LONDON: Printed by R. Roberts for the Author. MDCLXXXIX.

IMPRIMATUR, Liber cui Titulus [A brief Expo­sition of the Church-Catechism].

H. Maurice Rmo in Christo P. D. Wilhelmo Archiep. Cant. à Sacris.
Decemb. 12. 1688.


AFter so pious a Design as you have laid, in Founding and Endow­ing a Catechetical Lecture in Westminster-Abbey, for the Instruction of the Youth under your Care, and my Three Years [Page]Employment therein; It may seem to be a mean account of it, to publish such an Exposition of our Church-Catechism as this is. But, setting aside my other endeavours in that way, I am not concerned to offer this to you, who, I know, estimate things, not according to their Bulk, but their Ʋse; and if by the brevity, order, and perspicuity aim'd at in this Exposition, I have contri­buted to so good an end, I am sure not to fail of your Approbation; and shall be encouraged to proceed [Page]in the finishing and publishing my larger Exposition for the use of those who have been before in­structed in this. I am,

Your Faithful Servant, John Williams.

¶ A Catechism, that is to say, an Instruction to be learned of every Person, before he be brought to be Confirmed by the Bishop.

PART I. Of the Baptismal Vow.

Q. What is your Name?

A. N. or M.

Q. Why is this Question first asked, What is your Name?

A. To put me in mind of the Faith I professed at my Baptism, when I first received my Chri­stian Name.

Q. Who gave you this Name?

A. My God-Fathers, and God-Mo­thers in my Baptism, wherein I was made a member of Christ, the Child of God, and an Inheritor of the Kingdom of Heaven.

Q. Why is it asked, Who gave you this Name?

A. To mind me of the Duty I then promised by my God-Fathers to perform.

Q. Why was your Christian Name given to you in Baptism?

A. Because I was then dedicated to Christ, and taken into Covenant with him. For the like reason the proper Name was given at Circumci­sion; as to Isaac, Gen. 21.3, 4. to John Baptist, Luk. 1.59. to our Saviour, Luk. 2.21.

Q. Why was your Name given you by God-Fathers?

A. As according to the ancient practice in the Jewish (a) and Christian Church, they became Wit­nesses and Sureties for my better performing what was then requir'd of me, (a) Isa. 8.2, 3.

Q. What are the Privileges you receive and are admitted to by Baptism?

A. The Privileges are three, as I was there­by made, 1. A Member of Christ: 2. The child of God: 3. An Inheritor of the Kingdom of Heaven.

Q. Why are you said to be made a Member of Christ, &c?

A. Because I was not so born (a), but made by Baptism (b); (a) Joh. 1.12, 13. As many as received him, to them he gave power [privilege] to become the Sons of God,—which were born not of blood, nor of the will of flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. (b) Joh. 3.5, 6. Except a man be born of Water, and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh, is flesh, &c.

Q. What is it to be a Member of Christ?

A. It's to be a member of Christ's Church: [Page 3]1 Cor. 12.12. As the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: so also is Christ, or the Chri­stian Church. Vers. 27. Ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular.

Q. Why is a Member of Christ's Church said to be a member of Christ?

A. Because the Church is the Mystical body of Christ (a), and Christ is the head (b) of that body: (a) Ephes. 1.22, 23. The Church which is his body. (b) Ephes. 5.23. Christ is the head of the Church.

Q. What is it to be a Child of God?

A. It's to be in Covenant with God. So the Jews were the children of God (a), and of the Cove­nant (b): (a) Deut. 14.1. (b) Act. 3.25.

Q. Why are you first said to be a Member of Christ, and then a Child of God?

A. Because it's through Christ I was made a child of God: Ephes. 1.5. Having predestinated us to the Adoption of children, by Jesus Christ to himself.

Q. What is it to be an Inheritor of the Kingdom of Heaven?

A. It's to be so by promise. Thus we are said to have what God has promised, and which we have a title to upon that promise: Joh. 3.36. He that believeth on the Son, hath everlasting life.

Q What did your God-Fathers and God-Mothers then for you?

A. They did promise and vow three things in my name: first, that I should renounce the Devil and all his works, the pomps and banity of this wiched World, and all the sin­ful lusts of the flesh. Secondly, that [Page 4]I should believe all the Articles of the Christian Faith. And thirdly, that I should keep Gods holy Will and Commandments, and walk in the same all the days of my life.

Q. What are you obliged to renounce?

A. The three spiritual enemies to my present welfare and future happiness.

Q. What are they?

A. The Devil, the world, and the flesh.

Q. What is it to renounce them?

A. It's inwardly to detest and actually to re­ject them, so as not to follow nor be led by them.

Q. What is the Devil?

A. The Devil is the name of all the fallen and lost Angels (a), of which one is the Prince (b): (a) 2 Pet. 2.4. God spared not the Angels that sinned, but cast them down to Hell. (b) Mat. 12.24, 27. Beelzebub, the Prince of the Devils.

Q. Why are you in the first place requir'd to renounce the Devil?

A. Because he is an irreconcilable enemy to our Saviour (a), and a very dangerous enemy to us (b): (a) Revel. 12.7. There was war in Hea­ven, Michael and his Angels fought against the Dra­gon, and the Dragon fought and his Angels. (b) 2 Cor. 6.15. 1 Pet. 5.8. Your adversary the Devil as a roaring Lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may de­vour.

Q. What is meant by the works of the Devil?

A. All sin: 1 Joh. 3.8. The Son of God was manifested that he might destroy the works of the Devil.

Q. Why is sin call'd the work of the Devil?

A. Because he first sinned (a), then seduced man [Page 5]to sin (b), and doth still tempt to it (c): (a) 1 Joh. 3.8. He that committeth sin is of the Devil; for the Devil sinneth from the beginning. (b) 2 Cor. 11.3. The Ser­pent beguiled Eve through his subtilty. (c) Eph. 6.11, 12. Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the Devil. For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against Princi­palities, &c.

Q. What is the second enemy you are to re­nounce?

A. This wicked world (a), with its pomps and vani­ty: (a) Gal. 1.4. Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world.

Q. Why do you call it, this wicked world?

A. Not from any evil in the world it self, (for it was made very good), (a) but because of the evil it tempts to (b); and the evil use it's put to by bad men: (a) Gen. 1.31. God saw every thing that he had made; and behold it was very good. (b) 1 Joh. 2.15. Love not the world, neither the things that are in the world. If any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him, Jam. 4.1, 2, 4.

Q. What is meant by Pomps?

A. Honour and worldly Glory, Act. 25.23. Agrippa came with great pomp.

Q. What is it to renounce the Pomps of this world?

A. It's to refrain from all immoderate desires after the honour and glory of the world, and from all pride and ostentation in what any one enjoys of it: 1 Joh. 2.16. The pride of life is not of the Father, but is of the world. Phil. 2.3. Let nothing be done through vain glory, but in lowliness of mind let each esteem other better than themselves.

Q. What do you understand by the Vanity of this world, which you are to renounce?

A. Covetousness (a), or the lust of the eye, 1 Joh. 2.16. (a) Eccles. 4.7, 8. I saw vanity under the Sun, there is one alone, and there is not a second, yea, he hath neither child nor brother, yet is there no end of all his labour, neither is his eye satisfied with riches, &c. 1 Tim. 6.9, 10. They that will be rich, fall into temp­tation and a snare, and into many foolish and burtful lusts, &c.

Q. What is the third enemy you are to re­nounce?

A. The sinful lusts of the flesh, 1 Joh. 2.16.

Q. What do you understand by the sinful lusts of the flesh?

A. All unlawful pleasures to which we are provoked by our sensual inclinations, such as un­cleanness, drunkenness, &c. Gal. 5.19, 21. The works of the flesh are manifest, which are these, adul­tery, fornication, &c.

Q. What is the second Duty you were in your Baptism obliged to perform?

A. To believe all the Articles of the Christian Faith?

Of this see the Belief.

Q. What is the third Duty then required of you?

A. To keep God's holy Will and Commandments, and to walk in the same all the days of my life.

Of this see the Decalogue.

Q. Dost thou not think that thou art bound to believe and to do, as they have promised for thee?

A. Yes verily, and by God's help so I will: And I heartily thank our [Page 7]Heavenly father, that he hath cal­led me to this state of Salvation, through Jesus Christ our Saviour. And I pray to God to give me his grace, that I may continue in the same unto my lives end.

Q. Why do you think your self bound thus to believe and do what they promised for thee?

A. Because what was then promised, was in my name, and by Proxies that acted in my stead.

Q. Are you resolved to do according to what they promised for you?

A. Yes, by God's help, or else I must expect to forfeit the blessings belonging to that state which I was then called and admitted into. Heb. 2.3. How shall we escape, if we neglect so great Sal­vation?

Q. What is that state?

A. A state of Salvation.

Q. Why do you call it a state of Salvation?

A. Because I have thereby all the means neces­sary to Salvation, Rom. 1.16. The Gospel is the power of God unto Salvation to every one that believeth. 2 Tim. 3.15. From a child thou hast known the holy Scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto Sal­vation.

Q. How came you into this state?

A. Our Heavenly Father called me to it through Jesus Christ, and instated me into it by Baptism. Tit. 3.5. Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost.

Q. How do you think to be enabled to do, and to continue in the performance of what was then required?

A. I depend upon the Grace of God (a) to pre­vent (b), assist (c), and confirm (d) me in it: (a) 2 Cor. 3.5. Not that we are sufficient of our selves to think any thing as of our selves, but our sufficiency is of God. Phil. 2.13. It is God which worketh in you (b) to will (c) and to do. (d) Phil. 1.6. Being confident of this very thing, that he which hath begun a good work in you, will perform it.

Q. How do you think to obtain God's Grace?

A. I will pray unto God for it, Luk. 11.9, 10, 13. Ask and it shall be given; seek and ye shall find; knock and it shall be opened unto you, &c. If ye being evil know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more will your heavenly Father give the holy Spirit to them that ask him?

PART. II. Of the Creed or Belief.

Q. WHat was the second Duty undertaken in your name?

A. That I should believe all the Articles of the Christian Faith.

Q. What do you mean by the Christian Faith?

A. The Doctrine revealed by Christ, and con­tained in the Holy scripture, Acts 24.24. Fe [...] heard Paul concerning the Faith in Christ, or the Christian Doctrine.

Q. What do you mean by the Articles of the Christian Faith?

A. I thereby mean such Points of Christian Doctrine, as are most necessary to be believed, Heb. 6.1. The Principles of the Doctrine of Christ.

Q. Where are those Articles briefly contain'd?

A. In the Apostles Creed.

Q. Why is it called the Apostles Creed?

A. Partly, because of the Apostolical Doctrine contained in it; and partly, because it was in the main Branches of it composed in the Apostolical times; as we read of a form of sound words, 2 Tim. 1.13.

Rehearse the Articles of thy Belief. The Creed.

A. 1. I believe in God the father Almighty, Maker of Deaven and Earth. 2. And in Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord. 3. Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, Born of the Virgin Mary. 4. Suffered un­der Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead and buried, He descended into Hell. 5. The third day he rose again from the Dead. 6. He ascended into Hea­ven, and sitteth on the right hand of God the father Almighty. 7. from thence he shall come to judge the Duich and the Dead. 8. I believe in the Holy Ghost, 9. The Holy Ca­tholick Church, the Communion of Saints. 10. The forgiveness of Sins. 11. The Resurrection of the Body, 12. And the Life everlasting. Amen.

Q. What dost thou chiefly learn in these Articles of thy Belief?

A. First, I learn to believe in God the father, who hath made me and all the World.

Secondly, In God the Son, who hath redeemed me and all mankind.

Thirdly, In God the Holy Ghost, who sanctifieth me, and all the elect People of God.

Q. What do you observe from these three parts, into which the Creed is divided?

A. 1. I observe a distinction of Persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.

2. A Unity of Essence, or sameness of Nature; the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God.

3. A difference of Offices or Operations. The Father Creates, the Son Redeems, and the Holy Ghost Sanctifieth.

Q. What doth the first Branch of the Creed respect?

A. God the Father, and his Work of Creation.

Q. What is God? Article 1. I believe in God.

A. God is an Infinite (a), Eternal (b), and In­comprehensible Being (c), having all Perfection in and of himself (d). (a) 1 King. 8.27. Behold, the heaven, the heaven of heavens cannot contain thee, (b) Psal. 90.2. From everlasting to everlasting, thou art God. (c) Job 11.7. Canst thou by searching find out God? Canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection? (d) Exod. 3.14. I am that I am.

Q. How is God said to be a Father? The Fa­ther

A. 1. As he created all things, 1 Cor. 8.6. God the Father, of whom are all things.

2. As he is the Father of Christ, 2 Cor. 1.3. Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Q. What do you understand by Almighty? Almighty,

A. 1. That God hath all Power in himself, without deriving it from any other (a), and that all Power is derived from him (b). (a) Psal. 62.11. Power belongeth unto God. (b) 2 Chron. 20.12. O our God, we have no might, but our eyes are upon thee.

2. That he hath the Power of doing all things, Matth. 19.26. With God all things are possible.

Q. Are there not some things impossible to God?

A. Nothing, but what, either he could not be God if it was possible to him; or else, what in the Nature of it implies a Contradiction.

Q. What are those things which he could not be God if they are possible to him?

A. 1. Such things as are Evil, Hab. 1.13. Thou canst not look on iniquity. Tit. 1.2. God that cannot lie.

2. Such as imply Infirmity, as to be Ignorant, or Mortal. Heb. 4.13. Neither is there any Creature that is not manifest in his sight; but all things are na­ked, and opened unto the eyes of him with whom we have to do.

Q. What are the things which in their Nature imply a Contradiction?

A. Such as these, To be, and not to be at the same time; to be a Wafer, and the Body of Christ. That the Body of Christ should be in Heaven, and yet at the same time be in the Earth. [Page 12]To be one distinct Body, and yet to be many Bo­dies, as in the Host.

Q. What is meant by Heaven and Earth? Maker of Heaven & Earth,

A. The World and all things that are therein. Gen. 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven, and the earth. Acts 17.24.

Q. Of what did God make the World?

A. Out of nothing, Heb. 11.3. The things which are seen, were not made of things which do ap­pear.

Q. How is the World preserved?

A. By the same Divine Power that made it, Nehem. 9. Thou hast made the heaven of heavens, with all their bost, the Earth and all things that are therein, the Seas and all that is therein; and thou pre­servest them all.

Q. What doth the second Branch of the Creed respect? Article 2. And in Je­sus Christ,

A. God the Son, and his Work of Redemption.

Q. What is declared in this Branch?

A. 1. The Person of our Redeemer. 2. His Humiliation. And 3. Exaltation.

Q. How is he describ'd?

A. By his Names and Relations.

Q. By what Names is the Son of God call'd in Scripture?

A. The Word, Jesus, Christ.

Q. How doth the name Word belong to him?

A. It's given to him, as he was in being before he came into the World. John 1.1. In the begin­ning was the Word. Col. 1.17. He is before all things.

Q. How doth the name Jesus belong to him?

A. It was his proper Name, which was given him by Gods appointment (a), and by which he [Page 13]was known amongst Men (b). (a) Matth. 1.21. Thou shalt call his name Jesus. (b) John 9.11. A man that is called Jesus, Luke 2.21.

Q. What doth the name Jesus signify?

A. It signifies a Saviour.

Q. Why was he called Jesus?

A. Because he was to save his people from their sins, Matth. 1.21. 1 Tim. 1.15. This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the World to save sinners.

Q. How doth the name Christ belong to him?

A. As he was the Messias or Christ prophesied of in the Old Testament, Dan. 9.25, 26. Messiah the Prince,—Messiah shall be cut off, but not for himself. John 20.31. These are written, that ye may believe that Jesus is the Christ.

Q. What doth the word Christ signify?

A. It's the same with Messiah, and signifies Anointed, John 1.41. The Messias, which is, being interpreted, the Christ, or the Anointed; as it's in the margin.

Q. Why was he called the Christ, or Anointed?

A. Because he was in a Spiritual manner to perform the Offices belonging to God's Anoint­ed (a), to Kings (b), Priests (c), and Prophets (d). (a) Psalm 105.15. (b) 1 Kings 1.34. (c) Exod. 40.13. (d) 1 King. 19.16.

Q. How was he a King?

A. To govern his Church. Ephes. 1.22. He hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the Church.

Q. How was he a Priest?

A. As he did make an atonement (a), intercedes for (b), and blesses (c) his Church. (a) Rom. 5.11. We joy in God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, by [Page 14]whom we have now received the atonement, 1 Joh. 2.2. (b) Heb. 7.25. He ever liveth to make intercession for them. (c) Acts 3.26. God having raised up his Son Jesus, sent him to bless you, in turning away every one of you from his iniquities.

Q. How was he a Prophet?

A. To teach his Church, which he did (a) in his Person, and by his Spirit (b), Word (c), and (d) Ministry. (a) Isa. 61.1. The Lord hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek, &c. Luke 4.18. (b) John 14.26. The comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things. (c) 1 Pet. 1.25. The word of the Lord endureth for ever: And this is the word which by the Gospel is preached unto you, 2 Cor. 5.19, 20, 21. (d) Matth. 28.19, 20. Go ye therefore and teach [Disciple] all nations,—teaching them to observe all things, whatsoever I have commanded you, Ephes. 4.11. Gal. 6.6.

Q. How was Christ anointed?

A. He was anointed with the Holy Ghost (a), which he received without measure (b). (a) Acts 10.38. God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost. (b) John 3.34. God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him, Col. 1.19.

Q. How is Christ the only Son of God? His only Son,

A. As he derived his Essence from the Fa­ther, Heb. 1.4, 5. Made so much better than the An­gels, as he hath by inheritance obtained a more excel­lent Name than they; for unto which of the Angels said he at any time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee.

Q. How is Christ said to be our Lord? Our Lord.

A. 1. By Creation, Job. 1.3. All things were made by him, Col. 1.15, 16.

[Page 15]2. By Redemption and purchase, 1 Pet. 1.18. Ye were not redeem'd with corruptible things as Silver and Gold—but with the precious blood of Christ, 1 Cor. 8.6.

Q. What do you observe in Christ's Humili­ation?

A. His Incarnation and Passion.

Q. How was Christ the Eternal Word made Man? Article 3. Who was conceived by the Ho­ly Ghost,

A. By uniting the Humane Nature to the Di­vine in one Person, Joh. 1.4. The Word was made flesh. Heb. 2.14, 16.

Q. How was this accomplished?

A. By the powerful operation of the Holy Ghost, Luk. 1.35. The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee.

Q. Why was Christ thus formed and concei­ved, and not by the ordinary way of generation?

A. That he might assume our Nature without the depravation of it, Luk. 1.35.—Therefore that Holy thing which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God. Heb. 10.5.

Q. Whence was his Bodily substance derived? Born of the Virgin Mary.

A. From the Body of the Virgin Mary, there­fore he is said to be the seed of the woman, Gen. 3.15. and to be made of a woman, Gal. 4.4.

Q. Why was Christ born of a Virgin?

A. 1. For the Sacredness of it, Luke 1.35. That holy thing which shall be born of thee.

2. For the fulfilling of the Prophesy, Isaiah 7.14. The Lord himself shall give you a sign, behold a Virgin shall conceive and bear a Son. Matth. 1.23.

3. To shew the Power of God, Luke 1.35. The power of the highest shall overshadow thee; there­fore [Page 16]also, that thing which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God.

Q. Why did Christ thus become Man?

A. To fit him for the full discharge of his Of­fice, as a Mediator, so that he might dye, and being one of the same Nature with those he died for, might make an Atonement for Sin, Heb. 2.9, 17. Jesus was made a little lower than the Angels for the suffering of death.

Q. For what Reason did our Saviour suffer Death? Article 4. Suffered under Pontius Pilate,

A. That he might become a Sacrifice (a), and by the shedding of his Blood might make an Atonement for Sin (b). (a) Heb. 9.26. He put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. (b) 1 Joh. 2.2. He is the propitiation for our sins.

Q. Why is Christ said to suffer under Pontius Pilate?

A. To signifie the time of his Death, and therein the accomplishment of the Prophesies con­cerning it, Acts 3.18. These things which God be­fore had shewed by the mouth of all his Prophets, that Christ should suffer, he hath so fulfilled.

Q. Who was Pontius Pilate?

A. The Governour of Judea under Tiberius, the Roman Emperor, Luke 3.1. Matth. 27.2.

Q. What was the Death our Saviour suffer'd for us? Was cru­cified,

A. It was the Death of the Cross, Mat. 27.35.

Q. What was the Death of the Cross?

A. 1. It was intolerable for the Pain. Thence our Saviour is said to have endured the Cross, Heb. 12.2.

2. It was infamous, and a Punishment of the vilest Malefactors, Matth. 27.38. Then were there [Page 17]two thieves crucified with him. Thence he is said to have despised the shame, Heb. 12.2.

3. It was accounted an accursed Death, Gal. 3.13. Being made a curse for us, for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree. Deut. 21.23.

Q. Why is it said our Saviour died after he was crucified? Dead

A. To shew that his Body, when he was a­live, was vitally united to his Soul. Luke 23.46. He gave up the Ghost.

Q. Why is it said that our Saviour after he di­ed, was buried? And buri­ed.

A. 1. To shew the certainty of his Death, John 19.40, 41, 42. In the place where he was cru­cified there was a Garden, and in the Garden a Sepul­chre, &c. there laid they Jesus.

2. To shew that our Saviour's Body, that holy Thing, was not left upon the Cross (as it was usual) to perish, but was decently interr'd.

3. To testify the lowest act of abasement, Isa. 53.9. He made his Grave with the wicked.

4. To give Testimony to the truth of his Re­surrection, Acts 13.29, 30. They took him down from the Tree, and laid him in a Sepulchre: But God raised him from the dead.

Q. How was the Soul of Christ disposed of, He descen­ded into Hell, after its separation from the Body?

A. He is said to be in Hell (a), to go to Para­dise (b), or the highest Heaven (c). (a) Acts 2. 27, 31. Thou wilt not leave my Soul in Hell. (b) Luke 23.43. This day shalt thou be with me in Paradise. (c) 2 Cor. 12.2, 3, 4.

Q. What is here meant by Hell?

A. It signifies a state of Separation, Acts 2.27. Thou shalt not leave my Soul in Hell, nor suffer thine holy one to see Corruption, that is, the Soul and Body of Christ should not be so long separated; but that before the Body should corrupt, both Soul and Body should be reunited.

Q. Why was not our Saviour to continue in that State?

A. Because Death was not to have Dominion over him, Rom. 6.9.

Q. But may not Hell be understood here of the state of the damned?

A. It has been an ancient Opinion, that Christ did then locally descend into Hell, to triumph over the Devil and his Angels.

Q. What do you observe in our Saviour's Ex­altation?

A. 1. His Resurrrection. 2. His Ascension. 3. His glorification. 4. His Coming to Judg­ment.

Q. What is the Resurrection of Christ? Article 5. The third day he rose again from the Dead.

A. It's the Reunion of the self-same Soul to the self-same Body. Luke 24.39. Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I my self.

Q. When did our Lord rise?

A. On the third day after he died, which was then the first day of the Week, and was thence cal­led the Lord's day, Rev. 1.10.

Q. Why did Christ rise the third Day?

A. 1. To fulfil what the Scriptures (a) and he himself had foretold (b). (a) Psal. 16.10. Thou wilt not suffer thy holy One to see Corruption. (b) Matth. 16.21. From that time forth, Jesus be­gan to shew unto his Disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem,—and be killed, and be raised again the third day.

[Page 19]2. It was that his Body might not corrupt (a), as in the course of Nature it would have done, had it lay longer in the Grave (b). (a) Psal. 16.10. (b) John 11.39. By this time he stinketh, for he [Lazarus] hath been dead four days.

Q. Of what importance is this Article of Christ's Resurrection?

A. 1. It confirms whatever he said, did or undertook for. Rom. 8.34. Yea, rather that is risen again.

2. It's a pledge and assurance of our Resurre­ction. Rom. 8.11. He that raised up Christ from the dead, shall also quicken your mortal Bodies, &c.

3. It's a full Demonstration of our Saviour's Victory over Death. Rom. 6 9. Christ being raised from the dead, died no more; death hath no more do­minion over him.

Q. After what manner did our Saviour Ascend into Heaven? Article 6. He ascen­ded into Heaven,

A. He ascended Bodily, Locally, Visibly (a), and Triumphantly (b). (a) Acts 1.9. While they beheld, he was taken up. (b) Ephes. 4.8. When he ascended up on high, he led Captivity captive.

Q. Was Christ to abide Bodily in Heaven?

A. Yes, till the end of the World, Acts 3.21. Whom the Heavens must receive until the times of the Restitution of all things.

Q. How is this Phrase, The right Hand of God, And sit­teth on the right band of God. to be understood?

A. Figuratively, for God is a Spirit (a), and hath no Body, nor parts of it (b). (a) Joh. 4.24. (b) Luke 24.39. A Spirit hath not Flesh and Bones.

Q. What doth the right Hand of God signify in a figurative Sence?

A. 1. It signifies Power. Luke 22.69. Hereaf­ter shall the Son of man sit on the right hand of the power of God.

2. Dignity. Heb. 1.3, 4. He sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high, being made so much better than the Angels, &c.

3. Dominion. Acts 2.34, 35. The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, until I make thy foes thy footstool.

Q. What doth sitting at the right Hand of God signify?

A. It signifies the full Possession of that Power, Dignity and Dominion. Heb. 10.12. This man af­ter he had offered one Sacrifice for sins, for ever sat down on the right hand of God.

Q. What doth Christ do at the right hand of God?

A. He appears in the Presence of God for us (a), as our Mediator (b), Intercessor (c), and Advo­cate (d). (a) Heb. 9.24. Christ is entered into Hea­ven it self now to appear in the presence of God for us. (b) 1 Tim. 2.5. (c) Rom. 8.34. (d) 1 John 2.1.

Q. What is the ground of his Mediation?

A. 1. That he is God (a) Man (b), partaker of the nature of both. (a) Heb. 4.14. A high Priest, Jesus the Son of God. (b) 1 Tim. 2.5. There is one Mediator between God and Men, the Man Christ Jesus.

2. As he pleads for us in the Virtue and Merit of his own Blood. Heb. 9.12. By his own Blood he entred in once into the holy place, having obtained eter­nal Redemption for us.

Q. Is Christ the alone Mediator?

A. There is one Mediator between God and Men, the Man Christ Jesus, 1 Tim. 2.5.

Q. Why is Christ the alone Mediator?

A. 1. Because he alone is partaker of both Na­tures, God-Man.

2. Because he only can plead for us, that made an Atonement by his Blood, 1 Tim. 2.5, 6. There is one Mediator between God and Men, the Man Christ Jesus, who gave himself a ransom for all. Rom. 8.34.

Q. Why is the Phrase, Father Almighty, Father Almighty. added to this Article?

A. It's to signify, that Christ, as our Mediator, is invested by the Father with a fulness of Au­thority, Power and Dominion, in recompence of that Humiliation he submitted to. Acts 5.30, 31. Jesus whom ye slew and hanged on a tree, him hath God exalted with [to] his right hand, to be a Prince, and a Saviour. Phil. 2.7, 8, 9.

Q. What is the fourth Branch of Christ's Ex­altation? Article 7. From thence he shall come to judgthe Quick and the Dead.

A. His Coming to Judgement. Acts 17.31. He will judge the World in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained, &c.

Q. Whence shall he come?

A. From Heaven. 1 Thes. 4.16. The Lord him­self shall descend from Heaven, &c. Matth. 25.31.

Q. Whom shall he judge?

A. All Men; the Quick, who now are, or here­after shall be; and the Dead. Acts 10.42. It is he which was ordained of God to be the Judge of Quick and Dead.

Q. For what shall he judge them?

A. For all things (a), whether Secret (b), or Open. (a) 2 Cor. 5.10. We must all appear before [Page 22]the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things done in his Body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. (b) Eccles. 12.14. God shall bring every work into Judgement, with every secret thing.

Q. Article 8. I believe in the Ho­ly Ghost. What is the Holy Ghost?

A. The third Person in the sacred Trinity. 1 Joh. 5.7. There are three that bear record in Hea­ven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost.

Q. Why is he call'd the Holy Ghost?

A. Because of his Office, which is in Christ's stead, to gather, sanctify, and govern the Church. Eph. 5.25, 26. Christ loved the Church, and gave himself for it, that he might sanctifie and cleanse it, with the washing of water by the word, &c. Tit. 3.4, 5. The kindness and love of God, our Saviour, toward man, appeared—according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost.

Q. Article 9. The Holy Catholick Church. What doth the word Catholick signify?

A. It signifies Ʋniversal.

Q. What is the Catholick Church?

A. It's the whole Society of Christians disper­sed over all the World, as they are gathered under one Head, Christ Jesus. Col. 1.18. He is the head of the Body, the Church.

Q. Why is the term Catholick applied to the Christian Church?

A. To distinguish it from the Jewish Church, which was confined to one Nation (a), whereas the Christian Church is extended to all Nati­ons (b.) (a) Psal. 147.19, 20. He sheweth his word unto Jacob, &c. he hath not dealt so with any nation. (b) Matth. 28.19. Go ye, teach all nations. 1 Cor. 12.13.

Q. Can any particular Church, as that of Rome, be called the Catholick Church?

A. No: no more than the City of Rome is the whole World.

Q. How is the Church said to be holy?

A. As the Jews were said to be a holy Nation, (a) by being taken into Covenant with God, and as we are under the obligation of being holy (b). (a) Exod. 19.6. (b) 1 Thes. 4.7. God hath called us unto holiness.

Q. What are the privileges belonging to the Catholick Church?

A. They are four: 1. The Communion of Saints: 2. The forgiveness of sins: 3. The Re­surrection of the body: 4. Life everlasting. Communi­on of Saints.

Q. How is the word Saints to be understood?

A. It's to be understood of all those that are visible members of Christ's Church. Rom. 1.7. To all that be at Rome, called to be Saints; that is, Christians.

Q. What is the first privilege?

A. Communion of Saints: 1 Joh. 1.3, 7. Truly our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ. V. 7. If we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another.

Q. In what doth this Communion consist?

A. It consists in a fellowship in the Ordinan­ces of Divine Worship (a), and of charity one towards another (b). (a) Act. 2.42. They continued stedfastly in the Apostles Doctrine and Fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers. (b) 1 Cor. 12.26, 27. Whether one member suffer, all the members suffer with it, &c.

Q. What is the second privilege belonging to the Church?

A. Artic. 10. Forgive­ness of sin. Forgiveness of sins. Rom. 4.7. Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven.

Q. What is Sin?

A. It's a transgression of the Law of God, 1 Joh. 3.4.

Q. What is the punishment due to sin?

A. Death, temporal (a) and eternal (b). (a) Rom. 5.12. By one man [Adam] sin entred in­to the world, and death by sin, and so death passed up­on all men, for that all have sinned. Rom. 6.23. The wages of sin is death. Mat. 25.46.

Q. What is the forgiveness of sin?

A. It's God's not imputing it in the punish­ment. Rom. 4.7, 8. Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven.—Blessed is the man to whom the Lord imputeth not sin, Rom. 5.13.

Q. Upon what terms is sin forgiven?

A. Upon our Faith and Repentance, Act. 26.17, 18. I send thee to open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, &c. that they may receive forgiveness of sins, &c. through faith that is in me.

Q. By what means is God thus reconciled to sinful man?

A. It's through Christ. Ephes. 4.32. God for Christ's sake hath forgiven you.

Q. Artic. 11. The Re­surrection of the Body. What is the third privilege?

A. The Resurrection of the Body.

Q. What do you understand by the Resurrecti­on of the Body?

A. That the Body shall be raised out of the dust (a); and being again united to the soul, shall be glo [...]ous (b), and immortal (c.) (a) 1 Cor. 15.36. That which thou sowest is not quickened except it die, &c. (b) Phil. 3.21. Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body. (c) [Page 25]1 Cor. 15.53. This mortal must put on immortality.

Q. What is the fourth privilege? Artic. 12. The Life everlast­ing.

A. Everlasting Life.

Q. What is implied in that?

A. A state of most perfect happiness, which consists in the perfection of our natures (a), and the enjoyment of God (b). (a) Mat. 22.30. In the Resurrection they are as the Angels of God in Hea­ven. (b) Psal. 16.11. In thy presence is fulness of joy [...], and at thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore.

PART. III. Of the Decalogue, or Ten Commandments.

Q. The De­calogue. WHat was the third thing promised at your Baptism?

A. That I should keep God's holy Will and Com­mandments, and walk in the same all the days of my life.

Q. What are the Characters of true Obedi­ence that you collect from hence?

A. 1. It's universal, a keeping Gods holy Will and Commandments. Psal. 119.6. Then shall I not be a­shamed, when I have respect to all thy Commandments.

2. It's a course of Obedience, a walking in the same. 1 King. 6.12. If thou wilt keep all my Com­mandments to walk in them. Rom. 6.4.

3. A perseverance in that course; it's to be all the days of my life. Luk. 1.74, 75. That we might serve him without fear in holiness and righteousness before him all the days of our life.

Q. You said that your God-Fa­thers and God-Mothers did promise for you, that you should keep God's Commandments; tell me how ma­ny there be?

A. Ten.

Q. Which be they?

A. The same which God spake in the twentieth Chapter of Exodus, saying, I am the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage:

Q. What is there contained in this Preface?

A. It affords several Arguments to Obedience?

Q. What are they?

A. They are taken,

1. From God's Authority, God spake these words.

2. From God's Soveraignty, I am the Lord.

3. From God's propriety in them, thy God, Deut. 26.16, 17.

4. From his goodness to them, Who brought thee out of the land of Egypt Deut. 8.14.

Q. [...]hist. Say the Commandments.

A. 1. Thou shalt have none other Gods but me, &c.

Q. If the Commandments are Ten, how are they said to be two by our Saviour, Mat. 22.38, 40?

A. They are two, as they are divided into Two Tables, of love to God and our Neighbour.

Q. What dost thou chiefly learn by these Commandments, contained in the Two Tables.

A. I learn two things, my Duty towards God, and my Duty to­wards my Neighbour.

Q. What is thy Duty towards God?

A. My Duty towards God is to believe in him, to fear him, and to love him, &c.

Q. How many Commandments belong to the first Table?

A. The first four.

Q. What is the first Commandment?

A. Com­mand­ment 1. Thou shalt have no other Gods but me.

Q. What is forbidden in this Commandment?

A. I am forbidden hereby [1.] to have or own any more than one God (a). [2.] To give the honour due to God to any other object whatso­ever (b). (a) 1 Cor. 8.4, 6. There is none other God but one. (b) Mat. 4.10. Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.

Q. What is required in this Commandment?

A. To believe in him (a), to fear him (b), and to love him with all my heart, with all my mind, with all my soul, and with all my strength (c), to worship him (d), to give him thanks (e), to put my whole trust in him (f), to call upon him (g).

(a) Heb. 11.6. He that cometh to God must be­lieve that he is. (b) Eccles. 12.13. Fear God and [Page 28]keep his Commandments, for this is the whole duty of man. (c) Mat. 22.37. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, &c. (d) Mat. 4.10. Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God. (e) Psal. 92.1, 2. It is a good thing to give thanks unto the Lord, and to sing praises unto thy name, O thou most high. (f) Prov. 3.5. Trust in the Lord with all thine heart, and lean not to thine own understanding. (g) Phil. 4.6. Be careful for nothing, but in every thing by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving, let your requests be made known unto God.

Q. Com­mand. 2. What is the second Commandment?

A. Thou shalt not make to thy self any graven Image, nor the like­ness of any thing that is in hea­ven above, or in the earth beneath, or in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down to them, nor worship them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, and visit the sins of the fathers upon the children, unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me, and shew mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.

Q. What is forbidden in this Commandment?

A. All Religious Worship given to an Image.

Q. What is an Image, the worship of which is here forbidden?

A. An Image is any external Representation of God set up for the receiving Divine Worship. Levit. 26.1. Ye shall make you no Idols, nor graven Image; neither rear you up a standing Image; neither [Page 29]shall ye set up a Image of Stone in your Land, to bow down unto it, for I am the Lord your God.

Q. Is a Representation of the true God here­by forbidden, as well as that of a false God?

A. Yes, for the true God is incomprehensi­ble, and cannot be described, Isa. 40.17, 18, &c. All nations before him are as nothing, &c. To whom then will ye liken God? &c.

(2.) It was condemned when it was used, as in the Golden Calf, which was made for a Re­presentation of Jehovah, the Lord. Exod. 32.5. Aaron built an altar before it, and made proclama­tion, and said, To morrow is a feast to the Lord, or Je­hovah.

Q. What are the Reasons annexed to this Commandment?

A. They are three.

1. The Lord is a Jealous God. (1.) Lest by this means men come to have gross Conceptions of him, as if he was like to an Image (a). (2.) Lest they are thereby estranged from him, and think that to be God, which is not God (b). (a) Acts 17.29. We ought not to think that the Godbead is like unto Gold or Silver, or Stone gra­ven by art, and mens device. Deut. 4.12, 15. Ye heard the Voice of the Lord, but saw no Similitude. (b) Ezek. 14.5. The house of Israel are estranged from me through their Idols.

2. The Persons guilty of this Sin, are esteem­ed Haters of God, and which he will punish to the third and fourth Generation.

3. That on the contrary, he will shew Mercy abundantly unto them that keep this Command­ment: Shewing Mercy unto thousands.

Q. How can the Church of Rome vindicate it self for their making an Image of God, and gi­ving Adoration to an Image?

A. They usually leave out this Command­ment.

Q. Why so?

A. Because they say it's the same with the first, and so make the third Commandment to be the Second, and divide the Tenth into two.

Q. But besides, that the Scripture makes the first and second Commandment to be two, Exod. 20.3, 4. Deut. 5.7, 8. Is there not a manifest dif­ference between them?

A. Yes; for the first Commandment forbids the having and owning that for God, which is not God, as did the Worshippers of Baal and Mo­loch (a), &c. But the second Commandment for­bids the worshipping of the true God by an Image, as did the Israelites in the Wilderness, and Jerobo­am, when they worshipped the Golden Calves (b). (a) 1 Kings 16.31. Amos 5.26. (b) Exod. 32.1, 4. 1 Kings 12.28.

Q. What is the Duty required in the second Commandment?

A. To give that Worship to God which is suitable to his Nature. Joh. 4.24. God is a Spirit, and they that worship him, must worship him in Spirit and in Truth. Rom. 12.1.

Q. Command. 3. What is the third Commandment?

A. Thou shalt not take the Name of the Lord thy God in vain, for the Lord will not hold him guiltiess that taketh his Name in vain.

Q. How is the Name of God taken in vain?

A. 1. By perjury or false swearing. Levit. 19.12. Ye shall not swear by my Name falsly, neither shall thou profane the name of thy God.

2. By rash and common swearing, Mat. 5.34, 35, 36. 37. I say unto you, Swear not at all,—but let your communication be yea, yea, nay, nay.

3. By blasphemy, or speaking reproachfully of God and Religion. 1 Tim. 6.1. That the name of God and his Doctrine be not blasphemed. Levit. 24.16.

4. By the irreverent use of the name of God (a), or of things belonging to him (b) and his service (c). (a) Levit. 21.6. They shall be holy un­to their God, and not profane the name of their God. (b) 1 Thes. 4.8. He therefore that despiseth, despiseth not man, but God. (c) Levit. 22.2. That they pro­fane not my holy name in those things which they hallow unto me.

Q. What is the reason annexed to this Com­mandment?

A. The Lord will not hold him guiltless, but will most certainly punish him. Zech. 5.3, 4. The curse shall enter into the house of him that sweareth falsly by my name, &c. and shall consume it. Levit. 24.15, 16.

Q. What is the Duty required in this Com­mandment?

A. To honour God's holy Name (a), and Word (b), so as to use it with reverence in Oaths (c), Vows (d), Promises, Discourse (e), and Worship (f), and to use reverently whatever has a more imme­diate relation to him and his service. (a) Psal. 99.3. Let them praise thy great and terrible name, for it is holy. (b) Isa. 66.2. To this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word. (c) Jer. 4.2. Thou shalt swear, As the Lord liveth, in truth, in judgement and [Page 32]righteousness. (d) Eccl. 5.4. When thou vowest a vow unto God, defer not to pay it. Deut. 23.23. (e) Col. 4.6. Let your speech be alway with grace, seasoned with salt. Mat. 5.37. (f) Levit. 10.3. I will be sanctified in them that come nigh me. Isa. 29.23.

Q. What is the Fourth Commandment?

A. Com­mand. 4. Remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath-day. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all that thou hast to do. But the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God. In it thou shalt do no manner of work, thou, nor thy Son, nor thy daugh­ter, thy man-servant, nor thy maid­servant, nor thy cattel, nor the stranger that is within thy gates: For in six days the Lord made hea­ven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the se­venth day: wherefore the Lord bles­sed the Sabbath-day and hallowed it.

Q. What doth the word Sabbath signifie?

A. It signifies Rest.

Q. Why was the seventh day so called?

A. 1. Because God rested that day from the work of Creation, which he finished in six days, Gen. 2.2, 3. On the seventh day God ended his work which he had made, and he rested on the seventh day. And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it, &c.

Q. What's meant by God's Hallowing the so­venth day?

A. It's His setting it apart for sacred uses, Jer. 17.24. Hallow the Sabbath day, to do no work therein.

Q. What were the Sacred Uses it was set a­part for?

A. 1. For the Publick Worship of God, (a) which consisteth in Preaching, Expounding and Reading (b) the Word of God, and in Prayer (c). (a) Acts 13.42. The Gentiles besought, that these words might be preached to them the next Sabbath. Mark 6.2. (b) Acts 15.21. Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the Synagogues every Sabbath day. Acts 13.27. (c) Acts 16.13. On the Sabbath day we went out of the city by a River-side, where Prayer was wont to be made, or where there was an Oratory.

2. For private Worship and Meditation upon the Word and Works of God. Psal. 92. A Psalm for the Sabbath day.

Q. What was further required in this Com­mandment?

A. To rest from all servile and ordinary em­ployments. In it thou shalt do no manner of work, thou, nor thy servant, &c. Isa. 58.13. Nehem. 13.15.

Q. Why do Christians observe the First day of the Week as a Sabbath, and not the Seventh?

A. It's in remembrance of Christ's Resurre­ction from the dead on that day, which was the great confirmation, that all was sinished, (a) which he undertook. Joh. 19.30. He said it is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the Ghost. Acts 17.3. Christ must needs have risen, John 2.22.

Q. How is this day to be employed?

A. In works of Piety (a) and Charity (b), in serving God, and doing good to others. (a) Acts 20.7. Ʋpon the first day of the week, [Page 34]when the Disciples came together to break bread. (b) 1 Cor. 16.2. Ʋpon the first day of the week, let every one of you lay by him in store, as God hath pro­spered him the week before.

Q. What doth the second Table concern?

A. My duty towards my Neighbour.

Q. What is thy duty towards thy Neighbour?

A. My duty towards my neigh­bour, is to love him as my self, and to do to all men, as I would they should do unto me. To love, honour and succour my father and mother. To honour and obey the King, and all that are put in authority under him. To submit my self to all my Gover­nors, Teachers, spiritual Pastors and Masters. To order my self lowly and reverently to all my betters. To hurt no body by word or deed. To be true and just in all my dealing. To bear no malice nor hatred in my heart. To keep my hands from pick­ing and stealing, and my tongue from evil speaking, lying, and slan­dering. To keep my body in tem­perance, soberness and chastity. Not to covet nor desire other mens goods; but to learn and labour truly to get mine own living, and to do my duty [Page 35]in that state of life, unto which it shall please God to call me. Matt. 22.39. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thy self. Gal. 5.14. Matt. 7.12. All things whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so to them.

Q. What are the Commandments which con­tain thy duty towards thy Neighbour?

A. The last six.

Q. What is the Fifth Commandment?

A. Com­mand. 5. Honour thy Father and Mo­ther, that thy days may be long in the Land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.

Q. What is here to be understood by the Terms Father and Mother?

A. More especially I thereby understand, 1. My natural Parents, whom I am to love, honour (a), and succour (b). (a) Mal. 1.6. A son honoureth his fa­ther. Ephes. 6.1. Children obey your parents in the Lord; for this is right. (b) 1 Tim. 5.4. Let chil­dren learn to shew piety, or Charity at home, and to re­quite their parents care, by succouring them in their necessity. Mark 7.11, 12

2. The King, and all that are put in authority un­der him (a), whom I am to honour and obey (b) in all lawful and honest things. (a) Isa. 49. 23. Kings are call'd Nursing-fathers. (b) 1 Pet. 2.13. Submit your selves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake, whether it be to the King as supreme. vers. 14. or unto Governors, as unto them that are sent by him, &c.

3. Teachers and Spiritual Pastors (a), to whom and whose spiritual and pious instructions I am to [Page 36] submit (b). (a) Judg. 17.10. Thou shalt be unto me a Father and a Priest. 1 Cor. 4.15. (b) Heb. 13.17. Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit your selves; for they watch for your souls, &c. 1 Tim. 5.17.

4. Masters of Families, call'd Fathers, as 2 Kings 5.13. and to whom, if a Servant, I am to submit in all reasonable things belonging to that con­dition. Ephes. 6.5, 6. Servants be obedient to them that are your Masters, &c. not with eye-service as men­pleasers, but as the servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart. Tit. 2.9, 10.

5. All my Betters, (a) to whom I am to order my self lowly and reverently (b). (a) Acts 7.2. St. Stephen said, Men, Brethren, and Fathers (b). 1 Pet. 5.5. Ye younger submit your selves unto the elder; yea, all of you be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility, Levit. 19.32.

Q. What encouragement is there for obedience to this Command?

A. There is annexed to it the Promise of a long and prosperous Life, which ordinarily attends it. That thy days may be long in the land, &c. Ephes. 6.1, 2. Honour thy father and mother, which is the first commandment with promise.

Q. Which is the Sixth Commandment?

A. Thou shalt do no Murer. Com­mand. 6.

Q. What is the sin forbidden in this Com­mandment?

A. Murder, or the wilful killing of a man's Neighbour.

Q. What are the kinds of that which you call wilful killing of another?

A. There are two sorts: 1. A less, which is the killing of another in heat of Blood, usually called Man-slaughter, but what the Scripture calls Murder. Numb. 35.16, 17, 18. If he smite him with an instrument of iron, &c. he is a murderer.

2. A greater, which is a contrived and deli­berate killing of another (a), usually call'd wil­ful-murder. (a) Exod. 21.14. If a man come pre­sumptuously upon his neighbour to slay him with guile. Numb. 35.20, 21.

Q. What was the punishmenr for this sin?

A. Death. Gen. 9.5, 6. He that sheddeth mans blood, by man shall his blood be shed, Numb. 35.16, 17, 21.

Q. What is further forbidden in this Com­mandment?

A. That I hurt no body by word or deed, and bear no malice nor hatred in my heart. And so this Com­mandment forbids all degrees, incentives and provocations to this sin, such as causeless, rash and immoderate anger (a); hatred, (b) malice, spight and revenge, bitterness and reviling (c). (a) Matt. 5.21, 22. Ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, thou shalt not kill; and who­ever shall kill, shall be in danger of the judgment: But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause, &c. Eph. 4.26. (b) 1 Joh. 3.15. Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer. (c) Eph. 4.31. Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and cla­mour and evil speaking, be put away from you, with all malice.

Q. What is required in this Commandment?

A. 1. Peaceableness, not to provoke others. Rom. 12.18. If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men.

[Page 38]2. Meekness, not to be provoked to do evil to others. Rom. 12.17. Recompence to no man evil for evil.

3. Charity, or readiness to forgive, and to do good when provoked. Rom. 12.20, 21. If thine enemy hunger, feed him, &c.

4. Succouring another in danger and distress, as the good Samaritan, Luke 10.33.

Q. What is the Seventh Commandment?

A. Com­mand. 7. Thou shalt not commit Adul­tery.

Q. What is Adultery?

A. It's a violation of that Covenant (a) made at Marriage (b) between one Man and one Wo­man (c), which makes the Man to be the Hus­band of the Woman, and the Woman to be the Wife of the Man. (a) Malac. 2.14. She is the wife of thy covenant. (b) Heb. 13.4. Marriage is honourable in all. (c) Mal. 2.15. Did not he make one? Matt. 19.4, 5.

Q. When is that Covenant violated?

A. When either of them forsakes the others Bed in whole, or in part, for the Bed of another, Prov. 5.20, 21. Why wilt thou be ravisht with a strange woman, and embrace the bosome of a stranger? For the ways of man are before the eyes of the Lord, &c.

Q. What was the punishment assigned for this sin under the Law?

A. Death. Levit. 20.10. The adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death.

Q. What is farther forbidden in this Com­mandment?

A. 1. Fornication, which is between single persons (a); and all uncleanness whatsoever (b). (a) Exod. 22.16. (b) Gal. 5.19. The works of the flesh are manifest, which are these, adultery, forni­cation, uncleanness, lasciviousness. 1 Cor. 6.9.

2. All sensual desires and inclinations, consent­ed to. Matt. 5.28. Whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her al­ready in his heart.

3. All incitements thereunto in Words (a), Actions, Behaviour and Garb (b), and by excess (c). (a) Ephes. 5.4. Neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not convenient. (b) 1 Tim. 2.9. That women adorn theselves in modest apparel. (c) 1 Pet. 4.3. The time past of our life may suffice us—when we walk'd in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, &c.

Q. What is enjoyned in this Commandment?

A. To keep my body in temperance, soberness, and chastity. Rom. 13.13, 14. Let us walk honestly as in the day, not in rioting and drunkenness, not in cham­bering and wantonness.

2. To be modest in my Thoughts (a), Words (b), and Behaviour (c). (a) Matt. 15.19. (b) Col. 3.8. (c) Tit. 2.3.

3. To be watchful (a), and employed (b). (a) 1 Pet. 5.8. Be sober, be vigilant. (b) Ezek. 16.49, 50. This was the iniquity of Sodom—abundance of idleness—They were haughty, and committed a­bomination.

Q. What is the Eighth Commandment?

A. Thou shalt not steal. Com­mand. 8.

Q. What is the Stealing forbidden in this Com­mandment?

A. The taking away, or detaining from ano­ther that which is his right, by force or fraud. Levit. 19.11, 13.

Q. What are the kinds of it?

1. Stealth, especially so called, or secret pur­loyning. Ephes. 4.28. Let him that stole, steal no more.

2. Robbery, or forcible taking away. Levit. 19.11, 13. Ye shall not streal—thou shalt not de­fraud thy neighbour, neither rob him.

3. Extortion (a), which is a forcible detaining, or taking away upon the pretence of right and due; call'd unjust gain, Prov. 28.8. (a) 1 Cor. 5.11. Not to keep company. If any man that is call'd a brother, or Christian, be an extortioner.

4. Detention of another's Right, as in not pay­ing just debts, when able (a), or withholding wages due to hireling (b). (a) Psal. 37.21. The wicked borroweth, and payeth not again. Prov. 3.27, 28. (b) Jam. 5.4 Behold thy hire of the labourers— which is of you kept back by fraud, crieth, &c.

5. Fraud in dealings, by false weights and measures (a), and by fair words (b) imposing upon the ignorance or credulity of the buyer. (a) Prov. 20.10. Divers weights and divers measures, both of them are alike abomination to the Lord. (b) Prov. 29.5. A man that flattereth his neighbour, spreadeth a net for his feet.

6. Uncharitableness and hardness to the poor. Prov. 22.16. He that oppresseth the poor to increase his riches, shall surely come to want. Isa. 3.15. What mean ye that ye grind the faces of the poor?

Q. What are the duties required in this Com­mandment?

A. 1. Honesty and Equity in dealings between man and man. Prov. 16.11. A just weight and balance are the Lords.

2. Restitution in case of wrong. Ezek. 33.15, 16. If the wicked restore the pledge, give again that he had robbed—none of his sins that he hath committed, shall be mentioned unto him. Exod. 22.1, &c.

3. Charity and Mercifulness to others. Lev. 19.9. When ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corners of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleanings of thy harvest, &c. thou shalt leave them for the poor and stranger.

To have a lawful calling and be diligent in it. Ephes. 4.28. Let him that stole, steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth. 2 Thes. 3.11, 12.

Q. What is the ninth Commandment?

A. Com­mand. 9. Thou shalt not bear false wit­ness against thy Neighbour.

Q. What is the sin here forbidden?

A. The bearing false witness, and unjust ac­cusation, whether upon Oath (usually call'd per­jury) (a), or otherwise (b). (a) See the third Commandment. (b) Luk. 3.14. Neither accuse any falsly. Luk. 19.8.

Q. If Perjury was the thing principally forbid­den in the third Commandment, and again is in like manner here forbidden; what is then the difference, between the third Commandment and the ninth?

A. The third Commandment respects God, as Swearing is an appeal to him, and perjury an implicit denial of him: But the ninth Command­ment [Page 42]respects man, and so perjury is here for­bidden, as it's [1] intended to the wrong of ano­ther in body, goods or name. [2] As thereby the end of swearing is defeated, which is for an end of strife, Heb. 6.16.

Q. What is further forbidden in this Com­mandment?

1. All subornation of false witnesses; as it was practiced by Jezebel against Naboth, and by the Jews against our Saviour (b). (a) 1 King. 21.10. (b) Mat. 26.59.

2. All evil speaking (a), lying (b) and slandering (c). (a) Jam. 1.26. If any man among you seem to be re­ligious, and bridleth not his tongue, &c. this mans religion is in vain. (b) Ephes. 4.25. Putting a­way lying, speak every man truth with his neighbour; for we are members one of another. (c) Psal. 15.1, 3. Who shall abide in thy Tabernacle? he that backbiteth not with his tongue.

3. Rash judging and censuring. Mat. 7.1, 2. Judge not, that ye be not judged, &c.

Q. What are the Duties required in this Com­mandment?

A. 1. To vindicate our Neighbour when he is wrong'd; as Nicodemus did our Saviour, Joh. 7.50, 51.

2. To judge the most charitably of another. 1 Cor. 13.5. Charity thinketh no evil. Ver. 7. Be­lieveth all things, hopeth all things.

Q. Com­mand. 10. Which is the Tenth Commandment?

A. Thou shalt not covet thy neigh­bours house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbours wife, nor his servant, nor his maid, nor his or, nor his ass, nor any thing that is his.

Q. What is the sin forbidden in this Com­mandment?

A. The coveting of other mens goods or pos­sessions, reckon'd up here in order, his house, wife, servants, and cattel. Act. 20.33.

Q. What is the coveting here forbidden?

A. The unlawful desire of what is anothers. Rom. 7.7. I had not known lust, except the Law had said, Thou shalt not covet.

Q. What then is there included in this Com­mandment?

A. It's the sum of all the rest that respect my Neighbour; and it's as if it had been said, What­ever can be supposed to be to his prejudice, thou shalt not do. So our Saviour instead of covet, doth one while put, defraud not, Mark 10.19. another while, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thy self, Mat. 19.19.

Q. What is required in this Commandment?

A. A contentedness in my present state and condition (a), and to learn and labour truly to get my own living (b), in that state of life whereunto it shall please God to call me (c). (a) Heb. 13.5. Let your conversation be without covetousness, and be content with such things as you have, &c. Phil. 4.11. (b) 1 Thes. 4.11, 12. Study to be quiet and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands,—that ye may have lack of nothing. (c) 1 Cor. 7.20. Let every man abide in the same calling wherein he was called.

PART. IV. Of the Lords Prayer.

Q. MY good Child, know this, that thou art not able to do these things of thy self, nor to walk in the Commandments of God, and to serve him, without his special grace, which thou must learn at all times to call for by diligent prayer. Let me hear therefore if thou canst say the Lords Prayer?

Q. What are the things contained in this Pre­face set before the Lord's Prayer, in the Cate­chism?

A. Therein is contained,

1. The reason of all prayer to God, which is an insufficiency in our selves (a), and an allsuffi­ciency in him (b). So it's said, (a) Know this, that thou art not able to do these things of thy self without his special grace (b) 2 Cor. 3.5. Not that we are sufficient of our selves to think any thing as of our selves, but our sufficiency is of God.

2. It shews us the use which prayer is of, as a means for obtaining the special grace of God; con­tained in these words, which thou must learn to call for by prayer. Luk. 11.9, 10, 11, 12, 13. Ask and it shall be given you; seek and ye shall find; knock and it shall be opened unto you, &c.

3. It teaches me what are the qualifications of a prevalent and effectual prayer, viz. [1.] That it be at all times, without intermission and dis­couragement [Page 45] (a). [2.] That it be diligent, what is accompanied with a stedfast faith and attenti­on (b). (a) Luk. 18.1. Christ spake a parable unto them, to this end, that men ought always to pray, and not to faint. (b) Rom. 12.12. Continuing instant in prayer. Eph. 6.18.

Q. The Lords Prayer. Why is that Form of Prayer which begins with Our Father, call'd the Lord's Prayer?

A. Because it was composed by our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, Mat. 6.9. Luk. 11.2.

Q. For what end did our Saviour compose this Prayer?

A. 1. As a pattern for our better help and di­rection what to pray for, and of the order we are to pray in: that we may not be at a loss what to pray for (a), nor use vain repetitions (b). (a) Luk. 11.1, 2. His Disciples said unto him, Lord teach us to pray. And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, &c. (b) Mat. 6.7, 8, 9. When ye pray use not vain repetitions, — After this manner therefore pray ye, &c.

2. As a Form that's fit to be used, when we pray. Mat. 6.9. After this manner, or so pray ye. Luk. 11.2. When ye pray, say, Our Father, &c.

Q. Say the Lords Prayer.

A. Our Father, &c.

Q. What desirest thou of God in this Prayer?

A. I desire my Lord God our Hea­venly Father, who is the giver of all goodness, to send his grace unto me, and to all people, that we may wor­ship him, serve him, and obey him [Page 46]as we ought to do. And I pray unto God, that he will send us all things that be needful both for our souls and bodies; and that he will be merci­ful unto us, and forgive us our sins; and that it will please him to save and defend us in all dangers ghostly and bodily; and that he will keep us from all sin and wickedness, and from our Ghostly enemy, and from everlasting death. And this I trust he will do of his mercy and goodness, through our Lord Iesus Christ. And therefore I say, Amen. So be it.

Q. What are the general parts which this Prayer doth consist of?

A. They are three, viz. the Preface, the Pe­titions, and the Doxology, or Conclusion.

Q. What is the Preface, or Compellation?

A. Our father which art in Hea­ven.

Q. What are the things contained in this Pre­face?

A. It contains several Arguments to encourage us in the performance of this Duty.

Q. What are those Arguments?

A. 1. As God is a Father, the giver of all good­ness, and so cannot but chuse and give, and do what is best for us. Luk. 11.11, 12, 13. If a son shall ask bread of any of you that is a Father, will he give him a stone, &c? If ye then being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more [Page 47]will your Heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit (good things, Mat. 7.11.) to them that ask him?

2. As he is a Father in Heaven, and so is able to understand, and will, and do what is best. Psal. 115.3. Our God is in the Heavens, he hath done whatsoever he pleased.

3. As he is a common Father, and whom all may freely resort to, 2 Thes. 2.16. God even our Father, who hath loved us. Ephes. 2.18. Through him we (both Jews and Gentiles) have an access by one spirit unto the Father.

Q. What do you learn from hence?

A. 1. That God alone is the proper object of our prayers, Psal. 123.1. Ʋnto thee lift I up mine eyes, O thou that dwellest in the Heavens.

2. That we ought to approach to him with fear and reverence, Mal. 1.6. A son honoureth his father. If then I be a father, where is mine honour? Eccles. 5.2. Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thine heart be hasty to utter any thing before God; for God is in heaven, and thou upon earth.

3. That we ought to come with a true affecti­on to all mankind, and with an hearty desire that they may be as well and happy as our selves; which is implied when we say, Our Father; and therefore I desire that he will send his grace unto me and to all people.

Q. What doth the matter respect which is con­tained in the six Petitions of the Lord's Prayer?

A. The first three respect Gods glory, and the three last our good.

Q. What is the first Petition?

A. Hallowed be thy Name. Petition 1.

Q. What is here meant by the Name of God?

A. 1. Thereby is signified not only the Name of God, but God himself. Psal. 44.20. If we have forgotten the Name of our God, or stretched out our hands to a strange god. Psal. 20.1.

2. The Attributes and Perfections of his Na­ture, Exod. 34.5, 6. The Lord—proclaimed the Name of the Lord,—The Lord God, merciful and gracious, &c.

3. The things set apart for his honour and service, as his Word and Day, &c. Psal. 138.2. I will worship towards thy holy Temple, and praise thy Name—for thou hast magnified thy Word above all thy Name.

Q. What is meant by Hallowing?

A. 1. Thereby is meant the setting apart any thing for an holy use and service: Thus God is said to Hallow the seventh day, Exod. 20.11. and to Hallow the Children of Israel, Levit. 22.32.

2. By Hallowing is meant the using of what is holy after an holy manner: So Levit. 22.32. I will be hallowed among the children of Israel. See Levit. 10.3.

Q. What then do you pray for in this Petition?

A. I pray that God himself may be honour'd, known, esteemed, worshipped and praised (a), his Providence may be celebrated, his service re­spected: And especially that I and all others may be the happy instruments of doing honour to him, his service and Religion, by a holy and useful conversation (b). (a) Psal. 113.2, 3. Blessed be the name of the Lord, from this time forth and for evermore. From the rising of the Sun to the going down of the same the Lords name is to be praised. (b) 1 Cor. 10.31. Whether—ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God. Mat. 5.16. Let your [Page 49]light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorifie your Father which is in Heaven.

Q. What is the second Petition? Petit. 2.

A. Thy Kingdom come.

Q. What is meant by the Kingdom of God?

A. That state which is begun by Grace in this world (a), and is perfected by Glory in the world to come (b). (a) Rom. 6.14. Ye are not under the Law, but under Grace. Mat. 21.43. The Kingdom of God (or the Gospel) shall be taken from you, &c. Mat. 24.14. (b) Mat. 13.43. The righteous shall shine forth as the Sun in the Kingdom of their Father. 1 Cor. 15.24.

Q. What is signified by the coming of that Kingdom?

A. We therein pray that this Kingdom may so come with power (a), that it may prevail where it is, and be received where it is not; that the Kingdom of Sin and Satan may be utterly de­stroy'd (b), and all the Kingdoms of this world may become the Kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ, when he shall reign for ever and ever, Revel. 11.15. (a) Mark 9.1. (b) 1 Cor. 15.25. He must reign till he hath put all enemies under his feet.

Q. What is the third Petition? Petit. 3.

A. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven.

Q. What do you understand by the will of God, which you pray may be done on earth?

A. I therein pray that God will accomplish in his good time whatever he hath promised (a); that I and all others may readily obey whatever he requires (b); and patiently submit to what­ever he inflicts (c). (a) Ezek. 36.36, 37. I the [Page 50]Lord have spoken it, and I will do it.—I will yet for this be enquired of by the house of Israel to do it for them. (b) 1 Chron. 28.9. Serve him with a perfect heart, and with a willing mind. (c) Act. 21.14. We ceased, saying, The will of the Lord be done.

Q. Petit. 4. What is the fourth Petition?

A. Give us this day our daily bread.

Q. What's meant by Bread?

A. All food for sustenance. Gen. 43.31, 34. He said unto them, Set on Bread.

Q. Is not this term Bread also used in a spi­ritual sense?

A. Yes: as Joh. 6.32. And so it's also applied in the Catechism, when we are said to be taught from hence, to pray unto God, that he will send us all things that be needful both for our souls and bodies.

Q. What is meant by daily Bread?

A. That which is every day necessary for our subsistence, and convenient for our comfort. Prov. 30.8. Feed me with food convenient for me.

Q. Why do we every day pray, Give us this day our daily bread?

A. Because we every day depend upon God for the supply of what we want, and for the pre­serving, continuing and blessing of what we have. Deut. 8.3. Man doth not live by bread only; but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord, doth, man live. Mat. 4.4. 1 Tim. 4.4.

Q. What are you taught from hence?

A. 1. To be contented with my present porti­on in the world, which God thinks fit to give me, and I receive from him. Heb. 13.5. Be con­tent with such things as ye have.

[Page 51]2. To depend continually upon God, from whom all good doth proceed. Jam. 1.17. Every good gift, and every perfect gift is from above, &c.

3. To have recourse to him for whatever good I want, and to praise him daily for whatever I have and receive. Phil. 4.6. In every thing by pray­er and supplication, with thanksgiving, let your requests be made known unto God.

Q. What is the fifth Petition?

A. And forgive us our trespasses, Petit. 5.as we forgive them that trespass a­gainst us.

Q. What is meant by Trespasses?

A. All sins of what sort or degree soever. Col. 2.13. You being dead in your sins—hath he quickned together with him, having forgiven you all Tresposses.

Q. What is contained in that Branch, As we forgive them that trespass against us?

A. Therein is set forth,

1. The excellency of this grace of forgiving others, as a qualification, that where ever it is renders our prayers acceptable to God. Luk. 6.37. Forgive, and ye shall be forgiven.

2. The necessity of it, as it's a condition with­out which we shall not be forgiven. Mat. 6.15. If ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Fa­ther forgive your trespasses.

3. The importance of it, as it's an Argument for God to forgive us. Luk. 11.4. Forgive us our sins, for we also forgive every one that is indebted to (has offended) us.

Q. What is the sixth Petition?

A. Petit. 6. And lead us not into temptati­on, but deliver us from evil.

Q. What is meant by Temptation?

A. Thereby is meant such an occasion as may try a person's integrity and stedfastness of mind, and in the event may be a means of our falling in­to sin. Gen. 22.1. God did tempt Abraham. 2 Chron. 32.31.

Q. What do you then pray against in this clause, Lead us not into Temptation?

A. I pray that God would not bring or suffer me to be brought into such circumstances as may through the lust of the flesh, the love of the world, or instigation of the Devil, endanger my innocency here, or salvation hereafter. 1 Cor. 10.13. God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able, &c.

Q. What is the Evil you pray to be delivered from?

A. 1. The evil of sin. Habac. 1.13. Thou art of purer eyes than to behold evil, and canst not look on iniquity.

2. The evil of affliction and punishment. Jer. 18.8. If that Nation—turn from their evil, I will repent of the evil that I thought to do unto them.

3. The evil world (a), and all the allurements and terrors of it. (a) Gal. 1.4.

4. The Devil, the Tempter to sin, Mat. 4.3.

5. Damnation, which is the wages of it. Rom. 6.23. The wages of sin is death.

Q. What is the sum of what you pray for in this Petition?

A. I pray that it will please God to save and defend me in all dangers ghostly and bodily, and that he will keep me from all sin and wickedness, and from my ghost­ly enemy, and from everlasting death.

Q. The Dox­ology. What is the Doxology or Conclusion of the Lords-Prayer?

A. For thine is the Kingdom, and the Power, and the Glory, for ever and ever. Amen.

Q. What is meant by Doxology?

A. It's a solemn form of praise and thanks­giving used in the Church of God. 1 Chron. 29.11. Thine, O Lord, is the greatness, and the power, and the glory, and the victory, and the Majesty, &c.

Q. What is contained in this Doxology?

A. It contains an acknowledgment

1. Of Gods supereminent Excellencies, which are the matter of our Adoration and Praise. Such are his Dominion over all things (call'd here the Kingdom) and his Power, by which he sustains and governs them, and supplies the wants of all that pray to him. Thine is the Kingdom and Power.

2. Of the honour and thanks we are to render to him, for whatever we receive, and the end to which they are to be applied. Thine is the Glory. 1 Cor. 10.31. Whatsoever ye do, do all to the Glory of God.

3. That as these perfections are perfectly and eminently, originally and inseparably only in God, so it's the perpetual office of the Church, Militant and Triumphant, to ascribe them to him, For ever and ever. 1 Pet. 4.11. That God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ; to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen. Revel. 5.13.

Q. What doth the word Amen signifie?

A. In the close of a sentence Amen signifies consent and approbation (a), wishing and desi­ring [Page 54] (b), trust and confidence (c). (a) 1 Cor. 14.16. How shall he that occupieth the room of the unlear­ned, say Amen, &c? (b) Jer. 28.6. Jeremiah said, Amen, the Lord do so. 1 King. 1.36. (c) 1 Chron. 16.35, 36. All the people said, Amen.

Q. What is then the sense of Amen here?

A. It's to say, I trust God will do all that I have pray'd for, of his mercy and goodness, through our Lord Jesus Christ. And therefore I say, Amen: So be it.

PART. V. Of the Sacraments.

Q. HOW many Sacraments hath Christ ordained in his Church? The Sa­craments.

A. Two only as generally necessa­ry to Salvation: that is to say, Baptism and the Supper of the Lord.

Q. Are these two necessary to Salvation?

A. Yes, generally necessary.

Q. Why are they said to be generally necessary?

A. Because no persons are excepted from the obligation of observing them, that are capable, and have an opportunity.

Q. How are these two necessary?

A. 1. As Baptism is the way of admission into the Church of Christ (a), out of which there is no promise of Salvation (b). (a) Ephes. 2.12. Strangers from the Covenants of promise, having no [Page 55]hope. (b) Mat. 28.19. Go ye and teach all Nations, baptizing them, &c. Joh. 3.5.

2. The Lord's-Supper is the Testimony of our actual Communion with the Church (a), and a means of receiving that grace (b), which by Baptism we had the promise of. (a) 1 Cor. 10.17. We being many are one bread, and one body: for we are all partakers of that one Bread. (b) Vers. 16. The Cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the Com­munion [participation] of the Blood of Christ? The Bread which we break, is it not the Communion of the Body of Christ?

Q. Doth the Church of Rome allow only two Sacraments, as we do?

A. No: for to these two they add five more, viz. Confirmation, Penance, Extreme Ʋnction, Orders, and Matrimony; and accurse all those that hold there are fewer or more than seven Sacraments truly and properly so called.

Q. But why are there no more than two Sacra­ments?

A. Because only these two have all the proper­ties belonging to a true and proper Sacrament; and which the other five are defective in.

Q. What meanest thou by this word Sacrament?

A. I mean an outward and vi­sible sign of an inward and spiri­tual grace, given unto us, and or­dained by Christ himself, as a means whereby we receive the same, and a pledge to assure us thereof.

Q. What are the Properties belonging to a true Sacrament?

A. 1. That there be an outward and visible sign, as water in Baptism, and Bread and Wine in the Lord's Supper.

2. An inward and spiritual grace, thereby signi­fied, as the New birth by Baptism, and the Body and Blood of Christ in the Lord's-Supper.

3. A Divine Institution; they are to be given to us, and to be ordained by Christ himself. Mat. 28.19. Go ye and teach all Nations, Baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 1 Cor. 11.23. I have received of the Lord, that which also I delivered unto you.

4. They are to be as a means whereby we receive the same Grace, and a pledge to assure us thereof: Matt. 26.28. This is my blood of the New Testa­ment [Covenant] which is shed for many for the remission of sins.

Q. How many parts are there in a Sacrament?

A. Two: 1. The outward, visible Sign; and 2. the inward, Spiri­tual Grace.

Q. Of Bap­tism. What is the outward visible sign or form in Baptism?

A. Water, wherein the person is Baptized, In the name of the Fa­ther, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

Q. What is Christian Baptism?

A. It's a Washing (either by sprinkling (a), pouring on Water (b), or dipping (c) a person into it) in the name of the Father, Son and Holy-Ghost. [Page 57] (a) Numb. 8.7. Ezek. 36.25. Heb. 10.22. (b) Mark 7.4. (c) Acts 8.38.

Q. What is the inward and Spi­ritual Grace, or the thing signified by Baptism?

A. A death unto sin, and a new birth unto righteousness (a); for being by nature born in sin, and the Children of Wrath, we are hereby made the Children of Grace. (a) Rom. 6.3, 4, 11. Know ye not that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ, were baptized into his death? Therefore we are buried with him by bap­tism into death, that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father; even so we also should walk in newness of life.

Q. What is the state you and all mankind were in before Baptism?

A. We were by nature born in sin, and children of wrath; Eph. 2.3. Ye were by nature children of wrath, even as others.

Q. What is the state you are now brought into?

A. We are hereby made the Children of Grace. Eph. 2.4, 5. God who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, even when we were dead in sins, hath quickned us together with Christ (by Grace ye are saved).

Q. How are you made a Child of Grace by Baptism?

A. As I am thereby taken into Covenant with God, and have a title to the Grace and Blessings of that Covenant, which my Baptism is the means and pledge of. 1 John 3.2. Now are we the sons [Page 58]of God. Acts 2.38, 39. Then Peter said, Repent and be baptized every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. For the promise is unto you, and to your Children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call.

Q. Is Baptism alone sufficient to Salvation?

A. No; not alone without the new birth thereby signified, without we are dead unto sin, and alive unto God through Jesus Christ, Rom. 6.3, 4, 11.

Q What is required of persons to be Baptized?

A. Repentance (a), whereby they forsake sin; and Faith (b), whereby they stedfastly believe all that is revealed by Christ, and particularly the Promises of God made to them in that Sacrament. (a) Acts 2.38, 41. Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, &c. (b) Acts 8.37. If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest be Baptized.

Q. Why then are Infants Bapti­zed, when by reason of their tender age they cannot perform them?

A. Because they promise them both [Repentance and Faith] by their Sure­ties, which promise when they come to age, themselves are bound to per­form.

Q. Can Children be obliged where they do not actually consent?

A. Yes; it was so under the Law (a), when Children were taken into Covenant, and were cir­cumcis'd at eight days old (b), and thencefor­ward were accounted God's Children (c). (a) Deut. 29.10, 11, 12. Ye stand this day all of you before the Lord; your captains of your tribes—your little ones— That thou shouldst enter into covenant with the Lord. (b) Gen. 17.12, 13, 14. (c) Ezek. 16.20, 21. Thou hast slain my children, and deliver'd them, to cause them to pass through the fire to Moloch.

Q. What warrant is there for the Baptism of Infants, though born of Christian Parents?

A. The same that is for grown persons born of Christian Parents; and that is because the Cove­nant belongs to them. Acts 2.39. The promise is unto you, and to your children. 1 Cor. 7.14. Else were your children unclean; but now (as born of believing Parents) are they holy.

Q. The Lord's Supper. Why was the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper ordained?

A. For the continual remem­brance of the Sacrifice of the death of Christ, and of the benefits which we receive thereby.

Q. Why is this Sacrament called the Lord's Supper?

A. It's called the Lord's Supper (a), as it was ordained by our Lord at Supper (b), immediately before his death. (a) 1 Cor. 11.20. This is not to eat the Lord's Supper. (b) Matt. 26.26.

Q. For what end did our Lord ordain it?

A. 1. As a Sign and Representation of the Sa­crifice of his Death, and a means to keep up the remembrance of it (a).

[Page 60]2. As a means to conveigh, and a pledge to as­sure us of the benefits we receive thereby (b).

(a) 1 Cor. 11.24. Take, eat, this is my body, &c. this do in remembrance of me. (b) Matt. 26.28. This [Wine] is my blood of the new testament which is shed for many for the remission of sins.

Q. Why is Christ's Death called a Sacrifice?

A. It's call'd a Sacrifice (a), because he was a Sacrifice for sin (b). (a) Heb. 9.26. He put a­way sin by the sacrifice of himself. (b) 2 Cor. 5.21. He hath made him to be sin [a Sin-offering] for us, who knew no sin.

Q. How long is this Ordinance to continue?

A. It's for the continual remembrance of his death, till he come. 1 Cor. 11.26. As often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he come. Acts 1.11.

Q. What is the outward part or sign of the Lord's Supper?

A. Bread and Wine, which the Lord hath commanded to be received.

Q. Are both the Elements, Bread and Wine, to be equally used?

A. Yes; for the Lord commanded both to be re­ceived. 1 Cor. 11.23, 24. I received of the Lord— That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was be­trayed, took bread, &c. After the same manner also he took the Cup, &c.

Q What is the inward part, or thing signified?

A. The Body and Blood of Christ, which are verily and indeed taken and received by the faithful in the Lord's Supper.

Q. Are the Bread and Wine changed after con­secration?

A. Not otherwise than in their use; for they remain the same in Nature and Substance, as be­fore. So it's thrice called Bread, 1 Cor. 11.26, 27, 28.

Q. What is the Body and blood of Christ, which are said to be verily and indeed taken and received by the faithful?

A. 1. Negatively, It's not the natural Body and Blood of Christ, 1. Because the Catechism saith, the inward part or thing signified by the Bread and Wine in the Sacrament, is the Body and Blood of Christ: and so the Bread and Wine are the Signs of that Body and Blood, and not the very natural Body and Blood. 2. Because it's said, the Body and Blood of Christ are verily and indeed taken and received therein by the faithful; in opposition to Unbelievers, who (as our Article 29th saith) Eat not the Body of Christ in the Lord's Supper.

2. I answer positively, That by the Body and Blood of Christ is meant Christ himself, who suf­fer'd in his Body, and shed his Blood for us. John 6.53, 54, 55, 56. Except ye eat the flesh of the son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you, &c. His Flesh and Blood, That is himself, as it immediately follows, v. 57. He that eateth me, even he shall live by me.

Q. How is the Body and Blood of Christ verily and indeed taken and received by the faithful in the Lord's Supper?

A. The Faithful do receive Christ (who thus suffered in his Body, and shed his Blood) by Faith. As the Flesh and Blood of Christ are Christ him­self, so Eating and Receiving are the same with Be­lieving. [Page 62]John 6.35. I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst. Ver. 51. If any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever. Vers. 54. Who so eateth my flesh, &c. ver. 56, 57.

Q. Are the Benefits we receive by Christ another thing than his Flesh and Blood?

A. Yes; They differ as much as Christ him­self doth from the Benefits he hath purchased for us.

Q. What are the Benefits where­of we are partakers thereby?

A. The strengthning and refresh­ing of our Souls, by the Body and Blood of Christ, as our Bodies are by the Bread and Wine?

Q. How are our Souls strengthned and refreshed by the Body and Blood of Christ?

A. Our Souls are strengthned and refreshed in the Lord's Supper, by our belief in Christ, that suffer­ed in his Body, and shed his Blood for us (a), which is more especially exhibited and set forth in this Ordinance (b). (a) John 6.35. Jesus said, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst. Vers. 51. I am the living bread which came down from heaven: If any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever. And the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world. (b) 1 Cor. 10.16. The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the Communion, or participation of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the com­munion of the body of Christ?

Q. What is required of them who come to the Lord's Supper?

A. 1. To examine themselves (a), whether they repent them truly of their former sins (b), stedfastly pur­posing to lead a new life (c).

(a) 1 Cor. 11.28. Let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, &c. (b) 1 Cor. 11.20, 21. This is not to eat the Lord's Supper. For in eating [at their Love-Feasts, before the Communi­on] one is hungry and another is drunken. Vers. 31. If we would judge our selves, we should not be judged. (c) Isa. 1.16, 17, 18. Wash ye, make you clean, put away the evil of your doings from before mine eyes, cease to do evil, learn to do well, &c. Come now and let us reason together, saith the Lord, &c.

2. To have a lively Faith in Gods mercy through Christ.

Act. 26.18. That they may receive forgiveness of sins—by faith that is in me. Act. 4.12. Nei­ther is there Salvation in any other; for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved. 1 Cor. 11.29. He that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body.

3. With a thankful remembrance of his Death.

1 Cor. 11.26. For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew forth the Lord's death till he come. 1 Cor. 6.19, 20.

4. And to be in Charity with all men.

1 Cor. 10.17. We being many are one bread, and one body: for we are all partakers of that one bread. Ephes. 5.2. Walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God. Matt. 5.23, 24. If thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there remembrest that thy brother hath ought against thee; Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way, first be reconciled to thy brother [whom thou hast wrong'd or offended] and then come and offer thy gift.


The young Reader is to take notice, that the Letters (a) (b) (c) (d) refer to the Scriptures that follow, and which are to prove every point so marked.

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