Fingit equum tenera decilem cervice Magister
Ire viam, quam monstret eques, Venaticus ex quo
Tempore cervinam pellem latravit in aula,
Militat in Silvis catulus: nunc adhibe puro
'Pectore verba Puer, nunc te melioribus offer.

LONDON, Printed for S. Smith, and B. Walford; at the Prince's Arms in S. Paul's Church-Yard, 1693.

To the Right Honourable, JAMES Earl of Abingdon, &c.


SInce I have had the Ho­nour of Educating Three of your Sons, I hope with no small Assurance of your Sa­tisfaction, and one of them is amongst our Translators; it [Page]might be thought a Crime not to Dedicate our Endeavours to your Lordship, that others may perceive our Duty to so Ho­nourable a Father, and so No­ble a Friend. I must ever be a Faithful Witness, how Zea­lous and Obliging you are to promote the Advantage of E­ducation; and that in all Points of Generous Breeding you have endeavour'd to transmit those Ancient and Hereditary Virtues of your Illustrious Fa­mily to your Posterity. To whom then should Aurelius Victor Consecrate his Illustrious Romans but to your Lordship? In whom are united those great Names of Bertu and Norris; Names so Glorious in our An­nals, [Page]that the Actions of Heroes cannot be remembred without them, for they both at Home and Abroad have highly Cele­brated the True English Nobi­lity and Virtue. 'Tis an Injury to name Particulars, where there are so many eminent Cha­racters of both Sexes, who have Immortaliz'd the former, and now Adorn the present Age. My Lord, your most Conspi­cuous House is like Virgil's Sa­cred Tree, where there never will be wanting a Golden Bough:

— Primo avulso, non deficit alter
Aureus, & simili frondescit Virga Metallo.

I observ'd much of this In­nate Worth from the Conver­sation of your Sons, who in the various Scenes of Youth ever discover'd ex Traduce, a strong Byass to Sincerity and Honour. My Lord, I will stop my just Encomium, and not incur the Censure of a common Dedicator, though I need not fear such a Criticism from the vast Merits of my Cause; yet give me leave in Gratitude to declare, I am in­finitely oblig'd to your Lord­ship for your constant Encou­ragement in my Scholastick Way of Life; for your Appro­bation of my general Method of a Learned Academy, where our English Youth might be [Page]instructed in all Exercises, and the several Parts of Solid Learn­ing, without the Varnish of a Foreign Excursion; whence much Money is exported, with­out the Importation of any Staple Commodity: And at last it appears,

Coelum, non animum mutant, qui trans Mare currunt.

I remember your Lordship once discoursing with me, men­tioned your Recommendation to the Reverend Dr. Fell, that Excellent Bishop of Oxford, how beneficial it might prove to Young Gentlemen to have an Academy erected for their Ser­vice in that University: That [Page]Arts and Sciences ought to be united, and as formerly at A­thens and Rome, cohabit in one place. I cannot tell what were the Objections or Impediments of so useful a Proposition, whe­ther that Wise Governour thought the Design and Fa­tigue too great, considering the Lazy Temper of our De­generate Youth, or the Phan­tastick Frugality of many Un­happy Parents, who are more Generous to a Foppish Dancing-Master, than a Worthy Tutor, preferring the Motions of their Sons Feet, to the Idea's of his Brain; and think the Bill of an Extravagant Taylor, more satisfactory than the Salary of his Industrious Preceptor.

Hos inter sumptus, sestertia Quintiliano
Ʋt multum duo sufficient, res nulla Minoris
Constabit Patri, quam Filius.

For my part, after some Years spent for the Publick Good, I rest with pleasure, Conscious to my self, that I ever did my Duty, and have done considerable Service, as well present, as future to many Noble Families, that I have never been a Pedant, but made the Gentleman and Scholema­ster mix together, that I have design'd amongst us a Schola Illustris, Comprehensive of in­ward and outward Accom­plishments, [Page]and that I shall leave a Scheme for some more Wor­thy Undertaker, who may de­serve a publick Support, and Di­stinction, so much to our De­triment neglected in England, and so promoted in every emi­nent City of Europe. I confess the Satyrist cries out,

Declamare doces, O ferrea pe­ctora Vetti.

The Life of a Schoolmaster is indeed very sollicitous, though ever judged Honoura­rable by all Good Men, and the Cares of it intolerable, ex­cept the happy Genius of the Master, with good Circum­stances, somewhat alleviates [Page]the trouble. Then since my Qualifications render me the more easie, I will change the Name, and not the Thing, and go on for some time in my for­mer Course and Method with­out the Reflection.

My Lord, Give me leave to publish on this Occasion, un­der your Patronage, my future Determination as to my Im­ployment: I presume your Sentiments may agree with other Persons of Quality, to whom I have Communicated my Thoughts, with which I have laboured long ago, who have desired me not yet to be tired out, but to contract my Society to a less Number, to turn my Domesticks into [Page]French, for a constant Obliga­tion to facilitate the Language, to chuse my Pupils, to admit young Gentlemen to have sin­gle Rooms with Servants, that we may live our Collegiate Life with more Profit and Plea­sure, excluding forthwith all those of a violent and stubborn Temper.

Dii Majorum umbris tenuem, & sine pondere terram,
Spirantesque crocos, & in urna perpetuum ver,
Qui Praeceptorem Sancti vo­luere Parentis.
Esse loco.—

This Resolution is much re­spected, and in the Opinion of [Page]many must produce the happy effect of Civility and Learning. To the promotion of which I have found nothing from ex­perience more Charming to Youth than the Practice of Translation, and Reading of History with the assistance of Geography and Chronology, which like the three Graces ought Hand in Hand to per­form their measures, and have always been the Rule of our Studies. Cicero signalized his Judgment when he said, That a Man without History is always a Child, and therefore for its value it is stil'd by him as Testis Temporum, Lux Veritatis, Vita Memoriae, Magistra Vitae; from hence with Livy we are by for­mer [Page]Examples encouraged to Virtue, and deterr'd from Vice. Thus the great Polybius pro­nounces it, —


But History is lovely to eve­ry Eye from its Natural Beau­ties, and wants not to be dress'd with these ends of Gold and Silver: 'Tis no less evident that Translation fixes it, and em­proves at once two Languages. I hasten to beg Your Lord­ship's Pardon for this Familiar Epistle, asking leave to intro­duce these Young Translators who without any trick appear [Page]in their Primitive Simplicity before you.

My Lord, I conclude with my most profound Respects, and most humble Thanks for all Your Favours, for the ac­cess and ease of Your Conver­sation, for Your Kind Wishes, which Great and Good Qua­lities none Expresses and Extends more than Your Lordship; who, besides Your many Virtues, which in Reverence I shall not now mention being so well known, are by Your Conde­scention, so truly great and Noble. I heartily pray that all things may fortunately suc­ceed according to Your desires [Page]to Your Self and Your Noble Relations, and that You would believe me to be,

Your Lordships most Obedient, and most Humble Servant, L. MAIDWELL.

THE LIFE OF Sextus Aurelius Victor.

SExtus Aurelius Victor was first published by the Learned Andreas Schottus, and flourished under the Emperors Constantius and Julian; for in the Life of Marcus Antonius the Philosopher, He says, That Nicomedia in Bithynia was de­stroy'd by an Earthquake in [Page]his time, in the Consulate of Ce­realis, which was the next year after the Ninth Consulship of Constantius. And that in his Reign when Flavius Philippus was Consul, the Eleventh Cen­tury, contrary to Ancient Cu­stom, was celebrated without and Solemnity. Hence with­out doubt he was the same Aurelius Victor, who was Con­sul with Valentinian Junior, A. U.C. 1121, and certainly the same Person, whom Ammianus Marcellinus mentions in his 21 Book, to be an Historian of great Reputation of his Sobri­ety, and of Consular Dignity, whom Constantius made Gover­nor of Pannonia, and afterwards honoured with a Brazen Sta­tue, [Page]and the Praefecture of Rome. In the Life of Severus he owns himself to be the Son of a mean illiterate Country-man, and to have advanced himself by his Virtue and Learning. 'Tis very probable he was a Pagan in his Religion, as ma­ny privately were in the time of Constantius, and openly, like good Courtiers, in the Reign of his Successor Julian the A­postate; this may be gathered from his approving of Adrian's Sacrifice to his beloved Anti­nous. with the Complement of a Pious and Devout Action. Yet after all 'tis much disputed, whether this Victor, who writ the Lives of the Caesars, be the Author of the Illustrious Ro­mans. [Page]For our Book, 'though it goes under his name, is of a far different stile, and gives you better Latin than that of the Emperors, which is harsh and unequal, yet sententious, and may recommend the Writers Judgment, though not his Phrase. Therefore some have rather ascribed these Lives to Cornelius Nepos, Pliny Junior, or Suetonius; Others will have it to be according to the Title, amongst whom is the Learned Vossius;

Si quid novisti rectius istis,
Candidus imperti, si non, his utere mecum.

THE LIVES Of the Illustrious ROMANS. Writ in Latin by SEXTƲS AƲRELIƲS VICTOR.

TRANSLATED by Mr. JOHN AUSTEN, From the Building of Rome, to the Year 244.

PROCA King of the Albans.

PROCA King of the Albans had two Sons, Amulius and Numitor, Befo [...] the Bir [...] of Christ. 810. to whom he left his Kingdom with the Condition of Reigning yearly [Page 2]by turns. Amulius, at the Expiration of his Term, refus'd to surrender the Kingdom to his Brother: and intend­ing to deprive him of Issue, made Rhea Silvia his Daughter chief Priestess of Vesta, that she might always live a Maid. But she was got with Child by Mars, and brought forth Romulus and Remus. Which surprize provok'd Amulius to imprison her, and throw her Chil­dren into the Tiber, but they being pre­serv'd by the Ebbing of the Water, and left upon the Shoar, their Cries in­vited a She-Wolf to hasten to their Relief, and give them suck. Some time after they were found by Faustulus, the King's Shepherd, and by him brought home to his Wife Acca Laurentia to take care of them. These young Princes, when grown up, slew Amulius, and restored their Grand­father Numitor to his Kingdom, and then by the help of the Shepherds, who in great numbers joyn'd them, they built a City, which Romulus called Rome, he having had the better Fortune in Augury to see twelve Vultures, and [Page 3]his Brother but six. And that he might begin to secure his City by the Obser­vation of Laws before he built Walls for its Defence, he gave order that none should presume to go over his Rampire, which Remus leaping in de­rision, is said to have been killed with a Mattock by Fabius Celer the Cen­turion.

ROMULUS First King of the Romans.

U. C. Or from Building of Rome, the first Year. Romulus, to increase his People, set up an Asylum or Place of Refuge, for all Strangers, and of them composed a great Army. But considering the want of Wives, he sent Embassadors to demand them of his Neighbours,Before Christ, 750. which being denied, he pretended, in Honour of Neptune, the Celebration of Horse-Races, called Consualia; and when a great Concourse of Men and Women came to see those Sports, he gave a cer­tain Signal to the Romans to take away the Maids by force. One of which was so beautiful, that she mov'd the Spectators to inquire where they car­ried [Page 4]her; It was answer'd, to Captain Thalassius. Which Marriage proving ve­ry fortunate, it was ordain'd, they should invoke the Name of Thalassius in all future Nuptials. The first who made War for this Rape were the Caeni­nenses, against whom Romulus marched in person, and overcame them, killing Acro their General, in a single Com­bat, and consecrating his rich Spoils to Jupiter Feretrius in the Capitol. Then the Antemnates, Crustumini, Fidenates, Vejentes, with the Sabines, were Con­federates against them on the same Account; who approaching nigh to Rome, seiz'd the Virgin Tarpeja, as she went to the Tiber to draw Water for the Sacrifices. King Titus Tatius prof­fer'd her the choice of any Reward, if she would let his Army into the Capi­tol; To which she consenting, demand­ed all they wore on their Left Arms, meaning their Rings and Bracelets, which being promised with Equivoca­tion, and the Gate left open, the Sa­tines gain'd the Castle, and by Titus's Order pressed her to death, with the [Page 5]Shields, carried also on their Left Arms, Romulus drew out his Forces against Tatius, who had possess'd himself of the Tarpejan Hill, and fought him in the place, now the Roman Forum where Hostus Hostilius, one of his best Offi­cers fighting valiantly was slain. By whose death the Romans were discou­raged, and began to give ground; yet after that Disorder, upon Romu­lus's vowing to erect a Temple to Ju­piter Stator, if he would stop his Ar­my's Flight, the Soldiers made a stand, either by Accident, or some Divine Instinct. In this Juncture the Women came between both Armies, and me­diating with their Fathers and Husbands, at last procured a Peace. Romulus then made a Solemn League with the Sabines, and received them into Rome, as Fellow Citizens; uniting the People by the common Title of Quiri­tes, from Cures, a Town of the Sabines. He established an hundred Senators, who for Reverence were stiled Fa­thers, and instituted three Centuries of Knights; the first were called Ram­nenses, [Page 6]from his own Name; the second, Tatienses, from Titus Tatius; and the third, Luceres, from Lucumo. He di­vided the common People into thirty Companies, and distinguisted them by the Names of the principal Women; But after the Muster of his Army at the Lake Capra, he was never seen more. From which Accident a Dissention ari­sing between the Senators, and the Peo­ple, Julius Proculus, a Nobleman, came before them, and affirmed upon Oath, that he saw Romulus on the Hill Quiri­nalis, in a more splendid and august Form than heretofore, as a Proof of his being Deified, who commanded them to cease from Seditions, and to love Virtue; Thus they should become Lords of the World. The Romans believ'd him, as one of great Au­thority among them; therefore they built Romulus a Temple upon the Hill Quirinalis, and worship'd him as a God, by the Name of Quirinus.

NUMA POMPILIUS, Second King of the Romans.

After the Consecration of Romulus, the People growing mutinous from a long Interregnum, and the want of a Successor, Numa Pompilius, the Son of Pompo was sent for from Cures, a Town of the Sabines. He came to Rome with the assurance of good Omens: and that he might soften this fierce People with a Sense of Religion, he instituted ma­ny holy Rites; built a Temple to Ve­sta, and appointed the Vestal Nuns. He ordain'd the three Flamens for the par­ticular Sacrifices of Jupiter, Mars, and Romulus, and constituted the twelve Salii Priests of Mars, the chief of which was called Praeful. He created the High-Priest, and built a Temple for Janus, (who was represented with two Faces) the Gates of which were shut in Peace, and open in War. He divided the Year into twelve Months, by adding January and February, and made many profitable [Page 8]Laws, pretending he did all those things by the Direction of his Wife the Nymph Egeria. None of his Neigh­bours made War upon him, out of the great respect they had of his Justice. He died a natural Death, and was buried in the Mount Janiculus; where many years after a certain Man, by Name, Terentius, as he was ploughing, found a Stone-Chest with fourteen Books in it, which containing many slight and frivolous Reasons about their Religious Ceremonies, were burnt in prudence by an Order of the Senate.

TULLUS HOSTILIUS Third King of the Romans.

Tullus Hostilius, for his good Ser­vice against the Sabines, U.C. 82. was made King.Before Ch. 668. He proclaimed War with the Albans, which was ended by a Com­bat of three Brothers on each side; the Horatii on the Romans, and the Curiatii on the Albans. He demolished Alba for the Treachery of Metius Fufetius, [Page 9]their General, and commanded the Inhabitants to remove to Rome. He built that Senate-House, from him called Hostilia, and added the Mount Caelius to the City. At last, as he imi­tated the Example of Numa Pompilius in his Sacrifices, he by mistaking the Ceremonies performed to Jupiter Eli­cius, so enraged the God, that he was struck dead with a Thunder-Bolt, and his Palace burnt with Lightning.


U. C. 86.The Romans and the Albans having for a long time carried on a War under Hostilius and Fufetius, Before Ch. 664. and finding their Forces daily to decrease, they resolved to determine it with the loss of a few. The Romans chose out three Brothers, called Horatii; and the Albans the three Curiatii, for this Combat, in which two of the Romans were presently slain, and the three Albans wounded. Now Horatius, who survived, perceiving this, and judging himself unable, tho not wounded, to fight with three, feigned [Page 10]a Flight, and by this Stratagem kill'd them one by one, pursuing him as their Wounds would permit them. The Conqueror in his return, laden with the Spoils of his Enemies, met his Sister, who wept when she saw the Embroider'd Coat of her slain Lover, one of the Curiatii. This Indiscretion provok'd him in his rage to kill her, for which bloody Fact he was con­demned by the Duumviri, two Judges appointed for that purpose. But ap­appealing to the People, with the as­sistance of his Fathers Supplications and Tears, he obtain'd his Pardon, yet to expiate his Crime, he was for­ced to go under a Gibbet, which is to be seen at this day in the High-way, and called Sororium.


Metius Fufetius, U. C. 88. the Alban General, observing himself much hated by his Citizens for putting an end to the War by the Combat of the Horatii and the Curiatii, Before Ch. 662. to make amends, secretly [Page 11]stirr'd up the Vejentes and the Fidenates against the Romans. Now Tullus, upon account of the League between them, demanded Fufetius's Auxiliary Forces; who before the Fight drew his Army upon a Hill, expecting the Event of the Battle, with a design to fall in with the Conqueror. Tullus understanding his Design; gave pub­lick Notice that Metius was posted there by his Order; by which Artifice the Enemies were terrified, and easily overcome. And when Metius came the next day to congratulate him for his Victory, he was by King Tullus's Com­mand tyed to four Horses, and for his Treachery pull'd in pieces.

ANCUS MARCIUS Fourth King of the Romans.

Ancus Marcius, U.C. 113. Numa Pompilius's Grandson by his Daughter, was not unlike his Grandfather,Before Ch. 667. either in his Justice, or Piety.

He overcame the Latins; added the Hills Aventinus and Janiculus to Rome; [Page 12]new wall'd the City, and confiscated the timber of some Woods for publick Ship­ping. He laid a Tax on Salt-Pits; was the first that built a Prison, and planted a Colony at Ostia, situate at the Mouth of the Tiber, very convenient for Trade. He also instituted the Office of He­ralds, to assist Embassadors in de­manding satisfaction: which Custom was borrowed from the Aequiculi, a People of Latium, and reported to have been found out by Rhesus at the Siege of Troy. Thus having settled these things; in a very short time, he was taken a­way by an untimely Death, and by that Misfortune could not complete the Character of so great a King as his Subjects expected from him.


Lucius Tarquinius Priscus was Son of that Damaratus of Corinth, U.C. 137. who flying from the, Tyrant Cypselus, Before Ch. 613. settled in Etruria. He was first called Lucumo, and came to Rome from Tarquinii, a [Page 13]City of the Tusci. In his Journey thither an Eagle took off his Cap, and after a high Flight replaced it on his Head; Which Tanaquil his Wife observing, she from her great Skill in Augury, knew by that Omen, he should obtain the Kingdom. Tarquinius by his Riches and Industry rais'd himself to great Honour, and became a particular Fa­vourite to King Ancus, who dying, left him Guardian of his Children; but he governed in his own Name, and ruled with such Justice, as if he had been lawful Successor. He chose an hundred new Senators, whom he stil'd the Inferior Order, and doubled the Centuries of the Knights; but durst not alter their Names, being discouraged by Accius Navius the Au­gur, and fully convinc'd of his Art by the Experiment of the Whetstone cut [...]n two by a Razor. He overthrew the Latins; built the Circus Maximus for publick Shews, and instituted the great Roman Games for manly Exercises. He triumphed over the Sabines, and [...] hose Latins who were called Prisci. [Page 14]He fortified the City with a Wall of Stone, and rewarded the Valour of his Son, who at the Age of thirteen years wounded his Enemy in a Battel, giving him a Coat edg'd with Purple, and a Necklace with a Golden Boss, which were the Ornaments of Gentle­mens Sons. At last he was trapan'd out of his Palace by a Plot of Ancus's Chil­dren, and murder'd by their Appoint­ment.

SERVIUS TULLIUS Sixth King of the Romans.

Servius Tullius was the Son of Pub­lius Corniculanus, U.C. 175. and the Captive O­crisia. Before Ch. 575 He whilst he was brought up in Tarquinius Priscus's Palace, a lambent Flame was seen to circle his Head. Queen Tanaquil upon her Observation judg'd it as a certain Prediction of his future Dignity: and thereupon per­swaded her Husband to breed him up as he did his own Children. When he came to Man's Estate, Tarquinius Priscus made him his Son-in-Law. And [Page 15]after the King was murder'd, Tanaquil told the People from a Window, that her Husband had receiv'd a dangerous, tho not a mortal Wound, and desired that till he was cured, they would submit to Servius Tullius. Thus he got the Kingdom precariously, yet govern'd it with great Justice. He of­ten conquer'd the Etrusci, and added the Hills Quirinalis, Viminalis, and E­squilinus to Rome. He raised a Forti­fication with Trenches about the City; and divided the People into four Tribes, call'd Palatina, Esquilina, Suburrana, and Collina, allotting the poorer sort a proportion of Corn out of the publick Granary. He settled Mea­sures and Weights, with the Distinction of the Citizens into Classes and Hun­dreds, and was the first that made a Register of Estates, till then unknown in any Country. He perswaded the Latins to build a Temple to Diana on the Mount Aventinus, in imitation of that at Ephesus. After it was built, a certain Latin had a Cow-calf of a wonderful Bigness, and 'twas told him [Page 16]in a Dream, that that People should be Sovereign over the rest, whose Citizens should sacrifice that young Cow to Dia­na The Latin drove the Cow to Mount Aventine, and declar'd this Secret to a Roman Priest, who cunningly told him he ought first to purifie his Hands in a clear running Stream, and whilst the simple Latin went down to the Tiber, the Priest sacrificed the Cow; by this prudent Trick procuring Glory to him­self, and Empire to his People.


Servius Tullius had two Daughters; one of a fierce,U.C. 216. and the other of a mild Disposition;Before Ch. 534. and from his Re­mark, that Tarquinius Priscus had two Sons of the fame Temper, he married his fierce Daughter to Tarquinius's mild Son, and his mild Daughter to his fierce, that he might qualifie their Minds by the Difference of their Natures. It happened both the good natur'd died, either a natural Death, or else by Poison. Upon which the [Page 17]ill natur'd married from, the similitude of their Humors. Soon after Tarqui­nius Superbus, by the instigation of his Wife Tullia, having made a party, assembled the Senate, and began boldly to demand, as Lawful Heir, his Father's Kingdom. Of which when Servius was informed, he went to the Senate, where he was flung down slairs by Tarquinius's Order, and slain as he fled to his Palace. Tullia made haste to the Forum, and was the first that saluted her Husband King, who order'd her to retire from the Crowd. She going home beheld, without any Compassion, her Father's dead Body lie expos'd in the Streets, and command­ed her Coach-man, abhorring the Cru­elty, to drive over him. Whence that Street was call'd Sceleratus, or Wicked; and this bloody Tullia afterwards ba­nish'd with her Husband Tarquin.

TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS Seventh King of the Romans.

U.C. 219. Tarquinius Superbus obtain'd his Sir­nameBefore Ch. 531. [Page 18]name from his Pride. He traiterously usurp'd the Kingdom by murdering Servius Tullius: yet by his great Valour he conquered the Latins; and the Sa­bines; took from the Volsci their Ca­pital City Suessa Pometia, and gain'd the Town Gabii, by the Policy of his Son Sextus, who pretended to revolt from him for his Cruelty. He was the first that instituted the Latin Feasts as publick Marts for all the Neighbour­ing Cities. He built Galleries for the Spectators in the Circus, and made the great Common-Shoar, which Ditches were called Quiritium, because in that Work be had employed all the People▪ He in laying the Foundation of the Ca­pitol, found the Head of one Tolus▪ whence 'twas predicted, that Rome▪ should become the Head of all Na­tions. He was banish'd Rome, toge­ther with his lascivious Son Sextus, fo [...] the Rape he commited, during the Siege of Aradea, upon the chast Lu­cretia, and fled to Porsenna, King o [...] Etruria, by whose Assistance he en­deavoured to regain his lost King­dom; [Page 19]but after several Repulfes, he retired to Cumae, a City in Campania, finishing there the Remainder of his Life very ignominiously.

Mr. HENRY EWER: From the Year 244. to 388. U. C.


WHilst Tarquinius Collatinus, U.C. 244. who was Tarquinius Superbus his Si­ster's Son,Before Ch. 506. served under his Uncle, with others of his Relations, at the Siege of Ardea, an accidental Discourse fall­ing out at a merry Entertainment be­tween the young Princes, concerning the Excellencies of their Wives, they agreed to make Experiment of this Pre­ference, and all take Horse for Rome; where the Kings Sons surprize [Page 20]their Careless Wives, diverting them­selves at a luxurious Banquet. Thence they go to Collatia, where Lucretia liv'd, and find her spinning among her Maids, for which, in all their Opinions, she was esteem'd the most virtuous. But Sextus Tarquinius falling in love with her, came back that night with a design upon her Honour; and by the privilege of a Kinsman being kind­ly entertain'd at Collatins his House, he brake into Lucretia's Chamber, and ra­vish'd her. She the next day sends for her Father and Husband from the Camp, and after the Discovery of the Rape, she stabs her self, with a Dagger secretly conceal'd under her Garment. This horrid Crime engag'd them in a Conspiracy to ruin Tarquin's Family, and by their Banishment to revenge her Death.


L. Junius Brutus, U.C. 245. also Tarquini­us Superbus his Sisters Son,Before Ch. 505. fearing [Page 21]the same Misfortune which his Brother had suffered, who for his great Riches and Wisdom was killed by his jealous Uncle, pretended himself a Fool, and from thence called Brutus. He once, for sports sake, being admitted a Compa­nion to the young Princes Titus and Aruns going to Delphi to consult the Oracle, he presented Apollo with a hollow Stick fill'd with Gold, and when 'twas answer'd by the Priestess, that he would be most powerful at Rome, who should first kiss his Mo­ther, he immediately kiss'd the Earth, the common Parent of all things. Afterwards, in revenge of Lucretia's Rape, he combined with Tricipitinus, and Collatinus, to extirpate the Tar­quins. Upon whose Banishment he was created the first Consul, and was so zea­lous for the good of the Common­wealth, that he spar'd not his own Sons and Nephews, who were plotting with the Vitellii, and the Aquillii, to restore the Tarquins, but brought them into the Forum, where he caus'd them first to be whip'd, and then beheaded. At last, [Page 22]in a Battel against them, he and Aruns the King's Son fighting together with implacable Hatred, kill'd one another. His Body was brought into the Forum, where his Colleague extoll'd him in a Funeral Oration, and the Roman Ma­trons mourn'd for his a whole year as the Defender of their Chastity.


When Porsenna, U.C. 245. King of the E­trusci endeavour'd to restore the Tar­quins, Before Ch. 505. and at his first Attempt had ta­ken the Hill Janiculus, Horatius Cocles, so sirnamed from the loss of his Eye in a former Battel, stood on the Wooden Bridge, and there singly maintain'd his Post against the Enemy, until the Bridge was broken behind him, with which he fell into the Tiber, and arm'd as he was, he swam safe to his own Party. For this Noble Action the Re­publick conferr'd on him as much Land as he could plough round in one day, and his Statue was set up in the [Page 23]place where they celebrated the Feasts of Vulcan.


Whilst Rome was besieg'd by King Porsenna, U.C. 245. Mutius Cordus, Before Ch. 505. a Man of true Roman Resolution, went to the Senate, promising to kill the King, if they would suffer him to go over to the Enemy as a Deserter. With their permission he went into Porsenna's Camp, and by Mistake kill'd a Nobleman in a Purple Habit in the stead of him For which being seiz'd, and brought before the King, as he was sa­crificing, Mutius thrust his Right Hand into the Fire, punishing it on this manner for killing the wrong per­son. When he was commanded to be taken from the Flames, by the Cle­mency of Porsenna, in return of his Kindness, he told him, that three hun­dred Men, as resolute as he, had ob­lig'd themselves by Oath to attempt the same thing. At which Porsenna was so terrified, that receiving Hosta­ges [Page 24]he put an end to the War. The Senate, as a Reward for this, gave Mutius some Land beyond the Tiber, from him call'd the Mutian Fields, and erected a Statue in Honour of him.


Porsenna receiv'd,U.C. 245. among the Roman Hostages,Before Ch. 505. Claelia, a Virgin of a Noble Family, who by a Deceit put upon her Keeprs, escap'd out of his Camp by night, and swam the Tiber with a Horse, which she accidenlly found. But the King demanded her back by his Embassadors, and had her restor'd, yet was so great an Admirer of her Cou­rage, that he gave her leave to return to Rome, with any other Hostages she should desire, she chose the young Men and Maids whom she knew were most expos'd to the Violence of the Soldiers. For which brave Action, the Romans set up her Statue on Horse-back in the Forum.

The three hundred and six FABII.

U.C. 274.In the War between the Romans and the Veientes, Before Ch. 476. the Fabian Family pro­pos'd to the Senate, the carrying it on by themselves at their proper Expence. They marched out three hundred and six, under the Command of Fabius the Consul, and after great Success in se­veral Skirmishes, encamp'd at the Ri­ver Cremera. But the Veientes who put their greatest Confidence in Strata­gems, plac'd Cattle in Veiw on the other side, which the Fabii going to seize, fell into an Ambush, and were all cut off. The day therefore whereon this happened was numbered in the Calen­dar amongst the Unfortunate, and the Gate at which they went out, call­ed Scelerata, or Unhappy. One only of that Family, by reason of his Mino­rity, was left at home; and from him the Name was continued to Fabius Maxi­mus, who by his avoiding Battel, much weakened Hannibal's Army; for which by his Detractors he was nam'd Cuncta­ or Delayer.


Publius Valerius, the Son of Volusus, triumphed three times;U.C. 245. first over the Veientes, Before Ch. 505. then over the Sabines, and lastly over them both. But because he chose no Consul, in place of Brutus his Colleague, and dwelt in Velia a place of great strength in Rome, he was suspected to have aim'd at the Go­vernment. At his knowledge hereof being much disturbed, he complain'd to the People for entertaining such ill thoughts of him, and to justifie himself, he sent presently to have his House pull'd down. He also order'd the car­rying of Rods without Axes in the City, and laid them down as a Mark of Respect before a popular Assembly, making a Law for appealing from the Magistrates to the People; for which Popularity he was called Poplicola. And after four Consulships died so poor, that he was buried by publick Collection, and mourn'd for one year [Page 27]by the Matrons, as Brutus his Col­league had been before him.


King Tarquin after his Banishment fled to Mamilius, U.C. 257. Lord of Tusculum his Son-in-Law,Before Ch. 493. who with the Assistance of the Latins, ingaged the Romans in great Difficulties. They chose therefore Aulus Posthumius Dictator, who fought the Enemy at the Lake Regillus, where when the Victory was doubtful, Cos­sus, the General of the Horse, used this Stratagem, he order'd them to unbridle their Horses, that it might be impossible in their Charge to stop their Carrier. By which rough shock they routed the Latins, and took their Camp. In this Action were observ'd, among them two young Men very remarkable for their Valour, mounted on white Horses, whom the Dictator, after a search for, that he might reward them according to their Me­rit, could not find, therefore suppo­sing them to be Castor and Pollux, he [Page 28]consecrated a Temple to them both.


U.C. 292.The Justice of Lucius Quinctius Cin­cinnatus was very exemplary in disin­heriting his undutiful Son Kaeso, Before Ch. 458. who to revenge that, and the Scandal laid upon him by the Censors, fled to the Volsci, and the Sabines, then in War with the Romans, under the Command of Claelius Gracchus, by whom Q. Minutius the Consul, with his Army, was block'd up in Mount Algidus. But Quin­ctius being made Dictator, the Messen­gers that carried his Commission, found him ploughing without his Cloaths, beyond the Tiber, where putting on his Robe he march'd directly thither, and freed the Consul; for which he was presented by Minucius with a Crown call'd Obsidionalis, particular to those who had valiantly rais'd a Siege. He totally routed the Enemy, took their General Prisoner, and made him walk before his Triumphal Chariot. This War was so soon ended, that he [Page 29]laid down his Dictatorship the sixteenth day after he had receiv'd it, and re­turn'd again to his Affairs in the Country. In a second Dictatorship, twenty years after, he commanded Servilius Ahala, General of the Horse, to execute Spurius Maelius, who ambiti­ously aim'd at the Subversion of the Government; and pull'd down his House; From whence that place was call'd Aequimolium.


Menenius Agrippa, sirnamed Lanatus, U.C. 259. was chosen General against the Sa­bines, Before Ch. 491. and triumph'd for his Victory over them. In his time the People mutined against the Senators, and march'd out of Rome to the Sacred Hill, not able any longer to en­dure the Burden of their Taxes, and the continual Services of the War, nor would be brought back to their Dwellings. Agrippa therefore told them this Fable; Once the parts of the Body suppo­sing [Page 30]the Belly to he idle, and useless quarrel'd, and denied it their assistance But when by this Folly they themselves be­gan to grow weak, and understood that the Meat which the Belly receiv'd wat dispos'd by its power through the other Members they were soon reconcil'd. Thus the Se­nate and the People; as one Body, b [...] Discord are ruin'd, but by Concord flourish By this Moral he reduc'd the stubborn Multitude, and created Tribunes o [...] the People to defend their Liberty, a­gainst the Haughtiness of the Nobi­lity. This Menenius died so poor, that the People made a Collection for his Funeral, and the Senate set up a Mo­nument for him at the publick Charge.


Caius Marcius stil'd Coriolanus, U.C. 260. from his taking Corioli, Before Ch. 490. a City of the Volsci, when his General Posthumius offer'd him any Reward he would ask, for the brave Actions he perform'd in that War, he, an eminent Example of Valor, [Page 31]and Friendshep, only took a Horse, and a Friend of his, who was amongst the Captives. In his Consulship, when Provisions were scarce, Corn by his Order was brought out of Sicily, and sold to the People at a dear rate; that he might constrain them by this Severity to mind their Husbandry, and not promote Sedition. Upon an Ac­cusation by Decius, Tribune of the People, he was banish'd, and flying to the Volsci, sided with them, under the Command of Attius Tullus, against the Romans, encamping within four Miles of the City: And would not be ap­peas'd by any Embassy from Rome; till at last, by the Intercession of his Mother Vetruria, and his Wife Volumnia, with a great number of Matrons in their Retinue; he put an end to the War, and was afterwards put to death as a Traitor, by the Volsci. For this there was a Temple built, Fortunae Mu­liebri, To Good Fortune procur'd by Women.


Fabius Ambustus had two Daughters,U.C. 388. whom he married,Before Ch. [...]62. one to Licinius Stolo, a Plebeian, the other to Aulus Sulpitius, a Nobleman. The Wife of the Ple­beian making a Visit to her Sister, whose Husband was Tribune of the Soldiers, at that time of equal Power with a Consul, discover'd her ill Breed­ing by her Fright at the sight of the Rods and Axes plac'd by the Lictors at the Door, for which her Sister deriding her, she complain'd of the Affront to her Husband, who by the assistance of his Father-in-law, when he was made Tribune of the People, establish'd a Law, that one of the Consuls should always be chosen out of the Commoners. This, altho much oppos'd by Appius Claudius, took effect; and Licinius Stolo was first created Consul. He also made another Law, that no Plebeian should have above five hun­dred Acres of Land; and yet he ha­ving five hundred Acres in his own [Page 33]Right, enjoy'd as much more in the Name of his Son, who was out of his Tuition, for which Violation, he was call'd to an Account; and was the first that suffer'd by his own Act.

Mr. RICHARD TEMPLE. From the Year 302. to 434. U. C.


U.C. 104.WHen the Roman People could no longer bear the Insolence of their Factious Tribunes,Before Ch. 446. they set up the Decemviri, who by their Office drew up new Laws upon twelve Tables, collected from those which Solon gave the Athenians: and whilst these Ten Magistrates were designing by agree­ment to continue the Government a­mongst themselves, one of them, by [Page 34]Name Appius Claudius, fell passionately in Love with Virginia, the beautiful Daughter of Virginius the Centurion, then in the Service of the State at Algidum. Which Maid, when he could by no means debauch, he suborn'd his Client Marcus Claudius to demand her for his Slave, as born in his Family, but stoln away by Virginius. He thought his Point not hard to gain, since he himself was to be both Judge and Party. Her Father knowing this came to Rome on the very day of her Trial, where finding his Daughter cast, he desired leave to take his last Farewel of her; so going aside, as it were, for private Discourse, stabb'd her, and throwing her Body on his Shoulders, fled to the Army; by that fad Spectacle animating the Soldiers to revenge that Crime. They first creating ten Military Tribunes, seized on Mount Aventinus, forc'd the Decem­viri to abdicate their Power, and pu­nish'd them all either by Death or Ba­nishment, only Appius Claudius was found dead in Prison.

The Image of AESCULAPIUS brought to Rome.

U.C. 462.The Romans afflicted with a grievous Pestilence,Before Ch. 288. sent to consult the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, and being order'd to fetch the Image of Aesculapius from Epidaurum a City of Epirus, they im­mediately dispatch'd away ten Em­bassadors, of whom Quintus Ogulnius was chief in the Commission. As soon as they enter'd the Temple, and were wondring at the Largeness of the Statue, a Snake crept from under the Pedestal, which rather moved Respect than Fear, and gliding through the middle of the Town, to the admira­tion of all, went into the Roman Gally, and rolled it self up in Ogulnius his Cabin. They came with the God as far as Antium, a Port in Italy, where the Sea being very rough, the Snake leapt over Board, and went directly to the Neighbouring Temple of Aescu­lapius: yet after some few days return­ed to the Gally, and as they row'd up [Page 36]the Tiber, it leap'd into the little Island, that was form'd of Tarquin's Palace, thrown into the River, where a Tem­ple was built to Aesculapius, and the Plague suddenly stop'd.


U.C. 358.When Furius Camillus besieged the Falisci, Before Ch. 392. the Schoolmaster of the Town, by a pretence of taking a Walk, came over to him with most of the chief Citizens Sons; but instead of being kindly received by Camillus, he was orderd for his Perfidiousness to be bound and whip'd back into the Town by his Scholars: which oblig'd the Falisci, transported with such a remarkable Act of Justice, to yield up themselves, and their Town to him. He had the Honour of a Triumph for taking the City Veii after ten years Siege, yet was accused for having had his Triumphal Chariot drawn with white Horses, an Honour only lawful in the procession of Jupiter, and the Sun; also that he had unequally [Page 37]divided the Plunder they tool at the Sacking of Veii: for which, cited to his Tryal by Apuleius the Tribune of the People, he was found guilty, and banish'd to Ardea. About this time the Galli Senones forsaking their own Country for its Barrenness, came into Italy, and besieged Clusium, a Town in Etruria. Three Embassadors were sent from Rome to advise them to de­sist from their Enterprise, and one of them, by name Quintus Fabius, in a Battle, contrary to the Law of Nations, kill'd the General of the Gauls; This so enrag'd them, that upon denial of sur­rendring the Embassadors, according to their Command, they march'd di­rectly towards Rome, and beat the Ro­mans on the sixteenth of the Kalends of August, at the River Alia, which Day was ever after reckon'd in the Ka­lendar amongst the Nefasti, or Un­lucky, and call'd Aliensis. The con­quering Gauls enter'd the City, and at first sight of the Senators, dress'd in their Robes, and sitting in their Ivory Chairs, worship's them as the Tutelar [Page 38]Gods of the Place; but when they found them to be Men, they kill'd them with all imaginable Contempt. The Remainder of the Youth fled with Manlius to the Capitol, and there be­sieg'd by the Gauls, were freed by the singular Valour of Camillus, who in his absence was chosen Dictator, and having gather'd the scatter'd Troops of of the Roman Army, surprizing the Gauls by a sudden Onset, gain'd an ab­solute Victory over them: by his ad­vice, the Romans rebuilt their burnt Houses, and were hinder'd from set­tling themselves at Veii. Thus he re­stor'd the City to her Citizens, and the Citizens to their City.


Manlius, U.C. 365. for the Repulse he gave the Gauls at the Capitol,Before Ch. 385. call'd Capitolinus serv'd sixteen years as Voluntier in th [...] Army, he had seven and thirty Mili­tary Rewards given him, and thre [...] and thirty Honorable Scars on hi [...] [Page 39]Breast. It was he, when the City was taken, that advis'd the Remain­der of the Romans to fly to the Ca­pitol, and one night allarm'd by the Gabling of a Goose, beat off the Ene­my, scaling the Hill; for which Action he was stil'd Patron by his Citizens, who in Gratitude brought him a Do­native of Corn out of their particular Allowance, tho they were in great want of it themselves, and gave him a House, at the publick Charge in the Capitol. These Honours so puff'd him up, that he created himself many Enemies, and was accus'd by the Se­nate, for not having made a just Di­stribution of the Plunder, he had ta­ken from the Gauls: also for paying out of his own Estate the Debts of those, who according to Law, had been turn­ed over as Slaves to their Creditors: he was thrown into Prison, upon suspicion of aiming at the Crown, but set at Liberty by the unanimous Vote of the People: relapsing into the same Crime, and persevering in it, he was found guilty: yet upon his looking [Page 40]towards the Capitol, and the Remem­brance of his good Service perform'd there, he was repriev'd, but then condemn'd in another place, was thrown down the Tarpejan Rock. His House was demolish'd, his Goods confiscated, and the Manlii ever after oblig'd to renounce the Praenomen of Marcus.


The Fidenates, U.C. 318. ancient Enemies of the Romans, that they might fight without any hope of Pardon,Before Ch. 432. kill'd the Roman Embassadors that were in Treaty with them, against whom Quinctus Cincinnatus was sent Dictator, with Cornelius Cossus, General of the Horse, who with his own hand kill'd King Lartes Tolumnius, and was the second from Romulus, that consecrated the Spoils of a slain General to Jupiter Feretrius.


U.C. 417. Publius Decius Mus was Tribune of the Soldiers in the Samnite War,Before Ch. 333. un­der Valerius Maximus, and Cornelius Cossus the Consuls. When they were block'd up by an Ambush of the Ene­my, in the narrow Pass of the Moun­tain Gaurus in Campania, he with a Detachment granted him upon his re­quest again'd an Hill, frighten'd the Enemy, and at Midnight escap'd safe through their sleeping Guards. For which considerable Service, the Army presented him with an Oaken Crown, called Civica, the honourable Reward of such as sav'd the Life of a Citizen in Battel, and with another nam'd Ob­sidionalis, for raising the Siege. In the Latin War he and his Colleague Man­lius Torquatus encamp'd at the River Veseris, where both the Consuls dream'd, the same night, the Conquest would be theirs, whose General should fall in the Battel, comparing their [Page 42]Dreams, they agreed, that he, whose Wing happened to be worsted, shou'd vow himself to the Infernal Gods, the Left Wing, which Decius com­manded, giving way, he with great resolution repeating some Solemn Prayers after Valerius the High-Priest, devoted himself with his Enemies to the Infernal Gods, so rushing into the Battel, by his death, procured Victory to the Romans.

P. DECIUS the Son.

Publius, U.C. 447. the Son of the former De­cius, Before Ch. 303. in his first Consulship triumphed over the Samnites, and consecrated the best of their Spoils to Ceres: in his second and third Consulate he per­form'd many noble Actions both at home and abroad. In his fourth with Fabius Maximus Rullianus, when the Gauls, the Samnites, the Umbri and the Tusci enter'd into a Confederacy a­gainst the Romans, their Army being drawn up in Battel, and in the Fight his Wing giving ground, he, encou­raged [Page 43]by the great Example of his Father, sent for Marcus Livius the Pontifex, and leaning on his Spear, repeated after him the usual Form of Prayer, thus devoting himself toge­ther with the Enemy to the Infernal Gods, he rushed into the Battel, and bequeathed Victory to his Soldiers. His Body was magnificently interred, and he prais'd in a Funeral Oration by his Colleague.


Titus Manlius Torquatus, U.C. 395. for the Dulness of his Parts, and the Impe­diment of his Speech,Before Ch. 355. was sent by his Father to live a private Life in the Country; upon Information that his Father was accused by Pompeius, the Tribune of the People, he came by night to Rome, and having got an opportunity to discourse the Tribune in private, with his drawn Sword, forc'd him in great fear to lay aside his Ac­cusation. In his Tribuneship of the [Page 44]Soldiers, under Sulpicius the Dictator, he in a Duel kill'd the Gaul that chal­leng'd the Romans, and taking off his Chain, put it on his own Neck, whence he as call'd Terquatus. In his Consulship against the Latins, to maintain his Discipline, he beheaded his own Son, tho victorious, for fighting against his Order, and beat them at the River Veseris, where his Colleague Decius devoted himself to the Infernal Gods.


U.C. 407. Valerius was Tribune of the Sol­diers under Camillus, Before Ch. 343. in pursuing the disperst Troops of the Gauls out of Italy; and with great Bravery fought the Gaul, who by a Challenge had ter­rified the whole Roman Army. A Crow from Break of Day sate upon his Hel­met, and in the Fight assisted him by flapping his Wing in his Enemies Eyes, which Victory honoured him [Page 45]with the additional Name of Corvinus. His Prudence was of great Conse­quence to the Common-Wealth, when a great number of poor Debtors, not able to pay their Creditors, had at­tempted to seize Capua, and forc'd Quinctius to head them, in appeasing that Sedition by taking off the Debt.


U.C. 433. Titus Veturius and Spurius Posthumius in their Consulship warring with the Samnites, Before Ch. 317. were drawn into an Ambu­scade by their General Pontius Thele­sinus, who sent out some pretended Deserters to tell the Romans, that Lu­ceria, a City in Apulia, was besieg'd by the Samnites. Two Roads lead to this place, the one longer, but safer; the other shorter, yet more dangerous; the Romans; in great haste to raise the Seige, by taking the shorter way, fell into the Ambush: the place, where this Misfortune happen'd, was call'd Furcu­lae Caudinae. Caius Pontius, when he [Page 46]had taken them, sent for his Father Herennius, to consult his Judgment in this matter, who answer'd, He would either have them all killed, to weaken their Forces beyond hopes of Recovery, or else sent away without Ransom, that they might be for ever oblig'd to him for such a generous Favour; but he rejecting both these Propositions, made them all Slaves, and enter'd into a League with dishonourable Condi­tions on their part, which the Romans so disliked, that Posthumius their Ge­neral was deliver'd up to them to dis­annul the Articles, but not received upon that Account by them.


Lucius Papirius, from his swiftness call'd Cursor, U.C. 434. was sent Dictator against the Samnites, Before Ch. 316. perceiving the War to be undertook with ill Omens, he return'd to Rome to consult the Soothsayers for better Divination, and left the Command [Page 47]of the Army to Fabius Rullianus, with Orders not to fight upon any Occa­sion, yet he inticed by a fair Oppor­tunity fought the Enemy, for which Papirius, at his return, would have beheaded him. For the safety of his life he escaped to Rome, where it was not in the Power of the Tribunes to defend him: nevertheless by his Fa­thers Tears, and the Peoples Intreaty, he was at last pardoned, and Papirius triumph'd over the Samnites. He was very pleasant in his Conversation, and a great Lover of Jests, as appear'd one time, after having severely repri­manded the Praetor of Praeneste for his Cowardise, he order'd the Lictors to make ready their Axes; and when he saw him sufficiently terrified with the fear of Death, commanded them only to cut up the Roots that hinder'd their March.

The HONORABLE Mr. ROBERT BERTIE. From the Year 434. to 511. U.C.


U.C. 434.Q. Fabius Rullianus was the first of his Family,Before Ch. 316. for his Valour call'd Maximus: when he was General of the Horse, under Papirius Cursor, he conquer'd the Samnites, but had like to have been beheaded by the Dicta­tor, for fighting without Order, in his absence. He first triumph'd over the Apuli, and Lucerini, then over the Samnites; thirdly over the Gauls, the Umbri, the Marsi, and the Tusci. In his Censorship he distinguish'd the Li­bertini, in respect of their Votes, into [Page 49]four inferior Tribes, and would not be chose Censor a second time, declaring it was not for the good of the Com­monwealth to have the same Men of­ten Censors. He first instituted the Cavalcade of the Roman Knights on the Ides of July from the Temple of Honor, upon white Horses to the Ca­pitol. At his death so much Money was collected for him by publick Con­tribution, that his Son made a pub­lick Feast, and gave a Dole of raw Flesh to the People.


U.C. 404. Manlius Curius Dentatus first tri­umph'd over the Samnites, Before Ch. 446. whom he conquer'd as far as the Adriatick Sea. At his return to Rome, he thus signa­liz'd the Greatness of his Victory in an Affembly of the People: I hvae taken so much Land, that it would turn a Desart, had I not taken so many Pri­soners to inhabit it; and have taken so [Page 50]many Men, that they must perish with Hunger, had I not taken so much Ground for them to subsist on. He triumph'd a second time over the Sabines, and thirdly enter'd the City with a less Triumph, call'd Ovation, for con­quering the Lucanians. He drove Pyrrhus, King of Epirus, out of Italy. In the Division of the publick Lands, he gave forty Acres a Man amongst the People, and reserv'd but forty for himself, professing, that none ought to be reckon'd a Roman Citizen who could not be contented with it. He was so moderate in his Desires, that he answer'd the Samnite Embassadors, proffering him a great Present of Gold, as he was at Dinner upon roasted Tur­nips; I had rather eat these Turnips in this Earthen Dish, and govern them that possess such Riches. When he was ac­cus'd of converting to his own use the publick Money, he produced for his Vindication a Wooden Cruet which he us'd at his Sacrifices, solemnly swear­ing, he never had any thing more of the Enemies Spoils, in his House. He [Page 51]brought the Aqueducts of the River Anio into Rome, at the Expence of the same Plunder; and in his Tribune­ship forced the Senate to make the Law from him, call'd Curia, by which Magistrates might be elected out of the Plebeians; for which many Obligations the Republick conferr'd upon him an House, and five hundred Acres of Land in Tiphata.


Appius Claudius Caecus, U.C. 462. in his Censor­ship,Before Ch. 288. tho he admitted the Libertini in­to the Senate, prohibited the Musici­ans from publick Feasting, and play­ing on Pipes in Jupiter's Temple Two Families call'd the Potitii and the Pinarii had for many Ages been con­stituted to perform Sacrifices to Her­cules, he brib'd the Potitii to instruct the common Slaves in those Religious Ceremonies, for which Offence he was struck blind, and the Race of the Po­titii utterly extinguish'd. He violent­ly [Page 52]oppos'd the Communication of the Consulship to any Plebeian, and would not gratifie the Ambition of Fabius Rullianus to have absolute Command without Decius Mus in the War against the Samnites. He conquer'd the Sa­bines, Samnites, and Hetrurians: and pav'd the way as far as Brundusium, whence it was call'd the Appian Road. He finish'd the Aqueduct which was brought into Rome from the River A­nio, and was the only Man that kept the Censorship five years toge­ther. When a Peace was concluding with King Pyrrhus, and his Embassa­dor Cineas had corrupted many of the Senators, Appius, old and blind, was brought in his Litter into the Se­nate, and with a noble Speech broke off those base Propositions.

PYRRHUS King of Epirus.

Pyrrhus, U.C. 472. King of Epirus, was by his Father descended from Achilles; Before Ch. 278. by his Mother from Hercules; he ambi­tiously [Page 53]aimed at the Empire of the World, and perceiving the Romans very powerful, consulted the Del­phick Oracle about the Fortune of the War, whom Apollo thus ambiguously answer'd:

Aio te Aeacida Romanos vincere posse.
O, Pyrrhus, you the Romans shall o'ercome.

He interpreting this to his own Fan­cy, made War with the Romans, by the help of the Tarentini: and disor­der'd Laevinus the Consul's Army by the City Heraclea, with the strange sight of his Elephants; but after the Fight when he beheld the Roman Sol­diers, slain only by honourable Wounds in their Breasts; he cried out, With such brave Men as these could I soon conquer the whole World: and answer'd his Friends, congratulating his Suc­cess, What do I gain by such a Victory as costs me the Flower of my Army. Then he march'd on, and encamp'd [Page 54]twenty Miles from Rome, generously restoring the Captives to Fabricius, without Ransom, where seeing the new Army of Laevinus so suddenly recruit­ed, he declar'd he underwent the same Difficulty against the Romans, as his Ancestor Hercules with the Serpent Hydra. He was routed by Fabricius and Curius, and fled to Tarentum, thence pass'd over into Sicily, yet once more to try his Fortune, he return'd to Locri in Italy, and rob'd Proserpine's Temple; but en­deavouring to carry off the Treasure, his Fleet was driven back by a Storm, and wreck'd upon the Shoar. Thence returning into Greece, as he besieg'd Argos, he was slain with a Tile thrown down on his Head. His Body was carried to Antigonus, King of Macedo­nia, and magnificently enterr'd.


U.C. 477.The year after the victorious Ro­mans had driven Pyrrhus to Tarentum Fabricius was sent General againstBefore Ch. 273. [Page 55]him; he had been formerly Embassa­dor to Pyrrhus, and tho he was prof­fer'd a fourth part of his Kingdom, would not be brid'd from his Ho­nesty. When he and the King en­camp'd near one another, Pyrrhus's Physician came to him by night, pro­mising to poison his Prince, if he would reward him accordingly; Fa­bricius, detesting the Fact, command­ed him to be bound, and carried back, that his Lord might know what this Traitor had design'd against his Life. In admiration of which generous Action the King is reported to have said; This is that Fabricius, whose In­tegrity 'tis harder to corrupt, than to turn the Sun from its Course.


Volscinii, a noble City of Hetruria, U.C. 487. was almost ruin'd by its Luxury;Before Ch. 263. for very indiscreetly they had freed their Slaves, and admitted them into the Senate, who in return, by a Confede­racy, [Page 56]became their Masters. After they had thus suffer'd many Indignities they secretly begg'd Aid of the Ro­mans; Decius Mus was presently sent to their Assistance, who overcame these insolent Freed Men, and either put them to Death in Prison, or delivered them again in subjection to their Lords.


Appius Claudius, U.C. 488. sirnamed Caudex, was Brother to Appius Caecus, after the Settlement of the Volsinienses, Before Ch. 262. he was sent Consul to free the Mamertini in Si­cily, whose Castle Hiero, King of Syracuse, with the Carthaginians, had besieg'd. He first pass'd the Streights of Sicily in a Fisher-Boat to view the Enemy, and the forc'd the Carthaginian Ge­neral to withdraw his Forces out of the Cittadel. Returning to Rhegium, he with his Infantry took a five Bank'd Galley of the Enemies, and with that Vessel transporting a Legion into Si­cily, [Page 57]drove the Carthaginians from Messana. Hiero surrendered himself to him upon Terms, at the Battel of Syracuse, and was so terrified with the Danger of the War, that he desir'd the Friendship of the Romans, and prov'd ever after very faithful to them.


U.C. 258. Caius Duilius was Admiral in the first Punick War against the Carthagini­ans, Before Ch. 492. and finding them very powerful at Sea, rigg'd out a strong Fleet: his Enemies laugh'd at his Invention of Grapling Irons, with which he took thirty, and sunk thirteen of their Ships. Hannibal, the Carthaginian Ad­miral, fled to Carthage, and pretended to demand Instructions of the Senate, as yet ignorant of his Misfortune. They unanimously voted he should fight the Enemy: I have fought, says he, and lost the Day. Thus he escap'd Crucifixion; for among the Carthagi­nians, the General, that had the Mis­fortune [Page 58]fortune to be beaten, was so punish'd. Dailius had this perpetual Honor con­fen'd on him, to return in publick from Supper with Flambeaux and Trumpeters before him.


Atilius Calatinus was sent General into Sicily against the Carthaginians, U.C. 494. he forced the Enemies Garrisons out of Enna, Before Ch. 256. Drepanum, and Lilybaeum, their best and strongest Cities, and took Panormus. He ravag'd the whole Island, and with a few Ships, beat the Enemies great Fleet, under the Com­mand of Amilcar. But making haste to raise the Siege of Camerina, he was shut up in a narrow Pass by the Car­thaginians, where Calpurnius Flamma, one of his Tribunes, drawing out three hundred Soldiers, gain'd a Hill, and by his Valour freed the Consul, tho his whole Party was cut off, and he found half dead by the Consul: [Page 59]After this the Romans became a Terror to their Enemies, and Atilius obtain'd a Glorious Triumph.


M. Atilius Regulus in his ConsulshipU.C. 497. triumph'd for his Conquest over the Salentini: Before Ch. 253. he was the first Roman Ge­neral that pass'd over with a Navy in­to Africa: his Fleet suffer'd much by a Shipwreck: yet he took from A­milcar, the Carthaginian Admiral, sixty three Gallies, besides two hundred Towns, with two hundred thousand Captives. Whilst he commanded a­broad, his Wife and Children, by rea­son of their Poverty, were kept at the Publick Charge. The next year he was taken by the policy of Xanthippus, a Lacedaemonian Captain, who serv'd the Carthaginians, and cast into Prison. He was sent Embassador from thence to Rome, to treat about the Exchange of Prisoners, promising, upon his [Page 60]Oath, to return, if he could not ob­tain it; but he more consulting the Benefit of his Country, oppos'd it in the Senate, and not regarding the Prayers and Tears of his Wife and Fa­mily, returned to Carthage, where, in revenge, they put him into a Wooden Chest, stuck full of Nails, by which horrible Torture, and for want of Sleep he died.


C. Lutatius Catulus, U.C. 511. in the first Pu­nick War commanded three hun­dred Sail against the Carthaginians, Before Ch. 239. and in a Fight near the Islands Aegates, between Sicily and Africa, took and and sunk six hundred of their Ships, laden with Provisions and other Ne­cessaries, under their Admiral Anno, by which great Victory he put an end to the War; and at their Entreaty made a Peace with them on these Terms, that they should march out of [Page 61] Sicily, Sardinia, and the other Islands between Italy, and Africa; giving up all Provinces in Spain, as far as the River Iberus.

Mr. BLAKWELL PARKYNS. From the Year 511. to 563. U.C.

HANNIBAL the Carthaginian General.

HAnnibal was Son to Hamilcar, U.C. 534. General of the Carthaginians, Before Ch. 216. in the first Punick War, who brought him, when but nine years old, before the Altar, solemnly to swear perpetual Hatred to Rome. From that time he served in those Wars under his Father, after whose Death he sought all Occa­sions [Page 62]of Breaking with the Romans. To which end, he, within six Months after, destroyed the City Saguntum in Spain, then in Confederacy with them. From whence making his Way over the Alpes, he passed into Italy, and beat Publius Scipio at Ticinum; Sempro­nius Longus at Trebia; Flaminius at the Lake Trasimenus; also Paulus and Varro at Cannae. And might further have carried his Victories, by taking Rome it self, had he march'd directly thither, and not turn'd aside into Campania, to enjoy the Pleasures of that rich Coun­try. But after this, when he had en­camp'd his Army within three Miles of the City, he was beat back by great Storms of Wind and Rain. His Troops were first weakened by Fabius Maximus; then repulsed by Valerius Flaccus; next put to flight by Gracchus and Marcellus; and being recalled into Africa, he was there totally routed by Scipio. From thence he fled to Antio­chus, King of Syria, and incited him to make War against the Romans; after whose Overthrow, he was necessitated [Page 63]to retire to Prusias, King of Bythinia, to whom Titus Flaminius was sent on an Embassy to demand him; but he prevented his being deliver'd up by drinking a Poison, carried for such an Occasion, in the hollow of his Ring, and so died. At Lybissa, a Town of Bythinia he was put into a Stone Coffin, with this Inscription on it,

Here lies HANNIBAL.


Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator was called Verrucosus, U.C. 535. from a Wart he had on his Lip; and Ovicula, Before Ch. 215. from his mild Nature. In his Consulship he triumph'd over the Ligures, and weak'ned Hannibal by his prudent De­laying to give him Battle. He suffer­ed Minutius, General of his Horse, at his Request, to have equal Power in the Army with himself; yet after that Arrogance, refused not to relieve him, when he had brought his Troops by ill [Page 64]Conduct into great Danger. He shut up Hannibal in the Plains of Falernus, and kept Manlius Statilius from revolt­ing to the Enemy, by his generous gift to him of a Horse and Arms; also obliged a brave Soldier of the Lucani­an Squadron, who often left the Camp, and neglected his Duty, being tran­sported with a violent Passion for a beautiful Woman, by buying and pre­senting her to him. He retook Ta­rentum from the Carthaginians, and the Statue of Hercules, which he brought from thence, he placed in the Capitol. And when the Senate would not ap­prove of his Ratifying the Articles, made between him and the Enemy, about the Redemption of Prisoners, he sold his Estate for two hundred thousand Sesterces, with which he preserved his Honour, and performed his Contract.


Publius Scipio Nasica was a Man so eminent for his Virtue, that he had the Image of Cybele, Mother of the Gods, by order of the Senate, com­mitted to his Care, to be kept in his House, till her Temple should be built. He was so superstitious, that when he understood himself to be chosen Con­sul by Gracchus with ill Omens, he ab­dicated his Office. In his Censorship he pulled down the Statues, which many, out of Ambition, had erected for themselves in the Forum. And in his Consulship took Delminium, chief City of the Calmatians. Out of Mo­desty he refused the Title of General, offered him by the Soldiers, as he did the Honour of a Triumph conferred on him by the Senate. He was so ve­ry eloquent, so well skilled in the Law, and so extremely wise in all his Affairs, that he was called Corculum, or The Prudent Man.


Marcus Marcellus slew Virdumarus, U.C. 530. Ge­neral of the Gauls, in a single Combat,Before Ch. 220. and was the Third from Romulus that dedicated the rich Spoils of a slain Ge­neral to Jupiter Feretrius. He first taught Soldiers to retreat without turn­ing their Backs, and by taking Advan­tage of a narrow Pass at Nola, made Hannibal know, he was not invincible. Syracuse, a City in Sicily, was taken by him after three years Siege, and when the Senate, upon some false Accusation denied him the Honour of a Triumph, he conscious of his just merit triumph'd from his own Authority on Mount Alban. In his fifth Consulship he was unluckily drawn into an Ambuscade, by Hannibal, and slain. His Funeral was solemnized with great Pomp; but his Bones, as they were sent to Rome, were intercepted by Numidian Pyrats, and lost.

LIVIA CLAUDIA the Vestal Virgin.

Whilst Hannibal wasted Italy, U.C 549. the Romans consulting the Books of the Sybils, Before Ch. 201. sent for the Image of the God­dess Cybele from Pessinuns, a Town of Phrygia. And as they came up the Tiber against the Stream, the Ship on a sudden stopp'd in deep Water, from whence it could by no Means be moved, till by Direction in the same Books, they understood that it might be drawn up the River by the Hand of a very chaste Woman. Whereupon Claudia, a Vestal Virgin, unjustly su­spected of Incontinency, entreated the Goddess, that if she knew her to be chaste, she would vouchsafe to fol­low her, then tying her Girdle to the Ship, she drew it up the Tiber. The Image of the Goddess, whilst her Temple was building, was placed in the House of Scipio Nasica, so honou­red from the general Opinion of being the best Man in Rome.


M. Porcius Cato was born at Tuscu­lum, U.C. 557. but invited to fix at Rome, Before Ch. 193. by Valerius Flaccus. He was Tribune of the Soldiers in Sicily; and behaved himself with great Valour whilest he was Questor under Scipio, as he did with great Justice, when Pretor. In that year of his Pretorship he con­quer'd Sardinia, and was there in­structed in the Greek Tongue by En­nius the Poet. In his Consulship he Hispania Tarraconensis; and to secure them from rebelling, he sent his Or­ders to all the Cities to demolish their Walls, which every one of them ima­gining as only sent to them in parti­cular, readily obeyed. In the Syrian War against Antiochus, being Tribune of the Soldiers, under Marcus Acilius Glabrio, he gained the Pass of Thermo­pylae, at the Streights of Mount Oeta, and by that prevention routed the [Page 69]Enemy. In his Censorship he turned Lucius Flammius, who formerly had been Consul, out of the Senate, be­cause in his Government of Gaul, to please his Miss, he ordered a Captive to be brought out of Prison, and killed before her. He was the first that built a stately Piazza, calling it Porcia, after his own Name, and opposed the Luxu­ry of the Roman Matrons, when they demanded the Privilege of wearing their rich Ornaments, taken from from them by the Oppian Law. He was so indefatigable a Prosecutor of ill Men, that in the fourscorth year of his Age he accused Galba for rob­bing the Lufitanians in his Pretorship, and was himself impeached four and forty times, but always honourably acquitted. In the Debates of the Se­nate, in the third Punick War, he was for demolishing Carthage; his natural Vigor lasted so long, that he had a Son at fourscore, whose Effigies was often brought out to honour a Funeral Solemnity.


Asdrubal, U.C. 545. the Brother of Hannibal, passed into Italy with great Recruits,Before Ch. 205. for the strengthening his Army, and the Roman Empire had then been utterly ruined, if he had once joyned his Bro­ther: But Claudius Nero, whose Camp was in Apulia near Hannibal, leaving part of his Forces behind him, drew out a large Detachment of his choicest Men, and marching directly against Asdrubal, joined M. Livius his Col­league, at a Town called Sena, by the River Metaurus in Calabria, where they two together beat Asdrubal. After this Victory Nero returned to his Camp with the same speed, and threw As­drubal's Head before his Brother Han­nibal's Trenches. At which sight Han­nibal publickly declared, he was over­come by the ill Fortune of Carthage. For this good Service Marcus Livius [Page 71]entered Rome with a greater Triumph, and, Nero with a less, because the Acti­on was not performed within his Province.


Publius Scipio, called Africanus, U.C. 551. for his Courage and Conduct in the Con­quest of Africa, Before Ch. 199. was supposed to be the Son of Jupiter, for before his Mo­ther was with Child of him, a Serpent, supposed the Genius of Jupiter, was seen in her Bed, and in his Childhood a Snake twined about him without do­ing him any harm. The Dogs never bark'd at him, altho he went into the Capitol at Midnight, nor did he ever undertake any Business, till he had sate meditating a good while, near the Image of Jupiter, as if he received Directions from that God. He but eighteen years of Age, by his sin­gular Valour, saved his Father's Life at Ticinum; and so great Influence was the Authority of Scipio, that he put a stop to the young Noblemen, and [Page 72]hinder'd them from leaving Italy, and conducted the Remainder of the Army, after the Defeat of Cannae, through the Enemies Camp to Canusium. At four and twenty he was sent Pretor in­to Spain, and took Carthago Nova, now Carthagena, the same day he came be­fore it, when his Soldiers brought him a young Maid, whose Beauty attract­ed every one to be a Spectator, he out of Modesty would not see her, but gave order, that she should be restored to her Father, and betrothed Lover, a Prince of Cel [...]iberia. He beat Asdrubal and Mage, Hannibal's Brothers, out of Spain, made a League with Syphax, King of Mauritania, and received Massanissa into the Number of the Al­lies. Returning home after these Victories, he was made Consul before he was old enough, according to Law, and by the Consent of his Colleague passed over into Africa, and forc'd his way through Asdrubal's and Syphax's Camp in one night. He vanquished Hannibal after he was recalled out of Italy, and imposed new Laws upon [Page 73]the conquered Carthaginians, In the War against Antiochus he was his Bro­ther's Lieutenant, and his Son that was taken Prisoner was returned with­out Ransom, in honour of the Father. Being accused of Extortion by the Pe­tilii, and Naevius, Tribunes of the People, with great assurance, he tore his Book of Accounts in pieces, be­fore the People, and said, This day I conquered Carthage; 'twas a good piece of Service to the Commonwealth, let us go to the Capitol, and return our publick Thanks to the Gods. Then he left the ungrateful City, spending the rest of his Life in exile; and at his death beg­ged of his Wife, that his Body should not be carried back to Rome.


In his first Consulship triumph'd over the Illyrians, yet sometime after was maliciously accused by all the Tribes, except the Metian, for em­bezelling [Page 74]the publick Stock. In his second Consulship he was joined with his Enemy Claudius Nero, but rather than the Government should sustain any prejudice from their Variance, he was freely reconciled to him, and upon their Victory over Asdrubal, Hannibal's Brother, rode in Triumph into the City. He was also chose with the same Nero in his Censorship, and set a Poll-Tax upon every Tribe, except the Metians, taking away their Pension, because they had either con­demned very unjustly at first, or else had done very ill, in conferring so great Honours upon him, after a for­mer suspicion.


Was the Son of that Flaminius who who was killed at Trasimenus. He was sent Consul into Macedonia, and guided by King Carops's Shepherds into the Province. He routed King Philip, [Page 75]and took his Camp, receiving from him his Son Demetrius for an Hostage, tho afterwards he made him pay a great Ransom before he restored him to his Kingdom. He took also the Son of Nabis, King of Lacedemon, as a Pledge for his Fidelity, and at last made Proclamation by the common Cryer at the Nemaean Games with ge­neral Applause, that all the Graecians should enjoy their ancient Liberties. This was he that was sent to Prusias to demand Hannibal.


In his Pretorship conquered Spain, for which good Service he enter'd the City, with a less Triumph, called Ovation. The Aetolians and Ambracians were routed by him in several Battels, who in the Macedonian War had first sided with the Romans, but afterwards revolted to Antiochus, King of Syria. He drave them into their City Ambra­cia, [Page 76]and by a Blockade forced them to surrender, yet he plunder'd them of nothing but their Statues, and Pictures, which were carried before him in Tri­umph. His Friend Quintus Ennius wrote a noble Poem in commendation of this Victory, tho it was sufficiently famous of it self, and needed not the Art of a Poet to set it off.

Mr. HEARY MOLINS D'AVENANT. From the Year 563, to 660. U. C.


SCipio Asiaticus, U.C. 563. Brother to Scipio Africanus, Before Ch. 187. was a Man of a weak Constitution, yet upon the Account of his Valour in Africa, was recom­mended by his Brother for Consul, and having him for his Lieutenant-General, beat Antiochus, King of Syria, at Mount Sipylus in Caria, where the Enemies Bows, by reason of the excessive Rain, were made useless. He took from him part of his Hereditary Kingdom, and from his Success gained the Name of Asiaticus. Some time after he was ac­cused for embezelling the Publick Treasure; but Gracchus, Tribune of the [Page 78]People, satisfied of his Integrity, tho his Adversary, stop'd any farther Proceeding, yet Marcus Cato, the Censor, afterwards took from him his Horse as a particular Mark of Disgrace.

ANTIOCHUS King of Syria.

Antiochus, U.C. 560. King of Syria, trusting too much to his own Power,Before Ch. 190. waged War with the Romans, under pretence of recovering the City of Lysimachia, built by his Ancestors in Thrace, and then in the possession of the Romans. In a short time he seized on all Greece, with the adjacent Islands, but ruined himself by Luxury in the Island Eu­boea. Upon the Approach of Acilius Glabrio, he drew up his Forces in the Straits of the Mount Oeta, called Thermopylae, and after their Defeat, by the Conduct of Marcus Cato fled into Asia. He had as bad Success with his Fleet, which under Hannibal, his Ad­miral, was beaten by Lucius Aemilius, [Page 79]Regillus, he thought to oblige Scipio Africanus, by releasing his Son, taken Prisoner at Sea, without any Ransom, whose Father, by way of Requital, advised him to make Peace with the Romans: but Antiochus despising his Counsel, ventured to fight L. Scipio at Mount Sipylus, where he was over­come, and chaced beyond Mount Tau­rus. He was at last killed by one of his Nobles, whom he had affronted with a Blow in his Drink.


Cnaeus Manlius Vulso, U.C. 563. as soon as he was chosen Consul, was sent to suc­ceed Scipio Asiaticus, Before Ch. 187. in his Govern­ment, and being too ambitious of a Triumph, made War upon the Pisidae and Gallograeci, Confederates with An­tiochus, whom he very easily conquer'd. Amongst other Prisoners of War, the Wife of King Orgiagon was committed to the Charge of a certain Centurion, [Page 80]who ravish'd her, but she studying Revenge, conceal'd the Rape; and after some time having agreed for her Ran­som, by an Artifice had this Adulterer delivered up to her Husband, by whom he was slain.


U.C. 584. L. Paulus Aemilius was his Son who was slain at the Battel of Cannae. He in his first Consulship,Before Ch. 166. which he got after a Repulse at three Elections, triumph'd over the Ligures, and to magnifie his Actions, exposed to publick view a Pi­cture, wherein all his Exploits were painted. In his second Consulship he took Perses, King of the Macedonians, Philips Son, at Samothracia, an Isle in the Aegean Sea, but with great Hu­manity pityed him whom he had con­quered, and permitted him to sit down by him, tho afterward he led him in Triumph. At which joyful Solemnity he lost two of his Sons, yet [Page 81]with the greatest moderation turning himself to the People, he made it his request to Fortune, that if any Disaster threat'ned the Commonwealth, it might be compounded for, by his private Af­flictions. In reward of his Noble Actions he had the Privilege granted him by the People, and Senate, of wearing a Triumphal Robe at the Cir­censian Games. He was one that ha­ted Avarice, and laid up so little Wealth, that after his Death, all his Estate was sold for the Payment of his Wifes Dowry.


Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus was de­scended of a Noble Family,U.C. 573. and of so generous a Temper,Before Ch. 177. that he would not suffer his Enemy Scipio Asiaticus to be cast into Prison. In his Pretor­ship he subdued Gaul, in his first Con­sulship Spain, and in his second he Conquered Sardinia, from whence he [Page 82]brought so many Prisoners, that the long Continuance of their Sale gave occasion for the Proverb, Sardi venales, Here are Sardinian Slaves to be Sold. When he was Censor he divided those Freemen, who belonged to the Coun­try Tribes, into four City Tribes. Tho he secured himself by his own Interest, yet his Colleague Claudius was accused for this Innovation, but escaped after two Classes had found him Guilty, by the zealous Protesta­tion of Tiberius, who vowed, if they condemned his Friend, to be banish'd with him. He was a rare Example of Conjugal Affection, when the two Snakes crawled out of his Bed, upon Consultation the Oracle answered, That if the Male was killed, Tiberius should die; if the Female, Cornelia. Ne­vertheless, he moved with a tender compassion for his Wife's Safety, or­dered he Male to be slain.


P. Scipio Aemilianus was the Son of Paulus Macedonicus, U.C. 606. but adopted by Scipio Africanus; Before Ch. 144. he shewed his Cou­rage whilst he served under his. Father in the Macedonian War, upon the De­feat of King Perses, by pursuing the Chase so eagerly, that he did not return to the Camp till Midnight; and when he was Lucullus's Lieutenant in Spain, at the Town Intercatia he killed one, that challenged him, in a single Combat, and was the first that scaled the Walls of that City. He was Tribune under Marcus Manilius, in the first year of the third Punick War, and by his Conduct and Valour Re­lieved eight Cohorts, that were block'd up by the Enemy; for which good Service he was presented with an Ob­sidional Crown. When he stood only Candidate for the Aedileship, he was unanimously chosen Consul, tho not [Page 84]of Age, as the Law requires, and within six Months, as it were, to con­firm the good Opinion of the People, demolish'd Carthage. He was then sent into Spain, where having restored the Discipline of the Army, he forced Numantia to Surrender, for want of Provisions, and was from thence call­ed Numantinus. He did nothing with­out his Friend Caius Laelius, and in ma­ny Embassies to several Princes, took none but him with the small Retinue of two Servants. His noble Exploits at last made him so haughty, that he disoblig'd the Commonwealth, by say­ing Gracchus was deservedly Murdered, and when many murmured at this se­vere Expression against his own Kins­man, he bade them be silent, for ac­cording to their Deserts, Italy was but their Stepmother, and they were all no bet­ter than his Slaves. In his Censorship he Affronted his Colleague Mummius, who was indeed a Man of heavy parts, by this arrogant Expression in the open Senate, I wish you had given me a Companion fit for Business, or none [Page 85]at all. Soon after his violent opposing the Party which promoted the Division of the Lands, he was found dead at his own House, and carried out to he buried with his Head cover­ed, lest there should be any suspicion of a violent Death from the Blackness of his Face. His Estate was so small, that he left but Thirty two Pounds of Silver, and two and a half of Gold.


U.C. 615. Caius Hostilius Mancinus went Con­sul against the Numantines, Before Ch. 135. tho fore­warn'd by the Augurs, and called upon by a strange Voice to stay at home, upon his Arrival at Numantia he designed to regulate the Army for­merly commanded by Popilius, and for more Advantage decamp'd to a pri­vater place. That day the Numantines, after an old Custom proffer'd their Daughters in publick to be Married; it happened, that two young Men [Page 86]Courted the same pretty Woman, her Father told the Rivals, He only should marry her, who slew an Enemy, and brought him his Right Hand. Both of them going out to execute this Or­der, and observing the Romans to draw off in as much haste as if they fled, acquainted their own party with it, who presently sallying out with Four thousand, slew Twenty thousand of the Romans. Mancinus, by the ad­vice of his Questor, Tiberius Gracchus made a League with the Enemy, upon their own Terms, which being disliked by the Senate, Mancinus was deliver'd up to the Numantines, but not received for satisfaction by them. This unfor­tunate General was degraded, and durst not return to the Camp, yet af­terward by good Omens of the Sooth­sayers he was advanced to the De­gree of Pretor.


L. Mummius was sirnamed Achaicus, U.C. 606. from Conquering Achaia: Before Ch. 144. in his Con­sulship he was ordered to prosecute the War against the Corinthians, and and had the Honor of a Victory, which, in merit, was rather due to his Predecessor. For after Metellus Mace­donicus had routed the Enemy at Hera­clea, a City of Elis in the Peloponnese, and killed their General Critolaus, he hastened with his Serjeants, and a few Horse to Metellus's Camp to share the Good Fortnne of the Battel, and with more ease defeated the Enemy at Leu­topetra in the Isthmus of Corinth. Diae­us their Commander fled, in despair set his House on Fire, killed his Wife, threw her into the Flames, and then poisoned himself. Mummius plun­dered Corinth, and adorned Italy with their Pictures and Statues, yet so mo­dente, as to carry none to his own Horse.


U.C. 606. Quinctus Caecilius Metelluss obtain'd the Title of Macedonicus, Before Ch. 144. from subduing Macedonia. In his Praetorship he over­came the Impostor Andriscus, who as­sumed the Name of King Philip, he routed the Achaians twice, but Mum­mius intercepted the Glory of the Tri­umph. The People, to shew their Ha­tred towards him for his Severity, with much Difficulty chose him Consul, af­ter he had miss'd it at two Elections. He vanquished the Arbachi in Spai [...], and with great Courage before the Town Contrebia, made those Cohorts which gave way to rally and regain their Post; he was so close and sur­prizing in his Counsels, that he an­swered one of his Friends, inquiring into his Resolutions, He would bur his Coat, if he thought it knew his nind. He was the happy Father of four va­liant Sons, who carried him to his [Page 89]Grave, three of whom he saw hono­red with a Consulate, and the other with a Triumph.


U.C. 643. Q. Caecilius Metellus in his Consul­ship triumphed over Jugurtha, Before Ch. 107. King of Numidia, and from thence called Nu­midicus; when he was Censor he sig­naliz'd his Integrity by refusing to in­roll in the publick Register the Name of Quinctius, who scandalously pre­tended to be the Son of Tiberius Grac­chus, and chose rather to be banish'd than agree to the Law which Apuleius by violence imposed upon them. He lived in Exile at Smyrna, and at last was recalled by Calidius, Tribune of the People. He always discovered a Constancy in his Temper, as appear'd in the Theatre, by not reading the Letter which was brought him till the Show was over, and by not making a Funeral Oration in Commendation of [Page 90] Lucullus, his Sister Metella's Husband, who had been the only person wrought upon to recant his Vote against the Agrarian and Frumentarian Laws.


He was the Son of Metellus Numidi­cus, U.C. 660. and honor'd with the Cognomen of Pius for his Filial Duty,Before Ch. 90. and continual Intercession with Tears to have his Father recall'd from Banistment. He shewed his Valour in the Social War, in which he commanded as Praetor, and kill'd Q. Popedius, General of the Marsi. He was sent Consul into Spain, where he defeated the Herculeii, Lieu­tenants to Sertorius, and forc'd him out of that Country. In his Youth, when he was Candidate for the Prae­torship, and Pontificat, he was pre­ferred to his Competitors of Con­sular Dignity.

The HONORABLE Mr. WASHINGTON SHIRLEY. From the Year 619, to 670 U. C.


Tiberius Gracchus, U.C. 619. Grandson to Scipio Africanus, by his Daughter Cor­nelia, Before Ch. 131. was Quaestor under Mancinus in Spain, and consented to the making of that dishonorable League with the Numantini: but by his plausible Elo­quence escaped being delivered up to them. When he was Tribune of the People he made two Laws, one that no person whatsoever should possess above Five hundred Acres of Land, the other that the Estate which Attalus King of Pergamus bequeathed to the Commonwealth, should be divided [Page 92]among the People. His Colleague Octavius zealously opposed the former; and was therefore turned out of his Office contrary to all Precedents. At the following Election, in hopes of continuing another year in his Office, he came into the Assembly, tho the Predictions of Augurs were against him, and went directly towards the Capitol, putting his Hand to his Head, by which Gesture he desired the Pro­tection of the People: but the Nobili­ty thought that he then demanded the Crown: and Mucius the Consul being tardy in pursuing him, Scipio Nasica commanded all those that wished well to the Safety of; the Commonwealth to follow him, and seizing upon Grac­chus in the Capitol slew him: Lucretius the Aedile took up his Body, and threw it into, the River Tiber, from whence he was nicknamed Vespillo. Nasica, that he might be out of the way; and secured from popular Odi­um, went under Colour of an Em­bassdor into Asia.


U.C. 629. Caius Gracchus was made Quaestor of that unhealthsul Island of Sardinia, Before Ch. 131. and at the expiration of his Year left the place, contrary to Law, before any one came to succeed him. He bore the Blame of the Revolt of Asculum and Fregellae. When he was Tribune of the People he set up the Laws a­bout the Division of Lands, and Di­stribution of Corn among the People, and was for sending Colonies to. Ca­pua and Tarentum. He made Fulvius Flaccus and C. Craslus Joint-Commissio­ners with himself for the Division of the Lands. Minucius Rufus, Tribune of the People, opposing his Actions as seditious, he went with his party for security into the Capitol, yet after he saw Atilius, one of Opimius, the Con­sul's Serjeants, killed by the Crowd, he came down into the Forum, and imprudently broke up the Assembly held there by Minucius Rufus, Tri­bune of the People; for which Mis­demeanour [Page 94]he was summoned to ap­pear before the Senate, but in defiance to them, he armed all his Servants▪ and possessed himself of Mount Aven­tine, where he was routed by Opimius, and leaping from the Temple of Diana for▪ fear of being taken Prisoner, sprained his Ancle: his Friend Pompo­nius stopping those that pursued him at the Gate called Trigemina, and Pub­lius Laetorius detaining others at the Wooden Bridge, he made his Escape into the Goddess Furina's Wood, when he was killed, either by Euphorus his Servant, or by himself. 'Tis report­ed, that his Head was carried by Septimuleius his Friend, to Opimius the Consul, and sold for its Weight in Gold. And that through Covetous­ness he filled it with Lead, to make it the heavier.


U.C. 640. Marcus Lucius Drusus descended of a Noble Family,Before Ch. 110. was very eloquent, but ambitious and proud. In his Ae­dileship he gratified the People with a [Page 95]most magnificent Shew, at which time Remmius his Colleague advising some­thing for the Good of the Common­wealth, he answered him arrogantly, What have you to do with my Common­wealth? When he was Quaestor in Asia. he would not appear in publick with the Badges of Honor, that no­thing might be taken notice of, as greater than himself. When he was Tribune of the People he promised the Latins to make them free of the City, he divided Lands amongst the Com­mon People, and by way of Exchange. granted the Roman Gentlemen the pri­vilege of sitting in the Senate House, and the Senators the manage­ment of the Court of Judicature. He was so extravagantly liberal, that he declared, he had left no Magistrate for the future any thing to give away, but the Heavens and the Dirt of the Earth. Hence wanting Money, he did many things beneath his Ho­nour. For Money he delivered up to King Bocchus, Magulsa, a Prince of Mauritania, who had left his Country [Page 96]for fear of the King's displeasure, and was devour'd aftertwards by an Ele­phant: and also he concealed in his House Adherbal, Son to the King of Numidia, residing at Rome, as an Ho­stage in hopes of receiving a large Ransom from his Father. He was so haughty, that he threatened to throw his Adversary Servilius Caepio, headlong from the Tarpeian Rock, for opposing him. And when Philip the Consul would not consent to his Laws about the Division of Lands, he twisted his Neck before the People so violently, that a great quantity of Blood gushed out at his Nostrils, which he, to up­braid him for his Luxury, said, Was not Blood, but the Gravy of Thrushes. Ar last he was hated, as much as he had been formerly beloved; for tho some People were glad at their receiv­ing of the Lands, yet others were vexed at their being turned out. Ma­ny of the Gentlemen were pleased with the Liberty of coming into the Senate, but they whose Names were omitted by the Censor, took it ill.

The Senators were satisfied with the privilege of having power in the Courts of Judicature, but were dis­pleased that the Gentlemen should be ranked with them. Whereupon Li­vius in great perplexity how to put off the Demands of the Latins who press­ed to be made free of the City ac­cording to his promise, on a sudden fell down in the Street, either of an Epilepsie, or having drunk on purpose some Goats Blood He Was carried home half dead, publick Prayers were made for him over all Italy, and when the Latins designed to kill the Consul at the great Festival on Mount Alban, he gave Philip notice to take care of himself; for this he was afterwards accused in the Senate, and assassin'd in the Street one time as he was a going home, by Philip and Caepio, as 'twas generally suspected.

C. MARIUS the Father.

Caius Marius was seven times Con­ful,U.C. 650. born of mean Parentage at Arpi­num, Before Ch. 100. but by degrees advanced to the highest Places of Honor. Whilst he was Lieutenant under Metellus in Nu­midia he got the Consulship, by ac­cusing him, and taking Jugurtha pri­soner, led him in Triumph before his Chariot. He was chose Consul for the year ensuing, nemine contradicente, and triumph'd for his Victory over the Teutones in Gaul at Aquae Sextiae, and the Cimbri in Italy in the Claudian Fields. In his sixth Consulate which he enjoyed six years successively, by a Decree of the Senate he put to Death Apuleius Saturninus, Tribune of the People, and Glaucias the Paetor, for raising a Sedition. When he would have supplanted Sulla by Sulpicius's Law, and been General in his stead in the War against Mithridates, he was driven out of Rome by his power, and forced to hide himself in a Marsh at [Page 99] Minturnae. Upon his Discovery he was cast into prison, and by his Majestick Look frightened the Gaul that was sent to execute him. Whence escaping in a small Vessel, he passed into Africk, and lived there a long time in Banish­ment. But at last recalled by Cinna the Consul, he broke open all Work­houses, and mustered up an Army of Slaves, and glutting his Revenge by the Slaughter of his Enemies, in his seventh Consulship, some say, the kill­ed himself.

C. MARIUS the Son.

U.C. 670. Caius Marius the Younger invaded the Consulship at Five and twenty years of Age,Before Ch. 80. which over early Honor, his Mother with Tears lamented; for he was as cruel as his Father, and be­set the Senate-House, murther'd his Enemies, and threw their Bodies into the River Tiber. In his Preparations for the War against Sulla, whilst he lay down in the open air to refresh himself, tired out with watching and labor at [Page 100] Sacriportus, his Forces were routed as he slept, and he came up to them on­ly time enough to run away amongst them. He fled from thence to Prae­neste, where Lucretius Offella block'd him up, and trying to make his escape through some subterraneous Passages, but finding them all secured he desired Pentius Gelesinus to kill him.


U.C. 665. Lucius Cornelius Cinna was a very wicked Man,Before Ch. 85. and by his unparallel'd Cruelty almost ruin'd the Common-wealth. In his first Consulship he would have made a Law for recalling the Exiles, but was oppos'd by his Colleague Octavius, and turned out of his Office. Upon which he left the City, and making all the Slaves free, by their assistance vanquished his Ene­mies, killed Octavius, and got posses­sion of Mount Janiculus. He made himself Consul a second, third and [Page 101]fourth time; and then as he was pre­paring for a War against Sulla, he was stoned to death by his Army at Ancona, for his insufferable Cruelty.


Caius Flavius Fimbria, U.C. 665. one of the cruellest of Cinna's Officers,Before Ch. 85. went Lieutenant under Valerius Flaccus the Consul into Asia, but was dismissed upon some private Grudge, and to re­venge himself by his corrupt Practices he prevailed with the Army to revolt, and kill'd their General. Then seising on the Insignia that belonged to the Consul, he took the Government upon himself, and beat Mithridates out of Pergamus, giving Orders that Ilium should be burnt because they did not open their Gates soon enough to him, and put all the Officers in the Garri­son to the Sword, but Minerva's Tem­ple received not the least Damage by the Flames, preserved in every ones Opinion by the Power of the God­dess. [Page 102]Soon after he was block'd up by Sulla at Pergamus, and seeing his Army desert him, slew himself.


Viriathus a Lusitanian, U.C. 619. by reason of his great Poverty was at first a Day-Labourer,Before Ch. 131. then for his Activity a Huntsman, for his Boldness a Robber, and at last a great Commander. He waged War against the Romans, and beat first their General Claudius Unima­nus, and afterwards Caius Nigidius. He was willing to make peace with the Romans while his Arms were suc­cessful; but after he was routed by them, and had yielded up all things else upon the seizure of their Arms he renewed the War. And Caepio find­ing that he could overcome him no o­ther way, hired two of his Guards to kill him, as he lay drunk upon the Ground, but the Senate did not ap­prove of this Victory, since it was bought by Treachery.

The Honorable Mr. JAMES CAVENDISH. From the Year 642, to 689, U. C.


MArcus Aemilius Scaurus, U.C. 642. was de­scended of a Noble Family,Before Ch. 108. yet poor; for his Father, tho a Senator's Son, was a Collier by Trade. He at first doubted with himself whether he should aim at great Employments in the Commonwealth, or get an Estate by turning Banker, but being very e­loquent he soon grew famous. For his good Service in Spain he was made a Cornet of Horse, and served under Orestes the Consul in Sardinia. When [Page 104]he was Aedile he minded doing of Ju­stice more than courting the People with public Shews: he was Lieute­nant under Calpurnius in the African War against Jugurtha, whom he much opposed in the beginning, but at last was corrupted by him: when he was Consul he made a Law about regula­ting Expences, and the Freed Men giving their Votes. He was so haughty, because that Publius Decius the Praetor did not rise up and salute him as he passed by, he commanded him to stand up, tore his Gown, and broke his Chair of State in pieces, and ordered that none should have any Causes tryed before him. In his Consulship he conquered the Gantisci and Ligures, and triumphed over them. When he was Censor he paved the Aemilian Way, and made the Mulvian Bridge, he was a Man of such Credit and Interest, that upon his private Advice, Opimius took up Arms against Gracchus and Marius, against Glaucias and Saturninus. He would never look upon his Son for deserting his Post, [Page 105]which Disgrace made him kill himself. Growing old he was accused by Va­rius, Tribune of the People, for stir­ring up the Latins and the Allies to Rebellion. Whereupon he said to the People; Varius of Sucro says, That Aemilius Scaurus stirred up the Allies to take up Arms; but Scaurus denies it: Whether of the two think you more worthy of Credit?


Lucius Apuleius Saturninus, U.C. 658. Tribune of the People, was a seditious Man,Before Ch. 92. and to ingratiate himself with the Soldiers of Marius's party, made a Law, That an Hundred Acres of Land in Africa should be divided amongst the old Soldiers, and made his Col­league Baebius, that opposed this Law, fly for it, stirring up the People to stone him. To make himsel more popular, he broke in pieces Glaucias the Praetor's Chair, because he, by keeping a Court on the same day, that [Page 106]he held an Assembly about dividing the Land, had drawn away a great part of the People. He suborned a Freeman to pretend he was the Son of Tiberius Gracchus, and Sempronia, Gracchus's Sister was produced to justifie it, but she would not be prevailed upon, either by Entreaty or Threats to bring such a scandal upon her Family. Sa­turninus, after Aulus Nonius, his Com­petitor was slain, was again chose Tri­bune of the People, and planted new Colonies in Sicily, Macedonia and A­chaia, and brought Land with the Gold which Caepio had sacrilegiously taken from Tolosa in Gaul. He banished all them that would not consent to his Laws. And he told many Noble Men that opposed them whilst it acci­dentally thundered, that if they would not be quiet and submit, it should pour down a storm of Hail. However Metellus Numidicus chose ra­ther to be banish'd than swear to them. When Saturninus was a third time Tri­bune of the People, that he might make his Companion Glaucias the Prae­tor-Consul, [Page 107]he cause Memmius, who opposed him, to be killed in the Cam­pus Martius. Marius taking Arms by virtue of an Order of the Senate, which required the Consuls to take care of the Common-wealth, pursued Saturninus and Glaucias into the Capi­tol, and there besieged them, and cut­ting the Water-Pipes, forced them to surrender. But he hid not keep his Word with them; for the ordered Glau­cias to be strangled, and Apuleius fly­ing into the Capitol, was Apuleius fly­ing into the Capitol, was killed by the Stones and Tiles thrown at him. Rabirius, one of the Senators carried his Head into several Houses, to make sport with at their Entertainments.


U.C. 680. Lucius Licinius Lucullus was of a Noble Family,Before Ch. 70. eloquent and rich, and presented a very magnificent Shew to the People in his Quaestorship. He reconciled Ptolemy, King of Alexandria to [Page 108] Sulla the Consul, and by Murena brought over to him Mithridate's Fleet, he administred Justice very impar­tially during his Praetorship in Africa. Being sent Consul against Mithridates, he relieved his Colleague Cotta, that was block'd up at Chalcedon, a City of Bithynia. He raised the Siege of Cyzi­cus, starved and cut off Mithridates's Forces, and drove him out of his King­dom Pontus, and beat him a second time with great success, when Tigranus King of Armenia had joined him with his auxiliary Forces. He was extrava­vagant in his Cloaths, and delighted much in Statues and Pictures: after­wards when from a Disorder in his Head he began to dote, he was com­mitted to the Guardianship of his Brother Marcus Lucullus.


L. Cornelius Sulla was sirnamed Fe­lix, U.C. 669. from his good Fortune.Before Ch. 81. When [Page 109]he was a little Child, and carried a­bout in his Nurse's Arms, a Woman met him, and said, God bless thee, Child, thou wilt prove fortunate to thy self, and thy Country. But who that Woman was, no Body could tell, for she was never heard of afterwards. When he was Quaestor under Marius, Bocchus King of Mauritania delivered up Jugurtha to him. In the Cimbrian and Teutonick Wars he was chosen Lieute­nant General to Marius, and did good service. He was first Praetor at Rome, and then sent Praetor into Cilicia. In the Social War against the Italian Con­federates, he overcame the Samnites and the Irpini. He opposed Marius's taking down, out of Envy, the Pictures of Bocchus's delivering up Jugurtha to him: being Consul in Asia, he routed Mithridates at Orchomenum and Chaero­naea, and overcame his General Ar­chelaus at Athens, and retook the Pi­raean Haven. He overcame the Dar­dani, and the Eneti, in his March: and after his Province was taken from him by the Sulpician Law, and given [Page 110]to Marius, returning upon this Affront into Italy, and corrupting his Adver­saries Army, he made Carbo fly for it; he overcame Marius the younger at Sacriportus, and Telesinus at the Gate of Rome, called Collina. Upon these De­feats, and the Death of Marius at Praeneste, by a publick Edict he sir­named himself Felix, or The Fortunate: he was the first that proposed the Tables of Proscription, and cut off Nine thousand that surrendered them­selves in the Campus Martius: he aug­mented the number of Priests, and lessened the Power of the Tribunes. And after he had settled the Affairs of the Commonwealth, resigned his Dictatorship, and finding upon this, that he grew contemptible, he went to Puteoli, and there died of the lowsie Disease called Phtiriasis.

MITHRIDATES, King of Pontus.

Mithridates, King of Pontus, U.C. 664. descend­ed from one of the seven Persian He­roes,Before Ch. 86. [Page 111]that killed the Impostor set up by the Magi, could speak two and twenty Languages, and was so strong, that he could drive a Chariot and Six Horses. Whilst the Romans were quar­relling with the Allies, he beat Nicome­des out of Bithynia, Ariobarzanes out of Cappadocia, and sent Orders all over Asia, to have every Roman massacred that should be found there on a certain day, which was done accordingly. He seized on Greece, and all the Islands that belonged to the Romans, except Rhodes. But Sulla beat him in a pitch'd Battel, took his Fleet by the Treachery of Archelaus, and totally routed him at the City Orchomenus, and might have cut off his whole Army, had he not been in haste to go against Marius, and so was glad to make peace upon any Terms. Afterwards upon his ma­king Head against the Romans at Cabi­ra, he was overcome by Lucullus, and and at another time by Pompey, who gave him Battel by Night. Thence he fled into his own Kingdom, and upon the Rebellion of his Subjects, headed [Page 112]by his Son Pharnaces, finding the Tower beset, the place of his Retreat, he took a Dose of Poison, which ha­ving little effect, because he had for­merly taken so many Antidotes, when Sithocus the Gaul was sent to execute him, and was startled at his Majestick Look, he bade him do his Office, and assisted his trembling Hand in the per­formance.


U.C. 689. Cnaeus Pompeius the Great sided with Sulla in the Civil War,Before Ch. 61. and behaved himself so well, that he was mightily beloved by him. He retook Sicily from the proscribed persons that fled thither, without any opposition, turn­ed Hiarbas out of Numidia, and resto­red Massinissa, he rode in Triumph into the City when he was but Six and twen­ty years old, and tho he was but a private Man, forced Lepidus to leave Italy, for endeavouring to rescind Sulla's Laws of Proscription: when he was [Page 113]sent Praetor into Spain, instead of the Consuls, he conquered Sertorius, and not long after cleared the Sea of Pi­rates within Forty Days, he forced Tigranes to surrender, and Mithridates to poison himself. Then with great Fortune, and no less Expedition, he went first into the North against the Albani, the Colchi, the Heniochi, Caspii, Iberi, and in the East struck Ter­ror into the Parthians, Arabians and Jews. He was the first Roman that went as far as the Hyrcanian or Caspian, the Red or Arabian Sea. Upon the Division of the Roman Empire, Crassus had the Government of Syria, Caesar of Gaul, and Pompey of Rome. After the Death of Crassus he commanded Caesar to disband his Army, but he refused to do it, and coming against Pompey, drove him out of the City, and beat him in Pharsalia, from whence he fled to Ptolemy, King of Alexandria, and was by his command killed by Achillas and Pothinus, two of his Life-Guard. Septimius, Captain of the Guard, stab­bed him in the sight of his Wife and [Page 114]Children, and cut off his Head, which until that time had been looked upon as Sacred, his Body was thrown into the River Nile, but taken up by Servius Codrus, and buried with this Inscription upon his Tomb. Here lies Pompey the Great. His Head was wrapt up in a Cloth by Achillas, and presented with his Ring to Caesar, who could not forbear Tears at the sight of it, and gave order to have it burnt with many rich Perfumes.

Mr. JAMES LLOYD. From the Year 670, to 722 U. C.


CAius Julius Caesar, U.C. 697. in honor of his great Exploits, sirnamed Divus, Before Ch. 53. went Voluntier into Asia, in the Re­tinue of Thermus the Praetor, where, by conversing too often with Nicome­des, King of Bithynia, he was suspected of Incontinency. After this he ap­plied himself to the Bar, and prose­cuted Dolobella for Bribery, and had him condemned. In his Voyage to Rhodes, where he design'd to study under Apollonius Molo, he was taken by Pyrats, and paid a great Ransom, yet in revenge he soon after took the same Pirats, and crucified them. When he was chose Praetor he subdued Lusi­tania, [Page 116]and all Gaul on the other side of the Alpes, and twice crossing the O­cean with his Fleet, conquered Britain. Upon Pompey's denying him a public Triumph, he drove him out of Rome by Force of Arms, and beat him at Pharsalia in Thessaly; yet when his Head was brought to him in Aegypt by Achillas, he wept, and gave order to have it honourably buried: and took the oc­casion of King Ptolemy's Guards set­ting upon him, to expiate the Murder of Pompey upon them and their King. The Terror of his very Name put Pharnaces, the Son of Mithridates, to flight. He overcame Juba and Scipio in Africa, the two Pompeys in a Battel at Munda in Spain; and then forgiving his Enemies, laid down his Arms with all private Grudges, for he command­ed, that only Lentulus, Afranius, and Faustus the Son of Sylla should be put to Death. He was made perpetual Dictator by the Senate, and assassin'd in the Senate House by some Conspi­rators headed by Brutus and Cassius, with Three and twenty Wounds. When [Page 117]his Body was laid before the Pulpit, where Marc Anthony made his Funeral Oration, some say, the Sun was E­clipsed.


U.C. 721. Caesar Octavianus was adopted from the Octavian into the Julian Family:Before Ch. 29. Julius Caesar made him his Heir, and to revenge his Murther, he conquered Brutus and Cassius in Macedonia, who were principally concerned in that Conspiracy; and at the Streights of Sicily overcame Sextus Pompeius, the Son of Cneus Pompeius, when he endeavoured to recover his Father's Estate. Upon the Coast of Actium, near the Gulf of Ambracia, he totally routed the Fleet commanded by Marc Antony, who was deeply in love with Cleopatra, and governed Syria as Con­sul. The rest of the World was sub­dued by his Lieutenants. The Par­thians, in honor to him, of their own accord, sent him the Standards which they had formerly taken from Crassus. [Page 118]The Indians, Scythians, Sarmatians and Dacians, althô he had not conquered them, sent him Presents. He shut the Gates of Two-faced Janus's Temple with his own Hand, never shut but twice before his time, once in Numa Pompilius's Reign, and a second time after the first Carthaginian War. The Senate made him perpetual Dictator, and stil'd him Divus Augustus for his noble Actions.


Cato Praetorius, U.C. 689. great Grandson to Cato the Censor,Before Ch. 61. was ever so firm to his Principles, that in his youth whilst he was brought up in his Uncle Dru­sus's House, Quintus Popedius Silo, chief Magistrate of the Marsi could not per­suade him either by Bribes or Threats to say, That he would side with the Allies. When he was Quaestor he was sent into Cyprus to fetch the Money that King Ptolemy's Estate was sold for, and brought it safe to Rome with great Integrity. He was so upright and [Page 119]just, that contrary to others, he voted the Death of the Catilinarian Conspira­tors. In the Civil War between Caesar and Pompey, he sided with the latter, and after his Overthrow, march'd the Army through the Desarts of Africa, where he delivered up his Command to Scipio that had been Consul, as supe­rior to him, who was but a Praetor. When his party was beaten, he went to Utica, where advising his Son to submit to Caesar's Mercy, he kill'd him­self, having first read over Plato's Book of the Souls Immortality, and Happi­ness after Death.

U C. [...].MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO.Before Ch. 61.

Marcus Tullius Cicero was born at Ar­pinum, his Father was a Roman Knight, descended from King Titus Tatius. At Seven and twenty years of Age he shewed his Eloquence and Boldness of Speech in the Cause between Roscius and Sulla's Party, and immediately after to secure himself, went to Athens [Page 120]to follow his Studies, and was a con­stant Auditor of Antiochus the Aca­demick Philosopher, from thence to improve his Eloquence he went into Asia, and so to Rhodes, where Molo the Graecian, who was the greatest Master of Rhetorick in those Days, was his Tu­tor, and is said to have wept when he parted with him, because he thought the Graecians, then reputed the most eloquent Men in the World, would be outdone by him. He was Quaestor in Sicily, and in his Aedileship condemn'd Caius Verres for Extortion in his Go­vernment. He governed Cilicia under the Title of Praetor, and cleared it from the Robbers, who had long pestered the Country. In his Con­sulship he put to death all that were Confederates in Catilin's Conspiracy: afterwards he was banished by the Malice of Publius Clodius, at the insti­gation of Caesar and Pompey, whom he had lash'd as severely as he formerly did Sulla's Party, upon suspicion of their aiming to get the Government into their Hands; Piso and Gabinius [Page 121]the Consuls were prevailed upon by Clodius to join in this Affair, and had for this Service the Provinces of Mace­donia and Syria assigned them. Yet soon after Pompey himself asserting his Cause in the Senate, he was recalled, and in the Civil War sided with him; upon whose Overthrow Caesar freely pardoned him; after Caesar was mur­thered, he joyned with Augustus: and declared Mark Antony an Enemy to the Common-wealth. When Caesar, Lepidus and Antony had made themselves Trium­viri, there was no likelyhood of their Agreement till Tully was cut off by the Table of Proscription, Antony sent Exe­cutioners to kill him; and as he lay asleep at his House at Formiae, he had warning of his approaching danger by a Crow, which pulled him by his Cloak: they killed him in his Litter, as he was making his Escape, and brought his Head to Antony.


Marcus Brutus was in the Conduct of his Life like his Uncle Cato, U.C. 710. he learned Philosophy at Athens, Before Ch. 40. and Rhetorick at Rhodes. In his youth he was amo­rous; Antony, Gallus and he were in love with Cytheris the Actress. He would not go Quaestor into Gaul, be­ing opposed by some good Men. He was in Cilicia with Appius Claudius: and when his Colleague was accused of Extortion by Dolabella, he himself had nothing laid to his Charge. In the Civil War between Caesar and Pom­pey he was sent for out of Cilicia by Cato, and sided with Pompey, however Caesar pardoned him, and sent him Pro­consul into Gaul; yet notwithstanding all Caesar's kindness to him, he was one of the Conspirators that killed him in the Senate House. Hence being sent in­to Macedonia, because Caesar's old Sol­diers were incensed against him, he was overcome by Augustus at Philippi, and so in despair desired his Friend Stra­to to kill him.


U.C. 710. Caius Cassius Longinus was Quaestor in Syria under Crassus, Before Ch. 40. and after he was slain, retreated into Syria with the Remainder of the Army. He beat Osaces, King Orodes''s General, at the River Orontes in Syria. He was nick­named Caryota, because he bought up the Dates in Syria, and sold them at an unreasonable rate. When he was Tri­bune of the People he opposed Caesar, and in the Civil War served under Pompey, as his Admiral. However Caesar pardoned him, thô after all, he and Brutus were the chief of the Con­spirators that assassined him, and cried out to one that was afraid to kill him, I would have you stab him even through me. Then having raised a great Army, and joined Brutus in Macedonia, was overcome by Antony at Philippi, where, thinking that Brutus suffered the same ill Fortune with himself, tho he really had worsted Caesar, he bade his Freed [Page 124]Man Pandarus put an end to his un­happy Life. But some say that Antony cryed out, I have overcome him, before he had notice of his Death.


Sextus Pompeius, U.C. 714. after his Overthrow at Munda in Spain, Before Ch. 36. and his Brother Cnaeus's Death, got together the Re­mainder of the Army, and passed over into Sicily, where he broke open the Work-Houses, and arming the Slaves, block'd up the Sea, and plagued Italy, with want of Provision, by taking all the Ships that traffick'd thither. This good Success at Sea so puffed him up, that he declared himself the Son of Neptune, and sacrific'd to him Bulls, with gilt Horns, and a Horse. He was facetious in Conversation, for du­ring the Peace when he treated on Shipboard Antony and Augustus Caesar, he is reported to have said, not im­properly, Hae sunt meae Carinae: which might be taken in two Senses, These are [Page 125]my Ships; or, This is my House: which Antony had taken possession of in the Street at Rome called Carinae. But soon after Antony broke the League, and Sextus being beat at Sea by Agrippa, Augustus's Admiral, fled into Asia, and was killed by Antony's Soldiers.


U.C. 721. Marc Antony was Julius Caesar's Com­panion in all his Expeditions,Before Ch. 29. at the Feasts dedicated to Pan, kept on the Fifteenth of February, he offered to put a Diadem upon his Head; and when he was killed, made an Order that Divine Honors should be paid him: he dealt perfidiously with Augustus Caesar, but was beaten by him at Mu­tina, starved out of Perusium, and fled into Gaul, where he joined himself with Lepidus, and slew Decimus Brutus, ha­ving first corrupted his Army. Thus having recruited his Forces, he return­ed into Italy, and was in favour again with Caesar. When he was Triumvir [Page 126]his Uncle Lucius Caesar was the first Man that he proscribed. When he was sent Commander into Syria, he made War upon the Parthians, and was so beaten by them, that he scarce brought off with him a third part of 15 Legions into Aegypt, where he fell in love with Cleopatra, and was routed by Augustus in a Sea-Fight on the Coast of Actium. Whence he returned to Alexan­dria, and sitting on his Throne in his Royal Robes, killed himself.

CLEOPATRA Queen of Aegypt.

Cleopatra, U.C. 721. the Daughter of Ptolemy, King of Aegypt, Before Ch. 29. being banished by Ptolemey who was both her Husband and Brother, for endeavouring to deprive him of his Kingdom; in the Civil Was presented her self to Caesar at Alexandria, and by her Beauty and Caresses prevailed upon him to kill Ptolemey, and settle the Kingdom upon her. She was so lewd, that she [Page 127]would often prostitute her self; and so beautiful, that many lost their Lives to possess her Love. After this she joyned her Interest with Antony, and was beaten with him at Actium, and un­der pretenee of sacrificing to his Ghost at his Tomb, she put Serpents to her Breasts, and died.


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