Of BABYLON (Rev. 18. 4.) being the present See of Rome. (With a Sermon of Bishop BEDELS upon the same words.)

Of laying on of hands (Heb. 6. 2.) to be an ordained Ministery.

Of the old Form of words in Ordination.

Of a Set Form of PRAYER.

Each being the JUDGMENT of the late Arch-Bishop of ARMAGH, and Primate of IRELAND.

Published and enlarged by Nicholas Bernard D. D. and Preacher to the Honourable Society of Grayes-Inne, London.

Unto which is added a Character of Bishop BEDEL, And an Answer to Mr. Pierces Fifth Letter concerning the late PRIMATE.

London, Printed for Iohn Crook, at the Signe of the Ship in St. Pauls Church-yard, 1659.

TO THE Right Worshipfull Sir WILLIAM ELLIS BARONET, His HIGHNES Sollicitor GENERALL, The Readers, and Benchers, With the Ancients, Barresters, and Students, Of the Honourable Society of Graies-Inne.

YEe are thus inti­tuled to these Trea­tises. The occasi­on of publishing the First, [Page] was a Sermon preached by the late Arch-Bishop of ARMAGH in your Chap­pell of the same subject, Nov. 5. 1654. who (out of his old love to this socie­ty, whereof he was a mem­ber) intended it as his last: the request then made to him for the permission of printing that, he did satisfy in his consent to the publish­ing of this For the other, some parts of them have been long agone preached before you by the Authour, though now in another manner enlarged; which as a testimony of his due ob­servance [Page] and respect to this Honourable Society, he de­sires may be accepted from him, who is

Yours in the service of Christ, N. BERNARD.

To the Reader

HOw Popery andThough of late it hath had that lati­tude as to comprehend Episcopacy, yet, in Ancient Re­cords (which I have seen) it was limited to the Deans and Chapters; For this was then the form of the Arch-Bi­shops Provin­ciall visitation, declaring that he would visit, Episcopum, Praelatos, cle­rum & populum. Prelacy came first to be contracted, is not my en­quiry; but sure I am, they are here very far a sunder, such as do apply that of Babylon (Rev. 17.) and the Man of sin (2 Thes. 2.) to the Pope can hardly be ac­counted Popish, which you find af­firmed by the late Archbishop of Armagh, and Bishop Bedell, in their discussing of the same words, And who are supported in if by the most Eminent Bishops of Eng­land and Ireland, since the Refor­mation. [Page] Archbishop Whitgift, Bi­shop Jewell; Abbot, Bilson, An­drews, Downham, Morton, Hall, Davenant, Prideaux, with others, who have unanimously given their votes the same way, as is hereaf­ter shewn, And indeed it could not be otherwise expected from some of them who had been taught to put him into theirCommon Prayer in Edw. 6. Letany, From the Tyranny of the Bishop of Rome, and all his detestable enor­mities, Good Lord deliver us. So that if any of later years pro­fessing themselves to be the sons of those old Prophets, have so far favoured the See of Rome, as to divert the stream of that applica­tion some other way, it appears they have in it degenerated from their Ancestors.

The first Treatise, being the Pri­mates three positions concerning [Page] Babylon, was wrot above 40 years agone, (which appears by the pla­ces of Scripture, rendred accord­ing to the old Translation) and sent to an Irish Jesuit in Dublin, (as I take itThe first that broach­ed that fig­ment of the Nagges head conscration in England, af­ter 45 yeares silence of any other Author, which in Bi­shop Bedells Letters to Wadesworth, p. 142. is con­futed. Christophorus à sacro bosco, there called F. Haly­wood, the summe of which having been delivered by the Primate in a Sermon which he preached at Grays-Inne, Nov. 5. 1654. and be­ing much desired by some of the Au­ditours to be published, he did con­descend, to permit this, with that other Letter following, in their satisfaction.

The learned Sermon of Bishop Bedels (being of the same subject) I heard him preach it in Christ-Church, Dublin, 1634. before the Lord Deputy and Parliament. The occasion of his giving a copy of it, was at the request of a Papist, to [Page] have shewen it to some learned men of his own Religion, and my opportunity to have it, was the near relation I had to him for divers years in that See; which after these 22 yeares lying latent with me) I have taken this fit occasion to publish it.

That which I have added, is by way of confirmation from some grounds out of Ancient Fathers, the successive votes both of the learned Writers in those ages, who lived under the Tyranny of the See of Rome, as of our eminent Bishops and Writers, since that yoke was cast off in England; with the concurrence of our book of Homilies, severall Synods of our own, and other reformed Chur­ches, the determination of the Synops. Theol. disp 41. de Christo & An­tichristo conclus. Ex quibus ap­paret Pontifi­cem & Papam Romanum, re­vera An [...]ich [...]i­f [...]um & filium perditionis esse, &c. Dutch and French Divines. It being very observable, that what­soever [Page] differences there are in the reformed Churches in other mat­ters, yet there is a marvellous uni­ty in this. To which is added the like judgement of Arminius, and some of the Church of Rome, (continuing at least in that com­munion) who professe it out-right; others by way of consequence: Their chief Writers, who meet us halfe way, granting the place, on­ly disputing the time, contending as much as we, that Babylon (Rev. 17.) must be meant Rome, the dif­ference between us, whether Eth­nick, or Papall.

For that of the Primates judge­ment (seconded by some eminent Writers) what is meant, Heb, 6. 2. by laying on of hands, and of the sense of the old form of words in Ordination; viz. Receive the holy Ghost, whose sins thou for­givest, [Page] &c. and the use of them to be continued. I had leave from himself for the manifesting and enlarging of it. And I suppose the last subject concerning a Set Form of Prayer, will passe with the lesse opposition, by the con­curring of divers eminent and worthy Persons, whom the con­trary-minded cannot but highly esteem of. Having both in the for­mer and this, taken up Saint Pauls manner of arguing with the Athenians, as certain also of your own have said, &c. or as elsewhere, one of themselves, e­ven a Prophet of their own, &c. And surely, the Primates appear­ing so much against the See of Rome in the first, cannot but be a preparative to the hearkning unto him the rather, in the two later.

[Page]For my self, I have no other de­sign in the whole, but the peace and unity of the Church, which we are all bound to seek, (and with­out which end and aim, all gifts whatsoever coveted by us, are of no value) and I hope to have that interpretation from such as are so affected.

Two things which have been enlarged by way of Vindication of the Eminent Primate, from the injuries of Doctor Heylene, came so in my way, that I could not passe them, which else (by his being in the esteem of men so far above his reach) there had been no need of. He having in those and divers other aspersions which he hath cast upon him in his late book (which may hereafter be fully cleared) done himselfe the chiefest wrong.

[Page]I commend the whole to the Readers charitable and impar­tiall censure, that no prejudicate opinion doe obstruct his right ap­prehension.


The First consists of three POSITIONS.
  • 1. THat a great City cal­led Babylon, shall be a Seducer.
  • 2. That by this City is meant ROME.
  • 3. Not Heathen Rome, but since it was freed from the Go­vernment both of Heathen and Christian Emperours, and became the possession of the Pope.
The Second.
  • [Page]How the Papacy may be said to be the Beast that was, and is not, and yet is, Rev. 17. 18.
The Third (being Bishop Be­dels Sermon on Rev. 18. 4. Come out of her my people, &c.)
  • The Speaker, our Saviour Christ: His people, those within the Covenant of Grace: A paral­leling the Speeches here, with those of the Prophets; Of Litte­rall Babell; who meant by Mysti­call Babylon: The judgement of Bellarmine, Salmeron, Viegas, to be the City of Rome. How the title of Babylon the great, and her reigning over the Kings of the earth, rather agrees to Rome Papal, then Heathen: The Cup of inchantment whereby she hath [Page] deceived all Nations, and one in speciall, in imitation of literall Babell, (Dan. 1.) applyed to that See; Her Wantonnesse, Pride, sit­ting as a Queen, glorifying her self: the blood of Christians shed by the Papacy, to be beyond that of Heathen Romes persecution: his conclusion from the Pre­mises.
  • That there are some of Gods people in Babylon; That they are to goe out not only in affection, but the place also: Of Baptisme, Grounds of the Catechisme, Faith, taught there; of the doctrine of of merits: What is to be thought of those that doe yet live there, and cannot come out: Whether the Church of Rome be a true Church, rightly stated, p. 83. Of the Ordination had there, by the use of these words; Whose sins ye re­mit, [Page] &c. That the Papall Mo­narchy is Babylon, proved by arguments at the barre of Reason, and from common principles of Christianity. p. 89.
  • Answer to that motive of stay­ing in Babylon, because they are told they may be saved in it:
  • An exhortation of such as are yet in that captivity to come out, and of our selves to come further out. Of Impropriations, Dispen­sations, &c. with a conclusive prayer for the destruction of Ba­bylon.
The Fourth, A Confirmation of the abovesaid judgment.
  • From some grounds out of the Ancient Fathers, consenting in an expectation that Rome must be the place, and the successor of the Emperour there, the Person. [Page] A clear application of it to the See of Rome, by the Fathers and Wri­ters in successive ages before and after the tenth Century: The Judg­ment of the eminent Bishops of England since the reformation, the book of Homilies, especially in 2 places, calling the Pope Antichrist, and the Babylonical beast of Rome. A Synod in France, as Ireland; How far confessed by the prime writers of the Church of Rome. The mistake of such as have diver­ted the application of it some o­ther way; an Answer of a passage of Doctor Heylenes concerning it, in relation to the Primate, and Articles of Ireland.
The Fifth, Of laying on of Hands. Heb. 6. 2.
  • Reasons why not confirmation, but ordination. Paraeus and Mr. [Page] Cartwrights concurrence in it with the Primate. The necessity of an ordained Ministry. The neglect of it as undermining the foundation. Objections answered, with a sea­sonable application to the pre­sent times. The necessity of an external call; The Authority not from the People, That objection a­gainst our ordination being deri­ved from Rome, at large answered p. 218. That personal faults in the ordainers doth not null the or­dination; Some application.
  • The 6. Of the old form of words in Ordination, Receive the Holy Ghost, not meant of the sanctifying grace of the spirit, nor extraordinary gifts of it, but of ghostly or spirituall Ministeriall authority. 1 Cor. 3. verse 3. 6. and 1 Iohn 2. 20. The anointing teach­eth you, &c. illustrated. An obje­ction [Page] out of S. Augustine answered.
  • Whose sins thou forgivest, &c. In what sense Ministers are said to forgive sins. The Primates judge­ment in his answer to the Iesuits Challenge, defended to be accord­ing to the doctrine of the Church of England, which Doctor Heylene hath scandalized him in it.
The 7th. Of a Set Form of Prayer.
  • The judgment of Calvine. Dutch, and French divines with their Practice. Examples out of the Old Testament, and New. The pattern of our Saviour, giving a form to his disciples, ta­king one to himself, and obser­ving the set forms made by others. That objection of Stinting the spirit answered. An Vniformity in publique prayer a means of reducing unity in Church and State. The full concurrence of [Page] Mr. Rogers, Mr. Egerton, Dr. Gouge, Mr. Hildersham, Dr. Sibbs, Dr. Preston, &c. Of the length and gesture in prayer, Mr. Hilder­sham of an outward reverence in the publick.
  • A Character of Bishop Bedell, his industry at Venice, and at home, humility, moderation, go­vernment, and sufferings.
  • An answer to Mr. Thomas Pier­ces fifth Letter, wherein three Certificates have been published by him, for the justification of a change of judgement in the late Primate of Ireland in some points.


SOme omissions of Accents Po [...]nting, and number of pages, the intelligent Reader may correct himself.

Page 39. l. 2. r. professed p. 40. l. 8. r. [...]o-ammi. p. 44. l. 18. r. ir [...] p. 45. Lo. for there tis related that p. 46. l. 15. d. and p. 48. l. 8. circun. p. 49. l. 6. ly. p. 63. l. [...]. d. [...]. p. 59. l. 11. (although p. 60. l. 4. her. p. 63. l. 1. As gods l. 21. dis [...] p. 64. l. 22. they, they. p. 70. l. 10. val. p. 82. l. 20. d. [...] p. 92. l. 6. may, p. 160. l. 23. & p. 161. l. 11. Padre. p. 162. mar. l. 8. justif. p. 185. l. 2. baptizing p. 189. l. 2.-mining p. 198. l. 6. of the p. 248. l. 22. mediatly p. 250. l. 22. a. p: 278. l. 12 there p. 317. l. 8. Wethers­field p. 322. l. 18. prayer, p. 329. l [...] 21. and Mr. p. 362. l. 12. d. follow­ing. p. [...]78. l. ult. d. which.

The judgement of the late Arch-bishop of Armagh, and Primate of Ireland, what is understood by Babylon, in Apoc. 17. & 18.

Apoc. 18. v. 4.‘Go out from her my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and receive not of her plagues.’

IN these words we are straightly enjoyned, upon our peril, to make a separation from Babylon. For the understanding of which charge, these three Positions following are to be considered.

The first Position.

THat it is plainly foretold in the the Word of God, that after the planting of the Faith by the Apo­stles; the Kings and Inhabitants of the earth should be seduced and drawn into damnable errours: and that the mother of all these Abominations of the Earth, should be a certain great City called Babylon, in a Mysterie.


THis we finde directly laid down in the Revelation, that aApoc. 17. v. 18. & 18 v. 2. & 21. great Citie calledApoe. 17. 5. in a mystery Babylon should become the mother of the spiritual whoredome and abo­minations of the earth, so that the Apoc. 17 2. & 18. v. 3. Kings of the earth should commit for­nication with her, and the I [...]habitants [Page 3] of the earth should be made drunke with the wine of her fornication.

The second Position.

THat by this great City Babylon (the Mother of all the abomi­nations of the earth) is under­stood Rome.


1. BY the clear Testimony of Scripture, in the seventeen Chapter of the Revelation; where this City is described unto us, First by the situation; that it is seated upon seven Hills, (v. 9. 18.) and then by the largeness of the Dominion thereof; That it is that great Citie that ruleth over the Kings of the earth, (v. 18.) Now that by these two marks Rome was most notori­ously known in the Apostles dayes, may appear even by the Romane Poets, who describe Rome just af­ter [Page 4] the same manner, as(Horat. in Car. se­culari.) Dii quibus septem pla­cuere colles. Ovid;

Sed quae de septem totum circumspi­cit orbem
Montibus, imperii Roma Deumque locus.

Rome the place of the Empire▪ and of the Gods,Trist. lib. 1. Eleg. 4. Lib. 3. E­leg. 10. which from seven hills doth take a view of the whole world. And more shortly Propertius.

Septem urbs alta jugis toti quae prae­sidet Orbi.

The City mounted on seven hils which ruleth the whole world. No man reading Propertius, ever made question, but that Rome was here described; and therefore no reason why any doubt should be made, what that great Citie may be, which with the same colours is painted out unto us in the book of the Revelation.

[Page 5]2. By the judgement of the an­ancient Fathers, affirming expresly that Rome is meant by Babylon, in the seventeenth Chapter of the Re­velation, as the Rhemists themselves doe voluntarily confess in their last note upon the first Epistle of Peter

3. By the Confession of those who are most Devoted to the See of Rome: as (to name one for many,De Rom. Pontif. lib. 2. cap. 2. (Bellarmine the Cardinal Je­suite; whose words are these: ‘[Iohn in the Revelation every where calleth Rome Babylon, as Tertullian hath noted in his third Book against Marcion, and in his Book against the Jewes: and it is plainly gathered out of the seventeenth Chapter of the Reve­lation: Where great Babylon is said to sit upon seven Mountains and to have Dominion over the Kings of the earth. For there is no [Page 6] other City which in the time of Iohn had Dominion over the Kings of the Earth, but Rome; and the building of Rome upon 7. hills, is a matter most famous.]’ Hitherto Bellarmine.

The third Position.

THat old Rome onely under the Heathen persecutors (from the time of the first Emperour till Constantines dayes) was not Babylon (as the Proctors of the Church of Rome would per­swade us) but Rome in her last dayes being free from the Go­vernment both of Heathen and Christian Emperours. And that Rome was to be that Babylon, which should draw the Kings and Nations of the world unto Superstition and Idolatrie from such time as it ceased to be sub­ject [Page 7] to the civil Prince (and became the Possession of the Pope) until the last destruction thereof, which is yet to come.


1. THe matter of Babylon is re­vealed unto Saint John as a mysterie, Apoc [...]7. 6. But the per­secution of the Church by the Hea­then Emperour was far from being a mysterie: For it being openly committed,Apo [...]. 1▪ 9. Saint Iohn himself at the same time being a companion with the rest of the Saints in this tribula­tion (banished for the Word of God, and for the witnessing of Iesus Christ into the Iland Pathmos:) this could not be shewed as a secret and mysti­cal thing. And therefore some fur­ther matter, not then openly known to the world must here be intended.

[Page 8]2. The state of Babylon after her fall, is thus declared, Apoc. 18. 2. [...] is fallen, it is fallen, Babylon the great Citie is become the habitation of Devils, & the hold of all foul spirits, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird; for all Nations have drunken of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the Kings of the Earth have committed fornication with her, &c. If Heathen Rome onely were Babylon, it would follow that upon the fall thereof in the dayes of Constantine the Empe­rour, Rome professing the Faith of Christ should then become the habi­tation of Devils, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird. Which be­ing a most grosse and absurd imagi­nation, it must needs be granted, that after the dayes of the Christian Emperour, the faithful Citie should become a harlot; Romans 1. 8. even Rome (whose Faith was once renowned throughout [Page 9] all the world) should become Baby­lon the mother of whoredomes and abo­minations of the Earth. Apoc. 17. 5.

3. Such a Desolation is foretold should come upon the great City Babylon (which in the second positi­on is proved to be Rome) that it should utterly be destroyed and never built again, nor reinhabited, (Apoc. 18. v. 21, 22, 23.) Now at that very time when this judgement shall come; it is said that the Kings of the Earth which have committed fornication with her, shall bewail her and lament her, (Rev. 18. verse 9.) whereby it is most evident that Rome is not to cease from being Babylon, till her last destruction shall come upon her; and that unto her last gaspe she is to continue her spi­ritual fornications, alluring all Na­tions unto her superstition and ido­latrie,

[Page 10]4. Saint Paul, 2 Thessalonians 2. 7. Declareth that there was One in his time who did hinder the re­vealing of that wicked man, who was to be the head of this Apo­stacie, and falling away from the Faith. And when that he should be taken out of the way, then (saith the Apostle Verse 8.) Shall that wicked man be revealed. He that with-held and made this hin­derance in the Apostles time could be no other but the Emperour, in whose hands, as long as the pos­session and governement of Rome remained, it was impossible that that wicked One (of whom the A­postle speaketh) should raigne there. So that upon his removal, that man of sinne must succeede in his roome, whereupon that great Citie, wherein he placeth [Page 11] his Throne falleth to be that Ba­bylon, Revel. 18. 23. which should deceive all Nations with her inchant­ments. Now all the world can witnesse, that the Emperour, who sometime was the Soveraigne Lord of Rome, is now quite turn­ed out of the Possession thereof, and the Pope entered thereupon in his stead. Whereupon it fol­loweth, that the Pope (for all his Holiness) is that wicked one of whom the Apostle Prophesied,2 Thess. 2. 4 that he should sit in the temple of God exalting himself above all that is called God or worshipped: And consequently, that Rome, (where he hath set­tled his Chayre) hath long since begun, and yet continueth to be that Babylon; from whose com­munion we are charged to sever our selves, by that voyce from [Page 12] Heaven,Apoc. 18. 4. Goe out of her my People, that ye be not par­takers of her sinnes, and receive not of her Plagues.

The judgement of the Pri­mate (wrot by him long agoe in answer to the request of a learned Friend) what is meant by the beast that was, and is not, and yet is, and other passages in the 17. and 18. of the Revelation.

IN the Revelation these four Particalars must be carefully distin­guished. The woman (which is the great City Babylon.)

The first beast which ariseth out of the Sea, Apoc. 13. 1.

The second beast which ariseth out of the Earth, Apoc. 13. 11. and the false Prophet which ministreth to the second beast that goeth to de­struction, [Page 14] Apoc. 16. 13. (19. 20.) by which are meant (as I conceive) Vrbs Romana, Imperium Romanum, Pontifex Romanus, and Clerus Roma­nus. The two beasts in Cap. 13. verse 11. are plainly distinguished, and that distinction must necessarily be ob­served in the seventeenth Chapter. Likewise for the great beast men­tioned in the third and seventh verses of that Chapter is the same with the first beast of the thirteenth Chapter as appeareth by the like description of the seven heads and ten horns: the lesser beasts mentioned in the eighth and eleventh verses, (which is the last head of the for­mer) can be no other but the second beast mentioned in the thirteenth Chapter, verse 22 who revived the Image of the former, i. e. of the Empire, and made all to admire and adore it.

[Page 15]Now the Question is how this latter which is Pontifex Romanus can be said to be the beast, that was, and is not, and yet is? My conceit of this is Singular, but such as it is, I will not conceal from you; The Pontifices among the ancient Rom. (as Dionysius Halicarnassaeus, noteth in his second Book of Roman Antiqui­ties) were obnoxious to no other jurisdiction, neither were bound to render account of their doings to a­ny, they were only at the command of the Pontifex maximus, whose au­thority was so great that the Empe­rours thought it inconvenient that this Supremacy should be commit­ted to any other, therefore by as­sumeing it to themselves, and anex­ing it to their imperial Crown, they did by this means extinguish the Spiritual Magistracie, and in a sort extinguish the solemne Magistracy, [Page 16] which (under the 5. former heads) was distinguished from all other superiour Governments, and pro­secuted with special regard and re­verence. That as if now for exam­ple in our state, one should Prophe­sie of the Government of the Dukes of Lancaster under the like Type, he might say of them in this manner; The beast that was (for the Dukes of Lancaster in their time have been great) and is not (for by annexing of the Dutchey to the Crown, there is now no speech of any Duke) and yet i [...] (for the Dutchey still remaineth with the several offices appertaining thereunto, though the state of the Duke lieth as it were drowned in the person of the King) So in like manner, the Angel might speak of these Pontifices Roman [...], the beast that was (for he was in former time of speciall account) And is not (Being [Page 17] now confounded, and, in a manner, swallowed up with the state of the Emperour) And yet is (for the Priest-hood remained still,) the Title and Dignity there­of resting in the Emperour. This Beast, this Pontifex Romanus shall hereafter appear in his Pontifica­libus, and by his creatures (the false Prophet) induce the world to accept his Ponti [...]ical power for the highest upon earth, as before they did the Imperial, the image where­of is in this perfectly revived.

As for the second we are to con­sider that the seven heads of the first beast are expounded, Apoc. 17. 9. & 10. to be both the seven Mountains on which the woman, (i. e.) the great City, verse 18. was seated, and the seven Kings (or head Governours,) by which that City was ruled.

[Page 18]The Pope in regard of his Civil power over the woman (i. e.) his Regall Power over the City of Rome, orderly succeedeth the six heads that went before him, and so becometh the seventh, claiming that respect in higher headship then did his Predecessors.

But not content with that, for whereas the state of Pontifex ma­ximus, which in Saint Iohns time after a sort was, and is not, as hath been shewed, by means of the Christian Emperors was clean extinguisht (the first of them bear­ing only the Title, but not exer­cising the Office, and Gratian the Emperour at last abolishing both the Title and the Office, as by Zosimus a heathen Historian we understand) the Pope raised it a­gain out of the grave and took it to himself, and after he had got­ten [Page 19] to be the seventh head, re­tained not the pontificality as an appendant of his regall Power (as did the Emperours before him) but advanced the head there­of far above any of the seven civil supreme governments, making himself by that means an eight head distinct from any of the for­mer, which in respect of his civil Power was one of the seven; Nei­ther was he content to extend the jurisdiction of his Pontificality, ad urbem & regiones suburbicarias onely, or to bound it within the confines of Italy, but (which was never done by any Pontifex maxi­mus, before him) by being Ponti­fex urbis; he challenged a Title of Summus Pontifex Orbis, and so became not onely a head of the former beast, but also a severall beast by himself, receiving in his [Page 20] government the image of the for­mer beasts, drawing all the world to worship the same, for (as Au­gustinus Steuchus writeth in his second Book against Laur. Val­la) when the Pontificality was first set up in Rome, all Nations from East to West did worship the Pope, no otherwise then of old, the Caesars.

A SERMON, Preached at Christ-Church Dublyn, before the Lord Deputie, and the Parliament of Ireland, by BP. BEDELL, Bishop of Kilmore in Ireland, Anno 1634.

Revel. 18. 4.‘And I heard another voyce from Heaven saying, Come out of her my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues.’
Right Honorable, Reverend, Worshipful and Beloved.

THe Censure that Saint Hierome passeth on this Book of the Revelation, Tot Sacramenta quot Ver­ [...], so many Words so many My­steries, [Page 34] hath often run in my mind, and made me even fearful to pro­nounce concerning the divers Vi­sions in it, and even loath to meddle with it; Neither have I to my best rememberance, above twice in my whole life chosen any Text out of it to declare out of this place, which resolution I should stil have holden, save that I conceive some extraor­dinary fitness in this passage for the present occasion of this great meet­ing: And yet even now I shall treat of such a part, as is none of the hardest to be understood; so as with out lanching into any deep and sub­tle Disputations, we may keep us by the shore side. And if you will be pleased to favour my indeavour: with your religious Attention, and the weaknesse of my voyce with your silence, I will hold as straight a course as I can, and without fur­ther [Page 35] preamble come to the matter it self of this Text.

And first for the Connexion and Declaration of the Sence, you shall be pleased to understand, that in the former Chapter, Saint Iohn is shew­ed a sight whereat he wondered with great marvel.Verse 3. A woman sitting upon a Scarlet coloured beast, full of names of Blasphemy, which had seven heads and tenn horns; this woman had in her fore-head a name written, Ba­bylon the great, the Mother of harlots and Abominations of the Earth. And in the rest of the Chapter the Mystery of the Woman, and the beast that bare her, being largely declared and one thing amongst the rest,Verse 9. that she sitts on seven hills,) the Conclusion is,Verse 18. That she is the great Citie which raigneth over the Kings of the Earth. In this Chapter Saint Iohn proceeds in the same [Page 36] ter, and tells, how he saw first a mighty Angel descending from Heaven and proclaiming the fall of this Babylon, (Verse 2. 3.) and towards the end of the Chapter, to confirm the matter wih a sign, an­other mighty Angel takes up a Mil­stone and throwes it into the Sea, with this word with like violence Babylon shall be thrown, and no more be found. Verse 21. In the middest between the Voyces of these two Angels is inserted a long Speech, uttered al­so by a Voyce from Heaven, begin­ing at this fourth Verse which I have now read and extending to the twenty ninth, partly admo­nishing Gods People to come out of this Babylon in time, Verse 7. partly descri­bing her pride and security going before her destruction, partly bringing in as it were the Funeral Song,Verse 10. that is, sung for her by her [Page 73] followers and Lovers partly ex­hortingVerse 20. Heaven with those that dwell therein to rejoyce at her ruine.

This is the Order now for the meaning of the words, that shall appeare best by resolving three Questions. 1. Whose this Voyce is? 2. To whom it speaks? And 3. What? We need not be long to seek Who it is that speaks; For both those that speak before and after are expresly called Angels, and he that now speaks lacks that Addition, and the interest that he challengeth in those that are spoken to, calling them My People, sheweth plainly (to use the words of our blessed Au­thour in his speech to Peter at the Sea of Tiberias) It is the Lord. John 21. 7 And albeit those relations between the Lord and his People are often men­tioned in Scripture, without any [Page 38] restraint to any one person in the blessed Trinity, yet because he that here speaks telleth of the Lord Gods judgeing the great Citie, Verse the 8. As of another and third person, Strong is the Lord God that judgeth her. And again, Verse 20. Speak­ing to the Prophets and Apostles, saith, God hath avenged you on her. It is evident that he who hear speakes is the Mediatour, Our Lord Jesus Christ, who carries his peo­ple not in his minde onely, but in the Explication of his name, Mat­thew 1. 21. He shall save his People from their sinnes. Whereto it fitly agrees that this Voyce is uttered, From Heaven, where our Lord Jesus is at the right hand of God: We see the speaker, now who are spoken unto Christs People: There is no doubt, but in some Sense all the World are Christs People, His [Page 39] Inberitance, his Possession. Psalm 2. 8. And so much is often expres [...]y expressed,Exod. 19. 5. But yet the Scripture in many pla­ces intimateth, that this phrase re­straineth from the World to some particular and choice people,Deut. 7 6. Chap. 10. 14, 15. and Chap. 3. and 9. name­ly Israel, The Lord thy God hath chosen thee to be a speciall people unto himselfe above all People that are upon the face of the Earth. So Chapter 10. The Lords portion is his People, Jacob the lot of his Inheritance; Exod. 19. 5. Ye shall be my peculiar Treasure above all People, though all the Earth be mine.

Hence it is, that these two, My people, and Israel; are used indiffe­rently in the same Sentence, as Psalm 57: Heare O my people O Is­rael, and so in many other places;Isay 81. 8. 13. yet even amongst these there is some time a difference put,Micah 6 2 for all that are of Israel are not counted [Page 40] Gods People, to some of them it is said,Isay 1. 10. Hear the Word of the Lord ye Rulers of Sodome, give ear ye Peo­ple of Gomorah: And for an up­braiding of their continual rebel­lions against the Lord, the Pro­phet Hosea is bidden to name one of his sons,Hosea 1. 9. Lo-mmi, ye are not my peo­ple; and when to all other their Re­bellions they rejected, yea cruci­fied the Lord of Glory, the Lord also rejected them, and as he threat­ned by his Prophet,Isa. 65. 15. called his ser­vants by another name, Christians: Even these also are in a different manner socalled; sometimes all that are within the Covenant of Grace, and the Sacraments thereof are called Christs People; sometimes those that he hath foreknown, and that are within the grace of the Co­venant;Rom. 12. 2 God hath not cast away his People whom he foreknew according [Page 41] to that:Jer. 31. 33 I will put my Law into their inward parts, and write it in their hearts, I will be their God and they shall be my People. And these are those here most properly spoken unto, as appears, because the Mo­tives here used the fear of partaking in sinne and punishment, most properly work upon these, besides these being oppressed & holden in Captivity by the mystical Babylon here spoken of are in the 6. Verse Exhorted to cry her quittance in the same words almost which the ancient Church of Israel useth con­cerning the old Babel: Psal. 137. 8. O Daughter of Babylon which art to be destroyed, happy shall he be that rewardeth thee as thou hast served us.

The third and last Point to be cleared remains, what the people of God are commanded to doe, goe out of her, saith our Lord Iesus Christ; [Page 42] That is doubtlesse out of Babylon,Isa. 21. 9. before proclaimed, to be fallen that is after the Prophetical phrase cer­tainly to fall; Babel is fallen, is fallen whence this form is bor­rowed.

That Babel was a City in Chaldea, standing by the River Euphrates, where by the occasion of the pre­sumptious Tower, the Languages of Mankinde were confounded, Genesis 11. 10. The first seate of Nymrods Tyranny, Chapter 10. 10. Nebuchadnezer the King thereof carried thither Captive, Iehoiakim and with him Daniel and his com­panions, together with the vessels of the House of God; about some twelve years after Zedekiah also was carried away Captive to the same place, Ierusalem burnt, the Temple desolated, and the whole people in a manner carried out of their own [Page 43] land to the same place of Babel, where they continued seventy years unto the overthrow of the Baby­lonian Monarchy by Cyrus.

The Prophets Isay and Jeremiah, foretel the ruine of this Babel, and delivering of Gods People from her Tyranny, whom they exhort upon her fall to returne into their own land: Hence is this forme taken, and this whole Chapter is compiled of little else, but the phra­ses of the Prophets touching Babel and Tyrus as the diligent reader by comparing the concording places may easily perceive:

This Exhortation to leave Ba­bylon,Isa. 52. 11. Ser. 50. 8. and Jer. 51 6. 9. is, Depart ye, Depart ye goe out from thence, remove out of the middest of Babylon, and goe forth out of the land of the Chaldeans, flee out of the middest of Babylon, and de­liver every man his Soul, be not cut [Page 44] off in her iniquitie for sake her, and let us goe every one into his own Coun­trey, Vers. 45. My people, goe ye out of the middest of her, and deliver ye every man his Soul from the fierce an­ger of the Lord, which as you see are almost the very words of this Text, so that which followes here in the seaventh Verse, I sit as a Queen and am no VVidow, and shall see no sor­row, is taken out of Isaiah 47. 7, 8.

The wayling of the Merchants of this Babel, and the store and pre­ciousnesse of her Merchandize is borrowed from the like Descrip­tion of the Costlyness of Tyrus, Ezekiel 27.Ezek. 27. The inrecoverable ru­ine of this Babel shewed in the end of this Chapter, by the signe of a great Milstone cast into the Sea, is taken out of Ier. 51.Ier. 51. Where the Prophesie of that it self against Babel, [Page 45] is appointed to be bound to a Milstone, and cast into the river Euphrates, which ran through the old Babell, with this word. Thus shall Babel sinke, and shall not rise from the evil which I will bring upon her.

These Prophecies were accord­ingly accomplished, as you may see in Daniel, Daniel 5. for she is related in a great Feast made by Belshazzar to a thou­sand of his Lords (wherein he would needs bring forth the Vessels of Gods House for his Nobles and Con­cubines to quaff in.) God wrote his Doom with a hand upon the wall of his Banquetting-house, and the same night the Medes and Persians under Darius and Cyrus, entered the Citie, slew the King, and pro­claimed libertie to Gods People, Ezra 1. 1. to return into their Countrey and re­edifie the House of God as you may see, and thus came Babel the [Page 46] Glory of Kingdomes (as it is called Esay 13. 19.) to Confusion: But this is the literal Babel, whereunto there is a reference in this Text, What now is the Mystical Babylon which here Gods People are bid­den to leave. Questionlesse some City answering to this, in State, in Glorie in Oppression of the People of God, neither must we take it for the buildings onely and houses, but for the State also and Policy; as besides the Evidence of the Type of old Babel, so taken by the Pro­phets, and the common use of all Authours in like Case doth lead us.

There be two Opinions recited by Cardinal Bellarmine in this matter, one that it should be the communitie of all the wicked and re­probate. But this hath no manner of agreement: with the Circumstan­ces [Page 47] of the Text: This is not seated on seven hills, nor hath it seven Kings, five fallen, one being, and an­other to come, nor will those things that are foretold of the de­struction of Babel agree to this Ex­position, and is rejected by the learned of that side: And himselfe names another, (which he ap­proves for the better) viz. that here by Babel is meant the Citie of Rome. As that was in Saint Iohns time, for as he shewes out of Ter­tullian, Look as old Babylon was the head of that Empire, whose King persecuted and lead into cap­tivity, the People of God, so did Rome then: This is not onely Bellarmines judgement, but Salmeron, Viegas, and others of that side that Babylon is Rome. They do well to yield to the clear evidence of truth so clear in deed as it would be [Page 48] too shameful impudence to deny it; For what City was there which in Saint Iohns time could have the addition of great, but onely Rome, or did rule over the Kings of the earth, or (to omit all other Arguments was seated on seven hills: Septem­que una sibi muro cirnundedit arces; It may be said Constantinople also is set on seven hills and not unfitly, for it was built in Emulation of Rome called new Rome, but not till some Anno 330. Ages after Saint Iohns time, we need not spend more words in a plam matter having our Adversa­ries own Confession, Babylon is Rome, and old Rome; yea saith Bel­larmine, Heathen Rome persecuting Rome: Hear I be [...]eech you, (Right Honourable and beloved) to ob­serve well, not what Isay, but what Saint Iohn, what the Angels, what our Lord Iesus Christ himselfe doe [Page 49] tell and relate in this Chapter, touching the fall of this Babel or Rome. It is confessed; if Babylon be Heathen Rome, that is now falne, and hath been above a thousand years agoe, and consequenty thenceforth it is become An habi­tation of Devils, the hold of every foul spirit and a Cage of every unclean and hateful bird, for these are by the Angel conjoyned with the fall thereof in the 2 Verse, will Bellar­mine and his fellowes now confess this to be so▪ I trow not.

But because it may be some body else will, that we may speak not only to the men, but to the mat­ter. Observe that the ruine of Ba­bylon here spoken of, is so described as to be sudden in one day, in one houre: her desolation is not only without recoverie, but even Conso­lation, Verse [...]. 10. 19. like to the throwing of a [Page 50] stone into the Sea, Verse 21. 22, 23. so as neither Musick, nor Minstrel, nor the sound of a Quern, or any Crafts-man, nor the voyce of a Bridegroome, or a Bride, nor light of a Candel shall be found in her any more, This can­not agree with the Conversion, or the Subversion of heathen Rome, for all these things are yet left now to be found there; and if men will not wilfully shut their eyes, they must (me thinkes) needs see that this Desolation did not then come upon Rome, nor is yet come upon her, And therefore it is not Heathen Rome, but after the embra­cing of Christian Religion, which is to fall, and consequently that out of which Christs People are called; Viegas of likelyhood was aware of this, and therefore hath devised another shift to escape by: He saith, Rome is here to be taken in a double [Page 51] estate. That before it received Christs Faith, and that which shall be in Anti­christs time: when (as Saint Iohn saith in this and the former Chap­ter) It shall revolt from the Bishop of Rome, and from the Faith (as he saith) a little before Antichrists com­ing, or at least at the beginning of his Kingdome Rome shall be grown proud, and secure, so as to say, I sit as a Queen; and then by the ten Kings menti­oned in the former Chapter (who had given their Kingdomes unto her;) shall she be ruined and burnt, &c In this Exposition, the revolt that he tells of from the Obedience of the See of Rome, is a Fancy of his own, and hath not the least ground in St. Iohns Vision, That the revolt from the Faith, whereof the Apostle Paul speaks, (2 Thessalonians 2.) is the very Apostacy of Antichrist the man of sinne, 2 Thes. 2. 3. and sonne of perdition, that [Page 52] Rome in Antichrists time shall be se­cure, and account her self to sit as a Queen, and then be destroyed by the ten Kings that formerly had served and obeyed her; this is very true, as being [...]xpresly so laid down in the 16. and 17. Vers. of the former Chapter. But that which befell the Iewes in the looking for the Kingdome of Christ when it was al­ready among them, happeneth to Viegas and those of his side, They fondly look for Antichrist the last head of the beast, whereupon the Babylonian Harlot sitteth above a thousand yeares after all the former, and consider not that this beast is one Principality under divers forms of Go­vernment, whereof five being fallen in Saint Iohns time, one then in being, and the other to endure, a short space. To make this short space a thousand years, or else to put in [Page 53] so many years of the Popes govern­ment over Rome before Antichrist come, who shall forsooth revolt from his Obedience: It seemes ra­ther the dream of a waking man then to hold any likelyhood of Truth, Howsoever it resteth even by Vi [...]gas consent (notwithstand­ing his cunning combination of two states of Rome, that under Pa­ganisme, and that under Antichrist, with a thousand years between) that Rome must have continued Christian for sundery Ages before her Desolation, and for ought doth yet appear the present Monar­chy which she claims to exercise over the Christian World, is the Mystical Babylon out of which Gods People are called.

For the better clearing whereof, let us consider the Description that is made of this Babylon, by the [Page 54] Angels and our Saviour Christ him­self more distinctly, to see whether it doe agree to the present estate of Rome or no: The Angel tells Iohn in the last Verse of the former Chapter, The woman which thou sawest is the great City which reigneth over the Kings of the Earth, and be­fore (Verse 5.) upon her forehead is a name written, Mysterie Babylon the great. Touching this greatness I may spare my pains to speak much, there is a learned Book of Iustus Lipsius which he intitles Ad­miranda, marvells, touching the greatness of Rome, not long after in concurrence thereto, there was an­other made by Thomas Stapleton our Countreyman Professour at Lo­vaine, which he intitles Vere admi­randa, Marvels indeed, touching the greatness of the Church of Rome, wherein by comparison he [Page 55] indeavours to shew that for large­ness of Extent, strength and power over Princes themselves, honour yielded unto it, the greatness and magnificence of the Romane Church doth far surpass the Roman Empire. These two books were both print­ed together, and set forth at Rome a­gainst the year of Jubilee, 1600. as if the Papacy laboured to carry in her forehead the name Great Babylon;

For the reigning over the Kings of the Earth by this great City, (which is another point of the Angels description.) It is true that heathen Rome had anciently in the borders and confines of the state, sundry Kings that held their Kingdomes of her, Such were the Herods, Aretas and Agrippa men­tioned in the New Testament; but these were neither in number nor dignity, nor in the absoluten [...]ss of [Page 56] their subjection to be compared with those that the now Rome reign­eth over: And no great marvel if the Roman Emperour armed with thirty or fourty Legions had many Kings at com­mand (saith Stapleton) but that the Pope being altogether unarmed, should give Lawes to the Kings of the Earth: and either advance them to their King­domes, or depose them, who would not account worthy of great marvel? true, but the Angel shewes us the true rea­son,Verse 12. the ten hornes which thou sawest are ten Kings which have received noVerse 17. Kingdome as yet but receive power, as Kings at once with the beast, &c. For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his Will, and to agree and to give their Kingdome unto the beast, until the Word of God shall be fulfilled.

And consider I pray you here the manner how they have given their Kingdomes to the beast; [Page 57] Vpon the Election of any new Pope, they send a solemne Embassage to pro­fess their Obedienee to him: And one of those (which is extant in Print, as great a Monarch as any the Christian World hath) Offers him­self and all his Kingdomes, his Seas, Firm lands, Islands, Armes, Forces, Treasures, Ships, Armies, whatso­ever he is, whatsoever he hath, what­soever he is able to doe; and falling down at the Popes feet as a most obse­quious Sonne: he acknowledgeth and confesseth him to be the true Vicar of Christ our Saviour on Earth, the succes­sour of Peter the Apostle, in that See, the head of the Vniversal Church, the Pro­vost, Parent, and Pastor of all Christi­ans, praying him and humbly beseeching him that he would receive all whatso­ever be hath offered to the profit & de­fence of the Church into his P [...]otection and Patronage: And these words, &c. [Page 58] are said with a gesture corespondent: the Embassador falling down upon his knees: let Lip [...]ius if he can with all his reading in Story, shew us such an Example of any King subject to old Pagan Rome:

It is true that Nero accounted it for his highest Glory to have set the Crown upon Tiridates the King of the Armenians head in the City of Rome, with great state and pomp. But let us see (saith Stapleton) If the Majesty of the Church of Rome hath not had an equal part of this glory, yea and a greater, and then he rec­kons how Pope Leo the third gave the Empire to Charles the great, and how other Popes conferred to o­thers a great many other King­domes: One thing he forgets that neither Nero nor any other Empe­rour of old Rome ever Crowned any with his feet, as Celestine the third, [Page 59] did Henry the sixth, nor caused him to hold their stirrops, or kiss their feet, much less set their feet upon their neckes as Pope Adrian the fourth, and Alexander the third, did to the Emperor Frederick.

And that we may not spend more time in proving that the pre­sent Papal Rome reigneth over the Kings of the Earth, the Merchants of Babylon are now resolved That all the Kingdomes of the Earth are the Popes, insomuch that the best Ti­tle that any Prince can have to his Crown is, Dei & Apostolicae sedis gra­tia, by the grace of God, and Apo­stolick See.Lib. Rom. Pon [...]. 5. 1. 2. 6. And Cardinal Bellar­mine recognizing his works retracts that which might seem to CrossAb Alex 6. this title about the Popes dividingCap. 7. 8. the new world to the Portugals and Spaniards: And tempers that which he had said that Christ himselfe [Page 60] whose Vicar the Pope is, had no tem­poral Kingdome, and lastly, asserts more roundly, contrary to his for­mer opinion▪ viz. That the Church may deprive infidels of their Domini­on which they have over the Faithfull, yea, albeit they do not endeavour to turn away the Fai [...]hful from the Faith: Howsoever she doth not alwayes so, because she wanteth strength, or doth not judge it expedient, but questionlesse, if those same Princes do goe about to turn away their people from the faith, they may and ought to be deprived of their Do­minions: I shall not need to call to rememberance here what Faith or infidelity is at this day in the Ro­man Language when Paul the Fift, teacheth the Catholickes that they cannot take the Oath of Fidelity (salva fide Catholica) with safety of the Catholick Faith; which [Page 61] shewes, that if the Pope may deprive infidels of their Dominions, how much more such as are Christians, being thereby more under the verge of his Authority, concerning the Popes ruling over the Kings of the Earth, this may suffice.

The Angel which in the begin­ing of this Chapter proclaimeth the fall of Babylon, saith that all Nations have drunke of the wine of the wrath of her Fornication, and the Kings of the earth have committed Fornication with her. In the Greek the Text is so, but might as well for the force of the Words, and bet­ter for the circumstances be ren­dred of the wine of the heat of her For­nication. [...]. And so Chapter 14. 8. This seems to be a Declaration of the liquor contained in the golden Cup which she hath in her hand full of [...]bominations and unclean For­nications, [Page 63] And in this Chapter Verse 23.See also Chapter 14. 10. by thy Sorceries were all Nations deceived; by all which is meant that with hot intoxicating love drenches, she had besotted the Kings of the Earth to be enamored of her; How to declare this of Heathen Rome I cannot well tell, unless it were that by benefits, favours and shew of honor, Kings and Provin­ces were alured to bear the Romane yoak, and conform themselves to Rome, but for Papal Rome the matter is more easie, for under the pretence of religious Holiness, and Spiritual pro­fit, the blessing of Almighty God, and of the blessed Apostle Saint Peter and Saint Paul, Christs Vicar and Saint Peters successor the Keyes of Heaven, fulness of Power: And the Aposto­lical Sees, Exemptions, Dispensa­ons, Pardons, Faculties, Indulgences, Iubilees, inlarging of souls out of Pur­gatory, [Page 63] she hath brought all sorts to her love and lure, Princes and great men, finding how needful her favour is for dispensing with some disadvantagious Oaths or incestuous marriages, or a soldering some crackt title to some signory, have been in Emulation and jea­lousie one with another about her love, and contented their subjects should flatter her and be seduced by her, so as at length she hath brought them to believe (at least to make profession that they believe) She cannot deceive them though she would never so fain, Volens Nolens errare non potest. If this cup of In­chantment were not; were it likely, were it possible, that she should perswade Christians to be content not to hear Christs Voice, speak­ing in his Word, not to receive the Holy Sacrament of his body and [Page 64] blood whole and intire though he so gave it; and the Church for many Ages so kept it, Not to pray with understanding in a known tongue not to take the ten Comman­dements as God pronounced and wrote them twice with his owne finger, but as she hath rased and deformed them, Not to say Amen to the Lords Prayer in the company with other Christians, because she would not allow it; were it not for this cup of Errour, could she have ever perswaded that she can dissolve the bonds of fe [...]lty betwixt Subject and Prince, depose and denounce Kings; and warrant their Subjects to kill them, and had she not first with this cup of Sorcery transformed men into beasts, could she have found any that would have adven­tured to execute these her ungodly and wicked designs?

[Page 65]Here by the way let me tell you of an old Babylonian trick, by which especially, the Westerne Babylon hath conveyed this cup of Errour into the hands of all Nations. We read in the first of D [...]niel, that Ne­buchadnezzar commanded the Ma­ster of his Eunuches, That he should bring certain of the Kings [...]eed, and of the Princes Children in whom was no blemish, and of able witts, to te [...]ch them the Learning and [...]ongue of the Chaldeans; Thus were Daniel and his fellowes used, and had other name, and education given them that they might forget their own, (though Gods special Grace in them went beyond the p [...]llicy of Babylon.) Such and worse hath been and is the practice of new Ba­bylon in drawing younger Brothers of great houses and good wits to Rome and Romish Colledges and [Page 66] Seminaries, some of their names changed; makeing them their chiefe instruments of State to mould and frame their own Fami­lies, and Countreyes to the Romane Doctrine and Obedience. Those of the Council of the Samaritanes that resisted the building of the Temple; render the reason of their careful advertising the King of hisEzra. 4 interest, viz. that because they were salted with the salt of the Palace it was not meet for them to see the Kings da­mage: how should not they that have had their Education at the new Babylons Charges; but in gratitude further her affaires, and draw all they may to her Obedience and Devotion: And thus much con­cerning Babylons Cup.

It followeth after in process of our Lords speech; upbraiding her that she glorifies her selfe and lives in [Page 57] wantonness and pride, and saith, I sit as a Queen and shall not be a widow, nor [...]re any sorrow, &c. It would re­quire a long time to recite the Pro­v [...]rbs and by words only, which have been cast up and down, concern­ing the wantonness and unclean­ness of Rome, since she came to be the seat of the Popes Court, and how she hath drawn to her self, and spent the wealth of all Nations; in this matter I will spare rather your Ears and this place, then my own pains; for the Boast of sitting as a Queen, consider her maximes; viz. The Church of Rome is the Mistress and Teacher of all Churches, with­out spot or wrinckle, and it is ne­cessarie to salvation to every humane Creature to be under the Bishop of Rome, that no man may judge him nor say unto him Domine cut itafacias. If any man have a desire [Page 58] to see the vaunts of Rome. in this kind let him be pleased, to view the image of the Man of [...]in, exalting himself in the Temple of God, as it is drawn by Master Fox in the end of the former Tome of his Acts and Monuments Ecclesiastical, out of the Popes own Decrees and De­cretals; And if any make scruple to look on that Book,De Rob. Pont. let him see Bellarmine undertaking that the Pope intending to teach the whole Cap. 3. Church can in no case erre in things ap­pertaining to Faith; Ver. 5. no, nor yet the particular Church of Rome, that it is probable and pious to believe the Pope cannot become an Hereticke even as a particular Person; that he is the judge of Controversies in the Church, and his judgement certain and infallible: Add to these, that the same Bellarmine makes Temporal Felicity one of the notes of theDe Not. Eccl. l. 4. c. 8. Church.

[Page 59]One point more rests in the speech of the last Angel concern­ing Babylon in this Chapter, Verse the last, That in her was found the bloud of the Prophets, and Saints & of all that were slain upon the Earth: And in the former Chapter,Verse 6. Iohn saw the woman drunken with the bloud of Saints and Martyrs of Iesus: That Heathen Rome was such there is no doubt: And although Bellar­mine would draw the Text another way to Ierusalem) that this is theVerse 11. 8. great City, where the bodies of two witnesses shall lie unburied, where also the Lord was Crucified, since in the Romane Empire, and by a Ro­mane Deputy, and to a Romane Death, our Lord was put, But this doth no less stick by Christian Rome unto this day, to be drunken with the bloud of Saints and Martyrs of Ie­sus: Let Histories be turned, and [Page 60] an exact account taken, how ma­ny thousands (otherwise good Christians) have been slain and mas­sacred merely for his pleasure sake, And because they would not sub­mit to her Obedience; I think it will very evidently appeare that they are imcomparably more then all those that suffered Martyrdome for the Christian Religion under Heathen Romes persecution. To omit those whom as an Imperious Harlot she hath caused to be kil­led for calling her name in que­stion.

Thus you see the Description of Babylon doth no lesse agree to the present, then the old Heathen Rome, the great City, her command over the Kings of the Earth; Her inchanting Cup, Her wantonness and delicacy, Her arrogancy and pride: Lastly, that bloudy and bloud thirsty Cruelty [Page 61] against the worshippers of Christ, ex­ercised by her, and (which I de­sire you to observe) by her alone; for in no other part of the Christi­an world you shall find it.

To conclude then, since neither Heathen Rome onely, as she was heathen (as Bellarmine would have it) can be Babylon, nor partly Hea­then, and partly Antichristan, as re­volted from the Pope, with a gap of a thousand years between (as Viegas divineth) And the Chara­cter that the Holy Ghost sets upon Babylon doth no lesse, but rather more agree to the present Pontifical Rome, then to the old Imperial. It is the falsely termed Christian, in­deed the Antichristian Rome, which is the Babylon, out of which Gods People are called.

And how they are to go out of her, it rests to be considered: Bellarmine [Page 62] cites Saint Augustine to prove that it is Corde non Corpore, not in place but affection; But the Temple of Gods people departing from Babel would seemto imply both; And the rather because this great City is spi­rituallyRev. 11. 8 called Sodo [...] and Egypt: now such was the departure of Lott out of Sodome and Israel out of Egypt.

It is true that by Cyrus his Edict Gods people were permitted to re­turn into their own Countrey to the place where the Lords worship was then fixed; Now there is no such place specially appointed, as our Lord Iesus Christ shews in his speech with the woman of S [...]maria: John 4. But certainly if any of Gods people cannot by separation in judgement and affection so live, as not to be partakers of the sins of Babylon, they are to go out bodily also, and in no wise to touch any unclean thing, [Page 63] Gods people are warned to do, even by the consideration of the Holy vessels of the Lord which they car­ried with them out of Babylon. The reason which confirms this charge of going out of Babylon, is drawn from the danger of participation in her sins, and in her Plagues, Isay 52. 11 that is, blowes, stripes, punishments, which are not onely those mentioned in the 8 Verse, Death, Mourning, Fa­mine, Fire, but as in the 14. Chapter (where the same Proclamation is made of her fall which is here) the drinking of the hot and unalaid wine of Gods vengeance, and to be torment­ed with fire and brimstone in the pre­sence of the Holy Angels, and the Lamb, and the smoak of their torments shall ascend for ever and ever. We have thus descussed the meaning of this Scripture, which being all laid to­gether is this, Saint Iohn hears our [Page 64] Lord Iesus Christ admonishing from Heaven his faithful people to come out of the obedience of Romish, Popish Babylon, least partaking with her in her sins, they receive also of her stripes and punishments, both Temporall and Eternal.

Here concerning the person of the speaker mentioned in this first place, and that circumstance, that he speaks from Heaven, I will for the present say no more, but desire onely that it may renew the religi­ous attention of all; that each would say with himselfe, I will hearken what the Lord God will say, for he will speak Peace unto his People, and to his Saints that they turn not to folly: That every one would re­member the words of the Apostle,Heb. 12. 25. see that ye despise not him that speaketh, for if you escaped not, when ye refused him that speaketh one Earth, much [Page 65] more shall not we escape if we turn away from him that speaketh from Heaven; But these points shall be more pro­fitably pressed when we shall have considered the speech it self.

Wherein observe first, he call [...]is people to come out of Babylon,) a plain Argument that there are many not onely good Moral and Civil honest men there, but good C [...]ristians, not redeemed onely, but in the possessi­on of the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, which may be confirmed by these reasons.

First there is amongst these that are under the tyranny of the Romish Babylon, the Sacrament of entrance, into the Covenant of Grace; Bap­tisme, by which those that are par­takers thereof are made Members of Christ, [...]he children of God, and heirs of Eternal lif [...]: & of these that have but this Seal of Gods Covenant, (viz. [Page 66] infants) are no small and con­temptible part of Gods People, though as yet they cannot hear this Voyce of Christ calling out of Ba­bylon; besides this there is publica­tion of the tenure of the Covenant of Grace to such as are of years, though not so openly and purely as it might and ought, yet so as the grounds of the Catechisme are preached, sin is shewed, Christs redemption (or the story of it) is known Faith in him is called for,John 3. 18. 36. 5. 24. and this Faith is by the Grace of God wrought in some: For the Word of God and his Calling is not fruitless, but like the rain returneth not in vain; and where true Faith is, Men are trans­lated from death to life, he that be­lieveth in the Son hath everlasting life. John 3. last vers.

Some men perhaps may object the Faith which they describe and [Page 67] call by this name of Catholick Faith, Is none other but such as the Divels may have:

I answer, Religion is not Logick, He that cannot give a true defini­tion of the soul is not for that, with­out a soul; so he that defines not Faith truely, yet may have true Faith; learned Divines are not all of accord touching the definition of it, But if (as by the whole stream of the Scripture it should seem) to be a trust and cleaving unto God; this Faith many there have, the Love of our Lord Iesus Christ is wrought in many there,John 14. 21. 23. now he that loveth Christ is loved of him and of the Fa­ther also, and because the proof of true love to Christ is the keeping of his sayings, their are good works, and according to the measure of know­ledge great conscience of obedience.

Yea will some man say, But [Page 68] that which marreth all is the Opi­nion of merit and satisfaction. Indeed that is the School Doctrine, but the Conscience enlightned to know it self will easily act that part of the Publican, who smote his breast and said, God be merciful to me a sinner. I remember a good advice of one of that side, let others (saith he) that have commi [...]ted few si [...]nes, and done ma [...]y good workes satisfie for their sins; But whatsoever thou d [...]st, refer it to the Honour of God: so as whatsoever good come from thee, thou resolve to doe it to please God, accounting thy works too little to satisfie for thy sins: For as for thy si [...]s thou must offer Christs works, his pains and wounds, and his death it self to him, together with that love of his out of which he endured these things for thee. These are available for the satisfaction for thy sins. But thou whatsoever thou dost or sufferest, [Page 69] offer it not for thy sins to God but for his love and good pleasure, wishing to find the more grace with him, where­by thou mayest doe more, greater and more acceptable works to him, let the love of God then be to thee the cause of well-living, and the hope of well-working: thus he, and I doubt not but many there be on that side that follow this Councel; here with I shall relate the speach of a wise and discreet Gentleman, my neighbour in England, who lived and died a Recusant; he demanded one time, What was the worst Opinion that we could impute to the Church of Rome? It was said, there was none more then this of our merits: De justisi­ca. lib. 5. cap. 7. And that Cardinal Bellarmine not onely doth uphold them, but saith, we may trust in them, so it be done soberly; And saith, they deserve Eternal life, not onely in respect of Gods pro­promises [Page 70] and Covenant, but also in regard of the work it self: where­upon he answered, Bellarmine was a learned man, and could p [...]rhaps de­fend what he wrote by learning, But for his part he trusted to be saved onely by the merits of his Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, and as for good works he would do all that he could; Et vale­ant q [...]uantum volere possint.

To proceed: In or under the Obedience of Rome there is Persecution and that is a better mark of Christs people, then Bellar­mines Temporal felicity all that will live godly in Christ Iesus (saith the Apostle) shall suffer persecution; ye shall be hated of all men for my Names sake (saith our Saviour) and so are all they on that side that are less su­perstitious then others, or dare speak of redress of abuses, yea, there is Martyrdome for a free opposing [Page 81] mens traditions, Image-worshipers, Purgatory, and the like.

Add, that inobedience to this call of Christ, there do some come dayly from thence, and in truth how could our Saviour, call his people from thence if he had none there? How could the Apostles say that Antichrist from whose captivity they are called shall sit in the Temple of God (since that Ierusalem is finally and utterly de­solated) unless the same Apostle otherwhere declaring himself had shewed us his meaning, that the Church is the house of God, and a­gain,1 Tim. 3. 15. ye are the Temple of the living God, and the Temple of God is Holy, which are ye; It will be said that there are on that side ma­ny gross errors, many open Idola­tries, and superstitions, so as those which live there must needs be ei­ther partakers of them and like [Page 82] minded, or else very Hypocrites. But many errors and much ignorance; so it be not affected, may stand with true Faith in Christ, and when there is true Contrition for our sins, (that is, because it displeaseth God) there is a general and implicite re­pentance for all unknown sins, Gods Providence in the general revolt of the ten Tribes, when Elias thought himselfe left alone had reserved seven thousand,1 Kings 19. 18. that had not bowed to the Image of Baal▪ and the like may be conceived he [...]e since espe­cially, the Idolatry practised under the obedience of Mystical Babylon, is rather in false and will-worship of the true God, and rather com­mended, as profitable, then as abso­lutely, necessary, enjoyned and the corruptions there maintained ra­ther in superfluous addition then re­traction in any thing necessary to salvation.

[Page 83]Neither let that hard term of hy­pocrisie be used of the infirmity, and sometime, humble and peaceable carriage of some, that oppose not common errors, nor wrestle with the greater part of men, but do fol­low the multitude, reserving a right knowledge to themselves, and sometimes, (by the favour which God gives them to find where they live,) obtain better conditions then others can; We call not Iohn the beloved Disciple an hypocrite, be­cause he was known to the High Priest, John 18. 15, 16. and could procure Peter to be let to see the arraignment of our Saviour: nor Peter himself that for fear denied him, much less Da­niel and his companions that by suit obtained of Melzar theirDaniel I. V. 16. 2 keeper that they might feed upon pulse and not be defiled with the King of Babels meat, and these knew them­selves [Page 84] to be captives and in Babel. But in the new Babel how many thou­sands do we think there are that think otherwise that they are in the true Catholike Church of God, the name whereof this harlot hath usur­ped: And although they acknow­ledge that where they live are ma­ny abuses, and that the Church hath need of reformation, yet there they were born, and they may not abandon their Mother in her sickness. Those that converse more inwardly with men of Conscience on that side, doe know that these are speeches i [...] secret; which how they will be justified against the com­mands of Christ (come out of her my people) belongs to another place to consider. For the purpose we have now in hand, I dare not but account these the people of God, though they live very dangerously [Page 85] under the captivity of Babylon, as did Daniel, Mordecay, Hester, Nehe­miah, and Ezra, and many Jewes more, notwithstanding both Cyrus Commission and the Prophets Command to depart.

This point may give some light in a Question that is on foot among learned and good men at this day, Whether the Church of Rome be a true Church or no, where I thinke surely if the matter be rightly decla­red, for the tearms, there will re­main no question. As thus, whe­ther Babylon pretending to be the Church of Rome, yea the Catholick Church, be so or not, or this, Whether the people of Christ that are under the captivity be a true Church or no, either of both waies declare in these tearms, and the matter will be soon resolved.

Except some man will perhapsObject. [Page 86] still Object, Though there be a peo­ple of God, yet they can be no true Church, for they have no Priesthood which is necessary to the Constitution of a Church, As Saint Cyprian describes it,Epist [...]la 6 9. Plebs sacerdoti adunata, people joyned to their priest, They have no Priesthood be­ing by the very form of their Ordi­dination Sacrificers for the quick and the dead.

I answer,Answ. under correction of better judgements, they have the Ministery of Reconciliation by the Commission which is given at their Ordination; being the same which our Saviour left in his Church,John 20. 23. Whose sins ye remit they are remitted, whose sinnes ye retain they are re­tained.

As for the other power to sa­crifice, if it be any otherwise then celebrating the Commemoration of [Page 87] Christs sacrifice once offered upon the Cross, It is no part of the Priest­hood or Ministery of the New Te­stament, But as superfluous additions thereunto, which yet worketh not to the destruction of that which is lawfully conferred otherwise. This Doctrine I know not how it can offend any, unless it be in being too Charitable, & that I am sure is a good fault, and serves well for a sure mark of Christs sheep, And hath very good opportunity to help Christs people out of Babel: John 13, 35. by this saith he, shall men know that ye are my Dis­ciples, if ye have Charitie one to another; But they call us Hereticks, miscreants, Doggs, &c. and persecute us with more deadly hatred then Jewes and Turks, yea, this is Babylon, and per­haps some of Gods People in it that are misinformed of us. Thus did Saul for a while, yet a chosen [Page 88] vessel to bear Christs Name over the world. But let us maintain our Charitie to them as we are wont to bear with the weakness of our friends or children, when in hot Fe­vers or Plurisies they miscal us. Let us remember if they be Christs people, how little loving soever they be to us, they must be our beloved Brethren, and this of the Per­sons.

Now let us see their dutie. It is the Du [...]tie of those people of Christ to come out of Babylon; that is (as we have already shewed) the Obe­dience of the present Roman Mo­narchy, And for this, the very au­thority of Christs Voyce from Heaven should suffice: For his sheep hear his voice. But if that be yet doub­ted, whether the Papal Monarchy, be Babylon, let us for the present set aside the mystical Arguments from [Page 89] this place, and all other Propheti­cal Circumstances. And let the matter be tried by plainer Argu­ments, at the Bar of Reason out of the common Principles of Christi­an Doctrine,John 5. 39. as thus, Where the use of Christs Word is forbidden to his people,Luke 11. 52. where they lay away the Key of Knowledge, 1 Cor. 14. Matthew 28. 20. and Gods Wor­ship is without understanding in an unknown tongue where Christs Sacraments are corrupted and maimed:Jer. 17. 5. Rom. 6. 9. where Divine worship is communicated to Creatures, where Christs Glorious Body is defended to be torn not onely with the teeth of the faithful but also of faithlesse men, yea of Rats and Mice, where besides a number of other super­stitions, the effects of Christs blood, are communicated to Purgatory fire, to Saint Francis frock, and the Carmilites scapular, where the sole [Page 90] infallible interpretation, of Scripture, decission of Crntroversies, last reso­lution of our Faith, is placed in the brest of one man, who may be with­out true Faith and sound Know­ledge of Religion or morall hone­sty it self, where the Doctrine is maintaiued as Catholike, that the Pope is Vice-God, Monarch of the Christian World, Almightie, that he can Depose Princes, and Expose them to their subjects to be killed, Com­mand the Angels, with many more like blasphemies; From this place and society Christs people are to depart and separate themselves; But the present Romane Monarchy is such, The conclusion follows un­denyable, Goe out of her my Peo­ple.

Here will I crave leave to an­swer on Objection Object. that may be made by flesh and blood, to be retentive [Page 91] to keep Gods people from hearkning to this voyce of Christ; and is used for a motive to draw more also to the Obedience of Rome, Gods people, (of which number I hope I am one) may be saved; nay, which is more cannot perish, why should I then be so solicitous, if salvation may be had there; on the contrary they deny that you have either Church or salvation; Therefore it is the safest course, by the Opinion of both sides, to con­tinue there still.

I answer;Answ. This is not the dis­course of Christs sheep who make the hearing of his Voice, and doing of his Will, a higher end then their own salvation: but well may be­come the mouth of those deceivers that would seduce them.

It is the very language of the old 2 Serpent, ye shall not surely die: The [Page 92] reason and rule of Obedience is not the avoyding of hell fire, or the attaining of bliss of Heaven, but the doing of the Will of God.

3 And yet supposing this to be true, that salvation mae be had in Babylon; yet it is attained with great difficulty, and as it were through the fire. As the Apostle speaketh of those builders which foolishly lay upon the precious foun­dation of Christ, the hay, straw, and stubble of mens Traditions: And there is again a large entrance, to be afforded into the everlasting King­dome1 Cor. 2. of our Lord and Saviour Je­sus Christ,2 Peter 1. 11. If the graces of Gods Spirit abound in us and make us not barren and unfruitful in the know­ledge of Christ.

4 Again, ignorance, so that it be not wilful and affected may have some pardon, but to hold the Truth of [Page 93] God in unrighteousness, as all do that receive not the love of the Truth, and knowing how they which commit such things are worthy of death, yet doe [...] same and favour those that doe them.

The wrath of God from heaven 5 is revealed against such, Romans 1. 18. 31. Even the danger of temporal punishment threatned to the sinnes of Rome is not to be negle­cted.

Suppose a man were sure to goe 6 to Heaven; but (although to humane infirmity it may per­haps seem otherwise) even the Eternal punishments in Hell are not so great an evil as is the offence of God, and partaking of sin.

Looke therefore as this Sophisme 7 of Sathan is in all other temptations to be answered; Thou maiest doe this and yet be saved being of the num­ber [Page 94] of Christs people, for David, Peter, and others, although they did such things, yet found pardon and salvation, so here. Nay, I will not adventure Gods wrath, I have other sinnes e­nough to answer for, My Conscience is more then a thousand witnesses:2 John 8. I will not buy repentance so deare, and loose the things I have gotten.

Now should I come to the Mo­tives from the Danger of sinne and of partaking in punishment. But the handling of these would re­quire a long time: let me rather make some Application of that which hath been said already. And First and most properly to those that this Scripture most concerns and is directed unto: The People of God holden in the Captivitie of the Romane Babylon; But alass they are not here, for this is one part of their Captivity, that they [Page 95] are kept, not onely from hearing the voyce of the Servants of Christ, or of Saint Iohn the beloved Dis­ciple, but of himselfe speaking here from Heaven; And they are so con­tented, what remedy may there be for those that are thus bewitch­ed, Unlesse you (My L. L. and Brethren) will be contented to become Faithfull Feoffees in trust, to convey this Voyce and Message of Christ unto them: and by my request you shall be pleased to doe it, with a great deale of Love. As this President of our Lord himselfe doth leade you as to Brethren, and, as you hope, faithfull People, loath to sinne against him, desirous to please him in all things; Tell them then, that it is acknowledged by their owne Doctours: That Rome is Babylon, and it is averred, that this is the [Page 96] present Papall Monarchie, that out of this they must depart by the Commands of our Lord Iesus Christs owne Voyce, under paine of be­ing accessary to all her sinnes, and lyable to all her punishments, wish them to use the Libertie to reade the holy Scriptures, and to come out of the blinde Obedience of Mens Precepts and Traditions; be plea­sed to tell them further, that others may have some Collour of Excuse, that live in such places where they may not discover themselves with­out danger of the losse of their Goods, Honour or Life, they may doe it here, not onely with safe­tie, but with Reputation and pro­fit, intreat them to beware least they make themselves extreamely Cu [...]pable, not onely of partaking with the former Idolatries, Extor­tions, Massacres, Powder Treasons, [Page 97] and King killings of that bloody City, but the new detestable Doctrines, Derogatory to the blood of Christ which moderate men even of her own Sub­jects detest. But which she for fear it should discontent her own Creatures, and devoted Darlings will not disa­vow: O if they would feare the plagues of Babylon, and that of all o­thers the fearfullest:2 Thes. 2. 11. Blindness of mind, and strong Delusions to believe Lies, that they may be damned that believed not the Truth, but had pleasure in unrigh­teousness: But you hope better things of them, accompanying Salvation; and this Message of our Lord Jesus Christ if you will be pleased to deliver, ac­companying it with those Generall and common goods of Charitie and Meekeness, Integritie, good Example, and the speciall furtherance, which your Callings and Places in State, Church or Family can give it, doubtlesse to Christs people, will not be uneffectu­al.

[Page 98] Blessed be God that hath-long agoe stirred up the Spirits of our Princes,Ezra 1. [...]. like Cyrus to give libertie to Gods People to go out of Babylon, Chap 6. 3. & 7. 12. And to give large Patents, with Darius, and Artax­e [...]xes, for the building of the Temple and establishing the Service of God.

And blessed be God, and his Ma­jestie that hath sent us another Nehe­miah, Neh. 2. 18. to build up the walls of Ierusalem, and to procure that the Portion of the Levites should be given them.Chapter [...]0. 37. and 13. 10. Give me leave (Right Honourable) to put you in mind, that this also belongeth to your Care, to Cooperate with Christ in bringing his People out of the Ro­mish Captivitie; And if to help away a poor Captive out of Turkie hath been Honourable to some Publicke Ministers: What shall it be to help to the enlargeing of so many thou­sand souls out of the bondage of Mens Traditions, and gaining to his Maje­stie so many entire Subjects, your [Page 99] wisedom (my Lord) is such, as it needeth not to be advised; and your Zeal as it needeth not to be stirred up: yet pardon me one word, for the purpose of helping Christs Peo­ple out of Babylon.

They are called by himself often in Scripture, His Sheep; and verily, as in many other, so in this they are like to Sheep; which being Cooped up in a narrow Pent, though they find some Pleasure, and the Passage be set open, are not forward to come out; unlesse they be put on, but strain Courtesie, which should begin, yet when they are once out with a Ioy­full friske they Exult in their Free­dome, yea, and when a few of the foremost lead, the rest follow; I shall not need to make Application: Do according to your wisedome in your place, and Christ whose Work it is shall be with you, and further your endeavours.

[Page 100]The like I say unto you the rest of my Lords, Fathers, and Brethren help your Friends, Followers, and Tenents out of Babylon, what you may in your places, you have the Examples, of Abraham, Ioshua, Cor­nelius praysed in Scripture for propa­gating the Knowledge and Fear of God in their Families and Com­mands with the report of Gods ac­cepting it, and rewarding it, And this to the use of others.

But shall you not carry away something for your selves also; Yes verily, take to your selves this Voyce of our Saviour, Come out of Babylon; you will say we have done it alrea­dy, God be thanked we are good Christians, good Protestants, some of us Preachers and that call up on o­thers to come out of, 2 Cor. 5. 2. Babylon; But if Saint Paul prayed the Converted Corinthians to be reconciled to God. And Saint Iohn writing to Belevers, [Page 101] sets down the record of God touch­ing his Son,1 John 5. 13. That they might believe in the Name of the Son of God; why may not I Exhort in Christs Name and words, even those that are come out of Babylon, to come out of her, Qui monet ut facias, &c. He that per­swades another to that which he doth already, in perswading incou­rageth him, and puts him on in his performance, but if there be any yet unresolved, and halting or hanging between two; (as the people did in Elias time) That present their bodies1 Kings 18. 21. at such meetings as this is, when their hearts are perhaps at Rome; or no where; If any in some points rightly informed and cleared, in others doubtful, to such Christ speaks, Come out of her my People, presse on by pray­er, Conference, reading, (If Christs Voyce be to be heard) If Rome be Babylon, Come out of her.

And let it be spoken with as litle [Page 102] offence as it is delight, We that seem to be the forwardest in Reformati­no, are not yet so come out of Baby­lon, as we have not many shamefull Badges of her Captivity, witness her Impropriations, being indeed plaine Church-robberie, devised to maintain her Colonies of idle and irregular Re­gulars, Idle to the Church and State, Zealous and Pragmatical to support and defend her power pomp and pride, by whom they subsisted, wit­ness her Dispensations or dissipations rather, of all Canonical Orders; bear­ing down all with her Non obstante, her Symoniacal and Sacrilegious Ve­nality of Holy things, her manifold Extortions in the Exercise of Ecclesia­sticall Iurisdictiction, which we have not wholly banished: Let each of us therefore account it as spoken to himself, (Come out of her my People.)

In this Journey let us not trouble and cast stumbling blocks before Gods [Page 103] People, that are ready to come out or hinder one another with Dissenti­ons in matters either inexplicable, or unprofitable: let it have some pardon: If some be even so forward in flying from Babylon, as they fear to go back, to take their own goods for haste and let it not be blamed or unchari­tably censured, if some come in the R [...]ear, and would leave none of Christs People behind them: No man reacheth his hand to another whom he would lift out of a Ditch, but he stoops to him. Our ends imme­diate are not the same, but yet they meet in one final intention; The one hates Babylon, and the other loves and pitties Christs People: There the one believes the Angel that cast the Milstone into the Sea; in the end of this Chap. with that word (so shall Babylon rise uo more.) The other fear the threatning of our Saviour against such as scan­dalize any of the little ones believing in [Page 104] him, that it is better for such a one to have a Milstone hanged upon his neck, and be cast into the Sea himselfe:

Finally, let us all beseech our Lord Iesus Christ to give us Wisedome and opportunity to further his work and to give success unto the same him­self, to hasten the judgement of Babylon, to bring his People out of this bon­dage, that we with them and all his Saints in the Church Triumphant May there upon sing a joyfull Halle­lujah, Matth. 18. 6. as is expressed in the next Chapter.

Salvation, and Honour, and Glory, and 'Power, be unto the LORD our GOD, Amen. Halleluiah.

A Confirmation of the Iudge­ment of these two most Reve­rend and learned Bishops in this particular, and the vindi­cation of it, from the aspersion of Novelty or Singularity, from some grounds out of the Anci­ent Fathers; the continued Suf­frages of learned men in succes­sive ages, and the most eminent Bishops of England and Ireland of later yeares: occasioned to be the more large by the Censure which Doctor Heylene (in his late book) gives the Primate, and the Articles of Ireland for it.

FIrst, For the Fathers, who li­ved 1 before that defection or Apostasy, whch was to pre­ceed, and prepare the ways for the [Page 106] man of sin. (2 Thes. 2, 3.) there could not be expected from them, any such direct application, un­lesse they had a Spirit of Prophe­sie themselves; Rome was in the Primitive times a pure Church, and the least infected with Arianisme, and other heresies which then abounded in the Ea­stern parts; being rather a recep­tacle of such as were banished thence by that persecution; so that it must have been a Prophetick pen that should then have affirmed, that righteous City should become an harlot.

'Tis true, there might be a con­ception of that man of sin; but till his birth, there could be no judgement given of him, iniqui­ty was breeding but in a mystery (verse the 8.) like the child in the womb, which the Mother of it, cannot then be assured, but [Page 107] it may prove an abortive; and harlots use to keep their concep­tions close and undiscerned, till they are forced to discover them. Now this being thus in the con­ceiving and producing of that wicked one; the silence of the Fathers, as to so early a sentence, (whatsoever they might suspect) is not to be wondred at. Disea­ses may be gathering in the bo­dy, when neither the party him­self is sensible, nor the most skilfull Physitian can discern of the event; fire may be kindling in the house, but the next neigh­bours do not cry out of it, till it be smelt; or flame forth to their view: And so there might be some such distempers, and strange fire, smothering in the Church of God for some 100's of yeares; but till it brake out, ye [Page 108] could not expect the Fathers of those ages, could take any no­tice of it; at least, digito mon­strare, & dicier hic est.

2 Secondly, The prophesies of the New Testament, are like those of Daniel in the Old; shut and sealed up, till the Time of the fulfilling; according to that of Saint Augustine; Prophetias implericitius quam intelligi; that prophesies are fulfilled before they are understood; agreeing with that (Rev. 1. 3.) blessed is he that reads and understands, for the time is at hand; 'Tis the speech of Irenaeus Omnes pro­phetiae prius­quam habent efficaciam, aenigmata sunt homi [...]ibus, sed cum vene­rit tempus, & evenerit quod prephet a­ [...]um est, habent liquidam & certam exp siti­ [...]nem, &c. All prophe­sies before they are fulfilled, are riddles unto men; but as soon as the time is come, and the thing prophesied is come to passe, they have a clear and certain expositi­on, our apprehension conceives no [Page 109] further then our experience reach­eth unto. That old Adage, Veri­tas est temporis filia, truth is the daughter of time, hath its place here, and in this sense, the day shall declare it; and therefore Andraeas Caesariensis, in his Com­mentary upon the Revelation, speaking of Babylon, and who should be meant by it, though he had his suspitions, as liviug near the time of the revealing of it; yet suspended his direct applica­tion, only saying that theAccuratam calculi notiti­am, tempus & experientia r [...] ­velabit vigi­lantibus. ac­curate knowledge of the person, time, and experience will reveale it to the diligent observers. What our Saviour said of Iohn the Bap­tist, for his knowledge of some mysteries foretold in the old Te­stament, and living after the Pro­phets, That he was greater then they, and the least of the Ministers [Page 110] of the Gospel by surviving him, to be greater then he; so is it in this sense appliable, to the after-ages of the Fathers, who lived to see the fulfilling, what is foretold of this subject by Saint Paul in the Thessalonians, and Saint Iohn in the Revelations; Which is ac­cording to the judgement of Bi­shop Andrews in his Tortura Torti, page 186. where having fully ap­plyed that of Revel. 17. & 18. to the See of Rome, he addes this Minimè verò mir [...]m, si i [...]ta quae dixi tam vel clar am, vel cerlam in-scriptis patrum inter­p [...]aetationem non habeant: Ope­ [...]abatur enim modò mysterium tum iniquitatis. Signatus ad­ [...]uc liber er [...]t bujus prophetiae. Verissimum autem verbum est, aenigma esse propheti [...]m omnem, cùm nondum completae est, ut quamvis prisci illi omni genere Charismatum▪ vitae v [...]rò sancti­monia longo nos intervallo supe­rerarint, mirari tamen non de­beat quis, si illis t [...]m non adeo explicata omnia sue [...]int qu [...]m robis per gratiam Dei jam surt, quicon summaetam jam prophe [...]iam illam qu [...]tidiè o [...]usis usurpamus▪ pag. 186. But it is no wonder, those things which I have said, have not so clear or certain an inter­pretation in the writings of the Fathers; for it was then a mystery of iniquity; which wrought, the book of this prophe­sie [Page 111] was as yet sealed up; And it is a most true speech, every prophe­sie is a riddle, while 'tis not fulfilled. And though those Anci­ents very much excelled us in all manner of gifts, and specially in the holinesse of life, yet no man hath cause to wonder, that all these things did not seem so clear to them, as by the grace of God they are now to us, who do see this pro­phesie now consummated daily be­fore our eyes.

Certainly, while Rome con­tinued in its purity, the Fathers of that age, might well have wondred with great admiration, as Saint Iohn himself did, and look upon it as incredulous, that it should have degenerated into that pride, Idolatry, Murder, and become the Mother of all abomi­nations, &c. even as we would at [Page 112] this day, if the like should be fore­told, of England, which hath been so famous for Religion, in being a shelter for such as have been persecuted by the See of Rome, abounded with writers against it, and the chief Church of the re­formed Religion, in opposition to Popery. I say if any should take upon him a spirit of prophesie, in averring it should in time be an advancer of Popery, and be utter­ly over-run with it, and become a persecutor of such as should op­pose the errours of it; the sinke of Heresie, Schisme, and prophane­nesse, &c. would not we who now live, be as far from believe­ing the report, as Hazael was at what was told him by the Pro­phet concerning himself.

3 But Thirdly, There are some grounds out of the ancient Fa­thers, [Page 113] which may be accounted as foundations, whereupon to build this application the more firmly; being (as Bishop Andrews saith) a wonder they should see so much, looking on these things only, quasi per transennam.

Tertullian, who lived about 400 yeares before the Emperour, was cast out of Rome, in the Ex­position of that (2 Thes. 2. 9.) and now ye know what with-holdeth, or who letteth. verse 7. he who now letteth, will let till he be taken out of the way, saith this;Quis nisi Ro­manus Status, cujus abscessio i [...] decem Reges dispersa, Anti­christum super­inducet, & tunc revelabi­tur iniquus. Who can this be, but the Roman Empire, whose removal out of Rome, being disper­sed into 10 Kingdomes, must usher in Antichrist, and then shall the wicked one be revealed; what he saith in his Apology for the Chri­stians to the Emperour Severus, who was afraid of the multiply­ing [Page 114] of them, as Pharaoh was of the Israelites in Egypt, hath bin touch­ed already in the former Treatises, where the principal argument against any such fear is this. viz. The Christianis necessitatem incumbere orandi pro Impera­toribus, etiam pro omni statu Imperii, rebúsque Romanis; quod vim maximam universo orbi im­minentem a [...]erbitates horrendas comminentem Romani Imperii commeatu scimus retardari A­pol. c. 32. Commeatum dicere solet Tertullianus, spatium tem­poris praescriptum, &c. Vid. Down [...]am Epise. Derens. le An­tichristo. lib. 2. Christians have need to pray for the Emperour, and even for the whole State of the Empire, and the Ro­man affaires, in regard we know the greatest mischief hanging over the whole world, threat­ning horrible and bitter things, to be retarded by the continuance of the Roman Empire: which being compared with the former ex­position, must be meant in the same sense, and is so applied by Bishop Abbot (demonstrat. Anti­christi. n. 92.)

Cyril Hierosolymitanus, and [Page 115] Ambrose say the like upon the same place, (2 Thes. 2.) Then shall that wicked one be revealed, viz. cum completa fuerint tempora Romani Imperii; post defectum Ro­mani regni appariturum, &c. i. e. he shall appear after the failing of the Roman Empire, for, as long as that stands, he dares not ap­peare. Saint Chrysostome upon the same [...], &c. id est, Imperium Ro­manum, quando è medio sublae­tum fuerit; tunc venit ille, &c. & vacantem Imperii principa­tum invadet & te [...]tabit ad se rapere, & hominum, & Dei Imperium. this can be no other then the Ro­man Empire, for as long as that stands, he dares not shew himself, but up­on the vacancy of that, he shall attempt to take to him­selfe both the power of God and man, which how it fits the Papa­cy, may easily be discerned; Saint Ierome hath much to this purpose in divers places. In his answer to the 11. q. ad Algasiam, [Page 116] expounding that passage, ye know who letteth, &c. remember what I told you when I was with you, &c. he saithNen vult apertè di [...]ere. Romanum Im­perium destru­c [...]dum, quia tum adversum Christianos, ra­biem conci [...]as­set persecutio­nis. he could not openly name the Roman Empe­rour, lest it should have caused a cruell persecution against the Chri­stians (who imagined their Em­pire to have been without end) and referres them to what they had from him by word of mouth; And indeed there was none but the Roman Empire, that could then either have let, or hindred the man of sin from that presump­tuous tyranny, or that the Apostle had cause to be cautious in na­ming, for fear of raising that mo­lestation of the Christians. And in his Epistle ad Gaudentium; hearing that Rome was taken by the Gothes and Vandals, and saw the Western Empire declining, he [Page 117] was looking for the man of sin to have sprung up in his room, at least, expected his birth then; So accordingly Saint Augustine, in his twentieth book de Civitate Dei, cap. 19. makes it to be a matter out of doubt, (nullus ambi­git) that the successor to the Em­perour in Rome, shall be the man of sinne: The same saith (Donec de medi [...] f [...]t,) d [...]nec regnum quod nuac te [...]et de medi [...] auferatur: h [...]c de Im­perio Romàno dictum est & prop­terea Paulum non id apertè scribere voluisse, ne calum [...]ia [...] incurra [...], quod Romano Imperio malè [...]ptaverit. Primasius and [...], tenet) in­telligit [...], quod prohi­bet, vel impedimento est; quid. nam autem est illud, [...]isi Roma­num Imperium, &c. nisi enim hoc solvetur, iste non veniet, &c. Oecumenius upon the place, as Theophilact (who usually followes Saint Chrysostome:) un­to which divers more might be added. But by this ye see the con­sent of the Fathers to the first 400 yeares for the time and place of revealing him; That though some lived 200 years, others 400. before the [Page 118] Emperour was cast out of Rome; yet they believed it should be: and though it cannot be expect­ed they should directly name the person before he was in being, yet that Rome must be the place, and that he that should succeed the Roman Emperour, in it must be the person, they agree in. So much for clearing it from the aspersion of Novelty.

2. Now secondly, to take off the aspersion of singularity, for which there are a multitude of votes this way, of such writers who lived after the Emperour was put out of Rome, and the Bishop of Rome had succeeded him, viz. after the 600 years after Christ. It would be endlesse to relate the Authours, who have given their testimony both in the exposition, and application of [Page 119] that of the 2 Thessalonians 2. to the See of Rome; Baronius himself acknowledgeth in the generall, that there was not an age, but some learned man or other appeared in it accordingly, and even some of their own Communion. And about a thousand yeares after Christ, when the man of sin was come to the height, according to the de­scription of him, foretold by Saint Paul, there were abun­dance. Avent An­nal. Boior. l. 5. p. 455. Aventinus, who was one of their own) tells us in his Annals, there were many of the German Bishops and Pastors in Gregory the seventh's time, that preached it throughout Germany, applying the whole prophesie of Saint Paul to the Bishop of Rome. Ibid▪ p. 470. Qui titulo Christi, negotium Antichristi agitat, who under the title of Christ, doth the work of [Page 120] Antichrist. Nay, saith he, Ple­r [...]que omnes boni, justi, ingenui, Im­perium Antichristi coepisse, eo tem­pore cernebant. i. e. that all good men and ingenuous, for the most part discerned it at that time.

A. 1100. a Bishop of Florence so publickly averred it, Antichri­stum advenisse, & in Ecclesia do­minari; That the Bishop of Rome Paschalis the second (an. 1105.) was fein to convocate a Councel at Florence, to silence him. Eber­hardus Archiepiscopus Salisburi­ensis in Germany, in a great meet­ing of Bishops, applies to the then Bishop of Rome, Gregory the seventh, divers passages in 2 Thes. 2. among which he hath this speech, speaking of the Bishop of Rome. Perditus ille homo, quem Antichristum vocare solent, in cu­jus fronte scriptum est; Deus sum, [Page 121] errare non possum, in Templo Dei sedet; i. e. That wicked one, whom they use to call Antichrist, (it seems it was a common Title given in those dayes to him as now) in whose fore-head is written, I am God, I cannot erre, he sits in the Temple of God, &c. And applies divers of the passages of the Re­velation, 17. & 18. accordingly, Imperator vana appellatio & sola umbra est, Reges decem pariter ex­istunt, qui Romanum quondam im­perium partiti sunt, etc. Decem Cornua (id quod D. Augustino in­credibile visum est) Romanas pro­vincias possident, &c. i. e. See, the Emperor is a vain title, a meer sha­dow. Ten Kings have parted the Ro­man Empire among them, signifi­ed by the ten horns (which seem­ed incredible to Saint Augustine) Turks, Greeks, Egypt, Affrick, Spain, [Page 122] France, England, Germany, Sicely, Italy, &c. Avent. Annal. lib. 7. 547.

Honorius Augustadunensis Ad calcem [...]. Tom. Aucta­rii. Bibliothec▪ Elit. Paris. 16 [...]0. in anno 1120. applies the prophesie of the Beast, and Babylon in the Revelation to Rome, and the Pope. Bernardus Cluniacensis calls the Pope the King of Babylon, Io­achimus Abbas Vide Rog. Hoved [...]n. in Richard the first's time, (anno 1190.) set forth his Theses, and maintained publickly, Antichristum jam na­tum esse in civitate Romana, & in Sede Apostolica sublimatum. i. e. Antichrist to be now born in the City of Rome, and promoted in the Apostolick See. Johannis Sa­risburiensis a Monk (anno 1150.) did the like.Matth. Pa­ [...]s. Richard Grost-head that learned, pious, and emi­nent Bishop of Lincoln; anno 1253. made an excellent Oration to that purpose, a little before his [Page 123] death, Papam esse Antichristum, and the last words of men are the more memorable. Gulielmus Ockam, anno 1350. wrote to Cle­ment the sixth, and publickly charged that See with Heresie and Antichr [...]stianisme.

Franciscus Petrarcha, An. 1347. in Epist. 18. &c. applies the pro­phesie of the Babilonish harlot to Rome, not Heathen, but Papal, the then Court of Rome in these words; Tu es, famosa dicam, an infamis, meretrix, fornicata cum Regibus Terrae, illa equidem ipsa es, quam in spiritu sacer vidit Evangelista, illa eadem inquam es, & non alia, sedens super aquas multas, (i. e.) Thou art the famous, should I say or infamous harlot, which hast com­mitted fornication with the Kings of the Earth; thou art the very same which in the spirit the holy [Page 124] Evangelist saw (i. e. Iohn,) thou art I say the same, and not another, sittingupon many waters, &c.

Besides, throughout these ages, from the year 1100. how many were there of those, whom the See of Rome Non defueran [...] etiam in omnibus terris numer [...]si pi [...]rum coetus, qui toto sol [...] Satan [...] tem pore bell [...]m Antichrists indixe­runt: cujusmodi erant, quos Papistae (cum primum sectae au­thorem à quo denominarentur, invenire n [...]n possent) à quodam Petro Waldo Lugdunensi Wal­denfium & pauper [...]m Lugdu­nensium n [...]mina. indide [...]unt. Usserius Arch. Armach. de Eccles. Christ. succes. & fla [...]. p. 150. called Waldenses, whom Rey­nerus confessethto have filled France, Spaine, Italy, and most of those Western parts; they with one mouth declared accordingly, thousands of them suffering death by that See, upon that account, whom we find then in most points consenting with us, and declaring against most of the er­rours of the Church of Rome: being guiltlesse of those scandals put upon them by Sanders, Coc­ci [...]s, and specially F. Parsons, [Page 125] which are fully cleared by the late Arch-Bishop of Armagh, in his book de Eccles. Christi. Success. & statu. p. 159. even by the testi­mony of their own Authours; their witness agreeing not together. For Iohn Wickleiffe our Coun­tryman, one of great learning and piety, 'tis known sufficiently to have bin his judgment and decla­ration, as those succeeding him, Iohannes Purveius, Iohn Hus, Sa­vanorola, and divers others, long before Luthers time, after which, it was more generally received in the reformed Churches, and the most learned men of each, whom time would fail me, so much as to name. Only as we have gi­ven you the votes of our own country-man and others, while they lived under the tyranny of the Bishop of Rome, so let me [Page 126] adde the votes of the most emi­nent of our English Bishops, since the withdrawing our selves from him, that it may the rather ap­pear, that the judgement of the Primate concurres with the rest of his brethren before him.

Bishop Iewell that learned Bishop of Sarisbury, in his Exposi­tion of the second Epistle to the Thessalonians, cap. 2. is very large in the application of the whole prophesie, to the See of Rome, as that of the vision of Saint Iohn concerning Babylon, p. 373. &c. Concludes that Antichrist, shall not be a Iew but a Christian, not a King, but a Bishop, and a holy Father, and should weare a Mitre. For on whom (saith he) should an Army of Priests attend (as Gre­gory the great a Bishop of Rome prophesied of Antichrist) but upon [Page 127] a Bishop, and an universal Bishop, at least one so claiming that uni­versality; see his recollection of the whole: pag. 319. wondring any man should doubt of it; 'tis so apparent. And what he saith, p. 279. viz. that he knew what he should speak, would be ill taken of many, such affection they bear to him, whom the Apostle deciphers to be Antichrist (though I shall say nothing, but what, the holy scrip­tures, and learned writings of the Fathers have left unto us, and which the Church of God hath at this time proved to be true) will be found I fear also in many of this age, whose inclinations are too much declared in the defence of that See, in this particular.

Bishop Abbot one of his suc­cessours, Bishop of Sarisbury) in that book of his called Anti­christi [Page 128] demonstratio, which were his Lectures at Oxford, is as full also. Wherein at his entrance, having spoken of the name of An­tichrist, and given some descrip­tiption of him, he addes these words; Haec ve [...] netatio nominis An­tichristi, si illam integram acci­p [...]amus quadratin illum optimè, quem esse [...]erum illum Anti­christum (D [...]n juvante) demon­stra [...]mus: Rom [...]num dico Pur­tifi [...]m, qui se esse caput Ecclesiae Christi, Christi vicem implere glori [...]ur. All which are most fitly to be applied to him, whom (with Gods assistance) we shall de­monstrate to be the ve­ry Antichrist, I say the Bishop of Rome, who arrogates unto himself, to be the head of the Church of Christ, and his Vicegerent, &c. and p. 92. wonders at the blindness of men, like Owls at noon day, not to see it accordingly.

Arch-bishop Whitgift in his defence of the Answer to the Admonition, often applies the Title of Antichrist to the Bi­shop of Rome, as a thing taken [Page 129] for granted. See Tract. 8. p. 349. where having spoken much of him before, he thus concludes. I know that those Sects and He­resies gave strength unto Anti­christ, and at the length were one speciall meanes of placing him in his throne, even as also I am per­swaded that he worketh as effectu­ally at this day by your stirres and contentions, whereby he hath and will more prevail against this Church of England, then by any o­ther means whatsoever. Therfore it behoveth you to take heed how you divide the Army of Christ, which should unanimitèr, fight against that Antichrist. That he means the See of Rome none can doubt.

Whosoever shall read Bi­shop Andrews his Tortura Torti, cannot but conceive his judge­ment to be the same, Where [Page 130] he hath many of the observati­ons, which have been mentioned already from the situation on se­ven hills, and the 7 head govern­ments. And p. 183. upon the grant on both sides that Ba­bylon is Rome;De eo tantum nobis lis erit jam quae [...]am illa ibi Roma Babylon, aut Roma quo tem­pore Babylon esse coeperit; Cuirei tot ibi circumstantias adhi­bet S. Johannes, vix ut in ea errare [...]uiquam contingat. Qu [...] enim Babylon ibi, eadem mere­trix magna dicitur, &c. Edo­ctum antem ibi se dicit Johan­nes à spiritu de rebus quae ven­turae essent. Quod si jam Romam ibi (quo tu sensu vis) designa­vit, nihil venturum edocuit spi­ritus; Ethnica enim tum Roma in Auge erat vel maximè. Pro­pheticus verò is liber totus ha­beri solet, &c. nimis autem illa misella tum prophetia foret, si praediceret fore, ut persequeretur Rom [...] Christianos [...]idit ver [...] hoc priusquam in Paethmos rele­ga [...]us esset, &c. p. 183, 184. and p. 185. De ca Roma quae veneficiis seducit, quae agnum specie refert, scriptam tamen in fronte blasphemiam, in Tem­ph Dei sedet, cujus merces ho­minum animae; quam decem Re­ges igne concrematuri sunt ad perniciem sempiternam; quae per pseudo prophetam suam vim ha­bet signa faciendi. Verè à To [...] dicitur Romam Christianam perditam non iri: Non cer [...]è sed illam Antichristianam scili­ [...]et, &c. he states the que­stion for the time, and resolves it cannot be Rome Ethnick, for then it had been no pro­phesie, it being at that time a persecutor of the Christians, and a shed­der of the blood of the Saints, which Saint John then had the expe­rience of himself, with divers other arguments from her inchantments, manner of destruction, making merchandize of [Page 131] soules, the persons which shall burn her, which could not agree to Hea­then Rome; Adding to be the same beast, which hath horns like the lamb, sits in the Temple (or Church) of God, ex­alts himself above all that is called God, one that was not in being in Saint Johns time, pretendeth to to the working of miracles; and so concludes, that though Rome Christian may not go into perditi­on, yet Rome Antichristian shall, which hath been drunk with the blood of the Saints, and the Mar­tyrs of Iesus, &c.

Bishop Bilson on in his book of the difference, between Christian sub­jection, and unchristian Rebellion, delivers his judgement often ac­cordingly, as a matter out of con­troversie, affirming the Tyranny [Page 132] of Rome to be the power of dark­nesse, and kingdom of Antichrist, applying the pride of the Papa­cie, to that of the man of sin, exalt­ing himself in the Temple of God. 2 Thessal. 2. It was, saith he, the ancient device and drift of An­tichrist, to make himself mighty: when it was first attempted by Hil­debrand (Greg. 7.) and now co­loured by the Papists, with the name of Religion. p. 527. 817. &c.

Bishop Hall, that elegant and pious Bishop of Norwich, hath much to this purpose, dispersed throuh his works. (No peace with Rome, Sect. 1.) Look on the face of the Roman Church, she is Gods and ours, look on the back, she is quite contrary Antichristian. Sect. 22. shall we ever grow to that height of madnesse, as to come from [Page 133] the Standard of God to the tents of the Roman Antichrist. The hea­vens shall passe away by a change, Rome by a destruction, not a change. (The Honour of the married Clergy) Were it not for this opinion (i. e. the forbidding it) the Church of Rome would want one evident brand of her An­tichristianisme. (Sect. 15.) Speak­ing of a Popish Priest; Well doth it become the son of that Babylo­nish strumpet, the lips drenched in the cup of those fornications, &c. and abundance of the like, might be produced.

Bishop Downham, the learned Bishop of Derry in Ireland, (from whose mouth I have heard suffici­ently that way) in his book en­tituled Papa Antichristus, is the most large of any we have yet named, dividing his discourse [Page 134] into the description of the place and person, and the designation of the time, out of the 2 Thess. 2. and Revelat. 17. and all di­rectly applyed by him to the See of Rome.

Bishop Morton, that famous and Reverend Bishop of Durham, (coetaneous with the former) and yet living, hath much of this in divers parts of his works.

Bishop Davenant, the eminent Bishop of Sarisbury, and professor of Divinity at Cambridge, hath often declared his judgement accordingly, in his Determinati­ons pag. 24. Pontifex Maximus Antichristianam suam superbiam, &c. audacia plusquam Antichri­stianâ, &c. Vniversalem Papae jurisdictionem in totam Ecclesiam, non esse jure divino, sed usurpati­one Antichristiana.

[Page 135]Bishop Prideaux, in his Lectures saith the like often, specially in that de Antichristo, that he can­not be the Turk, but the Pope, &c, Unto which Bishops might be added, the votes of many other learned orthodox and Episcopall men, whose judgements have been declared accordingly: As that learned Professor of Divini­ty, Doctor Samuel Ward, in his Lectures and Determinations at Cambridge, lately printed: spe­cially in those three questions, Romana Ecclesia est Idololatrica; Apostasia à Paulo praedicta, est ad­impleta; Romana Ecclesia est schis­matica, i. e. 1. The Roman Church is Idolatrous. 2. The Apostasie foretold by Saint Paul, is fulfilled. 3. The Roman Church is schismaticall. Thus concluding in relation to the See [Page 136] of Rome. Haec scilicet est illa Ba­bylon, quae in corde suo dicit sedeo regina, sola sum, & non est praeter me. i. e. This is that Babylon which saith in her heart, I sit as a Queen, I am only, & there is none besides me. And who knowes not (till of later yeares) how both the Vniversities in their publick disputations, and deter­minations, abounded in their conclusions accordingly.

I shall only adde the judge­ment of that meek and judici­ous man, Mr. Hooker, see his Treatise of Justification, Sect. 10. God hath spoken by his Angel from heaven to his people con­cerning Babylon, (by Babylon we understand the Church of Rome) Go out of her my people, that ye be not partaker of her plagues, he expounds the going out of her to [Page 137] be specially meant, out of Popish superstitions and heresies, calling the maintainers of them Popish Hereticks, and by plagues, not only temporal but eternal. Sect. 20. compares the Pope to Ieroboam, Rome to Samaria, that played the Harlot, &c. Sect. 27. speak­ing of the Bishop of Rome, and the Church of Rome, addes this. As Frenzy, though it take away the use of reason, doth not­withstanding prove them reasona­ble creatures which have it, be­cause none can be frantick but they, so Antichristianity being the bane and plain overthrow of Chri­stianity, may nevertheless argue the Church wherein Antichrist sitteth, to be christian. Sect▪ 57. God did in all ages keep his elect from wor­shipping the Beast, and from recei­ving his mark in their foreheads; [Page 138] he hath and will preserve them from receiving any deadly wound at the hands of the man of sin, whose deceit hath prevailed over none unto death, but only such as never loved the truth, but took pleasure in unrighteousness. 2 Thes­sal. 2 Sect. 35. speaking of Christs mercy to the worst of men upon their repentance, saith thus; if a Pope, stripped of usurped power, Antichrist converted, penitent, and lying prostrate at the foot of Christ, &c. shall I think Christ will spurn at him. In his Sermon on Saint Iude, Sect. 14. He calls the Pope the man of sin, and son of perdi­tion, who hath fawned upon the Kings and Princes of the earth, and by spiritual cousenage pro­claiming sale of Pardons, &c. hath taken the children of the Noblest families, and made them his Car­dinals, [Page 139] built Seminaries; and hereby as at this day, the man of sin warres against us, &c. with the cup of whose deadly abominations, this Ierob [...]am of whom we speak, hath made the earth so drunk, that it hath reeled under us, &c. Now of whom the Prophet speaketh this; whether of the Bishop of Rome, or some other man, needs no further resolution, and so much for Mr. Hooker.

And whether or no, those of the Remonstrants are of a contrary judgement (which some call the Arminian party) 'tis ap­parent, Arminius himself con­sented with the aforesaid Bishops and Authours, Thes 31. De Pontific [...] R [...]mano, & praecipuis qui i [...]si attribuuntur titulis. S. 12. Ad­versarii parro Dei, & Anti­ch [...]isti nomen ipsi compe [...]ere evi­dentissima ratione monstratur. Prius enim illi Apostolus [...], quum appellat illum homi [...]nem peccati filium perdition [...]s; adversar [...]um & efferentem se supra vel contra omne id quod dicitur Deus aut [...]; it a ut in templ [...] Dei, tanquam Deus sedeat▪ prae se ferens se esse De­um: qui ex collapso Imperio Romano exu [...]get, ejusque va­cantem dignitatem, occ [...]p [...]bat; haec enim [...] Romano s [...]la intelligenda esse, & intel­ligi posse asserimus. Antichristi ver [...] nomen il [...]i compete [...] excel­lentissimè, sivè particula [...] oppositionem, sive unius re [...] pro altera substitutionem, vel legi­timè factam aut per vim & fraud [...], &c significat. S. 13. i. e. Omni instiumentor [...]m Sa­tanicorum genere usus est sophi­stica hypocris [...], men [...]aciis, ae­qu [...]v [...]cationibus, perfidia, per­juriis, violentia, veneno, a [...] ­mis; adeo ut merito dici pos­sit, bestiae illi formidabili quae Pardo, Vrso, Le [...]i, similis est, & quâ Romanum Impe­rium significatum est, succes­sisse, &c. Faxit Deus ut Ec­clesia ab Antichristi fraudibus & Tyra [...]nide liberetur; Religi­osae sapientiae est, Curiam Ro­manam, a [...] Ecclesia in q [...]â P [...]ntifex sedea [...] interstinguere, &c. in his 31. Theol. disput. intituled: Of the Bi­shop of Rome, and of the chief Titles which [Page 140] are attributed unto him. Wherein after the re­jection of the title gi­ven unto him by his fa­vourites as blasphemous, and asserting his deserts of others, viz. the false Prophet (Revel. 19. 20. cap. 16. 23. cap. 12. 14.) Which did wonders be­fore the beast, out of whose mouth three im­pure spirits came forth; The overthrower and de­stroyer of the Church in matters of faith and worship, and raising of divisions between Prin­ces and their subjects. S. 12. he asserts the name of Autichrist, most evidently to belong unto him: for the Apo­stle gives it unto him (2 Thes­sal. [Page 141] 2. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.) where he there calls him, the man of siu, the son of perdition, that opposeth and exalts himself above, or against all that is called God or worship, sitting in the Temple of God, and saying he is God; who upon the fall of the Roman Empire, should rise up in his stead; and take his vacant dignity. That these (saith he) are to be understood of the Bishop of Rome, and are to be understood of him only; we do affirm. And for the name of Antichrist, that most specially 'tis appliable to him, whether [...] be understood by way of opposition to Christ, a pretended substitution, or a subordination in his stead, &c. Sect. 13. He hath made use of all sorts of instru­ments, hypocrisies, lies, equivoca­tions, treacheries, perjuries, poi­son, force, and armes; that he may [Page 142] well be said to have succeeded that beast, like to a Leopard, a Beare, and a Lion. Revel. 13. 2. by which the Roman Empire is signified, whose Image he bare; and brought it to passe, whosoever would not worship the image of the beast, should be put to death, &c. and concludes with a prayer, that God would grant; that the Church might be delivered from the fraud and tyranny of Antichrist. And so much for the judgement of Arminius.

Now, that the Divines of the Reformed Churches beyond the Seas, do generally accord also in it; need not to be inserted being sufficiently known, such as Da­neus, Franciscus-Iunius, Tilenus, Morneus, Viguierus, Rivetus, Cha­merus, etc. The Reformed Church of France, have made it one of [Page 143] their Articles in their confession, as [...]e may find in Chamier (Pau­strat. Cathol. Tom. 2. lib. 16. de An­tichristo cap. 1.) where he gives you the words of the 31, Article conceived in Synodo Papinsensi, owned by him to be the confessi­on of the reformed Churches in France, in these words follow­ing.

[...]ùm Episcop [...]s Romanus, erecta sibi i [...] orbe Christiano Mo­narchia, dominationem usurpet in omnes Ecclesias & pastores, in tantam erectus superbiam, Whereas the Bishop of Rome having erected to himself a Monarchy over the Christian world, doth usurp a Dominion over all Churches and Pastors; and hath rose to such a height of pride, as to call himselfut Deum se dicat, [Can. sa­tis dist. 96. lib. 1. Sac [...]ar. Ce­rem. cap. de Benedictiensis.] veli [...]q [...]e God, will bead [...]rari, [Concil. Lateran [...]ult. Se [...]. 1. 3. 9, [...]] omnemque tribui sibi potestatem in [...] & in terra, res Ecclesia­sticas o [...]nes disp [...]nat; articulos fi lei definiat: Scripturarum au­thor [...]ta [...]em, atque interpretatio­nem à se esse, dicat, animarum [...] exerceat; veta ju­ramentáque dispenset, novos Dei cultus, i [...]stituat; Tum in ci­vilibus, legi [...]mam magistratu [...]um au [...]h [...]itatem pedib [...]s sub [...] gat, [...], ablatis, [...] Imperiis. Credimus atque asse­rimus esse verum illum & G [...]r­man [...]m Antichrist [...]m, perditic­nis filium, pron [...]nciatum in ver­bo [...] Meretricem purpura­tam it siden [...]em septem [...] in [...]ogna civitate; quae regnum [...] in Reges terrae: Expecta [...]sque dum Dominus pr [...]ut pr [...]sit ac jam coepit, confici [...]ns cum spirituoris sui, tandem il­l [...]st [...] [...] adventu suo aboleat. ado­red, and all power to be given him in heaven and earth; disposeth of all [Page 144] Ecclesiastical things; de­fines Articles of Faith, saith the authority of the Scripture, and the interpretation of it, to be from him; maketh Merchandize of soules, dispenseth with vowes and oathes; institutes new worships of God. As also in civil affaires, treads upon the lawful authority of the Magistrate, in giving, taking a­way, translating of Empires; We do believe, and assert him to be the ve­ry proper Antichrist, son of perdi­tion foretold in the word of God, the scarlet harlot, sitting on seven mountains in the great city; which hath obtained a rule over the Kings of the earth: and we do expect when the Lord according to his promise, and as he hath begun, will destroy him with the spirit of his mouth, [Page 145] and at length abolish with the brightnesse of his coming.

And Maresius in his preface to the Answer of Hugo Grotius his Observations upon the 2 Thes. 2. and other places gives us the like Article, agreed upon in Synodo Na­tionali Gapensi. Anno 1604. which hath very little or no difference from the former, and so need­lesse to be repeated. Which do fully agree with the Synod of Ire­land, by by the Arch-bishops and Bi­shops, and the rest of the Clergy there in the Convocation holden at Dublin, 1615. num. 80. viz. The Bishop of Rome is so farre from being the supreme head of the Vniversal Church of Christ, that his works and doctrine, do plainly discovar him to be the man of sin, foretold in holy Scripture, whom the Lord shall consnme with [Page 146] the spirit of his mouth, and abolish with the brightnesse of his coming.

The former Synod may possi­bly be undervalued with some, by bearing the name of Presbyte­rian; but seeing it consents with the latter which was Episco­pal, why may it not be an in­troduction to a further mo­deration betweene them in o­ther matters. And it stands but with justice; that if Presbytery have had a hand in the match of Episcopacy with Popery, (which seems to have been without con­sent of parties) it should upon this evidence be the more for­ward in assisting in the divorce.

Now in regard that above-said Article of the Church of Ireland, confirmed by the judgement of the late Primate, hath been ob­jected against by Doctor Heylene [Page 147] for that (as he saith) there is no such doctrine in the book of Arti­cles, nor in any publick monument, or record of the Church of Eng­land, but the contrary rather. [...] shall cite some passages out of the book of Homilies, which are ap­proved by the book of Articles, as a larger declaration of the Do­ctrine of the Church of England, and leave it to the Readers judg­ment.

In the third part of the Ser­mon of good works, speaking against the Popish singing of Trentals, and the superstitious Or­ders in the Church of Rome, intro­duced to serve the Papacy, these words are as followeth: viz. Ho­nour be to God, who did put light in the heart of King Henry the eighth; to put away all such super­stitions, and Pharisaical Sects, by [Page 148] Antichrist invented, &c. which can be meant of no other, but the See of Rome; by the words not long after. viz. Let us rehearse some other kinds of Papistical su­perstitions, &c. In the second part of the Sermon of salvation, speaking against the Popish opi­nion of justification by works; these words are as followeth. Iustification is not the office of man, but of God; for man cannot make himself righteous by his own works, neither in part, nor in the whole, for that were the grea­test arrogancy and presumption of man, that Antichrist could set up against God, etc. and so accounts it not the doctrine of a Christian, that sets forth Christs glory, but of him that is an adversary to Christ, and his Gospel; and a setter forth of mans vain-glory, &c. [Page 149] And that passage in the third part of the Sermon against the perill of Idolatry, p. 69. I leave to the Readers judgement, if the sense can be understood, other­wise then of the See of Rome, in these words following. viz. Now concerning (popish) excessive deck­ing of Images and Idols, with paint­ing, gilding, adorning with preti­ous vestures, pearles and stones, what is it else but for the further provocation and inticement to spi­ritual fornication; which the Ido­latrous Church, understandeth well enough. For she being indeed, not only an harlot (as the Scripture calls her) but also a foule, filthy, old harlot (for she is indeed of an­cient yeares) and understanding her lack of nature and true beauty, and great lothsomnesse, which of her self she hath; she doth (after [Page 150] the custome of such harlots) paint her self, and deck and tire her self with gold, pearle, stone, and all kind of pretious jewels, that she shining with the outward beauty and glory of them, may please the foolish fantasie of fond lovers, and so entice them to spiritual forni­cation with her. Who if they saw her (I will not say naked) but in simple apparel, would abhorre her, as the foulest, and filthiest harlot that ever was seen; According as appeareth by the description of the garnishing of the great strumpet of all strumpets, the Mother of whore­domes, set forth by Saint Iohn in his Revelation (Apoc. 17.) who by her glory provoked the Princes of the earth, to commit whoredome with her, &c, and it followeth, pag. 77. And it is not enough to deck Idols, but at the last, come in [Page 151] the Priests themselves likewise decked with gold and pearle, and with a solemn pace, they pass forth before these golden puppets, and fall down to the ground on their marrow-bones before the sehonoura­ble Idols, and then rising up again, offer up odours and incense to them: &c. He that reads the whole, cannot judge of it to be meant otherwise, then of the Papacy.

And if the fifth and sixth part of the Sermon against wilful rebel­lion be viewed, there will be found such a large narration of the pride and ambition of the Bi­shop of Rome, that there will not need any further help to an ap­plication of that 2 Thes. 2. to him, which thus beginneth, viz. After that ambition and desire of domini­on, entred once into Ecclesiastical Mi­nisters, [Page 152] whose greatnesse (after the doctrine and the example of our Saviour) should chiefly stand in humbling themselves; And that the Bishop of Rome did by intole­rable ambition challenge, not only to be the head of all the Church dispersed throughout the world, but also to be Lord of all kingdoms of the world, as is expressely set forth in the book of his own Canon-Lawes. He became at once the spoyler and destroyer both of the Church, which is the kingdom of our Saviour Christ, and of the Christian Empire, and all Christi­an kingdomes, as an universal Ty­rant over all. The particulars of whose actions to that end, are there related. viz. The Bishop of Rome stirring up subjects to rebell against their Soveraigne Lords, even the Son against the Father, [Page 153] pronouncing such Schismaticks, and persecuting them, who resused to acknowledge his above-said challenge of supreme authority over them; discharging them from their oath of fidelity made not only to the Emperour, but to other Kings and Princes throughout Christendome. The most cruell and bloody wars raised amongst Christian Princes of all kingdoms: the horrible murder of infinite thousands of Christian men, being slain by Christians, the losse of so many great Cities, Coun­tries, Dominions, and Kingdomes, sometimes possessed by Christians in Asia, Affrick, and Europe; The miserable fall of the Empire, and Church of Greece, sometime the most flourishing part of Christen­dom, into the hands of the Turks; The lamentable diminishing, de­cay and ruine of Christian Reli­gion: [Page 154] and all by the practice and procurement of the Bishop of Rome chiefly, which is in the Histories and Chronicles written by the Bishop of Rome's own fa­vourites and friends to be seen, claiming also to have divers Prin­ces and Kings to their vassals, liege men, and subjects, &c. beha­ving themselves more like Kings and Emperours in all things, then remained like Priests, Bishops and Ecclesiastical; or, (as they would be called) spiritual persons in any one thing at all, &c. and so con­cludes with an exhortation of all good subjects, knowing those the speciall instruments of the Devill, to the stirring up of all Rebellion, to avoid and flee them.

Is not this a full description of the pride of that man of sinne. 2 Thess. 2. in exalting himselfe [Page 155] above all Kings and Princes, and that son of perdition (being un­derstood actively:) who was the cause of the perdition, or losse of so many thousands of Christian mens lives.

And in the sixth part of the same Sermon, you have a more particular relation of the Bishop of Rome's blood-shed, (accoding to the description of that Har­lot, Revel. 17. 6.) in these words. viz. And as these ambitio [...]s usur­pers the Bishops of Rome, have overflowed all Italy and Germa­ny with streams of Christian blood, shed by the rebellims of ignorant subjects against their naturall Lords and Emperours, whom they have stirred thereunto by false pretences: so is there no Countrey in Christendome, which by the like means of false pretences, hath not [Page 156] been over-sprinkled with the blood of subjects, by rebellion against their naturall Soveraigns, stirred up by the same Bishops of Rome, &c. And in conclusion, as the Ser­mon often entitles the Bishops of Rome, unsatiable wolfes, and their Adherents, Romish greedy wolfes; so doth it in speciall call the See of Rome, the Babyloni­call beast, in these words; viz. The Bishop of Rome understand­ing the bruit blindnesse, ig­norance and superstition of the English in King Johns time, and how much they were inclined to worship the Babilonical beast of Rome, and to fear all his threat­nings, and causelesse curses, he abused them thus, &c.

I have transcribed these the more largely out of the Book of Homilies, both that such as have [Page 157] rejected them as Popish may see their errour, and those that now so much favour the See of Rome, that they call such language rai­ling, may have their mouthes stop­ped, being it is from the mouth of the Church of England in her Homilies, which is a good war­rant for her sons to say after her.

Let the Reader judge whether these passages do not confirme, rather then contradict, or be con­trary (as Doctor Heylene saith) to the Articles of Ireland, and the Primates judgement of the See of Rome.

I shall only alledge one pas­sage more, and that is in the con­clusion of the second part of the Sermon for Whit-sunday. viz. Wicked and nought were the Popes and Prelates of Rome for the most part, as doth well appear by the [Page 158] story of their lives, and therefore worthily accounted among the number of false Prophets, and false Christs, which deceived the world a long while, the Lord de­fend us from their Tyranny and pride, that they may never enter into this Vineyard again; but that they may be utterly confounded, and put to flight in all parts of the world. And he of his great mercy so work, that the Gospel of his Son may be truly preached to the beating down of sin, death, the Pope, the Devill, and all the king­dome of Antichrist, &c.

This latter passage is only pro­duced by Doctor Heylene, as an evidence, that the Pope is not de­clared to be Antichrist, either here, or any where else, in the book of Articles or Homilies, which how the force of it can be [Page 159] extended so farre beyond its own sphere, both not appeare: For his principal argument, that he finds here the Pope and Anti­christ, distinguished as much as the Devil and the Pope. 'Tis answe­red, The destiuction here is not between the Pope and Anti­christ, but between him and his Antichristian kingdom; for the words are not, the Pope, the Di­vell, and Antichrist; but, and all the kingdome of Antichrist. That Universality (all) comprehend­ing both head and members. And if we should allow a Du­umvirate, (in the Pope and Devill) for the government of that king­dom, one as the visible head, the o­ther as the invisible, or the one him that reigneth; the other by whom he receiveth power so to do: (Rev. 13. 4.) both might be thus owned [Page 160] without infringing the title of ei­ther: Howsoever 'tis not the argu­ings from such niceties in the pla­cing of words (which the book of Homilies, are not strict in, as might be shewed in several instances) but the observation of the scope and drist of the place, the com­paring it with others, the concur­rance of the judgement of seve­rall eminent Bishops afore-cited, (who cannot be imagined to de­clare against the doctrine of it) will carry the sense of it accor­dingly, with the judicious and un­biassed Reader: and so much for the book of Homilies.

Unto which I might also adde the opinion of some learned men, liveing and dying within the out­ward communion of the Church of Rome. To instance onely in Padrio Paulo, who wrote the Hi­story [Page 161] of the Councill of Trent: Af­ter whose stabbing by an Emissa­rie from Rome, many of the Cler­gy of Venice, brake out into that application, calling that See Im­pura, insana, superba, meretrix, pe­stis, ac lues mortalium; and her ruine to be expected, according to Rvelat. 18. Some of the ver­ses are printed at the end of the Interdict writ by Padrio Paulo, and translated out of Italian into Latin by Bishop Bedell, who was often an ear-witnsse when he li­ved in those parts of divers learn­ed men, producing that of 2 Thes. 2. the man of sin who exalts himself above all, &c. and shall sit in the [...]emple of God, &c. both as an argument that the Bishop of Rome is the person sitting; and that those who are oppressed, and tyrannised over by him, are [Page 162] Calvin. Epist. 104. Un­der the Papacy some Church, remaineth, a Church crazed, forlorne, mistaken, yet some Church, his reason, is, Anti­christ must sit in the Temple of God, which is cited by Mr. Hooker. Instit. Sect. 27. Geh [...]i a man though over­run with a Leprosy, and to be shunned as unclean. Antichristianismus est mor­bus in Christianism [...]. the Church of God, and from thence reje­cting any application to Mahumet, and fixing it upon the Bishop of Rome, some question­ing, Is it he, or shall we look for another; others saying, (as the Jewes of the blind man) This is one very like him, but many, This is he?) which puts me in mind of the confident assertion of Cardinal Perron, who affirms that whosoever maintaineth this wicked doctrine, that Popes have no power to put Kings by their supreme thrones, they teach men to beleeve that there hath not been any Church for many ages past, and that indeed the Church is the very Synagogue of Antichrist; and the Pope in good consequence to be the Anti­christ; [Page 163] which Oration the Cardi­nal himselfe addressed to King Iames, upon a supposition, it might have converted him. See King Iames Preface, to the de­fence of the right of Kings The words of the Cardinal are these. viz. by this Arti­cle (i. e. that Kings are not deposable by the Pope) we are cast headlong into a manifest he­resie, as bind­ing us to con­fesse, that for many ages past, the Ca­tholick Church hath been ba­nished out of the whole world; for if the Champi­ons of the do­ctrine contrary to this Article, do hold an im­pious & dete­stable opinion, contrary to Gods word, then doubtless the Pope for so many hundred years expired, hath not been the head of the Church, but an here­tick, and the Antichrist. p. 453..

Now whereas both sides (as you have heard) are agreed upon the place, to be Rome (which checks the phansie of such as would apply it to Constantinople, or to persons that never were at either) I shall only confirm it out of one of the Popish Writers, who hath quoted most of the rest (to save the Reader any farther la­bour, if he hath a mind to satisfie himself in it) 'tis Tyrinus the Je­suit, in his Commentary upon the 17. Revelat. Where comparing the vision of the beast with 7 heads, and 10 hornes, cap. 13. with that of the 17. and granting it to [Page 164] be meant of the same, (like Pha­raoh's dreames, the seven eares of corne, and the seven kine were both one) then, for the vision there; he saith by the great har­lot, whose Mystical name is Baby­lon, cannot possibly be meant of any other then Rome: 'tis plain (saith he) she sits upon The usual stile of the Sybils [...]. i. e. Roma septicollis in Plutarch, & Varro, a Festival among the Romans called dies septem montium. Tertul. in his time calls the people of Rome, the people of the seven hills, Ipsam vernaculam septem collium ple­bem convenio. Apol. l. 35. seven Mountains, and raigns over the Kings of the earth, which can agree to no other city besides. And urgeth that place of Saint Peter (2 Peter 5. 13.) the Church which is at Babylon salutes you, to be meant of Rome (for as Bishop An­drewes observes,Ita avidè avent homi­nes [...]ii Petrum Romae, alicubi in Scripturâ reperire, poti [...]s ut Babylone [...] velint esse Romam, ubi Pe [...]us fuit, quam ut Pe­trus Romae n [...]n fuerit. Valde enim illorum interest ad [...]aput fidei ut Petrus Romae cred [...]tur fuisse, &c. Tort. Torti. p 183. ra­ther then Peter should not be at Rome (which they have slender or no proofes for out of [Page 165] Scripture, but yet is of great con­sequence to the Papacy) they will confesse it to be Babylon.

And, though 2 Thes. 2. he saith the Temple of God, where the man of sinne sits, is Ierusalem; yet here his seat of Babylon must be Rome; Produceth the expresse Testimonies of the Fathers for it, Lactantius, Tertullian, Ierome, Ambrose, Augustine, &c. and (saith he) even our hereticks meaning the Protestant Wri­ters (for after the same way he calls heresie; so worship we the God of our Fathers) and in conclusion, produceth most of his own associ­ates, the Writers of the Church of Rome, Sixtus Senensis, Bellar­mine, Bozius, Zuarez, Salmeran, Alcazar, unto which I may adde, Baronius, Certissimum esse nomine Babylenis Roma [...]urbem signi­ficari. Anno 45. n. 18. 'Tis most certaine [Page 166] (saith he) by the name of Baby­lon, the City of Rome is signified. Ribera in his Commentary upon it, saith the same, ad­ding alsoHui [...] conveniunt aptissi­mè omnia atque illud inprimis, quod alii conve [...]ire non potest; optimè etiam convenisse [...], quod in [...]odem capite, & mulier quam vidisti est civitas magna, quae habet regnum super reges terr [...]. all things fitly agree to it, and somewhat that can be applied to no other then Rome, as The seven heads are seven hills, and, The City which reigneth over the Kings of the earth.

Viegus saith,Existimamus nomine Babylonis Remanam urbem sig­nificari in hoc Apocalypsis opere, ubi toties Babylon nominatur, &c. omnia quae his capitibas memorantur, in Romanam ur­bem aptissimè quadrant, We conceive, wheresover Ba­bylon is mentioned in the Revelation, it signifies Rome, and all things in the 17. and 18. Revel. very fitly appliable to it.

According to that of Iohannes in Apocalypsi Passim Romam vocat Babylonem ut Tertullianus annotavit, & [...]pertè colligitut ex cap. 17. Apo­cal [...]p. ubi dicituy Babylon magna sedere suprà septem montes & habere imperium super reges terrae; nec enim alia civitas est, quae Iohannis tempore im­perium habuerat super reges terrae quam Roma; & notissi­mum est supra septem colles Ro­mam aedificatam esse. lib. 3. de Rom. Pont. cap. 13. Bellarmine (for­merly quoted) and [Page 167] Lessius Romaà Johanne voca­tur Babylon, quia Babilon fuit figura Romae, quibus verbi [...] aptè designat Romam. who saith, Iohn calls Rome Baby­lon, as being the figure of Rome, and by his words he elearly sheweth it to be Rome, All which may well give a check to the Novelty of some among our selves, who with­out the ballast of sound or sollid judgement, have been carried a­bout with the winds; of other imaginations, which yet I could easily believe, some Popish A­gents (upon second thoughts) have had their hands in, to get it driven off the further from their shore; Though how farre not-withstanding our aforesaid Writers, and these are from an agreement, in the above-said, hath been made apparant in the two former Treatises; viz. Those of [Page 168] the Popish Writers, would have it Rome, while it was Heathen, and the fall to be with the Hearhen Empire; and ours, Rome since it became Christian, and the fall yet to come. Those of ours, who in defence of our Ordination from the scandal of Antichristian, by its passing through the See of Rome, have endeavoured to take off that See, from being such in the afore­mentioned places; as it was a need­lesse refuge, so the cure is worse then the disease.

And those, who have with the Popish Writers, yeelded the man of sin, and the son of perdition, by that manner of expression; to be meant of a single person, were not forced to it; for it may not­withstanding be meant of a suc­cessive race of men, in one place and government; non de unitate [Page 169] individui, sed speciei, according to the like instance in Scripture. Esa. 23. 15. Tyre shall be forgotten 70 years, according to the days of one King. (i. e.) of one Kingdom, viz. The Empire of the Caldeans, which after Nebuchadnezar and his successors Evelmerodach and [...] Belshazar, was given to the Medes and Persiaus, and Dan. 7. 17. the 4 beasts are 4 Kings, (i. e.) the four successive Empires, the Chaldean, Persian, Grecian, Ro­man, as the seven Kings do accor­dingly, (Rev. 17.) signify seven succe [...]ive governments, and so the man of sin, may be meant accor­dingly, not of a particular man, but of a race of men succeeding in that Tyranny; as when they say, the Pope is the Head of the Church, they do not limit it to this or that par­ticular Pope, but mean it of the [Page 170] continued succession from S. Peter.

Neither is the Article [...], of any more force for the limitati­on of it to one man there, (2 Thes. 2.) then it is in Luk. 4. 4. Man lives not by bread only, or Mark 2. 27. The Sabbath was not made for man: both includeing all mankind; or, 2 Tim. 3. ult. That the man of God may be perfect, &c. which is not confined to one, but takes in all the Ministery. For which; or any thing else, concerning this con­troversie (which I shall not enter into) I shall referre the Reader to Bishop Downham, Bishop Iewel, Bishop Abbot, with others, from whom he may receive full satisfa­ction. Only thus much in confir­mation of the Iudgement of those two Reverend and eminent Bishops, & a Vindication of it, from the as­persion of singularity, and novelty.

THE Late Arch-Bishop of AR­MAGH'S judgement, of the sense of that place. Heb. 6. 2. Of laying on of hands, enlarged and defended.

THis and the former verse may well be called the Apostles Catechisme, con­sisting of six Principles, or Fun­damentals of Christian doctrine (as they are called in the former verse) of which this is the Me­thod.

The two former concern this life, viz. Repentance from good works, and Faith towards God. [Page 172] The two latter, the end of this life, viz. the Resurrection of the dead, and eternal judgement. The two middle, viz. the doctrine of Baptismes, and laying on of hands, are in relation to both, either as Conduits to convey the two for­mer into us, or as Chariots to carry us with comfort to the two latter, That they are Fundamen­tal Principles, as well as the other, cannot be doubted of, by their being placed in the midst of them; only the question is, what is meant by them.

First, by the doctrine of Bap­tismes, I conceive is meant the Sacrament of Baptisme, which is often joyned with the two former Fundamentals; By our Saviour; with Faith, he that believeth and is baptized. Mark 16. 16. By Saint Peter with repentance, [Page 173] Acts 2. 38. Repent, and be bap­tized.

The objection against it,Object. is, that 'tis Baptismes in the plurall number.

Answ. Answ. First the Syriack reads it in the singular number, and Saint Augustine in his book de fide & operibus, renders it; Lavacri doctrina, the doctrine of the font, from whence Ribera gathers there might be some Ancient Greek Copies accordingly.

But secondly, it is an Enallage Numeri, the plural for the singu­lar, as Genes. 8. 4. The Ark rested on the Mountaines of Arrarat, which Tremelius by way of explanation, renders uno montium; Matth. 27. 44. Theeves, for one of them on­ly. Luke 23. 39. So according­ly, The Israelites having made [Page 174] one, golden Calfe, said, these are thy Gods O Israel, &c. (Exo­dus 32. 4.) and verse 33. Moses saith, they have made themselves Gods of Gold, yet verse 24. it is called by Aaron, This Calfe; Dru­sius hath divers of the like, as Se­pulchers, for Sepulcher, Cities, for City, &c. and so here Bap­tismes, for Baptisme.

I am not ignorant of other conje­ctures by learned men, signifying a threefold Baptisme. Sanguinis, flaminis, fluminis, or, the thrice dipping, or sprinkling; the number of persons coming to be bapti­zed; the two several times in the year, in the Ancient Church set apart for it, Easter and Pentecost, called dies baptismatum, which is Calvins and Bezaes; or im­plying the double act in it, the inward Baptisme of Christ, and [Page 175] outward baptisme of Iohn; that is to say, the Ministers; which are Mr.Answ. to Rhemist. Com­ment. on N. T upon this place. Cartwrights words upon the place, who also saith, by a trope both Sacraments are here no­ted under one, but I conceive, that which we first gave, is the best; And 'tis observable, that the Apostle saith, the doctrine of Bap­tismes, 'tis not the absolute want of it, when it cannot be had, but the rejecting of the doctrine of it that damnes. 'Tis possible that some of those three thou­sand converted by Saint Peters Sermon, might have died before they could come to the water, and yet be saved; but if they had rejected the doctrine of it, when they were bad to be baptized, like the Pharisees rejecting the Counsel of God against them­selves, or like Naman who despi­sed [Page 176] the river Iordan, I questi­on it.

A well ordered discipline is the ornament of the Church, but upon the confession and doctrine of Saint Peter, it was to be foun­ded, in which sence the Apostles and Prophets in their doctrines are called the foundation of it; Jesus Christ being the chief cor­ner stone, and (as some think) is the sence of that, Revel. 21. 14. that in the twelve foundations were the names of the twelve Apostles, in relation to their do­ctrinals; So much for that.

Now the next is, the doctrine of laying on [...] of hands. Here is the great question, What is meant by it? That it is a Fundamentall, cannot be denied; if Baptisme be one, this must be another: see in the verse how like twins they [Page 177] are borne and bred under the same roof, And 'tis observable, that in the Greek it is [...] in the plural number, doctrines re­ferring to both.

In the search of several Au­thours, I find these two exposi­tions, most worthy of consi­deration.

The first is, Confirmation of children after Baptisme, which hath somewhat of Antiquity for it, most of the Writers of the Church of Rome incline that way, and even Calvin is of that mind also, and in his Comment upon this place, stands much for it, and wisheth it had not been laid aside; hodie retinenda pura institutio, superstitio autem corri­genda; and produceth this cu­stome of confirming of children in the Primitive times, to be an ar­gument [Page 178] they were then baptized, but I conceive it cannot be the sence, for this reason; because 'tis not a Fundamentall, and hard to prove, it was then (like Baptisme and the rest) esteemed to be of a necessary use and belief in the Catholick Church, according to that of Vincentius Lyrinensis, Magnopere cu­randum est ut id teneamus, quod ubique, quod semper, quod ab omnibus creditum est, hoc est enim verè & propriè Catholicum. contr. haeresin. cap. 3. That is, to be held for a Catholick ve­rity, which hath been believed eve­ry where, alwayes, and by all; And our Church saith, children bapti­zed, have all things necessary to their salvation; The Papists that hold it to be a Sacrament, do not say 'tis a Fundamentall, and when it was observed by us, we took it to be only an ancient laudable custome of the Church, and whe­ther it was so in Saint Pauls time, in the Church of the Hebrewes, it doth not appear.

[Page 179]The second Exposition is, that it should be meant an ordained Mini­stery, which clearly in Saint Paul's time we find was wont to be by laying on of hands. This is Pareus his sense upon this place. It was (saith he)Initialis doctrina de mi­nisterio Eccle­siae quia tum ordinabantur per impositio­nem manuum. an initial doctrine, concerning the Ministery of the Church then ordained by imposition of hands; Totum munus Prophericum, &c. Gualterus in his Com­ment upon this place, saith, In this is contained the whole fun­ction of Preachers, &c. designed unto it by imposition of hands: But none so full as Mr. Cart­wright in his answer to the Rhe­mists upon this place, his words are these. viz. By the imposition of hands the Apostle meaneth no Sacrament, much lesse confirmati­on, after Baptisme; but by a trope or borrowed speech, the Ministers of the Church; upon the which [Page 180] hands were laid, which appeareth in that whosoever believeth not; that there ought to be a Ministery by order (or Ordination) to teach and govern the Church; overthrow­eth Christianity, whereas if Confir­mation of children were a Sacra­ment, as it is not; yet a man hold­ing the rest, and denying the use of it, might notwithstanding be sa­ved. And some lines after, gives us summarily the sense of this verse, viz. to be the doctrine of the Sacraments, and of the Ministery of the Church: Ye see, in his opi­nion, what a dangerous thing it is, no lesse then the hazard of their own salvation, to lay aside an ordained Ministery, or to de­ny the doctrine of it, which men now frequently presume.

And 'tis observable, the argu­ment which he useth, he produ­ceth [Page 181] as a Maxime then in his time, taken for granted; not to be proved, but supposed; no man then so much as questioning the necessity of it, for though there were then divers disputes about discipline and ceremonies, (in which this learned Authour then appeared) yet both parties esteemed alike of Ordination to be a sacred institution, none pre­suming to take upon them the office of the Ministery without it; Well, this I conceive to be the sence here of laying on of hands, viz. That it was a Principle of the Catechisme taught to Christians at their first reception, that there was to be a successive ordination, or setting apart of persons for the Ministery, for an authorative preaching of faith and repentance, and administration of Sacraments, [Page 182] called laying on of hands from the outward rite; as the Lords Supper, by breaking of bread; And this was the judgement of the most Reverend and learned Fa­ther of our Church, the late Arch-Bishop of Armagh, which hath the rather emboldned me to employ my thoughts in the confirmation of it; and surely, if it be a funda­mentall, the knowledge of the sense of it, is of a greater conse­quence, then to be slighted.

First, it is considerable, how well this doth sute with Saint Pauls expression elsewhere, speaking of Ordination, 2 Tim. 1. 6. Stirre up the gift of God that is in thee by the putting on of my hands, 1 Tim. 4. 14. neglect not the gift that is in thee, given thee with the laying on of the hands of the Presbytery, both thus suffici­ently [Page 183] reconciled; Saint Paul was the principal, the Presbyters were his assistants, according to the constitutions and custome of our Church in Ordination. The Bi­shop is not to do it alone, but with the assistance of at least three or four of the Ministers, which was after the pattern of the Pri­mitive times; The injunction of Saint Paul for it, is accordingly. 2 Tim. 5. 22. Lay hands suddenly on no man, i. e. ordain. And it is the more observable, that all are from one and the same Apostle, it being one argument to prove Saint Paul was the Authour of this Epistle to the Hebrews, by the use of this expression here, which is not in the Epistles of any other Apostle.

'Tis true, we read of extraor­dinary gifts of tongues, &c. given [Page 184] by laying on of hands, in the Acts, but they cannot be understood here, for they were but temporary, and ceased, like Scaffolds, which, after the building of an house, are taken down, but what is meant here, must be as the foundation which remains to the last, and all falls with it, that agrees to an Ordained Ministery, which must continue for the preaching of faith and repentance, and admini­stration of Sacraments to the end of the world. In which sence is that last speech of our Saviour. Matth. 28. Lo, I am with you unto the end of the world, it cannot be limited to the persons of the A­postles (with whose deaths those Administrations did not expire) but must be understood collective­ly of the whole body of the Mini­stery, then as it were in their [Page 158] loines, who should succeed in preaching, and Baptisme, and through whom a successive pow­erful assistance of the spirit, is to be transferred in and through those, unto the worlds end. This power of officiating, was powred on the head of the Apostles, and descendeth to the skirts of their garments, in these dayes. And how like a fundamental, Ordination is, may easily appear; it began at the foundation of the Church, and was one of the first stones laid in this Edifice, and it must continue to the last, for as the Lords Supper is to continue till the second coming of Christ, so the Ministers of it have the same term also (Ephes. 4. 13.) He gave some Pastors, Teachers, &c. Till we all come unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the Stature [Page 186] of the fullnesse of Christ, &c.

Rom. 10. 15. Ye have a build­ing of four or five stories high of severall Acts and Ministrations; but Ordination of a Ministery is the Foundation, Salvation is at the top of this Iacobs Ladder, but Ordination at the bottome: Who­soever will call on the name of the Lord, shall be saved, but how shall they call on him, on mhom they have not believed? how shall they believe on him, of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a Preacher, and how shall they preach, except they be sent? &c. See, praying, believing, hearing, preaching, and then as the foun­dation of all, a Mission of Preach­ers for that end; what is said of the Commandements of the Law, (Iames 2.) he that offends in one, is guilty of all; such is the con­catenation [Page 187] of the principles of the Gospel; break one link, and all are endangered; He that re­nounceth his Baptisme, renoun­ceth his Faith, into which he was baptized, even the death and re­surrection of our Saviour signified by it, Colos. 2. Consider what ye do in renouncing the Ministery by whom ye were baptized, and have believed (1 Cor. 3. 5.) if any effi­cacy be in the Sacrament, accord­ing to the qualification & autho­ritative faculty of the person offi­ciating, see what hazard you run in rejecting of such so ordained?

Ye know the speech of our Sa­viour, Matth. 23. 17. He that swears by the Altar, sweareth by it, and all things thereon; and is not the contrary true, he that despiseth the Altar, despiseth not only that, but all that de­pend [Page 188] on it: If the Ordination or Mission of the person through Gods institution, be of any efficay to what is officiated, I may leave the application to your selves.

Consider what ye do in a to­tall renouncing of an ordained Ministery, as to Baptisme and believing, through whom as in­strumentals, ye did partake of them; If the foundation fall, how can the building stand: As ye see here Saint Paul makes an ordained Ministery, a fundamen­tal principle of Christian Religi­on. So much for the sence of the Text, what is meant by laying on of hands.

Now if Ordination be a fun­damental principle, hence then these 2 things may be inferred.

1. A necessity of continuing an ordained Ministery in the Church, [Page 189] and the neglect of it to be the un­derming of the foundation of it.

2. That Ordination is not on­ly an internal call from God, but an externall from Man; for 'tis denominated here from laying on of hands.

First a necessity of continuing such a distinct Order and pro­fession for preaching, and other sacred Administratihns; This sub­ject would heretofore have been accounted needlesse to be hand­led, but it is necessary and sea­sonable now, there being many set against the very function, as if any man might of himself assume it. To such I shall represent these considerations following. viz.

1. That in all ages there have been some persons set apart for such divine Offices even before the Law, or constitution of Aa­ron [Page 190] and the Levites; as since, see some appointed, Exod. 19. 22. Let the Priests which come near to the Lord sanctify themselves, (Chap. 24. 5.) called young men of the Children of Israel, sent of Moses, who offered the burnt offe­rings and sacrifice unto the Lord, and this is usually interpreted to be the First-borne, and that of the principall of the families, instead of which the Levites were after­ward taken, (see Numb. 3. 12.) And what a setled Priesthood there was in Moses and Solomons time to the Captivity; and after it upon their return; who knows not? see Mal. 2. A speech to the Priests, and for that five hun­dred-yeer gap betwixt the Old Testament and the New, when the Prophets ceased, yet a Priest­hood continued, that the ser­vice [Page 191] of God, then was not to put to the charity of Passengers, as beggars are by the high way, but some were appropriated to it; Ie­roboam that forsook the Temple, yet retained a Priesthood, though of his own corrupt appoint­ment.

Ob [...]ect. That of the Law was a Priesthood, but we speak of a Ministery.

Resp. 1. We stand not upon 1 words or Titles; neither doth the Apostle, for as (2 Cor. 3. 7, 8, 9.) he calls the Priests of the Law Mini­sters, and their office a Ministra­tion; so he implies, that the Mi­nisters of the Gospel might have that Title of Priests (1 Cor. 9. 13.) by taking his Argument for their maintenance from the Priests, Altar, and Temple, as they that serve at the Altar, partake of the [Page 192] Altar; even so hath God ordained, that those that preach the Go­spel, should live of the Gospel; and the name hath only grown igno­minious, by the Church of Rome's retaining it, whom if by way of distinction, they had been called by us sacrificers (as Bishop Downham observes) there had been no offence in it. All that read the Fathers, know it is the term used by them; whose Tra­ctates of the Ministery are inti­tuled De Sacerdotio.

And the Apostle makes it on­ly a change of the Priesthood, (Hebr. 7. 12.) not a nulling of it, upon which change of a ministra­tion, none presumed of them­selves to officiate without an Or­dination; Iohn Baptist who was the preparative voice of the Go­spel was ordained to it, and his [Page 193] disciples were set apart by him; our Saviour did the like in or­daining first Twelve for preach­ing and baptizing, and then 72 after them, when one of the twelve was lost, no other step­ped into his place without a so­lemne choice of him; Paul and Barnabas, Acts 14. 23. whereso­ever they came and converted any nation, were carefull of or­daining Successors. Saint Paul, as his last, gives that charge to Timo­thy and Titus after him, and in all Ages of the Church from the Primitive times, both in the Greek and Latine Church, it hath been observed to this day succes­sively.

So that for such as would have no such office of a Ministe­ry by ordination, but all men left to themselves to officiate at their [Page 194] pleasure, we may say with the A­postle (1 Cor. 11. 16.) We have had no such custome, neither the Chur­ches of God, (or as Eliphaz to Iob cap. 5. 1.) call now if there be any will answer thee, and to which of the Saints wilt thou turn, where is there any such President in all the reformed Churches? The Is­raelites would have a King as all other nations; These are upon the contrary singularity. 'Tis true, the New Ierusalem (Revel. 21. 22. meant heaven, is found without a Temple and a Priest, because Christ shall then give up his kingdome to his Father (1 Cor. 15.) i. e. the manner of this pre­sent government by the Scepter of his word, and Seale of Sacra­ments, and then God shall be all in all, but till then, a setled Mi­nistery must be continued.

[Page 195]Secondly, if no successive or­dained 2 Ministery, why doth Saint Paul spend so much time in ex­horting to a future provision for them. (1 Cor. 9. Gal. 6. 6. 1 Tim. 5. 17.) can we think it was on­ly for himself, and such then li­ving, who expected Martyrdome weekly; why such large directi­ons for the qualification of such, as were to be ordained by his Suc­cessors, in his Epistles to Timothy, and Titus, surely it was written for our instruction now.

Thirdly, consider what con­clusion 3 must be the issue of the contrary, our Saviour pitied the people, when they were like Sheep without a Shepherd; That which is every mans work, is no bodies: As in reason, the office of the Ministery must be weakly and negligently done, when no [Page 196] persons are appointed to make it their study and sabour, fo when gaps are thus opened for any per­son, may not Iesuits and such lik Agents creep in under other forms, and privily bring in dam­nable heresies, to the seducing of the hearers; I am loth to imagine that this should be at the bottome of this assertion, that so with the more specious pretext, they might take away the mainte­nance, as indeed one must fol­low the other; for if there be no need of a setled ordained Mi­nistery, what use of a setled meanes alotted for it.

If any shall stumble at that speech often in the mouthes of some, Isa. 54. 13. All thy chil­dren shall be taught of the Lord, he may be satisfied by this double Answer.

[Page 197]1. It was fulfilled in that time of our Lord and Saviour, teach­ing them immediately by himself, which he expounds accordingly; (Iohn 6. 45.) It is written in the Prophets, they shall be all taught of God, every man therefore that hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me, &c.

2. The Lord is said to teach, when he doth it by a Ministery, sent by him according to that of Ierem. 3. 15. I will give you Pa­stors after my own heart, that shall feed you with knowledge and un­derstanding, &c. fulfilled under the Gospel. And we grant, that though the proposal of the do­ctrine is by the Minister, yet the illumination of the mind, and the rectifying of the heart through it, is from God.

Object. If that of Saint Peter [Page 198] (1 Eph. 4. 10.) he objected, As every man hath received the gift, so let him minister the same as good Stewards of the manifold grace of God.

Answ. I conceive it is not meant the gift of preaching, but of Almes. The words immediately before, are these. Vse hospitality one to another without grudging, there is the manner, and then in these words, As every one hath received the gift, so let him mini­ster, is implyed the measure of it; agreeing with that of Saint Pauls injunction, 1 Cor. 16. 2. Let eve­ry one lay by him (to that end) as God had prospered him, &c.

That these temporal things are the gift of God; the fourth Petition of the Lords Prayer, shewes sufficiently. And that collections of these, and gi­ving [Page 199] them to the poor, is cal­led a ministring to the Saints. See 2 Cor. 8. 4. cap. 9. 1. and sti­led grace, (cap. 8. 19.) and what other sense can there be of that (cap. 9. 8.) God is able to make all grace abound, but of tem­porall blessings, as the next words shew, to multiply your seed sowen, and minister bread for your food, (V. 10.) and they may be called the manifold grace or gift of God, by the divers sorts of them to be administred, food, clo­thing, relieving of the sick, &c. ac­cording as they are distinctly re­membred at the last day, (Matth. 25.) And are not all bountiful charitable persons, the Lords Stewards, in dispensing these things to those of his houshold of Faith; so that upon these consi­derations, the place appears to [Page 200] to be farre off from any applica­tion of it to Preaching. Indeed the next verse may be so meant. If any man speak, let him speak as the Oracles of God, &c. but yet to be understood with this limitati­on, viz. of a man ordained and constituted (as we have said) for that end.

In a word, to allow all sorts of men to be preachers, is to make the whole body an eye, a tongue, &c. and if so as the Apostle saith, where is the hearing, are all teach­ers, are all interpreters? 'tis an ar­gument from the absurdity, as if ye would expect the foot to see, the hand to speak; In Saint Pauls dayes it was said, Who is sufficient for these things? and shall all per­sons think themselves so now; Saint Paul bids Timothy give him­self wholly to it: i. e. to medi­tation, [Page 201] study, reading, and not to intangle himself with the things of this world, which might take him off, and may they now meet in tradesmen and manufactures? and the office be performed without either? Is there not a distinction made between the Church of Ephesus, and the elders of it, (Acts 20.) between the Church and the Angel of it, (Revel. 2.) which if it be not meant of one person, the Bishop (as Ignatius stiles him so about twelve years after, which was the judgement of the Primate) yet must at least be collectively meant of the Bishop, & the Ministery of it; Is there not a distinction between the Saints of Philippi, Phil. 1. 1. & the Bishops & Dea­cons, are there not some said to be over the 1 Ep. [...]. 12. Thessalonians in the Lord, and preaching & admonishing cal­led [Page 202] in special, their work, as appro­priated to them, for which he chargeth them to know them, & to esteem highly of them; as the like in his last charge to the Church of the Hebrews, (cap. ult. 7. 17. Obey them that have the rule over you in the Lord, and that watch for your soules, as they that must give an accompt, and if that were the speciall office of the ministery, then to have curam animarum; why not now? or where doth it appear, the term is expired? I conclude this point with an ob­servation of the several steps of our declinings, or defections of later yeares; First, we were of­fended at some titles of the Mi­nistery, then at the office it selfe; First, at such a Ministery so or­dained, then at the ordaining of any Ministery at all. First, the [Page 203] solemn Assemblies in publick were forsaken, and a retreat made into corners, then the Preachers them­selves slighted, called by Solo­mon the Masters of Assemblies: First, a ceremony in baptizing of Infants scrupled at, then the Bap­tisme of Infants themselves; nay, the Sacrament of Baptisme by wa­ter, called into question also; First, the Communion forborne, out of offence to some gesture, now the Sacrament it selfe neglected, and contemned, as if we may now live above and without Ordinan­ces, & without any ordained Mini­stry to administer each, as indeed the one must follow the other.

This is the train laid to blow us up, what Iacob said after Io­seph was lost, and Benjamin must go too; All these things are against me, may be our applica­tion [Page 204] for the Church. If any thirty years agone, should have foretold that this Garden of God should have brought forth these weeds, that such Tenents should have so prevailed among us, he would have been by the most religious persons of that age, taken for one that dreamed; and they ready to have answered for their Mother-Church, as Hazael did for him­self, when the Prophet told him, what evill he should be the Au­thour of.

Let us be of moderate spirits, and not run beyond the bounds of any president in the Primitive times, walk not in wayes not cast up; (Jerem. 6. 16.) enquire for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein; be not like those in the next words, that said, we will not walk in them; [Page 205] but in new ones, according to your own fancies. Let the Tribe of Levi be purged, but let not the physick be so strong as to destroy them. Saint Paul magnified his own office; this is but to sup­port it from being trodden under feet, and the end is your good, that in these distracted times, ye might not be without leaders, so ordained and fitted, to guide your feet in the way of peace, and so much for the first, A necessity of an ordained Ministery.

Now the second observation 2 is, that Ordination is not onely an internal Call of God, but an ex­ternal of man; for so 'tis deno­minated by that very act, laying on of hands, i. e. implying the hand of God is not all in the holy frame of the heart of the person by his spirit, requisite in every [Page 206] true believer, but there must be the hands of men in the designati­on of him in his name also. The first was wont to be asked, the per­son ordained,Book of Ordi­nation. viz. Whether in his heart or conscience, he found himself truly called to the Ministry, accord­ing to the will of our Lord Iesus Christ. This perswasion of his gave a capacity, but the autho­rity actually conferred on him, was by the imposition of hands, Ability and faithfulnesse were the qualifications, but the com­mission to officiate, was transfer­red to Timothy (2 Eph. 2. 2.) by that means. Ye know those two memento's of Saint Paul to him, Neglect not the gift (1 Tim. 4. 14.) Stirre up the gift of God which is in thee (2 Tim. 1. 16.) by the laying on of my hands, and of the hands of the Presbytery; if it [Page 207] should be asked, What is here meant by the gift, I conceive there is no necessity of under­standing it, either of gifts of abi­lity, or saving gifts of the Spirit; for as the former doubtlesse were found in Timothy before his ordi­nation, and the latter from his childhood, & education; (2 Epist. cap. 3. 15. cap. 1. 5.) so 'tis a doubt if it were in the power of Timothy to transferre either of 1 those by this means, they being to be left to Christ himself, who enlightens every man that cometh into the world; and to that holy Spirit who blowes when, and where it listeth, but the surest sence is to take it for the autho­rity given him for the officiating, and exercising these abilities, and transferring of it unto others: And in this sence I grant gifted [Page 208] men may preach, and perform other ministerial acts, i. e. who with the internall have received this externall power and authori­ty also, according to Christs ordi­nance through imposition of hands.

Indeed the word [...] is of­ten taken for internall abilities, and 'tis not improbable, but at the solemn meeting of the Church of God, both Ministery and peo­ple, in Fasting and Prayer, (which was the injunction of our Church, & should have been the practice) to invocate God for the assisting grace of his spirit, to be given to the person ordained, might be pre­valent for that end; and that the receiving accordingly of ordina­tion, might be so far operative, as to be a confirmation of the par­ty the more, against errors and heresies, in the execution of it; [Page 209] The falling into which may possi­bly be the judgement of God up­on some, who of late dayes have run without it, which agrees with the observation Chemnitius makes of Origen, who neglected Orders, and fell into the like; and at last made himselfe incapable of them. But I say again, that [...] in the forenamed place, is most safely to be understood of the gift of authority to be exercised and transferred unto others by laying on of hands.

And 'tis further confirmed by the many examples that do a­bound, our Saviour gave his A­postles not only an inward call by his Spirit, but an open verball call before the people; Saint Ste­phen, a man full of Faith and the Holy Ghost, yet presumed not to officiate, till he had imposition of [Page 210] hands from them; Beware of ma­king your selves Ministers, our Saviour did not make himself a Priest (Heb. 5. 5.) 'tis the blot layed on Iezabell, that she made her selfe a Prophetesse, Reve­lat. 2. 20.

'Tis frequent to hear an ordai­ned Minister called Antichri­stian, but consider who deserves that Title, whether those that observe the rule of Christ, and tread in the paths of the Apo­stles, or such, who, without any president in Scripture, or in pri­mitive times, are in this a law unto themselves. And do but think what ill issue may in the future, be of this promiscuous presumption, upon the offices of the Ministery, what doubts it may raise in our posterity, in receiving of Baptisme, by such [Page 211] as cannot answer to that question By what authority dost thou these things, and who gave thee this au­thority?

One objection common in the mouthes of men is,Object. Why do you stand so much upon a ceremony, as laying on of hands is?

First,Answ. that which the Apostle calls [...] a Principle and a Fundamen­tall, do not you call a ceremony, according to that which was said, to S. Peter, That which God hath cleansed, call not thou common; for which we have both Precept and Example to three successions; Paul, and Timothy, and those that suc­ceeded him.

2. 'Tis a most honourable ce­remony used upon other occa­sions, Iacob in blessing of Ephra­im, and Manasses, Moses in con­stitution of Ioshua, Na [...]mans ex­pectation [Page 212] of Elias healing him, our Saviours in blessing of the children in the Gospel, Saint Pauls at the Holy Ghosts coming upon the disciples of Ephesus in the gift of tongues. The Prophets of Antioch, upon the separating of Paul, and Barnabas, for a spe­ciall work designed unto, as others by way of benediction and confirmation.

3 3. If it be an institution, though, how mean soever it is to the eye, yet it must be observed, or else water in Baptisme, & bread and wine in the Lords Supper, may fall under the like contempt. Circnmcision was a carnall ordi­nance, yet (Rom. 3.) the Apostle checks those who questioned the profit or vertue of it. The waxe of the Seale hath little worth in it self, but by the im­pression [Page 213] affixed to the pattent, is of great consequence to the par­ty, the like application may be made to imposition of hands, the Seal of Ordination.

But suppose laying on of hands be granted as we have said,Object. the question yet remains, By whose hands?

Answ. Answ. Doubtlesse not by the peoples, for it doth not stand with reason, that any can trans­ferre that authority, which they have not, The people may be said after a manner, to give their votes in the election, as it was the for­mer (and ancient) custome, that they were asked if they knew of any impediment or crime, Book of Ordi­nation. for which the party ought not be received into this holy Ministry, and desi­red to declare it; and upon the ob­jecting of any, the Bishop was to [Page 214] surcease, till the party accused should clear himself. The people had liberty of allegation, for, or against the person to be ordained, but it doth not follow, that there­fore they had power in constitute­ing and ordaining. They are the persons to whom the Ministers are sent; can they be the Senders? they have their mission to them; can they have their Commission from them? we are Gods Embassa­dours, not theirs, neither do ye [...]ind any power this way de­rived or committed from Christ to them, As my Father sent me, so send I you, saith our Saviour to his Apostles, Lo, I am with you, and so with your successors, unto the end of the world. Saint Paul saith to Timothy, Lay thou hands, &c. to Titus, I left thee behind, that thou shouldest ordain (be it [Page 215] meant collectively of the rest of the Ministers, as assistants with him also,) but no mention of the people in that act.

That of Numb. 8. 10. the peo­ple laid their hands on the Levits, is not meant in their consecrati­on, but dedication, or the dona­tion of them to be consecrated to the Lord, instead of the first born by Moses and Aaron; It was but as Hanna's giving up her son Samuel to Eli, to be consecrated to the service of the Temple, or like the presentation of a person formally under the hand and seal of the Patron to the Bishop, to be instituted or inducted; such was this of the Levites, only a signification of their act and deed under their hands, in giving up their whole title and interest in them, to be set apart for that end.

[Page 216]For that of Matthias his ele­ction before the people, Object. to be an Apostle (Acts 1. 16.) alleadged by some for the power of people in Ordination.

1.Answ. 1. Saint Peter only signifieth to them what they were about to do, and doing it in their presence, as in Saint Cyprians time, it was the custome to have the Mini­ster ordained, praesente plebe, sub omnium oculis, &c. in the presence of the people, before the eyes of all, &c. like Eleazar invested by Moses with the Priests garments, on the top of the Mount in the sight of the Israelites, but the acti­ons in [...]etting two apart in casting the lots, prayer, &c. were the Apostles.

2 Secondly, This election here to the Apostleship, was neither the peoples, nor Apostles, but [Page 217] Gods by a divine suffrage, expres­sed by lot according to the pray­er of the Apostles to God for it, and so it makes nothing for the peoples act in ordination: and so much for the first Questi­on, Whose hands must be im­posed?

2.2 Quest. What if the ordainers, being of the Ministry, be found not to have [...]een of clean hands themselves, i. e. of evill lives, is their ordina­tion good?

I answer,Answ. Yes; For 'tis not a perso­nal act, but an act of office, as 'tis not the learning of the Judge makes any decree valid, but his authority and commission for it; A Popish Judge gives a just sentence in Court, his sentence is not erro­neous and Antichristian: though himself may be so; his act is good in Law: how bad soever he is in [Page 218] matter of Religion, & so the act of Ordination being an act of office is not nulled, or voided by perso­nal defilements; It was the er­rour of the Donatists, to put the vertue of Ministerial acts wholly upon the holinesse of the person ministring; no, as Saint Augustine, saith, a foul hand may sow good seed.

But there is one objection more to be answered,Object. frequently in the mouthes of men, viz. Your Orders were derived from Rome, and therefore Antichristian.

1.Answ. 1. Observe what contrary in­ferences are against us; The Pa­pists say we have no lawful Mi­nistery, because we have it not from Rome, having renounced our subjection to that See, others among our selves argue the same, from our being deduced from it.

[Page 219]Secondly, If they mean of our 2 receiving it from thence, imme­diately after the Apostles time, (which the ancientest of the Brit­tish Writers extant do not grant, but averre, that we received it from such as came from Ierusa­lem hither even in Tiberius his time) it is no disparagement to us,Gildas. for it was then a famous Church; see Saint Pauls Epistle to it, as Ignatius after him. But if they mean since the corrupti­on and Apostasy of it, we may distinguish between from and through, as between the Foun­tain and Conduit, we received it from the Apostles, though running through some corrupt times of Popery, of which, since our reformation, it savours no more, then the Fish doth of the salt water, or as the three children [Page 220] in the furnace, when they came out there, was not so much as the smell of fire found upon them.

3 3. If they mean of Austine the Monke sent from Rome in Gre­gory the great his time, about 600 yeares after Christ; there were then no such defilements of doctrine in it, that it should be a scandall to us either: And yet we were not then to seek for an ordained Ministery, there having been for many hundreds of years, before that, a flourishing Church among us, which the Saxons whom he came to convert, had been the persecutors and destroy­ers of, as Gildas tells us, so that in that, or the former, sense, the ob­jection is not worth the an­swering.

4 But fourthly, I suppose they mean of later Centuries, when that [Page 221] complaint of the Proph [...]et con­cerning Ierusalem, might be ap­pliable to Rome. How is that faith­ful City become a harlot? it was full of judgement, righteousnesse lodge­ed in her; but now murderers, &c. i. e. Since the Bishop of Rome be­came corrupt in doctrine and worship.

For this, first we thus answer. While we were under the ty­ranny of the Bishop of Rome, it doth not appear that he ordinari­ly usurped, more then a mandatory nomination of the Bishop to be consecrated, which out of a blind fear of his excommunication was assented unto, but the consecration was not by him, but other Bishops here within our selves. And I ac­count the ordination or consecra­tion to be derived from such as gave imposition of hands, not from [Page 222] the mandate for them to do it; Henry the eight, and the Kings succeeding, assumed the like power in the nomination of the person (which accordingly might not be gainsaid:) but from thence it cannot be argued, that our or­dination or consecration was de­duced from them, for the Kings mandate served not to give power to ordain (which those Bishops had before intrinsecally annexed to their office) but only was a warrant to apply this power to the person named in that Man­date. Now this being all which was usurped by the Bishop of Rome, in relation to the conse­crations of our Bishops in Eng­land, when we were under the Tyranny of the Papacy, there is as little force for our deriving our ordination from him also. And if [Page 223] those Bishops of Sidon, which (as Arch-DeaconDe Minister. Anglican. Mason tells us) assisted in the first consecration in Hen. 8. as in Edward the sixth's time, were not meerly Ti­tular, but had their consecration from the Greek Church, which is altogether a stranger to the See of Rome; it would take off some­what from the pretence of a totall derivation from thence.

But still it may be objected,Object▪ that we have at least received our Or­dination from such as professed the Religion of Rome.

First,Answ. it could not be called properly the Religion of Rome, till the Councell of Trent, which determined many years after our falling off from the See of Rome: The Papists ask us, Where was our Religion before Luther? we might reply, Where was the [Page 224] Popish Religion before that time. 'Tis true, most of those poysonous errours were sowen up and down the world before, but not collect­ed fully into a body; and so own­ed and headed by the Papacy till then. For till that time, scarce any point we hold now against them but there were some of their own Authours who held it also. So that to speak properly the now Romish Religion in their new Creed, with other appurtenances, was established since our form of ordination.

2. Suppose we received our ordination from such who were corrupted with Popish errours, yet if they retained the Fundamen­talls of Christian Religion, their ordination may be valid: those like some part of the barke of the tree uncut, may convey [Page 225] the Sappe from the root to the preserving of life in the branches. What Saint Augustine saith of the Donatists in some things, mecum sunt, they concurre with me; in other things they are defi­led, may be applicable to the Church of Rome, and if so, why may we not receive through them, what was of Christs remain­ing in them, without being defi­led with that corrupt part which is their own? why may not there be in this a separation of the preci­cious from the vile? And in our reformation we withdrew our selves no further from her, then she hath declined from her self in the Apostles time, and from the ancient state and condition of it then, as one saith well, Nostra Ecclesia ab hodierna Romana Ec­clesia contaminata recessit, ut ad [Page 226] pristinam, puram, Apostolicam, Ro­manam accedere posset. We for­sook the present corrupted Church of Rome, that we might be nearer a kin to the first, pure, Apostolical Roman Church in the primitive times.

3. In a word, we do affirme that neither their corruption in opinion, or vitiosity of life, do, or did, void it to the party ordained; none doubts of the Baptisme of our fore-fathers administred by those of the like in the Church of Rome, as if there needed any reiteration, by them who survi­ved our reformation: neither do we renew the orders received in that Church, when any Priest is converted, and betakes himself to our communion, and why should it be questioned here? Let the Seal be of Silver or brasse, the [Page 227] impression is alike valid, if af­fixed by order to the deed; Pa­rents in generation convey to the child what is essentiall to hu­mane nature, not that which is accidentall. A maimed Father begets a Son like himself, as he was before he lost his arme; as the circumcised did, and doth an uncircumcised child: the like ap­plication may be made, to the transferring of ordination in such a wounded, diseased, Apostati­zed Church, as the Roman now is, and by such corrupted persons in life and doctrine, continuing in it; so they do observe theSee Bishop Bedels letter to Wadsworth, p. 157. es­sentials in ordination;My defence for your Mi­nistry is, that the forme, Receive the H [...]ly Ghost; whose sins ye remit, are remitted: doth suciffi­ently compre­hend the au­thority, &c, other su­perstructures or corruption in the ordainers, doth not null it, either to the persons themselves, or successors; which might be further manifested by the p [...]a­ctice [Page 228] of the Church in all ages.

1 1. That Ministration under the Law, (the Priests of which the Jewish Writers say, were conse­crated by laying on of hands) had as much cause to stand upon suc­cession as any; yet, ye find often, that the Priests the sons of Aaron, and the Levites had corrupted their wayes, were defiled with Idolatry in Ahaz, and Manasses time, and others, as bad or worse then the See of Rome; yet after a reformation, the succession which was by their hands was not que­stioned; Though the Priesthood ran through much filth, yet re­taining the essentialls of the Jew­ish Religion, as circumcision, &c. they were owned of God again in a successive ministration. See in the height of their Idolatry, when they were offering their children [Page 229] by fire, unto their Idols, yet by re­taining the Sacrament, & covenant of circumcision, their children are called the Lords children, Ezek. 16. 20. Thou hast taken thy sons which thou hast borne unto me, &c. thou hast slayn my children, in cau­sing them to pass through the fire, etc.

2 2. In our Saviour Christs time, there was as bad a successi­on as ever; in the Priests, Pha­rises, Scribes, Sadduces, &c. yet as he permitted their admini­string of some rites for himselfe; whether of circumcision, or the offering made for him in the Tem­ple, at the purification, after the custome of the Law, in his infan­cy, so at his manifestation about 30 yeares after, he sends those that were healed by him to the Priests, to offer what Moses com­manded; ye see he did not deter­mine [Page 230] against the office for the personal defilements of their Pre­decessors, or themselves.

3 3. Nay, under the Gospel, a­bout four hundred years after our Saviour Christ, was not the world so over-run with Arrians, that it groaned under it? (as St. Ierom saith,) when they had the com­mands of the Pulpits, ordaining of Preachers, children were bap­tized by them, men put to re­ceive the communion of them; as Hilary and Basil say, the Or­thodox were hatched under the wings of the Arrian Priests; yet upon a reformation, and the re­nouncing of that heresie, we read not of any rejecting of the succee­ding Ministers, because they were derived through such hands, which I conceive to have been as bad as the Bishop of Rome, and [Page 231] his followers. The Church then was so wise as to consider, a jewel looseth not his vertue by being delivered by a foul hand, so nei­ther is the treasure of the Mini­stry to be despised, because it hath passed through some pollu­luted vessels to us, which is appli­able for the saving harmlesse our ordination, though transmitted through the Popish defilements of some persons; so much in vindica­ting the ordination of the Church of England, from the scandall of being Popish & Antichristian, with which by some ignorant and rash people, it is frequently aspersed.

Let me conclude with this short admonition. Be not here­after so unworthy, as to blurre that Ministery, with being An­tichristian, by whom ye have received the knowledge of Christ; [Page 232] both by their translating of the Scriptures out of the Originalls, into your Mother-tongue for your reading, and their labour, in the exposition of them for your understanding, by whom you and your fathers have been baptized, and instructed; Be not such ill birds, as thus to defile your own nests; do not side with the agents of the Bishop of Rome, in thus detracting and lessening the reputation and esteem of them. Let them not say in their hearts, so would we have it, nor you with your tongues, unlesse in your hearts you are Romish your selves.

Is it not strange, that those who have been so great opposers of the errors of Popery, wrot so lear­nedly, and fully against them, who have applyed, that in the [Page 233] 2 Epist of the Thessalonians, con­cerning the man of sin, and that of Babylon in 17. Revel. to the Pa­pacy, as Bishop Downham, Abbot, Iewell, and the late eminent Pri­mate, with divers others; that now they should (with their very calling and profession) be styled Popish; can we think otherwise, but that the hand of Ioab (I mean the Jesuit) is privily in it. Is it not a wonder it should so come about, that such as have been the greatest enemies to the See of Rome, should be reckoned as members, and friends of it; and thus perpetually yoked together as twins; nay trod under foot as unsavory salt, upon that very account, as being Episcopall. Is this a just reward of their labour? in the defence of your profession; thus to be aspersed by you, as Ab­solon [Page 234] to Hushay, Is this thy kind­nesse to thy friend? Certainly those of the See of Rome, cannot but smile within themselves, that they have thus covertly deluded us, and so closely taken a revenge of those their adversaries.

How true is that speech of our Saviour, A Prophet is not without honour, save in his own country; other nations, French and German, magnifie the Clergy of the Church of England; by what is transmitted over Sea in many of their works, onely de­spised at home as the off-scour­ing of the world; what a prepara­tive this is, to the expectation of the Papists, an able learned, or­dained Ministery, having been hitherto the stop to the introdu­ction of ignorance and supersti­tion, which if removed, might [Page 235] flow in the more easily, which God in his mercy prevent.

And thus I have endeavoured to confirm the Primates judge­ment upon this place, viz. that by laying on of hands, is meant an ordained Ministery.

The Primates judgement of the Sense and Vse of the Form of words in the former Constitution, at the Ordination of Priests or Presbyters, defen­ded, and enlarged. viz. Re­ceive the Holy Ghost, whose sins thou forgivest, they are forgi­ven, and whose sins thou doest retain, they are retained. Which as an Appendix to the former subject, could not well be omitted.

THey are the words of our Saviour, Iohn 20. 22. to the Apostles, and why they may not be continued to [Page 237] their Successors, (who are to suc­ceed in that office of the Ministe­ry to the end of the world,) doth not yet appear; and 'tis possible, that the late offence taken against them to the disuse of them, may arise from a misapprehension of the sense of them; The Primates judgement of which I think fit to manifest, who in all his Or­dinations, constantly observed them.

They consist of two clauses.

1. Receive the Holy Ghost.1

2. Whose sins thou forgivest, they are forgiven; and whose sins thou dost retain, they are retained.

1. For the first; (Receive the Holy Ghost) We do not here un­derstand the sanctifying graces of the spirit: For the Apostles had received them before, in that they were bid by our Saviour, to [Page 238] rejoyce, that their names were written in heaven (the evidence of which is, heaven wrot in the heart here) and had his witnesse, that they had believed, and had kept his word, for whom he had also also prayed in that sense; San­ctifie them through thy truth, John 17.

And if this had been the gift, there had been no particular thing given to them, for all that will be saved, must in some mea­sure partake of it. Rom. 8. 9. If any man have not the spirit of Christ, he is none of his.

And though it be the testimo­ny of a good Christian, yet 'tis not a sufficient warrant for him, to take upon him the Ministery.

2 2. Again, it cannot be meant of the extraordinary gifts of the Holy Ghost, viz. Gifts of tongues, [Page 239] &c. For in that sense the Holy Ghost was not yet given, till fifty dayes after. viz. the Feast of Pen­tecost, but this was given upon the day of his Resurrection; So that a third sense must be had, which was the Primates, as followeth.

3. Receive the Holy Ghost] i. e. re­ceive 3 Ministeriall power of offici­ating and dispensing those sacred Ministrations, unto which the promise of the holy Spirit is annex­ed, and through which, as the Con­duit-Pipes, this holy water is conveyed; not so much meant for their own benefit, as the good of others; In this he gave them power as the Stewards of God, to be dispensers of holy and spi­ritual things, to the benefit of such, over whom the Holy Ghost had made them overseers, which is accordingly attributed to the [Page 240] Elders of Ephesus, whom S. Paul had ordained.

Mr. Hooker's glosse (in his Ec­cles. Polit.) is accordingly; Receive the Holy Ghost, i. e. Accipite po­testatem spiritualem, receive ghost­ly, or spiritual Authority, in or­der to the soules of men now to be committed to your charge; And if you mark the context, their Commission is here from the blessed Trinity; the Fa­ther, and Sonne, in the verse before. As my Father hath sent me, so send I you. And in this verse, a reception of Authority from the third person, the Father sends, Matth. 9. 38. Chap. 10. 20. the Sonne, Ephes. 4. here the Holy Ghost, as Acts 20.

And so more fully thus. Re­ceive the Holy Ghost, i. e. receive Authority from the Father, Son, [Page 241] and Holy Ghost, for the efficaci­ous preaching of the Word, and Administration of Sacraments, by and through which, the graces of the holy spirit in repentance, faith, forgivenesse of sins, and the like; are ordinarily wrought and confirmed to the hearers, and partakers of them: yet not ex­cluding it from being a Prayer also, viz. that the person thus au­thorized, might receive such a spiritual assistance in it.

Receive first by way of donation in the name of Christ, as to the office; and secondly, by way of impetration, as to the efficacious spiritual assistance of him in it, which the accustomed succeed­ing prayer did confirm: which as it was in both senses frequently effectual by the mouth and hands of the Apostles, so hath it been [Page 242] accordingly from age to age, in and by the Ministery succeeding, and therefore why may not the same form of words be used at their Ordination also.

Can we think this solemn re­ception of the Holy Ghost, in that sense as hath been explain­ed, was onely for the benefit of that age, and withdrawn totally again in the next.

That his being with them thus by his spiritual assistance, to the end of the world, was to deter­mine with the death of the Apo­stles; some of which, (as Saint Iames, Acts 12.) were not long after; No surely, this oyle poured upon their heads, descended fur­ther then so, even to the skirts of their garments, in these dayes.

The third Chapter of the first Epistle to the Corinthians, hath [Page 243] much in confirmation of this. In the third verse, Saint Paul styles the Minister ordained by Christ, his Amanuensis; ye are the Epi­stle of Christ ministred by us, written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God. Christ the inditer, the Minister is as the hand of a ready writer; or the Spirit is as the ink, the Minister as the pen, through which 'tis diffused upon the flesh­ly Tables of your hearts, and by saying us, he doth not appropri­ate it to himselfe, but gives the like to Timothy ordained by him, which he continues in the sixth verse; God hath made us able Ministers of the New Testament, not of the letter, but of the spirit; as he calls the Word, the sword of the spirit (Ephes. 6.) com­mitted into the hands of the Mi­nistery, [Page 244] so the whole office is cal­led the Ministration of the Spirit, v. 8. the Ministration of righte­ousnesse, v. 9. i. e. instrumental­ly, be it that of Iustification, or Sanctification, by which he saith, it did exceed in glory that under the law; The shining of Moses face, the glory of the Temple, and vestments of the Priests were glorious, but yet had no glory in this respect, by reason of the glory which excelleth; for if that which is done away were glorious, how much more that which remaineth, is glorious. Now wherein lieth this glory, but in being by this Mi­nistration, the Conduits through which the Spirit is conveyed, and received, or being (cap. 6. 1.) co-workers together with him of it, even as the glory of the latter Tem­ple, by the presence of Christ [Page 245] himselfe, is said to be greater then the former, though it had types of him in a more outward glorious lustre: 'tis therefore cal­led v. 18. the glass of the glory of the Lord, by which we are changed in­to the same Image from glory to glo­ry, even as by the Spirit of the Lord.

Which as it rebukes the Contemners of the office of the Ministery, so it answers that frequent objection made against the use of these words, at the Or­dination to it; viz. That the San­ctifying graces of the spirit, were sometimes lacking both in the Ordainers transmitting, and ordai­ned the recipients; It is answe­red, the Transmission, or recepti­on of the Holy Ghost here, is not meant in that sense, as to the rest­ing of it in the persons them­selves, but as the conveyers of it, [Page 246] for the use and benefit of others, viz. through these Administra­tions, which they are now by this authorized to performe.

And that it may be so, ye see it in Iudas, who by our Saviours Commission to him through prea­ching, and baptizing, was the in­strument accordingly of the trans­ferring of it, (i. e. remission of sins, &c.) unto others, without parta­king of it himself: our Saviour calls him a Devill, and a son of perdition, but yet in this Office, the Devils were subject to him; and he the means of dispossessing of others; like Noahs Carpen­ters, who were instruments to save others, but were drowned themselves. 'Tis probable, Saint Paul, or some of the Apostles or­dained Hymenaeus, and Phyletus, Phygellus, Hermogenes, and Dio­trephas, [Page 247] but as in neither of them doth there appear any sanctified grace of the spirit, so we do not read it caused any suspension of the vertue of their ministerial acts to the receivers, or that the Apostles gave order for any rei­teration of them; personal faults, not voyding Acts of Office; and so, why should the like be a pre­judice to it in these succeeding Ages? Receiving supposeth a gift, but 'tis as the giving of a summe to a Steward by his Lord, not to his own private use, but for the dispensing of it to the family.

And to say no more, there are some learned Interpreters, do apply that passage, 1 Iohn Chap. 2. 20. to an ordained Ministe­ry; yee need not that any man teach you, but as the same anoin­ting teacheth you all things, and [Page 248] is truth;Eadem unctio) non pootuit luculentiore testimoni [...] Pa­stores & doctores ornare, à qui­bus illi instituti f [...]erant, & quotidie [...]dhuc instituebantur, quam quum ipsos diceret ab ipso Spiritu Sancto doceri, & jam antea esse doctos. Beza's words upon the place, are these; the same anoint­ing) he could not with a more cleare Testimony have adorned the Pa­stors and Teachers, from whom they were instructed, and daily as yet are; then to say they were taught by the holy Ghost, & had bin formerly, &c. Piscator in loc. Vnctio docet] id est, ministerium verbi (i. e.) Spiritus Sanctus effica [...] per praedicationem Evangelii, quare ministerium verbi in pre­cio habendum est. Piscators words are these, The anointing teacheth] i. e. the Ministry of the word, or the Holy Ghost efficacious by the preaching of the Gospel, wherefore the Ministery ought to be in a great esteem with us.

Ye see they do not understand by this Vnction, or anointing, sig­nifying the Holy Ghost, an imme­diate teaching, or inspiration, as by some Enthusiasme, but imme­diately through the Ministery, [Page 249] ordained for that end; by a Meto­nymy (as they say) of the Ad­junct; the oyntment, for the hand, which applyes it, or deli­vers it to you, and the teaching you all things, is meant of all things necessary to salvation; the credenda, and agenda, which by the Ministery had bin so f [...]lly taught them, that they needed not to be taught by Saint Iohn again here.

If any shall object (as it hath been nnto me) that of Saint Au­gustine, lib. 15. de Trinit. cap. 27. Quomodo ergo Deus non est qui dat Spiritum Sanctum, imò quan­tus Deus est qui dat Deum? neque enim aliquis discipulorum ejus de­dit Spiritum Sanctum, orabant quippe ut veniret in eos, quibus manus imponebant, non ipsi eum da­bant, quem morem in suis praeposi­tis etiam nune servet Ecclesia &c. i. e. How should not he be [Page 250] ‘God who gives the Holy Ghost? nay, how great a God who gives God? for neither any of his di­sciples, gave the holy Ghost; they prayed indeed, that it might come upon those on whom they imposed hands, they did not give it themseles; which custom the Church now observes, &c.’

1.Answ. In the words before these, he speaks of a double giving of the Holy Ghost by our Saviour, the one on earth after his resurrecti­on, the other from heaven after his Ascension, upon the day of Pentecost; now in relation to the latter in those extraordinary gifts of the spirit, the words objected have their principal application, which doth not concern that we have in hand, which is only of the former being meant of successive ministerial authority, for the ordi­narie dispensing of the office.

[Page 251] Secondly, whereas he saith, the Church hath observed that custome in imposition of hands, to pray for the persons reciving of it, hath bin formerly acknowledged to be one sense of that clause, viz. by way of impetration; Take the gift of the spirit, pro dono infuso, so we use the words per modum impe­trationis, take it pro officio, so we use it, per modum collationis, mi­nisterially conferring the power of executing the office of a Mini­ster, & there is no contradiction, but that in the same act, there may meet a collation of the office with authority to execute, and an im­petration for the persons receiving an assistance of the spirit in the executing of it, which, in the old in junction immediately follow­ed, in a prayer, for the person or­dained accordingly, so that the cu­stome [Page 252] and intention of our Church, is no other then what was in Saint Augustines time, not presuming to give the Holy Ghost in the latter sense, (only praying it might be given of God to him) but only in the former.

So much for opening of the first clause in ordination, Receive the Holy Ghost, which rightly un­derstood, is not such a rock of of­fence, as some have taken it to be, in the disuse of it.

The second clause is, whose sins thou forgivest, they are forgi­ven, whose sins thou doest retain, they are retained. At which, as much, if not more offence hath been taken, then at the former, (as if it savoured of Popery) which [...] shall give you the Primates sense of also. That it may be retain­ed in ordination, and attributed [Page 253] safely to the office of the Mini­stery, without the least savour that way, which no man that knew him, and what Popery is, but will acquit him of the least grain of it.

Thus far it will be granted 1 by all sober persons.

1. The Ministers may be said to remit sins, by way of preparative to it; in being the instruments (by preaching the word of recon­ciliation) to dispose men towards it in bringing them to repentance, whereby they are capable of it.

2. By way of Confirmation, in 2 exhibiting the seales of remission in the Sacraments, according as one well glosseth upon these words; 'Tis Gods act onely to for­give sins, but the Apostles are said to do it; Non simpli­citèr sed quia adhibent media per q [...]uae Deus remittit pecca­ [...]a, haec autem▪ media sunt [...]erbum & Sacramenta; [...]er. in loc. not simply, but because [Page 254] they apply the means appointed of God for that end. viz. the word, and Sacraments; What is there more in forgivenesse of sins, then in reconciliation of God and man; now ye find this given to the Ministery. 2 Cor. 5. 18, 19. God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them, and hath committed unto us the word, or ministery of reconciliation. Gods act onely authoritate pro­pria, by his own supreme au­thority; the Ministers act po­testate vicaria, as a substitute in Christs stead, and the word doth include the Sacraments also, as in our usual speech, the Letters Pattents doth the Seale affixed to them, as the Ministery, doth the whole ministerial office.

3. Declaratively in testifying [Page 255] this grace of God, and declaring Gods good pleasure accordingly upon repentance unto the per­son, like that of Nathan to Da­vid, or Saint Peter to his Audi­tory (Acts 3.) as Ferus saith, Non quod homo propriè remittet peccatum, sed quod ostendet & certificet adeò re­miss [...]m, neque enim al [...]a est ab­so [...]utio ab homine, (quam si di­cat) E [...] ti [...]i, certifico te, tibi remissa esse peccata, Annuncio tibi te habere Deum propit [...]um, &c. Ferus. lib 2. Comment. in Matth. cap. 9. edit. Mogu [...]t, 1559. man doth not properly forgive sin, but doth declare, and certi­fie that it is remitted of God, so that absolution received from man, is as much to say, behold my son, I certifie thee, that thy sins are forgiven thee. I declare unto thee that God is at peace with thee, (which I relate the rather out of him both for his being a writer of the Church of Rome, and that this passage is purged out of his book by them as erro­neous, as may be seen by compa­ring the Edition of Mentz, with [Page 256] the Edition at Antwerp, 1559, and 1570) Which agrees with that in the Articles of Religion of Ire­land, num. 71. God hath given power to his Ministers, not simply to forgive sinnes (which preroga­tive he hath reserved only to him­selfe) but in his name to declare and pronounce unto such as truly repent, and unfeignedly believe his Holy Gospel, the absolution, and remission of sins.

But that ye may the more fully understand the Primates Iudge­ment in this point, whose authority prevails much with all good men, and how remote our Church is from that of the Papists in the use of those words in ordination, I shall give you some brief colle­ctions out of that Answer of his to the Iesuite Malones challenge concerning this subject, and the [Page 257] rather to satisfy the Reader, a­gainst the injury, which (among others) Doctor Heylene hath done him in this, as if his judgement were opposite to the Doctrine of the Church of England.

First, the Primate complains of the wrong done by the Papists in charging us with denying any power to be left by Christ to the Priests, or Ministers of the Church, to forgive sins, being the formal words which our Church re­quireth to be used in the Ordination of a Minister, and there states the question between them & us; That in the general, it was ever the do­ctrine of our Church, that the prin­cipal office of our Ministery is excer­cised in the forgivenesse of sins, as the means, and end of it. The Question is of the manner of the execution, and the Bounds of it, [Page 258] which the Pope, and his Clergy have enlarged beyond all measure of truth and reason.

We say, that to forgive sinnes properly, directly, and absolutely, is Gods propriety onely; Esay 43. 25. Psal. 32. 5. produced by our Saviour, Matth. 9. to prove his Deity, which is accor­dingly averred by all antiquity.

But the Papists attribute as much to the Bishop of Rome, af­firming, In summo P [...]ntifice esse pleni [...]ud [...]nem omnium grat [...]a­rum, quia i [...]se solus confert ple­nam indulgentiam omnium pec­catorum & computet sibi quod de primo princi [...]e D [...]mino dici­mus, quia de plenitudine ejus nos omnes accepimus, de Regim. Principum, lib. 3. cap. 10. inter opuscula Th [...]mae, num 20. activè & proximè efficit gratiam ju­stificationis, [...]t flatus extinguit ignem, & dissipat nebulas, sic absolutio sacerdotis pecca [...]a &c. Bell. de Sacram. lib [...]o 2. cap. 1. de poenitent. libro 3. cap. 2. Attritio virtute clavium fit contritio, Rom. Correctores Gloss. Gratiani de poenitent. du [...]t. 1. principio, &c. That in him there is a fulnesse of all graces, and he gives a full indulgence of all sins, that to him agrees that which we give to our Lord, that of his fulnesse, all we have re­ceived; and not much lesse to the meanest Priest; viz. That his ab­solution [Page 259] is such a Sacramental Act, that it confers grace; actively, and immediately, and effects the grace of Iustification, that as the wind doth extinguish the fire, and dispell Clouds, so doth his absolution, sins, and by it Attrition becomes Con­trition.

We do not take upon us any such soveraignty, as if it were in our power to proclaim warre, or conclude peace between God, and man, at our discretion; We re­member we are but Embassadors, and must not go beyond our commission, and instructions. We do not take upon us thus to be Lords over Gods heritage, as if we had the absolute power of the Keyes. This were Popery in­deed. No, we only acknowledge a Ministerial limited one, as Stew­ards to dispense things accord­ing [Page 260] to the Will of our Masters, and do assent unto the observati­on which Cyrill, Saint Basil, Am­brose, Augustine, make upon these words of Ordination of the Apo­stle; Receive the Holy Ghost, whose sins ye forgive, shall be forgiven. viz. That this is not their work pro­perly, but the work of the Holy Ghost, who remitteth by them; for as St. Cyril saith Cui enim praevaricatores legis à peccato liberare licet, nisi legis ipsius autori. in Jo [...]. lib. 12. [...]ap 56. who can free transgressors of the Law, but the Authour of the Law it self?Datu [...]us erat Dmi [...]us hominibus Spi [...]itum Sanctum, ab ipso Spiri [...]u Sancto fidelibus suis dimitti peccata volebat in­telligi; nam quid es h [...]m [...], nisi ager sanandus, vis mihi esse me­dicus, mecum quaere medicum. Homil. 23. Ex. 50. The Lord (saith St. Au­gustine) was to give un [...]o men the Holy Ghost, and he would have it to be understood, that by the Holy Ghost himselfe sins should be forgiven to the faithfull, what art thou O man, but a sick man? thou hast need to be healed; wilt thou be a Physi­tian [Page 291] to me, seek the Physitian toge­gether with me:Ecce per Spiritum San­ctum peccata donantur, [...]omi­nes, ministerium suum exhibent, non jus alicujus potestatis exercent, (de Sp. Sanct.) lib. 3. cap. 10. Saint Ambrose; Lo, by the Holy Ghost sins are forgiven; men bring but their Ministerie to it, they exercise not the Authoritie of any power in it.

Now having acquitted our Church of Poperie, in retaining these words in Ordination, the Pri­mate proceeds in shewing the Mi­nisters exercise of his function, in this particular; viz. Forgive­nesse of sins in these four things. 1. Prayer. 2. Censures of the Church. 3. Sacraments. 4. The word preached.

1. Prayer, Iam. 5. 14, 15. If any be sick, let him send for the Elders of the Church, & let them pray over him, and if he have committed sins, they shall be forgiven him, and so [Page 262] shewes it to have been the judge­ment and practice of the Fathers and the ancientest of the School­men, that the power of the Keyes in this particular, is much exer­cised in our being petitioners to God; for the persons remission, not excluding the prayers of the whole Church in assisting them with theirs, for which cause in publick offences, S. Augustine ex­horts men to shew their repen­tance accordingly, that the Church might pray with the Minister for them, for the more sure imparting of the benefit of absolution. And that before Thomas Aquinas time, the form of absolution was by pray­er for the partie, & that a learned man in his time found fault with that indicative form newly in­troduced. Then the form being not, I absolve thee, but absolutio­nem [Page 263] & remissionem tribuat tibi omnipotens Deus, the Almighty God give unto thee absolution, and remission, &c. unto which the antient Ritualls of the Roman Church as the Greeke, (accord­ing to that of Damascenes form, yet retained) doth agree; and 'tis the Primates observation, that the ancient Fathers never used any In­dicative form, but alwaies prayer­wise; as ye have heard, according to which were the ancient Litur­gies of the Latine, and Greek Churches; howsoever the Popish Priests now stand so much upon it, that they place the very es­sence and efficacie of that their Sacrament in it, in the first per­son, and not in the third.

Indeed our Church, to shew it stood not upon forms, did in its Liturgie observe each. 1. In the [Page 264] absolution after the general Con­fession it is only declarative; At the communion 'tis in the form of a prayer, at the visitation of the sick, 'tis both Declarative, Op­tative, and Indicative.

2 2. In the Censures of the Church, there is an exercise of this part of our function, which we maintain against the Montanists & Novatians, who deny any mini­steriall power of reconciling of such penitents, as had committed heynous sins, and receiving them to the Communion of the faith­full, which is contrary to that of Saint Paul, (as 'tis generally ex­pounded by antiquity) Gal. 6. 1. If any man be overtaken in a fault, (i. e. in a scandalous one) you who are spiritual, restore (i. e. upon his repentance) such a one in the spi­rit of meeknesse, as in the parti­cular [Page 265] of the Incestuous Corinthian, whom, as in the name and power of the Lord Iesus, he had bin excom­municated, by Saint Paul, and the Elders there, so upon his repentance, he was in the same name, and by the same power re­stored again, even by such, to whom was committed the Mi­nistery of reconciliation, 2 Cor. 27. 10. &c. And indeed this loose­ning of men, is generally by the Fathers accounted a restoring them to the peace of the Church, and admitting them to the Lords Table again, as is evident by their frequent expressions that way, which the Primate doth declare.

3. In the administration of the 3 Sacraments, which being a part of the Ministerie of reconciliation, and the Seales of the Promises must necessarily also have refe­rence [Page 266] to remission of sins, and so the ancient Fathers (of whom the Primate alleadgeth diverse) do hold, that as these words, whose sins ye remit, are remitted unto them, &c. are a part of our Com­mission; so 'tis exercised by the Mi­nisters of Christ in the Sacraments of Baptisme, and the Communion; yet so, that the Ministery only is to be accounted mans, and the power Gods; it being saith Saint Augustine, Aliud est baptiza [...]e per ministerium, aliud per p [...]e­statem & au­theritat [...]m, One thing to bap­tize by way of Ministerie, another by way of power, which the Lord hath retained to himself, as to the Authority of remission of sins in it, according to that of Iohn Baptists distinction between the externall and internall Bap­tisme, he baptized with the Bap­tisme of water, to the remission of sins, but attributes that of bap­tizing [Page 267] with the Holy Ghost, to Christ onely.

4. In the word of God preach­ed, 4 there is exercised this part of our function, in loosing men from their sins, being a speciall part of this Ministery of reconciliation, committed to us, as the Embassa­dours of Christ here upon the earth for that end; sinners are said to be holden with the cords of their own sins, Prov. 5. 12. The Apostles (saith Saint Ierome) ac­cording to their Commission gi­ven them by their Master, Who­soever you shall loose on earth, shall be loosened in heaven; (which beares the same sense with remit­ting, and retaining of sins here,) quos funes, & vincula, sol­vunt Apostoli Sermone Dei, & testimoniis scripturae, & ex­hortatione. lib. 6. Com­ment. in Is. cap. 14. Did loose those cords by the word of God, and Testimonies of Scripture, and exhortations unto vertues Remj [...]un­tur peccata per Dei verbum, de Abel, & Cain. lib. 2. cap. 4. Saint Ambrose saith [Page 268] the same, that sins are remitted by the word of God; &c. And so calls the Levite, that interpreted the Law, a Minister of remission; As the Iewish Scribes, by taking away this key of knowledge, are said to shut up the Kingdom of heaven, so a Scribe fitted for the Kingdome of God in the Mi­nistery, is a meanes by it to open the door of heaven to them, by being an instrument to open mens eyes, and to turn them from dark­nesse to light, from the power of Satan to God, that they may re­ceive forgivenesse of sius, &c. And by applying the word unto the consciences of their hearers, the Ministers of Christ did discharge that part of their function which concerns forgive­nesse of sins; not only declara­tively, but operatively; in as [Page 269] much as God is pleased to use their preaching of the Gospel, as a meanes of conferring his spirit upon the sons of men, and of working of faith, and repen­tance, whereby remission of sins is obtained: thus Iohn is said to have preached the Baptisme of re­pentance, Mark 1. 4. and to have given know­ledge of salvation to the people, for the remission of sins: and Saint Iames, cap. 5. 20. saith, he that converts a sinner from the errour of his way, shall save a soule from death, and hide a multitude of sins. This hiding, or covering, is meant forgivenesse, as 'tis accor­dingly set forth elsewhere. Rom. 4. 7. blessed is the man whose sins are forgiven, Jer. 3 [...]. 28. and whose iniquities are covered, &c. Now, is there not as much offence in saying Mini­sters do save mens soules, or save [Page 270] men from their sins, (the proprie­ty of our Saviour) as to say they forgive them their sins, the turn­ing men from their iniquities, is Gods act alone, according to the frequent prayer in the Prophets unto him first, yet in regard the word of reconciliation is commit­ted to them as the ordinary meanes of it, by a usuall Trope of the Act of the agent given to the instrument, it is attributed unto them, of which might be given many instances, Timothy (1 Ep. 1. 4.) is said to save them that hear him, though there is but one Sa­viour, because he preached the word of salvation, by which they were saved, (Acts 12. 14.) the word of God preached by the Apostles, is called by our Savi­our, their word Iohn 17. 20. and that which is properly the work [Page 271] of God, is called their worke, 1 Thes. 5. The Corinthians who believed by Saint Pauls Ministe­ry are said to be his Epistle, i. e. the Epistle of Christ ministred by him, as ye have it expounded in the next verse following; And so, why may not forgivenesse of sins be said to be the work of the Ministers, i. e. the work of Christ ministred by them; being so far honoured, as to be called [...], Coworkers together with him. Ac­cording unto which is the judge­ment of Dr. Ward, that Reverend and learned Professor of Divinity in Cambridge, in that determina­tion of his, (in Comitiis an. 1637. mense Octob.) Potestas clavium extenditur ad remissionem culpae, where are many of the like obser­vations, which I found inclosed in a letter unto the Primate, for [Page 272] his approbation, where I find somewhat more then is in that which is printed. viz. 80. Sic ar­gumentatur Alensis. part. 4. q. 21. membr. 1. Paris potestatis est in­terius baptizare & à culpa mor­tali absolvere. Sed Deus non de­buit potestatem baptizandi inte­rius communicare, ne spes ponere­tur in homine, ergo pari ratione non potestatem absolvendi ab actu­ali peccato, fundamentum hujus rationis habetur apud Cyprianum de lapsis.

And the like may be said of the binding part of their office called here, retaining of sins. Do we not read how the Ministers are sometimes brought in like those seven Angels in the book of the Revelation, which poure out the Vialls of Gods wrath upon the earth. Saint Paul saith, 2 Cor. [Page 273] 10. 6. he had vengeance in rea­dinesse against all disobedience, yet vengeance is mine, I will repay, saith the Lord; what other sense can it be but this? he is said to be the inflicter, because he was in Christs name the denouncer? even as Ieremiah, (cap. 1. 10.) is said to be set over the Nations, and Kingdomes to pluck up, and to pull down, to destroy, and to root out; because God had put these words in his mouth, and was or­dained by him as a Prophet to pronounce destruction to them accordingly, or as Ezekiel (cap. 43. 3.) is said to have destroyed the City, by being said to pro­nounce destruction to it. The Primate observes, that we often meet with these speeches con­cerning the Leprosie (which was a Type of the pollution of [Page 274] sin) the Priest shall cleanse him, the Priest shall pollute him (Lev. 13.) according to the Hebrew, and the Greek version; and out of [...]Conta­minatione contaminabit eum, haud dubium, quin Sacerd [...]s non quo contaminati­onis Author sit, sed quo osten­dat eum contaminatum. Hieron. lib. 7. Esa. cap. 23. Saint Ierom, that 'tis said, verse 44. the Priest with pollution, shall pollute him, not that he is the Author of his pollution, but that he declares him to be pol­luted, and uncleane; whereupon the Master of the sentences, and others do observe,In remit [...]endis vel re [...]i­nendis pecca [...]is, id Iuris & Officii habent Evangelici sacerdotes, quod olim habebant. sub lege le­gales in curandis leprosis. Hi er­go peccata dimi [...]tunt vel re [...]i­nent, dum dimissa adeo, vel re [...]entae, indicant & osten­dant. Ponunt enim sacerdo­tes nomen Domin [...] super filios Israel, sed ipse benedixit, si [...]ut legitur in Num. Petr. Lomb. l. 4. sent. dist. 14. that in remitting, and retaining of sins, the Priests of the Gospel have the like power, and office, which the Priests of old had under the Law in curing the Le­pers, who therefore accordingly may be said to forgive, and retaine sins, whilst they shew, and declare, [Page 275] they are forgiven, or retained of GodNum. 6.So the Priests put the name of the Lord upon the children of Israel, and were commanded to blesse the people in saying, The Lord blesse thee: but it was the Lord himself that blessed them; according to the next words, and I will blesse them.

And thus in these four things, I leave it to be calmly considered of, if the Ministers have not power left them by Christ in relation to forgivenesse of sins, and with these limitations, whether that part of the old form of the words of Or­dination, might not be continu­ed also, which seems to me to be explained in the next following them; viz. And be thou a faithfull dispenser of the word, and Sacra­ments, &c. (through both which the graces of the Holy Ghost, [Page 276] and remission of sins are convey­ed, and sealed) in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. According as in the words at the Communion used to the recipient, the former clause was added in Q. Elizabeths dayes, to give the more full sense of the latter. And let not any by this Moderate expression, extenuate the office of the Ministery, as Bel­larmine would by this inferre, that any Lay-man, Woman, or Child, may absolve as well as the Minister, (as we have among our selves, too many of that judge­ment.) For it consisteth not in speech, but in power, or Authori­ty; he being as the officer of a King, Authorized to make Pro­clamation of his pleasure: Eve­ry man may speak one to another, to the use of edifying, but to them [Page 277] is given, 1 Cor. 10. 16. power to edification, God hath made them able Ministers, not of the let­ter, but of the Spirit. That from them it comes, 1 Thess. 1. 5. not only in word, but in power also; and in the Holy Ghost, and in much assurance; which accordingly hath been experimentally found; that howsoever another may from the Scripture shew as truly unto the penitent, what glad tidings are there intended to him; yet to drooping and doubting soules, it hath not been so efficacious, in quieting them, and giving satisfa­ction to their consciences, either in sicknesse, death-bed, or other­wise; as by the Ministery ordain­ed, and commissionated for that end; That as 'tis their office to pray and exhort you in Christs stead to be reconciled unto God; so ha­ving [Page 278] listened to that Motion, and submitted your selves according­ly; 'tis their office to declare, and assure unto you in Christs stead, that God is reconciled with you, All which appeares to be the an­cient doctrine of the Church of England, by what is publickly de­clared in the exhortation before the Communion to be read some­times at the discretion of the Mi­nister which is the recitd and ap­proved by the Primate, as fol­loweth.

And because it is requisite that no man should come to the holy Communion, but with a full trust in Gods mercy, and with a quiet conscience, therefore, if there be any of you, which by meanes aforesaid, (i. e. Private exami­nation and confession of sinnes to God) cannot quiet his own [Page 179] conscience, but requireth further Councell and Comfort, then let him come to me; or some other discreet, and learned Minister of Gods word, and open his grief, that he may receive such Ghostly Councel, Advice, and Comfort; as his Con­science may be relieved; and that by the Ministery of Gods word, he may receive comfort, and the benefit of absolution, to the quiet­ing of his conscience, and avoyd­ing of all scruple, and doubtful­nesse.

And now let the Reader judge if Dr. Heylene hath not cause to repent of his rash censure of the Primate, (in his late book p. 108.) as if in this part of his Answer to the Jesuite, he had (as he saith) in this particular, utterly subver­ted, as well the doctrine of this Church, as her purpose in it, &c. [Page 280] when those two arguments which himself urgeth, from the words of Ordination, and the ex­hortation at the communion, are produced and defended by the Primate also. What would he have? he saith the doctrine of the Church of England is, that, The Priest doth forgive sins authorita­tivè by a delegated, and commissio­nated power committed to him from our Lord and Saviour, doth not the Primate say the same; that 'tis not only declarativè, but designativè, not only by way of informati­on out of the word of God (as another understanding Christian may do) to the penitent, that his sins are pardoned, but he doth it authoritative, as having a power and commission from God to pronounce it to the party, and by the seale of the Sacrament to [Page 281] assure the soule of the penitent, that he is pardoned of God, which no other man or Angel can do, ex officio, but the Mini­ster of Christ, according to that of the Apostle; To us is commit­ted the word of re [...]couciliation, this is the summe of the Primates judgement. He that would have more, must step over into the Church of Rome for it.

I shall only make a trial whe­ther Doctor Heylene will so con­clude against Mr. Hooker, as he hath against the Primate; who in his sixth book of Ecclesiasticall Policy, consents fully with him, where after his declaring, that for any thing he could ever ob­serve, those Formalities which the Church of Rome do so esteem of, were not of such estimation, nor thought to be of absolute ne­cessity [Page 282] with the Ancient Fathers, and that the form with them was with invocation, or praying for the penitent, that God would be re­conciled unto him, for which he produceth Leo, Ambrose,Sacerdos imponit manum subjecto, [...]ed [...] ­tum Spiritus sancti invocat, & indicta in populum or ati­one altari reconc­il [...]at, &c. ad­vers. Lucifer. Ie­rome, &c. p. 96. He thus declares his judgement, viz. As for the Mi­nisterial sentence of private abso­lution, it can be no more then a declaration what God hath done▪ it hath but the force of the Pro­phet Nathan's absolution, God hath taken away thy sins, then which construction, especially of words judiciall, there is nothing more vulgar. For example, the Publicans are said in the Gospel to have justified God: the Iewes in Malachy to have blessed the proud man, which sin, and prosper; not that the one did make God righteous, or the other, the wicked [Page 283] happy; but to blesse, to justifie, and to absolve, are as commonly used for words of judgement, or declarati­on, as of true and reall efficacy; yea, even by the opi [...]ion of the Master of sentences, &c. Priests are authorized to loose and bind, that is to say, declare who are bound, and who are loosed; &c. Saint Ierome also, (whom the Master of the Sentences alledg­eth) directly affirmeth, That as the Priests of the Law could only discern, and neither cause nor remove Leprosies; so the Ministers of the Gospel, when they retain or remit sinnes, do but in the one judge how long we continue guil­ty, and in the other declare when we are clear, or free. (Tom▪ 6. Comment. in 16. Mat.) So (saith Mr. Hooker,) when conversion by manifest tokens did seem effected, [Page 284] Absolution ensuing, (which could not make) served onely to declare men innocent. p. 108. When any of ours ascribeth the work of re­mission to God, and interprets the Priests sentence to be but a solemn declaration of that which God himselfe hath already per­formed, they (i. e. the Church of Rome) scorne it. And so af­ter much to this purpofe, he thus concludes. p. 113. Let it suffice to have shewen how God alone doth truly give, and private Mi­nisterial absolution, but declare remission of sinnes. And thus I leave Mr. Hooker under Doctor Heylen's Censure, who hath alrea­dy concluded, that forgivenesse of sins by the Priest, onely declara­tivè, doth not come up to the do­ctrine of the Church of England. Though the reason he gives, be­cause [Page 285] it holds, the Priest doth for­give sins authoritativè, I do not see the force of, The former, sup­posing the latter; for the Offi­cer, whose place it is, solemnly to make Proclamation of the Kings pardon, doth it authorita­tivè; nay, dares not do it, unlesse he were authorized accordingly. And so much for the Primates judgement of those words of Or­dination. Receive the Holy Ghost, whose sins thou forgivest, are for­given, whose sins thou retainest, are retained.

The PRIMATES judgment of the Vse of a set Form of Prayer, heretofore declared, and now more fully enlarged, and confirmed; with the con­currence of the Votes of such eminent persons who are so esteemed by the contrary-min­ded.

THis Subject hath been so sufficiently discussed and determined by others, that no new thing can be expected from me, onely you have here the Iudgement and Approbation of this eminent Primate, which being of so great esteem with all [Page 277] good men; 'tis possible now up­on near an even scale of mens opinions in it, his may be of that weight, as to give satisfaction.

First, that the Vse of a set Form of Prayer, is not a setting up of any new doctrine, as the Athe­nians judged of Saint Paul, ap­peares in that 'tis the practise of the Belgick Churches, for which ye have the determination of the Divines of Leyden, Polyander, Rivetus, Wala'us, Thy­sius; in theirDisput. 36. de cultu in­vocat. Sect. 33. non tantum lici­tas sed & valde utiler esse, contendimus, &c. & in magnis conventibus at [...]entio auditorum per usitatas formulas, non pa­rum juvatur. Synop­sis Theologiae: And the resolution of Mr. Aimes our countryman (who lived and died a Pro­fessor of Divinity a­mong them) in his cases of conscience, who saith, 'tis Licitum hoc esse manife­stum est, ex approbata sanctorum praxi, quam in praescriptis Psal­mis, & bene [...]ice [...]di formulis, scriptura nobis commendat. V­tile etiam & necessarium est quibusdam istisumodi f [...]rmam sequi, quamvis ex libell [...]sit de­notanda. l. 4. cap. 17. de or [...]tione mentali & vocali. lawfull from the approved practice of the [Page 288] Saints in the Psalmes, and other Formes of blessing in the Scrip­ture; nay profitable and necessary for some, though it be read out of a book.

Then for the judgement and practice accordingly of the Re­formed Church of France, Ludo­vicus Capellus gives us a suffici­ent account of (who is Pro­fessor of Divinity in the Uni­versity of Somer) in one of his Theses lately pub­lished, de Liturgiae formulis concep­tis, or a set form of a Li­turgie, where after hee hath answered all the pretended ar­guments against it, which it seemes he had gleaned up out of some of our English Writers of late, he concludesVbi sunt [...] Pastor [...]s S. Liturgi [...] publica formula est apprimè utilis & necessaria, [...]d communem Ecclesiae aedificationem, &c. earum usus ju­re damnari [...]on p [...]est nec debet, c [...]um s [...]mper & ubique, in uni­versa Ecclesia Christi [...]na, toto terrarum orbe, [...]am à piusquam 1300 annis per­p [...]tuo obtinuerit, etiamq [...]e [...]odie ubique obtineat, nisi apud nov­tio [...], &c. Donec tandem nuperi­mè exorti sunt in Anglia, &c. de Litu [...]g. con­cept. form. [...] 3. that 'tis very necessary both for the most learned Pastors and congregati­ons, [Page 289] as unlearned; and the edifi­cation of both, being used through­out the Christian world in all a­ges, at least for these 1300 years, and is still at this day in all places, excepting only (as he saith) some of late with us in England, whose censure of them [...] is so severe, that it would be offensive in me to re­peat it.

And surely the general custome and practice of the reformed Churches (which Saint Paul ur­geth, 1 Cor. 11. 16. cap. 14. 33.) cannot be contemned by any so­ber Christian, unto which may be added, the judgement of di­verse pious and eminent men of onr own nation, and so esteemed by such as have asserted the con­trary, whose judgements being too large to be inserted here, I shall deferre them till the last, [Page 280] who do very fully concurre with the Primate in it.

Calvin was a wise and learned man, now as Beza tells us, it was his constant practice to use a set form of Praier before Sermon, with­out alteration; So was it his advice in his Epistle to the Protector of England, in Edward the sixth's time, (which hath bin mentioned elsewhere) for the establishing of a set form of a Liturgy here, from which it might not be lawfull for pastors to depart, both for the good of the more ignorant, preventing of an affected novelty in others, and the declaring of an unanimous con­sent in all the Churches. For which practice and advice, he had suffi­cient warrant from the President of the Ancient Fathers, in the Primitive times, which might be here also produced. And doubt­lesse [Page 281] the councell of Eliphaz is is good, Iob 8. Enquire I pray thee of the former ages, and pre­pare thy selfe for the search of their Fathers (for we are but of yesterday, and know nothing;) shall not they teach thee; &c. as that of the Prophet Ieremiah (cap. 6. 19.) aske for the old way, and walk therein; which may well re­buke the presumption of some, who are so led by their own fan­cies, that the Ancient Fathers are of no exemplary esteem with them. Onely I may safely repre­present this to the consideration of any ingenuous person; that if it were the practice of the Church of God in all ages for 1500 (or but 1300) yeares after Christ, not only of the vulgar, but of such as were glorious Mar­tyrs, and the most eminent Prea­chers [Page 292] of former and later yeares, with whom the holy spirit did much abound, doth not the asser­tion of the contrary condemn the generation of the just, or at least argue a bold presumptuous cen­sure of the spirits of just men now made perfect in heaven. This on­ly by way of preparative to the Readers attention, that there is no singularity in it.

2. See the warrants for it in the Scripture, i. e. in the Old Testament: (Numb. 6. 23.) the Lord gives a form of words to Aaron, and his sons, to be conti­nued as a perpetual Liturgy from age to age, for the blessing the children of Israel, saying unto them, the Lord blesse thee, and keep thee, the Lord make his face to shine up­on thee, and be gracious unto thee; the Lord lift up his countenance [Page 293] upon thee, and give thee peace, &c. Numb. 10. 35. Moses gives himself a set form, at the rising and rest­ing of the Ark. When the Ark set forward, Moses said, Rise up Lord, and let thine enemies be scattered, and let them that hate thee, flee before thee; And when it rested, he said, return O Lord unto the many thousands of Israel. Continued by David at the re­movall of the Ark in his time, Psal. 68. 1. In the 26. of Deut. ye have two set formes prescri­bed of God himself. First, to him that offers his first fruits, verse 3. thou shalt say unto the Priest, &c. verse 5. thou shalt speak, and say before the Lord thy God, &c. consisting chiefly of confession to the 11. verse, and then to him that offers his third years tythes. verse 13. when, [Page 294] after a solemne protestation of bringing all the hollowed things, paying his Tythes truly, with­out diminution, or alienation, he is prescribed to say this prayer, before the Lord his God, verse 15. Look down from thy holy ha­bitation from heaven, and blesse thy people Israel; and the Land which thou hast given us, as thou swearest, &c.

The book of Psalmes, some consisting of Petitions, some of Confession, some of praises, (the several parts of prayer) what was the end of their composing and collection, but as a Liturgy con­teining the severall formes fra­med by the Saints of God in se­verall ages, and accordingly con­tinued, and used in the Temple, and Synagogues upon severall times, and occasions; As that for [Page 195] the Sabbath-day in speciall by the Title of it (Psal. 92.) as Moses prayer was preserved for the use of the Church (Psal. 90.) to Davids time, so was his, and o­thers, after the captivity to our Saviours time, some were used to begin the service with; some to end it; some before the reading of the Law, and Prophets, some between them and before the ex­positions of either, (as those who have searched into those cu­stomes of theirs, tell us.)

Praise is the principall part of prayer, and for that, how often do you read of Set Forms used by the most eminent Saints.

Moses after the delivery from Pharaoh at the Red Sea, pennes a set form of praise, for Myrian (Exod. 15 1.) unto which that of Rev. 15. relates where the [Page 296] Saints in heaven, are said to use that form also; at the victory o­ver their enemies, they sang the song of Moses (1 Chron. 16. [...]7.) Asaph and his Brethren had forms delivered them by David, to thank the Lord with, (verse 35.) say ye, save us O God of our salvation, &c. (2 Chron. 7. 6.) Solomon, at the dedication of the Temple, observes that form which was observed by his Father, prai­sed be the Lord, for his mercy en­dureth for ever; at which, (sig­nifying an acceptance of it) the glory of the Lord filled the Temple, (2 Chron. 29. 30.) Hezekiah cau­sed the Priests, and Levites, to praise God in the words of David and Asaph the Seer.

No doubt, but these worthy reformers, Hezekiah, and Isaiah, were able to have framed pray­ers, [Page 297] and praises of their own; and that suddenly, (as Hezekiah seems to have done at a special occasi­on in the Temple, 1 Kings 19. 14. both of them 2 Chron. 32. 20. in their private) but for the pub­lick setled constitutions, they rather chose to use those Formes which were used in the Church many ages before in Davids time; see then a respect to Antiqui­ty, not only in Doctrine, but in the Forms of prayer framed by the Saints before them. And surely if it were pleasing unto God then, according to the Counsell of the Prophet Hoseah to the Israe­lites in their repentance, (cap. 14. 2. take to your selves words, and say thus unto him?) why should it not be now? he being yesterday, and to day, and the sa [...]e for ever. (Ezra 3. 10.) The like [Page 298] was observed after the Captivity, at the repairing of the Tem­ple, when Ezra appointed the Lord to be praised after the Or­dinance of David King of Israel. So much for the Old Testament.

Now for the New Testament, yee have a President for it; (which is above all Presidents) in our blessed Saviour, who gave a form to his disciples, (Luke 11, 1.) When ye pray, say, not only (as Matthew 6.) say after this manner, or say thus; but say this. In Saint Matthew, he gives a form to the people, and disciples together, which was be­fore he sent them forth to preach; (for that was not, till cap. 10.) In Saint Luke he gives his disci­ples a Form, after he had made them preachers and Apostles, cap. 9. 1. and after the 72 were sent [Page 299] out also, cap. 10. 1. and both re­turned from preaching through the Cities of Israel, see how both people and Teachers are allowed a set Form, and it seems Iohn Bap­tist had done the like by the ground of their requests, Teach us as John taught his disciples. They were not then for New, and different wayes from the Church before, or coaetaneous with them, but for a conformity, that it might appear Iohn Baptist disciples, and they were one Church, and one body. A good example for us to follow, not to ayme at a Sin­gularity, or a division between other Churches, and us, but to draw as near as we can to a Con­junction with them, in having one heart, and one tongue. Seek not wayes never before thought of, but tread in the steps of the pre­cedent [Page 300] times, as the Disciples did here teach us, as Iohn taught his.

And the Reconciling of the Evangelists is easie, viz. It was our Saviours mind, that it should be both a rule for all other, and said for a prayer also, and that which is a rule for others, must needs be in the highest degree so it selfe. A Standerd for any measure, dry or liquid, may be used for that measure too; and so 'tis no contra­diction, that the Lords prayer should be as the measure for other prayers, and said for a prayer also.

And that it was so understood by the Fathers in the Primitive times; I shall onely represent unto you some of the words of Saint Cyprian in his Sermon up­on it, who lived about 250. years after our Saviour: and died a [Page 301] Martyr. He exhorts the people not to omit the use of the Lords prayer with their other prayers, in which he hath some such speeches as these, surely thou art more likely to obtein thy request; cum qui habitat intus in pectore, ipse sit in voce, when he that is in thy heart, is also in thy tongue: How can God but hear thee, when thou comest in the words of his Sonne, takest up the prayer sanctified by his sacred mouth; If thou hast no other prayer, use this; if thou hast others, use this also, and urge God daily in his own language; and with the words of his beloved Son. Like him that catched up Alexander in his Armes to ap­pease his Father Phillips anger; so saith he, take up Christ in thy Armes, make him thy spokes-man, by taking up his own words; (that [Page 302] is with right understanding, and affection.) By these, and the like expressions in that Father, may be seen, what was the judgement and practice of the Primitive times, in relation to the use of that form of the Lords prayer, which the Divines of Sicuti quo­que tota vetust [...] Ecelesia, i [...] semper extra [...] controversiam bab [...]t, viz. Prec [...]i [...]nem han [...] Christi non esse tantum rect [...] pre [...]andi normam, sed insuper queque [...] precand [...] formam. Sy­nops. Theol. disp. 36. Sect. 33. Leyden do averre clearly, that without controversy, the whole ancient Church did alwayes observe it, not as a Rule only, but a Form of prayer. 'Tis one extremity to make an absolute necessity of the using it alwayes, and an other ex­tremity not to use it at all. Our Church that in each service, at least once owned it, as the prin­cipall, and parent of the rest, was free from any vain repetition. So much for the first thing observa­ble in our Saviours giving a form to his disciples, which is a war­rantable [Page 303] president for the Church to do the like for her Mem­bers.

2. Our Saviour gave himselfe a form of words, Matth. 26. 44. he went away the third time, and prayed, saying the same words; it was at three severall times, and with some distance between each; and which is more observable, it was at his Passion. In afflictions we are most apt for various ex­pressions, yet even then, he that was the Wisdome of the Father, and excelled in language, the tongues of men, and Angels, and could have abounded in the vari­ety of Elegancy, yet varied not the phrase, but kept the same words; surely it was for our ex­ample, and to teach us that pray­er consists not in words, but in the earnestnesse of affection; let [Page 304] no man except against the use of the same prayer twice; Our Savi­our used it thrice, and (as the A­postle saith) he was heard in what he prayed, and 'tis the observation of the [...] Chri­stum in cruce pendens depre [...]cation i [...] [...] ­rma, á D [...]vide tan­quam [...]ypo antea [...]bservata, vsus est. Muth. 27. 46. Ibid. above-named, that our Saviour observed a set form of prayer upon the Crosse, used be­fore by David, (Psal. 22. 1.) as in the Type, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me (as those words, Into thy hands I commend my Spirit; are out of Psal. 31. 5.)

3. He doth not only prescribe a form of words in prayer, but in the Sacraments. 1. Baptisme. (Mat. 28.) Go and Baptise them in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the holy Ghost. Which Form of words, the ancient Church ever observed without any variation, as containing (with the Element of water) the [Page 305] matter and form of Baptisme, and in the Lords Supper; the three E­vangelists give us his very words, used by him in the Consecration of it, and is commended to the Church of Corinth by Saint Paul, who received it from the Lord also, and surely are to be accor­dingly used by us.

4. 'Tis observable how he himself observed the set Formes, used by the Jews at the Passover, both in prayer and praises, see Be­za (on Matth. 26. 20.) and Ains­worth (on Exodus 12.) granting it, and that the wod [...], Iohn 16. ult. should be rendred; ha­ving sung the Hymnes or Psalms, which they [...]ay were a set portion of Psalmes of praises (which the Jewes call their great Hallelujah) from the 113. Psalm to the 118. as also divers others of our learn­ed [Page 306] Writers conceive, (Paulus Burgensis, Scaliger, D [...]usius, &c.

And can that of the Apostle (Col. 3. 16.) exhorting to praise the Lord with Psalms and hymns, and spiritual songs, imply any o­ther then a set form of words, according to our custome, yet re­tained in singing of Psalms in the congregation. And may not that of our Saviour (Mat. 18.) Where two or three of you shall agree toge­ther, touching any thing they shall aske, &c. imply that a prayer, composed by the consent and unanimous agreement of the Church, to be the more preva­lent: put all these together, and are they not a Cloud of Witnesses, at least to confirm, and support the weaker sort in knowledge and utterance, who though of sin­cere [Page 307] hearts, yet cannot suddenly poure forth their desires in fitting expressions, worthy (as they con­ceive) the eares of Almighty God, but must make use of the pennes, and formes of others, or of what they have premeditated, and fra­med to themselves; surely in these, if their hearts be, (as they may be) raised to a due height of holy affection, God accepts of them.

The necessary requisites to a prayer, are such as these, That the person be acceptable, that the matter be good; that it be done in the right manner (i. e. with un­derstanding with affection, and that rightly ordered, and qualified) and the end rightly terminated, with a submission to Gods will, for the time and measure, with the like, which I cannot now insist [Page 308] upon. But I never heard of any Divine that hath wrot of it, to have put in this for one. viz. That it must be suddenly poured out, without premeditation of matter, form, or method.

The common Objection is this,Object. that a set form is a limiting, or a stinting of the spirit in prayer, which ought not to be.

First,Answ. 1. this is but an unwrit­ten Tradition, for if the spirit of a single Prophet in extraordi­nary gifts, must be limited in a sub­jection to the greater number of the Prophets, (1 Cor. 14.) why may not the spirit of a private Minister in these ordinary gifts, be limited by the vote and con­sent of the whole Ministery.

Secondly, see the ill consequen­ces of it. It must be appliable against singing of Psalmes in the [Page 309] spirit, which Saint Paul puts to­gether with prayer, I will pray with the spirit, and I will sing with the spirit, (1 Cor. 14. 5.) di­vers of the Psalmes are prayers, now if the set form of words in them, be not an obstruction to the making a spiritual melody in your hearts to the Lord, why shall it be a stop to the overflowings, and enlargements of the heart, and spirit, in prayer.

Again, it must be of the like force against preaching in [...]he spi­rit, that if it be premeditated, or the Sermon be before composed, it cannot be in the demonstration of the spirit and power, nor have any efficacious operation in the hear­ers, which is both against our daily experience, and Solomons Commendation of the Preacher, (meaning it may be himself, Ec­cles. [Page 310] 12.) because he was wise, he gave good heed, and sought out fit words, and set them in order, even words of truth.

If the spirit was not obstruct­ed in the pens of the Evangelists writing their Gospels, or with the Apostles in their several Epistles, then; notwithstanding both were done with labour, and studdy; why should our labour accor­dingly in the word and doctrine, by the pen or premeditation ex­clude it now: and if a set form doth not stint the spirit either in [...]inging, preaching, or writing of holy things; why must it be so injurious onely to the spirit of prayer.

3. But thirdly, if a set form be the stinting of the spirit, it must be either in the speaker or hearer. 1. Not in the speaker, for his spi­rit [Page 311] may be the more at liberty to spirituall fervent enlargements, when there is no obstruction, or diversion by the work of the In­vention in inditing of matter, and words, the unaptnesse, and un­readinesse unto which in many, hath so disturbed them, and cau­sed them to wander into such immethodicall impertinet wayes, that they have been far from the spirit of prayer.

2. Not in the hearers, for then it must ever be so stinted, for whether the speaker useth sud­den, or premeditated expressious, (which they cannot judge of) the hearers are alike bound to mind what proceeds from his lips, so that if the spirit be stint­ed with them in the latter, it is as much in the former. For as the judgment is the freer to say Amen [Page 312] by the fore-knowledge, and ap­probation of the prayer, so the spi­rit and affections are at an equall freedom also; so that this obje­ction is of no value.

I shall onely put this to consi­deration, whether that mans heart may be accounted most spiritual, which can be daily enlarged, and his affections lifted up in the use of the same words, or which can­not without the help of a varie­ty, like those weak stomacks, or distempered in their health, that cannot relish one dish twice, but must at each meale, have the in­ventions of men imployed to give them various; nay, in danger of losing their stomack, if they hear of them before they come suddenly before them; Now in this I would not be understood, to discourage any persons in exer­cising [Page 313] themselves this way, and striving to perfection in this gift, which I do much commend; only as those that learn to swim, have help at first of some suppor­ters, but afterward come to swim without them. Children at first have their Copies, their paper ruled, their hands held, but in time do it of themselves, and so there is an expectation, that you that are of ability should grow in knowledge and utterance this way: but for the weaker sort, is it not better they should use a staffe then slip, and are not the Major part of this kind, like men with weak sights, needing the help of Spectacles. To whom, by denying them a set Form, are we not injurious accordingly, Though those we call weak, may possibly, by their fervency, [Page 314] and ardency of affection be said of, as Saint Paul of himself; when I am weak, then am I strong, and Gods strength perfected in their weaknesse.

The prevalency of a pray­er being not in the elegancy and loftinesse of the stile, but in the sighes and groanes, and inward workings of the heart, like that of Nehemiah, and Han­na, though their voice were not heard.

In a word, an Vniformity in the publick prayers of the Church to be observed in each congregati­on, would tend much to the uni­ty of hearts and spirits among us, which Saint Paul commends as the more excellent way, and the end of coveting all gifts whatsoever, viz. a Composure of a Form for the publick service of God, by the [Page 215] joynt assistance of the most lear­ned and pious, from which, the most eminent gifted person might not depart, more then the infe­riour. I speak not of prayer be­fore Sermon and after, (when each may take their liberty, though therein the Dutch and French Church are strict also) but of some consent in the manner of Administration of Baptisme, the communion, and other offices in the publick, that might be own­ed by us all in Common, as the form of the Church of England, which as it hath been a means to continue a unity in other reformed Churches at this day; so I believe would be a means for the redu­cing it with us, even a setled peace both in Church and State; which ought to be the prayer and principall endeavour of every [Page 316] good Christian. So much for the declaring and confirming the Primates Iudgment of the use of a set form of prayer in the pub­lick.

Now unto his, for the more ea­sie reception of it, I shall here adde the votes of some, whom the contrary minded (at least the most pious of them) will not gainsay. I shall not mention the judge­ment and practice of the worthy Ministers and Martyrs in Queen Maries dayes; some of whom were put to death for approving, and using the [...]orm which was then extant, being one of the Ralph [...], Iohn Rough. Articles put in against them. Of these it will be said, they walked according to the light then given them; I shall therefore trouble the Reader onely with a few testimonies of godly and emi­nent [Page 317] men, who lived within our own memory; some of them rec­koned among the Non-conformists, or old Puritanes, yet in this par­ticular fully concurring with the Primate.

Mr. Richard Rogers Preacher at Walbersfield in Essex, (whom I well remember, and have of­ten seen his constant attendance at the publick prayers of the Church) In his pio [...]s book entitu­led the seven Treatises.

In that Chapt. of publick pray­ers. He thus beginneth. If that mind be in us, with the which we have been taught to come to all ho­ly exercises, and so to be prepared for them; who doubteth, but that we may receive much help by them? yea, and the better a man is, the more he shall profit by them, &c. Some have thought all set forms of [Page 318] prayer are to be disliked, and such onely to be offered up to God, as by extemporary gift, are concei­ved, and uttered; And that the Minister should use no set form of prayer, but as they are moved by Gods spirit.

I answer. It is a foul errour so to think. For as there be necessary things to be prayed for of all men, and alwayes, and those are the most things which we are to pray to the Lord for, so there may be a prescript form of prayer made con­cerning all such things; which being so, what letteth that in the reading of such forms, either of confessing of sinnes, request, or thanksgiving; what letteth, I say, that the [...]earers hearts may not profitably go on with the same, both to humble, to quicken and to comfort: For is the reading it self [Page 319] unpure, when the Minister in his own behalf, and the peoples, utter­eth them to God; I speak not (ye see) of the matter of prayer, but of reading it, for if the matter be erro­neus, and naught, the pronounceing of it, maketh it not good, any more then the reading doth; and if it be good and pure being uttered or pro­nounced, the reading cannot hurt it, or make it evill. And as the Church in the Scripture did, and doth sing Psalmes upon a book to God, and yet, though it utter a pre­script form of words, I hope none will say that it is a sin to do so, the heart being prepared. In like manner to follow a prescript form of words in praying is no sinne, and there­fore ought not to be offensive to any, &c.

And further, they may know that in all Churches, and the best [Page 320] reformed, there is a prescript form of prayer used, and therefore they who are of mind that it ought not to be, must seperate themselves from all Churches. Also, if a set form of prayer were unlawful, then neither were the Lords prayer (which is a form of prayer, pre­scribed by our Saviour, himself) to be used. And so he proceeds to perswade all good Christians to lay aside contention, and endlesse, and needlesse questions about this matter, and with well order'd hearts and minds to attend unto, and ap­ply to themselves the prayers, which either before Sermon or af­ter Sermon are uttered, or the o­ther, which through the whole acti­on of Gods worship, are read in their hearing, &c. So much Mr. Ro­gers.

Now this book of the seven [Page 321] Treatises, hath been since epito­mized by Mr. Egerton, and enti­tuled the practice of Christianitie, which hath an Epistle of Doctor Gouge before it, in a high com­mendation of it. Now, at the conclusion of that he hath added, Certain Advertisements concern­ing prayer, in which, his, or both their judgements in this subject, are declared accordingly. viz. That it is lawfull, and in some ca­ses expedient, to use a set form of prayer. Question (saith he) is made by many of the lawfulnesse, or at least of the expediencie of praying by the help of a book, or of using a prescript, and set form of prayer. It is to be considered, that there be divers degrees and mea­sures of gifts, both naturall, as of grace; besides, some have been by custome more trained and exercised [Page 322] in this holy dutie then others, &c. which difference I have observed, not onely in private Christians, but also in some most reverend, faith­full, and worthy Ministers. Some using both in their publick Mini­sterie, and in their private fa­milies; a stinted prayer, and set form of words, with little altera­tion at all, except some extraordi­narie occasion have happened, and yet both sorts so furnished with pietie and learning, as I could hardly prefer the one before the other.

Liberty in solitary pray­ers. Moreover, whereas in respect of the place and company, there be three sorts of prayer publick in the Church, private in the family, and secret by a man self; greatest li­berty may be taken in secret and solitarie prayer, because we are sure (that if there be a believe­ing, [Page 323] humble, upright heart) God will not upbraid any man for his method, order, words, or utterance. Yet in private prayer we may not take so great a libertie,Lesse liberty in private prayer. &c. and some well-affected, have been some­what faultie and offensive in this behalfe: weak and tender Christi­ans, (such as commonly are in a family) are not so capable of that kind of prayer, which is called, conceived, or extemporate, vary­ing every time in words and phra­ses, manner, and order, though the matter and substance be the same.Least liberty in publi [...]k prayer. But especially care must be had in the publick congregation, that nothing be done in praying, preaching, or Administration of Sacraments, but that which is de­cent and orderly; because there, many eyes do see us, and many ears do hear us; and therefore it is ex­pedient [Page 324] (for the most part) to keep a constant form, both of mat­ter and words, and yet without servile tying our selves to words and syllables, but using herein such libertie and freedome, as may stand with comelinesse, &c. And so he proceeds thus to direct men, that though a Book may be used in private prayer, yet that it is much better to get their prayer by heart, commending the use of the Lords Prayer, and the varietie of other formes of godly prayers in print, penned by forreigne Divines, as our own countreymen; as Mr. Brad­ford that blessed Martyr, Master Deering, Mr. Hieron, and divers others yet living, whose printed prayers are nothing inferiour to the former. And so because there ever have been, and still are many Babes in the Church of God, which [Page 325] have need of milk, &c. and some of bad memories, and heavie spirits, &c. he frames divers formes of prayers to be used for Morning and Evening in case of sicknesse, for the Lords day, &c. Thus much very excellently, Mr. Egerton, approved by Doctor Gouge.

Mr. Arthur Hildersham, Prea­cher at Ashbie-delazouch in Lei­cester-shire, upon the 51 Psalme, p. 63. saith thus. I dare not deny, but a weak Christian may use the help of a good Prayer-book; better to pray on a book, then not to pray at all. Certainly 'tis a spirit of errour, that hath taught the world otherwise.

First, our blessed Saviour pre­scribed to his Disciples a Forme of prayer, not only to be to them and his whole Church a rule, and sampler, according to which, all [Page 326] our prayers should be framed, (as appears, when he saith, Matth. 6. 9. After this manner pray ye,) but even for them; to say, tying them­selves to the very words of it, as appeareth, Luke 11. 2. when ye pray, say, our Father, &c. By which answer of our Saviour to his Disciples, it may also appear, that John taught his disciples to pray, by giving them forms of prayer; to say, yea, even in secret prayer. Matth. 6. 6.

2. All the best reformed Chur­ches do now, and ever have used, even in publick Liturgies, prescript forms of prayer; and have judged them of great use and necessitie for the edification of the Church: And surely this argument is not to be contemned by any sober Christian, as appeareth by the Apostles speech, 1 Cor. 11. 16. If any man seem to [Page 327] be contentious, we have no such custome; neither the Churches of God: So doth he again presse the example and practice of all the Churches of the Saints, 1 Cor. 14. 33.

3. This is no stinting, nor hin­derance to the spirit of Prayer in a­ny of Gods people, no more then the singing of praise to the Lord in the words of David, is now, and was in Hezekiahs time, 2 Chron. 29. 30. or the joining in heart with the words that another uttereth in conceived prayer: Thus far Mr. Hildersham.

Doctor Preston (who used a set Form of Prayer before Ser­mon) in that Sermon of his prea­ched before King Iames, Text, Iohn 1. 16. Of his fulnesse we have all received, &c. p. 22. saith thus. That a set form is lawfull, much [Page 328] need not be said, the very newnesse of the contrary opinion is enough to shew the vanitie and falshood of it. It is contrary to the appro­ved judgement of approved Coun­cells, learned Fathers, and the con­tinual practice of the Church. He instanceth in Tertullians time, and Origen, Saint Basil, Ambrose. Con­stantine the Great prescribed a set form of prayer to his souldiers, and Calvine in his 83. Epist. to the Protectour of England, saith, that he doth greatly allow a set form of Ecclesiastical prayer, which the Mi­nister shall be bound to observe. But (as I said before) of the law­fulnesse of it, there is no Que­stion.

How slight is that which is ob­jected against the lawfulnesse of it;Object. to wit, That the spirit is stinted, when we are fetterd with words appointed?

[Page 329] I answer, The freedome of the spirit stands not so much in the extent of words, as in the inten­tion of zeal, wherein they are ut­tered. And if a set form be law­full, then must a set form needs excell, which is dictated by Christ himself, and is therefore more fre­quently to be used, and with all re­verence, both in mind and gesture; nor doth this want the practice and approbation of the Antientest, instancing in Saint Cyprian, and Saint Augustine, &c.

And for a further confirmati­on, see the same affirmed by him again; in his book called the Saints daily exercise, set forth and approved by Doctor Sibbs, (who himself used a set Form of Prayer before Sermon,) Mr. Da­venport p. 80. viz. Another case (saith he) is, Whether we may [Page 330] use a set Forme of Prayer.

Answ. I need not say much to you, for I think there is none here that doubts, but that a set Form of Prayer may be used: you know Christ prescribed a Form; you know there were certain Psalmes, that were prayers that were used constantly, and therefore no doubt, but a set Form may be used, and in the Church at all times, both in Primitive times, and all along to the beginning of the Reformed times, to Luther, and Calvins time, still in all times, the Church had set Forms they used, and I know no ob­jection is of weight. One main obje­ction is this. That in stinted pray­er, the spirit is streitned, &c. To this he gives a three fold answer.

1. They that object it, do the same thing daily in the congrega­tion, whose spirits are limited and [Page 331] stinted by being hearers of him that prayes.

2. 'Tis no generall tye, but at other times in private, they may be as free as they will.

3. The spirit or affections are not tyed, or restrained hy a set form, there may be largenesse of the heart, though there be a limit of words; This is the summe of the answer, which the Reader may have more at large there.

And thus I have given ye the judgement of these four eminent men in their time, approved by three other equall with them­selves, all fully concurring with the Primate in this particular, which cannot but prevail much with such as have been, or are otherwise minded at this day, I adde no more, presuming that those that will despise these, will [Page 332] set light by any other; and so much for this subject, concerning a set Form of Prayer.

Now there are two other things, which upon this occasion might not be unseasonable to speak a word of, according to the Primates judgement also. viz. Of the length or brevity in prayer, and of the Gesture at it; in both which, many of this age have gone astray.

1. For the length. In the publick, all good discretion teacheth ordinarily not to be ve­ry large, (for we speak not now of extraordinary duties in pub­lick Fasts) because in a congre­gation, all the Auditours are not of the like strength. Some, (ac­cording to that distinction of Iohn 1. Ep. 2. 13, 14.) may be Fathers, some young men, but [Page 333] others Children fitter for milke then strong meat, that a long con­tinuance at prayer may as ill suit with them, as putting of a new garment to an old, or new wine in­to old bottles.

Iacobs speech in answer to his Brother Esau, when he would have had him driven on his pace with him (Gen. 33. 13.) I will (saith he) lead on softly according as the Cattle with young, which are with me, and the children which are tender shall be able to endure, lest if I should over-drive them one day, the flock should die, may have its Morall applica­tion to the prudence of a Pastor this way.

'Tis very dangerous to cause a fulnesse in the worship of God, that for prayer men should be apt to say, as those in the Prophet [Page 334] for the Sabbath, when will it be done?

Solomons caveat (Eccles. 5. 2.) against rash and hasty utterings, and multiplying of words in the house of God, and his Councell, upon it. Let thy words be few, are observable, much may be spoken in a little, and 'tis true in this, as other matters, vis unita for­tior.

There is an excellent Epistle of Saint Augustines concerning this subject, (Epist. 121. Probae vi­duae.) that (saith he) is not a commendation that he was long at prayer; there may be much speech, but little praying (multa loquutio n [...]n multa precatio) while the affection is lifted up; like the hands of Moses, so long the party prayes, when that is heavie, the Act of prayer ceaseth; sometimes [Page 335] (saith he) the work of prayer is rather done (gemitibus quàm ser­monibus; fletu quàm afflatu) with sighes, then words, teares, then lips.

The time when our Savionr is observed to have used a prolixity, was in the private, then whole nights in prayer, and the whole day till even, but not in the pub­lick; respecting, it may be, the cau­ses before mentioned. So much for the length of it.

Secondly, for the gesture; Cer­tainly, the most comely is kneel­ing, after the example of David, (Psal. 100. Ezra (cap. 9. 5.) Daniel (cap. 6. 10.) and the pattern of our Saviour, Luc. 22. 41. he kneeled down and prayed, &c. whose example Saint Stephen followed, (Acts 7. 6.) and Saint Paul (Acts 20. 36.) For this cause I bow my [Page 336] knees unto the Father, &c. (Eph. 3. 14.) The humility of the soul is principall, but that of the body must not be omitted; both being bought with a price, God must be glorified in both; present your bo­dies as a living holy acceptable sacrifice to him (Rom. 12. 1.)

A second which is allowed, is standing, 2 Chron. 20. 5. Iehosa­saphat stood and prayed, &c. (Ne­hem. 9. 14.) At a solemn fast, the Priests and people stood, and con­fessed their sinnes: allowed by our Saviour (Marc. 11. 25.) when thou standest praying; sitting is no fit gesture for it: as even Cas. Cons. de Orat. Amesius confirms it. Sessio non est gestus orandi, which is not justified by that of David, (2 Sam. 7. 18.) who upon the Message from God by Nathan, is said presently to have went [Page 337] in, and sate before the Lord and prayed, or that of the Israelites, (Iudg. 20. 26.) Who at their so­lemn Fasts are said to have wept, and sate before the Lord till Even; because the same word is fre­quently, and as properly ren­dred elsewhere; to remain, abide, or tarry in a place, as Genes. 27. 44. tarrying with him, &c. Lev. 4. 8. he shall tarry abroad, 1 Sam. 1. 23. tarry till thou have weaned him, &c. cap. 20. 29. thou shalt remain at the stone, &c. and so here, both for David and the Isra­elites, the sense is, only they conti­nued or remained before the Lord in prayer and fasting, as that of Matth. 4. the people which sate in darknesse, &c. can be meant in no other. Our Saviours sitting at the right hand of his Father, hath as well the sense of standing, accor­ding [Page 338] to Saint Stephens vision of him, Acts 7. 56. and that which is said of the Apostles at the Passo­ver, Mark 14. 18, and as they sate and did eat ( [...]) signifies rather a lying down, leaning one upon another, and according to the former instances, may imply as well a standing, which 'tis probable was the ancient gesture; so that sitting may be taken, in the latitude of any other gesture used at their remaining there.

Nay, standing is not so strict­ly limited, but 'tis sometimes taken for kneeling, (2 Chron. 6. 12.) 'Tis said, Solomon stood be­fore the Altar, and spread forth his hands towards heaven; yet verse 14. he stood, and kneeled down upon his knees, and (1 Kings 8. 54.) he arose from kneeling on his knees, That woman which [Page 339] is said to have stood at Iesus feet,Luke 7. 38. and kissed them, and washed them with her teares, and wiped them with the hair of her head, must imply a bowing down, at least to a kneeling.

A third, which in Scripture was accustomed with both the former, is the lifting up of the hands, according to that of Da­vid in the Psalmes. Let us lift up our hands unto God in the heavens, Psal. 28. 1. Psal. 1. 41. hear my supplication, when I lift up my hands towards thy holy Ora­cle, &c. which is referred to in the New Testament, I will that man lift up pure hands, (1 Tim. 2. 8.) signifying that of David, unto thee do I lift up my soul: To which we may adde the lifting up of the eyes to heaven, according to the example of our Saviour (John 17. cap. 11. 41. Mat. 14. 19.)

[Page 340]Other unseemly postures of the hands, eyes, face, and the like; hath no example in Scripture, and even mens hiding, or cover­ing of the face at publick prayer, seems to be against the order of the Apostle, and the then custome of the Churches. 1 Cor. 11. 7. for by the head there is not meant the hairy scalp, but the face, both by several circumstances in it, and the acceptation of the word elsewhere. 2 Sam. 15. 30. David wept as he went, and had hishead covered, and all the people that were with him, covered every man his head, weeping as they went; &c. here by the head must be understood the face, after the manner of mourners, as on the contrary, that of our Saviour to his Disciples, in token of joy; lift up your heads, must be meant ac­cordingly, [Page 341] And the face being the seat of shame, the head must be so taken, Ier. 14. 3, 4. they were asha­med and confounded, they cover­ed their heads, &c. unto which, some passages out of Tertullian might be given, by way of confir­mation.

Now for the better reception of this latter part of the Pri­mates judgement, concerning our outward reverence in the pub­lick worship of God, whether at hearing of the Word or Prayer; so much neglected in these times; I shall here adde what I find in the foresaid Mr. Arthur Hilder­sham, in his Lectures upon Iohn 4. In the 26. Lecture he speakes much for the outward reverence of Gods publick worship in the Church. viz. That we should neither come into that place, nor go out of [Page 342] it, as ye would in or out of a dance­ing-schoole; But in our very come­ing in, and going out, and whole out­ward carriage; we should give some signification of the reverence that we bear to this place, and that we do indeed account it the house of God; Exhorts men to come to the beginning of the then publick worship, or before it begins; and tarry till all be done: to be pre­sent at the Administration of Bap­tisme, and at the blessing pronoun­ced by Gods Ministers. Affirmes, that there was nothing then done in Gods publick worship among us, but it was done by the Institution, and Ordinance, and Commandement of the Lord; the particulars of which, he men­tions.

In his 27. Lecture, he exhorts to a reverend gesture in prayer, [Page 343] kneeling as the fittest; or standing, not sitting. And commending the reading of the Scriptures in publick; he saith, At the hearing of the word read, some further ge­sture, and outward signification of reverence is to be used, then is re­quired at the hearing of the Ser­mon; which he confirmes by proofes out of Scripture and rea­sons, too large to be related here. But he thus concludes. viz. So you see the custome of our Chur­ches in sitting bare while the Word is read, is grounded upon good reason and warrant from the word of God, and such, as it well becomes every one of Gods peo­ple to conform themselves unto.

Lect. 29. he complains of that irreverence thus. Some will not vouchsafe to be bare at the read­ing of the Word, some will be bare [Page 344] at the Psalmes, not at the Chap­ters; and if they could justly pre­tend infirmity for it, they were to be excused; but they will not be bare many of them, so long as the Text is in reading: yea, every youth and boy in our Congregations, are wont to be covered, while the Word is read.

But the chief abuse is, the neg­lect of kneeling in prayer, many that will kneel at their own private prayers (which they make at their coming into the Church) can never be seen to kneel at the common and publick prayers. Many that will kneel at the Lords prayer, will kneel at no other, wherein (though the Lords prayer be in sundry re­spects more excellent then any other yet) there is as much reason we should kneel at any other prayer, as at it; for the reason of our [Page 345] kneeling, is not the excellency of the words used in prayer, but the reverence and duty we owe to the person we pray unto, &c. This saith that worthy and judicious Wri­ter Mr. Hildersham,) I can but wonder, upon what pretence such a man could be silenced, (as he wrot himselfe to the Pri­ [...]ate; Anno 1630.

I conclude only with an ex­hortation to decency, and a reve­rent comelinesse in our solemne meetings, that devotion and pru­dence may kisse each other, that while the soule is lifted up in prayer, the body may be hum­bled, and the whole man present­ed to God as an acceptable sacri­fice, that unity and uniformity in doctrine and worship; may be found among us, and that we may all be of one heart, and one [Page 346] mind. Consider what hath been said, and the Lord give us un­derstanding and moderation in all things.

A CHARACTER of Bishop Bedell late Bishop of Kilmore, in Ireland.

UPon the occasion of pub­lishing this Sermon of his (on Revel. 18. 4.) I have thought fit to give this exemplary character of him. Somewhat of his life is already extant, within that of Sir Henry Wotton's, the enlargement of which, I leave to the prudence of others, onely thus much in brief.

He was Fellow of Emmanuel Colledge in Cambridge, where he was one of the eight that com­menced Batchellours of Divi­nity [Page 348] of that house in one yeare: whereof Bishop Hall and Doctor Ward were two, between whom and him, there was a continuall intercourse of Letters to their last. From that Colledge and Vni­versity, he had that Character gi­ven him of learning, and pru­dence, that he was chosen to go with the Embassadour Sir Henry Wotton unto Venice. What the fruits of his some yeares being there produced upon Padre Pau­lo, and other learned men, suffi­ciently appears by the testimony given of him in a letter of the Em­bassador's hereunto annexed. The Interdict of Venice (wrot by the foresaid Authour,) he translated out of Italian into Latin, for whose use he also translated the book of Common Prayer into Ita­lian, and made an English Gram­mar [Page 349] (which I have seen writ with his own hand.)

After his return from Venice, were wrot those learned Letters of his to Mr. Wadesworth, who at the same time, going with the Embassadour into Spain, had been withdrawn to the See of Rome, whose temper and meeknesse of stile to an Apostate, I wish were so far exemplary with some Wri­ters among our selves, as to abate that heat and bitternesse, which hath broke forth in matters of lesse consequence.

At his Benefice of Horningesh­earth near St. Edm. Bury in Suffolk, he continued long in great esteem, sometimes chosen by the Diocesse to be a member of the Convocation.

Upon the death of Sir William Temple Provost of the Colledge in Dublin, the late Primate wrot ear­nestly [Page 350] to him to accept of it, be­ing unanimously chosen by the Fellowes. During his abode there, he performed the duty of the Cate­chist, & preached a Lecture Sermon once a week in Christ Church.

He was not long Provost, but he was promoted to be Bishop of Kilmore, where (I being then the Dean) it gave me the occa­sion to be more known to him.

In relation to the Liturgie of the Church of England, he gave this direction; viz. to observe whatsoever was enjoyned in the Rubrick without addition or di­minution; not to be led by cu­stome, but by rule. And in spe­ciall, he ordered that the whole Doxology to the blessed Trinity, Glory be to the Father, &c. should be alwayes read by the Minister alone, without the respond of the [Page 351] people, and the like for the Psalms: Te Deum, &c. with the rest, appointed to be read be­tween and after the Lessons, though the custome had prevai­led otherwise in most Churches.

The Communion Table was pla­ced by him, not at the East end, but within the body of the Chan­cell, and for other Innovations elsewhere introduced, he obser­ved them not. His judgement being, that those were as well Non-conformists, who added of their own, as those who came short of what was enjoyned, as he that addes an inch to the mea­sure, disownes it for a rule, as well as he that cuts an inch off.

He was a careful observer of the Lords Day both in the publick and private, at one of the clock in the after-noon; he had then [Page 352] the Book of Common-Prayer read in the Irish tongue in the Church for the benefit of the Irish; at which he was constantly present himself, who in that little space had obtained the knowledge of the language. And as the New Testa­ment had been long before tran­slated into Irish; so had he caused the Old Testam. to be accordingly, & was almost ready for the press.

And Whereas Doctor Heylene hath censured the late Primate very liberally for his approbati­on of the Articles of Ireland, he must take Bishop Bedell into the number also, who was so much for them, that I was present when, at the examination of anMr. Thomas Price then Fellow of the Colledge of Dublin, who afterwards suf­fered much in the same Dio­cesse by the Rebellion of Ireland, and is yet living in Wales. able Minister then to be ordained, he did in the Church examin him in each, or most of the Articles, in a solemn meeting of the Clergy of that Di­ocesse [Page 353] for that end, at least 2 full hours, whereby our votes might be also given for his approbation.

At his Courts of Iurisdiction, he frequently sate himself; where he caused alwayes some of the Clergy, (if any were there) to sit covered on each side of him, with liberty to give their opinion in each case, and at a sentence, he asked their votes man by man: In some degree reducing then his Episcopall to a Synodicall Go­vernment, according to the Pri­mates proposall by way of ac­commodation an. 1641. It was his custome usually on the Lord's dayes, to preach upon those se­lect portions of Scripture com­monly called the Epistles and Gospels of the day.

At the Visitations, he usually preached himselfe. The Procura­tions were bestowed in defraying [Page 354] the charges of the Ministers, and the rest given to some pious uses.

After dinner and supper, a Chap­ter, was constantly read at his Ta­ble, and some time spent by him in opening some difficulties in it.

The publick Catechisme, he had branched out into 52 parts; where­of, he appointed one to be con­stantly explain'd in the Afternoons in each Church, within his Diocess.

He was very indulgent to the Irish Natives, in the preferring and encouraging of them for the Mi­nistery; and yet such was their In­gratitude (i. e. the Popish party) that in that horrid rebellion, 1641. they exempted him not from their rapine; but seized upon his cattle, pillaged his house, ransack't and spoyled his Library; put him into a Castle, standing in a Lough, (called Lough-outre) about a mile and a halfe from his house, [Page 355] where he was imprisoned that winter. And at length being per­mitted to come out, died in a poor house of one who was an Irish-man, and a Protestant, and continued faithfull to him; by whose means an Hebrew manu­script Bible of his, (which he brought from Venice) was preser­ved, and is now in Emmanuel Colledge Library in Cambridge.

He was buried acccording to his own appointment in the Church­yard of the Cathedral of Kilmore, where he had caused his wife and son some years before to be buri­ed. His judgement being against burials in Churches, as an abuse in­troduced by pride & superstition.

I conclude only with this, if the Moderation of this Bishop had been observed elsewhere, I be­lieve Episcopacy might have been kept upon its wheeles.

A Letter of Sir Henry Wotton's to the late King, in the behalf of Bishop Bedel, when he was de­sired by the Archbishop of Ar­magh, to accept of the Provost­ship of Dublin Colledge in Ire­land, which hath been lately published in the Life of Sir Henry Wotton.

May it please your most Gracious Majesty,

HAving been informed that certain persons have by the good wishes of the Arch-Bishop of Armagh, been directed hither with a most humble Petiti­on unto your Majesty, that you will be pleased to make Mr. Wil­liam Bedell (now resident upon a small Benefice in Suffolk) Gover­nour of your Colledg at Dublin, for the good of that society; and my [Page 357] self being required to render un­to your Majesty some testimony of the said William Bedell who was long my Chaplain at Venice in the time of my employment there; I am bound in all conscience, and truth (so far as your Majesty will vouchsafe to accept my poore judgement) to affirm of him that I think hardly a fitter man for that charge, could have been pro­pounded unto your Majesty in your whole Kingdom, for singu­lar erudition and piety; Conformi­tie to the rites of the Church, and Zeal to advance the Cause of God wherein his Travels abroad were not obscure in the time of the Excommunication of the Ve­netians.

For may it please your Maje­sty to know that this is the man whom Padro Paule took, I may [Page 358] say, into his very soule; with whom he did communicate the inwardest thoughts of his heart; from whom he professed to have received more knowledge in all D [...]vinity, both Scholastical and positive, then from any that he had ever practiced in his dayes, of which all the passages were well known to the King your Fa­ther, of most blessed memory. And so with your Majestie's good favour, I will end this needlesse office; for the generall fame of his Learning, his Life, and Chri­stian temper, and those religious labours which himself hath dedi­cated to your Majesty, do better describe him, then I am able.

Your Majestie's most humble and faithfull Servant, H. WOTTON.

A Postscript.

Mr. Thomas Pierce hath in an Appendage to a late book of his, printed five Let­ters wrot unto me by him, in each of which I cannot but much ac­knowledge his respects to me. To the four first I gave little else but brief returnes of the like to him, which consisting chiefly, ei­ther in the asserting of the near­nesse of his judgement to the Pri­mate's, or the remotenesse of Mr. Barlee's, I did not conceive it fit­ting for me to interpose, and where there was a professed full agreement, it was no good office [Page 360] in me to make a difference. Now for those, the cause rendred of his not publishing them is good, there being nothing (as he saith) needfull, or of concernment, in any one of them, Only to the fifth of his, wherein three Certificates are published as testimonies to con­firm his former assertion of a late change of judgment in the Primate, with other applicatory passages from thence, I did return him a larger answer in this Letter fol­lowing, (excepting somefew cir­cumstantiall alterations) having then no imagination that either of them should have bin made pub­lick. And I have as little mind to it now, only by the provocation of divers of my Friends who con­ceive the Primate suffers in the interpretation of many by the si­lence of it, I have been compel­led [Page 361] upon this occasion, to put forth this brief defence of him without any offence to Mr. Pierce. For his Appendage (wherein his respects to me are rather encrea­sed then lesse [...]ed) I have thought fit to clear one passage. He saith I have spoken indiscriminately of Universal Grace, and Vniversall Redemption, and the place he quotes for it, is out of my second Letter to Mr. Barlee, p. 64. in these words, viz. But that by an Vniversall Redemption should be understood, an Vniversall Grace, &c. will not be attested to have heen affirmed by the Primate, &c. doth not this clearly imply a di­stinction to be made between them▪ I am sure I then so inten­ded it. And therefore that which he addes immediately after. viz. That there is a wide difference be­tween [Page 362] them, I do fully concurre with him in it. Yet it seems to me, that himself puts them toge­ther often indiscriminately, as in the page before this, thrice in one page, 86. and p. 88. l. 32. as in his Philanth. p. 15. and else­where. And if I have in any other place done it, as in the title of the Letter, I was led to it by him. In this we have no disagree­ment, and I wish this follow­ing Letter may not occasion a­ny, which I am forced thus to publish, as followeth.

Doctor Bernards Answer to Mr. Pierce's Fifth Letter containing three Certificates, produced by him to justifie a late change of judgsment in the Primate of Ireland.


I Owe you many thanks for the labour you have taken in your last Letter of the 28. of Ianuary, in transcribing the Cer­tificates of those learned persons, which (supposing to have been rightly apprehended by them, without any mistake of him, yet) favourably interpreted, do not seem to me necessarily to ar­gue what you have apprehended, and concluded of the change of judgement in the Primate, which I shall now ingenuously give [Page 364] you my sense of, without any de­sire of further dispute or conten­tion about it.

First for Doctor Walton's, where he saith, My Lord Primate did declare his utter dislike of the do­ctrine of absolute reprobation; I conceive it may be understood of the Supralapsarian opinion, which makes reprobation to be antecedent to the fall of Adam, and not only as a Praeterition, but a Predamnation for actuall sins. That he held the universality of Christ's death, not onely in respect of sufficiency, but also in regard of efficacy, so that all men were by that made salvable (for so much efficacy I do not deny) differs not from that which his letter published, doth testifie, and that the reason why all men were not thereby saved, was because they [Page 365] did not accept of salvation offer­ed, is also granted, if it be accor­ding to his judgement rightly understood, viz. of those to whom the Gospel is preached; not of Pagans, and Infidels.

That the grace of Conversion was not irresistable, but that men did often resist and reject the same, may well stand with my Lord Primate's Judgement, and no wayes opposite to this. viz. That it is so effectual, that by the de­cree of his election; It is not resisted by the elect, and there­fore his dissent from Geneva (as Doctor Walton certifies) is to be understood of Beza, not of Cal­vin; nor of the Sublapsarian (as I have intimated before) and I conceive his concurrence with Bi­shop Overall, which he averreth him to have professed, is to be [Page 366] understood as I have expressed it [...] for you know that Bishop Overall distinguished the Remonstrants opinion, and that which he is pleased to call the opinion of the Puritans; (which title I wish he had spared) from the doctrine of the Church of England, which joynes the universality of re­demption with the speciall inten­tion of God, effectually to save the elect. This for Doctor Wal­ton's Certificate.

Now for Mr. Goninges, which seems (by the Preface of it) to have bin given you after your publish­ing the Lord Primate's change of judgment; somewhat of that may be safely granted; viz. The sinceri­ty of God's universal call of all sin­ners to whom the Gospel was prea­ched, which is the summe of what he affirmes to have heard, [Page 367] from him in the publick, but for that which he saith he received from him in private, viz. That God, together with his word prea­ched, did give internal grace to all that are called by it, that they may repent if they will, yea they all can will, &c. If the Primate's words were not mistaken by him, (as they might the more possibly by the distance between the hearing, and the date of his cer­tificate to you) I suppose this was the sense of them, viz. That by internall grace he did not under­stand more, then that there are some good motions offered unto the hearts of sinners, which if they did not extinguish and re­sist, and thereby draw up­on themselves a further guilt, they should be seconded with more effectuall grace; and, that [Page 368] upon their disobedience, God doth justly leave them to them­selves, and doth not superadde that speciall grace, whereby their Wills are changed, and their con­version wrought. As for posse non resistere, it is consistent with actu­all resistance, which is taken away by speciall grace, and thus far I conceive he might hold with Bi­shop Overall; so much for Mr. Goninge.

For Mr. Thornedick's Testimo­ny, I see not wherein it differeth from the Lord Primate's Letter published, and needs no further answer. So that upon the whole I do not find, even by these Cer­tificates, so sure a ground, for your assertion of my Lord Pri­mate's change of judgement, and his being of late a serious convert, &c. as you have supposed; The first [Page 369] pretend but little, the last less, and the middle not much; thus inter­preted: Howsoever for my self, had I been an ear-witnesse of that which certifies the most largely, I should have had more caution then to have adventured to signi­fie the judgement of so eminent a person, under hand, and seale, (as you say you have it) without his knowledge, or consent, whether when he was living, or since his death, especially in that which should seem to imply a contra­diction, to what he had before said and wrot.

For that Objection of the 32 Article of Ireland, that Article may very well admit of some preparative motions tending to conversion, but not the actuall grace of conversion; and may also be understood of denying an ac­tuall [Page 370] tuall call of all men, which are out of the Pale of the Church, or that the works of the creation and providence do lead men, or enable them to come to Christ, as some French Divines have lately taught.

For that inconsistency implyed by you, from what I have affirm­ed of my Lord Primates judge­ment. viz. That Massa corrupta was the object of predestination, it will well consist with his judg­ment of universall redemption, expressed in his letter. And, the decree of reprobation, supposed to be ex intentione speciali, doth not deny a salvability of all men, but onely an effectuall grace to be given to work their conversi­on, and may also consist with universall redemption, and possi­bility of salvation, because repro­bation [Page 371] is onely negatio specialis gratiae, non nudae sufficientis.

As for Goteschalchus, the Pri­mate relating the truth of the story, and his opinion, is not thereby obliged to every particu­lar of them, and if there were any mistakes of Mr. Barlee's from thence, or that large Catechisme going under his name, doth not concern me to take notice of:

For that which you mention of Mr. Vaughans relation in the life, and death of Doctor Iackson, of the care which the Primate took, (being (as you say) a Mourner at his funerall) to have his writings very religiously preser­ved. First, I have viewed the place, and find some mistake in the words, which are onely thus; viz. The Bishop of Armagh, (be­ing at his funerall) much desired [Page 372] his papers might be carefully pre­served. But secondly, I do not believe the Primate meant, or approved those works of Doctor Iacksons, wherein he professeth himself to be for the Arminian way, as he doth in the Epistle Dedicatory of those Bookes which he dedicated to the Earle of Pembrook, and which were answered by Doctor Twisse. O­ther works it may be, that [...]arn­ed man might have of other sub­jects, which might be usefull to posterity, which the Primate might have a care of, but I do not believe they were any of that nature; and the rather be­cause they must be meant of such works which were not ex­tant at his death, and not of those which were already printed, as you seem to apply it. Besides, it [Page 373] doth not appear, the Primate then understood what subjects they were of; And therefore, that which you have immedi­ately added of your own; viz. That such inestimable [...] might not be wanting to posterity, but might performe their work of bringing religion into its wits, (which the Reader might possi­bly mistake, in apprehending them to have been the Primates words) and your somewhat se­vere application to him, from thence, and what Mr. Barlee had said of Doctor Iackson, seemes to want a foundation here.

For that which you write in your Postcript concerning my say­ing, that the doctrine of St. Augu­stine was confirmed, or inclined unto by the Primate in his works, if you observe the whole dis­course, [Page 374] it is onely in relation to Pelagius and his disciples, and limited to those points in debate concerning the Primates judge­ment, whereof universall redem­ption and free will, were mentio­ned; not that by it I had obliged the Primate to be of Saint Augu­stines judgement in all points be­sides: And for that particular of perseverance, which you in­stance in, it came not into my dis­course in either of my Letters to Mr. Barlee, what he or Mr. Baxter have produced of the Primates apprehension; what was Saint Augustines judgement in that point, cannot argue it was therefore his own; In­deed, Saint Augustine is vari­ously conceived in it, in his se­verall Tractates, and where he hath some expressions tending to [Page 375] the finall falling away of some who have been regenerated and ju­stified; he is thus salved by others, who understand him either, de ju­stificatis Sacramento tenus, or judi­cio charitatis, that they were such, or of some predispositions to rege­neration, in some Morall reforma­tion; not of a spiritual real con­version, which he denies to any reprobate.

Now in this variety of senses, you should have done better then thus, to chuse the worse; for the Primates judgement, who was against the Total and final falling away of those, who were effectu­ally called, truly regenerated and sanctified, according to the 38 Article of Ireland; And thus I have touched the principal ma­terials in your Letter.

For that you say, some have [Page 376] endeavoured to gain credit to their Calvinistical opinions by their unjust usurpation of the Primates name. I could wish those hard expressions tending so much to the distaste of Calvin, might be abated; whom divers of the most eminent Writers, and learned Fathers of our Church, (whom I suppose you reverence) have had in great esteem; and usually name him with honour.

I might quote divers, as Arch-Bishop Whitgift, Bishop Bilson, Bishop Davenant, Mr. Hooker, Doctor Ward, &c. but Bishop Andrewes shall suffice, who in his determination against usury, (a case wherein he dissented from Calvin yet) thus writes of of him. Calvino (illustri viro nec unquam sine summi honoris prae­fatione nominando) &c. i. e. [Page 377] Calvin an excellent man, never to be named without a Preface of the highest honour. I wish that spirit of meeknesse and charity found in those old Bishops, were doubled upon us in these dayes, when we are as much (if not more) called unto it; The contrary may possi­bly be gratefull to the See of Rome, but I do not see what ad­vantage it can be to us. For his discipline, you may take your li­berty, which may well be distin­guished from his doctrines. And for the Primate, though I cannot say he was of his judgement in all points, yet he had a due respect for him.

For that which you object a­gain to me, as you did in your third Letter, viz. my acknow­ledgeing an engagement to Mr. Barlee for his readinesse offered, [Page 378] (in his first Letter unto me) to clear the Primate, &c. did not de­serve a repetition, being it was in my first to him, when he was as much a stranger to me, as I was to you: only, let me say thus much of him. How far he had disagreed in his book from the Primates judgement; I shall not now enquire, but after the re­ceipt of that tractate, wherein he read what his was; he wrot thus unto me (Decemb. 21. 1657.) viz. It is true, there be some minutiae, about which I am not satisfied, and shall be glad to have an ami­cable conference with you. However as to the rei summam, I do so per­fectly agree with the most venerable Primate, as that I dare discharge you from all feares of ever having him exposed to my pen, and cen­sure, &c. which I doe the rather [Page 379] thus punctually repeat his words, because in short you have mentio­ned it from me in your fourth Letter. And when I had read you both, meeting in the Primate, I thought it my part to sit down in silence.

In a word, you have with much industry viewed, and reviewed the Primates judgement in that point, which hath been published, but I wish I did not find you ma­king that use of it, to endeavour to confirm your former assertion of a change in him, in which I am not in the least shaken in mind by what hath passed between us, but must still conceive (contrary to your expectation in the begin­ning of your Letter) there was a mistake wheresoever it lights, which being so gentle an expres­sion, and which we are all subject [Page 380] unto, I see no cause of any offence, either to your self, or Certifiers.

I shall entreat you to let the venerable name (as you stile it) of that good man rest in peace, without any further strife of tongues or pens; and let us leave his judgment to his works, which do undoubtedly testifie of him: and for any further dispute of this subject between us, I wish this might be the last, as it is the largest; and that neither by this, nor any other, the least breach may be made between us, as to love, and friendship, which upon all occasions, shall ever ber rea­dily manifested by

Your assured Friend and Servant, N. BERNARD.

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