An Imaginary Idea. or Type; of Subterraneous ffire: houses; whose Breath holes; as it were, the Vulcanian Mountains only are:
An Imaginary Idea, or Type of Subterraneous ffire mixt with water, and of the protrusion of waters,—­through Subterraneous Aquaeducts, out of the Sea; and into the water houses of mountains & the Concoction of Subterrestrial waters; through ffire-ducts

[Page] THE VULCANO'S: OR, Burning and Fire-vomiting MOUNTAINS, Famous in the World: VVith their REMARKABLES. Collected for the most part out of KIRCHER'S Subterraneous World; And expos'd to more general view in English, upon the Relation of the late Wonderful and Prodigious Eruptions of AETNA. Thereby to occasion greater admirations of the Wonders of Na­ture (and of the God of Nature) in the mighty Element of Fire.

Res semper aliquid apportat novi.
None sadlier knows the unresisted Ire,
Then Thou, Poor London! of th' all-raging Fire.
But these occasion'd kindlings are but Blazes,
To th' mighty Burnings, which fierce Nature raises.
If then a Town, or Hills blaze be so dire;
What will be th' last, and universal Fire?

Licensed and Entred according to Order.

London, Printed by J. Darby, for John Allen; and are to be sold by him, at the White Horse in Wentworth Street near Bell Lane; And by Benjamin Billingsly at the Printing-Press in Broad-street near Gresham-Colledg, 1669.

The Epistle to the READER.

HEre are presented to thee in English, the most wonderful, most prodigious, and even mi­raculous Operations of Nature, in the Geo­cosm, or Terrestrial World. 'Tis confess'd, 'tis not an exact, or compil'd History; But rather a scatter'd Collection of Historical Relations by others, of most remarkable passages. Which so came to pass: First, upon so fair an occasion given, by the late incredible Eruptions of Aetna, and past all belief: Had they not been confirmed by so honourable a Testimony, past all mistrust. And yet there were not wanting some such Persons, so unknowing and faithless; as to question, not­withstanding at first, all for a Rodamontado, or Isle of Pines, &c. Therefore, secondly also, by reason of so general and universal Ignorance of these Matters found among our Countreymen; as sufficiently appeared at the first coming forth of that wonderful Relation. As if some such strange thing had hapned, as never before in the World; at least never so great, so prodigious and portentous. That therefore men might, be more generally acquainted with the Wonders of Na­ture, (in this particular also of Fire) has this been under­taken. And then because there had yet been none in English of the Subject, for the general information of men, or of such as were desirious to know fuller of these matters. And [Page] yet there is a method sufficient for an exact History. Nor is there any thing Material, or Remarkable; that is not, in brief, at least taken notice of. Lastly, The Subject and Ar­gument so admirable and curious, may excuse other defects. For that not so much the Philosophy of these Matters, (yet there is a sprinkling of that too, as occasionally it occur'd in our Author) as the mighty Effects and Things themselves are here intended for the English Reader. 'Tis therefore an Hi­storical Narration of the Worlds Volcano's, and their Wonders and Remarkables. But for the grand Literado's, and such as are past their English Tongue let them be satis­fied, that it was never calculated for men of their Degree and Elevation. So not to weary thee with Complements of a long Epistle, or to hang out Invitations of greater pretences, then realities; we leave thee to what entertainment the Book it self will afford. And if thou findst any occasion, not to re­pent, of so much time and labour as the perusal; By so much the farther will the Author be from repenting of his pains, or thinking his labour lost, that is, for no good or benefit to his Countreymen, in Englishing so wonderful things. He pre­sumes to say; Read, and admire, and take the pleasure thereof.


The Explication of the Schemes, out of Kircher.


THE Central Fire A, through certain Fire-ducts, or Chan­nels, diffuses round about, every where, far and near fiery exhalations and spirits. These driven into the Water-houses, it partly disposes into hot Baths; partly attenu­ates or rarifies into vapours; which dashing, as it were, against the Arches or Vaults of Concavous Dens, and condens'd by the cold­ness of the place, and lastly dissolved into Waters, generate Foun­tains and Rivers; and then partly derived into fit Matrices and Re­ceptacles, fruitful of other kind of Juyces, of several Minerals, con­tract fast together, and harden into Metallick Bodies; or else are or­dered for a new Conception, and fructifying of combustible Mat­ter, to nourish, and still feed and maintain the Fire. You see there also, how the Sea, by the Winds and pressure of the Air, or motion of the aestuating Tides, ejaculate and cast forth the Waters, through Subterraneous, or under-ground Burrows, into the highest Water-houses of the Mountains. You see also the Sea and the Plains in the utmost surface of the Earth, to take place next to the Subterraneous World; and the Air next to them, as the Scheme teaches: Yet you are not to imagine, that the Fires and Waters, &c. are really thus disposed in Nature underground. For whoever has seen them? But this onely was to signifie, according to the best imagination of the Author, that they are after some well-ordered and artificial, or organiz'd way or other, contriv'd by Nature; and that the Un­der-ground World is a well fram'd House, with distinct Rooms, Cellars, and Store-houses, by great Art and Wisdom fitted toge­ther; and not, as many think, a confused and jumbled heap or Chaos of things, as it were, of Stones, Bricks, Wood, and other Materials, as the rubbish of a decayed House, or an House not yet made.

And to the perpetuation of these hidden and unsearchable ope­rations of Nature, there is a constant circulation and return round thereof. The Constellations, Sun, Moon, and Stars, cause the re­ciprocal slowings and Tides of the Sea to and fro. By the impe­tuousness [Page] of the Seas rage and Tides, an immense bulk of Waters, being, through hid and occult passages at the bottom of the Ocean, protruded or thrust forcibly into the intimate bowels of the Earth, excites and stirs up also Subterraneous Fire by the impetuousness of Winds, and restores it with new conveyance of Nutriment. The Subterraneous Fire not knowing how to be idle, being enkindled by the reciprocation, or return to and fro, of the Tides, as it were by certain Bellows; and raging, does, by these, and those, and the other Fibres, or Veins of occult passages, which are replenished with Metallick and Mineral Juyces, carry, whiles it passes by, an huge plenty of vapors with it self; which protruded, partly through the Terrestrial Conveyances of the Mountains, partly through the bottom of the Ocean, into the uttermost Surface; and there dilated and spread wider, do again, with their blasts, solicite and provoke the Air, the Ocean, and Seas. And what is again insinuated through the Orifices of the Oceans bottom, doth convey new Provanr to the Subterraneous Fire, to nourish and conserve it; and by this means also doth supply new matter to provoke and stir up the Sea again; (as but now was declar'd) You see therefore the manner and way of the Circulation of Nature. You see how Water, Fire; Fire, Water; mutually, as it were, cherish one another; and by a certain unanimous consent, conspire to the Conservation of the Geo­cosm, or Terrestrial World. For if Subterraneous Fire should e­mit no vapours for matters of Winds; The Sea, as it were torpid, and void of motion, would go into a putridness, to the ruine of the whole Globe. And consequently destitute of the aid of Winds, could neither also succour Subterraneous Fire, with necessary nutri­ment. Whence the Fire extinct, being the life of the Macrocosm, as spiritous blood is of the Microcosm, Universal Nature must ne­cessarily perish. Lest therefore Nature, undergoing so great a de­triment, should fail; Hereupon God most good and great, by pro­vident Nature, the Hand-maid of the Supream Work-master, would have both Elements be in a perpetual Motion, for admirable ends, elsewhere shewn. For the Water sliding through the secret passa­ges under ground, supplies moisture; and together therewith car­ries a mixture of Terrestrial portions to the Fire-houses, for their food. And these again swelling with hot Spirits, carried upwards, and elevated through wonted Fire-ducts, do with their heat cherish the Water-houses, and other kind of Receptacles, whether of Air, or several Juyces of Minerals and Earths, (for there are Store-houses [Page] of all under ground) and do animate them for the Generation both of Minerals, and also of Vegetables, to be promoted, or furthered by exhalations. And so in an everlasting, and circulatory motion, all things which are beheld in Nature, do exist and abide. And so Subterraneous Fire, together with Water, are the Effectors and Generators, we may say, of all things, &c.


This Scheme expresses the Nests of Heat only, or, which is all one, the Fire-houses, variously distributed through the Universal Bow­els of the Earth, by the admirable Workmanship of God; lest any where should be wanting what would be so greatly necessary to the Conversation of the Geocosm. But let none perswade himself, as if the Fires were constituted, as here represented; and the Fire-houses forthwith disposed in that order. In no wise this. We would onely hereby shew, that the bowels of the Earth are full of Aestu­aries, that is, places overflown, and raging with Fire, which we call Under-ground Fire-houses, or Conservatories; whether after such, or any other manner disposed. From the Centre therefore we have deduc'd the Fire, through all the Paths (to be supposed) of the Terrestrial World; even to the very Vulcanian Mountains themselves, in the Exteriour Surface. The Central Fire is signed with the letter A. The rest are the Aestuaries, or Fire-houses, signed with B. The Fire-ducts, C. But the least Channels, are Fissures, or clests of the Earth, which the Fiery Spirits pass, and make their way through.

A. The Central Fire.

B. The Fire-houses.

C. The Fire-ducts.

Fissures of the Earth, the rest.


  • CHAP. I. Of Subterraneous Fire-houses; That is, Abysses, or deep Storehouses of Fire: or, if you will, Aestuaries (that is, places overslown and raging with; or, as it were, Creeks of Fire) underground.
  • CHAP. II. Of the Volcano's or Ignovomous, that is, Fire-vomiting Mountains in General.
  • CHAP. III. Of the Manifold Volcano's of Italy in Particular.
  • CHAP. IV. Of the Remakables of Volcano's, and their Eruptions in Ge­neral.
  • CHAP. V.
    • Of the Remarkables of the Volcano's of Italy, and their no­torious Eruptions in particular, &c. Viz.
    • Of the Phlegraean Plains, or Volcano's Court.
    • Of the Mountain Vesuvius, &c.
  • CHAP. VI.
    • Of the Prodigious and Wonderful Aetna in Special; and of the Vulcanian Islands adjoyning.
    • Aetna's Crater or Fire-Cup.
    • A Chronicle of Aetna's Fires, &c.
    • Of the Volcanello's; Strombolo, and Volcano, &c.
    • A sad story of a Spanish Priest, &c.
    • A foolish Story of Sir Thomas Gresham.

The VULCANO'S: OR, Mountains vomiting Fire, famous in the World; with their Remarkables.
CHAP. I. Of Subterraneous Abysses, and Conservatories, or Store-houses of Fire; the Original Cause and Sourse of all fiery Eruptions, and Vulcano's.

THAT there are Subterraneous Conservatories, and Treasuries of Fire (even as well, as there are of Water, and Air, &c.) and vast Abysses, and bot­tomless Gulphs in the Bowels and very Entrals of the Earth, stored therewith, no sober Philosopher From what Signs Subter­raneous Fire is gathered. can deny; If he do but consider the prodigious Vulcano's, or fire-belching Mountains; the erup­tions of sulphurous fires not only out of the Earth, but also out of the very Sea; the multitude and variety of hot Baths every where occurring. And that they have their sourse and birth-place, not in the Air, not in the Water; nay, nor as the Vulgar perswade them­selves, not at the bottom of the Mountains; but in the very in-most privy-Chambers, and retiring places of the Earth, is as reasonable to think; And there Vulcan, as it were, to have his Elaboratories, Shops, and Forges in the profoundest Bowels of Nature.

[Page 2] For how else could there be every where such a quantity of Mine­rals, brimstone, and sulphurous unctuous matters, without any fire and subterraneous burnings of fire-engendring, and all concocting na­ture; which by no means can be conceived to be enkindled, from the conflicts of air and moisture, in those most dark and deep Regions of the Earth, so remote from all influence of the Sun.

Therefore subterraneous fire was necessary to the internal Oecono­my, The necessity of Subterraneous Fire. or constitution of, as it were, the organiz'd parts of the earth, and distribution of Life and heat, as we may so say, to all the exte­riour members. Plato acknowledges hidden treasuries of ever-flow­ing flames, and most huge Rivers of fires, as well as of waters. Yea and Aristotle himself affirms most ample sourses, as of water, so of spirit and fire. Also Pliny, Vitruvius, Cicero, have noted this Ar­canum of nature; for in the bowels of the earth, are observed hid­den Fire is no where wan­ting. operations of heat; and the greatest parts of the world are up­held and sustained by heat underneath. We see fire struck forth from the conflict and attrition of stones; and the reeking earth to smoke upon every new digging, especially if deep; And also hot and warm waters drawn out of Wells continually, and that chiefly in winter; for that a great force of heat is contain'd and pent up with­in the Caverns of the earth. All the Poetick Fables of Vulcan, Ve­sta, Vables of Poets allude to Subterraneous Fire. the Cyclops, seem to allude to this subterraneous fire.

This is the sense of Lucretius singing thus;

—The Earth contains within it's Womb,
First Seeds, whence th' Sea, and flowing Rivers come
In constant course: Sources of Fire it has,
For burning Soyls we see in many a place.
But above all, Aetna's impetuous Cell,
Rages with flames from th' lowest pit of Hell.
And Manilius,
But with all parts the Fires mingled are,
Quick Lightning, in the teeming Clouds of th' Air,
They gender; Pierce the Earth; whence Aetna's Mountains,
Dare Heaven: Also make Baths hot, in Fountains.

To this end the whole Earth is Cavernous, and the Terrene Globe The whole Earth is Ca­vernous. contains vast spaces within its own bowels, arched Caves and Vaults, immense Tracts, and impenetrable Abysses. For, as Seneca relates [Page 3] of the Fields of Puteolum, There are vast Caves, hugh Recesses, and vacuities; Stones on Mountains hanging here and there: Also cragged Gapings without bottom, which have often receiv'd them, as they fell in, and buried the mighty Ruine in the deep. For the whole Earth is not solid; but every where gaping, and hollow'd with empty rooms and spaces, and hidden burrows, as it were, whereto subscribes Pliny, Aelian, Lucretius, and other writers of Natural things. For the Fire and Water sweetly conspire together in mu­tual The Wedlock of Fire and water within the Earth. service, with an inviolable friendship and wedlock, for the good of the whole in their several and distinct private-lodgings, as we may so say, and hidden receptacles; spreading themselves far and wide to a vast largeness, and capacity; which two Associates, and A­gents of Nature, with pains work and bring about such variety of things we see, of Minerals, Juyces, Marles, Glebes, and other soyls, with ebullitions, and bublings up of Fountains also. As Manilius but now sang to us.

Sith this fire thus shut up in the Caverns of the Earth, agitating Subterraneous fire seeks pas­sages for vent. it self, when it finds passage, it never leaves penetrating unto some vent, for many hundred Miles, even under the Sea, and unpassable and far fetch'd windings and turnings of the Earth. And acquiring continually greater power, it turns the Earth, and even the very Stones and Mountains, it finds in its way, into easie fuel and nutriment: That except it were restrain'd by the encompassing of the Ocean, and the command of the Omnipotent Deity, it would attract and suck in the universal bulk, of all elementary Nature, into an unquenchable combustion, and Conflagration.

And there is need of such vast quantities of fires, for the uses of the Universe; And 'tis reasonable to think that the Divine Provi­dence The need and use thereof. hath made a very great provision of fire in the belly of Na­ture, whence by long Chimnyes or Funnels, as it were, it might diffuse an infinite heat and fervour for the use of things necessary; and the emolument of the Earth, Men, and Beasts. Just as it hath constituted the vast Sea in such a manner so as to distribute an inde­ficient plenty of Waters, through the veins and channels of the whole body of the Earth. And as it hath appointed the Waters their bounds, so it hath so attempted and distributed these fires, in the hidden courses and apartments of subterrestrial Nature, that they might neither be suffocated by the infinuating and inflowing Waters of the Ocean, nor transgress their prescribed Limits and Confines: For otherwise, if they should be unlimitted Eruptions, they would soon turn all into Ruines.

[Page 4] Which shall at length come to pass, in that fulness of time, when The last gene­ral Conflagra­tion of the World. all the Reins of unruly Nature shall be broke loose, and the Ca­taracts, or Flood gates as it were, of subterraneous fire flung open; by the command of the Divine Power, not only the Earth, but even the Elements shall melt with fervent heat, to the ruine and destru­ction of the whole World. That even as in the universal Flood, the windows of Heaven, and Gulphs of the Abysses being opened, he destroyed the World by an Inundation of Waters, even so also, in the last times, he might destroy the same by a Deluge of Fires: which who could deny to be, if he should behold the perpetual boyling fires in the Earth; the vast burning of Provinces; Lastly, the ma­nifest provision and preparation of so much Combustible matter, and Sulphur together, which is vomited forth, even at one Gaping and Eructation; without confessing it a certain and infallible Specimen and Example, and evident token of preparation to the total and final Conflagration prescribed by the Divine Wisdom.

The Prodigious Vulcano's therefore and Fire-vomitting Moun­tains visible in the external surface of the Earth, do sufficiently de­monstrate it full of invisible and under-ground fires. For where­ever there's a Vulcan, there also is a Conservatory, or Store-house under, as certain, as where there is a Chimney or smoke, there is fire; And argue deeper treasuries and storehouses of fire, in the very heart and inward bowels of the Earth. In so much that from hence the Holy Father's have not incongruously placed the greatest of all the Hell in the Center of the Earth, accor­ding to some. Fire-conservative Abysses in the Centre of the Earth, for an eternal Jakes and Prison, destin'd for the punishment of the Damned; and some others for Purgatory (according to the received belief of Papists.)

Now flame is but flowing, or fluid fire, and the streaming efflux of sulphurous principles, or particles, &c. which from these burst forth in excessive raging streams, from the mouth of these Ignivomous (or fire-vomitting) Mountains, and Vulcano's; which are wonders of Nature, not unworthy generally to be known, and taken notice of, of all men. And which we now come to ennumerate, with their remarkable Phaenomena's, and Eruptions.

CHAP. II. Of Vulcano's ingeneral; What, and where; In Asia, Africa, America, and Europe.

AS Nature hath constituted various Store-houses of Waters, in the highest Mountains; so it has distributed various Recep­tacles of fire, within the bowels of the highest Mountains also; for the compleat fructifying of Nature with this primigenial heat as it were, and radical moisture together, as before has been shewn. For the fire cannot subsist without the water, nor the water without the The Fire and Waters mutual need and use. fire. 'Tis certain, if only the moist, or only the fiery element, should domineer, all would be laid wast, and nothing fructifie, &c. The Water would stagnete and freeze without some kindly re­solving heat, and afford no warm and friendly vapours, and fruitful exhalations. And the fire cannot live, without a moist and humid nu­triment, And need of air, and breath, as it were. or last any time without a free and an asswaging fomenta­tion, and breathing of the Air, and as it were ventilation.

These Vulcano's therefore are nothing but the vent-holes, or breath-pipes of Nature, to give vent to the superfluous choaking Vulcano's are Breathing-Holes of Na­ture. fumes and smoaky vapours, which fly upwards, and make way and free passage for the vehemency of the within-conceived burning; and for the attraction and free entrance of the friendly cherishing Air, to revive and ventilate those suffocating flames, lest they should continually shake the foundations of the Ground with intollerable commotions and Earthquakes. For Earthquakes are the proper ef­fects Earthquakes proper Effects of Sub errane­ous fire. of subterrestrial cumbustions. And so the fire is both exone­rated of its superfluous clogg of fumes and dregs of dross, through those open and wide-mouthed Gulphs and Orifices, as it were through certain Jakes or common shoars; and also cherished and refreshed with the all-reviving Air; so serving as breath pipes both for expiration and inspiration to the whole body of Nature, or the Universe.

Of this sort of Vent-holes, Chimneys, or Funnels, there are such a multitude and variety, that there's hardly any Region in the world without them.

[Page 6] Asia, every where, in its several Regions, abounds with these vo­miting [...]ano's of [...], &c. Mountains of fire. Persia has divers Vulcano's. And in the Island Armuzia: The Island Zeilan, remarkable by the name of Adam; In Persia itself, many sulphurous Craters, or Cups, very terrible to Travellers; with Susis in Media, and Cophantus in the Region of the Bactrians, sormidable to beholders.

In the Moguls Empire, in the Kingdom of Ingoston, Tibet, Cam­boi, every where these kind of Mountains; and in the most vast Kingdom of China. But especially the Molucco-and-Philippine-Islands, and the universal Archipelago of St Lazarus, so abounds with these Vulcanian places, that there's scarce an Island without them, either in the Crater's (or deep mouth'd Cups) and hellish ditches, if not upon the Mountains themselves. Also in the Ban­dan's, whereof the Mountain Gourapi most eminent; in both the Java's, within the entrails of most high Mountains. The Moun­tain Balalvanus in Sumatra: The inaccessible Mountain in the Island Terenate. In the Maurician Islands, the Mountain Tola. In Tandaia, nigh the Promontory of the Holy Ghost, are found some also; as also in the Island Marindica. Moreover in Jappan, no small number, near the City Firandus; and a famous one over against the City Tanaxuma, in one of the Seven Sisters (Islands so called) and several other circumjacent Islands every where; which through subterraneous Burrows or Channels have occult commerce with St. Lazarus Islands, in the Archipelago, even to new Guiny, and those called Solomon's Islands; and from thence to other Islands of the Pacifick, commonly call'd the South Sea. For in new Guiny, as also in the Southern Land are observed such Mountains, to the great astonishment of Mariners. And the like are seen in the vast Sou­thern Ocean, or South Sea; In the Indian Ocean every where, De­sert and Rockey Mountains discover their smoking Chimneys; even in the shores of Northren Tartary towards Muscovy, are frequent Vulcanello's; and in all the Ocean and Islands almost, &c. which we leave, and come to Africa.

Where Fight famous Vulcano's are observ'd; Two in Monomo­topa; The Vulcanian Mountains of Africa. Four in Angola, Congus, and Guiny; One in Lybia, and One in Ab [...]ssia; besides innumerable Craters and sulphurous Dens, e­very where obvious; some whereof having consum'd their combu­stible matter, have ceas'd; again to re-inkindle when they shall have ripen'd and concocted again their recruited matter and fuel. The Atlantick Sea so abounds with subterraneous Fires, that Plato's [Page 7] Land, call'd Atlantis, seems to have been swallow'd up from no o­ther cause; but the outrages of these fues and earthquakes thence a­rising. And to this very day some Tracts are every where infested with flames and fires breaking forth from their under-ground store-houses; the violence and rage whereof, both Columbus and Vespuc­cius, at their great peril had experience of. The Terzera's can scarce be inhabited for the vehemency of fires. The Canary Islands, and in them the Pico, or Pike, a Mountain of immense Altitude, equal to Taenariff, belches forth flames to this very day; as also the Plains of the circumjacent Islands stuffed with brimstone and sulphurous-unctuous matter. The Islands of St. Helen, and of the Ascention, to have stam'd heretofore, both the burnt Rocks of Mountains, and the Cinders, and plenty of Mineral and Stone-coals burnt and chark'd as it were, do sussiciently shew.

Yet no part of the world more famous than America, which you Of America. may call Vulcan's Kingdom. In the Andes alone, which they call the Cordillera, from a Coneatenation of Mountains, in the Kingdom of Chile, are fifteen Vulcano's. To these you may adjoyn the Vul­cano's out of the Southern part of the Magellanick Sea, commonly call'd Terra del Fuego. In Peru not fewer then in Chile; six of in­accessible height; and three in the continued tops of the Andes, be­sides innumerable Vulcanian Ditches, Pits, and Jakes. In Carappa, a Province of Popayan, is a Mountain raging with smoke and flames, chiefly in serene weather. The City Paraquipa, ninety leagues di­stant from Lima, has a Mountain near it, casting forth continually such sulphurous fires, that the People are greatly afraid, lest some­time at length the Eruptions should utterly destroy the whole Regi­on. At the valley of Peru, call'd Mulahallo, fifteen leagues distant from the City Quito, is another Vulcan, continually belching sorth flames far and near, and threatning the People.

In the Northern America, are observed five, partly in new Spain, viz. Three, formidable for their belching flames, partly in new Granada, partly in the very heart and midst of Califormia, and the more in-land Mexican Kingdom. In Nicaragua, one; Another neer Aquapulcus; three neer the Continent of Califormia; And in the (American) Mediterranean Sea two others; and innumerable others 'tis like, not yet discover'd, through all the Terr-aqueous Globe.

In Europe five chief ones are noted, viz. Aetna in Scicily, by the The Vulcan's of Europe. Monuments of all Writers, whether Poets or Historians most famous. [Page 8] Strongylus, (and some other of the Liparitan Islands, not very re­mote from Scicily; especially that notorious by the name of Vul­cano, to which is adjoyn'd another call'd Vulcanello) said all to have burnt heretofore, call'd the Vulcano's, or Vulcanian Islands. The Mountain Hecla in Izland, in the surthest North; and Chimaera in Greece: besides many others in each particular Country; at least Fire-wells, Pits, and Orifices, &c. Among all which Italy through­out Italy abounds with subterra­neous fires. all Ages is the most notorious for such underground Harths and Aestuaries; of which more particularly by its self. And indeed Italy is most fitly seated of all Countries of Europe for such vast Com­bustions, and Eruptions of fire.

Neither are Germany, France, Spain, and other Countries, wholly Of Germany, &c. distitute of theirs; where, though there be none answerable to the other, yet both the frequent sulphureous Craters, and deep burning Ditches and Pits, vomitting forth smoke and flames; and also the innumerable multiude of hot Baths and Wells every where, do be­tray some store and work-houses of subterraneous fire, creeping be­tween their Conservatories and Abysses of water. In Misnia, in Germany, the Mountain Carbo, ever and anon rages with sume and fire, &c.

Neither are the furthest Tracts of the North too cold and frozen for them. Four whereof Authors reckon in the Region of the Towards the Northern Pole Tynsei in Tartary. In Lapland high Mountains are observ'd to belch forth flames like Aetna. In Izland, the famous Hecla. And lest Nature might seem to have lest the furthest Regions of the North curs'd with the Everlasting inclemency of Cold and Ice, it has con­stituted an huge Vulcanian Mountain, in the Island call'd Groenland, next to the Pole; And others in the Neighbouring, whether Islands, or Continents, scituated about the Pole, which they continue, even unto the Creeks and Bayes of the Southern Land call'd Del Fuego: So that many think that the Tracts of the Northern Pole inaccessible by reason of the multitude of these fire-spewing Mountains.

CHAP. III. Of the Vulcano's of Italy, Scicily, and Neighbouring Islands.

ITaly, and the adjacent Island, have in all times afforded prodigi­ous Heats, Combustions, Aestuaries, hot Baths, Conflagrations, Italy abounds with Sub­terraneous Fires. and Eruptions of burning flames, and all the mighty Arguments, and wondrous Products and effects of Subterraneous fires. In so much that we want not History to report to us, That heretofore it all burnt from Cuma and Visuvius in Campania, or Terra di Lavoro, even to Histria, not far from Venice; and therefore to have been cal­led by the most ancient Inhabitants thereof, The burnt Country. And indeed Italy is every way disposed for such vast Combustions; As, with straitness and narrowness of scituation, whereby it is continu­ally dash'd and struck with the beating of waters and waves, be­tween two Seas; with subterraneous passages and cavernous hollow windings and turnings, easily penetrable and passable to fires and winds. And lastly, with plenty of sulphureous materials, where­with the whole luxuriously abounds. In so much that it burns, in certain places, above ground on the surface of the Earth. For in all the Southern parts of Italy, from the utmost Coasts of Sicily, to the very Confines of Tuscany; in some places, are seen perpetual bur­nings, as in Aetna. In other, Conflagrations by times, as in the Vulcanello's, or Liparitan Islands; and over against Naples, as in Ischia, Prochyta, Pythacusa; and also in the Mountains of the Con­tinent, Vesuvius, Misenum, the Puteoli, and Cuma, which often burn, and in certain places, shew great Aestuaries, with abounding fires, fumes, vapours, baths; winding labyrinths, also every where obvious; as Kircher with greatest diligence observed; and gapes with burrow'd breathing-holes, which when they send forth a blast, presently, not without terrour of standers-by, are perceived more inward crackings, as it were, of burning and blazing fires, and sounds of waters; as in the Phlegraean Hills, which surround the Vulca­nian The Phle­graean Plains. Plains, commonly called Sulphatara (or Land of Sulphur) is to be seen and heard. Also the Sybell's Den at Cuma, not far di­stant; and most mighty horrid Gapings and Recesses, impenetrable, [Page 10] and not to be entred, for their raging heat, give further assurances. All Campania, every where on it's Plains, carries ancient foot-steps All Cam­pania ob­noxious to Fires. of the same Conflagrations. The ground every where parch'd like Cinders, and Pumis-stones; and a dust, which they call the Puteo­lan, like Pouder; And extinct Coals included in living Rocks.

From Puteoli pass to Campagna di Roma, which is full of sul­phurous Campagna di Roma springs with Sul­phur. Crater's, through the Minturnan Marshes to Sulmo; whence a continued Mine of Sulphur, through the Roman Plain exerts it self, in divers places, but chiefly, in a certain Lake of un­searchable profundity, four miles distant from the City Tivoli, as also the most famous of the sixteen swimming Islands thereabouts, The swim­ming I­slands of Tivo which they call the Barchettae (or little Barks.) Out of which, the sulphureous River of Tyber has its origine; and seems to have been famous heretofore, for hot Bath's. Hence a burrow of subterrane­ous sire, bends back to the Round Mountain; And thence into di­vers branches. One part whereof tends to the Stiglian Bath's, and Burrows of Subter­raneous Fire, dis­persed in­to various branches. the Lake in the middle Wood, horrible with stench of Brimstone, and for the spectacle of Waters boyling and bubling up in the form of a Column; and at length through the neighbour Mountains, where are also hidden pits of Serpents, full of Aestuaries, and smo­king Funnels, or Chimneys; and even to the very hundred Cells: All which places, lavish with sulphurous Bitumen and unctuous ma­terials; and so terminate in the Sea. The other branch, towards the Mountain Rosea, between which and Roncilion, new sulphurean Fire-Cups break forth, which have their occult communications with the Mountain Viterbo, and with the Village Vico; and are famous for sulphurean boyling Springs. And indeed the Mountain Viterbo seems yet to cherish a great force of fire under most profound Dens; which it diffuses at its Roots, on the Morthern-side, towards Viterbium, into all the Plain, which is full of a most sulphureous Gas; The Glebes every where parch'd, and covered with Pumice-stones, and has innumerable hot Fountains; among which Bulli­camum is most famous for its intollerable fervour. This hath a great commerce with another neighbour Lake, between Viterbium, and the Mountain Flasco, where Water breaking forth from the bottom of the Lake, does mightily tumultuate; And, which is wonderful Two near Fountains one most hot, the o­ther most cold. to relate, here are beheld two Fountains together, distant scarce one pace, whereof one dances and leaps with most hot and boyl­ing, the other with most cold and freezing water. Hence a bur­row of subterraneous fire through whole Tuscany, diffusing it self [Page 11] into innumerable branches, scarce leaves any place free, from sulphu­reous Cups, and Mineral waters. Sith Tuscany, on that side looking towards the Tuscan Sea, even to the Island Ilva, the whole Country every where, bubbles with hot waters, or luxuriously abounds with sulphureous Mines of Iron, or Brass; under which are indeed me­morable, the stinking Ditches and Pools of Volterra, stuffed with servid and bubling Waters; And the Mines of the best Sulphur at Castro.

On the other part towards the East, a Burrow of Fire, extended far and wide, chiefly exerts it self, under the Mountain, called Vivo, where it causes the famous Baths of St. Cossian, and St. Philip; and hence stretches it self towards those called the Avignion Baths, even to the Mountain Politiano; where a plentiful quantity of Mineral Waters, with the grievousest stench, bubbles up. And hence on one side, even to the Apennine, which is also replenish'd with Aestua­ries (or raging Gulphs;) on the other; to Siena, in Tuscany, and the neighboring parts adjoyning to the Sea; And even to the Con­fines of Genoa, and the fields of Luca, which abound with so ma­ny Metals, so many sulphurous Wells and Fountains of hot and fervid Water, as perhaps all Italy hath not the like. Yet most of Breathing Orifices of Subterra­neous Fire at Petra Mala. all the Breathing-holes of subterraneous fire, burst out in the Apen­nine Hills, at Petra Mala, and neighbouring places, where the Air sparkles and glitters by night, and 'tis thick with darkness and smoak for a long time; as it were from some flaming furnace under­neath; and heats the waters that are cast in, and burns stubble. Now this Fountain seems to have continual veins, even to the Por­retan waters in the Bononion fields; Hills whereof, every where, sparkle and lighten by night. And hence seems to be poured into the fields of Modena, where liquor of Bitumen, and Sulphur, and Fire rages, after a wonderful manner; And hence continues the burnings of its fuel, even to Histria, of the Venetians. For that these Mountains of Padua, as ancient Historians testifie, did here­tofore burn about the Baths of Albano, in the Paduan fields, both the bubling Tracts of Hills and Ashes, and the external surface of Pumice-stones; as also burnt and cindred Coals, and the fervor of stones, which make the very waters, running between, hot, do suffi­ciently shew.

Which things seeing they are so, it may be truly, a certain Argu­ment to us, that all Italy universally is stor'd with continual matter of Sulphur; a Burrow of which, as it does any where, more or [Page 12] less, far and wide stretch forth its branches; so it extends them un­der the Sea also, to adjacent Islands, and according to the singular and peculiar temper of mixture, and the virtue of the heat, which it has under a different Tract of Veins, produces various effects, and causes marvellous burnings, and Eruptions, at certain times.

We conclude therefore, saith Kircher, That Italy, the Nurse of Italy here­tofore in great part burnt. Burnings and Combustions, as it is all over stuffed with subterrane­ous fires; which burn, in some places perpetually, in others by fits; so heretofore it had so great increases of Sulphur, such a coa­cervation and vast treasury of fires, that if it suffered not a total con­flagration; yet at least to have burnt in a very great part, as Berosus witnesses. Nor is it less credible, according to these principles, of nature, standing, that even again and again, it shall burn with vast Conflagrations, till the very final Destruction and Consumation of the whole Universe.

Lastly, Those of Aetna in Sicily, and Strongylus, Vulcano, &c. Vnder­ground. Commerce of Fires, between Italy, Si­cily, &c. of the Lipparitan Islands; have no doubt their Submarine and Sub­terrane Communications with the Italian, Vesuvian, &c. also. The Soyl of Sicily springs with often and eternal fires; and the whole Island cavernous, producing Sulphur and Bitumen abundantly; whereby exceeding fertile, of old, and even to this very day.

CHAP. IV. Of the Remarkables of Vulcano's, and their most prodi­gious Phaenomena's, bitberto observ'd, in particular; With particular Relations, &c.

THus all the World over are found Eruptions of Fire by Natures Of Asia, and the Eastern Islands, &c. own kindling, as if she kept House under-ground, and made several Hills her ignivomous and evacuating Chimneys.

In Ocmuzio, an Island of the Persian Gulph, all things are full of fires, whence 'tis said to have burnt seven whole years continu­ally. It yet belches forth daily, out of the Saline Mountains, which it abounds with, globes of flames, whereby the most famous Mart of the whole East, is almost quite laid wast.

In Media, Susis, at the white Tower, breaks forth with fire, out of fifteen Chymney-holes, with such a vehement noise and sound, [Page 13] that the People round about are perswaded the Gates of Hell to be there.

In Japon, above other Islands, Vulcan seems to have forg'd a number of his Shops and Work-houses, vomiting forth fire and smoak, night and day. And as it is seventy miles distant from the famous City Firandus; so by night they illuminate the whole Re­gion, like so many blazing Torches, to the admiration of Beholders.

In the Island Java, the Mountain not far from the City Panacura, having not burnt for many years; (for some places burn alwayes, some by fits;) In the year 1586, raged with such a violent Erup­tion, that ten thousand persons are said to have perished, in the sub­jacent fields: and three whole dayes, darting forth mighty stones in­to the said City, with fumes caused such a darkness, as hid the Sun, and turned day into night.

The Mountain Pico in the Island Timor, of such an height, that a flamy Spire or Pyramid was seen for three hundred miles in the Sea. This in the year 1638, had its very foundations shaken, by an hor­rible Earthquake; and was wholly swallow'd up, together with the Island, leaving nothing behind it, but an huge mighty Lake. So the Annals of the Jesuites Society relate.

The Mountain Gounapi, in one of the Bandan Islands, in the year 1586, after continual burnings of seventeen years, at length burst asunder, sent forth such a quantity of stones, cinders, ashes, and sulphureous-Bituminous Pumice-stones, that the Sea almost cover'd therewith, all seem'd to burn, with the destruction of all Fish, and living Creatures.

In the Island Ternat, one of the Malacca's, there is an high and steep Mountain climbing up into the Clouds, whose lower parts are beset with thick Woods and Forrests, and upper parts peel'd and made bare with continual burnings. On the very top it hath a Cup or deep Mouth, with a vast gaping, made round into many circles, from greater to lesser, like an Amphitheater, or stage, one below another. This, at the time of the Aequinoctials, chiefly by the blast of the Northern winds, raging with smoak and flames, reduces all the neighbour places round about, overwhelm'd with ashes and cinders, into desolation.

The Maurican Islands seem wholly to burn, whence frequent Earthquakes; and casts forth out of Caverns, and the very top of the Mountain Thola, such quantity of flames, ashes, and stones, as big as great Trees, that it seems a kind of Hell.

[Page 14] The Atlantick Sea, west of Africa, so abounds with subterrane­ous Of Africa, &c. Fires, that Plato's Laud, call'd Atlantis, seems to have perish'd from no other cause, but as swallow'd up with the fierceness of these Fires; and the frequency of Earthquakes following thereupon. And to this very day certain Tracts of Seas are abundantly infested with shines and fires, issuing out of their store-houses; whose rage both Columbus and Vespuccius, to their great hazard, try'd.

Neer Hesperius, a Mountain in Ethiopia, the fields in the night all glitter with Light. As also a certain piece of ground does the like in Babylonia; and some places in Italy were noted before, for some such like thing.

Pliny, after reckoning up of the most notorious, concludes with the burning of the high and vast Mountain Theonochema, or Chariot of the Godds, in Africa, as the most famous example of this kind above all others; at least in those dayes. And ends, saying, In so many places, with so many fires, does Vniversal Nature burn and roast the Earth. And this great Naturalist, who perish'd, in pry­ing too curiously into these dangerous prodigies of Nature, consider­ing how full fraught the World is with this Element, and how pro­pagative it is of it self, sayes, It is the greatest Miracle that an u­niversal Conflagration of the World has not happen'd already, Tru­ly it exceeds all Miracles, that there has been any day, wherein all things have not burnt. Those be his words.

Some of the Vulcano's in the Andes, in the Kingdom of Chile, were so big-belly'd, as it were, with fires, that in the year 1645, Of Ameri­ca, &c. they brought forth so great Calamities, to that Kingdom; that no Pen is able to express, whole Cities every where being both swal­low'd up, and overturn'd.

The City Paraquipa, ninety Leagues distant from Lima, has a neighbouring Vulcanian Mountain, continually darting forth fires, in so much that the People are sorely afraid, lest sometime it should burst asunder, and destroy the whole Countrey.

The Vulcano's of Guatimalla, are more terrible. In the year, 1586, almost all the City of Guatimalla, fell with an Earthquake. This Vulcano had then, for six months together, day and night, cast from the top, and vomited, as it were, great flouds of Fire. As is also observeable of the Vulcano of Quito, which cast such aboun­dance of ashes, that in many Leagues compass thereabouts, it dark­ned the light of day.

In Nicaragua, in North America, thirty five Leagues from the [Page 15] City Leon, an high Mountain vomits forth flames in such abun­dance, as to be seen for ten miles distance, and more. And another not far from Aquapulcus of the same fierceness.

Of these Vulcano's, some vomit out of their mouths smoke and ashes, or both: some fires, and there are some which never cast, either smoke, flames, or ashes; but in the bottom are seen to burn with a quick fire never dying. This impos'd upon a greedy Priest, and made him think it was nothing else, but heaps of Gold, melted in the fire, which he thought to have fetch'd up by letting down an Iron Kettle with Chains; But his device was not fire-proof, his Kettle and Chain melting so soon as they approach'd neer the bottom.

But the greatest wonder of all is that some of these Vulcano's have for some hundreds, nay for some thousands of years, cast out continu­ally smoke, fire, and ashes.

For the European, to begin with the more Northern. And here first, who knows not the notorious Mountain Hecla, (and also Of Eu­rope, &c. Hegla and of the Holy Cross) in Izland, by the Relation of all Geo­graphers, most remarkable, for mighty burnings. Mountains so ter­rible for Thunder, flamings out of fire, casting abroad stones, ashes, stink, and smoke; that the more fanciful conceit, that Hell is begun there aforehand: which were more plausible, if the Apparitions that are seen there, were as true, as they are said to be frequent. And which seems a Miracle of Nature, its highest Top or Pike, is white, with perpetual Snow; and its Roots and sides blazing with unquenchable burnings. And the multitude of hidden Gulphs and Whirl-pits suffer none to come neer, for many furlongs. And by the Eructuation of stones, and ashes, reduces all the circumjacent Plain into barrenness; together with a formidable noise, and crackling. Which while the Inhabitants hear, they superstitiously believe, the Souls of the wicked, to be tormented there, with a miserable howling.

And even in Groenland, perpetually frozen with extreamest cold, next to the very North Pole, there is an huge Vulcanian Mountain, at whose Roots, is a Monastery of the Order of Preachers, call'd St. Thomas's, The Won­ders of St. Thomas Monastery in Groen­land, &c. built of Tophas-stone, from the casting out of the Moun­tains. Concerning which, Bartholomew Zenet, a Venetian, a dili­gent Inspector and searcher into these things, I know not by what ac­cident cast on these Coasts, relates many wonderful things. Here, sayes he, is seen St. Thomas's Monastery of the Dominicans. And not far distant an Ignivomous Mountain; at the foot whereof, a fiery Eountain breaks forth; With the Water of this Fountain, derived by [Page 16] Pipes, not only all the Cells of the Moncks are made hot, like Stoves; but also their Meat dressed; yea, and their very Bread bak'd. The Mountain vonsits forth the Tophaz or Pumice-stone, which the whole Monstery is built of. For those Tophaz's soaked through with that hot Water, are cemented together, as it were, with clammy Bitumen. Here are also most pleasant Gardens, watered with boyling Water, in which are Flowers and Fruits of all kinds. And this Water, when it hath run through the Gardens, falls into a neighbour Gulph, or Port; whereby it happens, that it never is frozen; and therefore the Fish, and innumerable Birds and Fowl frequent there; wherewith the Inhabitants live in full plenty. So he writes, who saw and discover­ed the Coast, the King of Danes chief Admiral, Nicholas Zenet, a Venetian.

Now it is most likely that the Vulcan's of Izland, and Groenland, have communication together, by hidden Burrows and Channels; and are perpetually imploy'd by secret Aestuaries, to allay the vehe­mency of the Cold, and abundance of Ice. Whence also is drawn the Reason, why in some Northern Islands, and the Shores of Nor­way, Finmark, Biarmia, Lapland, in one part the Sea is easily frozen with Ice; in another part, not at all, by no force of cold, or snows. Also in some shores most abundant Pastures, together with Trees, and most fruitful fields are found: In others, as in Nova Zemblia, neither Grass, nor Trees, nor any thing profitable for the nutriment of Man, to be met with.

There was also some Vulcanian Hill, Crater, or Pit, which burnt for sixteen years in Scotland, and consum'd a large quantity of ground. Even as now some Coal-Mines about Newcastle are said to have continued burning for several years of late, and 'tis likely do so still.

In Germany, was violent Eruptions formerly. Who in these latter Ages, hath ever heard, or read of such a Fire, issuing out of the Earth, as Tacitus describes? which burnt a whole Territory; against which Water was unavaileable; which could never be extinguish'd, but with Stones, Cloaths, Linnen, and Wollen, and other dry Materials cast thereon. Tacitus words run thus.

The City of the Inhonians in Germany, confederate with us (saith he) was afflicted with a sudden disaster. For fires issuing out of the Earth, burned Towns, Fields, Villages every where, and spread even to the Walls of a Colony newly built; and could not be extin­guished, neither by Rain, nor River-water, nor any other liquor [Page 17] that could be employed, until for want of remedy, and anger of such a distraction, certain Peasants cast stones afar off into it; then the slame somewhat slacking, drawing near, they put it out with blows of Clubs and otherwise, as if it had been a wild beast. Last of all, they threw in cloaths from their backs, which the more worn, and fouler, the better they quenched the fires. We have omitted the high Mountains in Lapland also, which Olaus relates, belch forth hi­deous slames, like Aetna's.

In Greece the Mountain Nymphaeus stings out fire also, and pitchy bituminous matter; the fury whereof is enkindled by rain and wa­ter: As also the fire of those Ignivomous Mountains of Lycia, and Pamphylia, in Asia minor, (not mentioned before) viz. The mon­strous Mountain Chimaera heretofore famous for often belching forth Fires. It's Fire is the more inkindled with Water, but quenched with Earth, or Hay. As also the Hephaestian Mountains, near Chi­maera; whose Earth, touched with a lighted Torch or Brand, sud­denly takes fire; so that the stones burn in the very waters, and the fire is fed and nourished by Rains, and Waters. And if with a kind­led, or burning brand, furrows be made in the Earth; Streams or Ri­vers, as it were, of Fire, will run along after: As Pliny writes.

In the Mediterranean, in the Archipelago, the Island Santorin, has had formidable Fires and Earthquakes, as in the year 1650, from the relation of Fa. Fr. Riccard of the Jesuits society, who was pre­sent, and an eye witness; and with his own mouth related the whole event, to Kircher, at Rome, afterwards; and by the following Testi­mony, would have it known to posterity.

The Relation of Fa. Fr. Riccard, concerning Subterraneous Fires, which brake forth from the bottom of the Sea, in the year 1650. near the Island Santorin, in the Archi­pelago.

ALthough some reprove Pliny of lyes, in that he relates certain stupendous things, above humane capacity: yet daily ex­perience teaches us, that in many things he spake true; chiesly in the History of many Islands, which in succession as time arose and started up from the bottom of the Sea; and amongst others Thera, in the 135. Olympiad, (which was about the year of the world 3200.) It was also call'd Calista, and Phylothera; But now [Page 18] Santorin, from St. Irene, the famous Virgin and Martyr, wor­shipped there. For Baronius himself, in his Ecclesiastick Annals of the year 726. seems to give credit to Pliny. For thus he speaks. A vapor was seen to bubble forth out of a Chimny of Fire, between the Islands Thera and Therasia, (or Santorin) from the very bot­tom of the Sea, for some dayes; whereby the burning of the fiery heat, by little and little being condensed, and dilated or spread, it all shewed like a fiery flaming smoak. Moreover, with the vastness of its earthy substance, it conveyed hugeous Rocky-Pu­mice-stones, and certain great heaps, through all Asia, and Lesbos, and Abydus, and the Maretime Coasts of Macedonia; so that the whole surface of the Sea was filled with these Pumices. But in the middle of so great a Fire, there was an Island made, from the heaping and congestion of Earth together, and joyn'd to the Island called the Sacred, which never existed before. The like we understood happened in the year 1457, from certain Verses in­graved on Marble, for the perpetual Memory of the thing: which near the Gate of the Castle Scarus of the said Island, run to this purpose.

Viz. 1547.

Magnanimous Francis, the Heroes undoubted Off-spring,
Thou seest with thine eyes, what Calamities & Wonders;
By joyning five times eleven unto two; on the seventh of the Calends of December,
With a vast murmur, vast Terasia groan'd,
And pluck'd assunder mighty Camena's stones;
From the Sea's bottom, an huge Rock appears,
A Monster great, and most Memorable for ever.

Further it appears, that there was another Island next to this, form'd in the year 1570. not without great Terror of those of Santorin. Sith the Burning lasted for a year, as some ancient folk, who saw it with their Eyes, do yet testifie. But in the middle of this smaller Island, which is now called Little Camena, to this very day is beheld an huge and profound ditch, which being narrow towards the bottom, by little and little inlarges it self round, like a funnel; out of which, as out of a Chimney, bursted forth those mighty Stones and Rocks, which co-mixed with the Cinders and Ashes, built that Bulk or heap, appearing aloft.

But that those Subterraneous Fires, which are fed with plenty of Bitumen and Sulphur, and sometimes break forth with greatest [Page 19] violence, are never extinct, is evident, from most hot Waters, which are found at the Sea-shoar, in the furthest South part of the Island, and which the Inhabitants use, as the most healthfullest Baths, to expel diseases sprung from Cold.

But if ever those Fires, pent up in the bowels of the Earth, ex­ercised their force, it was most of all then, when in the year 1650 on the 24th of September, even to the ninth of October, they shook that Island with so mighty and so frequent Earthquakes; that the people, viz. of Santorin, fearing nothing but immediate ruin, were on their knees night and day before the Altars. But it can­not be spoke nor expressed what a fear invaded all; when those victorious flames, breaking open all obstacles, strove to make them­selves a way through the midst of the Waters of the Ocean, about four miles from Santorin Eastward: For that forsooth the Sea, swell'd thirty cubits upwards, suddenly; and extending it self wide, through the Neighbouring Lands, overturn'd every thing it met in its way; In so much that the very Port of Candy which yet is 80 miles distant, it broke in pieces, with its sudden assault, and impetu­ousness, both the Gallies and Ships. But the Air, infected with those ill-smelling and Sulphureous vapours, began to be darkened, and put on innumerable forms and appearances. Hence brandishing of fiery Lances and flammivomous Swords; thence darting forth bright and glittering Arrows. Here, as it were, terrible Serpents and Dragons flying; and there hideous Thunder-claps, Lighten­ings, and Thunder-bolts, were stirred up.

And yet we could scarce see: for the eyes of all beholders were so hurt, with those sharp pricking and Sulphureous Smoaks and Vapours, that almost all became blind for three dayes; so as not only to see nothing, but were also seiz'd with so great and so grievous a pain, that they wept continually, and bewail'd their most miserable lot. But when they return'd to their free eyesight, they saw all their Silver and Golden, both Vessels and Garments, and all Pictures, drawn over with a yellow colour. And such a great multitude of Pumice-stones that fiery Gulph vomitted forth, that it covered the whole surface of the Sea, so that scarce any one could pass in a Vessel. It is most certain, that they were convey'd even to Smyrna, and Constantinople; and all Shoars and Coasts filled therewith. Now the force of this burning was greatest the two first months: Forasmuch as the Neighbour-Sea seem'd even to bubble like a boyling Pot; And night and day huge [Page 02] Globes and flakes of Flames, and most thick heaps of furled pit­chy Smoak mounted up.

Which if at any time, by an adverse wind, were carried to the next places, brought, besides a most grievous stink, destruction both to Birds, Beasts, yea and to very Men themselves. As it hap­pened the ninth of October, and fourth of November, that fifty Husbandmen choak'd with the smoak and stench, most miserably perish'd; besides an innumerable multitude of Birds, Sheep, Oxen and Asses. The same happened to nine Mariners, who passing by night that way, in their Vessel, after three dayes, were found all half burnt, and were buryed in the Island Nio, sixty miles distant from Santorine.

But the other four Months, although that Hellish Hearth or Fur­nace, remitted much of its vigor and fierce heat, and could scarce lift it self above the waves: yet nevertheless it seem'd both to cast out Pumice-stones, and even to labour and strive towards the forma­tion of a New Island: which although it does not yet appear above Water, yet in a calm Sea, a shallow Ford is observ'd, which the Water swims over, scarce eight cubits high. But now if it be ask'd, Whether yet these Fires are quite allayed? 'Tis answered, That they seem sometimes to revive: Sith 'tis diligently observ'd, that the Sea boyls and rages there very often, and sends up smoak with the waves; And especially this year 1656, the 11th day of June, and three dayes following.

Even the Geographick Dictionaries also record, that both this Santorine, and the other little Island by, to have arose out of the Sea of late years; the one an hundred years since, and the other fifty. And that the Sea is exceeding deep thereabouts; and huge and fear­full Noises to be there heard.

Italy, Sicily, together with the neighbouring Islands of the Medi­terranean, corresponding with them, &c. are most notorious; But of them, and their Remarkables, and particular Relations by them­selves, in the next Chapter.

In the Atlantick Ocean, Westward; the Azores or Tercera's, can scarce be inhabited for the vehemency of Fires, and Earthquakes together therewith; Which about twenty years since, so shook the universal Island of St. Michael, and made so great ravagings, that it almost wholly sunk in an Abysse or bottomless Gulph.

For on June the 26th, in the year 1638, formidable Earth­quakes began to make the universal Island shake and quake, for [Page 21] the space of eight dayes; so that the Cities, Towns and Castles being deserted, Men were forc'd to dwell in the open Fields; chiefly those of Vargen, where the Earthquakes raged more dan­gerously than in other places. After which Earthquakes, succeeded the following Prodigy. Six miles distant from the Pick (commonly called the Pick of Camerine) is a place called Ferreira, where Fisher-men with their Boats were wont to fish, especially in the Sum­mer-time. For there in a dayes time, they caught such a multi­tude of Fish of all kinds, as no Boat returned laden with less than ten thousand Fish. In this tract therefore of the Ocean, on Satur­day in the month of July, in the year 1638, Fire broke forth with such an unexpressible violence, notwithstanding the depth of the said place of the Ocean, found often heretofore by the Fishers to be an 120 foot deep; that indeed the very Ocean would not suf­fice to éxtinguish so great a burning. The space which the boyl­ing fire took up, was as great as would serve for the sowing of two Bushels of Wheat; breaking forth with so great violence, that notwithstanding the said profundity of the Ocean, it reach'd as high as the Clouds; being elevated into the supream Region of the Air; carrying with it the very Water, Sand, Earth, Stones, and other mighty heaps, just like Featherbeds flying up into the Air. Which afar off appear'd a sad spectacle to Beholders; But the melted matter returning down into the Sea again, resembled a kind of Pultis or Frumenty. Moreover, it is to be ascribed to the benignity of the Divine Providence, that at that time the Wind was terrestrial, rushing forth from the parts of the Island, against the rage of the outragious Fire; without which, the whole Island had without doubt been burnt, and perished with this formidable combustion. Then presently after it cast forth stones of such vast bigness, of the height of three Lances, or piked Staves; that you would say, not Stones, but entire Mountains were cast out. And this was added to the horror; That the stony Mountains which were cast forth on high, falling back again, and meeting and dash­ing against others, thrown out aloft, at a good distance, out of the bowels of the Sea, broke into a thousand pieces with a terrible noise and ratling; which afterwards being took up into your hands, mouldred into a black Sand.

Moreover, out of the various and vast multitude of rejected Of­falls, and the collection and heaping together of innumerable stones, a new Island arose, and that even in the midst of the most [Page 22] deep Ocean. In the beginning indeed, little, of five Acres only; but daily encreasing, grew to such a bigness, that four dayes after it took up the length of five miles. And so great a multitude of Fish perished with this burning, as scarce eight Ships of Indian Burden could contain; which being dispersed far and wide, up and down the Island, lest they should cause some Contagion by their putrisaction, they were collected together by the Inhabi­tants all about, and buried in most deep-dugg ditches for eighteen miles round about. But the scent of Sulphur was smelt for the space of twenty four miles. This from the Relation of the Fa­thers of the Society.

These visible instances of particular Burnings of the Earth, are notable presumptions, that there are laid in the hidden Mines of Providence, such a provision of combustible matter, as will serve for an Universal Conflagration of the Earth, when the day of Venge­ance shall make use of these Treasuries of Wrath.

We might add further Arguments of Subterraneous Fires, and the Fewel thereof; from Earthquakes, and hot Fountains; Of which there are some in Peru, as Acosta reports, that are so hot, that a Man cannot endure his hand so long, as the repeating of an Ave-Marie. There be infinite numbers of these in the Province of Charchas. He makes mention also, in the same place, of several Springs and Foun­tains that run with Pitch and Rosin. Which yet seems nothing so strange, as those Baths Fallopius speaks of, in the Territories of Par­ma, whose Water catches Fire at a distance; But these are some­thing from our present design, and therefore pass them by.

CHAP. V. Of the Remarkables of the Italian Vulcano's, and their prodigious Eruptions in particular; with particular Relations.

HOw Italy of all Lands, especially Continents, has been most no­torious for Vulcanian Eruptions and Combustions, has already been observed. It remains therefore, now only to take notice of the most remarkable; which are those about Putzol, with the Phle­graean Plain, now called Sulfatara; and the Vesuvian; All within the Kingdom of Naples, (which has near communication and com­merce [Page 23] with the Aetnaean in Sicily) namely in Terra di Lavoro; which Land was anciently called Campania Foelix, from the won­derful fertility thereof. So exceeding fruitful in Wines and Wheat, that it is called by Florus, the Land of Strife between Bachus & Ceres, and deservedly: For in this noble Region, one may see large and beautiful Fields, overshaded with rich Vines, thick and delightful Woods, sweet Fountains, and most wholsom Springs of running Waters, as well for health, as delight and pleasure; and in a word whatsoever a covetous mind can possibly aim at, or a carnal covet. And yet all this Campania, as before was shew'd, is, or has been, obnoxious to Fires; and abounds with sulphureous and combusti­ble Earth and Materials; which no doubt tend to its fructification. To begin with the Phlegraean fields. Concerning which,

Hear first, what Mr. Sandys, in his Travels, sayes.

Vulcan's Court described.

The Court of Vulcan, call'd the Phlegraean fields heretofore; for that Hercules here overthrew the Gyants, for their inhumanity and insolencies; assisted with Lightning from Heaven:

Th' Earth with imbowell'd Flames, yet fuming glows;
And Water with Fire, Sulphur mixt, upthrows.

Whereupon grew the Fable of their warring with the Godds. But hear we Petronius describing it:

A place deep sunk in yawning Cliffs, 'twixt great
Dicharchea and Parthenope, repleat
With black Cocytus waves: For Winds that strain
To rush forth there, a deadly heat contain.
Th' Earth fruits in Autumn bears not, nor glad Field
Once puts on Green; or sprouting branches yield
Their Vernal Songs. But Chaos and ragg'd Stone,
Smircht with black Pumice, there rejoyce, o'regrown
With mournful Cypress. Dis his head here raises,
Cover'd with Ashes pale, and Funeral blazes.

A naked Level it is, in form of an Oval, twelve hundred forty and six foot long, a thousand broad, and invironed with high cliffie hills, [Page 24] that fume on each side, and have their Sulphurous savour transport­ed by the Winds, to places far distant. You would think, and no doubt think truly, that the hungry Fire had made this Valley with continual feeding; which breaks out in a number of places. And strange it seemeth to a stranger, that men dare walk up and down with so great a security: The Earth as hot, as sufferable, being hollow underneath; where the Fire and Water make a horrible rumbling, conjoyning together, as if one were fuel to the other: here and there bubling up, as if in a Caldron over a Fornace; And sprouting aloft into the Air, at such time as the Sea is inraged with tempests. In some places; of the colour of Water, which is ming­led with Soot; in others, as if with Lime, according to the com­plexion of the several Minerals. The flames do many times shift places, abandoning the old, and making new Eruptions, (the mouths of the vents invironed with yellow cinders) arising with so strong a vapour, that Stones thrown in, are forthwith ejected. Yet for all these terrors, it is hourly trod upon both by men and horses: and resorted unto by the diseased in May, June and July, who re­ceive the fume at their mouths, ears, nostrils, and such other parts of their bodies, as are ill affected; which heateth, but hurteth not: that being only sovereign that evaporateth from Brimstone: It mol­lifieth the sinews, sharpneth the sight, asswageth the pains of the head and stomach, makes the barren pregnant, cures violent fea­vers, itches, ulcers, &c. From January to October, the Husband-men hereabout do stir their Glebe at such time as much smoak doth arise, and that they know that it proceedeth from Sulphur: which doth add to the soyl a marvelous fertility. From hence they exact yearly three thousand pounds weight. Another kind of Sulphur is gotten here, not taken from the Fire; but found in the Earth: of especial use for the dying of Hair, and familiarly experimented by Women. White Salt-Armoniack is here found also. At the foot of this Mountain that regardeth the East, are Minerals of Allome, and the best of the World. In the top of the Mountain are certain little veins of a white matter like Salt; much used by Skinners: whereof a Water is made, that forthwith putteth out all characters that are written in Paper. The flower of Brass is here found every where, excellent, and transparent; with white and red Niter. This place is said by the Roman Catholicks to be disquieted with Devils: and that the fire underneath, is a part of Purgatory, where departed souls have a temporal punishment. The Fryers that dwell hard [Page 25] by in the Monastery of Saint January, report that they often do hear fearful shreeks and groanings. They tell also a late story of a certain youth of Apulia, a Student in Naples; who desperate in his fortunes, advised with the Devil, and was perswaded by him to make him a Deed of Gift of himself, and to write it in his own Blood; in doing whereof he should in short time recover his losses. Believing the Deluder, according to appointment he came unto this place, with that execrable Writing: when afflighted with the mul­titudes of Devils that appear'd unto him, he fled to the aforesaid Monastery, and aquainted the Prior with all that happened, He communicated it to the Bishop, (now or late living) who informed the Pope thereof: by whose command he was cast into Prison, and after condemned to the Gallies. Possible it is that this may be true; but Damianus the reporter of that which followeth, (though a Cardinal) might have had the Whetstone, if he had not alledged his Author: who telleth of a number of hideous Birds, which ac­customed to arise from hence on a sudden in the evening of the Sab­bath; And to be seen until the dawning of the day, stalking on the tops of the hills, stretching out their wings, and pruning their fea­thers; never observ'd to feed, nor to be taken by the art of the Fow­ler: when upon the croaking of the Raven that chased them, they threw themselves into these filthy waters: Said to be damned souls, tormented all the week long, and suffered to refresh themselves on the Sabbath, in honour of our Saviour's Resurrection. This he re­ports from the mouth of the Archbishop Umbertus. But if this be Hell, what a desperate end made that unhappy German, who nor long since slipt into these Fornaces? or what had his poor Horse com­mitted that fell in with him, that he should be damned; at least re­tained in Purgatory? The matter that doth nourish these Subter­ranean Fires, is Sulphure and Bitumen. But there it is fed by the latter, where the flame doth mix with the water, which is not by water to be extinguished: approved by the composition of those Ig­nes Admirabiles, or Admirable Waters.

Nigh hereunto are the ruines of a magnificent Amphitheater, en­vironing in an Oval, a Court, an hundred threescore and twelve feet long, and fourscore and eight over: thrown down by an Earth­quake not many ages since; which here happen no, seldom, by the violence of enflamed and suppressed vapours. Dedicated it was to Vulcan; and not without cause, he seeming in these parts to have such a Sovereignty. A latter relation and account we have of these [Page 26] —Plains by Kercher, which we will give you also; and is as follows.

A Description of the Phlegraean Plain, in the Fields of Putzol, or Puteoli, near Naples, by Athanas. Kir­cher, his own Observation, An. 1638.

In the Year 1638. passing by Naples, I could not let slip the op­portunity of inquiring and looking into these sulphureous Plains, so much celebrated in all Ages: Which the Antients called the Phle­graean Plains. Having therefore got through a subterraneous passage, which they commonly call the Grotte (which we have elsewhere de­scrib'd) Arched, and made hollow, or vaulted between the Moun­tain Pausilippus; not far from Putzol, between the Jaws of the Mountains, a Plain stretched forth far and wide, presents it self to view. A Plain altogether formidable and full of horror; in length they lay 1200 foot, in breadth a 1000. Pliny writes, that they were called the Phlegraean Plains, from their flames and burning; (for so the word signifies.) But Cornel. Strabo calls it, Vulcan's open Market place (publick Theater or Court.) For in manner of a huge Theater, as it were, it sends forth perpetual fires; and begets much Sulphur and combustible and inflamable matter, and therefore called Sulfatara. A place where also some fable the Giants to have been o­vercome by Hercules. Little Hills are beheld there to burn and slame in the very bottom; for they alwayes exhale forth great smokes every where, with a sulphureous stench through many holes, which are carried by the Winds through all the neighbouring Regions, even unto Naples also. This whole Plain is surrounded with Hills, or high & steep Rocks; whereof the top or Pick, once very high, being at length devoured by perpetual fires, is concluded from the very form of the place, to have sunk into a most profound Vale. There­fore that which was once the top, is now a deep ditch, or hole, in a plain Vale. And what were the coasts or sides of the Mountain heretofore, are now the tops of Cliffs and Rocks. And these, here­tofore indeed, as Dion Cassius witnesleth, vomited forth sires and flames in greater quantity. The neighbour Mountains also did con­tinually burn, and cast forth thick fumes and fiery Waters, as it were, out of Furnaces. But now the very Plains, no otherwise then the Phlegraean Hills, being exhausted with perpetual flames, are ca­vernous, with an infinite number of holes, and are every where [Page 27] yellowish with a sulphureous matter and colour. The soil also, when it is touch'd by such as walk thereupon, sounds and rattles like a Drum, as it were, by reason of the concavities; and you may feel, as it were, not without astonishment, boyling waters under your feet, and thick and fired fumes, to hiss and flow hither and thither, with a great crackling noise, through Pipes and Subterraneous Ca­verns, made by the force of the hot Exhalations. VVhich force, how great it is, you may try, by stopping any hole, with a heavy stone, or so; for then you shall see the violent force of the smoke presently to belch it forth again.

Yet an huge Laky-ditch in the same Plain did wonderfully affect An horri­ble stink­ing Ditch and Pond. me: For it is found full of boyling waters, and ready to fright one with their blackness. You would say, it was a Kettle or Caldron boy­ling with Pitch and Rosin. VVhich forthwith changes place; and the waters growing hard on the brim of the Caldron, is made nar­rower or wider, as the force and impetuousness of the Exhalation is greater or lesser.

That also is wonderful; That that swallowing Gulph, casts forth waters on high, eight or ten foot above a mans height, in the fashion A marvel­lous force of jetting or darting­forth Wa­ters. of a Pyramid, and those fat and clayie, and almost of a sulphureous colour. VVhich even the Inhabitants of Putzol do confess; who affirm, that these boyling waters are shot forth on high, to sixteen, or even twenty four palm height sometimes. And this especially when the Sea rages; but not so likewise when it is calm. A most clear sign certainly, that these marvellous effects of the exalted liquor, pro­ceed from no where else, but from the Sea: For the Sea being tossed with the storms of winds, whilst through subterraneous passages it sollicites, as it were, the Steward or dispenser of this melted liquid matter; 'tis no wonder, that a Liquor, not knowing how to contain it self in its own narrow bounds, should be darted forth on high, beyond its limits, constituted thereunto by nature. By so much in­deed the more violently, by how much the impetuous afflux of the Sea thrusts it forth with greater violence. Yea, and the divers colour of the waters at that time; compounded of the various mixture of the Sea-water, with the various mixture of the Mineral Juices; Name­ly, of those waters, which, from the more profound boyling Springs of the Earth, the subterraneous winds, agitated by the ragings of the Sea, and growing stronger and stronger amidst the slames, belch forth; does plainly teach. But the Sea being still calm, none of these things are perceiv'd; but the waters are only beheld sat, or [Page 28] oyly; and filthy with a black coaly soot, together with a certain effervency or boyling.

What shall I say of the Mountains and Rocks, with which this Vulcanian Plain is encompassed and guarded. There are beheld in these conveyances or passages, as it were, of Chimneys, not a few breathing-holes, some of which belch forth a perpetual wind, with a formidable sound, and crackling noise; and with such a force, that if you cast a stone thereinto, it being struck back presently, you shall receive it cast forth again with great force. Some dart forth smoak mixt with flames. You would think your self almost in the midst of Hell; where all things appear horrid, sad and lamentable, with a most formidable face of things. Also you are almost struck even breathless, with the stench of Sulphur, Bitumen, Napthe, and other Earths, Clayes, Marles, and Minerals. And yet although the place be so horrid; yet those who labour in making of Sulphur, Niter, Vitriol, &c. reap much profit thereby.

Further; We must not omit here Mr. Sandys's relation of a most memorable both Earthquake and Burning, which happened not far from these Plains, near unto the City Putzol, in the year 1538. with the new-formed Mountain. For the famous Lake Lucrinus, near Putzol, extended formerly (it seems indeed to have been joyn'd with it on one side) to the deadly sulphureous Lake Avernus, sup­pos'd the entrance into Hell by ignorant Antiquity; where they offered infernal sacrifice to Pluto and the Manes, there said to give Answers; is now no other than a little sedgy plash, choak'd up by the horrible and astonishing cruption of the new Mountain; where­of as oft as I think, I am easie to credit whatsoever is wonderful.

For who here knows not, or who elsewhere will believe, that a Mountain should atise (partly out of a Lake, and partly out of the Sea) in one day and a night, unto such an height, as to contend in altitude with the high Mountains adjoyning? In the year of our Lord 1538, on the 29th of September, when for certain dayes fore­going, the Country hereabout was so vexed with perpetual Earth­quakes, as no one house was left so intire, as not to expect an imme­diate ruine; After that the Sea had retired two hundred paces from the thoar (leaving abundance of Fish, and Springs of fresh-water ri­sing in the bottom) this Mountain visibly ascended about the second hour of the night, with an hideous roaring, horribly vomiting stones, and such store of cinders, as overwhelmed all the buildings here­about, and the salubrious Baths of Tripergula for so many ages ce­lebrated; [Page 29] consumed the Vines to Ashes, killing Bird: and Beasts: The fearful inhabitants of Putzol flying through the dark with their wives and children, naked, defiled, crying out, and detesting their calamities. Manifold mischiefs had they suffered by the Barbarous, yet none like this which Nature inslicted. But hear we it describ'd by Borgius.

What gloomy fumes dayes glorious Eye obscure?
The pitchy Lake effus'd through Sulphury Caves,
Higher than Aetna's Fire, throws flaming waves:
Hath Phleg'ton broke into Avern; with groans
Whirling the horrid flouds, and rumbling stones?
The Baian waves resound; fresh streams ascend;
And several wayes their speedy currents bend.
Misenus lets his Trumpet fall, scarce heard,
Sick Prochyta a second ruine fear'd.
Loud roarings from Earths smoaking womb arise,
And fill with fearful groans the darkned Skies.
A sad sour face doth menace from the West;
Whence sharper plagues the Latian Towns infest.
Then furious Winds to Skies huge stones eject;
Which, like a Compass turn'd about, erect
A round Amphitheatral. Flouds of Stone,
From belching Gulf, in Millions straight forth thrown.

Nor can what they then suffered be ever forgotten, having such a testimony still in view as is this strange Mountain; advancing his top a mile above his basis. The stones hereof are so light and pory, that they will not sink when thrown into the water. The cause of this accident is ascribed unto the neighbourhood of the Sea and hol­lowness of the soil: whereby easily engendred exhallations, being hurried about with a most violent motion, do inflame that dry and bituminous matter; casting it upward, and making way for their fiery expirations. To those also is the retiring of the Sea to be attri­buted: who strugling to break forth, do ratifie and so raise the Earth, which thereby also as it were made thirsty, sucks the water through crannies into her spungy and hot intrails: increasing the vapours, not decreasing the fire; by reason of the Bitumen. Perhaps Delos and Rhodes, unseen in the first Ages, were made apparant by such means: however, divers of the Vulcanello's or Liperitan Islands were without peradventure; All of them having slam'd, and being [Page 30] now more in number than observed by the Ancients. This new Mountain, when newly raised, had a number of issues, at some of them smoking, and sometimes flaming: at others disgorging rivo­lets of hot waters; keeping within a terrible rumbling: and many miserably perished, that ventured to descend into the hollowness a­bove. But that hollow on the top, is at this present an Orchard; And the Mountain thorow-out is bereft of his terrors.

Of Vesuvius, a Vulcanian Mountain, in the Kingdom of Naples likewise, now called Monte di Somma.

The most noted Vulcano of the Mountain Vesuvius, is also in this happy Country of Campania, a little further remov'd from Naples; whose ragings and eruptions have been wonderfully remarkable in all Ages: And yet notwithstanding all its fires and burnings, its Hills are full of Vines and Olives; and all its Fields about, of won­derful fruitfulness; save only the Top alone, where it hath a great Plain bare, and bearing no manner of fruit at all. The face of the Earth like Cinders or Ashes, and old ruinated and wasted Rocks; undoubted signs of its ancient and often Burnings.

Vesuvius then is a Mountain of Campania Foelix, about eight miles from Naples; which also hath received great injuries and prejadices by its Cinders and violent burling forth of Stones, flung even to its Walls and Edifices. This Mountain has vast Fountains of Fire; And heretofore was on every side high, before the inward parts were consumed with fires. It utters usually smoak by day; but by night flames. Its manner is to send forth a loud sound or roaring noise, and bellowing first; and then to belch forth an huge force of Cin­ders, with the manifest danger of passers by. But if a more vehe­ment Wind ply upon it, the Ashes or Cinders are rais'd so high, and drove so far in length, that 'tis certain, they have sometimes been carried, as Procopius testifies, even as far as Constantinople it self; and All at length so affrighted, that they ran to their prayers for many years, to avert the wrath of God. Thus Coel. Rhodigin.

Mr. Sand's Relation runs thus:

This Mountain hath a double top; that towards the North doth end in a plain: the other towards the South aspireth more high, which when hid in clouds, prognosticates rain to the Neopolitans. In the top there is a large deep hollow, without danger to be de­scended [Page 31] into, in form of an Amphitheatre; in the midst a pit which leads into the entrails of the Earth, from whence the Mountain in times past did breath sorth terrible flames; the mouth whereof is almost choaked with broken Rocks and Trees that are fallen therein. Next to this; the matter thrown up is ruddy, light, and soft: more removed, black and ponderous: the uttermost brow that de­clineth like the seats in a Theater, flourishing with Trees and excel­lent Pastorage. The midst of the Hill is shaded with Chesnut-trees, and others, bearing sundry fruits. The lower parts admirably cloa­thed with Veins, that afford the best Greek-Wines of the World: which hath given to the Mountain the name of Di Sommo, in re­gard of their excellency; affording to the Owners the yearly re­venue of three hundred thousand Duckats. So now it hath lost the name of Vesuvius, with the cause why it was given, which signifieth a Spark, as Veseus a Conflagration.

But never any thing appear'd so horrible, as that which happened in the first or third years Reign of the Emperour Titus, eighty years after Christ. For then it disgorg'd such boyling waves and slouds of Fire, as consum'd the neighbouring Cities; And then also it was that Pliny the second, that great searcher of Nature, and famous Au­thor of the Natural History, and then Admiral of the Roman Navy, desirous to discover the Reason, was suffocated in his too near ap­proaches, and research after so great a Mystery of Nature; As wit­nesseth his Nephew, in an Epistle to Cornel. Tacitus. Not indeed wilfully, and on set purpose, as 'tis said, (but I think falsly) of the other grand Philosopher, that he threw himself into the contrary E­lement, because he could not understand the strange Mystery thereof. At that time not only issued forth such store of Smoak, that the very Sun seem'd to be in the Eclipse; but also huge Stones; and of Ashes such plenty, that Rome, Africk and Syria, were even covered: And besides Beasts. Fish and Fowl, it overwhelmed with Pumice-stones, two adjoyning Cities, Herculanum and Pompeios, with the people sitting in the Theater. There were heard dismal noises all about the Pro­vince, and Giants of incredible bigness seen to stalk up and down the top and edges of the Mountain (or rather in peoples extravagant fancies;) which extraordinary Accident was adjudged either a cause or presage of the future Pestilence, which raged in Rome and Italy long after. Hieronymus Borgius touching the horrible roarings and thundrings of this Mountain, thus sets it forth in sutable Verse;

[Page 32] Then remote Africk suffer'd the dire heat
Of twofold Rage, with showrs of Dust repleat:
Scorcht Egypt, Memphis, Nilus felt, amaz'd,
The woful Tempest in Campania rais'd.
Not Asia, Syria, nor the Towers that stand
In Neptune's surges; Cyprus, Creet, (Joves Land
The scatter'd Cyclads; nor the Muses seat,
(Minerva's Town) that vast Plague scap'd: Such [...],
Such vapours break forth from full jaws, then shone;
When Earth-born, horrible Orimedon
Hot, vomits ire, beneath Vesuvius thrown.

Dion affirms in a manner as much. But Bodin, the censurer of all Historians, doth deride it. Notwithstanding Cassiodorus writes as great matters of a later Conflagration; whereupon Theodoricus (first King of the Goths in Italy) did remit his Tribute to the dam­nisied Campanians. Marcellinus further observes, that the Ashes thereof transported in the Air, obscured all Europe: and that the Con­stantinopolitans being wonderfully affrighted therewith, (insomuch as the Emperor Leo forsook the City) in memorial of the same, did yearly celebrate the 12th of November. It also burnt in the sixth year of Constantine the fourth; which was about the year of Christ 640: and at such times as Bellisarius took Naples; (which was about the year 540) and groaned, but elected no Cinders: and again when the Saracens invaded Africa, sometime after, &c.

Plautina writes that it flamed in the year 685; prognosticating the death of Pope Benedict the second, with ensuing slaughters, ra­pines, and deaths of Princes. During the Papacy of two other Be­nedicts, the 8th and the 9th, it is said to have done the like. The later, the last flaming thereof, which was in the year 1024; (yet often since it hath been wonderfully feared;) excepting of late years again. And although it hath made sundry dreadful devastations; yet the fruitful Ashes thrown about, did seem to repair the forego­ [...] [...] with a quick and marvellous fertility. At the foot of the [...] there are divers ve [...]s, out of which exceeding cold winds do [...] [...]; such as by Venteducts from the vast Caves above [...], they le [...] [...] their Rooms at their pleasure, to qualifie the [...] [...]. It seems Records of History reach beyond the Be­ [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] of this Mountain. For Spartacus the [...], and Ring-leader of the fugitive Bond-slaves (which was [Page 33] about the year of the Word 3880, and before Christ about 70.) no less a terror unto Rome, than Hannibal, did make this Mountain the seat of his War; where besieged by Clodius, he by a strange stra­ragem, with bonds made of Vines, descended into the bottom of the Hill, (being long before it first began to flame) and finding out a private passage, issued suddenly upon the unsuspecting Romans; seiz'd on their Tents; and pursuing his Victory, over-ran all Cam­pania.

Since, The year 1610 has been memorable, for the burning flames of the Mountain Vesuvium; the which being renewed on the month of February, brought a very large wasting; but a great affrightment to the Neapolitans; who, solemn supplications being proclaimed, went in Procession with the Head of Januarius, their Patron, and Defender of their City, carried about; whereby the silly people were made to believe, the destruction hanging over their heads to have been turned away; even as they are to this day.

Also in the year 1631 was a new Eruption; Earthquakes and Roarings as usually) preceding. And again in a flame in 1635, with an Earthquake in Messina; as likewise again in 1638. And indeed not quite appeas'd and extinct all that time, most likely. The same year 1634, or 35, (but this occasionlly by the by) even England shook, and trembled about London; a Marsh there boy­ling with black waters, &c. Also at Witteberg it rained Brimstone; And in the month of May 1644, a great Wood, belonging to the Dukedom of Norimberg, of eight thousand Acres of Land, burned in a flame; with divers other like Prodigies. Petav. Hist.

Lastly, in 1660, Vesuvius again brake forth with Combustions.

There remains nothing more to add, but Kircher's particular re­lation and account thereof; who in the year 1638, ventured up to observe its nature and workings; As he had done Aetna and Strumboli before in the same year, when all those Mountains were outragious with most devouring Eruptions. Where, observing things past all belief in all of them, could do so much with him, that from thence he took occasion and beginning of happily setting upon that glorious work of his Subterrantous World; since accomplished.

Of an exact Search and Enquiry made into the Moun­tain Vesuvius, by Kircher, in the year 1638.

Having a very earnest desire, a long time, to understand the Mi­racles of Subterraneous Nature, it happened that at the same time, by command of my Superiours, I undertook a voyage into Sicily and Malta, in attendance on the most excellent Prince Frederick, Land-grave of Hassia, at that time chief Admiral, now a most wor­thy Cardinal, whose Confessor I was. Entring therefore into Sicily, I found such a Theater of Nature, displaying her self under won­derful variety of things, as I had with so many desires wished for. Sith what ever thing occurs, in the whole body of the Earth that is wonderfull, rare, unusual, and worthy of Admiration, I found contracted here, as it were, in an Epitomie, by a certain industry of wise and sagacious Nature.

Being inflamed therefore with an huge desire of searching out all things particularly. Above all things, first I ascended Aetna, the fountain of all other Prodigious Effects in Sicily; that I might by my own experience, and with my own eyes, find out the wonderful things, which Historians of all ages have writ thereof. Then with utmost diligence I searched the Aeolian or Hophaestian, that is, the Laparitan Islands, now call'd the Vulcanello's, or Vulcanian Islands. And above all the rest; Strongylus (now Stromboli) and Vulcano. I search'd out also the Sicilian Straits, called Faro di Messina, no less dangerous for the incredible Reciprocations of its Ragings, than infamous for Shipwracks; with the wonderful motions of Scylla and Charybdis, and vicissitudes of their Ebollitions. And whatsoever things stupendous did occur, were presently committed to Table-Books; and after return home, seriously weighed and deliberated by solid and exact Reason, &c.

But in return home, with some certain private persons, we were by wonderful and unusual storms and ragings of the Sea, to the danger of our lives, forced upon the Shoars of Calabria, or Terra di Otranto; At the time of those horrible Earthquakes, and strivings of Nature, then outragious in those places; to the greatest peril of our lives. But had thereby opportunity of learning many Secrets of Nature. After the happening of all which, I had then a desire, being in those parts, to visit the famous Vesuvius also.

[Page 35] The Relation of which wonderful Earthquakes, now mentioned; we, according to our present method reserve to another place after­wards; passing them by here, to give first his particular account of Vesuvius, (though last with him) which is our present Argument.


After therefore so great dangers sustained by Sea and Land; After having diligently searched out the incredible power of Nature working in subterraneous burrows and passages, I had a great de­sire to know whether Vesuvius also had not some secret commerce and correspondence with Strongylus and Aetna, in so powerfull a war and strife of Nature, as I had every where experience of before. I went therefore unto Porticus, (the Porch or Entrance) a Town scituated at the foot of the Mountain. Hence hiring an honest Coun­try-man, for a true and skilfull companion, and guide of the wayes; (not without indeed an ample reward) I ascended the Mountain at midnight, through difficult, rough, uneven, and steep passages. At whose crator or mouth, when I had arrived, I saw what is horrible to be expressed, I saw it all over of a light fire, with an horrible combustion, and stench of Sulphur and burning Bitumen. Here forthwith being astonished at the unusual sight of the thing; Me­thoughts I beheld the habitation of Hell; wherein nothing else seem­ed to be much wanting, besides the horrid fantasms and apparitions of Devils. There were perceived horrible bellowings and roarings of the Mountain; An unexpressible stink; Smoaks mixt with darkish globes of Fires; which both the bottom and sides of the Mountain continually belch'd forth out of Eleven several places; and made me in like manner, ever and anon, belch, and as it were, vomit back again, at it. O the depth of the Riches of the Wisdom and Know­ledge of God! How incomprehensible are thy wayes! If thou shewest thy power against the wickedness of mankind in so formi­dable and portentous Prodigies and Omens of Nature; What shall it be in that last day, wherein the Earth shall be drown'd with the Ire of thy Fury, and the Elements melt with fervent heat? Morn­ing therefore waxing light, that I might search out the Constitu­tion of the whole Interiours of the Mountain, with all the diligence I could, I chose a safe and secure place to set my feet sure upon; which was an huge Rock, of a plain surface; to which there lay open an Avenue, by a descent of the Mountain very far; And so I [Page 36] went down unto it. Here taking sorth my Pantometer, (or universal Measurer) I set upon the dimensions of the Mountain; and found by a Geometrical Computation, the compass of the Crater to contain almost three hundred paces, but the depth eight hundred. The Mountain all up and down every-where, cragged and broken. No gradual declining for any passage to the inward parts; but descended in its compass or circuit, after the manner of a Cylinder, made hol­low directly and streight. And although the Bottom seemed to the eye to be contained in a more narrow circumference; yet accord­ing to Optick Accounts and Laws, That happened from the exceed­ing great distance, and prosundity, from the innermost surface of the Crater or mouth. In the Center of the Bottom, Nature seem'd to have constituted, as it were, her Harth of Fire: And to say truth, a Shop or Workhouse to make a Vulcanian Kitchin; boyling with an everlasting gushing forth, and streamings of Smoak and slames; and imploy'd in decocting of Sulphur, Bitumen, and melt­ing and burning other kinds of Minerals; and by a certain secret endeavour and enterprise, preparing for deadly ruines and slaugh­ters afterwards to be committed. Sith the vapours included within; as they know not how to be contained: so they did discuse, or scat­ter the burden that lay upon them, with so great force and violence, accompanied with horrible cracklings and noises, that the Mountain seem'd to be tost with an Earthquake or trembling. Which when­soever it happened, the supream and softer parts of the Mountain, which clung together of Ashes, Cinders, Rains, and other Refuses of Minerals; being shook in pieces, and loosened by the trembling; and so falling like Hills, into the bottom of the Hellish Gulph; did from that various reslexion of the sound, stir up that crackling noise: So great and fearful a one, as that any, even of the stoutest and most undaunted heart, would scarce venture to suffer. The matter which was continually belched forth from the center of the Mountain, made as it were, a new Mountain, indued with wonderful variety of fur­rows, or hollow channels; which the various ebullition of the melted Minerals, flowing into all parts of the circumference; of a greenish colour now; from Brass; presently of a yellow colour, from Sul­phur, Arsenick, and Sandarack: Now red; from Cinnabar, Mini­um or Red Lead, and Vermilion; then black; from Vicriol mixt with Water; or of an Ashy colour, from the very Cinders; did as it were, by the ingonious Pencil of Nature, form. This little Mountain, after the last burning of the Mountain, which happened [Page 37] in the year 1631, (at which time proceeded great Earthquakes, as well as Noises and Roarings and Tremblings; as is its custom) hath grown so big, that we may thence very reasonably conjecture that it is hereafter likely to rise unto the same height, which it once ob­tained of old; unless it be destroyed by some new burning superve­ning: Which hath happened in this very same year I now write these things, in the year 1660. For that the Mountain outragious with a new and horrible burning, hath so cast down its top, and Crator; that it appears now much lower at this day, then what I a little before described it to be. And consequently, as it is found of greater circumference; so of lesser profundity. Having taken a view of all these things duly; and returning to Naples; the next day I betook my self into the Island Aenaria, which they call Is­chia; of much note, and celebrated with great fame by ancient wri­ters. And thence into the Phlegraean Plain, of Putzol Fields, Vul­can's Market-place or Theater; (of which before.) And whatso­ever, either the Antients or Moderns, have related wonderfull of those places, I found to be most true.

It is also taken notice of in History, that there was an Eruption and great Burning, near Carignole in Terra di Lavoro, which laid three Acres of Ground, all in meer Ashes and Cinders. Tuscany al­so hath a burning Mountain in the Apennine; and another in the Fields of Bononia. There are also Laky Ditches, Pits, and Dens, between Pistorium and Petra Mala, belching forth perpetual Globes of Flames, especially by night. There are noted also in the Fields of Mutina, two famous places full of Burnings, &c. But these with the rest of Italy, have been barely enumerated before; of which we have nothing further remarkable to add.

And so we are at last come to the main Fountain and Spring-head, in a manner, as we may say, of all the subterraneous Fire, of these Parts, with their manifold desolating Eruptions, Aetna, now Monti Gibello.

CHAP. VI. Of the Remarkables of the grand Volcano Aetna, in especial: and its most remarkable Eruptions: together with the Vulcanian Islands adjoyning.

NOtwithstanding the horrid face of things, by reason of the frequent, prodigious, and mischievous Eruptions and Devasta­tions of Aetna: Notwithstanding it continually sendeth forth dreadful flames of Fire; to the astonishment of all Beholders; and that its Soyl springs abundantly with often and eternal Burnings: Yet those subterraneous fountains of Fire, that continually feed and supply these Vulcano's; and the abundance of fat, oily, sulphureous, and inflammable matter and fuel, or nourishment, wherewith the whole Country thereabouts, and all the Island over, is so richly stor'd and manur'd with, by Natures own bountiful hand, (every­where plentiously producing Sulphur, Bitumen, and other rich and fat Earths and Marles, &c.) make Sicily one of the most fertile Islands in the World.

For the Soyl is incredibly fruitful in the best Wine, in Oyl, Hony, Saffron; Minerals also of Gold, Silver, and Allom; together with plenty of Salt and Sugar. There are also Gems of Agats and Eme­ralds. Quarries of Porphyre, and Serpentine. It yieldeth also great store of the richest Silks, which grow plentifully about Messina, the chief City. Variety of most excellent and delicious fruits, both for taste and colour; with such abundance of all sorts of Grain, that it was called in old times, Horreum Romani Populi, or the Granary of the Roman Empire; whence also Cicero call'd it, The City of Romes Soul; and doth now furnish some parts of Italy, Spain, and Barbary, besides Malta, and the adjacent Isles, with that which she can spare of her superfluities. Nay, Tully doth not only call it, the Granary and Storehouse of the City of Rome, in regard of Corn; bat adds, that it was accounted for a well-furnish'd Treasury; as being able of it self, without charge of the State, to cloath, maintain and furnish the greatest Army, with Leather, Corn, and Apparel. And if Diodorus Siculus may be credited in it, he tells us, that about Leontium, now Lentini, and some other places, Wheat did grow of [Page 39] it self without any labour of the Husbandman. At this day, in some parts of the Isle, the soyl is so exceeding fruitful, that it yeelds unto the Husbandman an hundred measures of Corn for one. And cer­tainly the Corn of this Country must needs yeeld a wonderful en­crease, the King of Spain receiving an hundred thousand Crowns yearly for the Custom of Wheat. In this Country also is the Hill Hybla, so famous for Bees and Honey. But too much of the Country. We return to its greatest Wonder of all Ages, and indeed a verna­culous kind of Portent thereof, the horrible Mount Aetna.

It is a marvellous Hill, of fearful and stupendous Fires & Flames; as it were, the very Mouth of Hell; distant Eastwards, ten miles from the City Catania, situated at the foot thereof; From which it ascends by degrees, to so many miles height. Others reckon it fifteen miles from Catania: but indeed scarce ten English miles. And yet its full height in a direct descent, according to its Axis, is com­puted by exact Geometricians 30 miles; (as Kircher has it) except the Printer has added a Cypher too much: as must needs be. This ancient City was built, as some say, in the year of the World 3469, eighty nine years after Rome; and near 500 before Christ. But o­thers in the year 4462, about 500 years after Christ. (The first, without all doubt, by most Authentick Authors, the truer account:) and receives both loss, and (if Strabo may be believ'd) advantage, from its nearness to Aetna. For the ejected flames have heretofore committed horrible wasts, which gave Amphinomus, and Anapius, two Brethren, an occasion to become famous for their Piety; who rescu'd their Parents ingag'd by the Fire, and bear them away on their shoulders: whereof Ausonius;

Who will forget Catania? of high fame,
For Piety of Brothers, sindg'd in Flame.

Yet it was never known, in all this time, to have been wholly ruin'd or destroy'd, by the terrible threatnings of so troublesome and dan­gerous a Neighbour; that spares none in his violent raging fits and Convulsions: Yet has been shrewdly in danger sometimes, and much havock'd and spoyl'd in some parts thereof; whereby it may appear, that this last and present Eruption (so prodigious and fear­full) has not been the greatest; as it has not been the first by some hun­dreds. Several Towns and Cities lay round about it; All or most now buried in Ashes and Ruines, by the late excessive burning and [Page 40] conflagration; even as many have been so in former times.

It was here in this Insernal Mountain, where the Poets fable that Jupiter with his Thunderbolts struck down the Rebel-Giants, the Cyclops's, condemned to be Vulcan, the Godd of Fires Hammerers; whom they feign, forges here his Father Jupiter's Thunderbolts, and the Arms of the Heroes; and laid this Mountain upon Encela­dus the grand Conspirator's back, there said to have been buried; and his hot breath to have fired the Mountain, lying on his face: As Virgil poetizes;

Enceladus with Thunders struck, they tell,
Under the weight of this huge Burthen fell.
Above him was the mighty Aetna laid,
Who now breaths Fires, through broken Trunks convey'd;
And as he weary turns, a Thunder-Crack
Sicily shakes; and Heav'n is hung with Black.

Though Naturalists interpret the Giants, to be hot Spirits included in the Earth, which finding no passage out, sometimes burst open most high Mountains, and rush out with violence; and even shoot forth, as it were, their darts against Heaven. The Poet, therefore feign'd these Giants to have assaul ed the Godds in the Phlegraean-Plains: but to be struck down, some into Aetna others into the Vulcanian Islands; and others into Hell. And as the grosser Hea­then suppos'd it to be Vulcans Shop, and the Cyclops's; so the gross Papists there, take it for the place of Purgatory; All alike unfal­lible.

And here some report, or rather fable, that Empedocles affecting Divine Honour, departing from his company secretly by night, leapt in at the mouth of this Mountain, that he might be reputed an Im­mortal God; as Horrace witnesses.

Empedocles to be a Godd desires,
And casts himself into th' Aetnaean Fires.

But that his Iron Slippers, or Brazen Shoes, which the Fire had thrown up again with its belching flames, to have discovered the matter. But wiser men more rightly relate him, to have perished only; as a curious and ventrous Observator; going about to search out this Fiery Lake, and thereby to have fallen into some pit, or ditch, and consumed in the Burning.

[Page 41] The barren top of the Mountain is encompassed with a Bank of Ashes, Cinders, and Pumices, &c. of the height of a Wall. In the middle is also a round Hill, of the same matter and colour; where­in be two great Holes, fashioned like unto Cups, which be called Craters; Out of these do rise sometimes sundry great flames of fire; sometimes horrible smoak; sometimes are blown out burning stones, in infinite number. Moreover, Before the said Fire appears, there is heard within the ground, terrible noise and roaring. And also (which is more marvel) though it continually burns, nay when the smoak and fire is most abundant and fervent; yet round about the top of the said Hill and uppermost parts, where the Fire is greater and continual, are seen perpetual and most deep Snows, and hoary Frosts. And from all Antiquity has this Mountain burnt after an horrible manner; and often-times affects the Neighbouring Regi­ons with incomperable and unvaluable losse; though yet not a more fertile Region in the whole World, as was before described, &c. The Cinders and Ashes of Aetna, as Pliny testifies, fall down an hundred and fifty miles distant from thence. Mr. Sandys makes such a following Description of it.

Aetna (now Mount Gibel) call'd by Pindar, the Caelestial Column, is the highest Mountain of Sicily; for a great space leisurely rising; in so much as the top is ten miles distant from the uttermost Basis. It appeareth Eastward with two Shoulders, having an eminent Head in the middle. The lower parts are luxuriously fruitful; the mid­dle woody and shaded; the upper rocky, steep, and almost cover'd with Snow: yet smoking in the midst, like many conjoyning chim­neys; and vomiting intermitted flames; though not but by night to be discerned: As if Heat and Cold had left their contentions, and imbraced one another. This burning Beacon, doth shew her Fire by night, and her Smoak by day, a wonderful way off: yet heretofore discerned far further; In that the matter perhaps is di­minished by so long an expence; My self (sayes he) have seen both plainly unto Malta. And the Mountain it self is to be discovered an hundred and fifty miles off by the Saylors. Those that have been at the Top do report, That there is there, a large Plain of Cin­ders and Ashes; invironed with a Brow of the same; And in the midst an Hill of like substance; out of which bursteth a continual Wind, that keepeth an horrible rumbling; evaporating flames and smoak; which hangs about it like a great long Cloud, and often hurling forth Stones and Cinders. Wherefore the story of Empe­docles [Page 42] the Sicilian Philosopher's throwing himself down head-long thereinto, is by some call'd into question. For it is impossible to be approach'd, by reason of the violent Wind, the suffocating Smoak, and the consuming Fervour: (yet he might approach too near, and perish:) This Mountain hath flamed in times past so abundantly, That by reason of the smoke, the Air involv'd with burning Sands, and thick Vapours; The Inhabitants hereabout could not see one ano­ther (if we may give credit to Cicero) for two dayes together. The extraordinary eruption thereof hath been, and is to this day, reputed ominous. For so the most famous Conflagrations, in former times, hapned hard before the Servile War in Sicily; which was not pa­cisi'd and ended, but by the slaughter of three score and ten thou­sand of the Slaves, (who had taken up Arms against Rome) by the Praetors; at which time it raged so violently, that Africa was there­of an astonish'd Witness. This was about the Year of the World 3900. not long before Christ. And so shortly after the death of Julius Caesar, when not only the Cities thereabout were damnified thereby, but divers in Calabria also; and portended those Proscriptions and bloody Wars, which did after follow. But these great Eruptions of Fire, are not now so ordinary as they have been formerly; The matter which gave Fewel to it, being wasted by continual Burnings: So that the flames which issue hence, are hardly visible, but by night; though the smoke shew it self the most part of the day: Yet even at this day, once in three or four years, it falleth in great flakes, on the Countrey below, and Vales adjoyning; to the terror of the Inhabitants, the destruction of their Vintage, and great loss of the Countrey. But that, they say, is recompensed by the plenty of the following Years; The Ashes thereof (according to Strabo) so batling and enriching of the Soyl, that both the Vines, and Corn­fields are much bettered by it, and prosper above admiration. For indeed we find by experience, that Turf of the Ground, burnt to Ashes; and so spread on Land, and ploughed into it, doth yeeld a very great improvement, even to barren Soyls. Howbeit at this day, much Ground about it lies wast, by means of the ejected Pu­mice.

Besides, the Countrey hereabouts is daily forraged by Thieves, who lurk in a Wood of eight miles compass, that neighbours upon Catania.

[Page 43] But Virgil's admirable Description may serve for all.

Aetna here thunders with an horrid noise,
Sometimes black Clouds evapoureth to Skies,
Fuming with pitchy curls, and sparkling Fires,
Tosseth up Globes of flames; To Stars aspires:
Now belching Rocks; The Mountain's Entrals torn:
And groaning, hurls out liquid Stones thence born
Through th' Air in showres; and from its bottom gloes,
Like boyling Fornace;—

The reason of these Fires, is the abundance of Sulphur and Brimstone, contained in the Bosom of the H [...]ll, inkindled by Sub­terraneous Heats, Spirits, and Fires; with the free ventilation of the Sulphurous, and easily inflamable Air, and agitating Winds, through these open Vulcanian Vents and Funnels; with innumerable Chinks, Trunks, Pipes, and Caverns, with other conveyances through the Earth, &c. Also through the Chinks and Chaps of the Earth, there is continual more fewel added to the Fire; the ve­ry Water adding to the force of it. As we see the Water cast on Coals in the Smiths Forge, doth make them burn more ardently: And besides, prepares the matter with due moisture to be fit Fuel for new Fires, &c. And Sicily is an Island all over Cavernous and Fistu­lous, and pervious to the penetrating Winds, and under-ground Fires, and inflamable Spirits; and within abounding with Sulphur, Bitumen, and other fit Fuel and Materials, &c. And so is most con­venient both for inward Combustions, and outward Ventilations, and thereby for the extreamest Inflamations and Burnings. But the Original Sourse and Fountain, or first and principal cause of all these, are by some later accounted to be, the Subterraneous Abysses, and Storehouses of Fire and Heat, which Nature has provided and furnished her self with under ground; in her inward parts, for the necessary uses and occasions of her exteriour, &c. As was at the be­ginning observ'd. The reason of this flame is thus set down by Ovid.

A Rozen Mould these fiery flames begin,
And Clayte Brimstone aids that Fire within:
[Page 44] Yet when the slimy Soyl, consumed, shall
Yeeld no more food to feed the Fire withal,
And Nature shall restrain her nourishment,
The flame shall cease, hating all famishment.

But more fully by Lucretius.

Hollow the Mountain is throughout; alone
Supported well-nigh with huge Caves of Stone.
No Cave but is with Wind and Air repleat;
For agitated Air doth Wind beget,
Which heats th' imprisoning Rocks, when hot it grows.
The Earth chaft by his fury; and from those
Strikes forth fire and swift flame: It self on high,
It mounts, and out at upright Jaws doth flie:
And Fire sheds far off; far off dead Coals
Transports: and fumes in misty darkness rowls.
Ejecting Stones withal of wondrous size;
All which from strength of strugling Winds arise.
Besides; against the Mountains Roots, the Main
Breaks her swoln Waves, and swallows them again.
From whence unto the Summit of th' Ascent
The undermining Caves have their extent:
Through which the Billows breath; and flames out-thrust
With forced Stones, and dark'ning showrs of dust.

Besides, as was said before, Aetna is full of Sulphur and Bitu­men, apt to be kindled; And so is all Sicily, the principal Reason that it is so fertile.

But after all this, we will give you Kircher's later, and more particular Relation, and Description, both of it and its Causes; and of its most noted Eruptions, &c.

A Description of Aetna by Kircher. Wherein, as in a certain Prototype, the Reasons of Subter­raneous Fires, and their never failing food, are de­monstrated, as we use to say, to the Eye.

When I survey'd Sicily, in the year 1638. before all things, I thought fit to examine the Mountain Aetna, most of all celebrated by the Monuments of all Writers. A great Prototype, I say, of all burning Grounds; and that the most famous type, of almost whatsoever kind of ragings, by Sea or Land, outragious. And with this one onely spectacle of Nature alone, Sicily is (and ever was) admirable. Seeing you can scarce find an Author either of the Anti­ents, or Moderns, whom the violence of its ferocious nature, hath not drawn into admiration and astonishment. Yet because they have only beheld afar off the genuine Causes of so great effects: We coming a little nearer to the matter, from those things which in these last times, have been oberved with my own eyes, intending to prosecute its Nature and Constitution, we will endeavour to de­monstrate opportunely the cause of so strange and exotick effects. Its height; top and bigness.

Aetna therefore, is one onely Mountain, rearing up on high its Top or Spire, unto thirty miles, according to the Axis (or direct line through the Center, or midst) as by Maurolicus and Clavius attested, who searched out its altitude, by a Geometrical account and computation. But it takes up sixty, or as others say, an hun­dred miles space, with its roots, spread wide round about; fruit­ful with fat Fields, Vineyards, Fountains, Pastures, lying round about. And Woods of Pines and Beech; and full of Forrests of most high Fir-trees. But at the utmost top is broken and cragged, with unstable Cinders, and Pumice stones; and cleaves open with The large­ness and horrid face of its Crater. a most vast Crater, or deep mouth'd Cup of twelve miles in com­pass, which in a steep descent streightens it self narrower, even to the bottom of Hell, as it were. A most horrible Praecipice to see to, most formidable with flames, fumes, both from the very bottom, and from the sides of the Mountain; with an horrendous roaring and bellowing, not unlike bursting forth of Thunders. That the very imagination and thoughts of the fire and ruines, so nigh at [Page 46] hand, could not, but presently at the first reincounter, amaze and afright any man; although the most audacious and fearless; and make him start therefrom, as it were from a certain infernal Gulph of Hell.

And I doubt not but those burnings which are here seen in all Ages, have by the constant rejectings forth of Ashes, much aug­mented this vast Mountain; which on every part, both the ghast­ly fight of steep deseents of Cliffs; and the Cindry, and Pumice­stone-like face of burnt Rocks; as also the appearance of huge Dens, (one whereof you may see capable to contain thirty thou­sand men easily) formidable with burnt Pumice-stones, as also with resuses and recrements of various melted Mineral Matter, does abun­dantly shew. You may see in many places, paths of huge Tor­rents, Paths or tracts of fiery floods or rivers. from the said matter, call'd Sciarra, which have left, as it were, certain foot-steps and tracks of great havocks, and destru­ctions, from the fiery flux or flowing of the melted Mettal. In the very top, Snows, and Ashes or Cinders; as if they had meditated Snow and Ashes co ver its top an Eternal Wedlock, are seen to overwhelm all things with a sad and doleful countenance. Verily, by so much more dangerous to incautelous Visiters; by how much certain profound devouring-Gulphs, covered over with Snow and Ashes, and stretch'd forth all along, descending into the inmost Abysses, without bottom or end; are more frequent. Which as they have swallowed up very many, unadvisedly coming near to view without a guide; so have, by their ruine, left an example to others; not rashly to venture upon those places, which by such occult Artifices and Machines, and hidden deceipts, cheat Mortals out of their lives. Even as Fa. Matthew Taveran, a curious searcher out, as of all natural things, so of this Mountain also; try'd and experienced with great peril of his life. And to be short, All the matter of the upper part of the Mountain, [...] to be nothing else but a confused heap, and hanging of it self [...], or Cinders, Pumices, and Stones, which they call burnt Coal-stones. Which seeing it is on every hand exposed, and easily The new generating of Combu­stible matter. penetrable, both to Mineral Spirits within; and also without, to Snows, Rains, Hails, and Winds. It ought certainly, not to seem wonderful to any, that this adust and burnt matter, as it is impregnated, with new and new provision alwayes from Heaven; so it should conceive, in succession of time, new Generations and increases, so as to burn again afresh; and without end, again and again flame with new Conflagrations. As Virgil testifies;

[Page 47] Whatever furious matter feeds the Fire,
As soon as burnt, goes out: hath spent all'ts Ire,
Wherewith to rage: Cinders and Seedless ground
Lie fallow: which course oft it suffers round:
And thus exhausted by a thousand fires,
Renews itŝ former strength; new flames respires.

For whereas, in the utmost bottom of this Hellish Gulph, the fire is at no time extinguished, but alwayes sends forth some marks and tokens of it self, either boyling heat, or smoke, or flame, as I have often in the examination of the Mountain observ'd: Yet out­wardly it begins to grow fierce and terrible, but only at certain in­tervals of time, more or less, according to the plenty of the combu­stible matter heap'd up together. And by how much the longer it hath ceased; as if the matter was more ripen'd, vegetated and grown, for burning; by so much it bursts forth with greater violence; and together with the very flame, sends forth huge heaps of Sands; and as Lucretius asserts, Prodigious Stones of wondrous weight hurls forth.

A Description of the Aetnaean Crater, or (deep and wide-mouth'd) Fire-Cup.

The Crater, or Fire-Cup of Mount Aetna, is found by different Observations to be of a different largeness and capacity. There are some, who say, they have observ'd it to be two miles, and eighty paces wide. Others thirty miles. Others, lastly, four hundred miles. (No question here must be some mistake in the Printer, ad­ding too many Ciphers to the numbring Figures.) But it cannot be that in an Orifice, expos'd to so great tumultuations, and conti­nually agitated and tossed, with so many assaults, fits, and convul­sions of ferocious, and rageing Nature; it should not be found, ever and anon; sometimes larger, sometimes streighter; according to the condition of the Times. Which I my self also with greatest admiration have try'd; not in Aetna only, but also in the Lipari­tan Mountains; yea and in Vesuvius too; sith the Mountain, even at the least more vehement eructation, is much shook; and from [Page 48] its shaking, heaps off more diseasy and slippery matter being ga­thered together, and accruing to the Mountain, fall down alwayes with the Mountains more violent jogging, and convulsion, as it were; which heaps, as they are now big, with a new birth; so they give new food and nutriment to the Fires. And so from this fall of the Mountainous parts; its necessary that the Crater be made wider; whence it comes to pass, that the interiour parts of the Mountain rise up and swell, increasing by little and little; and the empty places of the diminish'd, or lessened Crater are fill'd up. Whence of necessity likewise, the Crater of the Mountain must be rendred streighter too. Yea Histories relate, that the matter heap'd up within, from the salls, have thereupon grown to such an excres­cency, that for the course of many years, it sent forth neither smoke nor fire; And the devouring Gulph to have yeelded access and ad­mission, to the more curious, very far, without all hurt and dan­ger; till the fuel of new copious matter, and now ripe and mature again to conceive fire; assaulting and setting, as it were, again upon the Mountain; and being re-kindled, having shook off its Yoak, by so much the more power powerfully wax'd fierce with horrendous burnings; by how much its supply of combustible matter was greater and more ready. And this lot all the Vulcanian Mountains undergoe; which sometimes making respits, grow unto an immense greatness, by the coacervation of matter falling in; sometimes by occult Machinations, and contrivances of Subterraneous Fires, the Fuel and Sustenance of the prepared matter being kindled; That which was in so many years exceedingly grown, is shook asunder by horrible Tempests of burnings, and vomits it out even from the low­est An horen­dous spe­ctacle of the Aet­nean Gulph, or Whirlpit. Hell of the Mountain; even as at this day is apparent. Which spectacle is so formidable, that there is none so stout-heartrd, that can look into it without fear; and, as we say, his Hairs standing an end, and his head turning round with giddiness. The devouring Gulf is so deep, that it exceeds all eye-sight; and fearful with Rocks, rising up out of the sides like Pyramides. And whereas the sides by a direct and perpendicular guidance and conduct of the Rocks verge, or bend and incline downwards, in a Parallel (and equal) descent: Yet according to the Laws of Opticks, they seem by reason of their too much distance, to meet in the Centre; which has impos'd on many Observators, deluded by this Optick Mockery, to think, the interiour sides of the Mountain to be drawn close and streight, into a Conick Surface, and outside. In the bottom (won­derful [Page 49] to be spoke!) the Mountain alwayes from continual eructa­tion of Mineral matter, undermines and attempts, I know not what, towards the constituting and erecting a new Fabrick of a Mountain; And accordingly I remember, I alwayes observ'd (as it were) a cer­tain Laky Pit, glistring with melted Metal. The sides up and down, by fit and correspondent passages, vomit forth perpetual Smoak in A perpe­tual Eru­ctation of Smoak. abundance of places; which by night we understood to be an en­kindled flame. This voraginous Gulph is never without roarings and bellowings; which now and then it utters so horrendous, that they Sounds and for­midable crackling noises. make the very Mountain it self to quake and tremble. In a word whosoever desires to behold the power of the only Great and Good God, let him betake himself to these kind of Mountains; and he will be so astonish'd and stupified with the ineffable effects of the Miracles of Nature, that he will be constrained ever and anon to pronounce, from the most intimate and inmost affection of his heart; O the depth of the Riches and Wisdom of God! How incomprehensible are thy Judgments, and how unsearchable thy wayes, by which thou hast constituted the World!

The Mountain is so high, that from thence all Sicily may be sur­vey'd at once; Yea, and your sight help'd with an opportune and seasonable time, may reach even unto Africa. But if by any Tempest the Mountain be troubled and disturb'd; then you would think, that there was an end of the lives of all conversant there: All things are so involv'd with horrendous Storms and Whirlwinds, together with thick Snows and Cinders.

I said a little before, that out of the sides of the Mountain great plenty of Smoak mixt with Fires, was discovered in very many pla­ces, Eruptions of Fires in many places. which Aestuaries or raging places, if in time they be over­whelm'd, either with the concussion and shaking of the Mountain, or any other accident; Then the raving fury and madness, as it were, of the Mountain growing on, it has been found to prepare and get its exit and way out, even from other places, through the outmost surface of the Mountain; which when it comes to pass, it effects such horrid clefts and openings, and such wide-mouth'd divulsions, with such formidable passages of the Subterraneous Vaults and Store-houses; which astonished with admiration we beheld, even to this very day, sometimes to have been. I saw a Ca­vern, An huge Cave or Den. which would easily contain an Army of thirty thousand me; as a little before we hinted.

There is there also a most dark and Caliginous Den, which they [Page 50] call, La Grotta della Palomba, of such profundity, as well as capa­city; that the Inhabitants of the Mountain think, that therein is a passage made by some Submarine path to the Liparitan Islands. But that from these and the like Caverns, and under-ground Vaults, siery Flouds and Rivers have issued forth; The Channel hard by, sill'd and slust with Pumice and adust stones, which the Sicilians call Sciarra's, does abundantly instruct us. Which Torrents indeed of liquid and melted Fire, Histories deliver to have slown and run The length & breadth of the fiery Torrents. down sometimes to eighteen miles in length; and sometimes, now one, then two, three, or four miles space in breadth. So that here­upon none can sufficiently admire, from whence such an incredible sertileness of melted matter should take its original; where, and in what places it should have shops, and fusory or melting fornaces, of so great capacity, hidden and laid up underneath, to the liquefaction and melting of so many Minerals and Metals.

But as these inaccessible works of God, are most remote from all The won­derfull works of God. Sense; so they can never be enough penetrated and pry'd into by any humane Understanding; And it remains only to wonder and admire at, what cannot be conceived of the incomprehensible Ma­jesty of the Divine Works. For if you undertake an account or com­putation of the melted matter, according to the calculation of divers times; you would find it to grow to such an extravagant heap, that it would sar exceed twenty Aetna's, in its bulk. But that we may more clearly confirm our Account and Reckoning according to Rea­son, I will subjoyn here a brief Chronicle, of the more famous and celebrated Fires and Eruptions; wherewith the Mountain siercely raging with horrendous destructions and slaughters, has at all times exerted and discovered its Burnings.

A Chronicle of the Eruptions, and Burnings of Aetna.

1. In the time when the Janigenae, or posterity of Janus, going In the time of the Ja­nigenae a­bout the year 600. about to seek new Colonies, first entred Sicily, (which was about the year of the World 2600; almost as many years before Christ, as since; and almost as far as any Writings or Records;) there was so great a burning of the Mountain, as Berosus delivers it; that the new Planters, leaving the Island for sear of the Desolation, went to seek new Colonies and Seats in Italy; by no means in the least thinking that a commodious station, which the horrible fierceness of Nature had rendred so formidable, with so many, and so great, and [Page 51] so deadly and tragical slaughters and destructions; so that hence, upon this occasion, seems to be introduced the Fable of Proserpina's Rape. (And hence perhaps may be concluded, that this Mountain has from the Creation, been used to vomit forth Flames, and may do so to the Worlds end; though Ovid divines otherwise.)

Aetna, which flames of Sulphur now doth raise;
Shall not still burn; nor hath it burnt alwayes.

2. The Janigenae sometime after followed the Sicanians; who were drove away from these Eastern parts to the Western, by new Tempests and Whirlwinds of the Aetnaean Burnings.

3. In the time of the Argonauts, (about the year 2714, and In the time of the Ar­gonauts. year 2714. above a thousand before Christ) which when the most ancient Or­pheus had seen, sang thus.

But now arriv'd at th'Lilyboean Strait,
We feel fierce Seas; On high Fires reach our sight,
Of hot Enceladus, threatning dangers great.

4. In the time of Aeneas's expedition, who repulsed from the Of Aeneas his Expe­dition, the year, 2768 shoar of Sicily by the Cyclopses; and greatly terrified by the burn­ing of the Mountain, left that deadly station. Virg.

And to unknown Cyclopian Coasts we run;
The Port was great and calm, with sheltring shoars;
But near, from horrid Ruines, Aetna roars, &c.

5. Under the Dominian of the Greeks in Sicily, viz. from the From a­bout 3180, til toward 3600. second Olympiad even to the 88th; viz. from about 3180, till to­wards 3600, as Thucidides testifies, who lived in this time; The Mountain was all on fire, with three huge Burnings. A little after which time, the Mountain raging anew, is said to have drawn even Pythagoras himself into highest admiration. Also in the time of Hero, when Histories deliver, that even Empedocles, an observer of the Mountain, then perished.

6. In the time of the Roman Consuls; (for about 450 years) In the time of the Ro­man Con­suls, from about 3440 to [...]. Four remarkable Burnings to have happened, is collected out of va­rious Authors; Diodorus, Polybius, and others. Whereof, that be­fore the Servile Wars, about 3830, was prodigious; The Mountain belching forth into vast Fires, and spread it self far and wide. Of which before.

[Page 52] It seems also to have reach'd Catania it self, when the two pious Brethren, before mentioned, rescuing their Father, perished all in the Flames.

7. In the time of Julius Caesar, (about fifty years before Christ) Of Julius Casar. 3900. Diodorus delivers, that Aetna did again rage most violently; And which they will have, pertended the death of Caesar. For it is re­ported to have been so great, that the Sea with its servour and boyling heat, burnt even the very Ships, as far as the Vulcanello's; Ad the Fish being extinct, and decocted or boyled. And so within twenty years that the Mountain burnt four times.

8. In the time of Caius Caligula, forty nine years after Christ, the Of C. Ca­ligula Cae­sar, in the year of Christ 49. Mountain did again rage so, that Caligula abiding at that time in Sicily, and possest with the terror of the impendent mischiefs, be­took himself to safer stations there. Yet they relate, that Hadrian Caesar, in the greatness of his mind, to have ascended the Mountain very far, whilst yet it raged, to consider more nearly so great Mi­racles.

9. About the Martyrdom of St. Agatha, the famous Martyr of About the Martyr­dom of St. Agatha. Catania by whose merits and intercession (as they there fondly ima­gine) it was effected, that the Mountain, although growing fierce, yet durst not touch or meddle with Catania. And so ever since have reposed great confidence in her, and her Reliques; which in this late fiery inundation, the Religious carried in procession, with multitudes of people, whipping and mortifying themselves, with all signs of penance. But enraged Vulcan would not be scarr'd away nor appeas'd so. And yet'tis like they will be fondly made to be­lieve still, that 'tis by her vertue and merits that the City is pre­served: For which (no doubt) she shall not lack her Festival Ho­nours, and Publick Solemnities.

10. In the time of Charles the Great, in the year 812; who also In the year 812. much terrified with the fierceness of the Mountain, is said to have sought safer places.

11. From the year 1160, to 1169, all Sicily was shaken with In the year 1160 huge Earthquakes, and the Mountain Aetna foming mightily, over­threw all the circumjacent places with incredible desolation; with the ruine of the Cathedral Church of Catania; In which also the Abbot John with his Monks was overwhelmed, and perished: (St. Agatha was to blame sure, and too too unkind.)

12. In the year 1284, a fearful burning happened about the In the year 1284. death of Charles King of Sicily and Arragon.

[Page 53] 13. In the year 1329, even till 1333, the Mountain raged after an horrible manner; In the time of the King Arragon. In the year 1329.

14. In the year 1408, under King Martin. 1408

15. In the year 1444, even to 47, again and again. 1444

16. In the year 1536, even to 37, it sent forth a fiery floud, and 1536. Rivers of Flames; bringing desolation to the bordering places.

17. In the year 1554, raging more than ordinary, it battered 1554 Catania it self, its Suburbs and Fields, grievously. But St. Agatha forsooth, still came to help in time of need, and defended it still.

18. In the year 1633, even to 39, the burning raged by so much 1633 the more formidable, by how much it lasted the longer time; which seeing many have described, I will not insist in reciting it.

19. In the year 1650, raging afresh on the Northern and Eastern 1650 side, and bursting asunder the Mountains, it vomited forth such a quantity of Fires, that it almost brought Brontium into utmost ha­zard and destruction, with its fiery Torrents.

20. Lastly, this present year 1669, the most horrible of this 1669 Age, for its mighty devastations, sorely threatning even Catania it self. And all respects considered, perhaps not inferior to any former Ages; according to the late publick Relation, universally known; For its fiery Torrent was as vast for length and breadth, as any of old; and approach'd the very Walls of the City, ruining many Houses near thereunto. And which is remarkable, by the huge quantities of congealed matter, hath formed a convenient Port over against the Castle, seventy foot deep in water, able to contain many Ships.

Corallary I.

From these things it plainly appears, that the Mountain, its matter being consumed, takes respit; sometimes for a greater, sometimes for a lesser space; till at length increased by new provision of com­bustible matter, it breaks forth, and acts those Catastrophe's, which with admiration we read of. And yet it is so far from being diminish­ed by so great an eructation of matter, that it seems rather to be aug­mented. Sith indeed the Citizens of Catania digged for Pumice­stones, and opening the Earth the depth of an hundred Palms, found Streets paved with Marbles, and various footsteps of Antiquities; which plainly teach, that Cities built here of old time, have been overwhelmed with the castings off, or rejectaneous offalls and off­casts, not without the great increase of the Mountain. They found [Page 54] besides, very many Bridges of Pumices, which were made, and consisted only out of the meer flux or flowing of the fiery Torrents; the Earthy softer substances being eat away. And of late, not far from the City, an Image of our Lady, was under Earth (as they say) accidentally found. Whose reputed Miracles have got her al­ready much fame. From the ruines, no doubt, of some Religious Place, &c. Flame also now and then appears in the exalted or higher rais'd Earth; anon disappears: which are clear and conspicuous signs and tokens of the Earths being rais'd. Yet Aelian tells us, that as well Aetna, as Parnasses and Olympus, did appear to be less and less to such as sail'd at Sea. The height thereof sinking, as it seem'd. And thereupon supposes the decay thereof, and of the World. But an Answer is at hand to this; That it might then perhaps decrease in magnitude. For it may be sometimes, in some Ages, augmented; and sometimes diminished: But in the whole rather augmented. Or else; It was but a meer fancy and opinion. But these are known things. This one thing only hath, after a won­derful manner, tortur'd the wits of Philosophers hitherto; In that they apprehend not whence the unsatiableness and greedy devouring of the perpetual fire should be supply'd with new and new food alwayes. And how the Pumices, Cinders and Ashes, and the other refuses of burnt matter, should in succession of time be converted into new materials, fit for fires. Which knot, that it may be un­tied;

You may remember that before (elsewhere) we shewed; how that to the conservation of Nature in its perpetual & constant course, there was a necessity of an everlasting circulation and return round of things. In the Heavens, the Elements; the Air, Water, Earth, and its several sorts, soils, and Minerals, &c. even with the very Fire also, and its materials and nutriment. As appears in the per­petual wheeling round of the Planets and Stars, by a constant and inviolable Law of Nature, so many thousands of years. The perpe­tual motion and mutation of the Elements; alwayes unvariable in the greatest variety of things. The perpetual circulation of waters, both within, and about the Earth. All Rivers come from the Sea, and return to the Sea again; as Solomon, the Wise, hath confirm'd to us. The Sun dries up the vapours of the Sea; the vapours are received into rain, and return back to the Earth and Sea again. Elegantly expressed by Ovid;

[Page 55] The Earth resolv'd is turned into streams;
Water to Air; the purer Air to slames.
From whence they back return; The fiery flakes
Are turn'd to Air; The Air thickned takes
The Liquid form of Water; That Earth makes.

Or, as Dubartas has it;

The purest humour in the Sea, the Sun
Exhales i'th Air; which there resolv'd, anon
Return to Water, and descend again,
By sundry wayes into his Mother Main.

Many therefore wondring whilst they behold Aetna burning so ma­ny thousand years, how the Mountain should not be consumed by so long and lasting Burnings, Nor the Fire ever extinct. But

Bursting wide ope its Fornace Mouth, still streams
With melted stones; still spues out Globes of Flames.

And by a thousand Fires, as Virgil exprest it before,

It spending still the fewel which it burns;
Yet still to former strength afresh returns.

These certainly, if they understood the circling operations of Na­ture, would not so strangely admire; when as food is never at any time wanting thereto, to perpetuate the Burnings. The Fires burn the Mountain, and convert the Miscellany, or mixture of combu­stible matter into Ashes. Out of the Ashes mixt with Water, a new food and nourishment of everlasting Fire is generated;

Omnia continuo rapidos virtuntur in orbes;
Naturâ motus perpetuante suos.

Which may be englished out of our Incomparable Cowly, altering a word from his extravagant allusion to drinking.

Nothing in Nature's constant found;
But an Eternal course goes round.

[Page 56] This premised; I take for granted, First, That a great plenty of Salt lies hid in the Ashes: which even from hence is proved; That Salt is no wayes more easily got, than from a Lixive or Lee of things reduced into Ashes. By this means Nitre, Salt, Allom, in some more moist places, breaking or springing out of the walls and sides, as also in the dunging-places of Pidgeons and other Animals, first vegi­tated and quickned with Urine, is dug forth in most plentiful store and abundance.

I suppose for granted, Secondly, That out of the humid Sea, tinctured and seasoned with a fat saltishness and mixture of other Mineral things; an huge quantity of Exhalations, together with the spirits, and insensible corpuseles of the said things, are extracted by vertue of the Sun. Which being both extrinsecally resolved into Rain, Hail, Snows, settle about the top of the highest Mountains; and also intrinsecally deriv'd through subterraneous passages of the Sea, do fertilize the matter of the Fire-houses under ground, with new provant.

These things supposed, I say, That the Fire perpetually powerful, and waxing strong in its Store-houses, is also by occult fibres and veins of the Sea insinuating and entering underneath, perpetually aug­mented; whilst that it replenishes and recruits the matter consum'd away with fire, (as are the Ashes, and the most porous stones of Pumices) with a Sulphureous Soot, and Bituminous Spirits; And in some measure prepares and disposes it for an enkindling and in­flamation. But when by the melting of the Hail and Snow; both with the fervent heat of the Sun, and also with the heat of so near Fire lurking within; and by the coming on of Rain, the Dust and Ashes be soaked through with a most plentiful bewetting; From hence a certain mixt matter is propagated, which insinuated more deeply within the porous recesles and spaces of the Pumice-stones; And then Sulphureous and Bituminous Spirits, which but now late­ly lodged there, intervening to their help; at length ends (presently, as soon as it is waxen ripe) in a new food and nourishment of the Fire. And that this is so; I found by an irrefragable experiment, in the brinks and edges of the Valleys of Aetna, Vesuvius, and Strongylus, burnt up with Fire; in most of the Cindry and Ashy walls and sides of which I found an immense quantity of Salt, Allom, and Niere springing forth; In some also, a slowing and gushing forth of Bitumen, Napththe, and the like fat oily liquors, to­gether her with a most copious quantity of Sulphur. Which have their [Page 57] original from no where else; but partly out of the Cinders of com­bust and burnt things; from which must necessarily be begot a new off-spring and succession of Salt and Nitre; Partly from the Sul­phureous corpuseles or spirits; which while they continually exhale from the lowest Gulph of the Mountain, are condensed into Sulphur in the more cold climate of the Mountain. And so that mixt matter is generated, cut of Salt, Nitre. 'Allom, Bitumen' and Sulphur, which insinuated (as hath been said) into the pores of the Calx or Calcined Lime, or Ashes of the burnt and adust Pumice, and Stones, it administers that perpetual and everlasting fuel and food of Fire, which we have hitherto inquired after. For this, corrupted by the Fire, as it prepares new burnings; so the fat and sulphureous matter being burnt up, which lurk'd and lay dormant within the Pumices, undergo some respits, or truces, as it were; Till the capa­city of the Pumices, and the remaining Calx, or Calcined Ashes, be replenished again, as was said, with the like new birth of combu­stible matter. But now what happens in the exteriour and outmost surface of Aetna; It's certain, the same is effected in all other slam­mivomous Mountains. Nature carrying it self after the same man­ner alwayes. Yea, he that shall more narrowly and throughly dive into these things, he cannot be ignorant, that the process of Nature, which we have expressed in the exteriour surface of the Mountain; but that it keeps the same course and tenour, or order, in its inti­mate and inmost Fire-houses, or Receptacles.

Corallary II.

Hence it follows, That the food and fuel of Subterraneous Fire, follows the Motion of the Sea, raging with a perpetual recipro­cation of Flux and Reflux. For from the concitation and commo­tion of the Tide, The Sea being thrust through occult passages and Burrows, at its bottom; as hath already been inculcated; and joyning its fat and humid, to the hot and dry, lodging under Sul­phureous Glebes, in the intimate bosoms of the Earth; restores that which is consum'd away, with an uncessant conception and birth of a new generation. But in the external surface, by vapours attracted from the Sea, and which are fruitful, and even big with the said new Geniture (or Generation) of the Sea, it lies within the porous Hives or Cells of the now burnt matter, through the Snows, Hails, Rains, mixt with the Dust and Ashes, a new Geniture or Concep­tion; [Page 58] which in its time, the matter being now mature and ripe, may at length break forth into great Burnings. You see therefore the wonderful and indeficient Circulation of Nature in its opera­tions.

Corallary III.

From these things it follows, that the formal cause of the Burnings The formal cause of its burnings. The ma­terial; The in­strumental cause. of this Mountain, is the Fire it self. The material; Sulphur, and Salt, Nitre, Bitumen, and the like matters apt to cherish Fires, pro­pagated by a perpetual motion from the intimate dark recesses of the Earth, and also from the incumbent Sea plying thereon. The In­strumental; the Gavernous nature of the place; and the whole Bo­dy or Bulk of the Mountain wholly full of Burrows, and hanging together aloft, and pois'd of it self, and perpetually burdened, and oppressed with Sulphureous Smoak and Soot. Lastly, the efficient The effici­ent. cause, are Winds and Blasts, which flowing out of the most inward Caverns at this kind of vent or issue, and as it were at their proper gorges and open jaws, exuscitate with certain Bellows, as we may so say, the dorment Fires, to enkindle the matter, whatsoever shall be found next. Sith all Sicily is wholly bored through with innume­rable Caverns and Burrows, as was before mention'd. Else where we have abundantly demonstrated, the wounderful Ragings and Tides of the Sicilian Streight, and the alterations of its flux and re­slux; and also the insatiable force of the devouring gulf of Seylla and Charybdis; and how that it depends on the said Mountain; being disposed after a wonderful way and manner, in Subterraneous Shops, and work-houses, throughout the universal Islands. Of which thing, this may be a clear Testimony; that Charybdis tumultu­ating after an unusual manner, Aetna also withal rages at the same time; being together with it, stirred up with the Spirit of Sediti­on and tumult; and the sulphureous dens recieving into themselves the more vehement winds and blasts, thereby the combustible mat­ter, agitated and puffed, no otherwise then as with Smith's Bellows, burst forth violently into huge Globes of Flames.

But other winds blowing, Aetna seems to take respit; for that the The Moun­tain ejects Fires ac­cording to the Winds. orifices of the passages are plac'd in a contrary way to the current waves and flouds of the Sea; and hindred by the neighbour Moun­tain. But at the East and South winds blowing, according to the constitution of the channels, now Flames, sometimes Smoke, now and then Embers, Sparkles, and Flakes. But sometimes, the Fuel being [Page 59] augmented in it self, it wonderfully rages with burnings, with a formidable stream and floud of Fire and Brimstone; which now and then it is wont to belch forth, out of the inmost shops of the aestu­aries of fire under ground; with an huge destruction and ruine of the subjected Villages, Fields, Cities, and Cattel. The forerunners of which, are groanings of the Caverns, from intercepted and shut-up Spirits; Roarings of the Sea, joyn'd with trembling of the Earth; By all which coming so thick together, Nature, as it were, overpress'd, and impatient of bonds, breaks open all Prison Doors and Barrs, and rushes any way it can get out; and like a burning River or Floud, consumes, not only Fields, with the mighty rouling stream where­with it is poured down, but also intire Villages; overturns neigh­bouring Towns and Cities; and every where leaving footsteps full of horrour; devours Woods, Rocks and Mountains; and nothing is able to stand in its way. Of which things the Monuments of Hi­storians are full.

We conclude therefore, the matter of Subterraneous Fire to be not only Sulphur, Bitumen, Pit-Coals: but also Allom, Salt, Nitre, Coaly Earth, and Calcanthum or Vitriol, and such kind of Metals. For Sulphur and Bitumen do not make the Fire so impetuous, as that Fire, which subverts Mountains, buries Cities in Ashes, and the e­jectments of Pumices; and by an incredible violence, belches out stony and Rocky Mountains, out of the very Mountains; as hath plainly appear'd from what hath preceded. But some other thing must needs be adjoyned thereto; to perform this effect, which we go about to explain.

I say therefore that the universal matter of Subterraneous Fire, What thing that may be which causes so great Ru­ines of the Mountain. ought to be sharp and thick or gross, as Sulphureous and Bituminous matter are; whereto is joyn'd, with a great and necessary alliance of Commerce, Salt-peter; which having its substance replenished with most tumid spirits, and joyn'd to Sulphur, and enkindled; whilst it finds no exit or vent, it exercises that force upon the subterraneous obstacles, that lye in its way; which a little before we have ex­pounded, (especially if crude Antimony, and Mercurial Spirits be superadded;) as sufficiently appears from the mighty efficacy of War­like Guns and Cannons.

Furthermore, the combustible materials, they are not found but in Subterraneous Dens; of which sort, are divers kinds of Stones, various species of terrestrial Glebes, Metallick Mixtures and Miscel­lanies of the other Minerals; And besides these, Salt, Allom, Salt-peter, [Page 60] Salt-Ammoniack, and whatsoever is there found, even to the very Water it self. And even Mountains, and huge vast Stones are turned into matter and nutriment of the Fire; Then forthwith the matter generated only burns; and this being consumed away, the Fire is extinguished; and changing its station, invades another near unto it; as comes to pass in Bituminous Earths. Then afterwards the consumed matter, conceiving new Seeds, springs again; and a good while after is enkindled; which indeed if it be by a sudden generation born again in great plenty, as in Aetna, Strumbolo, the Phlegraean Plains, then they will burn with an everlasting Fire.

But the Generation of such kind of matters is made after this manner: The Sea replenished with fatness and unctuosity, while it enters the hidden Rooms and Chambers of the Earth, by and by nourishes anew the substantial parts of the Mountain extenuated with the Fire; and replenishes their substance, that hath lost its marrow and strength, with a new fatness; and if a way lie open into Sul­phureous Vaults and Houses under ground, the water being driven in, will be turn'd into the nutriment of Sulphur; If into Bitumi­nous places, into the nutriment of Bitumen; if into Aluminous veins, of Allom; And so of the rest, the same reason. And thus the Substances destroyed by the Fire, are repaired almost after the same way, that Iron is renew'd again in the Island Elva, the Mines for several years lying idle and fallow, as it were; and as stones, which they call Travertine, in the Fields of Tivoli.

But how the said matters should conceive fire, was above-said. As how indeed; scarcely from the Sun; not from Thunder and Lightnings; not from any other efficient: but from the very sub­terraneous fire it self, making its way unto them through hidden passages of the Rocks, which it burns. Or, if they be not immedi­ately touched by actual Fire; then certainly from the Marine waves and billows, intruded by the force and impetuousness of the Winds, through the Submarine gutters and chinks at the bottom of the Sea. For that it cannot be that from the vehement dashing of the billows in strait and narrow places, and the agitation of the spirits of combustible matter thereby, and the attrition or striking of the sat and Sulphureous Air, that they should not presently conceive Fire.

Of the Liparitan or Vulcanian Islands adjoyning, com­monly called the Vulcanello's.

West of Sicily in the Tuscan Sea; but South and within sight of Messina, an hundred and fifty miles distant from Aetna, are the Aeolian Islands, so called from Aeolus King thereof. He taught at first the use of the Sail; and by observing the Fire and Smoak that ascended from these Islands, (for heretofore they all of them slamed) prognosticated of Storms to come. And thence the occasion of the Fable of Aeolus's being Godd and King of the Winds, for us ad­mirable skill and invention that way. Of these anciently there were Seven only; (But now are Eleven; 'tis like made since out of the excessive burnings of the other; as 'tis said of the little one cal­led Vulcanello) almost of an equal magnitude. Yet Liparis is the greatest, (being ten miles in circuit) as also the most famous, to which the others were subject. (And hence they are now call'd the Lipa­ritan, and Vulcanian Islands, or Vulcanello's) Its fruitful and abound­ing with Bitumen, Sulphur, and Alumne; having hot Baths much frequented by the diseased. The Fire here went out about an Age agoe; having (as is to be supposed) consumed the matter that fed it. But at this day Strombolo only burns; and that with ragings not inferior to the Aetnaean or Vesuvian. Yet Volcano smokes continu­ally, from Subterraneous Fires. They are said heretofore to have burnt wholly, together with the Mountains, and Sea, as Strabo wit­nesses.

Volcano, formerly call'd Hiera, is a little Island, burning in the midst of the Sea; where Antiquity placed Vulcans Shop, or Forge; Because of the Fires seen by night, and abundance of smoak by day. And therefore received its name from its nature; consecrated former­ly to Vulcan, and called his Mansion. It is said but first to have ap­peared above water, about the time that Scipio Africanus dyed. A barren Island, stony, and uninhabited. It had three Tunnels, where­with it evaporated Fire; But now hath but one out of which it smoaketh continually, and casts out stones with an horrible roaring. It was heretofore all on Fire, and the Sea round about, for some dayes together, which Pliny reports, as a known truth, and an instance neer at hand. And has not ceased to be on a flame since, as it were a Mountain of flames only, in the midst of the Sea. For even in the [Page 62] year of our Lord 1444, on the 5th of February, it flamed so abun­dantly, and flung forth fire and stones, with such an hideous noise; that not only the rest of the Islands; but also Sicily trembled thereat. Perhaps the last blaze. For now flame it doth not: but retaineth the rest of its terrours.

But now Strombolo is the most notorious at this day. Here the Inhabitants formerly were wont from the Smoak, to predict what Winds would blow. Where Aeolus also, the first so skilled there­in, was King, &c. as before. It was formerly call'd Strongyle, (corrupted at last into Stromboli) from the rotundity thereof. For it seem no other than an high round Mountain in the Sea; out of the top whereof issueth continnally a flame like a burning Beacon; and exceeding clearly; so that by night especially it is to be discern'd a wonderful way. A place so full of horrour to the Neighbouring-Islanders; (And yet in those parts where the Rage of the Fire offendeth not, it is of a very fruitfull Soyl, and apt for Tillage) and many others of the Ignoranter Romish Catholicks, conceive it (and such like places) to be the Jaws of Hell it self; and that with­in the damned Souls are tormented. To which purpose the good Catholicks (who are excellent at pious frauds and tales) have, or rather have rais'd, a pretty Story of Sir Thomas Gresham, London's most glorious Benefactor; which we shall by and by transcribe out of Mr. Sandys's Travels verbatim; True it is he was full of pious and charitable good works and bublick Benefactures in his latter dayes. But upon such an occasion, as this Story pretends; we have not the least reason to believe: For surely all our Histories and Memories could never have been wholly silent thereof; and of a thing so publickly attested before the King, &c. But to return to the business again.

Kircher, in the said often mentioned year 1638, thought good also to examine among others of these Islands, those two chief ones, Volcano, and Stromboli. And Stromboli indeed for the fierceness and outrages of its Fires, which it continually vomited, was guarded from all access. But Volcano making Truces and Intervals with the Aestuaries, discover'd nothing else besides Smoak: Yet it hath an Island adjoyning, call'd Volcanello, annexed to Volcano, which they relate to have been generated of the rejected refuses and offalls of the Mountain, which it belch'd forth out of the last burning thereof; (perhaps that in the year 1444, a little before mentioned) All the Island springs and abounds with Sulphur, Nitre, Bitumen; [Page 63] Yea and the very bottom of the Sea is burrow'd through with innu­merable Caverns and Tunnels or Trunks; which both the Vortices, or Whirlpools, and also the frequency of Winds bursting forth, and puffing the Sea after a wonderful manner, do shew. And this made our Author, as himself acknowledges, that he could in no wise dissent from those, who say, There are Submarine Mines and Bur­rows under the Sea; which correspond with Aetna; and thence, by continued passages and conveyances, through the concavous spaces of the Back of Appenine, with Vesuvius; which he, a pre­sent and Eye-witness, found most true in the said year 1638. when in his return home from these Travels, he was driven on the Coasts of Terra di Lavoro, in the Kingdom of Naples, which he found almost reduced unto utter ruine and desolation, at the same time, by most horrible Earthquakes; wherein he very narrowly escaped himself with his life; and accordingly hath writ very sen­sibly and feelingly thereof; too large for this place. But on a certain day more curiously viewing Stromboli at this time, about sixty miles distant, he observ'd it to be more than ordinarily fu­rious: For it appear'd wholly overwhelm'd with Fire, in so great plenty, that it seem'd to belch out flamy Mountains; (A most horrendous spectacle!) And then heard I know not what kind of dull murmur from the Mountain so far off, which time after time seem'd to grow towards them through Subterraneous Burrows, till it reached the subterraneous place, on which they stood; and there utter'd such horrendous Thunderings within the Earth, with so formidable Earthquakes, that none of the company were able to stand on their feet. After the Violence was over, getting up a­gain, not without ineffable consternation, they beheld the Sub­version and lamentable Catastrophe of the most famous Town St. Euphemia, three miles off, (which happened in that time;) and the Citty wholly swallowed up. For, seeking for the Town, they found in stead thereof, (wonderful to be spoke!) nothing but a most putrid Lake sprung up in its place. They could find no Men, nor Inhabitants: Thence passing on their Journy, they found no­thing else for two hundred miles, but the Carkases of Cities, hor­rid Ruines of Castles, Men stragling up and down in the open Fields, and through fear, as it were, withering away. Then passing by Naples, he could not after all this, leave out Vesuvius out of the way of his Observations; what that did also; Of which [Page 64] before in its place. And this was a leading us to another Chap­ter, concerning Earthquakes, as the proper effects and products of Subterraneous Fires also; and alwayes preceding, and concomitant with these Vulcanian Eruptions; But that we found a Chapter was not sufficient for so great a Subject; and that we had already transgressed and exceeded the intended and prescribed bounds of This.


A fuller Relation of the Spanish Priests Error and attempt, about getting Gold out of one of these flam­ing Mountains in the West-Indies.

THE most famous Vulcano's in the West-Indies, are the Gua­tamala, discernable at vast distance on the South-Sea. A Spanish Priest out of Avarice would needs sound this Mountain, supposing the bottom to be full of Gold. This Priest was called Mossen, born at Antequera, who came to the In­dies with Pirarow at the time of Ferdinand Cortez's Conquest. He had a Sister living with him who had a fair Daughter, whom the Captain married to Lazart d' Almadia, Clark of the Ship, promi­sing 1000 Duckets in Marriage. But the Clark being jealous of his Captain, left his Wife in Spain; and the Captain being come on Shore, with grief for his Mistress absence, died; to whom by his last Will he ratified the 1000 Duckets. Mean while the Clark took command of the Vessel, and arrived in New Hispaniola, where the Priest was very welcome, Priests being there very acceptable; and was accommodated in the Town of Sanda, where he lived in great esteem for sincerity and devotion; so in few years he grew very wealthy. But not content with this, upon suggestion that the slam­ing Mountain, not far thence, was a Mine of Gold, he thought to get inestimable riches out of it: for this purpose he caused a strong Iron Chain to be made, to the measure of the height of the Mountain, which he had taken by Artizans; then by strength of Men began to cut a way for portage of his necessaries, which could not be done but at great expence, a mans labour there being worth two Crowns a day; nevertheless Avarice made him pass it easily. But this be­ginning was a mean matter, for he must continue the Labourers; being yet not advanced far, by reason of the height of the Mountain, and firmness of the Rock, which he must cut through: nor though many looked upon the Enterprize as extravagant and inconsiderate, yet the Priest every day got nearer to the mouth of the Fornace with expence of time, labour and difficulty. After four moneths space [Page 66] the pondrous Chains and Caldrons, with great cost and pain were drawn up. The good man boasted, He donbted not now to come short­ly to his ends, and that he had a Revelation of it in his sleep.

At length all these Iron Engines were set in order, and the work­men, to the number of fifty began to let down a Caldron well fasten­ed to a strong Iron Chain, with other Engines secured, and the Priest himself set his hand to the work: But as they thought to draw up the Caldron full of rich melted mettal, the strength of the fire consumed all, and they hardly escaped without burning their hands and feet, so violent a heat burst out upon them. The Priest half mad cried out, The Devil had broken his Chain; with a thousand Curses, ready to throw himself headlong into the Precipice, covered over with Soot and Cindars, and frying with heat, fright, and toyl, that he looked like a right Fury, running like a mad man to and fro; the rest in little better condition, the greatest part being saur'd and consum'd with labour and the violence of heat which had even melt­ed them. The good man at last was brought to his Lodging in ex­tream torment, where they laid him to bed in so much grief and discomfort that he was the pitty of the World. Walking in the night he was surprized with such a rage, that he gave himself seve­ral stabs in the throat with his knife; and in the morning his Sister coming to visit him, found him steeped in blood and gastly, half dead, whereupon she cried out for help, and friends came immediate­ly in, and a Chirurgion applyed the Country Balsom so fortunately to his wounds, that he was well within few dayes; nevertheless for extream grief and sullenness, he could eat nothing; At last he languished to death, having consumed all he had gotten, besides what his Sister had also, and other Friends, whom he quite ruined. The poor woman lived a while after, but miserably. Her Son-in-Law making some Voyages betwixt the Indies and Spain in the best sort he could; who afterwards had other strange misfortunes upon his Wifes account, esteemed the Daughter of that Unfortunate Priest. Thus do greatest disappointments procure the greatest desperations.

London, (if the Story were true) accidentally beholding to flaming Mount Strombolo.

If all the pious Tales of Catholicks were true, London was eter­nally beholding to the good Devils of Strombolo, for frighting Sir Thomas Gresham into such Publick good Deeds; But why he should [Page 67] begin to practise them at least eighteen years after the death of King Henry; and how many before had passed we know not, and that not till the dayes of Reformation, (for he laid the first Stone of the Royal Exchange in the seventh year of Queen Eliz. Or why nei­ther Catholick nor Protestant Historians should so much as mention, much less record for truth, so remarkable a Transaction, concerning so glorious and Renowned a Founder, no tolerable account or reason can be given. However take the Story as it runs in Sands's Travels, thus.

A pretty devised Story and Catholick pious Tale concerning the oc­casian of Sir Tho. Gresham's devout Life, and pious and chari­table Inclinations and good Deeds, and the converting his great acquired Riches, to such worthy and publick uses, Viz. From the sound of an horrid Voice, out of the mouth of one of these Hellish Volcano's, the Prodigious Mount Strombolo.

It was told me at Naples by a Country-man of ours, and an old Pensioner of the Popes, who was a youth in the days of King Henry, That it was then generally bruited throughout England, That Mr. Gresham a Merchant, setting sail from Palermo (in Sicily) where there then dwelt one Antonio, called The Rich, who at one time had two Kingdoms morgaged unto him by the King of Spain, being crossed by contrary winds, was constrained to anchor under the Lee of this Island Strombolo. Now about mid day, when for certain hours it accustomedly forbears to flame, he ascended the Mountain, with eight of the Sailers, and approaching as near the vent as they durst, among other Noises, they heard a Voice cry aloud; Dispatch, Dispatch, The Rich Antonio is a coming. Terrified herewith they descended; and anon the Mountain again evaporated fire. But from so dismal a place they made all the haste that they could; when the wind still thwarting their Course, and desiring much to know more of this matter, they returned to Palermo, and forthwith en­quiring of Antonio, It was told them that he was dead; and com­puting the time, did find it to agree with the very Instant that the Voice was heard by them. Gresham reported this at his return, to the King, and the Mariners being called before him, confirmed by Oath the Narration. In Gresham himself, as this Gentleman said, (for I no otherwise report it) it wrought so deep an impression, that he gave over all Traffick; distributing his Goods, part to his Kins­folkes, [Page 68] and the rest to good and publick uses; retaining only a com­petency for himself; and so spent the rest of his Life in a solitary de­votion.

A very ill contrived Story, attended with no probable circumstan­ces. Tis like indeed it might be generally bruited, as the Gentle­man says (among the Vulgar, by some that would have had it so) but never could obtain general credit, among the wiser at least, and more knowing, much less ever to be recorded, because so easily con­sutable.


Candid Reader,

IF thou wouldst make true sense of what thou readest, thou must needs first correct, at least these grosser Errata's, which quite and clean pervert it.

Page 5. line 11. For Stagnete, reade Stagnate. P. 7. l. 7. Blot out Canary Islands, And add to that Section, of that Chapter, thus much fur­ther: Historians of these times write also, That even Teneriff in the Ca­nary Islands, now and then smokes out of the top of its crown; and to have sometimes heretofore burnt, and vomited I lames, The Sulphureous Stones testifie, which in great plenty are brought into Spain. It abounds also with hot Ba hs, and Bituminous l ountains, which are manifest tokens of Subrerraneous Fires in those AtlanticklSeas lurking underneath.

Pag. 8. l. 4. for Vulcano's, read Vulcanello's. P. 9. l. 1. for Island, read Islands. P. 10. l. 29. f. Mothern, r. Northern. P. 23. l. 20. f. Fire, Sul­phur, r.. Fir'd Sulphur. P. 29. l. 33. f. rarifie. r. rarifie. P. 32. l. 9. f. Shone, 2. shown. P. 33. l. 3d from the bottom, f. could, r. they could. P. 36. l. 20 f. discuse, r. discusse. P. 47 l. 23, and 24. No doubt in stead of 30. and 400 miles, it should be 3 and 4 miles; though so in our Author. P. 48. l. 6 from bottom; f Rocks verge, r. Rocks; verge, &c. P. 57. l. 3. from bot­tom; f. lies, r. lay's. P 58. l. 14 from bottom; f. Islands, r. Island. P. 62. l. 14. from bottom; f. Memories, r. Memoires. Besides many lesser faults, which are left to thy own discretion in reading.

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