth and product of our own Kingdom, is that of Iron. But now I am sure I shall draw a whole Swarm of Wasps about my Ears. For say some (and many too who think themselves very wise) it were well if there were no Iron-works in England; and it was better when no Iron was made in England: and the Iron-works destroy all the Woods; and foreign Iron from Spain will do better and last longer. And I have heard many men both Rich and Sober often declare these things; and it hath been and is the opinion of nine parts of ten of the people of England, that it is so, and by no arguments whatever will they be beat from the be­lief of it, although there is not one word true. As to the First, The Iron works at present in England are of the same value, and I believe much more to the publick than the Woollen Manufacture is, and is the cause of im­ploying near as many people, and much more Lands for Horses and Oxen to carry and recarry those heavy com­modities of which the Iron is made, and the Iron, and the things made of the Iron. Therefore I will take the Kingdom half round, and shew you what the Iron works do contribute to the Publick and to the whole Coun­tries.

And First, I will begin in Monmouth-shire, and go through the Forest of Dean, and there take notice what infinite quantities of Raw Iron is there made, with Bar Iron and Wire; and consider the infinite number of Men, Horses, and Carriages which are to supply these Works, and also digging of Iron Stone, providing of Cinders, carrying to the Works, making it into Sows and Bars, cutting of Wood, and converting it into Charcoal. Con­sider also in all these parts the Woods are not worth the cutting and bringing home by the Owner to burn in their Houses: And it is because in all these places there are Pit Coals very cheap. Consider also the multitude of Cat­tel and People thereabouts employed that make the Lands dear: And what with the benefit made of the Woods, and the People making the Land dear, it is not inferior for Riches to any place in England. And if these Advantages were not there, it would be little less than a howling Wilderness. I believe if this comes to the hands of Sir Baynom Frogmorton, and Sir Duncomb Col­chester, they will be on my side. Moreover, there is yet a most great benefit to the Kingdom in general by the Sow Iron made of the Iron Stone and Roman Cinders in the Forest of Dean; for that Metal is of a most gentle, pliable, soft nature, easily and quickly to be wrought in­to Manufacture, over what any other Iron is, and it is the best in the known World: and the greatest part of this Sow Iron is sent up Severne to the Forges, into Wor­cester-shire, Shropshire, Stafford-shire, Warwick-shire, and Cheshire, and there it's made into Bar-Iron: And because of its kind and gentle nature to work, it is now at Stur­bridge, Dudly, Wolverhampton, Sedgley, Wasall, and Bur­mingham, and thereabouts, wrought and manufactured into all small Commodities, and diffused all England over, [Page 58]and thereby a great Trade made of it; and when manu­factured sent into most parts of the World. And I can very easily make it appear, that in the Forest of Deane, and thereabouts, and about the Materials that come from thence, there are employed, and have their subsistence therefrom, no less than sixty thousand persons. And certainly if this be true, then it is certain it is better these Iron-works were up and in being, than that there were none. And it were well if there were an Act of Parliament for inclosing all Commons fit or any way likely to bear Wood in the Forest of Deane, and six Miles round the Forest; and that great quantities of Timber might by the same Law be there preserved, for to supply in future Ages Timber for Shipping and Building. And I dare say the Forest of Deane is, as to the Iron, to be compared to the Sheeps back, as to the Wollen: No­thing being of more advantage to England than these two are. And if Woods are not preserved in and near the Forest, to supply the Works for future Ages, that Trade will lessen and dye, as to England, and betake her self unto some other Nation or Country. And now in Worcester-shire, Shropshire, Stafford-shire, Warwick-shire, and Derby-shire there are great and numerous quantities of Iron-works, and there much Iron is made of Metal or Iron Stone of another nature quite different from that of the Forest of Deane. This Iron is a short soft Iron, com­monly called Cold-shore Iron, of which all the Nails are made, and infinite other Commodities: In which work are employed many more persons, if not double to what are employed in the Forest of Deane. And in all those Countries the Gentlemen and others have Moneys for their Woods at all times when they want it, which is to them a great benefit and advantage; and the Lands in [Page 59]most of these places are double the rate that they would be at if there were not Iron-works there. And in all these Countries now named there is an infinite of Pit Coals, and the Pit Coals being near the Iron, and the Iron Stone growing with the Coals, there it is manufa­ctured very cheap, and sent all England over, and to most parts of the World. And if the Iron-works were not there, the Woods [...] all these Countries to the Owners thereof would not be worth the cutting and carrying home, because of the cheapness of the Coals and dura­tion thereof.

I could say something as to Notingham and York-shire, [...] to Kent and Sussex; but I leave that to some other [...]en that knows the Countries better than I do. And in these Countries now mentioned there are many and vast Commons, very natural and fit to bear Wood, which at present are of very little use to the publick. And for that in these parts there never will be any want of Pit Coals, to work and manufacture the Iron when once made into Bars, but Woods do much decay; and this being a thing of such great benefit to the publick, and in the set­ting of the Poor at work; it were well that a Law might pass for inclosing all Commons fit and apt to bear wood, which are and lye within twelve Miles of the Town of Sturbridge in the County of Worcester; and that in such inclosed Copices there may be provision made to preserve Timber, now much wanting in those parts.

The next Objection is, That it was better when there was no Iron made in England; But when that was, nei­ther I nor the Objector knows. For in the Forest of Deane and thereabouts the Iron is made at this day of Cinders, being the rough and offal thrown by in the Romans time; they then having only foot-blasts to melt [Page 60]the Iron Stone, but now by the force of a great Wheel that drives a pair of Bellows twenty foot long, all that Iron is extracted out of the Cinders which could not be forced from it by the Roman Foot-blast. And in the Fo­rest of Deane and thereabouts, and as high as Worcester, there are great and infinite quantities of these Cinders; some in vast Mounts above ground, some under ground, which will supply the Iron-works some hundreds of years, and these Cinders are they which make the prime and best Iron, and with much less Charcoal than doth the Iron Stone. And certainly this being so, it will be great policy for the Government timely to consider and weigh the great benefit Iron-works are to these pla [...] and to the Kingdom and People in general; and therefore to begin to countenance them, in preserving Woods for their continuation and duration.

The next thing is, Iron-works destroy the Woods and Timber. I affirm the contrary; and that Iron-works are so far from the destroying of Woods and Timber, that they are the occasion of the increase thereof. For in all parts where Iron-works are, there generally are great quantities of Pit Coals very cheap, and in these places there are great quantities of Copices or Woods which supply the Iron-works: And if the Iron-works were not in being, these Copices would have been stocked up, and turned into Pasture and Tillage, as is now daily done in Sussex and Surry, where the Iron-works, or most of them, are laid down. And in Glocester-shire, Worcester­shire, Warwick, Salop, and Stafford Shires are vast and in­finite quantities of Copices, wherein there are great store of young Timber growing; and if it were not that there could be Moneys had for these Woods by the Owners from the Iron Masters, all these Copices would be stocked [Page 61]up, and turned into Tillage and Pasture, and so there would be neither Woods nor Timber in these places: And the Reason is, Pit Coal in all these places, consider­ing the duration and cheapness thereof, is not so chargea­ble to the Owner of the Woods as cutting and carrying the Woods home to his House. And as to making Char­coal with Timber in those parts, so much talked of, it was and is most notoriously false; for Timber in all these parts is worth thirty shillings a Tun, and a Tun and three quarters of Timber will but make one Coard of Wood. So let all rational men consider, whether an Iron Master will cut up Timber to the value of fifty shillings, to make one Coard of Wood, when he pays for his Wood in most of these places but seven shillings a Coard?

Now I have shewed you the two Manufactures of Linen and Iron with the product thereof, and all the materials are with us growing; and these two Manu­factures will if by Law countenanced set all the poor in England at work, and much inrich the Country, and thereby fetch people into the Kingdom, whereas now they depart; and thereby deprive the Dutch of these two great Manufactures of Iron and Linen: I mean Iron wrought into all Commodities, so vastly brought down the Rhine into Holland from Leige, Gluke, Soley and Co­logne, and by them diffused and sent all the World over. And these two Trades being well fixed here, will help to beat the Dutch without fighting. I pray consider the charge England is now at with the poor, and observe what they now cost the Publick; but if imployed in these two Manufactures, what advance by their Labour might the publick receive? Admit there be in England and Wales a hundred thousand poor people unimployed, and each one costs the publick four pence the Day in food, and if [Page 62]these were imployed they would earn eight pence the day; and so the publick in what might be gained and saved will advance twelve pence the day by each poor person now unimployed. So a hundred thousand per­sons will be to the benefit of the publick if imployed, one Million and a half yearly in these two Manufactures of Iron and Linen. And as these two Manufactures are now managed in Saxony, they set all their poor at work, I travelling aworter and a-cross Saxony did not see one beg­ger there; and these two Manufactures being prudently, and by good Laws there supported and encouraged, they are become two parts in three of the Revenue and benefit of that Duke, and they are sent into England at this time in great quantities, all paying Customs in ten several places before they come here.

And that the Linen and Iron Manufactures may be so incouraged here by a publick Law, as that we may draw these Trades solely to us, which now foreign Nations re­ceive the benefit of, there ought in the first place to be a Tax or Custom at least of four shillings in the pound put on all Linen Yarn, Threads, Tapes and Twines for Cordage that shall be imported into England, and three shillings in the pound upon all Linen Clothes under four shillings the Ell; and this Law to be and continue for seven years. And by vertue of this Tax or Imposition there will be such advantage given to the Linen Manufacture in its Infancy, that thereby it will take deep rooting and get a good Foundation on a sudden, (the consequence whereof will do and bring to pass the great things formerly mention­ed.)

And as to the Incouragement of the Iron, and Iron Manufactures, there should be three pound a Tun Cu­stom, laid on all foreign Barr Iron imported, and six [Page 63]pounds the Tun on all the Manufactured Iron imported into England; and by these two ways, namely by a Tax being laid upon the imported Barr Iron, Iron Wares, and Thread, Tape, Twine, and Linen Cloth of all sorts, all the Trade of these things will be here, and all the Poor set at work, the Dutch robbed of one of their great­est Flowers, and to the King and people in general at least six Millions a year advantage. The reasons how and upon what grounds it will be so; as also the reasons why the Commons in the Countries afore mentioned ought to be inclosed for Wood and Timber, you may ex­pect in the second part.

But I know there will be a parcel of at least eight Anchor Smiths near London that will make a great Noise against laying a Tax upon foreign Iron, and give many wise reasons for it, and at last endeavour to knock all on the head, urging that it will be of great prejudice to the King, for it will cause him to pay dear for all his Iron that shall be made use of for his Naval Force. But the King need not fear that, for he may if he please have sufficient of his own at half the rates he pays now for it, (and good quan­tities to sell to others) and made at the place before men­tioned near Christ-Church in Hampshire. But there is something that may be of worse consequence than ordi­nary, if the Iron Manufacture be not incouraged. At present most of the Works in Sussex and Surry are laid down, and many in the North of England, and many in other parts must follow, if not prevented by inclosing Commons to supply them with Wood. And when the greatest part of the Iron-works are asleep, if there should be occasion for great quantities of Guns and Bullet, and other sorts of Iron Commodities for a present unexpected War, and the Sound happen to be lockt up, and so pre­vent [Page 64]Iron coming to us; truly we should then be in a fine case! Therefore if the Iron Design at Christ-Church go on, it may do well; for Store will be no sore.

I hope now I have plainly made it appear, that by the two Manufactures of Iron and Linen, being incouraged as is set down, all the poor People of England may be set at work.

That nothing may be wanting that may conduce to the benefit and incouragement of things manufactured, as in cheap carriage to and fro over England, and to the Sea at easie rates, I will in the next place shew you how the great Rivers in England may be made Navigable, and thereby make the Commodities and Goods carried, especially in Winter time, for half the rate they now pay. Therefore you must know that the Thames and Severne are the two great Master Rivers, that run farthest into the Inlands of England, and so into the Seas, and these Rivers are both of them already Navigable; Thames as far as Oxford, and Severne from the Welch Pool (or with­in two Miles of it) to Bristoll: But one of these Rivers running directly South, the other East, they are distant in the nearest place forty Miles from each other, and so there is no advantage made of these two eminent Rivers, in being helpful one to the other in point of Carriage. But it was about ten years since projected (and a Bill brought into the House) to make these two great Rivers communicable, by making a new Cut from Lechlode along near Criclett into Avon, and so down Avon to Bath, and so for Bristoll. And a Map was drawn for Mr. Ma­thews by Mr. Moxon to demonstrate the thing. Many Lords and Gentlemen were ingaged in it; amongst which were the Duke of Albemarle and the Earl of Pembroke. But some foolish Discourse at Coffee-houses laid asleep [Page]

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[Page 65]that design as being a thing impossible and impracticable. But this Summer my Son hath twice surveyed the River Thames and the Charwel, and it is very evident and clear that the Charwel may be made Navigable to Banbury, and the River Stower from Shipton clear into Avon River two miles below Stratford, the River Avon being already made Navi­gable into the Severn; and so there will be by making the Charwel Navigable from Oxford to Banbury, and the Stower from Shipton to Avon, a Communication of these two great Rivers for Water carriage within eight miles. And that eight miles for Land carriage will be of good hilly sound dry Land. And the making of the Charwel Navigable from Oxford to Banbury will cost a­bout ten thousand pounds, and from Shipton to Avon making that River Navigable about four thousand pounds. These two things being done, all the great and heavy carriage from Cheshire, all Wales, Shropshire, Staffordshire and Bristol will be carried to London and re­carried back to the great Towns, especially in the Win­ter time, at half the rate they now pay, which will much promote and advance the intended Manufacture of Linen in the Countries before named. For these Countries will then have the head of the Navigations in them; besides it will carry Corn and Malt from Banbu­ry and thereabouts to be sent for London; Banbury and near it being the only plentiful place for goodness and quantities of Corn in England. The Map shewing you the advantage that may be made of these Rivers, and how they will be serviceable one to the other, and an­swer the great ends of Trade and Commerce, is here af­fixed.

But I hear some say, You projected the making Navi­gable the River Stoure in Worcestershire, what is the rea­son [Page 66]it was not finished? I say it was my projection, and I will tell you the reason why it was not finished. The River Stoure and some other Rivers were granted by an Act of Parliament to certain persons of Honour, and some progress was made in the work, but within a small while after the Act passed it was let fall again. But it being a Brat of my own, I was not willing it should be Abortive; therefore I made offers to perfect it, having a third part of the Inheritance to me and my heirs for ever, and we came to an agreement. Upon which I fell on, and made it com­pleatly Navigable from Sturbridge to Kederminster; and carried down many hundred Tuns of Coales, and laid out near one thousand pounds, and there it was obstruct­ed for want of Money, which by Contract was to be paid.

Rules to prevent Fires in the City of London, and in the great Cities of England, taken exactly from the Me­thod that is used in Saxony, and ma­ny other parts of Germany.

THere Masons, Carpenters, Brick-layers and Joyners at their making Free, are put into the List with the rest to be alwayes ready to help to quench and prevent the spreading of Fires; Fifteen of the Substantial Citi­zens Commissionated for to look to the well ordering of all things relating thereunto; an Engineer and his As­sistants made and setled; two Sentinels appointed with Houses built for to hold the Water Engins in, and to put in the Engineers Ingredients, and Goods taken from all Houses on Fire or to be blown up; Sleds and Copper Tubs made.

These things being made and done, then the Sen­tinel hath a Place on the top of the highest Steeple whereby he may look all over the Town; one is by Day, the other by Night; and every two Hours in the Night he plays half an hour upon a Flagelet, being very [Page 68]delightful in the Night: and he looks round the City; if he observes any Smoak or Fire or danger of Fire, he presently sounds a Trumpet and hangs out a bloody Flag, towards that Quarter of the City where the Fire is. Im­mediately all the people which are for the quenching of the Fires, with the Commissioners and Engineers, or as many as are in Town, run to the place; and presently the Commissioners or any two of them with the Engineers give the necessary orders for the suppressing of the Fire, either by pulling down or blowing up the Houses. All the Labourers obey in assisting to pull down, carrying the goods that must be removed to the Houses appointed, fetching the Water being ready filled in Copper Tubs upon Sleds which is quickly done, for that the Sleds, Tubs and Water with the place where they stand are order'd so, a Horse may come at them; and there are two Cocks to supply with Water, one upon the one side of the space where the Tubs are, and the other on the o­ther side: so the Empty Tubs are filled as they return, whereby no Water can be wanting. And one side of the square are the Houses for the Water Engins; the Rooms at the end of the square are for the Engineers In­gredients; and the other side of the square is Rooms to put such goods in as they take from the Houses that are blown up or pulled down or preserved from the Fire. The Copper Tubs are fixed upon the Sleds in the open square; and all the Doors of the buildings are made out­wards, [Page 69]by which the people may come to the Tubs of Water with Horses backwards and forwards uninterrupt­ed. And all other persons may come to the several Rooms one not interrupting the other. And this is a square piece of Land in some convenient place in the City. And things being thus fitted and ordered, upon breaking out of Fire, immediately every man is at work according to order; and it is very seldom that above three Houses are ruined by Fire in any of these Cities. And if this prevention, Rule and Order were not, it's impossible but upon the breaking out of Fire the greatest part of the Cities would be destroyed; for that many Cities are built of Fir, which is very full of Turpentine. Now with us in England upon the breaking out of great Fires, all the Rable runs crying Fire, Fire, to the great affrightment and amazement of most people near where the Fire is, and makes it worse than really it is, which causeth the remove of goods to their great loss and detri­ment. Besides, these sorts of sudden Frights cost many Poor Women their Lives; and sometimes it goeth near the Man too. And another sort of people run to Rob and Steal, and it's feared to increase the Fires into the Bargain, that they may better bring to pass their wicked ends. Then one cries, Pull down, and another cries, Blow up this House, another cries, Blow up that House. So grows a confusion not to be parallel'd. One stands in the way of another. Many Poor Souls do their best to [Page 70]prevent the spreading abroad of the Fire, and for want of Judgment are many times destroyed. Then comes some person in Authority or other and he cries, Fetch Powder to blow up this House or that House; and no Powder at present is to be had; at last when the Fire hath got great head, then the Powder comes; Blow up this House, saith the Gentleman, the multitude cry, no, no, Blow up that House. There they are as it were at the building of Babel, all in confusion. But pray you write by this copy here set you, and then the Fires may be prevented, the peoples fears allay'd and their minds quieted, the great and miserable Calamities that Fires occasion, prevented, and all people lye quiet in their Beds except those imploy­ed. And then in such a great City as London is, many Fires would be over and quenched, before the twentieth part of the people in the City did know there were any Fire at all. And certainly if ever such a thing as this take place, it is high time now it were done. I have here annexed the Houses built, Tubs upon the Sleds, and if you would have me to do more, I cannot. Only I can tell you for London and the Suburbs this Rule would do well in three places; Viz. in St. Martins Steeple in the Fields one Sentinel, in St. Sepulchres Steeple another, and in the Monument another. And all things done as is here prescribed, your fears would be quickly gone, the Houses would raise Rents, and men would pur­chase Houses that would now sell those they have if they could.

Houses for the Goods.

Houses for the Water Engines.

[...]ses for the Engineers Materials.

You will ask me by what Authority this shall be done, and who shall pay the charge? I say it must be done by Act of Parliament, and the several Cities and great Towns must bear their own charges in providing Houses and setting all in order. But you will say, Our Parlia­ment men will not do it for us. I cannot help that, but if they will not, in my second part I will draw the form of the Bill which shall fit the purpose.

A Dialogue betwixt a Clothier, a Woollen-draper, and a Country-Yeomen, at Supper upon the Road.

Dr.

WHat News from London, old Friend?

Cl.

There's no News, but the old news, A bad Trade still.

Dr.

It is impossible it should be otherwise; for you Clothiers, and we Drapers, are both betwixt one and the same pair of Milstones.

Cl.

What do you mean by that, Friend?

Dr.

Why, do you not know? I mean the Factors, Drawers, and Packers, are now turned Merchants, and the Trade is ruined by them: Formerly it was you Clo­thiers, and we Drapers, [...]d now it is another thing.

Cl.

Indeed, Sir, you say true, it is so; and I have been often thinking of it, and speaking too, as loud as I durst, to my Neighbour Smith concerning it.

Dr.

What do you mean, by saying you speak as loud as you durst? Are you afraid of them?

Cl.

Indeed Sir, they are now become to us, as the Lawyer is to his Client; we dare not say what we know.

Dr.

Why? I know you are a rich Man, and need not fear; and by telling the truth, you may relieve many a Man, and do good to the Trade.

Cl.

I would be willing to do what good lieth in my power, but men of our Trade are so much divided, and the poorer sort are so afear'd of the Factors, if they should offer to relieve themselves, and seek out any o­ther [Page 98]way, the Factors would joyn stock together, and set up our Trade in some other place, and so undo our Town.

Dr.

No, no, that's impossible; surely no Men will be so base, especially those that have been your Servants.

Cl.

But what I say is true: And in a Town in Wor­cestershire this present time, I know it is their condition.

Dr.

I pray, what Town is that?

Cl.

It is Kidderminster in Worcestershire, where they make the Stuffs for Hangings.

Dr.

I know the Factors that belong to that Town, they are very honest men, and will not do any such thing.

Cl.

It is true what I say, for lately some friends of the Clothiers of Kidderminster, and some Upholsterers, con­sulted how to bring the Kidderminster Trade to be good to both, it being a Trade that is much debased and spoiled by the Factors; and having brought it near to pass, the best of the Factors sent Letters to the Clothi­ers, and acquaints them, that the Stuffs may be made elsewhere as well as there, (and much more) which did so affright the Clothiers, that they durst not agree to fix their Trade in two hands, although it might have been Five or six thousand pounds a year in the Trades way.

Dr.

Doth any one know this besides you?

Cl.

Yes, all the Town will tell you it is so; and I can bring you to a Man in London, can tell you the whole Story, who treated the Upholsterers, and got two Mer­chants to lend the Trade Five or six thousand pounds to help to drive the Trade, that so it might be done with profit and ease.

Dr.

Well, old Friend, I do believe you; for Kidder­minster [Page 99]Factors have spoiled the Weavers and the Up­holsterers Trade, as our Blackwell-hall Factors, Pack­ers, and Drawers, have spoiled your Trade and ours.

Cl.

Indeed, Sir, it is even so: and what can such a one as I do, seeing a whole Town stand in fear of Three or four Factors?

Dr.

Friend, you know when you and I dealt toge­ther first, when I. A. was a good Clothier, and I. of Leck a good Wool-man, it was not so; then the Factors were your Servants, and the Packers and Drawers were ours: Will you Clothiers joyn with us Drapers, to see if we can reduce the Trade to the old good condition it was in formerly?

Cl.

I will with all my heart, and so will all the Clo­thiers in our Country too; I will undertake for them: for we are almost at Beggars-bush, and we cannot tell how to help our selves: And our Trade grows worse and worse, we make no profit of our Commodities.

Coun.

Gentlemen, I understand you are discoursing of your Trade, of making Cloth, and selling Cloth; as I have club'd with you for Supper, so I pray let me club a little with you in Discourse; for I am as highly con­cerned in the thing you Discourse of, as you are; for every Acre of my Land rises price, according as the Woollen Manufacture flourishes: If Wool be dear, my Tenants Wife and Children have work in Spinning and Carding, and Rent's paid at the day, and none left in arrears: And then we have a merry Sheep-sheering, and with Two years Wool, I can Marry Jugg, or Bess.

Dr.

Sir, You speak like one that hath a Fellow-feel­ing in our misery; I shall be, and am very heartily glad of your good company, and shall with this old Friend of mine, joyn in any thing that may be for all our [Page 100]goods, so as the publick good of the Wool, Cloth, and Trade, may be advanced.

Coun.

Sir, I shall do as much as I can; but you must know, we in the Countrey are ignorant men, and do not know how to do much; but we know where the Shooe pinches us: My Brains shall go with yours a Wool-gathering this one bout.

Cl.

Friend, I am glad we have so happily met with this honest Country-man: I hope we may amongst us Three, consider (after one Bottle more is off) how things may be mended; what say you Country man, will you make one with us in so good a work?

Coun.

Pray what Country-man are you? I live at Sa­lisbury. Indeed a fine Town of Trading in the Woollen Manufactures, but much decayed of late years. What Country-man is this Gentleman, your Friend? He lives at London. Well must he.

Dr.

Come Country-man, what say you, will you make one with us?

Coun.

I will not joyn with the Salisbury Clothier: for I thought all Clothiers had of late removed to Tanton-Dean, and there-abouts; because that place is under a Register, and Moneys may be had at Five in the Hun­dred at any time, to drive their Trades with ease, com­fort, and profit.

Dr.

Sir, I confess they are at a loss, and yet they have the wisest Bishop of late that hath been there a great while; and some good things have been doing of late for that City, as making the River Avon Naviga­ble, and they are preparing to come under a Register, and all the Free-land within Ten miles of the City like­wise.

Cl.

Look you there Country-man, you talk of Tanton-Dean [Page 101]under a Register; you see Salisbury and Ten miles round is to be under a Register likewise.

Coun.

Now▪ I am well satisfied with corresponding with the Clothier; Salisbury hanging Register fashion, that is a bit I love.

Dr.

Come, come, now let us fall too, and consider of some good things to advance the Woollen Manufa­ctures; I will acquaint the Drapers, and you must the Clothiers, and you the Country-men; and so every one use his interest with the Authority, to amend what is amiss.

Coun.

Hold, hold, you drive too fast; there is a snake in the Bush; although I live in the Country, yet I come to London sometimes, and at the Coffee-houses I heard strange News, which made me stare: And now we are to set forward so good a work, let us see how to clear the foundation, and take away the Rubbish.

Dr.

Pray, Sir, what is the strange News you hear at Coffee-houses? It is generally idle Twit twot Discourse, not worth ones minding.

Coun.

I heard at the Rainbow Coffee-house, That the people in, and near London, have of late years lent a­bout One hundred thousand pounds without Interest, for Four years, to be imployed in the Woollen Manu­facture near Conmell in Ireland; and by the strength of that Moneys, to carry away our people out of the West of England into Ireland, and there make Cloth and Stuffs; and when made, then carried to Spain, France, Holland, and Germany: And there, with cheap Wool, and cheap Victuals, Manufactured, and so do mighty things.

Cl.

You live in London, and you know whether there be any such thing as this is; if it be so, we Clothiers [Page 102]may go hang our selves; Moneys without Interest for Four years, cheap Wool, and cheap Beef, carried to Holland together, and made Cloth there: If this be so, I'le never weave more: I will burn my Beam, and run away by the Light.

Dr.

No, no, Old Friend, our Country-man is under a mistake; be not in such a passion, he told you he heard so in a Coffee-house.

Cl.

I pray, Sir, is there any thing like it? for there cannot be such a smoke as this is, and no fire.

Dr.

I will tell you what the thing is he means. There are a certain number of persons, who they say, have imployed some such Sum as is spoken of, to set up the Woollen Manufacture in Ireland; and indeed now it comes into my mind, I remember I have heard of their taking over many People (out of the West of England) and sending the Cloth and Stuffs when made, to Holland and Germany, and also Wool and Beef with it.

Cl.

I pray, had they the Moneys without interest for Four years, to do England (and the Clothing Trade) this good turn?

Dr.

No matter upon what terms, so the thing be done.

Cl.

Friend, Now I see this Country-man was near the mark; and I will even burn my Loom and Beam too, for I see all the World are mad. Here is the Moneys gone (and taken out of Trade in England) and carried into Ireland; and our People too, with this Money, make Cloth, and serve it cheap in all places where we send our Cloth; and carry to Holland cheap Wool, and cheap Victuals, and pay the Moneys back again in Four years: I will go to London, and tell my Lord Mayor of this fine Jig, let who will go to Salisbury for me.

Dr.
[Page 103]

Old Friend, the worst is over, do not trouble your self; That which is past, cannot be help'd: But you will see no more such doings as has been of late.

Coun.

Heaven grant it prove so. There is now a great Art in trade as they say at Coffee-houses, and we must do as we may, or else not trade at all.

Cl.

Do as we may! pray speak out, What is that we must do?

Coun.

Get great sums of Money upon credit, and im­ploy it hoodwinkt, Have at this, have at that, and have at the other; and if we lose all, we lose none of our own.

Dr.

You my two Friends, let us see how we may proceed to do the Trade some good, for it is high time.

Cl.

Is it not over and past? is it not too late to set out?

Dr.

No, no, Let us prepare a Bill for the next Session of Parliament, and Petition for prohibiting of Irish-Wools Transportation, and the Inspecting of the All­nagers Office: And let the Factors, Packers, and Draw­ers, be put in their right places: And let the Western-Cloths be Shipt of at Plymouth, to prevent the charge of carriage to London; and let the Fullers earth be se­cured, and let all Cloth and Stuffs be made to the Stan­dard, and let all the Free-land in and near the Cloath­ing Towns and Cities, be put into a voluntary Register: And then nothing will be able to harm our Woollen-Trade any more.

Cl.

Friend, Now I like you; I will do any thing I can; but pray, what is that you say of putting our Houses and Free-land under a Voluntary Register? what good will that do to our Trade?

Dr.

it will strangely advance Trade, and bring Mo­neys [Page 104]to Four in the hundred; and your Lands Registred will be ready Money at all times, as you have occasion to use it; and your Land rise purchase to Thirty years, and then you may at any time have Spanish-Wool in London, or Wool in the Country, or Monies to answer your occasions, and all upon a Ticket upon your Lands Registered. So there will be no need of Friends to be bound, or Lawyers to make Conveyances, or hindring your business (and then the Tables will be turned): For you Clothiers will be then the Bankers; for now all Mo­ney runs out of Trade; then all Money will run into Trade, because your Land is Registred; and your per­sonal Estates together, will be firm Security for all Mo­neys borrowed.

Cl.

Sir, This, as you say, is already at Tanton Dean; and People say it is in Holland and Scotland too; but if we shall have it at Salisbury, I will keep Loom and Beam too, and put Tom and Jack to my own Trade; I thought to put them to Sea, for I could see nothing for them to do with me as things were: But when shall we have this Office of Voluntary Register set up? For I like one word very well as you say, A Voluntary Register; I like that marvellous well, and I have nothing to say against it; for it seems he that will Register may; and he that will not, may chuse: This is no more in plain Eng­lish, then give us leave to be honest. Sir, This is good News, I will tell all our Trade of this; for now we may be honest if we will, I am sure it is high time; for as things are, the Lawyers cannot make us honest. But still I beg to know when this must be?

Dr.

The Bill is to be carried into the House the next sitting of Parliament; and some Lords, Parliament­men, and Gentlemen and some honest and great Lawyers, [Page 105]are for it, because it will pay the Gentlemans Debts without Money, and beat the Dutch without Fight­ing; and bring Honour, Honesty, Riches, and Strength, and a great Trade to England: And it is said, it will double the Kings Revenue, and make him Po­tent and Strong.

Cl.

Bores, this is the best News that ever I heard: I'le go home to Salisbury now, and tell all my Friends of this; and I hope to see then this good Voluntary Register brought to pass.

Dr.

Well Old aquaintance, I am glad to see you so well satisfied now: If you once get a Voluntary Re­gister, you will want Men of your own Trade in Par­liament, to let them know what is best to be done for the good of the Trade, which Lawyers and Gentle­men cannot tell how to do: For in Queen Elizabeths time, a Cobler taught the Council how Leather might be Ordered, Tanned, and Dressed for the good of the Publique: and thereupon many good Laws were made for that purpose; you may see the Story in Print; It is a Discourse between my Lord Burley and a Cob­ler.

Cl.

Now you speak to the purpose; for what you say, has been in my Noddle these Six or Seven years; and I am sure I have told a Neighbour of mine I did not like it: and I feared our Parliament-Men did not know where our Grief lay. But now I see the Old saying is true, Every Man is a Fool when he is out of his own way. Come, let us Clothiers be all for the Good Old way again: And if ever it should so fall out, to have Men of our own Trades, for Members of Parlia­ment, then up goes the Golden-Fleece again.

Coun.

I like your Discourse very well; and now [Page 106]you have brought your Discourse to something. I was the silenter, because I did see all tended to the good of the Wool, and the Trade, and Manufacture. And all these things being upon the Wheel for the Publique good, truly I will give my Clothing-Friend home with him to Salisbury, two patterns of Falling-Mills, one to go by Water, to be set up in a Barge upon the River Avon at Harnam-Bridg, by the City, to Scour and Thicken their course-Clothes; and another to go by Wind, to be set up near the Town-side, to Full and Thicken the fine Clothes, which will much out-do all other Mills now in use in England, as to make the Cloth feel fine and soft. The Pattern of the Wind-Mill for thickning fine Clothes, is taken from the Dutch at Harlem in Holland; the Pattern of the Mill in a Barge to thicken and scour course Clothes, is ta­ken from one upon the Elb, near the Bridg at Drais­den in Saxony.

Cl.

Sir, I am now infinitely beholding to you; and this you say of a Wind-Mill to Scoure and Thicken our fine Clothes, and make them feel fine and soft, will do our business; for indeed, they are the Dutch that out-do us that way: and you say it is so done at Har­lem; and I hear at Blackwell Hall, that the fine Clothes were made at Harlem. Good Sir, how are these Mills made, and in what manner? and what do they do when the Wind ceases blowing, the Cloth being in the middle of its thickning? and what do they do for Water to come into the Cloth, when it is Thick­ning and Scouring?

Coun.

Sir, I will acquaint you with all particulars, and then I will give you afterward, the description of the Mill in the Barge, and the Mill that goeth by Wind. [Page 107]At Harlem in Holland they have Windmills to thicken and scour their fine and super-fine clothes, built close by the City-side; the Mill is are made in all points, as the Saw-Windmill on the Bank-side in Southwark, over-against the Savoy; and it turns round, that is, the whole Fabrick turns; whereby it catches the Wind at all points: And there are Six or Eight Fallers (or Feet) which are taken and lifted up by the Axle-tree, which the Fanns are fastned in, and so fall down-right into a Box, or Chest, wherein the Cloth lyeth; and the Chest is so made and ordered, and the Fallers so fitted, that the Cloth turns round in the Chest, and the Square or hole the Faller drops into, is so curiously and close made, that a Man cannot get his Knife into the Chest betwixt the Wood and the Faller; and all other parts of the Trough and Chest where the Cloth lyeth, is made close and tite, and thereby the Wind and Air is kept from coming into the Chest when the Cloth is thickning; and in case the Wind ceases blowing, they do either take the Cloth out of the Chest, and lay it on drift, whereby it takes no harm; or else keep it close in the Chest, that no Air can come to it: But the Mills are so ordered, that they are made to scour more Clothes than they thicken; and if the Wind ceases, they let the Fallers that are to scour, stand still: And for Water, it is pumpt up by force of the Wind to a good height, and so conveyed into the Chest, to the Cloths, by little Spouts, as there is occasion. In Ger­many, near Poland, by reason of the dryness of the Countrey, and smallness of the Rains, in Summer-time most Rivers are much wanting in Water; Therefore the Mills for grinding of Corn, and thickning of Clothes, are made and fixt in Barges, upon the Elbe [Page 108]near some Bridg (or in a quick stream); And near the Bridg at Draisden in Saxony, there they scour and thicken their Clothes in Barges; the Mill is fixed in a Barge, and in some Barges are Two Mills. Observe the Pattern, and I will save my labour of Writing; for by it you will see how it is in every particular.

Cl.

Sir, Now I thank you a Thousand times: for now we shall be all Made at Salisbury; our River Made Na­vigable to fetch Mills from Holland and Germany; and our City, and the Lands Ten Miles round it, put into a Register, and one Fulling-Mill made at Harlem-Bridg in a Barge, to scour our Clothes, and a Windmill to thicken our Cloth, set up by the City-side, so that it may be as fine and soft as Dutch Cloth. Well, if I see you at Salisbury, you shall be made Free of that Cor­poration, and pay nothing, and Dine with our Bishop too, for he loves all those things we have so much dis­coursed of.

Dr.

Friend, Now we see we have met with a Tra­veller, and one that hath given us good Discourse, and he speaks as though he were practical in things; when I saw him first, I did not expect this from him: And this last Discourse is convenient for all the Clothing-Towns in England to know, as well as Salisbury; for all Towns have need of these Fulling-Mills. And I will get it Printed.

Cl.

No, no, good Friend, do not Print it: for we will have all the benefit of these Mills to our selves at Salisbury; for I have beat my Noddle a good while, considering of the reasons, why the Mills by Wind, should make the Cloth look the more fine, and feel more soft, than if Fulled with our Mills by the open fleet (or Fullers): And I have it now, and I will send some Queries to the Virtuosoes about it; but I will tell [Page]

[diagram]

[Page 109]you how the Trick is: And if I had not been an old Clothier, and a Fulling-Boy when I was young, I could not have learnt it out. And it is sure, our Fulling-Mills that we now have, our Fallers are taken up a great height, and so fall down into the Stock upon the Cloth, and in its quick motion down, it contracts Wind, and brings it down with it into the Stock where the Cloth is, and so the Wind and the Air being forced upon the Cloth, makes it hard, and cools it; and the Stock be­ing open, and the Cloth in it turning round in the Stock, doth also by the Wind and the Air it attracts, help to cool and harden the Cloth; whereas the Mills that go by Wind, the Fallers, or Feet, fall down perpendicular into the Stock, through a square hole, where the Cloth is, and so attracts no Wind, nor can any Air get into the Stock or Chest where the Cloth is; and therefore the Cloth is always kept in a constant heat and temper, which must of necessity bring it to good proof, and make it look very fine, and feel very soft. I am resolved, now I have got this knack, I'le pay the Reckoning.

Dr.

Now Friend, you are not a good Commonwealths­man, if you do not give me leave to Print this; for it will be a general good to the Clothing-Trade.

Cl.

Sir, Then print it all together, all that we have discoursed of this Night, and I will pay Five pounds to­wards the charge, and send the Printed Papers all over Wilt-shire, Dorset-shire, and Summerset-shire, except Taunton Dean: For they ought to have no benefit of Mills, because they have had such a benefit of a Register.

Dr.

Good Old Friend, it shall be done; and I will get it put in, and bound up in a Book, which an ac­quaintance of mine is printing concerning Trade, and there is something in the Book that will sute well with this discourse of ours at this time.

Cl.
[Page 110]

I'le pay the reckoning, and quit this honest Countrey-mans Charge this Night, and to morrow too. And when I come to London, I'le tell our Friends all our good Fortunes, how we should rout those that carried our Trade to Ireland, Holland, and Germany; and how we shall out-do the Dutch in fine Cloth by a Fulling-Mill to go by Wind; and that we shall never want Moneys again: and that Salisbury Clothiers shall have no more need of Lawyers. A Voluntary Register! a pretty Trick! we now may be honest if we please: I would I had met this Countrey-man Forty years ago, it had been Five hundred Nobles in my way, and my Fathers. Now we shall make cheap-Cloth, pay no­thing to the poor, set all a-work, and carry our Cloth to Christ-Church by Water, and so for Sea; and pay nothing to Lawyers, and have Moneys when we want it. We will agree quarterly with the Parrator, that will be but little. Come Boys, a brave Trade again! Come, heres three Healths in good SACK; here is our Countrey-mans Health: Here's a Health to the Man that makes the Wind-Mill; and a Health to him that brings this Voluntary Register to Town. Come Landlady, to pay and to Bed, a good days work I trow!

Dr.

Nay, hold Old Friend, I must be gone early in the Morning: therefore let us agree where to meet in London, to set forward the good things we now so warmly have treated upon; for if we do not follow it close, all this will come to nothing. Interest will not lie, every Man will be for his own Interest.

Cl.

I am glad you say Interest will not lie; Then I am sure you Clothiers, and we Drapers, and all the Gentlemen in England, their Interest is to set the poor at work, to have their Lands rise Rents, and be at [Page 111]Thirty years purchase, and to have a great Trade. Well, we will meet at the Booksellers house that prints our Discourse; and then draw up what is fit to be done. So farewel honest Countrey-man for to night.

Dr.

Good morrow, good morrow, Gentlemen; I hope you have slept well to Night.

Cl.

Slept well! no, for I did not sleep at all; for I have abundance of Wind-Mills in my Noddle now, sufficient to send all the Clothiers in our Town, and many more, to Holland and Germany, whither as I un­derstand, several of them are packing already; but that way will never do our business to carry cheap Wool, and cheap Victuals into Germany and Holland, out of Ireland, and there make it into Cloth, and sell it there to whom they please; and a Register, and a Bank, and Moneys at Four in the hundred, and Mills in Barges to thicken the course Cloths by the very Town-side; and Wind-Mills to thicken, and full our fine Clothes; nor will it do our work to sort and chuse out the best Wool in Ireland, and send it to Holland and Germany, with good Beef, Butter, and Cheese, Irish-Tongues, and Tallow to light us to work by Nights, and to have good part of the course Wool spun in Ireland, and brought over to us in Yarn ready to Weave, and to set on Foot on the out-sides of our Town, the making of Beudley-capes, for they are made of Irish-Wool, and then sent into Holland (to be Sold); and I hope Wool from Ire­land, and cheap Victuals with it, will do that business well there, and all the Stuffs that are for hangings, now made at Kidderminster, shall be made in Holland with Irish-Wool, and spun Linnen-Yarn, out of Saxony and Bohemia; for they make these Stuffs of Irish-Wool, and [Page 110] German-Yarn: and I am sure some of the people of these Towns will quickly go away.

Another trick there is, of carrying Fullers-earth from Woborne to Lynn in Norfolk, as they pretend; and then Ship it to be carried to the Clothiers in the West: And when at Sea, a West-wind blows the Ship into Flushing in Zealand. And we will have more Ful­lers-earth carried from Arundel in Sussex, to Portsmouth, or to Chichester, and there Ship'd, to secure the Clothi­ers in the North of England: And when that Ship is o­ver against Hull, a West-wind shall blow her over to the Brill, or into the Texel, into Holland. And these two Ladings of Earth, with a little that shall be brought over for Ballast for Ships, will do mischief enough: For Trade will go where it is most encouraged, and where the Merchant and Clothier can get most by it.

Dr.

True, old Friend, these tricks there are, and there are bad men enough, that will be apt enough to leave the Land where they were born; but let us see to help these matters: For if you should be one of them, all the Poor of the Countrey will be bound to curse you, and so will the Rich too; for we have had men bad e­nough of our own Trade (but it will not become me to name Persons), who have provoked many Clothiers to sell their estates, and Transport themselves into the lower Palatinate, and other parts of Germany, and there set up the Clothing-Trade, which hath already quite spoiled our Course-Cloth-Trade Eastward, and the Trade at Hamborough too; for if their Trade be spoil'd in England, they must try if they can make it out somewhere else; as in Ireland, Holland, and Germany, &c.

Cl.

Well Friend, for the conclusion of this Discourse, we have no more to do, but to endeavour the redress [Page 113]of these grievances, as far as in duty we may; and hum­bly to represent to Authority the great advantage it may be to the publick to prevent the carrying of Fullers­earth out of the Land: To provide that all Factors, Packers, and Drawers, may be put in their proper pla­ces; That the illegal Transportation of Wools may be hindred, and the Trade of Ireland regulated: It would be of great ease and advantage, if our Western Clothes might be Transported from Plymouth, beyond the Seas, to save the charge of carrying them to London. Many other particulars might be added, but this for the pre­sent, till we meet next.

NOW I have discovered to you the way, manner, and method of setting all the Poor in England at work, with the growth and product of our own Nation; with the particular means for bringing the same to pass; And Places assigned for the doing thereof; with the sci­tuation and conveniences that are by God and Nature fixt in these Counties. Next, I will shew you, That by the means and ways hereafter prescribed, all the poor people that are imployed in these Manufactures, shall be in the same Counties fed with Bread sufficient, without any charge to the Publick; and thereby the Commodities will be Manufactured cheap. The like benefit and advantage, infinite of the poor People of England in other parts will receive, by the way here-after set down, taken exactly from the same things done in other places; whereby they work cheap, and send infinite of their Manufactured Commodities into many parts of the World: And were they not fixt in these places beyond the Seas, in those Manufactures and Po­licies, [Page 114]the Princes of those Countries, and their sub­jects would be strangely poor.

My design now is, to speak of Granaries to hold Corn, and to be fill'd in the time of plenty; and the advantage they are of, being well fixt in convenient places (with the benefit the Poor will receive by them, and the Rich also): And where ever Trade and Manu­facture is intended to be set on foot, so as to bring it to perfection, Granaries must be made, and built in places convenient, to answer the ends designed.

The Great Duke of Saxony hath three great Manu­factures; one of Iron, Tinn and Copper; another of Linnen, and spun Threds of all sorts; the third of Saw­ed Timbers of all sorts: He hath convenienced them thus; As to his Iron, Tinn, and Copper, he hath fixt these works in the Valley, running from Segar-hutton, clear a-long by the Cities of Anaburgh, Sneburgh, and Mareauburgh, and down as far as Awe; and in the Hills and Mountains are his Minerals: In the Valleys are the Rivers, whereon are set the Works. The Hills and Moun­tains, and at least Ten Miles round, are full of Woods to supply his Works; not one Acre of common-Land lyes waste: At the descent of the Hills, are infinite of Saw-Mills that go by Water, which Saw all manner of Firr and Oak; and in the Summer-time it is dragged to the River Elb, and so sent down to Hamborough. And things being thus fixt, with all advantages that Trade can desire, that Place is strangely populous, and vast­ly Rich, and yields to the Duke a great Revenue: And it lies as Wales, and as the Forest of Dean doth to England.

Next to these Wood-land Countries, lies the delight­ful Plain Countrey, wherein is the famous City of Lep­sick, [Page 115]very Rich in Corn and Flax; and so it holds to Dresden upon the Left-hand of Myson, with some Vine­yards: And in these delightful Countries, there is no waste Lands, but all under improvement. In all the great Towns, there are great Granaries for Corn; and in the Time of Plenty, they lay up for a Rainy-day: And so there is sufficient for the Poor at easie rates at all times; whereby the Manufacture is always cheaply done, and thereby hath the advantage of sending it to foreign Markets, and under-sell others.

The next Country joyning to Saxony, is the Prince of Hainaults, the Prince of Parmburghs, with the Bi­shoprick of Hall; wherein stands the Cities of Salts, Wadell, Shenibank, and that brave old City of Mag­denburgh (destroyed by Fire and Sword by Count Til­ly): These Countreys for Corn, as to Rye and Wheat, are so plentiful, that no part of Europe can go before them, there being much Corn to spare: In the Two Ci­ties of Shenibank and Magdenburgh, are many Grana­ries, they lying upon the side of the Elbe: And in the City of Magdenburgh, I was credibly informed (being Twice in that City), that there were Three hundred Granaries of all sorts; wherein Corn is kept sweet, and safe from vermin, to admiration. The man­ner of the Granaries built, with the way of ordering of the Corn, and the benefit which is received thereby, you shall have, when I speak of Granaries setting up in England. From hence the Brunswick People fetch their Wheat they make there Mum of; and down the Elb to Hamborough, is sent infinite of Corn out of the Gra­naries; and from thence to all parts that stand in need thereof: In these Countreys there is very little Manu­facture, only some course Linnen, and Linnen-yarn: [Page 116]These Granaries preserve the Corn Six, Eight, or Ten years, as good and sweet as when it was first put in: There are great Merchants for Corn, and the Farm­ers lay up their Corn at easie Rates, and so have the be­nefit of their Straw yearly, and not Rick it up, as we do in England, to be devoured by Rats and Mice. There, Men and Maid-servants, and all other persons that have Monies, buy Corn when it is cheap, and lay it up till it be dear: And in these publick Granaries, the Corn is kept safe, sweet, and well, a whole year, for a Half-peny a Bushel; and the Granary-Man gets by it. The like may be done in England; and that which now feeds Rats and Mice, and otherways consumed, will supply the greatest part of the poor People of England with Bread, being preserved in Granaries.

Now I am for saving the Corn in England, and keeping it safe and sweet in Granaries (which is consumed at pre­sent by Rats and Mice) until there shall be want and necessity for it to be delivered to the Poor: In the Four Counties I name for the Linnen Manufacture, Oxford, Warwick, Leicester, and Northamptonshire, there ought to be Granaries to lay up Corn; these Coun­ties being great Corn-Counties: And at the head of the Navigable Rivers, are the places fit for such Gra­naries; and first Wellinborough in Northamptonshire, or thereabouts. Secondly, some Town in Leicestershire, within Four Miles of Kings-Mills; unto which Place Trent is Navigable. Thirdly, Banbury, if the River Sharwell be made Navigable to Banbury; or else about Bleckington, the Earl of Angleses Land, near Anslo-Bridg. And fifthly, Stratford upon Avon in Warwick­shire. If Granaries were built in those Places, to hold Corn there, it would be brought in with ease; and [Page 117]when want and scarcity of Corn comes, it is then ready to be sent down the Navigable Rivers, or to be disperst for the benefit of the Poor in the Countrey. Leicester­shire is abounding in Corn, and when plenty there, it is very cheap, having no Navigable River near to carry it away; the like is Northamptonshire: But if Granaries were well setled in these Places near Trent, and St. Ives River then it is ready for a Market, when it offers it self.

Lechload, at the Head of the River Isis, Ten Miles above Oxford, will be a very fit place for a Granary; for in thither will come great quantities of Corn out of Oxford, Glocester, and Berkshire: And there it will be ready upon all occasions, when wanted, either for the Poor, or to be transported down the River to London, and other parts.

Stratford upon Avon, in Warwickshire, will be a ve­ry good place to build Granaries to receive Corn; and I will affirm, if there were Three or Four large Grana­ries built in the Lands of Sir John Clapton, near the Bridg at Stratford, and well managed for the good of the Poor, and Linnen Trade; That on that side the River, there would be in a very short time as great a Town built, as Stratford now is; and there have as great a Trade as any City in those parts of England (Bristol only excepted): And these are my Reasons: First, the River Avon being made Navigable to Strat­ford, the Barges that come up with Coles, and Mer­chants goods; by them, Corn will be taken back to Bristol, and up the River Severn, as far as the Welsh-Pool. And Secondly, the Country near Stratford, as far as Banbury, Ayno-Dedinton, Bister, and so to Brak­ley, and round ot Daventry, is very full, and abounds [Page 118]with good Corn; and the Carts that come to Stratford for Coles, would never come empty down, but bring Corn with them, if there were Granaries sufficient to receive it: So you see all things would be fitted for sore and back carriage: And I will affirm, No place in Eng­land can expect the benefit or advantage by any such Granaries, as Stratford upon Avon may; for that great and vast quantities of Corn is raised in those parts, and when cheap, they cannot tell what to do with it, the ways being so dirty and deep. But the advantage of the Navigation will send it to serve Somersetshire, Wales, Shropshire, Cheshire, and other parts, in wet and un­seasonable years.

But the third and great Reason why this place shall exceed all others in England, is this, There may as much Mum be made there, as at present is made at Brunswick: And there Mum may be made and sent into Ireland, West-Indies, France, Spain, and into the Mediterranean; And these Granaries will be the occasion of get­ting away the Mum-Trade from Brunswick: This shews as like a Romance as doth the Title-page of my Book, unless I do give you reasons for what I say, and shew you how it may be brought to pass, the which I will do: Observe, the Mum at Brunswick is made of Wheat and the Wheat that it is made of, is brought from the Gra­naries at Magdenburg, and Shenibank, and it grows in the Vale of Parinburg; when it comes to Brunswick it is Malted, and so made into Mum; and when made, then sent by Land to the River Elb, and so to Hambo­rough: and from thence disposed by Merchants unto all Parts: But the Mum at Brunswick is a Medicine, and drinks very nauseous, and is not there drinkable at all; but that which makes it good, palitable, and [Page 119]strong, is its being long at Sea; There it is forc'd into a fermentation, and that keeps it working, whereby it alters the very property of the Liquor; and were it not to be sent to Sea, that Trade at Brunswick would not be worth any thing; and to convince you further of the reason of what I say, take this one thing, and that will confirm you in the Truth of the rest. Our English Beer Brewed at London, and carried to Sea, and Landed at Hamborough, and so carried up the Elb, as far as Draisden, the Duke of Saxonie's Court, and in those Parts, it is sold for Six pence a Quart; and it is not like the Beer either for Tast, Strength, or Pleasant­ness, as it was when here; the Sea having put it into a fermentation, causeth it to drink pleasant, strong, and delightful, even comparable to March-Beer in England four Years old, which is well-brewed, and grown very Mellow; Hundreds of Merchants can affirm what I say to be true. Now I will shew you the reasons why the Brunswick-Trade will come to Stratford in course; and when I have Published these reasons now given in Print, the Trade of making Mum will begin in some short time to be set forward there; and that River being a Brat of my Brain, when I contriv'd it, the Trade of making Mum there, was a thing I much hoped to see come to pass; and I believe it is now not far off. And therefore I beg that worthy Gentlemans leave, Sir John Clapton, that I may give Name unto a Town that will certainly rise and be built in about thirty Acres of his Land near Stratford-Bridg, wherein Granaries, Mum, and other Brew-houses will be built, as also some part of the Linnen-Trade there Manufactured: The place being so conveniently scituated, that Cuts may be made in the Land for Barges to come and go to each Back-side, [Page 120]thereby to unlade all goods with ease, and little charge; And I name that Town, whereof some part is now built, New-Brunswick; for in Brunswick in Germany the Trade is Mum, Linnen, and Linnen-Yarn; and I hope to see before I die, as much Monies turned and wound in Mum, Linnen, Linnen-Yarn at New-Brunswick near Stratford-Bridg, as is now at Brunswick in Germany. Now I will demonstrate. and shew you the reasons, and how easie it is to bring the Mum-Trade to New-Bruns­wick. New-Brunswick lies at the Head of a Navigable River, and within twenty Miles round there is as good Wheat as any is in England (and I think the best), and always the cheapest, the place is well scituated for that purpose; and all materials are ready at hand. The Wheat in these Parts is a much better Corn, than is the VVheat at Brunswick; for the VVheat at Brunswick is a flat small VVheat, and thick Husked; the reason of that is, the Climate where it grows; the Sun is very hot in the two Months of July and August; and so the heat of the Sun doth not give it leave to fill and ripen kind­ly. Our VVheat is large, full-brested, and thin-rined, and none in England to compare with the VVheat near Banbury, and upon the Hills thereabouts. Now at New-Brunswick, build Granaries, and take in VVheat when it is cheap, as it will be this Year: and write by the Copy of the Granaries in Germany, and then the Mum-Brewers at New-Brunswick, will have the same advantage, nay, and much better than the Mum-Brewers have at Old Brunswick; for at New Brunswick, there Granaries will be in the Town where they Brew, and better Corn, and at the Head of a Na­vigable River, to be transported down to Sea, and so for any part of Europe, without paying so many Customs [Page 121]and Taxes, as doth Old-Brunswick for their Mum. Also the Wheat is much better, and no Land-carriage for the commodity; and at New-Brunswick are Coles to be had cheap and plentiful to maintain the Fire; whereas at Old-Brunswick, VVood is dear, and very charge­able.

From New-Brunswick, Mum will be carried down the River Avon, into Severn, and so into King-Road, and there Shipt for London: And the charge of carriadge will be but twenty Shillings Per Tun to London; from New-Brunswick will be sent down vast quantities of Mum, and sold to the Merchants of Bristol, and by them sent and diffused into all Parts; and then Bristol will be unto New-Brunswick, as Hamborough now is to Old-Brunswick; for Trade will go and creep into any part where it can be best and cheapest done. And I say New-Brunswick, considering all circumstances, will make the Mum cheaper by four Shillings in the pound, than Old-Brunswick can: But I know some will object, and say, that it hath been tried here several times to make Mum (and it will not be so good as the Ger­man Mum): My answer is, That the Sea is the oc­casion of its being so good, it puts it to a second work­ing, or Fermentation, which is the absolute cause.

But New-Brunswick will have a better advantage by Sea, than hath the Old; for the Mum being sent down the River, and Shipt for London, and carried about the Lands-end, and so up the Channel to London, will have much more tumbling at Sea; and be commonly thrice as long coming about for London, as they are coming from Hamborough to London; one Wind serves from Hamborough to London, Five or Six several Winds will but serve to fit a Vessel to come out of King-Road to [Page 122] London. So you see New-Brunswick will have a better and more large passage at Sea, than from Hamborough to London: and then all Mum sent to Bristol, will by the Merchants be sent to Sea; and the Sea will give it the advantage of a Fermentation. And in the Western-Seas, it will do much more to benefit the Mum, than in the Eastern. In the Eastern-Seas, the Climate is cool un­til May; but in the Western-Seas the Climate is warm in March: and as the different heat of the Climate is so the Liquor shall ripen and grow quick and fit to drink: And in that particular, New-Brunswick will infinitely out-do Old-Brunswick; But if there be not Granaries built at New-Brunswick to take in Wheat when cheap, and all other things well setled, the benefit proposed, must not be expected; for it must be made of cheap Wheat, and such Wheat for a Stock must be taken into the Granaries in a cheap time; and when it is cheap, at least, three years Wheat Malted before­hand fit to make Mum. The older the Wheaten-Malt is for that purpose, the better it will be; and the more profit will be made of it. Now I leave this to the se­rious consideration of that worthy Person Sir John Clap­ton, in whose Lands New-Brunswick will be built; As al­so to Mr. Brishop, and my Friend the Town-Clerk of Stratford upon Avon, seriously to consider what a great thing it will be to the Publique, and to the Countrey near Stratford, if the Linnen and Mum-Trade be setled there. No part in Europe is comparable, as to scitua­tion, materials, and soil to that place. And you may observe me in my whole Discourse now Printed, that I shew you, that Trade will go to the place where it can be made cheapest, and soonest at Market. For you may observe my Maxim, Honour and Honesty [Page 123]brings Riches: And these three bring Strength and Trade. So places made by Art convenient, as there is by Avon being made Navigable, gives the advantage to this great and rich design of setting forward the Mum and Linnen-Trade at New-Brunswick. I pray observe; before you had that River Navigable, you were lockt up in the Inlands, and could not come to any Navigable River under twenty Miles; And in all times when Corn was plenty, the ways being ve­ry deep in VVinter, and in some Summers it was there very cheap; whereby the Tenants could not pay Rents to the Landlords, and the Lands put to keep Sheep: So all improvements were wholly out of their Power. But see now how the case is altered, by this new River coming to your Town. Now all Improvements offer themselves to you; as the Mum-Trade, the Linnen, and Thred-Trade: Nay you will be to the West of England, Wales, Shropshire, and Cheshire, as Dantzick is to Po­land; you will serve all those Parts, when Corn is wanting; you have the advantage of your Navigable River to send down your Corn, and so by the help of Severn it will be carried into all Parts that stand in need thereof.

At New-Brunswick, Granaries may be built for the holding of Corn, and there to be stored up, as in Ger­many; and there all things being done by the same way, method, rule, and order, as it is at Marenburgh, all the Countrey-round for Thirty Miles, will have many and great advantages; and to the Publick, no Tongue can express the several and strange benefits it will ad­minister: As first, It will preserve the Corn from Rats and Mice, and what was formerly destroyed by them, now will be kept to feed the Poor. Secondly, It gives the [Page 124]Husbandman a great advantage; for he may Thrash out his Corn, and carry it to be kept safe in the Granaries until he hath occasion to sell it, and so the Consumption occasioned by Rats and Mice is wholly prevented; and that which fed Rats and Mice, and other Vermine, and which other accidents destroyed, will be preserved and kept to feed the Poor; which is at least the third part of the Wheat of England, if kept Four years in Ricks, Stacks, Barns, Houses, and Lofts: Also the Husband­man will, by having a place always ready to lay up his Corn safe, have the benefit of his Straw to feed his Cat­tel, and make Muck, Chaff for his Horses, and light Corn for his Pigs and Poultry, and his Husbandry will be in a regular motion, and answer his just and labori­ous ends; whereas if his Corn be Rickt up Three or Four years, his Husbandry is out of order, sometimes nothing for his servants to do, his Pigs half famished, his Cattel lean, want of Muck that this Straw should produce to bring his Husbandry about as it ought to be done; The poor Farmer, nay, Free-holder looks upon his Ricks with sighs and a heavy heart, he seeth there are Vermin in them, which are not to be prevented; some owe Moneys upon Interest, some to their Land­lords, but Men will not stay long; the Tenant prays patience, Time is given, but still a Plenty is continued, and the Ricks not pulled down; but at last neither User­er, nor Landlord will stay longer: Then the Lawyer is set at work, Suits are brought, and there is no stand­ing, but trouble, and misery, all ruined; and into Pri­son he must, if the Moneys be not paid immediately; and a large and long Lawyers Bill into the bargain.

I pray, where is now the poor Farmer, and many Free-holders also? what must they do? what shift must [Page 125]they make? Shall they fly to the Kings-Bench, or run away? something must be done: I tell thee what, im­mediately pull down their Ricks, and Thrash without doors and within, as fast as they can send the Corn to Market, although never so cheap, and the doing there­of at that time never so much to their damage; and at Market, part of the Moneys made of this Corn, paid for charges at Law; great part of the Corn before the Ricks were pulled down, eaten and consumed by Rats and Mice. Now observe the consequences of these things: The poor honest Laborious Countrey-man being thus pursued by Suits in Law, Rats and Mice devouring his Corn when in Ricks, and sold cheap, and at unsea­sonable times; Servants seeing his necessity, raise price of their Labours: This forsthast puts his Teams to carry his Corn to Market, and that causeth the neglect of that years Husbandry; and truly the end of all this is, no more than this; The Lawyer is paid his Bill, for he will, or else no Team nor Master neither must come to Market; the Servants wages paid that Thrashed out the Corn; the Userer paid what the Farmer owes him; but you will say, what shall the Landlord have? I will tell you what, he will be sure of his Farm thrown upon his hands, and that present years profit lost; nay, and when he comes to stock it himself, he may possibly lose his Rent, and the interest of his stock put upon the Land; and when he sets it again, lose Twenty in the Hundred, and glad to get a Tenant to take it so: But that which is worse, The Tenant and Landlord are then in the worst condition, and their Families and Estates out of order. Moneys is most wanting, and Trade most dead in times when Corn is very cheap; and the Rea­son is, That the Corn lies in Ricks, and no Man can, or [Page 126]is benefited or secured by it; only there is a merry Feast for Rats and Mice: And if it hold cheap for Three or Four years, the Tenant lays the Key under the Door, and then the Wolf is knawing a hole in at the Land­lords Door; I am sure his head is in already, therefore I say, timely prevent him from getting in his body: For after death there is no redemption.

Secondly, The Landlord seeing his Tenant in this way, sending his Corn into the Publick Bank-Granary, and there lodging it, will know the quantities, which must be affixt, and set up in a Catalogue in some place of the Granary, thereby to be viewed and taken notice by any that think they are, or may be concerned therein; and such Corn being in Granary, the Tenant may trans­fer it to the Landlord, or any part thereof; and so the Landlord will always be in such a condition, as to pre­serve himself, and to prevent his Farms being thrown upon his hands; for if the Landlord feeth his Tenant a good Husband, and doth the best he can to live, then he will forbear, and give him time, and no danger, be­cause he is able to give his Landlord Bank-Credit in Corn for his Rent; and so the Corn is kept and preser­ved for a good Market, and at last the Landlord paid all his Rent, and the Tenant enabled to maintain his Fa­mily, and to Husband his Farm to the best advantage: And I think here is no harm done, unless the prevention of Law-Suits, and the miseries attending them, and cheat­ing the Rats and Mice of their large feasts, that last com­monly Three or Four years, be injustice; besides the Landlord hath his advantage clearly before him, he may fee at all times the condition of his Tenant; for if he will not come to the Publique Granary with his Corn, whereby the Landlord may be secured upon the Ticket [Page 127]thereof for his Rent, but keep it to make the Rats and Mice feasts; then he may Command present payment of his Rents, or take a new Tenant: But I believe many Gentlemen, and others, will after reading of my Book twice over, see it so much their Interest to have Publique Granaries, that they will be upon building some in many places in England, before any Law passes to put them into a posture: and observe, when this Corn is in the Publique-bank-Granary in the Countrey, im­mediately it is to be Registred at the Guild-Hall in Lon­don. So it will be immediately good credit to inliven Trade, and fetch out all Moneys now unimploy'd, and prevent Law, and the trouble of attending it: The Tenant, Landlord, and Trade will have their ends an­swered; and there is no way under Heaven at present to inliven Trade, preserve Landlord and Tenant, and bring the unimploy'd Moneys out, but this way.

Thirdly, The Corn being lodged safe, and kept in the Publique Granary, will be the occasion immediate­ly of fetching out, and bringing forth most of the Cash of England, now wholly unimploy'd. All people near the Publique-bank-Granaries will immediately be deal­ing to have some Corn in Bank-credit, for that cannot miss of finding an increase and benefit to them in the Rise of Corn. There will also tumble into the Publique-bank for Corn, all the Moneys round the Countrey, now in the Servants hands, both Men and Maids (which at present lies dead in their Chests); and then John and Joan will make a merry bout when Corn rises, praise and pray for the Man that brought the Publique bank to New-Brunswick, and drink his Health in Burnt-Clarret: In Holland and Germany it is thus with all Servants. And there is no way that mortal man can [Page 128]invent to fetch the unimploy'd Moneys into Trade with speed, but this only way. The Titles of Land now are so uncertain, and personal security so bad, Moneys will grow scarcer, and scarcer, and Trade deader, and deader: and our Neighbours beyond the Seas, are so linkt and fastned with our Merchants here, that the poor Countrey people, and Landlords also, shall be but Hewers of Wood, and Drawers of Water, unless by this way relieved. Consider, Into this Corn-bank will be laid all the Moneys of all poor labour­ing people, who keep no Teems; for here is their great advantage, they laying by Corn when cheap, in the Granary, there kept safe, sweet, and good; it's possi­ble, and very probable, these poor men, nor their fa­milies, never eat dear Bread after in all their lives; so here will be no poor in the Parish, nor complaining in the Streets for Bread: And as I formerly said, here is no harm done, but cheating the Rats and Mice.

Fourthly, Consider, Corn being lodged in cheap times in these Publique Granaries of New-Brunswick, will cause the Linnen and Thred-Trade upon a sudden to come to perfection; for there will be Bread and Drink always cheap; and that being so, there is sufficient in­couragement for men to venture upon any new Trade; But if Victuals, as Bread and Drink, prove dear, and uncertain in its Rates and Prises; from thence Trade will depart, and find out some place that shall fit and please her better: For as Honour, and Honesty, brings Riches, and Strength, so cheap Victuals, and good, with all things necessary and cheap, to be imployed in the Manufacture, will thereby be the occasion of strength­ning of the place, and making of it Rich, and cause Trade in process of time to leave the place where [Page 129]she was formerly, and come where she may be better entertained, and more advantageously accommodated: I find that Mistris called Trade, will bow and bend to every just and good thing, wherein she may be preser­ved, and not in danger to be famished; and therefore I have provided her good Granaries to hold her food, which is good Wheat and Malt, to make her Bread and Drink; I have also given order for the preparing of good Flax, to make her fine Linnen; I have provided her a fit place, with good Merchants, to make that de­lightful Liquor called Mum; I have also provided her a Navigable River, with Cuts to be made to her Back­sides, so that Barges may carry and re-carry her Goods and Riches up and down, to Sea, and from Sea; I have travelled to Magdenburgh, to see to fit her with Grana­ries, as good, if not better than there is; I have travel­led to Brunswick, to find a way to fit her with her de­dsires, as to good Mum; I have travelled into Saxony and Bohemia, to see her fine-spun Threds, Wheels and Looms, that so she may want nothing; I have travelled into Holland and Flanders, to see her Weaving and White­ing, with all its advantages. And now dear Mistress, I certainly must court thee in thy flight, to fall down into New-Brunswick, near Stratford upon Avon, and into New-Harlem in the Mannor of Anilcot; and there thou shalt be attended with the Riches of Brunswick, as to Mum; as also with the Riches of Dantzick, as to Corn; thou shalt also be attended with the Riches of Saxony, as to Flax and fine Threds: And to compleat all, thou shalt have on the Backside of thy Towns, pla­ces to Bleach and Whiten thy fine Linnen, being the Lands of the Earl of Middlesex; equal to Harlem in Holland for all conveniences, if not better.

Fifthly, I call all those People to be Judges, who have great quantities of Corn, and are forced to keep it Two or Three years in Ricks, whether it loseth not at least one fourth part of the Corn by Vermin, Rats, Mice, and other accidents: and if kept Four or Five years, many times the one half is consumed; besides the miseries before spoken of, that attend the Landlord, Tenant, and Creditor. Now this Publick Granary is the cause of preserving all this Corn, that otherwise would have been consumed by Rats and Mice; and as I said in my Book, That we may beat the Dutch without fighting, now I say, and affirm, That all the poor Peo­ple of England will be fed with Bread sufficient, with­out being chargeable to the Publick for any thing: For they have the Corn to supply them for Bread, which the Rats and Mice did destroy.

Now Reader, I pray thee seriously consider, whether the Seed of a Voluntary Register, is not convenient to be with all speed sowed upon this surfeited English Field; all People that know any thing, know that Seed long sowed on the same Land over and over, brings the Farmer at last to Beggery; I question not, but thou art convinc'd this Publick Granary well ordered, with the Corn put into it, will feed all the poor People of England, taking nothing but what would be eat and destroyed by Rats, Mice, and other accidents: All you that Read this, consider what cheap Victuals, and certain, will do to most Manufactures; and the cheapness, will pre­serve it with us: So here is good Corn and cheap, and much Plenty; here is excellent good Land to bear Flax, and great quantities of it; here a covenient place may be made to draw Water out of Avon River, to supply the Bleaching and Whiting: Here is at present, no set­tled [Page 131]Trade, or Manufacture, nor any settled within Fif­teen Miles of the place; here you are in an excellent plentiful Countrey of Flesh, and all other provisions; but that which crowns the design, you are at the Head of a Navigable River, by which you will have with ease and cheapness, all the Flax, Cloth, Thred, Tape, and other things, sent down the River Avon into Severn, and so for Sea, Bristol, Wales, Shropshire, and many other places; and all things you stand in need of will be brought up the River Avon, to New-Brunswick: And I say, God and Nature, with the River Avon being made Naviga­ble, hath so strangely accommodated New-Brunswick, and New-Harlem, and fitted it for this Linnen, nay, I say, fine Linnen Trade; that certainly, no part in Eu­rope can compare with it.

As to the Third, That which is to be the Publick Granary to keep the Corn for all Gentlemen, Mer­chants, and Farmers that please to send it thither, that so the destruction and damages occasioned by Rats and Mice may be prevented; I say, in this Granary, Corn at all times shall be taken in, from all persons that please to send it; and the Corn so sent; must be preserved sweet, safe, and in good order, for one Peny the Bushel for a whole year, and the owner at liberty to take it out at his own will and pleasure; or to sell, transfer, or assign any part of the said Corn to any Person or Per­sons, for the payment of his Debts, or in Mortgage to pay his Landlord his Rent; and the Granary-keepers to give good security, that all things should be faithfully done and discharged. Now the Corn being brought into the Publick Granary, and there Registred in the Register Book, to be kept for that purpose; and the Person that hath put in the said Corn, taking a Note [Page 132]under the Hand and Seal from the Granary-Register, of the quantity of Corn brought into the Granary, with the time it was delivered, with the Matter and kind of the Corn; Then these advantages will ensue.

First, The Farmer will have all the advantages I spoke of before, as preservation from Rats and Mice, Straw to supply his Cattel, the Chaff for his Horses; and the light Corn to feed his Pigs and Poultry, and the Muck­hill in a regular constant quantity; his Husbandry Ma­naged with rule and order to his advantage, no forc't-hast; but Thrashing, and carrying the Corn to the Gra­nary in times wherein his Servants have leasure; so in Seeding-time, and Harvest, all People are freed for that, and only that imploy: The Corn being in the Granary, prevents the misery of Law, and the charge attending it; the Landlord secured his Rent, or part thereof, by receiving a Ticket from the Granary-Register, of a cer­tain quantity of Corn there lodged, the property being Transferred from the Tenant to the Landlord, and entred in the Register; this Corn in Granary gives the Tenant Credit to take up Moneys to furnish his occasions, so as he may manage his affairs, and Hus­band his Land to the best advantage, and prevent the sad effects that commonly attends the want of present Moneys for his necessary occasions; and for want of Credit, many times the laborious honest Countrey Farmer is undone, and forc't to come and live upon the Parish; and the Land he was Tenant to must now help to maintain him; whereas, if prevention had been time­ly found out, against the Rats with Two Legs, that so charge of Law-Suits had been prevented, the Corn kept safe in a Granary, and preserved from the Rats and Mice with Four Legs, then the Landlord had been paid [Page 133]his Rents, the Tenant preserved, the Userer paid, the charge and trouble of Law avoided, and all miseries now upon Landlord, Tenant, and Creditor, not so much as heard of: And for that all these sort of Mise­ries may for the future be prevented, and sufficient means and remedies prescribed for the doing thereof; I shall here give you the ways, means, rules, orders, methods, directions, and policies, whereby they cer­tainly will be with ease accomplished; for they are ex­actly so done in Germany, and have most strange ad­vantages in these parts, in the advance of Trade, and procuring of Riches: And it will be with us (if once ac­complished) as if one were raised from the dead.

I propose, and hope to see Three large Granaries built at New-Brunswick; one whereof to be appropri­ated to the Persons that set up Brewing of Mum, one to be appropriated to, and for the keeping of Corn for a stock for the poor of the Countrey, and for to sup­ply the People that work in the Linnen Manufacture; and one to be a publick Granary for all Gentlemen and Farmers to send their Corn into, when Thrashed, to prevent the destruction which is made by Rats and Mice, when it is in Ricks, Barns, Chambers and Lofts. And of the advantage that these Granaries will be, I will speak particluarly.

First, The Granary built to take in Corn for the use of the Brewers of Mum, will be the life of that Trade; and without such Granaries, it is impossible to set on that Trade: For Corn must be bought in such times as this year is, it being not only now very good, but cheap also; and in a cheap year they may take in Four or Five years Stock, as they do at Magdenburgh and Shenibank: Then suppose the Wheat now cost two [Page 134]Shillings Four-pence the Bushel at New-Brunswick, and that be kept Four years in the Granary at Two-pence the Bushel for Granary Rent; then the Corn will lye the Mum-Brewers in Two Shillings Six-pence per Bushel, and that is cheaper than it is sold in any time at Old-Brunswick; and it is seldom, but once in Four years, there is a plentiful year of Corn in England, and in this year the Brewers may supply their Granaries again: And as I said before, here is cheap Corn, good Corn, and a multitude of it, the place of Trade fixt at the Head of a Navigable River, good and cheap Fuel to be made use of, with a quick passage to the East and West Indies, Ireland, Mediteranian, Spain, France, Holland, and a large passage at Sea to bring it to London, to help and make the Mum good, by putting it into a second fermentation: And I say, here this Trade of making Mum may be fixt with very great advantage; and if once well fixt, from thence it cannot depart, no place in England being of that advantage to answer all the ends, as this place is.

The Second Granary, which is to be supplyed by the Country with Corn, and there to be kept safe for the benefit of those that work in the County in the Lin­nen-Manufacture, and to supply the Poor when a dearth comes; Corn will be kept Four years in the Granaries, and the Rate then will be but Two Shillings Six-pence the Bushel; and with this cheap Corn the People will be supplyed with Bread, whereby they will make and perfect the intended Linnen-Manufacture very cheap; and this constancy of Bread, and at cheap rates, will certainly be a great and certain means of fixing the fine Linnen Trade at New-Brunswick, and New-Harlem: And the Reasons are these, near the very Place are great [Page 135]quantities of Land excellent good to bear Flax, and ve­ry good places may with a little art, be made by the Town-sides to Whiten and Bleach Linnens; and within one Mile of New-Brunswick, there is the Mannor of Milcot, being the Lands of the Earl of Midd [...] [...] ­on which Mannor there will be sufficient Fla [...] [...], to imploy Ten thousand People to work it into Manu­facture: And there are in these Lands, by the River Avon side, convenient places to make Bleaching [...] and near Milcot-House very plain good Land to build a Ci­ty for the fine Linnen Trade, with good places to set up Engines to Weave Tape, to go by Water. The Maps of the Two Cities, with the Granaries, are annexed, the one being New-Brunswick. the other I name New-Harlem.

Now I will demonstrate and shew you the length, breadth, and height the Granaries ought to be of, to hold this Corn, as also the charge of building one of them at New-Brunswick, being the Land of Sir John Clapton; as also I will demonstrate the way how it should be built for the best advantage, with the way of ordering and managing the Corn, that it may keep good, sweet, and clean, Eight or Ten years. The Gra­naries must be Three hundred foot long, Eighteen foot wide betwixt inside and inside Seven stories high, each Story Seven foot high, all to be built of good, well-burnt Brick, and laid in Lime and Sand very well; the ends of the Granaries must be set North and South, so the sides will then be East and West, and in the sides of the Granaries there must be large Windows to open and shut close, that when the Wind blows at West, the Windows may be laid open, and then the Granary-Man will be turning and winding the Corn, and all filth and [Page 136]dross will be blown out at the Window on the East-side; and in all times when the Weather is fair, and open, then throw open the Windows to let in Air to the Corn at [...] end of the Granary; and in the middle there [...] [...]toves to be kept with fire in them, in all moist [...], or at the going away of great Frosts and Snows, to prevent moistness either in the Brick, Walls, Timber, Boards, or Corn; there must be in each side of t [...]e Granaries, Three or Four long Troughs or Spouts fixt in the uppermost Loft, which must run about Twenty foot out of the Granary; and in fine weather the Granary-men must be throwing the Corn out of the upermost Loft; and so it will fall into another Spout made Ten foot wide at the top, and through that Spout the Corn descends into the lowermust Loft, and then wound up on the inside of the Granary, by a Crane fixt for that purpose; and so the Corn receiving the be­nefit of the Air, falling down Thirty foot before it comes into the second Spout, cleanseth it from all its filth and Chaff: These Spouts are to be taken off and on, as occasion requires, and to be fixt to any other of the Lofts; that when Vessels come to load Corn, they may through these Spouts convey the Corn into the Barges without any thing of labour, by carrying it on the backs of Men.

The charge of one Granary Three hundred foot long, Eighteen foot wide, Seven Stories high, Seven foot be­twixt each Story, being built with Brick at New-Bruns­wick, or New-Harlem, in the Mannor of Milcot: Six hundred thousand of Bricks builds a Granary, Two Brick and half thick the Two first Stories, Two Brick thick the Three next Stories, Brick and half thick the Two uppermost Stories; and the Brick will be made and [Page 137]delivered on the place for Eight Shillings the Thousand, the laying of Brick Three Shillings the Thousand, Lime and Sand Two Shillings the Thousand; so Brick-laying, Lime and Sand, will be Thirteen Shillings the Thou­sand: One hundred and fifty Tuns of Oak and Elm for Somers, Joists and Roof, 100 and 70 l. Boards for the Six Stories: Sixty thousand foot at 13 s. 4 d. the One hundred foot, and Ten thousand foot for Window, Doors, and Spouts at the same rate, 48 l. Laths and Tiles 100 l. Carpenters work 70 l. Iron, Nails, and odd things 60 l. So the charge of a Granary will be 820 l. built either at New-Brunswick, or at New-Har­lem. There will be kept in this Granary Fourteen thousand Quarters of Corn, which is Two thousand Quarters in every Loft, which will be a Thousand Bush­els to every Bay; Six labouring Men, with One Clerk, will be sufficient to manage this Granary, to turn and wind the Corn, and keep the Books of accounts; Fif­teen pounds a piece allowed to the Six men, and Thirty pound a year to the Clerk, or Register, will be wages sufficient; so the Servants wages will be 120 l. per An. Allow Ten in the Hundred for Moneys laid out for building the Granaries, which is 80 l. So the charge will be yearly 200 l. Now observe, if the Countrey Man pay 6 d. a Quarter yearly, for keeping his Corn safe and sweet in the Granary, Fourteen thousand Quar­ters will come to 350 l. for Granary-Rent yearly. The Pattern of the Granary to be built, you shall have in the Map of New-Harlem and New-Brunswick, taken exactly from one built in the City of Shenibank, in the Vale of Parinburgh, upon the River Elb, which is a Store-house for Wheat to be sent to Brunswick; where­of Mum is made.

Serious Reader, Here is a way plainly lined out to cheat the Rats and Mice, to feed the Poor, to preserve the Tenant, to pay the Landlord, to bring to us seve­ral Manufactures, to prevent Law-Suits, to fetch out all Moneys now unimployed into Trade; and it will be, if done, as the Blood in the Body, it will so circulate in a few years, that Corn will be to England better than ready Moneys; and to have this so, is undoubtedly e­very Mans interest in the Kingdom: Therefore Corn Registred in the Publick Granary in each Countrey, and so entred in the general Register at the Guild-hall, will bring to pass these things now Treated of, and ma­ny more most strange advantages to the People of Eng­land; which you may expect in the Second Part.

7. Consider what great quantities of Iron-Reads, Wrought and Cast, is brought into England from fo­reign parts, which might be made and cast here; there­by imploying the same number of People here, as are imployed in other parts, in making thereof; and all of Materials of our own: A Tax laid upon all wrought Iron, would bring and force this Trade to us.

8. Consider, there are few Gentlemen in England, but out of their Woods make some considerable revenue yearly; and many of them by selling it to the Iron-works, thereby have certain Rents for their Land: And whatever is of our own growth, ought to be cherished, and countenanced, and then we shall reap the benefit.

Considerations of the benefit of a Register, and the dis­advantage of not having one.

First, Consider, He that hath Two hundred pound a year in Free-land, and Eight hundred pound a year [Page 139]in other Land; his Two hundred pound a year will be as ready Money at all times, to supply his just occasions, to Marry his Sons and Daughters, and to help to man­age his Eight hundred pounds a year to the best advan­tage, in Planting, Watering, and in all other good Hus­bandry his Land is capable of.

Secondly, Consider, For want of Three or Four thou­sand pounds at command, by many men that have One thousand pound a year, how they are tossed and tumbled, Procurator and Continuator, Usurer and Lawyer, Un­der-Sherifs and Baylifs, his Land unimproved, his Wives heart sorrowful, Children want education, grow disobedient and head-strong, Tenants and Baylifs take unjust and unlawful advantages, by reason of the Land­lords necessities.

Thirdly, Consider what Credit and Reputation the Gentleman is in, that can at any time take up Four thou­sand pounds; and what advantage he may take, either of a good Bargain when it is offered, or to prefer a Child when he seeth it convenient.

Fourthly, Consider, That he that hath but One hun­dred pound a year, and of that Twenty pound a year Free-land, what that will do to his benefit; it will sup­port him at any time to take up Four hundred pounds to manage his affairs to the best advantage: But as things are now, he must go to Councel with his Writings; but it is possible, he dare not produce them, and may stay Twelve Months, or longer, before he gets Moneys; and in the mean time, Suits are multiplyed with charg­es and loss of time, his Family distracted, and many times undone.

Fifthly, Consider the great Cruelty that is now used to Men that have not ready Moneys to pay their Debts, [Page 140]by Attorneys and under-Sherifs, Baylifs and their Crea­tures, as though Man was made to be torn in pieces a­live; and what ruins come to one Friend from another; by being Bail, and bound for his relations, even the ru­ine of infinite numbers of Families in England every year.

Sixthly, Consider, The comfort of this way, of ha­ving ready Money upon Land, doth administer to the Wife content, to the party safety, and safety to all re­lated to him; and thereby, a Man may upon his death­bed, justly provide for his Wife and Children, and it will be safe and good.

Seventhly, Consider at this day, the Land-security being not good, many Gentlemen pay Eight, Nine, and Ten in the Hundred for the Moneys they take up, and go upon the Tick for all Commodities; and when they pay, it is double the value as if bought with ready Moneys: The very bane of many estates.

Eighthly, Consider, that no great thing can be done without ready Moneys, or Credit; Lands Registred will be both, and Land will rise purchase, and Trade in­couraged.

Ninthly, Consider, it will pay the poor Gentlemans Debts without Moneys, a thing just now wanting.

Tenthly, Consider, A Register will set on foot the Noble business of Fishing, about England and Wales; and inable persons to make the great Rivers of England Navigable, and thereby raise great numbers of Sea-men which may be wanting; and all persons receiving the ge­neral benefit that will come thereby, will be of Ten times more to the Government, than these Rats and Mice that are now privately devouring all that's good.

Twelfthly, Consider, of what sad consequence it is [Page 141]with us in England at this day, that we cannot have Bonds and Bills Transferred by Assignments, so as the Property may go a-long with the Assignment; thereby one Bond or Bill, will go in the nature of Bills of Ex­change: And so A. owing Two hundred pounds to B. he Assigns him the Bond of C. who owed him Two hun­dred pounds, and C. owing D. Two hundred pounds, Assigns him the Bond of E. who owed him Two hun­dred pounds; and so one Bond or Bill, would go through Twenty hands, and thereby be as ready Mo­neys, and do much to the benefit of Trade, and pre­vent infinite vexatious Suits, and prevent the ruin of some hundreds of Families: For as the Law now is practised at this day, although the word Assign be in the Bond, yet the Property of the Bond passes not; but the party Assigning, his Heirs, Executors or Admi­nistrators may discharge the Bond by a Release. And pray observe the miserable calamity that the poor Peo­ple lye under for want of this being not done; now A. owes B. Two hundred pounds, the Bond being Four hundred pounds, for the payment of Two hun­dred pounds. B. sends a Writ into the Countrey, and arrests A. he cannot get such Bayle as the Sherif will accept: So perhaps lieth a Month or longer in Prison, his Wives heart almost broke, Children and Friends sorrowful; At last the Wife importunes Friends of hers to be bound for his appearance; but he cannot get special Bayle above; then the Attorneys and Sherifs harvest comes in; they presently make three Suits of one, and fall on the poor Security. At last Bayle is put in above; then Common-Law-Tryals, Demurrers, Writs of Error, Chancery. So Plantif and Defendant many times ruine one the other. Whereas if a [Page 142]Bond were Transferable, and the property to pass it, be­ing a Bond, and good Men bound in it; this Bond would run from Man to Man, from Hand to Hand, from one Tradesman to another; and so one Bond would pay twenty Men; for people at this day would be glad to have payments made them in such Paper ra­ther than go to Law for their own; and often undo their Creditor, and sometimes themselves to. It would be a mighty benefit to Trade and Commerce to have Bonds transfer'd. A poor man in England that hath a Thousand pounds in Bonds with good Sureties bound, cannot pay one hundred pounds of his Debts with them. Our Free-lands being put under a Voluntary Register, and the property of Bonds being made Transferable by assignment, will be a great profit to the Nation.

As things are now, we have not one fourth part of Moneys sufficient to drive the Trade of England, and set up the neglected Fishery, improve our own Ma­nufactures, and to answer peoples just, honest, and lawful occasions. But if the Free-lands were Regi­stred, and Bonds Transferable, then we should have three parts in four more Cash than we should have occasion to use: For the Land Registred, will do what Money now doth; and this is credit equal to Moneys; and then we shall do what the DƲTCH now do, never want Moneys to do any great thing. But we must submit our selves in all things to his Ma­jesties Gracious Pleasure and Authority.

Twelfthly, It will by its credit, be the cause of set­ting at work all the poor of England in the Linnen and Iron-Manufacture, and so convenience the Woollen-Ma­nufacture, that it will be as one that were risen from the dead.

Thirteenthly, Consider, That the want of a Register will make us in few years like unto a Wheat-rick, that hath stood many years; when it is opened, all the Corn is consumed by Rats and Mice, and nothing left but the Straw and Clothings.

It would be well if those worthy Virtuosoes that intend the good of the Publique, and have real intentions to improve Mecanick Arts, that they and all such Lords and Gentlemen that wish well thereto, with speed would advance a Sum of Moneys to build an Univer­sity for the Improvement of Art in England, and to maintain Six persons continually Travelling to find out such Improvements; and the way of bringing them to pass, as may be for the real good of the Publique; the pattern how to settle such a University, for Art, they may have from one long since setled near Newringburg in Germany: The consequence whereof hath so imyrov­ed the Mecanick-Art in Germany, that no place in the World comes near them for Art.

Considerations upon the advantages and disad­vantages of the Manufacturies of Linnen, Thred, Tape, and Twine for Cordage.

1. COnsider what quantities of fine Linnens are made in Holland and Flanders, and here worn and consumed, and how many hands it imploys in work to manufacture it, and the great benefit the Dutch gain, being the great Masters of that Trade.

2. Consider, that if these fine Clothes were made here, how it would imploy the Poor, raise the price of Land, and keep our Moneys at home; for the Dutch take nothing from us in exchange, wherein the benefit is any way considerable to the publick.

3. Consider, of all course Linnens brought from France, as Canvases, Lockrums, and great quantities of coarse Clothes, which have of late years so crouded upon us, that it hath almost laid aside the making of Linnen Cloth in England, and thereby the people are unimploy'd, and the Land lyeth idle and waste.

4. Consider, the French take nothing of any value from us, but it is ready money for their Linnens; so we keep their people at work, and send them our moneys to pay them for it, and our own Poor are unimploy'd: But if a Tax were laid upon their coarse Linnen Clothes, then what is brought out of France into England, would be made here of our own growth, to the Nations great enriching.

5. Consider the Twine and Yarn ready wrought [Page 145]and brought out of the East-Country to make Sail-Cloth and Cordage, which hath taken off the labour of multitude of people in Suffolk, and thereabouts, and hath so lessened that Trade, that it is almost lost: But if a Tax were laid upon the threds brought over ready wrought, then the labour of all such things would be here to supply our Poor at work, and raise the price of our Lands.

6. Consider what vast quantities of narrow coarse Clothes come out of Germany down the Elbe, Weser, and Emes, and transported into England, and here vented and worn; the cheapness whereof hath beaten out the Linnen Trade formerly made in Lancashire, Che­shire, and thereabouts, and carried and sold at London, (about forty years since it was a very great Trade, and tended much to the relief of the Poor in them parts:) A Tax being laid upon these Easterling Clothes, would occasion the reviving of that coarse Cloth-Trade again with us, which would set multitudes at work.

7. Consider, the Foreign Bed-ticking coming hither cheap, hath almost destroyed that Trade in Dorcetshire and Somersetshire; and so the Spinners are Idle, and the Land falls price; and in this, as in other things, we send our Moneys into Foreign parts, to keep their Poor at work, and support them; and here we starve our own, and lose that Trade: A Tax upon Foreign Bed­ticking would prevent all this.

8. Consider the vast and infinite quantities of Thred ready spun, that comes down out of Germany into Eng­land, and here made use of, and all the labour of such Threds are there done, the Government and People there have the advantage of it, and here we make use of them in many of our Commodities: It is of late [Page 146]discovered, that the cheapness of these Threds will eat out the very Spinning in most parts of England.—Con­sider, and take this president at Kidderminster in Wor­cestershire; Formerly the Clothiers made use of Linnen-Yarn Spun in that Countrey to make their Lynsey-wool­seys; but now the cheapness of the Foreign Threds hath put them upon making use of Germany-Yarn; in which Town there is One hundred pound a Week in Yarn made use of; great quantities of Thred also are used at Manchester; Maidstone, and in other parts of England to mix with Woollen, with infinite other Commodities, and all the benefit of the labour of these Threds, is ap­plied to Foreigners; a Tax being put upon the Threds, would put the Wheel to work in England again. This is of great consequence to the Publick, to be taken into consideration; for in this very thing of Spun-yarn, no less than Thirty thousand People would be here em­ployed, if by Law it were encouraged.

Considerations upon the Iron Manufacture.

1. COnsider, That the best Iron in the known World, is in the Forest of Dean, and in the Clay-Hill in Shropshire; and the Iron made of these mi­nerals, will work most easiest and quickest into Commo­dities, of any Iron; and at present let there be one Tun of this Bar-Iron made of Forest-Iron-Stone, and one Tun of Spanish Iron delivered to a Smith to work into Sythes, Sickles, and other Commodities; he will work the Forest-Iron, and give Twenty pounds the Tun for it; but will not give Twenty shillings for the Tun of Spanish-Iron to work into Commodities: The Forest-Iron works easie, plyable, and soft; the Spanish works tough, churlish and dogged.

2. Consider, If there be not timely course taken by the Parliament, to provide for the inclosure of the Commons in these parts, which lye convenient to these Iron Mines and Works, to encrease Woods; in a very small time, the Manufacture will be much lessened, and will prove the great impoverishing of the Countreys where now they are, and of much damage to the King­dom in general.

3. Consider, that in Worcestershire, Stafford and Darbyshire, there are great Mines of Iron-stone that makes Iron, not very good for use for all things; but of excellent use for Nails, and many small Commodities: The benefit of which Trade, is of great advantage to all the Countrey round about. And in these Countreys there are great quantities of Pit-Coals, which are in all [Page 148]places near the Iron-works, and by the help of the Coal the Iron is Manufactured with ease, cheapness and ad­vantage; whereby we have the Trade of good part of Europe for these Commodities: And so set infinite of poor People to work.

4. Consider, the Woods in these parts decay and look thin, and will not last long, and when gone, the Iron-Stone and Coles will be there of no value, the People unimployed, the Trade lost; therefore the vast Commons in these parts inclosed for Woods, would pre­vent all: As the Duke of Saxony hath done near Ana­burgh, and Sneburgh, where this politick preservation of Woods, in Lands joyning to his Iron, Tin, Silver, and Copper-Mines, hath made them a very great branch of his Revenue; and all the Countrey round about, by the multitude of People imployed, are become very Rich; and there things in point of convenience, as to Iron-works, Tin-works, with Mines and Woods to supply the works, are so ordered, that there are at present Manufactured many Commodities in Iron, and sent into England: If these Woods had not been pre­served by a politick Law, all his Mines had been no­thing worth, and the Iron Trade and Works would have continued near Newringburgh, from whence they now are departed; and that great benefit is now wholly enjoyed by the Duke of Saxony. The like it will do in few years, if the Commons are not inclosed; for Woods in the Countreys I name, where there is Iron-Stone, and Pit-Cole plentiful, are as the Breast is to the Child; let that cease, all dies.

5. Consider, A Tax being laid upon barr Iron, and wrought Iron, will encrease the Iron Manufacture here, whereby the Prices of VVoods will be encreased, the [Page 149]Lands rise price, and the Poor imployed, and all Ma­terials both Mine, Pit-Cole and VVoods, are of our own growth and product.

6. Consider how many Iron-Works are laid down, both in Kent, Sussex, and Surrey, and many more must follow; The Reason is, the Iron from Sweadland, Flanders, and Spain, comes in so cheap, that it cannot be made to profit here; and observe how the Gentle­men and others in the Countreys, for want of Moneys for their Woods, are forced to Stock up their Copices, and turn them into Tillage and Pasture, the People unimployed, and their Lands fall Rents: To prevent all, a Tax upon Foreign Iron is absolutely necessary.

Considerations upon Bank-Granaries.

1. COnsider, that the Corn carried into Bank-Granaries, and there kept safe for several years; for one penny a year, for each Bushel, will be for Landlord and Tenant of great benefit: the Land­lord in all likelihood hath his Rent then secured, the Tenant his credit preserved, the Husbandry in a good and Regular way.

2. Consider, the Landlord may at any time have mo­neys upon Bank-Corn, transferred from his Tenant to him for Rent; and thereby inable the Landlord upon that Credit, to take up moneys at all times to answer his just occasions: and the Corn being Registred in the County, and also at the Guild-Hall in London, will in­finitely enliven Trade; and Bills for Corn in Banks will be as good as ready moneys, and thereby prevent in­finite of mischiefs that attend want of present mo­neys.

3. Consider, that Bank-Granaries will prevent the poor peoples miseries, for want of food, in some wet and unseasonable years; and will be the occasion of tak­ing infinite poor people off the Parish, and prevent others falling upon the Parish.

4. Consider, it is the true interest of all Gentlemen that have many Tenants in great Corn-Countreys, to build Granaries upon their charges, and take in their own Tenants and Neighbours Corn, and receive from them payment for keeping thereof: And if this comes to be put in practice by the Gentlemen, the next thing [Page 151]they will then be at, Is to set their Sons upon Imploy in the Linnen Manufacture; for it will be then perfectly discovered, that Bank-Corn may always be delivered out to the poor, in payment for their work: As now Iron, Wool, Silk, Threads, any Wier, is delivered out to the Smith, Clothier, Weaver, Pin-maker, in part of payment for the Manufactured Commodities,; for at this time most payments are made to the poor Handi­craft-man, part Moneys, and part such Materials as the Commodity was made of which he sells, and he is forc'd to take the Materials at such Rates as his Chapman plea­seth to impose, or put upon it.

5. Consider, These Bank-Granaries will bring out all the Moneys now unimployed, and at present out of Trade, and prevent the keeping of such quantities of Plate which is now made use of by many People; for the Bank-Corn being ready Moneys at all times, there will be no occasion of such quantities of Plate as most People keep by them; which at present is made use of by many persons for their immediate Credit.

I being at Dublin in the Month of November, One thousand six hundred seventy four, there happened a great Storm, which very much shattered the Ships lying in the Harbor, and blew one to Sea, where Ship and Men perished; and blew another upon the Rocks, near the point of Voth, where she was staved and broke to pieces, her lading and part of the Men perished; at which time I heard many and frequent complaints, by Merchants and Seamen, of the badness of that Harbor, and the danger that attended the Ships lying there at Anchor; by reason of hard Sand, low Water, and the continual hazard the Ships were in when the Winds blew hard; there being no Hill or Promontory to de­fend [Page 152]them from great winds: I also found by discourse with the Lord Mayor Brewster, and many others, that the badness of the Harbour did occasion the decrease of Trade and was of great prejudice to it, and the City also. I then acquainted the Lord Mayor of my thoughts, As to the making a very good Harbour at Rings-end: Upon which he did Importune me to bestow some time in a Survey, and discovery thereof; the which I did, and spent about three weeks time in finding out what is here asserted. First, As to the damage of Trade, by reason of the badness of the Harbour. Secondly, The advantage it will be to Trade, if a safe Harbour were made. Thirdly, The way how a good Harbour may be made; with a large Cittadel, and a place for all Maga­zines, and Naval Stores. And Fourthly, What it will cost the doing.

As to the First, The Ships that lye at Anchor, a mile below Rings-end, lye upon very hard Sands when the Tide is out; and thereby much damnifying the Ships, if either old or weak built: And the goods are littered to and from the Ships, and many times the Ships receive very great Damage by Storms and great Winds; and so the Ships Crew must always be on Board for fear of foul weather: and the Harbour being so bad, causes Trade to weaken at Dublin.

As to the Second, If there were a Harbour made at Rings-end, as in the Map described, this advantage would be gained: At present there is at least five hun­dred pounds per Annum, paid to persons that carry and re-carry people in the Rings-end Coaches to and from the Ships, all that would be saved. And all the labour and pains that is now taken by Merchants, Owners, and Sea-men, going from Dublin to the Ships, saved: the [Page 153]great charge at present, by carrying and re-carrying goods by Litters, to and from the Ships, prevented; much more Trade brought, if the new Harbour were made for Ships, that cannot lye upon them hard Sands: And in the new Harbour the Ships will always be float­ing, the water being by art with Sluces kept to thirteen foot depth; and thereby any weak or crazy Ship will lye there safe, and receive no damage at all. A Boy and a Dog in the new Harbour will look to a Ship: And the owner staying any considerable time for Lading, will in the mean time permit part of the Ships Crue to go short Voyages, to Chester, Leverpool, Bristol, and the West of England; which will be for the benefit of Trade, and thereby Mariners will not be wanting: And all the sad and dangerous perils now suffered by the Ships in the Bay where they now lye, prevented: And by the Ships coming up boldly to Lasey Hill, there Trade will be made easie; the Merchant, Owner, and Ships, all being together. The wise and knowing people in Dub­lin, say, If the new Harbor were made, there would be Ten thousand pound per annum advance in the Kings Customs yearly.

As to the Third, There may be made a good Harbor neer Rings-end, in the spare piece of Ground that now is every Tide covered with water, which lyes betwixt Rings-end and Lasey-Hill: And in that piece of Land Cuts may be made, as in the Map described, and Mer­chants Houses built in one piece, and Houses for the Slaughter-men, Sea-men, and Fishers, in the other piece. And in these Cuts all Vessels will lye with that ease and safety, that it will be to the owners of great advantage, and prevent the present charge they are put unto by Multiplicity of men; and so make Trade Easie, Cheap, [Page 154]and delightful; and at the upper end of one of the Cuts, there may be made a very strong Cittadel, and Houses for all manner of Stores, which may prove of great convernment to that Kingdom; for there is an old Saying, Two strings are better than one: For this Cittadel may be made in that place, with so great ad­vantage, that none can be stronger or better answer the ends for which it is intended, then this may do; for at present the Castle of Dublin is in a hole in the middle of the Town, and so may many ways miss of the ends that it was intended for; besides, in the Castle there is very little room for any Military Stores, which would be here very well supplied: And the way for making this Harbor to answer all the ends here prescribed, is by making the Cuts as you see in the Map, with build­ing two great Stone Locks or Sluces to let down and bring up the Ships; and for supplying these Cuts or Trenches with Water, the Brook coming from Rofarn­ham, and Robuck, must be made use of; and the Brook now running by Dublin-Castle must be taken up at the side of the Castle, and carried a-cross Georges Lane, and so through a waste piece of Land of Sir. William Petties, and so down to Lasey Hill, to help to augment the Trenches in dry times when Water is scarce: If this New Harbor were made, no place in Holland were answerable to it, for its advantage and convenience; and as to the Cittadel, certainly none would exceed it, no not Delfsee that strong Fort, being made by the very same advantage, as this may be; which is by the little River that comes from Groningen to Delfsee.

As to the Fourth, which is the charge of making the Harbor and Cittadel, I have taken a great deal of pains when I was there, casting up what it might cost; and I [Page 155]believee it may be compleated for Twenty thousand pound: and certainly as that Harbor now is, and as that piece of Land is overflowed with water every Tide, and under the very sides of the City, it is a very great detriment to Trade and Commerce, and of as great dishonour, because it's relating to the Metro­polis of a Kingdom; and no place possible can offer it self with more advantage, as to Harbour and Cittadel, with ease, and increase of Trade, than this place doth, if good practicable Art were rightly imployed upon it, and well back'd by a good Law, well made and fitted to answer so great and noble a design as this would be: The Map of the New Harbor, with the several Cuts for the Ships to lye in, with the Cittadel, is hereunto af­fixt.

I know writing Books of Trade, where present pro­fit is not within the reach of the Readers understand­ing, puts a silence unto the whole History, be it never so good; for all men are governed by what they un­derstand, in matters relating to gain or loss: But it shall be my way to come as near as possibly I can to the understandings of the parties I intend to appropriate this Discourse unto. Therefore I will now try my Pen, to see whether I can get it to beat an Alarm unto all the poor Handicraft People in Three places, viz. Here­fordshire, Worcestershire, and London; and I question not, but if they give attendance, and observe the first word of Command (which is Silence) they shall hear in one hour such things uttered, as will send them home rejoycing: And first I shall speak of Hereford­shire. Secondly, of VVorcestershire: and, Thirdly, of London. I have said in my former Discourse, wherever there is cheapness of Victuals, good Laws, and a [Page 156]Navigable River, there Trade may be most advan­ced.

For Herefordshire, part of that County is already well improved; First, it hath a Navigable River unto the City made by Art; but imperfect at present, and ought to be mended. Secondly, all Ʋrchinfield is now under a great improvement by Clover, which improvement I sent into them parts, by sending the seed, with Books fully directing the Husbandry; and all persons at first had liberty to receive Seed from Mr. Belamy of Ross, and Books of Directions: If the Husbandry did take, and the profit made, as in the Book was prescribed, then they were to pay Seven-pence a pound for the Seed; if not, nothing: By this way the Seed was put into the Husbandmans hand, and no venture to him; and there was no other way to force that Husbandry upon the People, all former people failing in that design for want of good directions: And at present, certainly Ʋrchin­field is doubled in the value of their Lands by the Clover Husbandry.

The second improvement Herefordshire is under, is sending their Sider to London ready Bottled; which Hus­bandry, or Art, I and my Partner several years since put there on foot, and caused vast quantities to be Bottled up and sent to Glocester, from thence to Lechload, and so to London by Water; we had not been in that method a­bove two years, but others did begin to tread the same steps, and now it is a great Trade, and a great number of persons are now driving great Trades with Bottle-Sider; and it hath been the occasion of erecting Five or Six Glass-Houses in them parts. And in VVorcestershire, I ha­ving been succesful in putting that County under Two improvements, I shall in its place venture at a Third; I [Page 157]know it is very capable to receive it: there is one publick spirited Man lately come into that Countrey, who hath several times desired me to acquaint him which way the Countrey might be improved, and Manufacture setled, and declared that he would lay out Moneys and his pains for the good of the Publick.

At present there is no settled Trade at Hereford, but the Poor of that Town, and the Countrey round have little imploy, notwithstanding they have there very great conveniences, and a Navigable River to the very City, with much Corn, and that excellent good; and in all such times as this is, Corn is there very cheap and plen­tiful; and when cheap, they have no Market to go unto thereby to vend their Corn: Formerly VVales took away their Corn when plentiful, but since the VVelsh took to break up their Mountains, and sow them with Corn, they have Corn sufficient for themselves, and much to spare; so that County shall be always under a plenty, unless some setled Manufacture be there fixt, thereby to bring People, and imploy the Poor which are there already: But it is impossible ever to fix any New Manufacture with success, unless all things that are required for the doing thereof, be well ordered, as to cheapness of Victuals, and all other conveniences.

Therefore at Hereford, in the first place, there must be Granaries built to hold Corn, and there stow'd in the time of plenty; and this Corn must be apropriated wholly for the use of these People that work in the Ma­nufacture; and thereby they never will eat dear Bread, or drink dear Drink; and the Granaries must be made as I have directed: And the best Trade that I know which will most fit that place, because it can never miss of a plenty, as to Bread and Drink, will be fine-spun [Page 158]Threds and Tape; and my Reasons why that will be most fittest for that place, are these; First, Hereford is at the head of a Navigable River. Secondly, It is on the Borders of VVales; and if they want hands, and the Trade should enlarge it self, from VVales there would pour down People upon them, when they see there is Moneys to be gained. Thirdly, By the ad­vantage of the Navigable River, all things will be car­ried to and from them, to supply the Trade with ease and cheapness. Fourthly, At present there is no setled Manufacture. Fifthly, That place will answer well to furnish with their Commodities all VVales up Sea­vern, Bristol, and Ireland: And where that Trade is setled in foreign parts, the Places are very Rich; wit­ness Friburgh in Germany, and Dort in Holland: These Two Towns are the great Masters of these Trades; Friburgh for Tape, and Dort in Holland for Threds: And certainly at Hereford these Commodities may be made as cheap as in any part of Germany or Holland: But still regard is to be had to these things, cheap Bread and Drink, and always certain; Moneys at low interest, with Spinning-Schools, as I have directed in this Di­scourse; with Four shillings in the pound advance of Cu­stoms to be laid upon all Threds and Tapes brought from beyond the Seas.

I know there are some Gentlemen of the Country I now treat of, will be very inquisitive, and desirous to know how this Trade shall be fixt at first; and when fixt, how to govern it, that it may not miscarry, as did the Linnen Manufacture at Clerkenwell, and many other Publick Linnen Manufactures formerly set up in Eng­land.

I will give them my thoughts at present, which is the [Page 159]best and convenientest way for the ordering of the Thred and Tape-Trade at Hereford.

1. Build your Granary, and Stock it with Corn and Malt for Three years, sufficient for so many People as are to be imployed; then build a Brew-house and a Bake-house both together, close by your Granaries, for your Manufacturing People, and to be delivered to them as they spend it; for it is a great Error with us in England, that Publick Bake houses and Brew-houses are not fixt for the supply of the several Handicraft Trades, thereby to save all the time now spent in provi­ding Bread and Drink for the family, which time might be better imployed in their several Trades; and having the Bread and Drink at all times provided to their hands, will prevent the laying out of Moneys for such uses, and Houses of less Rent will serve their turns; and then all the People in the Family will be in the con­stant imploy of the Trade.

2. Send for one Man from Friburgh, to put you in the true way and Method of making of the Tape; and to bring over two Engines, one to Weave Narrow Tape, and the other to weave Broad Tape, with Wheels to Spin.

3. Send for one Man from Dort in Holland, to put you in the true way of ordering the fine Threds.

4. Send for a Spinning Mistriss out of Germany, to order and govern the little Maids, and instruct them in the Art of Spinning.

5. Send for a Man from Harlem in Holland, to Whi­ten your Tapes and Threds.

This being done, with all things before specified, That Trade cannot miss taking great root at Hereford, and in process of time will be the staple Trade of that [Page 160]part of England and Wales; and no place, as to cheap Victuals of all sorts, with multitude of hands unimploy­ed, exceeds those parts we treat of: And the thing we now treat of, will be no laborious business; but may in time prove of great advantage, for the younger Sons of Gentlemen to fall to, and prevent the idle habit that many are now accustomed to: And this Trade must be of great benefit to the Publick, for at present they are Foreign Trades, and the whole benefit does ac­crew to them, and the consumption and loss to us.

This Tape and Thred-Trade to be fixt, is of much more difficulty to be brought to perfection, than if there were some small Trade in the place already; but the comfort of that place may be, if they once fix well in that Manufacture, then they will deter all others set­ting up the same, and so consequently be at last the great Masters of it, as Manchester is of all things it Trades in.

I must acquaint the Gentlemen of Herefordshire, that the River Wy must be mended, and made more conveni­ent than now it is, that so Barges may pass and repass with ease, and without hazard; for Trade will not admit of such delays, as of necessity there must be, if the River be not timely mended; and Herefordshire must never pre­tend to come under a great improvement, if that River be not fully compleated, and the River Lugg made Na­vigable as high as Hampton Court, or one Mile or two further: And if that were done, then Hereford would be to great part of Radnor, Brecknock, Cardigan, and Moumouthshire, as Shrewsbury is to North-Wales: Shrews­bury lying upon the Navigable River, hath all things brought up to the Town, and thereby invites North-Wales by the way of Barter, and otherwise, to trade [Page 161]with them. The like will be at Hereford to those Welsh Countreys I name, if once Hereford were setled in a constant Trade; and that may be with ease done, when the River Wy is compleated, for then it will have the advantage of joyning its communication with other Rivers: As for Example, it will have all its goods and Siders carried to London, and Goods from London back by Water to Hereford, and so the charge of Carriage will be much lessened, and Trade much more impro­ved; for at the Head of Navigable Rivers there must and will be Trade, provided the River carriage comes once to be made certain and cheap: You may observe in the Map of Rivers in the Book, there is a kindness intended to Hereford; for it is taken into the association of the Rivers, and why it should be so, there are many Reasons may be given.

First, Hereford will suck in all Trade of the Welsh Counties before named; and there are vast quantities of Sider to come for London; provided the way take, of making the Rivers of England communicable, as in the Book and Map directed: Then Hereford will have a great benefit, for the Barges at Hereford may be in a constant motion, carrying and re-carrying Goods, and all such commodities the Countrey sends out, or hath occasion to want, and at very easie Rates; and I am sure it is a pity, and next unto a shame, that a Coun­trey that hath the best of Wool, the best of Sider, the best of Fruit, the best of Wheat, and the best of Ri­vers, should until this time be unimproved: But so it must for ever be, unless these things be done; A vo­luntary Register, Publick Granaries, your River Wy compleatly made Navigable, Schools as in Germany for young Maids to Spin, Bake-house and Brew-house [Page 162]to supply all People that are in the Manufacture; for Trade will go where she is most courted, and best pro­vided for; witness Holland, Legorn, Hambrough and Dantzick: So much for Hereford.

I am now for demonstrating the benefit that may come unto the poor decayed Clothiers of Worcester and Kidderminster, as also to the Cappers of Bewdley in their several Trades, provided they had Granaries to hold Corn in time of plenty; and that such Granaries were fitted and setled, as in my Book is directed: And I shall discover the great miseries each of these Trades now groan under, for want of certain and cheap Victu­als at all times, as Bread and Drink, with Moneys at low interest when they need it, to drive their Trades.

And first, as to the Trade of making Caps at Bewdley, it is grown so low, that great part of the Ancient Cap-makers in that Town are wholly decayed, and the rest at this present are in a very low condition; and the great poverty that is upon them, renders them to be at the mercy of the London-Factors which deal for Caps, that Trade being got into two or three Factors hands, and thereby force the makers to accept of such Rates as they please to give; whereby that Trade is much decay'd in that Town, and like in few years to fall to the ground: And at present there are but Two ways to relieve the People that make Caps in Bewdley.

The one is, to get themselves Incorporated by Act of Parliament, and therein get such a Law made, as may be for the benefit of the Trade in all particulars; and the Bill must, be so drawn, that the Traders and Makers of Caps may come under such a Regulation, as may conduce to the benefit of the Trade in general: If they prepare their Parliament-Man to be their Friend, [Page 163]to carry in the Bill next sitting of Parliament, it will do well.

The second way to do that Trade good, is by their joining together, and procuring part of a Granary at Stratford upon Avon, to put in Corn and Malt when it is cheap, and there to remain for food at all times when they have occasion to use it; and at Stratford or there­abouts is always the best and cheapest Wheat and Malt in all them parts of England; and from Stratford to Bewdley it will be carried for one Peny the Bush­el, they having free passage through the Locks and Slu­ces upon Avon, without paying any Tax for the same; the which shall be granted, provided I can prevail with my Partners in that River to remit their shares: And when there is Corn in Bank, there is a Joseph in Egypt; and Corn and Malt being taken into Granary when cheap, as this year is, then the Capper and his Family cannot possibly eat dear Bread, nor drink dear Drink, and thereby he will be able to drive his Trade with ease and Comfort: But I must tell the poor Cap-makers not only the benefit of the Corn in Granaries laid up in cheap times, but I must also tell him, because he is my Neighbour, That there is another piece of good Hus­bandry to be used after the Corn is fixt in the Bank, and that is a material thing to Trades-men, and to poor men that work in all sorts of Handicrafts; at first you will look upon it as a slight thing, but when you have well weighed and considered of the Reasons, you will say it must be: And when you once have it in use, nei­ther you nor any that come after you, will let it fall.

You must have a Bake-house and Brew-house of your own, appropriated for your Trade, which must be fixt and set up both together, with some small Granaries to [Page 164]hold your Corn and Malt; and from this Bake-house, and Brew-house, at all times you will receive such Bread and Drink as you have occasion to use, or as your part of Corn and Malt comes unto, which you have in Gra­nary: and the benefits of this Bake-house and Brew-house will be many.

First, The Corn out of the Granary at Stratford, will be brought and lodged in Granary at the Bake-house, as there is occasion to make use of it, and there­by prevent the loss and damage that it would be lyable to, being taken into every Mans private House.

Secondly, All Bread and Drink being made and pro­vided in this Publick Bake-house and Brew-house, will cause the Trades-mans Wife, and Servants, to be at much more leisure to attend their Trades; for great part of the Womans time is taken up in providing Bread and Drink, getting Fewel, running about to get Yeast or Barm, as they call it, and sometimes stay to crack a Pot or two with the good Host that allows them Yeast.

Thirdly, This way of a Bake-house and Brew-house to be used for the benefit of the Trade, will prevent all the charge that Trades-men in the Countrey are put unto in buying, and providing all things wanting for these purposes; as also the Trades-men will not be ne­cessitated for so great a House, as now he must of ne­cessity have; nor to sit at so great a Rent as now he doth: But I know this Publick Brew-house and Bake-house, will meet with a smart objection from most of the Cappers Wives that now Brew their own Beer, and that is this, Sir, we Brewing our own Beer, we have Grains for our Pigs, and we cannot be without a Hog or Two. My answer is, That from the Publick Brew-house, [Page 165]they will have their proportion of Grains ac­cording as they put in their quantities of Malt; and if you Brewed your Beer your self, you could have no more: But I know I can please the Cappers Wives, in telling them what will come to pass, if they have Corn in these Bank-Granaries, and Publick Brew-houses.

1. The Malt Brewed in great quantities, makes much more, and better Drink, than if Brewed in many and small parcels.

2. When you have Corn and Malt in Granaries, nei­ther▪you nor your Family need to eat or drink dear Bread or Drink.

3. Bank-Corn will alway be ready Moneys in your Purses, it being a thing that you may Transfer, and so alter the property, by entring it with the Clerk of your Company.

Thirdly, When there is good store of Corn and Malt in Bank, if the Man dies, leaving Five or Six Children, the Widow shall not want for a Husband; for there being sufficient Bread and Drink for Three years in Bank, the Children and Apprentices will be a great benefit to the party that Marries the Widow, and so go on comfortably in their Trades: But let a Man as things now are, leave his Wife a Hundred pounds, and dye, and leave her Six Children, she may stay long e­nough for a Husband; for this Hundred pound possi­bly is at interest, and as things are now with us, a Man cannot get one Debt in Three without a Lawyer, and not one in Three to be had without apparent hazard: Now this Bank-Corn Credit will never be questioned: so the Man being sure of that as undeniably his own, he will be the easier induced to take the Widow, if she hath a few faults; but to take a Widow with indiffer­ent [Page 166]conditions, many Children, and her Husbands E­state very hazardous, and uncertain to be recovered, is not prudence.

Fourthly, Your Corn in Bank is free from all incum­brances, and so frees you from Lawyers, or the charge attending it, and thereby it will give you credit of ta­king up Moneys at all times to drive your Trades; Corn in Bank is Money in Purse, nay better.

I will give you one instance: suppose Mr. Wowen of Bewdley hath One thousand quarters of Wheat in the Bank-Granary at Stratford upon Avon, which now is worth but One thousand pound; Mr. Women hath oc­casion for Moneys to drive his Trade, he gives notice in Town he wants Five hundred pounds, and will give Bank-Credit in Corn for it; immediately tumbles out the Moneys unimployed, and is lent to Mr. Wowen, and the property of Corn by way of Mortgage is Transfer­red to Five Persons that lent the Moneys; one of the Persons that lent Mr. VVowen one of the Hundred pounds, ows Mr. Simon VVood One hundred pounds, Mr. Wood calls for his Moneys, his debtor saith he hath no Moneys, he must stay: No, saith Mr. Wood, I will not, I will sue you for it: Then the Debtor proffers his Ticket of Bank-Corn to Mr. VVood, Mr. VVood ac­cepts of the security, and Transfers the same to his Creditor in London whom he owes Money to; the Cre­ditor accepts of it; Why? because he finds it Registred at the Guild-hall, and it is to him ready Moneys any hour in the day, if he want Moneys; but if he doth not want Money, then he suffers it to go on, increasing in Bank, until he hath occasion to use it: And I hope here is no harm done. But I will drive this Nail a little further: Suppose this Creditor in London of Mr. Simon [Page 167]VVoods, Marries a Daughter, Do you think that this Bank-Ticket of Corn in Granary will not pay part of the portion? Or suppose Mr. VVoods Creditor dies, and leaves to his Wife and Children a Thousand pounds in Tickets of Bank-Corn in Granary, do you not think it is the best visible security extant? Yea it is. Do you not think that his Widdow may Marry again to a better advantage, than if this Thousand pounds were owing by several Persons by Book-Debts? I pray, do you think this security by Bank-Corn in Granary, would not of a sudden enliven Trade, and make it quick? I say it will, and will be the only security of England: And if ever any such thing were desirable, just now is the time; for all Trades are in a consumption, all se­curities of Lands uncertain, and personal-security very difficult, and Suits of Law daily multiplied with great charges, and miserable spectacles, Prisons full, and ma­ny near perishing.

Now good Reader observe what benefits and advan­tages are here received, by this way of Bank-Corn in Granary; The poor Handicraft Man, Wife, Children, and Servants, are always fed with cheap Bread and Drink, and may be at leasure if they please, to follow their Trades the closer; because the whole trouble of buying Corn, Grinding, Brewing, Baking, and getting Fuel, is taken off their hands: It also prevents the lay­ing out Moneys in many things, which otherwise they must have done, if this Publick Brew-house and Bake-house had not been provided for them; it doth also give him ease in his Rent, for now a small House will serve his turn, and so a small Rent paid.

Observe how the party that hath this Bank-Credit in Corn doth convenience himself with Moneys when he [Page 168]wants it, and how the Ticket of his Bank-Corn pays the Country Mercer, and with the same Ticket, the Mercer pays the London Haberdasher, and with the same Ticket, the Haberdasher takes up Moneys at any time, if he pleaseth; or if he thinks fit, he Marrieth his Daughter, and gives Bank-Corn in lieu of a Portion; or if he dies, it is a good firm setled maintenance for his Wife and Children; and One thousand pound thus setled, may prove better to the poor Widow and her Children, than Five thousand pounds of any other of her Husbands Credits that lies out.

And here would rise a Miracle, if the Cappers of Bewdley should turn Bankers; What? the poorest Trade of England! Yes, they may, and prove a truer, and possibly, a better Bank than ever was seen in Eng­land; for all Banks which have good Anchoridg and Foundation, into such Banks will tumble all unim­ployed Cash. If the Cappers come once to have Corn in Bank, to the value of Two thousand pounds, imme­diately their Neighbours will desire to come into their association: And I know there are some near Bewdley, that have Moneys good store. What is here set down for the Cap-makers of Bewdley, is also intended for the Weavers of Kidderminster, who are in great fear of the Factors, as they say; but I will tell no tales.

But this I know, if the poor Weavers of Kidder­minster, had a propriety in a Granary at Stratford up­on Avon, and a Brew-house and Bake-house at Kidder­minster, and Corn and Malt in time of plenty laid up, Then I am, and so they may be satisfied, that it was im­possible for that Trade, ever to depart from that Town; for cheap Drink, and cheap Bread at all times, will make cheap Commodities: And then the poor at Kid­derminster [Page 169]need not fear being crushed or kept under by such as have great Stocks; for in England at this day, in many places, the Richer sort of Men in the handicraft way, who have great Stocks, do so order their affairs, that it's impossible for a poor Man to raise or advance his fortunes, or get any thing to leave his Wife at his decease, or Portions for his Children; be­cause he that hath the great Stock, buys all his materi­als at the best hand, and is able to keep his Goods for the best Market; but the poor Man is forced many times to buy his Materials he makes his Commodity with, of some of his own Trade, and is thereby forced to buy dear, and sell cheap; and certainly that way must make them poor, and very poor.

I have heard several times many of these great Deal­ers in the Handicraft-way, wish that some-body or o­ther would take their Poor off their Hands, and seem­ingly bemoan the sad condition they were in; I have enquired into those mens estates, and I have often found, that they were Merchants as well as Mechanicks, some of them buying Silks at the best hand, and selling it to the poor Weavers; others buy Wire, and then sell it to the poor of their own Trades to make Pins, and afterwards take off the Commodity when Manufactur­ed, and give them part Commodities unwrought, and part Moneys; by which way, the poor Handicraft Man is forc'd to let part of that which is gained in the Com­modity, go to one of his own Trade; and the cause of all this, is want of present Money or Credit, with cheap Bread and Drink: But I have heard of the other hand, great complaints by the labouring Mechanick, that the great Dealers of their own Trades did undo [Page 170]them. I will believe both parties, and take all for truth that is said of both hands; but seeing the great Masters of the Mechanick Trades, desire their Poor may be off their hands, I am resolved to take them at their words.

And now all you poor Men in England, that work or labour in Mechanick Arts, you are mine: I know now I shall have many questions asked me, and amongst the rest, What will you do with all these poor People which you say shall be yours? My answer is, I will make them all rich and happy, and their Families also.

I will now begin to shew them the way; but when they are Reading my Project, as most will call it, I or­der them to act like Soldiers, and command Silence; Suffer not your Wives to use any Twit-twat, nor ask questions by the way; but Read it over and over again, and then lay all your Heads together, Wife, Children, and Servants, and it's possible the younger Fry may live to see it Crown'd with a beautiful Blazing-head, as the Monument near London-Bridg is with the Urn.

Now my Children: for so I must call you, for I now will take care for you all (I will begin): Art thou for Revenge? I know thou art; for thou knowest where thy Shoo hath pinch'd thee long: Well, in this case, I think Revenge is lawful, because I know what thou wilt be at; but I ask thee this question, What is the Revenge that will best fit thy temper, and by thee is most desired? Sir, I desire to be revenged of some of the great Men of our Trade; but it is no further, than I may have some part of the benefit of the Trade as well as they; for it is not fit that some should have so much, and others so little, for it is we poor Men that have [Page 171]most Fingers. My Child, thou shalt have thy desire, if it be not thy own fault; I know you and such as you, with your Families, are the Persons that work, labour, and toyl to make others Rich: Now let me intreat thee to do the same for thy self, as thou didst for others; then believe me the work is done.

Now Child, I charge thee be a good Husband, for without that, all will be in vain; and that being per­formed by thee, here will be thy condition; when thou comest to have in thy possession Twenty pounds, ei­ther from thy Friends, or by thy own labour, then lay it into the Bank-Granary, some for Wheat, some for Malt; admit thou wast now to begin, for thy Twenty­pounds thou shalt have Six-score Bushels of Wheat, and Three-score Bushels of Malt: This Corn and Malt shall serve thee Three years, being Seven in Family, thy Self, Wife, a Man, a Maid, and Three Children. Now my dear Child, here is Bread and Drink sufficient, and that is a comfort; and thy self, Wife, Servants, and Children, at perfect liberty to follow your several and respective imploys; and certainly thou art a very bad Husband, if thou dost not on a sudden advance thy e­state, and get Moneys in Bank-Corn; because thou hast nothing to pay for Bread and Drink: But here lies a great objection to be answered, VVhat shall I do for Moneys to buy some Materials to set our fingers at work (for now all is in Malt and Corn)? I answer, thou maist at any time take up Ten or Twelve pounds, or more, upon a Mortgage of thy Bank-Corn, to buy Materials to work into Manufacture. Child, I charge thee tell this to thy VVife in Bed, and it may be she understanding the benefit that will be to her, and her [Page 172]Children by this way, she may turn Dutch-VVoman, and endeavour to provide some Moneys, which she will save to buy Corn: And by these two ways of having cheap Bread and Drink, and Credit out of the Bank, to take up Moneys at any time when wanting; certainly here thou wilt have sufficient Revenge of thy former Task-Masters. Consider, thy fingers and hands are thy own, and now they are imployed for thy bene­fit and advantage, and not for others, with cheap Bread and Drink, with Moneys at all times when want­ed; and if thou dyest, leaving a VVidow behind thee, assure thy self, my Daughter need not stay long for a Husband; for thou leaving her Bank-Corn, and good store of hands to work, there will be old striving for her, as there is for VVidows that have many Chil­dren in other parts, where this just, delightful, profit­able, saving, and honourable way is practised.

Secondly, Thou wilt unavoidably ruine Pawn-Bro­kers, and it is high time, or else they will by their great Interest ruine all the Poor; and to me it is no less then a Miracle, that the Pawn-Brokers had not long since ruin'd all the poor People in and about London, by high Interest, Marshals-VVrits, Imprisonments, and the dreadful effects now practised. Now Chil­dren, if you will pawn your Clothes, and take them out on Saturday Nights, and carry them in on Monday-Mornings, or pay Thirty or Fourty in the Hundred for your Moneys, I shall take no pity of you.

Thirdly, Thou wilt have no occasion for a Lawyer, but mayest follow thy business quietly if thou wilt, and be in a condition to augment the number of thy Hands, and so increase thy Estate, and be able to set at work the [Page 173]idle Poor which now Beg and Steal; then thy Neigh­bours will love thee for taking their Poor off them, and thou wilt increase in Riches, and at last it will be Strive as strive can, who shall have the Poor, even as now they strive at the Sessions-house for Persons to car­ry to Barbadoes or Virginia.—But my Child, remem­ber, it is thy Corn and Malt in Granary, and the Credit which that Corn and Malt gives thee, which is the cause of all this.

I will now leave this subject, only I must lay a charge upon all my Daughters, whose Husbands work in Me­chanick Arts, That they force their Husbands to eat good Wheaten-Bread, made of Corn that is taken out of the Bank-Granary; and also that they force them to drink good Ale and Beer, that is made of Malt taken out of the Bank-Granaries: But I know many will say, Here is a new way which was ne­ver heard of before, to prevent poverty, and the increase of beggary. No Friend, it is not so, there is a great City beyond the VVater, in the Civil-VVars was much destroyed, where this Rule, Order, and Government is now practised; and it was high time for that place to fall on this way, for the VVars had wholly beggar'd them: Necessity many times brings good things to pass; I pray God this may be the time with us. Necessities force hard, and decay in Trade comes posting on. I must now mind all my Children, who labour in the Mechanick Art, who are resolved to have Corn for Bank-Credit, of a Story, being a worthy Mans observation in Holland, which [Page 174]the Bank at Amsterdam sends to the Par­ties who lent them Moneys,Sir William Temple. to come and fetch their Moneys lent, with In­terest, they come with Tears in their Eyes, de­siring them to continue it longer: If this Bank-Credit by Corn Granaries were here well fixt, the very like would be with the Mechanicks who have Corn in Bank, there being no Security at present to be had, comparable to what this would be.

I must desire my Children, or some of them which can well spare Moneys, to buy a Book of Trade, late­ly set out by a worthy Gentleman, where­in you will perfectly see,Mr. Roger Cook. That all Trades must, and will flourish, according as the means is used in promoting them; and that Rule, Order, and Policies in Trade, by Sea and Land, Ease, Cheapness, with conveniences for Trade, have been the means of setting up the Dutch to this great growth and strength they are now at: And in Reading that Book, you will perfectly see, as in a Glass, your own condition as now it is; as also what it would be, if the thing I treat upon were here well fixt by a good Law.

Now I will take a step to Worcester, and Discourse the poor Clothiers there; but I know they are all of one Lip, a bad Trade, and they do not know when it will mend, neither do they know which way it may be mended; well, because they are Neighbours, and Countrey-men, I will take in the Clothiers of VVor­cester, vvith the Cap-makers of Bewdley, and Stuff-Weavers of Kidderminster; and as they are Neigh­bours in one County, and deal all in the VVool, so [Page 175]I will fix them all together in One Granary at New-Brunswick, near Stratford upon Avon: And for that they shall have equal benefit in all things relating to the said Granary, I have here drawn the form of the Bill to be presented to the Parliament, for the building and ordering the Bank-Granary, and the Corn at New-Brunswick which shall be put therein, with all persons thereunto related.

BE it enacted by the Kings most Excellent Majesty, by and with the consent of the Lords spiritual and temporal, and the Commons in this present Parliament assembled, and by the Authority of the same, That it shall and may be lawful to and for the Incorporated-compa­nies of Clothiers of the City of VVorcester, and Town of Kidderminster, with the company of Cappers of the Town of Bewdley in the said County, to erect and build one or more Granaries at New-Brunswick, near the Bridg at Stratford upon Avon, in the County of Warwick, being the Lands of Sir John Clapton Knight, to hold and keep Corn of all sorts, for the use and bene­fit of the said companies of Clothiers and Cappers; and that the said companies may have and take Lands suffi­cient to make a good and sufficient High-way for Carts and other Carriages, to come to and from the said Gra­nary, or Granaries, provided the said companies of Clo­thiers and Cappers first pay, or cause to be paid to Sir John Clapton, or his Assigns for so much Land as they shall use, or have occasion for, not under Thirty years [Page 176]purchase; and in case there shall arise any difference about the value of the Land so to be made use of, then it shall be in the power of the Mayor of Stratford upon Avon, and any two of the Aldermen of the said Town, to set down and award how much Moneys shall be paid for the quantity of Land to be made use of; and such order being made, Signed, and Sealed, by the said Mayor and Aldermen, shall bind all Parties concerned, and their Heirs.

And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That all Corn and parcels of Corn in Granary, shall be affixed, and writ in a plain Table, and in the said Gra­nary hung up to be viewed by any that desire to see the same; and that all such Corn when in Granary, may be transferred by the party owning the same, with the Re­gister of the said Granary, being fairly entred into a Book to be kept for that purpose.

And be it further enacted, that no Sale, Mortgage, or any other Act shall be good for any Corn brought into Bank-Granary, unless entred with the said Re­gister.

And be it further enacted, That all Corn or Malt laid up in the said Granary, or Granaries at New-Brunswick, which is the proper Corn of the said companies, may pass down the River of Avon, into the River of Seavern, through all Locks, Sluces, Wears, or Turn-picks, with­out paying any Tax or Tunage for the same, pro­vided that they the said companies of Cothiers and Cappers first get License under the Hands and Seals of the Right Honourable Thomas Lord Windsor, [Page 177]Andrew Yarranton Gent.) and the rest who have an In­terest in the said River of Avon to pass as aforesaid, and after such Licence obtained, free and quiet passage shall be and remain unto the said Companies of Clothiers and Cappers, and to their Successors for ever for all such Corn as shall be taken out of the said Granary.

Now my Loving Countrymen I must leave you, and at Christmas when you have time to Chat by the Fire with your Wives, then let Nic. Baker at Worcester, Sim. Wood at Bewdley, and Ned Momford at Kidderminster be your Oracles, and discourse of this Affair of Corn in Granary. And in the mean time I will fetch a March up Avon and so up Stower to Shopson, and from thence to Ban­bury, and so down the Sharwel to Oxford, and so down Thames to London, and I will see whether Thames River may be so perfected as Trade by a Water Carriage may be made Communicable and Easy, and I will Do my utmost endeavour to find out some convenient place up­on the Sharwel to build Granaries.

But I must Beg leave, in the first place, that I may give some Reasons, which have occasioned the Abate­ment of Trade in the City of London, and when I have done with them, then I will apply the best Re­medyes that lye in my knowledge, how the Trade may be recovered into the City again, whereby it will clearly appear, that Trade will be forc't to come and take her a­boad in the City of London as formerly.

1. Reason, In the Building the City of London, there were two great Errors committed, one was of Omission, the o­ther of Commission; That of Commission is, The Build­ings being made so great, thereby the Rents were very High, (at first) and when a Tradesman had paid his Fine, fixt his Counters and Presses, and furnished his house, accord­ing [Page 178]as his Wife pleased to have it, or as he thought fit to have it furnished to get a Wife, that great Charge be­ing at first Contracted, did so lessen the Tradesmans Stock, that many were forc't to go into the Suburbs, and some into the Countries. The thing of Omission, was the Neglect of putting Houses to be new built under a Register, when the Act past for Building the City, the Credit of which if done, would have been better than Ready Moneys; for by vertue of such undeniable Securi­ty as Registred Houses, Banks (yea many just Banks) and Lumber Houses would have sprang up, which had so enliven'd Trade, and preserved the Poor out of the hands of the Usurers, and pawn-Brokers, that the City would have been like a Bee Hive, all would have crept in as long as there was any room, and when no more room, then they would have swarm'd abroad.

II. Reason is, The very great Charge which some Com­panies put their Members to in the City of London proves many times the ruine of some poor Tradesmen.

III. The severe customs and practices that some of the greatest Traders in the Mechanick Arts, use unto some of their own Trade, by scruing and pinching them in such things they sell them in their necessity. But I will say no more of that, here being Relief to be had in that case, for all the poor that work in the Mechanick way, if it be not their faults.

IV. There is no care taken for the amendment of the River Lee, which runs from Ware to Bow, in all dry times much out of order, nor any notice or regard taken of the great defects that are in the Navigation▪ up­on the River Thames, from Oxford to London, which River would be the best Servant the City hath, if com­pleated as it ought to be. If I were a Doctor, and could [Page 179]read a Lecture of the Circulation of the Blood, I should by that awaken all the City: For London is as the Heart is in the Body, and the great Rivers are as its Veins; let them be stopt, there will then be great danger either of death, or else such Veins will apply themselves to feed some other part of the Body, which it was not properly in­tended for: For I tell you, Trade will creep and steal away from any place, provided she may be better treated else­where. Consider the two great Rivers of England (viz.) Severne and Thames, they must be the occasion of admi­nistring the benefit of Trade to London; but as things now are with these Rivers, under their several defects and imperfections in their Navigations, these Rivers ad­minister very little benefit to London, or the Trade therein.

My whole Design at this time, and in this Sheet, is to relieve the honest poor laborious Handicraft Tradesman in the City of London, and thereby invite Trade into the City again, and also line out the way how it may be done, whereby it shall evidently appear, to be his own fault, if he be not rich and happy, and his Wife and Children after his Decease be left in a comfortable con­dition, with the great Advantages it will administer to such as shall be their Apprentices and Servants. But all you Handicraftsmen, whose Cause I here plead, must take especial notice of my Maxims: First, Remember Honesty and Honour is as necessary for Trade, as Disci­pline is for an Army. Secondly, Remember that Honour and Honesty bring Riches, Riches bring Strength, and Strength brings Trade. Thirdly, Observe and consider that all manufactured Commodities, made with cheap Materials, cheap Victuals, with Moneys at all times when wanted at easie Interest, and beneficial Laws, well made [Page 180]and well applyed to the proper just ends of things ma­nufactured, will make cheap Commodities, and thereby increase the Manufactures to great quantities, and so in­crease the Trade. I have already shewed you in five se­veral particulars, some of the Causes which have forc'd Trade out of your City, some of them are not within the power either of the Law or your Magistrates to pre­vent, but some are; and these which may be done with ease, I question not but your Magistrates will use their endeavours to bring them to pass. The which are, put­ting all the New Buildings in the City of London under a Register, and procuring a Law to pass, to enable the several Companies of Handicraft Tradesmen in London, hereafter mentioned, to have power to make the River Sharwell Navigable from Oxford to Banbury, to build Granaries to hold Corn, with Mills or any other En­gines to go by Water, to be made use of for the good and benefit of the several Companies, whereby Art will be incouraged, and Trade convenienced. The Names of the Companies are as followeth; and the Copy of the Bill to be carried into Parliament, for the accomplish­ing of the same follows after; The Company of Wea­vers, the Company of Pin-Makers, the Company of Turners, the Company of Water-men, the Company of Silk-Throwers, the Company of Felt-Makers, the Company of Pavers, the Company of Cloth-Workers, the Company of Plasterers, the Company of Joyners, the Company of Embroiderers, the Company of Brick-Layers, the Company of Smiths, the Company of Ar­mourers, and the Company of Carpenters.

The Form of the Bill to be carried into Parlia­ment, for the making of the River Sharwell Navigable from Oxford to Banbury, and for building Publick Granaries near the said Ri­ver, with liberty to set up Mills and Engines to go by Water, for the use and benefit of the several Companies of the Handicraft Trades in the City of London, called by the Names of Weavers, Pin-Makers, Turners, Water-men, Silk-Throwers, Felt-Makers, Pavers, Cloth-Workers, Plasterers, Joyners, Embroiderers, Brick-Layers, Smiths, Armourers, and Car­penters.

WHereas it is evidently made appear, That all Manufactures in England may by the advantage of having constantly good and cheap Uictuals, as also ready Moneys at all times, to drive their several Trades, live comfortably, and thereby provide plentifully for their Wives and Children: And whereas it is lately found out and discovered, that the said Benefits may with much ease be made ap­plicable unto several of the Companies of Han­dicrafts within the City of London, and the way for the doing thereof, is to have liberty to make the River Sharwell Navigable from Ox­ford to Banbury, and to set up publick Granaries, [Page 182]and Engines near the said River, for the use of the said Companies. Therefore be it Enacted by the Kings most Excellent Majesty, by and with the consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and the Commons in this present Parliament Assembled, and by the Authority of the same, That it shall and may be lawful to and for the Incorporated Companies of Mea­vers, Pin-Makers, Turners, Mater-men, Silk Throwers, Felt-Makers, Pavers, Cloth-Mor­kers Plasterers, Ioyners, Embroiderers, Brick­layers, Smiths, Armourers, and Carpenters, to make the River Sharwell Navigable, from the City of Oxford to the Town of Banbury in the County of Oxford, and to build Granaries for holding of Corn, with liberty for making of Mills for grinding thereof, with Licence and leave to set up Engines to go by Mater, for the use and benefit of the several Trades mentioned in this Act. And for that it shall not be any ways prejudicial to the Owners of any Land which shall be Cut, or made use of for making the said River Navigable, or building the said Granaries, Hills, or Engines; Therefore be it Enacted, That it shall and may be lawful to and for the Lord Keeper, or Lord Chancellor of England, to grant a Commission under the Great Seal of England, thereby Authorising Fifteen of the knowingest able Gentlemen of the County of Oxford, to be Commissioners to set down and set­tle, what and how much shall be paid for the Lands so to be Cut or made use of, and the Mo­neys to be paid before there is any act or thing [Page 183]done, in cutting any of the said Lands so to be made use of: And it is further Enacted, That any Seven of the said Commissioners shall be sufficient to make or do any act, according to Iu­stice and good Conscience; and all Rules, Or­ders & Decrees being so made & done, shall bind all Parties concerned, & their Heirs, & all other Persons whatsoever. And be it further. Enact­ed, That all the Benefit of the said River Shar­well, and the Barges and Boats employed there­upon, with the Granaries, Hills, and Engines to be built, shall be and enure to the several Companies named in this Act, and to their Successors for ever. And be it further Enacted, That it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Companies, and their Successors, to put Corn in the said Granaries, and the same to be Registred with the Clark of each Company, as to the time it was put in, and the nature, kind, and quantities of the said Corn: And from and after such time the said Corn is in Granary, no Sale, Mortgage, or Conveyance shall be good, but such as is Entered with the Clark of the particular Companies, and at the Guild-Hill with the Register there employed for that pur­pose: And in case any of the said Parties dye, having Corn in Bank, it shall go and enure one Third part to the Midow of the Party deceased, the other two Third parts thereof, to be dirided share and share like, amongst all the Children of the Party deceased, only the youngest Child ex­cepted, which shall have one share and a half be­ing in most necessity, the better to help to breed him or her up: And that the Husband is, and [Page 184]shall be for ever disabled to make any Incum­brance upon the said Corn in Bank, without the consent of his Wife, and she joining with him under her Hand, and Entred in the Clark of the Companies Book, and with the Register at the Guild-Hall, then the property of the said Bank Corn shall be legally altered, and not otherwise, any Law, Statute, Usage, or Custom to the contrary notwithstanding.

In reading my Book of England's Improvement by Sea and Land, you will see the Causes laid open and plain of the decay of Trade, and Manufactures in England, and the Reasons of the low Rates, the things must of necessi­ty be sold for. I have already set and appropriated, the Clothiers of Worcester, the Weavers of Kidderminster and the Cappers of Bewdley, to have the benefit of a Granary near Stratford upon Avon; Now I am for fix­ing the several Companies of London who work in the laborious Arts, in Granaries upon the River Sharwel, near Anslo Bridge in the County of Oxford, about seven Miles from Oxford. The Arms of the several Compa­nies are in the Map of Rivers in this Book affixed, where­in you may plainly see, That if the River Sharwel were once made Navigable from Oxford to Anslo Bridge, and the Granaries built in that place for the several Com­panies, then all the Rich Corn Countries toward Ban­bury and Brackley, would be on the Back-side of the Granaries, and would at all times supply the Grana­ries with good Corn, and at cheap Rates, those Parts be­ing the only places for good Corn and plentiful in England, and the Corn may be ground at Mills to be built close by the Granaries, upon the River Sharwel and the Meal and Mault carried down by Water to Lon­don, and there baked and brewed into Bread and Drink; [Page 185]and the Corn and Mault taken and put into Granary, in times that Corn is cheap, will cause the poor Trades­men never to eat dear Bread or Drink dear Drink, and upon the Credit of his Bank Corn he will be able to take up Moneys at all times, to drive his Trade. And then by vertue of cheap Bread and cheap Drink, with Credit out of Bank, with the advantage he may have of employ­ing many hands, both Children and Servants, the Mecha­nick Artificer must then of necessity (if a good husband) advance his Fortunes: And this way, and this way alone is the true way of bringing the Trade again into the City of London. And the Granaries being once well set­tled, and Corn therein well fixt, happy is he then that can get the Poor of S. Gyles or Cripplegate to be by him employed. I will now give you one Instance what this way of Corn and Mault in Granary will do, if once well fixt at Anslo Bridge in Oxfordshire, with Mills to grind Corn, and Engines set up there to go by Water, to ac­commodate Trade. Suppose I were to make Pins, I know that is the smallest Manufacture that is now made, and there are many Poor of that Trade, that make hard shift to live, I think I could make Pins three pence in the Shilling cheaper than they can now be made in London, by the greatest Dealers in that Trade, and all done by the Poor People that are now chargeable to the Parish. The manner and way of making the Pins so cheap, is or may be very obvious, if People are not ignorantly blind. First, the Wyer must be bought at the best hand, and sent to Anslo Bridge, and there drawn and made sizeable and fit to make all sorts of Pins; and this to be done by the force and power of a Water Wheel, which will draw more Wire in one day, than six men can by the way used by arm labour in the same time. Secondly, These Poor to make Pins must be fixt and settled near the Granaries at Anslo Bridge, there to work by good Rules and strict Orders. [Page 186]Thirdly, There they must have a publick Brew-house and Bake house, then all Bread and Drink will be made very cheap; and when the Pins are made, they are in the heart of England, and may be sent down the River Avon into Severne, and so for Bristol, Ireland, and Westchester; and in the way of barter, the Pin-Makers may have Cheese from Chester, and Bacon from Shrewsbury for Pins; and the Cheese and Bacon may be brought down the River Severne, and up the River Avon, and so to Anslo Bridge by Land, to feed the Pin-Makers. And all this will be per­formed at far easier and much cheaper Rates than Cheese and Bacon are sold for at London. Now if Bread and Drink may always be had at half the Rate at Anslo Bridge, for the Pin-Makers, as they pay at London for it, and if the Wyer be drawn cheaper at Anslo Bridge than now it is at London, and if good Cheshire Cheese and Bacon can be had at Anslo Bridge, at cheaper Rates than at London, and House Rent at half the Rate as at London, all these things being put together will certainly be the means of making Pins three pence in the Shilling cheaper at Anslo Bridge, than now they are, or can be made in London: And for hands to work, every Parish abounds in Poor; and would willingly be freed of them. But observe, if bread and drink were always certain and cheap at London, for the benefit of the Mechanick Trades, and well settled, to be at all times de­livered to the Members of the several Companies, then in London could be no Poor, nor want of Trade; for then men would strive who should employ most hands, he that employed most would get most. Suppose you were at this time to begin to put your Corn and Mault into Gra­nary at Anslo Bridge, there you may have sixscore Bushels of Wheat, and threescore Bushels of Malt for twenty pounds; and such quantity being laid in will maintain a Family of seven Persons with bread and drink for three years, which is but twenty Shillings per year for each [Page 187]Person. And as things are managed in London, and near London, take three years together, one year with another, it is not less than three Pounds per year that maintains a man in bread and drink. But you will say, these are good things, but we shall never see them come to pass, but (if done) I confess it would relieve all the Poor in the City, and increase the Trade, and draw Trade into the City again, and would be the great benefit of the Wid­dows, and the Fatherless, and prevent the Pawn-brokers from Raking and Screwing the Poor as now they do: Well I will acquaint you, that there are some Persons that have for some years last past foreseen the Misery that would unavoidably come upon the Mechanick Trades in the City of London, and there hath been much Pains taken, and some Moneys expended by surveying the River Thames, and the Sharwell, to find if they might be so made Navigable, and Communicable with the River Severne and Avon, that thereby a large Trade might be brought to the City of London, and all Poor Mechanicks fed with cheap bread and cheap drink; and it is very evident, that if the River Thames were perfected, and made compleatly Navigable, as it ought to be, and the Sharwel made Navigable, as is prescribed, only to Anslo Bridge, then the great things here mentioned would come to pass for the benefit of the Ci­ty, as to the inlarging of its Trade, and accommodating the persons working in the Mechanick-Arts; and reliev­ing the whole Mass of Poor that are in and about the City of London, who now want not only work, but bread al­so, which is a great reproach, besides the damage it brings to the Publick. You have here a Copy of the Petition, which is now in my hands to be delivered to the Kings Majesty, for perfecting the Navigation upon the River Thames, as it ought to be done; with the Water mens Grievances, which are many. I having this [Page 188]Summer surveyed the River Thames from Oxford to London, and my Son twice, and the River Sharwel al­so, we find the Water-men much abused, being forc't to pay several Taxes, at several Sluces betwixt Oxford and Burcot, that part of the River being made Naviga­ble in the 21. of King James, and by that Law all Peo­ple and Barges are to pass and repass without Tax. And we find that the great defects in not compleating the said River, with the charge, trouble, and delays occasioned thereby, is a great hindrance to the Trade of London, and many other parts also: The Damage whereof to the City of London, Bargemen, Country-men, and Trade, is at least fifty thousand pounds yearly; The particulars how, I will make out, (if desired or commanded.) And it is a misery that the Barges should lye on ground a Month or six Weeks, as they did this year, and the poor Barge-Masters should be forc't all that time to maintain so many men, as of necessity they must; besides, the Tradesman in London wants the Commodity to sell.

To the Kings most Excellent Majesty, the humble Peti­tion of the Barge-Masters Westward upon the River of Thames, and their Servants, humbly sheweth,

THat in the one and twentieth Year of the Reign of King James of blessed Memory, there was an Act of Parliament pass'd, upon the humble Petition and desire of the City and University of Oxford, for making the River of Thames Navigable, from the said City to Burcott, and for maintaining the same at the charge of the said City and University; and by the said Act liberty is given, for Barge­men and Water-men to bring Barges and Boats up the said River, to carry and recarry all manner of Goods and Mer­chandises, for the good of the City of Oxford, and the Pub­lick; And of late years the Right Honourable Thomas Lord Windsor, and others, have made Navigable the River of [Page 189]Avon, in the Counties of Worcester, Gloucester, and War­wick, and are about making some other Rivers Navigable, which when finished will tend much to the benefit of Trade between Cheshire, Shropshire, Herefordshire, Worcester­shire, Gloucestershire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, Oxford­shire, Bristol, and most part of Wales to London, by carry­ing Commodities down the River Severne, and so up the River Avon, and from thence to Oxford by Land, and so to Lon­don by Water, whereby the High-ways and Bridges will be preserved, and the Goods carried and recarried at two thirds of what they now pay by Land, which will be of great ad­vantage to Trade. But may it please your Majesty, so it is, that the River Thames is not as yet made perfectly Naviga­ble as it ought to be, and as it was intended by the Act of Parliament, whereby the City of Oxford, and the rest of your Majesties Subjects and Barge-men are deprived of the be­nefit intended them by the said Navigation, and many times the Barges lye on ground three Weeks or a Month together for want of water, which might be prevented by making three Holds for water in the River Sharwell near Oxford, to be let down as flushes in dry times, as also one Lock to be made at Swift Ditch, one pair of Gates at Sutton, one Turn­pike a Mile below Sutton, with two Flushes to be taken out of the River Kennet, with two places to be made for Flushes, one near Windsor, the other near Chersey, all which being done, will so plentifully supply the River with water, that not only the Barges coming from Oxford and Abington, but many other places, will have the benefit thereof, and bring them clear to London without stay. The Premisses considered, your Petitioners most humbly pray, that your Majeshy will be graciously pleased to appoint Mr. Robert Yarranton, a person able in that Affair, to survey the defects of the said Navi­gation, and to make Report thereof from time to time, to the Commissioners appointed for the same: And that your Maje­sty will be graciously pleased to signify unto the said Commissioners [Page 190]your pleasure, that so good a Work may be forthwith perfected, according as is directed in the said Act; and that your Majesties Subjects and Barge-men may have the bene­fit of passing and repassing with their Goods and Barges up and down the said River from Oxford to Burcott, without paying any Tax or Imposition for the same, unless by Law due; and that Orders and Rules may be made by the Com­missioners, for the good and well Governing both of the Na­vigation, Millers, and Bargemen, as is by the Act directed: And your Petitioners, as in duty bound, shall daily Pray, &c.

When the River Thames is perfectly made Navigable to Oxford, as it ought to be, then to make the River Sharwell Navigable unto Anslo Bridge, will cost about 2500 l. the building of four Granaries, each Granary to hold fourteen thousand Quarters of Corn, six thousand pounds (all Materials being very dear in that place) for building of Mills, and some Wheels to draw Wire, and for other use 500 l. for building of twenty Houses for habitation for persons employed about the Trade and in the Granaries 2000 l. all which is ten thousand pounds, which is but one Shilling a piece from each man of the several Companies, the Number thereof being two hun­dred thousand persons, as they themselves say. If these Granaries were fixt, some other Companies may go up the little River to Whitney and build Granaries there; and some may go up the Thames as far as Ratcot-bridge, and build Granaries there; and so the good Corn growing in the heart of England would be applyed to London, which will so convenience the people working in the several Ma­nufactures, that the Trade will wholly return to the City again; for hands being maintained at work with cheap Victuals, will make cheap Commodities, and cheap Com­modities will enlarge Trade. I intend to write one Sheet, more particularly setting forth the way of bringing the Trade to London again, and feeding the Poor with cheap [Page 191]bread and drink; which you shall have printed on the one side of a Sheet of Royal Paper, and on the other side a Map of the Rivers which will be serviceable to the De­sign, with the places convenient and fit to build Grana­ries, with the Arms of the several Companies in the said Map. One of each Map being set in a Frame is intend­ed to be sent to each Hall in London, there to receive the opinions of such as the benefit of Granaries is intended for. In the multitude of Councellors there is safety.

Now I must make a step to Westchester, and endeavour to find out how the River Dee may be made so Navigable to Bangor-bridge, that thereby it may be made commu­nicable with the River Severne. In the Month of July 1674. I was prevailed with by a Person of Honour to sur­vey the River Dee, running by the City of Chester into the Irish Sea, and finding the River choked with the Sands that a Vessel of twenty Tuns could not come to that No­ble City, and the Ships forc'd to lye at Neason, in a very bad Harbour, whereby the Ships receive much damage, and Trade made so uncertain and chargeable, that the Trade of Chester is much decayed, and gone to Leverpool; and that old great City in danger of being ruin'd, if the River Dee be not made Navigable by Act of Parliament, and Ships brought to the City. I have formerly drawn a Map of the New River to be made to bring up the Ships to the City side, which Map was presented to the Duke of York by the Lord Windsor, and Colonel Warden, and therein the Reasons are inserted, how it may be done, and the advan­tage it will be to Trade, and the City also. The Map is now at Chester in the keeping of the Mayor. His Highness the Duke of York was pleased to promise the recommend­ing of it to the Parliament, for the making it Navigable. And if it were made to Chester Navigable by a new Cut, as is in the Map prescribed, there would be three thousand Acres of Land gained out of the Sea, and made rich land, [Page 192]besides the Coles from Aston will be brought to the City of Chester by Water, which now are brought by land, and all Goods and other things carried and recarried from England to Ireland, and from Ireland into England, with much less charge than now it is. And Dee being made Navigable to Bangor-bridge, will be a means to make the River Severne helpful to convey all Goods to London, by sending it down the River Severne, and up the River A­von, and so down the Thames to London; whereby much moneys will be saved, and Trade advanced. The River Dee must be taken up with a very strong Wear, over a­gainst the Water Gate of the City of Chester, and so the River Dee must be carried in a large Cut or Trench through the lands below Alderman Wrights House, along the Sands, as far as Flint Castle, and then dropt by a large Cut, into the Deep Water below the Brewhouse. There must also be a Cut drawn along the welch shore, and so from Aston Pits, and dropt into the Main Trench, there­by the waste water, that comes from the Hills and Moun­tains will be voided, and the Coles that are now carried by Land to Chester will then be carried by water, and at least 1000 l. per Ann. saved in Carriage; This Trench must be very large, that two Ships may Sail one by the o­ther, and the Sea Banks must be made very Firm and Strong, not upright, but very much sloaping. There must also be made five very strong Locks or Sluces of Stone, which is there very necessary, at the end of the Trench. This will be done for 15000 l. The River Dee being let down upon a sudden through the great Trench, will cause the Sands to fly and deepen the Channel, and there­by make the Harbour safe, and help to open and deepen the Bar. But it must be done when the Tyde is going out, and when the Wind bloweth hard at East, with a strong fresh of Water coming off the Mountains. The Map discovering the whole Design is hereunto Affixed.

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REader, I beg thy pardon, if I have kept thee long in reading this Discourse; but I hope thou wilt not be angry: for when I put Pen to Paper, I intended to be brief. I know there are many, before they have well weighed the Contents of this Book, will think that it may much shake their Interests, and so will be enqui­ring after the Compiler, and of his Education: And how it is possible that one man should know all that is in this Book asserted; and will say these are notions of a hot Brain. I know others, whose Sores are great, and Wounds dangerous, and desire a cure thereby to live at peace (both in their Estates and Persons) will be apt to ascribe more to the Compiler than is due. For in this Age most of the present humours are to detract, and abuse, where Interest is pinched or laid open to the World; and on the other hand too much to cry up and extol those that expect benefit and relief. As to both sorts of Inquisitors, I will save them a labour, and give them a short Account of my Education and Improvement. I was an Apprentice to a Linnen Dra­per when this King was born, and continued at the Trade some years: But the Shop being too narrow and short for my large mind, I took leave of my Master, but said nothing. Then I lived a Countrey-life for some years, and in the late Wars I was a Soldier, and sometimes had the Honour and Misfortune to lodg and dislodg an Army: In the year One thousand Six hun­dred Fifty two, I entred upon Iron-works, and pli'd them several years, and in them times I made it my bu­siness [Page 194]to survey the three great Rivers of England, and some small ones; and made two Navigable, and a third almost compleated. I next studied the great weakness of the Rye-lands, and the Surfeit it was then under by reason of their long Tillage. I did by Pra­ctick and Theorick find out the reason of its defection, as also of its recovery, and applyed the remedy, in put­ting out Two Books which were so fitted to the Coun­trey-mans capacity, that he fell on Pell-Mell; and I hope, and partly know, that great part of Worcester­shire, Glocestershire, Herefordshire, Shropshire, and Staf­fordshire, have doubled the value of the Land, by the Husbandry discovered to them: See my Two Books Printed by Mr. Sawbridg on Ludgate-hill, Entituled, Yarranton's Improvement by Clover, and there thou maist be further satisfied. I also for many years served the Countreys with the Seed, and at last gave them the knowledg of getting it with ease and small trouble; and what I have been doing since, my Book tells you at large: And as to any that are my enemies upon the ac­count of this Subject, or of such as speak, or assert my pains to be to them acceptable, both parties are to me a-like; I only wish, and pray, that what is here treat­ed upon, may by the Powers above us, be seriously considered of; and if it be found it tends to the benefit of this present Age, and for the good of the Genera­tions to come, then let them pursue the ends to bring it to pass. If any Gentleman, or other, please to put Pen to Paper, in opposition to what is here asserted; I shall give him a Civil return, bound up with the Second part: where these Seven Heads shall be Treated on:

1st, Demonstrate, and make it appear, That England and Ireland are the only Northern-Kingdoms unim­proved.

2dly, Discover, That it is a great and wonderful providence of God, it is so at this time.

3dly, Shew how England may be improved in all its parts to Thirty years purchase; and how things may be fitted for the doing thereof; as also how Ireland may be brought to Twenty years purchase, and made as use­ful to England, and of as great strength, as Norway is to Denmark.

4thly, Where Manufactures may be fitted, and where setled, and how they must be ordered for the benefit of the Kingdom, and Trade Universal.

5thly, Shew how, and where all manner of Naval-Stores are to be had and provided at Three fifths they now cost the King, with the way, means, and manner of accomplishing them.

6thly, How to imploy Six thousand young Lawyers, and Three thousand Priests, for the good of the Pub­lick, and mankind, vvho novv have neither practice nor cure of Souls.

7thly, VVith Observations of the Balance of Europe, and of the Publick Banks therein, vvith their Use, Or­der, Rule, and Riches.

FINIS.

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