The Experienc'd Angler, or Angling Improved.

Sold by Rich: Marriott in St. Dunstans Churchyard Vaughan sculp▪

THE Experienc'd Angler: OR ANGLING IMPROV'D. BEING A general Discourse of Angling; Imparting many of the aptest wayes and choicest Experiments for the taking of most sorts of Fish in Pond or River.

LONDON: Printed for Richard Marriot, and are to be sold at his Shop in St. Dunstans Church-yard, Fleet-sheet. 1662.

To the Reader.

DElight and Pleasure are o fast rivetted and firm­ly rooted in the heart of Man, that I suppose there is none so morose or melanchol­ly, that will not onely pretend to, but plead for an Interest in the same, most being so much enamored therewith, that they judge that life but a living death, which is wholly depri­ved or abridged of all plea­sure; and many pursue the same with so much eagerness and importunity, (as though they had been born for no o­ther end) as that they not only consume their most precious [Page] time, but also totally ruine their Estates thereby: for in this loose and licentious Age, when profuse Prodigality pas­ses for the Characteristical mark of true Generosity, and Frugality (I mean not Nig­gardliness) is branded with the ignominious blot of Base­ness. I expect not that this un­dervalued Subject (though it propound delight at an easie rate) will meet with any other entertainment than neglect, if not contempt, it being an art which few take pleasure in, nothing passing for noble or delightful which is not costly; as though men could not gra­tifie their senses, but with the [Page] consumption of their fortunes.

Hauking and Hunting have had their excellencies celebra­ted with large Encomiums by divers pens, and although I in­tend not any undervaluing to those noble Recreations, so much famed in all Ages and by all degrees, yet I must needs affirm, that they fall not within the compass of every ones abi­lity to pursue, being as it were only entailed on great Persons and vast estates; for if meaner Fortunes seek to enjoy them, Actaeons Fable often proves a true story, and these birds of prey not seldom quarrey upon their masters: Besides, those Recreations are more [Page] subject to choller and passion, by how much those creatures exceed a Hook or Line in worth: And indeed in those exercises our pleasure depends much upon the will and hu­mor of a sullen Cur or Kite, (as I have heard their own passions phrase them) which also require much attendance, care and skill to keep her ser­viceable to our ends. Further, these delights are often preju­dicial to the Husbandman in his corn, grass and fences; but in this pleasant and harmless Art of Angling a man hath none to quarrel with but him­self, and we are usually so in­tirely our own friends, as not [Page] to retain an irreconcileable ha­tred against our selves, but can in short time easily compose the enmity; and besides our selves none are offended, none endamaged; and this Recrea­tion falleth within the capaci­ty of the lowest fortune to compass, affording also profit as well as pleasure, in follow­ing of which exercise a man may imploy his thoughts in the noblest studies, almost as freely as in his Closset.

The minds of Anglers being usually more calm and com­posed than many others, espe­cially Hunters and Falkoners, who too frequently lose their delight in their passion, and [Page] too often bring home more of melancholly and discontent than satisfaction in their thoughts; but the Angler, when he hath the worst suc­cess, loseth but a hook or line, or perhaps (what he never possessed) a fish, and suppose he take nothing, yet he enjoy­eth a delightful walk by plea­sant rivers in sweet pastures, amongst odoriferous flowers, wch gratifie his senses and de­light his mind; which content­mēts induce many (who affect not angling) to chuse those pla­ces of pleasure for their Sum­mers recreation and health.

But peradventure some may alleage that this Art is mean, [Page] melancholly and insipid: I suppose the old Answer, De gustibus non est disputandum, will hold as firmly in Recreations as Palats, many have supposed Angling void of delight, ha­ving never tryed it, yet have afterwards experimented it so full of content, that they have quitted all other Recreations (at least in its season) to pursue it; and I do perswade my self, that whosoever shall associate himself with some honest ex­pert Angler, who will freely and candidly communicate his skill unto him, will in short time be convinced, that Ars non habet inimicum nisi igno­rantem; and the more any ex­periment [Page] its harmless delight, (not subject to passion or ex­pence) probably he will be in­duc'd to relinquish those plea­sures which are obnoxious to choller or contention (which so discompose the thoughts, that nothing during that un­settlement can relish or delight the mind) to pursue that recre­ation which composeth the Soul to that calmness and sere­nity, which gives a man the fullest possession and fruition of himself and all his enjoy­ments; this clearnesse and e­quanimity of Spirit being a matter of so high a concern and value in the judgments of many profound Philoso­phers, [Page] as any one may see that will bestow the pains to read, De tranquilitate animi, and Pe­trarch, De utriusque conditionis statu: Certainly he that lives Sibi & Deo, leads the most happy life; and if this Art do not dispose and encline the mind of man to a quiet calm sedatenesse, I am confident it doth not (as many other de­lights) cast blocks and rubs before him to make his way more difficult and lesse plea­sant: The cheapnesse of the re­creation abates not its plea­sure, but with rational persons heightens it; and if it be de­lightful the charge of Melan­cholly falls upon that score, [Page] and if Example (which is the best proof) may sway any thing, I know no sort of men lesse subject to Melancholly than Anglers; many have cast off other Recreations and im­braced it, but I never knew a­ny Angler wholly cast off (though occasions might in­terrupt) their affections to their beloved Recreation; and if this Art may prove a Noble brave rest to thy mind, it will be satisfaction to his, who is thy well-wishing Friend.

To his ingenious Friend the Author On his Angling Improv'd.

Honoured Sir,

THough I never (to my know­ledge) had the happiness to see your face, yet accidentally coming to a view of this Discourse be­fore it went to the Press; I held my self obliged in point of gratitude for the great advantage I received there­by, to tender you my particular ac­knowledgment, especially having been for thirty years past, not onely a lover but a practicer of that innocent Re­creation, wherein by your judicious precepts I find my self fitted for a higher Form; which expression I take the boldness to use, because I have read and practiced by many Books of this kind, formerly made publick; from which (although I received [Page] much advantage in the practick) yet (without prejudice to their worthy Au­thors) I could never find in them that height of judgment and reason, which you have manifested in this (as I may call it) Epitome of Ang­ling, since my reading whereof I can­not look upon some notes of my own gathering, but methinks I do puerilia tractare. But lest I should be thought to go about to magnifie my own judg­ment, in giving yours so small a por­tion of its due, I humbly take leave with no more ambition than to kiss your hand, and to be accounted

Your humble and thankful Servant, J. W.
The Contents.
  • Chap. 1. WHen to provide Tools, and how to make them up. 1
  • Chap. 2. Divers sorts of Angling: and first of the Flie. 14
  • Chap. 3. Of the artificial Flie. 23
  • Chap. 4. Angling at the ground. 40
  • Chap. 5. Of divers sorts of Baits for se­veral fish. 54
  • Chap. 6. How to keep your Baits. 65
  • Chap. 7. The several haunts of fish, what Rivers or Ponds they most frequent. 76
  • Chap. 8. When not to angle. 84
  • Chap. 9. When best to angle. 84
  • Chap. 10. General Observations. 95

Angling Improv'd: OR, Profit and Pleasure united.

CHAP. I. When to provide Tools, and how to make them.

FOR the attaining of such ends which our desires propose to themselves,The In­troduction to the en­suing Dis­course. of neces­sity we must make use of such common mediums, as have a natural tendency to the pro­ducing [Page 2] of such effects, as are in our eye, and at which we aim; and as in any work, if one principal mate­rial be wanting, the whole is at a stand, neither can the same be per­fected: so in Angling, the end be­ing Recreation, which consisteth in drawing the fish to bite, that we may take them, if you want tools, though you have baits, or baits though you have tackle, yet you have no part of pleasure by either of these singly: Nay, if you have both, yet want skill to use them, all the rest is to little purpose. I shall therefore first begin with your tools, and so proceed in order with the rest.

1. In Autumn, The time to provide stocks and tops. when the leaves are almost or altogether fallen, (which is usually about the Win­ter Solstice) the sap being then in the root, which about the middle of January beginneth to ascend a­gain, and then the time is past to [Page 3] provide your self with stocks or tops: you need not be so exactly curious for your stocks as the tops, though I wish you to chuse the nearest Taper-grown you can for stocks, but let your tops be the most neat Rush-grown shoots you can get, streight and smooth; and (if for the ground-rod) near or full two yards long, (the reason for that length shall be given present­ly) and if for the flie, of what length you please; because you must either chuse them to fit the stock, or the stock to fit them in a most exact proportion; neither do they need to be so very much Ta­per grown as those for the ground, for if your rod be not most exactly proportionable, (as well as slen­der) it will neither cast well, strike readily, or ply and bend equally, which will very much indanger your line. When you have fitted your self with tops and stocks, (for [Page 4] all must be gathered in one season) if any of them be crooked, bind them all together, and they will keep one another streight; or lay them on some even-boarded floor, with a weight on the crooked parts, or else bind them close to some streight staffe or pole; but before you do this you must bathe them all, save the very top, in a gentle fire.

For the ground angle,The use of the Reed or Cane. I prefer the Cane or Reed before all other, both for its length and lightness; and whereas some object against its colour and stiffness: I answer, both these inconveniencies are easily remedyed, the colour by covering it with thin Leather or Parchment, and those dyed into what colour you please, or you may colour the Cane it self, as you see daily done by those that sell them in London, especially if you scrape off the shi­ning yellow out-side, but that [Page 5] weakneth the Rod; the stiffnesse of the Cane is helped by the length and strength of the top, which I would wish to be very much taper-grown, and of the full length I spoke of before, and so it will kill a very good fish with­out ever straining the Cane, which will (as you may observe) yield and bend a little, neither would I advise any to use a Reed that will not receive a top of the foremen­tioned length. Such who most commend the Hazel-rod (which I also value and praise but for diffe­rent reasons) above the Cane, do it because, say they, the slender Rod saveth the line, but my opini­on is, that the equal bending of the Rod chiefly (next to the skill of the Angler) saveth the line, and the slenderness I conceive prin­cipally serveth to make the flye-rod long and light, easie to be managed with one hand, and cast­eth [Page 6] the flye far, which are to me the considerations chiefly to be regarded in a flye-rod; for if you observe the slender part of the Rod (if strained) shoots forth in length as if it were part of the line, so that the whole stress or strength of the fish is born or sustained, by the thicker part of the Rod, which is no stronger then the stronger end of such a top as I did before direct for the ground-rod, and you may prove what I say to be true, if you hang a weight at the top of the fly-rod, which you shall see ply and bend (in the stiffe and thick part) more or less as the weight is heavy or light. Having made this digression for the Cane, I re­turn to the making up of the top, of which at the upper or smal end, I would have you to cut off about two foot or three quarters of a yard at most, and then piece neat­ly to the thick remaining part, a [Page 7] small shut of black-thorn or crab-tree (gathered in the season as be­fore) fitted in a most exact pro­portion to the strength of the Ha­zel, and then cut off a small part of the slender end of the Black-thorn or Crab-tree, and lengthen out the same with a small piece of whale-bone, made round, smooth and taper, all which will make your Rod to be very long, gentle, and not so apt to break or stand bent as the Hazel, both which are great inconveniencies, especially breaking, which will force you from your sport to a­mend your top.

2. To teach the way or manner how to make a line,The ma­king the line. were time lost, it being so easie and ordina­ry: yet to make the line well, handsome, and to twist the hair even and neat, makes the line strong: For if one hair be long and another short, the short one [Page 8] receiveth no strength from the long one, and so breaketh, and then the other (as too weak) breaketh also: Therefore you must twist them slowly, and in the twisting, keep them from entang­ling together, which hindereth their right playting or bedding. Also I do not like the mixing of silk or thred with hair, but if you please, you may (to make the line strong) make it all of Silk, or Thred, or Hair, as strong as you please, and the lowest part of the smallest Lute or Viol strings, which I have proved to be very strong, but will quickly rot in the water, but you may help that in having new and strong to change the rotted ones; but as to hair (the most usuall matter whereof lines are made) I like sorrel white and gray best; sorrel in muddy and boggy Rivers, both the other for clear waters; I never could [Page 9] find such vertue or worth in other colours, to give them so high praise as some do, yet if any other have worth in it, I must yield it to the pale watry green, and if you fancy that you may dye it thus. Take a pottle of Allom water, a large handful of Marigolds, boyl them untill a yellow scum arise, then take half a pound of green Copperas, and as much Verde­greece, beat them into a fine pow­der, put those with the hair into the Allom-water, set all to cool for twelve houres, then take out the hair and lay it to dry. Leave a bought or bout at both ends of the line, the one to put it to, and take it from your Rod, the other to hang your lowest link upon, to which your hook is fastned, and so you may change your hook so of­ten as you please.

3. Let your hooks be long in the shank,The shape of the Hook. and of a compass some­what [Page 10] inclining to roundnesse, but the point must stand even and streight, and the bending must be in the shank, for if the shank be streight, the point will hang out­ward, though when set on it stand right, yet it will after the taking of a few fish, cause the hair at the end of the shank to stand bent, and so (by consequence) the point of the hook to lie or hang too much outward, whereas upon the same ground the bending shank will then cause the point of the hook to hang directly upwards.

When you set on your hook; do it with strong but smal silk, and lay your hair upon the inside of the hook, for if on the outside the silk will cut and fret it asunder, and to avoid the fretting of the hair by the hook on the inside, smooth all your hook upon a whetstone, from the inside to the back of the hook slope wayes.

[Page 11]4. Get the best cork you can without flawes or holes (quils and pens are not able to bear the strong streams) bore the cork through with a small hot iron,The flote. then put in­to it a quill of a fit proportion, neither too large to split it, or so small as to slip out, but so as it may stick in very closely: then pare your cork into the form of a piramide, or small pear, and into what bigness you please, then up­on a smooth grindstone, or with a pumice make it compleat, for you cannot pare it so smooth as you may grind it, have corkes of all sizes.

5. Get a Musquet or Carbine bullet, make a hole through it,To try the depth of the water. and put in a strong twist, hang this on your hook to try the depth of Ri­ver or Pond.

6. Take so much Parchment as will be about four inches broad,To carry your lines or artifici­al flies. and five long, make the longer end [Page 12] round, then take so many pieces more as will make five or six parti­tions, sow them all together, lea­ving the side of the longer square open, to put your lines, spare links, hooks ready fastned, and flies ready made, into the several partitions; this will contain much (lie flat and close in your Pocket) in a little room.

To sharp­en the hook that is dulled.7. Have also a little Whetstone about two inches long, and one quarter square; its much better to sharpen your hooks than a File, which either will not touch a well-tempered hook, or leave it rough but not sharp.

To carry baits and other ne­cessaries.8. Have a piece of a Cane for the Bob and Palmer, with several boxes of divers sizes for your Hooks, Corks, Silk, Thred, Lead, Flies, &c.

For worms, c [...]dbait.9. Bags of Linnen and Wool­len, for all sorts of baits.

[Page 13]10. Have a small Pole,To land great fish when you want an assistant. made with a loop at the end, like that of your line, but much bigger, to which must be fastned a small net, to land great fish, without which (if you want assistance) you will be in danger to lose them.

11. Your Pannier cannot be too light:Your Pannier. I have seen some made of Oziers, cleft into slender long splinters, and so wrought up, which is very neat, and exceeding light; you must ever carry with you store of Hooks, Lines, Hair, Silk, Thred, Lead, Links, Corks of all sizes, lest if you lose or break (as is usu­al) any of them, you be forced to leave your sport, and return for supplies.

CHAP. II. Divers sorts of Angling: first, of the Flie.

AS there are many kinds and sorts of Fish, so there are also various and different wayes to take them; and therefore before we proceed to speak how to take each kind, we must say something in ge­neral of the several wayes of ang­ling, as necessary to the better or­der of our work.

Several wayes of angling.Angling therefore may be di­stinguished either into fishing by day, or (which some commend, but the cold and Dews caused me to dis-rellish that which impaired my health) by night; and these again are of two sorts, either upon the superficies of the water, or more or less under the surface thereof: of this sort is angling with the ground line, (with lead, but no [Page 15] slote) for the Trout, or with lead and flote for all sorts of fish, or near the surface of the water for Chub, Roch, &c. or with a Trowle for the Pike, or a Menow for the Trout; of which more in due place.

That way of angling upon or a­bove the water, is with Cankers, Palmers, Caterpillars, Cadbait, or any worm bred on herbs or trees; or with flies natural or artificial; of these last (viz Flies) shall be our first discourse, as comprising much of the other last named, and as being the most pleasant and de­lightful part of angling.

But I must here take leave to dissent from the opinion of such who assign a certain fly to each Moneth, whereas I am certain scarce any one sort of flye doth continue its colour and vertue one Moneth; and ge­nerally all flies last a much shorter [Page 16] time, except the stone fly (which some call the May fly) which is bred of the water-cricket, which creepeth out of the River, and gets under the stones by the w [...] ­ter side, and there turneth to a fly, and lyeth under the stones; the May fly and the reddish flye with ashie gray wings. Besides the sea­son of the year may much vary the time of their comming in, a for­ward Spring bringeth them in soo­ner, and a late Spring the later: For flies being creatures bred of putrefaction, do take life as the heat doth further or dispose the seminal vertue (by which they are generated) unto animation: and therefore all I can say as to time, is that your own observation must be your best instructor, when is the time that each flye cometh in, and will be most acceptable to the fish, of which I shall speak more fully in the next Section; further [Page 17] also I have observed that severall Rivers, and Soyles, produce seve­ral sorts of flies, as the mossy bog­gy soils have one sort peculiar to them; the clay soil, gravelly and mountainous Countrey and Ri­vers, and a mellow light soil diffe­rent from them all, yet some sor [...]s are common to all these sorts of rivers and soils, but they are few▪ and also differ somewhat in colour from those bred in another soil.

In general,What fish rise best at the fly, both na­tural and artificial. all sorts of flies are very good in their season, for such fish as will rise at the flie, as Sal­mon, Trout, Umber, Grayling, Bleak, Chevin, Roch, Dace, &c. Though some of these fish do love some flies better than other; except the fish named I know not any sort or kind that will (ordinarily and free­ly) rise at the fl [...]e, though I know also some do angle for Bream and Pike with artificial flies, but I judge the labour lost, and the [Page 18] knowledge a needless curiosity; those fish being taken much easier (especially the Pike) by other wayes: All the forementioned sorts of fish will sometimes take the flie, much better at the top of the water, and at another time much better a little under the su­perficies of the water, and in this your own observation must be your constant and daily instructor, (for if they will not rise to the top, try them under) it not being possible (in my opinion) to give any cer­tain rule in this particular: also the five sorts of fish first named will take the art [...]ficial flie, so will not the other, except an Oakworm or Cadbait be put on the point of the hook, or some other worm sutable (as the flie must be) to the sea­son.

You may also observe (which my own experience taught me) that the fish never rise eagerly and [Page 19] freely at any fort of flie, untill that kind come to the waters side; for though I have often at the first coming in of some flies, (which I judged they loved best) gotten se­veral of them, yet I could never find that they did much (if at all) value them, untill those sorts of fl [...]es began to stock to the Rivers sides, and were to be found on the Trees and Bushes there in great numbers; for all sorts of flies (where ever bred) do after a cer­tain time come to the Rivers banks, (I suppose to moisten their bodies dryed with the heat) and from the bushes and herbs there, skip and play upon the water, where the fish lie in wait for them; and after a short time die, and are not to be found; though of some kinds there come a second sort af­terwards, but much less, as the O­renge flie, and when they thus stock fo [...] the River, then is the [Page 20] chiefest season to angle with that flie: And that you may the better find what flie they covet most at that instant, do thus:

How to find what flie the fish at that in­stant most desire.When you come first to the Ri­ver in the morning, with your rod beat upon the bushes or boughs which hang over the water, and by their falling upon the water you will see what sorts of flies are there in greatest numbers; if divers sorts and equal in number, try them all, and you will quickly find which they most desire: Sometimes they change their flie (but its not very usual) twice or thrice in one day; but ordinarily they seek not for a­nother sort of flie, till they have for some dayes even glutted them­selves with a former kind, which is commonly when those flies die and go out. Directly contrary to our London Gallants, who must have the first of every thing, when hardly to be got, but scorn the same when [Page 21] kindly ripe, healthful, common and cheap: but the fish despise the first, and covet when plenty, and when that sort grow old and de­cay, and another cometh in plenti­fully, then they change; as if Na­ture taught them, that every thing is best in its own proper season, and not so desirable when not kindly ripe, or when through long conti­nuance it beginneth to lose its na­tive worth and goodness.

I shall adde a few cautions and directions in the use of the natural flie,Directi­ons in u­sing the artificial flie. and then proceed.

1. When you angle for Che­vin, Roth, Dace with the flie, you must not move your flie swiftly, when you see the fish coming to­wards it, but rather after one or two short and slow removes, suffer the flie to glide gently with the stream towards the fish; or if in a standing or very slow water, draw the flie slowly, and (not directly [Page 22] upon him, but) sloaping and side­wise by him, which will make him more eager lest it escape him; for if you move it nimbly and quick, they will not (being fish of slow motion) follow as the Trout will.

2. When Chub, Roch, Dace shew themselves, in a Sunshiny day upon the top of the water, they are most easily caught with baits proper for them, and you may chuse from amongst them which you please to take.

3. They take an artificial flie with a Cadbait or Oakworm on the point of the hook, and the Oak­worm when they shew themselves is better upon the water than un­der, or than the flie it self, and more desired by them.

CHAP. III. Of the Artificial Flie.

HAving given these few dire­ctions for the use of the na­tural flie of all sorts,Of the artificial flie. shewed the time and season of their coming, and how to find them, and cautio­ned you in the use of them, I shall proceed to treat of the artificial flie. But here I must premise, that it is much better to learn how to make a flie by sight, than by any Paper-direction can possibly be ex­pressed, in regard the Terms of Art do in most parts of England differ, and also several sorts of flies are called by different names; some call the flie bred of the water Cricket or Creeper a May-flie, and some a Stone-flie; some call the Cadbait flie a May, and some call a short fly of a sad golden green color, with short brown wings, a May-flie: [Page 24] and I see no reason but all flies bred in May, are properly enough called May-flies. Therefore except some one (that hath skill) would paint them, I can neither well give their names nor describe them, without too much trouble and pro­lixity; nor as I alleaged, in regard of the variety of Soils and Rivers, describe the flies that are bred and frequent each: But the Angler (as I before directed) having found the flie which the fish at present affect, let him make one as like it as possibly he can, in colour, shape, proportion; and for his better imi­tation let him lay the natural flie before him. All this premised and considered, let him go on to make his flie, which according to my own practice I thus advise.

First,How to make the artificial fl [...]e seve­ral wayes. I begin to set on my hook, (placing the hair on the inside of its shank) with such coloured Silk as I conceive most proper for the flie, [Page 25] beginning at the end of the hook, and when I come to that place which I conceive most proportio­nable for the wings, then I place such coloured feathers there, as I apprehend most resemble the wings of the flie, and set the points of the wings towards the head, or else I run the feathers (and those must be stript from the Quill or Pen, with part of it still cleaving to the feathers) round the hook, and so make them fast, if I turn the feathers round the hook, then I clip away those that are upon the back of the hook, that so (if it be possible) the point of the hook may be forced by the feathers (left on the inside of the hook) to swim upwards; and by this means I conceive the stream will carry your flies wings in the posture of one flying; whereas if you set the points of the wings backwards, to­wards the bending of the hook, the [Page 26] stream (if the feathers be gentle as they ought) will fould the points of the wings in the bending of the hook, as I have often found by ex­perience: After I have set on the wing, I go on so far as I judge fit, till I fasten all, and then begin to make the body, and the head last, the body of the flie I make several wayes, if the flie be one intire co­lour, then I take a Worsted thred, or Moccado end, or twist wooll or fur into a kind of thred, or wax a small slender silk thred, and lay wooll, fur, &c. upon it, and then twist, and the material will stick to it, and then go on to make my flie small or large, as I please. If the flie (as most are) be of several co­lours, and those running in circles round the flie, then I either take two of these threds (fastning them first towards the bent of the hook) and so run them round, and fasten all at the wings, and then make the [Page 27] head, or else I lay upon the hook wooll, fur of Hare, Dog, Fox, Bear, Cow, Hog, (which close to their bodies have a fine fur) and with a silk of the other colour bind the same wooll or fur down, and then fasten all: Or instead of the silk running thus round the fly, you may pluck the feather from one side of those long feathers which grow about a Cock or Capons neck or tail (which some call Hackle) then run the same round your flie, from head to tail, ma­king both ends fast; but you must be sure to sute the feather answer­able to the colour you are to imi­tate in the flie [...]; and this way you may counterfeit those rough in­sects (which some call Wooll-beds, because of their wool-like outside, and rings of divers co­lours) I take them to be Palmer worms, which the fish much de­light in. Let me adde this onely, [Page 28] that some flies have forked tails, and some have horns, both which you must imitate with a slender hair fastned to the head or tail of your flie, when you first set on your hook, and in all things, as length, colour, as like the natural flie as possibly you can: The head is made after all the rest of the bo­dy, of silk or hair, as being of a more shining glossy colour, than the other materials, as usually the head of the flie is more bright than the body, and is usually of a diffe­rent colour from the body: Some­times I make the body of the flie with a Peacocks feather, but that is onely one sort of flie, whose co­lour nothing else that I could ever get would imitate, being the short, sad, golden, green flie I before mentioned, which I make thus; Take one strain of a Peacocks fea­ther (or if that be not sufficient, then another) wrap it about the [Page 29] hook, till the body be according to your mind; if your flie be of di­vers colours, and those lying long-wayes from head to tail, then I take my Dubbing, and lay them on the hook long-wayes, one co­lour by another (as they are mixt in the natural flie) from head to tail, then bind all on, and make it fast with silk of the most predomi­nant colour; and this I conceive is a more artificial way than is practi­sed by many Anglers, who use to make such a flie all of one colour, and bind it on with silk, so that it looks like a flie with round circles, but nothing at all resembles the flie it is intended for; the Head, Horns, Tail, are made as before. That you may the better counter­feit all sorts of flies, get furs of all sorts and colours you can possibly procure, as of Bears hair, Foxes, Cows, Hogs, Dogs, who next their bodies have a fine soft hair or [Page 30] fur, Moccado ends, Crewels, and dyed wooll of all colours, with fea­thers of Cocks, Capons, Hens, Teals, Mallards, Widgeons, Phea­sants, Partridges, the feather un­der the Mallard, Teal or Widge­ons wings, and about their tails, about a Cock or Capons neck and tail, of all colours; and generally of all birds, Kite, Hickwall, &c. that you may make yours exactly of the colour with the natural flie. And here I must give some cauti­ons and directions, as for the natu­ral flie, and so pass on to baits for angling at the ground.

1. When you angle with the ar­tificial flie,Cautions for the use of the ar­tificial fly. you must either fish in a River not fully cleared from some rain lately fallen, that had discoloured it; or in a Moorish River, discoloured by moss or bogs; or else in a dark cloudy day, when a gentle gale of wind moves the water, but if the wind be high, [Page 31] yet so as you may guide your tools with advantage, they will rise in the plain Deeps, and then and there you will commonly kill the best fish; but if the wind be little or none at all, you must angle in the swift streams.

2. You must keep your artifi­cial flie in continuall motion, though the day be dark, water muddy, and wind blow, or else the fish will discerne and refuse it.

3. If you angle in a River that is mudded by rain, or passing through mosses or bogs, you must use a larger bodyed flie than ordinary; which argues that in clear Rivers the flie must be smaller, and this not being obser­ved by some, hindereth their sport, and they impute their want of suc­cess to their want of the right flie, when perhaps they have it, but made too large.

[Page 32]4. If the water be clear and low, then use a small-bodied fl [...]e with slender wings.

5. When the water beginneth to clear after rain, and is of a brow­nish colour, then a red or Orenge flie.

6. If the day be clear, then a light coloured flie, with slender body and wings.

7. In dark weather as well as dark waters your flie must be dark.

8. If the water be of a Whey co­lour or whitish, then use a black or brown flie, yet these six last Rules do not alwayes hold, though usu­ally they do, or else I had omitted them.

9. Observe principally the bel­ly of the flie, for that colour the fish observe most, as most in their eye.

10. When you angle with an artificial flie, your line may be [Page 33] twice the length of your rod, ex­cept the River be much cumbred with wood and trees.

11. For every sort of flie have three, one of a lighter colour, another sadder than the natural flie, and a third of the exact colour with the flie, to sute all waters and weathers as before.

12. I could never find (by any experience of mine own or other mans observation) that fish would freely and eagerly rise at the arti­ficial flie in any slow muddy Ri­ver; by muddy Rivers I mean such Rivers, whose bottom or ground is slime or mud; for such as are mudded by rain (as I have al­ready, and shall afterwards further shew) at some times and seasons I would chuse to angle, yet in stand­ing Meers or Sloughs I have known them (in a good wind) to rise very well, but not so in slimy Rivers, either Weever in Cheshire, [Page 34] or Sow in Stafford-shire, and others in Warwick-shire, &c. and Black­water in Ulster; in the last, after many tryals I could never find (though in its best streams) almost any sport, save at its influx into Lough Neaugh, but there the work­ing of the Lough makes it sandy; and they will bite also near Tome Shanes Castle, Mountjoy, Antrim, &c. even to admiration; yet some­times they will rise in that River a little, but not comparable to what they will do in every little Lough, in any small gale of wind: And though I have often reasoned in my own thoughts to search out the true cause of this, yet I could never so fully satisfie my owne judgment, so as to conclude any thing positively; yet have taken up these two ensuing particulars as most probable.Two con­jectures

1. I did conceive the depth of the Loughs might hinder the force [Page 35] of the Sun-beams from operating upon, or heating the mud,why fish rise not wel at the artificial flie in sli­my rivers. which in those Rivers (though deep, yet not so deep by much as the Loughs) I apprehend it doth, be­cause in great droughts fish bite but little in any River, but nothing at all in slimy Rivers, in regard the mud is not cooled by the constant and swift motion of the River, as in gravelly or sandy Rivers, where (in fit seasons) they rise most free­ly, and bite most eagerly, save as before in droughts, notwithstand­ing at that season some sport may be had, (though not with the flie) whereas nothing at all will be done in muddy slow Rivers.

2. My second supposition was, Whether (according to that old received Axiom, Suo cui (que) simili­ma coelo) the fish might not par­take of the nature of the River, in which they are bred and live, as we see in men born in fenny, bog­gy, [Page 36] low, moist grounds, and thick air, who ordinarily want that pre­sent quickness, vivacity and acti­vity of body and mind, which per­sons born in dry, hilly, sandy soils and clear air, are usually endued withall: And so the fish partici­pating of the nature of the muddy River, which are ever slow, (for if they were swift, the stream would cleanse them from all mud) are not so quick, lively and active, as those bred in swift, sandy or stony Rivers, and so coming to the flie with more deliberation, discern the same to be counterfeit, and forsake it; whereas on the con­trary, in stony, sandy, swift Rivers (being more cold) the fish are more active, and so more hungry and eager, the stream and hand keeping the flie in continual moti­on, they snap the same up without any pause, lest so desireable a mor­sel escape them.

[Page 37]13. You must have a very quick eye, a nimble rod and hand, and strike with the rising of the fish, or he instantly finds his mistake, and putteth out the hook again: I could never (my eye-sight being weak) discern perfectly where my flie was, the wind and stream carrying it so to and again, that the line was never any certain direction or guide to me; but if I saw any fish rise, I use to strike if I discerned it might be within the length of my line.

14. Be sure in casting that your flie fall first into the water, if the line fall first, it scareth the fish; therefore draw it back, and cast againe, that the flie may fall first.

15. When you try how to fit your colour to the flie, wet your fur, hair, wool or Moccado, other­wise you will fail in your work; for though when they are dry they [Page 38] exactly sute the colour of the flie, yet the water will alter most co­lours, and make them lighter or darker.

How to angle with the Cadbait.The best way to angle with the Cadbait, is to fish with it on the top of the water as you do with the flie; it must stand upon the shank of the hook, as doth the ar­tificial flie, (if it come into the bent of the hook, the fish will lit­tle or not at all value it, nor if you pull the blue gut out of it) and to make it keep that place, you must, when you set on your hook, fasten a Horse-hair or two under the silk, with the ends standing a very little out from under the silk, and point­ing towards the line, and this will keep it from sliding back into the bent; and thus used it is a most excellent bait for a Trout. You may imitate the Cadbait, by ma­king the body of Shammy, the head black silk.

[Page 39]I might here insert several sorts of flies, with the colours that are used to make them; but for the reasons before given, that their co­lours alter in several rivers and soils, and also because though I name the colours, yet its not easie to chuse that colour by any descri­ption, except so largely performed as would be over large, and swell this small Piece beyond my inten­ded conciseness; and I suppose the former directions (which are easie and short) if rightly observed, are full enough and sufficient for ma­king and finding out all sorts of flies in all rivers. I shall only adde, that the Salmon flies must be made with wings standing one behind the other, whether two-or four; also he delights in the most gaudy and orient colours you can chuse; the wings I mean chiefly, if not altoge­ther, with long tails and wings.

CHAP. IV. Of Angling at the ground.

Ground angling.NOw we are come to the se­cond sort of Angling, (viz.), Under the water, which if it be with the ground-line for the Trout, then you must not use any flote at all, onely a Plumb of Lead, which I would wish might be a small Bullet, the better to rowle on the ground; and it must also be light­er or heavier, as the stream run­neth swift or slow, and you must place it about nine inches or a foot from the hook, the Lead must run upon the ground, and you must keep your line as streight as possi­ble, yet by no means so as to raise the lead from the ground; your top must be very gentle, that the fish may more easily, and (to him­self) insensibly run away with the bait, and not be scared with the [Page 41] stiffnesse of the rod; and if you make your top of Black-thorn and Whale-bone, as I before directed, it will conduce much to this pur­pose: Neither must you strike so soon as you feel the fish bite, but slack your line (a little) that so he may more securely swallow the bait, and hook himself, which he will sometimes do, especially if he be a good one; however the least jerk hooks him, and indeed you can scarce strike too easily. Your Tackle must be very fine and slender, and so you will have more sport than if you had strong lines, (which fright the Fish) but the slender line is easily broke with a small jerk. The Morning and Evening are best for the ground-line for a Trout in clear weather and water, but in cloudy weather or muddy water, you may angle at ground all day.Night [...]ngling.

2. You may also in the night [Page 42] angle for the Trout with two great Garden worms, hanging as equally in length as you can place them on your hook; cast them from you as you would cast the flie, and draw them to you again upon the top of the water, and suffer them not to sink; therefore you must use no Lead this way of angling; you may hear the Fish rise, give some time for him to gorge your bait, as at the ground, then strike gently. I [...] he will not take them at the top, adde some Lead, and try at the ground, as in the day time, when you feel him bite, or­der your self as in day angling at the ground: Usually the best Trouts bite in the night, and will rise in the still Deeps, but not or­dinarily in the stream.

Angling for the Trout with a Menow.3. You may angle also with a Menow for the Trout, which you must put on your hook thus; First, put your hook through the very [Page 43] point of his lower Chap, and draw it quite through, then put your hook in at his mouth, and bring the point to his tail, then draw your line streight, and it will bring him into a round compass, and close his mouth that no water get in, which you must avoid, or you may stitch up his mouth: Or you may (when you set on your hook) fasten some bristles under the silk, leaving the points above a straws breadth and half, or almost half an inch standing out towards the line, which will keep him from slipping back. You may also imi­tate the Menow as well as the flie, but it must be done by an Artist with the Needle.

You must also have a Swivel or Turn,The use of the Swivel. placed about a yard or more from your hook; you need no Lead on your line, you must con­tinually draw your bait up the stream near the top of the water. [Page 44] If you strike a large Trout, If you misse a Trout how to take her af­terwards. and she either break hook or line, or get off, then near to her hold (if you can discover it) or the place you strook her, fix a short stick in the water, and with your Knife loose a small piece of the rind, so as you may lay your line in it, and yet the barck be close enough to keep your line in that it slip not out, nor the stream carry it away; bait your hook with a Garden or Lob-worm (let your hook and line be very strong) let the bait hang a foot from the stick, then fasten the o­ther end of your line to some stick or bough in the Bank, and within one hour you may be sure of her if all your tackle hold.

How to angle for the Pike with a Trowle, and seve­ral other wayes.The next way of Angling is with a Trowle for the Pike, which is very delightful, you may buy your Trowle ready made, there­fore I shall not trouble my self to describe it, onely let it have a [Page 45] winch to wind it up withall. For this kind of fish your tackle must be strong, your Rod must not be very slender at the top, where you must place a small slender ring for your line to run through, let your line be silk at least two yards next the hook, and the rest of strong Shoomakers thred, your hook double, and strongly armed with wire for above a foot, then with a probe or needle you must draw the wire in at the fishes mouth and out at the tail, that so the hook may lie in the mouth of the fish, and both the poynts on either side; upon the shank of the hook fasten some lead very smooth, that it go into the fishes mouth and sink her with the head downward, as though she had been playing on the top of the water, and were returning to the bottom; your bait may be small Roch, Dace, Gudgeon, Loch, or a frog sometimes, your hook [Page 46] thus baited, you must tie the tail of the fish close and fast to the wire, or else with drawing to and again the fish will rend off the hook, or which I judge neater with a needle and strong thred, stitch through the fish on either side the wire and tie it very fast: all being thus fitted, cast your Fish up and down in such places as you know Pikes frequent, observing still that he sink some depth be­fore you pull him up again. When the Pike commeth (if it be not sunk deep) you may see the water move, or at least you may feel him, then slack your line and give him length enough to run away to his hould, whither he will go directly, and there pouch it, ever beginning (as you may observe) with the head swallowing that first, thus let him lie untill you see the line move in the water, and then you may certainly conclude [Page 47] he hath pouched your bait, and rangeth abroad for more, then with your troul wind up your line till you think you have it almost streight, then with a smart jerk hook him, and make your plea­sure to your content. Some use no Rod at all, but hold the line in links on their hand, using lead and float: others use a very great hook with the hook at the tail of the Fish, and when the Pike commeth then they strike at the first pull, others use to put a strong string or thred in at the mouth of the bait and out at one of the gills, and so over the head and in at the other gill, and so tie the bait to the hook, leaving a little length of the thred or string betwixt the Fish and the hook, that so the Pike may turn the head of the bait the better to swal­low it, & then as before, after some pause strike. Some u [...]e to tie the bait-hook and line to a bladder or [Page 48] bundle of flags or bull-rushes, fast­ning the line very gently in the cleft of a small stick, to hold the bait from sinking more then (its allowed length) half a yard, and the stick must be fastned to the bladder or flags, to which the line being tyed that it may easily un­fold and run to its length, and so give the Pike liberty to run away with the bait, and by the bladder or flags recover their line again. You must observe this way to turn off your bait with the wind or stream, that they may carry it a­way, or some use (for more sport, if the Pike be a great one) to tie the same to the foot of a goose which the Pike (if large) will some­time pull under the water. Be­fore I proceed to give you each sort of bait for every kind of Fish; give me leave to adde a caution or two, for the ground-line and Fish­ing, as I did for the natural and [Page 49] artificial flie, and then we shall go on.

There are two wayes of fishing for Eels;Brogling for Eeles. proper and peculiar to that fish alone; the first is termed by some, Brogling for Eels, which is thus, take a short strong Rod and exceeding strong line, with a little compassed but strong hook, which you must bait with a large well scoured Red-Worm, then place the end of the hook very easily in a cleft of a stick, that it may very easily slip out; with this stick and hook thus baited, search for holes under Stones, Timber, Roots, or about Floud-gates; if there be a good Eele, give her time and she will take it, but be sure she hath gorged it, and then you may conclude, if your tack­ling or hold fail not, she is your own.

The other way is called Bobbing for Eeles, which is thus;Bobbing for Eeles Take the [Page 50] largest Garden-worms, scower them well, and with a Needle run a very strong thred or silk through them from end to end, take so many as that at last you may wrap them about a Board (for your hand will be too narrow) a dozen times at least, then tye them fast with the two ends of the thred or silk, that they may hang in so many long bouts or hanks, then fasten all to a strong Cord, and some­thing more than a handful above the worms, fasten a plumb of lead, of about three quarters of a pound, and then make your Cord sure to a long and strong Pole; with these worms thus ordered you must fish in a muddy water, and you will feel the Eeles tugge strongly at them; when you think they have swal­lowed them as far as they can, gently draw up your worms and Eeles, and when you have them near the top of the water, hoist [Page 51] them amain to land; and thus you may take three or four at once, and good ones if there be store.

1. When you angle at ground,Directions in angling at the ground. keep your line as streight as possi­ble, suffering none of it to lye in the water, because it hindereth the nimble jerk of the rod, but if (as sometimes it will happen) you cannot avoid, but some little will lie in the water, yet keep it in the stream above your float, by no meanes below it.

2. When you angle at ground for small fish, put two hooks to your line fastned together thus; Lay the two hooks together, then draw the one shorter than the o­ther by nine inches, this causeth the other end to over-reach as much as that is shorter at the hooks, then turn that end back to make a bought or boute, and with a Water-knot (in which you must make both the links to fasten) tye [Page 52] them so as both links may hang close together, and not come out at both ends of the knot; upon that link which hangeth longest, fasten your Lead near a foot above the hook, put upon your hooks two different baits, and so you may try (with more ease and less time) what bait the fish love best: and also very often (as I have done) take two fish at once with one Rod: You have also by this expe­riment one bait for such as feed close upon the ground, as Gudge­on, Flounder, &c. and another for such as feed a little higher, as Roch, Dace, &c.

3. Some use to lead their lines heavily, and to set their Cork a­bout a foot or more from the end of the Rod, with a little Lead to buoy it up, and thus in violent swift streams they avoid the of­fence of a flote, and yet perfectly discern the biting of the fish, and [Page 53] so order themselves accordingly; but this hath its inconvenience, (viz.) The lying of the line in the water.

4. Give all fish time to gorge the bait, and be not over hasty, ex­cept you angle with such tender baits, as will not endure nibbling at, but must upon every touch be struck at (as Sheeps-bloud-flies, which are taken away at the first pull of the fish) and therefore en­force you at the first touch to try your fortune.

Now we are to speak next of Baits, more particularly proper for every fish, wherein I shall observe this method, first to name the fish, then the baits, (according as my experience hath proved them) grateful to the fish, and to place them as near as I can in such order as they come in season, though many of them are in season at one instant of time, and equally good. [Page 54] I would not be understood, as if when a new bait cometh in, the old one were antiquated and use­less; for I know the worm last­eth all the year, flie all Summer, one sort of Bob all Winter; the other under Cow-dung in June and July: but I intimate that some are found when others are not in rerum natura.

CHAP. V. Of all sorts of Baits for each kind of Fish, and how to find and keep them.

Baits for the Sal­mon.1. THe Salmon taketh the artifi­cial flie very well, but you must use a Trowle (as for the Pike) or he being a strong fish will ha­zard your line, except you give him length; his flies must be much larger than you use for other fish, the wings very long (two or four) [Page 55] behind one another, with very long tails; his chiefest ground­bait a great Garden or Lob­worm.


2. The Trout takes all sorts of worms, especially Brandlings; all sorts of flies, Menow, young Frogs, Marsh-worme, Dock-worme, Flag-worme; all sorts of Cadbait, Bob, Palmers, Caterpillers, Gentles, Wasps, Hornets, Dores, Bees, Grashoppers, Cankers and Bark-worm; he is a ravenous greedy fish, and loveth a large bait at ground, and you must fit him accordingly.

3. The Umber is generally ta­ken [Page 56] with the same baits as the Trout; he is an eager fish, biteth freely, and will rise often at the same flie, if you prick him not.

The Barbel bites best at great red worms well scowered in Moss, at Cheese and several sorts of Pastes, and Gentles.


[Page 57]4. Carp and Tench love the lar­gest red worms, the Tench especi­ally if they smell much of Tar; to which end you may some small time before you use them, take so many as you will use at that time, and put them by themselves in a little Tar, but let them not lye long lest it kill them; Paste also of all sorts made with strong-sent­ed Oyles, Tar, Bread-grain boiled soft, Maggots, Gentles, Marsh-worm, Flag-worm, especially feed much and often for these Fish.


5. The Pike taketh all sorts of baits, (save the flie) Gudgeon, Ro­ches, [Page 58] Dace, Loaches, young Frogs in Summer: You may halter him thus; Fasten a strong line with a snare at the end of it to a Pole, which if you go circumspectly to work, he will permit you to put it over his head, and then you must by strength hoist him to land.


6. Eeles, take great red worms, Beef, Wasps, guts of Fowles and Menow: Bait Night-hooks for him with small Roches, the hook must lye in the mouth of the Fish, as for the Pike; this way takes the greatest Eeles.

[Page 59]


7. Barbel, Cheese, or Paste made of it with Suet, Maggots and red worms, feed much for this Fish.

8. The Gadgeon, Ruff and Bleak take the smallest red worms, Cad­bait, Gentles, Wasps: the Bleak takes the natural or artificial flie, especially in the Evening.

The Ruff taketh the same baits as the Pearch, save that you must have lesser worms, he being a smal­ler Fish.

9. Roch and Dace, small worms, Cadbait, Flies, Bobs, Sheeps bloud, small white Snails, all sorts [Page 60] of worms bred on herbs or trees, Paste, Wasps, Gnats, Cherries and Lipberries.

The Bleak is an eager Fish, and takes the same baits as the Roch, onely they must be less: You may angle for him with as many hooks, on your line at once, as you can conveniently fasten on it.

10. Chevin, all sorts of earth, worms, Bob, Menow, Flies of all sorts, Cadbait, all sorts of worms bred on herbs and trees, especial­ly Oak-worms, young Frogs, Cher­ries, Wasps, Dores, Bees, Grashopper at the top of the water, Cheese, grain, Beetles, a great brown Flie that lives on the Oak like a Scar­rabee, black Snails, their bellies slit that the white appear; he loveth a large bait, as a Waspe, Col­wort-worm, and then a Waspe alto­gether.

[Page 61]


11. Bream, loveth red worms, especially those that are got at the root of a great Dock, it lyeth wrapped up in a knot or round Clue; Paste, Flag-worms, Wasps, green flies, Butter-flies, a Grashop­per his legs cut off.

12. Flownder, Shad, Suant, Thwait and Mullet, love red worms of all sorts, Wasps and Gentles.

As for the Menow, Loach, Bull-head or Millers-thumb, being usual­ly Childrens recreation, I once pur­posed to have omitted them whol­ly, but considering they often are baits for better fish, as Trout, Pike, [Page 62] Eele, &c. Neither could this Dis­course be general if they were o­mitted; and though I should wave mentioning them, yet I cannot for­get them, who have so often vex­ed me with their unwelcome ea­gernesse; for the Menow will have a part in the play, if you come where he is, which is almost eve­ry where, you need not seek him; I use to find him oftner than I de­sire, onely deep still places he least frequents of any, and is not over curious in his baits; any thing will serve that he can swallow, and he will strain hard for what he cannot gorge; but chiefly loveth smallest red wormes, Cadbait, worms bred on herbs or trees, and Wasps.

[Page 63]


The Loach and Bullhead are much of the same dyet, but their principall bait is smallest red worms,

Having spoken before of Pastes,Several sorts of Pastes. I shall now shew how you may make the same; and though there [Page 64] be as many kinds as men have fancies, yet I esteem these best.

1. Take the tenderest part of the leg of a young Rabbet, Whelp or Catling, as much Virgin wax and Sheeps Suet, beat them in a Mor­tar till they be perfectly incorpo­rated, then with a little clarified Honey temper them before the Fire into a Paste.

2. Sheeps Kidney Suet, as much Cheese, fine Flower or Manchet, make it into a Paste, soften it with clarifyed Honey.

3. Sheeps bloud, Cheese, fine Manchet, clarifyed Honey, make all into a Paste.

4. Cherries, Sheeps bloud, Saf­fron, and fine Manchet, make all into a Paste.

You may adde to any Paste Co­culus Indie, Assa foetida, Oyle of Polipody of the Oak, of Lignum vitae, of Ivie, or the gum of Ivie dissolved: I judge there is vertue [Page 65] in these Oyles, and Gum especial­ly, which I would adde to all Pastes I make; as also a little Flax to keep the Paste that it wash not off the hook.

CHAP. VI. To keep your Baits.

1. PAste will keep very long if you put Virgin wax and cla­rified Honey into it, and stick well on the hook if you beat Cotton Wooll or Flax into it, when you make your Paste.

2. Put your worms into very good long Moss, whether white, red or green, I matter not; wash it well, and cleanse it from all earth and filth, wring it very dry, then put your Moss and worms into an earthen Pot, cover it close that they crawle not out, set it in a cool place in Summer, and in Winter [Page 66] in a warm place, that the Frost kill them not; every third day in Summer change your Moss, once in the week in Winter; the lon­ger you keep them before you use them, the better: Clean scower­ing your worms makes them clea­rer, redder, tougher, and to live long on the hook, and to keep co­lour, and therefore more desire­able to the Fish: A little Bole-Armoniack put to them will much further your desire, and scower them in a short time: Or you may put them all night in water, and they will scower themselves, but will be weak; but a few hours in good Moss will recover them. But lest your worms die, you may feed them with crums of Bread and Milk, or fine Flowre and Milk, or the Yelk of an Egge and sweet Cream coagulated over the Fire, give them a little and often; sometimes also put to them earth [Page 67] cast out of a Grave, the newer the Grave the better, I mean the shor­ter time the party hath been buri­ed, you will find the fish will excee­dingly covet them after this earth; & here you may gather what gum that is, which J. D. in his Secrets of Angling, calleth Gum of life.

3. You must keep all other sorts of worms with the leaves of those trees and herbs, on which they are bred, renewing the leaves often in a day, and put in fresh for the old ones: The Boxes you keep them in, must have a few small holes to let in air.

4. Keep Gentles or Maggots with dead flesh, Beasts Livers or Suet, cleanse or scower them in Meal, or Bran which is better; you may breed them by pricking a Beasts Liver full of holes, hang it in the Sun in Summer time, set an old course Barrel or small Fir­ken with Clay and Bran in it, into [Page 68] which they will drop, and cleanse themselves in it.

Cadbait.5. Cadbait cannot endure the wind and cold, therefore keep them in a thick woollen Bag, with some Gravel amongst them, wet them once a day at least if in the house, but often in the hot wea­ther; when you carry them forth, fill the bag full of water, then hold the mouth close, that they drop not out, and so let the water run from them; I have thus kept them three weeks: Or you may put them into an earthen Pot full of water, with some Gravel at the bottom, and take them forth into your bag as you use them.

6. The spawn of some Fish is a good bait,Spawn of fish. to be used at such time as that Fish spawneth, some dayes before they spawn they will bite eagerly; if you take one that is full-bellied, take out the spawn, boil it so hard as to stick on your [Page 69] hook, and so use it; or not boil it at all, the spawn of Salmon is best of all sorts of spawn.

7. I have observed, that Che­vin, The chief­est way to use the Oakworm. Roch, Dace bite much better at the Oak-worm, (or any worm bred on herbs or trees) especially if you angle with the same (when they shew themselves) at the top of the water, (as with the natural flie) then if you use it under; for I have observed, that when a gale of wind shaketh the trees, the worms fall into the water, and pre­sently rise and flote on the top, where I have seen the Fish rise at them as at flies, which taught me this experience, and indeed they sink not till tost and beaten by the stream, and so they dye and lose their colour, and then the Fish (as you may see by your own on your hook) do not much esteem them.

8. There are two;Cadbait his kinds. some say three, sorts of Cadbait; the one [Page 70] bred under stones, that lye hollow in shallow Rivers or small Brooks, in a very fine gravelly case or husk, these are yellow when ripe: the other in old Pits, Ponds or slow running Rivers or Ditches, in cases or husks of Straw, sticks or Rushes, these are green when ripe; both are excellent for a Trout, used as before is directed, and for most sorts of small Fish. The green sort, which is bred in Pits, Ponds or Ditches, may be found in March before the other yellow ones come in; the other yellow ones come in season with May or the end of April, and go out in July: a second sort, but smaller, come in again in August.

9. Yellow Bobs are also of two sorts,Bobs, two sorts. the one bred in mellow light soils, and gathered after the Plough when the Land is first bro­ken up from grazing, and are in season in the Winter till March; [Page 71] the other sort is bred under Cow­dung, hath a red head; and these are in season in the Summer only: scowre them in Bran, or dry Moss, or Meal.

10. Under the bark of an Oak,Barke wormes. Ash, Alder, and Birch especially, if they lie a year or more after they are fallen, you may find a great white Worm, with a brown head, something resembling a Dore-Bee or Humble-Bee, this is in season all the year, especially from Septem­ber until June, or mid-May; the Umber covets this bait above any, save Fly and Cad-bait: you may also find this Worm in the body of a rotted Alder, if you break it with an Ax or Beetle, but be care­ful only to shake the tree in pieces with beating, and crush not the Worm: you may also find him under the bark of the stump of a tree, if decayed.

11. Dry your Wasps, Dares, How to use Wasps. or [Page 72] Bees upon a Tile-stone, or in an Oven cooled after baking, lest they burn; and to avoid that, you must lay them on a thin board or chip, and cover them with another so supported, as not to crush them, or else clap two Cakes together: this way they will keep long, and stick on your hook well. If you boyl them hard, they grow black in a few days.

Sheeps blood, how to use it.12. Dry your Sheeps blood in the air upon a dry board, till it be­come a pretty hard lump; then cut it into small pieces for your use.

13. When you use Grain, boyl it soft,How to o [...]der Graine. and get off the outward rind, which is the bran; and then if you will, you may fry the same in Honey and Milk, or some strong sented Oyls, as Polypody, Spike, Ivy, Tunpentine; for Na­ture, which maketh nothing in vain, hath given the Fish Nostrils, and that they can smell is undeni­able; [Page 73] and, I am perswaded, are more guided by the sense of smel­ling than sight; for sometimes they will come to the float, if any Wax be upon it, smell at it and go away. We see also that strong sents draw them together; as, put Grains, Worms, or Snails in a bottle of Hay tied pretty close, and you will, if you pluck it out suddenly, sometimes draw up Eeles in it. But I never yet made trial of any of these Oyls; for, when I had the Oyls, I wanted time to try them; or when I had time, I wanted the Oyls: but I re­commend them to tryal of others, and do purpose (God willing) to prove their virtue my self, especi­ally that Oyntment so highly commended by I. D. in his Secret of Angling.

14. When you see the Ant-Flyes in greatest plenty,Ant-flyes. go to the Ant-hills where they breed, [Page 74] take a great handful of the earth, with as much of the roots of the grass that groweth on those Hills, put all into a large glass bottle, then gather a pottle full of the blackest Ant-flyes unbruised, put them into the bottle (or into a firkin, if you would keep them long) first washed with Honey, or Water and Honey; Roach and Dace will bite at these Flyes un­der water near the ground.

15. When you gather Bobs af­ter the Plough,Bobs after the plow. put them into a Firkin with sufficient of the soyle they were bred in, to preserve them, stop the vessel exceeding close, or all will spoyl, set it where neither wind nor frost may offend them, and they will keep all win­ter for your use.

16. At the later end of Septem­ber, To breed and keep Gentles. take some dead Carrion that hath some Maggots bred in it that begin to creep, bury all deep in [Page 75] the ground, that the frost kill them not, and they will serve in March or April following to use.

17. To find the Flag-worm do thus,To find the Flag-worm. go to an old pond or pit where there are store of Flags, or (as some call them) Sedges, pull some up by the roots, then shake those roots in the water, till all the mud and dirt be washed away from them, then amongst the small strings or fibres that grow to the roots, you will find little husks or cases of a reddish or yellowish, and some of other colours, open these carefully with a pin, and you will find in them a little small Worm, white as a Gentle, but lon­ger and slenderer; this is an ex­cellent bait for Tench, Bream, e­specially Carp: if you pull the Flags in sunder, and cut open the round stalk, you will also finde a Worm like the former in the husks, but tougher, and in that re­spect better.

CHAP. VII. Of several haunts or resorts of Fish­es, and in what Rivers or pla­ces of them they are most usually found.

THis part of our Discourse be­ing a discovery of the several places or Rivers each kind of fish doth most haunt, or covet, and in which they are ordinarily found.

The several sorts of Rivers, Streams, Soyls and Waters they most frequent, is a matter (in this under valuable Art) of no smal im­portance; for if you come with baits for the Trout or Umber, and Angle for them in slow muddy Rivers or places, you will have lit­tle (if any) sport at all: and to seek for Carp or Tench in stony swift Rivers, is equally preposte­rous; and though I know that [Page 77] some times you may meet with fish in such rivers and places, as they do not usually frequent (for no general rule but admits of par­ticular exceptions) yet the exact knowledge of what rivers or soyls, or what part of the river (for some rivers have swift gravelly streams, and also slow, deep, muddy places) such or such sorts of fish do most frequent, will exceedingly adapt you, to know what rivers, or what part of them are most fit for your baits, or what baits suit best with each river, and the fish in the same.

1. The Salmon loveth large swift rivers where it ebbeth and floweth, and there they are found in greatest numbers; nevertheless I have known them to be found in lesser rivers, high up in the Coun­try, yet chiefly in the later end of the year, when they come thither to spawn, he chuseth the most [Page 78] swift and violent streams, (or ra­ther Cataracts) and in England the clearest gravelly rivers usually with rocks or weeds; but in Ire­land I do not know any river (I mean high in the Country) that hath such plenty of them, as the black water by Charlemont, and the broad water by Shanes Castle, both which have their heads in great boggs, and are of a dark muddy colour, and very few (comparatively) in the upper ban, though clearer and swifter than they.

2. The Trout loveth small pur­ling Brooks, or Rivers that are very swift, and run upon stones or gravel; he feedeth whilest strong in the swiftest streams behind a stone, logge, or some small bank that shooteth into the river, which the streams beareth upon; and there he lieth watching for what cometh down the stream, and sud­denly [Page 79] catcheth it up; his hold is usually in the deep, under a hol­low place of the bank, or a stone that lieth hollow, which he loveth exceedingly; and sometimes, but not so usually he is found amongst weeds.

3. The Pearch loveth a gentle stream of a reasonable depth, (sel­dom shallow) close by a hollow Bank; and though these three sorts of fish covet clear and swift Rivers, green weeds and stony gra­vel; yet they are sometimes found (but not in such plenty and goodness) in slow muddy Ri­vers.

4. Carp, Tench and Eele seek mud and a still water; Eeles under roots or stones, a Carp chuseth the deepest and stillest place of Pond or River, so doth the Tench, and also green weeds, which he lo­veth exceedingly: Greatest Eeles love as before, but the smaller [Page 80] ones are found in all sorts of Rivers and soils.

5. Pike, Bream and Chub, chuse Sand or Clay; the Bream a gentle stream and broadest part of the Ri­ver; the Pike still Pools full of Frie, and shelters himself (the bet­ter to surprise his prey unawares) amongst Bull-rushes, water-docks, or under Bushes; the Chub loves the same ground, (is more rarely found without some tree to shade and cover him) large Rivers and streams.

6. Barbel, Roch, Dace, Ruff, seek Gravel and Sand more than the Bream, and the deepest parts of the River, where shady trees are more grateful to them, than to the Chub or Chevin.

7. The Umber desires Marle, Clay, clear waters, swift streams, far from the Sea, (for I never saw any taken near it) and the greatest plenty of them that I know of, are [Page 81] found in the mountainous parts of Derby-shire, Stafford-shire, as Dove-trent, Derwent, &c.

8. Gudgeon desires sandy, gra­velly, gentle streams, and smaller Rivers, but I have known them taken in great abundance in Trent in Derby shire, where it is very large, but conceive them to be in greater plenty nearer the head of that River about or above Hey­wood: I can say the same of other Rivers, and therefore conceive they love smaller Rivers rather than the large, or the small Brooks; for I never found them in so great plenty in Brooks, as small Rivers: He bites best in the Spring till he spawns, and little af­ter till Wasp time.

9. Shad, Thwait, Peel, Mullet, Suant and Flounder, love chiefly to be in or near the saltish waters, where it ebbeth and floweth; I have known the Flounder taken (in [Page 82] good plenty) in fresh Rivers, they covet Sand and Gravel, deep gen­tle streams near the Bank, or at the end of a stream in a deep still place: Though these rules may and do hold good in the general, yet I have found them admit of particular exceptions; but every mans habitation ingageth him to one or (usually at most to) two Rivers, his own experience will quickly inform him of the nature of the same, and the fish in them. I would perswade all that love angling, and desire to be complete Anglers, to spend some time in all sorts of▪ Waters, Ponds, Rivers, swift and slow, stony, gravelly, muddy and slimy; and to observe all the differences in the nature of the fish, the waters and baits, and by this means he will be able to take fish where ever he angleth; otherwise (through want of expe­rience) he will be like the man [Page 83] that could read in no book but his own; besides, a man (his occasi­ons or desires drawing him from home) must onely stand as an idle spectator, whilest others kill fish, but he none, and so lose the repute of a complete Angler, how excel­lent soever he be at his own known River.

Furthermore, you must under­stand, that as some fish covet one soil more than another; so they differ in their choice of places, in every season: some keep all Sum­mer long near the top, some never leave the bottom; for the former sort you may angle with a Quill or small flote near the top, with a flie or any sort of worm bred on herbs or trees; or with a flie at the top: the later sort you will all Summer long find at the tails of Wiers, Mills, Floud-gates, Arches of Bridges, or the more shallow parts of the River, in a strong, swift or [Page 84] gentle stream, except Carp, and Tench, and Eele; in Winter all flye into the deep still places: Where it ebbeth and floweth they will sometimes bite best, in the ebbe most usually, sometimes when it floweth, rarely at full water near the Arches of Bridges, Wiers, Floud-gates.

CHAP. VIII. What times are unseasonable to angle in.

When un­seasonable to angle.THere being a time for all things, in which with ease and facility the same may be accom­plished, and most difficult, if not impossible, at another: The skill and knowledge how to chuse the best season to angle, and how to avoid the contrary, come next to be handled; which I shall do first Negatively, viz. What times are [Page 85] unfit to angle; and then Affirma­tively, which are the best sea­sons.

1. When the earth is parched with a great drought, so that the Rivers run with a much less cur­rent than is usual, its to no purpose to angle; and indeed the heat of the day in Summer (except cooled by winds, and shaddowed with Clouds, though there be no drought) you will find very little sport, especially in muddy, or very shallow and clear Rivers.

2. In cold, frosty, snowy wea­ther, I know the fish must eat in all seasons, and that a man may kill fish when he must first break the Ice; yet I conceive the sport is not then worth pursuing, the ex­treme cold taking away the de­light; besides, the indangering health (if not life) by those colds, which at least cause Rhumes and Coughs: Wherefore I leave Win­ter [Page 86] and night angling to such strong healthful bodies, whose ex­traordinary delight in angling, or those whose necessity enforceth them to seek profit by their re­creation in such unseasonable times.

3. When there happeneth any small frost, all that day after the fish will not rise freely and kindly, except in the evening, and that the same prove very pleasant.

4. If the wind be extream high, so that you cannot guide your tools to advantage.

5. When Shepherds or Coun­try-men wash their Sheep, though whilest they are washing (I mean the first time onely) the fish will bite exceedingly well; I suppose the filth that falleth from the Sheep doth draw them (as your baiting a place) together, and then they so glut themselves, that till the whole washing time be over, [Page 87] and they have disgested their ful­ness, they will not take any artifi­cial baits.

6. Sharp, bitter, nipping winds, which most usually blow out of the North or East especially, blast your recreation; but this is ra­ther the season than the wind, though I also judge those winds have a secret maligne quality to hinder the recreation.

7. After any sort of fish have spawned they will not bite any thing to purpose, until they have recovered their strength and for­mer appetite.

8. When any clouds arise that will certainly bring a showre, or storm (though in the midst of Summer) they will not bite: I have observed that though the fish bite most eagerly, and to your hearts content, yet upon the first appearing of any clouds, that will certainly bring rain (though my [Page 88] own judgment could not then ap­prehend, or in the least conjecture, that a storm was arising) they have immediately left off biting; and that hath been all that hath given me to understand that a showre was coming, and that it was Prudence to seek shelter against the same.

CHAP. IX. The best times and seasons to angle.

When it is best to angle.WE now come to the affirma­mative part, which is the best season to angle, that as be­fore we discovered when it would be lost labour to seek recreation; so now you may learn to improve opportunity (when it offers it self) to best advantage.

1. Calm, clear (or which is better) [Page 89] coole cloudy weather in Summer, the wind blowing gently, so as you may guide your tools with ease; in the hottest months the cooler the better.

2. When the floods have carried away all the filth that the rain had washed from the higher grounds into the river, and that the river keepeth his usual bounds, and loo­keth of a Whay colour.

3. When a sudden violent shower hath a little mudded and raised the river; then if you go forth in, or immediately after such a showre, and angle in the stream at the ground (with a red worm chiefly) if there be store of fish in the river, you will have sport to your own desire.

4. A little before any fish spawn (your own observation will inform you of the time by the fulness of their bellies) they come into the gravelly, sandy foards to rub and [Page 90] loosen their bellies, and then they bite very freely.

5. When Rivers after rain do rise, yet so as that they keep within their banks, in swift rivers the vi­olence of the stream forceth the fish to seek shelter and quiet ease, in the little and milder currents of small Brooks, where they fall into larger Rivers, and behind the ends of Bridges that are longer than the breadth of the River, making a low vacancy, where the Bridge de­fends, a small spot of ground from the violence of the stream, or in any low place near the rivers side, where the fish may lie at rest and secure from the disturbance of the rapid stream; in such a place (be­ing not very deep) and at such a time, you will find sport: my self have ever found it equal to the best season.

6. Early in the morning from (Carp and Tench before) Sun ri­sing, [Page 91] until eight of the clock; and from four after noon till night; Carp and Tench, from Sun set till far in the night in the hot months.

7. In March, beginning of April, later end of September, and all win­ter fish bite best in the warmth of the day, no winds stirring, the air clear; in Summer months, mor­ning and evening is best, or cool cloudy weather: if you can find shelter, no matter how high the wind be.

8. Fish rise best at the flye after, a shower that hath not mudded the water, yet hath beaten the Gnats and Flyes into the Rivers, you may in such a shower observe them rise much if you will endure the rain; also the best months for the flye are March, April, May, part of June; in the cooler months, in the warmest time of the day; in warmer weather, about nine in the morning; three after noon, if [Page 92] any gentle gale blow; sometimes in a warm evening, when the gnats play much.

Also after the River is cleared from a flood they rise exceeding well, I conceive they were glutted with ground baits, and now covet the fly, having wanted it a time.

1. A Trout bites best in a mud­dy rising water, in dark, cloudy, windy weather, early in the mor­ning, from half an hour after eight till ten; and in the afternoon, from three, till after four; and some­times in the evening; but nine in the morning, and three afternoon are his chiefest and most constant hours of biting at ground or fly, as the water suits either; March, April, May, and part of June are his chiefest months, though he bites well in July, August, and Sep­tember. After a showre in the eve­ning he riseth well at gnats.

2. Salmon, three afternoon, [Page 93] chiefly in May, Iune, Iuly, August, a clear water and some wind, and he biteth best when the wind bloweth against the stream, and near the Sea.

3. Carp and Tench, morning and evening very early and late, Iune, Iuly, and August, or indeed in the night.

4. A Chevin, from Sun rising or earlier (at Snails especially, for in the heat of the day he careth not for them) in Iune and Iuly, till about eight; again at three after noon at ground or fly; and his chief fly which he most delights in, is a great Moth, with a very great head, not unlike to an Owl, with whitish wings and yellowish body (you may find them flying abroad in Summer evenings in Gardens) some wind stirring, large Rivers chiefly, streams or shade, he will take a small Lamprey or Seaven-eyes, an Eele-brood, either [Page 94] of them about a straws bigness.

5. Pike bites best about three Afternoon, in a clear water, a gen­tle gale; July, August, September, October.

6. A Bream from about Sun ri­sing till eight in a muddy water, a good gale of wind; and in Ponds the higher the wind, and where the waves are highest, and nearer the middle of the Pond, the better; end of May, June, July (especially) and August.

7. Roch and Dace all day long, best at the top, at flie or Oak­worm principally, and at all other worms bred on herbs or trees, Pal­mers, Caterpillers, &c. in plain Ri­vers or Ponds, under Water-dock-leaves, under shady trees.

8. Gudgeon, April, and till he have spawned in May, and little after that till Wasp time, and then to the end of the year all day long.

9. Flounder all day in April, May, June, July.

CHAP. X. General Observations.

1. LEt the Anglers Apparel be sad dark colours, as sad gray's, tawny, purple hair or musk colour.

2. Use Shoomakers wax to your silk or thred, with which you make or mend either rod or flie; it holds more firmly, and sticketh better than any other.

3. Into such places as you use to angle at, once a week at least cast in all sorts of Corn boyled soft, grains washed in bloud, bloud dry­ed and cut into pieces, Snails, worms chopt small, pieces of fowle or beasts guts, beasts Livers; for Carp and Tench you cannot feed too often, or too much; this course draweth the fish to the place you desire: And to keep them together, cast about twenty [Page 96] grains of ground Malt at a time, now and then as you angle; and indeed all sorts of baits are good to cast in, specially whilest you are angling with that bait; principally Cadbait, Gentles and Wasps, and you will find they will snap up yours more eagerly, and with less suspicion; but by no means when you angle in a stream cast them in at your hook, but something a­bove where you angle, lest the stream carry them beyond your hook, and so instead of drawing them to you, you draw them from you.

4. Destroy all beasts or birds that devour the fish or their spawn, and endeavour (whether in Autho­rity or not) to see all Statutes put in execution, against such as use unlawful Nets or means to take fish; especially barre netting and Night-hooking.

5. Get your rods and tops with­out [Page 97] knots, they are dangerous for breaking.

6. Keep your rod dry, lest it rot; and not near the fire, lest it grow brittle.

7. In drought wet your rod a little before you begin to angle.

8. Lob-worms, Dew-worms, and great Garden worms all one.

9. When you angle at ground, or with the natural flie, your line must not exceed the length of your rod. For the Trout at ground it must be shorter, and in some cases not half the length, as in small Brooks or woody Rivers, either at ground or with the natural flie.

10. When you have hooked a good fish, have an especial care to keep your rod bent, lest he run to the end of the line, and break your hook or his hold.

11. Such tops or stocks as you get, must not be used till fully sea­soned, which wich will not be in [Page 98] one year and a quarter; but I like them better if kept till they be two years old.

12. The first fish you take cut up his belly, and you may then see his stomach; it is known by its largeness and place, lying from the Gills to the small guts; take it out very tenderly, (if you bruise it your labour and design are lost) and with a sharp Knife cut it open without bruising, and then you may find his food in it, and there­by discover what bait the fish at that instant takes best, flies or ground-baits, and so fit them ac­cordingly.

13. Fish are frighted with any the least sight or motion, therefore by all means keep out of sight, ei­ther by sheltering your self behind some bush or tree, or by standing so far off the Rivers side, that you can see nothing but your flie or flote; to effect this, a long rod as [Page 99] ground, and a long line with the artificial flie may be of use to you. And here I meet with two diffe­rent opinions and practises, some alwayes cast their flie and bait up the water, and so they say nothing occurreth to the fishes sight but the line: others fish down the Ri­ver, and so suppose (the rod and line being long) the quantity of water takes away, or at least les­seneth the fishes fight; but the o­ther affirm, that rod and line, and perhaps your self are seen also. In this difference of opinions I shall onely say, in small Brooks you may angle upwards, or else in great Rivers you must wade, as I have known some, who thereby got the Sciatica, and I would not wish you to purchase pleasure at so dear a rate; besides, casting up the River you cannot keep your line out of the water, which we noted for a fault before; and they that use this [Page 100] way confess, that if in casting your flie, the line fall into the water be­fore it, the flie were better uncast, because it frights the fish; then certainly it must do it this way, whether the flie fall first or not, the line must first come to the fish or fall on him, which undoubtedly will fright him: Therefore my o­pinion is, that you angle down the River, for the other way you tra­verse twice so much, and beat not so much ground as downwards.

14. Keep the Sun (and Moon, if night) before you, if your eyes will endure it, (which I much que­stion) at least be sure to have those Planets on your side, for if they be on your back, your rod will with its shadow offend much, and the fish see further and clearer, when they look towards those Lights, then the contrary; as you may ex­periment thus, in a dark night if a man come betwixt you and any [Page 101] light, you see him clearly but not at all if the light come betwixt you and him.

15. When you angle for the Trout, you need not make above three or four tryals in one place, either with flie or ground-bait; for he will then either take it, or make an offer, or not stir at all, and so you lose time to stay there any longer.


Pearch bites exceeding well at all sorts of Earth-worms, if well scowered, especially Lob-wormes and Brandlings, Bobs, Oak-wormes, Gentles, Cadbait, Wasps, Dores, Me­now, [Page 102] Colwort-worm, and often as almost any bait saye the flie.

He bites well all day long in sea­sonable weather, but chiefly from eight in the morning till after ten, and from a little before three Af­ternoon, till almost five.

16. A Chevin loveth to have several flies, and of divers sorts, on the hook at once, and several baits also at once on the hook; as a Wasp and Colwort-worm, or an old Wasp and young Dore, or Humble when his wings and legs are grown forth, or a flie and Cad-worm or Oak-worm.

17. Take for a Trowt two Lob-worms well scowered, cut them in­to two equal halfs, put them on your hook; this is an excellent bait.

In a muddy water a Trout will not take a Cadbait, you must therefore onely use it in clear wa­ters.

[Page 103]If you desire to angle in a very swift stream, and have your bait rest in one place, and yet not over­burthen your line with Lead, take a stone bow or small Pistoll Bullet, make a hole through it, wider at each side than in the middle; yet so open in every place, as that the line may easily pass through it without any stop; place a very small piece of Lead on your line, that may keep this Bullet from falling nearer the hook than that piece of Lead, and if your flote be made large enough to bear above water against the force of the stream, the fish will, when they bite, run away with the bait as se­curely, as if there were no more weight upon your line, than the little piece of Lead, because the hole in the Bullet gives passage to the line, as if it were not there.

18. When Cattle in Summer [Page 104] come into the Foards, their dung draweth the fish unto the lower end of the Foard; at such a time angle for a Chevin with baits fit for him, and you will have sport.

19. Before you set your hook to your line, arme the line by tur­ning the Silk five or six times a­bout the link, and so with the same hair set on your hook; this preserves your lines, that your hook cut it not in sunder, and al­so that it will not, when you use the cast flie, snap off so easily, which it is very subject to do.

20. In very wet seasons Trouts leave the rivers and larger Brooks, and flee into such little Brooks as scarce run at all in dry Sum­mers.

21. To all sorts of Pastes adde Flax, Cotton or Wooll, to keep the Paste from falling off your hook.

22. Deny not part of what your [Page 105] endeavours shall purchase unto a­ny sick or indigent persons, but willingly distribute a part of your purchase to those who may desire a share.

23. Make not a profession of any recreation, lest your immode­rate love to the same bring a cross wish with it [...].


You may be most completely furnished with all manner of fishing tackling at Mr. Fletchers, near St. Gregories Church by the west end of Pauls; or at Mr. Bran­dons, near to the Swan in Golden-lane; or at Mr. Kirbies in Harp Alley in Shoo­lane, who is a most choice Hook-maker.


  • ANgling Tools when to provide Page 2
  • Angling the several kinds. Page 14
  • Angling at ground for the Trout. Page 40
  • Angling in the night. Page 41
  • Angling with the Menow. Page 42
  • Anglig for the Pike. Page 44
  • Angling for the Eele Page 49
  • Angling at ground for all sorts of fish, dire­ctions. Page 51
  • Ant-flies to keep. Page 73
  • Bark-worm. Page 71
  • Bags for worms. Page 12
  • Barbel his baits. Page 59
  • His haunt. Page 80
  • Bleak his baits as the Roach. Page 60
  • Bobs. Page 70
  • Bream his baits. Page 61
  • His haunt. Page 80
  • His time of biting. Page 94
  • Boxes for Flies, Cankers, &c. Page 12
  • Bobbing. Page 49
  • Brogling Page ibid.
  • Bulhead. Page 63
  • Bloud to order. Page 72
  • [Page]Cadbait his kind. Page 69
  • How to keep them. Page 68
  • How to use them. Page 38
  • Cane or Reed its best use. Page 4
  • Carp his baits. Page 57
  • His haunt. Page 79
  • His time of biting. Page 93
  • Chevin or Chub his baits. Page 60
  • His haunt. Page 80
  • His time of biting. Page 93
  • Dace his baits. Page 59
  • His haunt. Page 80
  • His time of biting. Page 94
  • Depth of water to try. Page 11
  • Eele his baits. Page 58
  • His haunt. Page 79
  • His time of biting. Page
  • Flie, what fish rise best at it. Page 17
  • When each Flie comes in. Page 19
  • How to find that time. Page 20
  • Flie artificial to make. Page 24
  • Directions how to use it. Page 30
  • [Page]Flie natural to angle with. Page 21
  • Directions how to use it. Page 22
  • Why fish rise not at the artificial Flie in muddy rivers so well as in others. Pages 34, 35, 36
  • Flounder his baits. Page 61
  • His haunt. Page 81
  • His time of biting. Page 84
  • Flag-worm. Page 75
  • When fish rise at the Flie best. Page 91
  • Feeding the fish. Page 95
  • Gudgeon his baits. Page 59
  • His haunt. Page 81
  • His time of biting. Page 94
  • Grayling, vide Umber. Page
  • Grain to order. Page 72
  • Hooks the shape. Page 9
  • How to set them to the line. Page 10
  • To sharpen them. Page 12
  • Line how to make. Page 7
  • Lines, hooks, flies to carry. Page 13
  • Leach his baits, haunts, &c. Page 61
  • Menow his baits, haunts, &c. Pages 61, 62
  • [Page] Mullet his baits. Page [...]
  • His haunt as the Flounder. Page 81
  • Maggots to breed and keep. Page 74
  • Oak-worm how to use, and when the fish take it best. Page 69
  • Pannier. Page 13
  • Pastes to make. Page 63
  • Pike his baits. Page 45
  • His haunt. Page 80
  • His time of biting. Page 94
  • How to halter him. Page 58
  • Pearch his baits. Page 101
  • His haunts. Page 79
  • His biting time. Page 102
  • Roach his baits. Page 59
  • His haunt. Page 80
  • His time of biting. Page 94
  • Ruff his baits. Page 79
  • His haunt. Page 80
  • Biting time as the Pearch. Page
  • Salmon his baits. Page 54
  • His haunt. Page 77
  • Biting time Page 92
  • Shad and Suant their baits. Page 61
  • Their haunts. Page 81
  • [Page]Biting time as the Flounder. Page 84
  • Spawn of fish how to use. Page 68
  • Swivel its use. Page 43
  • Tench his baits, Page 57
  • His haunt. Page 79
  • Biting time. Page 99
  • Trout his baits. Page 55
  • His haunt. Page 78
  • His biting time. Page 92
  • To take a Trout you have missed. Page 44
  • Trowle its several wayes. Page ibid.
  • Umber his baits. Page 56
  • His haunt. Page 80
  • His biting time. Page 92
  • Worms how to order. Page 65
  • Worm-bags. Page 12
  • Wasps. Page 71

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