WHEREIN Those Principles are enlarged upon especially, which obviate the great and growing Errors of Popery; useful for those Families that desire to hold fast the Form of sound words.

Aug. lib. 15. de Trin. Cap. ult.
Domine Deus, quaecunque dixi de tuo, agnoscant & tui: Siqua de meo, & tu ignosce & tui.

London, Printed for Henry Mortlock at the Phoenix in St. Paul's Church-yard; and White-Hart in Westminster Hall. 1675.

To the Christian Reader; espe­cially Heads of Families.

THose Catechisms may very well be esteemed the best, which are Explanatory of the Creed, ten Commandments and the Lords Prayer; because these Summaries or Ab­stracts contain the Essentials of the true Re­ligion, or those choice truths which God would have us take extraordinary notice of in our course of reading the holy Scriptures: And therefore those that begin with Cate­chizing, begin the most easie and profitable way for any; because the weightier matters of the Law are not hard to be understood, and such words being Spirit and Life, and the very marrow of Christianity, must needs feed and nourish us up unto eternal life. I have fixed my thoughts upon the Assemblies shorter Catechism, because the Principles in it are mostly agreed upon by all sober intel­ligent [Page] unprejudiced Protestant Divines. You have also something of the nature of the two Covenants superadded to, or rather enlarged upon more particularly and expresly than in the Catechism. And because Catechisms ought to contain nothing but received truths, you have mostly the Explication of Antient and Modern Divines: And therefore, where you meet with any thing that is not so elaborate and exact, you may conclude it mine, and not theirs. Hearing occasionally a Discourse of a very learned and godly Divine out of Deut. 6. 6, 7. [And these words which I command thee this day, shall be in thy heart: And thou shalt teach them dili­gently unto thy Children, &c.] who re­commended to Parents with the greatest ear­nestness the work of Catechizing; I shall make bold to transcribe a part of it, and offer it to publick view. You shall have, 1. His Reasons to prove that Parents ought diligent­ly to Catechize or teach their Children [Ser­vants also included.] 2. His Answers to the Objections against it. And 3. The Mo­tives he laid down to provoke and stir up all Parents to this necessary duty.

10. Reasons for the proof of it.

1. Every man ought to promote the Glory of God, to advance the Kingdom of Christ, [Page] and to further the Salvation of others as far forth as they are able, and have opportunity to it. And can we effect these any better way? We pray, Hallowed be thy Name. Thy Kingdom come, thy will be done: Surely the coming of Christs Kingdom into our hearts is one way of his Kingdom's coming.

2. God hath set Parents in Authority over them, and they cannot improve it to better purpose. This is the most ancient Go­vernment. Before there was King or Com­mon-wealth, there was Parental Government. This being most ancient, afterwards was the Priest and Prophet. God hath laid a com­mand upon Children to obedience in the fifth Commandment, Ephes. 6. 1. Only Dig­nity requires duty; improve your authority for God, and use it to instruct your House­hold in the Word of God. Do not think you have done, till you have done this.

3. Even nature it self dictates thus much. The Birds and Beasts of the field, yea the Sea-monsters take care of their young ones. If you do nothing but feed and cloath your Children, you do no more than Heathens, nay than brute beasts. 'Tis said of the Ostrich, Job 39. 16. that she is hardened against her young ones, as though they were not hers: [Page] And what do ignorant Parents less, who are hardened against their own Children who are parts of themselves?

4. Children have Souls to be saved or damned, therefore some must take care of them, and the soul that sinneth must die. We see Children die as well as Aged persons.2 Cor. 5. 10 In Golgatha there are Skulls of all sorts: Yea, do but look into the Register of a Parish, and you shall see as many young as old have died in it. Children may die, and what if they die without knowledge, in their sins? better were it with those Children mentioned, 2 Kings 2. 23, 24. than these, Isa. 27. 11. 2 Thes. 1. 7, 8. Thus unchastised Children shall suffer; but the Parents shall not go Scot-free. If you would have them profit by the publick Ministry, you must Catechize them at home. To bring them to the publick before they be thus Catechized, is setting before them an hard loaf. You must give them milk at home, that they may be fit for higher truths in publick.

5. Your Children are Children of wrath, and you have been instruments to conveigh this to them.Psal. 51. 1, 5 They die, and that proves this. When your Children are sick, you forthwith go to the Physitian, and will you take no care of their Souls, inheriting their spiritual mala­dies [Page] from you? You may say as David to Abiathar, 1 Sam. 22. 22. I have occasion­ed the death of all the persons of thy Fathers house.

6. What will become of Religion in future Ages, if Parents neglect this duty at present? If all Parents were as careless as some, the Church of God would soon cease on the earth, Isa. 38. 19. The Father to the Children shall make known thy truth, Psal. 78. 3, 4. Which we have heard and known, and our Fathers have told us; We will not hide them from their Children, shewing to the Generation to come the praises of the Lord. If we do not teach our Children how should they teach theirs? It was above two thousand years before the Scripture was writ­ten; how then was piety preserved but by one Generation teaching another? Adam taught his Children. The sacrificing of Cain, and Abel's piety therein were both the fruit of Adam's teaching. Noah taught his Children to Abraham, and he taught his houshold. Isa. 1. 9. Except the Lord of Hosts had left unto us a very small Remnant, we should have been as Sodom, and we should have been like unto Gomorrah: We should have been as Heathenish, as Paganish as they.

7. God is highly pleased with piety in younger [Page] ones. The Lord had respect to Abel the younger; and Enoch of all the Patriarchs before the Flood the youngest, is said to please God. How was God pleased with the piety of Samuel and Josiah? And we read of Jehojachin that began very young to Reign; and did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, 2 Kings 24. 8, 9. God takes notice of the evil as well as the good. Children might sing Hosanna, Mat. 21. 15. as well as cry bold-head, if they were taught. Iesus said, Mat. 19. 14. Suffer little Children, and forbid them not to come unto me: for of such is the King­dom of Heaven. Of such, not untaught Children.

8. You cannot expect the blessings of the Covenant, except y [...]u teach them the C [...]m­mandments of God Ps. 103. 17, 18. Dan. 9. 4.

9. Assure your selves, if you neglect this duty, God will require their blood at your hands, Gen. 9. 5. with Acts 20. 26. It is here with Parents as with Ministers; if you do not warn and teach them, God will re­quire their blood at your hands. Ezek. 3. 18.

Object. But teaching is the work of the Minister?

Answ. It is not only his, but yours; his in publick, yours in your Families.

10. Sin and corruption is so inherent in [Page] Children in their nature, that all the care of Ministers in publick, and Parents at home will be little enough to heal this plague of original corruption.Levit. 14. 41, &c. This plague is like the Leprosie. There must be scraping, and if cleansing will not do, there must be pulling down. So that you see all is little enough: without teaching, your Children may perish, and you smart for it.

Object. 1. But Children may do well that are not thus carefully instructed.

Answ. 1. They may do well as to the out­ward man, they may prosper in the world. God may cause his Sun to shine upon the un­just and the unthankful. But Parents are to wish that their Children may do well as to the inward man, and prosper in their Souls, as John for his friend Ga [...]us, 3 Joh. 2.

2. They may perish eternally for want of Knowledge. Hos. 4. 6.

3. If some Children happen to come to good, no thanks to such careless graceless Parents that neglect instruction at home.

Object. 2. But we have known them that have been taught well enough to have made bad proof?

A. 1. This is too sadly true, to be denied; But the fault may be in one of the Parents by their bad example: And Children as well [Page] as the conclusion in syllogizing will follow the worse and weaker part; yet this is blame­worthy in Parents.

2. Good Parents have severely smarted for their neglect of strict Discipline in their Fa­milies, and their over great fondness in cock­ [...]ring their Children, as you may read in Eli and David. 1 Sam. 3. 13. 2 Sam 13, and 14, and 15. 1 Kings 1. 6.

3. But if the Children of good Parents prove bad, this should make us more diligent. If a Garden well weeded and kept down prove thus ill; Is this any encouragement to sloth, but rather a spur to double diligence?

Two or three Motives to excite to the Du­ty of Catechizing.

Let it be remembred that you are not per­swaded to invade the ministerial office, or to become of this or that Opinion or Party, but to fall forthwith upon the practice of a mani­fest, yet indispensable Duty.

1. How doth the love of God dwell in your hearts, when they are hardened against your Children? Simon, lovest thou me? then feed my Lambs. They are Gods Children, and therefore you must bring them up in the [...]ture and admonition of the Lord. The Children of any in Covenant with God are called his Children, Ezek. 15. 21. When the [Page] woman of Samaria knew Christ, she desired that all her Neighbours might also know him.

2. Are they not your Children? You shall diligently teach them to your Children; they are bone of your hone, and flesh of your flesh. Are we to instruct one another, and not our own Children?

3. What a comfort will this be to you, if you faithfully discharge this most profitahle Duty! For,

1. Such Parents shall have joy of their Chil­dren, Prov. 23. 24. Ruth 4. 15. David and Bath [...]sheba had much comfort of Solomon, which they had not of their other Children.

2. You shall have spiritual rejoycing, 2 Joh. 4.

3. You will gain a good evidence of the truth of grace in your hearts.

4. You that thus propagate piety shall sow good seed that will endure to many Ge­nerations, Jer. 33. 18.

5. You may avoid many crosses and heart-breaking sorrows which negligent Parents ordinarily meet with. Abraham taught his Children, and see what comfort he had of them: He had a numerous Family 318. in­structed Servants born in his own house [Gen. 14. 14.] and yet no disorder or distur­bance there: He had a numerous Family, and yet a peaceable Family.

[Page]1. Abraham Circumciseth Ishmael, Gen. 17. and yet it was a painful Sacrament.

2. Isaac makes no opp [...]siti [...]n when to be made a sacrifice to the Will of God.Gen. 22

3. Y [...]u have a religious Servant. Gen. 15, and 24.

4. At his death he gives what portions he pleaseth, and yet you find no discord among them, Gen. 25. 5, 6. As you therefore desire peace in your Families, and in after Genera­tions, bring them up in the fear of the Lord.

On the contrary, you Parents that teach your Children Arts and Trades, and not Gods Commandments; why, you are making way for your own cross and vexation; what heart­breaking will they be to you! As,

1. In their matching. Prov. 17. 21, 25. G [...]n. 26. 34. 35.

2. Their sins will be put upon your score; and have you not sins enough of your own?

3. Their perishing will be put upon your account. Oh what fretting and cursing will there be at your meeting your Children in H [...]ll! Have you not heard of Children that have cursed Parents upon the Gallows? Oh, when the Word of God tells you that some evil will befall your Children, how should this trou­ble you! As it was said of Jeroboam, that he made Israel to sin (for all that succeeded pur­sued [Page] his sins) even so you, by your cursed ig­norance, negligence and sl [...]th may propagate sin and misery from Generation to Generati­on, to your Children.

We are to look upon this duty as one of the prime Ordinances of divine institution: there was Family teaching before there was any other teaching. 'Tis the opinion of an eminent Divine, that more Children are seasoned with grace by i [...]ste [...]ction of Pa [...]ents than by preaching. Towns are made up of Families, and where they are wicked in Towns, King­doms cannot [...]e righteous. Our misery begins in bad Families. This duty of Catechizing therefore is of as great weight, as any which is commanded in the word of God. Thus far he whose name I shall conceal, because I have published it without his privity and consent, though I hope not against his liking and ap­probation. If any of you shall please dili [...]ently and impartially to examine Concord [...]nces, and most Catechisms; you will soon find that the former do furnish us rather with sounds than sense; and that in the latter, upon com­paring the truths and the alledged Texts to­gether, there is so wide a distance, that you will the better perceive the d [...]fficulty of our present undertaking (notwithstanding all the forementioned helps) than at first, possibly, you [Page] have imagined. If you find any pertinency of the Scriptures produced for confirmation of the truths they refer unto in this Explication, I know it will be acceptable to you, and it is no less than what I have endeavoured after. If you espie many proofs under any Principle of Religion, it is either because that the truths there are more weighty, or that the cavils against them are more than ordinary. If you expected the Scriptures at large, the numero­sity of them gives you the reason against that.

I had once some thoughts of illustrating the mysterie of the Trinity of Persons, by some apt Figure or Resemblance, and of placing it in the Catechism; but for the avoiding of all oc­casion of offence to the weak I have affixed it here: And of all Figures, Keplers Circle seems most artificial and correspondent with this glorious mystery.



IN this Scheme or Figure you have a Cen­ter, and a Circumference, and an Inter space, and yet but one Circle: So that there are three Persons, and yet but one God. These three are not divided; For it is not a Center, or Interspace, separate from the Circumfe­rence: But these are distinguished in their incommunicable properties in their order, and in their operation (upon a supposition of mo­tion) The Center is the beginning (as is easie to be observed in drawing the Circle) the Circumference is a resultance from the Center alone, the Interspace from the Center and the Circumference.

These are Co-equal; the Center and the Cir­cumference, and the Interspace are equidistant every where, each one from other: And the Center is no more a Circle without a Cir­cumference, than the Circumference and In­terspace without a Center.

[Page]Consubstantial; The Center is constituent of the Circle, not a part from but together with the Circumference and the Interspace.

Co-eternal; It is no Center without a Circumference; and no sooner is the Circum­ference drawn, but you find the Interspace.

Doubtless there is Vnity in Trinity in all things, had we but light and eyes to espy it.

You will find annexed to the Explication a Discau [...]se out of Acts 8 30. where you will meet with some Rules (which have ob­tained in Divinity) for your better under­standing, and more profitable reading the holy Scriptures: If you be of that select numb [...]r that cannot content your selves with bare reading, but labour to understand what you read; they are chiefly and more especially designed for you. And that you may under­stand what you read, and remark in your course of reading the Sacred Scriptures, those truths more distinctly which will make you wise to Salvation, is the main purp [...]rt and intent of this little piece, and intense desire of its Comp [...]ser,

Your Friend for Eternity.


Quest. 1. WHat is the chief end of Man?

Answ. Mans chief end is to glorifie God, and to enjoy him for ever.

Explicat. Q. What do you mean by Mans chief end?

A. That which God did chiefly intend or aim at in making Man, and which Man is chiefly to intend.

[Page 2] Q. Is Mans chief end to seek himself?

A. NoHos. 10. 1. Isa. 5. 2..

Q. Is it to enjoy the pleasures, profits, and preferments of this World?

A. NoPs. 4. 6, 7. 1 Joh. 2. 15, 16..

Q. Is it to glorifie God, and to enjoy him [...]or ever?

A. Yes.

Q. What is Mans chief Duty?

A. To glorifie GodProv. 16. 4. Rom. 11. 36..

Q. What is it to glorifie God?

A. To order all our actions to that end, that God might have the Glory1 Cor. 10. 31..

Q. What is Mans chief happiness?

A. To enjoy God for everPsa. 73. 24, 25, 26..

Q. How doth Man enjoy God?

A. Two waies 1. Here in this life, by an holy Communion with him in the Duties of his Worship,1 Joh. 1. 3. and in an upright Conver­sation Ps. 50. 23. and 25. 14. 2. Hereafter in the life to come, in a glorious and immediate Communion with him in his Kingdom1 Cor. 13. 12. Luk. 13. 28..

Q. May a man have another subordi­nate, or less principal end, besides the glorifying of God, and enjoying him for ever?

A. Yes1 Thes. 4. 11, 12. 1 Tim. 5. 8. Prov. 30. 8. Ps. 144. 15. Prov. 3. 8. Deu. 12. 19. and 14. 27, 29. with Mal. 3. 8..

Q. What do you mean by a subordi­nate end?

[Page 3] A. That which a man intends, or aims at, in order to another end, or for some fur­ther end.

Q. May a man make any thing else his ultimate or principal end, besides glori­fying and enjoying God?

A. NoJoh. 11. 4. Ps. 144. 15..

Q. Is the glorifying of God, and en­joying him for ever mans subordinate end, or else his ultimate and chief end?

A. Mans chief end.

Q. Why are the glorifying of God, and the enjoying him for ever joyned as one chief end of man?

A. Because God hath inseparably joyned them together, so that men cannot truly de­sign, or seek the one without the otherDeut. 30. 19, 20. Isa. 55. 3. with Joh. 17. 3..

Q. What Rule hath God given to di­rect us how we may glorifie and enjoy him?

A. The Word of God which is contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testa­ment, is the only way to direct us how we may glorifie and enjoy him.

Explic. Q. What direction must we follow that we may aright glorifie God, and enjoy him for ever?

A. We must follow the Rule God hath given us.

[Page 4] Q. What Rule is that?

A. The Word of GodPsal. 119. 16, 17. Neh. 8. 8. 2 Tim. 4. 2. Act. 11. 19. 2 Pet. 1. 18, 19. and 1. 1. 25. Mat. 7. 13. Act 13. 44. 1 Joh. 1. 3..

Q Why is the Word of God called our Rule?

A. Because all Doctrines which we are bound to believe, must be measured or judged of; and all duties which we are bound to practise, must be squared or conformed unto this RuleGal. 6. 16..

Q. Where is the Word of God con­tained?

A. It is contained in the Books of the Old and New TestamentEph. 2. 20..

Q. How are these Books called?

A. They are called the holy Scriptures2 Tim. 3. 15..

Q. Why are these Books so called?

A. Because they were written by Pen-men inspired by God infallibly to that end.

Q. How do you know that the Books of the Old and New Testament are the Word?

A. The Papists grant the Protestants, that all the Books which they receive are the cer­tain Word of God.

Q. But how will you convince an In­fidel, that the Doctrine taught in these Books is the certain Word of God?

A. The Testimony of the Church is of great weight and importance in this matter. [Page 5] By the Church we understand the whole com­pany of Believers, who have professed the true Faith; whether those who received the Doctrine of the holy Scriptures from the Pro­phets and Apostles, or those who lived after: whose Testimony

1. Is profitable to prepare the heart, and to move it to believe.

2. And of all humane Testimonies (where­by the Author of any Book that hath, is, or shall be extant, can be proved) the greatest, both in respect of the multitude, wisdom, honesty, faithfulness of the witnesses; and the likeness, constancy, and continuance of the Testimony it self.

3. But this Testimony is only humane.

4. Not the only, nor the chief whereby the Truth and Divinity of this Doctrine is confirmed.

5. Neither can it be the ground of Divine Faith and Assurance. And therefore besides this Testimony,

There are four other several infallible Testimonies of Gods Spirit, which (though each of them alone is convincing, yet) all together make up that full evidence that will be Ground of Divine Faith and Assurance to an Infidel.

Q. Which are those four witnesses?

[Page 6] A. They are, 1. Antecedently▪ The Spirit of Prophecie, foretelling things to come so long before.

2. Constitutively, or inherently, The Image of God that unimitable character of Divini­ty which animates this Doctrine.

3. Concomitantly, The multitude of evi­dent and uncontrolled Miracles wrought for this very end to confirm it. And

4. Subsequently, The extraordinary suc­cess it hath in the world, which will convince a very Infidel that it is the very Word of God.

Q. What is the first witness of the Spirit?

A. 1. Antecedently, The Spirit of Pro­phecy.

Q What mean you by that?

A. A continuance of wonderful Prophe­cies, foretelling things to come, so long be­fore,Gen. 3. 15. and 12. 3. and 49. 10. Dan. 9. 24. marked with their circumstances; not doubtful, like the Oracles of the Hea­then, or Merlins Prophecies, but such as ex­pressed the things and Persons by their Names2 Kings 13. 2. with 23 16. Isa. 45. 1. Jer. 25. 12. and 29. 10. with Ezr. 1., which had all in their times their certain performance; and therefore unto what can we attribute these infallible Predictions but to the inspiration of God?

Q. What is the second witness of the Spirit?

[Page 7] A. 2. Constitutively, or inherently The Image and superscription of God, (as Coin is known by the Image and superscription it beareth) or that unimitable character of Divinity not only imprinted on it, but in­trinsecally animating and constituting it.

Q. Wherein is the Image and super­scription of God, or that unimitable character of Divinity which animates and constitutes this Doctrine, apparent?

A. It is apparent in the matter, and the method, and the stile.

Q. How is the Image of God appa­rent in the matter?

A. 1. As this Doctrine contains superna­tural verities, such Divine and wonderful Truths as could never enter into the heart of man to conceive them, and the things the very Angels desire to look into1 Per. 1. 12..

Q. Declare this by some particular In­stances.

A. It explicates unto us the Nature, Pro­perties and high Acts of God, purely and holily.

2. It describes the Person of Christ, so fitly, excellently, and conveniently, that if the mind of man consider it attentively, it must acknowledge, it doth exceed the reach of a finite understanding.

[Page 8]3. It discovers to us the corruption and misery of man by nature, the incomprehensi­ble Love of God in Iesus Christ towards man, that happy reconciliation (if we may so speak) of his Iustice and Mercy by his infinite wisdom, ordaining Iesus Christ to be our Mediator.

4. It unfolds the Covenant of Grace, which God made with man after his fall; all which can be drawn from no Fountain but Divine Revelation1 Cor. 2. 7, 10. Eph. 3. 4, 5. Col. 1. 25, 26..

5. It teacheth also the whole Duty of Man, having Statutes and Iudgements in­comparably wise and good, the Gentiles themselves being IudgesDeut. 4. 5, 6, 7, 8..

Q. How is the Image of God appa­rent in the Method?

A. 2. As the Method of the whole Do­ctrine of the holy Scriptures set together, is the most admirable and perfect in the world; beginning with God in unity of essence, pro­ceeding to his Trinity of essential active Principles, and of Persons, and so to his Trinity of works, Creation, Redemption and Regeneration, great things past finding out, and wonders without number; and all chiefly with special relation to mankind; both in the estate of Innnocency and Apo­stasie.

[Page 9] Q. And how is the Image of God apparent in the stile of this Do­ctrine?

A. 3. As it is spiritual, powerful and divine; suited to holy ends, and to the world of Persons to whom it is sent, who are commonly ignorant and unlearned, and so more generally useful than any other Do­ctrine in the world: But withal containing such weighty concerning truths and profound mysteries, as will belong to the most learned, and to them that are of full age, even those who by reason of use, have their senses ex­ercised to discern both good and evil, Rom. 7. 12, 14. Gal. 5. 19, to the end, 1 Pet. 2. 11, 12. Rom. 13. 13, 14. 1 Cor. 6. 9▪ 10. 11. and Matth. 5 Psal. 19. 7. 1 Cor. 1. 18, 23, 24. Psal. 119. 50. Joh. 6. 63. Acts 6. 10. Jam. 1. 21. 1 Thes 1. 5. and 2. 13. 1 Cor. 15 32, 33, 34. Mal. 2. 15, 16. Matth. 19. 4, 5, 6. and 22. 25,—31. 1 Tim. 1. 5,—12. Psal. 19. 8, 9. and 119, 9, 10, 11. Joh. 7. 48, 49. Luk. 1. 78, 79. Matth. 4. 16. 2 Pet. 1. 19. Acts 9. 15. with 26. 17, 18.

Q. What is the third Witness of the Spirit?

A. 3. Concomitantly, The Multitude of evident uncontrolled Miracles, wrought for [Page 10] this very end to confirm itRom. 15. 18, 19. 1 Cor. 14. 18, 22. Acts 2. 42, 43. and 4. 30, 33. and 5. 12, 14. and 6. 7, 8. and 7. 36, 37, 38. and 8. 6, 12, 13, 14 and 13. 11, 12. and 14. 3. and 15. 12 and 19. 10, 11. Mark 16. 17, 18, 20. with Heb. 2. 3, 4. (Miracles being the effect of Gods own power, and the Seal and Signet that may be set upon no other Doctrine than that of the holy Scriptures) will convince any that are not willfully blind that these two Ta [...]les of Testimony, the holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament (as those Tables of Stone) were written with the finger of God, and were of divine Authority.

Q. But the gift of Miracles is ceased?

A. Although it be; yet, 1. The History of them is so certain from natural Princi­ples, that its unpossible there should be any deceit about them. And 2. There need not be new Miracles to confirm the former, and oblige men to believe them.

Q. Why so?

A. For then there must be m [...]re Miracles to confirm those; and so on to the end of the world: and then God could not govern the world by a settled Law, which [...] both ab­surd and blasphemous.

Q. What therefore is the fourth Witness?

A. 4. Subsequently, The success of the Doctrine of the holy Scriptures, to the Re­generation of a great part of the world, is a surviving witness to the end of the world of its divine AuthorityAct. 2. 41. and 4. 4. with Matth. 28. 19, 20..

[Page 11]Q. Of what use is this Testimony?

A. Of great use.

Q. Why so?

A. For he that is not able to examine the History, which reports the Miracles to him, may be able to find upon his Soul the Image of God imprinted by the Gospel, and to know that the Gospel hath that in it self, which it imprints upon others; and that it cometh from God, which leadeth men so di­rectly to God. And it is certainly Gods own means which he blesseth to so great and ex­cellent ends.

Q Can we receive sufficient direction from our own Wisdom, or the Light of Nature to come to glorifie and enjoy God?

A. NoRom. 1. 21..

Q. Can we receive sufficient direction from Gods works of Creation and Pro­vidence?

A. NoHeb. 11. 3. Psal. 19. 1, 7. and 73 2, 3, 12,—18. and 36. 5, 6..

Q. Are not the Apocryphal Books Scripture, nor any other, but the Books of the Old and New Testament?

A. No.

Q. Are not the Traditions of the Church to be received, with equal reve­rence to the holy Scriptures?

[Page 12] A. NoPsal. 119. 98. 99, 100. Act. 24. 14..

Q Must we call no man Father, or Master upon the Earth?

A. No, for one is our Father which is in Heaven, and one is our Master even Christ. And all Christians being taught of God by Christ are appointed to acknowledge no Fa­ther, or Master upon the EarthJoh. 13. 13. Matth. 23. 9, 10..

Q. Is there not an infallible Judge of Controversies upon the Earth?

A. Christ, and none else, hath A [...]thori­ty to give Laws unto us, and punish the re­fractory; And it is not for any Man living upon the Earth to impose Observances where Christ hath given libertyJam. 4. 12..

Q. What would you say to such as should require you to follow the Judge­ment of Fathers, Councils, and learned Divines, when you find it not agreeable to Scripture?

A. To the Law, and to the Testimony: if they speak not according to this Word, it is because there is no light in them, Isa. 8. 20.

Q. Is the Scripture plain enough to be understood, even by the simple?

A. Yes, Psal. 19. 7. and 119. 130.

Q. Is the Word of God a dead letter of it self?

[Page 13]A. No, Heb. 4. 12. Joh. 6. 63.

Q. But do the things recorded in the Word of God concern us all?

A. Yes, Rom. 15. 1,—5. Matth. 7. 24.

Q. Is there any other Rule besides the holy Scriptures, to direct us how we may glorifie God and enjoy him?

A. No.

Q. How prove you that?

A. 1. Because God never gave any other, Rev. 22. 18. For I testifie unto every man that heareth the words of the Prophecy of this Book, if any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the Plagues that are written in this Book.

Q. What is the Form of speech here used to conclude this Book?

A. It is 1. A Symbolical and Prophetical Form of expressing the certainty and immuta­bility of this Prophecie; and secondly an expression of the Absoluteness and perfection of it is order to publick use, that it should be the only Prophecie given to the Christian Church, which should bring divine authority along with it, sent with a Commission from Heaven; and not only proceeding from a pub­lick Spirit, but sent out with a publick Charge.

Q. What is that publick Charge?

[Page 14] A. As for all those to whom this Prophecy shall come, I adjure them all that they nei­ther add nor diminish, nor change a tittle of it, upon pain of Gods bringing on them the Iudgements that are here denoun [...]ed against Gods greatest enemies; and withal that they look upon it as the last Authoritative Proph [...] ­cie that is likely to come from Heaven, to be a Rule of Faith to the ChurchRev. 22. 18, 19..

Q. What other reason have you to prove that the holy Scriptures are the only Rule to direct us how we may glorifie God and enjoy him?

A. Because they are only able per­fectly and without errour to direct us how we ought so to doPsal. 19. 7. Joh. 5. 39. with 17. 3. 17. 2 Tim. 3. 15, 16, 17. Psal. 119. 96 Joh. 20▪ 31..

Q. 3. What do the Scriptures princi­pally teach?

A. The Scriptures principally teach, what man is to believe concerning God, and what Duty God requires of man.

Explica. Q. What are the principal Heads of the Doctrine of the holy Scrip­tures?

A. The Doctrines that the holy Scriptures teach may be ranked into two Heads.

Q. What is the first principal Doctrine taught therein?

A. What man is to believe concerning God.

[Page 15] Q What is it [...]o belie [...]e?

A. To assent, or give credit to truths upon Authority of anotherJoh. 4. 39, 41, 42..

Q. What is the second?

A. What duty God requires of man2 Tim. 1. 13..

Q. What is meant by the duty which God requireth of man?

A. That which is Gods due, or that which we owe to God, and are bound to do as we are his Creatures, Subjects andLuke 17. 10. Chil­dren.

Q D [...] the Scriptures teach us all matters of Faith, or all that we are bound to believe?

A. YesActs 20. 27. and 24. 14..

Q. And all matters of practice, or whatsoever we are bound to do?

A. YesDeut. 12. 32. Rev. 22. 18..

Q. Is not a Christian then bound to believe any thing as a point of Faith, but what is taught in the holy Scriptures?

A. NoGal. 1. 9.

Q Nor bound to do any thing as ne­cessary to Salvation, but what is taught in them?

A. NoMat. 15. 9..

Q. 4. What is God?

A. God is a Spirit, infinite, eternal and unchangeable in his Being, Wisdom, [Page 16] Power, holiness, justice, goodness and Truth.

Explic. Q What are we to believe concerning God?

A. We are to believe concerning his Be­ing and nature, that he is a Substance and a Spirit; or that he is a spiritual Sub­stance Ex. 3. 14. Joh. 4. 24..

Q. Why is God called a Spirit?

A. 1. Negatively, because he hath no bodily SubstanceLuk. 24. 39..

2. Affirmatively and positively, because he is a pure active life, intelligence and will.

Q. Are not Angels, and the Souls of men Spirits?

A. YesHeb. 1. 13, 14. Eccl. 12. 7..

Q. How then is God distinguished from Angels, and the souls of men?

A. God is an infiniteJob 11. 7, 8, 9. Psal. 139. 7,—14., eternalPs. 90. 2., and unchangeablePsa. 102. 27. Mal. 3. 6. Jam. 1. 17. Spirit. Angels and the Souls of men are finite SpiritsJob 4. 18, 19. Heb. 1. 10. Job 8. 9. Psal. 102. 25, 26., bu [...] of yesterday and changeable.

Q. But since Angels as well as the Souls of men are finite, how are they to be distinguished?

A. Angels are pure Spirits, and have no commerce or society with Bodies, which the Souls of men have, being in the most inti­mate [Page 17] conjunction with them. And though in the separate state they do subsist and live with­out them; yet because their happiness or misery is not compleat without them, the souls of the Iust already made perfect in ho­liness, will be carried out with strong incli­nations unto and earnest expectation of re­union with their Bodies, to be together made perfect in happiness, in good measure pressed down and shaken together and running over: And in the souls of the unjust, there shall be a fearful expectation of reunion with their Bodies as of a certain approaching, un­avoidable and utterly undoing evil, to fill up the measure of their misery, suffering together the vengeance of eternal fire.

Or more briefly, God, Angels and the souls of men may be thus distinguished. Angels are created Spirits compleat. As Angels are created Spirits, they are distin­guished from God, who is a Spirit uncreate, or the Creator of all, or the God of the Spi­rits of all flesh. As Spirits compleat, they are distinguished from the souls of men which in their compleat subsistence require Bodies, which Angels do not,Aug. En­chir. c. 18. and may there­fore be called Persons, or compleat subsistences.

Q. What else are we to believe con­cerning God?

[Page 18] A. We are to believe concerning his at­tributes that they are of two sorts; 1. In­communicable. 2. Communicable.

Q. What and which are his Incommu­nicable attributes?

A. His Incommunicable attributes are such as are not partaken of by the Creatures, [or that cannot be communicated to them] such are these, his Infiniteness, Eternity and Vnchangeableness.

Q. What is it to be Infinite?

A. To be without end, bounds or limits.

Q. What is it to be Eternal?

A. To be without beginning, or successi­on, or end of time.

Q. What is it to be unchangeable?

A. To be alwaies the same without any alteration.

Q. What and which are the Communi­cable attributes of God?

A. His Communicable attributes are such as in a measure are partaken of by the crea­tures [or may be communicated to them] such are these, his Wisdom, Power, Holi­ness, Iustice, Goodness and Truth.

Q. But are they in the same manner in the Creatures as in God?

A. No.

Q. After what manner are they in [Page 19] the Creatures, and how are they in God?

A. God is In [...]inite, Eternal and unchange­able in them, and the Creatures are not.

Q. May then Gods Incommunicable Attributes be applied to and spoken of the Communicable?

A. Yes, they may.

Q. How is God said to be Infinite, Eternal and Unchangeable?

A. 1. In his WisdomPs. 147. 5▪ Rom. 16. [...]7..

Q. What is the Wisdom of God?

A. The Wisdom of God, is his Essential property, whereby by one simple and eternal Act, he knoweth both himself and whatso­ever is possible to be known.

Q. How else is God said to be Infinite, Eternal and Unchangeable?

A. In his Power1 Tim. 6. 15., and HolinessRev. 4. 8 and 15. 4 1 Sam. 2. 2. Job 6. 10. Ps. 71. 22. Prov. 9. 10..

Q What is the power of God?

A. It is his Essential property, whereby he can do all things.

Q. What is the holiness of God?

A. It is his Essential property, whereby he is infinitely pure and holy in himself, de­lighteth in his own purity, and loveth the resemblances of it in his Creatures.

Q. What doth your Catechism last of all mention God to be Infinite, Eternal, and Unchangeable in?

[Page 20] A. In his IusticePsa. 7. 9., GoodnessPsa. 119. 68., and TruthExod. 34. 6..

Q. What is the Justice of God?

A. The Iustice of God is his Essential Property, whereby he is infinitely righteous in himself, and equal in all his waies and dealings with his Creatures.

Q. What is the goodness of God?

A. It is his Essential property, whereby he is altogether good in himself, and the Author of all good.

Q. What is the Truth of God?

A. It is his Essential property, whereby he agreeth with himself, Truth with Truth; and is so immutably faithful in respect of his Creatures, that it is not possible for him to lie, or deceive any of themHeb. 6. 18. and 10. 23. with 3. 11. and Zach. 1. 6..

Q 5. Are there more Gods than one?

A. There is but one only, the living and true God.

Explic. Q. Doth the Scripture menti­on no more Gods than one?

A. Yes, diverse so called in Scripture, 1. AngelsPsal. 8. 5. wi [...]h Heb. 2. 7. Psal. 86. 8. and 138 1. and 97. 7., 2. MagistratesEx. 22. 28. Psal. 82. 1, 2, 6, 7. Joh. 10. 34, 35, 36., 3. Satan and satanical Apparitions2 Cor. 4. 4. 1 Sam. 28. 13., 4. The BellyPhi. 3. 19., 5. IdolsPsa. 96. 5. Ex. 12. 12. 2 Chro. 7. 19. and 32. 13..

Q. How then is God differenced from these?

[Page 21]A. Our Catechism gives three differences between them in the Titles it gives to God, the God of Heaven.

Q. Which is the first Title given him?

A. God is one only in opposition to many GodsDeu. 6. 4. 1 Cor. 8. 5, 6..

Q. How may it be proved that there is but one God?

A. There can be but one Infinite, Eter­nal and Vnchangeable Being.

Q. What Titles else hath the God of Heaven given him here?

A. He is, and he is said to be the living and the true GodDeut. 10. 10..

Q. How is God said to be the living God?

A. Two waies, 1. In opposition to dead IdolsPsal. 115. 4, 5, 6, 7. Hab. 2. 19. 1 Thes. 2. 9.. 2. In that he hath his life from him­self. and gives life to all other thingsJer. 4. 2. Deu. 32. 40. with Heb. 6. 13. and Rev. 10. 5, 6. Acts 17. 25, 28..

Q. But the Creatures are, and are said to be living also.

A. True, but not as God is living; they have not their life from themselves, nor do they give life to other things, as God hath and doth.

Q. How is God said to be the true God?

A. Because he is God really and indeed, [Page 22] not by way of imagination as Idols are, but by nature he is soGal. 4. 8..

Q. How doth it appear that God is true, that he hath a true being, or that there is a God indeed? Or how may it be proved that there is a God?

A. It may be proved that there is a God, by the Testimony of Conscience, and by the Word of God.

Q. How is Conscience a witness of this first Truth?

A. 1. As it excuses and comforts in well-doing against the disgraces, slanders and Persecutions of the world; and as it accuses and terrifies for sin secretly committed, which never did, nor shall come into the knowledge of men: Acting both these waies with respect to an higher Tribunal, where the supream Iudge will avenge the righteous and vindicate their Cause, and punish the wicked, condemning them to shame and everlasting contemptRom. 2. 15. Gen. 4. 7, 13. with Eccl. 9. 7. and Matth. 27. 4, 5. Acts 5. 41. and 16. 25. with 24 25. Rom. 2. 5,—13..

Q. How is it proved by the Word of God, that there is a God?

A. 2. As the Word of God makes mani­fest the secrets of the heart, and without excellency of speech, or of wisdom, under plainness and easiness of stile becomes the power of God to Salvation.

[Page 23] Q. How doth the Word manifesting the secrets of the heart and becoming the power of God to Salvation, prove that there is a God?

A. Because these are the Works which none but the All-seeing1 Cor. 14. 24, 25. with 2 Kings 6. 11, 12. Rom. 8. 27. Psal. 7. 9., and AlmightyRom. 1. 16. with Eph. 1. 19, 20, 21. Joh. 10. 37, 38. God ever did, or can do.

Q. But who ever saw God, that every one is thus confident to affirm that there is a God?

A. 1. Men may without suspicion of rashness and unadvised confidence affirm that there are many things which no man ever saw or can see; for no man ever saw the wind or the air, and yet all are confi­dent that there are both: A [...]d who ever saw his own face but in a glass, and ne­ver out of a glass, and yet this contenteth him. But,

2. We are not without the sight of God; For,

1. God is seen in his worksRom. 1. 20..

2. The Fathers have seen him by sundry visions; and Moses saw the similitude of the Lord, or his back parts: but his face can no man see. It pleased God to appear to them of old not as he is, but as he vouch­safed to manifest himself to them: For if they had seen him as he is, then all of them [Page 24] had seen him after one manner because he is one: And this sight of God was also ex­ternal.

3. It hath pleased him in more comforta­ble manner to reveal himself to his Saints by his Word, by which they behold his beauty in his Temple, and with open face see his Image as it is represented to them in the mirror of the Gospel, and are transformed into the same.

4. God is seen by inward contemplation, and this sight is the more excellent than the rest, because it is more inward.

5. He is seen by FaithHeb. 11. 27..

6. The Faithful have the clearest sight of God in Heaven. Here their Faith is turned into Vision, and their present sight of God, if compared with that which is to come, is not worthy the name of sight, 1 Cor. 13. 12.

7. God is to be seen in the face of Iesus Christ, who is the brightness of his glory and the express Image of his Person; And that we might both know that God is, and what he is, this only begotten Son of God which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared himHeb. 1. 2, 3. Joh. 14. 8, 9. and 1. 18..

Q. 6. How many Persons are there in the God-head?

A. There are three Persons in the God-head, [Page 25] the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and these three are one God, the same in substance, equal in power and glory.

Explic. Q▪ What is meant by the God-head?

A. The divine nature, or essence.

Q. Is the divine nature common to all three Persons?

A. The whole divine nature being indi­visible, 1 Cor. 8. 6. is common to all three Persons, Father, Son, and Holy Gh [...]st, Acts 4. 24. 2 Cor. 1. 3. Joh. 1. 1. Rom. 9. 5. Heb. 1. 8. Num. 12. 6, 7. with Acts 1. 16. 1 Pet 1. 10, 11. Heb 1. 1. Acts 4. 25 with 2 Pet. 1. 21.

Q. What followeth hence?

A. It followeth that whatsoever doth absolutely agree to the divine nature, or is spoken of the divine nature by relation unto the Creatures, that doth agree likewise to every Person in Trinity, Joh. 1. 1. Prov. 8. 22. Rev. 1. 8. Matth. 18. 20. Joh. 3. 13. Job 26. 13. and 33. 4. Joh. 14. 26. Luke 1. 35.

Q. Is there any Scripture-proof for Persons in the God-head?

A. There is, Heb. 1. 3. who being the brightness of his Fathers Glory, and the express Image of his person.

[Page 26] Q. Which are the three persons in the God-head?

A. The Father, and the Son, and the Holy GhostMat. 28. 19. 2 Cor. 13. 14..

Q. What is a Person in the God-head?

A. A Person in the God-head, is the God-head restrained, or distinguished by his personal or incommunicable pr [...]perty.

Q. What is the incommunicable [or personal] property of the Father?

A. To begetHeb. 1. 5..

Q. What is the personal property of the Son?

A. To be begottenJoh 1. 14, 18..

Q What is the personal property of the Holy Ghost?

A. To proceed both from the Father and the SonJ [...]h. 14. 16, 17. and 15. 26..

Q. How do the persons of the Trini­ty differ one from another?

A. They differ three waies: 1. In their incommunicable properties, as before ex­plained. 2. In their order; The Father is the first Person in order; the Son as he is the Mediator between God and men1 Tim. 2. 5., or the Daies-man that can lay his hand on us bothJob 9. 33., the second in order; and the Holy Ghost the third person.

[Page 27]Hence1 Cor. 8. 6. Creation is properly attributed to the Father, because things take their ori­ginal from him;Rom. 3. 24. Col. 1. 13, 14. 1 Tim. 2. 5, 6. Redemption to the Son, because he was made Man for us, and be­came our Redeemer; Sanctification inchoate and consummate to the Holy Ghost, because he begins and perfects the work of grace in the Elect of God.Joh. 3▪ 5. 1 Co [...]. 6. 11. and 12. 11. 2 Thes. 2. 13. 3. In their operation. And look what order there is in the existing in the Trinity, the same order there is in working, viz. the Father is of noneIsa. 44. 6, 7.; the Son is of the Father aloneJoh. 13. 3.; the Holy Ghost is of the Father and of the SonJoh. 14. 16, 17. and 15. 26. Rom. 8. 9.: In like manner, the Father works of him­self by the Son and the Holy Ghost1 Cor. 8. 6, Heb. 1. 2. Joh. 1. 2, 3. Gen. 1. 2. Job 26. 13.; the Son from the Father alone by the Holy GhostGen. 19. 24. Joh. 5. 17, 23. and 16. 13, 14, 15. Matth. 12. 28.; the Holy Ghost from the Father and the Son by himselfJoh. 14. 16, 17. and 15. 26. 1 Cor. 12. 11.. In externals, although in respect of the things wrought, they are common to all the Persons; yet in respect of the manner of working, there is distinction of the Persons.

[Page 28]Q. If the Father be God, and the Son God, and the Holy Ghost God; why then are there not three Gods, but one God?

A▪ Because they are the same in sub­stance 1 Joh. 5. 7. ▪ equal in power andJoh. 10. 30. Phil. 2. 6. Acts 5. 3, 4. and Mat. 1. 20. Luk. 1. 32, 35. with Mark 5. 7. Psal. 18. 13. and 29. 3. glory.

Q. 7. What are the Decrees of God?

A. The Decrees of G [...]d are his eternal purpose▪ according to the Counsel of his will, whereby for his own glory, he hath fore- [...]rdained whatsoever comes to pass.

Explic. Q What is it for God to De­cree?

A. To appoint and determine, to purpose and fore-ordain.

Q. What hath God fore-ordained in his Decrees?

A. Whatsoever comes to pass.

Q. When were things thus fore-or­dained?

A. In Gods eternal purpose.

Q. What was the Rule of this?

A. The counsel of his own WillEph 1. 11..

Q. To what end hath God fore-or­dained whatsoever comes to pass?

A. For his own GloryEph. 1. 12..

Q. 8. How doth God execute his De­crees?

A. God executeth his Decrees in the [Page 29] Works of Creation and Providence.

Explic. Q. Are the works of Creati­on and Providence the Execution of Gods eternal Decrees?

A. YesRev. 4. 11. Dan. 4▪ 35, 37..

Q. What do you mean by the execu­tion of Gods eternal Decrees?

A. The bringing to pass whatsoever God hath fore-ordained.

Q. How do the Decrees of God, and the execution of them differ?

A. The Decrees of God are from all eter­nity, the execution of them in time.

Q. 9. What is the work of Creation?

A. The work of Creation is God's making all things of nothing, by the Word of his power, in the space of six daies, and all very good.

Explic. Q Whose work is the work of Creation?

A. Gods workGen. 1. 1..

Q. What did God make in the Crea­tion?

A. All things.

Q. Of what did he make them?

A. Of nothing, or of unapt matter.

Q. What is it then to Create?

A. To make a thing of nothing, or of matter unapt to be brought into perfect [Page 30] Form by any power of second Causes.

Q. By what were all things made?

A. By the Word of Gods powerHeb. 11. 3..

Q. When did God make all things?

A. InGen. 1. 1. time, not from EternityProv. 8. 22, 23..

Q. In what space of time did he make them?

A. In the space ofExod. 20▪ 11. six daies.

Q. But why did God take all this time to make all things?

A. It was not, because he could not have made them sooner in an instant, if it had pleased him.

Q. For what special reasons then do you imagine?

A. For these two especially, 1. That we might learn by his example to work six daies, and rest a seventh. 2. That we might learn not to do things rashly and hastily, but with due deliberation.

Q. Of what quality did God make all things?

A. All very goodGen. 1. 31..

Q. To what end did he make them?

A. For his own GloryRev. 4. 11. Rom. 11. 36..

Q. 10. How did God Create man?

A. God Created man Male and Female after his own Image, in knowledge, righte­ousness and true holiness, with dominion over the Creatures.

[Page 31] Explic. Q. What is the Image of God in man?

A. The universal and perfect rectitude of the whole soul; knowledge in the under­standing, righteousness in the will, and holiness in the affections.

Q. What special prerogative did God give man at his first Creation?

A. Dominion over the CreaturesGen. 1. 28..

Q. 11. What are Gods works of Pro­vidence?

A. Gods works of Providence are his most holy, wise, and powerful preserving, and governing all his Creatures, and all their actions.

Explic. Q. Is there a Providence?

A. YesPsal. 67. 4. Dan. 4▪ 34, 35, 37..

Q. What kind of works are Gods works of Providence?

A. They are most holyHeb. 11. 3. wiseIsa. 28. 29., and powerfulPsa. 66. 7. Heb. 1. 3..

Q. What doth Gods Providence reach to?

A. To all his Creatures, and all their actionsMa [...]. 10. 29, 30..

Q. 12. What special act of Provi­dence did God exercise towards man in the state wherein he was Created?

A. When God had created Man, he en­tred into a Covenant of life with him, upon [Page 32] condition of perfect Obedience.

Explic. Q. When God had Created Man, how did he deal with him?

A. He entred into a Covenant of life with him.

Q. Wherein lies the nature of a Cove­nant?

A. It is a federal transaction, or a mu­tual stipulation or agreement between party and party, upon such and such terms, with reciprocal or mutual obligations each of the other.

Q. What mean you by a Covenant of life?

A. A Covenant that contains such terms and conditions, by performance whereof mans life should be continued and preserved.

Q. How many Covenants hath God made with man?

A. Two, the Covenant of Works, and the Covenant of Grace.

Q. What is the tenor of the Covenant of works?

A. Obey and liveLev. 18▪ 5. Eze. 20. 11. Rom. 10. 5. Gal. 3. 12. Mat. 19. 17.

Q. What is the tenor of the Covenant of Grace?

A. Believe on the Lord Iesus Christ, and thou shalt be savedAct. 16. 31. Mark 16. 15, 16. Rom. 10. 6, 9. Gal. 3. 6, 8, 11. Heb. 10. 38, 39..

Q. By what other names are these two Covenants called?

[Page 33] A. The Old and the New.

Q. Why was the first Covenant called the Covenant of works?

A. Because works (or perfect obedience) were the only condition of it.

Q. Why the Old?

A. Because it was made of old with the first Adam, and doth not now remain in full force and vertue.

Q. Could the first man have kept Gods Laws perfectly?

A. Yes, for God made him perfect with the Image of God shining gloriously in himGen. 1. 27. Eccl. 7. 29..

Q▪ What special command did God give him for the trial of his obedience?

A. He forbade him to eat of the Tree of the Knowledge of good and evil.

Q. Why was the forbidden Tree called the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil?

A. From the effect of eating it, because thereby man came to know good and evil: Good by the loss of it, and Evil by the sense and smart of it.

Q. Under what penalty was he for­bidden this Tree?

A. Vpon pain of DeathGen. 2. 17..

Q. 13. Did our first Parents continue [Page 34] in the estate wherein they were Created?

A. Our first Parents being left to the freedom of their own Will, fell from the estate wherein they were Created by sinning against God.

Explic. Q. Did our first Parents fall?

A. Yes.

Q. From what did they fall?

A. From the estate wherein they were Created.

Q. What estate was that?

A. An holy and happy estate.

Q. How did they fall?

A. ByEccl. 7. 29. sinning against God.

Q. What was the cause of their fall?

A. The abuse of the Freedom of their own will.

Q. Had our first Parents then Free-will in the state of innocency, till they sinned it away?

A. Yes.

Q. Were they not confirmed in the estate of Innocency?

A. No.

Q. 14. What is Sin?

A. Sin is any want of conformity unto, or transgression of the Law of God.

Explic. Q. What is meant by the Law of God?

[Page 35] A. The whole Word of GodPsal..

Q. Is any want of conformity to the Law, or coming short of it a sin?

A. Yes.

Q Is every transgression of it a sin?

A. Yes1 Joh. 3. 4..

Q. What is is to transgress the Law?

A. To pass the bounds that the Law sets.

Q. Doth the want of conformity to the Law, take in sins of Omission, and the transgression of the Law, sins of Commissi­on; and both these Original sin?

A. YesRom. 3. 23..

Q. 15. What was the sin whereby our first Parents fell from the estate wherein they were Created?

A. The sin whereby our first Parents fell from the estate wherein they were Created, was the eating of the forbidden Fruit.

Explic. Q. What was the first sin that was committed by mankind?

A. Eating the forbidden Fruit by our first ParentsGen▪ 3. 6..

Q. 16. Did all mankind fall in Adam's first transgression?

A. The Covenant being made with Adam; not only for himself, but for his [Page 36] Posterity; all mankind descending from him by ordinary Generation, sinned in him, and fell with him in his first trans­gression.

Explic. Q. Was Adam only concerned in the Covenant of Life, God made with him in the state of Innocency?

A. No, for the Covenant was not made with Adam for himself only, but for his Posterity alsoRom. 5. 19..

Q. Did all mankind sin in Adam, and fall with him in his first transgression?

A. All mankind descending from Adam by ordinary Generation, sinned in him, and fell with him in his first trans­gression.

Q. How manifold is Generation?

A. Twofold, ordinary and extraor­dinary.

Q. What do you mean by extraordinary Generation?

A. That of Jesus Christ whereby he was conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost, in the Womb of the Virgin Mary, and born of her without sin.

Q. What by ordinary?

A. That whereby all mankind else came into the world, in a natural way from man and woman, under sinRom. 3. 9..

[Page 37] Q. How could all the Posterity of Adam, being then unborn, sin in him, and fall with him in his first transgression?

A. 1. They were in him representa­tively; Adam was the common head and representative of all mankind1 Cor. 15. 22..

2. They were in him virtually, they were in his loyns. And as Levi is said to pay tithes in Abraham, when only in his loyns, Heb. 7. 9, 10. so Adams Poste­rity sinned in his loyns.

Q. And is this the reason, why all man­kind sinned in Adam, and fell with him, because the Covenant was made with him, not only for himself, but also for his Poste­rity?

A. YesRom. 5. 12..

Q. 17. Into what estate did the Fall bring mankind?

A. The Fall brought mankind into an estate of sin and misery.

Q. 18. Wherein consists the sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell?

A. The sinfulness of that estate where­into man fell consists in the guilt of Adams first sin, the want of original Righteousness, and the corruption of his whole nature, which is commonly called Original sin; together with all actual [Page 38] Transgressions which proceed from it.

Expli. Q. How many sorts of sins be there, wherein the sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell, doth consist?

A. Two, Original and Actual.

Q. Wherein consists Original sin?

A. In three things, as

1. The guilt of Adams first sinRom. 3. 9..

2. The want of Original Righteous­nessRom. 3. 2, 3. Eccl. 7. 29..

3. The corruption of the whole na­turePsal. 51. 5. Job 14. 4..

Q. What is guilt?

A. A binding over to punishment.

Q. What do you mean by Original Righ­teousness?

A. That which Man was at first Crea­ted in.

Q. What do you mean by the corruption of the whole nature?

A. That whereby the whole Man (Soul and Body) is utterly indisposedRom. 5. 6., disabled and madeRom. 8. 7. opposite to all that is spiritually good, and wholly inclined to all evil, and thatGen. 6. 5▪ continually.

Q. How do you prove the universal de­pravity and corruption of mans nature?

A. Besides Scripture-proof, which is as express in this truth as any upon Re­cord; [Page 39] experience it self will confirm it by our daily sinful infirmities, by our backwardness to those duties wherein we may enjoy most of God, and by our be­ing Eftsoons led into temptation, and drawn into those very sins which are more especially cross and contrary to our natural tempers and constitutions.

Q. But why is the corruption of mans whole nature commonly called Original sin, since that is not a Scripture name?

A. For three Reasons,

1. Because 'tis derived from Adam the Original of mankindActs. 17. 26..

2. Because 'tis in every one from his OriginalJob 14. 4. Psal. 51. 5.. It may say to every one, As soon as thou wert, I am.

3. Because 'tis the original of all other sinsJam. 1. 15..

Q. What do you mean by actual trans­gressions?

A. The transgressions of our Life, which proceed from original sinEphes. 2▪ 2, 3. Mat. 15. 19, 20..

Q. 19. What is the misery of that estate whereinto man fell?

A. All mankind by their fall lost com­munion with God, are under his wrath and curse, and so made liable to all miseries in this life, to death it self, and to the pains of Hell for ever.

[Page 40] Explic. Q. What hath man lost by the Fall?

A. Communion with God.

Q. What do you mean by that?

A. FellowshipCen. 3. 8, 24. or friendship with God, or the2 Cor. 13. 14. communications of Gods Love, Grace and Favour.

Q. What is man brought under by the Fall?

A. Under GodsEph. 2▪ 3. wrath andGal. 3. 10. curse.

Q. What are the parts of Gods wrath and Curse?

A. 1. All the miseries of this life.Lam. 3. 39. Gen. 47. 9. Job▪ 5. 7.

2. Death it selfRom▪ 6. 23, Death natural (here meant) which is the separation of Body and Soul.

3. The pains of Hell for everMat. 25. 41. Jude ver. 7. Rev. 20. 14, 15..

Q. 20. Did God leave all mankind to perish in the estate of sin and misery?

A. God having out of his meer good pleasure, from all Eternity elected some to Eternal life, did enter into a Cove­nant of Grace to deliver them out of the estate of sin and misery, and to bring them into an estate of Salvation by a Re­deemer.

Explic. Q. Must all mankind unavoidably perish in their sins and misery?

A. No, not the elect of GodRom. 8. 33..

[Page 41] Q. Whom do you mean by Gods Elect?

A. Those whom God hath chosen to everlasting life2 Thes. 2. 13..

Q. What moved God to Elect any?

A. His meer good pleasureEph▪ 1. 5. Rom. 9. 18..

Q. What mean you by that?

A. The most free, absolute, or unde­termined Will of God.

Q. When did God Elect them?

A. From all EternityEph. 1. 4..

Q. What mean you by that?

A. Before time began, or before any thing was created.

Q. What did God do for his Elect, to ac­complish his decree touching their Salva­tion?

A. He entred into a Covenant of Grace with them.

Q. Why is the second Covenant called the Covenant of Grace?

A. Because Free-grace was the only motive God had to make, and perform the Promises contained in itRom. 5. 15..

Q. By what other name is this Covenant called?

A. It is also called the New Covenant, because it never decayeth, nor waxeth old; but remaineth in full force, effect and vertue to the end of the worldJer. 31. 31..

[Page 42]Q. But what is become of the Law of that first Covenant made with Adam in Pa­radise Gen. 2. 17., that old Covenant, the Covenant of Life, or Works; repeated to the IewsDeut. 27. 26. ▪ The sum of which we have fully express'd, Ezek. 18. 4. The Soul that sinneth, it shall die?

A. It is neither executed nor abro­gated; but released, or dispensed with.

Q. Is it not fully executed?

A. NoRom. 8. 1..

Q. Nor abrogated?

A. No.

Q. How prove you that?

A. By these two Reasons,

1. It is in part executed upon Believers themselves; they are liable to the mise­ries of this lifePs. 34. 19. 1 Cor. 15. 19. Psal. 89. 30, 31, 32, 33., and to Death it self, viz. to the first or natural DeathRom. 6. 23., which is the wages of sin, although the second Death hath no power over themRev. 20. 6..

2. It is totally executed upon finally impenitent unbelievers; who are liable to the pains of Hell for ever2 Thes. 1. 8, 9., over whom not the first only, but the second D [...]ath also hath powerJoh. 3. 18. 36. Rev. 20. 14, 15..

Q. But seeing Iesus tasted Death for every man, doth not the Gospel relieve im­penitent unbelievers?

[Page 43] A, The Gospel finds them, and every one in a state of Condemnation: Those who believe, it proclaims deliverance unto and relieves them; but those who through unbelief reject it, andActs 13. 46. put it from them, and judge themselves unworthy of ever­lasting life, it leaves such as it found them, viz. under the Condemnation of the Old Covenant, since they refuse the pardoning mercy of the New.

Q. You have now satisfied us that the first Covenant is neither fully executed nor abrogated; But how is it released, or dis­penced with?

A. By super-inducing a New Cove­nant of Grace over it; that whosoever closeth with, and comes into the terms of the new, shall be exempted from the rigour and extremity, i. e. from the eter­nal Joh. 3. 16 condemnation of the old; although he may be liable to the miseries of this life, and to the first Death.

Q▪ Is the Covenant of works, as to its execution upon such as are in the Covenant of Grace, in the chief part restrained, al­though in some part inflicted?

A. Yes.

Q. In the chief part restrained, and in some part inflicted; what do you mean by that?

[Page 44] A. We mean, that Believers shall never complain under the eternal and destru­ctive, although they do bear the tempo­ral, and corrective punishment of their finsLam. 3. 33.

Q. But because generals are obscure, tell us particularly, for the clearer understand­ing of this Mysterie, what obligation the first Covenant laies on sinful man?

A. A double obligation; first, in re­ference to what is past. And secondly, in reference to the future.

Q What obligation doth it lay on him, in reference to what is past?

A. It requires satisfaction, and repa­ration from him, for his sin in break­ing itRo. 6. 23..

Q What, in reference to the future?

A. It requires perfect conformity still as at the first, and absolute obedience to all Gods commands, being the eternal debt of the reasonable creature to that God, that made it in his own Image.

Q. Is it possible for us to satisfie Gods in­jured Law for our first breach?

A. No.

Q But if we could, might not the Law come upon us for future exact conformi­ty, to pay the residue of that eternal [Page 45] Debt, due to God as our Creator?

A. YesJoh. 5. 14 [...], it might.

Q. Doth the Covenant of Grace relieve us as to both these cases, and dispence with the rigour of the Law?

A. Yes.

Q. How doth it relieve us as to the first obligation?

A. It comforts us with the good news that the Son of God hath satisfied his Fa­thers Justice; and if we believe but in him, God will accept of us, as if we had satisfied in our own persons. [The case the Law leaves us in, is well expressed, Isa. 33. 14. and Heb. 10. 31. But the relief the Gospel brings us, in St. Paul's language, Rom. 8. 33, 34. you have both together excellently, Ezek. 33. 10, 11.]

Q. How, as to the second?

A. The New Covenant dispenceth with the rigour of that too; and justified and pardoned persons shall not lose all again upon the least defailance; therefore the Gospel proclaims pardon of sin upon Repentance, and acceptance of sincere en­deavours to obey him.

Q God gave the Law from Mount Sinai, and the voice of words was so dreadful there, that they which heard it, intreated [Page 46] that the Word should not be spoken to them [...]ny more: But we are come to Mount Sion; what is Gods language to us now?

A. Sinners, be but in good earnest, do but love me heartily and my waies; let me but see a child-like ingenuity in you, and I will put down your upright, though imperfect performances, in the Book of my remembranceMal. 3. 16..

Q. How is it possible our performances should be recorded in the Book of Gods re­membrance, since the best of them are im­perfect, and we do daily break the Com­mandments of God in thought, word and deed?

A. If there be a willing mind, it is well accepted according to that we have, and not according to that we have not. And the Commandments of God may be reputed as done▪ when whatsoever is not done is pardoned. Thus doth the can­dour of the Gospel dispence with the ri­gour of the LawMat. 11. 30..

Q. But how doth it stand with Gods ve­racity and immutability having once de­clared that the soul that sinneth shall die, to contradict it by declaring, That he that believeth shall never die, but have Eternal Life?Joh. 11. 26.

[Page 47] A. We must look upon threatenings as a part of the Law, declaring the dueness of the punishment, what the offender hath deserved to suffer; Not as predicti­ons of the event, any more than Thou shalt, and Thou shalt not in the com­mand, are Predictions: but only are ex­pressive of the dueness of obedience.

Q. How do the Old and New Covenant differ?

A. They differ more especially, these two waies,

1. In their tenor; the tenor of the Old is, Obey [perfectly] and live, sin and die; The tenor of the New is, Be­lieve on the Lord Iesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved.

2. The New Covenant admits of Re­pentance, which the Old doth not.

Q. But must not a believer acknowledge perfect obedience to be still his duty?

A. Yes.

Q. Why so?

A. Because this honours the equity of Gods Commandments.

Q. And hath the Redeemer then by making this one of the Conditions of the Gospel-Covenant, given his Father his Law back again?

[Page 48] A. Yes.

Q. Doth he not repeal it?

A. No, it's still the Rule of life, and every Commandment still obligeth a Be­liever.

Q. What hath Christ then done for us?

A. Christ hath only released us from the condemning power of the Law, not the commanding power of it.

Q. How understand you that?

A. We must still press after perfecti­on; but though we fall short of it, we shall not die for it: Christ having Re­deemed us from the curse of the Law, being made a curse for us; He leaves us under the Government and Command of the Law.

Q. But have you any Scripture-warrant for what you say in this matter?

A. Yes, the whole matter is excellent­ly expressed, 1 Ioh. 2. 1. My little Chil­dren, these things write I unto you, that you sin not: And if any man sin we have an advocate with the Father, Iesus Christ the righteous.

Q. But generally and more briefly, what doth God promise to deliver the Elect out of in the Covenant of Grace?

A. Out of the estate of sin and misery.

[Page 49]Q. But how doth God perform this Pro­mise to them, seeing that they also are liable to the miseries of this life, and to the first Death as the wages of sin?

A. Although the Old Covenant in part be executed on them, yet doth not God leave them in the state of sin and misery; but hath entred into a New Covenant with them to bring them out of it: And what they suffer is for their good, that being reformed by stripes, they may be freed from those punishments which fall on the unreformed to all eternityLam. 3. 39. Mich. 7. 9. Rom. 5. 21. 15. 22. Rom. 8. 1, 2. 1 Cor. 11. 30, 32..

Q. And what doth God promise to bring the Elect into in the Covenant of Grace?

A. Into an estate of Salvation1 Joh. 5. 11, 12. Joh. 3. 16. Heb. 8. 10..

Q. Is then the Deliverance of Gods Elect out of the estate of sin, and his bringing them into an estate of Salvation, the sum and the substance of what hath been said more at large in several particu­lars concerning the benefits of the New Co­venant?

A. Yes.

Q. How doth God promise to do all this?

A. By a Redeemer, Isa. 53. 10. When thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong [Page 50] his daies, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand, vers. 11. He shall see of the Travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied, &c. And this by some learned Divines is called the Covenant of Re­demption.

Q. What do they mean by it?

A. That federal transaction that was betwixt God the Father and the Son from everlasting, about the Redemption of lost and fallen M [...]n.

Q. Is not this the same with the Cove­nant of Grace?

A. This Covenant is a Covenant of Grace, but 'tis not strictly that Covenant of Grace, which the Scripture holds out in opposition to the Covenant of works; but rather the means to it, or foundation of it.

Q. Wherein do these two Covenants differ?

A. In the Confederates, For in the Covenant of Redemption, the Confede­rates areJoh. 6. 37. God and Christ, but in the Covenant of Grace, the Confederates are God and BelieversJoh. 3. 16..

Q. 21. Who is the Redeemer of Gods Elect?

A. The only Redeemer of Gods Elect [Page 51] is the Lord Jesus Christ who being the eternal Son of God, became man, and so was, and continueth to be God and Man in two distinct natures, and one person for ever.

Explic. Q. Who is the Redeemer?

A. The Lord Jesus Christ.

Q. What is it to Redeem?

A. By price, or power to save any from bondage or misery1 Pet. 1. 18, 19. 1 Tim. 2. 6. Eph. 4. 8. Col. 1. 20..

Q. Who is Christ the Redeemer of?

A. Of Gods ElectJoh. 6. 37..

Q. Is there any other Redeemer?

A. He is the only Redeemer1 Tim. 2. 5..

Q. Why is he called Lord?

A. 1. Absolutely, as he is God he is Lord over them, and all thingsActs 10. 36.

2. Especially, in reference to them that are redeemed, he is their Lord, be­ing redeemed by him.

Q. Why is he called Iesus?

A. Because he is a SaviourMat. 1. 21..

Q. Why Christ?

A. Because he isLuke 2. 26. Acts 10. 38. anointed to the Office of aLuk. 4. 18. John 3. 34. Acts 3. 22. Prophet,Act. 4. 27. Heb. 5. 4,—11. Priest, andHeb. 1. 8, 9. King, which persons were usually anointed un­der the Law.

Q. Whose Son was Christ?

A. The Eternal Son of GodJoh. 1. 14. Col. 2. 9. Mat. 26▪ 63, 64.

[Page 52] Q What is it to be the Eternal Son of God?

A. It is to be God of the Substance of the Father, begotten before the WorldsJoh. 1. 18. and 5. 17, 18, 23. and 10. 30.

Q. What did the Eternal Son of God be­come that he might be our Redeemer?

A. He became manJoh. 1. 14 Gal. 4. 4.

Q. Was it a voluntary act in Christ to become man?

A. YesHeb. 10 5, 6, 7. and 2. 16.

Q. Was Christ both God and Man?

A. YesMat. 1. 23 Rom. 9. 5 Acts 20. 28.

Q. How many Natures then be there in Christ?

A. Two, his God-head and his Man­hood.

Q. Was Christ God here upon Earth?

A. YesJoh. 1. 1 with v. 14 1 Joh. 5. 20.

Q. Doth he continue to be Man as well as God, now he is in Heaven?

A. YesEph. 4. 10 Joh. 6. 62.

Q. Do these two natures make two per­sons in Christ?

A. No, but one PersonIsa. 9. 6 Rom. 9. 5.

Q. How long doth Christ continue God and Man in two distinct natures, and one Person?

A. For everHeb. 7. 3, 24.

Q. 22. How did Christ being the Son of God become Man?

[Page 53] A. Christ the Son of God became Man, by taking to himself a true body, and a reasonable Soul; being conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost, in the Womb of the Virgin Mary, and born of her▪ yet without sin.

Explic. Q What did Christ take to himself, when he became man?

A. A true body and a reasonable Soul.

Q. Are these the Essential parts of a true man?

A. Yes.

Q. Did Christ take to himself a Phan­tastical body, i. e. only the shape and ap­pearance of a body?

A. No, a true bodyHeb. 2. 14.

Q. Did Christs divine nature enliven and actuate his body instead of a Soul?

A. No.

Q. Had Christ a reasonable Soul, such as men have, as well as a true body?

A. YesMat. 26. 38 Luk. 23. 46.

Q. Had Christ an ordinary or extraordi­nary Generation?

A. An extraordinaryLuk. 1. 31, 35 Heb. 7. 26.

Q. 23. What Offices doth Christ exe­cute as our Redeemer?

A. Christ as our Redeemer excuteth the Office of a Prophet, of a Priest, and [Page 54] of a King, both in his estate of Humili­ation and Exaltation.

Explic. Q. What is it to execute an Office?

A. To do or perform what belongeth to the Office.

Q. How many Offices doth Christ execute as our Redeemer?

A. Three, the Offices of aActs 3. 22, 23 Prophet, of aHeb. 9. 5, 6 Priest, and of a KingPsal. 2 6.

Q. In what estate doth he execute and discharge these Offices?

A. Both in his estate of Humiliation, and Exaltation.

Q. 24. How idoth Christ execute the Office of a Prophet?

A. Christ executeth the Office of a Prophet, in revealing to us by his Word and Spirit, the Will of God for our Sal­vation.

Explic. Q. What is the first Office here considered of Christ as our Redeemer.

A. The Office of a Prophet.

Q▪ How doth he execute and discharge this Office?

A. By revealing to us the Will of GodJoh. 1. 18.

Q. What do you mean by revealing?

A. Making known to us.

[Page 55] Q. How doth Christ reveal the Will of God to us?

A. By this Word and SpiritProv. 1. 23 Isa. 59. 21 Joh. 14. 25, 26 [toge­ther].

Q. What is meant by the Will of God which Christ doth reveal?

A. The whole counsel of God, or whatsoever God would have us o know, believe, and do in order to our Salva­tion.

Q. Is the Word of Christ without his Spirit sufficient to teach us the will of God for our Salvation?

A. No1 Cor. 2 12, 13, 14.

Q. May we expect the Revelation of Gods will by the Spirit without the Word?

A. In no wise, for God hath joyned his Word and Spirit together, Ibid.

Q. For what end doth Christ thus reveal the will of God to us?

A. For our SalvationActs 13. 26.

Q. To which of Christs Offices doth it be­long to reveal or make known to us the will of God?

A. To his Prophetical Office.

Q. 25. How doth Christ execute the Office of a Priest?

A. Christ executeth the Office of a Priest in his once offering up of himself a [Page 56] Sacrifice to satisfie Divine Justice and re­concile us to God, and in making con­tinual intercession for us.

Explic. Q. What is the next Office here considered of Christ as our Redeemer?

A. The Office of a Priest.

Q. How doth Christ perform this Office?

A. Two waies, 1. By offering up himself a Sacrifice.

Q. Who offered up Iesus Christ?

A. He offered up himself.

Q. What Sacrifice did he offer?

A. He offered himself a Sacrifice.

Q What mean you by Christ offering up himself a Sacrifice?

A. Christ dying in his humane Nature for us.

Q. How often did Christ offer up him­self?

A. He offered up himself once onlyHeb. 7. 27.

Q. Why did Christ offer up himself for us?

A. For two ends, 1. To satisfie divine JusticeHeb. 9. 13, 14.

Q. Could not Iustice otherwise be sa­tisfied?

A. Without deathHeb. 9. 22 Justice could not be satisfied, though mercy provided and accepted him as a Surety to die for us.

[Page 57] Q. What is the second end of Christs Sacrificing himself?

A. To reconcileHeb. 2. 17▪ us to God.

Q. What do you mean by reconciling us to God?

A. Making God and us friends, or it is a bringing us by Nature enemies, in­to an estate of peace and friendship with God again.

Q. How else doth Christ excute the Office of a Priest?

A. By making Intercession.

Q. What do you mean by Christs making Intercession for us?

A. The presenting his Sacrifice and Merits for us before his Father. Or, his praying and making request to God, that what he hath purchased for us may be given us; and that our persons and duties may be accepted by him through his Merits.

Q. Of what duration is his Interces­sion?

A. It is continual (ceaseth not till the end▪ of the WorldHeb. 7. 25).

Q. To which of Christs Offices doth it belong to offer Sacrifices, and make Interces­sion for us?

A. To his Priestly Office.

[Page 58]Q 26. How doth Christ execute the Of­fice of a King?

A. Christ executeth the Office of a King in subduing us to himself, in ruling and defending us, and in restraining and conquering all his and our enemies.

Explic. Q. What is the third Office of Christ as our R [...]deemer?

A. The Office of a King.

Q. How d [...]th he execute this Office?

A. He doth it both towards his people, and towards his, and their enemies.

Q. How towards his People?

A. Two waies, 1. In subduing them to himself.

Q▪ How doth he this?

A. By the powerful working of his Spirit, in and by the Ministry of the WordPs. 110. 3.

2. In ruling and defending themIsa. 33. 22..

Q. Is Christ then the King of the Church?

A. YesJoh. 1. 49 Mat. 21. 5 [...].

Q. How doth Christ execute this Office to­wards his, and his peoples enemies?

A. In restraining and conquering them1 Cor. 15. 25..

Q. What are these enemies?

A. The Devil, the World and the Flesh, the last enemy is Death1 Cor. 15. 26▪.

[Page 59]Q. What is it for Christ to restrain his and his peoples enemies?

A. To set bounds and limits to their present remaining power, over which he doth not suffer them to pass.

Q. What is it for him to conquer them?

A. To take away their power in part, that they have notRom. 6. 14 and 8. 37 Dominion over his people, and afterwards compleatly to bring them under his own, and his peoples feet, and utterly to abolish and destroy them1 Cor. 15. 25, 55, 56, 57.

Q. To which of Christs Offices doth it belong to subdue, rule and defend us, and to restrain and conquer all his and our ene­mies?

A. To his Kingly Office.

Q 27. Wherein did Christs Humilia­tion consist?

A. Christs Humiliation consisted in his being born, and that in a low condition, made under the Law, undergoing the miseries of this life, the wrath of God, and the cursed death of the Cross, in be­ing buried and continuing under the power of death for a time.

Explic. Q Which is Christs first estate as our Redeemer?

A. His estate of Humiliation.

[Page 60]Q. Wherein be the four Degrees of it?

A. In his Birth, Life, Death, and after Death.

Q. What was the first Degree?

A His being born.

Q. In what condition was he born?

A. In a low conditionLuk. 1. 48, 52, 53. and 2. 7.

Q Vnder what was Christ made?

A. Under the LawGal. 4. 4.

Q. What is the second Degree?

A. The miseries of this life.

Q. What miseries were they?

A. All those miseries which belong to the nature of man, as hungerMat. 4. 2, thirstJoh. 9. 28 Psal. 69. 21, and wearinessJoh. 4 6; and those that are inci­dent to Mans condition in the World, as wantMat. 8. 20, poverty, and reproachPsa. 22 6 Mark 9. 12 Isa. 5 [...]. 3. Luke 23. 11, 35, 36 Mat. 27. 28, 32, 39, 45.

Q. What miseries did not Christ undergo?

A. Personal Miseries, such as Diseases, Monstro [...]ity, Lameness.

Q. What else then did he undergo?

A. The wrath of GodMat. 26. 39. and 27. 46.

Q. What is the third Degree?

A. DeathMat. 27. 50.

Q What kind of death did Christ un­dergo?

A. The most shameful, painful, and ac­cursed death of the CrossPhil. 2. 7, 8 G [...]l. 3. 13.

Q. Wherein consisted the last Degree [Page 61] of Christ's Humiliation after Death?

A. In his being buried1 Cor. 15. 4, and con­tinuing under the power of Death for a timeMat. 14. 40.

Q. 28. Wherein consists Christs Exalta­tion?

A. Christs Exaltation consisteth in his rising again from the dead on the third day, in ascending up into Heaven, in sitting at the right hand of God the Fa­ther, and in coming to Judge the World at the last day.

Explic. Q. What is the other estate of Christ our Redeemer?

A. His Exaltation.

Q. Which be the four Degrees of it?

A. His Resurrection, Ascension, Ses­sion at the right hand of God, and coming to Judgement.

Q. Wherein consists the first Degree?

A. In his rising again from the Dead1 Cor. 15. 20.

Q. When did he arise?

A. On the third day1 Cor. 15. 4.

Q. Did Christ rise again with the same body that was buried?

A. Yes, with the very same; For he bare the Print of the Nails in his hand and feet, and of the Spear in his sideJoh. 20. 25, 27

Q. [...] Christs body corrupted in [Page 62] the Grave, like the Bodies of others?

A. NoActs 13. 37.

Q. Doth Christ, being raised from the Dead, die any more?

A. NoRom. 6 9.

Q. What doth the Resurrection of Christ assure us of?

A. That our bodies shall be raised again from the Dead1 Cor. 15 20, 21..

Q. What is the second Degree of Christs Exaltation?

A. His ascending up into HeavenLuk 24. 51.

Q. When was it that he ascended?

A. He ascended forty daies after he rose out of the GraveActs 1▪ 3.

Q. What doth the ascension of Christ assure us of?

A. That we shall be carried up into Heaven, whither our fore-runner is en­tred for usHeb. 6. 19, 20 Luk. 16. 22.

Q. What is the third Degree?

A. His si [...]ting at the right hand of God the Father AlmightyMark 16 19 Eph. 1. 20, 21.

Q. What mean you by that?

A. His being exalted to chief Honour, power and favour with God: As Princes do set them whom they highly love and favour at their right hand1 Kings 2. 19.

Q. What is the fourth Degree of his Exal­tation?

[Page 63]A▪ His coming to Judge the WorldActs 1. 11 2 Thes. 1. 7 and 1. 4. 16 Matth. 25. 31, 32.

Q. When will he come to Iudgement?

A. At the last day (or at the end of the worldJoh. 12. 48.

Q. 29. How are we made Partakers of the Redemption purchased by Christ?

A. We are made partakers of the Redemption purchased by Christ, by the effectual application of it to us by his holy Spirit.

Explic. Q By whom is Redemption pur­chased?

A. By ChristEph. 1. 7 Heb. 9. 1 [...].

Q. By whom is it applied?

A▪ By his holy SpiritTit. 3. 5.

Q. What do you mean by the Spirits ap­plying it to us?

A. His making it ours.

Q. What kind of application is that which the Spirit makes?

A. An effectual application (such as causeth and enableth us to receive itPsa. 110▪ 3 Joh. 6. 37.)

Q. Cannot the Minister apply it effectu­ally without the Spirit?

A. NoRom. 10. 19.

Q. 30. How doth the Spirit apply to us the Redemption purchased by Christ?

A. The Spirit applieth the Redempti­on purchased by Christ, by working Faith [Page 64] in us, and thereby uniting us to Christ in our effectual calling.

Explic. Q. What doth the Spirit work in us, that we may apply this Redemption?

A. The Spirit works Faith in us.

Q. What is the fruit and effect of Faith?

A. It unites us to ChristEph. 3. 17.

Q. What is this union betwixt Christ and us?

A. It is that whereby Christ and we are joyned together and made one1 Cor. 6. 17.

Q. When is this done?

A. In our effectual calling1 Cor. 1. 9.

Q. 31. What is effectual calling?

A. Effectual calling is the work of God [...]s Spirit, whereby convincing us of our sin and misery, enlightening our minds in the knowledge of Christ, and renewing our wills, he doth perswade and enable us to embrace Jesus Christ freely offered to us in the Gospel.

Explic. Q. May men be externally cal­led by the Ministry of the Word, or in a common way, and yet not effectually and savingly called?

A. YesMat. 22. 14 Joh. 5. 40 Prov. 1. 24, 25.

Q. Whose work is effectuall calling?

A. The work of Gods Spirit2 Thes. 2. 13, 14.

[Page 65] Q. What is the first thing the Spirit doth for us in effectual calling?

A. He convinceth us of our sin, and miseryActs 2. 36, 37.

Q. What do you mean by Conviction?

A. Making us feelingly know what a sinful, miserable and undone condition we are in by natureEphes. [...]. 1, 2, 3.

Q. What more doth the Spirit work in us, when he calleth us?

A. He inlightneth our minds in the knowledge of Christ2 Cor. 4. 6.

Q. What doth the Spirit make us know of Iesus Christ?

A. He makes us know the want and worth of him, not in an ordinary, but saving wayMat. 9. 12, 13 Phil. 3. 7, 8, 9.

Q. What doth the Spirit do farther for us, when he hath inlightned our minds?

A. He reneweth our wills.

Q. What is it for our wills to be re­newed?

A. To have new inclinations, and dispositions put into themEze. 36. 26.

Q. Are not we able to renew our own wills, and to turn from sin unto Christ of our selves?

A. NoEph. 2. 1.

Q Why doth the Spirit convince us of [Page 66] our sin and misery, enlighten our minds, and renew our wills?

A. That he may perswade and enable us to embrace Jesus ChristJoh. 6. 44, 45 Eph. 1. 19, 20.

Q. Doth the main business of our effe­ctual calling consist in our answering Christs call, and embracing him?

A. YesActs 9. 6.

Q. How, and wherein is Iesus Christ offered to us?

A. He is freely offered to us in the Gospel.

Q. What mean you by the Gospel?

A. The Gospel is the glad tidings of Salvation by Jesus Christ, contained in the Scriptures.

Q. 32. What benefits do they that an effectually called partake of in this life?

A. They that are effectually called do in this life partake of Justification, Adop­tion, Sa [...]ctification, and the several be­nefits which in this life do either accom­pany, or flow from them.

Explic. Q. How many benefits do they that are effectually called partake of in the life?

A. Three principally. 1.Rom. 8. 30 Justifica­tion. 2.Eph. 1. 5 Adoption, and 3.Jude 1 1 Cor. 1. 30 Sanctifi­cation.

[Page 67] Q. And do they likewise partake of the several benefits which in this life do accompa­ny, or flow from these?

A. Yes.

Q. 33. What is Iustification?

A. Justification is an act of God [...]s free grace, wherein he pardoneth all our sins, and accepteth us as righteous in his sight, only for the righteousness of Christ im­puted to us, and received by Faith alone.

Explic. Q. What do you mean by Iusti­fication?

A. The pronouncing righteous, or not guilty, [or the absolving from guilt.]

Q. Whose act is Iustification?

A. GodsRom. 8. 33.

Q. What moves him to Iustifie us?

A. His own free graceRom. 3. 24.

Q. What doth God for us in our Iustifi­cation?

A. He pardoneth all our sins, and ac­cepteth us as righteous in his sightEph. 1. 6, 7.

Q. Whence is it that God accepteth us as righteous?

A. Only for the righteousness of Christ.

Q. How come we to partake of Christs righteousness?

A. Two waies, 1. God imputesRom. 5. 19 it to us.

[Page 68] Q What do you mean by Gods imputing Christs righteousness to us?

A. His2 Cor. 5. 21 accounting it ours, as much as if it were our own, wrought by our selves.

Q. What other way is there whereby we partake of Christs righteousness?

A. 2. We receive it by FaithRom. 5. 1.

Q. Are we not then Iustified by our works?

A. NoRom. 3. 28.

Q. But by Faith alone?

A. Yes.

Q. How and why so?

A. As that Grace which alone receives the righteousness of ChristPhil. 3. 9.

Q. But is justifying Faith solitary with­out all attendants?

A. No, justifying Faith hath two Daughters that inseparably attend her.

1. Repentance: Here sinful man re­tracts and undoes his faults, acknow­ledgeth his transgressions, rents his heart weeps, smites upon his breast, and cries What have I done? laments after the Lord, and abhors himself in dust and ashes: He executes the Law upon him­self; and since God excuseth him from the punishment, he accuseth himself [...] [Page 69] the guilt, and condemns himself to the shame of his sin; and hereby the sinner honours the equity of the threatning by his tears, acknowledging that his blood was due.

2. Newness of life: Here the sinner acknowledgeth perfect obedience to be still his duty, which honors the equity of Gods CommandmentsRom. 16. 26.

Q. But that with all requisite distinctness we may apprehend this great affair, let us take a view of some of the most considerable and important causes which concur to the producing this excellent effect, the discharge and Iustification of a sinner, and state their several interests and concernments in their respective influences upon and contributions towards it, because Iustification is a main Article of our Faith; and therefore, How doth Free-grace Iustifie?

A. The Free-grace of God is the first wheel that sets all the rest in motion.1. How free-grace Justifieth. Its contribution is that of a Proegumenal cause, or internal motive, disposing God to send his Son, that sinners (believing) might be Justified freely by his grace, through the Redemption that is in Jesus ChristJoh. 3. 16 Rom. 3. 24.

Q. But did not Christ die to render God good to mankind?

[Page 70] A. Christ died not [...]o render God good to mankind (he was so eternally) but that with the honour of his Justice he might [...]xert and display his goodness, which contriv'd and made it self this way to break forth into the world.

Q. How is Christs satisfaction concern'd in our Iustification?

A. It is doubly concerned in it:2. How Christs sa­tisfaction.

1. In respect of God, as a Pro-catar­tick cause (which is an external, as the Pro [...]gumenal is an internal moving cause) and is of infinite merit and impe [...]rative power; for the sake of which God is re­conciling himself unto the world in Christ, not imputing their Trespasses unto them, 2 Cor. 5. 19.

2. In respect of the Law of Works, Christs satisfaction Justifieth us formally, as our proper legal righteousness.

Q. Why do you call it our Righteous­ness?

A. Because it becomes imputed to us upon our believing; Faith being our Gospel-Title, by pleading which we lay claim to all the benefits, accruing from the merit of Christs performance, to all effects, uses, and purposes, as if it had been personally our own.

[Page 71]Q. But why do you call it our legal Righ­ [...]ness?

A. Because thereby the Law of God owns it self fully apaid, and acquiesceth [...] it, as in full reparations, and amends [...]ade unto it for the injury and dishonour r [...]eived by the sin of man.

Q And may we plead this against [...] the challenges and accusations of the law.

A. YesRom. 8. 33, 34▪.

Q. And is this our legal Righteousness required in the first Covenant, that of Works, which is thus imputed upon our account, wholly without us, in our Re­demer?

A. Yes2 Cor. 5. 21.

Q. But is our Evangelical Righteousness required in the second Covenant without us, as our legal Righteousness required in the old is?

A. No, for though Christ performed the Conditions of the Law, and satis­fied for our non-performance, yet it is our selves that must perform the conditi­ons of the Gospel. It is not Christ but we that must repent and believeActs 20. 21.

Q. But there are some that tell us that Christ hath also performed for us the conditi­ons [Page 72] of the Gospel; that he hath believed per­fectly, and repented perfectly, and that all is ours: what ought we to think of this Opi­nion?

A. If we judge of it in its clear con­sequence, it is both absurd and blasphe­mous; as if Christ had a Saviour to be­l [...]eve in for pardon and life, or sin to re­pent of, and sorrow for, and mortifie.

Q. How is this Opinion absurd?

A. As it supposeth a perfect Saviour to stand in need of a SaviourHeb. 7. 26, 27.

Q. How is it blasphemous?

A. As it makes Christ the Son of God a sinner, who is God and manJohn 9. 24, 25 Phil. 2. 6, 7 3 How the Gospel..

Q. How doth the Gospel Iustifie?

A. As it is the Law of Faith that publisheth and declareth to us upon what terms we shall be JustifiedRom. 3. 27.

Q. And is the Gospel our great Charter, and Gods W [...]rrant under his broad Seal, that he that believeth shall not be con­demned?

A. YesJoh. 3. 18.

Q. How doth Faith Iustifie?

A. By vertue of the Law promulgated and publish'd as it is our Evangelical righ­teousness,4. How Faith. or our keeping the Gospel-Law, which suspends Justification upon be­lieving.

[Page 73] Q. Doth Faith pretend to no merit or vertue of its own?

A. No, but professedly avows its de­pendance upon the merit of Christs sa­tisfaction, and laies hold on it as our le­gal Righteousness.

Q. Nor can it shew any other Title to be it self our Evangelical righteousness, but only Gods sanction [Law, or Decree esta­blishing it] who chose this Act of believing to the honour of being the justifying Act, be­cause it so highly honoureth Christ?

A. No.

Q. May this be illustrated to us by some apt resemblance?

A. Yes, the Act of believing is as the S [...]lver; but Gods authority in the Gospel­sanction, is the Kings Coin, or Image stampt upon it, which gives it all its value as to Justification.

Q. Without this stamp, could it never have been current?

A. No.

Q. And if God had set this stamp on any other Grace, as Love: would that then have been current, and have Iustified us as Faith doth now?

A. Yes.

Q. How doth God Iustifie?

[Page 74] A. God justifieth in a proper sense two waies, First, as a Legislator. Secondly,5. How God. as a Judge.

Q How doth God Iustifie as a Legislator?

A. He Justifies as a Legislator, enacting by his Soveraign authority that sweet and gracious Law of the New Covenant, by vertue of whose tenor every sinner that believes is Justified from the Guilt of sin, from which he could not be Justified by the Law of Moses, Acts 13. 39.

Q How doth God Iustifie as a Iudge?

A. 2. As a Judge, he may in three respects be said to Justifie a Believer.

First, Forthwith upon his believing God owneth him secretly within himself, as a person justified; God esteems and approves of him as in that state, unto which he hath by believing a Title good in Law, an indefea [...]ible right.

Secondly, At the moment of dissoluti­on God Justifieth as the Judge of all the earth, passing a private Sentence and a ward unto everlasting life upon every believing Soul.

Thirdly, But eminently at the last day, when the Ancient of daies shall take the Throne, and in open Court before the whole Creation, by publick sentence for [Page 75] ever acquit and discharge Believers at that great and last Assizes.

Q. How are works said to Iusti [...]ie?

A. 6. As they Justifie our Faith, or demonstrate before God and man, and to our own Consciences that our Faith is not a dead and barren, but a true and living one by its fruitfulness in well-doing.

Q. How doth the Spirit of God Iustifie?

A. 7. The Spirit of God Justifieth two waies: First, Directly, by working Faith in the heart, as the Author of that justifying Grace. Secondly, Reflexively, as he clears up Justification to a Believers Conscience, by discovering the truth of Faith▪ by working Assurance, and by sealing a Believer to the day of Redemp­tionRom. 8. 16, 17▪ Eph. 4. 30.

Q. 34. What is Adoption?

A. Adoption is an act of Gods free-grace, whereby we are received into the number, and have a right to all the Pri­viledges of the Sons of God.

Explic. Q. Whose act is Adoption?

A. God the Fathers act.

Q. What moved him to it?

A. Only his free-grace1 Joh. 3. 1.

Q. What is it for men to Adopt Chil­dren?

[Page 76] A. To take strangers into their Fami­lies, and account them their Children, and accordingly to take care of them, as it they were their own.

Q. What is it for God to Adopt Chil­dren?

A. To take them which are strangers, and by nature Children of wrath, into his Family, and to receive them into the number, and give them right unto all the Priviledges of the Sons of GodEph. 2. 3, 19 2 Cor. 6. 18 Rom. 8. 17.

Q. What are those Priviledges which the Adopted Children of G [...]d have a right unto?

A. The Priviledges which the Adopted Children of God have a right unto are,

1. Gods Fatherly protection of them from temporal and spiritual evilsPi. 121. 7.

2. Gods Fatherly provision of all needful things, both for their Soul and BodyPsa. 34. 10 and 84. 11.

3. Gods Fatherly correction of themHeb. 12. 6.

4. Gods Audience and return to their Prayers1 Joh 5. 14, 15.

5. A sure Title to the Inheritance of the Kingdom of HeavenRom. 8. 17.

Q. 35. What is Sanctification?

A. Sanctification is the work of Gods free-grace, whereby we are renewed in the whole man after the Image of God, [Page 77] and are enabled more and mo [...]e to die unto sin, and live unto Righteousness.

Explic. Q. Whose work is Sanctifica­tion?

A. It is Gods workLev. 20. 8.

Q. What moved him to sanctifie us?

A. His free-grace alone1 Cor. 6 11.

Q Wherein doth our Sanctification con­sist?

A. In our RenovationEzek. 36. 25, 26.

Q. What is the subject of our Sanctifica­tion?

A. The whole man, Understanding, Will, Conscience, Memory, Affections, which are all renewed and changed in re­gard of their qualifications, and all the Members of our Body, in regard of their use, being made instruments of righte­ousness1 Thes [...] 5. 23. 1 Tim. 3. 9 Heb. 9. 14 Rom. 6. 19.

Q. According to what Pattern is this work wrought?

A. After the Image of God (which consists in knowledge, righteousness, and true holinessEph. 4. 24 Col. 3. 10.

Q. Wherein is our Sanctification begun?

A. In our Regeneration and effectual calling; wherein our minds are first en­lightened, and the habits of all graces are infused.

[Page 78]Q. How is our Sanctification carried on?

A. It is carried on by degrees, as God doth bless all dispensations, especially his Ordinances, through them to communi­cate further measures of his Spirit and Grace.

Q. Wherein is our Sanctification per­fected?

A. In our Glorification, when we shall be made perfectly free from sin, and fully conformable to the Image of God.

Q. You have described the habit of San­ctification, which lies in being renewed in the whole man after the Image of God: wherein stands the exercise of Sanctifica­tion?

A. In dying unto sin and living unto righteousness.

Q. What is it to die unto sin?

A. To cease to love and practise itRom. 6. 11.

Q. What is it to live unto Righteous­ness?

A. To spend the whole strength and time of our lives in the practise of righ­teousnessRom. 6. 11.

Q. Is this work done perfectly, and all at once here upon earth?

A. No, we are enabled more and more so to doJob 17. 9.

[Page 79]Q Wherein doth Sanctification differ from Iustification and Adoption?

A. 1. Justification and Adoption are acts of God without us: Sanctification is a work of God within us.

2. Justification and Adoption do make a relative change; Sanctification doth make in us a real change.

Q But since Scripture calls Iustification our righteousness as well as Sanctification, why do you make them to differ?

A. 1. Justification is an imputed righ­teousness; Sanctification is an inhe­rent.

2. Justification is a righteousness that makes a change in the sinners state, where­by he becomes absolved at the Bar of di­vine JusticeRom. 8. 33, 34 (for Justification is a Law­state, it abolisheth the convincing power of sin, or its Guilt) but Sanctification is a righteousness wrought in the sinners person, whereby he becomes a new2 Cor. 5. 17 creature.

Q. 36. What are the benefits which in this life do accompany or flow from Iustifica­tion, Adoption, and Sanctification?

A. The benefits which in this life do accompany or flow from Justification, Adoption, and Sanctification are Assu­rance [Page 80] of Gods Love, peace of Consci­ence, joy in the Holy Ghost, increase of Grace, and perseverance therein, to the end.

Explic. Q How many sorts of benefits are there which do belong to those which are Iustified, Adopted and Sanctified?

A. There are three sorts,

1. Benefits in this life.

2. Benefits at death.

3. Benefits at their Resurrection.

Q. What benefits belong to them in this life?

A. These five,

1. Assurance of Gods Love.

2. Peace of Conscience.

3. Joy in the Holy Ghost.

4. Increase of Grace.

5. Perseverance in Grace to the end.

Q What are the benefits which do ac­company or flow from the sight and sense of our Iustification, Adoption and Sanctifica­tion?

A. Assurance of Gods Love, peace of Conscience, and joy in the Holy Ghost.

Q. What mean you by the Assurance of Gods Love?

A. Our knowing our selves to be in [...] a justified estate. Or, the knowledge [Page 81] of Gods unchangeable Love towards usRom. 8. 38, 39.

Q. What by peace of Conscience?

A. That serenity of mind which ariseth out of a true sense, and right ap­prehension of the Love of God towards us in1 Joh. 3. 21 Christ.

Q. What do you mean by joy in the Holy Ghost?

A. The Spirit's bearing witness with our spirit that we are the Children of God, and that our names are written in HeavenRom. 8. 16 Luke 10. 20.

Q Doth the Scripture warrant any di­stinction between the Faith of Affiance and the Faith of Evidence, or the assurance of Gods Love?

A. That it is one thing to be Justified (which is done by the Faith of Affiance) and another thing to have it manifest to our Consciences that we are so (which is done by the Faith of Evidence) is very clear from 1 Ioh. 5. 13. These things have I written unto you that believe on the name of the Son of God, that ye may know that ye have Eternal Life.

Q Do the other benefits, increase of Grace and Perseverance therein to the end, accompany or slow from the Being [Page 82] of Iustification, Adoption and Sanctifi [...]a [...]tion?

A. Yes.

Q. How may a Child of God get assu­rance, [or a sure Evidence] of his Iusti­fication and Adoption?

A. By his Sanctification.

Q. What is a sure Evidence of that?

A. Increase of GraceProv. 4. 18 John 15. 5.

Q. Do all truly Iustified and Adopted persons increase in Grace?

A. 1. Negatively, they do not at all times Actually increase in Grace; for some of them may at some times be un­der declinings and decaies of Grace.

2. Affirmatively, they are alwaies of a growing disposition, and desirous to grow in Grace, and at some time or other they grow; And many times they do grow when they do not perceive themselves to grow, but fear that they decline.

Q. Do all truly Iustified, Adopted, and sanctified persons persevere in Grace to the end?

A. They do persevere in Grace to the end, and shall assuredly attain the hea­venly Inheritance.

Q. How prove you that?

[Page 83] A. 1. From the unchangeableness of Gods elective LoveRom. 8. 30 John 6. 37 Ro. 11. 29 John 13. 1.

2. From the All-sufficiency of his PowerJohn 10. 28, 29, 30 1 Pet. 1. 5.

3. From his Faithfulness in his Pro­misesHeb 10 23 2 Cor. 1. 20 Nū. 23. 19 Heb. 6. 17, 18 Isa. 54. 8, 9, 10 & 55. 3. 11.

4. From Christs unchangeable Priest­hood and continual Intercession for themHeb. 7. 24, 25 Joh. 11. 42.

5. From the nature of Grace, and the means thereof1 Joh. 3. 9 1 Pet. 1. 9 and 3. 4 H [...]b. 6. 16 1 John 5. 4 Tit. 2. 11 1 Pet. 1. 23, 24, 25.

Q. May not any Believers by falling into sin, fall from Grace?

A. Some Believers may through the remainders of corruption in them, and the violence of Satans temptations fall into sin foully, and so fall from degrees and measures of Grace; but they shall never fall totally and finally from Grace. And when we see any to fall totally and finally from the profession they formerly made, we may know they were never that in sincerity, which they professed themselves to be1 Joh. 2. 19.

Q. 37. What benefits do Believers re­ceive from Christ at their Death?

A. The souls of Believers are at their Death made perfect in holiness, and do immediately pass into Glory; and their [Page 84] Bodies being still united to Christ, do rest in their Graves till the Resurrection.

Explic. Q. How manifold are the bene­fits of Believers at their Death?

A. Twofold, 1. In respect of their Souls.

2. In respect of their Bodies.

Q. 1. What benefits have Believers in respect of their Souls at Death?

A. They are made perfect in holiness, and do immediately pass into GloryHeb. 12. 23 2 Cor. 5. 1, 6.

Q. Are not Believers perfect in this life?

A. No1 Joh. 1. 8.

Q. Do not the Souls of Believers sleep in the Grave with their Bodies, or stay in Pur­gatory?

A. No. Ibid. Phil. 1. 23 Luke 23. 42, 43.

Q What do Papists mean by Purgatory?

A. They mean a state of Temporary punishments after this life, from which men may be released and translated into Heaven, by the Prayers of the living and the Sacrifice of the Mass.

Q. 2. What benefits have Believers in respect of their Bodies at Death?

A. 1. Their Bodies are still united to Christ. For, though Death doth for a while separate their Souls from their Bo­dies, yet it cannot separate Christ from [Page 85] either; but as when Christ died, his Hypostatical or Personal union still re­mained, his Divine Nature being united both to his Soul in Heaven, and to his Body in the Tomb on Earth: So when Believers die, their mystical union unto Christ still remaineth, and Christ is united both to their Souls with him in Glory, and to their Bodies, which are his Members, even when they are rotting in the GraveMat. 22▪ 33 1 Cor. 6. 15.

2. They rest in their Graves, as in their Beds, till the Resurrection1 Thes. 4. 14 Isa. 57. 2 1 Thes. 4. 16 Job 19. 25, 26, 27 Dan. 12, 2.

Q. What is the Resurrection here spoken of?

A. The last and general Resurrection of all the dead that have lived in all Ages from the beginning of the Creation; which will be first of the righteous, and then of the wicked at the last day1 Thes. 4. 16 John 5. 28, 29.

Q How do you prove that there shall be such a general Resurrection?

A. It may be undeniably proved from the Scriptures and the power of God. If God be of infinite power, and there­fore can raise the dead, and infinitely true, and in the Scriptures hath revealed that he will raise all the dead, then there shall be a general Resurrection; but God is [Page 86] infinite in power, and in the Scriptures hath revealed that he will raise all the dead, therefore there shall be a general Resurrection. The ground of the Sad­duces errour, who denied the Resurrecti­on, was their ignorance of these two great foundations of this Doctrine, name­ly, the Scriptures and the power of GodMark 12. 24.

Q. Shall the Dead the raised with the same body, which they had when aliu before?

A. YesJob 19. 26, 27.

Q. How do you prove that the Dead shal be raised with the same Body?

A. Because otherwise it could in no proper sense be called a Resurrection, but a new Creation.

2. Because 'tis fit the same Body that was an instrument of righteousness, or sin should share in the like Reward or Punishment.

Q. Will not the Bodies, when they are raised, differ from what they are now?

A. They will not differ from what they are now in regard of their substance and essence; But they will exceedingly differ in regard of their qualities.

Q. 38. What benefits do Believer [Page 87] receive from Christ at the Resurrection?

A. At the Resurrection, Believers be­ing raised up in Glory, shall be openly acknowledged and acquitted in the day of Judgement, and made perfectly bles­sed in full enjoying of God to all Eter­nity.

Explic. Q. How many waies may the benefits which Believers receive from Christ at the Resurrection be considered?

A. Three waies.

1. In respect of the Resurrection it self.

2. In respect of the day of Judgement, after their Resurrection.

3. In respect of Heaven after the day of Judgement.

Q. What is the benefit of Believers in respect of the Resurrection it self?

A. Believers shall be raised up in Glory1 Cor. 5. 43 Phil. 3. 21.

Q. What benefits shall Believers have at the day of Iudgement?

A. They shall be acknowledged and acquitted.

Q. What mean you by their being ac­knowledged?

A. Their being owned by Jesus Christ as hisMat. 10. 32.

[Page 88] Q. What mean you by their being ac­quitted, and from what shall they be ac­quitted?

A. They shall be fully freed from all their sins, and finally discharged from the sentence of Condemnation.

Q. After what manner shall they be ac­knowledged and acquitted?

A Openly, viz. before the Father and the holy Angels, and the general Assem­bly of the whole worldMat. 10. 32 Luke 12. 8 2 Cor. 5. 10.

Q. What is the benefit of Believers in Heaven, after the day of Iudgement?

A. They shall then be made perfectly blessed.

Q. Wherein doth that blessedness consist?

A. In full enjoying or God to all Eternity1 Joh 3. 2 1 Cor. 13. 12 1 Thes 4. 17.

Hitherto are the matters of Faith, which make up the first Part of the Catechism, or what man is to believe concerning God.

Now follows the second Part concern­ing the duty which God requires of Man.

Q. 39. What is the Duty which God re­quireth of Man?

[Page 89] A. The Duty which God requireth of Man is obedience to his revealed Will.

Explic. Q. Doth God require any thing to be performed by man to himself?

A. God requireth Duty from Man.

Q. What is that Duty?

A. Obedience (to obey.)

Q. What is the Rule of Mans obedience in General?

A. Gods revealed Will.

Q. What mean you by that?

A. The written Word, or the holy Scriptures, wherein the main purport of them is not to reveal to us the existence or non-existence of our actions, but their moral conveniency; nor yet future con­tingences, & whatsoever shall come to pass in the world, but what may and ought to be done by intelligent creatures, and what by preventive love and enforcing obligations God will expect from usDeut. 29. 29 Acts 1 6, 7 Mich. 6. 8.

Q What do you mean by those obligati­ons that enforce the Duty which God re­quireth of man?

A. Those beneficial resultances, or benefits which flow from Gods relation to Man as his Creator, Redeemer and San­ctifier.

Q. 40. What did God at first reveal [Page 90] to man for the Rule of his Obedience?

A. The Rule which God at first re­vealed to man for his obedience, was the Moral Law.

Explic. Q. Is not Gods secret Will the Rule of Mans obedience?

A. No.

Q. How prove you that?

A. 1. Because the Will of God as se­cret is a peculiar Treasure which he hath put in his own power, and will keep to himselfActs 1. 7 Mat. 24. 36.

2. Because a man may sometimes sin in fulfilling the secret Will of God, and be ashamed, repenting in dust and ashes that he hath done itActs 2. 23, 36, 37, 38.

3. Because all Creatures do this Will of God, and none ever resisted itRom. 9. 19.

Q. Is the revealing of an event which God hath determined, or those Actions where­by that event shall be brought to pass, the Rule of Mans obedience?

A. No1 Kings 11. 31, 35 with 2 Chron. 13. 5, 6, 7, &c..

Q. But are not Gods own positive and ceremonial Laws this Rule of Mans obe­dience?

A. No.

Q. How prove you that?

A. 1. Because they were so burden­some [Page 91] a yoke that neither we nor the Jews themselves were ever able to bear themActs 15. 10.

2. Because they were never pleasing to God irrespectively of themselves, nei­ther did he at all ever take delight in these Laws themselves simply conside­red Psal. 40. 6 and 51. 16 Isa. 1. 11, 12.

3. Because these positive Laws were such, by which men should never obtain Eternal LifeEzek. 20 25 Heb. 7. 11, 19.

Q. What Law then is that which is the Rule of Mans obedience?

A. The Moral Law.

Q. Why is it so called?

A. Because it hath a perpetual bind­ing power in all Ages unto the end of the world.

Q. When was this revealed?

A. At first.

Q. How understand you that?

A. Two waies.

1. This Law was at first given to Adam in Innocency, God having written it on his heart; some small remainders whereof abide yet in mans natureRom. 2. 14, 15.

2. This Law was first revealed by Gods immediate voice, after written in Tables of Stone, and given to the [Page 92] Church as a perpetual Rule for their obe­dience.

Q. 41. Wherein is the Moral Law sum­marily comprehended?

A. The Moral Law is summarily com­prehended in the ten Commandments.

Explic. Q What is it for the Moral Law to be summarily comprehended in the ten Commindments?

A. To have the summ and chief Heads of the Law contained in them?

Q. 42. What is the summ of the ten Commandments?

A. The summ of the ten Command­ments is to Love the Lord our God with all our Heart, and with all our Soul, and with all our Mind, and with all our Strength, and our Neighbour as our selvesMark 12. 30, 31.

Explic. Q In how many Tables were the te [...] Commandments at first written?

A. In two Tables of Stone, Deut. 10. 1, 2, 4.

Q. How many Commandments are com­prized under the first Table, or first great Commandment?

A. The so [...]r first.

Q How many under the second Table, or second great Commandment?

[Page 93] A. Six.

Q. Do the Papists well in leaving out the second Commandment, and in their di­viding the tenth into two?

A. NoDeut. 4. 13 Exod. 20. 17..

Q. What is the comprehensive Duty of all the Commandments written in these two Tables?

A. Love, Rom. 13. 9. For this, Thou shalt not commit Adultery, Thou shalt not Kill, Thou shalt not Steal, Thou shalt not bear false Witness, Thou shalt not Covet: And if there be any other Commandment, it is briefly compre­hended in this saying, Namely, Thou shalt Love thy Neighbour as thy self. [The like may be said of all the Com­mandments of the first Table.]

Q What is the summ of the first Table of the Law?

A. To love the Lord our God with all our Heart, and with all our Soul, and with all our Mind, and with all our Strength.

Q. What mean you by the word Summ?

A. A general or chief Head which comprehends other particulars in it. Ibid. Rom. 13. 8.

Q. What is it to love the Lord our [Page 94] God with all our Heart, &c?

A. It doth imply the supremacy, ar­dency and activity of our Love, where­by we chuse the Lord, cleave to him, and delight in him as our chief Good, and employ all our faculties and powers in his service, in obedience to him out of Love.

Q. What is the summ of the second Ta­ble of the Law?

A. To love our Neighbour as our selves.

Q Who is our Neighbour?

A. Every man, Luk. 10. 29,—38.

Q. What is it to love our Neighbour as our selves?

A. To love him with the same truth and constancy of Love, as we do our selves.

Q. But are we not bound to love our Neighbour with the same Degree of Love, as we do our selves?

A. No.

Q. 43. What is the Preface to the ten Commandments?

A. The Preface to the ten Command­ments is in these words [I am the Lord thy God which have brought thee out of the Land of Egypt, out of the house of Bondage.]

[Page 95]Q. 44. What doth the Preface to the ten Commandments teach us?

A. The Preface to the ten Command­ments teacheth us, that because God is the Lord, and our God and Redeemer, therefore we are bound to keep all his Commandments.

Explic. Q. How many reasons or argu­ments are there in the Preface to oblige and perswade us to keep all Gods Command­ments?

A. Two,

1. God is the Lord. [I am the Lord.]

2. God is our God and Redeemer. [I am the Lord thy God which have brought thee out of the Land of Egypt, out of the house of Bondage.]

Q. How are we bound and obliged to keep Gods Commandments, as he is the Lord?

A. As he is the Lord, he is our Crea­tor and supream Soveraign, and we owe him obedience, as we are his Creatures and SubjectsRev. 4. 11 Psa. 100. 2, [...] Jer. 10. 7.

Q. You say you owe God obedience as you are his Creatures and Subjects, what mean you thereby?

A. We mean that once we were not, were made, and are preserved by God, [Page 96] or that we derived our Being from, an [...] hold it of God, and that we are und [...] the unlimited and absolute Dominio [...] and Soveraignty of God, and therefor [...] ought to serve and glorifie God in [...] Body, and in our Spirit, which [...] Gods, and to be in perfect subjection [...] the Laws of Heaven.

Q. How are we bound and obliged [...] keep Gods Commandments as he is our God and Redeemer?

A. As our God and Redeemer [our Father and Benefactor] he hath brought us into the special relation of Children to himself, and hath entred into Covenan [...] with us to bring us out of spiritual Egypt▪ and Bondage under sin, as he brought his people of old out of the earthly Egypt▪ and the Bondage of menExod 4. 22, 23 John 8. 34, 36 Deu. 10. 22 and 11. 1 1 Cor. 6. 20 Luke 1. 74, 75.

These two Rules must be learn'd for the understanding of the Command­ments.

Rule 1. That when any sin is for­bidden, the contrary Duty is required and when any Duty is required, the con­trary sin is forbidden.

Rule 2. That where any sin is forbid­den, all the Kinds and Degrees of it, temptations and incentments to it are [Page 97] likewise forbidden; and when any Duty is required, all the kinds, and the highest perfection of it, together with all the means and helps to it, are also required.

Q. 45. What is the first Commandment?

A. The first Commandment is, [Thou shalt have no other Gods before me.]

Q. 46. What is required in the first Commandment?

A. The first Commandment requireth us to know and acknowledge God to be the only true God, and our God, and to worship and glorifie him accordingly.

Explic. Q Is there something then required, as well as forbidden in this and every Commandment?

A. Yes.

Q How many duties are there chiefly re­quired in the first Commandment?

A. Three.

Q. What is the first?

A. The first Duty required, is to know God1 Chron. 28. 9.

Q. What ought we to know of God?

A. 1. That he is.

2. What he is, Heb. 11. 6.

Q. What is the second Duty herein re­quired?

A. To acknowledge GodProv. 3. [...].

[Page 98] Q. How ought we to acknowledge God?

A. We ought to acknowledge God,

1. To be (as he is) the only [...] God1 Kings 18. 39 Jer. 10. 10.

2. We ought to acknowledge him [...] our GodPsa. 48. 14 Deu. 26. [...]7 Mat. 4. 10.

Q. What is the third Duty required [...] this Commandment?

A. To worship and glorifie God ac­cordingly.

Q How is that?

A. As the only true God and our God.

Q. Are we required to worship God with the inward worship of the mind, viz. [...] trust in him, and to love, fear, esteem, de­sire, and obey him?

A. YesJoh. 4 24 Isa. 26. 4 Deut. 6. 13 and 10. 12 Psal. 73. 25 Isa. 26. 38, 9 1 Sam 15. 22.

Q. And with the outward worship also▪

A. Yes1 Cor. 6. 20 Psal. 95. 6.

Q. What do you mean by outward wor­ship?

A. The expressing the inward worship of the mind in our Faith, Love, and obedience towards God, by the reverte [...] performance of all external acts of di­vine worship commanded by him, and more especially by our daily Prayer [...] unto him, and praises of himPs. 55. 17 and 32. 6 P [...]al. 50. 14, 15 23. and 51. 18, 19.

[Page 99] Q. Doth the first Commandment deter­mine of the only right object of divine wor­ship, or whom only we must serve?

A. Yes, Mat 4. 10.

Q. 47. What is forbidden in the first Commandment?

A. The first Commandment forbid­deth the denying or not worshipping and glorifying the true God, as God, and our God, and the giving that worship and glory to any other, which is due to him alone.

Explic. Q. What are the chief sins for­bidden in the first Commandment?

A. 1. Atheism, which is the denying any God, or the true GodPsal. 14. 1 Eph. 2. 12.

2. Idolatry, which is,

1. The not worshipping and glorifying the true GodGal. 4. 8. The which we do, 1. If we do not worship him as GodRom. 1. 21, 23. Or, 2. Not as our GodPs. 81. 8, 9, 10, 11.

2. The giving that worship and glory to any other which is due to him aloneRom. 1. 25.

Q. It is Idolatry to give outward wor­ship to any other, viz. to pray to Saints, or Angels, or any Creature?

A. Yes.Rev. 22. 8, 9.

Q. And is it Idolatry to give inward worship to any other, viz. to Love, Fear, [Page 100] Desire, or Trust in any thing more than God?

A. YesCol. 3. 5.

Q. Why so.

A. Because hereby is given that wor­ship and glory to another which is due to God alone, Rom. 1. 25. Ibid.

Q. 48. What are we especially taught by these words [before me] in the first Commandment?

A. These words, before me, in the first Commandment, teach us, that God who seeth all things, taketh notice of, and is much displeased with the sin of having any other God.

Explic. Q. What things are to be learn'd from these words [before me?]

A. Two things,

1. That God seeth all thingsHeb. 4. 13 Jer. 23. 24 Psal. 147. 5.

2. That God taketh notice of, and is much displeased with the sin of having any other GodPsal. 44. 20, 21 Isa. 42. 8.

Q. 49. Which is the second Command­ment?

A. The second Commandment is, [Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven Image, or any likeness of any thing that is in Heaven above, or that is in the Earth be­neath, or that is in the water under the Earth; Thou shalt not bow down thy self [Page 101] unto them, nor serve them: For I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the ini­quity of the Fathers upon the Children unto the third and fourth Generation of them that hate me; and shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my Commandments.

Q. 50. What is required in the second Commandment?

A. The Second Commandment re­quireth the receiving, observing, and keeping pure and entire, all such religious Worship and Ordinances as God hath ap­pointed in his Word.

Explic. Q. How doth the worship, re­quired in the second Commandment, differ from the worship required in the first?

A. The worship required in the first Commandment hath a respect unto the object of worship, whereby we are bound to worship the true God, and none else: The worship required in the second hath a respect unto the means and manner of worship, whereby we are bound to wor­ship God according to the way and means of his own appointment.

Q. What is the way and means which God hath appointed for his worship?

A. The only way and means which [Page 102] God hath appointed for his worship, is his Ordinances which he hath prescribed in his Word.

Q. What Ordinances?

A. 1. Pr [...]yer unto God with thanks­giving, and that1 Tim. 2. 1. Luk. 1. 9, 10, 13. Phil. 4. 6. Ephes. 5. 20. Matth. 21. 13. Luk. 2. 37. publickly in Assemblies, Ier. 10. 25. Acts 10. 2. privately in Families, andMatth. 6 6. secretly in Closets.

2. Reading and searching the Scrip­tures. 1 Tim. 4. 13. Ioh. 5. 39. Neh. 8. 8. Acts 15. 21.

3. Preaching and hearing of the Word. 2 Tim. 4. 2. Isa. 55. 3.

4. Singing of Psalms. Psal. 149. 1. Iam. 5. 13.

5. Administration, and receiving of the Sacraments both of Baptism, and the Lords Supper. Mat. 28. 19. 1 Cor. 11. 23,—26.

6. Fasting. Ioel 2. 12. Esther 4. 3, 16. 1 Kings 21. 27, 28, 29. 1 Sam. 7. 6, 10. Ionab 3. 5, 10. Luk. 5. 35.

7. Instruction of Children and House­holds in the way of the Lord. Gen. 18. 19. Deut. 6. 6,—10. Ephes. 6. 4.

8. Holy Conference, and Religious [Page 103] Discourse. Mal. 3. 16. Luke 24. 17, 32.

9. Meditation. Psal 1. 2. and 77. 12. 1 Tim. 4. 15.

10. Vows to the Lord. Psal. 76. 11.

11. Swearing by the Name of the Lord, when lawfully called. Deut. 6. 13. Ier. 4. 2. and 12. 16.

12. Exercise of Church-Discipline. 1 Cor. 5. 3, 4, 5, 11. with 2 Cor. 2 6, 7, 8. Mat. 18. 18.

Q. What doth God require in the second Commandment, in reference to his Ordi­nances and means of worship?

A. He requireth the receiving, ob­serving, and keeping of them pure and entire.

Q. What is it to receive and observe Gods Worship and Ordinances?

A. To receive and observe them is heartily to entertain, embrace, and at­tend on them as oft as opportunity is of­fered, and to make answerable improve­ment of them.

Q. What is it to keep them pure and entire?

A. To take diligent heed that they be not corrupted by our own inventions and additionsMat. 15. 9 Deut. 12. 32.

Q. How know you what Worship, [Page 104] and Ordinances God hath required?

A. God hath appointed all his worsh'p and Ordinances in his Word.

Q. 51. What is forbidden in the second Commandment?

A. The second Commandment for­bideth the worshipping of God by Images or any other way not appointed in his Word.

Explie. Q. What are the chief sins for­bidden in this Commandment?

A. Idolatry and Superstition.

Q. Is it Idolatry, not only to worship Idols instead of God, which is forbidden in the first Commandment, but also to wor­ship God by Images?

A. YesIsa. 45. 20 Exod. 32. 4, 5 Deut. 4. 15,—19 with 32. 5, 17, 21.

Q. How can persons be guilty of Idola­try in worshipping God by Images, when they worship the true God▪ the God that made the Heavens and the Earth?

A. Because the Images of these men, either do bear resemblance to the object of their worship, or they do not; If they do, then they worship false Gods, and are guilty of gross Idolatry, there being no similitude or likeness of the true God; If they do not, then is ignorance the Mo­ther of that D [...] votion, and with the Sa­maritans [Page 105] they worship they know not what: Or if they do worship the true God, they worship him ignorantly, and know not the manner of the God that made the Heavens and the Earth. Deut. 4. 12, 15. Isa. 40. 18. Ioh. 4. 22. Acts 17. 23. 2 Kings▪ 7. 26.

Q. Why can there be no manner of similitude of the true God?

A. Because he dwelleth not in Tem­ples made with hands, and is the unap­proachable invisible God. Acts 17. 24. 1 Tim. 6. 16.

Q. The Papists worship God by Images, the Protestants worship God without them; which way therefore are we to worship the true God?

A. The way, the only infallible Judge of Controversies hath declared unto us.

Q. Is the Pope this infallible Iudge?

A. There is no infallible Judge upon Earth, and the Pope being but the H [...]ad of a Party, the supream Head of the Romanists; neither he nor they can be Judge in their own Cause. Iam. 4. 12. Mat. 23. 9, 10. Prov. 18. 17.

Q. Who then is the infallible Iudge of Controversies?

A. Christ, the only begotten Son [Page 106] which is in the bosom of the Father, He is the only infallible Judge of Controver­sies, who hath told us all things, and w [...] have his Determinations upon RecordJoh. 118 and 4. 25.

Q. Where are his Determinations Re­corded?

A. In the holy Scriptures.

Q. What are his Determinations con­cerning God, and the manner of his wor­ship?

A. They are,

1. Negative, that God dwelleth not in Temples, neither is to be worshipped by Images made with mens hands. Acts 17.1 Cor. 7. 10 24. with 1 Kings 8. 27. Acts 17. 25.

2. They are affirmative, viz. That God is a Spirit, and that they that wor­ship him, must worship him in Spirit and truth. Ioh. 4. 23 24.

Q What other sin is chiefly forbidden in this Commandment?

A. Superstition.

Q. What is Superstition?

A. Superstition in the proper and strict notion of the word is the wor­shipping of Idols, or dead men, Act. 17. 22. But this is the same with that Idolatry, (the giving that worship and glory to [Page 107] others which is due to God alone) which is forbidden in the first Commandment.

Q. What is therefore Superstition in the [...] generally received notion, and as it is forbidden in this Commandment?

A. It is when things are either abhor­red or observed with a zealous or fearful, but erroneous relation to God: by means of which the superstitious serve either the true God with needless Offices, or de­fraud him of necessary Duties; or bestow such honours and service upon others, as is proper for, and should be peculiar for him only. Or, ‘More plainly thus,’

It is the worshipping of God in any other way, or by any other means than what he hath appointed in his Word; called Ordinances, the Commandments and Doctrines of menCol. 2. 20, 21, 22, 23.

Q. How manifold is this Superstition?

A. Twofold, Affirmative, and Nega­tive.

Q. What is Affirmative Superstition?

A. That whereby the Superstitious serve the true God with needless Offices.

Q. And what the Negative?

[Page 108] A. That whereby men out of a s [...] ­pulous Conscience, or ignorant fear of displeasing God, abstain from things lawful and laudable, as sinful and un­godly.

Q. Doth the Scripture warrant this distinction?

A. YesEccl. 7. 16, 17 Mat. 15. 3, 6, 7 Col. 2. 20, 21, 22, 23.

Q. 1. What is the Idolatry and Super­stition of the Church of Rome?

A. The worshipping of the Bread and Wine in the Eucharist, out of a false and groundless perswasion, that they are sub­stantially changed into the Body and Blood of Christ.

2. The worshipping and invocation of Saints and Angels; and particularly of the Virgin Mary, which hath now for some Ages been a principal part of their Religion.

3. Their worshipping of Images: Which practice (notwithstanding all their distinctions about it, which are no other but what the Heathens used in the same case) flies as full in the face of the second Commandment, as deliberate and malicious killing of a man is against the six [...]h. Acts 17. 29. Rom. 1. 23.

4. Their superstitious Fasting, and ab [Page 109] staining from Flesh in Lent; Their super­stitious Holy-daies; Their adding Cream, Oyl, and Spittle to the water in Baptism, and their Baptizing of Bells; Their praying upon Beads, and mary more su­perstitious customs! For which there is not the least command in the Scrip­turesCor. 18. 8 Col. 2. 20, 21 1 Tim. 4. 4, 5 Gal. 4. 9, 10, 11 P [...]o. 30. 5, 6 Mat. 28. 19, 20.

Q. What if the Doctrine of Transub­stantiation be not true?

A. Then by the confession of several of their own learned Writers they are guilty of gross Idolatry.

Q. Doth not the Bread in the Communi­on remain Bread after the words of Conse­cration?

A. Yes, the Scripture expresly calls it so after the words of Consecration. 1 Cor. 11. 26, 27, 28.

Q. But what if the Bread be transub­stanti [...]te and turned into the very Body of Christ?

A. Then all mens senses are deceived in a plain sensible matter, wherein 'tis as hard for them to be deceived, as in any thing in the world.

Q. Why so?

A. For two things can hardly be imagined more different, a little bit [Page 110] of Wa [...]er, and the whole Body of [...] man.

Q. But what if the Testimony of sens [...] be not to be relied upon?

A. Then no man is sure that Christian [...] ­ty it self is true.

Q. Why so?

A. For the utmost assurance that the Apostles had of the Truth of Christiani­ty, was the Testimony of their own senses concerning our Saviours Miracles.

Q. And what if the Testimony of sense [...] to be relied upon?

A. Then it plainly follows that no man (no, not the Apostles themselves) had more reason to believe Christianity to be true, than every man hath to believe Transubstantiation to be false.

Q. But if the case be so plain, a man would think that at least the Teachers and Guides of that Church should be sensible of it?

A. Why, they are so, and afraid the People should be so too; and therefore by their corrupt Glosses and Ph [...]risai [...]al Traditions in their interpreting the holy Scriptures, they tye up and keep the P [...]ople in ignorance of the true meaning of those places, which do more expresly condemn [Page 111] their damnable Idolatrous practises, and their superstitious customs; and in their ordinary Ca [...]chisms and Manuals of De­votion, they leave out the second Com­mandment, and divide the tenth into two to make up the Number; lest if the common people should know it, their Consciences should startle at the doing of a thing so directly contrary to the plain command of God.

Q. And is it not well observed by the learned from Deut. 11. 28. That he that professeth Idolatry, is as if he denied the whole Law?

A. Yes.

Q. But because after all the unanswera­ble Objections and Arguments of the Pro­testants against Transubstantiation, (that Monster a [...]d shame of humane nature) and the other Blasphenies and absurd Doctrines of the Papists; they do all unanimously be­take themselves to the authority of their Church, as their main and last Refuge; and tell us, that though they cannot give us a particular reason of every Doctrine they hold different from us; yet they have sufficient reason to submit their judgement wholly to their Churches authority, which they know to be infallible, and hath Decreed [Page 112] all the Doctrines they hold in opposition to [...] Doth it not therefore concern all that [...] concerned in the matters of their Salvation to consider whether this easie way of believing be a safe way or no?

A. Yes, it doth very much concern [...] all so to do; because our mistake herein will greatly hazzard our everlasting Sal­vation.

Q. And are not they certainly mistaken that adventure all, even all their everlasting concerns, upon that authority which over­throws those very things which must be sup­posed antecedent to the belief of any such au­thority: As 1. The common sense of man­kind. 2. The force of a Divine Law. And 3. The liberty of Iudgement concern­ing truth and falshood?

A. Yes.

Q. And doth not the Church of Rome so?

A. Yes, and thereby forfeits its own authority over men.

1. It requires things contrary to com­mon sense; as in the Eucharist, it re­quires all its members to deny what they see, and handle, and smell, and taste to be Bread, to be true Bread; and to be­lieve that the same individual Body may [Page 113] be in a thousand places at once, and that things whose nature it is to be in another, [...] subsist without their proper subject.

2. It requires things contrary to the force and reason of a divine Law; as it hath left out the second Commandment, and hath made it lawful to give religious worship to Images, and hath taken away from the people their share of the Cup in the Eucharist.

3. It takes away all liberty of judge­ment concerning truth and falshood in Religion. For this is a natural right which every man hath to judge for him­self: And they that take this away, may as well command all men to put out their eyes, that they may the better follow their Guides. But the other is so much worse, because it is an assault upon our understandings; it is a robbing us of the greatest Talent God hath committed to our management, it is a Rape upon our best faculties, and prostituting them to the Lusts of spiritual Tyrants; it is not captivating our understandings to the obedience of Faith, but enslaving them to the proud and domineering usurpations of men; wherein they would do by us as the Philistins did by Sampson; they [Page 114] would put our eyes, that we might g [...]ind in their Prison, and make them sport.

Q. How may men further offend and sin against the second Co [...]mandment?

A. Men offend and sin against the se­cond Commandment not only by Idola­try and Superstition, but also when they are not zealousJoh. 2. 17 & 4. 22, 23 for pure worship ac­cording to Gods Institution, not endea­vouring what in them lieth, in their places, the Reformation of worship, ac­cording to the pattern in the Word; as also when they disuse andHe. 10. 25 neglect, especiallyLuke 7. 30 Mat. 23. 13 1 Thes. 2. 16 Acts 13. 44, 45 when they contemn and op­pose any of those Ordinances which God hath appointed to be the means of wor­ship.

Q. 52. What are the reasons annexed to the se [...]ond Commandment?

A. The reasons annexed to the second Commandment, are Gods Soveraignty over us, his propriety in us, and the zeal he hath to his own worship.

Explic. Q. In what words are these three reasons annexed to this Command­ment, expressed?

A. In these words [For I the Lord thy God am a jealous God?]

Q. What is the first reason annexed unto the second Commandment?

[Page 115] A. Gods Soveraignty over us, exprest in these words [I the Lord.]

Q. What do you mean by his Soveraignty over us?

A. His supream power, absolute Do­minion, and sole Authority over us.

Q. What is the force of this first reason?

A. The force of this first reason, is, because God is the only SoveraignPs. 95. 2, 3 King over us, and hath the sole Authority to make Laws for the way of his worship, therefore we ought by vertue of our al­legiance, as we are subjects, to observe his Laws and Ordinances, and to wor­ship him no other way than that which he hath appointed in his Word.

Q. What is the second reason annexed to this Commandment?

A. Gods propriety in us, exprest in these words, [Thy God; I the Lord thy God.]

Q. What do you mean by his propriety in us?

A. His just right and Title to us as his own.

Q. What is the force of this second reason?

A. The force of this second reason, is, because we are Gods, therefore we ought [Page 116] to keep close unto him, and his appoint­ments, and take heed especially of Ido­latry and superstition, which do alienate the heart from himPs. 95. 6, 7 and 106. 19.—22 & 45. 10, 11.

Q. What is the third reason annexed to this Commandment?

A. The zeal God hath to his own worship, exprest in these words [Am [...] jealous God; I the Lord thy God am a jealous God Exod. 34. 14.]

Q. What is the zeal God hath to his own worship.

A. It is his jealousie, where by out of love to his own worship and Institutions, he is highly offended with those that turn aside from him unto their own Inventions.

Q Wherein doth this zeal and jealousie of God for his own worship shew it self?

A. The zeal and jealousie of God for his own worship doth shew it self,

1. In his accounting the Breakers of this Commandment those that hate him, and threatening to punish them unto the third and fourth Generation; [I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the Fathers upon the Children unto the third and fourth Genera­tion of them that hate me.] And,

[Page 117]2. In his esteeming the keepers of this Commandment, such as love him, and promising mercies unto thousands of them [And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my Com­mandments.]

Q. How can God in justice visit the ini­quity of the Fathers upon their Children?

A. 1. If the Children do not walk in the sinful steps of their Fathers, God will not visit the iniquity of their Fathers up­on themEzek. 18. 14, 15, 16, 17.

2. It is most equal and righteous for God to visit the iniquity of the Fathers upon their Children, when the Children are guilty of the same iniquity, and so fill up the measure of their Fathers sinsEzek. 18. 24, 25 Ma [...]. 23. 31,—37. [By consenting to, partaking of, and imitating their Fathers sins.]

Q. 53. What is the third Command­ment?

A. The third Commandment, is, [Thou shalt not take the Name of the Lord thy God in vain, for the Lord will not hold him guiltless, that taketh his Name in vain.]

Q. 54. What is required in the third Commandment?

A. The third Commandment requireth [Page 118] the holy and reverend use of Gods Names, Titles, Attributes, O [...]dinances, Word, and Works.

Explic. Q What are we to understand by the Name of God, which we are for­bidden in this Commandment to take in vain?

A. The Name of God, which we are forbidden in this Commandment to take in vain, is to be taken generally and com­prehensively for any thing whereby God maketh himself known.

Q. By What doth God make himself known?

A. God doth make himself known,

1. By his Names which he hath given unto himself in the holy Scriptures, such as God, Lord Deut. 6. 4, I am Exod. 3. 13, 14, Iehovah Psa. 83. 18 Exod. 6. 3, Iab, and the likePsal. 68. 4.

2. By his Titles, such as Lord of HostIsa. 1. 9, Holy one of IsraelIsa. 60. 14, The God of Abraham, Isaac, and IacobExod. 3. 6, Creator of the ends of the EarthIsa. 40. 28, Preserver of MenJob 7. 20, The King of Kings, and Lord of Lords1 Tim 6. 15, The King of NationsJer. 10. 7, The King of SaintsRev. 15. 3, The God and Father of our Lord Iesus Christ, The Father of Mercies, The God of all Con­solation and Salvation2 Cor. 1. 3, 4 Psal. 68 20 Luke 1. 47, The Hearer of PrayersPsal. 65 2, and the like.

[Page 119]3. By his Attributes, his InfinitenessJer. 23. 24 Ps. 139. 7, 8, Eternity1 Tim. 1. 17 Psal. 90. 2 Isa. 40▪ 28, and UnchangeablenessMal. 3. 6 Ps. 102. 26, 27, PowerGen 17. 1 1 Tim. 6. 15, WisdomRom 16. 27, and GoodnessMat. 19. 17 Exo. 34. 6, 7.

4. By his OrdinancesPsa. 77. 13 and 49. 2, PrayerPs. 141 2, Preaching the Word by Ordained Mini­sters, or Officers commissioned there­unto Rom. 10. 15 Mat. 28. 19 Mark 16. 15, 16 Act. 2. 38. 41, and HearingRom. 10. 17 Isa. 55. 3, and the Sacra­ments 1 Cor. 11. 24, 25.

5. By his Word, Law and GospelHeb. 2. 1,—5..

6. By his Works of Creation and Pro­videnceExod. 20. 11. Psal. 19. 1. and 9. 16. 1 Chron. 16. 12. Job 37. 14, 16. Acts 14. 17. and 17. 28..

Q. What doth the third Commandment require in reference unto these things, where­by God makes himself known?

A. The holyLevit. 11. 44. Psal. 93. 5. and 99. 5. and 22. 3. and 103. 1. Exod. 15. 11. and reverend use of themJer. 5. 22. Psal. 2. 11. and 89. 7. Isa. 59. 19. Heb. 12. 28..

Q. What do you mean by that?

A. The separate, special, and distinct respect for all such things and Persons as have the Name of God called upon them, and do more immediately relate to his service.

Q. 55. What is forbidden in the third Commandment?

[Page 120] A. The third Commandment forbid­deth all prophaning or abusing of any thing, whereby God makes himself known.

Explic. Q What is the general sin here forbidden?

A. All prophaning and abusing of any thing, whereby God makes himself known.

Q. How doth God make himself known?

A. By his aforesaid Names, Titles, A­tributes, Ordinances, Word and Works.

Q When are these prophaned and abused?

A. Where either things or persons, wherein and whereby God is honoured, and whereupon his holy Name is called, are undervalued or desp [...]sed; being slightly or vainly used any other way, and to [...]ny other end than God in his Word hath directed, and commandedLev. 19. 12 Prov. 30. 9 Deu. 32. 18 2 Kings 19. 22, 23 Acts 19. 13, 16 Mat. 6. 5, 7 and 23. 14 Isa. 1. 13, 16 and 53. 1 Psal. 81. 11 Ezek. 33. 31, 32, 33.

Q. What are the chief sins forbidden in this commandment?

A. 1. Perjury or Swearing by the Name of God falslyLev. 19. 12.

2. Swearing by Idols or false Gods, which are the vanities of the GentilesLev. 18. 21 Jer. 14▪ 22 Psal. 31. 6 Deut. 32. 21 1 Kings 16. 26 Jer. 2. 5, 6 and 8. 19 and 10. 14, 15.

3. Unjust Swearing, or Swearing to do that which is unjust, and in it self un­lawful to be doneMat. 14. 7, 8. This sin having the [Page 121] addition of the solemnness of an Oath i a double iniquity, and obligeth a man to nothing but a deep unse [...]gned Repentance.

4. Swearing by the CreaturesJam. 5. 12 Mat. 5. 34, 35, 36 and 23. 19, 20, 21, 22.

5. Vain or frequent SwearingLev. 19. 12 Jam. 5. 12, when men Swear in a light matter, and upon every trivial occasion; or without urgent necessity, a just and weighty cause that only can warrant an Oath.

6. Breaking those Oaths made by the Creatures as not binding and valid. For although Christ prohibit Swearing by the Creatures, yet he ever enjoyns perfor­mances agreable to such Oaths, because of the Creatures relation to God, whom he will make instruments of vengeance to fulfill his W [...]ll, and execute his pleasure against false and vain SwearersJam. 5. 12 Mat. 5. 34, 35 and 23. 19, 20, 21, 22.

7. Presumptuous, proud, daringAct. 19. 13 and unadvisable1 Sam 14. 24, 28, 29 adjuration, cursings and execrations, when men prophanely curse themselvesa [...]d ver [...]. 44 45 Mat 26 74 or others (as God re­fuse me, God damn us, or them) in the Name of the true God, or by false Gods1 Sam 17. 43, whose Names we ought not to take up into our mouthsPsal. 16. 4.

8. B'asphemy and reproach of the sacred Name of GodIsa. 37. 4. 10, 11, 12 2 Kings 19. 22, 23, 24, and of those that bear his NameExod. 22. 28 Jude ver. 8, or stand in any spe­cial relation to him1 Sam. 17. 45.

[Page 122]9. The irreverent use of the Name of God, or of any thing whereby God makes himself knownPs. 29. 1, 2 Mal. 1. 6 Psal. 111. 9 Isa. 8. 13 Psal. 2. 11 Exo. 1 [...]. 11 Rev. 15. 4 Psal. 36 1, [...] Mat. 5. 37.

Q. 56. What is the reason annexed to the third Commandment?

A. The reason annexed to the third Commandment, is, That however the breakers of this Commandment may escape punishment from man, yet the Lord our God will not suffer them to escape his righteous Judgement.

Explic. Q. In what words is the reason annexed to this Commandment expressed?

A. In these words, [For the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his Name in vain.]

Q. How is it that there are so many breakers of this Commandment?

A. Because they escape punishment from men.

Q. Hath God impowered any men to punish the breakers of his Laws?

A. Yes, M [...]gistratesRom. 13 4. 1 Pet. 2. 13, 14. Parents and Governours of1 Sam. 3. 13. Heb. 12. 9, 10. Families.

Q. Whence is it that they escape punish­ment?

A. Either through Magistrates igno­rance, [Page 123] negligence, or partiality in the LawDeut. 1. 17. 1 Sam 3. 13. or through Parents2 Sam. 13. 39. and 14. 33. 1 Kings 1. 6. Prov. 13. 24. and 19. 18. and 23. 13. fondness.

Q. Will God suffer them to escape too?

A. The Lord will not suffer them to escape his Judgement.

Q. Why so?

A. Because his is a righteous Judge­ment.

Q. Will the Lord punish all those that profane, or abuse his Names, Titles and At­tributes?

A. Yes. Psal. 44. 20, 21. Acts 19. 13,—18. Hos. 4. 2, 3. Zach. 5. 3, 4. and Deut. 32 18,—26. 2 Kings 19. 22 32, to the end, and Psal. 78. 19, 20, 21, 30, 31. 2 Kings 7. 1, 2, 17.

Q. And those that prophane or abuse the Ordinances of God, viz. Prayer, Preach­ing or exercising the Priests Office, hearing the word, and the Sacraments?

A. Yes the Lord will punish all such as prophane or abuse any of these Ordi­nances, as you find proved by Scripture in the aforesaid order.

He will punish all those that prophane or abuse

[Page 124]1. Prayer. Mat. 23. 14.

2. Preaching and exercising the Priests Office. 2 Chron. 26. [...]6,—22. 1 Sam. 13 9, 13, 14. 2 C [...]r. 11. 13, 15. 2 Tim. 3. 8, 9. Phil. 3. 18, 19. (2.) Forbid­ding to Preach, 1 Thes. 2. 16.

3. Hearing the W [...]rd. Luke 10. 16. Acts 20. 9. Ezek. 33. 31, 32, 33.

4. The two Sacraments, Baptism and the Lords Supper.

1. Baptism is prophaned or abused two waits. 1. When unordained Mini­sters Baptize in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, this is a sinful intrusion and a taking Gods Name in vain. 2. When this necessary O [...]dinance is sleighted and despised. Heb. 6. 2. Gen. 17. 14. Exod. 4. 24, 25, 26. with Acts 2. 38, 39, 40, 41, 42. Mat. 3. 7. Luke 7. 30.

2. The Lords Supper. 1 Cor. 11. 27, 29, 30.

Q Will not the Lord hold them guilt­less that prophane or abuse his Word or Works?

A. No. (1.) He will punish all that prophane or abuse his Word [Law or Gospel.] Isa. 30. 9,—15. Ier. 23. 33. to the end, and 8. 9, 10. Hos. 4. 6. [Page 125] Rom. 7. 7. Gal. 3. 24. Isa. 53. 11. Phil. 3. 8, 9. and Heb. 2. 2, 3. Acts 13. 46. 51. with Mat. 10. 14, 15. (2.) He wi [...]l punish all that prophane or abuse either the works of Creation or Providence. Psal. 8. 1, 3. and 19. 1. with 28. 5. Isa. 5. 12,—16. D [...]n. 4. 32, 37.

Q. When doth the Lord punish them that prophane or abuse his Name?

A. 1. Sometimes in this life, and that with dreadful temporal Plagues, Deu [...]. 28, 58, 59. Mal. 3. 5. Zach. 5. 1,—5. 2. But if such escape here, they shall not escape Gods eternal wrath and vengeance hereafter. Rom. 2. 5, 6, 8, 9, 11.

Q 57. Which is the fourth Command­ment?

A. The fourth Commandment, is, [Rememmber the Sabbath day, to keep it holy: Six daies shalt thou labour and do all thy work: but the seventh day is the Sab­bath of the Lord thy God; in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy Son, nor thy Daughter, thy Man-servant, nor thy Maid-servant, nor thy Cattle, nor thy Stranger that is within thy Gates: For in six daies the Lord made Heaven and Earth, the Sea, and all that in them is, and rested the Seventh day; wherefore the [Page 126] Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and hal­lowed it.

Q 58. What is required in the fourth Commandment?

A. The fourth Commandment re­quireth the keeping holy to God, such set times as he hath appointed in his Word; expresly, one whole day in seven, to be a holy Sabbath unto the Lord.

Explic. Q. Doth the fourth Command­ment require any special time to be k [...]pt holy?

A. Yes.

Q. What time?

A. Such set time as God hath appoint­ed in his Word.

Q. What mean you by a set time?

A. Such a time as is set apart for Gods worship only and wholly, all business be­ing laid aside.

Q. Doth the fourth Commandment then determine of the special time for divine worship, as the three foregoing Command­ments do of the Object, means and manner of worship?

A. Yes.

Q. In whose power is it to appoint times for worship?

A. God who appoints the worship, ap­points [Page 127] also the time for it in his Word: he hath not deputed any of this Power to any other.

Q. Hath God left us to keep what time we please?

A. No.

Q. What proportion of time hath God more solemnly set apart for his worship?

A. One whole day in Seven.

Q. Is this Commandment to be under­stood of the seventh day, in order so as to be limited to the last of the seven; or is it to be understood of a seventh in number, that is, One in Seven?

A. It is to be understood of a seventh in number: and this proportion of time the Gospel-Law never repealed.

Q. Is the fourth Commandment then a mo­ral precept, that is to say, of perpetual force binding Christians now, as well as the Iews heretofore, to the observation of it?

A. Yes.

Q. How is this day to be spent?

A. As an holy Sabbath unto God.

Q. What is meant by that?

A. It is meant that we spend this whole day to Gods glory, as he hath commanded us. Deut. 5. 12.

Q. 59. Which day of the seven hath [Page 128] God appointed to be the weekly Sabb [...]?

A. From the beginning of the World to the Resurrection of Christ, God ap­pointed the seventh day of the week to be the weekly Sabbath: and the first day of the week ever since to continue to the end of the world, which is the Christian Sabbath.

Explic. Q. How long did God appoint the seventh day of the week to be the weekly Sabbath?

A. From the beginning of the World to the Resurrection.

Q. Was it not only from the time of the giving of the Law by Moses?

A. No, it was ordained for man in Paradise, in the beginning of the World.

Q. Is that to continue, or is it changed?

A. It is changed to the first day of the week.

Q. But why do you observe the first day of the week, when the Commandment speaks of the seventh?

A. In memory of Christs rising from the Dead on the first day, that he might enter into his glorious rest, having here finished his work of Redemption: For which there is the example of the ho­ly Apostles, and the Church of GodActs 20 7 1 Cor. 16. 2 Rev. 1. 10..

[Page 129] Q. Is this day any more to be changed, [...] is it to continue?

A. It is to continue to the end of the World.

Q What is it c [...]lled?

A. The Christian Sabbath to distin­guish it from the Jewish seventh day Sabbath.

Q May it be lawfully so called?

A. Yes, it is no where forbidden to be so called, though the most proper Name be the Lords Day. Rev. 1. 10.

Q. 60. How is the Sabbath to be san­ctified?

A. The Sabbath is to be sanctified by an holy resting all that day, even from such worldly employments and recreati­ons, as are lawful on other daies, and spending the whole time in the publick and private exercises of Gods worship, except so much as is to be taken up in the works of Necessity and Mercy.

Explic. Q. Is the Sabbath to be san­ct [...]fi [...]d?

A. Yes.

Q. In what sense is God said to sanctifie the holy Sabbath?

A. In making it holy, by way of Consecration.

[Page 130] Q. In what sense are we said to sanctifie the Sabbath?

A. In keeping it holy, by way of ap­plication, viz. applying it to those ends and exercises for which God did conse­crate it.

Q. What is required that the Sabbath may be sanctified?

A. Two things, 1. Resting is required.

Q. What kind of resting must it be? a meer civil rest?

A. No.

Q. Or a meer carnal and bodily resting, such as the Ox and the Ass must have on the Sabbath?

A. No1 Cor. 6. 20.

Q. What kind of resting then is required on the Sabbath day?

A. An holy resting.

Q. How long must this be?

A. All that dayPsal. 92. Title 1, 2.

Q. From what must we rest, from spi­ritiual employments and recreations?

A. No.

Q. From what then?

A. From worldly employments and recreationsNoh. 13. 15, 22 Jer. 17. 21, 22 Exo. 16. 25, to the 28 Isa. 58. 133 14.

Q. When may these lawfully be used?

A. On other daysExod. 20. 9 [...]ccl. 9. 7, so we use them aright.

[Page 131] Q. What else is required that the Sab­bath may be sanctified?

A. 2. Spending the time in the exer­cises of Gods worship, and this makes the rest to be an holy rest.

Q May we stay at home, and spend our time in the private exercises of Gods wor­ship with the neglect of the publick?

A. NoIsa. 66. 23 Luk. 4. 16 Acts 20. 7 Heb. 10. 24, 25 with 1 Cor. 16. 1, 2 Act. 16. 13, 14, 15 Cant. 3. 1,—5.

Q. May we not rest satisfied in giving attendance on the publick worship, but must we be also careful at home in private?

A. YesExod. 20. 10 Deut. 6. 6,—10 Gen. 18. 19 Col. 3, 16 Heb. 3. 13 2 Tim. 3. 14, 15 with 1. 5.

Q. How much time must we spend in the publick and private exercises of Gods worship?

A. The whole time, except so much as is to be taken up in the works of ne­cessity and mercyMat. 12. 11, 1 [...].

Q. What do you mean by works of Necessity?

A. Such as could not be done before, and cannot be deferred until after the Sabbath.

Q. How are we to perform the duties of the day?

A. 1. We are to perform the publick and private exercises of Gods worship on the Sabath day.

[Page 132]1. With sincerity, having a single respect unto the honour and glory of God, whose day the Sabbath is. Isa. 58. 13. 2. With reverence, and that both of body and mind. Eccl. 5. 1. 1 Cor. 6. 20. Heb. 12. 28▪ 29. Isa. 66. 1. 3. With diligence and attention. Acts 16. 13, 14. Deut 6. 7. Acts 17. 11. and 10. 33. 4. With Love and fervour of Spirit. Rom. 12. 11. 5. With delight. Psal. 42. 4. Deut. 16. 14. Isa. 58. 13. 1 Ioh. 5. 3.

2. We must do works of Necessity and Mercy with chearfulness, and without anxiety of mind, and doubtful scrupu­losity. Rom. 12. 8. Mat. 12. 11, 12.

Q. 61. What is forbidden in the fourth Commandment?

A. The fourth Commandment forbid­deth the omission or careless performance of the duties required, and the profaning the day by idleness, or doing that which is in it self sinful, or by unnecess [...]ry thoughts, words, or works about world­ly imployments or recreations.

Explic. Q. What are the chief si [...] forbidden in the fourth Commandment?

A. The chief sins forbidden in the fourth Commandment are, 1. Idleness, [Page 133] which is either, 1. The omission of the duties required, which are works of Piety, Necessity and Mercy; when men spend not the day in the exercises of Gods worship, and out of superstition forbear works of Nec [...]ssity and Mercy; or, 2. The careless performance of the duties of the day, when men neither do the works of Necessity and Mercy with chearfulness and freedom from groundless fears, nor are servent in Spirit serving the Lord. 2. Profaneness, or the defiling the San­ctuary by doing that which is in it self sinful on the Sabba [...]h day. Ezek. 23. 38, 39. 3. Earthly-mindedness, by un­necessary thoughts, words or works about worldly employments or recreati­ons. Isa. 58. 13.

Q 62. What are the reasons annexed in the fou [...]th Commandment?

A. The reasons annexed to the fourth Commandment are, Gods allowing six daies of the week for worldly employ­ments, his challenging a special proprie­ty in the seventh, his own example, and his blessing the Sabbath day.

Q. Did not Christ rise on the first day of the week?

A. Yes. Mat. 28. 1, 6. Mark 16. 2, 6. Luk. 24. 1, 5, 6.

[Page 143] Q And is not the work of Redemption greater, and more glorious than the work of Creation?

A. Yes.

Q. Then as God rested the seventh day from his works, and appointed that in Com­memoration of the works of Creation; so Christ rested from his works and rose the first day, which is observed in Commemoration of the wonderful work of mans Redemp­tion?

A. Yes.

Q. Hath not Christ allowed us the same proportion of time now under the Gospel, which God did his own people under the Law?

A. Yes; Christ hath likewise allowed us,Gal 4. 10, 11 now under the Gospel, six daies of the week for worldly employments. Acts 20. 7. 1 Cor. 16. 1, 2. with 1 Cor. 7. 6, 10, 12, 25. 4.

Q. And is this a reason why we should not cut short Gods allowance of one day for his work, because we have still allowed [...] six times as much for our own?

A. Yes.

Q. Doth God the Son challenge a special propriety in the first day of the week which bears his Name, as God the Father did in the seven [...]?

[Page 135] A. 2. Yes. Exod. 20. 10. with Rev. 1. 10.

Q. And hath God the Son blessed the first day of the week by his own example, as God the Father did the seventh?

A. Yes. Heb. 4. 10.

Q. 63. Which is the fifth Command­ment?

A. The fifth Commandment, is, [Honour thy Father and thy Mother that thy daies may be long upon the Land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.]

Q. 64. What is required in the fifth Commandment?

A. The fifth Commandment requireth the preserving the honour, and performing the duties belonging to every one in their several places and Relations, as Superi­ours, Inferiours, or Equals.

Explic. Q. What doth the fifth Com­mandment require in reference to our Rela­tions?

A. Preserving the honour, and per­forming the duty belonging to them.

Q. Is there any honour belonging to any man; since the greatest Potentate is but a Creature beholding to God for what ever he is or hath?

[Page 136] A. Every one hath some honour and respect belonging to him1 P [...]t. 2. 17.

Q. Are all duties to be performed [...]like to a [...]?

A. No, but according to their several places and relations.

Q. What places and relations do men stand in one to another?

A. They stand in the relations of Su­periours, Inferiours or Equals.

Q. What do you think as Inferiours you are bound to practise by this Command­ment?

A. 1. To ReverenceHeb. 9., Love1 Tim. 5. 4. and Obey in all thingsLuk. 2. 51. Col. 3. 20. Ephes. 6. 1, 2. (not disagreeing with Gods commandsLuk. 14. 26.) our natural Parents. 2. To respect the AgedLev. 19. 32., and those that excel us in gifts1 Sam. 16. 6, 7, 11. 12.. 3. To be ruled with humility by the Governours of the FamilyEphes. 6. 5, &c. Tit. 2. 9, 10., KingdomRom. 13. 1, 5, 7. 1 Pet. 2. 17., or Church where we liveLuk. 10. 16. Heb. 13. 17..

Q. What do you think Superiours are bound to practise by this Commandment?

[Page 137] A. 1. Not to provoke their Children to wrath, but to bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the LordEphes. 6. 4.

2. Not to despise Youth, especially where there is pre-eminence in gifts1 Tim. 4. 12..

3. To rule well their own Family1 Tim. 3. 5, and in the KingdomIsa. 32. 1 or ChurchPet. 5 2, 3 Mat. 20. [...] 5, 26, 27 where they live.

Q. What do you think, as Equals, you are bound to practise by this Command­ment?

A. We ought to order our selves and to carry affably, courteously and kindly, towards our Equals1 Pet. 3. 8 Eph. 4. 32, readily to yield to them, and prefer them before our selvesGen. 13. 8, 9 Phil. 2. 3 Eph. 5. 21 Rom. 12. 10.

Q. 65. What is forbidden in the fifth Commandment?

A. The fifth Commandment forbid­deth the neglecting of or doing any thing against the honour and duty which be­longeth to every one in their several places and Relations.

Explic. Q. How many sorts of sins are there in this Commandment?

A. Three sorts, the sins against Supe­riours, Inferiours or Equals.

Q. What are the sins against Superi­ours?

A. 1. Disobedience to ParentsRo. 1. 30.

[Page 138]2. Not regarding the Person of OldLev. 19. 32. And,

3. Contempt of the Governours the FamilyEsther 1. 18 1 Tim. 6. 2, KingdomJude 8., or Church where men live.

Q. What are the sins against Inferiour?

A. 1.Luk. 10. 16 Provoking Children to wrat [...] and not bringing them up in the nurtu [...] and admonition of the Lord. Ephes. 6. 2 Sam. 13. 39. and 14. 1, 33. and 15. 10 1 Kings 1. 6, 7, 25.

2. Despising Youth. 1 Tim. 4. 12.

3. Neglect of Government, or bring­ing any evil upon the Family, Kingdom or Church by Superiours. 1 Sim. 3. [...] and 8. 3. and 2. 12,—18. wi [...] 4. 10, 11.

Q. What are the sins against Equals?

A. Morosi [...]y1 Sam. 25 5 [...]12, unkindnessPs. 55. 12, 13, 14, 15 and self-assuming ArroganceEsther 5. 9,—14.

Q. 66. What is the reason annexed [...] the fifth Commandment?

A. The reason annexed to the fifth Commandment is a promise (of long life and prosperity as far forth as it shall serve for Gods glory and their own good) to all such as keep this Commandment.

Explic. Q. What is the promise it self which is annexed for the encouragement [Page 139] of those that keep this fifth Command­ment?

A. Long life or prosperity. Exod. 20. 12. Deut. 5. 16. and Eph. 6. 2.

Q How is this Promise to be understood and limited?

A. All that keep this Command­ment shall have long life [or prosperity] as far as it shall serve for Gods glory and their good.

Q. 67. Which is the sixth Command­ment?

A. The sixth Commandment, is, [Thou shalt not Kill.]

Q. 68. What is required in the sixth Commandment?

A. The sixth Commandment requireth all lawful endeavours to preserve our own life and the life of others.

Explic. Q. What doth the sixth Com­mandment respect?

A. The sixth Commandment respects our own and others life.

Q. May we endeavour by any means whatsoever to preserve our own life and the life of others?

A. No.

Q. What endeavours may we use?

A. A [...]l lawful endeavours.

[Page 140] Q Is not a s [...]ber and moderate use of Meat, Drink, Physick, Sleep, Labour and Recreation required, as tending to the pre­servation of life?

A. Yes.

Q. When men presecute us in one City, may we flee into another?

A. YesMat. 10. 23.

Q. And may we pray that the Magistrate might not bear the Sword of Iustice in vain, but be the Minister of God, a re­venger to execute weath upon every one that doth evil, for the preserva [...]ion of our own life, and the life of others?

A. YesRo, 13. 4 P [...]al. 101. 6, 7, 8 P [...]ov. 17 15 N [...]mb. 35. 31.

Q. 69. What is forbidden in the sixth Commandment?

A. The sixth Commandment forbid­deth the taking away of our own life, or the life of our Neighbour unjustly, and whatsoever rendeth thereunto.

Explic. Q. What is chiefly forbidden in this Commandment?

A. The taking away of our own life, or the life of others unjustly. Gen. 4. 8 &c. Acts 16. 27, 28.

Q. Since these are but the chief sins forbidden, what are the other sins you take your self to be necessarily engaged against [Page 141] by v [...]rtue of this Commandment?

A. 1. C [...]useless and immoderate an­ger, and long continued (though not causeless) angerMat. 5. 21, 22 Eph. 4 26, 27.

2. Contumelious Railing and Conten­tious languageMat. 5. 22 James 1. 2.

3. Malice and HatredEph. 4. 31 1 Joh. 3. 15.

4. Meditating Revenge of wrongsRom. 12. 19 Mat. 5. 39. 2 Sam. 13. 20—29.

5. Oppression, biting Usury and hardning our hearts against others in their ex­treamest necessi [...]yIsa. 1 15, 16, 17 Psal 12. 5 Prov. 14 31 Exod. 1 14 and 22. 25 Neh. 5 7. 11 James 2. 16 Job 29. 13 Luke 10. 30.—33.

6. Pride and EnvyEsth 6. 13 Acts 7. 9 Mat. 27. 18 Jam. 3. 14 Prov. 14. 30.

7. Murmuring against and complain­ing of Gods providential administrations, not con [...]ented with such things as we haveJud. 16. v. 1 K [...]. 21. 3, 4 Heb. 13. 5 Mat. 26. 14, 15, 16.

8. Fear of want and distrust of Gods All-sufficiency.

9. Impatiency of Spirit under vexing frustrations and disappointments2 Sam. 17. 7, 14, 23 Mat. 27. 3, 4, 5.

Q. How are these sins forbidden in this Commandment?

A. As they are degrees of, or temp­tations and incentments to Murder, or tending thereunto.

Q. 70. Which is the seventh Command­ment?

A. The seventh Commandment, is, [Thou shalt not commit Adultery.]

[Page 142]Q. 71. What is required in the seventh Commandment?

A. The seventh Commandment re­quireth the preservation of our own and our Neighbours Chastity in heart, speech and behaviour.

Explic. Q. What doth the seventh Com­mandment respect?

A. The seventh Commandment re­spects our own and others Chastity.

Q. What are the duties required in this Commandment?

A. They are two, the preservation of our own1 Thes. 4. 4, and our Neighbours Cha­stityGen. 39. 7, &c..

Q Wherein are we bound to preserve our own, and our Neighbours Chastity?

A. 1. In thought and affection of the heartJob 31. 1 [...] Tim, 2, 22.

2. In speech, using modest words and savoury expressions, tending to edificati­on and sanctification. Col. 4. 6. Ephes. 4. 29.

3. In behaviour, apparelling and car­rying our selves modestly every way as becometh Saints. 1 Tim. 2. 9. Eph 5. 3. 1 Pet. 3. 1, 2.

Q. By what means may we thus preserve our own and our Neighbours Chastity?

[Page 143] A. We may preserye our own and our Neighbours Chastity.

1. By watchfulness over our hearts and SensesMal. 2. 16 Job 31. 1 Gen. 39 7 Eph. 5. 4.

2. By diligence in our CallingsProv. 3 [...]. 27 Gen. 39. 11, 12.

3. By temperance in eating and drink­ing, and keeping under the Body, when there is need, with frequent FastingsProv. 23. 31, 32, 33 1 Cor. 9. 27..

4. By the fear of God and awful ap­ [...]hensions of his omni-presence and all­ [...]ing eyeGen. 20. 11 Prov. 5. 20, 21.

5. By frequent and servent PrayerPs. 119. 37 with 2 Sam. 11. 2.

6. By diligent observation according to the Word of GodPsa. 119. 9.

7. By keeping of chast company, [...]voiding society with those that are lasci­viousProv. 2. 16,—21 and 7. 25 and 5. 8.

8. When no other means will avail to [...]ench burning desires, Marriage is to be made us of, and that must be in the Lord1 Cor. 7. 9, 39 by serious meditation of Death and JudgementEccl. 11. 9.

Q [...]2. What is forbidden in the seventh Commandment?

A. The seventh Commandment for­biddeth all unchast thoughts, words and actions.

Explic. Q. What unchastity is forbid­den in this Commandment?

[Page 144] A. All manner of unchastity.

1. In thoughts, viz▪ Contemplai [...] wickedness, filthy dreamsJob 31. 1 Jude v. 8, inordina [...] aff [...]ctionsCol. 3. 5, evil concupiscence or lusti [...] after a woman in the heart, which [...] be called heart AdulteryCol. 3. 5 Mat. 5. 28.

2. In words, viz. corrupt communi­cation, foolish talking, jesting, and [...] ­scivious Songs, which are not conve [...] ­entEph. 4. 29 and 5. 4.

3. In actions, viz. 1. Adultery which is single or double; single when a man and woman, whereof the one is Mar [...]y [...] or contracted [that is, have mutually pro­mised Marriage in the presence of wit­nesses] commit filthiness together Double when both parties Married [...] contracted do commit lewdness together which is a most hainous Offence, as be­ing committed against four PersonsDeut. 22 22, 23. Prov. 6. 32 and 7. 7, &c. Jer. 5. 7, 8 Prov. 5. 20.

2. Fornication, when two single per­sons come together, out of the state of Marriage; which is either by mutual consentEx. 22. 16 Gen. 34. 2; or by the violent d [...]flouring of a woman against her willDeut. 22. 28, 29: And this may very properly be called a R [...]pe; al­though that may be committed upon [...] Married and be [...]rothed (or contracted) woman alsoDeut. 22. 25.

[Page 145]3. Incest1 Cor. 5. 1 Lev. 18. 6.

4. Polygamy or the having of many Wives at once: which was ever unlawful in the Court of Conscience; howsoever for a time it was born with of God, and not punished by any positive LawGen. 4. 23 Lev. 18. 18 Mal. 2. 15, 16 1 Cor. 6. 16 and 7. 2 Mat. 19 4, 5, 6.

5. The putting away of a mans Wife (except for Adultery) and Marrying another, or the Marrying her that is so put awayMat▪ 5 32.

6. Self-pollution, or that wicked wast­ful spilling a mans own Seed, exempli­fied in Er and Onan. Gen. 38. 6, &c.

7. SodomyLev. 18. 22 Rom. 1. 26, 27.

8. BuggeryLev. 18. 23.

9. The unseasonable and immode­rate use of the Marriage-bedLev. 18. 19 1 Cor. 7. 5 2 Sam. 11. 11 Heb. 13 4 1 Cor. 7. 31.

Q. Are all other acts and lusts of un­cleanness, [...]and whatsoever may be the cause or beginning of them or have any tendency unto them, forbidden in this Command­ment?

A. Yes; upon this account Drunken­ness Prov. 23. 30, &c. Gen. 19. 31, &c., Gluttony and IdlenessEzek. 16. 49, 50, wan­ton gestures, and attiresIsa. 3. 16 Prov. 7. 10 2 Kin. 9. 30, promiscuous Dancing of Men and WomenMar. 6. 22▪ Ex. 32. 6, 19, unneces­sary companyings with light and leud PersonsProv. 5. 8 and 13. 20, reading lascivious Books, be­holding unchast Pictures, Interludes and [Page 146] Stage-Plays, and whatsoever doth any waies provoke lust is forbidden in this CommandmentEph 5. 3, 4 Deut 22. 5 1 Thes. 4. 7 Col. 5. 8▪ Ezek. 23. 14, 15, &c. Ro. 13. 13 1 Pet. 3. 2.

Q. 73. Which is the eighth Command­ment?

A. The eighth Commandment, is, [Thou shalt not Steal.]

Q. What is required in the eighth Com­mandment?

A. The eighth Commandment re­quireth the lawful procuring and further­ing the wealth and outward estate of our selves and others.

Explic. Q. What doth the eighth Com­mandment respect?

A. The wealth and outward estate of our selves and others.

Q. What doth this Commandment re­quire in reference unto our own and others wealth and outward estate?

A. The lawful procuring and further­ing thereofRo. 12. 17 Phil. 2. 4.

Q. How is this to be done?

A. By diligence and fugality, seeking unto the Lord for his blessing upon all our endeavoursProv. 10. 4, 22 Gen. 2. 15 and 4. 2 Eph. 4. 28 1 Cor. 7. 10 Prov. 27. 23; by preventing loss to othersExod. 23, 4, 5, and relieving them in case of necessity, giving or lending freely ac­cording to our abilityProv. 3. 3, 27 Eph. 4. 28 Mat. 5. 42 Deut. 15. 7, &c. Luke 6. 30, 34, 35 Neh. 5. 8 Acts 11. 29, 30 Rom. 12. 8 1 Cor. 16. 2, &c.

[Page 147] Q. Are Iustice and Charity the chief vertues and graces required to be exercised in this Commandment?

A. Yes. Isa. 56. 1. Psal. 82. 3, 4. Isa. 33. 15. Prov. 14. 21. Lev. 19. 9, 10, 11. Deut. 24. 19.

Q. Doth not this Commandment require that men should make restitution of what they have unjustly taken, and kept from the right owners thereof, and in case that can­not be done, to give it to the poor?

A. Yes. Lev. 6. 2, 3, 4, 5. Numb. 5. 6, 7, 8. Luke 19. 8. Dan. 4. 27.

Q. Is there any one precept which you think will secure all the Duties of this Com­mandment, and the rest of the second Table?

A. Yes, that of our Saviours; What­soever you would that men should do un­to you, do ye even so to them. Mat. 7. 12. Luke 6. 3.

Q. 75. What is forbidden in the eighth Commandment?

A. The eighth Commandment for­biddeth whatsoever doth, or may unjustly hinder our own, or our Neighbours wealth and outward estate.

Explic. Q. What is chiefly forbidden in this Commandment?

[Page 148] A. Theft, viz. The taking away of that which belongeth not to us.

Q What are the kinds of Theff?

A. They are [...]ither Thefts committed in the Family, or out of the Family.

Q. What are the Thefts committed in the Family?

A. They are the purloinings of Wife, Children and ServantsProv. 31. 11, 12, 27 and 28. 24 Joh. 12 6 Tit. 2. 10 Phile. v. 11.

Q. How is Theft that is committed out of the Family distinguished?

A. It is either of Goods, or of Per­sons. Of Goods, either common or sa­cred: and those either private or publick.

Q. What is the Theft of Goods?

A. It is the fraudulent taking away of such Goods that belong not to us, without the knowledge and against the will of the owner.

Q. What is the Theft of Persons?

A. It is the Stealing of Men and Chil­dren by the Sons of Be ial, to sell them to Heathens for SlavesExod. 21. 16 Deut. 24. 7; and the steal­ing of mens Daughters by lustful, or co­vetous Wooers, to make them their Wives, which hainous sin was punished by the Law of God with Death, being so much worse than the theft of Goods, as the persons of men are better than theyMat. 6. 25 Rev. 18. 13 Mat. 16. 26.

[Page 149] Q. How doth the theft of Goods common and Sacred differ?

A. The [...]ormer is a purloining and imbez [...]ling of things common and tem­porary, the latter is of things spiritual, or of things consecrated to an holy and sacred use.

Q. What mean you by private Theft?

A. The fraudulent taking away of such Goods as belong to private men.

Q. What by publick?

A. The stealing of those things which belong to the publick state or Body of the Common-wealth.

Q We have now spoken of Theft pr [...]per­ly so called; what is the other kind which is more improper?

A. Rapine: which is the taking away of another Mans Goods openly by force and violence (the taking a thing secretly is properly called Theft.)

Q. How is Rapine committed?

A. It is committed [...]i her under the pretext of authority and legal power, or else without it. The former whereof is worse than that which is properly called Theft, as being more publick, open and daring, and shall be more severely pu­nished Wis. 6. 6; because this sin is aggravated by [Page 150] the abuse of authority, and because com­monly violence and cruelty is joyned with itZeph. 3. 3 Ezek. 22. 27 Mic. 3. 2, 3 Isa. 3. 14, 15.

Q. What is this Rapine called?

A. Oppression and Extortion: when Ministers of State under colour of Law despoil or wring out money, or mo­neys worth from any man1 Kin. 21 and Ezek. 22. 12.

Q. What is that Rapine which is com­mitted without any pretext of authority?

A. It is either in War, or in Peace. In War, either by Land, when Souldiers being not content with their wages, do spoil and plunder, not only their enemies, but also their Friends, Deut. 2. 5, 6. Luk. 3. 14. Or by Sea, when as Pirats, they rob and spoil all they meet with and can master.

Q. What is that Rapine which is exercised on the Land?

A. It is either Robbery by the high­way, (Luke 10. 30. Ioh. 18. 40.) or Burglary, when as they break open houses that they may rob the Inhabitants. Exod. 22. 2.

Q. Are there no other to be esteemed Thieves but those only who act theft them­selves?

A. Yes; they also who are accessa­ries [Page 151] and do consent to the Theft of others And these Thefts are either common to all, or proper to Superiours. The for­mer is committed before, with, or after the Theft.

Q. How is a man an accessary before the Theft?

A. When he counselleth or provoketh another unto it1 Kings 21. 7, &c. Prov. 1. 11, 13, 14.

Q. How with or in the Theft?

A. Either when he aideth the Thief, or doth not hinder him, when it is in his power to do it.

Q. How after the Theft?

A. 1. When he receiveth and conceal­eth what is stoln; or hideth or keepeth the Thief from being apprehended.

2. When he partaketh with him in the stoln GoodsProv. 29. 24.

Q. How is this done?

A. 1. When he taketh the Goods from the Thief, that he may keep them to him­self.

2. When he knowingly buyeth stoln Goods, which ought to be restored to the owners.

3. When by silence he concealeth the Thief.

Q. How are the Superiours accessary?

[Page 152] A. When they do any waies incourage or do not punish them: especially when they do acquit them for a Bribe.

Q. Doth this Commandment also for­bid us all coz [...]nage, circumvention, and the Denial of Al [...]ns to the Poor?

A. Yes. Lev. 19 11, 13. 1 Thes. 4. 6. Luke 6. 30. 1 Ioh. 3. 17. P [...]v▪ 14. 21.

Q. And doth it forbid all waies and means▪ whereby either publickly or private­ly, by force or by fraud, we may acquire or detain from any what either by the rule of righteousness or Charity belongs unto them?

A. Yes, it dothLev. 19. 35 Deu 25. 14 Rom. 13. 8 Mat. 5. 44, 45, 46 Prov. 14. 21 Lev. 19. 9, 10 Deut. 24. 19 Tobit 4. 7, 8, 9 Eccl. 4. 1 Luk. 14. 13.

Q. How are these things forbidden in this Commandment?

A. A [...] they do or may unjustly hinder our own, or our Neighbours wealth and ou [...]ward estate.

Q. May not men be Thieves as to them­selves and their own wealth and outward estate?

A. Yes, they may be depriving them­selves of those temporal blessings, which of natural right belong to them.

Q How are men guilty of this kind of Theft?

A. 1. By impoverishing vices, viz. [Page 153] Drunknness and Gluttony, and the ac­companying of such vitious persons h, Idleness i, Covetousness k, and U [...] ­cleanness l. h Prov. 23. 20, 21. and 28. 19. i and 23. 21. and 18. 9. k and 11. 23. [...] 6. 26.

2. By the making and keeping of rash Vows (which oblige men to nothing but Repentance) viz. of Pilgrimaging, &c. which waste that outward estate God hath given such ignorant Z [...]alo [...]s and Vo­tari [...]s for their comfortable subsistence in t [...]is worldPr [...]. 30. 8 and 15 6; and which might have been better improved to the relieving of the poor, for the furtherance of their own account in the other worldPi 112. 5 & 37. 25, 26 Pro. 19 17 Mat. 25. 34,—41 1 T [...]m. 6 18 Heb. 13. 16 Gal. 6. 10 1 Cor. 16. 2 and 1 Tim. 3. 2.

3. By unnecessary sufferings.

Q. What mean you by unnecessary suf­ferings?

A. 1. Those that were not unavoida­ble; but might be flight or other lawful means have been well enough declined or escaped. Mat. 10. 23.

2. Those that men suffer for their faults, viz. Heresies, S [...]ditions and Schisms; or for damnable Doctrines, and Bandyings into Parties destructive to all Government in Church and State.

Q. But do not the holy Scriptures make [Page 154] an honourable mention of those that took joyfully the spoiling of their Goods, that chose to suffer afflictions with the people of God, and esteemed the reproach of Christ more than all the pleasures, advantages, and treasures in the world?

A. Yes. Heb. 10. 34. and 11. 24, 25, 26.

Q And ought we not to forsake Houses and Lands, and all we have for the sake of Christ?

A. Yes, or else we cannot be Christs DisciplesLuk. 14. 33.

Q. But shall we not be greatly losers hereby?

A. We shall be so far from being losers by it, that we shall in this very life by that means be abundantly more richly provided for in the same proportion that they are which in the Harvest have the most plentiful returns to their seed and pains- [...]aking; and in the world to come they shall inherit everlasting lifeMat. 19. 29 Mar. 10. 29, 30.

Q. 76. Which is the ninth Command­ment?

A. The ninth Commandment is, [Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy Neighbour.]

Q. 77. What is required in the ninth Commandment?

[Page 155] A. The ninth Commandment re­quireth the maintaining and promoting of Truth between Man and Man, and of our own and our Neighbours good Name; especially in witness-bearing.

Explic. Q What doth the ninth Com­mandment respect?

A. The ninth Commandment respects our own, and our Neighbours good Name.

Q. Ought we to maintain and promote our own, and our Neighbours good Name?

A. Yes1 Pet. 3. 16 Phil. 4. 8 Tit. 2. 8 and 3. 2 3 Joh. 12.

Q. How may our own and our Neigh­bours good Name be effectually maintained and promoted?

A. By putting away Lying, and speak­ing every man the Truth with his Neigh­bourEph. 4 25 Isa. 63. 8 with 43. 4.

Q. Wherein especially is this to be done?

A. In witness-bearingDeut. 17. 4, 6 Prov. 14. 5, 25.

Q. 78. What is forbidden in the ninth Commandment?

A. The ninth Commandment forbid­deth whatsoever is prejudicial to Truth, or injurious to our own or our Neigh­bours good Name.

Explic. Q. What sins are forbidden in this Commandment?

[Page 156] A. Lying, Equiv [...]cating, mental re­servation Col. 3. 9 Psal. 12. 1, 2, and unseasonable profession of the truthJoh. 18. 20, 21 Mat. 7. 6.

Q How are lies usually distinguished?

A. Into three sorts

  • Merry,
  • Officious,
  • Pernicious


Q. What are Merry Lies?

A. Such as are spoken only to delight others and make sport.

Q What are Officious Lies?

A. Such as are spoken either for our own, or our Neighbours profit; and do not hurt any manPro. 23. 23 Job 13 7 Rom. 3. 8.

Q. But what is the sin chiefly forbidden in this Commandment?

A. The giving of false Testimonies, which are pernicious to our Neighbours Life, Goods and good NameProv. 19▪ 5 and 6. 16, 17, 19 1 Kings 21. 10.

Q. How are the aforesaid sins here for­bidden?

A. As they are prejudicial to truth.

Q. What other sins are there forbidden in this Commandment?

A. Back biting, slandering, and the taking up a reproach against our Neigh­bour Pro 25. 23 Psal. 15. 3, going up and down as a Tale­bearer Iev 19. 16 Prov. 26 22, bitterness and evil-speaking, which is Tongue-PersecutionEph. 4. 31 Gal. 4. 29 with Ge [...]. 21. 9, the rash [Page 157] censuring of othersMat. 7. 1 Acts 24. 4, and putting bad constructions on their words andPsal. 56. 5 with Ma [...]k 14. 58, 59 Joh. 2. 19, 20, 21 Mat. 27. 39, 40, &c. N [...]h. 6. 5, 6, 7, 8 acti­ons, and the procuring to ourselves an ill Name; either, 1. By walking un­discreetly, or2 Sam. 12. 14 Rom. 2 23, 24 Offensively. Or, 2. By a needless lessening the good opinion others have of us, by bewraying our weakness; as want of learning, &c. to the Carper.

Q How are these sins here forbidden?

A. As they are injurious to our own or our Neighbours good Name.

Q. Which is the tenth Commandment?

A. The tenth Commandment is, [Thou shalt not covet thy Neighbours House, thou shalt not covet thy Neighbours Wife, nor his Man-Servant, nor his Maid-Servant, nor his Ox, nor his Ass, nor any thing that is thy Neighbours.

Q. 80. What is required in the tenth Commandment?

A. The tenth Commandment requireth full contentment with our own conditi­on, with a right and charitable frame of spirit towards our Neighbour, and all that is his.

Explic. Q Doth not the fifth Com­mandment enjoyn us to give respect to the persons of all men?

A. Yes. 1 Sam. 1. 15. Acts 16 30. Gen. 23. 7. 1 Pet. 2. 17.

[Page 158]Q. Doth not the sixth Commandment respect our own and our Neighbours Life?

A. Yes.

Q And the seventh, our own, and our Neighbours Chastity?

A. Yes.

Q. And the eighth, our own and our Neighbours wealth and outward estate?

A. Yes.

Q. And the ninth our own and our Neigh­bours good Name?

A. Yes.

Q. And do not all these Laws of God bind the inward as well as the outward man?

A. Yes.

Q. Doth then the tenth Commandment [Thou shalt not covet] differ from the rest, especially in that it doth forbid and restrain the first motions and inclinations of the heart to sin, before the consent of the will?

A. Yes.

Q. What duties are required in this Commandment?

A. Chiefly two; 1. Full contentment with our own conditionHeb. 13 5.

Q. What is meant by contentment?

A. Complacency and satisfaction of [Page 159] mind with our own condition whatever it isPhil. 4. 11.

Q. What is the other duty here chiefly required?

A. A right and charitable frame of Spirit towards our Neighbour, and all that is his.

Q. What mean you by that?

A. That disposition of mind, where­by we think and wish well to our Neigh­bour, and do readily and suitably sym­pathize, or have a fellow-feeling with him in any condition he is in1 Cor. 13. 4, 5 Rom. 12. 15 2 Cor. 11. 28, 29.

Q 81. What is forbidden in the tenth Commandment?

A. The tenth Commandment forbid­deth all discontentment with our own estate, envying and grieving at the good of our Neighbour, and all inordinate motions and affections to any thing that is his.

Explic. Q. What are the sins forbidden in the tenth Commandment?

A. The sins forbidden in the tenth Commandment are, 1. All discontent­ment [displicency and dissatisfaction of mind] with our own estate1 Kings 21. 3, 4 Esther 5. 11, 12, 13 1 Cor. 10. 10 with Num. 20. 3, 4 and 21. 5. 2. All envying [or grieving at] the good of our NeighbourGal. 5. 26 Psa. 112. 9, 10 Neh. 2. 10 Prov. 14. 30 Mat. 20. 19. 3. All inordinate mo­tions [Page 160] and affections towards any thing that isCol [...] 3. 5 his [or coveting any thing that is our Neighbours.]

Q 82. Is any man able to keep the Com­mandment of God?

A No meer man since the Fall is able in this life perfectly to keep the Com­mandments of God, but daily doth break them in thought, word and deed.

Explic. Q. Was Adam able perfectly to keep the Commandments of God before the Fall?

A. Yes. Gen. 1 26 27. Eccl. 7 29.

Q Is man able perfectly to keep the Commandments of God now?

A. No. Eccl. 7 20. Iam. 3. 2. 1 Kings 8. 46. 1 Ioh. 1. 8, 10.

Q. How long hath man been rendred unable, perfectly to keep the Commandments of God?

A. Ever since the Fall.

Q. But how long shall man continue in this impotency?

A. As long as he continues in this lifeRom. 3. 9, &c..

Q. Christ was true man; but was not he able perfectly in this life to keep the Com­mandment of God since the Fall?

A. He was not a meer man.

[Page 161] Q. What mean you by that?

A. That he was God as well as manPhil. 2. 6, 7, 8.

Q. How oft doth man break the Com­mandments of God?

A. He doth daily break them.

Q How many waies doth he break them?

A. Three waies, viz. in thoughtGen. 6. 5 Mat. [...] 28 and 15. 19, wordJames 3. 6, &c. Ro. 3. 13, 14 and deedPs. 130. 3 Rom. 3. 12, 15, &c..

Q. If this be true, must not that do­ctrine of the Papists and others be false, that teacheth perfection attainable in this life, and that men may do works of supere­rogation, and that good works are meritori­ous?

A. Yes, this their proud, and self-ad­vancing Doctrine must needs be false.

Q. But what do you mean by that per­fection, which is not attainable in this life?

A. Absolute unsinning obedience.

Q. Was not this perfection attained in this life by the ever blessed Virgin Mary?

A. NoRom. 3 9, 10, 19, 23.

Q. Why can none merit everlasting life by good works?

A. 1. Because works as good are not their ownJam. 1. 17 1 Cor. 4. 7 2 Cor. 3. 5 Gen. 20. 6 1 Chron. 29. 14 Ps. 119. 136.

[...]. Because all such works are DebtsLuk. 17. 10 Rom. 6. 22 [Page 162] to be paid, and not gifts offered up unto God.

3. Because they bear no proportion to the reward to be receivedMa [...]k 10. 29, 30 2 Cor. 4. 17, 18 Heb. 11▪ 25, 26.

Q Can works of Supererogation consist with the imperfection of our works?

A. No.

Q. If no man can merit by his works for himself, can he communicate to another that which he hath not himself?

A. No.

Q. Is there therefore nothing in the Churches treasury superabundant for those that do not abound in every good work them­selves?

A. No.

Q. 83. Are all transgressions of the Law equally hainous?

A. Some sins in themselves, and by reason of several aggravations are more hainous in the sight of God than others.

Explic. Q Are some sins more hainous in the sight of God than others?

A. Yes.

Q. What do you mean by more hainous?

A. More grievous, and more offen­sive.

Q. How many waies may some sins be more grievous and hainous than others?

[Page 163] A. Two waies; 1. In themselves and of their own nature. 2. By reason of their aggravations.

Q. What do you mean by the aggravations of sins?

A. Such additional circumstances which make them more provoking in the sight of God than otherwise they would be.

Q. And are some sins in themselves, or of their own nature more hainous than others?

A. Yes. 1. The highest sins against the first Table are more hainous than the highest against the second TableMat. 22. 36 1 Sam. 8. 7, 8 and 2. 25. And,

2. Wilfull presumptuous sins are more hainous than sins of infirmityHeb. 10. 26 with 1 Tim. 1. 13 Ps. 19. 12, 13, sins against knowledge than those of igno­rance Luke 12. 47, 48, sins ripened into action, than sins begun in the thoughtsJam. 1. 15 Mat. 21. 28, &c. Gen. 20. 3, &c., and sins of custom and deliberation, than those com­mitted through some sudden passion and iustant force of temptation1 Sam. 2. 12, 13, 17. with 2 Sam. 6 6, 7 Prov. 7. 5, &c. with Gen. 34 1, &c. 2 Sam. 15 [...] 10, 11.

Q. And are sins likewise by reason of their several aggravations more hainous in the sight of God than otherwise they would be?

A. Yes, sins are more hainous than otherwise they would be by their aggra­vating heightening circumstances, viz. [Page 164] from the time2 Chron. 28. 22. when, the place whereIsa. 26. 10. Psal. 106. 7., the manner1 Kings 21. 9, 10. 2 Sam. 3. 27. in which, the meansDan. 8. 24, 25. Iudg. 9. 4, 5. 2 Kings 8. 15. 2 Chron. 13. 6, 8. with 1 Kings 12. 28. by which, the reasonHos. 5. 1. Psal. 37. 7, 8. why, the person by whom2 Sam. 12. 7, 8, 9. Ezek. 8. 11, 12. Mich. 3. 5. Rom. 2. 23, 24, 25., and the person against whom they were committed2 Sam. 16. 22. and 1. 14, &c. and 4. 9. &c. 2 Chron. 36. 16..

Q. 84. What doth every sin deserve?

A. Every sin deserveth Gods wrath and curse, both in this life and that which is to come.

Explic. Q. But though some sins are more hainous than others, yet are there any sins so small that deserve not Gods wrath and curse, both here and hereafter?

A. No. Ephes. 2. 3. Deut. 28. 15, &c. Gal. 3. 10. Matth. 25. 41. Rom. 2. 5 6, 8, 9.

Q. The Papists have a distinction of mor­tal and venial sins: by mortal they mean such as are in their own nature damnable and deserve eternal death, viz. Perjury, Murder and Adultery, or those seven in the [Page 165] Popish Catechism, Pride, Covetousness, Lusts, Anger, Gluttony, Envy and Sloth; by Venial they mean such as are in their own nature pardonable and deserve not everlast­ing punishments, viz. Concupiscence, sud­den passions of the mind and such like; Doth the Scripture warrant this distinction of theirs?

A. No. 1. The Scripture teacheth us, first, that the curse of God is due to every one that breaketh the least of Gods CommandmentsGal. 3. 10. 2. That the wages of sin (indiscriminatively, without any difference) is death. And such a death that is opposed to eternal lifeRom. 6. 23. And we must not distinguish where the Law it self doth not distinguish. 3. That for every idle word that men speak, they shall give an account thereof in the day of Judgement, and that by such words (if not repented of) they shall be con­demned, Mat. 12. 36, 37. And on the contrary, that the forementioned mortal sins in the Popish sense, have been, and shall be forgiven to all penitent Believers to whom by vertue of the New Cove­nant all such sins are become venial. 2 Sam. 12. 9, 13. Mat. 26. 74, 75. Luke 22. 32. Mark 16. 7. 1 Cor. 6. 9, 10, 11.

[Page 166]Q. 85. What doth God require of us that we may escape his wrath and curse due to us for sin?

A. To escape the wrath and curse of God due to us [...]or sin, God requireth of us Faith in Jesus Christ, Repentance unto life, with the diligent use of all outward means whereby Christ communicateth to us the benefits of Redemption.

Explic. Q. Is there any way to escape the wrath and curse of God?

A. Yes. Heb. 10. 19 20.

Q Is there any thing required on our part to escape them?

A. Yes, Faith, Repentance, and the diligent use of the means of Grace.

Q. And doth God require Repentance, and Faith of us; or hath Christ repented and believed for us?

A. He requireth them of usJoh. 6. 29 1 Joh. 3. 23 John 3 26 Acts 17. 30 Acts 2 38 Mat. 3. 2 Mark 1. 14, 15 Act. 16. 30, 31 and 5. 31 and 20. 21.

Q. Why so?

A. Because Christ had no need of Re­pentance and Faith, being without sin. Luke 1. 35. Iohn 8. 46. 1 Pet. 2. 22. Iohn 9. 30,—34. Heb. 7. 26. Mat. 27. 19. Luke 23. 14, 15. Iohn 19. 4, &c. Acts 3. 13, 14. and 7. 52. and 22. 14. 1 Pet. 3. 18. Mat. 1. 21. Iohn 1. 29. 1 Pet. 1. 18, 19. Isa. 53. 4, 5, 6.

[Page 167]Q. Who communicateth to us the works of Red [...]mption?

A. Christ that purchased them, con­veighs and communicates them to us. Gal. 3. 13. Rom. 3. 24, 25, 26. 2 Cor. 5. 21. Acts 2. 36. Tit. 2. 14.

Q. Doth Christ communicate his benefits by means, or without means?

A. By meansEzek 36. 37 Acts 9. 10, &c. Ro. 10. 13, 14, 15, 17 Cant. 3. 1,—5 1 Cor. 1. 21 Acts 8. 22 Jer. 6. 16.

Q. What kind of use must we make of the means?

A. A di [...]igent useJoh. 5. 39 Acts 17. 11, 12 with Prov. 2. 1,—6 and 8. 34.

Q. Why doth God require of us Faith and Repentance, and the diligent use of all the outward means?

A. That we may escape his wrath and curse due to us for sin.

Q. 86. What is Faith in Iesus Christ?

A. Faith in Jesus Christ is a saving grace, whereby we receive and rest upon him alone for Salvation, as he is offered to us in the Gospel.

Explic. Q Why call you Faith in Iesus Christ a grace?

A. 1. Because it is not from natureMat. 16. 16, 17.

2. Because it is given, and wrought of free graceEph. 2. 8.

Q. Why call you Faith a saving Grace?

A. Because where it is truly wrought, [Page 168] it brings the person in whom it is to SalvationHeb. 10. 39.

Q Doth it not then much concern us to know what this Faith is, and to labour after it, when we cannot be saved without it?

A. Yes.

Q. 1. Is this Faith only the believing that Christ died for sinners?

A. No, for the Devils and Damned in H [...]ll believe this.

Q. 2. Or is it an implicite Faith, or a blind Faith (which the Popish Doctors perswade the people to rest in) to believe as the Church believes, though they know not what the Church believes?

A. No.

Q. Why so?

A. 1. Because, to believe as the Church believes, when we know not what the Church believes, is to put out our own eyes that we may take a Guide; and if by the Church must be understood the Church of Rome, it is to take such a Guide asA blind G [...]i [...]e, or a Seducer. Mat. 15. 14 1 John 4. 2 2 Pet. 2. 1, 2, 3 2 Thes. 2. 7,—13 either cannot, or will not guide us aright: which is in effect to refuse our own mercies, and to run an unnecessary hazzard of our eternal Sal­vation.

Q. How do we by an implicite Faith in [Page 169] the Church of Rome refuse our own mercies?

A. Because without personal know­ledge, denied us by that corrupt Church, (which yet God hath given us for this very end, to make the true Religion judi­cially our own) all the Ordinances of God, viz. our Praying, Singing, Read­ing 1 Cor. 14. 14, 15. and Hearing the Word of GodActs 8. 30,—36. Neh. 8. 8. Rom. 10. 14, 17. Acts 28 25—29., CatechizingDeut. 6. 6, 7. Ephes. 6. 4. Prov. 22. 6. 1 Sam. 1. 24. Luke 2. 42, 46. with Exod. 13. 12., MeditatingI [...]sh. 1. 8. Psal. 1. 2. and 119. 79—101. and 77. 12. and 143 5., holy Con­ferences Mal. 3. 16. Heb. 3. 13 Luke 24. 32., and receiving the Sacra­ments Mat. 28. 19, 20. with Acts 19. 1, 2. 1 Cor. 11. 28, 29., will be altogether unprofitable to us and in vai [...].

Q. And how do we hazzard our eternal Salvation by it?

A. Because we do hereby follow the pernicious waies of that Adulterated Church which holds such doctrines that do very much endanger itMat. 15. 3, 6, 9 Col. 2. 20, 21, 22, 23 1 Cor. 6. 9 with 5. 11 Gal. 5. 19, 20, 21.

Q. What other reason have you to prove that this blind implicite Faith is not a justi­fying and saving Faith?

[Page 170] A. 2. Because it secludes that know­ledge which is a necessary ingredient in­corporate into the very nature and essence of true saving Faith. Isa. 53. 11. Ioh. 17. 3. 1 Ioh. 5. 20. Acts 26 18. Rom. 10. 9. 2 Tim. 1. 12. 1 Pet. 3. 15.

Q. 3. Is this justifying saving Faith a keeping of the Commandments of God, or obedience to his Laws, as Socinians affirm?

A. No. 1. Because obedience is the fruit and effect of FaithRom, 16. 26.

2. Because union with Christ, Ju­stification and Adoption are the fruits of Faith, and not of works or obedi­enceEph. 3. 17 Rom. 5. 1 John 1. 12.

Q. 4. Is this saving justifying Faith a full perswasion of the heart, or an assurance that our sins are pardoned and that our souls shall be saved?

A. No, because we must be justified and pardoned before we can believe that we are justified and pardoned, else we should believe a Lie.

Q. What then is this true saving Faith?

A. It is our hearty accepting, receiving and resting upon Christ alone for Sal­vation, as he is offered to us in the GospelJohn 6. 67, 68, 69 Heb. 11. 1, 24, 25, 26 John 1. 12 Cant. 8. 5 Isa. 26. 3, 4 Gal. 2. 16.

[Page 171] Q. Is Christ offered to us in the Gospel as our Prophet, Priest and King?

A. Yes. Isa. 33. 22.

Q And is it not true Faith except we take Christ as a Prophet to be guided, as a King to be ruled, and as a Priest to be saved by him alone?

A. No. Acts 3. 22. Iohn 14 26. and 16. 14 Heb. 7. 21, &c. Acts 2. 36. 1 Tim. 6. 14 15. Mat. 2. 2. Iohn 1. 49. Zach. 9. 9. Luke 19. 37, 38.

Q. 87. What is Repentance unto life?

A Repentance u [...]to life is a saving grace whereby a sinner out of a true sense of his sin, and apprehension of the mer­cy of God in Christ, doth with grief and hatred of his sin, turn from it unto God, with full purpose of, and endeavour after new obedience.

Explic. Q. What Repentance is here descri [...]ed?

A. Repentance unto life.

Q. Why is it so called?

A. Because it brings the person in whom it is to Eternal LifeAct. 11. 18.

Q. Why is it called a saving grace?

A. For the same reason, viz. because where Repentance is truly wrought, it brings the person in whom it is unto Sal­vation 2 Cor. 7. 10.

[Page 172] Q. What is that which is wrought in sin­ners as a preparation to Repentance?

A. A true sense of sinActs 2. 37.

Q. What mean you by that?

A. Such a sight of sin, as deeply af­fects our hearts with godly sorrow for it.

Q. What is the main motive to Repen­tance?

A. The apprehension of Gods mercy in ChristJoel 2. 12, 19 Exo. 34 6, 7 Rom. 2. 4 2 Cor. 5. 18, 19.

Q. Can there be no true Repentance with­out conviction, a true sight and discovery of sin?

A. NoM [...]t. 9. 12, 13.

Q. Will it be Despair and not Repen­tance, except together with the sight of sin, there be an apprehension (at least of a possi­bility) of mercy?

A. Yes. 2 Cor. 7. 10. Mat. 27. 4. 5.

Q. In and through whom doth the peni­tent sinner apprehend Gods mercy?

A. In and through Christ only.

Q. Doth true Repentance chiefly consist in turning from sin to God?

A. YesActs 26 18 Jer. 31. 18. 19.

Q. How doth the repenting sinner turn from sin?

A. With an holy indignation2 Cor. [...]. 11 against [Page 173] it, and with that grief and hatred of it, so as never more to returnJer. 31. 18, 19 Ez [...]k. 36. 31 2 Cor. 7. 11 Job 42. 6 and 11. 14 Isa. 30. 22 Hos. 14. 8 to it.

Q. And how doth he turn to God?

A. With full purpose of, and endea­vour after new obedience. Acts 11. 23. 1 Kings 8. 47, 48. 2 Kings 23. 3. Rom. 6. 4. 2 Cor. 5. 17. Ephes. 4. 23, 24. Psa. 119. 6, 20.

Q. What do you mean by new obedience?

A. The penitent sinners denying un­godliness and worldly lusts, and his living soberly, righteously and godly in this present world.

Q. Is not the confessing sins to God alone, and the forsaking them sufficient without au­ricular confession?

A. Yes. Prov. 28. 13.

Q. When is the confessing our faults one to another necessary?

A. 1. When our offences are such as are not only against God, but also against our Neighbours; then we must confess our faults to them, desire peace, and make them satisfaction before we can reason­ably expect Gods acceptance of our per­sons and servicesMat. 5. 23, 24.

2. When we are not well able to judge of our selves, to discern our own guilts, and to take the dimensi­ons [Page 174] of our faults aright, labouring under the horrour, agony and disquiet of Con­science; then it is necessary to go to some discreet and learned Minister, to confess our faults, and to open our griefs to him, that we may receive such spiritual counsel, advice, and comfort, as our Consciences may be relieved; and that by the Mini­stry of Gods Word we may receive com­fort, and the benefit of Absolution, to the quieting of our Consciences, and avoiding of all scruple of doubtfulness.

Q But what do you think of the Au­ricular Confession of sin according to the Doctrine of the Papists; who say, that it is necessary for every Christian to search and examine with greatest diligence what his sins have been, and that he is bound upon pain of Damnation to confess all his mortal sins unto a Priest, even his most secret sins in heart and thought, with all the considerable circumstances of them: Is not this a cursed adding to the Word of God, and that in matters necessary to Salvation?

A. Yes.

Q And is not this the lading the people with ourdens grievous to be born, which the Priests themselves touch not with one of their fingers?

[Page 175] A. Yes.

Q. May not an Hypocrite and a graceless [...] thus confess his sins to the Priest?

A. Yes.

Q. And can this confession then be so ne­cessary a part of true Repentance, which a man may do that never unfeignedly re­pented?

A. No.

Q 88. What are the outward means whereby Christ communicateth to us the be­nefits of Redemption?

A. The outward and ordinary means whereby Christ communicateth to us the benefits of Redemption, are his Ordi­nances, especially the Word, Sacraments and Prayer; all which are effectual to the Elect for Salvation.

Explic. Q. Are Christs Ordinances the means whereby he communicates to us the benefits of Redemption?

A. Yes.

Q. What do you mean by Christs Ordi­nances?

A. The means and waies of worship, ordained by him.

Q. What are his special Ordinances whereby he communicates to us his benefits?

A. The Word, Sacraments and PrayerAct 2 41, 42.

[Page 176]Q. What kind of means are these?

A. The outward and ordinary means.

Q. Why are the Ordinances called the outward means?

A. Because together with them, he communicates his benefits by the inward workings of hisPro. 1. 23 Isa 59. 21 Joh. 14 26 Eph. 1. 19, 20 and Heb. 13 20, 21 Phi [...]. 2. 12, 13 Spirit.

Q. And why are the Ordinances of Christ called the ordinary means, whereby he communicates his benefits to us?

A. Because he hath not wholly limited and bound up himself to his Ordinances, but can communicate his benefits in an extraordinary way, when, and to whom he pleaseth.

Q. But may men reasonably expect Sal­vation without the diligent use of the out­ward and ordinary means?

A. No. Rom. 10. 13, 17. Mat. 3. 7. Acts 2. 38, 39, 41. and 16. 30,—35.

Q. To whom are the outward and ordi­nary means made effectual for Salvation?

A. To the ElectRom. 1. 16 and 11. 7 Acts 13. 46, 48.

Q. 89. How is the Word made effectual to Salvation?

A. The Spirit of God maketh the Reading, but especially the Preaching of the Word, an effectual means of con­vincing and converting sinners, and of [Page 177] building them up in holiness and comfort through Faith unto Salvation.

Explic. Q. Who is it that makes the Word effectual to Salvation?

A. The Spirit of GodJoh 14. 26 and 16. 7 &c. 1 Cor. 3. 10.

Q. In what kind of exercise of the Word d [...]th the Spirit use to make it effectual?

A. In the Reading, but especially in the Preaching of the Word.

Q. Will not the Word be effectual with­out the inward workings of the Spirit?Rom. 1. 16 2 Tim. 3. 15 1 Cor. 1. 18

A. No. Ephes. 2. 17, 18, 22. 1 Pet. 1. 22. Iude vers. 19. 1 Thes. 5. 19, 20. and 2. 2, 13.

Q. How is the Word effectual to sinners?

A. To convince and convert them; shewing them their woful and undone estate in themselves without Christ, and turning them from sin unto God1 Cor. 14. 24, 25 Acts 26. 18 Rom. 7. 9 Psal. 19. 7.

Q. How is it made effectual to the Saints?

A. To build themAct. 20. 32 Jude 20 Joh. 17. 17 Rom. 154 up in holiness and comfort.

Q To what doth the Word thus build them up?

A. To Salvation.

Q. Through what means?

A. Through Faith, 2 Tim. 3. 15.

Q. Will not the Word profit us then, [Page 178] except it be mixed with Faith?

A. No. Heb 4. 2.

Q Is the Conviction, Conversion, San­ctification and Consolation of sinners, the work of the Spirit, by the Word, through Faith?

A. Yes.

Q 90. How is the W [...]rd to be read and heard that it may become effectual to Salva­tion?

A. That the Word may become effe­ctual to Salvation, we must attend there­unto with diligence, preparation and Prayer, receive it with Faith and Love, lay it up in our hearts and practise it in our Lives.

Explic. Q What must we do that the Word may become effectual to Salvation?

A. We must attend unto it with dili­gence. 1 Tim. 4. 13. Acts 16. 14.

Q. What is it to attend unto the Word with diligence?

A. To bend the mind, and set the heart and affections wholly to it, or to give that heed to it, that will prepare the heart readily to receive it, and to be de­livered into the power of it.

Q. Are there not some things to be done before we attend to the Word?

[Page 179] A. Two things are here expressed, 1. Preparation; and 2. Prayer.

Q In Preparation what must be done?

A. 1. We must look well to our heart, affections, and mind that they be fixed, composed and ordered, and we must summon and call all that is within us together to this service, that we may read and hear the Word of God acceptably, with reverence and godly fear.

2. We must follow the Apostle St. Pe­ter's advice, 1 Epist. 2. 1, 2. Wherefore laying aside all malice, and all guile and hypocrisies, and envies, and all evil speak­ings. As new born Babes desire the sin­cere milk of the Word that we may grow thereby.

Q. And what else is here expressed to be done before we attend unto the Word?

A. 2. Prayer.

Q How must this be performed?

A. We must Pray, 1. That God would open our eyes that we may behold wondrous things out of his Law. 2. That the Word of the Lord may run and be glorified, i. e. that we may receive, obey and honour it with an holy, unblameable answerable life as becometh persons pro­fessing godliness.

[Page 180] Q. What doth God require of us in our attending to the Word?

A. That we receive it.

Q How must the Word be received?

A. It must be received with Faith and Love. Heb. 4 2. 2 Thes. 2. 10.

Q What is it to receive the Word with Faith?

A. Soundly to believe the truth and goodness of it, and to accept of both.

Q. What is it to receive it with Love?

A. To receive it willingly with all rea­diness of mind. Acts 17 11. Psal. 119. 14, 20, 97, 103, 127, 162.

Q. And what doth God require of us af­ter our attention to the Word?

A. He requireth of us two things,

  • 1. That we lay it up in our hearts.
  • 2. That we practise it in our lives.

Psalm 119. 11. Luke 2. 51. Luke 8. 15. Iames 1. 22,—26.

Q. Will it nothing avail us to attend unto the Word, to receive it and lay it up in our hearts, except we practise it in our lives?

A. No.

Q. And will the Word be effectual to our Salvati [...]n if duely attended to, received, laid up in our hearts, and practised in our lives?

[Page 181] A. Yes.

Q 91. How do the Sacraments become effectual means of Salvation?

A. The Sacraments become effectual means of Salvation, not from any vertue in them, or in him that doth administer them, but only by the blessing of Christ, and the working of his Spirit in them that by Faith receive them.

Explic. Q What other special Ordi­nances hath God appointed as the means of Salvation, besides the W [...]rd?

A. The Sacraments and Prayer.

Q Whence is it that the Sacraments be­come effectual means of Salvation?

A. 1. Negatively, not from any ver­tue in them, or in him that doth admini­ster them2 Kings 5. 12 1 Cor. 3. 5. 6 Acts 8. 13, 20, 21, 23 1 Cor. 11. 27.

Q. Do not the Sacraments work upon the Soul by their own nature, or by the work done and the bare receiving of them?

A. No.

Q. Doth not the efficacy of the Sacra­ments depend upon the goodness, or badness of him that doth administer them?

A. No.

Q How then do the Sacraments become effectual means of Salvation?

[Page 182] A. 2. Positively, by the blessing of ChristMat. 18. 20 and 28. 20 1 Cor. 3. 7, and the working1 Cor. 12. 13 of his Spirit.

Q. In whom doth Christs blessing by the working of his Spirit make the Sacraments effectual to Salvation?

A. In them that by Faith receive them, Mark 16. 16.

Q. 92. What is a Sacrament?

A. A Sacrament is an holy Ordinance instituted by Christ, wherein by sensible signs, Christ and the benefits of the New Covenant are represented, sealed and ap­plyed to Believers.

Explic. Q. What did the Word Sacra­ment signifie in antient times?

A. It signified an Oath, whereby Soul­diers bound themselves to be true to their Captain, and he in like manner bound himself to them.

Q. What is it now used to signifie?

A. Now it is used to signifie the seals of the Covenant whereby the Lord doth bind himself in Christ Jesus to be merciful to us; and we bind our selves to be true unto Christ.

Q. Is the Sacrament then an holy Or­dinance?

A. Yes.

[Page 183]Q. By whom are our Sacraments insti­tuted?

A. By Christ. Mat. 28. 19. 1 Cor. 11. 23, 24, 25.

Q. What do you mean by being instituted by Christ?

A. Appointed and ordained by him.

Q. What are the parts of a Sacra­ment?

A. The sign, and the thing signified.

Q. What are the outward parts of the Sacraments?

A. The sensible signs.

Q. Do the signs offer themselves to the Senses?

A. Yes.

Q. And offer the things signified to our Faith?

A. Yes.

Q. What are the inward parts of the Sacraments?

A. Christ and the benefits of the New Covenant, as the things signified by the outward sensible signs.

Q What is the use and proper work of the Sacraments?

A. To represent, seal and apply.

Q. But are the Sacraments of the New Testament signs, and seals to all even to unbe­lievers?

[Page 184]A. Yes.

Q How do the Sacrameats seal to all even to unbelievers?

A. 1. As Circumcision was a Seal of the righteousness of Faith [or of the Covenant] as well when Ishmael received it, as when Abraham received itRom. 4 11 with Gen. 17 Dr. Light­foot.. God is everlastingly true; and these are really Seals whosoever recelves them. Many persons take the same Physick; the ope­ration is not the same, the Physick is the same. And if we might call the Tree of Life a Seal, it retains the nature of a sign, though Adam never tasted of it. The Rain-bow is a Covenant, though there be thousands in the world that never knew it was a Covenant. And it is the use and proper work of our Sacraments to commemorate and seal.

2. Sacraments are visible D [...]ctrines, Ier. 2. 31. O Generation, see ye the word of the Lord. In the Sacraments are writ­ten in small Characters, what at large are found in the works of God. And Faith acts upon these Symbols upon a doctrinal notion, as they are teaching Ordinances. They testifie, as a sign Christs Love, as a Seal Gods faithfulness. The Word of God is given us that we may believe, [Page 185] and that we may be strong in Faith: So likewise the Sacraments are given us not only to believe, but for our increase in Faith. And as the word Jesus Christ is evidently set forth crucified before our eyes, so do the Sacraments as the Oracles of God teach us plainly the mysterie of Faith, and the way of Salvation.

3. The Sacraments are not only signs and Seals, but Sanctions, and such Laws as we are charged to observe upon pain of Gods wrathful displeasureGen. 17. 14 and Num. 9. 13 Mat. 3. 7 Luke 7. 30 Mat. 28. 19 Ma [...]. 16. 16 Acts 2. 37, 38 and 16. 30, 31, 32 and 1 Cor. 11 24, 25 Exod. 24. 8. Which will be more manifest by our comparing the S [...]craments of the Old and New Te­stament together; B [...]ptism and the Lords Supper succeeding in the place of Cir­cumcision and the P [...]ssover: For, as Baptism and the sprinkling of clean wa­ter upon us, is to wash off the filth of the Soul that we might be clean; so was Cir­cumcision to take away the stony heart out of the flesh, and to give an heart of fl [...]sh: And as the sprinkling of blood was of old a Law in Israel; so is the Lords Supper a Sanction of the New Testament to us. And as Moses said. This is the blo [...]d of the Covenant which the Lord hath made with you Exo. 24. 8 wi [...]h Mat. 26, 27, 28; here in like manner Christ hath Preached the G [...]spel doctrine, [Page 186] and now he comes to put a Sanction [...] this Sacrament; This, saith he, is [...] blood of the New Testament, which is [...] for many, for the remission of sins. There is this only disparity, the sign was [...] Blood, now Wine, now Wine because there is to be no more shedding [...] bloodHeb. 9. 26 Dan. 9. 24., then blood sprinkling because Christ our P [...]ssover was not sacrificed for usHeb. 9. 18,—26: So that as to substance, the Sacra­ments of the Old and N [...]w Testament differ no more than the Old and New Moon, which are not two, but one and the same. All which considered joyntly may sufficiently clear it to us, that our Sacraments are not only signs and seals, but Sanctions, yea Sanctions of the Co­venant of Grace, or of the New Testa­ment. And if he that despised Moses Law, died without mercy, under two or three witnesses, Of how much sorer punish­ment, suppose ye, shall he be thought wor­thy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the Covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, as unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of GraceHeb. 10. 28, 29? For if the Word spoken by Angels was stedfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just [Page 187] recompence of reward: How shall we escap [...] if we negl [...]ct so great Salvation? which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed to us by them that heardHeb. 2. 2, 3him. Especially when we have Jesus Christ thus evidently set forth, crucified among us, not only to the ear but to the eye, by his Word and Sacraments.

Q. But are the Sacraments effectual to Salvation, or savingly applied only by Be­lievers?

A. Yes. Rom. 4. 11, 12.

Q 93. Which are the Sacraments of the New Testament?

A. The Sacraments of the New Testa­ment are Baptism and the Lords Supper.

Explic. Q. Were there other Sacra­ments under the Old Testament, as Circum­cision and the Passover?

A. Yes. Gen. 17. 10. Exod. 12. 43, 47.

Q. Do these remain in use now?

A. No. Rom. 10. 4▪ Gal. 5▪ 2 3, 4. 1 Cor. 5▪ 7, 8.

Q. W [...]at Sacraments hath Christ ap­pointed under the New Testament, in the room of these?

A. Baptism and the Lords Supper. 1 Cor. 12. 13.

[Page 188] Q. Are these two the only Sacraments of the New Testament?

A. Yes.

Q. How doth that appear?

A. 1. Because when the number of Sacraments were most necessary (as un­der the Law) there were but two: and therefore (ours succeeding in the room of them) there can be no more.

2. Because these two Seals do fully assure us of all Gods Graces; both of our reg [...]n [...]ration, entrance and ingrafting into Christ, and of our growth and con­tinuance in him: and therefore we need no more.

Q. But there are five more added by the Papists▪ as Confirmation, Pennance, ex­tream V [...]ction. Holy O [...]ders, and Matri­mony; Are not these properly and truly Sacraments, instituted by our Lord Iesus Christ, and necessary to the Salvation of Mankind?

A. No.

Q. Why so?

A. The nature of a Sacrament agreeth not to them. 1. Because they are not all proper to the Church, but common (as Marriage) to the Heathen. 2. They are not all instituted by Christ, as perpe­tual [Page 189] standing Ordinance. 3. They do not consist of an outward sign (as Penace) and inward Grace. 4. The Covenant of Grace is not sealed in any of them.

Q. But is not Extream Vnction a Sacra­ment instituted by Christ as a perpetual standing Ordinance; when every sick man is enjoyned, James 5. 14. to call for the Elders, th [...]se standing perpetuated Officers, that they may pray over him, anointing him with Oyl in the Name of the Lord?

A. N [...].

Q▪ Why so?

A. 1. Because the anointing spoken of in S. Iames was frequently omitted by the Apostles themselves in their work­ing of cures, and was indifferently ei­ther used or not used by them. In the Gospels many such cures are wrought without it; and so in the Acts, by taking by the hand, by embracing, Chap. 3. 7. and 20. 10. and by Peter's bare word, Chap. 9. 34. and so again, verse 40. And by Paul's b [...]re word, Chap. 14. 10. and 16. 18. and by his touching linnen cloaths, Chap. 19. 12. All which diffe­rent ways of healing the sick do sufficient­ly evince that the usage of Oyl as a bare ceremony, was not instituted by [Page 190] Christ, or any way commanded to be continued by the Apostles, or their Suc­cessors in the Church, even while the gift of healing did continue among them.

2. Because that anointing with Oyl in the Name of the Lord, was never used on any other design than to demonstrate theMa [...]. 6. 13 miraculousness of the work, which was wrought without any contribution of natural means; and therefore is not now of any propriety or fitness for use, when the gift of miraculous healing is ceased in the Church.

3. That anointing was designed on purpose for the recovery of the sick, whereas Extream Unction (if the coine [...]s of Sacraments have not miscalled it) must needs be supposed to be used only as a V [...]and to those that depart out of this world, and then only when it is thought certain that they will die.

Q. 94. What is Baptism?

A. Baptism is a Sacrament, wherein the washing with water, in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, doth signifie and seal our ingrafting into Christ, and partaking of the benefits of the Covenant of [Page 191] Grace, and our engagement to be the [...]ords.

Explic. Q. What kind of Ordinance is [...]ipism?

A. It is a Sacrament.

Q. What is the sacramental Element in Baptism?

A. WaterMa [...]. 3. 11 Acts 8. 3 [...], 38, (without mixture.)

Q. What are the sacramental actions?

A. 1. The Ministers blessing and con­secrating the Water.

2. The right applying of it to the party to be Baptiz [...]d, diving, or dipping him into it, or sprinkling him with it.

Q. How ought the Minister to bless and consecrate the Water?

A. 1. By opening to them that are present the Doctrine of Baptism, and the right institution and use of it, what outward Mysteries are signified, and seal­ed up by that outward sign.

2. By acknowledging in the Name of the Congregation Mans natural pollution, that we stand in need of spiritual wash­ing; by giving thanks to God the Father for giving his Son for a propitiation for our sins, and appointing his blood to be a Fountain to the House of Israel to wash in; and for ordaining this service to be a [Page 192] Sacrament and Seal of so great a mysterie.

3. By making profession of Faith in Gods promises in that behalf, and pray­ing that they be made good unto the par­ty that is to receive the Seal thereof: For as every thing is sanct [...]fied by the Word of God and Prayer; so in especial manner the sacramental water in B [...]ptism is blessed and consecrated by the Word of Institution and Prayer to God for a blessing upon his own Ordinance.

Q Is the action of diving or dipping essential to the Sacrament? Or is there any ground and warrant for sprinkling, which is mostly used with us in these cold Coun­tries?

A. The action of sprinkling water up­on the Face of the B [...]ptized is very warrantable; especially upon young Chil­dren in cold Countries, to whom diving or dipping might be dangerous.

Q What ground hath the Church for this practice?

A. 1. B [...]cause neither dipping nor sprinkling seem to be essential to Baptism, but washing and applying water to the bodyJoh. 13. 10 as a cleanser of the filth thereof. Ephes. 5. 26.

2. Because, as in the other Sacrament, [Page 193] a spoonful of Wine is as significant as a whole Gallon; so here a handful of Wa­ter as a whole River.

3. The action of sprinkling bears fit resemblance with the inward grace as well as dipping, and hath Authority in the Scripture of truth. Read 1 Pet. 1. 2. Heb. 12. 24. where is speech of the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ, and the blood of sprinkling speaking bet­ter things than that of Abel.

4. It is not unlikely that the Apostles Baptized as well by sprinkling or pouring upon, as by diving or dipping into: Since we read of divers Baptized in Houses, as well as others in Rivers.

Q. Whose Office is it to Baptize?

A. None but the lawfully ordained Ministers may Baptize. Mat. 28. 19, 20.

Q. In whose Name are we to be Bap­tized?

A. In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

Q. What do you mean by Baptizing in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost?

A. In the Authority, and into the Faith, Profession, and Obedience of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

[Page 194] Q What is signified, sealed, and en­gaged to, as to be done on Gods part, in Baptism?

A. Our ingrafting into Christ, and partaking of the benefits of the Cove­nant of Grace. Rom. 6. 3. Act. 2. 38, 39.

Q. What is sealed to, on our part in Baptism; or what do we engage to?

A. To be the Lords. Rom. 6. 4.

Q. Are our ingrafting into Christ, par­taking of the benefits of the Covenant of Grace, and our engagement to be the Lords, signified and sealed to in Baptism?

A. Yes.

Q. 95. To whom is Baptism is to be admi­nistred?

A. Baptism is not to be administred unto any that are out of the visible Church till they profess their Faith in Christ, and obedience to him; but the Infants of such as are Members of the visible Church as to be Baptized.

Explic. Q. To whom is not Baptism [...] be administred?

A. It is not to be administred to any that are out of the visible Church.

Q▪ What mean you by the visible Church?

A. The visible Church is a company of people called from all false worships [Page 195] and Religions, confessedly to worship the true God according to his WordActs 2. 47▪ and 4. 3 [...] and 6. 7 Joh. 9. 22 and 12. 42 Phil. 2. 10, 11▪.

Q. How long is Baptism to be withheld from them that are out of the visible Church?

A. Till they profess their Faith in Christ, and obedience to him. Act. 8. 36, 37.

Q. Doth Baptism disciple, make disciples or members of the visible Church whereof Christ alone is the Head?

A. YesMat. 28. 19.

Q. But how do you prove that the In­fants of such as are member of the visible Church may and ought to be Baptized?

A. 1. Because to such Infants apper­taineth the Covenant and the thing sig­nifiedActs 2. 39 Mat. 19. 14▪.

2. Because whole Families were Bap­tized, and there is pregnant probability, that there were some Infants among them of those House-holds. Acts 16. 14, 15, 33.

Q. But suppose there [...] were no Children in those Families; how then is it required [...]t our hands to Baptize Infants?

A. Those that plead this, plead their own ignorance; 1. Because in the Jewish Church, this was their custom, when Pa­rents came to be Baptized, Children came [Page 196] be Baptized also, and their whole Family. And secondly, If there were Children in those Families; as that Jewish custom (over-ballancing the others groundless supposition) renders it most probable; be it known to all such unnatural Parents as reject Infant Baptism, that they har­den their hearts against their own flesh.

Q Why so?

A. Because Children are parts of Pa­rents; and by this contempt of Baptism they reject the Counsel of God against themselves, and their ChildrenInk. 7. 30.

Q▪ What other reason have you for In­fant Baptism?

A. 3. Children were ever admitted to the sign and Seal of this Covenant, which of old was Circumcision; and Baptism succeeds in the room of Circumcision.

Q. How doth that appear?

A. 1. It appears in that the Apostle of the Circumcision commands Baptism up­on the same ground that Circumcision wasAct. 1. 38, 39 with Gen. 17. 12 and 21. 3, 4 and Luk 1. [...]9 and 2. 21.

2. Because St. Paul in Col. 2. gives to Baptism the very Name of Circumcision, to teach us that it succeeds i [...].

Object. But if Baptism ought to be ad­ministred to all those to whom Circumcision [Page 197] was administred, because Baptism succeeds Circumcision; by the same reason the Eu­charist ought to be administred to all those who did eat the Paschal Lamb, seeing the Eucharist succeeds the Iewish Passover: But you stay longer before you admit your Children to the Lords Supper, than the Iews did before they admitted their Children to the eating of the Paschal Lamb.

A. The Jews admitted their Children to eat of the Paschal Lamb, so soon as they were able to eat flesh, and to ask their Fathers the reason of that legal cere­mony; and we defer the admitting of ours to the Lords Supper until they be capable of those dispositions which God requires; and are able to examine them­selves according to the command of the Apostle, 1 Cor. 11. Let a man examine himself; and so let him eat of that Bread, and drink of that Cup.

Q. 96. What is the Lords Supper?

A. The Lords Supper is a Sacrament wherein by giving and receiving Bread and Wine according to Christs appoint­ment, his Death is shewed forth, and the worthy receivers are not after a corporal and carnal manner, but by Faith made partakers of his Body and Blood, with [Page 198] all his benefits unto their spiritual nou­rishment and growth in Grace.

Explic. Q. What is the other Sacra­ment of the New Testament called?

A. The Lords Su [...]p [...].

Q. Why so?

A. Because it was instituted at that time after the Paschal Supper was end [...]d.

Q. Are we therefore bound to celebrate it alwaies at the same time?

A. No, because there is no command for it, nor is there the same reason for it now as then; this circumstance of time not obliging us to do it after Supper any more than the fashion of lying along binds us to the using of the same posture; both of them being upon occasion of the Paschal Supper then.

Q. Why do you super add the circum­stance and limitation of that present time?

A. Because the first Paschal Supper in Egypt was eaten standing; but after­wards sitting and lying along, leaning one on anothers breasts, in sign of their rest and security, otherwise than they had in Egypt.

Q. What are the sacramental Elements in the Lords Supper?

A. Bread and Wine.

[Page 199] Q What are the sacramental actions?

A. Breaking the Bread, giving and receiving the Bread and Wine.

Q. What is signified by the Bread and Wine?

A. The Body and Blood of Christ.

Q. What are the Ministers actions?

A. Breaking the Bread, and giving the Bread and Wine, not withholding the Cup from the people, as the Papists sacrilegiously do.

Q. What is signified by the Ministers breaking the Bread?

A. Christs Body being broken for us.

Q. Why must the people partake of the Elements of both kinds?

A. Because all that were present at the first Sacrament, given by the Lord Jesus himself, did so.

Q How d [...]th that appear?

A. By the plain express words of Scripture. Mat. 26. 26, 27. Mark 14. 22. 23.

Q. But all present at the first Sacrament were the twelve, whom Christ sent forth as Apostles to Preach the Word and administer the Sacraments, and therefore they and their Successors only had the priviled [...]e to drink of the Cup?

[Page 200] A. 1. By this argument the Bread may be taken away from the people too, and so they would have no right to any part of this Sacrament: And what is this but egregious sacriledge in robbing the people of their highest Church-privi­ledge?

2. The practice and writings of the ancient Church in this matter, which is the best way to explicate any such diffi­culty in Scripture, is a clear Testimony that both the Bread and the Wine belong to all the people, in the Name of the twelve Disciples at that time.

Q. What is signified by the giving of the Bread and Wine?

A. Gods giving all Christ to us.

Q. What is the peoples action?

A. Receiving (eating and drinking) the Bread and Wine.

Q. What is signified by the peoples re­ceiving?

A. Their taking a whole Christ.

Q. Why are the Bread and Wine given apart, and not together?

A. To shew forth Christs Blood, in the parting of his Blood from his Body.

Q. What is the rule of Administration and Participation?

[Page 201] A. All must be done according to Christs appointment.

Q. For what end is this Supper cele­ [...]rated?

A. Hereby Christs death is shewed [...]orth.

Q. How many sorts of Receivers are there?

A. Two; worthy, and unworthy.

Q. What do the unworthy Receivers par­take of?

A. They pertake of the outward Ele­ments only.

Q. What do the worthy Receivers par­take of?

A. They partake of Christs Body and Blood1 Cor. 10. 16.

Q. After what manner do not these wor­thy Receivers partake of Christs Body and Blood?

A. Not after a corporal and carnal manner; they partake not of the sub­stance of his fl [...]sh and blood.

Q. Why so?

A. For that is in HeavenAct. 1. 11 and 3. 21.

Q. But do not you affirm with the Pa­ [...]ists, that in this Sacrament the Body and Blood, together with the Divinity of Iesus Christ, are truly, really and substantially [Page 202] present; and that the whole substance of the Bread is converted into his Body, and the whole substance of the Wine into his Blood?

A. N [...], should we do it, our Senses, our Reason, and the Word of God would give us the Lye: We perceive by our Senses that the Bread and Wine are the same they were before Consecration: And we are not more certain that there is a God who created us, and a Sun that gives us light; than we are fully per­swaded that the Divinity of Jesus Christ is every where, and his humane nature at the right hand of God, from whence he shall come to Judge the quick and the dead.

Q. And why are you afraid to affirm, that the Elements of Bread and Wine art transubstantiate and changed into the sub­stance of the Body and Blood of Christ, when the Scripture is plain and express that Christ took the Bread, and said, [This is my Body.] And after the same manner took the Cup, which Protestants, as well as Papists, interpret figuratively for the Wine in the Cup, and said, [This is my blood of the New Testament, &c.] as you m [...]y read in the following Texts, Mat. [Page 203] 26. 26, &c. Mark 14 22, &c. 1 Cor. 11. 23, &c.

A. Indeed if the forecited Texts ought to be understood in the literal sense, we need not dread this Popish Do­ctrine; But if they ought of necessity to have a mystical and figurative sense and interpretation put upon them, we may well enough be afraid of that Doctrine, which the Papists themselves in the sup­posed case confess to be gross damnable Idolatry.

Q But if we once take this liberty to imp [...]se our mystical or figurative Interpreta­tion on the Scripture without express war­rant of the Scripture it self, we shall have no setled belief, but be liable continually to be turned aside by any one that can invent a new mystical meaning of the Scripture, there being no certain rule to judge of such meanings, as there is of the literal ones: Nor is there any error, how absurd and im­pious soever, but may on such terms be ac­corded with the Scripture: Why therefore must we of necessity suppose the forecited Texts to be understood in the figurative, and not in the literal sense?

A. 1. Because the letter is contrary and repugnant to our senses; which the [Page 204] Scripture it self intimates to be of infal­lible certainty1 Joh. 1. [...] 1, 2, 3 Luke 1 1, 2 1 Cor. 15. 5, 6 with 14 Joh. 20 25, 27.

2. It is absurd and contradictive of right reason.

3. There appears much in the contexts to cross it, nothing at all to counte­nance it.

4. Because other places collated, ex­presly thwart and contradict itRom. 6. 9, [...]10 Mat. 28. 6 Joh. 13. 1 Mat. 26. 11 Luke 24. 39 with Heb. 2 14, 16, 17 Joh. 16. 28 Act. 1. 9, 10 and 3. 21 2 Thes. 1. 7.

Q. What sense then may or must be put upon the forecited Texts?

A. It will be an Introduction and a very good help to us for the right under­standing of the said Texts, to consider those observations taken from the Jewish phrases and customs used in this matter, viz. 1. That the Lamb that was drest in the Paschal Supper and set upon the Table, was wont to be called the Body of the Passover, or the Body of the Pas­chal Lamb; and probably Christ alludes to this phrase, when he saith, This is my Body; as if he should say, the Paschal Lamb and the Body of it, (i. e. the re­presentation of that on the Table in the Jewish Feast) that was the memorial of de­liverance out of Egypt, and type of your deliverance out of the state of sin and death, I will now have abrogated; and [Page 205] do now institute Bread and Wine instead of that Paschal Lamb, that you may hereafter retain and continue to posterity a Memorial and Symbol of me, who am the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world, and am now about to be sacrificed for you. This for the words [My Body and my Blood:) But then 2. For the whole phrase, and form of speech, [This is my Body, this is my Blood.] It seems to be answerable to (and substituted instead of) the Paschal form (This is the Bread of affliction, which our Fathers eat in Egypt: or, This is the unleavened Bread, &c. or, This is the Passover.] And therefore the Bread and the Wine in the Eucharist are no more the very Body and Blood of Christ, than that Bread which the Children of Israel eat in the Land of Canaan was that Identical, that very Bread of affliction which their Fathers eat in the Land of Egypt.

Q. Is not this Popish Doctrine▪ that the Bread of the Eucharist is transubstantiated into the Body, and the Wine into the Blood of Christ, a very ancient Doctrine?

A. It is but four hundred fifty nine years,I [...] [...] in the Coun­cil of La­teran, 1215. since it was declared by Pope Inno­cent the third, in the Council of Lateran.

[Page 206] Q Is not this impossible and incompre­hensible error of Transubstantiation to be re­jected with our utmost Detestation?

A. Yes.

Q. Doth not this Doctrine suppose a silly Priest to do that which all the Angels cannot do, and that is to make his Maker, as the Papists call the Host, and the people to de­vour their God?

A. Yes.

Q Can they justifie this by Gods omnipo­tency, that God is able to effect it?

A. No, this is no better argument than the Turks may justifie most of the sopperies of their Alcoran by.

Q. What reasons and grounds have you for the rejection of this abomination?

A. There are two grounds especially for the rejection of it.

1. The Idolatry and Sacriledge which doth ensue upon it, and that is the Ado­ration and worship of the Host, a piece of Bread, and the mutilation or maiming of the Sacrament by Bread only, and the propitiatory Sacrifice of Christ him­self in the Mass, who was once only of­fered up to God upon the Cross, all which are the issue of this error.

2. The Monsters of contradiction and [Page 207] absurdity to sense and reason, which fol­low thereupon. It was begotten by feigned Miracles and fabulous Legends, and is the Mother of Blasphemies and in­extricable absurdities, and hath set Faith it self on the R [...]ck, and surpasseth all the Harlotry that the Adulterate Church of Rome, that Mother of Fornications, ever brought forth.

Q. If you can but make good this high charge you have drawn up against that most degenerate and corrupted Church of Rome, in this one error of Transubstantiation being comprehensive of all errors; (Pap [...]l Rome being nothing else but the worst corruption of the once most famous Church of Rome, whose Faith was spoken of throughout the world) you may easily perswade all the friends of the Bride, the Lambs Wife, to abo [...]inate all the other Fornications of that Whorish Church: And because the Prote­stants Arguments against Transubstantiati­on may convince us how fully they have made good this charge, pray produce a few of the many Arguments they have against this Mo­ther Error?

A. 1. Suppose Christ sitting at the Table with his Disciples, and eating th [...]s Bread, and drinking this Cup first, as [Page 208] the custom at the Paschal Supper was, and as the Papists generally, and the Fa­thers hold, and we deny not, because the Scripture seems plain for it, Mat. 26. 29. Hence forth I will not drink of the fruit of the Vine; supposing therefore this, How is it possible or imaginable that he should eat himself? or how can he sit at Table, and yet be in the mouths of the Apostles? Was he at the same time in the Apostles mouths or stomachs, while he sate and rose from Table, and discoursed those three Chapters of Iohn 15, 16, 17. Or while he sweat that bloody sweat in his Agony in the Garden, &c. A monstrous impossibility!

2. It's impossible to make that which was before existent and in being: Can a Father beget a Son that is already begot­ten? Can an Architect build an House that is already built? Can the Body of Christ, which is before the Conversion of the Bread, be made or produced by the turning of Bread into it? Can he that was conceived by the Holy Ghost, and born of the Virgin Mary, be made by pro­nouncing of four or five words? If ever delusions were strong, these are; For, to make that which is made, and to unmake [Page 209] that which is made, are equally impos­sible.

3. They say that the substance of Bread and Wine is avoided, and that on­ly the accidents remain; so that there is length and nothing long, breadth and no­thing broad, thickness and nothing thick, whiteness and nothing white, moisture and nothing moist, sweetness and nothing sweet, that is, a long, broad, thick, white, moist, sweet nothing. The Priest pours out nothing but Lines and Colours, when he pours out the Wine, for these accidents of Bread and Wine are not in the Bread, because that is avoided and vanisht, and they are not in the Body of Christ, as themselves say, and yet it is plain this Bread and Wine do nourish the Body, and is the Body nourished by meer accidents? Can there be plainer contra­dictions?

4. Can the same Body at the same time have his just Dimensions, distance of parts, symmetry, proportion, as the Bo­dy of Christ hath, and yet not have these, because all parts? Yea, the whole Body of Christ, say they, is in one and the self same point or crumb of Bread.

[Page 210]5. Can the Body of Christ, which is much greater, be wholly contained in a Wa [...]er or piece of Bread, in his full Di­mensions, and that as many times as there are points, crumbs, drops in the Bread or Wine?

6. Can the Bread be turned into the very Body of Christ, and yet not any thing of that Bread become any thing of Christ, nor the matter, nor form, nor accidents of Bread be made either the matter, or form, or accidents of Christ?

7. Can the same thing, as Christs true Body, at the same time be wholly above it self, and wholly below it self, within and without it self? Can it be moved, and yet be still? be carried from one place to another, and yet not move? be brought from Heaven to Earth, and yet not come out of Heaven? Who then can assure us that when Christ hung upon the Cross, he was not walking somewhere else, Crucified and not Crucified, eaten and not eaten, alive in one and dead in another place?

8. What dishonour do these men ren­der the Body of Christ obnoxious unto, to be eaten by wicked men, by brute Creatures, by Mice, by other vermine, [Page 211] to be cast into some unclean place? For so long as the form of Bread remains, so long the Body of Christ is there, though it be in the Mouth or Belly of a Mouse, saith Hales, and the rest of the School­men, who do one where or another ac­knowledge the most of these monstrous Absurdities, and go about to heal, and solve them.

Q. We shall surcease from raking fur­ther into the ingrateful sink, whose Name Transubstantiation is but of yesterday in comparison, and which dishonours the Body of Christ, into a Monster, destroyes the na­ture of a Sacrament, and fills the world with dreadful Contentions and broils: And shall now consider with our selves what may pro­fitably be observed from all this: What therefore may be observed upon the whole matter?

A. We may observe, 1. What grievous impositions the Romanists lay upon the Faith of them that are devoted to her Communion.

2. What contradictions and absurdities the common people do ignorantly and implicitly believe.

3. What strong delusions even to be­lieve lies God gives up learned men unto, [Page 212] that refuse the simplicity of the truth for interests and politick ends!

4. What a Mercy of God it is to de­liver us from that Tyranny, which leaves us no other choice, but to swallow and digest such impossible things, or to be sa­crificed in flames, and the Lord forbid the Re-entrance of that Religion among us,Mr. Vines on the Sa­crament. which in all likelihood will cost us our Souls, or our Lives.

Q. Since the worthy Receivers are not after a corporal and carnal manner partakers of Christs Body and Blood; After what manner are they partakers of them?

A. By Faith.

Q How understand you that?

A. As truly as the Minister gives them the Bread and Wine, so truly doth God give them the Body and Blood of Christ, that is, the Crucified Saviour, not by local motion, but by real communicati­on, not to their teeth, but to their Souls; and consequently exhibits to them all the benefits thereof to their spiritual nou­rishment and growth in Grace, and all the advantages that flow to them from the death of Christ.

Q. 97. What is required to the worthy receiving of the Lords Supper?

[Page 213] A. It is required of them that would worthily partake of the Lords Supper, that they examine themselves of their knowledge to discern the Lords Body, of their Faith to feed upon him, of their Repentance, Love and new Obedience: lest coming unworthily, they eat and drink Judgement to themselves.

Explic. Q. How ought Christians to partake of the Lords Supper?

A. They ought to partake worthily (that is suitably) with a suitable frame of heart to this Ordinance.

Q. What is the great duty of those that would thus partake?

A. It is required that they examine themselves.

Q. How many things must they examine themselves about?

A. Five especially, viz. 1. Knowledge. 2. Faith. 3. Love. 4. Repentance. 5. New Obedience.

Q. Must every one that cometh to the Lords Supper have Knowledge?

A. Yes.

Q Why is Knowledge necessary?

A. To discern the Lords Body1 Cor. 11. 28, 29.

Q. What other graces must they examine themselves about?

[Page 214] A. Their Faith, Repentance and Love.

Q. In their examination, what must they look after?

A. Two things especially; 1. That they have these Graces. 2. That the said Graces be in readiness for service and exercise, that is, that they so stir up these Graces of the Holy Ghost, as they may be most profitably exerted in this most Sacred solemn Ordinance.

Q. Why is Faith necessary?

A. To feed on Christ. Iohn 6. 53.

Q. Why is Repentance necessary?

A. Repentance for sin will fit them to receive, and sweeten their receiving the benefits of Christs death to their Souls.

Q. Why is Love necessary?

A. Because they who have no Love to God and Christ, and their Brethren, are unfit to receive the pledge of Gods Love to themselves.

Q. What else must they examine them­selves about?

A. New Obedience, whether they propose and practise it in any good mea­sure.

Q. Why is New Obedience necessary?

A. Because Christ only communicates [Page 215] the benefits of his death to them that obey himHeb. 5. 9.

Q. What if any Communicants shall eat this Bread, and drink this Cup of the Lord unworthily?

A. They shall be guilty of the Body and Blood of Christ1 Cor. 11. 27.

Q. What danger is there in that?

A. All such Communicants eat and drink Judgement to themselves1 Cor▪ 11. 29.

Q. 98. What is Prayer?

A. Prayer is an offering up of our de­sires to God for things agreeable to his Will, in the Name of Christ, with con­fession of our sins and thankful acknow­ledgement of his mercies.

Explic. Q. What are the parts of Prayer?

A. Confession, Petition, and Thanks­giving.

Q. And how many things are there, as the matter of these?

A. Three; our sins, as the matter of our Confession; our desires and wants, as the matter of our Petition; and our Mercies as the matter of our Thanks­giving.

Q. What is Confession?

A. A due acknowledgement of our [Page 216] sins with all their several aggravating cir­cumstancesDan. 9. 4, &c. 2 Sam. 24. 10.

Q. What is Petition?

A. The offering up of our desires to God.

Q. To whom are we to direct our Prayers?

A. To God onlyPsa. 5. 2, 3.

Q. Why are we to direct our Prayers only to God?

A. 1. Because Prayer is such a specia [...] part of religious worship, that it is sometimes in holy Writ put for theGen 4. 26 Acts 9. 14 Jer. 10. 25 Psal. 79. 6 and 116. 13 Gen. 12. 8 whole worship of God, and God is the only object of religious worshipMat. 4. 10 Rev. 19. 10 and 22. 8, 9.

2. Because God only is omniscient and omnipresent to know our wants and hear our Prayers. 1 Kings 8. 38, 39. Psal. 34. 15. Isa. 63. 16.

3. Because the Title of a Hearer of Prayers is one of Gods Peculiars, and that glory which he will not give to any otherPsal. 65. 2 Mat. 4. 10.

4. It is Paganism, and gross Idolatry to give so principal a part of divine wor­ship, and to do service to them that by nature are no Gods. Gal. 4 8.

5. Because God only is Almighty and can answer our Prayers, he is All-suffici­ent and will fulfill all our Petitions1 Tim. 6. 15 Psal. 145. 18, 19 and 20. 4, 5.

[Page 217] Q. Are therefore forbidden to Pray to Saints and Angels?

A. We are forbidden to Pray to them, upon pain of Gods high displeasure, and such punishments as he will inflict upon all such as shall contemn or neglect their known duty to him, by intruding into those things which they have not seen. Exod. 20. 5. and 34. 14. Col. 2. 18.

Q. The Papists please themselves, and condemn Protestants in point of Praying to Saints and Angels, as Intercessors to God, as if there were some special humility in so doing; Have they any ground for this Doctrine?

A. They search into those things which they know nothing of, and have no other ground for this Doctrine but their own carnal Phantasie. Col. 2. 18.

Q. For what must we make our ad­dresses to God in Prayer, or offer up our de­sires to him?

A. For things agreeable to his Will1 J [...]h. 5. 14.

Q. How shall we know what things are agreeable to the Will of God?

A. By the written Word, the Com­mandments and Promises of it.

Q In whose Name must we Pray?

A. In the Name of ChristJoh. 16 23.

[Page 218] Q. What mean you by that?

A. For Christs sake and worthinessDan. 9, 17 with A &s 2. 36 Luke 1. 43 and 2. 11 See Cardi­nal Bellar­mine, in his first Book of Indul­gences, Chap. 2..

Q. Doth not the Romish Divinity say plainly that there are some Saints and Martyrs, who have suffered more than their sins did deserve; and that their superabun­dant satisfactions are put into the Treasury of the Church, and distributed by the Popes Indulgences?

A. Yes.

Q The Papists with one hand lay hold on the Merits of Christ, but with the other they lay hold on the Merits of Saints, and Martyrs: Can they deny this?

A. They cannot deny it: For before God and his Angels, their Priests, when they sing Mass, Pray unto God, not only through the Merits of J [...]sus Christ, but also through the Merits of Saints, whose Reliques are under the Altar.

Q. Do not their Devotoes [the more superstitiously devout Papists] publickly as­sert that the holy Virgin saves us, and brings us into heavenly glory, not only by her Prayers, but also by her Merits?

A. Yes.

Q. Doth not this Opinion of theirs border up [...]n Blasphemy?

A. Yes.

[Page 219] Q. Are there not in Rome it self pub­lished certain Indulgences,See this Indulgence in the book of the Ce­remonial of Bishops, page 381. of the Ro­man Editi­on, 1606. By the Prayers, and by the Merits of the holy Virgin Mary, of Michael the Archangel, of St. John Bap­tist, of the holy Apostles, Peter and Paul, and of all the Saints, without any mention at all of Iesus Christ, or his Merits?

A. Yes.

Q. And is not this egregious horrid Sa­criledge?

A. Yes.

Q. Are we therefore to Pray to the Fa­ther in the Name of Christ, and in his Name only?

A. Yes.

Q. Why so?

A. 1. Because none but Christ were ever called to the honour of an everlast­ing Priest-hood, to appear in the presence of God forHeb. 5. 4, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 9. 24, 25, 26. us: And it would be sinful in us to imagine the Saints or Angels to usurp an Office, and assume to themselves that honour they were never called unto by God, as Christ was.

2. Because he alone is able to save us to the utmost; and seeing he ever liveth to make Intercession for us (presenting himself before God, and that one once offered perfect Sacrifice for sin for us) [Page 220] we should much derogate from the suffici­ency of Christs undertakings, to suppose any need of the Intercession of Saint or Angels.

Q. And what is the third part of Prayer?

A. Thanksgiving.

Q. What is Thanksgiving?

A. The thankful acknowledgement of, and a faithful rendring unto God the praise that is due unto his NamePsal. 103. 1, 2 and 29. 1, 2 1 Thes. 5. 18 Phil. 4. 6.

Q. 99. What rule hath God given for our direction in Prayer?

A. The whole Word of God is of use to direct us in Prayer; but the special rule of Direction is that Form of Prayer which Christ taught his Disciples, com­monly called the Lords Prayer.

Explic. Q. What is generally useful for our direction in Prayer?

A. The whole Word of God.

Q. But have we not left us upon Record, some special rule for our direction in Prayer?

A. Yes, the Lords Prayer. Matth. 6. Luke 11.

Q. Why is that Form recorded in the Gospels, called the Lords Prayer?

A. Because the Lord Jesus taught it his D [...]sciples. Luke 11. 1, 2.

Q. Of what use is the Lords Prayer?

[Page 221] A. To direct us in Prayer.

Q. Is it only of use to direct us in Prayer?

A. No.

Q. Is not the saying the very words of the Lords Prayer commended unto us, if not commanded?

A. Yes, Luke [Chap. 11. 2.] hath it, When ye Pray, say, Our Father, &c.

Q. What kind of Forms may our Prayers be presented in?

A. Either in set or extemporary un­prescribed Forms.

Q. Are set Forms of Prayer lawful?

A. Set Forms of Prayer are lawful, both as the word [Set] signifies pre­meditate limited Forms, as opposed to extemporary; and as it signifies pre­scribed, and for some occasions and uses commanded.

Q. How do you prove it lawful to use a set determinate Form of words, either writ­ten or fastened in our memory?

A. It is apparent both by the example of Christ, who in St. Luke bids us, when we pray, say, Our Father, &c. (Not only pray after this Pattern, as the words in St. Matthew may be interpreted, but use these very words, When you pray, [Page 222] say, Our Father, &c▪ Luke 11. 2.) and of Iohn Baptist, who taught his Disci­ples to pray in some Form, though we know not what it is, Luke 11. 1. As also of the Priests under the Law, by Gods appointment, that used a Set Form of blessing the People, Numb. 6. 24, &c. And of our Saviour himself, who used a a part (if not the whole) of the 22. Psalm upon the Cross, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me, &c. And of the Church of the Jews, and Christian Churches through all times, who have had their Liturgies, as waies and Forms of serving God publickly, and as means to preserve the true Religion from all cor­ruptions in Doctrine. And to these Argu­ments may be aded one more of common observation, that even when the Minister (or whosoever is the mouth of the rest) prayeth, though in a Form of his own present extemporary effusion, yet at that time all others present are limited to his conceptions, and pray in as stinted a Form, as if what the Minister prays were read out of a Book, or dictated by his Me­mory.

Q. But how do you prove it lawful to use a Set (as that signifies a prescribed) Form of Prayer?

[Page 223] A. It is apparent, 1. By Christs pre­scribing one, which he would not sure have done, if it had not been lawful to have used it being prescribed; and so also, 2. By the other examples mention­ed, which are most of them prescripti­ons. 3. By the no Objection against the use of them; For sure, if it be lawful to use them, it is lawful to prescribe them at some time, and for some uses, (for that a thing in it self acknowledged, and proved to be lawful, should by being commanded by lawful Authority become unlawful, is very unreasonable, unless lawful Magistrates be the only unlawful things) and at other times to use other liberty is not forbidden, and so hereby there is not any invasion or Tyranny used upon our Christian liberty. 4. By the great benefit that accrues to the Congre­gation in having discreet well formed Prayers, and so not subject to the tem [...] ­rity and impertinences of the sudden effu­sions; and the same still in constant use, and so not strange or new to them, but such as in which they may with under­standing go along with the Minister, and by the help of their Memory the most ig­norant may carry them away for his pri­vate [Page 224] use, and generally those that want such helps, are by this means afforded them. And lastly, by the consideration of this one special farther advantage of them, viz. that by means of prescribed Liturgies the Unity of Faith, and Cha­rity is much preserved.

Q Well then, supposing these Set Forms to be lawful in themselves, and lawful to be prescribed; whether may any other be used but such?

A. Yea doubtless:See H's practical Catechism, p. 239. For the Church be­ing obeyed in the observance of the pre­scribed Liturgy in publick, permits some­times (and upon special incidental oc­casions prescribes) other Forms in the publick Congregation, so it be done pru­dently, and piously, and reverently, and to Edification; and so also in the Family, or in visitation of the sick, if the parti­cular condition of one or other do require it: and in private, in the Closet, it is not supposed by the Church of England but that every one may ask his own wants in what form of words he shall think fit; which that he may do fitly and reverently, it will not be amiss for him to acquaint himself with the several addresses to God, which the Book of Psalms, and other [Page 225] parts of holy Writ, and all other helps of devotion will afford him, either to use as he finds them fit for the present purpose, or by those patterns to direct and prepare himself to do the like.

Q 100. What doth the Preface of the Lords Prayer teach us?

A. The Preface of the Lords Prayer, which is [Our Father which art in Hea­ven] teacheth us to draw near to God with holy reverence and confidence, as Children to a Father, able and ready to help us, and that we should pray with and for others.

Explic. Q. How many parts are there in the Lords Prayer?

A. Three, the Preface, the Petitions, and the Conclusion.

Q. Which is the Preface of the Lords Prayer?

A. Our Father which art in Heaven.

Q. How must we draw near to God in Prayer?

A. As Children to a Father.

Q. H [...]w is that?

A. With reverenceGen. 18. [...]7 Psal. 115. 3 Mal. 1. 6 2 Chron. 6. 13 Psal. 95. 6 Dan. 6. 10 Psal 89. 7 and 111. 9 Eccl. 5. 1, 2, and confidence1 Joh. 5. 14 Eph. 3. 12 Mat. 7. 7,—12 and 21. 22 Joh. 14, 13, 14 and 15. 7 and 16. 23, 24 1 Joh▪ 3 22 Rom. 8. 15.

Q. Must we come to God with all holy reverence and confidence, because he is our heavenly Father?

[Page 226] A. Yes.

Q. What encouragement have we so to do?

A. Because he is able and ready to help us, as a Father his Children.

Q. In what words are his readiness and ability implied?

A. His readiness in these words [Our Father] his ability in these [which art in Heaven.]

Q. Why do you say, Our Father, and not my Father?

A. Because we ought not only to pray by our selves, and for our selves; but with and for others.

Q. Must we pray for all?

A. Yes1 Tim. 2. 1 Gen. 17. 18 and 20. 7 1 Kin. 13▪ 6 Ezr. 6. 10, excepting those that have sinned the sin unto death1 Joh. 5. 16.

Q. Must we pray for our enemies?

A. YesMat. 5. 44.

Q. Whom must we pray for especially?

A. For theEph. 6. 18 Psal. 28. 9 and 122. 6 Church of God.

Q. And whom must we pray for more particularly?

A. For Magistrates and Ministers. 1 Tim. 2. 1. 2 Thes. 3. 1. Heb. 13. 18. Col. 4. 3. Ephes. 6. 18, 19.

Q. May we not pray for those who are yet unborn?

[Page 227] A. YesJoh. 17. 20.

Q. But may we pray for those that are dead and departed out of this life?

A. No.

Q. Why so?

A. 1. Because we find not any com­mand or example in the Scripture, that Prayers are to be made for souls departed; but have the example of David (that man after Gods own heart) against it.

2. The souls of the righteous in Hea­ven stand in no need of our Prayers, and the souls of the wicked in Hell can receive no good by them, or by the pre­tended sacrifice of the Mass.

Q. But where are those souls pretended to be, that are thought, by the Papists, to be profited by their Prayers, and their sacrifice of the Mass?

A. In Purgatory.

Q. If then there be no Purgatory, do not the Papists themselves grant it us, that there are no Prayers to be made for the Dead?

A. Yes.

Q. What souls do the Papists tell us must go to Purgatory?

A. They tell us that the souls of the impenitent do not go to Purgatory, but [Page 228] to Hell, nor the souls of all Believers, but of some only, viz. of those that did not fully satisfie for their sins in this life.

Q. What kind of place do they imagine Purgatory to be?

A. A place of great pain, where the fore-mentioned souls are tormented till they satisfie Gods Justice, and then being purged fully from sin, they are to be re­ceived up into Heaven.

Q. What difference do they make be­twixt Hell and Purgatory?

A. They say in Purgatory, the fore-mentioned souls suffer the vengeance of a temporary fire, but in Hell impenitent Unbelievers suffer the vengeance of eter­nal fire.

Q The Papists profess to believe with us, That the blood of Iesus Christ purgeth and cleanseth us from all our sins: Why then have they invent [...]d the fire of Purgatory? If all sins are washed away, and purged by the blood of Christ, what then remains to be purged in this imaginary fire?

A. They mock the world in calling it Purgatory, for (according to the Romish Doctrine) it serves not to purge, but to punish souls, and to satisfie Gods Justice; [Page 229] so that it is not a purging, but a pain and a punishment.

Q▪ But can the sufferings of the fore-mentioned Believers in Purgatory, satisfie Gods offended Iustice, so that by the help of the Prayers of the living▪ and the sacrifice of the Mass, they shall be delivered thence, and accounted worthy to be received up into Heaven?

A. 'Tis impossible that the sufferings of finite and mutable Creatures, which are but of yesterday, should satisfie the offended Justice of the infinite, eternal and unchangeable God: And that their temporary torments, though never so ex­quisite, should merit for them that far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory, which all shall be partakers of, that are received up into Heaven.

Q. How may it be proved that we are delivered from the whole punishment of sin, temporal and Eternal, by the death of Christ: So that we shall not need to fear their fear, who through fear of Purga­tory-fire, are all their life-time subject to bondage; or be affrighted with their big words, who are so hot for this invented fire, as to say, Whosoever believeth not Pur­gatory shall be tormented in Hell?

[Page 230] A. 1. Punishment is inflicted because of sin, Iob 4. 8. Prov. 22. 8. and 28. 18. Hos. 10. 13. and 14. 1. Being freed from sin, we are not liable to Judge­ment, 2 Sam. 12. 13. Ier. 4. 14. Ezek. 18. 32.

2. It stands not with the Justice of God, being once fully satisfied, to require a second payment at our hand. Gen. 18. 25. Isa. 53. 10, 11. Mat. 3. 17.

3. Neither will it stand with his glori­ous Mercy. Luke 1. 77, 78. 2 Cor. 1. 3. Rom. 9. 23. Ephes. 2. 4, 5, 6. 1 Pet. 1. 3. Iude 21. 2 Tim. 1. 18.

4. Nor with the honour of Christ, who is a perfect Redeemer. Tit. 2. 14. Heb. 1. 3. 1 Ioh. 1. 7, 9. and 2. 1, 2.

5. Nor with the price of his Blood. 1. Cor. 6. 20. 1 Pet. 1. 18, 19. Mat. 20. 28. 1 Tim. 2. 6.

6. Nor with our Faith in praying for full pardon of all our debts. Matth. 6. 12.

7. Nor with our peace with God. Rom. 5. 1.

8. Nor yet with right reason, that the guilt of sin should be removed, and yet punishment for sin infl [...]cted.

Q. And is not this new invented doctrine [Page 231] of Purgatory contrary to the intendment and design of the Gospel?

A. Yes, for the design of the Gospel is to comfort Believers against all their sufferings in this life, with the hope of hea­venly glory and happiness, to be enjoyed immediately after their death; see Rom. 15. 4. Io [...]. 5. 24. 2 Cor. 5. 1, 2. 1 Thes. 4. 17. Rom. 8. 17. Phil. 1. 23. Rev. 14. 13. Luke 23. 43. and 16. 22, 23. with Mat. 8. 11, 12. Heb. 11. 13, 16. But this new invented Doctrine speaks terrour to all Believers, as being so far from making God full satisfaction for their sins in this life (as some of them are supposed to do by the Papists) that they were never able to make God any satisfaction for them. And therefore must we certainly be all doomed alike to go to Purgatory, that place of so great pain, that the most torturing wheels, and the most ardent fires are nothing in comparison of it, if it be true (which those of that party say) that it is ten times hotter than our fire, and that it differs from Hell-fire, in respect of duration only.

Q. And will not such Doctrine as this be a great scandal, and a Rock of offence to weak Believers, for whom Christ died?

[Page 232] A. Yes.

Q. But is it not the duty of every one that nameth the name of Christ, to com­fort the feeble-minded, and to support the weak?

A. Yes.

Q. And do not they blaspheme that wor [...]hy n [...]me, by the which they are called, that break a bruised Reed, and quench the smoaking Flax?

A. Yes.

Q. And whoever shall offend one of these little ones which believe in Christ; were it not better for him that a Millstone were hanged about his neck, and that he were drowned in the depth of the Sea?

A. Yes.

Q Now therefore, seeing we know these things before, should we not beware lest we also being led away with the error of the wicked, fall from our own stedfastness?

A. Yes.

Q. But that we may not as Children be tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, and cunning craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive; 'Twill highly con­cern us to be much in reading the Scriptures, and to use all possible means to help us to [Page 233] understand the reading, because there are some things in them hard to be understood, which our Adversaries, the learned of them especially, do wrest for their confirmation of the doctrine of Purgatory, as of their other inventions?

Object. 1. The Papists glory much in 1 Cor. 3. 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. Read it; Doth this place rightly understood confirm their Doctrine of Purgatory fire?

A. No, for if the design of the Apo­stle be attended unto in this place, we may with more reason call the unlevened bread eaten in the Land of Promise by the Israelites, the very identical bread of affliction really eaten by their Fathers in Egypt, as it was a sign of it; than the fire here mentioned by the Apostle, their material Purgatory fire, which is no sign of any such fond invention.

Q. What therefore is the true sense and meaning of this place?

A. If the scope of the place be ob­served, we shall easily see the meaning of the place to be nothing but this, viz. That the Faith of Christ being the Foun­dation which our Apostle had laid, and indeed the only one which could possibly be laid: That that which was regularly [Page 234] to be built thereon was constant confes­sion of Christ in despire of affl [...]ctions, which like Gold and Silver, &c. would be refined and purified▪ not consumed in the [...]; but for any doctrine of world­ly wisdom, vers. 18. of prudential com­plianc [...]s with the Persecutors, Jews or Gentiles, If any such earthly material were brought in the stead of the formen­tioned constancy, it should be brought suddenly to the trial; And proving com­bustible matter, it will not bear that trial (such are the Doctrines of denying Christ when persecuted) and it shall be so far from helping this Gnostick complier to any advantage as the hopes it will, that it shall bring the greatest danger upon him; and if upon timely Repentance, or by his not having actually denyed Christ (for all his superstructing of some erro­neous doctrines) he be more mercifully dealt with by Christ, and freed from having his portion with Unbelievers, yet it shall go hard with him, as with one that is involved in a common fire, and hardly escapes out of it.

Object. 2. They urge also, 1 Pet. 3. 19. By which also he went and Preached unto the Spirits in Prison; Do you think when [Page 235] this Scripture is rightly considered it will justifie their Opinion of Purgatory fire?

A. No▪ 1. Because the Apostle saith that these Spirits that be in Prison, were disobedient in the daies of Noah, vers. 20. And the Papists themselves hold, that disobedient and impenitent persons go to Hell, but the Souls of Believers only to Purgatory; so that this place is nothing at all for Purgatory.

2. Because Christ is not said to Preach in the Prison to the Spirits, but to the Spirits in Prison: The difference be­twixt these two expressions is very great; He preached to them in the daies of Noah, who were in Prison in the daies of the Apostles: He Preached to them out of Prison, that are now in Prison; which is nothing to their purpose.

Object. 3. Mat. 12. 32. Whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but whoever speak­eth against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nei­ther in the world to come; Hence they argue that some sins shall be forgiven in the world to come.

A. Not to be forgiven in this world, nor in the world to come, is as much as, [Page 236] shall never be forgiven; so Matthew ex­plains himself, Mat. 12. 31. And so Mark doth express it, Mark 3. 29. Read the places.

O [...]ject. 4. They urge Mat. 5. 25, 26. read the place. This Prison, saith Bellar­mine, is Purgatory, out of which, after the Debt is paid, the Debtor shall go forth?

A. 1. Some understand the place lite­rally, and if it be so understood, it is altogether impertinent to the matter in hand.

2. If the place be taken in a spiritual sense, by the Prison must necessarily be understood Hell (and not Purgatory) whence the Debtor shall never come forth, because no meer man by his suf­fering can in a finite time satisfie the in­finite offended Justice of God.

3. And that which may be an argu­ment to them, they interpret other Scrip­tures where they meet with the like phrases in the same sense we understand this very place; see Mat. 1. 25. Gen. 8. 7. Deut. 34. 6. 1 Sam. 15. 35. and 2 Sam. 6. 23. So that in brief, in the literal sense, it is impertinent, and in the spi­ritual sense it must needs be understood [Page 237] of Hell, whence there is no Redempti­on.

Q. How many sorts of Prayers are there?

A. Three, viz. Closet, Family and Publick.

Q What do you mean by Closet-Prayer?

A. Entring into our Closet alone, and praying unto our Father in secret.

Q. Why is Closet-Prayer necessary?

A. Because those that pray after the manner of Hypocrites, to be seen of men, have their reward: But if, we pray to the Father in secret, our Father which seeth in secret, shall reward us openlyMat. 6. 5, 6

Q. And must we in our Closet-Prayers pray both for our selves and others?

A. YesMat. 6 5, 6 with vers 9.

Q. When you say you are to pray for others, what do you mean by it?

A. That we ought to pray for all in the Land of the living (which is the only Land of hope) yea, though they be the greatest sinners, and such Prisoners as are bound with the bands and setters of their sins; they are Prisoners of hope, if they have not sinned the sin unto death; and we ought to pray for them.

[Page 238] Q. What do you mean by Family-Prayer?

A. Praying in and with our Families for our selves and others.

Q. Why ought we to pray in our Fa­milies?

A. Because God will pour out his fury upon the Families that call not on his Name, as having on them the mark and brand of the accursed Heathens, Ier. 10. 25.

Q. What mean you by Publick-Prayer?

A. Praying in and with the publick Assemblies for our selves and others.

Q. Ought not publick prayer to be pre­ferred above all Family-private-prayer?

A. Yes, because every particular Be­liever hath special interest and power with God, and doth prevail with him for all desireable blessings; and a multi­tude of Believers assembled together in publick, will have a greater interest and power with God in Prayer, than a few met together in a private Family: And therefore publick-prayer ought to be and will be preferred by all that regard their own interest, above any Family-private-prayer whatsoever.

[Page 239] Q. Whom doth the Preface of the Lords Prayer teach us to pray unto?

A. To our Father who is in Heaven.

Q. And do we by this appellation ex­press our reverence to him, and our Faith in him, that his Goodness, Will, and his Power can grant our requests for our selves and others?

A. Yes.

Q. But when mention is made of the Father, do you exclude the Son, or the Holy Ghost from being prayed unto?

A. No.

Q How and in what order are we to di­rect our Prayers to the persons of the blessed Trinity? And whether may we not single out any one of the Persons, to whom we may direct more immediately such or such a Prayer?

A. The case hath so much difficulty in it, that a short answer must not be ex­p [...]cted to so great questions, as are couched in it; yet we will endeavour to give an answer thereunto, as briefly as we can in these following Conclusions: Some of which will be of use to us as rules of direction to lead us into the sound knowledge of these and other mysteries of the Gospel.

[Page 240]1. That in all parts of divine worship, and so in this of Prayer, the Trinity in Unity, and Unity in Trinity is to be worshipped and respected. Or, That we ought so to think of God in Prayer as one in Essence, yet three in Persons: and so as three in Persons, that he is but one in Essence.

2. That we ought so to think in Prayer of some one Person in the Trinity, as thereby to be led to the other two: The Father being in the Son, and the Son in the Father, and the Holy Ghost in them bothJoh. 14. 9, 10, 16, 17 and 15. 26 Isa. 48. 16.

3. That in order, we are first to di­rect our Prayers to the blessed Father; yet not as first, or chief in honour and dignity above the other two, but as first in order of subsisting: according as the Scripture in two places, where the order of the blessed Persons is set down, the Father is first set down in order of wit­nessing, 1 Ioh. 5. 7. and invocation and worship, Mat. 28. 19.

4. In singling out any one Person in the blessed Trinity, we are to pitch most usually on the Father, as he to whom we direct our Prayers through the mediation of Christ, and by the help of the Holy [Page 241] Ghost: That is the Rule and method prescribed by Christ, to ask the Father in his Name, Ioh. 16. 23. and suitable is and hath been the usual practice of the Saints: And yet in such directings of Prayers most what as to the Father in the general intention of their Spirits, do the Saints mind and eye the other two Per­sons, and include them as joyntly wor­shipped; and therefore in their Prefaces of Prayer they do oftimes mention ex­presly, that blessed God one in Essence, yet three in Persons, as he to whom they speak; and in the close they subscribe glory to the blessed Father, Son and Spi­rit, three Persons yet one God, &c.

5. We may single out the Son of God, the Lord Jesus Christ, as he to whom we occasionally present some special request, either by way of Apostrophe, whilst we are directing our Prayers to the Father, or in way of Ej [...]culation: as did Stephen, Acts 7. 59. Lord Iesus receive my Spirit. And so in the instance of that short prayer of the Converted Thief, Luke 23. 42. Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy Kingdom; and so in that short Prayer of Iacob's, The Angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the Lads, [Page 242] Gen. 48. 16. this Angel was Christ: And in more continued and solemn man­ner did Abraham pray to that Angel, Gen. 18. To him did Iacob pray again, and make supplication, by the space al­most of the whole night, and had power over him, Gen. 32. from Verse 24. to the end, compared with Hos. 12. 3, 4. And the Reasons hereof are evident,

1. Because Prayer is a divine worship of God as GodActs 5. 4; and therefore due to the Son, and so to the Holy Ghost as well as to the Father. Rom. 10. 13, 14.

2. We are Baptized into the Name of the Son, and the Holy Ghost, as well as into the Name of the Father: and there­fore both the Son and the Holy Ghost may be particularly and personally invo­cated, and worshipped as well as the FatherJoh. 14. 1.

3. We are to believe in the Son, and so in the Holy Ghost as well as in the Father, and that personally and particu­larly: and therefore so are to pray to ei­ther. That which the Apostle expound­eth of the Gentiles trusting in Christ, Rom. 15. 12. the Prophet expressed of their seeking to him, Isa. 11. 10. So that they are inseparably due to one and the [Page 243] same Christ, upon one and the same ground; see Rom. 10. 13, 14. before mentioned. It is supposed that he on whom men call, he must be believed on, or else he cannot be called upon by any; and when the Apostle in the 13. Verse, mentions the Name of the Lord, as that which is called upon, he in Verse 14. expounds it to be meant of the Lord himself: to call upon the Lords Name, is to call upon himself.

4. The Lord Jesus promiseth that he will do what we ask, Ioh. 16. 23, 24. and therefore he may be sought to do the same; and indeed he proveth himself to be equal with the Father by this argu­ment, because Petitions shall not only be granted in his Name, but by him: Nei­ther doth he make account that this is any disparagement to the Father, but a glori­fying of him, and therefore when he saith, Iob. 17. 1. Father glorifie thy Son, he immediately adds, that thy Son also may glorifie thee. What is said to prove that in our Prayers we may single out the Son of God, may serve to prove the same may be done to the Holy Ghost.

Obj. Against this which hath been said, it may be objected, we are to ask all we do ask in [Page 244] the Name of Christ; and therefore how can we be said to ask him, or Pray to him?

A. 1. The Lord Jesus Christ is asked or prayed unto in that prayer that is put up to the Father in his Name, Iob. 16 23. Christ speaking of the time after his Re­surrection and Ascension, saith, In that day ye shall ask me nothing: or (which is all one) Verily, ye shall ask the Fa­ther nothing in my Name, but be will give it you. He is glorified as God, in that all is done with God in his Name, and for his Father. For albeit it be some­times said, For Abraham and David's sake God will do this or that; yet this is meant in reference to Gods Covenant of Grace with them, and so to Christ properly, in whom that Covenant is ra­tified, Gal. 3. 17. They called on the Name of the Lord Iesus Christ in every place, 1 Cor. 1. 2. Yet surely they brake not that Rule, Iob. 16. 23. They called on the Father in Christs Name, even in their calling upon God in his Name: and Christ as God is also called upon, in that his Father as God is called upon.

2. In all external worship of God, one Person of the Trinity being Named, [Page 245] the other are understood, and are not to be excluded: the Trinity being undi­vided in worship.

3. If Christ be considered as the Son of God in Essence with the Father, He is he to whom we come, &c. Coming in Prayer to the Father: If considered as Mediator, God incarnate, God and Man, He is he by whom we come to the Father, Heb. 7. 25. and 1 Tim. 2. 5. As the Son of God, He may be, he must be prayed to, which is God and Man in one Person; but is not prayed to as Man, but as God.

Q. 2. What are those Petitions which you offer up to God the Father, Son and Holy Ghost?

A. They are Six: In the three first we more immediately respect Gods glory; in the three last our own good.

Q. 101. What do we pray for in the first Petition?

A. In the first Petition [which is, Hallowed by thy Name] we pray that God would enable us and others, to glo­rifie him in all that whereby he maketh himself known, and that he would dispose all things to his own glory.

[Page 246] Explic. Q. Which is the first Petition?

A. Hallowed be thy Name.

Q. What is it to Hallow Gods Name?

A. To glorifie him in all that whereby he makes himself known, viz. His Ti­tles, Attributes, Ordinances, Word and Works; all which are explained particu­larly in the third Commandment.

Q. Are we to pray that God would en­able us and others thus to glorifie him?

A. Yes.

Q. And that he would dispose all things, in his all-wise over-ruling providence to his own glory?

A. Yes.

Q. And do we pray in this first Petition, that God may be known to be what be isRom. 11. 36. 1 Tim. 1. 17., and accordingly esteemedPsal. 89. 6., worshippedPsal. 97. 7, 9., and praisedPsal. 113. in wordPsal. 63. 4, 5. and deed1 Cor. 10. 31. Matth. 5. 16. 2 Thes. 1. 11, 12., through­out the worldPsal. 86. 9.?

A. Yes.

Q. 10 [...]. What do we pray for in the se­cond Petition?

A. In the second Petition [which is, Thy Kingdom come] we pray that Satans. Kingdom may be destroyed, that the [Page 247] Kingdom of Grace may be advanced, our selves and others brought into it, and kept in it, and that the Kingdom of Glory may be hastened.

Explic. Q Which is the second Peti­tion?

A. Thy Kingdom come.

Q. In this Petition, whose Kingdom do we pray against?

A. The Kingdom of SatanRev. 10, 11.

Q. How manifold is the Kingdom of Satan?

A. Twofold, 1. That within, viz. The rule Satan hath in the hearts of men by NatureEph. 2. 2, 3.

2. That without, consisting in an open ad [...]ncement of false Doctrine, Worship, and ProphanenessRev. 20. 7, 8.

Q. And are we to pray that the King­dom of Satan, in both these senses may be destroyed?

A. Yes.

Q. Whose Kingdom do we pray for?

A. The Kingdom of God.

Q. How manifold is the Kingdom of God?

A. Twofold: The Kingdom of Grace, and the Kingdom of Glory.

[Page 248] Q. What are we to pray for in reference to the Kingdome of Grace?

A. That it may be advancedPsa. 51. 18 3 Thes. 3. 1 Mat. 24. 14 Rom. 6. 12, 13, 14 Joh. 17. 9, 11 1 Cor. 15. 25.

Q. How is the Kingdom of Grace ad­vanced?

A. By our selves and others, being brought into it, and kept in it.

Q. How manifold is the Kingdom of Grace?

A. Twofold, 1. That within, viz. The rule which God hath in the hearts of his people by his Word, Grace and Spirit. Rom. 6. 17. Ephes. 2. 5, 6.

2. That without, viz. in an open ad­vancement of the true Religion, and pure worship of God in the ChurchRev. 20. 2.

Q. What do we pray for in reference to the Kingdom of Glory.

A. That it may be hastenedRev. 22. 20.

Q. What is the Kingdom of Glory?

A. It is that state of bliss and glory in Heaven, wherein the people of God shall dwell with God and Christ hereafter for ever.

Q. Can our Prayers hasten this?

A. We cannot hasten it till Gods ap­pointed time be fully come.

Q. How then are we said so to do?

A. We are said to hasten it,

[Page 249]1. In our Expectations.

2. In our Preparations.

3. In our Longings.

4. And in our Prayers for it.

Q. 103. What do we pray for in the third Petition?

A. In the third Petition [which is, Thy will be done on Earth as it is in Hea­ven] we pray that God by his Grace would make us able and willing to know, obey, and submit to his will in all things, as the Angels do in Heaven.

Explic. Q Which is the third Peti­tion?

A. Thy will be done on Earth as it is in Heaven.

Q. What is prayed for in this Petition?

A. That God would make us able and willing to know, obey, and to submit to Gods WillPsa. 119, 33, 34, 35, 36 Deu. 29. 29 1 Sam. 3. 18 Psal. 39. 9 Job 1. 21, 22 Acts 21. 14.

Q. What is it that must make us able and willing to do all this?

A. The Grace of God enlightening, and assisting us.

Q. How ought we to know, obey, and to submit to Gods Will?

A. In all things.

Q. What do you mean by Gods Will, which we ought thus to know, obey and sub­mit to?

[Page 250] A. We are to know and obey the Will of Gods preceptMit. 7. 21 Act. 9. 6 M [...]c. 6. 8, and that which he is pleased to require of us; and to sub­mit to the Will of Gods providence, or that which he is pleased to do with us, and unto usRo. 1. 10 1 Pet. 3. 17.

Q. After what manner ought we to do this?

A. As the AngelsPsal 103. 20, 21. do in Heaven.

Q. And ought we as chearfully, unani­mously, and impartially to execute Gods commands on Earth as the Angels do in Heaven?

A. Yes.

Q. 104. What do we pray for in the fourth Petition?

A. In the fourth Petition [which is, Give us this day our daily bread] we pray that of Gods free gift, we may receive a competent portion of the good things of this life, and enjoy his blessing with them.

Explic. Q. Which is the fourth Peti­tion?

A. Give us this day our daily bread.

Q. What do we pray for in this Peti­tion?

A. We pray that we may receive a competent portion of the good things of this life. Prov. 30. 8.

[Page 251] Q. What is meant by a competent por­tion?

A. Such a portion as is sufficient and convenient for us, or suitable to our places and conditions here in this life.

Q Are the things in this life then good in themselves?

A. Yes, although not the only, or principal good things.

Q. How ought we to pray to receive this portion?

A. Of Gods free gift. Iam. 1. 17.

Q. What else do we pray for to enjoy with them?

A. Gods blessing1 Tim. 4. 4. Psal. 3 [...]. 16 Prov. 15. 6.

Q. Do not those then that trade and work for outward things, without praying to God for them, take a wrong course to get them, and to have them with a blessing in a Cove­nant way?

A. YesProv. 10. 4 w [...]h 22 Psa. 127. 22.

Q. And is it not sufficient that we have these outward things, unless we have Gods blessing with them?

A. No.

Q. Why do we say, Give us [this day] our daily bread?

A. It is to teach us not to take care for to morrow, and to instruct us that we must pray dailyLuk. 11. 3. Mat. 6. 34..

[Page 252] Q. And why do we pray for Bread?

A. It is to teach us to moderate our affections to, and desires after earthly things; and to be content, if we have but necessariesMat. 6. 31, 32. Heb. 13. 5.

Q In what Petition do we pray for tem­poral things?

A. In this fourth Petition.

Q. 105. What do we pray for in the fifth Petition?

A. In the fifth Petition [which is, And forgive us our Debts as we forgive our Debtors] we pray that God for Christ's sake would freely pardon all our sins, which we are the rather encouraged to ask, because by his grace we are enabled from the heart to forgive others.

Explic. Q. Which is the fifth Peti­tion?

A. Forgive us our Debts, as we for­give our Debtors.

Q. What do we pray for in this Petition?

A. We pray that God would pardon all our sins. Psal. 51. 1.

Q. How do we pray that God would par­don them?

A. We pray that God would pardon them freely of his Grace, for the sake and merits of Christ. Rom. 3. 24.

[Page 253] Q. Why are our sins called Debts?

A. Because they make us Debtors, liable to the wrath, and offended Justice of God.

Q. Whence have we encouragement to ask of God the forgiveness of our Debts?

A. Because we that are infinitely short of his Goodness, do yet forgive our debtors. Mat. 6. 14.

Q. How are we enabled to forgive others?

A. By the Grace of God only.

Q. After what manner must we forgive others?

A. From the heart. Mat. 18. 35.

Q. And must we from the heart forgive others their trespasses, as ever we expect that God should forgive us?

A. Yes.Ephes. 4 32

Q. 106. What do we pray for in the s [...]xth Petition?

A. In the sixth Petition [which is, And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil] we pray that God would either keep us from being tempted to sin, or support and deliver us when we are tempted.

Explic. Q. Which is the sixth Peti­tion?

[Page 254] A. Lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.

Q. What is prayed for in this Peti­tion?

A. Divers things; 1. That God (if he sees good) would keep us from being tempted to sinLuk 22. 32, 33, 34 2 Sam. 24. 1 with 1 Chron. 21. 1.

Q. How many kinds of temptations be there?

A. Two, 1. Of affliction, which have tendency towards sin, if not san­ctified.

2. Of enticement unto sin directly; we pray to be kept from both (if God sees good.)

Q. And what do we pray for in refe­rence to both these temptations?

A. If it please God to suffer us to be tempted either way, then that he would supportPs. 55. 22 2 Cor. 12. 8, 9 us under the affliction, and not suffer us to be taken Captives by Satan, and led into temptation, to be triumphed over by him at his WillLuk. 22. 31, 32 1 Pet. 5. 8, 9, 10 Mark 14. 38.

Q. Is there any thing more prayed for?

A. We pray that God in his due time would deliver us, when we are tempted: That the affliction may be re­moved, when it is a burden too great [Page 255] for us to bear, and that he would lead Captivity captive, and rescue us out of the hands of Satan1 Cor. 10. 13 Ephes. 4. 8.

Q. 107. What doth the Conclusion of the Lords Prayer teach us?

A. The Conclusion of the Lords Prayer [which is, For thine is the Kingdom, the Power, and the Glory for ever, Amen.] teacheth to take our encouragement in Prayer from God only, and in our Pray­ers to praise him, ascribing Kingdom, and Power, and Glory to him; And in testimony of our desire, and assurance to be heard, we say Amen.

Explic. Q. What is the Conclusion of the Lords Prayer?

A. For thine is the Kingdom, and the Power, and the Glory for ever, Amen.

Q. What doth the Conclusion of the Lords Prayer teach us?

A. It teacheth us to take our encou­ragement in Prayer from God onlyDan. 9. 18 19▪.

Q. Is this an encouragement to us in Prayer, that the Kingdom, or Rule, or Soveraignty is Gods, and therefore he may give us what he pleaseth?

A. YesDan. 4. 32, 34, 35.

[Page 256]Q And that the Power is Gods, and therefore he can do according to and above all our necessities, let our case be what it will?

A. YesGen. 17. 1.

Q. And that the Glory belongs to God, and therefore we are encouraged from the glorious excellencies of his nature to expect, and for the furtherance and promoting of his own honour to desire the fulfilling of our requests?

A. YesDan. 4. 36, 37.

Q. What else doth the Conclusion teach us?

A. It teacheth us in our Prayers to Praise him, or to joyn praises to our Prayers, by ascribing Kingdom, Po­wer and Glory to him only. 1 Chron. 29. 11, 12, 13.

Q. And is Gods Kingdom, Power and Glory then the matter both of Gods praise, and of our encouragement?

A. Yes.

Q. Is God praised by us in our ascribing all Kingdom, Power and Glory to him, and in extoling his excellencies and Prero­gatives?

A. Yes. 1 Tim. 6. 15, 16.

[Page 257]Q. How long must we thus glorifie, and praise God?

A. For ever1 Tim. 1. 17 and 2. 4, 18.

Q. And why do we say [Amen] as the Conclusion of this and of all our Prayers?

A. In testimony of our desire and as­surance to be heard.

Q Is that then the meaning of our saying, Amen, in the close of our Prayers; So let it be, and so it shall be, as such phrases imply both earnestness in desiring, and confidence of speeding?

A. YesPsal. 20. 5 Isa. 26. 9 2 Cor. 1. 20 Mat. 21 22 Eph. 3. 20, 21.

The Creed.

I Believe in God the Father Almighty▪ maker of Heaven and Earth: And in Iesus Christ his only Son our Lord, who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was Crucified, dead and buried, he descended intoThat is, Continued in the state of the dead, and under the power of Death till the third day. Hell, the third day he rose again from the dead, he ascended into Heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Al­mighty, from thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead: I believe in the Holy Ghost, the holy Catholick Church, the Communion of Saints, the forgiveness of Sins, the Resurrection of the Body, and the Life Everlasting. Amen.

The Ten Com­mandments.

Exodus 20.

GOD spake all these words, saying, I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the Land of Egypt, out of the House of Bondage.

1. Thou shalt have no other Gods before me.

2. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven Image, or any likeness of any thing that is in Heaven above, or that is in the Earth beneath, or that is in the Water under the Earth: Thou shalt not bow down thy self to them, not serve them: For I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the Fathers upon the Chil­dren, unto the third and fourth Generation of them that hate me: and shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me and keep my Commandments.

[Page 260]3. Thou shalt not take the Name of the Lord thy God in vain: For the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his Name in vain.

4. Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy: Six daies shalt thou labour and do all thy work: but the seventh day is the Sab­bath of the Lord thy God; in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy Son, nor thy Daughter, thy Man-servant, nor thy Maid-servant, nor thy Cattle, nor thy Stranger that is within thy Gates: For in six daies the Lord made Heaven and Earth, the Sea, and all that in them is, and rested the Seventh day; wherefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it.

5. Honour thy Father and thy Mother, that thy daies may be long upon the Land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.

6. Thou shalt not Kill.

7. Thou shalt not commit Adultery.

8. Thou shalt not Steal.

9. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy Neighbour.

10. Thou shalt not covet thy Neighbours House, thou shalt not covet thy Neighbours Wife, nor his Man-Servant, nor his Maid-Servant, nor his Ox, nor his Ass, nor any thing that is thy Neighbours.

The Lords Prayer.

Matth. 6.

OVR Father which art in Heaven, Hallowed be thy Name. Thy King­dom come. Thy Will be done on Earth as it is in Heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our Debts as we forgive our Debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the Kingdom, and the Power, and the Glory for ever. Amen.

Acts 8. 30. ‘Understandest thou what thou readest?’

GOD avouched Israel to be his pecu­liar people; In Iudah is God known, his Name is great in Israel. Deut. 26. 18 Psal. 76. 1 God erected a partition-wall between the Jew and the Gentile;Acts 10. 35 but Christ took it down, And now in every Nation be that feareth God, and worketh righteousness is accepted with him. Gen. 9, and 10 And this Ethiopian Eunuch, al­though of the Line of cursed [...] Ham, be­comes a Believer upon Philip's Preaching to him Jesus.1 Cor. 1. 26 We see how that not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble are called: Yet there are some of the most Noble, and Officers of great honour and trust, whom God is pleased to call over to himself. Of this chosen and royal Priesthood, whom God called out of darkness into his mar­vellous light, were David, Solomon, Ie­h [...]shaphat. You may read David's con­quests, 2 Sam. 8. and 10. Chapters; So­lomon's honour, 2 Chron. 1. 12. How the [Page 263] Realm of Iehoshaphat was quiet, for his God gave him rest round about, 2 Chron. 17. 6. and 20. 30. And you see of what Authority this Eunuch was under Can­dace Queen of the Ethiopians, Verse 27. The Law is our School-master to bring us unto Christ: Gal. 3. 24 Yea even Proselytism it self is here an Introduction to such a blessing. Philip had a Vision, and therein an Angel from Heaven spake unto him, to go to­wards the South, unto the way that go­eth down from Ierusalem to Gaza, which is desart; where he light on the Ethiopian Eunuch, Vers. 26, 27. And finding him studious of the way of God, reading the Evangelical Prophet, vers. 28. by pro­phetick divine efflation, or revelation he is directed to go near to the Chariot, and speak to him, vers. 28. The which he did with the greatest readiness, running to the Chariot, and there hearing him read Esaias the Prophet, said to him in the words of the Text, Vnderstandest thou what thou readest? Which words we may call the Deacons serious profitable question to the Eunuch with set purpose (accord­ing to the guidance of Gods Spirit) to be an Interpreter unto him. The division of the words would be more curious than useful.

[Page 264]That every sincere serious Christian that doth in good earnest look after the Salvation of his Soul will diligently read the holy Scriptures, is here to be supposed, as implied in the godly practice of this Eunuch: the Doctrinal truth to be insisted upon as more express is this,

Doct. That we ought not to content our selves with the bare reading of the holy Scrip­tures, but should labour to understand what we read of them. And here you have, 1. The proof of this Doctrine. 2. Some Rules for the better understanding the holy Scriptures.

3. The Application.

1. This Doctrine is proved—

1. By the practice of the Church of God in all Ages: Read Neh. 8. 8. and this practice was not abrogated by Christ or his Apostles, but ratified and confirm­ed. Christ expounded to the two Disci­ples that went to Emaus in all the Scrip­tures,Luk. 24. 27 Luk. 4. 16, to the 22. the things concerning himself. And you find Christ reading the Book of Esaias the Prophet, and expounding that Scrip­ture of himself, as that day fulfilled in their ears by his Preaching to them. You find the Apostle Iames alledges this, why they should not require or force them to be Circumcised, who from Gentiles turn­ed [Page 265] Christians; for Acts 15. 21. saith he, Moses of old hath in every City them that Preach him, being read in the Synagogues every Sabbath day. As if he had said▪ Nor need we Jews to fear that this will bring a contempt upon Moses, or our Law; For the contrary appears by the Christian practice, even where these Proselytes of the Gentiles are, there the Books of Moses, as hath been customary from of old, are still continued among them, to be read aloud in the Synagogue every Saturday, (to which the Council of Laodic [...]a did af­ter add the reading of a Chapter in the New Testament) to signifie their respect to the Mosaical Law, and their not of­fering it contempt among the Proselytes, though they did not require them to be Circumcised: And Acts 13. 15, &c. you may read Paul's approbation, con­tinuation, and recommendation of this laudable custom to us by his own practice. And that all Nations may be taught our of the holy Scriptures the things that are commanded them of Christ,Mat. [...]8. 19, [...]0 he hath pro­mised his special presence with Ministers unto the end of the world. Now to him that shall Question this in our daies, I shall give him the two Disciples answer [Page 266] to Christ; art thou only a stranger in Ie­rusalem, and hast not known the things which have been, and are of ordinary practice with us every Lords day?

2. By the command of God, Ioh. 5. 39. with Prov▪ 2. 4, 5. Till I come give atten­dance to reading, to Exhortation, to Do­ctrine, i. e. Betwixt this and the time of my coming to thee, see thou be diligent in performing thy office in the several parts of it, expounding the Scriptures, con­firming Believers, and admonishing them of any fault or danger, and instructing the ignorant or unbelievers.

Some few Rules for the better under­standing, and our more profitable read­ing the holy Scriptures: And these are either Antecedent, Concomitant, or Sub­sequent.

1. Antecedent Rules.

1. We must pray and beg of God wis­dom to understand the Scriptures.Jam. 1. 5 Psa. 119. 18 We must pray with David, that God would open our eyes, that we may behold won­drous things out of his Law. We must pray that God would acquaint us with the mysterie of the Gospel; For if the [Page 267] Gospel be hid,2 Cor. 4. 7 it is hid to those that are lost.

2. We must lay aside all vain conceit of our own wisdom, be humble and hearken to God alone, speaking in the Scriptur [...]s. God hath so disposed the way to Heaven, that the most ignorant and most humble, not the most illuminate and most proud, shall be most ready to receive and em­brace the Gospel.Mat. 11. 25

And we must account our own wisdom foolishness,2 Cor. 3. [...] that we may know the holy Scriptures, which are able to make us wise unto Salvation. We must lie low in the fight and sense of our own ignorance, arguing thus with our selves; Have we lived so long, and read the Scriptures so often, and know so little of them! Let us thus be wail our ignorance, for the hum­ble God will teach. The rain falls upon the Rock, but rests not there, that it may make the Valleys fruitful: Divine heavenly wisdom will not rest upon a proud heart, but will enrich the lowly with its treasures.

We must hearken to God alone, speak­ing in the Scriptures. Humanum est er­rare, there is no infallible Judge upon Earth. If any man Preach any other Do­ctrine [Page 268] unto us, than that we have received from the Canonical Scriptures,G [...]l. 1. 9 let him be accursed. If Pope or Council, or Pope and General Council agreeing together, de­cree or determine any thing against or be­sides the holy Scriptures; Let God be True, and every man a Lyar, in this case we are not to attend to a Thus faith a Fa­ther, or a Pope, or Council, &c. but to a Thus saith the Lord.

3. We must go to the Scriptures with­out prejudice. Non re [...]erendus est sensus, sed auferendus; We must not bring but take our sense from the Scriptures; lest we wrest them to our own destruction. Take care no body plunder you, rob you of all that you have, your principles of Christian knowledge through Philosophy, or by such vain, empty, frothy, pre­tended knowledge and wisdom which the Gnosticks of old talked so much of,Col. 2. 8 taken out of Pythagoras; together with the ob­servances of the Mosaical Law, and very distant and contrary to Christian Divinity.

4. We must go to the Scriptures with a mind purified by Faith and Repentance,Mark 1. 15 2 Tim. 3. 8 Jam. 1. 21 Isa. 55 1, 2, 3 and in which is the study of Piety. We must lay aside all filthiness and superfluity or naughtiness when we go to the waters of life.

[Page 269]5. We must go with reverence and love of the truth. We must go with reve­rence to the holy Scriptures,1 Thes▪ 2 13▪ because of their Author and matter. We must go to the Scriptures as to the Oracles of God and the Laws of Heaven; the which we must stand in awe of, and be subject to for Conscience sake. We must go with the love of the truth although it be against flesh and blood, and thwart and contra­dict self and carnal interest in the world. The want of this love of the truth, is given as the reason of that fatal miscarri­age of the Gnosticks,2 Thes. 2 [...]0 those carnal Chri­stians.

6. We must go to the Scriptures with full purpose of heart to do the Will of God, Ioh. 7. 17. 2 Tit. 11. 12. Luk. 11. 28. The fear of the Lord is a step to wisdom, Psal. 111. 10. Prov. 1. 7. Quia finis Scripturae non est nuda scientia, sed praxis.

2. Concomitant Rules.

1. Non est recedendum à litera legis abs (que) summa necessitate. When the words of Scripture may, without any incommodi­ty or incongrui [...]y, be taken properly, and as they sound and lie in the Text, they [Page 270] ought to be so taken: neither are they to be infl [...]cted to metaphors,Nunquam ad matapho­ras [...]fugi­ [...]ndum est si­ne necessita­te. B [...] or other Tropes, or improper senses, unless when out of the words taken properly some absurd interpretations should from thence be elicited, Aug. Hence it follows that they are the best Interpreters, who most promptly and apertly manifest the native and genuine sense. In which part with­out boasting it may be said that the Pro­testants exceed the Papists▪ and carry away the Palm: Because their Interpre­ters are wont [...], as Oc­cumenius saith in Eph. 5. to evert the pro­priety of speech, and to turn all things into the uncertain conjectures of Allego­ries. That what Epiphanius in Nicolaitis said of Origen, we may say of them, [...], Allegorice expli­c [...]t quicquid potest; He allegorized what­soever he could. Indeed it is said that he interpreted literally Matthew 19. 12. and in the same sense became an Eunuch him­self: And so the Papists in like manner interpret mostly in the Allegorie, excep­ting that known place, This is my Body, with a far greater and more dangerous mistake than that of Origen's, of that kind of Eunuchs.

[Page 271]But this Head is too general to be laid down without some necessary cautions: Take these few,

1. Augustini Regula tenenda est, lib. 3. de doctrina Christiana, Cap. 5, 10, and 11. Cavendum est nè figuratam locutionem ad literam accipiamus: & vice versa, nè locutio propria in figuratum sensum torqueatur. Let's take heed of taking figures literally, and of wresting the proper sense into fi­gures.

2. It is to be supposed that some places of Scripture are true, both in the Type and Antitype, both in the literal and mystical sense. And, Verba sacrae Scrip­turae sunt praegnantia, pariunt gemellos & sensum geminum admittunt. The words of S [...]cred Writ are pregnant with matter, very fruitful, and sometimes bear twins and admit a double sense: And 'tis an unerring Rule in Divinity; Scripture is alwaies to be expounded in the largest sense; unless there be in or about the Text some particular restriction to limit it; and thus those words,Psal. 109 8 and Acts 1 20. Let another take his Office, are true both of Doeg and Iudas.

3. It is to be observed, that in Prophe­cies some particulars agree to the Type, [Page 272] and not to the Truth; some to the Truth, and not to the Type; or to the Type in one sense, to the Truth in another. Take this Head because somewhat large in its particular branches.

1. Some particulars agree to the Type and not to the Truth. Psal. 40. 12.

2. Some to the Truth, and not to the Type. Psal. 16. 10. with Acts 2. 29. and 13. 35, 36, 37.

3. Or to the Type in one sense, and to the Truth in another. So in those Psalms wherein David is a Type of Christ: As Psal. 2. and 16. and 22. and those in which Solomon; as psal. 45. and 72. Some things are spoken that must of ne­cessity be understood of them in one No­tion; of Christ in another. Of Pha­raoh's Daughter espoused to Solomon; and the Church to Christ; the one typi­fied by the other, Psal. 45. the same may be said. Gatak. in Isa. 42.

But how may we know when we are to interpret in the literal, and when in the mystical sense?

These three Rules will in some mea­sure direct us.

1. The first is Augustines golden Rule, Si praeceptiva locutio est aut flagitium aut [Page 273] facinus vetans, &c. If it be a precept for­bidding any lewdness, or commanding something profitable or beneficial, there is no figure in the words, Take, eat, 1 Cor. 11. 24, 25 this do in remembrance of me. This do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. Indeed, This is my Body, &c. cannot be taken in the literal sense, for the reasons to be mentioned afterwards; But take, eat, &c. because a preceptive speech, and commanding a necessary profitable duty, and I am afraid a much neglected duty too, we are not to suppose a figure in the words. If there be sins ofPlura sunt peccata pri­vativa quam posi­tiva. Omission, as without controversie there are; then those who have not communicated in this Ordinance, or not frequently, cannot but be found guilty of a dangerous sinful neg­lect. Nothing but ignorance and Pha­naticism in the most proper and literal sense can turn this divine precept into an Allegory. Some are so fond as to think that this Precept imports no more than feeding upon Christ out of and in con­tempt of this Sacrament: Such self-con­ceited Gnosticks cannot rationally expect the Churches welcom, Eat O Friends, drink, yea drink abundantly, O be­loved. And if ever such Spiritualists [Page 274] were really fed by Christ, they were no doubt better fed than taught. But if any man seem to be contentious, we have not so learned Christ, neither the Churches of God.

2. When the Text taken properly af­fords a fit sense, nor doth ought appear in the Context, or other places collated that may cross it, it is not safe running into metaphorical senses. And thus we understand those Buyers and Sellers, whom our Saviour cast out of the T [...]m­ple, Mat. 21. 12. in the Letter, and not in the Allegory; although some Novel­lists of our times, giving way to their own luxuriant fancies, have turned this, and all the History of the Gospel into a mysterie, or rather a groundless conceit of their own brains.

3. Indeed when the words taken in the Letter are absurd and contradictory to sense and reason, we must of necessity apply our selves to the figurate sense. And surely he is bruitish and hath not the understanding of a man, that will Interpret against all sense and reason. Reason doth not contradict sense, nor Faith reason, but only correct them when they exercise themselves in great matters, [Page 275] and in things too high for them, and beyond their Sphear: And 'tis fit that sense should give place to reason, and reason to Faith; as it did in Abraham's case, who, Rom 4. 18. [against Hope, or rather beyond Hope] (as the words may be better rendred) i. e. above all causes, arguments and appearances of natural Hope, such as reason and humane understanding could afford or reach to [believed in Hope] i. e. in Hope ground­ed upon the truth and power of God. For although there be in Scripture,1 Pet. 3. 16 [...], some things hard to be un­derstood, yet there is nothing in it re­pugnant to right reason. Although in this life and imperfect state, we see [...], through a glass darkly, and do know [...], but in part; And, Quoad nos, there may not alwaies be ratio rei ( [...]creditae) yet there is alwaies ratio credendi; Because infinite wisdom cannot be deceived, and infinite goodness will not deceive. And accord­ing to the forementioned Rules, we may be satisfied against the Papists literal in­terpretation of that known place, This is my Body.

[Page 276]1. Because the letter is contrary and repugnant to our senses; which the Scripture it self intimates to be of infal­lible certainty.

2. It is absurd and contradictive of right reason.

3. There appears much in the context to cross it, nothing at all to countenance it.

4. Because other places collated, ex­presly thwart and contradict it.

2. Rule. Let the fuller Scripture make out the shorter. We must compare the shorter place with the larger, i. e. the place that speaks but briefly of a thing, with some other that speaks of it more at large, common observation tells us, that 'tis not the right method to read ab­stracts first; because though they be fuller of matter, they are fuller likewise of obscurity. And sometimes that of the learned Bacon proves true, That Epito­mes are the corruptions and moths of Histories. Epitomes give us the substance of a matter; but full Narratives must clear it up to us, with all its due circum­stances. A compendium gives us the Quintessence; Vertue, Force and Spirit of a thing; but the History at large is [Page 277] necessary to the right understanding of it.

3. Let the clearer Scripture clear the obscurer. We must compare the ob­scurer with the clearer, i. e. if any place occur which is more obscure, but elsewhere propounded to us in words that are more clear; we must have re­course to it to clucid [...]te the [...]ormer. We must compare Moses with the Prophets: Of all the Prophets Esaias speaks most clearly, who is therefore stiled the Evan­gelical Prophet, and seems rather to write the History than the Prophecie of Christ. We must compare the Old Te­stament with the New: In the N [...]w Testament the Book of the Revelations is deemed (by those Interpreters that are wise unto sobriety, and not above what is written) to stand in most need of interpretation by the other written Revelations. The Sacred Scriptures are written very much historically; the Do­ctrines being interspersed with the Histo­ry. Some Eyangelists speak more clear­ly than others; some most clearly of one part of the History of Christ, some of another; that all of them collated (without conspiring together by a con­trived design) might give us the com­pleat [Page 278] History of Christ. That you may see the usefulness of this Rule, consult Ioh. 16. 16, 17, 18. with 28, 29 verses compared together.

4. Let that Scripture determine the point that intends it. You must com­pare Scripture with Scripture, and you must compare them aright; compare the place that speaks, ex casu, occasionally of a matter, with some other, where it is the main design of the place. This Rule is to be attended unto in the Expo­sition of Parables: For, if we be strict observers of all by-passages in them; in­stead of Milk, we shall wring till blood cometh. We must remember that Alle­gories must not be strained too much, and that similitudes a [...]swer not in all Lines, but in the chiefest. Read for this purpose Luke 16.

5. Out of the scope and intention of the writer is often collected the sense of his words. And the scope of the writer may be guessed at by the following cir­cumstances, viz. Quorsum, quibus, con­tra quos, quae, ex cujus personâ; Why, to whom, against whom or what, of whose p [...]rson, he writes, which last circumstance clears most pas­sages, [Page 279] relating to the Eunuchs Q [...]esti­on.

6. Compare Antecedents and conse­quents in the place, whose sense is dubi­ous, and it will much conduce to the right understanding of it. Where there is not light enough in the Text, there may be a light shining round about it, in the Context, to enlighten it.

7. Negatives are more extensive than affirmatives. Affirmativa non valent ubi­que ad semper, negativa ubique; or thus, Affi [...]mativa valent semper, negativa ad semper. When God saith, Pray; it is alwaies true, while in this prob [...]tion­sta [...]e, that we must pray; but it is not true that we must pray alwaies, i. [...]. do nothing but pray: But when 'tis said, Thou shalt, not Kill, &c. This is our duty at all times, there is no time wherein 'tis lawful to Kill, commit Adultery, &c.

8. Let an exception straiten and nar­row a general Rule.Jer. 44 14, 27, 28 Mat. 19. 6 with 9. Exceptio firmat Re­gulam in non exceptis, terminum praescribit in exceptis. An exception confirms the Rule in things not excepted, and bounds it against the rest.

9. Non est distinguendum, ubi Lex non distingui [...]. We must not distinguish [Page 280] where the Law doth not warrant it. In Christ Iesus neither Circumcision avail­eth any thing, Gal. 6. 15 nor uncircumcision, but a new Creature. If this Rule be attended unto, we shall easily understand how nice the distinctions of Conformity and non-conformity are, and how unavailable either of them will be in attaining Salva­tion for us without a reformed life.

10. We must carefully distinguish of the Scripture, which speaks of the growth of the Church, from that which speaks of the infancy of it. And thus, as for the Discipline of the Church of En­gland, our English Reformers considered what it was in the purest times of the first good Christ an Emperours, when the Church was in its growth: For the times of Persecution in the infancy of the Church (before temporal Princes embraced the Christian Faith) as they were most ex­cellent times for doctrine and manners; so very unproper and unfit for a Pattern or example of outward Government and Policy. And doubtless, that Govern­ment is most excellent, both in the com­munity as Christian, and in the special notion as reformed, that keepeth the middle way between the Pomp of super­stitious [Page 281] Tyranny, and the meanness of Phanatick Anarchy: And this can be no­thing else, but a w [...]l regulated moderate Episcopacy, according to this Rule.

11. That which the Scripture holds forth at all times, must not be prejudiced by what may take in one particular case: although, Necessitas est jus temporis, Ne­cessity be a Law in its time. This is a Rule at all times, Borrow and pay again: This must not be prejudiced by that of the Israelites borrowing of the Egyptians. This must not determine, Ehud destroyed Eglon, therefore thou shalt kill, because 'tis not safe arguing from particulars to gene­ral duties.

12. Out of the Tradition and Inter­pretation of the truly Catholick Church, out of the consent of the Fathers; and of these, either of many or of few of them when eminent for sanctity or learn­ing; out of the unanimous conspiration of Doctors and Interpreters, the true and literal sense of Holy Writ may be often cleared up unto us.

By universal Tradition is meant, Quod ab omnibus, quod ubique, quod semper re­ceptum fuit. What all the Churches of Christ in all places, have ever successively [Page 282] received, that is universal Tradition; and he is no true Catholick that doth not receive it. Where there is a Catho­lick consent and harmony to bear witness to any Interpretation, and that sense is universally and solemnly accepted; as it will seem a wilful errour to d [...]p [...]rt from it, and to choose solitary and dangerous by-paths, where the open road is so free and safe; so what can be expected in such singularity, but many absurdities, and implications, and violences offered to the word and truth?

13. We must interpret according to the Analogy of Faith.Rom. 12. 6 2 Tim. 1. 13 We must hold fast the form of sound words. Examine the Interpretations of the holy Scriptures by those three Forms, the Creed, the ten Commandments, and the Lords Prayer. Mistake not, you are not to examine the Scriptures by any thing else, nor the sense of them neither by any Creed far­ther than it contains it self within the very terms verbal or real of the holy Scriptures themselves. But as the Creed contains it self within such terms, we are to hold it fast as a form of sound words. And as by the ten Command­ments, we may discern what are the [Page 283] words of God, and what are the Com­mandment of men; and by the Lords Prayer, what Petitions we are to put up to God, and what Prayers we are to say Amen to: so by the Creed we may know what doctrines are of God, and what of men: And let what will be pretend­ed, if any man teach otherwise, and consent not to these wholesom words; he is proud, knowing nothing, he is of a corrupt mind, and r [...]probate concern­ing the Faith.

I shall conclude this Head in the words of judicious Mr. Calvin, Expertus pridem sum, & quidem saepius, quicunque de ver­bis pertinacius litigant, fovere occultum vi­rus; ut magis expediat eos ultro prov [...]care quàm in eorum gratiam obscurius loqui: A [...]d the liberty of not using the very words of Scripture on some occasions, hath ever been accounted lawful in the Church of Christ; and is at some times very necessary for the obviating of grow­ing Heresies.

Where all these Helps are either want­ing, or do not avail us, as to some par­ticulars and single clauses, not so necessa­ry to be known; The Hebrew and Greek Idiotisms (elegancies or proprieties) [Page 284] may possibly guide us to the true and genuine sense and interpretation.

3. Subsequent Rules.

1. We must pray again.Aug. Orationi lectio, lectioni succedat Oratio. We must pray and read, read and pray again.

2. We must medi [...]a [...]e upon the Scrip­tures we have read and understood, and that sometimes will lead us into the true meaning of those which in our course of reading we understand not: For Scrip­ture will give light to Scripture.

3. We must both before and after our reading the holy Scriptures, get the gui­dance of Gods holy Spirit. Methinks I hear God saying to each of you that are much in reading the [...]o [...]y [...]criptures, Vnderstand you what you read? And you again saying to God, How can we, except thy holy Spirit guide us! Ask my be­loved in our Lord Iesus Christ, and it shall be given, Luk. 11. 9, 13.

Suffer the word of Exhortation; You that are much in reading the holy Scrip­tures; content not your selves with bare reading, but in the use of all at­tainable [Page 285] means endeavour to under­stand what you read of them.

To perswade hereunto take these two Motives.

1. The bare reading of the holy Scriptures will be unprofitable to you. It will be to you as he that speaketh in an unknown tongue,1 Cor. 14. 2, 9, 14 whom none of you understandeth; or as he that speaketh into the air, whose speech is unfruitful. Indeed the Scripture is the Water of life, but to you the fountain is sealed. It is as the Garden of the Lord; But behold Cherubims, and a flaming Sword, Gen. 3. 24 which turneth every way, to keep the way of the Tree of Life. You are kept out of this Garden, while you are kept ignorant of the true sense and meaning of the Scrip­ture, which is as the Soul and Life of it. It is a Vision, but the Vision be­cometh to you as the words of a Book that is Sealed, which men deliver to one that is learned, saying, Read this I pray thee; and he saith, I can­not, for it is Sealed. By what hath in brief been said, you see that the bare unintelligent reading of the holy [Page 286] Scriptures themselves,Isa. 44. 10 is in this like a a Graven Image which we are sure is profitable for nothing.

2. But contrariwise, if you under­stand what you read, the Scripture of all writings, will be the most profi [...]a­ble unto you, 2 Tim. 3. 16. 'Tis by way of eminency called The Scripture, as the Original first writing, as the hand­writing of God.

It is in Genere materiae, sufficient to save our souls. It is as that Tree menti­oned,Psal. 19. and 119. Rev. 22. 2. which bare twelve manner, and yielded her fruit every moneth; and the leaves of the Tree were for the healing of the Nation [...]. There is more weight in one Sentence of Scripture than in all Orations, Declama­tions, Poets, Satyrs, and Philosophick invectives. It was a wise observation of Scaliger, that some passages in Plato are wiser than their Authour, and many ex­cellent conceits are recollected from Ho­mer and Aristotle they never dreamed of: But in the Word of God it is quite con­trary, for after all the recollections that have been made by the most acute Sages of the world; we must say with the Queen [Page 287] of Sheba in another case, the one half hath not been told us. I shall therefore conclude this Exhortation and Discourse in the words of holy and learned Baxter, As you love your Comfort, your Faith, your Hope, your Safety, your Innocency, your Souls, your Christ, your Everlasting Rest; Love, Reverence, Read, Search, Study, Obey, and stick close to the Scrip­tures.


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