Deduced from The Origin of Time, and continued to the beginning of the Emperour Vespasians Reign, and the totall Destruction and Abolition of the Temple and Common-wealth of the Jews.

Containing the HISTORIE Of the OLD and NEW TESTAMENT. With that of the MACCHABEES.

Also all the most Memorable Affairs of Asia and Egypt, And the Rise of the Empire of the Roman Caesars, under C. Julius, and Octavianus.

COLLECTED From all History, as well Sacred, as Prophane, and Methodically digested,

By the most Reverend JAMES USSHER, Arch-Bishop of ARMAGH, and Primate of IRELAND.

LONDON, Printed by E. TYLER, for J. CROOK, at the Sign of the Ship in St. Pauls Church-yard, and for G. BEDELL, at the Middle-Temple-Gate, in Fleet-Street. M.DC.LVIII.

THE Epistle to the Reader.

CEnsorinus, in his little book, written to Q Cerellius of ones Birth day; having in hand the Explication of Times Intervals, thought good thus to Preface it. C [...]rsor. in Cap. 20. Si Origo Mundii [...] hominum notitiam venisset, inde exordium sumeremus. If the Origin of the World had been known unto Man, I would thence have taken my beginning. And a little after, speaking of this Time. Sive habuit initium, saies he, Ib. c. 21. Sive semper fuit, certò quot an­norum sit, non potest comprehendi. Whether time had a beginning, or whether it alwaies was, the certain number of years cannot be com­prehended. Therefore Ptolemaeus, from Astronomical supputations, thus renounces this Epoch of the World, as a thing most remote from the knowledge of Man, Ptolem. [...] lib. 3. [...]. To find Observation upon the Passages of the whole World, or such an imme [...]se croud of times, I think much out of their way, that desire to learn and know the truth: And Julius Firmius Maternus, from his dircourse of Birth-dayes, that Geniture of the World, received from Esculapius and Anubius. Jul. Firm. Ma­thes. lib. 3. cap. 2. Non fuit ista genitura Mundi, (saies he) Nec enim Mundus certum diem habuit ortus sui, nec aliquid interfuit eo tempore quo Mundus Divinae mentis ac providi Numinis ratione forma [...]us est: Nec eo usque, se intentio potuit humanae frigilitatis extendere ut Originem Mundi facile possit ratione concipere, aut explicare. That was not the Birth day of the World: Nor, indeed, had the World any certain day of its beginning: Nor was there any thing in Being at that time, when the World was formed by the Wisdom of the Divine Vnderstanding, and Provident Deity; Nor could the intention of Human frailty so far extend it self, that it could conceive or unfold, by an easie account, the Worlds Original.

Nor, truly, is it strange that Heathens, altogether ignorant of holy writ, should thus dispair, of ever attaining the knowledge of the Worlds Rise; when as even amongst Christians, that most renowned [Page] Chronographer Dionysius Petavius, being about to declare his Opi­nion concerning the Creation of the World, and the number of years, from thence down to us, first madePetav. de Doctrinâ temporum, lib. 9. c. 2. this resolution before his dis­course. Annorum ab orbe condito ad haec tempora numerum neque certâ ratione compertum esse, neque citra Divinam significationem posse comperiri. That the number of years from the beginning of the World, to these our dayes, can by no reasons be certainly concluded, nor any way found out, without Divine Re­velation. From whose opinion Philastrius Brixiensis did very much dissent; denoting it heresiePhilast. De Haeres. ib. c. 6. p. 63. to affirm the number of years, from the beginning of the World, uncertain; and that men knew not the spaces of Time. And Lactantius Firmianus, whose assertion in his Divine Institutions, is somewhat more bold.La­ctant. l. 7. c. 14. Nos, quo Divinae literae ad scientiam ve­ritatis erudiunt, principium Mundi finemque cognovimus. We whom the Holy Scriptures do train up to the knowledge of Truth, know both the begin­ning and end of the World. For whatsoever may be done of things past, we are taught that theActs 1. 7. Matth. 24. 36. Father hath reserved the knowledge of things future in his own power; Nor is there any Mortal to whom the whole continuance of time is known: whither that of the Son of Sirac is thought to tend.Eccles. 1. 28. ib. Nicol. Lyranus. [...]. The Sands of the Sea, the Drops of Rain, and the Daies of the World, who can number? Which Lyranus thinking to have been spoken of time past, (when as others interpret it here, and in Chap. XVIII. 11. of the dayes of eternity) draws thence this erroneous conclusion, That the dayes from the beginning of the World were never by any man cast up certainly and precisely.

The first Christian Writer, (that I have had the view of) who at­tempted from Holy Writings to deduce the Age of the World, was Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch; who,Theoph. ad Autolyc. lib. 3. concerning this whole account, thus generally declares. [...]. All times and years are made known to them who are willing to obey the truth. But concerning the exactnesse of this Calculation, he thus afterwards proceeds. [...]. And haply we may not be able to give an exact account of every year, because in the Holy Scriptures there is no mention of the months and dayes current.

For when as the Scripture commonly takes notice only of the whole intire years, not regarding the dayes and months either deficient to the making up compleat years, or supernumerary to the intire, there might a doubt arise of the accuratenesse of that sum which shall arise from such years added together. But yet, granting this one thing, (and that most consonant to reason) That Holy Writers, consigning the years of the World, in their several places, with such diligence, had this in designe, That the series of the Years of the World, which could no other way be learned, might be discovered unto us; This (I say) being [Page] granted, we affirm that the Holy Ghost hath, as much as was necessary, provided against this doubt: when as he hath to the several termina­tions and turnings of the several Periods, (on which the series of time depends) adjoyned the very moneth and day. As for example, when the Israelites are said to go out of Egypt, theNum. 33. 3. fifteenth day of the first moneth: and Solomon to begun to build the Temple, in the 480 year after their2 Reg. 6. 1. depature, on the second day of the2 Cor. 3. 2. second month, the moneths and dayes which bound each termination of that Period, shew, that 11 moneths and 14 dayes are to be taken away; and not that the whole 480, but only 479 years, and sixteen dayes are to be taken for the space of that Period.

Tempus Astronomicum, à primo creationis puncto ad principium aerae Chri­stianae exactum, quise dare nobis posse promittunt, favore mihi digni viden­tur magis quam laude, quia majus quid ingenio humano moliuntur. Those who promise to give us an exact Astronomical Table of Time, from the first point of the Creation unto Christ, seem to me more worthy of encouragement than praise, in that they attempt a thing above human capacity, saies David Paraeus, who, among the latest of our Writers, took upon him to num­ber the years, even to Christs time, out of the Holy Scriptures. There­fore he saies, leaving the Astronomical, he betook himself to the Politick time of the Hebrews, Egyptians, and Persians, as to a [...]; or, another Course.

But if I have any insight in this businesse, it is of no great concern­ment, what rule we make use of in measuring the course of time, so it be known and terminated with a certain number of dayes. And if any one could with D. Paraeus, by some equal measure of years, define the distance between the foundation of the World, and Christs time; It were also most easie, without the help of any Astronomical Table, to set down how many Aequinoctials in number happened, during that Interval. And the noted revolution of time in any Political year, from an Aequinoctial to the same point again, what is it but a year na­tural and truly Astronomical?

But if any one, well seen in the knowledge, not onely of Sacred and exotick History, but of Astronomical Calculation, and the old Hebrew Kalender, shall apply himself to these studies, I judge it indeed difficult, but not impossible for such a one to attain, not onely the number of years, but even, of dayes from the Creation of the World. That, without doubt, by retrograde supputation, Basil, the great, teaches us we may attain to the first day of the World.Basil. in Hexamer. Homil. 1. [...]. Thou mayst indeed learn in what very time the foundation of the World was laid, if returning from this time to former ages, thou endeavour studiously to find out the day of the Worlds Origin. For thus thou mayest find whence [Page] time had its first motion. But in regard, in divers Ages and Nations, divers Epoches of time were used, and several forms of years: Here it's necessary that some common and known account should be observed, to which the diversity of the rest may most appositely be reduced. And to us there is no measure of time more known, and more ac­commodatious to the common collation of times than the form of the Julian Years and Months, deduced from the middle of the night beginning the Kalends of January, of the first year of the common account from Christ; with those three Cicles, by which being joyned, every year is distinguished from all other years whatso­ever. For example, the Roman indiction 1 [...] years, the Cicle of the Moon, or Golden Number 19, and the Cicle of the Sun (the Index of Sun-day, or our Lords Day) containing the Period of twenty eight years. Nor is there any thing more or better known than That at this day, the year (I do not say to the true Nativity of Christ, which is controverted amongst the Learned, but) of the common Christian aera MDCL is noted with the Caracters of 3 in the Roman indiction, 17 in the Lunar Cicle, and 7. in that of the Sun.

But for as much as our Christian Epoch falls many Ages after the beginning of the World, and the number of years before that back­ward, is not onely more troublesome; but (unlesse greater care be taken) more lyable to errour, Also it hath pleased our Modern Chro­nologers, to adde to that generally received Hypothesis, (which asserted the Julian Years, with their three Cycles by a certain Mathematical prolepsis, to have run down to the very beginning of the World) an artificial Epoch, framed out of three Cycles multiplied in themselves; for the Solar Cicle being multiplyed by the Lunar, or the number of 28, by 19, produces the great Paschal Cycle of 532 years, and that again multiplyed by fifteen, the number of the indiction, there arises the Period of 7980 years, which was first (if I mistake not) observed by Robert Lotharing, Bishop of Hereford, in our Island of Brittain, and 500 years after by Joseph Scaliger, fitted for Chronological uses, and called by the name of the Julian Period, because it conteined a Cycle of so many Julian years. Now if the Series of the three minor Cicles be from this present year, extended backward unto precedent Times, the 4713 years before the beginning of our Christian Account, will be found to be that year into which the first year of the Indiction, the first of the Lunar Cicle, and the first of the Solar will fall. Having placed therefore the heads of this Period in the Kalends of January, in that proleptick year, the first of our Christian vulgar account, must be reckoned the 4714 of the Julian Period, which, being divided by 15. 19. 28. will present us with the 4 Roman indiction, the 2 Lunar Cycle, and the 10 Solar, which are the principal Characters of that year.

We find moreover that the year of our fore-fathers, and the [Page] years of the ancient Egyptians, and Hebrews were of the same quan­tity with the Julian, consisting of twelve equal moneths, every of them conteining 30 dayes, (for it cannot be proved that the Hebrews did use Lunary Moneths, before the Babylonian Captivity) adjoyning to the end of the twelfth moneth, the addition of five dayes, and every fourth year six. And I have observed by the continued succession of these years, as they are delivered in holy writ, That the end of the great Nebuchadnezars, and the beginning of Evilmero­dachs (his sons) reign, fell out in the 3442 year of the World, but by collation of Chaldean History, and the Astronomical Cannon, it fell out in the [...]86 year of Nabonasar, and, as by certain connexion, it must follow in the 562 year before the Christian account, and of the Julian Period, the 4152. and from thence I gathered the Creation of the World did fall out upon the 710 year of the julian Period, by placing its beginning in Autumn: but for as much as the first day of the World began with the evening of the first day of the week, I have observed that the Sunday, which in the year 710 aforesaid, came nearest the Au­tumnal Aequinox, by Astronomical Tables,See my Annals on the year of the World, 2553. d. & 3291. c. notwithstanding, the stay of the Sun, in the dayes of Joshua, and the going back of it in the dayes of Ezekiah) happened upon the 23 day of the Julian October; from thence concluded, that from the evening preceding, that first day of the Julian year, both the first day of the Creation, and the first motion of time are to be deduced.

The difficulties of Chronologers, perplexed by that [...], or love of contention, so termed by Basil, being at last over-passed I encline to this opinion, that from the evening ushering in the first day of the World, to that midnight which began the first day of the Christian aera, there was 4003 years, seventy dayes, and six temporarie howers; and that the true Nativity of our Sa­viour was full four years before the beginning of the vulgar Christian aera, as is demonstrable by the time of Herods death. For according to our account, the building of Solomons Temple was finished in the 3000 year of the VVorld, and in the 4000 year of the VVorld, the dayes beingLuc. 2. 6. fulfilled, in which the Blessed Virgin, Mother of God, was to bring forth Christ himself, (of whom the Temple was aJohn 2. 21. Type) was manifest in the flesh, and made his first appearance unto man: from whence four years being added to the Christian aera, and as many ta­ken away from the years before it, instead of the Common and Vulgar, we shall obtein a true and natural Epocha of the Nativity of Christ.

But these things, (which I do onely point at for the present) God willing, shall be more fully hereafter confirmed in our Sacred Chro­nology, which I intend to put forth, together with a Treatise of the Primitive Years, and the Kalender of the ancient Hebrews: In the mean time I thought good to publish the Annals of the Old Testa­ment, built upon the Foundation there laid, with a Chronicle of all [Page] Forreign Affairs, transacted in Asia and Egypt, before the beginning of the Olympiads, those things chiefly being reserved to a particular Hi­story of the Greeks and Romans, which are recorded to have past in Greece, (to which I joyn Rhodes and the Islands lying betwixt Asia and Europe) and the Western parts.

In representing the Sacred History, I have followed the translation of Junius and Trem [...]llius, using their Hebraism's also, and their Contents of the Chapters. In expressing the Prophane, I have observed the words of their ancient Authours, or of their best Translator out of the Greek, and particularly James Dalechamp in Athenaeus; although in nothing the Chapters I observed the edition of Natalis Comes, and out of these I have my self collected the Histories, or being gathered by them, taken them out of Codomanes, Capellas Emmias, Pezelius, Ebe­rus, Sal [...]anus, or some other Chronologer, which I had at hand; yet so, that the very Fountains themselves of the first Authours, (whose pla­ces I did most diligently mark) were alwayes before mine eyes: for being wholly intent upon the right ordering of times, I was not much concerned in the alteration of other words, which, if it had seemed considerable, had been very easie to have performed.

And whereas amongst a multitude of Historians, which were before Julius Caesars time, the malice of time left only four remaining, Hero­dotus, Thucidides, Xenophon, and Polibius, (and him also lame and imper­fect in the greatest part of him) these, notwithstanding, I esteemed the most Authentick for their Antiquity; and having by their authority corrected the frequent errours in Chronology of Diodorus Siculus; but in Affairs that related to Alexander the Great, (which they not so much as mentioned, I endeavoured not by Diodorus onely, but by Curtius and Arrianus also, to cleer the light of those times, which were by others left dark and obscure.

The four first letters of the Alphabet I made use of, as indexes of the beginnings, progresses, and ending of the years of the World, A. signifying the Autumnal, or first Quarter, B. the Brumal or Winter Quarter. C. the Spring, and the Summer. D. other things, the Prudent Reader will of himself understand: to whom I wish the enjoyment of these endeavours, and bid farewell. London, the 13 Kalend of Jul. according to the Julian Period, in the 1650 year of the Vulgar Christian aera, from the true Nativity of our Lord and Saviour, the 1654 year.


I Have often heard Capino relate thus, When Dalburgius, the Bishop of the Vangions, Rudolphus A­gricola, and my self were with Philip Prince Palatine Elector; not onely in common discourse, but also in seri­ous debates about the Affairs of the Common-wealth; they would often bring notable examples, or from the Persian or Grecian or Roman Affairs: whereby the Prince was very much inflamed with the desire of knowledge in Hi­story: but said he observed, the distinction of Times, Na­tions, and Empires, was very requisite to that end. And therefore desired them, that out of all Antiquities, as far as they were known, from the Hebrew Fountains, Greek, and Latine Authours, they would in order dispose the several Monarchies, that so the Times of the World, and the Series of the most considerable mutations might be known.About the year 1480. There were then no books extant in the German tongue, concerning ancient Empires. Nor had the Latines any thing of that nature, save Justins confused Epitome, which also wanted the distinction of Times. Those learned men were then at leasure and delighted with the work. They therefore recite in order out of the Hebrew, Greek, and Latine Monuments, the several Monarchies, and insert all the most memorable trans­actions in their due place and order, with the distinctions of [Page] Nations, and Times, This Ingenious Prince read these Works most earnestly, and declared his delight in them, and That the Series of Times, and the memory of the most remark­able Affairs were preserved by Divine Providence. For they shewed him, how that the History of the World was con­tinued so, that Herodatus begins his Narrations, a little be­fore the end of the Prophetic History. For even before the end of the Persian Monarchy, concerning which we have most clear Narrations in Daniel, Esdras, and Nehemia, some names of the Kings of Assyria and Egypt, are the same in the Prophets and Herodotus. Jeremias foretells destruction to Apries, which Herodotus describes. After Apryes kills Jeremie, and then Amasis strangles the proud King after he had taken him. The Palatine Prince said he did acknowledge a Testimony of Divine presence, in the con­stitution of Empires, for that they could neither be attained nor retained by meer Humane power, and that they were therefore constituted, that they might be the Upholders of Human so­ciety, conjoyn many Nations, Restore Laws, Justice, Peace, yea, they might teach men concerning God. And therefore did often repeat those words of Daniel, God chan­ges, and confirms Empires. He said likewise, That by the mutations and punishments of Tyrants, the just judgement of the Almighty was most conspicuous; and that all Man-kind was, by these Illustrious Examples, premonished to acknowledg God, and were given to understand that he wills and ordains ju­stice, and is truely offended with those who transgresse this his ordination. Such were the Speeches of that Prince, considering the Rises and Ruines of Empires.

THE ANNALS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT, From the beginning of the World.

IN the beginning God created Heaven and Earth, Gen. 1. v. 1. Which beginning of time, according to our Chro­nologie, Year before Christ 4004 fell upon the entrance of the night preceding the twenty third day of Octob. The Julian Period 710 in the year of the Julian Calendar, 710.

Upon the first day therefore of the world, or Octob. 23. being our sunday, God, together with the highest Hea­ven, created the Angels. Then having finished, as it were, the roofe of this building, he fell in hand with the foun­dation of this wonderfull Fabrick of the World, he fashi­oned this lowermost Globe, consisting of the Deep, and of the Earth; all the Quire of Angels singing together, and magnifying his name therefore. [Job. 38. v. 7.] And when the Earth was void and without forme, and dark­nesse covered the face of the Deepe, on the very middle of the first day, the light was created; which God severing from the darknesse, called the one day, and the other night.

On the second day [October 24 being Monday] the firmament being finished, which was called Heaven, a separation was made of the waters above, and the waters here be­neath enclosing the earth.

Upon the third day [Octob. 25. Tuesday] these waters beneath running together into one place, the dry land appeared. This confluence of the waters, God made a Sea, send­ing out from thence the rivers, which were thither to return again [Eccles. 1. vers. 7.] and he caused the Earth to bud, and bring forth all kinds of herbs and plants, with seeds and fruits: But above all, he enriched the garden of Eden with plants; for among them grew the tree of Life, and the tree of Knowledge, of good and evil. [Gen. 2. vers. 8, 9.]

On the fourth day [Octob. 26. which is our Wednesday] the Sun, the Moon, and the rest of the Stars were created.

On the fifth day [Octob. 27. Thursday] Fish and flying Fowl were created, and endued with a blessing of encrease.

And upon the sixth day [Octob. 28. which is our Friday] the living creatures of the earth took their creation, as well going, as creeping creatures. And last of all, man was made and created after the image of God, which consisted principally in the divine know­ledge of the minde, [Coloss. 3. vers. 10.] and in the naturall and proper sanctity of his will, [Ephes. 4. vers. 24.] And he forth-with, when all living creatures, by the Divine Power, were brought before him, as a Lord appointed over them, gave them their names, by which they should be called. Among all which, when he found none to help him like to himself, lest he should be destitute of a fit companion, God taking a rib out of his side, whiles he slept, fashioned it into a woman, and gave her to him for a wife, esta­blishing, withall, a law of marriage between them; then blessing them, he bade them wex and multiply, and gave them dominion over all living creatures, and for them all he provided a large proportion of food and sustenance to live upon. To conclude, sin being not yet entered upon the world, God beheld all that he had made, and, behold, it was exceeding good. And so was the evening, and so was the morning of the sixth day. [Gen. 1. vers. 31.]

Now upon the seventh day, [Octob. 29. which is, with, us Saturday,] when God had fi­nished [Page 2] his work which he intended, he then rested from all labour, and blessing the se­venth day, he ordained and consecrated the Sabbath, [Gen. 2. vers. 2, 3.] because therein he took breath, as himself is pleased to speak of himself, [Exod. 31. vers. 17.] and, as it were, refreshed himself. Nor as yet (for ought appeareth) had sin set footing into the world. Nor was there any punishment laid by God, either upon man-kinde, or upon Angels. Whence it was, that this afterward was set forth for a signe, as well of our san­ctification in this world [Exod. 31. vers. 13.] as of that eternall Sabbath, to be enjoyed hereafter; wherein we expect a full deliverance and discharge from sin, and the dregs thereof, and all punishments belonging thereunto, [Heb. 4. vers. 4, 9, 10.]

After the first week of the world ended, as it seemeth, God brought the new married couple into the garden of Eden, and charged them not to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil; but left them free use of all the rest.

But the Devil, envying Gods honour and mans felicity, tempted the woman to sin by the Serpent; whence himself got the name and title of the old Serpent. [Apoc. 12. vers. 9. and 20. vers. 2.] The woman then beguiled by the Serpent, and the man seduced by the woman, brake the ordinance of God concerning the forbidden fruit; and accordingly being called, and convicted of the crime, had their severall punishments inflicted on them: yet with this promise added, that the Seed of the woman should, one day, break the Serpents head, (i.) That Christ in the fulnesse of time should undo the works of the Devil, [1 Ioh. 3. vers. 8. Rom. 16. vers. 20.] From whence it was, that Adam then first called his wife Evah; because she was then ordained to be the mother, not onely of all that should live this naturall life, but, of those also who should live by faith in her seed; which was the promised Messias: as Sara also afterward was counted the mother of the faithfull, [1 Pet. 3. verse 6. Gal. 4. verse 31.]

Upon this occasion our first Parents, clad by God with raiment of skinnes, were turned out of Eden, and a fierie flaming sword set to keep the way leading to the tree of Life, to the end they should never after eat of that fruit, which hitherto they had not touched Gen. 3. verse. 21. 22. &c. whence it is very probable, that Adam was turned out of Paradise the self same day that he was brought into it, which seemeth to have been up­on the tenth day of the world (answering to our first day of November, according to supposition of the Julian Period) upon which day also, in remembrance of so remar­kable a thing, as in all reason it should seem, was appointed the solemnity of Expiation, or attonement, and the yearly fast, spoken of by Saint Paul, Acts 27. verse 9. termed more especially by the name of [...], wherein all, as well strangers as home-born peo­ple, were commanded to afflict their souls with a most severe intermination, that e­very soul which should not afflict it self upon that day should be destroyed from among his people, [Lev. 16. v. 29. and 23. verse 29.]

After the fall of Adam, Cain was the first of all mortall men that was born of a wo­man, [Gen. 4. verse 1.]

Abel being murthered by his brother Cain, Year of the World 130. d. the first born of all man-kind, God gave Eve another son in his stead; whence his name was called Seth, c. 4. v. 25. when Adam had now lived 130 years, c. 5. v. 3. From whence it is gathered, that between the death of Abel, and the birth of Seth, there was no other son born to Eve; for then he should have been recorded to have been given her instead of him: so that whereas now the race of man-kind had been continued to the terme of 128 years, it is probable, that the number of men was so encreased in the world, that Cain might justly fear, through the conscience of his crime, that every man that met him would also slay him. [c. 4. v. 14, 15.]

Seth now being 105 years old, Year of the World 235. d. begat a son, The Julian Period 945 whom he named Enoch; Year before Christ 3769 which signifies, the lamentable condition of all man-kind. For even then was the worship of God wretchedly corrupted by the race of Cain: whence it came, that men were even then so distinguished, that they who persisted in the true worship of God, were known by the name of the chil­dren of God; and they which forsook him, were termed the children of men, Gen. 4. v. 26. and 6. 1, 2.

Cainan the son of Enoch was born when his father was 90 years old, Year of the World 325. d. [c. The Julian Period 1035 5. v. Year before Christ 3679 10.]

Mahalaleel was born when Cainan his father had lived 70 years, Year of the World 395. d. [c. The Julian Period 1015 5. v. Year before Christ 3069 12.]

Jared was born when his father Mahalaleel had lived 65 years, Year of the World 460. d. [c. The Julian Period 1017 5. v. Year before Christ 3544 15.]

Enoch was borne when his father Jared had lived 162 years, Year of the World 622. d. [c. The Julian Period 1332 5. v. Year before Christ 3382 18.]

Mathusalah was born when Enoch his father had lived 65 years [c. Year of the World 687. d. 5. v. The Julian Period 1397 25.]

Lamech Year before Christ 3317 was born when his father Mathusalah had lived 187 years, Year of the World 874. d. [c. The Julian Period 1584 5. v. Year before Christ 3130 25.]

Now Adam the first father of all man kind, Year of the World 930. d. died when he had lived 930 years. The Julian Period 1640 Year before Christ 3074

As for Enoch, Year of the World 987. d. the seventh from Adam, The Julian Period 1697 God translated him in an instant, Year before Christ 3017 whiles he was [Page 3] walking with him, that he should not see death, after he had lived 365 years, [c. 5. 23, 24, Heb. 11. 5.]

Seth the son of Adam died when he had lived 912 years, Year of the World 1042. d. [c. The Julian Period 1752 5. v. Year before Christ 2962 8.]

Noah the tenth from Adam, Year of the World 1056. d. was born when his father Lamech had lived 182 years, The Julian Period 1766 Year before Christ 2948 [c. 5. v. 29.]

Enoch the third from Adam, Year of the World 1140 d. died when he had lived 905 years, [c. 5. v. 11.] The Julian Period 1850 Year before Christ 2864

Cainan the fourth from Adam, Year of the World 1235. d. died when he had lived 9 [...]0 years. The Julian Period 1945 [c. Year before Christ 2769 5. v. 17.]

Mahalaleel, Year of the World 1029. d. the fifth from Adam died, The Julian Period 2000 when he had lived 892 years. Year before Christ 2714 [c. 5. v. 17.]

Iared, Year of the World 1422. d. the sixth from Adam, The Julian Period 2132 dyed wen he had lived 962 years. Year before Christ 2582 [c. 5. v. 20.]

God, Year of the World 1536. a. before he brought the deluge of waters upon the world of the wicked, The Julian Period 2245 sent Noah, Year before Christ 2469 a Preacher of righteousness unto them, giving them 120 years space to repent them of their evil waies, [1 Pet. 3. v. 20. 2 Pet. 2. v. 5. Gen. 6. v. 3.]

To Noah, Year of the World 1556. d. who now first began to set his mind to the propagating of an off-spring, The Julian Period 2266 when he was 500 years old; Year before Christ 2448 was borne first of all Iaphet, [Gen. 5. v. 32. and c. 10. v. 21.]

Noahs second son was Sem; Year of the World 1558. d. being two years after the flood, The Julian Period 2268 recorded to have been 100 years old, Year before Christ 2446 [Gen. 10. v. 11.]

Lamech, Year of the World 1651. d. the ninth from Adam, The Julian Period 2361 died when he had lived 777 years, year before Christ 2353 [c. 5. v. 31.]

Mathusalah, Year of the World 1656. a. the eighth from Adam, The Julian Period 2365 died in the 969 year of his age; Year before Christ 2349 and out-went all men in length of life. [c. 5. v. 27.]

Now in the second month of this year, upon the 10 day thereof, (answering to the 30 of our November, being sunday) God commanded Noah, that in that weeke, he should provide himself to enter into the Arke: whiles the world, (in the mean time) void of all fear, sate eating and drinking, and marrying, and giving in marriage, [Gen. 7. v. 1, 4, 10. Mat. 24. v. 38.]

In the 600 year of the life of Noah, upon the 17 day of the second month, answering to the 7 of our Decemb. upon a sunday, when he with his children, and living creatures of all sorts, were entered into the Ark, God sent a rain upon the earth forty days, and forty nights; and the waters continued upon the earth 150 days, [Gen. 7. v. 4, 6, 11, 12, 13, 17, 24.]

The waters abating upon the 17 day of the 7 month, May 6. upon a wedensday, the Ark rested upon one of the mountatines of Ararat, [c. 8. v. 6, 7.]

And the waters still falling upon the first day of the tenth month (with us July 19. being sunday) the tops of the mountains appeared above the water, [c. 8. v. 5,] And after 40 days, that is upon the 11 day of the 11 month (Being 28 of August, falling upon a friday) Noah o­pening the window of the Ark, sent forth a Raven, [c. 8. v. 6, 7.] And seven days after, as may probably be gathered, out of those other seven days, mentioned [v. 10] Noah sent forth a Dove and she returning, after seven days more, he sent her forth again: and about the evening she returned, bringing the leaf of an Olive tree in her mouth, and then staying yet seven days more, sent the same Dove out again, which never returned more unto him. [c. 8. v. 8. 12.]

The second Age of the World.

IN the 601 year of the life of Noah, Year of the World 1657. a. upon the first day of the first month (Octob. 23. being our friday,) the first day, as first of the new world, so now of this new year; when the surface of the earth was now all dry, Noah took off the covering of the Ark, [Gen. 8. 13.]

Upon the 27 of the second month, (Dec. 18 falling upon thursday,) when the earth was wholy dry, by the commandment of God, Noah went forth with all that were with him in the Ark, [c. 8. v. 14. 19.

Being gon forth, Noah offered unto God sacrifices, for such his preservation: and God restored the nature of things destroyed by the flood: he permitted unto men the eating of flesh for their food; and gave the rainbow for a signe of the covenant, which he then made with man, [c. 8. & 9.]

The years of mans life, were now made as it were, half shorter than they were before.

Arphaxad, Year of the World 1658. d. was now born to Se [...], The Julian Period 2368 being 100 years old; Year before Christ 2346 two years after the flood ceased, [c. 11. v. 10.]

Salah was born when his father Arphaxad, Year of the World 1693. d. had lived 35 years, The Julian Period 2403 [c. Year before Christ 2311 11. v. 12.

Heber was born, Year of the World 1723. d. when Salah his father had lived 30 years, The Julian Period 2433 [c. Year before Christ 2281 11, v. 14.]

When Heber had lived 34 years, Year of the World 1757. d. he had a son born, The Julian Period 2467 whom he named Phaleg, Year before Christ 2247 [c. 11. 16.] because in his days the earth was divided, [c. 10. v. 25. and 1 Chron. 1. v. 19.] which if under­stood for the day of his birth, then it seemeth that at what time Phaleg was born, Noah, who formerly knew the places which were now overspread with bushes and thornes, made a di­vision of the land among his grandchildren; and that done, that they then went from those eastern parts (whither they first repaired from the mountains of Ararat) unto the [Page 4] valley of S [...]nnar. [Gen. 11. v. 2.] where the people impiously laid their heads together, as we find in the book of wisdome, [10. v. 5.] to hinder this dispersion of them commanded by God, and began by Noah (as may be gathered out of [Gen. 11. v. 4, 6, 8, 9.] compared toge­ther) and went in hand to build the city and tower of Babylon: which purpose of theirs being frustrated by the confusion of languages, sent among them, (from whence it took the name of Babel, c. 11. v. 9.) the dispersion of Nations followed; divers companies and colonies, sit­ting them down in several places, as they agreed best each with other in that diversity of language. Captains and conductors, of which several companies; among others, the 13 sons of Joctan, the brothers of Phaleg, are recorded to have been, [Gen. 10. v. 26.] all which, cer­tainly, at what time their Uncle Phaleg was born, were not come into the world. For see­ing that Heber was but 34 years old, when Phaleg was born unto him, though we should sup­pose, that Joctan was born, when Heber was but 20 years of age, and that Joctans eldest son was born to him, when he was likewise but twenty years old, yet still it appears, that, that eldest son of Ioctan, must be six years younger than Phaleg, so that at least the younger crew of those 13 sons of Ioctan, to wit, Iohab, and three other brothers of his mentioned next before him, and which left their names, upon those golden countreys, Sheba, [Psal. 72. v. 15. Ophir. 1 Reg. 9. v. 28. & Havilah. Gen. 2. v. 11.] could not till some years after Rehu were born to Pha­leg, be capable of such an imployment, as to conduct colonies by reason of their so tender age.

The years of mans age were again cut shorter by one half, than earst they were.

From hence to the taking of Babilon by Alexander the Great, Year of the World 1771. a. are reckoned 1903 years: The Julian Period 2480 which calculation and number of years made according to Astronomical observations Por­phyrie, Year before Christ 2234 as we find in Simplicius, in his second book de Coelo, affirmeth to have been transmitted in­to Greece from Babylon, by Chalisthenes, at Aristotles sute, whence it appears that the Baby­lonians gave themselves to the knowledg of Astronomy, even from the very days of Nimrod, from whom all that region took the name of the Land of Nimrod, [Mich. 5. v. 6.] Forasmuch as both Babylon it self was by his perswasion begun to be built, as Ioseph. l. 1. Antiq. c. 5. repor­teth, and for that there the royal seat of that kingdom was placed, as Moses [Gen. 10. 10] affir­meth, & from him Babylon it self; [Ier. 5. 15.] took her first celebrity & opinion of Antiquity.

But to return to where we left; Year of the World 1787. a. Rehu or Ragau, The Julian Period 2497 was born when Phaleg his father was 30 years old, Year before Christ 2217 [Gen. 11. v. 18.]

That the Egyptian sovereignty & regal power over the subject, Year of the World 1816. d. lasted full out 1663 years, The Julian Period 2526 is testified by Constantinus Manasses, Year before Christ 2188 which being reckoned backward from the time that Cambyses K. of Persia conquered Egypt, lead us just to this accompt, about which time Misra­im the son of Cham carried his colony into Egypt, which from thence was called sometime the land of Misraim, sometime of Cham, [Psal. 105. 23, 27. Ps. 106. 21. 22.] From whence it was that the Pharasees afterward boasted, that they were the sons of ancient kings, [Esa. 19. 11.]

Serug, Year of the World 1819. d. or Saruch, The Julian Period 2529 was born when Ragau had lived 32 years, Year before Christ 2185 [Gen. 11. v. 20.]

Nachor was born when Saruch his father had lived 30 years, Year of the World 1849. d. [Gen. The Julian Period 2559 11. Year before Christ 2155 22.]

Terach or Tharah was born when Nachor his father was 29 years of age. Year of the World 1878. d. The Julian Period 2588 Year before Christ 2126

At this time Egialeus K. of the Sicyonians in Peloponesus began his reign 1313 years be­fore the first Olympiade, Year of the World 1915. c. Euseb. The Julian Period 2625 Chron. Year before Christ 2079

And a nation out of Arabia bordering upon Egypt, Year of the World 1910. c. called by the Egyptians Hicsi, The Julian Period 2630 and signifie kingly Shepheards, Year before Christ 2084 brake into Egypt, and took Memphis, and possessed themselves wholy of the lower Egypt bordering upon the mediterranean sea; which Salatis their first K. held by the space of 19 years, as Iosep. in this 1 book cont. Appionem reports out of Manetho.

Beon their second King reigned 44 years, Year of the World 1939. c. [Manetho.]

Now when Tharah had lived 70 years, Year of the World 1948. d. there was born unto him the eldest of his three sons, The Julian Period 2658 [Gen. Year before Christ 2021 11. v. 26.] and he, not Abram (who as we shall see anon, came not into the world till 60 years after) but Haran, father-in-law afterward of the third brother Nachor, for this man, before ever his father Tharah left Vz of the Chaldeans, died, and left a daughter na­med Milcam, which was married to his uncle Nachor, [Gen 11. v. 28, 29.]

At this time reigned Apachnas in Egypt, Year of the World 1983. c. and continued 36 years, The Julian Period 2693 7 months, Year before Christ 2021 [Manetho.]

Phaleg the sixth from Noah, Year of the World 1996. d. died 200 and 9 years after the birth of Ragau, [Gen. 11. v. 19.]

Nachor the 9 from Noah, Year of the World 1997. d. died 119 years after the birth of his son Tharah, The Julian Period 2707 [Gen. Year before Christ 2007 11. 25.]

Noah, Year of the World 2006. d. died when he had lived 950 years, The Julian Period 2716 350 years after the deluge, Year before Christ 1998 [Gen. 9. 28, 29]

In the year 2008 of the world, Year of the World 2008. c. was Abram born; The Julian Period 2718 for he was 75 years old, The Julian Period 2996 when Tharah his father died at the age of 205 years, [Gen. 11. 32. and Gen. 12. 1, 4. with Acts 7. 4.]

Sarai, Year of the World 2018. c. who was also called Iscah the daughter of Haran, The Julian Period 2728 Abrahams brother, [Gen. The Julian Period 2986 11. 29. 30.] was born, being ten years younger than her husband Abraham, [Gen. 17. 17.]

Apophis reigned in Egypt 61 years, Year of the World 2020. b. [Manetho.] The Julian Period 2730 Year before Christ 1984

Rehu or Ragau the 7 from Noah, Year of the World 2026. d. died 207 years after the birth of Saruch, The Julian Period 2736 Gen. Year before Christ 1978 11. 21.

[Page 5] Serug or Saruch, Year of the World 2049. d. the 8 from Noah, The Julian Period 2059 Year before Christ 1955 died 200 years after the death of Nachor, [Gen. 11. 23.]

Near about this time it was, Year of the World 2079. b. that Chedorlaomer K. of Elam, The Julian Period 2089 The Julian Period 1925 or Elimais, situate between Persia and Babylon, subdued the Kings of Pentapolis, to wit, Sodome, Gomorrah, Adma, Se­boim and Bela, or Zoar, all which served him twelve years, [Gen. 14. 1, 2, 4.]

Ianias reigned in Egypt 50 years, Year of the World 2081. b. and one month, The Julian Period 2791 (Manetho. Year before Christ 1923)

God called Abraham out of Uz, Year of the World 2083. a. of the Chaldeans, to go into the land that he should shew him, [Gen. 15. 7. Ios. 24. 2, 3. Neh. 9. 7. Acts 7. 2, 3, 4.] Now this Vz, which besides Stephen the Proto-martyr, Abarbenel also, upon [Gen. 11.] placeth in Mesopotamia, was the habitation of the Priests and Mathematicians, who from their art, were stiled by the name of Chaldeans; by which name also; even in Chaldaea it self, those Genethliaci, or casters of nativities were di­stinguished, and known from the rest of the Magi, or wise men of that country, as we find in [Dan. 2. v. 2, 10. c. 4. v. 7. c. 5. v. 11.] and from these it was, that Terach and his sons learned their Idolatry, [Ios. 24. 2.] This Terach therefore took Abram his son, and Lot his nephew, the son of H [...]ran and Sarai his daughter in law, Abrams wife, and taking their journey together from Vz of the Chaldeans, to go into the land of Canaan, came to Carran, in the same country of Mesopotamia: and there made their abode, by reason of the great infirmity and sickness of Terach, Year of the World c. and when Terach had fulfilled 205 years, The Julian Period 2793 he died in Carran, Year before Christ 1921 [Gen. 11. v. 31, 32.]

The third Age of the World.

ABram, after his fathers decease, was called again by God, out of his own country, and from his kindred, and from his fathers house; with a further promise, and Evange­lical covenant of blessing him, that is, in his blessed seed, our Lord Jesus Christ, all the nations of the earth, [Gen. 12. 1, 2. and Acts 7. 4.] from which promise, and Abrams departure, which immediately followed, are to be deduced those 430 years which Abram and his posterity spent in forreign lands, [Ex. 12. 40, 41. and Gal. 3. 17.] placing the first and last day of this their pilgrimage and sojourning, upon the 15 of the month Abib, which this year falls upon the 4 day of May, being wedensday, according to the Julian Calendar; by our accompt.

On this day therefore, Abram when he was 75 years old, following the call of God, took Sa­rai his wife, and Lot, his brother Harans son, with all the substance, which he had gotten, and souls which God had given him in Carran, and took his journey, and at length came in­to the land of Canaan: passing through it, till he came to a place called Sichem, to the oake of Moreah, [Gen. 12. 4, 5, 6.] of which mention is afterward made, [Gen. 35. 4. Ios. 24. v. 25, 26. and in Judges 9. 6.] where God promised Abram. that to his seed he would give that land, and he there built an Altar to the Lord, which had there appeared to him. Afterward removing from thence he went into the hill-country, called Luz, and in after times, known by the name of Bethel, toward the east, [Gen. 28. 19.] where again he built an altar, and called upon the name of the Lord: and from thence holding on his journey, he came into the fourth part of that countrey, which looketh towards Egypt, [Gen. 12. 7, 8, 9.]

Abram, compelled by a famine, from thence went down into Egypt, where Sarah his wife (who to eschew a danger, Year of the World 2804. a. went there by the name of his sister) was taken into Pharaoh, (Apo­phi) his house: but was not long after, with great gifts and presents, sent back unto him again untouch't; and, with a safe passe, were both dismissed to depart out of Egypt, [Gen. 12. 10, 20.]

Then Abram, with Lot returned into Canaan, where when the country which they pitch­ed upon, was not sufficient to feed both their heards of cattle, they parted; and Lot went into the country of Sodome; after whose departures, the promise both of the possession of that land of Canaan, and also of his numberlesse posterity was again renewed unto him: and then re­moving from the place between Bethel and Hay, where he had formerly built an Altar, he dwelt in the plain of Mamre, near unto Hebron, & there built an Altar unto the Lord, [Gen. 13]

Then did Bera K. of Sodom, Year of the World 2091 with the rest of the petty kings of Pentapolis rebel, The Julian Period 2801 & shook off the yoke of Chedorlaomer K. of Elam, Year before Christ 1913 in the 13 year of their subjection unto him, [Gen. 14. 4.]

And in the fourteenth year Chedorlaomer, Year of the World 2092. c. with other confederate Princes, Amraphel of Shi­nar, Arioc of Ellasur, and Tidal K. of the nations, joyning their forces against those petty kings which had revolted from him, first destroyed the Raphaeans, the Zuzaeans, the Aemaeans and Choraeans, who inhabited all that region, which afterward was possessed by the Amalekites, and the Ammorites, and after that putting to flight the Kings of Pentapolis in the valley of Siddimor, carried away Lot prisoner with all the plunder of Sodome and Gomorrah: where­of, when tidings came to Abram, he armed his own servants to the number of 318. and with his confederates Haner, Eshcol, and Mamre, overtaking Chedorlaomer and his army with the prey they had gotten at Dan, there they defeated and slew them, and pursued them to Hoba, lying on the left hand of Damascus: and thereby rescued Lot, and the rest of the prisoners out of the enemies hand, and brought them back again with all that they had lost. And when Abram returned from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer and the other Kings, Melchisedech the K. of Salem met him, and blessed him, being himself a Priest of the highest God; and Abram, on the other side offered him the tithe of the spoile, which he had taken, yet kept he nothing thereof to himself, but restored to every man his own again; leaving what was not owned to his companies in that service, [Gen. 14.] And now God, finding Abram grieved for that he had [Page 6] no issue, promised him a posterity equal to the stars of heaven in number, which after 400 years sojourning and affliction in a land that was none of theirs, he promised to bring into the land foretold unto him, and bound that promise with a covenant to perform it, [Gen. 15.]

Sarai longing for that blessed seed, Year of the World 2093 and seeing now ten years spent since their coming into the land of Canaan, The Julian Period 2803 gave him to wife Hagar her servant, Year before Christ 1911 an Egyptian born, who being great with child of her Mr. Abram; and being evil entreated by her Mrs. for her insolent carriage toward her, fled from her; but being warned of God by his Angel, she returned, and submit­ted her self to her dame [Gen. 16. 13, 14.]

Hagar, Year of the World 2094. b. bare unto Abram, Ishmael, when he was 86 years old, The Julian Period 2804 [Gen. Year before Christ 1910 16. 25. 16. and 17. 24, 25.]

Arphaxad the third from Noah, Year of the World 2096. d. died 403 years after the birth of Salem, [Gen. 11. 13.]

God making a covenant with Abram, Year of the World 2107. c. when he was now 99 years old touching the seed of Isaac, who was to be born of Sarah that time twelve month, gave him the seal of Circumcisi­on (changing both their names, Abram into Abraham, and Sarai into Sarah) for a sure pledg & testimony of his promise, promising also to favour Ishmael the eldest born, for the fathers sake, which promises; Abraham entertaining and embracing with a lively faith, & true obedience, caused himself, being now 99 years of age, and his son Ishmael then thirty years old, and all his houshold, to be circumcised, the self-same day wherein it was enjoyn'd him. [Gen▪ 17. 21. to 26.]

Abraham invites Angels coming like men travelling upon the way unto his house: and feasts them, who reiterating the promise of the birth of Isaac, in favour of Sarah declared, with all the judgment of God, intended upon the 5 cities, for their utter destruction; and Abraham fea­ring what would become of Lot, and his family in Sodome, made intercession to God for the sparing of that place, [Gen. 18, and 19. v. 29.] Sodome therefor; and Gomorrah and Aadmah, and Seboim, for their horrible sins, perished by fire and brimstone, raining down upon them from heaven, [Gen. 19.] that they might be an example to all wicked livers in time to come, of the pains of that everlasting fire to be inflicted on them in that lake of fire and brimstone, which is the second death [2 Pet. 2, 6. [...]ud. 7. Ap. 19. 20. c. 20. 10. c. 21. 8.] The monument where­of remaineth unto this day; even the dead sea. The valley of Siddim, where these 5 cities stood in former times, which was full of brimstone and salt pits, being since grown into a vast lake; which from the brimstone therein still floating, is called Lacus Asphaltitis, a lake of brimstone; & from th [...] salt, mare salsum, the salt sea, [Gen. 14. 3, 10. Deut. 3. 17. c. 29. 23. Zeph. 2. 9. Wisd. 10. 6, 7.] of which, Solinus thus writeth, A great way off from Jerusalem, there lies a woful spectacle, of a coun­try to be seen, which that it was heretofore blasted from heaven, appears by the blackness of the earth­falling all to cinders. There were in that place heretofore seated two Cities, one called Sodome, the other Gomorrah, whereof an apple grow, though it seeme to have a shew of maturity and ripenesse, yet it is not eateable at all; for the outmost skin thereof, containeth nothing within it save a stinking steeme, mingled with ashes, and being never so lightly touched, sendeth forth a smoake, and the rest falls presently into a light dust or powder.

Lot being hasted out of Sodome by the Angels, avoided the destruction, by flying to a little city, called Bela, which from thence was called Zoas; but his wife was turned into a pillar of salt; and Lot himself, fearing to continue at Zoar, left the plain country, and betook him to the Hill, as he was commanded, carrying his two daughters with him, [Gen. 19.]

Abraham, going from the plain of Mamre, towards the south, that he might dwell at a place which was afterward called Beersheba, was entertained by Abimelech, K. of the Philistines, at Gerar, where Sarah, going once again under the name of his sister, was rest from him. But the K. being reproved therefore, and punished by God, restored her untouch't to her husband, with large gifts and presents added thereto, and by his prayers Abimilech and all his house were healed of their infirmities, [Gen. 20.]

When Abraham was now 100, Year of the World 2108. c. and Sarah 90 years of age, The Julian Period 2818 the fore-promised son Isaac was born unto them, The Julian Period 2896 [Gen. 17. 17, 21. c. 21. 1, 7. Rom. 4. 19.] nor long after was it, that Moab and A­mon were born to Lot, who was both father, and grandfather to them, [Gen. 19. 36, 37, 38.

When Isaac was weaned, Abraham made a great [...]east, and Sarah spying Ishmael the son of Hagar the Aegyptian jesting with, or rather mocking (as in Gen. 39. 14. that word is taken) nay even persecuting (as the Apostle, [Gal. 4. 29.] expoundeth it) her son Isaac; as chalenging to himself, by way of eldership, the right of inheritance in his fathers estate, said unto Abra­ham, Cast forth this handmaid with her son, for the son of his handmaid shall not be heir with my son I­saac; which though he took very grievously at the first, yet he did it; God having said unto him, in Isaac shall thy seed be called, [Gen. 21. 8, 12. and Rom. 9. 7, 8. and Heb. 11. 17, 18.] where observe that Isaac is called his onely begotten son. But among the Hebrews there is a difference of o­pinions; some holding that this was done in the 5 year after Isaacs weaning; others in the 12. but we chosing a shorter time of age, reckon that Ishmael was cast out with his mother, when he was 18 years old, saith St Jerome, writing of the traditions of the Jewes, upon Genesis: so that from this declara­tion of the elect seed, and persecution (as the Apostle termeth it) of Isaac, by Hagars son, ma­ny of them, reckon the 400 years; which the seed of Abraham was to be a stranger and so­journer, and afflicted in a forreign land, as God had foretold unto him [Gen. 15. 13. Acts 7. 6.] For that those 400 years were to be compleated at the instant of the departure of the children of Israel out of Egypt, appears (Gen. 15. 14. Ex. 12. 35, 36.) compared each with other; though the ordinary gloss out of Austin, refers the beginning of the account, to the very birth of Isaac, as if the Scripture called the number of 405 by the name of 400 years, as in a round summe, or number.

[Page 7] Salah the fourth from Noah, Year of the World 2126 d. died 403 years after the birth of Heber, Year of the World 2106 [Gen. Year before Christ 1878 11. v. 15.]

Assis reigned in Egypt by the space of 49 years two moneths: Year of the World 2131 b. Manetho. The Julian Period 2841 Year before Christ 1873

By faith Abraham, Year of the World 2133 when he was tryed, The Julian Period 2843 offered up his son Isaac; Year before Christ 1871 considering with him­self, that God was able by his power, to raise him again from the dead; whence also he did receive him, in a manner, [Heb. 11. v. 17, 19.]

Now Josephus reports that at this time Isaac was 25 years old. lib. 1. Antiq. 14. (al. 22.) and that he was at that time of good years, may be gathered from this, that he was able to car­ry so much wood, as was to go to the burning and consuming of such a whole burnt offer­ing, as himself was then intended by Abraham to have been made, Gen. 22. v. 6.

Sarah being 127 years of age, Year of the World 2145 b. died in Hebron, The Julian Period 2855 for whose burial Abraham bought the cave in the field of Macpelah, Year before Christ 1859 which was the first possession that he gat in the land of Ca­naan, of Ephron the Hittite, for a summe of money, Gen. 23. v. 12, 19. 20. But as Abraham is registred to us for the father of the faithful, Rom. 4. v. 11, 12. So is Sarah for the mother of the faithful, 1 Pet. v. 3, 6. and she is the only woman whose full and entire age is mentio­ned in the Scripture.

Abraham being careful to get a wife for his son Isaac, Year of the World 2148 d. sent his chief servant, The Julian Period 2858 Eliesar of Da­mascus, Year before Christ 1856 Gen. 15. v. 2. (taking first an oath of him) to look out one for him: who going by the guidance of God into Mesopotamia, there obtained for him Rebeka the daughter of Be­thuel, sister to Laban the Syrian, whom Isaac receiving for his wife, brought into the tent of his mother Sarah; and by the solace and content which he took in her, put off the dolor and grief which he conceived upon the death of his mother, who was departed this life three years before, Gen. 24. v. 1. 67. and he was forty years old when he married his wife Rebeka, Gen. 25. v. 20.

About this time began the reign of the Argivi in Peloponesus, 1080 years before the first Olympiade, as Eusebius in his Chronicle reporteth, out of Castor.

The first that there reigned was Inachus, who reigned 50 years; of whom Erasmus, in the proverb, Inacho antiquior, speaketh; unto which also I refer that of the most learned Var­ro, in his 17 book of Humane Affaires, (cited by A. Gellius in his first book, Noctium Attic. c. 16. and of Macrobius: lib. 1 Saturnal.) where he saith, To the beginning of Romulus are rec­koned more than 1100 years: For from the beginning of Inachus his reign, according to the accompt of Castor, there mentioned, unto the Palilia, or solemne Festivals of Pales (the coun­try Goddess among the Romans) mentioned by Varro, are reckoned 1102 years.

Sem the son of Noah died 500 years after the birth of Arphaxad, Year of the World 2158 d. Gen. The Julian Period 2868 11. v. Year before Christ 1846 11.

When Rebeka had continued barren nineteen years after her marriage, Year of the World 2167. d. Isaac in great de­votion made praier unto God in her behalf; The Julian Period 2877 and she thereupon conceived twins, Year before Christ 1837 Gen. 25. v. 21.

When the twins strove in the womb, Year of the World 2168. c. Rebeka asked counsell of God; by whom it was an­swered, that the hands of two differing and disagreeing Nations should proceed out of her in that birth, of which the one should be stronger than the other, and that the elder should serve the younger. But at the time of her travel, the first that came forth was ruddy all over, and like to a shag garment, and his name was called Esau; then came forth the other, holding the former by the heele, whereupon he was called by the name of Jacob; and Isaac their father, at the time of their birth, was sixty years old, Gen. 25. v. 22. Hosea, 12. v. 3.

Manetho writes, Year of the World 2179 that Thethmosis King of Thebais, or the uper Egypt, besieged the Hicksos or Shepheards, shut up in a place called Auarim (containing 10000 acres of ground) with an army of foure hundred and fourescore thousand men: but that finding no possibility of taking them, took this end with them, that they should leave Egypt, and go freely whither they would, and that they, with all their substance and goods, being in number no lesse than four hundred and forty thousand, passing through Egypt, went by the way of the wildernesse into Syria, and that for dread they had of the Assyrians, who then possessed all Asia, they built themselves a City in the land of Judaea, as it is now called, bigg enough to receive so vast a multitude of inhabitants, and called it Hierosolyma, i. e. Jerusalem: so saies Manetho in Josephus lib. 1. contra Appionem Grammaticum, which (Appion in his 4. book of Egyptian affaires) calls this king, Amosis, and proves out of the Annals of Ptolomaeus Men­desius an Egyptian Priest, that he was contemporary to Inachus afore-mentioned, King of the Argivi, as Tatian the Assyrian (in his Oration against the Greeks.) Justin Martyr, (in his Pa­raenetion or Exhortatory to the Greeks.) Clemens Alexandrinus in his first book of his Stromata, and others do report; all which following Iosephus and Iustus Tiberiensis understand as meant of the Israelites, because they traded much in sheep, Gen. 46. v. 33, 34. and 47. v. 3. and because they went out of Egypt into Canaan: and therefore conceive that Moses con­temporary with Inachus, was the man that conducted them in that journey; whereas those things seem rather to refer to the Phaenicians, whom Herodotus (in the beginning of his Histo­ry, and in the 89 chapter of his seventh book) reporteth to have come from the red Sea; and seated themselves in Palestine, for that the departure of the Israelites out of Egypt fell out many and many years after Inachus, the course of all Chronologie doth undoubtedly declare.

[Page 8] Thethmosis, Year of the World 2180. c. al. Amosis, The Julian Period 2890 having driven out these shepherds, Year before Christ 1824 reigned in the lower Egypt by the space of twenty five years and four months. [Manetho.]

Abraham, Year of the World 2183. c. when he was 175 years old, The Julian Period 2893 and one hundred years after his coming into Ca­naan, Year before Christ 1821 departed this life, and was buried by his two sons, Isaak and Ishmael, in his cave at Macpelah, with Sarah his wife, [Gen. 25. v. 7, 10.] He lived fifteen years after the birth of Iacob, with whom he is said also to have lived in tents, [Heb. 11. v. 9.]

Heber, Year of the World 2187. d. the fifth from Noah, died 430 years after the birth of his son Peleg, [Gen. 11. v. 17.] This man lived the longest of any that was born after the flood; and out-lived Abraham himself; and from him Abraham came first to be sirnamed the Hebrew, [Gen. 14. v. 13.] and in after times, all the posterity of his Grandchild Iacob, were known by the same name, [Gen. 40. v. 15.] Where note that Canaan, was stiled the land of the Hebrewes, while the Canaanite was yet living in that land.

About this time, Year of the World 2200 the promises formerly made unto Abraham, The Julian Period 2910 were, Year before Christ 1804 as it seemeth, fully performed to his son Isaac, such as were, I will multiply thy seed, as the stars of heaven; And, To thy seed will I give this Land: And, In thy seed, shall all the Nations of the earth be blessed, [Gen. 26. v. 4.]

Ch [...]bron reigned in Egypt 13 years, Year of the World 2205. d. [Manetho.] The Julian Period 2915 The Julian Period 2749

Esau, Year of the World 2208. c. being 40 years old, took two wives, of the land of the Hittites, Iudith the daugh­ter of Beeri, and Basematham the daughter of Elon: which were very troublesome, and bit­terly bent against Rebeka, [Gen. 26. v. 34, 35,] compared with [c. 27. v. 46.] and with [c. 28. v. 8.]

At this time the Ogygian, Deluge befel in the country of Attica 1020 years before the first Olympiade: as is reported out of Hellanicus, Castor, Thalus, Diodorus Siculus, and A­lexander Polyhistor in his third book of his Chronographie, by Iulius Africanus, as we find it in Eusebius his book, de Praep. Evang. which yet Varro his accounts, makes to have been three hundred years before.

Amenophis reigned in Egypt 20 years, Year of the World 2218. d. 7 months. The Julian Period 2928 [Manetho. Year before Christ 1786]

Ishmael, Year of the World 2231. b. Abrahams son, The Julian Period 2941 at the age of 137 years, Year before Christ 1773 died. [Gen. 25. v. 17.]

Am-essis, Year of the World 2239. b. the sister of Amenophis, The Julian Period 2949 reigned in Egypt 21 years, Year before Christ 1765 9 months. [Manetho.]

Euechous began to reigne in Chaldea, Year of the World 2242 two hundred twenty foure years before the Ara­bians, The Julian Period 2952 [Iulius Affricanus: Year before Christ 1762] which seemeth to be the same with Belus of Babilon, or Iupiter Belus, worshiped afterwards by the Chaldeans as a god. [Isa. 46. vers. 1. Ier. 50. vers. 2. and 51. v. 41.]

Isaac now grown old and blind, Year of the World 2245. a. in the 44th year before his death, The Julian Period 2954 sent Esau his elder son, to take some venison for him, Year before Christ 1760 purposing to blesse him at his returne; but Iacob his younger son, by the subtile counsel of his mother, coming disguised in his clothes, and with savourie meat in his hand, stole away the blessing, unwitting to his father; and the blessing, though so got, God confirmed ever after. But Iacob seeing that for so doing, his brother followed him with a deadly hatred, and being desirous to avoid his traps, willing also to take a wife of his own kindred, asking first his fathers blessing, he took his journey into Mesopotamia to his uncle Laban. But in his journey, by the vision of a ladder, God confirmed to him, all the blessings formerly given to his father, and assured him of his grace and favour for the fu­ture, in remembrance whereof, Iacob set up a pillar, and changed the name of the place from Luz, to Bethel, and there made a vow to God. And coming at length to Carran, and conti­nuing a months time with Laban, fell in love with Rachel his daughter, and covenanted to serve him seven years for her, [Gen. 27. v. 1. and 29. v. 20.] with [Hosea 12. v. 12.] now that this fell upon the 77 year of Iacobs age, will appear by that which will be said, upon the year of the World, 2259.

Esau, seeing that Isaak had blessed Iacob, and sent him away into Mesopotamia, thereto take him a wife, and that he liked not the daughers of Canaan, to pacifie his fathers mind, who was offended with him for marrying his first wife out of Canaan, took a second wife Mahalatha, the daughter of Ishmael, the son of Abraham, [Gen. 28. v. 6, 9.]

Esau had been now a married man 37 years, and was 77 years old; whereas Iacob, who was as old as he, had all this while, lived a Batchelor; but being now mindful of his fathers command, he demanded Rachel his wife to be given to him; using this for a rea­son, that his daies were now full, [Gen. 29. v. 21.] that is that he was now of an age ripe for marri­age, as Tremellius expoundeth it: though Tho. Lidyate would rather have it understood of that instant month or period of time compleated, wherein Laban, from the beginning, intended to make proof of Jacobs industry, and sufficiency in the managing of affaires committed to his charge, before he would bestow his daughter on him: which no doubt was mentioned at his first arrival there; seeing it was the only cause of his coming thither.

But by the fraud of Laban, instead of Rachel, Leah the elder daughter was put in bed un­to him: neverthelesse, at the end of the marriage weeke, [Iudges 14. v. 12, 17.] Rachel al­so was espoused to him; upon covenant of serving seven years more for her; and Laban [Page 9] gave unto Leah, his maid-servant Zilpah for a hand maid, and to Rachel he gave Billah, and when Leah was not so gracious in Iacobs eye, as Rachel was: the one by Gods appointment remained barren, the other was made a mother of four children, successively in four years, [Gen. 29. 21, 22, &c.

Of Leah was born unto Iacob, Year of the World 2246 his eldest son Reuben, The Julian Period 2956[Gen. Year before Christ 1758 29. 32.] who for his incest com­mitted with Billah his fathers concubine; lost afterward, his right of the first born, [Gen. 35. 22. and 49. 3, 4. and 1 Chron. 5. 1.]

Simeon was borne. Year of the World 2247 The Julian Period 2957 Year before Christ 1457

Levi was born, Year of the World 2248 v. 34. The Julian Period 2958 Year before Christ 1756

Iudah was born [v. 35.] Year of the World 2249. c. from whom the Jewes took their name. The Julian Period 2959 Year before Christ 1755

Rachel, Year of the World 2259. c. afterward by the blessing of God, proving fruitfull, bare Ioseph unto him, at the end of his fourteen years service, and then asking leave of Laban to returne into his own countrey; he was held there six years more upon another bargain made between him, and his father in law Laban: for a certain part of his flock, [Gen. 30. 22, 25, 31. with 31. v. 41.] now that Iacob was 91 years old when Ioseph was born, and consequently, 77 years old, when he first began to serve Laban, appears by this, for that Iacob being 130 years of age, when he first stood before Pharaoh, which was when the seven years of plenty were passed, and two of the famine spent, [Gen. 45. 6. with 47. 9.] Ioseph was then 39 years old, as being 30 years of age, what time he first came into Pharaohs presence, immediately before the seven years of plenty began, [Gen. 41. 32, 46.]

Mephres reigned in Egypt, Year of the World 2261. a. 12 years, The Julian Period 2971 9 months, Year before Christ 1743 [Manetho.]

Iacob, Year of the World 2265. c. perceiving the heart-burning of Laban, and his sons malice toward him, was war­ned of God to returne into his own country: which having communicated to his wives; while Laban was shearing his sheep, at the latter end of the spring (as will appear anon up­on the 2974th year of the world) after his 20 years service, getting away unknown to Laban, with all his substance, wives, and family, passed over the river Euphrates, [Gen. 31. 1, 3, 19, 21, 38, 41.] But whereas it is said that there were twelve sons born him in Mesopotamia, [Gen. 35. 22, 26.] Benjamine is not to be reckoned among them, who was certainly born af­terward in the land of Canaan, not far from Bethlehem, [16. v. 18, 19.] in like manner, as the twelve Apostles are counted, though to make up that number, Iudas was wanting, Iohn 20. 24. 1 Cor. 15. 1.] of which matter, Augustine more at large, in his 117 Question upon Genesis.

Laban three daies after (for so many daies journey was Laban off from the place where Iacob kept his sheep) hearing that his son in law was gone, took some of his friends and kindred along with him, and pursued after him, seven dayes journey, and at last overtook him in mount Gilead; which took its name, from this their meeting there, for after ma­ny and divers expostulations which passed there between them, making all fair at last, for a testimony and monument of their covenant and agreement there made, Iacob erected a pillar, with a heap of stones: which Laban the Syrian, called Iegar sahadutha: but Iacob the Hebrew called Galaad, (i.e.) the heap of a testimony, or witnesse between them two. Gen. 31. 47, 48.]

Iacob being sent away in peace by Laban, but affrighted with the newes of his brother Esaues approach with a band of men, divided his company, into two bands, calls upon God: sends before him presents to his brother Esau: and as well by a stronge wrestling with the Angel, as by the name of Israel given him by God, growes into a sure trust of the help of God, [Gen. 32. with Hosea 12 3, 4.]

Esau, entertaining his brother courteously; after much entreatie, accepts of his presents, offers himself with his company to conduct him on his way; and when Iacob would not, took his leave of him, and departed: Iacob then went on to Succoth; so then called by him, for there he built him a house, and cotts for his sheep, from whence it was called Suc­coth. Afterward passing over Jordan, he came into Canaan, and pitched his tent in Sa­lem, a city of the Sichemites; in a parcell of ground, which he had bought of the sons of Hamor the Sichemite, for an hundred peeces of silver: and there he built an altar, which he called by the name of El-Elohe-Israel; or of the mighty God, the God of Israel, [Gen. 33.] to wit, in the self same place, where Abraham heretofore had built his first altar: [Gen. 12. 6, 7.] and where Iacobs well was, near unto mount Gersim: of which the woman of Samar [...]a, spea­king to our Saviour said, our Fathers worshiped in this mountain, [Iohn 4. 5, 6, 12, 20.] for that that mountain was placed in the country of the Sichemites, appeareth, [Iudges. 9. 7.]

Mephramu [...]hosis reigned in Egypt 25 years: Year of the World 2273. d. 10 months, The Julian Period 2983 [Manetho. Year before Christ 1731]

Ioseph being 17 years of age, Year of the World 2276. c. told his father of his brethrens unthriftinesse, and was fore­shewed by God that he should one day come to be the best man of all his fathers family; but fell thereby into so deadly a hatred and malice of his brethren, that first they conspired his death: and at length agreed to sell him away for a bond-slave into a far country: so drawing him out of the pit, whereinto they had cast him they sold him to the Ishmaelitish and the Midianitish Marchants (both which nations sprang from their grandfather Abra­ham) [Page 10] for 20 pieces of silver: and was by them carried away into Egypt, and there sold for a slave to Potipher, captain of the Guard to Pharaoh, [Gen. 37. 2, 36.] Justin also, in his E­pitome of Trogus Pompeius; lib. 36. cap. 2. makes mention of Joseph, and that his brethren, en­vying the excellencie of his wit, getting him privily into their hands, sold him away to forreign Mer­chants, and that they carried him into Egypt.

Ioseph, Year of the World 2287. c. upon occasion being cast there into prison, The Julian Period 2997 Year before Christ 1717 interpreted to two Officers of Pha­raoh's Court, to each of them his dream, just two years before he was brought into Phara­oh's presence, [Gen. 40. with 41. 1.]

Isaac died at the age of 180 years, Year of the World 2288. c. and was buried by his two sons, The Julian Period 2998 Esau and Iacob, Year before Christ 1716 [Gen. 35. 28, 29]

Pharaoh, Year of the World 2289. b. when he could not get his dreams, The Julian Period 2999 which he had dream't, Year before Christ 1715 to be expounded by his own wise men; hearing of Iosephs dexterity that way, sent for him; being then 30 years old, who having opened to the King his dreams; first that of the seven years plen­ty, then the seven years famine, added moreover, his advise, how to provide out of the store of the first seven years of plenty, against the famine of the other seven years of scar­city, which were to follow. Whereupon Pharaoh, by the general assent of all his Nobles, made him Governour of the whole Kingdome: giving him to wife Asenah the daugh­ter of Potipher, Governour of the Onii or Heliopolitan in Egypt, [Gen. 41. 1, 46.] Iustin also out of Trogus Pompeius saies, that he was very great with Pharaoh: For, saith he, he was most exquisite in expounding of prodigies or signes, and was the first that found out, and taught the art of the interpretation of dreams: neither was there any part of divine or humane right, which seemed to be unknown to him; insomuch, that he foretold a famine, many years before; wherewith all Egypt had perished, unlesse the King by his advice, had caused corne to be laied up in store many years before it came.

From the harvest of this year, Year of the World C being to be counted 7 years of plenty, wherein Ioseph laied up an infinite treasure of corne, and had born unto him of Asenah his wife, two sons, Ma­nasses and Ephraim, [Gen. 41. 47, 53.]

The seven years of the famine began from the harvest of this year, Year of the World 2296. c. whrein the forecast, The Julian Period 3006 and wisdome of Ioseph, Year before Christ 1708 did not only sustain Egypt, but was a help and relief to sundry o­ther countries likewise, [Gen. 41. 54, 57.]

Iacob dispatched away ten of his sons into Egypt to buy corne; Year of the World 2297. d. whom Ioseph, seeming not The Julian Period 3007 to know them, Year before Christ 1707 caused to be taken for spies, and they being laid in hold, could not be dis­charged, till Simeon, the eldest and chief of them, who consented to sell him, was cast into prison, and left in pawne, that the rest should bring before him Benjamin, their youngest brother, born of Rachel, Josephs own mother: and now being dismissed, they carried a­way their corne, and with it the money, which they had paied for, being conveyed into their several sacks, by the secret appointment of Joseph; they tell their father Jacob, all that had happened to them: and withal, declare unto him, the necessity laied upon them, of carrying their yongest brother Benjamin into Egypt, perswading him by all means to let him go: but all in vain, [Gen. 42.]

Jacob, Year of the World 2298. b. pressed with famine, The Julian Period 3008 sent again his sons, Year before Christ 1706 and with them Benjamin their brother furnished with double mony, and other presents unto Joseph to buy more corne, and they at their returne were courteously entertained, and feasted by him, and Simeon was set at liberty, and restored to them, [Gen. 43.]

And when they were all to go away, Joseph arrested them, for stealing his cup; which he had caused privily to be conveyed into Benjamins sack: which crime they endeavoured to put off by shewing how truly they meant, by bringing again the mony which they found in their sacks, when they came home, offering themselves to die, or to be his bond­slaves, if any such thing could be proved against them: But in the end, the cup being found with Benjamin, and they brought back to Joseph, they all yeilded themselves to him for his bondslaves: which when he refused, saying he would have none but him with whom the cup was found, Judah then humbly offered himself to serve him in Benjamins stead, [Gen. 44.]

Joseph hearing Judah to make this offer, discovered himself to his brethren, and seeing them all amazed at the remembrance of the sin, which they had formerly committed a­gainst him, comforted them, by shewing how that act of theirs was so wrought by the providence of God; and then, out of the Kings store, and by his command, furnished them all with carriages and provision for their journey, to go, and to return with all speed, bring­ing their father, and their own severall families with them: which when they related to their father, he would not believe, untill he saw the coaches, and other things answerable, all fitted for his transportation into Egypt, [Gen. 45.]

Iacob, after sacrifices offered, being strengthened by God, with all his family, in the be­ginning of the third year of the famine, went down into Egypt, being then 130 years old, [Gen. 45. 6. c. 46. 1, 27. c. 47. 9. Deut. 26. 5.]

Ioseph, letting Pharaoh know of the arrival of his kindred in Egypt, brought his father and five of his brethren unto his presence: and having communed with them, assigned them a fitting place in the land of Goshen; where they were provided of all necessaries by Ioseph, [Gen. 47. 1, 12.]

[Page 11] Muthamuthrosis deceasing, Year of the World 2299 d. Thmosis reigned in Egypt 9 years 8 moneths [Manetho. The Julian Period 3009] Year before Christ 1705

Joseph heaped together, Year of the World 2300 all the moneys which were to be found in Egypt and Cana­an, The Julian Period 3010 for the corn which he had sold unto them, The Julian Period 3704 [Gen. 47. v. 14.]

When the money of both these countries was spent; Year of the World 2301 the Egyptians then sold all their flocks and herds of cattel unto Joseph,3011. 170 [...]. for food to live upon that year [Gen. 47. 15, 16, 17.]

At the end of this year, Year of the World 2302 when their money and stock of cattel was all gone, The Julian Period 3012 the Egyp­tians then sold both their lands and liberties unto Joseph: Year before Christ 1702 who thereupon supplied them with corne to feed them, and also with seed, to sow their ground withall, in this seventh and last year of the famine, to receive it again the year following, when the barrennesse of the earth was over; and to the end, that Pharaoh might have a full title and possession of the lands so bought, Joseph removed and transplaced them, every man from one side of the country to the other, and there assigned unto every man land to till and to ma­nure, reserving neverthelesse out of the profits, a fifth part to Pharaohs own use, yearly, by a fundamental law of that kingdom: onely the chief Governours, and the Priests lands, came not into Pharaohs hands, because these living of the kings allowance, had no need to sell their lands for food as others had.

Amenophis reigned in Egypt 30 years 10 moneths, Year of the World 2309 b. [Manetho.] The Julian Period 3019 Year before Christ 1695

Jacob drawing toward his end, Year of the World 2315 adopted Ephraim and Manasses the sons of Joseph, and blessing them, by instinct from God, set the younger before the elder, [Gen. 48. Hebr. 11. 21.] then calling his sons together, blessed them all; foretold what should betide them in their several generations, and uttered to them that memorable prophesie of the Messias: and taking order with them concerning his burial, dyed when he had lived 147 years: whereof he had spent 17 years in the land of Egypt, [Gen. 49. compared with 47. 25.]

The body of Jacob being embalmed by the appointment of Joseph, was kept by the space of 40 dayes: lamentation was made over him by the Egyptians 70 dayes, and with Pharaohs leave, was conveighed into the land of Canaan by Joseph and his brethren, acom­panied with a great traine of the principal men of Pharaohs court; where lamentation was again made over him 7 dayes, and was buried with his kindred in the cave at Mac­pelah, as himself had given order for it, [Gen. 50. 15.—21.]

Orus reigned in Egypt 36 years 5 moneths, Year of the World 2340. b. [Manetho.] The Julian Period 3050 Year before Christ 1664

By faith Joseph on his death-bed spake of the departure of the children of Israel out of Egypt; Year of the World 2369. c. and gave order that his bones might be carried with them, The Julian Period 3079 and then departed this life, Year before Christ 1675 in the 110 years of his age: having seen of his off-spring to the third generation, [Gen. 50. 22.—26. H [...]br. 11. 22.] to wit, Shutelach and Tachan, the sons of his son Ephra­im, and Hadan or Haran, [Num. 26. 36.] the son of Shutelach, and Macir the son of Ma­nasse, and Gilead Manasles his grand child, From whence it is, that the Greek Expositors, speaking of the families of Jacob and Joseph, which were said to consist of 70 souls, [Gen. 46. 27. Deut. 10. 22.] adding thereunto these five which were borne unto Joseph in Egypt, upon [1 Chron. 7.] reckon them in all 75 persons: out of all which appears, that Ioseph held on his rule and government of the state of Egypt, which lasted full 80 years, under several Pharaohs, as Eusebius in his Chronicle, hath rightly observed, and digested in this manner: [...]oseph, saith he, was made Governour of Egypt, in the 30 year of his age; when his fa­ther Jacob was 122 years old: which government he held 80 years, after whose decease the Hebrews were held in bondage by the Egyptians 144 yeers: so the whole time which the Hebrews spent in Egypt, was 215 years: reckoned from the time, that Iacob and his sons went down into Egypt.

The books of Genesis end with the death of Ioseph containing the storie of 2369 years space, which book, that it was written by Moses himself, is the opinion of the Tal­mudists in their Baba-bathra, lib. 1. and so is it generally believed by all the Hebrews. The­sum whereof is delivered by Servius sulpicius, in the first book of his Historia sacra: thus, In this tract of time lived Job: a man embracing the law of nature, and the knowledge of the true God, and all righteousnesse, rich in substance, and the more noted, for that neither the enjoyment of those riches corrupted, nor the loss of them depraved him in his way. For when as, first being spoyled of his goods by Satan, he was also bereft of his children; and at last tormented with grievous boches and sores in his body, he could yet never be drawn, thorough impatience, to sin in any sort: whereof having first received a testimonie from Gods own mouth; he was afterward restored to his former health, and had cast into his bosome double, of what ever he possessed before.

Acenchres the son of Orus reigned in Egypt 12 years 1 moneth: Year of the World 2376. c. [Manetho.] The Julian Period 3086 Year before Christ 1628

Levi died in Egypt, Year of the World 2385 aged 137 years, [Exod. 6. 16.] The Julian Period 3095 being grandfather by the mothers side to Moses and Aaron, Year before Christ 1919 and great grand-father by the Fathers. For when Levi had begotten Kohath in Canaan, who died at the age of 133 years, and a daughter called Iochebad in Egypt, Amram the son of Kohath took to wife Iocebed the daughter of Levi, his own Aunt, and of that marriage (expressely afterward forbidden) [Levit. 18. 12. and 20. 19.] had Moses and Aaron, and their sister Miriam, and having attained to the age of his grand-father, and withall his father in law, which was 137 years, dyed a little before the [Page 12] departure of the Israelites out of the land of Egypt, Exod. 2. 1, 6, 18, 20. Numb. 26. 59.

Rathotis, Year of the World 2388 the son of Acenchres, The Julian Period 3098 reigned in Egypt 9 years: Year before Christ 1616 [Manetho.]

The Ethiopians, Year of the World 2389 coming from as far as from the river Indus, The Julian Period 3099 sate down upon the bor­ders of Egypt. Year before Christ 1615 [Euseb. Chron.] to which that place of the Panegyrist resers, where he saith, Let the victories of Egypt give place to this: under which the Ethiopian and Indus both did tremble, and that Ethiopia, which is to the southward of Egypt, is now called, the greater India, is delivered by J. Potken in his Ethiopian Psalter printed at Rome 1513.

Acenchres, Year before Christ 1397 the son of Rathotis, The Julian Period 3120 reigned in Egypt 12 years 5 moneths: Year before Christ 1594 [Manetho.]

Armais reigned there 4 years 1 moneth: Year of the World 2422. a. [Manetho.] The Julian Period 3132 Year before Christ 1578

Ramesses reigned in Egypt 1 year 4 moneths: Year of the World 2426. c. [Manetho.] The Julian Period 3136 Year before Christ 1582

Ramesses Miamun reigned there 66 years a moneths; Year of the World 2427. d. the latter part of whose sur­name seems to have been deduced from the forepart of the name Amen-op his; by which name both his son after him, and sundry also of his predecessors were called; but the for­mer part of it from the word Moy: which with the Egyptians signifieth water, as Iosephus l. 1. contra, Apion. and Clemens Alexand. l. 1. stromat, and Suidas (in [...]) affirms, whence also those writers, who deliver all by way of Fables, called Mythologians give him the name of Neptune, the feigned God of the waters, as shal be shewed upon the year 2533. This is that new king, which knew not Joseph, as being born after his death, and remembred no more the great benefits received from him. And by his policie it was that the Egyptians, taking a fright at the number and strength of the Israelites in the land, overlaid them with a heavie and cruel bondage, laying upon them, over and above their continuall labour and tillage of the ground, the building also of the Kings magazines and store-houses: and the whole cities of Raamsis, or Ramesis: [Exod. 1. 8. 14. Acts 7. 18, 19.] the later whereof took its name, as Mercator thinketh, from Ramesses the founder of it, and the other perhaps from his Queen.

Aaron was borne 3 years before his brother Moses; Year of the World 2430. b. eighty three years, The Julian Period 3140 before the de­parture of the Israelites out of Egypt, Year before Christ 1574 [Exod. 7. 7.]

The ungodly king, Year of the World 2431 when he could not prevaile with Shiphra and Pua two principal midwives of the Hebrew women, The Julian Period 3141 privily to make away the male children of them, Year before Christ 1573 set forth a barbarous edict, to destroy them all, by drowning them in the river, [Exod. 1. 15.—22. Acts 7. 19, 20. in the time which interceded between the birth of Aaron and Moses.

Jocebed, Year of the World 2433 41 years after the death of her Father Levi, The Julian Period 3143 Year before Christ 1571 bare Moses to Amram, her nephew and husband, for Moses was 80 year old, when he first spake unto Pharaoh, to let the children of Israel go, [Exod. 7. 7.] and the 40 year, after that he dyed, in the 12 moneth, being then 120 years of age, [Deut. 31. 2. and 34. 7.

Now for as much as Moses, (God so disposing) was a lovelie childe to look on, as Justin also out of Trogus Pompeius, mentions him to have been, his parents, hid him 3 moneths in their house, and did not regard the kings edict, [Exod. 2. 2. Acts 7. 20. Heb. 11. 23.]

But when as, by the over diligent inquiry made by the kings searchers, and their bad neighbours the Egyptians, he was at length found out, they put him in a basket of bull­rushes, daubed over with slime and brimstone, and layed it in the flags, by the brim of the river, his sister, Miriam, or Mary, [Numb. 26. 59, 1 Chron. 6. 3.] standing a loof of from the place, to see what would become of him. But Pharaohs daughter (whom Josephus 2. Antiq. c. 5. al. 9. calleth Thermutin, and so doth Epiphanius, in Panario, and others) finding him there, put him forth to be nursed, as it fell out, to his own mother Jocebed; and af­terward adopted him for her son, and [...]caused him to be brought up, and instructed him in all manner of science and learning of the Egyptians, [Exod. 2. 5. 10. with Acts 7. 21, 22.]

Cecrops, Year of the World 2448 an Egyptian, The Julian Period 3158 transporting a colonie of the Saits into Attica, Year before Christ 1556 as we learn out of Diodorus Siculus. lib. 1. set up there the kingdom of the Athenians, 780 years before the 1. Olympiad, as Eusebius in Chron. reporteth out of Castor, from this Cecrops his time, the Cronologie of the Ile of Paros, published by that most learned J. Selden, among his Mar­mora Arundelliana, deduceth his Historie or Antiquities of Greece, for that after him & Moses, who was contemporarie with him, so many memorable things fel out in Greece; as Deucalions flood, Phaetous fire, the birth of Ericthonius, the rape of Proserpina, the mysteries of Ceres, the insti­tution of the Elesinian sacrifices, Triptolemus his art of tilling the ground, the carrying away of Eu­ropa by Jupiter, the birth of Apollo, the building of Thebes, by Cadmus, and those of somewhat a later time, Bacchus, Minos, Perseus, Esculapius, Castor & Pollux, Hercules. Euseb. l. 10. de Praep. Ev. c. 9.

In the 18 year of this Cecrops, Year of the World 2465 the Chaldeans made war, The Julian Period 3175 and fought with the Phenici­ans, The Julian Period 3539 [Euseb. Chron.]

In this war, Year of the World 2466 the Chaldeans being overthrown, The Julian Period 3176 the Arabians reigned in the country of Ba­bylon 216 years beforee Beius the Assyrian came there to reign. Year before Christ 1538 The 1 K. of the Arabians was Mardocentes, who reigned there 45 years, Jul. Affric. and seemeth to be the man that is called Merodach: who was afterward reputed by the Babylonians for a god, [Ier. 50. 2.] from whom the succeding kings borrowed their names; as Merodoch, Baladan, and Evil-merodach.

Moses being now 40 years of age, Year of the World 2413 and going to visit his brethren, the Israelites, and be­holding their sad condition, when the saw an Egyptian, smiting a man of the Hebrews, slue him. and buried him in the sand; which when he saw was known, not onely to his brethren [Page 13] but also to Pharaoh; who thereupon sought to have his life, he fled from thence into the land of Madian, where taking to wife Zipporah the daughter of Jethro, he there spent other 40 years of his life, [Acts. 7. 23, 30. Ex. 2. 11, 22. c. 3. 1. c. 18. 1, 2. Num. 10. 29. Jude 4. 11.]

Caleb the son of Jephunna was borne forty years before he was sent by Moses to spie out the land of Canaan, Year of the World 2474 [Jos. 14. 7, 10.] The Julian Period 3184 Year before Christ 1530

Ramesses Miamun died in the 67 year of his reigne; Year of the World 2494 the length of of his tyranical reign seemeth to be noted, The Julian Period 3203 [Exod. Year before Christ 1491 2. 23.] in these words: After many years died the K. of Egypt; and the children of Israel groaned and cried out for the burthen which they under-went, to wit, the cruel bondage, which continued upon them, even after Ramesses was dead, by the space of 19 years and a half, under his son Amenophis, who succeeded him; for so long and no longer a time of his reign is assigned by Manetho: out of whose whole narration, though stuffed with a multitude of old wives tales, all which are abundantly refuted by Josephus, in his 1 book against Apion: yet there are 2 historical verities clearly appearing in him: 1. that under this Amenophis, the father of Sethosis, al. Ramesses (the 1 K. of the following Dynastie, or successive principality) which Manetho makes the 19, and not under the other Amenophis which was the 3 of that Dynastie (as Josephus vainly surmises) the Israelites, under the con­duct of Moses, according to Manethoes relation, departed out of Egypt. 2. That he whom the Egyptians call Amenophis the father of Sethosis and Armais, him the Greeks call Be­lus, the father of Egyptus, and Danaus. For the time of this Belus, by Thallus the Chrono­grapher (as he is alleaged by Theophilus Antiochenus and Lactantius) falls in jump with the age of this Amenophis; though the fable writers confounding this Belus of Egypt, with Belus the Assyrian, the father of Ninus, tell us, that certain Colonies were transported by this Belus (who was drowned in the Red-sea,) into the country of Babylon.

God appeared to Moses, Year of the World 2513 whiles he was keeping his father in law Jethroes sheep in the mountain of Horeb, The Julian Period 3323 in a bramble-bush, Year before Christ 1491 burning, but never consumed with fire, and called him to deliver his people Israel, out of their slavery and bondage in Egypt. And he though he sought by divers excuses to avoid this imploiment, yet at length, partly by miracles, part­ly by assurance given him of the assistance of God, and his brother Aaron given him for an assistant, he undertook the work, [Acts 7. 30, 35. Exod. 3. & 4. 1, 18.]

Moses, taking leave of Jether or Jethro his Father in law, with his family; took his jour­ney for Egypt: but in the way, for neglecting to circumcise his son Eliezer, he was stopt by God, and not suffered to passe, till he had circumcised his son, and from thence sending back his wife Zippo [...]ah, and his two sons, Gershom and Eliezer, to her father Jethro, and freed from all encombrance, he returned to mount Horeb, where meeting with his brother Aaron, he went on and performed his embassie, confirmed by miracles, in the open sight of the children of Israel, [Exod. 4. 18, 31. & 18. 1, 6.]

Moses and Aaron, having declared to Pharaoh, the message in which they were sent un­to him from God, are charged by him as heads of a mutiny, and sent away with many bad words, and more grievous labours were forthwith laid upon the Israelites, than their daily task formerly came unto: and when their overscers were beaten, because all was not done that was commanded, and they complained thereof (though all in vain) to Pharaoh, they expostulated the matter with Moses and Aaron, and Moses with God: who graciously heard him, and confirmed him to go on in the work he had begun, [Ex. 5.]

Moses returned to the Israelites, with further instructions from God; but their oppression still encreasing, could do no good with them: and thereupon being commanded by God to go again to Pharaoh, he excused himself, [Exod. 6.]

Moses being now 80, and Aaron 83 years of age, urged thereunto by God, returned a­gain to Pharaoh, where the Magicians by their sorcery, imitating the miracles of Aarons rod, turned into a serpent, made Pharaoh more obstinate than he was before. [Ex. 7. 1, 13.] The chief of these magicians which opposed Moses, were Jannes and Jambres, al. Mam­bres, named by the Apostle, [2 Tim. 3. 8.] whose names are celebrated, not only by the Jewes in their Talmudical Treaty of [...] (i.e.) of oblations, c. 9. where they are called by the names of [...] and [...] (i.e.) Jochanne, and Mamre, and in the Chaldee Paraphrase, at­tributed to Jonathan upon, [Ex. 1. 15. & 7. 11.] but also among some heathen writers, for so Numenius Apamaeus, a Pythagorean Philosopher, in his 3 book, [...], cited by Euseb. l. 9. Praepar. Evang. c. 8. relates this history: Jannes and Jambres, saith he, interpreters of the mysteries of Egypt, were in great repute, what time the Jewes were sent out of Egypt, being in the opinion of all men, inferiour to none in the Art of Magick. For by the general voice of the Egypti­ans, they two were chosen to oppose Moses, ring-leader of the Iewes, whose praiers were of all others, most prevalent with God, and they only were able to undoe, and frustrate all those most grievous ca­lamities, which Moses brought upon the Egyptians, in the open view and sight of all the Egyptians: whereto also that of Pliny, l. 30. c. 1. is to be referred, where he saith, There is also another sect of Magicians, depending Upon Moses, and Iannes and Iotape Iewes. Wherein neverthelesse he falls into a double error, 1. In reckoning Moses among the magicians. And 2. in making Jan­nes and Jotape to be Jewes. But when Pharaoh's magicians, could do no more, God by the hand of Moses la [...]ed his ten plagues upon the Egyptians, all which are recounted [Psal. 78. & 105.] The which plagues, took up, as the Jewes saw, a whole years space, at several intervals of time; whereas indeed they were all sent within one month in this order.

[Page 14] About the 18 day of the 6 month, (which in the year following and after, was reckoned the 12 month) was sent the first plague, of the waters turned into blood: and after 7 daies ended, [Ex. 7. 25.] about the 25 day, came the 2 plague of the frogs; which was removed the day following: About the 27 was brought upon them the third plague, of flies and lice.

About the 28 day, Moses threatned them with a fourth plague, of flies, and other vermin which came upon the 29 day, and were all taken away upon the 30:

About the 1 of the 7 month (which shortly after was made the 1 month of the year) Moses having foretold them of a fifth plague to come, brought it upon them, the day fol­lowing, to wit, the plague and murrain of cattel. About the 3 day, the 6 plague, of boiles & boches, which brake out upon man & beast: of which plague the Magicians tasted, & had their share, no lesse than the rest of the Egyptians, [Ex. 9. 11.] whence proceeded that of Justin, out of Trogus Pompeius, lib. 36. The Egyptians, saith he, being afflicted with the scab, and sourf, and being warned by an Oracle, they turned Moses, and all that were infected with that disease, out of Egypt-least the contagion thereof, should spread further among he people. Adde here­unto, the sayings collected out of Diodorus Sicul. l. 40. reported in Ph [...]t [...] Bibliotheca. p. 620.

About the fourth day, Moses foretelling them of a 7 plague, brought it on them upon the 5 day of the same month, which was of thunders and rain, and grievous haile, mixt with fire; with which their flax and batly was smitten, because the barly was then in the ear, and the flax boled, but their wheat and the rie were not hurt therewith, because they were not yet out of the ground, whence Nicolaus Fullerus, lib. 3. of his Miscellanies rightly obser­veth, p. 389. that this plague happened in the month Abib.

About the seventh day Moses threatned them with an eighth plague, and accordingly sent in the day following, [...]at was, of Locusts, to devoure all; which plague he removed about the 9 day, [Exod. 10. 4, 1 [...], 19.]

The month Abib, wh [...] hitherto was the 7 month, was from this time forward, made the 1 month of the whole year, [Ex. 12. 2. with 13. 4.] for a memorial of their departure out of the land of Egypt▪ from the beginning of which month the epocha of the Jewish Ca­lendar, is from thence forward deduced, [Num. 9. 1, 2. with Ex. 40. 17.] though the end of the former account, [...]ell on the middle of the month.

Upon the 10 day of this now first day of the month, (which was the 30 of April, according to the Julian Calendar, upon Thursday) was instituted the feast of the Passover, and sweet bread, to wit, the Pascal lamb, was c [...]osen, and kill'd the fourth day after, [Ex. 32. [...].]

Moses now bringeth upon them the 9 plague, of 3 dayes darknesse, which were such, that none of the Egyptians during that time, once removed out of the place where the dark­nesse found him: though the Israelites had all that time, light abundantly in their dwellings [Ex. 10. 22, 23.]

Upon the 14 days (which was May 4. upon munday with us.) which was the last time that he spake with Pharaoh, Moses foretold him of the 10 plague, which should come upon him; namely, the destruction of all the first-born of Egypt, which came to passe the night follow­ing, at midnight, and then turning him about in a great anger departed from him, [Ex. 10. 24, 29. c. 11. 1, 4, 8.] At the evening of this day was the Passover celebrated, [Exod. 12. 11, 12.]

The fourth Age of the World.

UPon the 15 days of the 1 month (our 5 of May, being tuesday) at midnight, the first-born of Egypt being all slain, Pharaoh and his servants, made hast to send away the Israelites, with all their substance, & the spoiles which they had gotten from the Egyptians: and they the self same day, wherein they were let go out of bondage, being the compleat terme of 430 years, from the first pilgrimage of their ancestors; reckoning from Abrahams departure out of Carran, the day after the Passeover, took their journey, & marched away, being 600000 men, besides children, and came to Ramesses, [Ex. 12. 29, 30, 31, 37, 41, 51. Num. 33. 3.] From hence their several encampings are set down by Mo­ses: which out of the Hebrew signification of words, Jerom expoundeth mistically, in his Treatise of their 42 encampings, written to Fabiola, from whom I have thought good to make the first encamping at Ramesses. Thus then:

1. At Ramesses, where the Israelites were placed by Ioseph, [Gen. 47. 11.] they all met who either dwelt mixt among the Egyptians [Exod. 3. 2.] or who at that time were scatter­ed over all Egypt to gather stubble, [Exod. 5. 12.]

2. Was succoth, where Moses first declared to them the Commandments of God, for the yearly keeping of Easter, and the hallowing of the first-born to him; Ex. 13.]

3. Was Etham, in the border of the wildernesse; whither they came, the Lord condu­cting them in a pillar of a cloud by day, and in a pillar of fire by night, Exod 13. 20, 21.]

4. Was Pihairoth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baalzephon.

Here Pharaoh with his host overtook them, here Moses divided the waters with his rod, and they passed through the midst of the Erythraean, or red Sea, unto the desert of E­tham, whom, when Pharaoh & his army would needs follow, they were all overwhelmed [Page 15] of the waters coming together again, at the dawning of the day, where by the Israelites were wholy quit and freed from the bondage of the Egyptians, whose carcasses when they saw floating all the sea over, and cast upon the shore, [Exod. 14. 13.] they forthwith sang a song of praise and thanksgiving unto God, for their deliverance, [Exod. 5. 20.] Which in the [Apocalyps, 15. 3.] is called the Song of Moses: and is of all others, any where to be found or mentioned, the first of that kind.

Now that this fell out, upon the 21 day of the first month, to wit, upon the last day of the feast of sweet bread (whereon a solemne assembly by Gods appointment was to be held) is the general opinion of the Iewes, and most agreeable to truth.

From hence they marched three whole daies through the wildernesse of Etham, to wit, the 22, 23, 24. dayes of this month, being Tuesday, Wedensday and Thursday of our weeke, but found no water all the way, [Ex. 15. 22. Numb. 33. 8.]

5. Was at March; so called from the bitternesse of the waters there found; where­upon the people which had gone without water three whole daies, beginning to murmure, Moses, by the throwing a piece of wood into them, made them sweet, and withal taught the people, in time to come, to put their trust in God, [Ex. 15. 23. 26.]

6. Was at Elim; where were 12 fountains of water, and 70 palme trees: and at Elim, they encamped by the side of those fountains, [Ex. 15. 27. Numb. 33. 9.]

7. Was by the Red Sea, [Numb. 33. 10.]

And now we come to the Second month.

8. Upon the 15 whereof, (our June 4. being thursday) the Israelites came to the place of their 8 encamping: in the wildernesse of Sin, which lieth between Elyma and Sinai, where, when for want of food, they had murmured against God, and their leaders, about the evening-tide, God sent them Quailes, and the next morning, rained upon them Man­na from heaven; and of that kind of bread, they lived afterward, by the space of 40 years, and even untill they came to the borders of the Land of Promise, [Ex. 16. 1, 35.]

9. Was at Dophka.

10. Was at Alush.

11. Was at Rephid [...]m; where when the people murmured again for want of water, (from whence the place was afterwrds called Meriba and Massa Moses gave them wa­ter, by striking the hard rock with his rod, [Exod. 17. 1, 7.] which rock followed them also throughout the wildernesse, [Psalm 78. 16, 20. Psalm 105. 41. 1 Cor. 10. 4. Deut. 9. v. 21.]

The Amalekites, falling upon the reare of the Israelites, all spent and tired with their long journey in the wildernesse as they were, slew some of the hindermost and feeblest of them, against whom Moses sent out Jehosua, al. Josua the son of Nun his servant, to fight with them, [Ex. 33. 11.] whose proper name, which was Hosea, Moses changed into Ie­hosuah, [Num. 13. 16.] or Iesus, [Nehem. 8. 17. Acts 7. 45. and Heb. 4. 8.]

He therefore fighting with the Amalekites in Rephidim, whiles Moses was in prayer on the top of the hill, overthrow them: and the people by Gods Commandement were charged utterly to destroy and root out that whole nation: and for a memorial thereof, they there built an Altar, [Deut. 25. 17, 18, 19. Exod. 17. 8, 16.]

The Third month.

12. Encamping was in the Desert of Sinai: where the Israelites encamped over against Horeb: from whence they removed not by the space of almost a whole year; for they re­moved from the wildernesse of Sinai, upon the 2 day of 2 month, of 2 year, after their co­ming out of the land of Egypt, [Numb. 10. 11, 12.] and they came thither upon the same day of the 3 month, of the 1 year, after their coming out of Egypt: to wit, the same day, or num­ber with 3 month, (i.e.) upon the third day of the third month, as Fr. Ribera, lib. 5. de Templo, at large declareth; and that falls in, with 22 of our Iune, happening upon a Mon­day.

When Moses went up into the mount, God there declared to him, that he would re­new his covenant with the Israelites; That he would bind them to himself by a law; and that he would favour and love all those, would observe and keep that law: which when they readily agreed unto, he gave them two daies space to prepare themselves for the reverned receiving of that Law. He forbade all save Moses and Aaron, to approach the mount: and afterward, in great majesty (they all looking on and trembling at the sight) God came down upon the Mount, (Ex. 19.)

God published his law, contained in the ten commandements, with a terrible voice, [Ex. 20. Deut. 5.] which neverthelesse disannulled not the promise of Grace, made unto Abraham 430 years before. [Gal. 3. 17.]

The people being in this great fear, God gave them sundry other Lawes, [Ex. 20. 21, 22, 23. with Deut. 4. 13, 14.] all which being written in the book of the Covenant, Moses pro­posed to the people: which done, rising early in the morning, he built an Altar at the foot of the mountain, and set up 12 statues, according to the 12 tribes of Israel, and sent 12 young men of the first-born (as the Chaldee paraphrase hath it) whom the Lord had con­secrated to himself, [Exod. 13. 2. Numb. 3. 13. and 8. 16, 17.] as ministers of those holy things, [Exod. 19. 22.] before the Levitical Priesthood was ordained; which offered sacrifices, first [Page 16] for sin, and then of thanksgiving to the Lord; and when Moses had read the book of the Covenant, containing the Commandments expressed in the [20 c. of Exod.] with the three chapters following, in the years of the people, then taking the blood of the calves and goats so offered, with water, and scarlet wool, and hissop, he sprinkled the book therewith, and all the people, or those 12 statuaes representing the 12 Tribes of Israel: and so perfe­cted that solemne covenant between God and his people, [Exodus 24. 2. with Hebr. 9. 19, 20.]

Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and 70 men of the Elders of Israel, went up into the mount, and there beheld the glory of God: and the rest returning, Moses with his ser­vant Joshua, abode there still, and waited six daies, and upon the seventh day, God spake unto him, and there he continued 40 daies, and 40 nights, [Exod. 24. 9, 18.] (reckoning those six daies which he waited for the appearance of the Lord) eating no meat all that while, nor drinking water, [Deut. 9. 9.] where he also received Gods command, touching the frame of the Tabernacle, the Priests garments, their consecration, sacrifices, and other things comprised in [Exod. 25▪] and in the six chapters following.

The Fourth month.

When those 40 daies and 40 nights were ended, God gave Moses the two Tables of the Law in stone, made by Gods own hand, and written with his own finger, [Exod. 31. 18. Deut. 9. 10, 11.] bidding him with all, quickly to get him down, for that the people, had al­ready made to themselves a molten calf, to worship it: Moses by prayer pacified God, and went down from the mount, and seeing the people keeping a festival in honour of their Idol, in the Camp, he brake the Tables of the Law, at the foot of the mount: for which the Jewes keep a solemn fast unto this day, the 14 day of the 4 month: which hath led some men into this errour, to think that the 40 daies of Moses his staying in the mount, are to be counted from the day imediate [...]y following the promulgation of the ten Commandments, omitting altogether the intermediate time, spent in writing, and reading the book of the Covenant, and composing the Covenant so made between God and his people, with so­lemn Rites and Ceremonies thereunto belonging. [Exod. 24.]

Moses, having burnt and defaced the Idol, put 3000 of the people to death, by the hands of the Levites, [Exod. 32. 20, 29. Deut. 9. 21. & 33. 9.]

The next day Moses returned again into the mount; and there again entreated the Lord for the people, [Ex. 32. 30, 31, 32]

He commanded them to lay aside their gorgeous a parrel, and to set up the Tent of the Congregation (which for that present supplied the room of the Tabernacle afterwards built by Bezaleel) without the Camp; and having drawn the people out of a deep sense of Gods wrath, to repent them of their sin, by his prayer obtained, that no longer the Angel, but God himself, should be their guide and leader in their way, [Exod. 32.]

God commanded Moses to frame new tables of stone, and the next day, to bring them with him into the mount: coming with them the next morning, and standing in the cleft of a rock, God passing by, shewed him a glimpse of his glory, [Ex. 34.]

Moses staying again 40 daies and 40 nights in the mount, without meat or drink, prai­ed there for the people, [Deut. 9. 18. & 10. 10.] God being appeased, renewes his Cove­nant with the people, upon certain conditions, gives his Lawes anew, and bids Moses to commit them to writing: and he himself again, writes the ten Commandments in the ta­bles which Moses brought unto him, [Ex. 34. 10, 28.]

The Sixth month.

Moses after 40 daies returnes from the mount, with the tables in his hand; and covering his face with a vaile, because it shone, he published the Laws of God to the people, enjoyned the observation of the Sabbath; and commanded a free-will offering to be made toward the building of the Tabernacle according to Gods order, [Ex. 34. & 35.]

And to the end that this offering and contribution should the more orderly and effectu­ally proceed, all were numbred from twentie years old and upward, and they were found to be six hundred and three thousand, five hundred and fifty, every of which, according to the Law prescribed by God, [Exod. 30. 12, 13.] contributing half a shekel, the total summe amounted to one hundred talents of silver, and 1775 shekles, [c. 38. 25, 26.] whence it is gathered, that every talent among the Jewes, amounted to 3000 shekles: or 50 pounds sterling: every pound containing 60 shekles, [Ezek. 45. 12.] over and above which pole­money, out of the voluntary offerings, was made up the sum of 29 talents of gold, and 730 shekles; and of brasse, 70 talents, and 2400 shekles, [Exod. 38. 24, 29.] As for other mate­rials requisite to this building of the Tabernacle, there came in more than enough: inso­much that the people were commanded to bring in no more, [Ex. 36. 5, 6, 7.]

Bezaleel and Aholiab were appointed by God for the chief workmen herein, [Exod. 31. 2, 6. and 35. 30, 35.

In the first six months of this year, Year of the World 2514 a. were the Tabernacle, The Julian Period 3224 Year before Christ 1490 the Arke of the Covenant, the Altar, the Table of shew bread, the Priests garments, the holy Oyntments, the Candle­stick, and other utensils, and vessels belonging to the sacrifices, finished in the desert at mount Sinai, and were brought unto Moses; [Exodus 36. with the three chapters follow­ing.]

[Page 17] Then was Moses commanded by God, first that upon the first day of the second moneth he should set up the Tabernacle and furnish it with all things belonging thereunto, [Exod. 4. 2, 8.] Secondly, that he should anoint them with holy oyl; and should consecrate A­aro [...] and his sons for the Priesthood, [Exod. 9. 15.] which he also is said to have done; but not both of them at the same time: For upon the very day appointed, he erected the Tabernacle, with all things thereunto belonging, [Exod. 40. 17, 33.] but the other part of the command he performed a while after, and at another time, prefixed by God; [Levit. 8. 1, 13.] for performance whereof; one day sufficed not, namely, for the con­secration of the Priests and Altar both; but fuil seven dayes were spent therein, [Exod. 29. 35, 36, 37.]

On the first day of the first moneth (answering to our 21▪ of April, Year of the World c. being wedensday) of the second year after their departure out of Egypt, the Tabernacle of the Covenant wa [...] set up, and filled with the glory of God, [Exod. 40. 2, 17, 34.] out of which God, at several times, uttered his will and commandments to Moses; which are comprised in the 7 first chapters of Leviticus. In the same 2 year, and first moneth, the Israelites, forewarned by God, celebrated the Passeover at the evening of the fourteenth day, (which with us is 4. May, being tuesday:) Upon which day, some of the people complaining to Moses and Aaron that they could not keep the Passeover with the rest of their brethren, upon the day appointed, because they were become unclean by touching a dead body; a law was made by God that all such persons should keep their Passeover upon the 14. day of the se­cond moneth, because they could not keep it upon the day first appointed [Numb. 9. 1, 14.]

On the first day of the second mont [...] (21. of May, Friday by the [...]ulian Calender) God com­manded Mos [...]s to take the number of all the males of the children of Israel; except the Levites, from 20 years old to 60 by their Tribes: and to appoint the Levites for the ser­vice of the Tabernacle, and to give their attendance, for the setting of it up, for the taking of it down, and removing and carrying it from place to place, as occasion should require, [Numb. 1. 1. c. 26. 64.]

The number of them came to 603550▪ [Numb. 10. 1, 46.] being just the same num­ber which was taken 7 moneths before, when they were [...]ested for a contribution to the building of the Tabernacle, [Exod. 38. 26.]

Moses, according to Gods command, Exod. 29. 37. c. 30. 22, 30. & 40. 9, 15.] anoin­ted the Tabernacle and the Altar, with all things thereunto belonging, with the holy oyl, and consecrated them to the Lord. He consecrated also Aaron, and his four sons, with the same oyl, and with [...]ites and ceremonies prescribed for the execution of the Priestly Office; commanding them not to depart from the door of the Tabernacle in seven days space, [Levit. 8.] for so many dayes the work of the consecration of them, and of the Altar was in doing, [Exod. 29. 35, 36, 37. Levit. 8. 33.]

Then was set down and commanded the order of the Tribes in their march and en­camp [...]ngs, [Numb. 2.]

The number of Levite [...] from one moneth old and upward, was found to be 22300. [Numb. 3. 15, 35.] or, taking out thence their first born, to 2200. onely: all which were assumed to the service of God, in lieu of the first born, of all the rest of the children of Israel. And because the number of the first-born of the children of Israel, exceeded the whole number of the Levites, (their first-born deducted) to the number of 273. therefore was there lai [...] upon them for every of those supernumerary heads five shekels, by way of redemption, [Numb. 3. 39, 50.]

The Levite [...] thus set apart, were, with all due solemnity, consecrated to God, and for his service; every man having his certain time appointed, when he should begin, and when he should end his attendance upon his ministration, [Numb. 8. 5, 26.]

The Levites from 30 years old to 50. were found to be 8580. and their offices and ser­vices were parted among them, according to their families, [Numb. 4.]

All [...]eprous and unclean persons were put out of the Camp. The lawes for restoring of damages, and of jealousie were ordained, [Numb. 5.]

The vow, the consecration, and manner of the Nazarites was instituted, [Numb. 6.]

Upon the 8 day next following the finishing of the consecration, Aaron offered sacri­fices and oblations; first for himself, and then for all the people: all which being kind­led and consumed by fire, falling from heaven upon them, bred a full belief in the people, that the Priestly office among them was ordained by God himself, [Levit. 9.]

When all the Tabernacle was now fully set up, and anointed all over, together with the utensils, and things thereunto belonging; and the Altar which had been 7 dayes in consecrating, was now dedicated by Aaron his first oblation of sacrifices made upon it; (for the seven former dayes were for expiation, or cleansing, and ordained for the hal­lowing of it, Exod. 29. 36, 37.)

Then came the Heads of the Tribes which were numbred, and they brought six wag­gons covered over, and twelve oxen, and joyntly offered them before the Tabernacle: all which were consigned into the hands of the Levites, the sons of Geshon and Merari; as belonging to their office, and afterward others every day brought their several sacri­fices, and things belonging to the ministry of the Tabernacle, and offered them towards [Page 18] the dedication of it, wherein twelve dayes were wholly spent, [Numb. 7. 1, 10, 11. and 84. 88.]

Wherefore upon this first day, Naasson, from whom David, and according to the flesh, our Lord and Saviour Iesus Christ himself came; made his offering for the Tribe of Juda: and then the rest, every one for his Tribe, and in that order as they were ranked in their encampings. [Numb. 7. 11, 12, 83.]

Nadab and Abihu, the two eldest sons of Aaron (which going with their father up into the Mount Sinai, had there seen the glory of God, Exod. 24. 1, 9, 10.) going into the Sanctuary, with strange or common fire (not with that fire which fell from heaven, Lev. 9. 24. and which was perpetually to be kept alive, and continued for the burning of the sacrifices and incense in times to come) were struck dead in the place by fire sent from heaven, [Levit, 10. 1, 9. Numb. 3. 2, 3, 4, 26, 60, 61.] And for them the Priests were forbid to make lamentation: Moreover for some particular mens neglect of duty, all the Priests were charged to forbear wine and strong drink, before they were to go into the Tabernacle. A law also was made, that what was left of the sacrifices should be eaten by the Priests: and Aarons excuse therein was admitted by Moses, [Levit. 10. verse 6, 20.]

Upon that occasion was the Law made (about the tenth day, as it seemeth, of this moneth) that the high Priest alone; and he but once in every year, should enter into the Sanctuary; and that to be upon the day of expiation and general fast, which was to be kept upon the 10 day of the seventh moneth, [Levit. 16. 1, 34.]

On the 14 of this moneth, (June 3, Thursday) at Even, the Passover was to be celebra­ted by those, who that day moneth before were in their uncleannesse, [Numb. 9.]

The blasphemous person, by Gods command was carried out of the Camp, and sto­ned, [Levit, 24. 10, 11, 12, 13.]

All the laws contained in the seventeen last chapters of Levit. seeme to have been made in this moneth.

God commanded two silver trumpets to be made, by which the Congregation was to be called together; and the time of their removing, and marching, and sacrificing, sig­nified to the people, [Numb. 10. 1, 28.]

Jethro, who was also called Hobab, brought his daughter Zipporah, with her two sons, Gershon and Eliezer, which were left with him, to his son in law Moses, and he de­delivered them to him: and having congratulated his, and the whole people of Israels deliverance out of that Egyptian bondage; he openly declared, both by word and deed, his faith and devotion toward the true God. And by his advise, Moses imparted the go­vernment of the people to some others, and ordained Magistrates for the deciding of les­ser causes, [Exod. 18. with Deut. 50. 9, 18. and Numb. 10. 29.]

The 19 day of this moneth, seemeth to have been the last that the 1 [...] Heads of the Tribes made their oblations in, for the dedication of the Altar; on which Ah [...]ra made his offering for the Tribe of Nephthalie, [Numb. 7. 78, 88.]

On the 20 day of the second moneth (being the ninth of our June, falling on a Wensday) God commanded the Israelites to remove their camp, and to go forward in their journey, to take possession of the land which he had promised to give them, [Numb. 10. 11. 12. Deut. 1. 6, 7.] whither Moses would have had Jethro to have gone along with him: But he refused, and thence returned to his own home, [Numb. 9. 29, 30. with Exod. 18. 27.]

The cloud, which covered the Tabernacle being lifted up, they cast themselves into four squadrons, or battalions, and marched from Sinai; where they had stuck, by the space almost of one whole year; and after 3 dayes continual journey, came to the wil­dernesse of Paran, [Numb. 10. 12, 33.] where they rested them 23 dayes, without removing.

13. Their 13 remove, was to Kibroth Hattaavah, [Numb. 33. 16.] where they that mur­mured were struck with fire from heaven, (whence that place, was called Taber) but were delivered at the intercession of Moses; yet fell again to murmuring, and provoked God, by their loathing of Manna, and desiring of flesh, [Numb. 11. 1, 10. Psalm 78. 19, 20, 21.]

Moses complained to God of the over-great burden of this government which lay upon him; and desired to be discharged of it: but God to ease him of the charge, gave him for assistants, the Court of the 70 Elders; of which number, Eldad and Medad, remain­ing in the Camp, prophesied, [Numb. 11. 10, 17, 24, 30.]

God gave the people Quailes: not as in the year before, for one day, [Exod. 16. 12. 13.] but for the whole moneth together: but sent withal a most grievous plague among them. Whereupon, and from the burying place, or graves of them that lusted, that place was called, Kibroth-Hattaavah, [Numb. 11. 31, 34. Psal. 78. 26, 31. and Psal. 106. 15.]

14 The fourteenth remove, was to Hazaroth, [Numb. 11. 35. & 33. 17.]

M [...]iam and Aaron spake evil of Moses their brother; because he had married a wo­man of Ethiopia; to wit, Zipporah of Madian, which was a part of the Eastern Ethio­pia, otherwise called Arabia: and made themselves equal in all points with him: But God [Page 19] maintained Moses above them, and struck Miriam with a leprosie: whereupon she was removed out of the Camp: But at the prayer of Moses, after seven dayes, she was healed, [Numb. 12. 15. Deut. 24. 9.]

Miriam, Year of the World d. being cleansed, upon some day of the 4 moneth; as may be gathered out of what is said before, returned into the Camp: and upon her return, the Israelites remo­ved: and,

15. Upon their 15 remove, they pitched in Rithma, in the desert of Paran, [Numb. 12. 6, 33, 18.] near unto Kadesh-Barnea, [Numb. 13. 26.]

On the fifth moneth.

From the Wildernesse of Paran, [Numb. 13. 3.] or Kadesh Barnea, [Numb, 32. 8. Deuter. 1. 19, 22. & 9. 23. Iosh. 14. 7.] the people desiring it, and Moses likeing well there­of, [Deut. [...]. 2 [...], 23. But above all, God commanding it, [Numb. 13. 1, 2.] at the time when grapes first grew ripe; twelve spies, one for every Tribe, (of which Caleb the son of Jephunna, was for the Tribe of Judah) being then 40 years old, [Iosh, 14. 7.] and Hoshea the son of Nun, whom Moses had called by the name of Joshua, for the Tribe of Ephra [...]m, were sent to discover, and spye out the land of Canaan: which entering into it by the desert of Sin, lying toward the south, went quite thorough it, to the very North parts thereof, even to Rechob, [Numb. 13. 21, 22. Deut. 1. 23.]

The sixth moneth.

The spies having spent 40 dayes in searching out the land, returned to Kadesh in the Wildernesse of Paran: bringing with them one branch of a vine, with a cluster of grapes upon it, gathered in the valley of Eshcol, which took its name from thence, with Pomgranats, and Figgs of the land, [Numb. 13. 23, 27. Deut 1. 24, 25.] from which ripenesse of the fruit at that season it appeareth, that this happened near before the 7 month, because a little before the feast of Tabernacles, (which was kept upon the 15 day of that moneth) the fruits of the barne and wine-presse, were always gathered, [Exod 23. 16. Levit. 23. 39. Deut. 16. 13.] Ten of the twelve so sent to spie out the land, by speaking ill of the country, and the barrennesse thereof, and withal, magnifying the Cities for their strength, and the giantly stature of the men therein; disheartened the people from marching any further toward it; whiles Caleb, did all he could, to perswade the people to go on, [Numb. 13. 28, 33, & 32. 9.]

The people being terrified with the relation made by the rest, would needs back a­gain into Egypt; and were ready to stone Caleb and Joshua, for telling a contrary tale. And God threatning the people, with a sudden destruction, was bowed to spare them, by the prayers of Moses: Yet so, as withal he denounced to them, that all of them which were then twenty years old and upwards should die in the Wildernesse, and never see the land which was promised unto them: ad that they should wander in that Wildernesse fourty years, [Numb. 14. 1, 35. & 26. 64, 65. & 32. 10, 13. Deut. 1. 26, 36. & 9▪ 23. Josh. 5. 6. Psalm [...]5. 8, 11. & 106. 24, 25, 26.] reckouing all in a round summe; for it is manifest, that their children entered that land, in the 39. year, by comparing [Numb. 32. 13. with Deut. 2. 14.]

The te [...]lp [...]es, which had caused this mutiny among the people, God destroyed all by sudden death, [Numb. 14. 36, 37.] in remembrance whereof, the Jewes to this day, keep a fast, upon the seventh day of the sixth moneth, called Elul.

God therefore bad them remove their camp, and return back into the desert toward the Red Sea. But they, contrary to this command, would needs go forward into the moun­tain, and were there vanquished by the Amalekites and Canaanites, and pursued, as farre as Hormah. Therefore they sate down and wept before the Lord; but he would not hear them, [Numb. 14. 40, 45. Deut. 1. 40, 45.]

Upon this calamity, and the continual dropping away of the Israelites, in the Wil­dernesse, Moses composed the 90 Psalm, [Lord thou hast been our refuge, &c.] in which he also sheweth that the ordinary age of men, was reduced to 70 or 80 years at the ut­most: therefore,

The age of man, was now a third time, contracted and cut short a third part of what it was before.

The Israelites continued in Kadesh many dayes, Year of the World 2515. a. [Deut. 1. 46.] for whether it were for a day or two, or a moneth, or a year, so long as the cloud continued over the Tabernacle, the Camp all that while continued in the same place, and removed not, [Numb. 9. 22.] But that in some places the Camp continued many years, appeareth, for that in the space of 37 years, there are but 17 encampings mentioned; for leaving Kadesh, they returned into the Wildernesse, as I said be fore, toward the Red Sea, and encamped about the Hill-Country of Seir many dayes, [Deut. 2. 1. Iudg. 11. 16.] Now the 17 encampings, belong­ing to this compassing of the Wildernesse of Seir, mentioned in the 33 of Numb. were in this order:

The 16 encamping was at Rimmon Parez. The 17 at Libna. The 18 at Rissa. The 19 at Kehelatha. The 20 at Mount Shepher. The 21 at Harada. The 22 at Makhe­ [...]oth. The 23 at Thahath. The 24 at Thara. The 25 at Mithka. The 26 at Hishmona. The 27 at Moseroth. The 28 at Bene-Iaakan, or Beeroth Bene-Iaakan: (i.) Of the well of the sons of Iaakan, [Deut. 10. 6.] The 29 at Horagidgad, or Gudgoda, [Deut. 10. 7.] [Page 20] The 30 at Iothatha, (i.) a place full of springs of water, [Deut. 10. 7.] The 31 was Hebrona. The 32 was Ezion-Gaber, which is near to Elotha, and joyning upon the shore of the Red Sea, in the land of Edom, [1 Reg. 9. 26.]

Now to that long demourage of theirs in Kadesh, The Julian Period 3225 Year before Christ 1489 or the encampings next ensuing up­on their removes from thence, all that seems to referre; which we finde delivered in the fifteenth, and four next ensuing chapters, of Numbers; as well that of the lawes there mentioned to have been made, as the Historicall part thereof. As how he that gathered sticks on the Sabbath; (for though the sacrifices were omitted in the Wilder­nesse, yet was still the use of the Sabbath entirely observed) was, by the Oracle from God, stoned to death, by all the people, c. 15. and how Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, raising a mutiny against Moses and Aaron, were swallowed alive into the earth, and 250. of their associates, whiles they offered incense perished by fire, sent upon them from God. And how God commanded their censors to be taken and used, for the over-lay­ing of the Altars, for a memorial of them to the children of Israel. And how the peo­ple murmuring against Moses and Aaron for the calamitie which had befallen their brethren, were stricken by God and perished, to the number of 14700. men, c. 16. And how twelve rods being brought by the twelve Princes, and laid in the Sanctuary: Aarons rod, onely budded, and brought forth almons; and was laid up before the Ark, for a sign to those who should afterward be given to rebellion, [cap. 17.] All which things are thought to have been done in the later half of the second year, after their departure out of the land of Egypt. Moses committing to writing nothing, but what fell out in the two first years, and the last of their travel in the Wildernesse; and passing by what else happened in those 37 years intervening, saving onely the matter of the 17 stages or en­campings formerly mentioned. See Abulensis, upon Numb. cap. 1. Quaest. 3.

The Scripture also sheweth that the time, which the Israelites spent in travelling from Kadesh Barnea, till they passed the vale, or brook Zerad, which was half a year after they removed from their 32 encamping; and another half year before they passed the River Iordan, took up the full time of 38 years. In which space of time, all that gene­ration of rebels against God was wholly spent, dead and buried, [Deut. 2. 14, 15, 16.]

Now for the 9 first years, which the Israelites spent in the Wildernesse, Armais gover­ned in Egypt, and Sethosis invaded the East: both which were brothers and sonnes to Amenophis, (which was he that was drowned in the red Sea) as we have formerly no­ted, to the year of the world, 1494. Of whom Manetho in his Egyptiaca, mentioned by Josephus in his first book against Apion, writeth thus. Sethosis being furnished with cavalry and shipping, made his brother Armais ruler, indeed, over all Egypt, and let him use all other Re­gall power and authority there: onely he forbad him to wear a Crown; and charged him in no wise to abridge the Queen which was the mother of his children: and that he should also refraine from all other concubines of the King: But he himself made war in Cyprus and Phoenicia, and against the Assyrians and the Medes. Some of which he subdued by power and force of arms, others he took in, thorough the sole dread and terrour of his name: and now puffed up with this great successe near home, he went on with the greater confidence to ravage and spoile all the Kingdoms and Countries of the East. But some few years after he was gone, Armais whom he left in Egypt, casting off all fear of sinne, did all things contrary to what he was comman­ded by the King: For first, he misused the Queen, and lay continually with the Kings cor­cubines; and at length, following the advice of his friends, used a Crown also, and plainly rebel­led against his brother. Thus Manetho the Egyptian, adding withal, that Armais, was Danaus; and Sethosis was called both Egyptus, and that from him, the whole land was called Egypt: and also Ramesses, after his Grandfathers name. From which simili­tude of names and things, it is manifest, that both Tacitus comes to call him Ramses, and Herodotus, Sesostris; for so Tacitus sayes, That a King called Rhamses, having conquered all Lybia, and Ethiopia, and the Medes and Persians, and Bactria, and Scythia, and all the lands which the Syrians and Armenians, and their borderers the Cappadocians held, together with Bythinia, and Lycia, lying upon the Mediterranian Sea: and so far Tacitus of him, under the name of Rhamses. And for Sesostris, Herodotus in his second book, writes in this manner. Their Priests, saith he, speaking of the Egyptians, report; That he was the first, who with a Fleet of long Ships, going out of the Arabian gulf, brought all the nations, bordering upon the Red-Sea, into his subjection. Which done, he came back the same way: and having gathered a mighty Army, marched into the Continent (of Asia) and there subdued all the nations which stood in his way. Then passing out of Asia, crossed into Europe; there conquered the Scythians, and Thracians: whither, and no further, saith he, it seemeth to me, that Egyptian Army came, because here, and no further off, are to be seene yet extant, the Markes and Monuments of his name and Victories. Of which Monuments so erected by Sesostris, he averreth, that himselfe had seen some remaining in Palestine of Syria: as also two others in Ionia, one at Ephesus, as ye go into Phocea, the other, on the way leading from Sardis to Smyrna. The like report makes Diodorus Siculus, of Sesoosis lib. 2. but makes him far ancienter, than these times: and indeed the age attributed to his brother Danaus proves, that he was contemporarie with Moses, as also Manetho [Page 21] makes him, and Diodorus himself in his 40 book, misseth not much of the same mark; where he saith, That at what time all forraigners were turned going out of Egypt. Danaus and Cadmus, with their companies came into Greece, and moses with his, went into Judea, as we may find in the Selections of Photius, for the better understanding whereof, and in some sort, to fill up this void space of 37 years, omitted by Moses, it shall not be amisse here to insert, the times of these forraign affaires, taken out of Eusebius his Tables, and are as fol­lows.

Egypt (which was formerly called Aeria) was so called from Egyptus who was there made King, Year of the World 2520 upon the expulsion of his brother, The Julian Period 3230 Year before Christ 1484 Danaus: wherein out account varies two years only from that of Eusebius. for

Egyptus, Year of the World 2522 who was also called, The Julian Period 3232 Ramesses, Year before Christ 1482 and Sesostris, and Sesoosis, after the terme of 9 years spent in several voiages and wars in forraign parts, (as Diodor. Sic. in his first book testifieth,) returned to Pelusium. Whereby Armais, who is also called Danaus, when he had ruled over Egypt 9 years, fled for fear of his brother Ramesses, or Egyptus; and falling from the kingdom which he had so gotten in Egypt, came into Greece, as Georgius Syncellus hath it, in the Greek Eusebius, published by Scaliger, page 26. 27. having first attempted to poy­son his brother Egyptus, at a banquet provided for him: but missed of his purpose, as both Herodotus lib. 2. cap. 107. and also Diodorus Siculus lib. 1. pag. 53. (in the Greek and Latin edition of him) testifies.

Danaus coming into Greece, Year of the World 2530 there made himself Master of Argos; The Julian Period 3240 and made it abound with waters: Year before Christ 1474 Danaus by his 50 daughters, Destroyed the 50 sons of his brother Egyptus: save onely his son Lynceus, which reigned after him, to wit at Argos.

Busiris the son of Neptunus, Year of the World 2533 and Libra the daughter of Epaphus, The Julian Period 3241 exercised a tyranny, Year before Christ 1471 in the parts joyning upon the river Nile, barbarously murdering all strangers, which passing that way fell into his hands; whence is that of Ovid. lib. 3. de Tristi, more cruel thou, than was Busiris art, and that of Virgil, 3. Georg. who of Eurysth [...]us hard heart, hath not heard? And altars, by the unworthy B [...]sir reard? unworthy indeed to be defended; but much more unworthy was he to have been commended by any man, which yet was his hap to be, by Socrates the Orator, in his, Busiridis Encomium, and therein, (as after him, also Eusebius did) he sayes, that he was the son of Libya, the daughter of Epaphus and Neptunus. Where observe, that this Ramesses, surnamed Myamun, (of whom I spake, in the year of the world 2427) is by Muthological writers, surnamed Neptunus, and was the man who commanded the new born infants of the Hebr [...]ws to be drowned; and that left behind him two sons, Amenophis, (i.e.) Belus of Egypt (the father of Egyptus and Danaus) that op­pugner of the Almighty God, and which with his host, was overwhelmed in the Red-sea; and left Busiris his son, so infamous, for butchering of strangers, (a fitting off-spring of such a father) to succeed him, whereunto you may add, if you please, out of A. Gellius, lib. 15. cap. 21. that the Poets were wont to call men, barbarous, cruel, and devoide of hu­manitie, the sons of Neptune: as born of that mercilesse element, the sea.

In these times, Year of the World 2543 Tatthe son of Hermes Trismegistes, The Julian Period 3253 lived, Year before Christ 1461 saith Eusebius, with which agreeth that which the Egyptians deliver, that Sesostris, learned his wisdom, from this Hermes, as we find in Elian, lib. 12. Var. Histor. cap. 4.

Cadmus and Phenix, Year of the World 2549 going from Thebais in Egypt into Syria, The Julian Period 3259 erected a kingdom in Tyre and Sidon. Year before Christ 1455 Euseb. Chron.

Now after the Israelites had compassed the hill-country of Seir and Edom, Year of the World 2552. b. by the space of 37 years, The Julian Period 3262 from Kadesh-barnea, Year before Christ 1452 to Ezion-gaber, in Edom; going from the North to the South, even to the shoare of the Red-sea, God then commanded them to turne Northward, and march strait forward to the land of promise: and because the land of Edom lay in their way thitherward, he charged them, that they should not, in any wise, draw a sword upon them, as being their brethren: telling them how great a providence and care he had used, in preserving themselves by the space of 40 years in the wildernesse, [Deut. 2. 1, 7.] putting such an imperfect number of 40. for an imperfect, of 39.

In the first moneth of the 40 year, after their departure out of Egypt; the Israelites coming into the wildernesse of Tzin, they there encamped.

33 Encamping was at Kadesh, [Numb. 20. 1. with the 33. c. of the same, v. 36, 37, 38. and Iudg. 11. 17.] To wit in Kadesh of Tzin, in the very borders of Edom, [c. 20. 14, 15.] to­wards Ezion-Gaber, and the Red-sea, and not at Kadesh Barnea, where they made their fifteenth encamping, and which lay near the border of Canaan, toward the south, Numb. 34. 4. Iosh. 15. 3.]

Here Miriam, al. Maria, died. [Numb. 20. 1.] 4 moneths before her brother Aaron, and 11 moneths before her brother Moses. [...] that she was the eldest of the three; and attained to the age of 130 years, appeareth, [Exod. 2. 4, 7.] so that she was a pretty big Maid, when Moses was born: as was noted before upon the year of the world, 2433. and the Jews to this very day, keep the memory of her decease, upon the tenth o [...] the first moneth.

The people again, for lack of water, murmure against Moses and Aaron: whom when God commanded to call water out of the hard rock, onely by speaking to it; Mose being [Page 22] moved in his mind, through impatience, and diffidence of the thing; spake something, what ever it was, unadvisedly with his lips, but struck the Rock twice with Aarons rod, that was budded and blossomed, and thereby drew water from it, which, as those other drawn out of another Rock, 37 years before, [Exod. 17. 7.] upon this occasion, were called Meribah, or Waters of strife, [Numb. 20. 2, 13.] for it is most likely, that the for­mer water, which Tertullian calleth, Aquam Comtiem, The water that followed them, (of which I spake in the eleventh encamping) was swallowed up in the Rad-sea, so that in this second distresse for water, the children break out into the like mutinous dis­position, as their Father, so long before, had done.

Moses and Aaron for their dissidence and unbelief here shewed, in executing the com­mandment of God, were debarred from entering into the land of Canaan, [Numb. 20. 23. 24. c. 27, 14. Psal. 106. 32, 33.

The Israelites, sent messengers to the Edomites and Moabites, to desire passage tho­rough their land; But they refused to let them passe thorough the bodie of their coun­trie, [Num. 20. 14, 20. Iudg. 11. 17.] yet were content they should passe by the skirts there­of, [Deu. 2. 4, 6, 29.] whereupon they, staying a while at Kadesh, [Iud. 11. 17.] went forward.

34 The 34 encamping, which was in mount Hor, Upon the borders of Edom, [Num. 20. 22, 23. and 33. 37.] or Mosera, [Deut. 10. 6.] whither the Isrelites are saied, when they re­moved from Beereth-bene Iaakan, or the wells of the sons of Iaakan, which was their 28 en­camping, to have come; to wit, having by the way encamped, in Gudgoda, al. Hor-agidgad; lethatha, and other places; for whereas it is said, [v. 7.] that from thence, they came to Gud­goda, and from Gudgoda to Iotbatham, the words from thence are not to be understood of Mosera, but of Beeroth, as many learned men have long since observed upon this place.

Upon the first day of the fifth moneth, our August 18. being tuesday, in the 40 year, after their coming out of Egypt, Aaron dyed at Mosera, in the top of the Mountain, of Hor, at the age of 123 years, leaving his son Eleazer, his successor, in the high Priest-hood, [Numb. 20. 23, 28. and 33, 38, 39, Deut. 10. 6.]

The Israelites bewailed Aaron 30 dayes long, [Numb. 20. 29.] to wit, all that whole month, wherein he dyed.

Upon the sixth moneth, the king of Arad, who dwelt on the Southern part of Canaan, hearing of the Israelites approach, went forth, and fought against them, and took many of them prisoners, whereupon they vowed, a vow to God; and having gotten the victory over them, accordingly they destroyed them and their cities: from whence that place was ever called Horma. (i.e.) the place where that vow, of utterly destroying the Cananites, was made, [Num. 31. 1, 2, 3. and 33. 40.]

Then leaving mount Hor, and shunning the plain country, which leadeth from Elatha, and Ezion-Gaber, and the Red-sea straight into Idumea, they fetcht a compasse and came about to the East-side of it, [Numb. 21. 4. Deut. 2. 40. and there ethy made

35 The 35 encamping at Zalmona, [Num. 33. 41.] so called from an image there set up: for when the people murmured because of the fierie serpents, (not little worm, breed­ing in their flesh, (as Fortunius Licetus, in his third book, de spontaneo V [...]ventium ortu. c. 51. dreameth) but plain fierie serpents) sent among them by God, which annoyed them, they were there healed, by looking up to the figure or image, of a brazen serpent, set up upon a pole, or post, by Gods appointment. [Num. 21. 5. 9. Joh. 3. 14. 1 Cor. 10. 9.]

36 The 36 encamping, was at Punon, [Numb. 33. 42.]

37 The 37 at Oboth, [Numb. 21. 10, 33, 43.]

38 The 38 at Ije-Abarim, upon the borders of Moab, [Num. 33. 40.] to wit in that desert, which lyeth over against the land of Moab, toward the East, [Numb. 21. 11.] and is called the desert of Moab, [Deut. 2. 8.] for continuing their march thorough that wildernesse, they came at length to the East of Moab, [Iudg. 11. 18.]

And when they removed thence, to passe by the valley or brook of Zared, God forbad them to make war upon Moab, [Num. 21. 12. Deut. 2. 8, 13.]

Now they passed over Zared, 38 years, after the sending of their spies, from Kadesh Barnea, the whole race of them which mutined, and rebelled against God from 20 years old and upwards, being wholly extinct and dead, [Deut. 2. 6.]

39 The 39 encamping was at Dibon-God. [Numb. 33. 5.]

The 40 was at Almon-D [...]blathaim, [Numb. 33. 46.] al. Beth-Diblathaim, in the wildernesse of Moab. Year of the World 2553. a. [Ier. 48. 12. Ezek. 6. 14.]

The Israelites coming now to passe the borders of Moab, at Ar, and approaching the country of the Ammonites, God forbad them to make any war upon the Ammonites, [Deut. 2. 18, 19, 37.] and then commanded them to passe over the river Arnon: which at that time was the boundary between Moab and Ammon, [Deut. 2. 24. Num. 21. 13.] so that they encamped over Arnon, and never touched upon the territory of Moab, [Deut. 2. 24. Num. 21. 13. Iudg. 11. 18.]

For departing from thence to Beer, where was the well, which the Princes, and better sort of the people, with Moses their Law-giver, digged with their staves, they came to Matthana, Nahaliel, Bamoth, and the valley, which is in the country of the Moabites, at the entrance of the hill which looketh toward the wildernesse, [Num. 21. 16.] to wit of Kedemoth, [Deut. 2. 26.] and there pitcht.

[Page 23] 41. Being their 41 Encamping: to wi [...], at Abarim, over against Nebo, Numb. 33. 47. For as for Maanah and the others names, they were not encampings, as Tremellius obser­veth upon [Num. 2. 12.] but only places thorough which they passed in their march, before Moses sent messengers to the Amorites. Though the Chaldee Paraphrases take them not at all for proper names of places, but only as appellative, and interpret them of the waters of the well (as of the Rock, 1 Cor. 10. 4.) which followed the Israelites to the brooks, and from the brooks, to the mountaines, and from the mountaines, to the Valley of the Moa­bites.

From the wildernesse of Kedemoth, Moses sent messengers to Sihon the Amorite, king of Heshbon, praying him to suffer him to passe quietly through his borders (as the Edo­mites and Moabites had done) because that was a shorter cut to the foords of Jordan; but when he denyed them passage, and made war upon them, they slew Sihon, and possessed themselves of all his Cities, and dwelt in them [Deut. [...]. 24, 36. Numb. 21. 21, 31. Judg. 1. 19, 22.]

Then sent Moses his spies to Jaser; which they took, with the townes thereunto belong­ing, and cast out thence the Amorites, from the river of Ru [...], which is the bound of Mo­ab, [Numb 21. 13. & 22. 36.] to the brook of Jabboc, which parteth it from Ammon, [Deut. 3. 16. Jos. 12. 2. and 13. 10.] yet never medled they with the Country lying upon the river Jabboc, neither with any of the lands belonging at that time to the children of Am­mon of Moab, as God had commanded them, [Deut. 2. 9. and 9. 37. And therefore, when the Ammonites, 264 years after, complained that the Israelites had taken their land, from Jabboc to Arnon, and even to the brooks of the river Jordan; Jephtha rightly an­swered them, that they had not meddled with the lands, either of the Moabites of the Ammonites; but that when they had slain Sihon, they took all the lands belonging to the Ammorites, from the river Arnon, to Jabboc, and possessed it, as their own inheritance, [Judg. 11. 13, 15, 22, 23.] Though it be true also, that Sihon King of the Amorites had for­merly taken from Vaheb King of the Moabites, Heshbon, and all that Country of his, unto Arnon: [Numb. 21. 14.] so also had he taken from the Ammonites, [...] their Country, in like manner, even to Arroer, which lieth over against Rabba, [Deut. 3. 11.] for that all that land belonged formerly to the Ammonites; and afterward was taken from the A­morites, and assigned to the tribe of Gad, to dwell in, appeareth, [Jos. 13. 25.]

When the Children of Israel marched on their way to Basan, Og King of Basan, being a remnant of the G [...]ants, met and fought with them at Edrem, an [...] was there with all his people, utterly destroyed; and the Israelites possessed themselves of all his Country, to wit, threescore Cities, and all that coast, as far as Argob, [Deut. 3. 1, 11. Numb. 21. 33, 34, 35. Amos 2. 9.] All which Country of Argob, stretching to the borders of the Geshur [...]tes, and Mahacathites, Jair the son of Manasses, is said to have taken and called after his own name, Havoth-Jair, [Numb. 32. 41. Deut. 3. 14.] Which Manasses was indeed the son of Segub, of the tribe of Judah; but reckoned among the Manassites, both in regard of the inheritance he had among them, and also in reference to hi-Gran [...]mother; for she being the daughter of Machir, of the tribe of Manasse, the father of G [...]ead, bar [...] Segub, father of this Ja [...]r, unto Hezron, when he was sixty years of age, a [...] appeareth [1 Chron. 2. 21, 22.] where it is further added, that this Jair possessed 23 Cities, in the land of Gilead, and that he took Gessurim and Aram (according to the best Expositors) with the villages of Jair, and Kenath with her villages, sixty Cities in all; though indeed Nobach, under him, took Kenath, with her villages, and called it Nobach after his own nam [...], [Numb. 32. 42.]

After these victories the Israelites leaving the mountains of Abarim, encamped in the plain of Moab, on this side of the foord of Jordan, which [...]adeth to J [...]rico, from Beth-Jeshimoth, unto Abel-Shittim, [Numb. 22. 1. and 33. 48, 49.] So that their

42. Two and fortieth encamping, was at Shittim, [Numb. 25. 1 al. Abel-Shittim, c. 33. 49.] where they continued, till at length under the leading of Josuah, they came to the bank of Jordan, [Jos. 3. 1.]

Baalak the son of Zippor, King of Moab, considering all, what the Israelites had done to the Amorites, feared, least that under colour of passing through his Country, they would possesse themselves of his whole kingdom: and therefore, taking counsel with the Princes of the Midianites, his neighbours, sent for Balaam the son of Beor, a soothsaier, out of Me­sopotamia, to come and curse the Israelites; promising him great rewards for his labour: purposing afterward to make war upon them, [Numbers 21. 1, 6. Deut. 33. 4. Josuah, 24. 9.]

Balaam, forewarned of God, refused at first to come: but being sent for a second time, he importuned God to let him go, and went with a purpose indeed to curse Israel; but God offended herewith, made the dumb Asse of this wisard, on which he rode, speaking in a mans voice, to reprove his folly, [Numbers 22. vers. 7, 35. 2 Peter, 2. vers. 15, 16.]

Balaam, twice offered sacrifices, and would fain have cursed Israel, to gratifie Balak therein: but being forced thereto by the Spirit of God, instead of curing, he blessed them altogether; fore-telling, what felicity attended them, and what calamit [...]es should [Page 24] befall their enemies, [Numb. 23, and 24. Deut. 23. 5. Josuah 24. 10.]

And by his advise it was, that the women of Moab, and Midian were set on work, to turn the Israelites away to Idolatry: and to make them fall a whoreing with them, [Num. 25. 1, 2, 3. c. 31. 16. Deut. 4. 3. Psal. 106. 28. Apocal. 2. 14.] Wherefore God comman­ded Moses, first to take all the ring-leaders of this disorder, and to hang them up before the sun: and then he gave order to the Judges, to put to death all such of them as had joyned themselves to Baal-Peor; and last of all, God sent a plague upon the people, where­of there died 23000 men in one day, [1 Cor. 10. 8.] which added to them which were hanged, and killed with the sword, amount in all to twenty four thousand, [Numb. 25. 4, 5, 9.]

Phineas the son of Eleazer, by killing Zimri, the son of Salu, chief of his fathers family, of the Tribe of Symeon; and Cosbi the daughter of Sur, a Prince of the Midianites, ap­peased the wrath of God, and so that plague ceased, [Numb. 25. Psal. 106. 30.] And God therefore setling the High-Priesthood for ever upon the house of Phineas, commanded them also to make war forthwith upon the Midianites, [Numbers, 25. vers. 12, 13, 17, 18.]

Moses and Eleazar, by Gods command, in the plain of Moab, near unto Jordan, over against Jerico, numbred the people from 20 years old, and upwards, and found them to be 601730 men: besides the Levites; whose number, reckoning them, from one month old and upwards, came to 23000. and then Moses received Gods command for the part­ing of the land of Promise, among the Israelites, [Numb. 26. 1, 63.]

The daughters of Zelophead, had their fathers land parted among them for want of issue male: and by this occasion was the law for succession in heritages drawn up, and made, [Numb. 27. 1, [...]1.]

God signified to Moses, that he should die: and Josuah was thereupon declared to be his successor, and Moses laied his hands upon him, and gave him instructions, [Numb. 27. 12, 23. Deutronom [...]e 3▪ v. 26, 27, 28.] And several lawes were then made, [Deuteronomie 28. v. 29, 30.]

Twelve thousand of the Israelites, under the leading of Ph [...]neas, vanquished the Midiani [...]e, and slew all the males among them, with their five Princes, and among them Sur the fat [...]er of Cosb [...], all which were under the subject on of Sihon the Amorite, whiles he l [...]ved; and Balaam the wisard, who when he should have returned into his own Coun­try of Mesop [...]tam [...]a, [Numbers 24. 25.] staied among the Midianites, [Numbers 31. 1, 8. Josuah 13. 21, 22.] And of the females only the virgins were saved alive, [Numb. 31. 9, 54.]

The lands which belonged to Sihon, and Og were divided and given to the tribes of Reuben, and Gad, and the half tribe or Manasses, by Moses, [Numb. 32. Deut. 3. 13, 20. and c. 29. 8. Ios. 13. 8, 12. and 22. 4.] all from the river Arnon, to mount Hermon (which is also called Shemir, and Syrion, and Sion) and joyneth upon Anti-Lebanon, [Deut. 3. 8, 9. Deut. 4. 48. Jos. 12. 1. Jos. 13. 9, 11.]

When the Israelites were now going into the land of Canaan, God commanded them to root out the Canan [...]tes and their Idols, [Numb. 33▪ 50, 56.] and that they should divide the land, westward of Jordan, among the nine remaining tribes, and the other half tribe of Manasses, [Numb. 34.] and concerning the 48 Cities of the Levites, and six Cities of Re­fuge, [Numb. 35.] of which there were three appointed then by Moses himself, on the east of Jordan, [Deut. 4. 41, 42, 43.]

Upon the 5 day of 11 month (Feb. 20. falling upon our Saturday) in the 40 year after their departure out of Egypt, in the plain of Moab; Moses made a speech to the children of Is­rael; set down in the 1, 2, 3. c. of Deut. and to the 40 v. of the 4 c. and afterward continued his speaking to them; to the 27 c. of the same.

Moses, with the Elders of Israel, commanded the people, that in their passage over Jor­dan, they should set up great stones, whited over with chalk or plaister, and the ten Commandments to be written on them, and the forme of blessing upon the mount Gerizim, and of cursing in mount Ebal, [Deut. 27.] exhorting them to observe the Law of God, by setting before their eyes, what benefits would ensue thereof; and dehorting them from the breach of that law, by assuring them of what miseries would overtake them: if they forsook the Law, [Deut. 28.]

Moses, by Gods command, renewes the Covenant, made by God with them, and their children in mount Horeb: and again perswades them, to keep that Covenant, by all the blessings and curses, which would undoubtedly follow the keepers or breakers of it, [Deut. 29.] yet with a promise of pardon and deliverance, if at any time, having broken it, they should repent them of their sin: and tells them further, that God had therefore thus decla­red his will unto them, to the end, that none hereafter offending, should pretend igno­rance, if he offended, [Deut. 30.]

Moses having written this law, delivered it to the Priests, the sons of Levi, and the Elders of the people to be kept: The same day also he wrote his song, and taught the same to the children of Israel to be sung, and having finished the book of this law, he took order to have it laied up, in the side of the Arke, [Deut. 31.] But that most excellent song of his, is contained in [Deut. 32.]

[Page 25] Moses, drawing now near to his end, blessed every tribe in particular, by way of prophe­cie, saving only the Tribe of Symeon: which his last Will and Testament is conteined in [Deut. 32.]

In the twelfth month of this year, Moses, going up out of the plain of Moab, into mount Nebo, which was a part of the countrey of the Abarims, from the top thereof, lying over against Jerico, he beheld the land of Promise, allover▪ and then dyed, [Numb. 27. 12, 13. Deut. 3. 23, 29. Deut. 32. 49, 50. Deut. 34. 1, 5.] being then, 120 years old, [Deut. 31. 2, 3, 4, 7.] Of all which time, he spent a full third part, wanting only one month; in his go­vernment of the people of Israel: as is not amisse observed by Josephus, in the later end of his 4 book of antiquities: as departing this life in the last month of the year, and first day of that month, which by the Macedons is called Dystrus, and by the Hebrewes Adar: which better suiteth, with the accompt of Historians shortly after following, than with the tradi­tion of the Jewes of later time: who saith that he died upon the seventh day of the mouth Adar, as in Sedar Olam rabba, c. 10. in his [...] book of the death of Moses, in the pro­eme of Maymonidas to the book, called Misnaioth, and in the Calendars of the Jewes of this time appeareth: who still celebrate the memorial of his death, by a solemne fast upon this day.

The body of Moses, God translated out of the place where he died, into a valley of the land of Moab, over against Beth Peor, and there buried it: nor doth any man know the place where he laied it, unto this day, [Deut. 34. 6.] But that this valley was in the land of Sihon King of the Amorites, which the Israelites won from him, appeareth out of [Deut. 4. 46.] and that Beth Peor, was assigned to the Rubenites, out of [Jos. 13. 20.] and therefore, whereas here Moses is said to have been buried in the land of Moab; as likewise [Deut. 29. 1.] the Covenant is saied to have been renewed in the land of Moab, it is to be understood of the land which formerly did belong to them: but was lately taken from them by Sihon King of the Amorites, as I shewed before out of [Num. 21. 26.] and was now possessed by the Israelites.

Michael the Arch-Angel, as we read in the Epistle of Jude; disputed with the De­vil about the body of Moses: which the Devil would fain have brought to light; that he might thereby have ministred an occasion of Idolatry to the people of Israel, as Chryso­stome in his 1. Homilie upon Mathew: and Thodoret, upon Duteronomie, Quest. 43. and Pro­copius Gazaeus, upon Deuteronomie, and others say: though we no where find that the Jewes ever gave themselves to this [...]: i.e. This worshiping of Reliques: But this con­tention of Michael with the Devil about the body of Moses, went about heretofore in a certain Apocryphal, entitled, [...]: i.e. of the Assumption of Moses, as we read in Origen [...], lib. 3. cap. 2. and in Gelasius Cyricenu [...] in the Acts of the Council of Nice, part. 1. c. 20. Like unto which, somewhat is also found in [...] of Rabbi Nathan.

The Israelites mourned for Moses in the land of Moab, 30 dayes, [Deut. 34. 8.] to wit, all the whole 12 month.

And here ends the Pentatuch, or the five books of Moses, containing the history of 2552 years and a half, from the beginning of the world; and the book of Josua begins with the 41 year after the departure of the Children of Israel out of Egypt.

The First Month.

Josuah being confirmed in his Government by God, sent forth with spies from Shittim to the City of Jerico: which being harboured by Rahab in an Inn, and privily sent away when search was made for them, lay three dayes close in the mountain, and then returned to him, [Jos. 2.]

Josuah commanded the people, besides their manna, which as yet ceased not, to take o­ther provant and victuals along with them, as being three dayes after to passe over Jordan, [Jos. 1. 10, 11.]

The next morning, they removed from Shittim and came to the river Jordan, and there encamped that night, [Jos. 3. 1.]

The third day after, warning was given them, as it should seeme, to provide victuals; the people also were commanded to sanctifie and prepare themselves to passe over Jor­dan the morrow after, [Jos. 3. 2, 5.]

Upon the 10 day of the first month, April 30. being on a Friday, to wit, the same day that the Paschal lamb was to be chosen out of the flock, the Israelites, by the leading of Josua, a type of Jesus Christ, went up out of the river Jordan, into the promised land of Canaan, a type of that heavenly country: they passed through the river on dry foot, the waters being for that present divided, and that at a season, when they usually over-flowed the banks, for a memorial of which miraculous passage, Josua set up twelve stones in the very channel of Jordan; and taking twelve other stones from out of the middest thereof set them up in the place where they next encamped, at Gilgal, [Jos. 3. and 4.]

The day following (as it seemes) Josuah renewed the use of Circumcision in Gilgal, which had been omitted 40 years, and there the people rested them and abode, untill they were whole again, [Jos. 5. 2, 9.]

[Page 28] Upon the fourteenth day of the first month (the fourth of May, being our Tuesday) in the evening, the Israelites celebrated their first Passover in the land of Canaan, [Iosua 5. vers. 10.

Next day after the Passeover (May 5. being Wednesday) they are of the fruit of the Land of Cannan, unleavened bread, and parched corne; and manua ceased, the very day after they began to live of the fruits of the land; and the children of Israel after that, saw man­na no more, but lived that year, of the fruits of the land of Canaan, [Ios. 5. 11, 12.].

Our Lord Jesus, Captain of his Fathers Host, appearing to Josua, the typical Jesus, be­fore Jerico, with a drawn sword in his hand, promised thereto defend his people, [Ios. 5. 13, 14, 15.]

Jerico, the Ark of God having been carried round about it, was taken the seventh day, the walls thereof falling flat down, at the sound of the Priests trumpets: and was utterly destroyed, and all put to the sword, saving only Rahab, and her family, [Ios. 6.] who mar­rying afterward to Salmon, of the Tribe of Judah, bare of him Boaz, [Mat. 1. 5.]

The Israelites at their siege of Ay, being abandoned by God, for the sacriledge, com­mitted by Achan, are smitten by their enemies: Achans sin being discovered by the ca­sting of lotts, and he found guiltie, was stoned to death, and together with his children and cattel, burnt with fire, [Ios. 7.] and God being hereby pacified, Ay was taken by an ambushment; and utterly destroyed, and twelve thousand men slain in the taking of it, [Ios. 8. 1, 29.]

In mount Ebal, according to the law made, there was an Altar erected, for sacrifices to be made thereon, and the ten Commandments, engraved on it, the blessings and cursings were repeated in mount Ebal, and mount Gerizim, and the book of the Law read in the ears of all the people, [Ios. 8. 30, 35.]

The kings of Canaan, moved with this great successe of the Israelites, bandy themselves together against them, save only the Gibeonites, who craftily found a way to save their own live, by making a league with them: but were, neverthelesse, afterward deputed to the servile offices of the house of God: [Ios. 9.]

Adonl-zedec, King of Jerusalem, with the Kings of Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Debit, hearing that Gibeon was fallen off from them, joyned their forces together, and besieged it; But Josua having raised the siege, pursued those five Kings, and had the killing of them, as far as Azecah, and Mackeda, at which time, the sun stood still over Gibeon, and the moon over the valley of Ajalon, by the space almost of one whole day, and untill the Israelites were fully avenged of their enemies, [Ios. 10. 1, 14.] Whereupon Laurentius Codomannu observes two things: 1. That whereas Aialon, was distant from Gibeon, scant­ly, one German mile toward the west, it is very likely that the moon was then past the full and well on in the wain. 2. That seeing both those great lights began and ended their standing still both toge­ther, the Asronomical account is no waies confounded by this stay, even as (saith he) in musick, the harmony is not in any sort broken, nor the voices jar, if they all rest at the same time, and then begin again, every man in his part, unto the end of the lesson.

Josuah, following the chase, those five Kings hid themselves in a cave at Mackeda, which cave, Josuah commanded to be rammed up with stones, and a guard to be set up­on it, till the enemy being wholy routed, had betaken themselves to their fenced Cities: and when all the armie was safely returned to Josua in Mackeda, then were the stones removed, and those five Kings taken out of the cave, and the captaines of the Host, bid to put every man his foot upon their necks; and them to be hung up upon five gibbets, untill the sun went down, and then to be throwne into the same cave again, and the mouth thereof stop­ped up with stones as before: [Ios. 10. 16, 17.]

And thus ended that most busie year of the wold, 2553. in the first six months, where­of Mose [...]h mses [...]f took in and possessed all that land over Jordan, toward the east, and in the later, Joshuah conquered the most part of all, that lay to the west of it: and in the mid­dest of the year, manna ceasing, the people of Israel began to suesist and live upon the pro­fits of the land of Canaan. Year of the World 2554. a.

From the Autumne of this year, The Julian Period 3264 wherein, Year before Christ 1450 after the failing of manna, they began to till the ground and sow it, is to be reckoned the first year, [...], (i.e.) of their tillage, and the rise of the sabbatical years hence to be taken, Ex. 23. 10, 11. Lev. 25. 2, 7. Deut. 15. 1, 9. and Deut. 31. 10.]

The five kings thus destroyed, all the rest of the kings, combined together against the Israelites; and with them Josuah had a long war, [Ios. 11. 1, 18.] which lasted full six years: Year of the World 2559. a. as we shall see anon.

Josuah, The Julian Period 3269 now grown old, Year before Christ 1455 was commanded by God, to divide all the land on the west of Jordan, among the nine tribes remaining, and the other half tribe of Manasses, [Ios. 13. 1, 7.] whereupon he first divided the land of Gilgal, (where the Tabernacle of God then was, and the Army then lay) among the Tribes of Judah, and Ephra [...]m, and the half tribe of Manasses, [Ios. 14. 6. Ios. 15. 16, 17.] at which time Caleb the son of Jephunna, 45 years after the time that he was sent to spie out the land by Moses, desired to have Hebron with the mountain countries of Judea, to be assigned to him for his part: undertaking to expuise the Anakims from thence, [Ios. 14. 6, 10, 13.]

[Page 27] Yet would not Joshua permit (as Tremellius hath here very well observed) that Ca­leb with his own company should assault Hebron: but himself went with the whole Army to take it in; and having taken it, then gave it unto Caleb; to wit, the lands and villages thereunto adjoyning: reserving the city it self, and suburbs thereof for a city of refuge, and for the Priests use, [Iosh. 21. 11, 12, 13. 1 Chron. 55. 56, 57.] For, that, nei­ther Hebron, nor Debir, though both lying within the land, and inheritance assigned to Caleb, were yet taken by the Israelites, not the Anakims rooted out from thence, ap­peareth out of the [14 and 15 chap. of Ioshua] so that all which is contained in the book of Ioshua, from [verse 28. cap. 10.] to the end of chap. 11. and in the first chapter of the book of Judges, from the ninth, to the fifteenth verse, seems wholy to be referred to this place, because of the contiguity and coherence of the matter handled in each of them.

For when as the children of Juda and Joseph, being established in their possessions, ac­cording to their Tribes; a great part of the land of Canaan remained still in the hands of the Gentiles; Joshua before the proceeded to any further apportioning of lands, going with the Host of Israel from Gilgal, took Makkeda at the first assault: and so did he Lib­na in like manner; utterly destroying the Kings and people of either Kingdom, [Iosh. 10. 28, 29, 30.]

From thence he marched with his Army to Lachish: took it the second day after he came before it, and put all there likewise to the sword. And when Horam King of Gezer came to relieve it, Joshua met him, and destroyed him and his people, so that he left not a man of them alive: and then marching to Eglon, took it the very day he came before it, and put all to the sword, [Iosh. 10. 31, 35.]

Afterward Joshua with all Israel, going up from Eglon to Hebron; took it, and put to the sword the new king thereof; (for the old one was hanged six years before) with all the cities belonging, [Iosh. 10. 36, 37.] whence Caleb also cast those three Gyants, the sonnes of Anak, so much renowned and talked of 45 years before, [Numb. 13. 22, 23.] to wit, Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai, [Iosh. 15. 14.]

Then Joshua with the Army, marching out of the south of Canaan, came before De­bir, [Iosh. 10. 38.] which formerly was called, Kariath-Sepper; where, when Caleb had proclaimed, that whoever took it, should have his daughter to wife: it fell out that Otho­niel, cousin germain to Caleb, and the son of Kenaz took it: and thereupon married his daughter Acsah, and had with her in dowry, a piece of land with springs of water in it, [Iosh. 15. 15, 19 Iudg. 1. 11, 15.] and having taken the city, he put their new King also (for the other he had caused to be hanged with the rest, six years before) with all his ci­ties to the edge of the sword, [Iosh. 10. 39.]

To conclude, Joshua destroyed all the Hill-Country, and all the South parts, plaine and valley, and all their Kings, even from Kadesh-Barnea, as far as unto Gaza; and all the country of Goshen, (which was in the lot of the Tribe of Judah) as far as Gibeon. And all these Kings, and all their lands took Joshua at one time (i.) in one expedition or journey; for God himself all that while fought for Israel: and having thus done, then he with all the Host of Israel, came back to Gilgal, [Iosh. 10. 40, 43.]

The rest of the Kings, with whom Joshua had warred a long time, hearing what Joshua had done, resolved to set upon him with all their forces united in one: but Joshua coming suddenly upon them, and unawares, slew them and possessed all their land, [Iosh. 11. 1, 16.] from the mountain, which goeth up to Seir, which is the frontier of Edom, unto Baal-Gaddem, in the valley of Lebanon, which lyeth under the Hill of Hermon, [Iosh. 11, 47. Iosh. 12. 7.]

Then went Joshua and rooted out those Gyants, the Anakims with their cities; out of the Hill-Countries, out of Hebron: (this was done by the hands of the Tribes of Ju­dah, [Judg. 1. 10.] out of Debir, out of Anab, and g [...]nerally out of all the mountains of Juda, and all Israel. And so having gotten the whole land into his hands, he divi­ded it among the children of Israel for a possession, by shares or portions (as we shall see in the year following) according to their Tribes: and so the land rested from war, [Iosh. 11. 23. Iosh. 14. 15.]

The seventh year, Year of the World 2560. a. reckoned from the first year wherein they began to till the ground in Canaan, was withal the first Sabbatical year which was kept among them. When by this typical Jesus they were brought into this place of rest, which was a true type and figure of that Sabbath and Rest, which the true Jesus was to acquire, and bring the people of God into, [Heb. 4. 9.] And from hence also, the years of Jubile, or of every fifty years space, is to be reckoned, [Levit. 25. 8, 13.]

Upon the 15 day of the seventh moneth, (our November the fifth, falling upon a Satur­day) the Israelites kept the Feast of Tabernacles in booths made of boughs of trees, ac­cording to the law, [Levit. 23. 29, 40.] and much more solemnly than was afterward used in the times of the Judges or Kings, [Neb. 8. 17.]

When God was now about to give the Israelites rest from all their enemies round a­bout them, so that they might dwel there securely; it was requisite that a place also should be appointed, which himself should chuse, to place his name there, [Deut. 12 10, 11.] Wherefore coming together at Shilo, they there fixed the Tabernacle of the Congrega­tion; [Page 28] after the whole land was subdued unto them.

[Iosh. 18. 1.] Now Shilo (where the Tabernacle with the Ark of the Covenant con­tinued by the space of 328. years) both by the signification of the name, and also by the situation of the place, seemeth to be the same with Salem: for, as [...] signifieth Peace, or Rest, [Gen. 34. 21. Nahum 1. 12.] so also doth [...] [Dan. 4. 1.] where also the Messias is thought to have been called Shilo, [Gen. 49. 10.] because not onely himself was peaceable and quiet: but was also the Authour of eternal rest and peace unto us; be­ing as well as Melchisedech, King of Salem, (i.) the King of peace, [Hebr. 7. 2.] which was Melchisedechs dwelling place, or palace, as Jerom in his 126. Epistle to Enagrius saith, was in his time to be seen in the city of Salem, near the place where John baptized, [Ioh. 3. 23.] which, [Gen. 33. 18.] according to Jerom; own, and the Septuagints exposi­tion, was called Sichem, because seated as Shilo was, [Iosh. 24. 25, 26. Iosh. 18. 1. Gen. 3▪ 5. 4. Iudg. 9. 6. compared with 21. 8, 19.] in the countrey of the Sichemites.

The land which remained, was divided among the other seven Tribes for their in­heritance, and a book drawn up containing their several proportions, [Iosh. 18. and 19. chapters] and so after the seven Nations of the Canaanits were destroyed, the di­stribution of their lands among the Israelites followed, and was compleately fini­shed.

In the year after the Election of the Fathers, much about 450. [Acts 13. 17, 19, 20.] for from the birth of the promised seed Isaac, to this time, are reckoned, 452. yeares: and from the rejection of Ishmael, 447. but between both, we may count, 450. years.

Out of the land, Year of the World d. as well on this, The Julian Period 3270 as on that side Jordan, Year before Christ 1444 were set apart, 48 Cities for the inheritance of the Levites: six whereof were made Cities of Refuge; and Sanctu­aries were therein made, unto which those who committed not wholy wilful murder, might flie for protection, [Iosh. 20. and 21.] and so the Israelites now possessed the land promised to their fathers: God giving them rest and peace round about, accord­ding to all that he had promised to their fathers by an oath, [Iosh. 21. 43, 44.] where­upon the companies of the Rubenites, Gadites, and halfe Tribe of Manasses, which came over Jordan to help their brethren in this atchievement; God having now fully setled them there, took their leave of Joshua, and returned to their possessions, which Moses had given them, on the other side Jordan, [Iosh. 22. 4. with chap. 1. 14, 15. and Numb. 32. 21, 22.]

But when in their return homeward, they were come unto Gilead at the passage of Jordan, in the borders of the land of Canaan, they had there built a great Altar: the o­ther Tribes supposing thereby that they intended a separation, and to revolt from them, they resolved to make war upon them; yet sending Phineas, the son of Eleazar, the High Priest, with ten other Princes of the people, to know the reason of their so doing; and understanding, that the Altar was not built to offer sacrifice thereon, but one­ly testifie the communion and fellowship which they had with the rest of the Tribes of Israel, they changed their purposes, and laid down their armes, [Iosh. 22.]

Joshua built the city of Timnah-Sera, Year of the World 2561 in mount Ephraim, in which he dwelt many years, after that God had given Rest to Israel; and having lived 110. years (which was the age of Joseph, mentioned in the end of Genesis) he there died, and was buried, [Iosh. 23. 1. Iosh. 24. 29, 30.]

When as in the times of Anarchie or mis-rule, Year of the World 2591. d. which followed after the decease of Joshua and the Elders, The Julian Period 3301 who out-lived him, Year before Christ 1413 and who being young men, when they came out of Egypt, could well observe and remember the wonders which God had wrought for Israel: every man now doing what seemed him good in his own eyes, all those disorders were committed, which are reported in the five last chapters of the book of Judges; to wit, the Idolatry of Micah, and the children of Dan, and the war of the Benjamites, and the cause thereof. And there succeeded a generation of men which forgat God, and mingled themselves with the Canaanites by marriage, and wor­shipped their Idols. And God hereby provoked to wrath, gave them up into the hands of Cushan, King of Mesopotamia; which first calamity of theirs, held them eight years onely, [Judg. 2. 7. and Judg. 3. 6, 7, 8.]

Othon [...]el the sonne of Kenaz, Year of the World 2599. d and sonne in law to Joshua, The Julian Period 3309 [Iosh. Year before Christ 1405 15. 17. Iudg. 1. 31.] of the Tribe of Juda, being stirred up by God, as a Judge and avenger of his peo­ple, defeated Cushan, and delivered the Israelites out of their bondage; And the land had rest 40 years, after the first, rest, which Joshua procured for them, [Iudg. 3. 9, 10, 11.]

In this year was kept the first Jubilie, Year of the World 2609. a. in the land of Canaan. The Julian Period 3318 Year before Christ 1396

Was kept the second Jubilie. Year of the World 2658 a. The Julian Period 3367 Year before Christ 1347

After the decease of Othoniel, Year of the World 2661. d. the Israelites, The Julian Period 3371 falling again to sin against God, Year before Christ 1343 were again by him given over into the hands of Eglon, King of Moah; who joyning with the Am­monites, [Page 29] and Amalekites, overthrew the Israelites, and took Jericho, and this second oppression of their continued, for the space of eighteen years, [Judg. 3. 12, 13, 14.]

Then Ehud, Year of the World 2679. b. the son of Gera, The Julian Period 3389 of the tribe of Benjamin (which was but a little before, Year before Christ 1325 almost wholly destroyed) was raised up by God for an avenger of his people: for seigning a message to Eglon, he ran him into the belly with his dagger, and left him dead in his own dineing room, and then getting cunningly away, he gathered all Israel into a body, in Mount Ephram, and slew ten thousand of the most valiant men of Moab, and the land had rest 40 years; after the former rest, and deliverance gotten them by Othoniel, [Judg. 13. 15, 30.]

After him also Shamgar, the son of Anath, slew 600 Philistines with an Ox-goade; and he also avenged Israel, ib. v. ult.

Belus the Assyrian reigned in Babylon, Year of the World 2682 after the Arabians 55 years, The Julian Period 3392 saith Iul. Year before Christ 1322 Afri­canus.

The Israelites, Year of the World 2699. d. after the death of Ehud, The Julian Period 3409 returning to their old sinne, Year before Christ 1305 were given up by God into the hand of Jabink of Canaan: who reigned in Hazor, and had 900 chariots of Iron: and this third thraldom of their continued 20 years, [Iudg. 4. 1, 2, 3.]

Was the 3 Jubile. Year of the World 2707. a. The Julian Period 3416 Year before Christ 1298

Debora, Year of the World 2719. d. the wife of Lapidoth, The Julian Period 3429 a prophetesse, Year before Christ 1285 who at that time judged Israel, in Mount Ephraim, and Barack of the tribe of Nepthaile, the son of Abinoam, being made Cap­tain of the host of Israel, in a fight at Megiddo, rowted Sisera, Captain of Jabins armie, and he being afterward killed by Jael; the wife of Heber the Kenite, in her own Tent, with a naile struck into the temples of his head, Deborah made a song thereof, for a memorial of that victory, and the land rested 40 years, after the former rest, or peace, restored by Ehud, [Iudg. 4. and 5. 31.]

Ninus the son of Belus founded the Empire of the Assyrians; Year of the World 2737 which continued in Asia by the space of 520 years, The Julian Period 3447 as Herod. Year before Christ 1267 in his first book, cap. 95. affirmeth: whom Appian. Alexandr. in the beginning of his work followeth. But Dionysius Halicarnassus, a most diligent searcher into all such matters, in his first book of Antiquities, saith, that they had a very small part of Asia, under their command; yet Diodoius Siculus in his Bibliotheca, reports that Ninus, confederating with Arieus King of Arabia, possessed all Asia, having India and Bactria, by the space of seventeen years, and that at length, he took in the Bactrians also with their King Zoroastres: of whom Justin also; out of Trogus Pompeius, thus writeth, lib. 1. Ninus, having conquered his next neighbours, joyned their forces to his own, and thereby went on still the stronger to the conquest of the next, and every last victory was a step to another, and by this means, he subdued all the people, of the east. His last was was with Zo­roastoes King of Bactria, who is said to have been the first that found out of the art magick, and to have most diligently looked into the nature of the world, and motion of the stars: him Ninus slew; and presently after died himself. Julius Africanus and Eusebius say, that he reigned 52 years.

The Israelites sinning again, Year of the World 2752. d. are delivered into the hands of the Midianites, The Julian Period 3462 which fourth thraldom of theirs, Year before Christ 1252 lasted 7 years, [Iudg. 6. 1.]

Was the 4 Jubile. Year of the World 2759. a. The Julian Period 3465 Year before Christ 1249

The Israelites falling into this fourth thraldom, cryed unto God for help, and were re­proved by a prophet. Then was Gideon of Manasses, son of Joash the Abicarite stirred up by an Angel sent from God, to deliver them. And first by command from God, he overturned the Altar of Baal, and burnt his grove: whereupon, when strife arose be­tween him and the people, he was called Ierub-baal. and Ierub-besheth, [2 Sam. 11. 21.] He out of 32 thousand men, which came unto him, chose onely (God so commanding) 300. but with them, and their trumpets, pitchers and torches in them, he so affrighted the Mi­dianites, that he put to flight all their host; whom the Ephramites afterwards pursuing, slew their Princes, Oreb and Zeeb. Gedeon then, having first pacified the Ephramites, who complained that they were not called to the battle at first, passed the river Jordan, and defeated the remainder of the Midianitish armie: he chastised also the men of Suc­coth and Penuel, who had refused him victual in his journey, and slew two Kings of the Moabites, Zeba and Zalmunna. After which great victories attained, when the Israe­lites offered to settle the kingdom upon him, and his posterity, he refused it: but receiving their golden earings, he made thereof, an Ephod, whereof they took afterward an occa­sion to fall into Idolatry, and so the Midanites being vanquished, the land had rest 40 years, after the former rest restored to them by D [...]bora and Barak] Iudg. 4. 8. 28.]

So soon as Gedeon was dead, Year of the World 2768. d. the Israelites falling back to Idolatrie, The Julian Period 3478 worshipped Baal-Berith for their god, Year before Christ 1236 [Iudg. 58. 33.] and Abimelech the son of Gedeon, (begotten upon a woman of Sichem, his Concubine) purposing to get to himself the kingdom, which his father had refused, slew seventie of his Brothers, all upon one stone, [Iudg. 9. 15, 18, 24. 56.]

[Page 30] When Abimelech, by the help of the Sichemites had got to be made king, Jotham the youngest son of Gedeon, who onely escaped Abimelech's clutches, Year of the World 2769. a. from the top of the mount Gerizim, expostulated with them in the wrong they had done to his fathers house: and by way of a parable, foretold them of their ruine, that would ensue thereon: which done, he forthwith fled, and dwelt quietly in Beerith, [Iudg. 9.]

When Abimelech had now reigned over the Israelites three years, Year of the World 2771. d Gaal, The Julian Period 3481 a man of Si­chem, Year before Christ 1233 made a conspiracy against him; which being discovered to him by Zebul, the city of Sichem was utterly destroyed, and sowed with salt, the inhabitants all put to the sword, and the temple of their god Beerith burnt with fire. And from thence Abimelech, going to besiege Thebez, he was there knockt on the head, with a piece of a milstone, cast upon him by a woman, and then kild out right, by his own Armour-bearer, [Iudg. 9. 50, 54. with 2 Sam. 11. 21.]

After Abimelech, Year of the World 2772. a. Tolah, the son of Puar, of the tribe of Isacar, judged Israel 23 years, [Iudg. 10. 12.]

Argon, Year of the World 2781 the son of Ninus, The Julian Period 3491 after the Aryadans first reigned in Sardis: Year before Christ 1223 whose posterity held the kingdom of Lydia, by the space of 505 years, two and twenty generations; the son ever succeding the father in his throne: down to Candaules the son of Myrsus, Herod. lib. 1. c. 7.

Semiramis, Year of the World 2789 the daughter of Derces, wife, first of Menon, afterward of Ninus, reigned over all Asia, save onley India, and lived sixty two years, whereof she reigned forty two, as Diodorus Siculus reports in the second book of his Bibliothcea: out of Cresias Cnidius: where out of the same Cresias, he setteth out at large, her noble Acts, especially against Strabrobates King of Indea: though Megasthenes, who writes expressely of the Indian affairs, as we find in Strabo, lib. 15. and in Arrianus, in his book, De Indicis saith, that she dyed before she ever came into India. Herod. lib. 1. cap. 184. reporteth, that she cast up huge works round about Babylon; whereas formerly the ri­ver (Euphrates) was wont to overflow all the lower parts thereof: and Justin also, speak­ing of her, lib. 10. out of Trogus Pompeius, speaketh in this wise. This Semiramis, built Babylon, and walled it round with bricks: laying the stones with brimstone, instead of sand; which brimstone riseth naturally out of the earth, every where in those parts. This Queen did many other very memorable acts: for not content to keep what her husband had got, she added also, Ethiopia to her dominions, she also made war upon India; which never any set foot in besides her self; and Alexander the great. Where yet we must note, that besides these two, Diony­sius also, al. Bacchus, is reported by all other writers, to have conquered India; as for that tale which goes of her enclosing of Babylon, with a wall of brick, it is indeed ge­nerally [...]o said, when in truth it was the work of Nebucadnezar, and his daughter in law, N [...]ctoris many ages after. But for that lie of her first building of Babylon, reported by Diodorus and Trogus, as also by Strabo, in his second and sixteenth books of his Geo­graphy, it is evidently refuted, not onely by the sacred History of the book of [Gen. c. 11.] but also out of Eupolemus, who in his book, [...], in Eusebius, lib. 9. Preparat. Evangel. saith, that it was first built by those, which escaped the deluge; and out of Erranius, mentioned by Stephanus Byzantinus, in his book, de Vrbibus, in the word Babylon: and Eustatius in Dionys. Perieg. p. 126. where he notes, that Babylon was built 1002 years before Semyramis was borne; who if he had said 1022 years, (as perhaps he did) had not much varied from the Babylonish Calendar or account, sent from thence by Calisthenes, (which I m [...]ntioned before) out of Porphyrie, upon the year of the world, 1770. The same Porphyrie also, lib. 4. cont. Christianos, cited by Eusebius. lib. 1. Prepar. Evangel. speaking of one Sancuniathon Berution, a most ancient writer, of the first origin, or begin­ning of the Phenicians, saith, that he took his argument or matter from Hierombal (which comes very near to the name of Jerubbaal, of whom I spake before, to the year of the world 2759) a Priest of [...] of Jevo, al. Jehova, the God of the Jews, which History of his was dedicated to Abibalus, King of the Berutians, and he sayes further, that this Sancuniathon, lived in the dayes of Semyranis, Queen of the Assyrians; [...], (i.e.) who is said to have been before the Troian wars, or about that very time: which very well agreeth with my account: which, allowing her to have out-lived the destruction of Troy eleven years, shews, that she was in her prime both before, and at the time of the war at Troy.

Eli, Year of the World 2790. a. the Priest was borne, for he dyed at the age of 98 years, [1 Sam. 14. 15.] in the year of the world, 2888.

When Tola was dead, Year of the World 2795. a. and buried at Shamir, The Julian Period 3504 in mount Ephraim, Year before Christ 1210 there succeeded after him, Jair a Gileadite, of the tribe of Manasses, beyond Jor­dan, who judged Israel, 22 years, [Iudges 10. 1, 2, 3.] and was descended of that Jair, who having taken the cities of Argob, called them after his own name, Havoth-Jair, [Numb. 32. 41. Deut. 3. 14] after whose example, the thirty sons of this second Jair; (who, to difference him from the former, [1 Sam. 12. 11. and 1 Chron. 7. 17.] seemeth to have been surnamed Bedan; called likewise the 30 cities, which they possessed by the name of Havoth-Jair, [Judg. 10. 4.]

[Page 29] The Israelites, Year of the World 2799 a. for saking the true God, and falling to worship the gods of several nati­ons, were given up into the hands of the Philistines, and of the Ammonites, which fifth thraldom of theirs, lasted 18 years, [Iudg. 10. 8.] ending with the victory, which was gotten over the Ammonites, in the beginning of Jepthaes ruling over the Israelites.

Was the fifth Jubile. Year of the World 2805 a. The Julian Period 3414 Year before Christ 1200

This year, Year of the World 2816 d. to wit, The Julian Period 3516 on the eighth of their thraldom, Year before Christ 1188 when the enemies had crushed the Isralites, which dwelt beyond Jordan, to pieces, and the Ammonites had passed the river also, to set upon Juda and Benjamin and Ephraim, whom the Philistins had already sorely harrowed, the Israelites calling upon God, were grievously rebuked by him, yet at length shewing their repentance and abandoning their Idols, obteined mercy, [Iudg 10. 8.]

Jair dyed, Year of the World 2817. a. and was buried at Camon, [Iudg. 10. 5.]

The same year, the Ammonites camping in Gilead, and the Israelites in Mispah, which is also in Gilead, [Iudg. 10. 17. and chap. 11. 11.] Jephtha the Gileadite, being called by the men of Gilead, was made Captain of the host of Israel. He, when he had tryed all fair means with the Ammonites, and could do no good with them, made war upon them, and subdued them. But returning from the battle, vowed his daughter unawares to be offered in sacrifice to God, and put to the sword 42000 Ephra­mites, who had behaved themselves somewhat insolently against him, and judged Israel six years, [Iudg. 11. and 12. 6; 7.]

Troy was destroyed by the Greeks 408 years before the first Olympiade. Year of the World 2820. c. The Julian Period 3530 Year before Christ 1184

When Jephtha was dead, Year of the World 2823. d. and buried in Gilead, The Julian Period 3539 Ibzan, Year before Christ 1175 the Bethleamite, judged Israel seven years, [Iudg. 12. 7, 8, 9.]

Ibzan deceasing and being buried at Bethlehem, Year of the World 2830. a. Elon the Zabulonite succeded him, The Julian Period 3539 who judged Israel 10 years, Year before Christ 1175 [Iudg. 12. 10, 11.]

Semiramis, Year of the World 2831 when she would have lain with her son, was by him slain, having held that kingdom 42 years after Ninus, Justin lib. 1. cap. 2. and although it be a thing scantly cre­dible, that a woman of 62 years of age, should affect such a prodigious act of incest, yet it seemeth that St. Austin, lib. 18. de Civita. Dei, believed it; but of Semiramis her death, you may read more in Diodor. Sicu. lib. 2. Biblio.

Her son and successor in the kingdom, Ninus or Ninyas, resting content with the Em­pire, which his parents had gotten, laid aside all cares of military affairs, and, as if he had changed sexes with his mother, seldom came in company, or sight of men; spent his age in the company of women and Eunuchs, Iustin. lib. 1. cap. 2. out of Trogus, Diodor. Sic. lib. 2. and Atheneus lib. 12. out of Ctesias, lib. 3. Persicorum.

Elon being dead, Year of the World 2840. a. and buried at Ajalon in the tribe of Zabulon, The Julian Period 3549 Abdon the Ephramite, Year before Christ 1155 the son of Hillel the Pirathonite succeded him, and judged Israel eight years, [Judg. 12. 12, 13, 14.

Abdon deceased, Year of the World 2848. a. a. c. and was buried at Pirathon in mount Ephraim, The Julian Period 3557 [Iudg. Year before Christ 1157 12. 15.] and after him came Eli, the High Priest (in whom the High Priesthood, was translated from the stock of Eleazer to Ithamar) and he judged Israel 40. years, [1 Sam. 4. 18.] But Is­rael falling to sin again, were delivered up by God into the Philistins hands: which last­ed likewise 40 years; The Julian Period 3558 [Iudg. Year before Christ 1156 13. 1.] which terme of their sixth thraldom, as we make to end seven moneths after the death of Eli, when the Ark was brought back again, so in like manner, we make it to have begun seven moneths after he began to judge Israel, to wit, Year of the World d. about the beginning of the third moneth, which was, afterward called Sivan.

The Angel appearing to the wife of Manoa, of the tribe of Dan, at Zora, told her, that she hiterto barren, should yet conceive and bear a son, who should be a perpetual Na­zarite: and should begin to deliver Israel out of the hands of the Philistins, [Iudg. 13. 5.]

Sampson the Nazarite, Year of the World 2849. b. as the Angel had foretold, The Julian Period 3559 was born at Zora, Year before Christ 1155 [Iudg. 13. 24. for since it appeareth, that he was conceived after their fourty years thraldom, by the Philistins begun, [the same chap. v. 1. 5.] and likewise, that he avenged the Israelites twen­ty years, in the time of the Philistins, as is possitively said, [Iudg. 15. 20.] it is manifest, that the time of his brith, cannot be put off to any further day, unlesse we will imagine, that he began to be an avenger of Israel, before he was 18 years old.

Was the sixth Jubile. Year of the World 2854. a The Julian Period 3563 Year before Christ 1151

Whiles Eli the High Priest executing the office of a judge in civill causes, Year of the World 2867. d. under the Philistins, The Julian Period 3577 Sampson picking a quarrel against him by occasion of a marriage, Year before Christ 1137 which he had contracted with a woman of Timnah, began to play the part of an avenger of the Is­raelites, being then about 22 years of age, [Iudg. 14. 4.] for when, on the day of his betro­thing, he had killed a Lion, having nothing in his hand, and there of made a riddle: at the wedding feast, he propounded it to the guests, with a wager: which when he had lost, because his wife had told them what the meaning of the riddle was, in a rage, he went and slew thirty men of Ascalon, & gave them the suits of raiment, which he had stript off their bodies, in performance of the wager, which he had lost; and so returned home to his father.

[Page 32] Sampson again in harvest-time, Year of the World 2868. c. went to present his wife with a kid, The Julian Period 3578 at his fathers house; Year before Christ 1136 but found that she was otherwise disposed of, and given away to another man in marriage, whereof he resolved to be revenged: and catching three hundred Foxes, and tying fire­brands to their tailes, turned them all going into the Philistines corne-fields, and vine­yards, and olive-gardens, and set them all on fire: whereat the Philistines being moved to wrath, took Sampson's wife, and father in law, and consumed them with fire. In re­venge whereof, Sampson slew a great multitude of them, and sate down upon the rock of Etam: from whence being taken by three thousand of the Jews, and by them delivered into the hands of the Philistines, he slew of them a thousand men with the jaw-bone of an asse. In which place called Lechi from that jaw-bone, God at the prayer of Sampson, opened a hole in the earth, and made it a Fountain (called Enhaccore, (i.) the Fountain of him which called upon God;) with the water whereof, he refreshed himself when he was thirsty, and ready to saint, [Judg. 15.]

Sampson being betrayed by Dalilah his concubine, Year of the World 2887. c. d. and despoiled of the hair of his Nazariteship, The Julian Period 3597 Year before Christ 1177 is delivered to the Philistines: who plucking out his eyes, carried him away prisoner to Gaza, and put him there in prison, fast bound with chaines of brasse: where his hair growing again, and his strength withal renewing, he pulled down the Temple of Dagon, whiles the Princes of the Philistines, with a great multitude of the people which were therein; being more men killed with the fall thereof, and himself for company, than he had slain in all his life before: and he was buried with his father, between Zoar and Eshtalon, when he had been the Avenger of the Israelites 20 years, [Judg. 16. 30, 31.]

The Israelites (taking courage, Year of the World 2888. a. as it seemeth, by this great losse of the Philistines,) gathered together and pitched near unto Eben-Eser (for so it was called by the Prophet Samuel, when twenty years after this time, the Philistines were by him overthrown in the the very self same place) [1 Sam. 7. 12.] and there the Israelites lost 4000. men. And when they had sent for the Ark of the Covenant from Shiloh to be brought into the Camp; the Philistines seeing that now all lay at stake, upon that battel; encouraged one another to play the men that day, least (said they) we be forced hereafter to live in thraldom, under the Hebrews, as they hitherto have done under us. And so falling on, they slew in that second battel, 30 thousand of the Israelites. The Ark of God was taken by them, Hophin and Phineas, Priests, the sons of Eli, were there slain; of all which, when ty­dings came to Eli, with the very fright thereof amazed, he fell off from his chair back­ward, and brake his neck: his daughter in law also, the wife of his son Phineas, hearing thereof, fell in travel of the child she went with; and being delivered of a son, called Ichabod, gave up the ghost, [1 Sam. 4.] But the Philistines having gotten the Ark into their hands, carried it to Azotus, and placed it in the Temple of their god Dagon.

But when Dagon had been found two several times fallen groveling before it upon the ground, and the inhabitants of the place, partly died of the plague, and partly were struck with the filthy emetauds in their secret parts, [Psal. 78. 66.] they removed it from thence, to the Gittites first, and afterward to the Ekronites: But when the same plagues or judgements followed, where ever it went; after seven moneths space, by the advice of their Priests, the Philistines, they sent home the Ark again with presents, and gifts, in­to the land of the Israelites; where the men of Beth-Shemish, in the time of wheat-harvest, (which was toward our Whitsontide, and about the beginning of the third moneth) who would needs be peeping into the Ark, were striken, and perished, to the number of fifty thousand and seventy souls, [1 Sam. 5. and chap. 6. 1, 13, 19.] From thence therefore the Ark was removed, and carried to the house of Aminadab in Gibeah, al. the Hill of the city of Kirioth-jarin, [1 Sam. 7. 1, 2. 2 Sam. 6. 3, 4.] which standing in the Tribe of Juda, was called also Baala, and Kiriath-Baal, [1 Chron. 13. 6. Iosh. 5. 9. 60.] yet all this while the Tabernacle, and the Worship of God therein used, continued still in Shiloh of the Tribe of Ephraim, [Judg. 18. 31. with 1 Sam. 14. 3.]

Barzillai the Gileadite was born; Year of the World 2894. c. for he was 80 years of age, The Julian Period 3604 when Absalom rebelled against his father, Year of the World 2903. a. [2 Sam. 19. 35.]

Was the seventh Jubilie. The Julian Period 3612 Year before Christ 1102

For twenty years together after the Ark came to Kiriath-Jearim, Year of the World 2908. c. [1 Sam. 7. 2.] the Israelites were grievously oppressed by the Philistines; The Julian Period 3618 but being at length perswaded by Samuel, Year before Christ 1096 they returned to the Lord; and having first abandoned all their Idols, came to­gether at Mispah: where they are said to have drawn water, (i.) to have drawn teares from the bottom of their hearts, and to have poured them out before the Lord, [verse 6.] using withal, perhaps, some external effusion or powring forth of water, to represent and signifie their inward repentance and mourning, for their sins: as may be gathered [2 Sam. 14. 14.] which yet some will rather have to be understood of the Repentants themselves, out of [Gen. 35. 2. and out of Exod. 19. 14.] But upon this conversion of theirs; God by thunder from heaven immediately delivered the people of the Israelites from the invasion of the Philistines, [1 Sam. 7. 10. compared with Iosh. 10. 10, 11.] with which terrible thunder from God, the Philistines being affrighted, quitted all the cities of [Page 33] the Israelites, which formerly they held, [1 Sam. 7. 14.] leaving certain small garrisons, and that, in some few places onely, [1 Sam. 10. 5.] and came no more to invade their bor­ders; because they saw that the hand of the Lord was against them all the dayes of Sa­muel, [1 Sam. 7. 12.] to wit, till Saul came to be King: under whom, they returned a­gain, and grievously oppressed Israel, as we shall see anon. Meane while, Samuel, being now grown old, and desirous to take his ease, took for his Assistants, his two sons; that they might judge the people at Beersheba, who yet walked not in their fathers wayes; but for rewards and bribes perverted judgement, [1 Sam. 8. 1, 2, 3.] But, that he put not off the whole office of Judicature to his sons, is manifest out of, [chap. 7. 15, 16, 17.] for there it appears, that he continued his custom of judging the people by himself to the very last.

Now after that, Year of the World 2909. c. when not onely his sons, The Julian Period 3619 but King Saul himself, Year before Christ 1095 also came to the go­vernment of things, the Israelites began to make light of the good old man; which troubled him, and offended God, [1 Sam. 8. 6, 8.] grounding their dislike, upon the ill carriage and behaviour of his sons; who at their very first enterance into the govern­ment, (at what time Rulers, which are none of the best, yet use commonly to shew a lit­tle moderation) brake out into all excesse, which the people greedily laid hold on, and desired a new form of government, and to have a King, as other Nations had [chap. 8. 4, 5.] of which Innovation, there was yet another, and in truth, a more urgent cause: which was, that whereas the Philistines kept still some footing, and garrisons in their land: the fame also went, that Naash, King of the Ammorites made great levies of men, and preparations for war against them; which fear sinking deep into them, they resolved to relie no longer, neither upon Samuels wisdom, nor yet upon the power or providence of God, who yet had hitherto been their King and Avenger, of which they had so late an experiment, in sending the Philistines packing out of their coasts: but cast off both, and desired to have a King, [1 Sam, 12. 12, 17, 19.] whereupon God gave them a King in his wrath, [Hos. 13. 10, 11.] to wit, Saul, the son of Kish, of the Tribe of Benjamin, by the space of fourty years, [Acts 13. 21.] of which age, when his son Ishbosheth who succeeded him in the Kingdom, is said to have been, [2 Sam. 2. 11.] it is manifest, that he was then also born into the World. Saul therefore was first anointed privately, and afterward publickly, and before all the people, made and proclaimed King at Mispa, by Samuel, who from the death of Eli, to this time, had judged Israel one and twenty years, 1 Sam. 10. 1, 24, 25.] And not long after, as appeares, [chap: 12. 12. 16.] to wit, about one moneth, (as the Septuagint, and Iosephus, lib. 6. Antiquit. expressely have it) Jabesh Gilead was besieged by Naash King of the Ammonites; and the siege was raised by Saul, who there put the Ammonites to flight: where­upon all the whole Congregation of Israel coming together at Gilgal, Saul was there again made and proclaimed King, [chap. 10. 14, 15.] Samuel meane while protesting of his sincerity in the execution of his place and function, and complaining of the wrong that had been done him, and terrifying the people on the one side with the raine and thunder which fell upon them in the time of wheat-harvest, and recomforting them on the other, with the promises of Gods mercies, [chap. 12. v. 17.] from whence it ap­peareth, that all this fell out, about our Whitsontide, or feast of Pentecost, and be­ginning of the third moneth; one and twenty years after the bringing again of the Ark out of the country of the Philistines, at the very self same season of the year, [1 Sam. 6. 13.] from all which, as we gather, that full twenty years passed between the bringing back of the Ark, and the subdueing of the Philistines out of the, [seventh chap. v. 2, 13.] so that there passed one whole year, between the ridding of the Philistines out of the land of Israel, and the declaring of Saul to be King, we gather out of those words of the thirteeneth chapter, first verse; Filius anni erat Saul, cum regnaret ipse, & duobus annis regnavit super Israelem (i.) Saul was the son of one year when he reigned; and reigned two years over Israel. Of which word, there can be no fitter sense rendered, than this; that after the Philistines were subdued by Samuel, there had passed one year, when Saul began to reigne: and that then he reigned two year free from the subjection of the Philistines.

For shortly after, Year of the World 2915. c. Saul was put from the Kingdom again by the Philistines, The Julian Period 3621 and the Israelites again grievously enthraled by them: Year before Christ 1093 Which yoke being again shaken off, Saul is said to have gotten the Kingdom: that is, to have recovered it again, out of the Philistines hands, [1 Sam. 14. 47.] Now that this thraldom cotinued many years upon them, appeareth by this: that whereas it began eight years before Da­vid was borne, yet before it ended, Samuel prophesied and foretold of his succeeding after Saul in the Kingdom. The Lord hath sought him a man according to his own heart, and God hath commanded him to be Ruler our his people, [1 Sam. 13. 14.] For the Philistines, to put them out of all possibility of any more rebelling against them, for want of armes, had taken from them all kind of smithes: so that when afterward, notwithstanding they did rise and came to fight; none of the people, but onely Saul and Jonathan his son, had either sword or speare to bring into the field against them, [1 Sam. 13. 19, 22.]

[Page 34] Jessai the Ephrathite in his old age, Year of the World 2919. c. [1 Sam. 17. 12.] had his youngest son David born at Bethlehem; The Julian Period 3629 which was therefore afterward called The City of David, Year before Christ 1085 [1 Sam. 20. 6. and Luke 2. 4.] thirty years before he succeeded Saul in the Kingdom, [2 Sam. 5. 4. with 1 Sam. 16. 1.]

God having now rejected Saul, Year of the World 2941. c. and debarred his race and family from succeeding in the Kingdom, The Julian Period 3651 sent Samuel, Year before Christ 1063 after his long mourning for Saul, to Bethlehem, there to anoint David to be King, fourty years before the rebellion of Absolom, [1 Sam. 16. 1. with 2 Sam. 15. 7.] who being, A lovely keeper of a lovely flock, was called from keeping his fathers sheep, [1 Sam. 16. 13.] and preferred before his elder brethren; and being anointed in their presence, [1 Sam. 16. 13.] incurred their envy, [chap. 17. 28.] no lesse than Joseph did of his brethren: and at last, was set over the Tribe of Judah, at the same age that Ioseph was made Ruler over all Egypt, [Gen. 41. 46.] Meanewhile, from the very day of his anointing, the Spirit of God came upon him; to wit, the spirit of courage and wisdom, [1 Sam. 18. 5, 13. 2 Sam. 5. 2.] In both which respects, even while Saul lived, he was made General over all Israel, [1 Sam. 18▪ 5. 13. and 2 Sam. 5. 2.] and withal grew a great Warriour, to fight the Lords battels, [1 Sam. 25▪ 28.] and besides was a Prophet, and made the sweet Singer of Israel; as one, who by his divine Psalms should teach and instruct the people of God to the end of the worl [...], [Acts 2. 30. 2 Sam. 23. 1, 2.]

Mephibosheth, who was also called Meribbaal, [1 Chron. 18. 34. and 9. 40.] the son of Ionathan was borne five years before the death of his father, [2 Sam. 4. 4.]

David fearing he might at last fall into Sauls hands, Year of the World 2944. c. fled to Gath, The Julian Period 3654 (whither he had also formerly retired himself, Year before Christ 1060 1 Sam. 21. 10.) unto King Achish, carrying with him, six hundred men: and having obtained of him the town of Ziglag to dwell in, he con­tinued one year and four moneths in the land of the Philistines: from whence, making often inroads upon the Geshuri [...]es, and Gersites, and the Amalekites, he put to sword all, both men and women, not leaving one alive to carry news thereof to King Achish, of what he had there done, [1 Sam. 27. 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, &c.]

Whiles David was at Z [...]glag, there repaired to him, of the kindred of Saul, many valiant men of the Tribe of Benjamin, as also of the Tribe of God, sundry principal souldiers, which came over Iordan to him in the first moneth, at what time it overflowed all his banks, with divers other Captains and Commanders of the Tribes of Benjamin and suda [1 Chron. 12. 1, 15, 18.]

King Achish purposing with his army of Philistines to invade the Israelites; Year of the World 2949. c. took Da­vid along with him in that voyage, [1 Sam. 2 [...]. 1, 2.] and to him whiles he was upon his march with his six hundred men, repaired sundry others of the Tribe of Manasses, and joyned with him, [1 Chron. 1 [...]. 19.] and the Philistines were then encamped at Shunem: but the Israelites, in Gilboa, [1 Sam. 28. 4.]

Saul seeing the Army of the Philistines, fell into a fear, and sought counsell from the Lord: But receiving no answer from him, neither by dream, neither yet by Urim, nor by his Prophets: leaving him, he went to Endor by night, to consult with a Witch there: where by a vision of Samuel raised by her, he received that dread­ful doome. God shall deliver Israel, together with thy self, into the hands of the Philistines: and to morrow, thou and thy children shall be with me, [1 Sam. 28. 5, 6, 19. and 1 Chron. 10. 13, 14.]

While David was away upon his march, the Amalekites took Ziglag; plundred it, and burnt it: carrying away with them among the rest, Davids two Wives, Ahinoam of Iezrael, and Abigal, the relict of Nabal, [1 Sam. 30.]

Saul returning the same night from the Witch, the Israelites removed to the Fountain of Iezrael, and the Philistines to Aphek: where the Princes of the Philistines growing jealous of David, he and his company early the next morning, left their army, and return­ed towards Ziglag; and the Philistines in this interim, marched up to Iezrael, to fight with the Israelites, [1 Sam. 28. 25. and 29. 1, 3, 10, 11.] whence it appear, that Saul and his sons, were not slain the next day after his communication with the apparition of Sa­muel (for all that day David was in the army of the Philistines) but some while after his departure from them.

When David was upon his return to Ziglag, there came unto him seven Colonels of the Manassi [...]es, [1 Chron. 12, [...]0, 2 [...].] where arriving the third day after, and finding the tovvn plundred and c [...]ns [...]med vvith fire; he left tvvo hundred of his Company, vvhich vvere tired in the march, at the brook B [...]zor; and vvith the other four hundred he fol­lowed after the Amalekites, and overtaking them, slew them, from the twilight of the first day, to the evening of the next; and having recovered all that was lost, returned home w [...]h joy, [1 Sam. 30.]

The Host of Israel being wholy routed, the three sons of Saul, Jonathan, Aminidab, and Milch [...]shu [...], were there also slain; Saul, and the Squire of his body fell upon their own swords. The day following, the Philistines having taken off the head of Saul, hung up his armour in the temple of their Ido Ashtaroth; and the bodies of him, and his three sons, upon the walls of Bethshemish: But the men of Jabesh Gilead, remem­bring [Page 35] the favour which Saul at the entrance of his reigne had done unto them, stole away their bodies from thence and burnt them; and buried their bones under an oak at Jabesh, and kept a fast for them seven dayes long, [1 Samuel 31. verse 1. 1 Chron. 10.]

Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan, who was now slaine, when his nurse, upon the tydings thereof, fled away with him, in a great fright and haste, fell out of her armes, and became lame of his feet ever after, [2 Sam. 4. 4.]

David returning from the slaughter of the Amalekites, three dayes after heard of the defeat of the Army of the Israelites, by a boy of the Amalekites, who was in the fight: and brought Sauls Crown, and the Bracelet of his arme (both which he had taken off from Sauls body,) unto him, [2 Sam, 1. 1.] From which so late ty­dings, though brought with all speed, coming unto David, it is gathered, that the defeat in Gilboa, happened some number of dayes after Davids leaving the Army of the Philistines. Nor may any man marvel, that the battel was so long after delayed, when we read, that the Syrians also long after that, encamping against the Israelites at the same place of Aphek, sate there seven dayes, and upon the seventh, joyned battel with them, [1 Reg. 20. 26, 29.]

David having put to death the Amalekite who professed that he had slain Saul, lamented the death of Saul and Jonathan, and of the people of God in a funeral Song, [2 Sam. 1.] And when the companies of the Israelites Army came daily flocking to him, [1 Chron. 12. 22.] asking counsel first of God, he went up to Hebron with those which were about him and their families: where being anointed King by the men of his own Tribe, when he was now thirty years of age; he reigned over Judah by the space of seven years and six moneths, [2 Sam. 2. 1, 3, 4, 11. and chap. 5. 4, 5.]

Abner, who was formerly the chief of Sauls gendarmery, carrying Ishbosheth Sauls son to Mahanaem, there made him King over the rest of Israel; who being then fourty years old, is said to have reigned two years over Israel, [2 Sam. 2. 8, 9, 10.] to wit, quietly, and without any quarrel with the house of David: as also his fathers two years reigne is meant of his reigne free and uncumbred by the Philistines; as was said before, [1 Sam. 13. 1.]

David sent messengers to the men of Jabesh Gilead, thanking them for the kindnesse which they had shewed to their Lord and Master Saul; and to let them know, that the kingdom of Juda was settled upon him, [2 Sam. 2. 5, 6, 7.] wherein the better to strengthen himself, he contracted affinity with Tolmaie, King of Geshur, and married his daughter Maacah: which bare unto him, Absalom and Thamar, [2 Sam. 3. 3. and 13. 1.]

After the two years quiet reigne of Ishbosheth over Israel, Year of the World 2951. c. there grew a long war between his partakers, The Julian Period 3661 and the partakers of David: Year before Christ 1053 Joab the son of Zervia, Davids sisters son, bearing up the one side, and Abner the other: and sundry battels and skirmishes passed between them; yet so, as that Davids party waxed every day stronger and stronger, and the other weaker and weaker, [2 Sam. 2. 26. and chap. 3. 1.]

Was the eighth Jubilie. Year of the World 2952. a.

Abner being used with some disgrace by Ishbosheth, Year of the World 2956. d. revolted from him, The Julian Period 3666 and fell over to David: Year before Christ 1048 and dealt with the chief Men and Heads of Israel, to transfer the whole kingdom unto David, and this, in the hearing of the Benjaminites, [1 Sam 25. 44. 2 Sam. 3. 14, 15.]

Michal Davids wife, whom her father Saul after David was fled, had given in mar­riage unto Phaltrel; upon Davids demand, was sent back to him by Ishbosheth, [1 Sam. 25. 44. 2 Sam. 3. 14, 15.]

Abner coming with a traine of twenty men unto David, was by him received and feasted; and returning from him in peace, was upon the way treacherously slaine by Joab; and with great mourning and lamentation made over him by David, was buried at Hebron, [2 Sam. 2.]

When all Israel was troubled at the death of Abner, Bahana and Recab, of the Tribe of Benjamin, murdered their Lord and Master Ishbosheth, as he lay resting himself on his bed in the heat of the day: and bringing his head to David, were for their pains by him put to death, [2 Sam. 4.]

The Captains and Elders of all the Tribes coming to Hebron, made David now a third time, an anointed King over all Israel, [1 Chron. 12. from verse 23. to the end of that chapter, with chap. 11. 1, 2, 3. and 2 Sam. 5. 1, 2, 3.]

David with all Israel marched to Jerusalem against the Jebusites; Year of the World 2957. a. and there took the Fort of Sion, by the special service of Joab; and from thence, that was called the City of David, no lesse than Bethlehem, where he was borne. And making Jerusalem the seat of his Kingdom, reigned there over all Israel, the terme of 33. years, [2 Sam. 5. 5, 6, 7, 9. 1 Chron. 11. 4, 5, 6, 7.]

The Philistins hearing that David was, The Julian Period 3667 by the general consent of the tribes, Year before Christ 1407 made King [Page 36] overall Israel, led their army twice against him to the valley of the Raphaeàns: and were twice beaten by him, [2 Sam. 5. 1 Chron. 14.] where when David, in the time of harvest, de­sired a draught of water, out of the well at Bethlehem; and three most valiant Captains of his arme, to pleasure him, brake through the host of the enemy to fetch it, and brought it to him, he would not drink it, [2 Sam. 23. 13. 1 Chron. 11. 15.]

David built the City of Sion round about, Year of the World 2958. b. as well the fortification, The Julian Period 3668 as the houses within, Year before Christ 1046 and Joab repaired the rest of the City, [2 Sam. 5. 9. 1 Chron. 11. 8.]

Hiram sent messengers to David, and cedar wood, and Carpenters and Masons, who built him his house, [2 Sam. 5. 11. 1 Chron. 14. 1.]

The Arke of the Covenant, Year of the World 2059 which in the first Sabbatical year, The Julian Period 3669 was brought from Gil­galto to Siloh, Year before Christ 1045 was this year, being also a sabbatical year, brought from Kiriath-jearim (whither it was removed from Shiloh 70 years before) out of the house of Abinadab, thirty thousand choice men out of all Israel, attending on it, and singing the 68 Psalm, as may probably be collected out of the first verse thereof, because taken out of that forme of praier which was appointed by Moses, to be used and sung at every removal of the Arke, [Numb. 10. 35.] and was carried first to the house Obed-Edom; and after three months, removed into the City of David, or the fort of Sion, David himself rejoycing before it, and singing that of [Psalm, 132. 8.] which Solomon his son in the year of Jubilie next following, when he brought the Arke into the Sanctum Sanctorum of the Temple, repeated, viz. Arise O Lord into thy resting place, thou and the Arke of thy strength: with the rest there found, con­cerning the same Ark, [v. 60.] Behold we (i.e. the men of Bethlem dwelling thereby) have heard of it at Ephrata (our own Country) and found it in the fields of Jair, or the wood; i.e. In the hill of Kiriath-jearim, for that signifies a City, bordering upon woods, and again, [v. 13, 14.] The Lord hath chosen Sion, for an habitation for himself; saying, This is my rest for ever here will I dwell, for I have a delight therein: whence it is, that the Arke is said There to have rested, [1 Chron. 6. 31.] being received into the new Tabernacle which David had pre­pared for it at Jerusalem, [3 Sam. 6. 17. 1 Chron. 16. 1. 2 Chron. 1. 4.]

For the Tabernacle of the Congregation built by Moses, with the brazen altar, whereon was offered the daily sacrifice, remained at Gibeon (which was likewise in the Tribe of Judah, and stayed no longer in Shilo, which was in the tribe of Ephraim) untill the Tem­ple of Solomon was built, [1 Chron. 6. 32, 48. 49. 1 Chron. 16. 39, 40. and 21. 29. 16. 2 Chron. 1. 3, 5, 6. 1 Reg. 3. 2, 4.]

And so the Arke, being removed out of the Tribe of Joseph, of which Ephra [...]m was a part, into the Tribe of Judah, Shilo from thence forth lay neglected, [Psal. 78. 63, 64. Ier. 7. 12, 14. and Ier. 26. 6.]

David now dwelling in his house of cedar, Year of the World 2960. d. which he had built, The Julian Period 3670 and living in a full and perfect peace, Year before Christ 1044 imparted unto Nathan the Propher, the purpose he had of building a house for God: but was answered from God, that thi [...] was a work which should be done, not by him, because he was a man of blood, and trained up wholy in warlike affaires, but by his son Solomon a man of peace, which should be borne unto him, [2 Sam. 7. 1, 2, 11, 13. 1 Chr. 17. and c. 22. 8, 9, [...]0. and c. 24. 3, 6. and 2 Chron. 6. 8, 9. 1 Reg. 8. 18, 19.] Now the time which passed from hence forward, till the birth of Solomon, was all taken up, and spent in wars; wherein David subdued the Philistines, the Edomites, the Amalekites, the Moabites, the Ammonites, and the Syrians, [2 Sam. 8. 3. 1 Chron. 18.] and the bounds of Israel stretched not only from Shicot in Egypt to Hamath, [1 Chron. 13. 5.] but even from thence to the river Euphrates, and even to the borders of Syria Zobea, [2 Sam. 9. 3.] which was the utmost bound of all that land, which had been formerly promised to the seed of Abraham, [Gen. 15. 18. with Deut. 11. 24. and Ios. 1. 3, 4.] and never possessed by any of them, save only by David, and his son Solomon, [1 Reg. 4. 21, 24. 2 Chron. 9. 28.]

At this time Hadad-ezer, al, Hadar-ezer (for [...] are [...] with the Hebrews easily taken one for the other) the son of Rehob, was King of Syria Zobea, and to him was joyned Rezon the son of Eliod with his forces out of Syria of Damascus when he was ready to fight against David, not far from the river Euphrates. But David having first routed Hadad-ezers army, slew afterward, two and twenty thousand of the Syrians of Damascrs, and put garrisons upon all that countrey: But when Rezon saw that David prevailed, he fell off from Hadad-ezer, and commanded, himself in chief, over such forces as he had newly raised; and marching with them to Damascus, set up there a kingdome for himself, and his own posterity, who, we find, afterward proved very bitter enemies to Solomon, and the rest of the Kings of Israel, [2 Sam. 8. 5, 6. 1 Reg. 11. 23, 24, 25.] of this battel fought by David near unto the river Euphrates, Nicolaus Damascenus, in Jo­sephus, (lib. 7. Antiq. c. 6. al. 5.) maketh mention, where he calleth this Rezon Adad; and addeth, that he left this name to descend to his successors to the tenth generation, as Ptolomy did to his in Egypt.

After Naash King of the Ammonites, Year of the World 2967. a. succeeded Hanun his son: The Julian Period 3676 Year before Christ 1038 who fowly abused such messengers, as David out of kindnesse had sent to comfort him over the death of his Father.

[Page 37] Against him therefore Joab, The Julian Period 3677 sent by David, Year before Christ 1037 went and overthrew a huge army of the Ammonites, and Syrians, whom the Ammonites had in pay: and so returned with vi­ctory to Jerusalem, [2 Sam. 10. 1 Chron. 19]

David passing over Jordan with his army, Year of the World 2968. b. made a vast slaughter of the Syrians, led by Shobach, General of the army of Hadad-ezer, King of Syria Zobea: whereupon followed a peace between David and the petty Kings of Syria; so that they durst no more send aide to the Ammonites: but served him, [2 Sam. 10. 1 Chron. 19.]

At the end of this year, Year of the World 2969. b. what time kings use to go forth to battle, The Julian Period 3679 Joab, Year before Christ 1035 going with the army against the Ammonites, besieged Rabba, the head City of Ammon: whiles David took his ease at Jerusalem, [2 Sam. 11. 1. 1 Chron. 20. 1.] and there defiled, by adultery, Bathsheba the wife of Uriah the Hittite, who was then in the army, and in consequence thereof, procured the husband to be slain by the hand of the Ammonites, [2 Sam. 11.]

When the child so gotten in adultery, Year of the World 2970. b. was born, The Julian Period 3680 David being convinced by Nathan the Prophet of his fault, Year before Christ 1034 repented him of his sin, and composed the 51 Psalm, for a memo­rial of it: yet the new born babe was taken away by death, [2 Sam. 12.]

Bathsheba, Year of the World 2971. a. being now his wife, The Julian Period 3681 bare David a son, unto whom, as to one who should prove a man of peace, Year before Christ 1033 God gave the name of Solomon, [1 Chron. 22. 9.] and as to one belo­ved of God, the name of Jedidia, [2 Sam. 12. 25.]

Ammon, Year of the World 2972. c. Davids eldest son, The Julian Period 3682 deflowred his lifter Thamar. Year before Christ 1032 [2 Sam. 13.]

Ammon, Year of the World 2974. c. two years after that incestious rape of his, The Julian Period 3684 was slain by the setting on of his brother Absolom at the time of sheep-shearing, Year before Christ 1030 [2 Sam. 13. 23.] to wit, at the end of the spring, at the second math of grasse, which was wont to be mowed before corne harvest, a little after the middest of the first month: as Codomanus upon this place noteth, out of [Amos 7. 1. compared with Jos. 3. 15. and Jos. 4. 9. and Jos. 5. 10, 11, 12.]

But Absalom having done the deed, fled away to Geshur in Syria: where he continued 3 years with king Tolmay his grandfather by the mothers side, [2 Sam. 13. 37, 38. and 15. 8.]

Absalom, Year of the World 2977. c. after three years exile, The Julian Period 3687 returned to Jerusalem: Year before Christ 1027 his father being then pacified towards him by the speech of the woman of Tekoa, set on work by Joab, [2 Sam. 13. 38. and 14. 1, 23. ib.]

Absalom, Year of the World 2979 having set Joabs barly on fire, The Julian Period 3689 a little before harvest this year (for the year fol­lowing was a sabbatical year, Year before Christ 1025 wherein there was no harvest in Judea) was by his means admitted to his fathers presence, whom he had not seen in two years after his return from exile, [2 Sam. 14. 28. 30, 33.]

This sabattical year came between the burning of Joabs corn field, Year of the World 2980 and the rebellion of Absalom against his father: The Julian Period 3690 Year before Christ 1024 in which this rebellion, having gotten chariots, and horses, and a guard of ruffians about him, insinuated himself into the favour of the people, and stole away their hearts from his father David, [2 Sam. 13. 1.]

Fourty years after the anointing of David by Samuel, Year of the World 2981. c. Absalom, The Julian Period 3691 following the advise of his chief counselor Architophel, Year before Christ 1023 got himself into possession of his fathers kingdome, between Easter and Whitsontide; as Codomanus gathers out of Barzillaie his furnishing of David (when he fled) with new fruits, and parched corne, [2 Sam. 17. 28]

Against the practises of Absalom, and Architophel, David composed the 3, and 55 Psalmes: Shime [...] also, of the Tribe of Benjamin, railed upon David, as he fled▪ [2 Sam. 16.]

And Architophel seeing his counsel not followed by Absalom, went and hanged himself, [2 Sam. 17.]

Absalom, having lost twenty thousand men, fled, and a bough of a thick oake, catching hold of his long haire, he there hung between heaven and earth, and was thrust through and slain by Joab, [2 Sam. 18.]

After the victory thus gotten, David, by the men of Judah, and one half of the people of Israel, was brought home again; and the Israelites mutining, because they had not had a chief hand in that work, a new rebellion grew thereon: which yet was soon over, by throwing the head of Sheba the son of Bicri, over the walls to Joab, by the inhabitants of Abel, [2 Sam. 19. 20.]

The harvest of this year failing, Year of the World 2983. c. there began a famine, The Julian Period 3693 which afflicted the land three years, Year before Christ 1021 for the bloud of the Gibionites, shed by Saul and his family, [2 Sam. 21. 1, 2.]

The famine still continuing, Year of the World 2986. c. the G [...]beonites, The Julian Period 3696 in the beginning of barley harvest, Year before Christ 1018 hung up two sons, and five grand-children of Sauls: whose bodies, Rispa, Sauls concubine, watched, and kept from being devoured by ravenous birds or beasts, till water dropped upon them from heaven, [2 Sam. 21. 8, 9, 10.]

David caused the bone of Saul and Jonathan his son to be removed out of Jabesh Gile­ad, together with the bones of the seven that were hanged, and to be buried at Zela, in the sepulchre of Kish the father of Saul, [2 Sam. 21. 12, 13, 14.]

Many batteis were fought with the Philistims and their Giants; in one whereof, David being now old, and fainting in the fight, was like to have been slaine by Ishi­benod [Page 38] a Gyant, and hardlie escaped: and this was the last fight that ever David was in, in person, [2 Sam. 21. 1 Chron. 20.]

David, Year of the World 2987. d. what by the testation of Satan, what through his own ambition, would needs have the number of his people to be taken; and thereby kindled the wrath of God against the Israelites: The number therefore throughout all the tribes, (except the tribes of Levi, and Benjamin, [1 Chron. 21. 6. with chap. 27. 24.] of all the men upwards of twenty years old, [1 Chron. 27, 23.] was taken. Which numbring, being finished in nine moneths and twenty dayes, [2 Sam. 24. 8.] the choice, of famine, sword or Pestilence, was put unto him by Gad the prophet, [2 Sam. 2. 48.] which famine was to be of three years con­tinuance, to wit, one after another then immediatly following, as [1 Chron. 21. 12.] or of seven years, as [2 Sam. 24. 13.] to wit, counting the three years of famine preceding, and this present sabbatical year, (which having no sowing, cannot repair the losses of the former years) for a fourth, as it it had been said. Three years of famine, for the slaughter of the Gibeonites, are allready past: after which there was a harvest indeed; but for want of seed, a very poor one, and no wayes able to supply the want of the two years following, which the intervening of the sabbatical year must needs draw with it; so that the famine must needs continue still upon the land, especi­ally upon the poorer sort therein, and now to these by-past years of famine, God proposeth unto thee three years more of famine, to chuse, if thou wilt. And the way or reason of reconciling these two differing places, hath especially moved me in this passage, to refer this history of Davids numbering the people, unto this Sabbathical year.

Now of the three, David chose the plague; whereof there dyed in one day seventy thou­sand men: and when the Angel was about to destroy Jerusalem, God of his mercy bade him hold his hand; and withall, commanded David to offer whole burnt offerings, and peace-offerings in the threshing-floor of Araunah or Ornan the Jebusite, [2 Sam. 24. 1 Chron. 21.] Year of the World 2988. a.

David fore-seeing, that the house of God should be built in that threshing-floore of Araunah, [1 Chron. 22. 1. with 2 Chron. 3. 1.] began presently to prepare materials necessary for so great a work, exhorting his Sonne Solomon, and all the Heads of Israel, to fall in hand with all their might, and to go thorough with it, The Julian Period 3698 [1 Chron. Year before Christ 1016 22. 1, 2, 3, 17, 18, 19.]

He also taking the number of the Levites, first from thirty, then from twenty years old and upwards, divided them into many ranks, and appointed to every of them their seve­ral offices and established a set forme, both of ecclesiastical, and also of civil government, in the fortieth year of his reign, [1 Chron. 23. 2, 27. and 24, 25, 26, 31.] to wit, in the begin­ning thereof, (i.e.) one year and an half before his death.

Rehoboam was born unto Solomon by Naaman, an Ammonitish woman; as being 40 one years old, when he began to reign, [1 Reg. 14. 21, 1 Chron. 12. 13.] for though Solomon called himself a little childe, [1 Reg. 3. 7.] and David his father said, he was a child, young and tender, [1 Chron. 22. 5. and 29. 1. yet in another place, he termeth him a man of wisdom, [1 Reg. 2. 9.] and this, before that great measure of knowledge and understanding was cast upon him over and above by God: which three things; tender years, a son born, and perfect wisdom, no man may wonder to find attributed to Solomon, at eighteen years of age, when he sees the very same to be spoken afterward of King Josiah, The Julian Period 3699 at his age of six­teen, Year before Christ 1015 [2 Chron. 34. 1, 2, 3. with chap. 36. 5.]

David being now seventy years of age, Year of the World 2986. d. and broken with continual cares and wars, was grown so weak and feeble, that applying of warm cloaths, would hardly keep any heat in him: And therefore was there sought out Abishag, a young maiden, a Shunamite, to keep him warm: Year of the World c. and Adonias, seeing his father thus declining, by the counsaile and advice of Joab, and Abiathar, the High Priest made himself King: whereof, when Da­vid was advertized by Bathsheba, and Nathan, he presently caused his son Solomon to be apointed King by Zadock the Priest, and Nathan the Prophet, and Benajah, the son of Jehojada, in Gihon; which so soon as Adonias heard, he presently fled, and took san­ctuary; and laying there hold on the horns of the altar, was pardoned by the grace and favour of Solomon, and set at liberty, [1 Reg. 1.]

David assembling all the Governours, Captains and Commanders of Israel, together with his sons and servants, exhorted them all to the fear and worship of God, and in spe­cial, Solomon his son to go in hand with the building of the temple: giving him in wri­ting, the platform, or model, according to which it was to be coutrived and built, and consigning unto his hands gold and silver, by weight, for the making every vessel and implement for the use of the Temple [1 Chron. 28.] after which, what by his example, what by his exhortation, he prevailed so far, that every man, cast in gold and silver, and brasse, and iron, and stones, all in great abundance towards the building of Gods house. And then, thanks first rendred unto God, the next day after, they offered a thousand young bullocks, a thousand rams, and a thousand lambs, with the meat-offerings thereunto be­longing: and for a conclusion, made Solomon King the second time apointing him for their Sovereign King, and Zadock, for the High Priest, [1 Chron. 29. 1, 23.]

[Page 39] David having given instructions to his son Solomon; Year of the World 2990 a. departeth this life, [1 Reg. 2. 1, 10.] after he had reigned in Hebron seven years six moneths, and 33 years in Jerusalem, over all Israel, [2 Sam. 5. 5.] of which the fourty years, which the Scriptures attribute to his reign, we must take for the terme which he reigned, before he made Solomon king in his roome; and that he survived six moneths after: so that the years of Solomons reign, mentioned in the scripture, are to be reckoned from the first moneth, a full half year, before the decease of David.

Adonias, Year of the World b. by the means, The Julian Period 3700 and intercession of Bathsheba, Year before Christ 1014 sueth to Solomon; to give him Abishag the Shunamite to wise, and was therefore as one aspiring to the kingdom, put to death. Abiather of the race of Eli, was put from the High Priesthood; and Zadock put in his room, who was descended from Phineas: as it was foretold by God, should come to passe, [1 Sam. 2. 33, 35.] and so the High Priesthood reverted from the family of Ithamar to the family of Eleazar, and there continued; Joab for fear fled to the Tabernacle, where, having hold on the hornes of the taltar, he was slain by Benajah the son of Jehojada, who was forthwith made captain of the host, in his room by the king. But Shimei, who had heretofore railed upon David, was confined onely to his house, yet with this condition, that if at any time, he passed over the brook Kedron, he should die the death, [1 Reg. 2.]

Hadad the Edomite, hearing that Joab was dead, returned out of Egypt into his own country. Him God afterward, when Solomon began to follow after vanities, raised up an enemy unto him, [1 Reg. 11. 14, 21.]

Pharaoh King of Egypt, Year of the World 3991. a. gave his daughter in marriage to Solomon, and gave her Ge­zer, a city sometime belonging to the tribe of Ephraim, [Jos. 21. 21.] but which he had taken from the Cananites, putting all the inhabitants to the sword, [1 Reg. 9. 16.] and Solomon brought her into Sion, the palace of David, [2 Reg. 3. 1, 2. 2 Chron. 8. 11.]

Salomon offered a thousand whole burnt-offerings at Gibeon, Year of the World c. where the Tabernacle then was, The Julian Period 3701 where, Year before Christ 1013 when God appearing to him in his sleep, and bad him chose, and ask what he would, and it should be given him; he chose, and asked wisdom to be given him: God therefore gave him wisdom from above; casting in all other gifts over and above: And of his wisdom, the first experiment was made, in deciding the controversie between the two women about the child, and that first gave him an opinion and reverence with the people, [1 Reg. 3.]

Solomon being visited by messengers sent from Hyram, Year of the World 2992. a. King of Tyre, desired further of him, to help him with timber, toward the building of the Temple: which Hyram, up­on certain conditions, and consideration of paying for it, promised to doe, and did it, Solomon finding the work-men, over whom he had set pay-masters, and other officers to put on the work.

The fifth Age of the World.

IN the year 480. Year of the World c. from the coming of the children of Israel out of Egypt, The Julian Period 3702 in the fourth year of the reign of King Solomon, Year before Christ 1012 on the second day of the second moneth, which was then called Ziu (of our May 21, being munday) the foundation of the temple was laid, [1 Reg. 6. 1, 37. 2 Chron. 3. 2.]

Shim [...]i, Year of the World 2993. b. three years after he was commanded to keep him at Jerusalem, The Julian Period 3703 and not to go over the brook Kidron; Year before Christ 1011 returning from Gath, from whence he had fetcht back two run-away servants of his, was put to death by Solomons command, [1 Reg. 2. 39.]

In the eleventh year of Solomons reign, Year of the World 3000. a. in the eighth moneth, The Julian Period 3709 which was called Bul. Year before Christ 1005 the building of the temple was finished with all things belonging thereunto: having been seven years and an half in working, [1 Reg. 6. 38.] but the dedication of it was put off till the next year by season of the Jubile.

This was the ninth Jubile, Year of the World 3001. a. opening the fourth Millenary of the world, The Julian Period 3710 wherein Solo­mon with great magnificence, Year before Christ 1004 celebrated the dedication of the temple. For all Israel being assembled together in the 7th month, called Ethanim, the Ark was brought out of Sion, into the Sanctum Sanctorum, and the Tabernacle and holy vessels, from Gibeon, into the trea­sury of the Temple; where when God had given a visible and wonderful token of his pre­sence, Solomon being upon a scaffold made of brasse, and kneeling upon his knees, utter­ed a set prayer unto God, and afterward blessing the people, he offered twenty two thou­sand oxen, and 120 thousand sheep; and so having celebrated the feast of the dedication of the Altar seven days, (and the feast of Tabernacles other seven dayes, and the celebri­ty of the eighth day of Tabernacles being finished, at last, upon the three and twenty day of the seventh month, the people were dismissed every man to his home, [1 Reg. 8. 1, 2, [Page 40] 65, 66. 2 Chron. 5. 3, 4, 5. chap. 6. &c. chap. 7. 8, 9, 10.]

The eighth day of the seventh moneth, (to wit, 30 of our Octob. being friday, was the first of the seven dayes of the dedication; the tenth day, (with us, Novemb. 1. upon a Satur­day) was the fast of expiation or atonement held, whereon (according to the Leviticall law, [chap. 25. 9.) the Jubile was proclaimed by the sound of a trumpet.

The fifteenth day, (our November 6▪ being friday) was the feast of Tabernacles. The 22 (our Novemb. 13. being also friday) was the last of the feast of Tabernacles; which was alwayes very solemnly kept, [2 Chron. 7. 9. with Levit 23. 36. and John 7. 37.] and at the day following, (Novemb. 14. being our Saturday) when the sabbath was ended, the people departed home.

Solomon, Year of the World 3012. c. in the thirteenth year after the temple was built, The Julian Period 3722 made an end also of build­ing his own house, Year before Christ 992 having spent full twenty years upon both of them: whereof seven and a half upon the Temple, and thirteen or twelve and a half upon his own, [1 Reg. 7. 1. and 9. 10. ib▪ and 2 Chron. 8. 1.]

After all which, Solomon offered unto Hiram King of Tyre 20 cities of Galilee, or Cabul, joyning upon the tribe of Asher, (which himself had purchased) in requital of those many good offices which Hiram had done him, toward the building of the temple; which when Hiram refused, he built them all anew himself, and planted colonies of the Israelites in them, [1 Reg. 9. 10. and 2 Chron. 8. 1, 2.]

When Solomon had finished both houses, and the wall of Jerusalem round about, then he removed his wife, the daughter of Phataoh, out of the city and house of David, into a house, which himself had built, and prepared for her, [1 Reg. 3. 1. and chap, 7. 8. and chap. 9. 24. and 2 Chron. 8. 11.] He new built also Gezer, which Pharaoh the fa­ther, having taken from the Cananites, had given to Solomon, lying within the precincts of the tribe of Ephraim, [1 Reg. 9. 15, 16, 17.]

Sesack; Year of the World 3026. c. which others cal Sesonchis (according to our Egyptian Chronology) began to reign; The Julian Period 3736 unto whom Jeroboam the son of Nebar fled, Year before Christ 978 and continued with him till after So­lomon was dead, [1 Reg. 11. 40. and chap. 12. 2.]

Solomon, Year of the World 3029. c. having forsaken his lusts and vanities, The Julian Period 3739 to which he was too intemperately addicted toward his later dayes, Year before Christ 975 having testified his deep repentance for it, in his book called The Preacher, and having made his peace with God, [2 Chron 11. 17.] at last died; when he had reigned 40 years, [1 Reg. 11. 42. 2 Chron. 9. 30.]

Rehoboam the son of Solomon, when all Israel me [...] at Sichem to make him King, by a harsh answer made unto them, alienated the hearts of ten tribes from him, who present­ly sending into Eypt for Jeroboam the son of Nebat, made him King over them, and under his conduct, they fell of both from the house of David (killing Adoram, whom Rehoboam had sent unto them) and also from the true worship of God, [1 Reg. 12.] In memorial of which sad disaster, the Jews afterward, kept a solemn fast yearly, upon the 23 of the third moneth, called Sivan.

From this dismal rent made of that kingdom, Rehoboam reigned over Judah and Ben­jamin seventeen years, [1 Reg. 14. 21. 2 Chron. 12. 1, 2.] and Jeroboam over Israel, (i. e.) over the other ten tribes, by the space of 22 years. [1 Reg. 14. 20.]

Rehoboam returning to Jerusalem, levying men to the number of one hundred, and four­score thousand men, and purposed to make war upon the ten tribes: but being admonish­ed from God by the prophet Semajah, he gave it off, [1 Reg. 12.] though there followed continual wars between the two kings all their dayes, [1 Reg, 14, 13.

Jeroboam in the beginning of his reign, repaired Sichem, where he was chosen king by the people, and which had been destroyed by King Abimel [...]ch, 258 years before, and there dwelt, till going afterward over Jordan, he there built Penuel, [1 Reg, 12. 25. and at last, built Tirza, and made that the seat of his kingdom, [ib. chap. 14. 17.] But fearing lest his new-gotten subjects should happly revolt from him again, he diverted their thoughts from looking any more after Jerusalem, by a new devised form and fashion of religion, setting up two golden calves, the one at Bethel, the other at Dan, for the brain-sick people, to run a whoring after them, [1 Reg. 12.]

REHOBOAM. Year of the World 3030. a. reign of the King of Juda 1

The Priests and Levites, Year of the World b. and o­ther Israelites, who feared God, falling off from Jeroboam to Reho­boam, mantained the kingdom of Juda three years. For so long wal­ked they in the wayes of David and Solomon, [2 Chron. 11. 17.]

Rehoboam, Year of the World 3032. d. being once setled in his kingdom, forsook the Law of the Lord, and all Israel and Juda with him, [2 Chron. 12. 1.] For the Jews, who by their good example should have stirred up their brethren the Israelites to repentance, provoked the Lord with their own sins; wherein they offended beyond all that ever their forefathers had done. For they made also to them­selves High-places, and Images, and Groves, upon every high hill, and under every green tree, doing according to all the abominations of the Gentiles, which the Lord had therefore cast out before them, [1 Reg. 14. 22, 23, 24.]

In the 5 year of Rehoboam, Year of the World 3033. c. Se­sak, [Page 42] King of Egypt, invited perhaps by Jeroboam, (who had formerly lived with him, as I noted before upon the year of the World, 3026.) led an Army of 120. Chariots, and 60000. Horse, with foot innume­rable out of Egypt, of the Lubaeans, Succaeans, and Cusites, into the land of Iudea; and having won all the rest of their fenced cities, came at last before Ierusalem: where the King and his Princes, being drawn to repentance, by the preaching of Semaia the Prophet, received a gra­cious promise of their deliverance indeed: but at a dear rate; for they were to give up to the Egyptians all the treasure of the Temple, and of the Kings house, and all the sheildes of gold which Salomon had made, instead whereof Rehoboam made them as many brasse ones, [1 Reg. 14. v. 25. 2 Chron. 12. 2, 12.] reign of the King of Juda 6 reign of the King of Juda 7 reign of the King of Juda 8 reign of the King of Juda 9 reign of the King of Juda 10 reign of the King of Juda 11 reign of the King of Juda 12 reign of the King of Juda 13 reign of the King of Juda 14 reign of the King of Juda 15 reign of the King of Juda 16 reign of the King of Juda 17

Abijah the son of Rehoboam, Year of the World 3046 succeeded his father deceased, reign of the King of Juda 1 in the beginning of the 18 year of Je­roboams reign, and reigned 3 years, [1 Reg. 15. 1, 2. 2 Chron. 13. 1, 2.]

Abijah with an army of four hun­dred thousand men, Year of the World 3047 encountring with Jeroboam and his army, reign of the King of Juda 2 con­sisting of eight hundred thousand men, and having first placed his trust and confidence in God, obtained a notable victory against him, where­in he slew of his men, five hundred thousand; such a number as was ne­ver slain in any one battel before or since, and then pursuing his victory, he took Bethel, where one of the Calves was set up, and Jesana, and Hephravin, with the townes about them, [2 Chron. 13.] reign of the King of Juda 3

Asa, Year of the World 3049. c. in the very end of the 20 year of Jeroboams reign, reign of the King of Juda 1 succeeded his father Abia, deceased, in his king­dom, and reigned 41 years, [1 Reg. 15. 8, 9, 10.]

This year was the tenth Jubile. Year of the World 3050. d. reign of the King of Juda 2 [Page 43] Year of the World 3051. d. reign of the King of Juda 3 reign of the King of Juda 4

God now gave ten years peace without interruption to the land, Year of the World 3053. c. [2 Chron. 14. 1, 6.] even to the 15 year of king Asa his reign, reign of the King of Juda 5 or to the 35 year from the rent made of that kingdome from that other of Israel, [c. 15. 10, 19.] in which year, this godly king Asa put away all publick Idolatry, and reforming his king­dome, fortified the Cities of Judah against the invasion of enemies, reign of the King of Juda 6 [c. 14. 16.]

Jehosophat was born unto Asa, Year of the World 3055 by his mother Azuba, reign of the King of Juda 7 which after­ward at 35 years of age, succeeded him in his kingdome, [1 Reg. 22. 42. 2 Chron. 20. 31.] reign of the King of Juda 8 reign of the King of Juda 9 reign of the King of Juda 10 reign of the King of Juda 11 reign of the King of Juda 12 reign of the King of Juda 13 reign of the King of Juda 14

In the beginning of Asa his reign, Year of the World 3063. c. Zerach the Ethiopian, reign of the King of Juda 15 with an innumerable army of his own Cushites (who as it seemeth came out of Arabia Petraea, and the de­sart) and ten hundred thousand of the Lubeans, besides those which fought aloft from the Chariots; invaded the land of Juda. These Asa met, with three hundred thou­sand men out of Juda, and two hundred and fourescore thousand out of the Tribe of Benjamin, and calling on the name of the Lord, routed and slew that vast army, and took the spoile of them: After which, being encouraged by Aza­ria the Prophet, he assembled all his own subjects, and very many also of the Israelites, which clave unto him, at Jerusalem, in the third month, in which the feast of Pente­cost fell; where they sacrificed to God out of the spoile, which they had taken, seven hundred oxen, and of other cattle, seven thousand, and solemnely renewed their co­venant with God; Asa also pro­ceeding to the fuller reformation [Page 44] of his kingdom so well begun, remo­ved Maacha his grandmother, a great patronesse of Idolatry, from the honour of Queen mother, and the things which his father and himself had consecrated to God, he brought into the temple, [2 Chron. 14. 9. chap. 15. 1, 10, 11, 12, 16. chap. 16. 8.] Year of the World 3064. c. reign of the King of Juda 16

Asa hired Benadad King of Syria to come and hinder the building of Rama, which he did; and Asa of the stones and timber which was provided for the building of Rama, built Geba and Mizpa. Also when Hanan the prophet reproved him, for craving aid of the king of Syria, he cast him into prison, and at the same time, vexed some of this people, [2 Chron. 16.] reign of the King of Juda 17 reign of the King of Juda 18 reign of the King of Juda 19 reign of the King of Juda 20 reign of the King of Juda 21 reign of the King of Juda 22 reign of the King of Juda 23 reign of the King of Juda 24 reign of the King of Juda 25 reign of the King of Juda 26 Year of the World 3074. d. Year of the World 3075. d. [Page 45] Year of the World 3077 reign of the King of Juda 28 reign of the King of Juda 29 Year of the World 3079. d.

Jehoram was born to Jehosaphat 132 years, Year of the World 3080. d. before his father took him into the consortship of his kingdom, reign of the King of Juda 32 [2 Reg. 8. 17. 2 Chron. 21. 20.] reign of the King of Juda 33 reign of the King of Juda 34 reign of the King of Juda 35 reign of the King of Juda 36 reign of the King of Juda 37 reign of the King of Juda 38 Year of the World 3086

Asa in the 39 year of his reign, Year of the World 3087 be­ing diseased in his feet, reign of the King of Juda 39 sought for help, not from God, but from the Physicians, [2 Chron. 16. 12.] reign of the King of Juda 40 reign of the King of Juda 41

Asa in the end of the 41 year of his reign died, Year of the World 3090 and was buried in a roome, reign of the King of Juda 1 stuffed with Sweet odours, which he had prepared for himself, in the city of David, 2 Chron. 16. 13, 14.] This father was good, but a better son succeded him in his stead, called Jehosophat, who, in the very latter end of the fourth year of A­chabs reign, coming to reign over Juda, held it 25 years, [1 Reg. 22. 41, 41. 2 Chron. 20. 31.] reign of the King of Juda 2 reign of the King of Juda 3

Jehosaphat being setled in his kingdom, Year of the World 3092 began with the taking a­way of the high places and the groves, and in the third year of his reign, took order that the Levites and other chief men, were sent a­bout [Page 46] into all cities, to instruct the people, while God in the mean time kept off some of his enemies from invading him, and subdued others to him, [2 Chron. 17. 7.] reign of the King of Juda 4 reign of the King of Juda 5 reign of the King of Juda 6 reign of the King of Juda 7

Athalia the daughter of Achab, Year of the World 3097. d. King of Israel, being married to Ie­horam the son of Iehosaphat King of Iuda (which is that affinity which the Scripture sayes Iehosa­phat contracted with Achab) [2 Chron. 18. 2.] bare unto him a son Ahaziah, reign of the King of Juda 8 who at the age of 22. years, succeeded him in the king­dom, [2 Reg. 8. 18, 26, 17. 2 Chron. 22. with 21. 6.]

The eleventh Jubilie. Year of the World 3099. a. reign of the King of Juda 9 reign of the King of Juda 10 reign of the King of Juda 11 reign of the King of Juda 12 reign of the King of Juda 13 Year of the World 3103. c. reign of the King of Juda 14 Year of the World 3104. d. reign of the King of Juda 15 Year of the World 3105 reign of the King of Juda 16

[Page 47] Jehosaphat after the example of Ahab, Year of the World 3106 d. made Jehoram his son, Vice-Roy of the kingdom: whereupon it is that Jehoram the son of Achab, who succeeded his brother Acha­zia in the kingdom over the Israel­ites, in the 18. year of Jehosaphat, King of Juda, [2 Reg. 3. 1.] is said to have begun his reign, in the 2. year of Jehoram, the son of Jeho­saphat, [2 Reg. 1. 17.]

Jehosaphat going to visit Achab in the third year of the peace which he had made with the As [...]yrians, Year of the World 3107 in the very end of the year; reign of the King of Juda 18 was in­vited by Achab, to go with him to the siege of Ramoth Gilead, and upon his entreaty he went: but e­scaped thence, not without extream danger of his life, [1 Reg. 22. 2. 2 Chron. 18.] At his return home, he was reproved by the Prophet Je­hu, the son of Hanam, for aiding such a wicked King, [1 Reg. 19. 1, 2.]

When Jehosaphat had rigged his Navy, Year of the World 3108. a. to send it to Ophir for gold, and Achazia the wicked son of Achab, would needs go sharer with him in that voyage: at first, Jehosaphat would no, [1 Reg. 22. 49.] but at last, condescended there­to. And for so doing, God repro­ved him by the mouth of his Pro­phet Eliezer, the son of Dodona, and destroyed his Fleet, [2 Chron. 20. 35, 36, 37.] Year of the World b. reign of the King of Juda 19 Year of the World 3109. c. reign of the King of Juda 20 [Page 48] reign of the King of Juda 21 reign of the King of Juda 22

Jehosophat now growen old, Year of the World 3112. c. and desiring to settle his house, reign of the King of Juda 23 gave the rest of his son, reign of the King of Juda 1 many gifts, with fen­ced Cities in Judea; but his eldest son Jehoram (whom he had formerly imployed as his Vicegerent) he now joyned with himself, and made him his consort in the kingdome, in the fifth year of Jehoram king of Israel▪ which he held by the space of eight years, reign of the King of Juda 24 reign of the King of Juda 2 [2 Chron. reign of the King of Juda 25 reign of the King of Juda 3 21. 2, 3, 5, 20. [2 Reg. 8. 16, 17.]

When Jehosophat was dead and buried in the City of David, Year of the World 3115. c. [1 Reg. 2. 50. 2 Chron. 21. 5.] reign of the King of Juda 4 Jehoram, a detestable son, of a most blessed fa­ther, held that kingdom alone, by the space of 4 years, who being so setled in his kigdome, slew all his brethren, and many also of his other Princes of Israel, [2 Chron. 21.] And now the Edomites, which from the time of king David [2 Sam. 8. 14. had ever lived in subjection to the Tribe of Judah, fell off, and revolt­ed from it: and although they had been smitten by Jehoram, yet, ac­cording to the foretelling of Isaac, [Gen. 27. 40.] they for ever after shook off his yoke; Libna also, a City of the Priests, in the Tribe of Juda, [Jos. 12. 13.] fell off from him at the same time, [2 Reg. 18. 20, 21, 22. 2 Chron. 21. 8, 9, 10.]

Jehoram following the counsel of his wicked wife Athaliah, Year of the World 3116. a. set up in Judah, and even in Jerusalem it felf, the idolatrous worship of Baal, after the fashion of his father in law Achab and his house: and compel­led his subjects to do the like, for which he was reproved by a letter [Page 49] written, and left for him by the Pro­phet Elias, before his assumption, with a foretelling of all those cala­mities and punishments, which ac­cordingly afterward fel upon him.

For first God stirred up against him the Philistines and Arabians, Year of the World c. which breaking in upon Judea, plundered, and carried away, what ever was found in the kings house, together with the persons of his sons and wives; so that all his other sons being slain, he had none left him, save only Jehoachaz, [2 Chron. 21.] who was also called Achazia, and Azaria, and who succeeded him in the kingdom, [ib. c. 22. 1, 6.]

After this God struck Jehoram with an incurable disease in the bowels, Year of the World 3117. c. which tormented him, reign of the King of Juda 6 two whole years, [2 Chron. 21. 15, 18, 19.]

Jehoram being thus afflicted with sicknesse, Year of the World 3118. d. made his son Ahazia, reign of the King of Juda 7 his Vice-roy, in the 11 year of Jorum the son of Achab, 2 Reg. 9. 29.]

Jehoram his bowels breaking out, Year of the World 3119 died a miserable death, reign of the King of Juda 81 and was bu­ried in the city of David, but with­out all pompe, and not among the kings, 2 Chron. 25. 19, 20.] After whom succeeded his son Achazia, in the 12 year of Ioram the son of Achab, and reigned one year in Ie­rusalem; and he also, following the train of a wicked mother, Athalia, and of the house of Achab, set up, and maintained the worship of Baal, [2 Reg. 8. 25. 27. 2 Chron. 22. 1, 2, 3, 4.]

Achazia, had a son by Zibia of Beersheba, whose name was Ioash, who at the age of 7 years, was after­ward proclaimed king, [2 Reg. 11. 21. 2 Chron. Year of the World 3120 24. 1.]

Achazia returning from the bat­tle at Ramoth Gilead, against Ha­zael, after a while, went to Iezrael, to see Iehoram the king of Israel, lying sick of the wounds, which he had taken, where Iehu finding many of his blood, which there attended him, and sundry princes of Juda, he slew them also: and then searching for Achazia himself, who had gotten [Page 50] away, and was fled to Megiddo, and overtaking him afterward in the go­ing up to Gur, which is in Jibleham, in the tribe of Manasses; caused him to be killed in his chariot. Who being taken and carried from thence by his servants, was buried with his forefathers in the city of David, [2 Reg. 9. 2. 2 Chron. 22.] Jehu also going on to Samaria, and meeting by the way with fourty two men of the blood of Achazia, who were going to Jezrael, there to salute the kings children, caused them eve­ry man to be butchered in the place, [2 Reg. 10. 13, 14.]

Athalia, the daughter of Achab, seeing her own son Achazia dead, reign of the King of Juda 1 destroyed all the race of the house of Juda, and possessed her self of the kingdom; but Jehosheba, the daugh­ter of king Joram, and wife to Je­hoida, the High Priest, took Joash, being then an infant, and son to her brother Ahazia, and him with his nurse, hid six years in the Temple, whiles Athalia ruled all, and so sa­ved him from the butchery which was made of the rest of the blood-royal, [2 Reg. 11. 1, 2, 3. 2 Chron. 22. 10, 11, 12.] reign of the King of Juda 2 reign of the King of Juda 3 reign of the King of Juda 4 reign of the King of Juda 5 reign of the King of Juda 6

Jehojada the high Priest, reign of the King of Juda 1 brought out Joash, Year of the World 3126. c. being now seven years old, and anointed him king: caused Athalia to be slain, and restored the worship of the true God, destroying the house of Baal. and cammanding his priest Matthanes to be kisd before his altars, [2 Reg. 11. 4, 21. 2 Chr. 23. 1, 21.] Now Joash beginning his reign in the seventh year of Jehu, reigned 40 years in Jerusalem, [2 Reg. 12. 1. 2 Chron. 24. 1.] reign of the King of Juda 2 reign of the King of Juda 3 reign of the King of Juda 4 reign of the King of Juda 5 reign of the King of Juda 6 reign of the King of Juda 7 reign of the King of Juda 8 reign of the King of Juda 9 reign of the King of Juda 10 reign of the King of Juda 11 reign of the King of Juda 12 reign of the King of Juda 13 reign of the King of Juda 14 reign of the King of Juda 15

Amasia was this year born in Je­rusalem, Year of the World 3140. d. being the son of Joash, and [Page 51] Jehodana, for he was 25 years old when he began to reign, [2 Reg. 14. 2. 2 Chron. reign of the King of Juda 16 25. 1.] reign of the King of Juda 17 reign of the King of Juda 18 reign of the King of Juda 19 reign of the King of Juda 20 reign of the King of Juda 21 reign of the King of Juda 22

Joas commanded the Prists to re­paire the Temple of God, Year of the World 3147. d out of the pole-money gathered for that pur­pose, [2 Reg. 12. 2 Chron. 24.]

The twelfth Jubile.3148. [...].

Joash seeing the Priests to go on very slowly in the repairing of the Temple in the 23 of his reign, [...]. com­mitted the charge thereof to Jeho­jada, the chief priest and others, to compleat that work. reign of the King of Juda 24 reign of the King of Juda 25 reign of the King of Juda 26 reign of the King of Juda 27 reign of the King of Juda 28 reign of the King of Juda 29 reign of the King of Juda 30 reign of the King of Juda 31 reign of the King of Juda 32 reign of the King of Juda 33 reign of the King of Juda 34 reign of the King of Juda 35 reign of the King of Juda 36 reign of the King of Juda 27 reign of the King of Juda 38 Year of the World 3163. c.

Zacharias the Priest, Year of the World 1164. c. son of Jeho­jada, reign of the King of Juda 39 for reproving the Israelites back-sliding into Idolatrie, after Je­hojada was dead, was stoned to death by the people, set on by the king, in the court of Gods house, [2 Chron. 24.]

The next year, Year of the World 3165 certain companies of Hazael, reign of the King of Juda 40 king of Syria, reign of the King of Juda 1 though small in number, yet fell upon Juda and Jerusalem, and destroyed all the chief of the people, and sent away all the spoyl of them, to their own king. But when they were gone, leaving him very sick, his own servants con­spiring [Page 52] against him, in revenge of Zacharies death, and murdered him as he lay in his bed; in the begin­ning of the 40 year of his reign, [2 Chron. 24. 1, 23. &c. with 2 Reg. 12. 1, 17. &c.] whose successor A­masia in the later end of the second year of Joash king of Israel, reigned 29 years, [2 Reg. 14. 1, 2.] Who, so soon as he was quietly setled in his kingdom, put to death such of his servants, as had had a hand in the death of his father; yet spared their children, according to the law of God, delivered by Moses, [ib, v. 5, 6. 2 Chron. 25. 3, 4.] reign of the King of Juda 2 reign of the King of Juda 3 reign of the King of Juda 4 Year of the World 3168. c. reign of the King of Juda 5 reign of the King of Juda 6 reign of the King of Juda 7 reign of the King of Juda 8 reign of the King of Juda 9 reign of the King of Juda 10 reign of the King of Juda 11 reign of the King of Juda 12 reign of the King of Juda 13

Amasia the king had by Iecholia, Year of the World 3178 a woman of Ierusalem, reign of the King of Juda 14 a son called Uzziah, al. Azariah, who was 16 years of age, when he succeded his father in the kingdom, [2 Reg. 15. 2. 2 Chron. 26. 2.]

Amasia, growing proud upon a victory lately obtained against the Edomites, in this fourteenth year of his reign, as Josephus, lib 9. Antiquit. cap. 10. hath it, provoked Ioash king of the Israelites, to battail; and in a pitch-field at Bethshemish, was over­come and taken prisoner, and upon a great ransom, & hostages given, was let go again, reign of the King of Juda 15 [2 Reg. 14. 2 Chron. Year of the World 3179. c. 25.] [Page 53] reign of the King of Juda 16 reign of the King of Juda 17 reign of the King of Juda 18 reign of the King of Juda 19 reign of the King of Juda 20 reign of the King of Juda 21 reign of the King of Juda 22 reign of the King of Juda 23 reign of the King of Juda 24 reign of the King of Juda 25 reign of the King of Juda 26 reign of the King of Juda 27 reign of the King of Juda 28

Amasia, Year of the World 1194. c. finding a conspiracy made against him at Jerusalem, reign of the King of Juda 29 fled to Lachish: where he was murder­ed, and was from thence carried and buried in the city of David, [2 Reg. 14. 19, 20. 2 Chron. 25. 27, 28] after whom came Uzzia, or Azaria, in the 27 year of Jerobo­am, King of Israel: reckoning from the time that he began to reign in consortship with his father, as be­fore, in the year of the World, 3168. was said; and he reigned 52 years in Jerusalem, [2 Reg. 15. 1, 2.]

Under him did the kingdom of Juda flourish no lesse than that o­ther of Israel did under Jeroboam the second; for so long as following the advice of the Prophet Zachary, he applied his minde to matters of piety and religion; so long, born up by the hand of God, he subdued the Philistines, and other bordering enemies of his; and grew mighty in his kingdom, as is at large expres­sed, [2 Chron. 26. from the 2. to the 16. verse.] reign of the King of Juda 2 reign of the King of Juda 3

Now was the 13 Jubilie held un­der two most flourishing Kings, Year of the World 3197. a. un­der whom also lived sundry great Prophets in either kingdom; reign of the King of Juda 4 as in Juda, that Evangelical Prophet, Esau, the son of Amotzus, [Esay 1. 1.] and Ioel, the son of Pethuel; who prophesied before Amos, as Codomanus conceiveth, because that in the end of his first chapter, he foretelleth of a drought to come, which Amos in his fourth chapter, complaineth to have come. But Amos living in Iudea, amongst the Heardsmen of Tekoa, was called and sent to be a Prophet to the [Page 54] kingdom of Israel, two years before the Earth-quake which fell out in the dayes of these two Kings Uzzia and Jeroboam the second, [Amos 1. 1. Zacha. 11. 5.] reign of the King of Juda 5 reign of the King of Juda 6 reign of the King of Juda 7 reign of the King of Juda 8 reign of the King of Juda 9 reign of the King of Juda 10 reign of the King of Juda 11 reign of the King of Juda 12 reign of the King of Juda 13 reign of the King of Juda 14 Year of the World 3207 reign of the King of Juda 15 reign of the King of Juda 16 reign of the King of Juda 17 Year of the World 3210 [Page 55] reign of the King of Juda 18 reign of the King of Juda 19

There was an Eclipse of the sun, reign of the King of Juda 20 of about 10. digits in the year after the Iulian Period, Year of the World 3213 3923. on the 24 day of Iune, in the feast of Whit­sontide; and an other of almost 12 digits, eleven years after, according to the Iulian Period, an. 3943. upon the eighth of our November, in the dayes of the Feast of Tabernacles. And a third, of above 11. digits in the year following after the Iulian Period, 3944. our May 5. in the Feast of Unleavened bread: to which that prophesie of Amos, [Chap. 8. 8, 9, 10.] may seem to have reference, where he saith; In that day, saith the Lord Jehovah, the Sun shall set, at noon-day, and I will bring darknesse upon the earth in a clear day; and I will turn your festi­vals into mourning, and all your solemn songs into lamentations: which as in an allegorical sense, the fathers heretofore took as referring to that darknesse which fell in the Feast of Easter, at the passion of our Savi­our. So in these three great E­clipses, falling upon those three great Feasts, at which all the Males of them were to be present at Ieru­salem before the Lord, and bring­ing a darknesse those dayes, that prophesie may not without reason be thought to have been in a litte­ral sense fulfilled. That as among the Grecians, Thales was the first who by his knowledge in Astronomy; as I shall shew upon the year of the World, 3403. so among the He­brews, Amos by a divine instinct and inspiration, may be deemed the first that ever fore-told the Eclipses of the Sun. reign of the King of Juda 21 reign of the King of Juda 22 reign of the King of Juda 23 reign of the King of Juda 24 reign of the King of Juda 25 reign of the King of Juda 26 Year of the World 3220

[Page 56] Uzzia king of Juda, had Jotham, by his wife Jer [...]sha, Year of the World 3221. c. the daughter of Zadoc: who when his father was striken with a leprosie, and secluded from the company of men, had the rule of the kings house, and judged the people: and after his death, suc­ceeded him in the kingdom: being then but 25 years of age, (2 Reg. 15. 5, 33. 2 Chron. 26. 21. and c. 27. 1, 8.] From whence we may gather, that long after, when Menachem, got the kingdome of Israel into his hands, Uzzia then in his old age, adventu­ring to the Priests office, was stri­ken with that plague of leprosie: contrary to what the Jewes, and Procopius Gazeus affirmes, upon the seventh chapter of Isaiah, that this leprosie befel him, about the 25 of his reign; and at the very time of the Earth quake, which happened in the dayes of Uzzia and Jeroboam, [Amos 1. 1. Zach. 11. 5.] for that it is manifest, that when Jeroboam died, Jotham was not yet born. reign of the King of Juda 29 reign of the King of Juda 30 reign of the King of Juda 31 reign of the King of Juda 32 reign of the King of Juda 33 reign of the King of Juda 34

From the summer of this year 3228, Year of the World 3228. c. begins the first olympiade of the Greek Chronologers, reign of the King of Juda 35 wherein Choraebus of Elis, wan the race; but of the Iphitean accompt, the 28. As Julius African [...]s sheweth out of the writings of Aristodemus Eleus, and Polybus (as in the Greek edition of Eusebius by scaliger, p. 13. & p. 216.) appeareth: And here also endeth that interval of time, which by that most learned Varro (as in Censori­nus his book, de die natali, is report­ed) is termed [...] (i.e.) fabulous because many fabulous things are therein said to have happened, and withal beginneth that time which is called [...]: (i.e.) Historical, be­cause from thence, things credible and true, begin to be recorded. [Page 57] reign of the King of Juda 36 reign of the King of Juda 37 reign of the King of Juda 38 Year of the World 3232. a.

Boccaris Saites, Year of the World 3233. c. reigned in Egypt 40 years, [Affrican.] [Page 58] reign of the King of Juda 41 reign of the King of Juda 42 reign of the King of Juda 43 Year of the World 3237 reign of the King of Juda 44 reign of the King of Juda 45 reign of the King of Juda 46 reign of the King of Juda 47 reign of the King of Juda 48

Achaz the son of Jotham, Year of the World 3242 was in this year born: reign of the King of Juda 49 for he was twenty years old, when he came afterward to reign, 2 Reg. 16. 2. 2 Chron. 28. 1. But because he reigned 16 years on­ly; and after his decease, h [...]s son Esechias, is said to have been twenty five years old, when he began to reign, whereby Achaz could be but eleven years old, Year of the World 3243 when his son was borne, reign of the King of Juda 50 therefore Tremelius would have it understood that Achaz was twenty years old, not when himself, but when his father Jotham began to reign.

Habyattes the elder, Year of the World 3245 reigned in Lydia 14 years, reign of the King of Juda 51 Euseb. Chron.

[Page 59] The 14 Jubile, Year of the World 3246. a. in which the pro­phet Isaiah saw and beheld the glo­ry of the Lord, sitting in his throne, and compassed about with a guard of Angels; singing, Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth, the people of the Jews, growing from this time for­ward, more & more obdurate and blind every day than other; lest they should understand the words of the prophets, which were sent unto them, and should be converted and healed, [Esay 6. John. 12. 40, 41.]

This vision of the prophet Isaiah, befel in the last year of king Uzzia, [Esay 6. 7.] after whom being buri­ed in the cities of David, and in the burying place of the kings; but a part from the rest, because of his leprosie, succeded his son Jotham, in the 20 year of Peka, king of Israel, and reigned 16 years in Jerusalem, [2 Reg. 15. 7. 32, 33. 1 Chron. 26. 23. and 27. 1. 8.]

Jotham, fought a battail against the Ammonites, and overthrew them, whereupon they became tri­butary to him, by the space of three years, [2 Chron. 27. 5.] under him and his two successors, Micah the Morashite, together with Isaiah, and Hosea, executed his prophetical fun­ction, [Mic. 1. 1.] In his time also, as Josephus lib. 9. Antiq. cap. 11. al. 12. affirmes, did Nahum the prophet foretel, the subversion of the Assy­rians, and city of Ninive, which came to pass 100 and 15 years after, whereas by that reckoning, he should rather have gathered, that Nahum prophesied in the time of Achaz, the son of Jotham. reign of the King of Juda 2 reign of the King of Juda 3 reign of the King of Juda 4 reign of the King of Juda 5 reign of the King of Juda 6 reign of the King of Juda 7

In this year was Ezekias the son of Achaz, Year of the World 3252. c. born of Abiah, the daugh­ter of Zacharia, reign of the King of Juda 8 for he was 25 years old when he began to reign, Year of the World 3254 [2 Reg. 18. 2. 2 Chron. reign of the King of Juda 9 29. 1.]

[Page 60] Rome, Year of the World 3256 according to the reckon­ing of Fabius Pictor, reign of the King of Juda 11 the most an­cient of all Roman writers, and ac­cording to the accompt kept, of the secular games, of all others most reli­giously observed by the ancient Ro­mans, began to be built by Ro­mulus a little before the beginning of the 8 Olympiad, on the feast of their goddess Pales, upon the 10 day of April, though the feast of Pales, according to Varro his accompt, be ful five years more ancient than it is by Fabius, his saying; of which day, yet the Poet Ovid speaking, saith,

Vrbs oritur (quis tunc hoc ulli cre­dere posset?)

Victorem t [...]rris impositura pedem.

Fal. 4. this is,

A Citie's born, (which who then would have thought)

That since, Year of the World 3257 the world hath in sub­jection brought.

[Page 61] Meles in Lydia reigned 12 years, reign of the King of Juda 13 [Euseb. reign of the King of Juda 14 Chron.] of whom more is to be seen in Herod. reign of the King of Juda 15 lib. reign of the King of Juda 16 1. cap. 84.

Achaz succeeding his father Jo­tham in the very end of the 17 year of Peka, Year of the World 3262. c. the son of Remalia, reign of the King of Juda 17 reign­ed 16. years in Ierusalem, [2 Reg. 16. 1, 2. 2 Chron. 28. 1.]

When, towards the end of the reign of Iotham, God began to stir up Resin the King of Syria, and Pe­ka the son of Remalia against Iu­da, [2 Reg. 15. 37.] The house of David, at the report of his ap­proaching, with all the people of Iu­da, were sorely affrighted; as ap­prehending a sudden and final de­struction from them. But unto Ac­haz in his fear, God, by Esay the [Page 62] Prophet sent a gracious message, with a promise of deliverance to him, and destruction to his enemies: And for a sign of his deliverance (when the incredulous King, being bidden to ask what sign he would, would ask none) God made him a promise of a Virgin, that should bear Immanuel; who both in regard of his person, should be [...], God and man: God with us, or dwelling in our flesh; and also in regard of his office, whereby, as the onely Me­diatour of God and man, [1 Tim. 2. 5.] he should bring to passe, that God should be with us, [Esay 8. 10.] gracious and propitious to us, and a very present help in trouble, [Psal. 46. 1, 2, 7. with Rom. 8. 31, 32.] which advertisement was most be­fitting the businesse then in hand, both in regard that all promises of God in Christ, are Yea and Amen, [2 Corin. 1. 20.] to be fulfiled gene­rally in him, and for him: and be­sides, for that, the land of Judea, by a spec [...]al priviledge, was to be the land of this Immanuel, [Esay 8. 8.] wherein, as pertaining to the flesh, he was to be born, not onely of the Jews, but also of the very house of David; and that, according to the foretell [...]ng of Jacob, [Gen. 49. 10.] before the Scepter should depart from Juda, (i.) before Judea should wholly leave off to be a Common-Wealth, ruled by a Kingly govern­ment; and therefore at that time, the destruction or abolishment of the house of David, or nation of the Jew, was not to be feared; which misery sixty five years after, betided the nation of the Ephraimites, as had been foretold them, by the Pro­phet Esay, [chap. 7. 8.]

As for the utter and final destru­ction of those Kings who had then banded themselves against him, the Prophet was commanded to fore­shew it, by bringing forth Shear Jashub his son: and to tell him (af­ter he had declared that great My­stery or Oracle of a God-bearing Virgin, by the motion of his finger, or some other gesture) that butter and honey he should eat, and be nourished thereby, until he came to such an age, as to know the good from the evil; for that before that time, both those Kings should be destroyed each out of his own land, [Esay 7. 3, 15, 16.] And whereas it fell out at the same time, that Esay his wife, a Prophetesse, bare him another son: by Gods appoint­ment, his name was called Maher-shalal-hash-baz, importing, that the [Page 63] Assyrian should make haste, and take a­way the spoile: and should plunder both Syrians and Israelites, before the child should be able plainly to pronounce, My father, or My mother. And so the sons of the Prophets were made to serve for signs and documents from God to the Israel­ites, [Esay 8. 3, 4, 18.] After these prophesies uttered, Rezin and Peka, joyntly came up to besiege Jerusa­lem, wherein Achaz then was: but could not take it, as was told before­hand that they should not, [Esay 7. 1, 7. 2 Reg. 16. 5.] But this wicked Achaz, was no sooner delivered out of this imminent danger, but he forsook God his Deliverer: For he forthwith walked in the wayes of the Kings of Israel, and set up the Idolatrous worship of Baal; offered incense in the valley of Ben-Hinnon, and made his own son to passe tho­rough the fire, and offered sacrifice in the High places, and upon the Hills, and under every green tree, [2 Chron. 28. 2, 3, 4. 2 Reg. 16. 3, 4.]

So when Achaz forsook God, Year of the World 3263. c. God also forsook him: reign of the King of Juda 2 wherefore Rezin and Peka, dividing their for­ces, overcame him, which both joyned together, they could not do. For God gave him over both into the hands of the Syrians, who, ha­ving smitten him, carried away a great multitude of his people cap­tive to Damascus, and also into the hands of the King of Israel, who made a great slaughter of his peo­ple, [2 Chron. 28. 5.]

At the same time, Rezin subdued Elath, which King Azarias, or Uz­zias had recovered to Juda, and bu [...]lt it anew, and placed his Syrians therein to dwell, [2 Reg. 14. 22. 2 Chron. 26. 2. 2 Reg. 16. 2.]

Moreover the Edomites invaded Juda, Year of the World 3264. c. and carried from thence ma­ny Captives. reign of the King of Juda 3

The Philistines also whom King Uzzia, whiles he trusted in God, had subdued, [2 Chron. 26. 6, 7.] now brake in upon the cities of Ju­da, in the low countries and south parts thereof, and dwelt therein; for God gave them over to the spoile, for Achaz his sin: and because he had drawn away Juda, to forsake the Lord, [2 Chron. 28. 17, 18, 19.]

But Achaz took all the gold and silver, that was found in the Lords house, and in the Treasury of the Kings house, and sent it for a present to Tiglath-Pileser King of Assyria, desiring him to come and deliver [Page 64] him from the kings of Syria, & Isra­els hands: & he thereupon came and took Damascus, and carryed away all the inhabitants thereof to Ki [...]e, & put to death Rezin, the king of Sy­ria, [2 Reg. 16. 7, 8, 9.] fulfilling there­in the prophesie as well of Isaiah, [c. 7. 16. &c. 8. 4 &c. 9. 11.] as of Amos; who long before had fore-told the ruine of the kingdom of Damascus, in these words. I will send a fire upon the house of Hazael, which shall con­sume the palaces of Benhadad, and I will break in pieces the bars of Damas­cus, and root out the inhabitants of the valley of Aven, and him that beareth the scepter out of the house of Eden, and the people of Syria shall be carryed away into Assyria, saith the Lord, [Amos 1. 4, 5.] And so the kingdom of Da­mascus, and with it, that of Hamath, of which, as then being in a most flourishing estate, mention is made, [Amos 6. 2. and of Aradus, Jer. 49. 23. Esay 10. 9. and 36. 19. and 37. 12, 13.] which was begun, in Rezon, [1 Reg. 11. 23, 24.] ended in this Rezin, which continued for ten generations, as Nicol. Damascenus, cited by Josephus, lib. 7. Antiquit. c. 6. affirmeth, see before upon the year of the world 2960.

But when Achaz went to meet Tiglath-pileazer at Damascus, and to congratulate him, for his great victory there obtained, he there saw the great altar; the fashion whereof he forthwith took, and sent to Uria, the priest, that he might make the like of it, in Jerusalem, on which, upon his return thither, he both of­fered himself, and also caused the people to offer their sacrifices, remo­ving the brazen altar, a far off from the fore-part of the house, that it might not stand between his altar, and the house of the Lord, [2 Reg. 16.]

When Achaz had now made him self a servant to the K. of Assyria, Year of the World 3265. c. he then found, reign of the King of Juda 4 that he had received more hurt than help from him, [2 Chr. 28. 20, 21.] which the prophet a little before had [...]ntimated to him, by that allegory of this, saying, The Lord shal shave off the hair of thy head & feet, with an hired razor, from beyond the river, even the king of Assyria, and it shall also consume the beard, [Esay 7. 20.] wherefore also Achaz turn­ed the entrie without, which led from the kings house to the house of the Lord, for fear of the king of As­syria, [2 Reg. 16. 18.] that is, as Tre­melius understands it, for fear lest the king of Assyria, should assault [Page 65] him that way, and so break into his palace, and yet in the midst of all these his afflictions, he sinned still more and more against the Lord, 2 Chron. 28. 22.] reign of the King of Juda 5 reign of the King of Juda 6 reign of the King of Juda 7 reign of the King of Juda 8

Candaules, Year of the World 3269 whom the Greek Au­thors call, reign of the King of Juda 9 as Herodotus saith, reign of the King of Juda 10 Myr­sylus, the son of Myrsus, the last of the stock of the Heraclydae, reigned in Lydia 17 years, Euseb. Chron.

Nadius, Year of the World 3271 or Nabius, [...] reigned o­ver the Babylonians, 2 years, Ptol. in Reg. Canone. reign of the King of Juda 11 reign of the King of Juda 12

Chinzirus and Porus, Year of the World 3273. c. reigned over the Babylonians, five years, [Id. ib.] Year of the World 3274. c. reign of the King of Juda 13 Year of the World 3276. b. reign of the King of Juda 14

Achaz, Year of the World 3277. c. in the last year of his reign, reign of the King of Juda 1 joyned his son Ezekia within, reign of the King of Juda 16 in the kingdom, who from that time, being the later end of the third year of Hosea king of Israel▪ reigned 29 years in Jerusalem, [2 Reg. 18. 1, 2.]

Jugaeus or Ilulaeus, Year of the World 3278. a. reigned over the Babylonians 5 years, Ptol. Reg. Canon.

And in this year died Achaz: Year of the World b. and the Prophet Esay foretold the Phi­listines (who at that time, unjustly detained a part of Judea, as was shewed before, in the 3264. year of the world) of their destruction, [Es. 14 from the 28 verse to the end [Page 66] thereof: as likewise he forewarned the Moabites of a great calamity to befal them within three years after, [Esay 15. 1. and 16. 14.] of the ful­filling of which prophesies, look what we shall hereafter say, upon the years 3280. and 3284.

Achaz dying, was buried in the city of David, [2 Reg. 16. 20.] but not among the Kings, [2 Chron. 28. 27.]

Ezechias, Year of the World c. (his father being dead, and he now at his own disposing) toward the later end of the first year of his reign, in the first month. Abib, opened the doores of the Lords house, which his father had caused to be shut up, [2 Chron. 28. 24.] and commanded the Priests and Levits to sanctifie themselves, and then to cleanse the Temple, [2 Chron. 29. 3, 4.]

And they taking courage here­upon, upon the first day of the first moneth, (Apr. 21. upon the Sabbath-day) sanctified themselves. And the [...], according to the Kings com­mand, came to cleanse the house of the Lord; and upon the eighth day of the same moneth, (28 Apr. be­ing also upon the Sabbath-day) en­tering into the porch of the Temple, they sanctified the ho [...]se of the Lord eight dayes; so that upon the sixteenth day of the first moneth ( [...] of our May, being Sunday) they finished that work, [2 Chron. 29. 15. 17.]

The next morning, King Eze­chia, early in the morning, (May 6 being Munday) called together all the Rulers of the City, and went up into the house of the Lord; where­in, together with the people, by the ministery of the Priests and Levites, he offered many sacrifices upon the Altar of the Lord, with great joy and gladnesse, [2 Chron. 29. v. 20. 36.]

But because the Passeover could not be kept at the same time when that meeting and the cleansing of the Temple was appointed, because the number of the Priests then san­ctified was not sufficient, and the people was not gathered together from all parts to Jerusalem, accor­ding to the law, [Numb. 9. 10, 11.] therefore was the Passeover appoin­ted to be kept, in the second month, whereof notice [...]eing given to the people from Beersheba even to Dan; not onely the Jewes, but some also out of the Tribes of Asher, Manas­ses and Zabulon, (the rest of the Tribes laughing at such warning given) came together in Jerusa­lem: [Page 67] where the Idol-altars, and altars of incense being demolished fi [...]st, and then thrown into the brook Kidron, they killed the Pas­cal lambs upon the 14. day of the second moneth (being on our third of June, falling upon a Sunday) then kept they the Feast of sweet-bred 7 days, offering their sacrifices of thanksgiving, and [...]inging praises to the God of their fore-fathers: to which in further testimony of their thankfulnesse unto God, they adde seven dayes more; all which they kept and celebrated with great glee and joy of heart, [2 Chron. 30. 23.]

And when they had finished all things, then all the Israelites, which were there present, about the end of the said second moneth, went forth throughout all the cities of Juda, and brake down the Images, & cut down the groves, and destroyed the High places and Altars, through­out the whole land of Juda and Benjamin, and even throughout Ephraim and Manasses, until they had finished the work they went a­bout: which done, the Israelites returned every man to his own home, in their several countries [2 Chron. 31. 1.]

But Ezechia went further, and brake in pieces the very brazen Ser­pent, which Moses had set up, [Num. 2 [...]. 9.] because unto those dayes the children of Israel had burnt incense to it; and in contempt thereof, by a diminutive terme, called it Ne­cushtan, (i.) a little piece of bras [...]e. And in like manner, taking order that the Priests and Levites should serve every of them, in his office, and by turn; he also provided them of victuals and maintenance, by setting on foot again the law of first-fruits and tithes, [2 Chron. 31.]

Whereupon, in the third month, every man brought in, who should bring fastest, their first fruits and tithes, and delivered them to the Priests, [2 Chron. 31. 5, 6, 7.]

In the seventh moneth, Year of the World 3279. a. wherein the gathering of the fruits of the whole year was finished, [Exod. 23. 16.] the bringing in of the first fruits and tithes, was fully compleat and ended, [2 Chron. 31. 7.] and officers were appointed by Ezechia for the just distribution of them, [2 Chron. 31.] [Page 68] Year of the World b. reign of the King of Juda 3 Year of the World 3280 reign of the King of Juda 4 reign of the King of Juda 5

Mardocempadus began to reign in Babylon, Year of the World 3283 after the beginning of Nabonassers reign there 26 years: reign of the King of Juda 6 from the end thereof 12 years, as we find in Ptolomies, Reg. Canon. By the Prophet Isaiah, Merodac Bala­dan, is called the son of Baladan: [c. 39. 1.] as being Belesis, or the son, or according to a most usual He­braisme, Nephew of Nabonasar, in this Mardocempadus his first year, the moon was eclipsed at Babylon, as Ptolomei in his 4 book of his great Syntaxis, c. 6. noteth, in the 27 of Na­bonasar, 29 of the month Thoth, as the Egyptians call it, (to wit, toward the end of the 19 day of our March) two houres and an half before mid­night.

JEROBOAM.The reigns of the Kings of Israel.

Jeroboam, the 15 day of the 8 moneth, reign of the King of Israel 1 (our Decemb. 6. Munday) at a feast of his own devising, some­what resembling the feast of Taber­nacles among the Jews, upon an Idolatrous altar, which he had built, at Bethel, offered sacrifice to his calf, [1 Reg. 12, 32, 33.] At what time, a [Page 41] certain Prophet sent by God out of Iury, foretold what judgement one of King Davids linage, Iosias by name, should one day execute upon the Altar, and the Priests that ser­ved at it: which Prophesie he then and there confirmed, by signs and prodigies shewed upon that Altar then standing, and upon the King himself, [1 Reg. 13. 2. Reg. 23. 16, 17.] From which beginning of this Idolatrous worship, and publick manifestation of Gods judgement thereupon; we are to reckon the 390. years of the iniquity of Israel, spoken of in [Ezek. 4. 5.]

This Prophet being deceived by another Prophet of Bethel, who abused the name of God unto him: did contrary to the expresse com­mandment of God to himself deli­vered, eat meat at Bethel; and was therefore in his return homeward met with and slaine by a Lion: whereof when tydings came to the Prophet which had deceived him, he took up the body, and honour­ably enterred it, assuring his sons, that what had been foretold by that other Prophet, should undoubt­edly come to passe, [1 Reg. 13. with 2 Reg 23. 17, 18.]

Jeroboam persisting in his revolt, The Julian Period 3740 cast off the Priests that were of the linage of Aaron and the Levites, Year before Christ 974 and made Priests of the High places, men taken from among the common people, [1 Reg. 13. 33, 34. 2 Chron. 11. 14, 15. and chap. 13. 9.] whereupon the Priests and Levites, leaving their possessions which they formerly had in those parts; retired into Jury, and were followed thi­ther, by all such out of every Tribe, as set their minds upon the true worship of God; and came to Je­rusalem, there to do worship and to sacrifice to the God of their fore-fa­thers, [2 Chron. 11. 13, 14, 16. The Julian Period 3743 Year before Christ 971 [Page 42] reign of the King of Israel 6 reign of the King of Israel 7 reign of the King of Israel 8 reign of the King of Israel 9 reign of the King of Israel 10 reign of the King of Israel 11 reign of the King of Israel 12 reign of the King of Israel 13 reign of the King of Israel 14 reign of the King of Israel 15 reign of the King of Israel 16 reign of the King of Israel 17 reign of the King of Israel 18 The Julian Period 3756 Year before Christ 958 reign of the King of Israel 19 The Julian Period 3757 Year before Christ 957 reign of the King of Israel 20 reign of the King of Israel 21 The Julian Period 3759 Year before Christ 965 reign of the King of Israel 22 reign of the King of Israel 1 The Julian Period 3760 Year before Christ 954

Nadab in the second year of Asa, succeded his father Jeroboam de­ceased, in his kingdome, wherein he [Page 43] continued only the space of 2 years, [1 Reg. 15. 25.

Nadab, reign of the King of Israel 1 at the siege of Gibbethon of the Philistines, reign of the King of Israel 2 was slain by Baa­sa, The Julian Period 3761 a man of the Tribe of Issacar, Year before Christ 953 in the third year of the reign of Asa; and the same year, having made himself king over Israel, he utterly destroied all the race of Jeroboam, and reigned 24 years, [1 Reg. 15. 27, 28, 29, 33.] reign of the King of Israel 2 reign of the King of Israel 3 The Julian Period 3763 Year before Christ 951 reign of the King of Israel 4 reign of the King of Israel 5 The Julian Period 3765 Year before Christ 949 reign of the King of Israel 6 reign of the King of Israel 7 reign of the King of Israel 8 reign of the King of Israel 9 reign of the King of Israel 10 reign of the King of Israel 11 reign of the King of Israel 12 reign of the King of Israel 13 The Julian Period 3773 Year before Christ 941 [Page 44] The Julian Period 3774 Year before Christ 940

Baasa, reign of the King of Israel 14 when he saw Asa thus bu­sie in restoring religion, and percei­ved that many of his subjects were fallen over to him; that they might partake of the covenant of God, [2 Chron. 15. 9.] never ceased to make war upon him all his dayes, [1 Reg. 15, 16, 32.] and pursuing his point, this year which was the 36 of Asa his reign, to wit, over the kingdom of Juda, as it stood divided from Is­rael, and which Asa then held, went up against Juda, and built Rama, that he might suffer no man to come out from, or go into Asa, king of Juda, [2 Chron. 16. 1.]

At the same time Benadad king of Syria, marched forth against the Cities of Israel, and destroyed Ijon, of the tribe of Asher, and Dan, of Dan, and Abeth-maacah of the tribe of Manasses, and all the coast of Cinnereth, with all the land of Nephthali, which made Baasa give over his building of Rama, and re­sided at Tirza, [1 Reg. 16. 20, 21. 2 Chron. 16. 4, 5. with Esay 9. 1.] Now this Benadad was son of Ta­brimmon, the son of H [...]zion, [1 Reg. 15. 8.] or of Rezon the first king of Syria, of Damascus, from whom the name of Hadad, was derived to his posterity, in the kingdom, as Nicola­us Damascenus noteth, recorded by Josephus lib. 7. of his Antiquities, c. 6. [...]l. 5. where, when the said Nico­laus tells us, That the third of that name seeking to wipe of the blot of the over­throw, received in his grandfathers dayes, marched into Judea, and destroy­ed Samaria, Josephus understands it, of the invasion made upon Sama­ria, by Benhadad, in the time of A­chab, reign of the King of Israel 15 see before in the year of the world, reign of the King of Israel 16 2960. and hereafter in the year 3103. reign of the King of Israel 17 reign of the King of Israel 18 reign of the King of Israel 19 reign of the King of Israel 20 reign of the King of Israel 21 reign of the King of Israel 22 reign of the King of Israel 23

Baasa dying, reign of the King of Israel 24 and being buried at Tizra, The Julian Period 3784 his son Ela succeeded in his roome. Year before Christ 930

In the second year of Ela, The Julian Period 3785 27 of A­sa, Year before Christ 929 Ela with the whole race of Ba­asa, [Page 45] was rooted out by Zimri, who reigned in Tirza seven dayes. But the soldierie which then lay before Gibbethon, a town of the Philistins, made Omri, the General of the Ar­my, king, who comming to besiege Tirza, Zimri, set fire on the kings palace, and consumed it and himself therein, [1 Reg. 16. 15, 16, 17, 18.]

The people of Israel falling in two factions, reign of the King of Israel 1 one part followed Thibni, the son of Ginath, the other adhered to Omri; but Omri his side was stronger of the two, [1 Reg. 16. 8, 21, reign of the King of Israel 2 22.]

Athalia the daughter of Achab the son of Omri, reign of the King of Israel 3 as it seemeth was borne 42 years before her son A­hazia reigned over Juda. reign of the King of Israel 4

Omri, reign of the King of Israel 5 his rival being now at Ti­bni, The Julian Period 3789 began to reign over Israel alone in the 31 year of king Asa. Year before Christ 925

When Omri had now reigned six years in Tirza, reign of the King of Israel 6 he then removed the seat of his kingdom from thence to Samaria, The Julian Period 3790 which he built in the hill of Somron, Year before Christ 224 a place which he had purchased of one Semor, [1 Reg. 16. 23, 24.] reign of the King of Israel 7 reign of the King of Israel 8 reign of the King of Israel 9 reign of the King of Israel 10 reign of the King of Israel 11 reign of the King of Israel 12

Omri dies, reign of the King of Israel 1 and was buried at Sa­maria, The Julian Period 3796 a bad father, Year before Christ 918 but Achab the son, that succeded him, was worse than he; who yet reigned after him 22 years, [1 Reg. 16. 28, 29.] reign of the King of Israel 2 The Julian Period 3797 Year before Christ 917 The Julian Period 3800 Year before Christ 914 reign of the King of Israel 6 reign of the King of Israel 7 The Julian Period 3802 Year before Christ 912 [Page 46] reign of the King of Israel 8 reign of the King of Israel 9 reign of the King of Israel 10 reign of the King of Israel 11 reign of the King of Israel 12 The Julian Period 3807 Year before Christ 907 reign of the King of Israel 13 The Julian Period 3808 Year before Christ 906 reign of the King of Israel 14 reign of the King of Israel 15 reign of the King of Israel 16 reign of the King of Israel 17 reign of the King of Israel 18

Benhadad, The Julian Period 3813 King of Asyria, Year before Christ 901 ga­thering all his together, with the as­sistance and attendance of 32 petty kings, besieged Samaria; but was faine to give it over and fled upon a great blow, which he received be­fore, it, [1 Reg.]

About a year after, reign of the King of Israel 19 Benhadad came a second time up as far as Ap­seka, The Julian Period 3814 to make war upon the Israel­ites; Year before Christ 900 where upon a mighty over­throw received, he gave himself [...]p into Achabs hand. Achab recei­ved him with all curtesie and ho­nour; and after a while, let him fair­ly go, having made a league of friendship with him: for which act of his, God forthwith denounced a judgement upon him by his Pro­phet, [1 Reg. 20.] Neverthelesse, upon this league made, there fol­lowed a three years cessation of armes, between the two Nations, [1 Reg. 22. 1.]

Achab, reign of the King of Israel 20 when he could not get Naboth to sell him his vineyard, The Julian Period 3815 grew sick upon it. Year before Christ 899 Jezebel his wife, gate Naboth by false witnesse to be condemned to death, and stoned; and so put him in possession of the vineyard. Whereupon the Pro­phet Elias, foretold him of destru­ction which was to befal him, and all his posterity: and upon Jezebel her self. Achab, trembling hereat, by a timely repentance, obtain­ed a respit of this judgement, [1 Reg. 21.]

[Page 47] Achab in the 17. year of the reigne of Jehosaphat, joyned his son Achazia with him in the rule of the kingdom, or rather made him his Vice-Roy, [1 Reg. 22. 51.]

Achab, reign of the King of Israel 22 having gotten Jehosa­phat to go along with him, The Julian Period 3817 went to besiege Ramoth Gilead. Year before Christ 897 But be­fore he went, reign of the King of Israel 2 he asked counsel of 400. false Prophets; and withal of Micaiah, the true Prophet of God, what the issue and event of this war should be. They told him, all should do well: Micaiah foretold his over­throw, and according to his word, Achab, though in a disguised habit, was slain in the fight, and was buri­ed in Samaria, [1 Reg. 22. 2 Chron. 18.]

So soon as he was dead, all the land of Moab fell away from the Israelites, [2 Reg. 1. 1. and chap. 3. 5.] which had continued in sub­jection to them, ever since King Da­vids dayes, [2 Sam. 8. 2.]

Achazia King of Israel, The Julian Period 3818 falling out of a grate of his Dining-room in Samaria lay sick of it, Year before Christ 896 and asked counsel of Baal-zebub, the god of the Ekronites, concerning his recovery. And the Prophet Elias, when two Captains over fifty men a piece, with their companies, were sent to apprehend and bring him to the King; destroyed them & their com­panies with fire called down from heaven upon them: and at last, going voluntarily with the third Captain that came for him, he told the King plainly, that he should die. [2 Reg. 1.] and accordingly die he did, after he had spent two years, partly with his father, partly by himself, in the administration of the kingdom, [1 Reg. 22. 51.]

When Achazias was dead, his brother Jehoram, the son of Achab succeeded him, in the later end of the 18 year of Jehosaphat, and reigned 12. years, [2 Reg. 3. 1.]

Elias was taken up into heaven in a fiery chariot, reign of the King of Israel 1 [2 Reg. 2.]

Three Kings, reign of the King of Israel 2 to wit, The Julian Period 3815 of Israel, [...]95. Juda, and Edom, (which Edom had hitherto continued in subjecti­on [Page 48] to the kings of Juda) joined to­gether to reduce the rebellious Mo­abites; in which war, E [...]izeus the Prophet, miraculo [...]sly furnished the army with water, and assured them of the victory over their enemies: Neverthelesse, Mesah king of the Moabites being shut up, in Kir-ha­reseth, with such small forces as he had left about him, and making a salley out, took prisoner the son of the king of Edom, being his first-born (and who was to have succee­ded him in the kingdome, and is in that regard, by the Prophet Amos, [c. 2. 1.] stiled, king of the Edomites) and offered him for a whole burnt-offering upon the wall of the City, [2 Reg. 3.] reign of the King of Israel 3 reign of the King of Israel 4 reign of the King of Israel 5 The Julian Period 3822 Year before Christ 892 reign of the King of Israel 6 reign of the King of Israel 7 The Julian Period 3825 Year before Christ 889 reign of the King of Israel 8 [Page 49] reign of the King of Israel 10 The Julian Period 3827 Year before Christ 887 reign of the King of Israel 11 The Julian Period 3828 Year before Christ 886 reign of the King of Israel 12 The Julian Period 3829 Year before Christ 885

Iehoram king of Israel, The Julian Period 3830 and A­chazia King of Iuda, Year before Christ 884 went out joynt­ly with their armies to Ramoth Gi­lead, against Hazael, who had new­ly succeded Benadad, in the king­dom of Syria, as Eliseus the prophet had foretold him. In that fight, Ie­horam was grievously wounded by the Syrians, and he retired himself to Iezrael, there to be cured of his wounds, [2 Reg. 8.] mean while a certain son of the prophets sent by Eliseus the prophet, came to Ra­moth, and there anointed Iehu, the son of Iehosaphat the son of Nimshi, king over Israel, and opened to him the will of God, for the rooting out of the house of Achab, who forth­with being proclaimed king, by the captains and officers of the Army, marched straight on to Iezrael, and there slew both Iehoram and Ieza­bel, [Page 50] [chap. 9.] and Eft-soons dispatch­ed away letters to Samaria, and there caused the seventy sons of A­chab to be slain, maintaining this act of his, by the foretelling and pro­phesie of Elias. Then taking with him Iehonadab, the son of Recab; he came himself to Samaria, and destroyed all the race of Achab, and all the priests of Baal; though having put down the worship of Baal, he de­parted not from the worship of Iero­boams golden calves, but maintained that inveterate Idolatry among the Israelites all the time of his reign, which was for eight and twenty years, [2 Reg. 10. 28, 29, 39.] reign of the King of Israel 1 reign of the King of Israel 2 reign of the King of Israel 3 reign of the King of Israel 4 reign of the King of Israel 5 reign of the King of Israel 6 reign of the King of Israel 7 reign of the King of Israel 8 reign of the King of Israel 9 reign of the King of Israel 10 reign of the King of Israel 11 reign of the King of Israel 12 reign of the King of Israel 13 reign of the King of Israel 14 reign of the King of Israel 15 reign of the King of Israel 16 reign of the King of Israel 17 reign of the King of Israel 18 reign of the King of Israel 19 reign of the King of Israel 20 reign of the King of Israel 21 The Julian Period 3850 Year before Christ 864 [Page 51] reign of the King of Israel 22 reign of the King of Israel 23 reign of the King of Israel 24 reign of the King of Israel 25 reign of the King of Israel 26 reign of the King of Israel 27 reign of the King of Israel 28 The Julian Period 3857 Year before Christ 857 The Julian Period 3858 Year before Christ 856

Jehochaz succeded his father Jehu, in the kingdom of Israel, in the 23 year of Joash, the son of Achazia: and reigned 17 years, [2 Reg. 13. 1.] during all which time, Hazael king of Syria lay heavy upon the Israe­lites, [Chap. 13. 3, 7, 22.] and exerci­sed all the cruelty upon them, which Eliseus the prophet had foretold, he should, reign of the King of Israel 2 [Chap. 8. 12.] reign of the King of Israel 3 reign of the King of Israel 4 reign of the King of Israel 5 reign of the King of Israel 6 reign of the King of Israel 7 reign of the King of Israel 8 reign of the King of Israel 9 reign of the King of Israel 10 reign of the King of Israel 11 reign of the King of Israel 12 reign of the King of Israel 13 reign of the King of Israel 14 reign of the King of Israel 15 reign of the King of Israel 16

Joas the son of Jehoachaz, The Julian Period 3873 was ta­ken into the consortship of this king­dom by his father, the later end of the 37 years of Joas king of Juda, Year before Christ 841 and reigned 16 years, reign of the King of Israel 17 [2 Reg. reign of the King of Israel 2 13. 10.]

Jehoachaz, reign of the King of Israel 3 the son of Jehu died, The Julian Period 3875 and was buried in Samaria, Year before Christ 839 when he had reigned 17 years, [2 Reg. 13. 1, 9.] but King Joaz, not long after the funeral of his father, went, as it seemeth, to visit Elizeus the prophet, then lying in his death-bed and with many tears, asking counsail of him, [Page 52] concerning the miserable distracted state of the kingdom, reign of the King of Israel 4 as then it stood; reign of the King of Israel 5 was foretold that he should ob­tain three victories over the Syrians, reign of the King of Israel 6 [ib from v. 14. to v. 20.]

Jeroboam the second, The Julian Period 3878 seemeth to have been taken into the consortship of the kingdom, Year before Christ 836 by his father Joash, going to war against the Syrians, in which war, he overthrew Ben­hadad, (who succeded his father Hazael in the kingdom of Syria) in three pitcht fields, and recovered out of his hands the cities, which Jeho­cahaz his father had lost) so that from hence we may gather, that Azarias king of [...]uda began his reign in the 27 year of this Jeroboam, [2 Reg. 15. 1.] reign of the King of Israel 7 reign of the King of Israel 8 reign of the King of Israel 9 reign of the King of Israel 10 reign of the King of Israel 11 reign of the King of Israel 12 reign of the King of Israel 13 reign of the King of Israel 14 reign of the King of Israel 15 reign of the King of Israel 16 The Julian Period 3888 Year before Christ 826

Joas having overcome and taken prisoner Amasia, king of Juda, brake down four hundred cubits of the wall of Ierusalem, even from the gate of Ephraim, to the corner gate; and so having gotten from him all the treasure both of the temple, and also of the kings own house, returned to Samaria, [2 2 Reg. 14. 13, 14. Chron. 25. 23, 24.]

But Ioash departing this life, reign of the King of Israel 1 15 years before the death of Amazia, Ieroboam his son succeding him, reigned in Samaria 41 years, [2 Reg. 14. 23.]

By this man, did God deliver Isra­el, having recovered Damascus and Hamath, both which apperteined by right to the Tribe of Iuda, [2 Sam. [Page 53] 8. 6. 2 Chron 8. 3.] and the old bor­der thereof, [Numb. 13. 21.] from the entrance into Hamath, even to to the sea of the plaine; according to the word of the Lord, which he spake by the mouth of Jonas the Prophet, the son of Ammitthai, [2 Reg. 14. 25, 27, 28.] reign of the King of Israel 2 reign of the King of Israel 3 reign of the King of Israel 4 reign of the King of Israel 5 reign of the King of Israel 6 reign of the King of Israel 7 reign of the King of Israel 8 reign of the King of Israel 9 reign of the King of Israel 10 reign of the King of Israel 11 reign of the King of Israel 12 reign of the King of Israel 13 reign of the King of Israel 14 reign of the King of Israel 15 reign of the King of Israel 17 reign of the King of Israel 18 reign of the King of Israel 19 The Julian Period 3906 Year before Christ 808

At the same time, in the king­dom of Israel, prophesied Ionas the the son of Amitthai, and Hosea, the son of Beeri.

Ionas was of Gathe-Chepher, [2 Reg. 14. 25.] a town of the Tribe of Zebulon, [Joh. 19. 13.] in Ga­lilei of the Gentiles, [Esay 9. 1.] which I note by the way, to meet with that of the Pharisees to Nico­demus, [Ioh. 7. 52.] where they say, [Page 54] [Search and know that out of Galilie, never arose any Prophet] for this man in the time of Ioash, as it seemeth, what time the Syrians oppressed Israel, and all lay open to their invasion, and they spoiled all, and there was none to deliver them; foretold that Ioash his son Ieroboam, should deliver Israel out of their hands, and avenge them of the wrongs they had endu­red, [2 Reg. 14. 25, 26.] and was afterward sent unto Ninive, the Metropolis or Head city of Assyria; and by his preaching brought both King and people there to repen­tance for their sins, [Jon. 3. Matth. 12. 41.]

Hosea, in the dayes of Ierobo­am, under whom the kingdom of Israel principally flourish't; fore­told the ruine and desolation of it: which also himself lived to see, as continuing in that function of pro­phesing, to the reign of King Heze­kiah, [Hosea 1. 1.] In the sixth year of whose reign, that of Israel came to its final end, [2 Reg. 18. 10.]

To him we may adde a third, the Prophet Amos, who was taken from following his heard in Iudea, and sent to prophesie to the people of Israel, [Amos 1. 1. & 7. 14, 15.] For which cause being accused by Amasia the Priest at Bethel, before Ieroboam, and by him commanded to return into Iudea; he pronoun­ced this heavy judgement against him. Thy wife, said he, shall play the where in the very city, and thy sons, and thy daughters shall fall by the sword; and thy land shall be divided by the cord, and thou thy self shalt die in a po­luted land; (viz. of Assyria) when Israel shall be carried quite away, out of her own land, [chap. 7. 10, 12, 13, 17.] reign of the King of Israel 20 reign of the King of Israel 21 reign of the King of Israel 22 reign of the King of Israel 23 reign of the King of Israel 24 reign of the King of Israel 25 reign of the King of Israel 26 reign of the King of Israel 27 reign of the King of Israel 28

In Lydia, reign of the King of Israel 29 Ardysus of the race of the Heraclidae, The Julian Period 3917 reigned 36 years [Euseb. Year before Christ 797 Chron.] reign of the King of Israel 30 reign of the King of Israel 31

The kingdom of Macedon, reign of the King of Israel 32 was set up by Caranus, The Julian Period 3920 a man of the race of the Heraclidae. Year before Christ 794 [Page 55] reign of the King of Israel 33 reign of the King of Israel 34 reign of the King of Israel 35 The Julian Period 3923 Year before Christ 791 reign of the King of Israel 36 reign of the King of Israel 37 reign of the King of Israel 38 reign of the King of Israel 39 reign of the King of Israel 40

After Jeroboams death, reign of the King of Israel 41 under whom that kingdom came to its full heigth and growth of glory, The Julian Period 3930 all things declined, Year before Christ 784 and fell headlong to decay. When those tumults a­rose which were the fore-runners of the destruction, first of Jeroboams own house, and then of the whole kingdom; as was foretold in the [7. and 8. chapters of the prophesie of Amos] In which troubled and tempestuous state of things, all was reduced to a plain Anarchie among them: which lasted eleven years [Page 56] and a half, for in comparing the times of these two kingdomes, such an Interreg [...]um, or vacancie of a king, in the land of Israel we must make; that the six months of Za­charie the son of Jeroboam, may fall even with the thirty eighth year and the one moneth of Shallum, who slew him, with 39 year of Uz­zia, or Azaria the king of Juda, [2 Reg. 15. 8, 13.] The Julian Period 3931 Year before Christ 783 reign of the King of Israel 3 reign of the King of Israel 4 reign of the King of Israel 5 reign of the King of Israel 6 reign of the King of Israel 7 reign of the King of Israel 8 reign of the King of Israel 9 The Julian Period 3938 Year before Christ 776 [Page 57] reign of the King of Israel 10 reign of the King of Israel 11 reign of the King of Israel 12

Zacharias the son of Jeroboam, reign of the King of Israel 1 the fourth and last of the race of Je­hu, The Julian Period 3941 and was foretold from God; Year before Christ 773 be­gan his reign in the 38 year of Aza­riah or Uzziah king of Juda, and reigned six months, [2 Reg. 15. 8. 12. with 10. 30.]

Now after the end of those six months, he was murthered by Shal­lum the sun o [...] Ja [...]esh, in the sight of all the people, [2 Reg. 15. 10.] af­ter whose death, followed those direful calamities which were fore­told by Amos the Prophet, c. 7. 9.] The High places of Isaac shall be deso­late, and the sanctuaries of Israel made a wildernesse, when I shall arise with a sword against the house of Jeroboam.

Shallum the son of Jabesh, reigned one month in the 39 year of Uzzia king of Juda, [2 Reg. 15. 13.]

Menachem the son of Gad, go­ing from Tirza to Samaria, slew Shallum, wasted Tipsach with the borders thereof, and ript up all the women that were great with child, [2 Reg. 15. 14, 16.]

This Menachem, is by Sulp [...]tius Severus in his 1 Book of his Histo. Sacra, termed here Manes; being the self-same name with Manes, or Manichaus, that grand heretique, in after times: the name of either importing as much as Parecletus, or a Comforter.

But whiles Menachem in these broiles, was tugging eleven months to hold the possession of the king­dome, God stirred up the spirit of Paul king of Assyria, to invade the land of Israel, [1 Chron. 5. 26. 2 Reg. 15. 19.]

This Pul seemeth to have been the father of Sardanapalus, who was from him called Sardan-pul. as Me­rodach king of Babylon, from Bala­dan his father, was called Merodach Baladan [Esai. 39. 1.] & is the same, whom Jul. African. calleth Acracar­nes: Eusebius, Oceazapes: Stepha­nus Byzantinus, Cindaraxes: Stra­bo, Arrianus, and Suidas, Anacynda­raxes: and by other, (as we find in Atheneus, lib. 2. Deipnosoph.) Ana­baxares, and moreover, conside­ring well, the number of years as­signed by Affricanus and Eusebius, to the reigns of him and his son, and reckoning the years backward, from the beginning of Nabonassar, and the end of Sardanapalus his reigne, (which I conceive to have been both at one and the same time) this Pul may well seeme to have been [Page 58] the self-same man, who was con­verted and brought to repentance by the preaching of the Prophet Jonas; so that here also the men of Ninive, may seem to have risen in judgment against this Nation: and that God here raised up a heathen man, repentant, to take vengeance of unrepenting Israel.

But Menachem gave him a thou­sand talents of [...]ilver, to help, settle and confirme him in his kingdom, [2 Reg. 15. 19, 20.] whereunto some refer that of [Hosea, 5. 1.] When E­phraim saw her disease, and Juda her sore, Ephraim went away to the Assyri­an, and sent to the king of Jareb, or, to the king, that should defend, or uphold him.

Menachem being thus confirmed in the kingdome which he had got­ten, began to reign quietly in the la­ter end of the 39 year of Azaria, or Uzzia his reigne; and held the kingdome, by the space of ten years, [2 Reg. 15. 17.] reign of the King of Israel 2 reign of the King of Israel 3 reign of the King of Israel 4

Sardanapalus held the kingdome of the Assyrians, reign of the King of Israel 5 20 years, The Julian Period 3947 Jul. Year before Christ 767 Af­frican. and Euseb. who in his Epitaph (which is to be read in Atheneus lib. 12. out of Cli [...]archus: and in Strabo, l. 14. & in Arrianus, l. 3. of the acts of Alexander) is said to have built two Cities in Cilicia, in one day, to wit, Anchialus and Tarsus. reign of the King of Israel 6 reign of the King of Israel 7 reign of the King of Israel 8 reign of the King of Israel 9 reign of the King of Israel 10 The Julian Period 3952 Year before Christ 762

Pekahia succeded his father Me­nachem, reign of the King of Israel 1 deceased in the 50 year of Azaria, The Julian Period 3953 or Uzzia, Year before Christ 761 k [...]ng o [...] Juda, and reigned two years, [2 R [...]g. [...]5. 2 [...].]

Pekah, reign of the King of Israel 2 the son o [...] Remalia, The Julian Period 3955 [...]aving kil [...]ed Pekahia, Year before Christ 759 in Samaria, in his own palace, reigned in his stead 20 years, reckoning from the 52 years of Aza­ria, al. Uzzia King of Juda, [2 Chr. 15. 25, 27.] [Page 59] reign of the King of Israel 3 reign of the King of Israel 4 reign of the King of Israel 5 reign of the King of Israel 6 reign of the King of Israel 7 The Julian Period 3962 Year before Christ 752 reign of the King of Israel 9

Aradus, reign of the King of Israel 10 which is a verie small Iland, The Julian Period 3964 as Mela noteth, Year before Christ 750 and the whole circumference thereof, taken up with one town, and Cyzicum, in Propon­tis; were this year built.

Arbaces the Governour of Media, scorning the effeminacie of Sardina­palus, conspired with Belesus the Governour of Babylon, and arm [...]ed against him four hundred thousand men, of Medes, Persians, Baby­lonians and Arabians; And having been overthrown in three battails, [Page 60] yet in the fourth, the Bactrian soul­diers falling over to him, he set upon his enemies by might, at unawares, and beat them out of their camp, and when Sardana palus put over all the command and charge of the ar­my, into the hands of Salaemenus his wives brother, he also being twice routed by the conspirators, lost himself, and almost all his army. And when Ninive it self came to be besieged, Sardanapalus sent three of his sons and two daughters, with a great treasure into Paphlagonia, to one Cotta, Governour of that pro­vince; and withal, dispatched away messengers, and commissioners into all parts, to levy Souldiers, and provi­ded all necessaries, reign of the King of Israel 12 to endare a siege, The Julian Period 3966 Diod. Sic. lib. Year before Christ 748 2.

In the third year of the siege of Ninive. The Julian Period 3966 the river overflowing with continual raines, Year before Christ 748 came up into a part of the city, and foundering the wall thereof 20 furlongs in length, bare it down; which Sardanapalus percei­ving, caused a huge pile of wood to be made in his palace court, set it on fire, and therein consumed him­self with his concubins and eunuchs, and all his riches, and the palace it self to ashes.

The conspirators entering, by the breach which the water had made, took the city, and proclaimed Arbaces for their king, Diod. lib. 2. and Athenae. lib. 12. out of Ctesias. And so the kingdom of the Assyrians came to destruction, when from the beginning of Ninus his reign, they had held all the upper Asia 520 years, as Herod. in his first book. c. 95. [Page 61] affirmeth. This kingdom there­fore now falling to be divided; Ar­baces, whom Strabo calleth Orba­cus; but Velleius Paterculus na­meth Pharnaces, having freed his country-men the Medes, from the Assyrian yoke, enabled them to live in after-times, according to their own laws; as Herodotus, in the book afore-mentioned, affirmeth. Bele­sis, who in holy writ, [Esay 39. 1. 2 Reg. 20. 12. is called Baladan: and by Agathias, lib. 2. Histo. out of Bi­on and Alex. Polyhist. Belessas, or Beleussus, and by Nicol. Damascenus, in his Eclogs, set forth by Hen. Vale­sius, Namnybrus; but by Hipparchus, Ptolomaeus, and Censorinus is called Nabonassarus, held the kingdom of Babylon 14 years.

Now from twelve a clock, of the first day of the Egyptian moneth Thoth, to wit, from the twenty sixth day of Feb. being with us Wednesday, evening, in the year 747. before our vulgar christian account, all Astro­nomers with one consent, deduce the Calender of Nabonassar.

Ninus the younger, held the king­dom of the Assyrians (reduced now to the old bounds, and the Empire thereof quite extinguished in Sarda­napalus) 19. years: as Eusebius in his Greek Chron. out of Castor the Rhodian, who in many large Vo­lumes explained, [...], (i.) errours in Chronologie. This Ninus, for better lucks sake, seemeth to have assumed the name of the first founder of the Assyrian kingdom. His own, and original name being (as Eliam, lib. 12. Histor. Annal. telleth us) Thilgamus: and in the Scriptures, Thilgath-Pilneeser, [1 Chron. 28. 20.] and Tiglath-Pi­leser, [2 Reg. 15. 29. and chap. 16. 7. 10.] reign of the King of Israel 14 reign of the King of Israel 15 reign of the King of Israel 16 reign of the King of Israel 17 reign of the King of Israel 18 The Julian Period 3972 Year before Christ 740

[Page 62] [Page 63] Peka slew of the men of Juda, reign of the King of Israel 19 120. thousand in one day, The Julian Period 3973 all valiant men of war; Year before Christ 741 Zichi also a mighty man of the Tribe of Ephraim slew Ma­aseia the Kings son, and Azrikam, the Steward of the Kings house, and Elkana who was next the King in authority. The Israelites also carried away captive out of Juda and Jerusalem, two hundred thou­sand women, boyes, and maides, and made a vast spoile of their goods, and carried away all to Sa­maria: but, upon the counsel of O­ded a Prophet of God, they relea­sed all that multitude of prisoners, and restored them their goods in the presence of their Princes and whole congregation of Samaria, who en­treated them kindly, & caused them to be conveyed safe to their bre­thren at Jerico, reign of the King of Israel 20 [2 Chron. 28.]

When Achaz implored the aide of the kings of Assyria, (for so it is said, [1 Chron. 28. 16.] in the plurall number, by a usual enalage, or change of the number, Psal. 105. 30. Jer. 19, 3. [Page 64] and 25. 22. and 3 Esay. 1. 52.) against Peka, Tiglath Pileser, came up, and led away the people of Gilead or Peraea, to wit, the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasses, unto Chabor and Haram, and Neher-gozan; And then pas­ssing over Jordan, possessed himself of Galiee, and carryed away all the inhabitants of Nephthaly, which Ben-hadad had left, together with the men of Galilee into Assyria, [1 Chron. 5. 26. and 2 Reg. 15. 29.] which place compared with [1 Reg. 15. 20.] that place of [Esay 9. 1.] seemeth to be expounded.

Hosea, reign of the King of Israel 1 the son of Ela, The Julian Period 3975 having murdered Peka, Year before Christ 739 the son of Remalia, got the kingdom into his own hand, in the 20 year, from the time that Jotham began to reign over Juda, [2 Reg. 15.] that is, in the fourth year of the reign of Achaz, yet by reason of stirs and tumults, which a­rose thereupon, he could not present­ly enjoy it: but that state continued in confusion, and in a kinde of Anar­chy, for the space of 9 years. [Page 65] reign of the King of Israel 2 reign of the King of Israel 3 reign of the King of Israel 4 reign of the King of Israel 5 The Julian Period 3979 Year before Christ 735 reign of the King of Israel 6 reign of the King of Israel 7 The Julian Period 3981 Year before Christ 733 reign of the King of Israel 8 reign of the King of Israel 9 The Julian Period 3983 Year before Christ 731

Hosea having composed all diffe­rences at home, reign of the King of Israel 1 began now quietly to reign in the later end of the 12 year of Achaz king of Juda. The Julian Period 3984 Year before Christ 730

Tiglath-pilezer, reign of the King of Israel 2 or Ninus the younger, The Julian Period 3986 when he had reigned 19 years, Year before Christ 728 as hath been noted out of Ca­stor, dyed; and after him succeded Salmanasser, called Evemassar, in the Greek copie of Tobias, and this seemeth to be that Shalman, who in the prophesie of Hosea 10. 14. is said to have laid wast the house of Ar­bel, (famous afterward for the over­throw of Darius the Persian) in the day of battaile, to wit, the countrey of Arbela, in the land of Assyria, be­neath Arpad; also against this Ho­sea, king of Israel, Salmanasar came up; and made him to serve him, and to pay him tribute, [2 Reg. 17. 3.]

Sabacon an Ethiopian, reign of the King of Israel 4 having ta­ken Boccoris king of Egypt alive, The Julian Period 3987 burnt him in the fire, Year before Christ 727 and reigned in his place 8 years: [Assrica.]

[Page 66] [Page 67] [Page 68] Hosea the king of Israel, reign of the King of Israel 6 consul­ting before hand with Sous king of Egypt, The Julian Period 3989 refused to pay tribute any longer to Salmanasser, Year before Christ 725 [2 Reg. 17. v. 4.]

Which Sous or Sua, as Jerom calls him, seemeth to be none other, but Sabacon the Ethiopian.

Whence Chrysostome, in his 30 Homile upon John, saies that this Hosea confederated with the Ethio­pians: and Severus Sulpicius, in his sacred History lib. 1. saith, that he drew into his side, the kings of the E­thiopians, who at that time, held the kingdom of Egypt.

Salmanasar, reign of the King of Israel 7 getting knowledg that Hosea, had confederated with the king of Egypt: first of all made sure of all the land of the Moabites, that he might leave no enemy on the back of him, to anoy him or his ar­my, razing to the ground their two chief Cities, Are, and Kir-hasareth, according to the prophecie of Isaiah uttered three years before it came to passe, [Esai. 26. 1. and the last: with the notes of Tremellius thereupon:] and then he went through and wa­sted all the land of Israel: and then marching toward Samaria in the 4 year of Ezechia, and 7 of Hosea, in the beginning of each of them: besieged it three years, reign of the King of Israel 8 [2 Reg. 17. 4, 5. and c. 18. 9.]

Toward the end of the 3 year of the siege of Samaria: reign of the King of Israel 9 and 6 of the reign of Ezechia, The Julian Period 3993 and 9 of Hosea, Year before Christ 721 Salmanasar took Samaria, and car­ried away the Israelites, into his own Country, and planted them in Cha­lacho, Chabor, and Nehar-gosan: whether Tiglath-pilesar, had for­merly transported the inhabitants of Perea, or the two Tribes and a half inhabiting on the other side Jor­dan, [1 Chron. 5. 26.] and in the Ci­ties of Media, [2 Reg. 17. 6. and c. 8. 10. 11.] for the Anarchie, which there was, before the kingly power of Media was setled upon Deioces gave occasion to the Assyrian, to in­vade and take in that whole coun­try, whence it was that Tobit or Tobias the elder, who saieth of him­self, that he at this time, with Anna his wife, and his country men the Nepthalites, was carried away into the land of the Assyrians, and there made putveior or provider of corne and other victuals for Salmanasars houshold, and also that he was car­ried into media, and there placed in a principal City of Media, called Rages, and there deposited ten ta­lents [Page 69] of silver, in the hand and trust of Gabel his near kinsman, and one that was carried away captive with him to the same place, [Tobit. 1.] And this was the end of the king­dome of Israel, when it had stood severed from the kingdom of Juda, by the space of two hundred fifty and four years.

In the second year of Mardocempedus, Year of the World 3284. b. or of Merodach, The Julian Period. 3994 there was seen another eclipse of the moon in Babylon, Year before Christ 720 in the 28 year of Nabonasar, upon the 18 day of the month Thoth, at midnight (to wit, in the beginning of the 9 of March, according to the Julian Ca­lender, upon Saturday) and 176 daies, 20 houres and a half after, a third eclipse of the moon, upon the 15 day of the month Phamenoth (in the end of the 1. of September, being Sunday) three houres and a half before midnight, Ptolomeus lib. 4. magn. Syntax, cap 6, and 7.

Seucchus the Ethiopian, Year of the World 3285 Sabacons son, The Julian Period. 3995 reigned in Egypt, Year before Christ 719 14 years, [African,] who see­meth to be Sethos, Priest unto Vulcan: of whom Herodo [...]us, in his second book, c. 141. maketh mention.

Candaules having shewed his wife to Gyges a Courtier of his, Year of the World 3286 the son of Dascylus, The Julian Period. 3996 in an unseemely manner, Year before Christ 718 was by him (his wife setting him on thereto) murthered; and he thereby got, not only her, but with her the kingdom it self of Lydia also, for his labour, which is mentioned by Archilocus, of the Isle of Paros, who lived at the same time, in a Trimeter lambus of his; and so the kingdom of Lydia fell from the race of the Heraclide into the stock of the Mermuades: wherein it continued by the space of 170 years: of which Gyges himself reigned eighteen in it; Herod. lib. 1. Now that this Gyges was but a bond-slave, appeareth by that saying of Cresus his grandchild in Xenophon, Iustit. Cyri. l. 7. [...]. (i.e.) I under stand that the first of my Ancestors that here reigned, was made a king and a free man both at once: and Plato in his 2 de Repub. saith, that he was master of the kings cattle, and his name Gyges, in the eastern dialect seemeth to have been [...] (i.e.) Gug, or Gog.

Gyges having thus gotten the kingdome, Year of the World 3287 sent sundry great offerings to Delphos, made war upon Miletus and Smyrna: The Julian Period. 3997 and took the City of Colophos, Year before Christ 717 by force, Herod. lib. 1. cap. 17.

Eluleus king of Tyre, reduced under his obedience the Gitteans, which had revolted from him, making a voyage thither by sea. Against the Tyrians, Salmanasar king of Assyria marching with his army, invaded all Phenicia: yet shortly after, making a peace with them, he returned home again: and not long after, Sidon and Ace (called afterward Ptolomais) and Poletyrus or old Tyrus, with sundry other Cities, fell off from the Tyri­ans to the Assyrians; and when the Tyrians only now stood out against him, he return­ed a second time: in which action, the Phenicians furnished him, with sixty ships, and eight hundred Mariners: whom the Tyrians set upon with twelve ships only, and routed all that Navie, and took five hundred prisoners of them: whereby they got no small re­putation at sea: But Salmanasar returning to besiege it, set guards upon the river, and conduits, which served the City, and cut them off: which hindered them from watering: which course being held against them five year together, forced them at last to digg wells within their Citie walls, and to live of that. This is delivered by Menander of Ephesus, in his Chronicles, translated into Greek, out of the Tyrian Annals, cited by Ioseph. 9. Antiq. cap. ult. where for Eluleus, Rufinus, an ancient Latine interpreter, calleth him Ayluleus; and thence Scaliger taketh occasion to call him Eliseus; from whom yet I dis­sent in this, that he here saith that the Cyprians were by Menander called Kitteans: whereas he by the name of Gitteans, understood in deed the inhabitants of Gitta, or Gath knowen well enough by that name in the holy Scriptures, [2 Sam. 15. 18. and c. 21. 19.] compared with [1 Sam. 17. 4.] who were also subdued to Juda, by Esechia, in the very time of this Eluleus or Eliseus, as may be gathered out of Josephus: who saith that Ese­chia made war upon the Philistines, and having vanquished them, joyned all their Cities and Countrie, from Gath, to Gaza, to the kingdom of Juda: 9. Antiq. c. last save one: as also, it is clear out of [2 Reg. 15. 18. and 18. 8.] that Esechia did smite the Philistines as far as Gaza, and the territories thereof: but against the Tyrians, who at this time were grown proud and insolent by reason of their wealth and successe in wars, was uttered that prophecie by [Esaias, 23. 1.]

But when Salmanasar died, his son Sennacharib reigned in his stead, [Tob. 1. 18.] whom Herod. l. 2. calleth the K. both of Assyria, and Arabia too, perchance for that the Assyrians [Page 70] at that time, together with Peraea, or the land of Gilead, and Hamath, or Ituraea held also a part of Arabia, either Petraea, or Deserta. For that Ivua, or Ava, which Senna­cherib so much boasteth of, to have been conquered by him or his ancestors, [2 Reg. 18, 34. chap. 19. 13. Esay 37. 13.] was a country lying in the desert of Arabia, Fram. Junius affirmes, upon [2 Reg. 17. 24.] and the prophet Isaiah; foretelling the calamity which was to fall upon the Moabites, under Salmanasar, of which I speak before upon the year of the world 3278. and 3280. threatens them, that what ever they had laid up in store, the Assyrians should carry it away into the valley of the Arabians. Berosus also, in his History of the Chaldeans, cited by Josephus, lib. 10. cap. 1. saith, both that Senna­charib reigned in Assyria, and also that he made hot war upon all Asia and E­gypt.

Now that this war of his upon Egypt, Year of the World 3291 lasted 3 whole years, The Julian Period. 4001 and that Palaestina also joyned with him therein, Year before Christ 713 I gather out of the 20 of the prophet Esay: where putting off his coat of hairy cloath (belonging to his prophetical function, as in Zach. 13. 4.) from his loynes, and his shoes from off his feet, he was commanded to walk up and down, naked and bare-foot 3 years together, for a sign and token to the Egyptians and Ethiopians; intimating, that that time once run out, they should in like manner, stript out o [...] their cloths, and bare­foot, be led away into captivity and bondage, by the king of Assyria, which command the prophet is said to have received in the year, when Tartan being sent by Sargon, King of Assyria, besieged Ashdod and took it, [Esay 20. 1.] where, by Sargon, we must under­stand; Sennacharib himself: among whose commanders we find this Tartan to be na­med, [2 Reg. 18. 17.] and by Ashdod, that famous city Azotus, a city of the Phili­stins; whom we shewed before out of Josephus to have been subdued by King Ezekia.

But when Ezekia had shaken off the king of Assyria's yoake (which his father Achaz had taken) and would no longer serve him, [2 Reg. 17. 7.] then in the 14 of his reign, toward the end thereof, Sennacharib, coming up against the kingdom of Juda, besieg­ed their fenced cities, and took a many of them, [Esay 36. 1. 2 Reg. 18. 13. 2. Chron. 32. 2.] And when Ezekia perceived that he had a draught upon Jerusalem likewise, taking advice with his princes, he stopt up all the fountains that were about the city, and turned away the brook Gichon, which ran through, and overflowed the region thereabout, and then built up all that part of the wall, which Joas the king of Israel had demolished in the time of Amazia, and a vaumure without; and fortified the house of David, and provided himself of Darts and Targets in great abundance, and set captains and colonels over the people, and calling them together to him in the street, of the gate of the city, he made a very pithy and grave oration to them, perswading them to be of courage, and not to have any dread of the king of Assyria, nor of his army, [2 Chron. 32. 2, 8, 30.]

In those dayes, Ezekia fell deadly sick, and being told by Isaiah that he should dye, powring out his tears and prayers unto God, he recovered his health, and obtained a prelongation of his life and kingdom, for fifteen years, [Esay 38. 1. 5, 21. 2 Reg. 2. 1, 7. 2 Chron. 32. 24.] Whereupon he composed and set forth that song; wherein first he sheweth, the grievousnesse of his bodily sicknesse, with the trouble, and disquietnesse of mind, which he endured therein, and withall his prayer unto God thereupon; and then acknowledgeth the great benefit of his recovery received from God; and last of all, te­stifieth his faith in God, and promiseth to be everlastingly thankfull to him for the same. It is true, that in the scripture this is set down, after the story of the slaughter of Senna­charib, and his army; yet not precisely, but with a general annotation onely of the time, In those dayes. For that this sell out before his sicknesse, those words do plainly shew, I will add unto thy dayes fifteen years, and wil deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the king of Assyria, and I will defend this city, [Esay 38. 5, 6. 2 Reg. 20. 6.] Now if we will subduct, out of the 29 years which Ezekias reigned, these 15 years, we shal plainly find, that this slaugh­ter of Sennacharib and his army fell out, in the later end of the 14 year of his reign.

Now the signe of Ezekia his recovery, which God at his request gave unto him, was that miraculous going back of the shadow of the sun, upon the diall of Ahaz; of which we read in Esay 38. 8. Behold, I will bring again the shadow of the degrees, which is gone down in the Sundyal of Achaz, ten dayes backward, so the sun returned ten degrees, by which degrees it was gone down. For so Jerom renders the word [...] which Jonathan the Chldee Para­phraser interprets, to be [...] the stone of the hours, and renders it, by the hours and the clock, yet in his commentary upon this place, he observeth, that the Hebrew word signi­fieth, degrees. Which also in [2 Reg. 2. 9,] he thus expresseth, wilt thou that the shadow ascend ten degrees, or that it return back ten degrees? not may we make light of the Greek interpretation of this place, as being more ancient than any of these, which saith, that by these words of [...] and [...] here [...]sed, no other thing is meant in this history, but the degrees of those scales or staires which were made by Achaz, seeing that it cannot be made appear, that till after their returne, from the captivity of Babylon, there was any observation or use at all of houres, among the Jews: and others also attribute the invention of the Gnomon in the diall among the Greeks, to men of a younger date [Page 71] as Anaximadder or Anaximener, as I shall shew hereafter upon the year of the World, 3457. which yet that they received origanally from the Babylonians appeareth by that place of Herodotus, where he saith, lib. 2. cap. 109. [...]. That is, The Pole, and the Diall, and the distribu­tion of the day into twelve hours, all these the Greekes learned from the Babylonians.

But as concerning the retrogradation of the Sun, mentioned in, [Esay 38. 8. and Ec­clesiastic. 48. 8.] as when the Sun stood still at the prayer of Joshua, the Moon also stood still at the same time, [Josh. 10. 12, 13.] so here also, it is manifest, that with the Sun, the Moon also, and all the frame of heaven was retrograde and went backward, and that there was as much substracted from the night, as there was added to the day. For albe­it, that there was a miraculous alteration in the parts of the civil day, yet that by the di­vine providence, things were therein so ordered, that no hurt or hinderance did there by accrue to the constant and ever self-like motion and harmony of the heavenly bodies, is evident by those three lunary Eclipsis, of which I spake before, out of Ptolomie: the ac­count whereof being cast up from these our times backward, yeild the same result of the times, as was formerly observed by the Chaldeans, and in the same manner, as if no such retrogradation or going back of the Sun had ever been.

Now in the beginning of the 15 year of Ezechia's reign, renewed, as it were, together with his life, Merodach, or Berodach Baladan, the son Baladan, the King of Babylon, sent messengers with Presents to him, to inform themselves of that prodigious and mira­culous retrogradation of the Sun, which was made in the World. To whom when Eze­chia out of pride and vain ostentation, had shewed all his Treasure and Pomp of riches; God presently foretold him of the captivity of Babylon, which was to ensure, in these words. Behold the day's come, that all that is in thine house, and that which thy fathers have laid up in store until this day, shall be carried away into Babylon; nothing shall be left, saith the Lord: adding further concerning his sons, when as he had yet none born, that they should also be carried into captivity, in this manner. Thy sons also, that shall issue from thee, and which thou shalt beget, shall they take away, and they shall be eunuchs in the Palace of the King of Babylon, [Esay 39. and 2 Reg. 20. 12, 19.] Neverthelesse when Ezechia had humbled himself for his former pride, both he, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the fierce wrath of the Lord fell not upon them, in all Ezechia his dayes, [2 Chron. 32. 25, 26, 31.]

Mica also the Morathite, prophesied to the people in Ezechia his dayes; That Sion should be plowed, and Jerusalem laid in heaps, and the mountain it self of the house of the Lord, as the high places in a forrest [chap. 3. 12. Jer. 26. 18, 19.]

Memnon writeth, Year of the World 3292 that Astacum in Bithynia, The Julian Period. 4002 was built by the Megarenses, Year before Christ 712 in the be­ginning of the 17 olympiade, in Biblioth,. Photii. pa. 374.

Herodotus, lib. 2. cap. 141. telleth us, that Sennacharib invaded Egypt, with a vast Ar­my, and made war upon Sethon, the Priest of Uulcan, a poor spirited King, and famous for nothing; but for being devoutly, or rather superstitiously addicted to the worship of his petty god Vulcan. Where he also addeth, that even in his time, there remained an image of his cut in stone, holding a mouse in his hand, and uttering these words in a la­bel of letters;

Let every man that looks on me,
Learn godly and devout to be.

which Hieroglyph▪ the Priests there, for his, and their countries, and their own Priesthoods honour, expound in such manner, as if Setho, being both King and Priest, had by virtue of his piety and prayers to his god Vulcan, so far prevailed with him, as that when Pelu­sium, which stands in the very enterance of Egypt was besieged by the enemy, their horse­bridles, and buckles of their bucklers, were so gnawn in pieces by the mice, that the next day they were faine to run all away, with the losse of many of their men; but what ever the matter was at Pelusium, the undoubted word of the Prophet assures us, that the Assy­rians, marched far into the very body of Egypt, and thence took and led away a great multitude of them captive.

In this expedition of Sennacharibs, I conceive, it was, that the foreteling of Nahum the Prophet against Nô, a great and strong City in Egypt, was fulfilled: The words of which prophesie, were these; yet was she carried away; she went into captivity, her young children also were dashed in pieces in the top of every street, and they cast lots for their honourable men, and all her great men were bound in chaines, [chap. 3. 10.]

In the rest of Egypt also, Year of the World 3292 was fulfilled what was spoken 3 years before by the Prophet, [Esay 24.] The King of Assyria shall carry away a great multitude of the Egyptians captive; and of the Ethiopians young and old prisoners, naked and bare-footed: neither do I see, why that should not be referred to the Jewes which is said in the two verses next following; viz. And they shall be ashamed of Ethiopia their expectation, and of Egypt their glory: and the inhabitants of this country shall say in that day: Behold such is our expectation, whither we flee for help to be delivered from tde King of Assyria, and how shall we escape?

[Page 72] For it was not for nothing, that the Assyrian messenger put them in mind, of Egypt, saying, Now behold, you trust in the staff of this bruised reed Egypt, on which if a man lean, it will go into his hand and pierce it; for even so is Pharao, to all such as trust upon him, [2 Reg. 18. 27.] for we finde the same similitude used by God of the Egyptians and Israelites, in Ezekiel, 29. 6, 7. and likewise in Esay, chap. 30. and chap. 31. many things, spoken against the vain hope which the Jews had of help from Egypt, and among the rest this also, Therefore, saith he, shall the strength of Pharaoh be your shame, and your trust in the shadow of Egypt your confusion, for the Egyptians shall help in vain, and to no purpose: therefore have I cryed concerning this, Their strength is to stay at home, [chap. 30. 3, 7.]

Sennacharib, returning out of Egypt into Palestine, besieged Lachish, and all his pow­er with him, [2 Chron. 32. 9.] Ezekias sent unto him to Lachish, to buy his peace, and agreed with him for it, at a certain price; wherefore draining all his own treasure, where­of he had formerly been so proud; as also the treasury of the temple, he paid him 300 ta­lents of silver, and 30 talents of gold; but he having received the money, stood not to his word, but sent Tartan, who had now taken Azotus, and Rabsari's, and Rabsheca with a great army, from Lachish to Jerusalem, [2 Reg. 18. 14, 17.]

These coming to Jerusalem, stood at the cundit, of the upper pool, upon the high-way of the fullers field, and when they called out to speak with the king Eliakim, the son of Hilkia; which was over the houshold, and Shebna the scribe, and Joach the son of A­saph, the Recorder, went fourth unto them. And when they would not deliver up the city, as was desired, Rabsecah then cried out, that Ezekia did all in vain rely upon God for help, and that he himself came not thither, but as he was sent from God; and having reviled the God of Israel and Ezekia, his servant with many reproachfull languages, he moved at last the people, to mutiny and to fall over to his master the king of Assyria. And this they speak aloud, and in the Hebrew tongue; that the people which then stood upon the wall might hear and understand what they said; to frighten and perplex their minds, that in that tumult they might assault and take the city, [Esay 36. 2 Reg. 18. from v. 17. to the end of the chapter, 2 Chron. 32. 9. 18.]

Ezekia hearing thereof, rent his clothes, and putting on sackcloth, went into the house of the Lord; and withal, sent Eliakim and Shebna, and with them, the elders of the priests, clothed likewise in sackcloth unto Isaiah the prophet, to pray him that he would ask counsaile of God, in this sad case, and power forth his prayers unto him for help, and the prophet bade him be of good comfort; for that the king of Assyria, should hear a flying report, and thereupon should break up his siege, and get him gone into his own country, and there be slain with the sword; all which forth-with came to passe, [Esay 37. 1. 17. 2 Reg. 19, 1, 7.]

Rabshekah, when he could not prevail, returned to Sennacarib, whom he found risen from before Lachish, and besieging Libna, [Esay 37. 8. 2 Reg. 19. 8.]

Tiraka king of Ethiopia, did not invade Egypt, and Syria, as Scaliger, without all ground, in his notes upon Eusebius; p. 72. and in his Isagogical Canons, pag. 311. would have it; but rather, he sent forces to assist and help the Egyptians and Jews; for the Scrip­ture is clear, that he came forth to fight against Sennacharib, [Esay 37. 9. 2 Reg. 19. 9.] This Tirhaka, Strabo lib. 1. and 15. calleth, Tearcon the Ethiopian: and further reporteth out of Megasthenes, a writer of the affairs of India, that he passed over into Europe, and went as far as Hercules his pillars.

Sennacharib therefore hearing a report of Tirhaka his approach, being ready to re­move to Libna, sent his minatory and rayling letters unto Ezekia, speaking therein of the God of Israel, as of the gods of the nations, the work of mens hands, which Ezekias opening and spreading before the Lord in his Temple, with many tears pow­red forth, craved aide and deliverance from God, against the Assyrians, and recei­ved an answer from God by Isaias the prophet, that God would defend that city, and that the king of Assyria should not so much as come before it, but should re­turn by the way he came; [Esay 37. 9, 35. 2 Reg. 19. 9. 2 Chron. 32. 17, 19, 20.]

The very self same night after these things passed at Jerusalem, and a few dayes, after his victory atchieved against the Ethiopians, which to have fallen out much about this time, some gather out of the 18 and 20 chapters of Isaiah, God sent his Angel, and destroyed every man of valour, every commander, and chief man in the Assyrian army, and the next morning there were found one hundred fourscore and five thousand dead carcases lying on the ground: whereupon Sennacharib with shame, brak up, and returned into his own land, and rested him at Ninive; where it came to passe, that as he was at his devotions, before his god Nisroch, Adramelich and Share­zer slew him with the sword; which done, they fled presently into the land of Ararat, or Armenia; and Esor-haddon his son reigned in his stead, [Esay 37. 36, 37, 38. 2 Reg. 19. 35, 36, 37. 2 Chron. 32. 21.] All which had been fore-told by the prophet Isaiah, [c. 38. and in chap. 31. 9. also,] as some conceive.

[Page 73] In the first chap. of the book of Tobia, there are these things found which belong to this story; That Sennacharib, when he came fleeing out of Judea, for the very hatred which he bare to the Israelites, slew many of the Jewes, and that Tobit, or Tobia the elder, stole away the dead bodies, and bestowed burial on them; and that being thereof accused to the King of Nitive, he was faine to get him gone from thence, and to hide his head elsewhere for a certain time: and that he was plundred and spoiled of all his goods, having naught left him to trust unto, save onely Anne his wife, and Tobias his son. That after 45 dayes, or as the Greek copy hath it, before 55 dayes, Sennacharib was murder­ed by his sons; and that they fleeing away into the mountains of Ararat, Esarchaddon his son reigned in his stead, being wrong named in sundry copies; in some Achirdon, in some Sarchedon; and that the new King set Achiacarus, the son of Hananeel Tobits brother, over all his fathers accounts and his own: insomuch, that he was not onely his Steward and keeper of his accounts; but was also cup-bearer, and privy seal unto him, and was the second man after the King.

Ezekias had his son Manasses, by Hephziba, after the prolonging of his life 3 years, and 12 before his death.

When the Medes had hitherto now lived without a King, and Dejoces would not at­tend the judging of their causes and controversies any longer, and thereupon ensued no­thing but spoilings and robberies in all places; the people finding the inconveniences of an Anarchie, or want of a King, whereof the least was not, that the Assyrian taking hold of this occasion, had possessed himself of many cities and places in Media; as I no­ted before upon the year of the World, 3283. they submitted all with one accord to Dejoces, 150 years before Cyrus began his reign: as Herodotus in his first book aver­reth; whom, giving off Ctesias in this point, both Dionysius, Halicarnasseus, and Appia­nus Alexandrinus, in the beginning of his Roman Histories, do follow. Though Dio­dorus Siculus, in his second book: whether thorough failler of memory, or false copying, hath here put Cyaxaris for Dejoces; who is said to have been elected King over the Medes, about the second year of the 17 olympiade, according to Herodotus: For subducting 150. years from the beginning of Cyrus his reign, which as he supposes, falls in with the beginning of the 55 olympiade, and consequently with the midst of the year, 4154. of the Julian Period: it followes that the 1 year of Dejoces the first King of the Medes must be placed upon the 3 year of the 17 olympiade, and the middle of the 4004. year of the Julian Period; allowing the later end of the second year of the same olympiade, to have been taken up and spent in the transaction of the businesse it self, and election made of the new King; which first Epocha or point of the beginning of this new king­dom of the Medes to have been most rightly assigned and set down by Herodotus, the precise times of every Kings reign, compared with the Eclipse of the Sun, which befel in the reign of Cyaxares, here underneath, in the year of the World, 3403. to be spoken of, will manifestly declare.

The fifteenth Jubilie, which was the middle-most of all the rest, and the most joyfully kept, Year of the World 3295. a. next to that of Solomons at the dedication of the Temple; both for the fresh me­mory of so great a deliverace, and also for the great prosperity of the place ensuing there­upon: So that many brought offerings and gifts to the Lord at Jerusalem; and rich presents to the King himself; for he was magnified after this among all nations, and pro­spered in whatever he undertook, [2 Chron. 32. 23, 27, 30.]

And God himself did so rule, and govern the people it self of Juda, after such their de­livery, that (according to his own promise made) they took root downward, and brought fruit upward, [2 Chron. 32. 22. Esai. 37. 31, 32.] Moreover the consideration of the Ju­bilie is necessary for the understanding of that sign of Gods mercy given the year before unto Ezekia: You shall eat, saith God, this year, that which groweth of it self, and the second year, that which springeth of the same; and in the third year, sow ye, and reape ye, and plant vine­yards, and eat of the fruit thereof, [Esai. 37. 30. 2 Reg. 19. 29.] for because the last years harvest was either gathered by the enemy which roved all the country over, Year of the World c. (according to Gods threatning, Levit. 27. 16. Deut. 28. 33. Jerem. 5. 17.) or by them spoiled and troden underfoot; necessary it was for the people to live that year upon that which grew of it self: and this year by reason of the Jubilie, it was not lawful either to sow or reape, which otherwise, no sabbatical year intervening, might well have been done: seeing the Assyrian Army being destroyed by the Angel, there was nothing to hinder them. But the year following, when there was neither enemy to fright them, nor sabbatical year to withhold them, they might fall securely to their husbandry as at other times.

Unto Mardosempadus, Year of the World b. or Merodach Baladam, after he had reigned 12 years in Ba­bylon, succeeded Arkianus in the 29 year of Nabonaser, and reigned 5 years [Ptol. in Reg. Can.]

Parion in the coast of Hellespont, near unto Lampsacus, was built, Euseb. Chron. or rather re-edified by the Milesians and Erythreans, who sent thither a Colony at this time to plant it anew.

Dejoces King of the Medes in the first year of the 18 olympiade, Year of the World 3296 which was this year, The Julian Period. 4006 [Page 74] built Ecbatan, Year before Christ 708 as we read in Eusebius his Greek Chronicle; This City in [Ezra 6. 2.] is called Acmetha: but by Ctesias in his Persica, as Stephanus Byzantinus saies, was called Agbatana: a fuller description of which building is to be found [c. 1. of the book of Judith,] where it is said that it was built by Arphaxad king of Medes, and by Herodotus, and o­ther writers it is attributed to Dejoces; whereby it appears, that one and the same man was called by both names; of which matter more will hereafter be said in the year of the world, 3448.

Taracas the Ethiopian, Year of the World 3299 called before in the year of the world 3294. The Julian Period. 4009 Tirhaka reigned in Egypt 18 years: Year before Christ 705 [Africanus.]

After Arkianus, Year of the World 3300 there was a vacancie of a king for 2 years, The Julian Period. 4010 [Ptol. Year before Christ 704 Reg. Canon.]

Belibus, Year of the World 3302 al. The Julian Period. 4011 Belithus, Year before Christ 703 and Belelus, held the kingdom of Babylon, 3 years: Ibid.

Apronadius reigned likewise there 6 years, Year of the World 3305 Ibid. The Julian Period. 4014 Year before Christ 700

Ezechias was buried in the upper part of the sepulchers of the posterity of David, Year of the World 3306 and all Juda, The Julian Period. 4016 and the Inhabitants of Jerusalem, Year before Christ 694 did him what honour possibly they could in his death, [2 Chron. 32. 33.] After whom came his son Manasses, and reigned 55 years, [2 Reg. 21. 1.] He again set up the High places, which his father Ezechias had pulled down: he built altars to all the host of heaven in the two courts of the house of the Lord: and made his son passe the fire in the valley of the Son of Hinnom; used Divinations and Sor­ceries and Soothsayings: and set up a molten Image in the house of the Lord; making Juda and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to go astray, and do worse than all the Nations, whom God had driven out before the face of the Israelites, [2 Reg. 21. 2, 11. 2 Chron. 33. 2, 9.] and moreover shed much innocent blood; insomuch that he filled Jerusalem there­with: besides his own sin committed, in making Juda to sin, and to do that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, [2 Reg. 21. 16. and 24. 4.] In which shedding of innocent blood, the death of the Prophet Isaiah is principally remembred, whom he caused to be cut in two pieces with a wooden saw; as the Babylonish Talmud, in their Treatise [...] and Justin Martyr in his Coloquie with Tryphon, Jerome upon Isaiah, [c. 20. and 57.] and others of our men, report, who expound that word [...], [Heb. 11. 37.] i.e. Were sawed in pieces, as meant of the Prophet Isaiah: For all which, God threatned that he would stretch out over Ierusalem, the line of Samaria, and the plumb of the house of Achab: and that he would wipe Ierusalem, as one useth to do, when he wipes a dish, and turneth it upside down, [2 Reg. 21. 13.]

Rigibelus reigned over the Babylonians one year, Year of the World 3311 [Ptol. The Julian Period. 4020 Reg. Year before Christ 694 Can.]

Mesissimordacus reigned there likewise 4 years, Year of the World 3312 Ibid. The Julian Period. 4025 Year before Christ 693

There was a vacancie of a king in Babilon 8 years, Year of the World 3316 Ibid. The Julian Period. 4026 Year before Christ 688

Dejoces enlarged the dominions of the Medes, as far as the river Halys, 128 years be­fore the end of Aastyages his reign, as may be gathered out of Herodotu [...], lib. 1. c. 130.

In the 23 Olimpiade, Herostratus Naucratites a merchant of Egypt, coming to Pa­phos in the Island of Cyprus, is said to have bought there a litle image of Venus, of the bignesse of the palm of a mans hand, and of very ancient workmanship, and that by the power thereof, being miraculously delivered out of a main danger at sea, by virtue of that image, he consecrated the same at Naucratis in the Temple of Venus, with great solem­nity; as we find in Atheneus, who was himself a town-born child of the same place, in his 15 book Deipnosophist. But if we will rather believe Srabo, lib. 17. there was no such town as Naucratis then built in Egypt: nor till afterward that it was built by the Milesians, in the time of Cyaxeris king of Medes, and of Psamyticus king of Egypt, who lived at the same time with him.

Troubles growing in Egypt; Year of the World 3317 there was there a vacancie of a king for 2 years, The Julian Period. 4027 [Diod. Year before Christ 687 Sic. lib. 1.]

After which Egypt was ruled by an Aristocracie of twelve men, Year of the World 3319 which governed that kingdom by Common Council and advice; The Julian Period. 4029 which government, Year before Christ 685 is by Herod. l. 2. c. 147, and Diod. Sic. l. 1. said to have lasted 15 years; whereunto Tremellius is of opinion, that that burthen of Egypt, spoken of by the Prophet Isaiah, [c 19.] refers where [v. 5, 6.] spea­king of the drying up of the river Nilus, this is also foretold, They shall want of their waters, to run into the sea, so that their river shall be dryed up, and turning away their waters, they shall empty and dry up their chanels fenced with banks: which out of Herodotus, Tremellius thus expounds, These 12 petty kings, by the labour of this miserable people, shall strive to over-rule the very works of nature, and shall turne away the water of Nilus; even to lay the channels thereof dry, that they might finish, their pond or lough of Marios with their Pyramides and Labyrinth, only for their lust and pleasures sake. But Scaliger in his Canon, Isagog. understands it, that there should be there so great a drouth, that their river Nile, in the summer season, should not [Page 75] rise nor flow, nor water Egypt as it used to do; and refers this prophesie to the former times of Soii or Sabbacon.

The race of the babylonish Kings failing after those 8 years vacancy, Esarchaddon the King of Assyria, Year of the World 3323. c. reduced them under their former yoke of his obedience, and held that kingdom 13 years: as we learn out of Ptolomeis, Can. Reg. For that this Assaradi­nus is the same with our Esarchaddon, appears, not onely by the vicinity and likenesse of the name, but also by the consent of holy Scripture, which intimates to us, that he was King both of Assyria and Babylon at the same time; as we shall see anon, in the year of the World 3327.

Ardys the son of Gyges, Year of the World 3324 reigned in Lydia the space of 49 years: The Julian Period. 4034 he took Pryene by force, Year before Christ 680 and invaded Miletus, [Herod. lib. 1. cap. 15.]

In Sicily, Year of the World 3327 the City Gela was built, The Julian Period. 4037 and Phaselis in Pamphilia by two brothers, Year before Christ 677 Anti­phemus and Lacius, [Euseb. Chron.] who consulting the Oracle at Delphos concerning a place to plant in; were answered, that the one should saile westward, and the other east­ward, as Stephanus Byzantinus in the word Gela, reports, out of Aristenetus his first Commentary of Phaselis. And Heropythus in his book of the Borders of the Colopho­nians, treating of the building of Phaselis, saith that Lacius, who transported a colony thither, gave unto one Cylabra, a shepherd, whom he met driving his flock to feed, the price of the ground whereon he built his city, in certain in poundred provisions, which he re­quired. But Philostephanus: in his book entitled, Of the Cities of Asia, delivereth more fully, that Lacius, a man of Argos, one of them which went with Mopsus (the founder of the city Colophos) and whom some call Lindius, brother to Antiphemus the builder of Gela (which Lindius, is also said to have been of Rhodes by Herodotus lib. 7. and by Thuci­dides lib. 6.) and that being sent by Mopsus with certain other men, by the Oracle and bidding of Mantus, Mopsus his mother, for that the poopes of his Ships were in a tempest split about the Chelidonian Isles, he could not arrive till late at night: and that there he bought the plat of ground whereon he built his city, as Mantus had foretold, giving cer­tain salt meats for it unto Cylabra the owner of it, such as out of all their ship-provisions he most desired. [Athenae Deipnosoph. lib. 7.]

This year also was fulfilled the prophesie spoken by the mouth of the Prophet Esaiah, [chap. 7. 8.] in the beginning of the reign of Achaz, within sixty and five years Ephraim shall he broken in pieces, so that it shall be no more a people. For although the greatest part of them were carried away by Salmanasar 44 years before, and the kingdom utterly abo­lished, yet among them which were left, there was some shew of a government. But now they left off to be any more a people, by reason of the great multitude of forreigners which came to dwell there; in comparison of whom, the small remainder of the Ephraimites were counted as nothing; for, that they were not utterly extinct in their own country appears, out of the story of Josias, [2 Chron. 34. 6, 7, 33. and chap. 35. 18. with 2 Reg. 23. 19, 20.] But there were ever now and anon, new colonies or companies sent out of Ba­bel, Cu [...]h, Hava, and Sepharuaim; which possessing Samaria by way of inheritance, dwelt in all the cities thereunto belonging, [2 Reg. 17. 24.] And that this was so done by Esarchaddon King of Assyria (who was also called, Asnapper the Great. and magnifi­cent) is easie to be understood by the confession of the Cuthites, mentioned, [Ezra 4. 2, 10.]

At which time also, as it should seem, and in the same expedition, whereby these things were done in the land of Israel; some of the chief Commanders of the Assyrian Army, made an inrode into Judea, and there took Manasses the King, as he lay hid in a thicket, and binding him with chains of brasse, carried him away captive into Babylon, [2 Chron. 33. 11.] which calamity so falling upon Judea, some think to have been foretold, by the Prophet Isaiah, where he saith, within sixty five years Ephraim shall be so broken in pieces, that it shall be no more a people. And the head of Ephraim is Samaria, and the head of Samaria, is the son of Remaliah: And if you will not believe, you shall not be established, [chap. 7. 9.] (i.) as Jacobus Capellus hath noted in his Chron. you your selves also shall be broken in pieces. Where he addeth further, that the Jews also in Seder Olans Rabba, and the Tal­mudists, cited by Rabbi Kimchi, upon, [chap. 4. Ezekiel] do deliver, That Manasses 22 of his reign, was carried away captive into Babylon; and that he repented him of his sin 33 years before his death: after which the Scripture witnesseth, that God again re­stored him to his liberty and kingdom, [2 Chron. 33. 12, 13.] For that his captivity lasted not long; may be gathered by this, that taking no notice thereof, it is recorded that he reigned 55 years in Jerusalem, [2 Reg. 21. 1. 2 Chron. 33. 1.]

The new inhabitants of Samaria, when as, at their first coming thither, they served not the God of Israel, were troubled with Lions: whereof when the King of Assyria was enformed, he took order that one of the Priests, which were brought from thence in the captivity should be remanded thither; and he coming thither, made his residence at Bethel, and there taught them how to worship God indeed: but all after the manner of Jeroboams appointment. But when together with the Calf which they found there, they worshipped also their old idols, they are said to have feared God, and not to have [Page 76] feared him; for that there is little difference between worshipping of many gods & no God at all, [2 Reg. 17. 25. 33. 41.] And this was the beginning of that strangenesse which grew afterwards between the Samaritans and the Jews, [Ezra 4. 1. Neh. 4. 2. John 4. 9.]

Chalcedon, Year of the World 3329 or Calcedon, (as it is found in some old coines) was this year built, The Julian Period. 4039 by the Megarenses, Year before Christ 675 Euseb. Chron. at the mouth of the Euxine sea, among the Thracians, which had possessed themselves of Bithynia in Asia. Thucidid. lib. 4. Strabo lib. 12.

Psammiticus Saits, Year of the World 3334 the son of Pharao Neco, The Julian Period. 4044 which was done to death by Sabbacon the Ethiopian, Year before Christ 670 and one of those twelve tyrants of Egypt, having at length got all the power into his own hands, reigned there 54 years. Herod. lib. 2. cap. 152. and cap. 157. where­unto that prophet of Isaias seems to point; where he sayes, And the Egyptians will I give up into the hands of Lords, which shall lord it cruelly over them, till a fierce king shall come to rule them, [Esay 19. 4.] for Psammitichus, who was sent away, and confined in the Fenne countrey near the sea, hiring souldiers out of Arabia, and a number of pirates of the Iones and Carions, which roved about that shore, with such Egyptians as sided with him, in a main battle; fought near to memphis, overthrew the rest of those domineering Lords, and the Ionians and Carions for their good service, had a place assigned them, to inhabit in, somewhat about the cityes of Bubastis, and Pelusium, which stood upon that mouth or outlet of the river Nile, which was from thence called [...], (i.e.) the souldiers, or armies field; and from that time forward, the Grecians and other foreiners, were alwayes welcom into Egypt, Herod. lib. 2. Diodor. Sic. lib. 1. The same Herodotus also reporteth, that this Psammiticus took in by force, a great city in Syria called Azotus, after 29 years siege. ib. cap. 157. to wit the city of Ashdod, which as I shewed before upon the year of the world. 2391. was taken by Tartanes commander of the king of Assyria his army in one year, and which was so ruined by Psammitichus, that, as the prophet Jeremy saith, there was but a remainder of it left in his dayes, [Jer. 25. 20.]

After Assaridinus, Year of the World 3336 or Esarchaddon, The Julian Period. 4046 the Empire of Assyria and Babylon both, Year before Christ 668 was go­verned by Saosduchinus 20 years, [Ptol. Can. Reg.] This man in the book of Judith, writ­ten in the Chaldee language, by some Jew living in Babylon, is called Nabuchodonosor, as by a name common to all kings of Babylon; who yet is there also called, the king of Assyria; and is said to have reigned in the great city of Ninive, [Jud. 1. 1.] where neverthe­less, Franc, Junius, a famous man for learning, would have it understood of him, whom the scripture calleth Merodach-Baladan, the grand-father of that Nebucadnetzar, who was the father of that great Nebucadnetzar, by whom king Manasses was taken priso­ner, and carryed to Babylon, and at last released. For (saith he) this man was first king of Babylon, and was afterward made king of Assyria, succeding in that kingdom, after Esarchaddon the Great, when his brothers being guilty of parricide, were deomed unworthy of the kingdom: whereupon all Asia fell on fire, with a war which lasted a long time after. And verily this succession of Asar-Adon Merodach, Ben-Merodach, and Nebucadnet­zar, first and second, is taken onely out of Anianus, that false Metasthenes. For in truth, Merodach was neither grand-father of Nebucadnetzar or rather Nabopo­las [...]ar of Nebucadnetzar the great, nor was at first a trustee onely of the king of Assyria, and afterward came himself to be king of Assyria and Babylon both, as Junius hath well observed. Nor did he ever succed Esarchaddon the great, in any kingdom of his, seeing that this Mardocempadus, or Merodach left off to reign, eleven years, before ever Manasses came to be king, and that 42 years after his death, Assaradinus or Essarchaddon left Saosduchinus to succeed him, as wel in the Assyrian as in the Ba­bylonish kingdom, as we formerly made to appear, out of Petolomies Canon, Reg. which if Junius, a man of no less modesty than learning, had seen, no doubt, he would have al­tered his opinion in this point, whereof I thought good in this place to put the reader in mind, to the end, that out of a thing which never was, he should not think, that sense or exposition to agree with the prophecy of Ezekiel, [c. 31. 11. or v. 18.] as he distinguisheth them, to wit, That Esarchaddon the Assyrian, was put down, or thrust out of his kingdom, by Berodach Baladan, and that therefore, all fell off from him, and many of them fled to the king of Babylon, as in the sentence following, So that now, the land of Assyria, was most shamefully troden under foot, The Julian Period. 4049 and brought into contempt of all men, Year before Christ 665 ver. 20.

Meshullameth the daughter of Hazuzi, Year of the World 3339 c. of Jotba, bare unto Manasses his son Ammon, who was 22 years old when he began to reign, The Julian Period. 4053 [2 Reg. Year before Christ 661 21. 19.]

Was the 16 Jubile. Year of the World 3344. a.

Nabucadonosor, Year of the World 3347 king of Assyria, The Julian Period. 4057 in the 12 year of his reign, Year before Christ 657 is said to have overcome Arphaxed the king of Medes, the founder of the city Ecbatan, in the great plain of Ra­gau, near to Euphrates, and Tigris, and Jadason, in the champion country of Erioch king of the Elicians, (for so we read in the first chap of the book of Judith; which Jerom, at the request of Paula and Eustochiam translated into Latin,) but whoever it was that pub­lished that book in Greek, with many alterations and additions of his own, first tells us, that Nabuchodanosor, in the 12 year of his reign, fought a battaile, with king Arphaxad in a great plain, near unto Ragau, wherein were present, all that inhabited the hill-coun­tries, [Page 77] and all that bordered upon the river of Euphrates and Tigris, and Hydaspes, and that dwelt in the plaine of Arioch King of the Elymeans. But afterward, as forgetting himself, tells us, that he fought this battaile against Arphaxad, in the seventeenth year: and that having gotten the better of it in this fight, he spoiled all them of Ecbatan, and that having taken Arphaxad in the hill countries of Ragan, he thrust him through with his own darts, and at length, having done all his businesse, as his heart could wish, he returned to Ninive, and therewith all his army kept a feast, and banqueted himself and them, by the space of 120 dayes; where it is to be noted, that Dejoces his death, according to Hetodotus, fell in with the 12 year of Saosduchinus: which is a great argument, that Saosduchinus and Dejoces, are none other, than they who in the book of Judith are called by the names of Nabuchadonosor and Arphaxad. For the opinion of Fr. Junius hath no ground at all for it, whiles, seeking to reconcile the succession of the kings of Media, which is nothing but a meere device and forgerie of Ctesias a very fabler, and of a supposed Metasthenes, with Herodotus, who is entitled the father of histories, he will needs divide Media into two parts, giving one of them to Dejoces, who is here called Arioch, as is noted in [Judith, 1. 6. and in Jer. 49. 34.] and assigning the other to Artecar­mus (whom Ctesias calleth Articam, and who is here called Arphaxad) who, as he saith, established the seat of his kingdom at Ecbatan, to the end, that having so strong a place to trust to, he might the better withstand both Dejoces, and all other enemies that should assault him: whereas, if any such division had been made of Media (as never a­ny was) both the name of Arphaxad and the kingdom of Ecbatan, should have been gi­ven, not to Arioch, nor to Articarmes, but to Dejoces: for that Arphaxad was the foun­der of Ecbatan, the book of Judith hath it: and that Dejoces was, Herodotus and others affirme, but that Arioch or Artecarmes built it, no man ever wrote.

After Dejoces, Phraortes his son succeeded; and reigned 22 years: The Julian Period. 4058 Herodotus, Year before Christ 656 lib. 1. c. 102.

Nabuchadonosor, Year of the World 3348. c. or Saosduchinus king of the Assyrians, the next year after the over­throw of Arphaxad or Dejoces (who in Judith 2. 1. according to the Chaldee copie, is said to be the 13 king of Ecbatan but in the Greek, the 18) upon the 22 day of the first month, entered into a deliberation how to subdue Nations and Countries to his dominion, ma­king Holophernes General of all his armies; who when he came before Bethulia, al. Beth-Hoglam, a City of Judea, and had closed it up with a siege, had there his head taken off by Judith a woman of the tribe of Simeon; who after the death of her husband Manas­ses, which dyed in the time of barly harvest, had spent 3, or, as the Greek copy hath it, Year of the World 3349 4 years in widowhood in that City, The Julian Period. 4059 [Judith 2. 8, Year before Christ 655 13.]

Isthemus and Borysthenes were this year built in the Country of Pontus, so was Lam­psacus in Hellespont, and Abdera in Thrace, Euseb. Chron. to wit, Borysthenes by the Milesians of Ionia, Lampsacus by the Phoceans, Abdera by the Citizens of Clazomene: Solinus c. 10. tells us that Abdera was first built by Diomedes his sister: and that after­ward falling to decay it was new built and enlarged by the Clazomenians, in the 51 O­lympiade, which ended the last year before this. The conductor of which Colony, was Timesius a Citezen of Clazomene, as we have it in Herodotus, lib. 1. c. 168. who yet ad­deth this, that he being beaten off by the Thracians, was not able to go through with the work.

Amon had his son Josias by Fredida, Year of the World 3355. c. the daughter of Hadaia a Boscathite, The Julian Period. 4065 who was eight years old when he began to reign, Year before Christ 649 [2 Reg. 22. 1.]

After Saosduchinus succeeded Chyladanus both in the Assyrian and also in the Babylo­nish kingdome and reigned 22 years, Year of the World 3356. c. Cano. Reg. Ptolom▪ The Julian Period. 4066 Alexander Polyhistor calleth him Saracus, Year before Christ 648 which name, as well as that of a Saracen signifies a Robber, or a Spoiler.

Grinus the son of Esanius, king of the Island of Thera, was commanded by the Ora­cle of Delphos, to go build a City of Lybia: which lying dead a long while, because no man there, knew where Lybia was, it is said, that it rained not in that Island for 7 years after: and that all the trees there, save one, perished in that drought. Herodotus lib. 4. cap. 150. 151.

King Manasses returning this year out of his captivity, Year of the World 336. c. having in part restored the true worship of God, which he had formerly so much defaced, dies: and was buried in the garden of his own house, [2 Chron. 33. 2 Reg. 21. 8.] and as we may well think, according to his own appointment by his last will or testament, as if repenting him now at last of his former evil doings, he deemed himself unworthy to lie among his own royal ancestors. [Tremelius.]

After him his son Amon reigned 2 years; Year of the World 3363 who forsaking the Lord God of his forefa­thers, The Julian Period. 4073 offered sacrifice, Year before Christ 641 to all the graven Images, which his father had set up, and wor­shipt them: but never repented him thereof, as his father did; but sinned more that way, than ever he had done, [2 Reg. 21. 19, 28, 21. 2 Chron. 33. 21, 22, 23.]

This impious Amon, was murthered by his own houshold servants, in his own house; and was buried with Manasses his father, in the garden of Uzza: and the people slew all that were of the conspiracie against him, [2 Reg. 21. verse 23, 24, 26. 2 Chronicles 33. 24, 25.]

[Page 78] And unto him succeeded his son Josias, a child of 8 years old, and reigned 31 years [2 Reg. 22. 1. 2 Chron. 34. 1.]

Those of the Isle of Thera, Year of the World 3364 wearied out with their seven years drouth, The Julian Period. 4074 hired one Coro­bius, Year before Christ 640 a trader [...] in scarlet, of the City of Itanus in the Isle of Crete, who had formerly been driven by a tempest into a place called Platea, an Isle of Lybia: and sent him a second time with some of their own country-men, to spie out that Isle: These leaving Corobius there with provision for certain months, returned with all speed, to let their country-men know what they had found: But not returning from thence to Platea, according to the time appointed, it fortuned that a ship of Samos, wherein was Master, one Coleus, coming out of Egypt, put in there, and left Corobeus a years provision more for him and his company, and then putting to sea again; and being hurried with a strong wind, was set quite out beyond Hercules his Pillars into the main Ocean; and came unto Tartessus in Spain, Herod. 1. 4. c. 151. 152.

The Thereans; out of their seven townes taken by lot, so many as should serve for that Colonie, sent them away to Platea, in two ships, under the command of one Battus, other­wise called Aristoteles, or Aristeus, [Herod. lib. 4. c. 151. 152.

Thales the son of Examius, was this year also born at Miletus in Ionia: in the 35 O­lympiade: in the first year thereof: as Laertius reports out of Apollodorus his Chronicle.

The Cimmerians, being turned out of their dwellings by the Scythian Shepheards, cal­led Nomades, passed out of Europe into Asia, and keeping on thier way by the sea side, came at length to Sardes, where they took all the City save the Castle at what time Ardys the son of Gyges there reigned, [Her. l. 1. c. 15. & 130. and in his 4 book, c. 1. and 12.]

The Thereans, when they had dwelt in Platea now two years, leaving one of their com­pany behind, Year of the World 3366 failed all to Delphos to know of the Oracle there, what was the cause why things went no better with them than they did, The Julian Period. 4076 since their coming into Lybia: Year before Christ 638 and an­swer was made them, that they were not yet come to the City of Lybia, whither they were bid to go, wherefore returning again to Platea, and taking in him whom they had there left, they sate them down in a place in the continent of Lybia, over against the Isle o [...] Platea, called Aziristus; environed with most pleasant hills, and a river running under it on either side, [Herod. l. 4. c. 157.]

In that place near adjoyning to the gardens of the Hesperides, and the greater Syrt, or quick sand, the earth happening to grow moist, with a shower of rain of pitch, of sul­phure there presently grew up an herbe called Sylphius or Laser. (i.e.) Beniamin, as the Cyreneans saye: which fell out seven years before the building of their city: [Theophrast▪ in his History of Plants, l. 6. Plin. in his natur. Hist. lib. 19. c. 3.]

Phraortes king of the Medes, dyed at the siege of Ninive with a great part of his army. After whom came his son Cyaxares, Year of the World 3369 who reigned 40 years: The Julian Period. 4079 in the beginning of his reign he purposed to revenge his fathers death, Year before Christ 635 and making first all Asia, as far as the river Ha­lys, fast unto him, he began his war against the Assyrians: [Herod. lib. 1.]

Josias, at the 16 year of his age, had a son called Eliakim, of Zebudda the daughter of Pe­daia, Year of the World 3370. a. of Ruma: which was 25 years old, when he came afterward first to reign, [2 Reg. 23. 36.]

Yet he, when he came to be sixteen years of age, and though then a father, yet but a child, began to seek after the God of his father David, [2 Chron. 34. 3.]

Cyaxares overcame the Assyrians in battel, but when he went to besiege Ninive, a vast army of the Scythians fell upon him, to wit, those Scythians who having driven the Cim­merians out of Europe, pursued their point, & departing from the lough of meotis, left the mountain Caucasus on their left hand, and entered media, under the conduct of their king Madois the son of Protothya, [Herod. lib. 1. c. 104. lib. 2. c. 1. and lib. 7. c. 20.] which was none other, than Indathyrsus the Scythian, which breaking out of Scythia, went over the belly of all Asis, till he came into Egypt; as Strabo, in the entrance of his Geography, reports out of Megasthenes, and Arrianus in his book, of the affaires of Judea, being of the same name with that Indathirsus, against whom Darius the son of Hystaspes after­ward made such an unlucky voiage, as we read of in Herod. l. 4. c. 76. 126, 127. Here then the Medes being overthrowen in battel by the Scythians, lost the sovereignty of Asia; which the Scythians held for 28 years after, [Herod. lib. 1. c. 104. and lib. 4. c. 1.] To which Tremellius and Junius refer that prophecie of Nahum, [c. 2. 5.] He (to wit, Cyax­ares, besieging Ninive) shall reckon up his great men; but they shall fall in their perambu­lation: to wit, in the perambulation of the Scythians; whose coming at this time into Asia might well be termed a perambulation, or sodain passing through, rather than any settled government or kingdom in Asia; as those who in the space of 28 years over-ran, possest, and lost Media, Assyria, and all Asia, They shall hasten to his wall, as if they would be his Protector, (i.e.) They shall come hastily to Ninive, as if they had delivered it out of the hand of Cy­axares, and would deliver it.

In this year was born unto Josias, Shallum or Jehoachaz, by Hamital the daughter of Jeremias of Lybna, Year of the World 3371. c. for him, The Julian Period 4801 being 23 years old, Year before Christ 633 did the people (putting by his elder brothers) make king in his fathers room, [2 Reg. 23. 30, 31.] The name of Shallum, as [Page 79] it seemeth, being, for good lucks-sake, changed into Jehoachaz, which otherwise had been the same with Shallum the son of Jabeth, who, having reigned not past one moneth, was murdered by Manahemus, [1 Reg. 15. 13, 14.] for of four sons which Josias had, mentioned, [1 Chron. 3. 15.] it is manifest, out of [Jeremy 21.. 11, 12. compared with 2 Reg. 23. 30, 31.] that this Shallum is last named; not Johannanes the first born, as some have imagined; for that Jehoachaz was not the first-born is easily gathered, because it is said, that he was anointed by the people, [2 Reg. 23. 30.] because the first born of kings, were not wont to be anointed, upon whom the kingdom by common right descended; and also, by his age of 23 years, of which he is said to have been, at the time of his a­nointing: seeing that when his brother Eliakim, was at three moneths end set in his place, he is said to have been 25 years old, whereby it is manifest, that he was elder than this Jehoachaz, and so Josephus, in his tenth book of Antiquities, cap. 6. al. 7, affirms.

Sadyattes the son of Ardyis, Year of the World 3373 reigned in Lydia 12 years, The Julian Period. 4083 Herodot. Year before Christ 631 lib. 1. cap. 16.

Those Scythians, having gotten all the upper Asia, went straight into Egypt, unto whom, when they were come as far as Syria Palestina, Psamitichus the king of Egypt came in person, and what by entreaty, what by gifts and presents, wrought so far with them, that they went no further that way. But when in their return they came to Askalon, which is in Syria, the greatest part of the army passing a long without hurt doing, some straglers coming in the rear, robbed the Temple of Venus Vrania, whose posterity were ever after striken with the Emerodes, [Herod. lib. 1. cap. 105.] But this year, which was the second of the 37 Olympiad, those Scythians invaded Syria Palestina; as Eusebius in Chron. notes, as also that Sinope, was this year built; which being the chief city, in all the kingdom of Pontus, was built by the Milesians, as Strabo in his 12 book saith, but by Macritius of the Isle of Coos, as Phlegon says, cited by Stephanus de Tribibus, in Sinope. But sure enough it is, that the Cimmerians, coming into Asia, when they fled from the Scythians, built Cherso­nesus, in the place, where Sinope a city of the Grecians now standeth, saith Herod l. 4. c. 12.

The men of Thera, in the 7 year after they were seated, and had dwelt in Aziristus, by the perswasion of the Libyans, removed from thence, and went to a place called Irasa, and there seated themselves, near to a fountain, which was called after Apolloes name, [Her. lib. 4. cap, 158.] and there Battus, having built a city, which was called Cyrene, in the se­cond year of the 37 Olympiade, reigned 40 years, and after him his son Arcesilaus, 16 years, with those of the first plantation onely; but afterward in the reign of Battus the second Arcesilaus his son, there went thither a great multitude of other Greeks, stirred up thereto, by the oracle of Delphos, at what time Apryas reigned among the Egyptians, [Herod. lib. cap. 159.] which concurrence of the reign of this Egyptian king, sheweth, that what I have said of the time, when the city of Cyrene was built, is much truer, than what others have variously written of it.

Josias in the 12 year of his reign, Year of the World 3374. c. began to cleanse Juda and Jurasalem from that filth of Idolatry, The Julian Period. 4084 wherein they had so long lain, Year before Christ 630 and from the high places and groves, and al­tars of Baal, with the images which were openly placed on them, destroying their gra­ven and molten images, and burning the bones of their priests upon their own altars, and and then proceeding to their cities of Manasses, Ephraim and Symeon, as far as Nephtha­ly, he threw down all the altars and groves, and graven o [...] carved images; and all their statues, which stood without doors, did he demolish and deface, throughout all the land of Israel, Year of the World 3375. c. [2 Chron. 34. 3, 7.]

Jeremias, in the 13 year of king Josia, was called by God to his prophetical function; but refused to take it upon him: til being called thereto the second time, & strengthened with­all by sundry promises, and signs belonging to the office and function of a prophet, he was bid to fore-warne the Jews, of the calamitie, which was to be brought upon that place, by the king of Babylon, [Jer. 1. 2. 17. with c. 28. 3.] to whom was also joyned the prophet Zephany, and others, all who sought to move that rebellious people, to repentance, but could not, [Zeph. 1. 1. Jer. 25. 3, 4, 5.]

Prusias, or Prusa was built in Bythinia, [Euseb. Chron.]

Nabopolasur of Babylon, Year of the World 3378 who was made General of the army by Saraco, The Julian Period. 4088 al. Year before Christ 629 China­ladanus king of Assyria and Chaldaea, and Astyages, who was made Governour of Media, by his father Cyaxares, entering now into affinity, by Astyages, his giving his daughter Amyitis in marriage unto Nebucadnesar the son of Nabopolasar, joyned their forces to­gether, and took the city of Nineve, and therein Saraco the king, (as we gather out of a fragment of Alexander Polyhistors (misunderstood by Georgius Symelius, who cites it in Graec. Scalig. p. 38, 39.) And as we also find in the end of the book of Tobit, in the Greek copie, that Nabuchodonosor, al. Nabopolasur, and Assuerus. al. Astyages, called also Assuerus, [Dan. 9. 1.] whiles Tobit the younger was yet living, who when Salmanasar took Samaria, being together with his father, by Salmanasar carryed away into Assyria, is said to have lived to the age, of 127 years, whereas 95 years passed, from the captivity of Israel, unto this time; and so, Josias yet reigning, (as Jerom also, in his commentaries upon the prophet Jonas affirmes) Nineve was destroyed, and the prophecies both of Na­hum and Esay, concerning the destruction of Ninive, were fulfilled, whereof as of a thing [Page 80] already come to pass and done, there is a most elegant description in the 31 ch. of Ezekiel.

Saracus therefore being now dead, Nabopollasar took into his hands the kingdom of Chaldaea, as Polyhistor, expressely sayes; which he held by the space of 21 years, as Bero­sus in his third book of the Affaires of Chaldaea; and Ptolomy, in Reg. Can. affirms.

Sadyattes king of Lydia, [...]379. invaded the territory of the milesians, The Julian Period. 4089 with his army, Year before Christ 625 and continued that war for six years space.

Josias in the 18 year of his reign,3380. [...]. gave charge to Hilkia the high priest, The Julian Period. 4090 that with the money which had been collected, Year before Christ 624 he should repaire the house of the Lord, and he, falling in hand therewith, found the original book of the law, which was at the first laid up in the side of the Ark of the covenant, [Deut. 31. 26.] and which seemeth to have been missing ever since the beginning of Manasses his reign: and having found it, sent it by Shaphan the scribe, to the king. Josias, having heard the book read all over to him, asked counsaile thereupon of Hulda the prophetesse; who foretold him, that that kingdom should certain­ly be destroyed; yet not whiles he lived; [2 Reg. 22. 3. 20. 2 Chron. 34. 8. 28.] whereup­on the king calling to him the elders of Juda and Jerusalem, with the priests and pro­phets, caused that book of the Law to be read over before all the people, renewed the co­venant, between God and the people; and again, cleansed the city from idolatry, and throughly restored the worship of God, [2 Reg. 33. 1, 14. 2 Chron. 34. 29, 30.] demolish­ed the altar and high place, which Jeroboam the son of Nebat had set up, having first burnt the bones of the dead upon the altar, as had been expressely foretold it should come to passe, 350 years before, [2 Reg. 13. 2.] And when he had taken away the altars which the kings of Israel had built in the cities of Samaria, and had slain all their priests, and burnt dead mens bones upon them, he then returned to Jerusalem, [2 Reg. 23. 15, 20.] And from this solemn renewing of the covenant, and general reformation of religion, joyning therewith, that inevitable decree of desolation, which was to ensue, for the sins of the peo­ple, is deduced the Epocha or, beginning both of the 30 years, spoken of in the first of the prophecie of Ezekiel, and also of the 40 years of the iniquity of Juda, [c. 4. 6. of the same book.]

Josias, Year of the World 3381 in the same 18 years of his reign, The Julian Period. 4091 toward the end thereof, Year before Christ 623 14 day of the first moneth (our May 4. being munday) in the presence of all Juda and Israel, and the inhabi­tants of Jerusalem, kept the feast of the passeover, with more solemnity, than ever had been done by any of the kings of Israel or Juda in former times, [2 Reg. 23. 21, 22, 23. 2 Chr. 35. 1. 19.] to conclude, he took away all witches and sooth-sayers, all Images and dung-hil gods, and all the abominations, which were found in the land of Juda, & in Jeru­salem, that he might performe all the words which were written in the book that was so found by Hilkia the priest, in the house of the Lord, [2 Reg. 33. 24. with Deut. 18. 9, 10, 11.]

Toward the later end of the 5 year of Nabopolassar, Year of the World 3383 (which is the 127 from the Epoch of Nabonazar,) The Julian Period. 4093 upon the 27 day of the moneth Athyr, Year before Christ 621 of the Egyptians, drawing on to the 28 thereof, the moon entred into an Eclips at Babylon, beginning 5 measured hours after midnight; Ptol. Syntax. p. 125. in the Greek edition, to wit, 22 of April, accord­ing to the Julian Calender, falling on a Saturday, or the 27 of Athyr, drawing to an end; which was our Friday, for that is Ptolomies meaning, when he saith, that it was from [...] (i.e.) from the 27 to the 28, being in all, six measued hours after midnight of the 27 day, to the sun-rising, when the 28 day was to begin.

Hammutula bare unto Josia▪ Year of the World 3384 after Shallum, The Julian Period. 4094 or Jehoachaz, Year before Christ 620 Mattania also, who was afterward called Sedechias, for he was 21 years old when he began to reign, [Jer. 21. 2 Reg. 2417. 18.]

Xenophanes Colophonius, chief of the sect, of the Eleatic discipline in Philosophy, [...], (i.e.) was begotten as Elius Empiricus saith, in his first book, contra Mathematicos, c. 12. or [...], as is more rightly related out of Apollodorus, cited by Clemens Alexan­drinus, lib. 1. Strommat. (i.e.) was born, in the 40 Olympiade.

After Sadyattes, Year of the World 3385 his son Halyattes, the younger reigned in Lydia 57 years, of which he spent the first 5 years in prosecuting the war which his father had commenced against the Lydyans, [Herod. lib. 1. cap. 17, 18, 25.]

Jehojakim son of Josias, Year of the World 3387. c. had a son, The Julian Period. 4097 by Neheshta, the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem, Year before Christ 517 called Jehojakim, al. Jeconia, who was 18 years old when he began to reign, [2 Reg. 28. 8.]

Neco, Year of the World 3388 the son of Psammitichus, reigned in Egypt 16 years, [Herod. l. 2. c. 159.] who in the scripture is Neco or Pharao Neco, The Julian Period. 4098 [2 Chr. 35. 24. 2 Reg. 23. 29. Ier. 46. 2.] Year before Christ 616 This man began from the Nile, into the gulf of Arabia, in which work he spent the lives of 120 thousand Egyptians. But giving that work off in the midst of it, he sent certain Phaenicians, to saile round about Africa, and they setting saile out of the gulf of Arabia, or the red-sea, went into the southern sea; and compassing about the coast, came at length, into the streit of Gibraltar, and so returned into Egypt, in the third year after they set out, [Herod. lib. 1. cap. 158. and lib. 4. cap. 52.]

In the 12 year of the war between the Lydians and the Milesians, Year of the World 3390 when the Lydian army had burnt the harvest of the Milesians, The Julian Period. 4100 as commonly every year they did, Year before Christ 614 it hap­pened, that the flame, driven by force of the winde, caught in the Temple of Minerva in Assesus, and burnt it to the ground, and when at the return of the Army, Halyattes, was [Page 81] fallen sick, and lay long of it, at length, he sent to consult the Oracle at Delphos, and had answer made him by the prophetesse there, that untill he had repaired the Temple, which his men had burnt, he should get no answer there. Thrasibulus, understanding what answer was made at the Oracle, by Periander the son of Cyphelus, tyrant at Corinth, with whom he was very inward; took order that at the coming of Halyattes his Ambas­sadors about that matter, all the Milesians should dispose themselves to all kind of feasting and merriment: whereupon Halyattes supposing that there was no want of any thing, but rather great abundance of all provisions; made a peace & a league of friendship with them; and instead of one temple which was before, he built up two temples of Minerva at Assesus: and having thereupon recovered his health, sent rich presents and offerings unto Delphos, [Herod. lib. 1. ca. 19. 20, 22, 23, 24. with Polyaenus, lib. 6. Stratag.] The Julian Period. 4102

Was the 17 Jubilie. Year before Christ 612

Anaximander Milesius, Year of the World 3393. a. c. the son of Praxidemus, The Julian Period. 4103 was born in Ionia. Year before Christ 611 See hereafter in the year of the World, 3457.

Neco king of Egypt, The Julian Period. 4104 by Gods command went against the king of Assyria, Year before Christ 610 who at that time made war upon him, Year of the World 3394. c. to besiege Carchemish upon the River Euphrates, [2 Reg. 23. 29. 2 Chron. 35. 20, 21, 22.] or, as Josephus hath it; to fight against the Medes and Babylo­nians, who had overthrown the Empire of the Assyrians, [lib. 10. Antiq. ca. 6.] And indeed that Carchemish, in the time of Sennachrib did belong to, and was possessed by, the Assy­rians, appears in [Esay 9.] but that kingdom being ruined; it returned into the hands of the Babylonians: And as the king of Persia, having overcome Babylon and Assyria, [Ezra 6. 22.] was called king of the Assyrians; so here the king of Babylonia, having now gotten Assyria, was likewise called king of Assyria: besides that, Heathen authors also tell us, that Babylon was in former times part of Assyria, and the holy Scriptures teach us, that the kingdom of Chaldea was founded by the king of Assyria, [Esay 23. 13. See Num. 24. 22. Esay 52. 4. Nehem. 9. 22.]

Iosias, unadvisedly engaging in this war was slain, [2 Reg. 23. 29, 30. 2 Chron. 32. 22. 23.] in the valley of Megiddo, which belonged to the tribe of Manasses, [Jos. 17. 11. Iudg. 1. 17.] to which that story of [Herod. lib. 2.] refers, where he saith, [...]. (i.) Necos falling upon the Syrians with an army of foot, overthrew them in Magdala, and after the fight took Cadytis a great city of Syria: where learned Scaliger noteth, that this Kadytis was Kadesh, mentioned in [Num. 20. 16.] and conceives, that Magdala and Megiddo, stood near together: but because Magdala was the more noted place of the two, therefore that fight was said to have been there: as the battel fought by Alexander against Darius at Gaugamela, is commonly said by Writers to have been fought at Arbela, because Gauga­mela was an obscure place. But what will we say, if Magdala and Megiddo were all one? and mean the place from whence that other Mary took her surname of Magdalen; for certain it is, that in [Mat. 15. 39.] where we read Magdalam, the Syrian renders it, Mageda: and the old Latine translation, Magedan; a name not much varying from Magiddo.

The good King being thus taken out of the world, whose life onely kept off the Baby­lonish captivity from that nation, [2 Reg. 22. 20.] a world of miseries growing on upon it, the last years Jubilie, was turned this year into lamentions: so that it grew almost into a common proverb, The lamentation of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddo, [Zacha. 12. 11.] For not onely the whole people which was then living wonderfully bewailed the death of Josias; but even in after-time, a publick mourning for him was voluntarily kept, as if it had been ordained by a law: the Prophet Jeremy also, in rememberance thereof, wrote his mourning Song of Threnes, or lamentations, [2 Chron. 35. 24. 25.] wherein bewailing the calamities which were shortly to befall that people, as if he had then presently beheld them, in a most passionate manner, and pointing, as it were, with his finger, at the death of Josias; as at the source and original of all ensuing miseries, he useth these words: The breath of our nostrils, the anointed of the Lord, is taken in their pits: of whom we said, under the shadow of his wings we shall live among the heathen, [Lament. 4. 20.] So that we may very justly question the first verse, or proeme of that book; which we find in the Greek and vulgar Latine translation: but contrary to Jeromes minde, prefixed before the Threnes or Lamentations of Jeremy; to wit: And it came to passe after that Israel was carried into captivity, and Jerusalem laid wast, Ieremy the Prophet sate down and wept, and made this lamentation in Ierusalem, and sighing and howling, out of the bitternesse of his heart, said: which whosoever made, should have remembred that saying of the Wise­man, Adde not to his words, that he blame thee not, and thou be found a liar, [Prov. 30. 6.] There was also a second Song of Lamentations for the miserable condition of the king­dom of the Jews, after the death of Josias, composed by the Prophet Ezechiel, and ap­pointed to be sung, [Ezech. 19. 1, 14.]

After the death of Josia, the people, fearing least the King of Egypt should invade the kingdom in the vacancy of a king, anointed his youngest son Shallum or Jechoachaz, to be their king: And he presently fell to doing of that which was evil in the sight of the [Page 82] Lord: even as his forefathers had done, [2 Reg. 23. 30, 31, 32. 2 Chron. 36. 1.] See be­fore in the year of the World, 3371.

Neco at his return from his voyage into Assyria, removed Shallum from the throne, when he had reigned onely 3 moneths, and made Eliakim his elder brother King in the roome of his father Josias, changing his name into Jehojakim, [2 Reg. 23. 31, 32, 34. 2 Chron. 36. 2, 3, 4.] that thereby he might testifie to the World, that he ascribed the victory by him gotten against the Assyrians to the Lord Jehovah onely, as he formerly professed that it was he by whom he was sent against him, [2 Chron. 35. 21, 22.] and then imposing a tribute of one hundred talents of silver, and one talent of gold, upon the land of Juda: he put Shallum or Jehojakim in fetters at Ribla, and carried him away with him prisoner into Egypt, where also he ended his dayes, [2 Reg. 23. 33, 34, 35. 2 Chron. 36. 3, 4. Ezech. 19. 3, 4.]

The Prophet Jeremy, going by Gods appointment to Shallum, the new Kings Pa­lace, earnestly moved both him, and his Courtiers, and all the people, what with promi­ses, what with threats from A mighty God, to a newnesse of life: foretelling them, that Shallum or Jehojakim should be carried away captive into Egypt, saying, weep not for him that is departed (meaning Josia) nor make lamentation for him; but weep for him that is to depart: (that is Shallum) because he shall return no more to see his native soile, [Jer. 22. 1, 2, 10, 11, 12.]

In the beginning of the reigne of Jehojakim, Year of the World 3395. a. Jeremy, commanded by God, went and stood in the court of the Temple, and there exhorted the people (assembled out of all the cities of Juda; to bow themselves there before the Lord; (it being then the feast of Ta­bernacles, wherein all the males out of the cities were bound to appear at Jerusalem, Deut. 16. 16.) to repentance; and when they would not, he denounced the judge­ment of God against them, saying, That that House should become as Shilo: and that city should be aecursed among all the nations of the earth: Whereupon, he was presently appre­hended by the Priests and Prophets, and all the people that were then in the court; and accused as a man worthy of death: but was acquitted and set at liberty by the pub­lick judgement of the Princes and Elders, [Jer. 26. 1, 2, 19.]

Uria also the son of Shemaria, The Julian Period. 4105 of Kiriath-jearim, Year before Christ 609 prophesied against Jerusalem, and the land of Juda, agreeablely to the sayings of the Prophet Jeremy; and when Jehoja­kim the King sought to put him to death, he fled into Egypt. But the King sent after him Elnathan the son of Achor, and others with him who overtook him, and brought him back to the King, and he put him to the sword, and threw his carcasse among the vilest sepulchres of the common people; yet Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, who had formerly been a man of great authority with king Josia, [2 Reg. 22. 12. 2 Chron. 34. 20.] stickled so well for the Prophet Jeremy, that he was not delivered over into the hand of the people to be put to death, [Jer. 26. 20. 24.]

To these I might adde the Prophet Habakkuk; to whom, when he complained of the stubbornnesse of the Jews, God made this answer: That he would shortly send the Chaldeans into Judea; and further declared his purpose concerning that matter, in these words. I will do a work in your dayes, which you will not believe when it shall be told unto you: For behold I will stir up the Chaldeans, a firce nation, and a swift: which shall walk thorough the breadth of the land, to possesse a land which is none of theirs as their own inheritance, [Habakkuk 1. 5, 6.]

In the beginning also of the reigne of Jehojakim, Jeremy also foretold that Sedechia should be king of Juda, and Nabuchodonosor king of Babylon; and that he should sub­due the neighbouring nations to his dominions, [Jerem. 27. 1, 11.]

When the Governour of Coelosyria and Phoenicia, Year of the World 3397 had revolted from Nabopolassar king of Babylon, The Julian Period. 4107 father to Necho, Year before Christ 607 king of Egypt, after the taking of Carchemish; Na­bopolassar sent against them his son Nebuchadnesar (having first associated him in the kingdom) with a great army: and that this was done in the later end of the third and be­ginning of the fourth year of Jehojakim king of Juda, is gathered by comparing the [1 cap. v. 1. of the Prophet Daniel, with the cap. 25. 1. of Ieremy.]

When Nebuchadnesar was associated with his father in the kingdom, The Julian Period. 4107 the things which he was to act, were presently revealed unto [...]eremy: the first whereof was the overthrow of the Egyptians; first at the River Euphrates, then in their own country, and that Nebuchadnesar should make himself master of it, [Jer. 46.] The first whereof came to passe almost immediately; Pharao Neco his forces, which he left at Carche­mish being cut off by Nebuchadnesar King of Babylon, in the 4 year of Jehojakim, [Jer. 46. 2.] The second was not till after the taking of Tyre, in the 27 year of the cap­tivity of Jeconia, [Ezek. 29. 17, 18, 19.]

In the self same 4 year of Jehojakim, which was the first of Nebuchadnesar King of Babylon; the Prophet Jeremy reproving the Jewes, for not harkening to the word of the Lord, which from time to time he had spoken to them, from the 13 year of King Josia, even to that present 4 year of Jehojakim; this, saith he, is 23 years, and for that they had shewed themselves stubborne and refractory to the admonitions and exhorta­tions [Page 83] of himself, and all the other Prophets which the Lord had sent unto them: and then again told them of the coming of Nebuchadnesar upon them, and of their being carried away captives to Babylon, and that captivity to last 70 years long: which terme Judea first, Year of the World c. then the other nations there mentioned every one in his order, were to serve the King of Babylon: and that at last the kingdom of Babylon it self, should be destroy­ed, and the land of Chaldea exposed to desolation, [Ier. 25. 1, 3, 11, 12.] of which 70 years mention also was long before made by the Prophet Esaiah, though more obscurely, when he spake of the destruction of Tyrus, [Esai. 23. 15, 17.]

In the 4 year of Jehojakim, Baruc the son of Neria wrote in a book from the mouth of the Prophet Jeremy, all the words of the Lord which he had spoken to him concern­ing Israel and Juda, from the time of Josia until that day: and he read them in the house of the Lord, in the audience of the men of Jerusalem, and of all the Jews which were there assembled out of all their cities, in the day of the fast, [Ier. 36. 1, 8.] to wit, of that solemn fast which was yearly kept upon the 10 day of the 7 moneth, [Levit. 16. 29. &c. 23. 27. & Num. 29. 7.] five dayes before the feast of Tabernacles; wherein all the males out of all the cities of Judea, were to appear at Jerusalem; as I have shewed before in the year of the World 3395. As for Baruc himself, who was extreamly amazed and afflicted in his soul, with the horror of these direful judgements which he had written, the Prophet com­forted him, by the word of the Lord▪ over this calamity which was to be brought upon all flesh by the Babylonians, and assured him of his own life, in the middest of all these troubles, J Ier. 45. 1, 5.] whereunto also perhaps all those consolatory speeches con­tained in 30 and 31 chapters of the same Prophet, and promises made concerning the restauration of the Church, may be referred.

The Rechabites, of the posterity of Jonadab, the son of Rechab, [2 Reg. 10. 15.] when Nebuchadnesar King of Babylon approached now unto Judea, for fear of the host of the Chaldeans and Syrians, leaving their tents (wherein, by the rule of their fore­father Jonadab, they were wont to remain and dwell) came into Jerusalem [Ierem. 35. 11.] whence (seeing they speak of the present time; so we do now remain in Jerusalem) we gather, that the matter of this chapter which concerns the Rechabites refusing to drink wine, was in agitation, at what time the city was besieged round, by Nebuchadnesar, [Dan. 1. 1.]

God therefore gave up Jehojakim the King of Juda, into the hands of Nebuchadne­sar King of Babylon, with part of the furniture of the House of the Lord, [Dan. 1. 2.] to wit, in the 9 moneth called Cisleu: as may be collected out of the anniversary fast, which in rememberance, as it seemeth, of this calamity, by a received custom of the Jews, [Zachar. 7. 3, 5. and chap. 8. 19.] was kept in this moneth, [Jer. 36. 9.]

Nebuchadnesar put Jehojakim at first in chaines, to carry him away to Babylon, [2 Chron. 36. 6.] but afterwards, upon submission, and his promises of subjection, he left him in his own house: where he lived his servant 3 years. From which entering of the King and people of the Jewes into the subjection and service of Nebuchadnesar, are the 70 years of the captivity of Babylon to be reckoned, which were foretold by the Prophet Jeremy, [Ier. 25. 11. and c. 29. 10.]

Nebuchadnesar gave order to Ashpenash the over-seer of the eunuches, or pages, that he should carry from thence of the children of Israel, both of the blood-royal, (as was expressely foretold by Esay the Prophet to Ezechia it should come to passe, Esay 39. 7.) as also of the noblest families, the choicest boyes, both for beauty and wit, that he could find: which being by his care educated 3 years in the language and sciences of the Chal­deans, might be thought afterward fit to stand before the King, and serve in his Palace: among whom of the tribe of Juda, were Daniel, who was Beltshazar, Hananiah, who was Shadrach, Mishael, who was Meshach; and Anania, who was Abendego: every of them having his name changed at the discretion of the overseer, or master of the Eunuchs, [Dan. 1. 3, 7.]

Now after those Scythians of whom I spake before, had taken their pleasure in Asia 28 years, Cyaxares and the Medes feasting them, and making them all drunk up­on a certain day, cut all or the greatest part of their throats, [Herod. lib. 1. ca. 106.] Besides which, certain other Scythians of the Nomades or Shepherds, being driven out of their own country by a contrary faction, had been entertained by Cyaxares, and by him imployed, partly in hunting, partly in the educating of children: who being roughly and basely used by him, and also, as it seems, repining at the general massacre of their other country-men, killed one of the boyes which they had taken to educate and instruct; and dressing the flesh of him for venison, set it before Cyaxares and his guests to eat: which done, they fled away speedily to Halyattes the King at Sardes, and put themselves under his protection; whom when Cyaxares demanded to be given up unto him, and Halyattes refused to deliver them; there grew thereof a war between the Medes and Lydians, which lasted five years, [Herod. lib. 1. ca. 73. 74.] As for the Cimmerians of whom I spake before in the year of the World, 3368. Halyattes him­self drave them out of all Asia, [Herod. ib. ca. 16.]

[Page 84] In the 9 moneth of the 5 year of Jehojakim, Year of the World 3399. a. there was a solemn fast before the Lord proclaimed to all the people at Jerusalem, in rememberance, as it seemeth, of the taking of the city by the Caldeans the year before in the same moneth. Where Baruc standing at the gate of the House of the Lord, read all the words of the Lord, which he had taken from the mouth of Jeremy the Prophet, out of a book, in the audience of all the people, who were then assembled at Jerusalem out of all the cities of Juda; whereof the Princes being advertised by Micah the son of Gemaria, called Baruc unto them; heard him read the same book, and for fear of the King, advised Jeremy and him, to hide themselves out of the way: But the King himself, having heard some part of the book read unto him, first cut the book thorough with a pen-knife, and then hurled it into the fire, that was in the chimny, and burnt it, [Jer. 36. 9, 25.] in memory of which detestable act of the King, the Jews to this day keep a fast, upon the 7 day of the 9 moneth called Caslu.

And Jehoiakim, having burnt the book, gave order to Jerochmeelie his son, and to Seraia the son of Azriel, and to Shelemia the son of Abdiel, to apprehend Baruc the Writer, and Jeremia the Prophet: But God hid them, and against that impious King and his kingdom, Year of the World b. pronounced this sentence. The Julian Period. 4109 Thou hast burnt this book, Year before Christ 605 saying, Why hast thou written therein, that the King of Babylon shall surely come, and shall lay wast this land, so that there shall no man nor beast remaine therein? Therefore thus faith the Lord concerning Je­hoiakim King of Juda; There shall none of his sit upon the throne of David; and his carcasse shall be thrown out and exposed to the scorching of the day, and freezing of the night; and I will punish the wickednesse of him and of his seed, and servants: and I will bring upon them, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and upon all the men of Juda, all the evil which I said I would bring upon them: to wit, in that book, which they had burnt. Afterward by Gods appoint­ment, Baruc wrote again from the mouth of the Prophet Jeremy, the same words, which he had written in the former, adding many like things thereto, [Ier. 36. 26, 32.]

Nebuchadnesar, following the point of his victory gotten, took from the Egyptian all that ever he possessed, between Egypt and Euphrates, so that from thence forward, Neco was faine to keep himself within his own bounds of Egypt, [2 Reg. 24, 7.] Mean while his father Nabopolassar, falling into infirmities, in the land of babylon, died: when he had reigned 21 years. Which no sooner came to Nebuchadnesars eare, but he giving order for the bringing away of the captives, as well of the Jews, as others; Syrians, Phoenicians, and Egyptians, to Babylon, with the army and baggage; posted with a small company the nearest way thorough the desert, and came to Babylon before them; who being received as sole Lord, of all his fathers large Dominions, he disposed the cap­tives, when they were brought, here and there, by way of colonies as he thought fit. [Be­rosus lib. 3. of the affairs of Chaldea,] of the vessels also, and other furniture of the Temple Nebuchadnesar, took away with him to babylon what he thought fit: and disposed of them in the temple of his god, [Dan. 1. 2. 2 Chron. 36. 7.] to wit, Belus; whom he cal­led his Progenitor; as Abydenus in his Assyrian History, and Brosus also tells us, that he did wonderfully enrich and adorne that Temple, with the spoile which he had taken in that war.

The remainder of the Scythians, which had escaped the slaughter of the Medes re­turning home, were met by a great army of lusty young-men, which had been begotten on their own wives, in their long absence, by their slaves: with these they fought many a sharp battel: but at last, laying aside their swords, they took every man a whip in his hand, as more proper for the correction of slaves, and thereby made them all to flee. [Herod, in the beginning of his 4 book.]

Jehoiakim, Year of the World 3401. a. when he had lived 3 years in subjection to the King of Babylon, The Julian Period. 4111 according to his allegeance, Year before Christ 603 fell off and rebelled against him, [2 Reg. 24. 1.]

Daniel and his three followers, when, refraining the diet provided them of the Kings allowance, they dined onely of pults and water; yet were they found to look more lively and fair of complexion, than the rest which did eat of the Kings fare. And when at the three years end, they were brought to Court to attend the King, they appeared in all matters of knowledge, wisdom, and sciences, which the King was pleased to ask them in, far and far, to excell, all the Magi, and Astronomers that were in his kingdom, [Dan. 1. 5, 20.]

In the second year of his kingdom, or of the Babylonish Monarchie, begun by his fa­ther Nabopolassar, Nebuchadnesar, dreampt his dream, of the great Image, made of di­vers mettals: and forgetting his dream, what it was, would needs know of his Magi and Astronomers, both what his dreame was, and also what it meant: and when they could not satisfie him in so unreasonable a demand, he commanded them all to be put to death. But Daniel, when he saw the execution preparing, and understood the cause thereof, moved the King to forbear a while; and joyning in prayer with his fellowes unto God, obtained both the dreame it self, and also, the interpretation thereof to be revealed to him. He therefore declared to the King what his dream was, and also the four Monarchies which were in their order to succeed, which was the thing signified by that Image which [Page 85] he saw in his dream: whereupon the King enriched him presently with great gifts, and made him governour of all the Province of Babylon, and chief over all the wisemen thereof; and moreover at his request, made his three fellowes, Shadrach, Misach, and Abednego, principal officers in all that Province, [Dan. 2. 1, 49.]

In the beginning of the sixth year of the war between the Medes and the Lydians, Year of the World 3403. d. the victory enclining neither way; The Julian Period. 4113 there fell out an Eclipse of the Sun, Year before Christ 601 which Thales the Philosopher of Miletus had foretold the Ionians of. At which, both the foresaid armies seeing the day grown dark like the night, left off fighting, and afterward, by the media­tion of Syennesis of Cilicia, and of Labynitus the Babylonian (which was Nebuchadne­sar) they made a peace between themselves; and Halyattes gave his daughter Ariena, to Astyages the son of Cyaxeres to wife, [Herod. lib. 1. ca. 74.] And that this Eclipse so foretold by Thales, fell out at the very instant, when Cyaxeres the father of Astyages and King of the Medes and Halyattes Cresus his father, and King of the Lydians, were in fight together, is confirmed by Endemus, in his Astronomical History; and Pliny also, speak­ing thereof, and giving the reason of the Eclipses of these two great stars, lib. 1. cap. 12. saith in this wise; Apud Graecos investigavit primus omnium Thales Milesius, olympiadis 48 anno quarto, praedicto Solis defectu qui, Alyatte Rege, factus est, V. C. an. 170. (i.) Among the Graecians, the first that found it out, (to wit, the reason of the Eclipses) was Thales the Milesian, who foretold the Eclipse of the Sun, in the 4 year of the 48 olympiade, which was in the reign of Alyattes, (for so the old copy reads it, not of Astyages, as the vulgar edition hath it) 170. years after the building of Rome. Clemens Alexan. lib. 1. strom. placeth this fight of Cyaxares, and Eclipse of the Sun, about the 50 olympiade; wherein he is far wide of the opinion of Endemus, whom he cites for it; for both the time assigned, as well by him as by Pliny, suites not with Cyaxares, but with Astyages his reign; and also out of Ptolo­mies, Sun and Moon-Tables, which are the same with those of Hipparchus, it appeareth plainly that the Sun was eclipsed in the 4 years of the 44 olympiade, to wit, in the 147. of Nabonasar, on the 4 day of the Egyptian moneth Pacon, (or 20 day of September, accor­ding to the Julian Calender, on a Sunday,) 3 hours 25 minutes before noon: And this E­clipse was of 9 digits, and continued almost two hours. Year of the World 3404. c.

Psamnis the son of Neco reigned in Egypt 6 years. The Julian Period. 4114 [Herod. lib. 2. cap. 161.] Year before Christ 600

The Phocenses, setting saile out of Ionia, built Marseilles, upon the coast of Liguria in Italy 120. years before the sea-fight at Salamis: as Marcianus in his Periegesis reports out of Timeus; to wit, in the first year of the 45 olympiade, as both Euseb us delivers in his Chronicle: and Solinus in Polyhistor, though this latter confounds this first planta­tion of the Phocenses made in the dayes of Tarquinius Priscus, with their latter under Servius Tullus; whereof more hereafter in the year 3461. But the story of the wedding which gave occasion of the building of this City, is more at large set out by Atheneus, lib. 3. out of Aristotle, where he speaks of the common-wealth of the Marseilians, and by Justin in his 43 book out of Tro. Pomp. who relates the same thing, though differing in the names of the persons concerned therein.

Nebuchadnesars army consisting of troupes and companies of Syrians, Caldeans, Mo­abites, and Ammonites, going against Jehoiakim, wasted all Judea, [2 Reg. 24. 2.] leading away from thence 3023. prisoners, an. 7 of Nebuchadnesar, [Jer. 52. 28.]

Astyages or Asuerus, [Dan. 9. 1.] had issue by Ariena, (whom he married the year before,) his son Cyaxares; who was also called Darius, the Mede, and who was 62 years old when he succeeded Belshasser, (who was slaine) in the kingdom of the Chal­deans, [Dan. 5. 30, 31.] But Astyages, in the life time of his father, married Mandanes his daughter, borne of his former wife, to Cambyses son of Achemenes, King of Persia (as Xenophon sayes in his first book of the education of Cyrus) who derives his pedi­gree from Perseus; and of these two, the year following, was borne Cyrus: so that we may in no sort believe Ctesias, who contrary to Herodotus and Xenophon and others, agreeing with them, will in no wise have it, that Astiagas (for so he calls him) was any kin at all to Cyrus.

Jehoiakim being taken prisoner by the Chaldeans, Year of the World 3405. c. was thrown out without burial, The Julian Period. 4115 that is, Year before Christ 599 was buried like an asse: his carcasse being tugg'd and drawn out of the gate of Jerusalem, according as was foretold by the Prophet, [Jeremy 22. 18, 19. and chap. 36. 30.] though in reference to the common course of nature, he also may be said to have slept with his fathers, as he is, [2 Reg. 24. 6.]

After him came his son Jehoiachin, who was also called Conias and Jeconias, and reigned 3 moneths and ten dayes in Jerusalem; and he also did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, as his father Jehoiakim had done before him, [2 Reg. 24. 8, 9. 2 Chron. 36. 8, 9.] Against him therefore a most dread [...]ul decree went out from God, in the end of the 22 of Ieremy, and as an Act to be entered of record, concluded in this wise. Write this man childlesse, a man which shall not prosper in his dayes; for none of his seed shall prosper to sit in the throne of David, nor reign any more in Juda, [Ier. 22. 30.] concerning which mat­ter, more is to be read in Christophorus Helvicus his book of the Genealogie of Christ. [Page 86] And at this time also, the prophe [...]ie of Jeremiah contained in the chapter following, [c. 23] seemeth to have been uttered.

In the same year, after the sending of the former army, came up the servants of Ne­buchadnezar king of Babylon, to besiege Jerusalem. And when Nebuchadnesar him­self came before the City, whiles his servants besieged it: Jehojachim the king, with his mother Nehushta, a woman of Jerusalem, and his servants and officers, with all his Courtiers, came forth to the king of Babylon: Him the king of Babylon took; in the 8 year of his reign over Babylon: and taking from thence all the treasure, both of the Temple, and of the kings house, he brake in pieces all the golden vessels and furniture, which Salomon had made for the Temple of the Lord▪ as the Lord, [Isai. 39. 6.] had foretold; and the k. carried away king Jehojachim, unto Babylon; with his mother, and his wives, or women, and his Courtiers, and out of all Jerusalem, the Magistrates, and every man of strength, to the number of ten thousand men: and all Carpenters and Smiths; leaving none behind him at Jerusalem, besides the poorer sort of people: and out of other parts of the land, he carried away 7000 men of able bodies, and of Smiths and Carpen­ters, ten thousand, all strong men, and fit for the wars; all which were carried prisoners into Babylon, [2 Reg. 28. 8, 16. 2 Chron. 36. 10. Jer. 24. 1. and c. 29. 1, 2. Ezech. 17. 12.] among which captives, one was Mordecai of the tribe of Benjamin, the son of Jairus, [Esth. 2. 5, 6.] and Ezechiel the priest, the son of Buzi, an other: Who therefore in his prophecie reckons the time all along from the beginning of this captivity, [Ezech. 1. 2, 3.] which he also terms his own banishment, [c. 40. 1.] An Epistle said to be Jeremiahs, is sent to those that were appointed to be carried away to Babylon, to beware of the Idola­try, which they should see used in Babylon, [Baruc. 6.]

Whiles the king of Babylon thus raged in Judea, God prepared a worme, which in due time, should eat out this spreading tree; the cry of this poor people entering into the ear of the Lord: O daughter of Babylon, wasted with misery, happy shall he be that shall reward thee, as thou hast served us, who shall take thy children, and dash them against the stones, [Psal. 137. 8.] For in this very year, was Cyrus the Perso-Median born; whose father was a Persian, and his mother a Mede, as I shewed before; of whom this very Nebuchadnesar, at the houre of his death, as Aby-denus hath it, uttered this prophecie, There shall come a Persian Mule, who shall make use of your Devils, as his fellow-souldiers, to bring you into bondage: as also was foretold by that Oracle given to Croesus,

When a mule King, shall to the Medes be borne, &c.

Which the Pythian Priestes interpreted to be meant of Cyrus, which was to be borne of a father and a mother of two divers Nations, a Persian and a Mede: Herod. l. [...]. c. 55. and 91.] but above all most plainly and truly our Isaiah foretold, [c. 11. 1, 2.] that the Babylo­nians also should have a time wherein to endure their hell of slavery; and that their chil­dren should one day be dasht against the stones before their eyes, [c. 13. 16.] and that these miserably captivated Jewes, should one day be restored to their liberty; calling their deliverer so many years before by his proper name of Cyrus, [Isa. 44. 28. and 45. 1.] God himself giving the reason, of this his so unusual a revelation, in these words; For my ser­vant Jacob, and for Israel my chosens sake, have I called thee by thy name, and given thee a sur­name, though thou hast not known me, [Isa. 45. 4.]

As for the age of this Cyrus, we are beholding to Tully for it; who in his 1 book de Divinatione, cites it out of one Dionysius a Persian writer, in this manner; The sun (saith Di­onysius) appeared to Cyrus in his sleep, standing at his feet, whom, when Cyrus thrice endeavou­red to take in his hands, the sun still turned aside, and went away: and the Magi, who are coun­ted as wise and learned men among the Persians, said▪ that by his thrice offering to take hold of the sun, was portended to him that he should reign thirty years, which came to passe accordingly, for he lived to the age of seventy years, when he began not to reign till he was forty: From which dream perhaps, so expounded by the Magicians, Cyrus took his name; for, as Ctesias rightly sayes, Cyrus in the Persian language, signifies the sun: So doth Plutarch, following him, in the life of Artaxerxes; and so doth Chur or Churshid, in the Persian Poets, as it is said, unto this day. And out of this place of Tullies, compared with [Dan. 5. 31.] it appears that Darius the Mede, or Cyaxares the son of Astyages, Cyrus his uncle, was born before him, and is therefore by Xenophon, in his book entitled, of the Institution of Cyrus, lib. 6. brought in, speaking in this manner, [...], (i.e.) seeing I am here present, and am elder than Cyrus, it is fit that I speak first: And in the fourth of the same book, Cyrus writing to Darius, useth these words, [...], (i.e.) I advise you, though I be the younger of the two.

Nebuchadnesar, made Mattania, Jechonia his uncle and son to Josia, king in Jeconia his stead, changing his name into Sedechia; which signifieth the Justice of the Lord; [Jer. 37. 1. 2 Reg. 24. 17.] for whereas he had made a covenant with him, and had taken an oath of allegeance from him, and Sedechia, had taken an oath by God to performe it, [2 Chron. 36. 13. Ezech. 17. 13, 14, 18.] by the imposition of this name, his purpose was to put him in mind of the just judgement of God, in case he should break it.

Sedechias reigned full 11 years in Jerusalem, and did evill in the sight of the Lord his [Page 87] God; nor did he humble himself before Jeremy the prophet, who spake unto him in the name, and from the mouth of the Lord; but stiffened his neck, and hardened his heart, that he might not return to the Lord God of Israel, [Jer. 1. 3. and chap. 32. 1, 2. 2 Reg. 24. 18. 19. 2 Chron. 36. 11, 12, 13.] yea, all the chief of the priests, and the people of the whole land sundry wayes transgressed the law, polluting the house of the Lord, which he had sanctified in Jerusalem; nor would they hearken to the word of the Lord, which he spake unto them by the mouth of his prophet Jeremy, and other prophets, but despised them, and mockt the messengers, which God sent unto them, till the fire of Gods fury brake forth against his people, for that there was no remedy to heal them, [Jer. 37. 2. 2 Chron. 63. 14, 15, 16.]

After Jeconia was carryed away, God by a vision of two baskets of figs, signified to Jeremy, the carrying away of the new king Sedechia, and the remainder of the people, [Ier. 24. 1, 2. 8, 9.]

In the beginning of Sedechia his reign; the prophecie concerning the Elamites, both of their fall and riseing again, was uttered by the prophet Jeremy, Jer. 49. 34, 39.] For Nebucadnezar had taken from Astyages, the whole province of Elemais, with the city Susa, the Metropolis thereof, and which was seated upon the river Ulaie or Ulie; and an­nexed it to the Empire of Chaldaea, [Ier. 25. 25. with Dan. 8. 1, 2.] But afterward, these Ele­mites combining with the Medes, against the Babylonians, [Esay 21. 2.] when Belsha­sar was destroyed, recovered their state again, under Cyrus, the anointed of the Lord; and their chief city Susa, was made by Cyrus, the seat of the Persian kingdom, as Strabo in his 15. book teacheth us.

When Embassadors came from the several kings of Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre and Sidon to Jerusalem, to visit the new king Sedechia, God willed Jeremy to deliver unto every of them chains and whips, to be presented to their several masters, and com­manding them withall to submit themselves to Neubchadnezar; not to give ear any longer, to their wizards and star-gazers, who advised them to the contrary: he advised also Sedechia, to hold him fast to the king of Babylon, and to beware of false prophets, and both by threats and promises, perswaded all sorts of the people, to submit unto, and obey the king of Babylon, [Ier. 39.]

After the carrying away of Jechonia, and the other captives, Sedechia sent Elha­sham, the son of Shapsan, and Gemaria the son of Helkia, to Nebuchadnezar in Baby­lon; and by them also Jeremias gat a letter to be carryed, which he had written to the Elders, and Priests, and Prophets, and the rest of the people, which had been carryed from thence by Nebuchadnezar, king of Babylon; in which letter, the prophet instructeth them, how to demean themselves in that condition of captivity, wherein for the present they were; and comforts them, with a gracious promise of deliverance, at the expiration of the 70 years, and foretells them, of the grand calamities, which were to fall upon them, whom they had left behind them in Jerusalem, and of the miserable end which Ahab, the son of Kolaia, and Sedechia the son of Mahaselia, the two false prophets should come unto, [Ier. 29. 1. 2, 23.]

Shemaja, Year of the World 3406 sent letters, The Julian Period. 4116 as it seems, Year before Christ 598 by Sedechia his messenger, when they returned to him from Babylon, unto Zephania, (who was the second chief priest, 2 Reg. 25. 18.) and the rest of the priests at Jerusalem, against what the prophet Jeremy had written in his to them: which being read in his hearing, he presently denounced a heavy judge­ment from God upon him, [Ier. 29. 24, 32.] At what time also it seemeth, were uttered those notable prophecies of his, concerning the kingdom of Christ, and restauration of the church contained in the two following chapters, [30. and 31.]

This year was born Craesus, Year of the World 3407 the son of Halyattes, The Julian Period. 4117 king of Lydia, Year before Christ 597 begotten upon his wife, a woman of Caria, for it appeareth, that he was 35 years of age, when he began to reign, [Herod. lib. 1. cap. 26. and 92.]

In the 5 moneth of the 4 year of Sedechia, Year of the World 3408. d. Hananias a false prophet, The Julian Period. 4118 prophecied, Year before Christ 596 that at the end of two years, all the vessailes, and furniture of the house of the Lord, and Jeco­nia, and all the people, which were carryed away to Babylon, should returne and be brought home again: and when Jeremy gain-said him, he took a yoak of wood, from about his own neck, and brake it, saying, Thus shall the Lord break the yoak of Nebu­chadnezar, within two years precisely, from off the neck of all the Nations: whereunto Jeremy replyed, That God, in stead of that wooden yoak, would lay an Iron one upon the neck of all these nations, under which they should bow, and serve the king of Babylon, [Ierem. 28. 1. 14.]

Hannania the false prophet, Year of the World 3409. a. in the seventh moneth dyed, The Julian Period. 4119 according to the fore-telling of Jeremy, Year before Christ 595 Astyages, after the death of his father Cyaxares, reigned over the Medes 35 years, [Herod. lib. 1. cap. 130. Dan. 9. 1. and Tobit 14. 17.] where he is called, Ahasuerus, or Asuerus.

God by his prophet Jeremy, Year of the World c. foretold that Babylon, and the land of Chaldaea should be over-run and wasted by the Medes and Persians: and re-comforts his own people with the sweet promises of their deliverance, Ierem. 50. and chap. 51.]

[Page 88] Sedechia, in the 4 year of his reign, went, or rather, in his own stead, sent Seraia, the son of Neria, the son of Maaseia, prince of Menucha, to Babylon, to whom Jeremy de­livered the foresaid prophecies, of the destruction of Babylon, written in a book to be first read, and then to be thrown into the river Euphrates, [Ier. 51. 59.] with whom his bro­ther Baruc, son also of Neria, the son of Moaseia, [Ier. 32. 12.] Jeremy his pen-man, is thought also to have gone to Babylon.

Baruc is said to have read all the words of his own book, [...]. in the audience of Jeconia, the son of Jehojakim, and of all the captives, that were then dwelling with him at that time in Babylon, in the 5 year, (to wit, after Jeconia, his being carryed away to Babylon) in the 7 moneth, at the time when the Chaldeans took Jerusalem, and burnt it with fire, (Baruc. 1. 2, 3, 4.] even in the same moneth, as it is thought, wherein, Jeconia giving himself up to the king of Babylon, Jerusalem was taken, and perhaps begun in part, to be set on fire by the Chaldeans: for I cannot assent to Severus Sal­picius, who (grounding himself perchance upon this text) saith, that at this very time, Nebuchadnezar entered Ierusalem with his army, and laid both city and walls, Temple and all, eaven with the ground, in his first book of his Sacred History, yet the former guesse of Fran. Junius, concerning the quenching of the fire, and having the city, is somewhat more tolerable, than that of our Seminary priests at Doway is, where they say, that the whole time of the taking of Ierusalem, lasted eleven years before it was wholly burnt: to wit, from the time, when it was taken under Jeconia, till the time it was taken under Sedechia, and this book was written in the fifth year of that interval of time. But Hugo Grotius thinks, that the first writer thereof, here meant, the fifth year, after the carrying away of Jeconia, but that the rest of the burning of Ierusalem, was added afterward, by some other hand, who was of opinion, that Baruc never went to Babylon, till after the consuming of Jerusalem by fire, which fell out in Sedechia his reign.

In the beginning then of the 30 year, from that solemn renewing of the covenant, and restauration of the worship of God, in that memorable year, the eighteenth of Josia his reign, which falls in with the fifth year of the carrying away of Iehojachim, al. Icconia, in the beginning thereof, in the fifth day of the fourth moneth, (upon the 24 of our Iuly, falling upon a Saturday) was the first vision from Cod shewed to Ezekiel, being then, among the rest of the company, carryed away to Baby­lon, by the river Chebar, called by Strabo and Ptolomy, Chaborra, [Ezek. 1. 1, 2, 28.] and from hence was he sent, to execute the function of a prophet among the Iews of the captivity, unto whom, dwelling at Thel-abibi, near the river Chebar, when he was come, he sate him down, as a man besotted, for 7 dayes space: after which time, God again put him in mind of his charge, both with promises, if he undertook it, and with threats, if he refused; and then confirmed him, with a new sign shewed unto him; gave him courage and boldness by his word and ratifying his vocation by a new command, Ezek. 2. & 3.]

The prophet is commanded to make a draught of the siege of Ierusalem, in a table of s [...]ate, and to lye a long upon one side 396 dayes, which was to be a type or prefiguration, of so many dayes, that the siege of the city of Ierusalem should last, and of so many years, of the iniquity of the house of Israel, [Ezek. 4.]

Psammis king of Egypt, returning from his journey which he had made into Ethiopia, shortly after died, and to him succeeded his son Apryes, who reigned 25 years, [Herod. lib 2. cap. 161.] and is the same, who in the scripture is called Pharao Hephra, [Ier. 44. 30.] He with an army every way well furnished, having made an incursion upon the Isle of Cyprus, and upon Phaenicia, took Sidon by main force, and the rest of that country, by the very dread and terror of his name, and after a main victory gotten at sea, over both Cyprians and Phaenicians, returned into Egypt, with a huge spoile taken from them, [Diod. Sic. lib. 1.] And it is reported of him, that he was altogether of opinion, that no God was able to put him besides his kingdom, so sure he thought he had made it, [Herod. 2 cap. 169.] which in [Ezek. 39. 3.] (as Tremelius hath noted) is in that allegoricall Prosopopeia, most elegantly expressed, The river is mine own, for I have made for it my self.

Ezekiel, Year of the World c. when he had laien 350 dayes upon his left side, turned him on his right, and there lay 40 dayes more, which were for a type of as many years of the iniquity of Juda, [Ezek. 4. 6.] to which we must also refer what is said in the fifth chapter, of the same pro­phecy, with the two chapters following.

In the sixth year of Jeconia his going into captivity, Year of the World a. and fifth day thereof, (which was the 22 of our Septem, falling upon a Wednesday) God carrying away Ezekiel by the spirit, to Jerusalem, in a vision there, shewed him the infinite Idolatry there used; and the plagues which were to befall that city for the same, [Ezek. 8. 1. and c. 9. 10. 11. ib.]

According to his foretelling, Pelatia, the son of Benaja died. God comforts the godly in their captivity in Babylon, by the sanctification of his presence, and with his evange­lical promises for the time to come. The vision vanishing, the prophet is brought back by the spirit, to his people in Chaldea, and there declares to them, all that God had shew­ed him, [chap. 11. 13, 25.]

God both by typical signes, and also in plain words foretels Sedechia his flight by night [Page 89] the putting out of his eyes, his leading into captivity, his dying in Babylon, the carrying away of the Jews into captivity, and the calamities which they were to endure before their going, [Ezek. 12.] to which year also the seven following chapters belong▪ out of which we further understand, that Daniels name was at that time grown very famous for the continual prayers which he made for the people of the captivity, [Ezek. 14. 14, 20.] and that Sedechia, not regarding the covenant and oath which he had sworne, rebelled a­gainst Nebuchadnesar, [c. 17. 15, 17.]

In the 7 year of Jeconia his captivity, 10 day of the 5 month (27 of our August, being sun­day) Ezechiel reproved the Elders, which came and requested him to aske counsel of God, for their grosse hypocrisie: and then foretells them of the calamities that were to come upon all flesh; pronounces Gods judgements upon the Idolaters, and gives sweet comforts to the godly, [Ezek. 20. 1.] to which the three chapters following, seem also to appertain.

After Battus the founder of the kingdom of Cyrene, succeeded his son Arcesilaus, and reigned 16 years, [Herod. lib. 4. c. 159.]

This fell out to be a sabbatical year; wherein the men of Jerusalem, hearing that Ne­buchadnesar approached with his army, proclaimed liberty to their servants, [Jer. 34. 8, 9, 10.] according to the law, [Exod. 21. 2. Deut. 15. 1, 2, 12.] For Nebuchadnesar mar­ching with his army against Sedechia, and having wasted all the country, and taken their strong holds, came now before the very walls of Jerusalem, [Joseph. Antiq. l. 10. c. 10.] For he had taken all the Cities of Juda, saving only Lachish, Azeka, and Jerusalem: all which, he besieged with all the forces which he could make out of all the lands of his dominions, [Ier. 34. 1, 7.]

But the siege of Hierusalem began not till the middest of winter, for in the 9 year of the reign of Sedechia upon the 10 day of the 10 month, (answering to our 30 of Ianuary, falling upon a thursday,) Nebuchadnesar with all his army came before Jerusalem: raising forts round about it, [2 Reg. 25. 1. Ier. 39. 1. c. 52. 4.] For a memorial whereof, not only during the captivity, [Zach. 8. 19.] but even unto this day there is a yearly fast kept among the Jews.

Upon the very self-same day, was the siege of Jerusalem, revealed by God to Ezechiel, being then in Chaldea; and the utter destruction thereof, represented to him by the type a seething pot; and his wife died that day in the evening; for whose death he was char­ged not to mourne: thereby signifying the grievous calamity of the Jewes, which was to surpasse all expressions of grief by mourning, [Ezech. 24. 1, 2. &c.]

Jeremiah the Prophet was commanded by God to foretell the utter destruction and burning of Jerusalem by the k. of Babylon, to Sedechia: and that he should be carried a­way prisoner to Babylon; and that there he should end his daies, and yet be honourably enterred, [Jer. 34. 1, 7.]

The Prophet for so laying, was by Sedechia clapt up, in the court of the prison of the kings house, where in the tenth year of Sedechia and beginning of the 18 year of Nebu­chadnesar, having a promise of his delivery, made him by God, he recovered the land of Hanameel, his uncles son, by right of redemption, [Ier. 32. 1, 16.] and all things then came to passe which he foretold, and are conteined in the 32 and 33 chapters of his Prophecie.

Pharaoh Hophra, al. Vaphris, coming with his army out of Egypt, to relieve Sedechia, the Chaldeans raised the siege from before Jerusalem; and Sedechia sent messengers to Jeremiah (who upon the raising of the siege was set at liberty, and not yet cast into the dungeon, as afterwards he was,) to pray him to make intercession to God for the delive­rance of the people; but the Prophet returned him answer, that those succours out of E­gypt, should into Egypt returne again, and that the Chaldeans should returne to Jerusa­lem, and take the City, and destroy it by fire [Ier. 37. 3, 10.]

They of Jerusalem seeing the siege raised, and themselves quit of that fear, presently took back their Hebrew servants again, whom they had formerly set at liberty according to the law; and made them serve as before, contrary to their covenant; for which, as for a most impious and barbarous act, Jeremy reproved them; and to cry quittance with them for it, proclaimed a liberty to the sword and pestilence and famine, against them, telling them withall, that the Chaldeans, should come again to the siege, and should take their City, and destroy, it with fire, [Ier. 34. 11, 22.]

But while the Chaldeans were away to encounter the Egyptian army, Ieremiah purposed to save himself by flight; but was prevented by the Princes, and taken and scourged, & cast into the Dungeon, which was in Ionathans house, & there lay a long time, [Ier. 37. 11, 16.] Nebuchadnesar, at his going against the Egyptians in the 18 year of his reign, took 832 men which had fled out of Ierusalem to him, for safegard, and sent them all away priso­ners to Babylon, [Ier. 52. 29.]

Pittacus of Mitylene, one of the 7 wise men, was sent against Phrynon, sirnamed the Pan­cratiast, i.e. a man excellent in all feats of chivalrie, and the Olympionicest, i.e. one that had won the bell in the games at Olympus; and at that time, General of the Athenian army, and had taken two towns, Sigeum and Achilleum, from the Lesbians, with a Navie to Troas; in which battel, the Athenians, having gotten the victory, took the Tar­get of Abraeus, the Poet of Mitylene, who in flying had throwen it away, and [Page 90] hung it up in the temple of Minerva in Sigeum: Phrynon afterward challenged any man that durst encounter him to a single combat. Pittacus undertook him, and with a little net which he had hid privily under the hollow of his target, caught him by the head, and so slew him with his three-forked Spear; forwhich service, when the Mitylenians of­fered him a large proportion of land, he desired no more of it, than so far onely as he could throw his Spear; wherein he afterward built a temple, which from him was called Pittacium. This story seems to be mangled and is imperfect in Herodotus, [lib. 5. ca. 95.] but that defect in him, is supplyed by Plutarch, in his book entitled, De malignitate Hero­doti, (i.) of the envy, or spightfulnesse of Herodotus, together with [Strabo, lib. 13. Po­lyenus, lib. 1. Festus, in the word, Retiarius (i.) a fighter with a net: and Diogenes Laertius, lib. 1.] who tells us, that the Mitylenians for that service made him their Prince, or So­vereign, of their own accord, 20 years before he died: which, as he there saith, was in the third year of the 52 olympiade: and which upon a due account I chuse rather to place in the 3 year of the 57, than with Eusebius, upon the 2 year of the 43 olympiade: though that seems more to favour his opinion, because in the Catalogue of the Stadioni­cests, (i.) of those which gat the prize in running. Phrynon, is said to have gotten it in the 36 olympiade. Neither yet was the war ended by this duel; but the matter of their quarrel being referred by both parties to Periander of Corinth, who was also reckoned an other of the seven Wisemen of the world; as to an indifferent Arbitrator, he ordered, that each party should hold what they had then in their possession: (i.) that the Mitylenians should keep the Town of Achilleum, and the Athenians Sigeum, [Herod. lib. 5. cap. 94. 54. Strabo lib. 13.] which Periander, as Laertius in his life, out of Solicrates shews, died, 6 years after this, and before the 49 olympiade; which bewrayes Herodotus his error in his account of times, where he makes this peace so made between the Athenians and Mitylenians, not to have been till toward the latter end of the Pisistratidae, or successors of Pisistratus in the government of Athens.

In the 10 year of the carrying away of Jeconia, Year of the World 3415. b. and on the 12 day of the 10 moneth, The Julian Period. 4125 (upon our Feb. Year before Christ 589 1 falling upon a Sunday) Ezechiel uttered his prophesie against Pharao and all Egypt: that he should prove but a staffe of reed to the house of Israel; for he had all in vaine already attempted to relieve them, and first for Pharao Hophra or Apryes himself, that he should have an overthrow given him in the Desert of Lybia by the Cy­renaeans, (as we shall see anon in the year 3430. of the World) and then for Egypt it self; that it should be miserably wasted by the Babylonian; and that, that desolation should last 40 years, [Ezech. 29. 1, 16.]

When Nebuchadnesar had routed the Egyptian army, Year of the World c. he presently returned to the siege of Jerusalem about the 15 day of the 3 moneth, to wit, 30 dayes before he took it: as we may gather out of that type or representation of, [Ezech. 4. 5, 8.] But then Iere­mia, being consulted with by Sedechia, told him that he must be given up into the hands of Nebuchadnesar: and he then, at Ieremies humble suite, commanded him to be re­moved out of the Dungeon of the prison in Ionathans house, into the court of the prison; and that he should have a rowle of bread daily out of the bakers street, so long as there was any bread left in the city, [Ier. 37. 17, 21.]

The siege continuing, Year of the World d. Sedechia sent again to Ieremy; but he still sent him the same answer, that both King and people must fall into Nebuchadnesars hands: that they who would stay in the city should perish, either by the sword, or by famine, or by pesti­lence: but they that would go out, and submit to the King of Babylon, should have their lives saved; and be glad with that, [Ieremy 21.]

For this answer, the Princes cast Ieremy into Malchias his Dungeon, which was in the court of the prison; from whence, yet he was delivered by the help of Ebed-Melech, one of the kings Eunuchs, and was again consulted by the king; and when he still continued in pronouncing judgment against the Land of Iudah, he was still kept in the Court of the prison, till the very taking of the City. [Iere. 38.] Where he assured Ebed-Melech, in the Name of the Lord; that he for his own part, should be free from all harme and danger in that general calamity, [Ier. 39. 15, 18.]

In the 11 year of the carrying away of Ieconias, Year of the World 3416. c. in the first day of the first moneth; as it seemeth, not of the 5 moneth, as Tremellius and Pradus would have it, (for that would fall upon the 12 year of Jeconia his carrying away to Babylon) God, by Ezechiel, foretold the city of Tyrus, which much rejoyced in the wretched condition into which Jerusalem was fallen, by the power of Nebuchadnesar King of Babylon, that she also should perish by the same hand, and in so dreadfull a manner, that all who had seen her former wealth and bravery should be amazed thereat: Foretelling the like misery to be­fall the Sidonians, their neighbours, to the glory of God, and good of his Church; con­cluding this whole prophesie with this assurance to her, [Ezech. 26. 1. and from thence to the end of the 18 chapter.] In all which prophesie this is also to be noted; that at that time the fame of Daniels wisdom was grown so great, even in forreigne nations, that they used to say, by way of a proverb; as wise as Daniel, from whence it was that God up­braiding Ithobolus King of Tyre, with his pride and arrogancy of his minde; Behold, [Page 91] saith he, thou art wiser than Daniel; no secret can be hid from thee, [Ezech. 28. 3.]

In the same year, the 7 day of the 3 moneth, (our 26 of April, upon a Tuesday) God revealed his will to Ezechiel, of sending and arming Nebuchadnesar against Pharao, to the ruine of Egypt, [Ezech. 30. 20, 26.]

In the same year also, upon the first day of the 3 moneth, (June 19. falling upon a Sunday) God declared that the Egyptian, could no more avoide his determination, than the Assyrian had done before him, [Ezech. 31.]

In the latter end of the 11 year of Sedechia, [Ier. 1. 3.] 9 day of the 4 moneth (27 of our Iuly, upon a Wednesday) when the famine grew strong in Ierusalem; the Citie was bro­ken up, and the Caldeans entered it, [2 Reg. 26. v. 2. 3. 4. Ier. 39. v. 2. 3. and c. 52. v. 5. 6. 7.]

The City being taken, Sedechia, and all the men of war, fled away by night: but the Caldeans pursuing after them, tooke Sedechia, and brought him prisoner to Ribla, where Nebuchadnezzar lay, and where having seen his children slaughtered before his eyes, he had then his eyes put out, and being clogged with chaines of steel, he was car­ried away from thence to Babylon, [2 Reg. 25. v. 4. 7. Ier. 39. v. 4. 7. and chap. 52. 7, 11.] fullfilling therein the prophesies foretold of him, that with his eyes he should see the King of Babylon, [Jer. 32. 4. and chap. 34. 3.] but Babylon, he should not see, though he was to die there, [Ezech. 12. 13.]

Upon the 7 day of the 4 moneth (being of our August 24. Wednesday) Nebusaradan, Captain of the Guard, sent by Nebuchadnesar, made his entry into the city, [2 Reg. 25. 8.] and having spent two dayes in making provision, upon the 10 day of the said month, (our Aug. 27. falling upon the Sabbath) to which time perhaps he had purposely put off the execution of that his charge; he set fire on the Temple, and on the Kings Palace, and upon all the Noble-mens houses, with all the rest of the houses in Jernsalem, and burnt all down to the ground, [Jer. 52. 13. with chap. 39. 8.] though our Country-man Tho. Lydiate, thinks that fire was set on it, upon the 7 day; but not burnt down till the 10. In rememberance of which calamity, the fast of the 5 moneth was ordained to be kept, [Zach. 7. 3, 5. and chap. 8. 19.] which is observed by the Jewes unto this day: though kept by them, upon the 9 day, and not the 10 of the moneth Ab. But the Temple was destroyed in the 19 year of Nebuchadnesars reign, [Jer. 52. 12. 2 Reg. 25. 8.] in the latter end thereof, in the beginning of the first year of the 48 olympiade, in the 160 year, running of Nabonasars account, 424 years, 3 moneths and 8 dayes, from the time that Solomon laid the first stone thereof.

Upon the same 5 moneth, [Ier. 1. 3.] all the walls of Jerusalem being razed to the ground, all that were left in the City, and all that had formerly fled over to Nebuchad­nesar, and all the common people of the City, with all the treasure of the King, and of his Nobles, and furniture of the Temple, did Nabuzaradan carry away unto Babylon, [Ier. 93. 8, 9. ca. 52. 14, 23. 2 Reg. 25. 10, 17. 2 Chron. 36. 18, 19, 20.] And thus was Juda carried away out of her own land, [Ier. 52. 27. 2 Reg. 25. 21.] 468 years after David began to reign over it; from the dividing of the 10 Tribes, from the Tribe of Juda, 388 years, and from the destruction of the kingdom of Israel, 134 years.

The Sixth Age of the World.

THe basest sort of the people of the land of Juda, and such as were nothing worth, Nebuzaradan left there, to dresse the vineyards, and to till the ground; over whom the King set Gedalia the son of Ahikam, a man of the same country, to govern them, [Ier. 39. 10. and chap. 42. 16. 2 Reg. 25. 1, 22, 23.] but without any badge of Regality, or Kingly title: because, as Severus Sulpitius, in his sacred History, saith, To have some preeminence over a few miserable boors, or paisans, was not reckoned to be any dignity at all.

Seraia the chief, and Sephania the secondary Priests; and the three Keepers of the gate of the Temple, and other principal men, Nebuzaradan took and carried them to Riblah, to Nebuchadnesar, and there were they put to death, [Ierem. 52. 24, 27. 2 Reg. 25. 18, 21.] but Jehosodake the son of Seraia, and who after him came to be high Priest, was carryed away prisoner to Babylon, [1 Chron. 6. 15.]

Jeremy being bound with chaines, was carried with the rest as far as Rama towards Babylon, and had there his irons knock't off, and was set at liberty, and had his choice given him whether he would go on to babylon, there to be honourably entreated, or stay in the country with that miserable crue, which was left behind; and he chusing to stay, was sent back to Gedalia the governour; who made his residence at Mizpa, in the Tribe of Benjamin, with money in his purse, [Ier. 39. 11, 14. and chap. 4. 1, 6.]

[Page 92] The captains and companies, which upon the first taking of the city, fled away by night, [2 Reg. 25. 4. Jer. 52. 7.] and were scattered over the country, and all the Jews, which had fled to the Moabites and Ammonites, and other nations adjoyning, return­ed after a while, to Gedalia, into their own country, where they gate good provision of Wine and Oyl, and other summer fruits to subsist withall, [Ier. 40. 7. 12. 2 Reg. 25. 23, 24.]

Ismael, the son of Nethania, of the race of the kings of Juda, being suborned by Baalis king of the Ammonites to kill Gedalia, came to him with ten resolute fellows to Mizpa, and were familiarly entertained by him, and he gave no credit to such as disclosed their treacherous intent unto him, which turned to his own destruction, [Jerem. 40. 13, 16.]

In the 7 moneth, Year of the World 3417. a. therefore Ismael with his ten companions, taking their opportunity, wickedly murdered Gedalia, and such Chaldeans and men of armes, as at that time he had about him at Mizpa, [Ier. 41. 1, 2, 3. 2 Reg. 25. 25.] In remembrance whereof, the Jews keep a fast unto this time, upon the third day of this moneth Tizri. And a day or two after, the same Ismael slew 80 men more, which clad in mourning apparel, brought offerings and frankincense from Sichem, Shilo, and Samaria to the house of the Lord, now lying in her own dust; and these, having drawn them by a sleight to Mizpa, they [...]lew there in the open streats, and threw their carcases into king Aza his well, [Ier. 41. 4, 9.]

As Ismael returned with the kings daughters, and the rest of the people which was left at Mizpa, his prisoners, to the king of Ammon, Johanan the son of Kareo, met him with a band of men; took away from him all his prisoners, and set them at liberty, and Ismael, with eight men onely in his company, fled to the Ammonites, [Ierem. 41. 10, 15.]

Johanan, and all his captains, with the rest of the people remaining about Bethlehem, for fear of the Chaldeans, had a purpose to flie into Egypt, [Ierem. 41. 16, 17, 18.] But went many of them to Jeremy, desiring an answer by him from God thereupon, and he from God, after ten dayes, brought them an answer, exhorting them all in his name, not to stir out of their own countrey: assuring them, if they stayed, of Gods protection there, and that no harme should betide them from the Babylonians, but if they went into Egypt, they should there, every man of them perish by sword, by famine, by sundry kinds of death. But the common sort, according to their old custom, of never obeying wholsome coun­saile, nor Gods commands, went into Egypt; and, because needs they would have it so, Jeremy and Baruc the son of Neria, went thither with them; and when they were come as far as Taphnes, Jeremy there, declared to them in a figure, the destruction of Egypt, even by Nebuchadnezar, of whom they were now so much afraid, [Jer. 42. and 43. with Severus Sulpicius, in his Sacred History, lib. 2.]

In the 12 year of the carrying away of Jeconia, Year of the World b. the 5 day of the 10 month, (our 25 Ian. being Wedensday) when tidings came to Ezekiel of the taking of Jerusalem, the prophet fore­told of the utter destruction, which should befall the last remainder of the Israelites, (after those others which went into Egypt) even to those which remained in their desolate countrey, [Ezek. 32. 1. 16,]

In the same 12 year, in the first day of the 12 moneth, (March 22. being Wedensday) Eze­kiel uttered his prophecy, concerning the grivous plague and affliction, which Nebu­chadnezar should bring upon the land Egypt, [Ezek. 33, 1, 16.]

And upon the 15 day, the same prophet foretold, of Pharao, and all the tag and tag of Egypt, that they should be brought down as low as hell, with the rest of the uncircum­cised nation, [Ezek. 32. 17, 32.]

Jeremy also prophecied of the destruction, which should follow the Israelites, at Mig­dol, not far from the red sea, [Exod. 14. 2.] at Taphnes, al. Daphne-Pelusium, at Noph; al. Memphis, and in Pathros, a countrey in Egypt: and for a sure sign of their own mi­sery, gave them Pharao, al. Apryes, king of Egypt himself, whom they should see brought to all extremities before their eyes, [Ier. 44. 1. 30.]

Obadias the prophet uttered a prophecy against Edom, which shamefully insulted over the calamity of the Jews, when Jerusalem was destroyed, and the like did Jeremy, [49. 7. and Ezek. 25. 12.] and the authors of the Psalms, [79. and 137.] which wrote all about the same time.

Cyrus, Year of the World 3418 when he had lived 12 years, The Julian Period 4128 or somewhat more with his father in Persia, Year before Christ 586 be­ing sent for, with his mother Mandane, by his grandfather Astyages, came into Media. [Xenophon, lib. 1. of the Institu. of Cyrus.]

Tyrus, The Julian Period. 4419 (Ithobalus then reigning there) was besieged 13 years by Nebuchadnezar; The Julian Period. 4129 as Josephus reports out of Philostratus and other writers of the affairs of Phoenicia. Year before Christ 544 [Antiq. lib. 10. cap. 11. & lib. 1. cont. Apion.] And in the compasse of those 13 years, it seemeth that the neighbouring nations, as the Moabites, the Ammonites, and Edomites, were al­so subdued by Nebuchadnezar, according to the foretellings of the prophet, [Ieremy in his 27, 48, 49. chapters, and of Ezek. cap. 25.]

[Page 93] Whiles Nebuchanezar lay before Tyre, Year of the World 3420 which borders upon the land of Israel, The Julian Period. 4130 [Ios. [...]84. 19. 29.] in the 23 of his reign, Nebuzaradan, captain of his guard, carryed away all the remainder of the Jews and Israelites together unto Babylon, to the number of 745 per­sons, [Ierem. 52. 30.] In which extreme depopulation, which left the very ground, untill the 390 years of the iniquity of Israel, distinct from Juda; and the 40 years of the iniquity of Iuda by it self, foretold by [Ezekiel 4. 5, 6.] were accomplished; and ful­ly ended.

When Cyrus was now almost 16 years of age, Year of the World 3421 Evil-merodach, the king of Assyria his son, being about to marry a wife, called Nicotris, made an inroad, with a great army of horse and foot, upon the borders of Media, there to take his pleasure, in hunting and harrowing of the countrey: against whom Astyages, and Cyaxares his son, and Cyrus his grandchild; who then first began to bear armes, marched out, met with him, and in a battail of horse, overthrew him, and drave him out of his borders, [Xenophon. lib. 1. of the institution of Cyrus.]

Cyrus afterward, was called home, by his father Cambyses; when as yet he had one year to spend at Schoole, as Xenophon in the same book tells us, to which also that hath reference, which Athenaeus, in his 14 book Dipnosoph. reports out of Dion; that Cyrus, when he had served Astyages, first, as one of his halbardiers, and then as one of his ar­mour bearers returned into Persia, and that at the same time Angares a musician, when Astyages feasted his friends, sang them a song, wherein he said, That a fierce wilde beast, more fierce than any boar; was let go, and sent into a fenny countrey, and that he should reign over all those provinces, and should with a handful of men, maintain war against great armies, &c. and that thereupon, Astyages would fain have called back Cyrus again, but could not get him.

Cyrus, Year of the World 3422 when he had spent 17 years among boyes, The Julian Period. 4132 spent ten years more among the youths, Year before Christ 582 [Xenophon lib. 1. of the Instit. of Cyrus.]

In the 50 Olympiade, Year of the World 3424 wherein Epitelides, The Julian Period. 4134 the Lacedemonian, Year before Christ 574 wan the race in running, certain men out of Cnidos, not Rhodes, and brooking the rough carriage, of the kings of Asia, agreed together, to make a plantation of themselves, some where else: and making one Pentathlus a Cnidian, (who deduced his pedegree from Hippotas, the son of Hercules,) they went for Sicily, at the time, when they of Egesta, and Selinunte, were in war each against the other: where Pentathlus taking part with the Selinunti­ans, was slain; and the rest, making Gorgus, and Thestor, and Epithirsis; all men of Pentathlus his linage and kindred, their captains, set saile again, and seated themselves in the Isle of Lipara, Year of the World 3429 [Diodor. Sic. lib. 5.] The Julian Period. 4139

Arcesilaus, Year before Christ 574 when he had reigned 16 years, in Cyrenaica, left to succeed him his son Battus, surnamed Eudaemon; unto whom a huge multitude of Grecians, advised thereto by the Oracle at Delphos, repaired; wasted first the lands of the bordering Lybians, and then parted it among themselves: whereas befor [...], the plantation made in Cyrene con­sisted onely of those, which came from the Isle of Thera, with their first founder Battus, [Herod. lib. 4. cap. 159.] Year of the World 3430. c.

In the 25 year of the captivity of Jeconia, in the beginng of that year, (i.e.) in the first moneth thereof (as Jonathan the Chaldee Paraphrast expoundeth it) upon the 10 day of the moneth (our April 30. upon a Tuesday) 14 years after the destruction of Jerusa­lem, Ezekiel had a vision, of the restitution of the Temple, City, and Kingdom of the Israelites; portending the restauration of the Church by Christ, with the greatnesse, honour, and excellence thereof, [Ezekiel 40. 1. to the end of the chap­ter.]

The Lybians, being put out of their lands and countrey, by the inhabitants of Cy­renaica, put themselves under the protection of Apryes king of Epypt: and he gathering a great army together, sent them against the Cyrenians, and the Cyrenians, pitching at a place called Irasa, near the fountain called Thestis, so routed the army of the Egyptians, that few of them were left to return again into Egypt, whereupon the E­gyptians grew angry with Apryes, and revolted from him; supposing that he purposely sent them to that break-neck service, to be rid of them, that so he might the more easily, domineer over the rest that were left, Year of the World 3431 [Herod. The Julian Period 4141 lib. 4. cap. 159, lib. 2. 161. Diodor. Sic. lib. 1]

Amasis, Year before Christ 573 (being that Saits, so much spoken of by Plato in his Timaeus) was sent by his father to appease this mutiny of the people; but they took and made him king, in his fa­thers stead. And Apryes, having sent a noble person, named Paterbanes to call back Amasis, at his return, cut off his nose and ears, because he brought him not with him. Upon which unworthy act of his, all fell off from him to Amasis his side, [Herod. lib. 2. cap. 162.]

Tyre at last was given up to Nebuchadnezar, Year of the World 3432 for that it was not taken by force, The Julian Period. 4142 and given up to be ransackt by the Souldiers, Year before Christ 572 appears by [Ezek. 29. 18, 19.] but ra­ther rendred upon conditions. And therefore for king Ithobalus, ( [...]) he ap­pointed one Baal ( [...]) a man of the same countrey, to be a petty king there, [Page 94] who governed them 10 years, as Iosephus affirmes out of the Annals of the Phenicians, [lib. 1. contra Apion.]

In the 1 day of the 1. month of the 27 year of the captivity of Jeconia, (21 of April, up­on tuesday with us,) God promised to give all Egypt to be Nebuchadnezar to be spoiled, in recompence of his long labour; endured in the taking in of Tyrus, [Ezech. 29. 17, 20.]

Cyrus having now attained almost the full age of 27 years, was taken out of the rank of the striplings, and reckoned among the number of full men, according to the discipline, and use of the Persians, [Xenophon, l. 1. of the Institution of Cyrus.]

Nebuchadnesar laying hold of the rebellion in Egypt, and peradventure solicited by Amasis to assist him against his Father Apryes, invaded Egypt with his army; and having gotten it into his hands, even from Syene, to the end thereof: made havock as well of the Egyptians, as of the Jewes which dwelt among them, killing some, and leading away the rest into captivity, according to the several prophecies of Jeremiah, [c. 43. 44, 46. and Ezech. 29. 30, 31.]

Pharaoh Hophra, al. Apryes, being forced to retire into the Country of Thebais; Nebuchadnesar, as it should seeme, made Amasis his Viceroy, over all Egypt, though Herodotus knew not this: for as Scaliger well observeth in his notes, Ad Fragmenta: The Priests of Egypt, which informed him, of such things, as he desired to be satisfied in, told him so much only as made for the honour of their Nation, but concealed the rest, which bewrayed their cowardise and slavery, and paiment of tribute to the Chaldeans.

Nebuchadnezar, [...]434. having finished his conquests, returned to Babylon: and there, as he lay at ease, and in all kind of jolity in his own house, had that remarkable dreame, of the great Tree, (whose destiny was to be cut down) represented to him, the meaning whereof, when he could not learn by his wisards of Chaldea, the Prophet Daniel unfolded to him, [Dan. 4.]

Nebuchadnezar new built Babylon, in a wonderfull magnificence and beauty; buil­ding a whole new City without the old, and enclosing all, with a treble wall, made of brick: and in favour of his wife called Amyrtis, (of whom I spake in the year of the world, 3374) a woman of Media, and King Astyages his daughter, made that famous and so much renowned garden, borne upon pillars: of which Berosus; He built (saith he) that garden, called, the hanging Garden, because his wife desired the pleasure of the hills, as ha­ving been brought up in Media: And Q. Curtius; It is said (saith he) that a King of Syria, reigning in Babylon, built this great work at the importunity of his wife, whom he dearly loved; and who out of a desire she had to enjoy the pleasure of hills and woods, in that low country of Babylon, set her husband upon it, to imitate the genius or spirit of Nature it self, by the amenity und pleasantnesse of this work.

But who so will know more of the infinite magnificence, and sumptuousnesse of this work, must read the Fragments which are left, of Berosus and Abydenus, the former of which, blames the Greek writers, who attribute this work to Semyramis, whereas in­deed, this, and those other vast and magnificent structures, were the proper works of this Nebuchadnezar; as Josephus, in his first Book contra Apion, reports out of him. And the later saies plainly that those vast walls, with the brazen gates thereof, reckoned a­mong the miracles of the world, and which remained to the times of Alexander the great; were built by this Nebuchadnezar, as we find in Eusebius, in his ninth book De Evan­gelica Preparat. And Clitarchus, and others, which attended Alexander in that voyage, say that the compasse of that wall, was 365 furlongs, according to the number of the dayes of the year, [Diod. Sic. l. 1.] and that every furlongs length thereof, was built and perfected in one day, as Q. Curtius, lib. 5. c. 4. reports.

Twelve whole months were no sooner past, Year of the World 3435 but Nebuchadnezar, The Julian Period. 4145 growing proud, Year before Christ 369 and boasting of the magnificencie of his buildings, fell distraught of his wits, and being put from his house and home, spent seven years in the woods and fields among beasts, [Daniel 4. 32, 33.]

Apryes, gathering an army out of Ionia and Caria, to the number of thirty thousand soldiers, to assist him for their hire, fought with his son Amasis, at Memphis: but being routed and taken prisoner, was kept for a while in the City of Says: and not long after strangled, according to the prophecie of [Jer. 44. 30. and reported by Herod. lib. 2. 163. and 169. and by Diod. Sic. lib. 1.]

After his death Amasis reigned 44 years, as Herod. reporteth, lib. 3. c. 10. but, which the Priests would not be known of to Herodotus, paied tribute all that while to the king of Babylon.

Was the 18 year of Jubilie. Year of the World 3442. a.

Nebuchadnezar at the end of 7 years, The Julian Period. 4152 after his humble acknowledgment of the power of God, Year before Christ 362 was restored both to his right wits and kingdom also, and thereupon publickly proclaimed Gods great grace and mercy shewed upon himself, and his power over all Na­tions, [Dan. 4.]

And having himself foretold concerning the taking of Babylon by Cyrus, as Abydenus (quoted by Euseb. l. 9. Praepar. Evang. c. ult.) reports out of the relation of the Chaldeans, [Page 95] departed this life, when he had reigned about 20 moneths co-partner in the kingdom with his father, and 43 years by himself alone.

After him came Evil-merodach, his son in the 37 year of the captivity of Jehojachin, or Jechonia: about the 25 day of the 12 moneth (our April 15. upon a Tuesday) on which he gave order for the enlarging of Jeconia, [Ier. 52. 31.] and two dayes after he took him out of his prison-clothes, and setting him above all the Princes of his Court, reckoned him among the number of the Kings friends; so that all his life time after he did eat at the Kings table, [2 Reg. 25. 27, 28, 29.]

In Lydia Cresus, after the decease of his father Halyattes, reigned 14 years, [Herod. lib. 1. c. 86.]

After King Baal, the King of Babylon governed Tyrus by Judges: the first of which was Ecnibal the son of Baslach, whom Scaliger calleth ( [...]) and he ruled there 3 moneths: then Chelbes, the son of Abdeus, whom he also calleth ( [...]) and he ruled there 10 moneths; as Josephus reports out of the Phoeni­cian Annals, in [his 1 book cont. Apion.]

Abbarus ( [...]) the High Priest judged the Tyrians 3 moneths:34 [...]3. and after him, The Julian Period. 4153 Mity­go [...]us and Gerestratus ( [...]) governed them 6 years, Year before Christ 561 [ib.]

To Croesus living at Sardes resorted all the wise and learned men of Greece; and among them, Solon the law-maker: who had with him that so much renowned conference of the incertainty of mans life, and of all humane felicity therein, [Herod. lib. 2. from the 28 chapter to the 33.] There is extant a short Epistle of Solons to Croesus, in the end of Solons life, in Laertius; wherein he sayes, that he was sent for by Croesus, what time Pisistratus governed in Athens. Aesope a Phrygian borne, that famous composer of Fables, was at the same time sent for by Croesus, to come to him at Sardes; and was held in great esteem by him: And he condoling with Solon in a letter, for that he was uncivily turned away by Croesus, onely for the freedom of speech, which he had used to him; and telling him withal, that Kings must have, [...] (i.) either very few, or very pleasing words used unto them; wrote back in answer thereto, That Kings must have, [...]: (i.) either very few, or very honest things spoken to them. [Plutarch in the life of Solon.]

Aesope going from Sardes, to Delphos, was there most unjustly sentenced to die; and accordingly was thrown down the rock there, called Phaedrias, about the 54 olympiade, as Strabo; to wit, toward the end of the 4 year of that olympiade, if the precedent times be rightly calculated. The revenge of which foule murder, so often threatned by the Oracle there, was taken afterward by Judmon, grandchild to that Judmon of the Isle of Samos; whose slave, together with Rhodope of Thracia, that famous strumpet, Aesope sometime had been, [Herod. lib. 2. ca. 134.]

Solon, leaving Croesus, went into Cilicia, and there built a city, and from his own name, called it Solos: wherein he planted certain Athenians, who in processe of time, having corrupted the native language, were said [...]: (i.) to commit soloecismes in their speech; as Laertius in his life reporteth: which yet is more properly said of the Solii in Cyprus, than of the Solenses in Cilicia; as Solon in his elegies written to Philonyprus the King, recorded by Plutarch, in the life of Solon, shewes: where Plutarch also tells us, that this petty king of Cyprus, who made use of Solons wit and counsel, in some affairs of his own; removed a little town formerly called Epea, into a lower ground more fit and useful for habitation, and in honour of Solon, called it Solos.

After Solons departure, Croesus, who deemed himself the happyest man alive; found by sad experience, that all Solon had told him, of the instability of mans life, and felicity thereof, to be too true: for presently after he had a dreame, wherein he saw his son Atys thrust thorough with a Spear: a true token of a violent death, which was eftsoones to befail him; which whiles he sought by all care and diligence to prevent, and was now busie about a marriage for him, one Adrastus a Phrygian borne, and of the Kings blood there, who having slaine his own brother against his will, was by his father Midas, the son of Gordius, (not that old Midas, the son of Gordias King of Phrygia, whose Epi­taph made by Homer and set upon his tombe, Herodotus in the life of Homer recounteth) bannished, and came to Sardes, there to receive his expiation from Croesus his hand: Croesus having expiated or cleansed him, committed to him over and above, the care and charge of his son Atys; who at that time, was sent unto by the Mysians, and re­quested to come and help to kill a boar of a vast bigness, which wasted the corn and other country commodities growing about the hill Olympus, not without the destruction, ma­ny times, of the husbandmen themselves. Where Adrastus aiming at the boar with the point of his Spear, goared Arys, and so against his will slew him. But when Croesus had pardoned him the fact as done unawares, he slew himself upon the tombe of the disea­sed. Croesus having thus lost his son; passed two whole years in continual dueil, and mourning for him: from which yet he was forced in the end to rouse himself, for fear of Cyrus, his growing then into power; and by whom indeed, he was afterward de­spoiled of all, Herod. lib. 1. from the 34. chapter to the 46.] whereof also you may see, [Page 96] what Hen. Valesius in his collections out of [Diodo. Sic. pa. 238. and what Val. Max. in his 1 book cap. 7.] saith.

Evil-merodach King of Babylon, Year of the World 3444. c. a man odious for his vitious life, The Julian Period. 4454 had many attempts made upon him: Year before Christ 560 and at last, was murdered by Neriglissoros his sisters husband, when he had reigned little more than two years: as Berosus tells us, [lib. 3. of the Chal­dean affairs, cited by Josephus lib. 1. contra Apion:] and because we read that Jeconia King of Juda, had a daily stipend and allowance made him for his diet and entertainment by him, ad diem mortis suae, omnibus diebus vitae suae (i.) to the day of his death, all the dayes of his life, [Jer. 52. 34. 2 Reg. 25. 30.] therefore it is most probable, that Jeconia himself died also much about the time that Evil-merodach died.

After Evil-merodach, Year of the World a. came he that murdered him, Neriglissorus ( [...]) and reigned 4 years, [Berosus ib.]

In the kingdom also of Media, upon the decease of Astyages, [Tob. 14. 17.] called Assuerus, succeeded his son Cyaxares, Cyrus his mothers brother: as Xenophon sayes, [lib. 1. of the Institution of Cyrus: to wit, in the beginning of the first year of the 55 O­lympade 31 years before the decease of Cyrus: which Cyaxares, Daniel calleth Darius the Mede, son of Assuerus.

The King of Babylon, Year of the World 3445 not onely raised his own subjects, The Julian Period. 4755 but also solicited Croesus the King of Lydia with the Cappadocians, Year before Christ 559 both sorts of Phrygians, Carians Paphlagonians, and Cilicians, on the West: and the very Indians on the East side of him, to joyn with him in armes against the Medes and Persians: telling them, that they were two great Nations, and now linkt together by mutual affinity, and would, if not lookt unto, and op­posed in time, over-run, and bring in subjection all countries far and near. Whereupon Cyrus was by his father Cambyses, and the council of the kingdom, made General of the Persian army, and sent away into Media with 30000. souldiers, and one thousand Com­manders, all of equall authority under him: as Xenophon, [in his 1 book of the Institution of Cyrus sayes:] and there, when he came, was he also made by his Uncle Cyaxares, who had sent for him, General of the Median Forces, and the management of the war against the Babylonians, wholly committed unto him. And from this time are the 30 years of his reign or principality reckoned, toward the end of the 1 year of the 55 Olympiade, from which period Julius Africanus in the third book of his Annals, out of Diodor. Sic. Thal­lus, Castor, Polybius, Phlegon, and other Chronologers, counts the beginning of Cyrus his reign, and is to that purpose quoted and justified by Eusebius, [in his 10 book de Praepara. Evangelica.]

At the same time, to wit, in the Spring-season, in the close of the same year of the same olympiade, Solon, taking leave of Philocyprus the King, and of his Solians, thought to re­turn to Athens: as we find by his elegies, mentioned as before in Plutarch; but being sur­prised with a sickness, he there took leave of them, and of all the world besides; and died in Cyprus, being fourscore years of age: as Laertius writeth, in the year when Hegestra­tus was Archon or President of Athens, in the second year of Pisistratus his domination there: as Plutarch relates out of Phanias the Ephesian.

In the 30 year after the desolation of Jerusalem, Year of the World 3446. b. the unknown author of the 4 book of Esdras, faines himself to have had that conference with the Angel Uriel: which is there set down [Esdras 3. 1. and ca. 4. 1.] at what time Salathiel was Captain, or chief of the people, [cap. 5. 16.] because Jeconia was then dead.

Croesus, preparing now against Cyrus, sent great presents to Delphos, and consulted the Oracle there concerning the issue of this war, 3 years before the taking of Sardes, [Herod. lib. 1. ca. 53. 54, 55, 91.]

The King of Armenia, Year of the World 3447 perceiving the Babylonian to make preparations against Cy­axares, The Julian Period. 4157 would neither send him aid, Year before Christ 557 nor pay him tribute any longer: contrary to agree­ment made, what time Astyages or Cyaxares had overcome and had him in his power. Whereupon Cyaxares, under colour of a hunting voyage, fell into Armenia, where over­coming both him and his son Tigranes in a battel, he reduced them again to his subjecti­on: he also possessed himself of the mountains, which lie between Armenia and Chaldea: and there building a strong Fort, made peace upon certain conditions, between the two nations, [Xeno. lib. 3. de Instit. Cyri.]

Cyaxares and Cyru, Year of the World 3448 march against the Babylonian King and Croesus, The Julian Period. 4158 and the rest of the confederates, Year before Christ 557 and gain a main victory against them; the King of Babylon fell in the battel: Croesus, with those which were left, brake up his camp by night, and fled. Cyrus having made a league and amity with the Hircanians, who had fallen over to him from the Babylonian, using their help, and guidance in the way, pursued the enemy that was fled; overtook them, fought again with them, and again overthrew them; Croesus send­ing away his women by night, by reason of the heat by day, withdrew out of his camp, with all his horse. The Hyrcanians fell upon the companies of the Cappadocians and A­rabians, and slew both their Kings. Cyrus, sparing the lives of such as either were taken by force, or had yeilded to mercy, divided the spoile of the field among his souldiers, [Herod. lib. 3. and 4.]

[Page 97] Laborosoarchodus ( [...]) son of Neriglissorus, a man far riper in wickednesse than in age succeeded him in the kingdom of Babylon, and reigned 9 moneths, [Be­rosus.]

Balatorus ( [...]) reigned in Tyre, among other Judges one year, [Phoenici. Annal.]

Gobrias, (whose onely son, that new king of Babylon, in his fathers life time, had in a hunting match, vilanously slain,) with his friends, revolted to Cyrus, [Xen. l. 4.]

And now came Cyrus to invade the countrey of Babylon it self, and appeared before the walls of the city, and there challenged the new king, to a duell, or single combat, Gadatas, a noble man, and one, whom this new king had gelt, upon a jealousie he had of him with his wife, fell over to Cyrus, and Cyrus, when the Babylonians in revenge thereof, sallied out and spoyled his lands, set upon them, and routed them; But the Cadusii, whom Cyrus had appointed to bring up the rere of his army, making an on-set unawares of Cyrus, up­on a countrey lying near the city, were cut off by the king of Babylon; who issued out up­on them: and Cyrus having first revenged the death of these his men; came to agreement with the king, to hold truce with the Paisants or Plowmen on both sides, and the war to go on between the Soldiers onely. And then, passing beyond the city, took in three forts of theirs, then returned to the confines of Assyria and Media, from whence he set forth upon this journey. And thither, upon his invitation, came his Uncle Cyaxares unto him; and was there by him honorably received and entertained in the pavilion of the king of Assyria that was, to wit Neriglossorus, and the winter approaching, they there entered into a consultation, for things necessary to maintain the siege, if need should be, [Xenophon lib. 5. & 6. in the beginning thereof.]

After Laborosoarchadus, Year of the World 3449 Nebuchadnezars grandchilde by his daughter, The Julian Period. 4159 who was made away by his subjects, Year before Christ 555 for that excesse of vilany, which appeared in his actions, suc­ceeded the grandchild of the same Nebuchadnezar, by his son Evil-merodach, called by Berosus ( [...]) Nabonidus, but by Herodotus, Labynitus ( [...]) by Abydenus Mabannidochus, and by the prophet Daniel, Belshasar, al. Baltazar, who reigned 17 years, as Berosus in his third book of his Chaldee History, and Ptolomei in Can. Reg. tells us.

In the first year of this kings reign, Daniel had the vision shewen him of the 4 beasts, signifying the 4 monarchies of the world, and of God, delivering over all power and sovereignity to the son of man, [Dan. 7. 1.]

Balatorus, the petty king of Tyre deceasing; one Merbolus ( [...]) was sent for from Babylon, and reigned there 4 years, [Phoenic. Annal.]

In the 3 year of Belshaser; Year of the World 3451 the vision of the Ram and Goat, The Julian Period. 4161 foreshewing the destructi­on of the Persian Monarchy by Alexander, Year before Christ 553 and the great misery which Antiochus should bring upon the people of God, was shewed to Daniel, living then at Susa, in the province of Elam, upon the bank of the river Ulai, [Dan. 8. 1, 2.] which river Envi­rons the Castle of Susa, and parts the provinces of Susa and Elima [...]s, (i.e.) the Shushan­chaeans from the Elamites, as the inhabitants of those two provinces are distinguished by [Esra 4. 9.] and as Plinie lib 6. c. 27. teacheth us, from whence we learn, that at this time the province of Susa, was not in the hands of the Medes or Persians, but of the Babyloni­ans, under whom Daniel then lived, as I noted before in the year of the world, 3405.

Now Berosus tells us, [in his third book of his Chaldee History, quoted by Josephus, lib. 1.] cont, Apion.] that those walls about the river of the city of Babylon, (which were but be­gun by Nebuchadnezar) were fully finished with brick, laid with a kind of slime, or liquid brimstone. For his mother Nicotris, a witty woman, foreseeing a storm ready to fall up­on Babylon from the Medes, to hinder them in their passing the river by boats into Ba­bylon, turn'd the river Euphrates, which of it self ran straight along, with a swift course, and drawing it through many winding channels, which she had cut for that purpose, made it withal to run more slowly than formerly it did; and then raised a huge damme upon each side of the river, and up the river from the city ward, digged a vast pond, into which she turned the river, so that she left the old channel of the river drie, which done, she then fell to work, and fenced the banks of the city within, with her brick walls, and the water-gates thereof, answerable in every point to the walls, which were made on the farther side of the channel, round about the city, she built also a bridge of stone in the midst of the city, and having all done, then she turn'd the river out of the pond, into his right channel again, [Herod. lib. 1. cap. 185, 186, 188.] The magnificence of which stone-bridge (which joyned to the kings houses, that stood on each side the river) Philostratus, in the life of Apollonius, [lib. 1. cap. 18.] describing, saith, that it was built by a Queen; that came out of Media; whence we gather, that as Nebuchadnezar himself took Amy­itis himself, so likewise his son, Evil-merodach took to wife this Nicotris out of Media.

Merbalus deceasing, Year of the World 3453 the king of Babylon set one Hirom ( [...]) Merbalus his brother in his place; The Julian Period. 4163 who reigned there 20 years, Year before Christ 551 [Phoenic. Annal.]

Darius the son of Hystaspis, Year of the World 3455 was this year born; The Julian Period. 4165 and was almost 20 years old, Year before Christ 549 a little be­fore Cyrus his death, [Herod. lib. 1, cap. 209.]

[Page 98] Croesus, being made General of the confederate army of the Babylonians and others' passed the river Halys, which parted the dominions of Media and Lydia, without a bridge, by the skill, and industry of Thales the Milesian Philosopher, and came into Cap­padocia: and there took the City of Pteria; and all the Cities thereabout, utterly destroy­ing the Syrians, who had deserved no ill at his hand: for that the Cappadocia [...]s were called Syrians by the Grecians, is testified by Herodotus, [lib. 1. c. 72.] Cyrus, ha­ving first sent to the Ionians, to feele their pulse; and to try whether he could draw them over from Croesus or no, fought a pitcht battel with Croesus, and it fell out to be a drawn battel between them; But the next day Croesus, because Cyrus came not on upon him, returned to Sardes; where he meant to hang up his sword for that winter, and the be­ginning of the next spring, to march against the Persian again. In the mean while, he sent all his Auxiliaries to their own homes▪ and employed Embassadours to such as were in league and friendship with him, among whom were the Lacedemonians; giving order to all, to come to the Randezvouz at Sardes, upon the fifth month after: But when Croesus had thus sent away, and scattered his army, then fell Cyrus upon him with all his forces; upon which suddain and unexpected approach of his; Croesus, though much troubled, yet he went forth to fight with him, with such of his Lydians as he had about him, trusting principally in his troups of horse. Cyrus to crosse him in that designe, placed his camels in front against them; the very smell of which beast, a horse cannot en­dure; and therefore all the horse of Croesus presently turned taile, and carried their ri­ders away with them; But the Lydians left their horses, and ranged themselves in bat­talion on foot: yet at last, many being slain on either side, they betook them to their heeles: But the Persians pursuing the point of this their victory, followed them to Sardes; which after 14 dayes lying before it, they took. Croesus was condemned to the fire, but coming to the place of execution, and there crying out, O Solon, Solon, (whose wise coun­sell, concerning the instability of humane condition he had formerly so much despised) Cyrus thereupon not only spared his life; but took him also into his privie counsell, Cyrus took care then of the funerals of Abradatos the king of Susa (who having fallen off from the king of Babylon to him, was slain in the battel) and of Panthea his Queen, who see­ing her husband lying dead, slew her self over his dead body: and made them a huge and sumptuous monument, [Herod, lib. 1. from the 75 cap. to the 90. with Xeno. Instit. lib. 7. The collections out of Diod. Sic. by Hen. Vales. p. 241. Plut. in the life of Solon. Polyan. in his stratag. lib. 7. in Cyrus and Croesus: and Solinus in Polyhist. lib. 1.] where he saith that Cyrus made his entry into Sardes, in the 28 Olympiade, to wit, in the 1 year thereof, as Eusebius hath it in Chron.

Croesu, sending his shackles for a present to Delphos, complained all in vain, that he had been cheated by the Oracle there, [Herod. lib. 1. c. 90, 91.] When the men of Ionia and Eolia, would fain have submitted to Cyrus, upon the same conditions, that they had formerly lived in under Croesus, Cyrus refused them; granting that only to the milesians, who fearing what mightfall, had formerly made their peace with him, [Herod. ib. c. 141. 143. 169.] The rest of the Greek Nations, fortifying each of them their own Cities, sent Pithermon of Phocea, with other Embassadors, to the Lacedemonians, to crave aide of them: which though they refused to send, yet they sent their Embassadour Lachrines to Cyrus, to forewarn him not to touch any of the Greeks in Asia; and he sent them word again, that he would shortly make them leave off caring for the Ionians, and the rest of the Greeks in Asia, and look to themselves at home, [Ibid. cap. 141. 152. 153.]

Thales the Milesian, gave them all advise to hold a Common Council at Teos, which was a City, seated in the very heart of Ionia, [Herod. Ib. cap. 170.] whiles Cyrus re­mained at Sardes, and there made his provision of Ramms and other Instruments of bat­tery, purposing to raze the walls of all that stood out against him, the Carions sent and craved his help to compose a war which was grown among themselves. He sent thither Adusius, a Persian, with an army, in which service, the Cilicians and Cyprians very wil­lingly followed him. Adusius put an end to their difference, yet so, as he left sufficient garrisons of his own, in the Cities of either party, [Xenoph. lib. 7. Instit.]

In the 58 Olympiade, toward the end of the 1 year thereof, Thales the Milesian Phi­losopher, died, as Laertius reports out of Sosicrates, and Anaximander his countryman first observed the Loxodromie, or biassing motions of the stars, in the Zodiac, as Pliny, out of other authors sayes, [lib. 1. cap. 8.] though Plutarch in his 2 book, de Placitis Philosophorum, hath more rightly informed us that that point of Astronomy was not unknown to Tha­les the Milesian, Anaximanders master: And that he himself, in the 2 year of this Olym­piade, at the age of 64 years, died, Laertius tells us, out of the Chronicle of Apollodotus the Athenian, of whose Mathematical inventions, he further addeth out of Phavorinus, that he first invented the making of the Dial, and set it up in Sparta, in a place, fit to re­ceive the shadow of the sun; as, saith he, Phavorinus reporteth in his Varia Historia: adding further, that he also invented the Horoscopes; for the finding out the equinoctials and Sal­stices for the Dial, to find out the houre of the day by, is one thing, and the Horoscope, or instrument whereby to observe the Equinoctials, and the Tropicks, or the summer and [Page 99] winter solstice, is another: though Pliny attributes the invention of the Dial and Clock to Anaximenes his scholar, and fellow citizen, [lib. 2. ca. 76.] in these words; This rule and reason of shadows, which we use to call [...]nomonical, or Dial-work, was first found out by Anaximenes, Anaximander [...] scholar: and he was the first that set up a Sciatheri­cum, (i.) a Dial to shew what's a clock, in sparta: vid. sup. in the year of the World, 3291.

Anaximenes the son of Eurystratus succeeded Anaximander in his schoole at Miletus; as Clemens [Alexandri. in his 1 book of his stromat.] shewes: but Pythagoras, when both his masters, Anaximander and Anaximenes were dead, went into Egypt; as Thales had advised him to do: being commended to Amasis King of Egypt, by a letter from Polycrates of Samos, as Laertius in his life reporteth: which Amasis, it seemeth, the Egyptians surnamed Semnesorteus. For that in his reign, Pythagoras came into Egypt; Pliny in his 36, book cap. 9. sheweth: and there he continued 22 years, conversing with the Priests, and from them it was that he learned his skill and knowledge in Astronomy and Geometry; and was catechised or initiated in all their rites and ceremonies, as saith [Iamblichus, in the life of Pythagoras, ca. 3. and 4.] for therefore also was he circumci­sed by them, that being admitted into the secrets of their religion, he might the more freely partake of the mystical philosophy of the Egyptians: in the attaining whereof, he was principally beholding to one Sonchedes, the Arch-prophet among them, [Clem. Al­exan. lib. 1. strom.] This Sonchedes, I take to be him of Sais, with whom Solon had formerly much conversed, as Plutarch in his life reporteth. And from them it was, that Pythagoras learned his Metempsuchosis, or transmigration of souls out of one body into another, as Diodor. Sic. reporteth: and being used to their books, and diving into their writings, concerning former times, he thence pickt out the observations of innumerable by pastages, saith, [Valer. Max. lib. 8. c. 7.]

Hystaspes and Adusius, joyning together, conquered all Phrygia bordering upon the Hellespont; and took the King thereof, and brought him prisoner to Cyrus, [Xenoph. Instit. lib. 7.]

Cyrus committing Sardes to the keeping of Tabalus a Persians borne, and delivering the treasure of Croesus, and the rest of the Lydians to Pactyas a Lydian borne, returned towards Ecbatan, and took Croesus along with him, little regarding how matters went in Ionia: but no sooner was Cyrus gone from Sardes, but Pactyas forthwith perswaded the Lydians to revolt from Cyrus, and from Tabolo, the Governour there; and laying out the Kings treasure, to hire souldiers from other parts, drave Tabolo into the Castle and there besieged him very straitely: whereof when Cyrus was advertised upon the way; by the advice of Croesus, he sent back Mazares a Median, with a part of his army; who disarming the Lydians, brought them to follow a more idle course of life, [Herod. lib. 1. from the 153. to the 157. chap.] and so a Nation formerly famous for laboriousness, power, and chivalry, falling into effeminancy and luxury, lost their courage, and all kind of vir­tue, as saith [Justin. out of Trogus, lib 1. ca. 7.]

Mazares redemanded Pactyas of the Cumaeans, Year of the World 3459 unto whom he was fled out of the Castle. The Julian Period. 4169 The Cumaeans consulted the Oracle at Branchis, Year before Christ 545 and received from thence an answer, That they should deliver him up: yet they not willing, either to give him up to be slaine by the Persians (being much diswaded therefrom by Aristodicus the son of Hera­clides, a man of great authority among them) or by keeping him, to draw Cyrus his displeasure upon their city to their own destruction, they sent him away safe to Mitylene▪ And when the Mitylenians were ready to give him up, the Cumaeans again sent a Ship to Lesbos and there took him in, and conveyed him to Chios: and the Chii drew him by force out of the temple of Minerva there, and delivered him up to Mazares: and had in reward therefore Atarneum a place in Mysia, lying over against Lesbos given them, [Herod. lib. 1. from cha. 157. to cha. 160] though Plutarch seeks to justifie both the Mi­tylenians and the Chii in this point, in his book, of the malignity of Herodotus, upon this ground, for that a more ancient Historian than he; to wit, Caron of Lampsacus, tells the matter simply in this wise. Pactyas hearing of the approach of the Persians Army, fled first to Mitylene. and then to Chios, and there Cyrus took him.

Mazares having gotten Pactyas into his power, marched presently against those, who with him, had assaulted Tabalas: and in part subdued the inhabitants of Priene, partly wasted the country lying upon the Maeander, and gave both it, and the city of Magne sia for a prey to his souldiers, [Herod. lib. 1. ca. 161.]

Harpagus, Year of the World 3461 who was a chief man about Cyrus, went with his army against Ionia, and fought with them (as Eusebius in his Chron. upon the 2 year of the 59 Olympiade noteth) for Mazares dying of a disease, Harpagus (whom some erroneously call Harpalus) was made General in his place. And he coming into Ionia, fell presently to entrenching round about, and blocking up their cities where ever he came, and thereby took P [...]o­caea, the chief city of all Ionia, [Herod. lib. 1. ca. 162.]

The Phoeaeans, abandoning the city, which they could not hold, shipt them­selves, their wives and children, and put over into Chios: whence returning upon an oc­casion [Page 100] offered, to Phocaea, they there put to the sword all the garison, which Harpagus had there left to keep it: and from thence set saile again, and came to the Isles of Oenu [...]ae; and from thence sailed to the Isle of Cyrnus, al. Corlica, where 20 years before they had made a plantation, and there bult a city called Alalia: where when they had staid five years, and made all the neighbouring countries weary of them, by their ro [...]bing and spoyling the Italians and Carthaginians, set out a navy of 60 ships, and had a sea fight with them; wherein the Phocaeans, having gotten the victory▪ but lost much blood in getting it, and 40 of their ship, removed themselves to Regium in Italy, and there built the city Hyela, afterward called Velia in the territory of Oenotria, [Herod. lib. 1. cap. 164. 167.] Thucides also, [lib. 7. of his history] confirms it, that the Phocaeans, which built Mar­seillus, gave the Carthaginians an overthrow at sea, for, that one part of them built Ve­lia, and another Marseilles, in the time of Servius Tullus king of the Romans, more than 600 years after the coming of Aeneas into Italy, is testifyed by Hyginus, quoted by A. Gellius [lib. 10. Noct. Attica, cap. 6.] and of this colony of the Marseillians, Isocrates also in his Archidamus maketh mention; see before in the year of the world, 3404.

But to return to Harpagus, the Teians also, when he had untrencht himself round about their city, got them on shipboard, and sailed away into Thrace, and there built them a city called Abdera, the foundations of Timesius, a man of Clozomenae had laied, as was noted before, in the year of the world, 3349. But the rest of the Ionians, all save the Milesians, who had before-hand made a league with Cyrus, being vanquished one after another, fell into Harpagus his hand, and being suffered to live every man in his own countrey, paid what was imposed upon them, [Herod. lib. 1. cap. 168, 169.] yet Bias of Priene, chief of all the wise men of Greece, when, though thus afflicted, they would needs assemble in their old Common Councel of Ionia, called Panionium, counselled them, that they should rather make a common navy, and sail away, to Sardinia, and there make a common city for all Ionians to inhabit in, for, saith he, by this means, you shall be free from this slavery, and live happily, [Herod. lib. 1. cap. 170.]

Cyrus, Year of the World 2494. c. when he had now brought into his subjection, The Julian Period. 4174 all the continent westward, Year before Christ 540 forth­with made war upon the Assyrians; and marched with his army, against Labynitus, al. Nabonidus their king, [Herod. lib. 1. cap. 178, 188.] whereof a fame was spred, and came to the Babylonians ears, two full years before the city was besieged, [Jer. 51. 46.] for when Cyrus was upon his march toward Babylon, he came to the river G [...]ides, which falls into the Tygris, which for want of boats, he could not passe. And while he stayed there, one of the white horses, which were consecrate to the son, going into the river, was there by the violence of the river swallowed up, and drowned, which Cyrus, taking very grievously, surceased his journey for Babylon, for that time, and fell to work upon the river, which he drew out into 360 several channels, so that, (as he had threatned to make it) a woman might passe over it, and never wet a knee in it: in which work, he spent all that summer, [Herod. lib. 1. cap. 189, 190, 202. with the fifth book, cap. 52.]

In the year following, Year of the World 3465 b. Cyrus went on his way to Babylon; The Julian Period. 4175 where, in a pitch field, Year before Christ 539 fought between these two great Lords of the world, Cyrus and Belshasur, or Nabonidus: the Chaldeans being put to the worst, retired to the city, resolved to endure a siege, [Herod. lib. 1. cap. 130. Jerem. 51, 27, 28, 30.] which they made light of; both because they had above 20 years provision in it, and also because they thought there were many in Cyrus his army, who bare more good wil to them, than to the Persians, [Herod. lib. Xenophon. Instit. lib. 7.]

Cyrus caused presently a vast trench, both for breadth and deapth, to be cast round a­bout the wall of the city, casting up the earth ever toward his own army, and making store of bulworks all along; for guards to be upon, and dividing his whole army into twelve parts, ordered, that every of them, should watch his moneth by turne, [Xeno­phon. ib.]

Cyrus, Year of the World 3406. b. when he had spent much time in this work to little purpose, The Julian Period. 4176 at last, Year before Christ 538 drew a ditch from the river to that vast pond, which was every way 3 or 4 hundred furlongs wide, which this Belshasars mother Nicotris, had formerly digged; as I shewed before: and then opening the mouths of this and that other ditch, which he had newly cast about the city, let out the river into them, and so made the channel thereof, which was not above two furlongs broad, passable for his men. [Herod. lib. 1. cap. 190, 1901. Xenophon Institut. lib. 7. with Jeremy 59. 32. 36.]

Cyrus passing now the river with his army, guards up the water-gates, and scaling e­very where the rampiers, got into the city, upon a festival day, whiles all men there, were busied in their banquets, [Id. ib. with Jerem 51. 39, 57.] And so vastly big was that city, that, as the inhabitants reported, when the skirts of it were surprized, and taken by the enemy, they who dwelt in the heart of the city, never heard thereof, [Herod. lib. 1. cap. 191.] to which that of that Jeremy, 51. 31. hath reference, where he saith, that post upon post, and messenger upon messenger shall run to tell the king of Babylon, that all the skirts of the city were possessed by the enemies.

[Page 101] At the same time, Belshasar purposing to feast all his nobles, caused to be brought froth all the vessels of the house of the Lord, which Nebuchadnezar his father, or grand-father (for that he was his sons son, may be gathered out of Jer. 27. 7.) had brought away from Jerusalem, to the glory of his Idols, and dishonour of the true God: and God, on the o­ther side, by sending a hand to write upon the wall of the room, where Belshazar fate, drinking, the number of years which the Babylonish Empire was to continue, and that it had been now weighed in the ballance, and was found too light; and was therefore to be transferred to, and setled upon the Medes: evidently declared, what present destruction was to fall upon him. But when his wizards of Chaldea, could not read the writing; his Queen advised him to send for Daniel; who, when he came, both red the writing, and also gave him the interpretation of it, and for his pains, was publiquely proclaimed, the third man in the kingdom, [Dan. 5.] But whereas the kings wives are said to have been present at the banquet, [verse. 2. 3.] and the Queen to have come in afterward, [verse 10.] this is to be understood of the Queen-mother, Nicotris, for that she was the mother of this last king of Babylon, we have already shewen out of Hero­dotus.

In the same night, that this banquet was made, was Belshasar the king of the Chalde­ans slain, [Dan. 5. 30.] by the soldiers of Gobryas, and Ga [...]atas, [Xen. lib. 7. Instit.] and so the Babylonish kingdom came to an end, as had been sundry times foretold; as by Esay, [chap. 13, 14, 21, 34, 46, 47. Habakkuk, chap. 2. and Jerem. cap. 25. 50, 51.] and the Empire translated to the Medes and Persians, [Daniel 5. 21. chap. 6. 8. 12, 15.]

Darius the Mede, son of Assuerus, al. Cyaxares, the son of Astyages, took upon him the kingdom, delivered to him by Cyrus the conquerer, [Dan. 5. 51. and chap. 9. 1.] for whom Cyrus had set apart the kings house, and all his palaces in Babylon, to the end, that if upon occasion he should come thither, he might have a Palace of his own to lodge in, [Xenophon. Instit. lib. 8.] and the Angell, in this first year of his reign, is said to have confirmed and strengthened him in his kingdom, [Dan. 11. 1.] after which he reigned 2 years.

Cyrus, having set all things in order at Babylon, returned through Media into Persia, to his father Cambyses, and Mandana his mother, who were yet living, and from thence, returning again into Media, married the only daughter and heir of Cyaxares, and for dowry had the whole kingdom of Media, given him with her: and, the marriage finished, he presently went his way, and took her with him: and coming to Babylon; from thence sent Governors into all his Dominions; Megabyzus into Arabia, Artacaman into Phry­gia the greater, Chrysantas into Lydia and Ionia, Adusius into Caria, Pharmichas into Phrygia Hellespontiaca, al. the lesse; but into Cilicia and Cyprus, and Paphlagonia, he sent no Persians to govern them; because they seemed voluntary, and of their own accord to have taken his part against the king of Babylon: yet he made even them also to pay him tribute, [Xen. Instit. lib. 8.]

Now all the countries, which he subdued by the forces of Media, of which himself was General, Cyrus ever professed that he laid them to the dominions of Cyaxares, [Xen. l. 5.] and therefore it is most likely that at the former meeting in Council, he made that distri­bution of the Governments by his advise, for as Xenophon [lib. 8.] saith of Cyrus, It see­med good unto him, to set Governours over all the Nations which he had subdued: So the Pro­phet Daniel, who, as it seemeth, went at this time with Cyrus from Babylon into Media, saith of Cyaxares, It seemed good to Darius, to set over the kingdome, 120 Governours, that they should be over all the Kingdom, [Dan. 6. 1.] yet over all the Governours he made three O­ver-seers, the principal of which was this Daniel: whereupon it was that the rest, stirred up by a spirit of envy against him, put into the kings head, to make a Decree, that for 30 daies space, no Petition should be made to any God or man, but to himself only: which Decree, when Daniel had broke, by making his prayer unto God; he was cast into the Lyons den; and thence delivered without hurt done at all unto him: and then Darius, having cast those plotters against Daniel into the same Lyons den, published that memorable Decree through all his dominions, that every man therein, should reverence, and stand in awe of Daniels God, [Dan. 6.]

Toward the end of the first year of the reign of Darius the Mede, Year of the World 3467 to be reckoned from the subversion of the Babylonish Empire, The Julian Period. 4177 began the 70 year of the Babilonish captivity of the Jewes, Year before Christ 537 which began under Jehojakim, in the first year of Nebuchadnesar, which was the last of those years of their calamity specified by [Jer. 29. 10.] Thus saith the Lord, when the 70 years shall begin to be finished in Babylon, then will I visit you, and perform that my good word unto you, and will bring you again to this place, and when you shall call upon me to depart from thence, and when you shall pray unto me, then will I hear you. Upon consideration of which very time, now so near approaching, it was that Daniel powred out that most fer­vent prayer, for the remission of his own sins, and of his peoples; and for that promised deliverance out of their captivity: whereupon the Angel Gabriel brought him an answer, not only for this, but also concerning the spiritual deliverance of the Church, to be [Page 102] wrought at last by the death of the Messias, uttering that most famous and memorable prophecie of the 70 weeks, [Dan. 9. 12, &c.]

Cyrus having spent one whole year with his wife in Babylon, gathered thither his whole army, in which there are said to have been counted, one hundred and twenty thou­sand horse, two thousand iron Charriots, and six hundred thousand foot Souldiers; which having furnished with all necessary provisions, he undertook that voyage, wherein he is said to have subdued all Nations, inhabiting from Syria to the red Sea, [Xenophon, Instit. lib. 8.]

Cyrus, Year of the World 3468. a. his father Cambyses being now dead in Persia, The Julian Period. 4178 Cyaxares in Media, Year before Christ 536 held all the Empire or Monarchie of the East in his own hand: from which year, both Xenophon, 8. Inst. reckons the 7 years of his reign, and the holy Scripture, out of the Records of the Medes and Persians, reckoneth this first year: for it teacheth us, that in this year came forth that renowned Edict of his; Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, Into my hand hath God given all the kingdoms of the earth: in which year, the 70 years of the Babylonish captivity (foretold by Jeremiah, and according to the prophesie of Isaiah uttered of him by name, c. 44. 28. and 45. 13.) being now expired, he gave leave to all the Jewes, dwelling wheresoever in his dominions, to return into their own country, and commanded such as did returne, to fall in hand with the re-edifying of the Temple of God; prescribing, or ra­ther at their request, granting to them a power to build it to such a bigness; which had he prescribed, and they (as needs they then must) observed the frame thereof had been far greater, than that of Solomons was; which now it was not, [Haggai, 2. 3.] And he al­lowed the charge thereof, out of the kings treasure, and restored all the vessels of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezar had brought from thence, [2 Chron. 36. 22, 23. Ezra, 1. 1, 2, 7. and 5. 13, 14. and 6. 2, 5.]

Of the Jewes therefore which returned to Jerusalem, Cyrus made Sehoafar the Cap­tain, or his Lievtenant, and into his hands did Methridates the Treasurer, by Cyrus his command, consigne all the vessels belonging to the Temple, to be carried to Jerusalem, [Ezra. 1. 7, 11. and 5. 14, 15.] Now that his Chalde name, or that by which he went in Court, was in Hebrew, Zerubbabel; appears out of [Ezra 3. 8, 10. compared with chap. 5. 16.]

The Jews thefore prepare for their return into their countrey, Year of the World c. the poorer sort, have allowance made them to defray their charges upon the way, [Ezra 1. 5, 6.] Now the number of the children of the province, or poor people of the Hebrews, born in Chal­dea, which with their Captain Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, al. Salathiel, and their high priest, Jehu, al. Jusua, the son of Josadak, returned out of that captivity, amounted to 42360. besides proselytes, man-servants, and maid-servants, to the number of 7337. [Ezra 2. 1. Nehem. 6. 67, and c. 12. 1. 9.] Now the particular sums cast up in Ezra, make onely 298, 8. and in Nehemiah, 31031. neither of which make up the full sum of 42360. and yet either of them, in the foot of each of the cathologues, of 42360. is said to have been the number of the whole congregation, [Ezra 1. 64. and Nehem. 7. 66.] wherefore to make up the full sum of 42360. the Hebrews in their great Chron. tells us, that we must cast in those of the other tribes of Israel, which came up out of the captivity with the Jews. For even at the last extirpation of the Jewish state, there was a remainder, of the other ten tribes, [Acts 26. 7.] not onely of the dispersion. [James 1. 1.] and at Jerusalem, [2 Chron. 9. 3. Luke 2. 36.] and other cities of Juda, [2 Chron. 11. 16. with c. 31. 6.] but also of those who kept still upon their old lands; for Salmanasar swept not all away out of all the tribes, as I shewed before in the year of the world, 3227. out of the History of Josias: but he left a remnant of them, in their own countrey, which was afterward, together with the Jews, and Benjamites, and Levites, carryed away by Nebuchadnezar unto Babylon, and were now dismissed and sent back again by Cyrus. After which, as in the first year of Cyrus, all the Israelites, are said to have dwelt in their own cities, [Ezra 2. 70.] so in the sixth year of Darius, they are said to have been present, at the dedication of the Temple, and to have offered there 12 hee Goats for the sin of all Israel, [Ezra 6. 16, 17.] and when Christ preach­ed the Gospel in Galilee, [Matth. 14. 14.] that prophecie of Isaiah, is said to have been fulfilled of the people of Zabulon and Nephthaly, who saw a great light.

The chief men of their fathers families, coming to Jerusalem, offered every man ac­cording to his ability, toward the restauration of the Temple, to the sum in all of 61000 drachmahs of gold; and 5000 pounds of silver, and 100. Priests robes; and both priests and Levites, and the rest of the people, dwelt every man in his own city, [Ez. 2. 68, 69▪ 70.]

On the first day of the seventh moneth, Year of the World 3469. a. in the feast of trumpets, the Israelites came all as one man out of their several cities to Jerusalem, and there built the altar, and every morning, and every evening offered the dayly sacrifice unto God, and upon the 15 day of the same moneth, kept the feast of Tabernacles, and moreover, provided for materials and workmen toward the building of the Temple, as Cyrus had given them leave to do, [Ezra 3. 1, 7.]

[Page 103] In the second year after their return from Babylon, Year of the World c. in the 2 moneth (called Jair) they appointed Levits to oversee the work of the House of God; The Julian Period. 4179 and laid the foundation of the Temple, Year before Christ 535 with the great lamentation of the old men, who 53 years before had seen the old Temple standing; but with the great rejoycing of the younger sort who saw the new one now going up, [Ezra 3. 8, 13.]

The Cuthaeans, the old enemies of the Jews, who had heretofore been planted in Sa­maria by Esarchaddon, cunningly offered to joyn with them in the building of the Tem­ple; but being refused, they crossed the Jews all they could in the work, and discouraged the people from proceeding therein, [Ezra 4. 1, 4.]

This was the first sabbatical year, Year of the World 3470. a. kept by the Jews, after their return from the capti­vity of Babylon.

The Samaritans, The Julian Period. 4180 by the means of certain Courtiers about Cyrus, Year before Christ 534 whom they had bribed for that purpose, disturbe the Jews in their work of the Temple, [Ez. 4. 5.] from whence, as it seemeth, proceeded that 3 weeks mourning of the Prophet Daniel: In which, he continued his fasting, which was begun about the 3 day of the 1 moneth, in the 3 year of Cyrus, thorough all the time of the feast of Easter, [Dan. 10. 1, 4.] after which, upon the 24 day of the 1 moneth, that vision of the Kings of Persia, of Alexander the great, and his successors, and their kingdoms was shewed and revealed unto Daniel, as he stood upon the bank of Hiddikel, or the River Tigris: all which is contained in the 3 last Chapters of Daniel: which as may be collected out of the close thereof, was the last vision that ever he had, and that but a little before his death.

Amasis, Year of the World 3473 as it seemeth, The Julian Period. 4183 fell off from Cyrus; Year before Christ 531 and the people of Egypt carried away for­merly by Nebuchadnesar, after 40 years compleated there, were now sent back again, by Cyrus into their own country: and so were they restored to their old kingdom, in the later end of Amasis his dayes: a kingdom old and ancient indeed, but the meanest of all others, and of no long continuance in one stay, [Ezek. 29. 11, 16. Jer. 46. 26.] For that Cyrus had Egypt in his possession appears, both by Xenophon, [8. Instit. Cyr.] as also in the Prologue to his whole work: and that it was afterward subdued by his son Cambyses, all Authors agree; from whence we gather, that in the intermediate time, they enjoyed their own liberty.

But by this occasion of Amasis his revolt from Cyrus, perchance also it came to passe, that when Hirom had stood King of Tyrus full twenty years, (who was the last King mentioned by Josephus, in his Catalogue of them) he was put out, and in stead of men of their own country, such as hitherto they had been governed by, as the Egyptians had been by Amasis (for the very Punic names of those Kings, shew them all to have been of the same country) they had Governours set over them of other nations.

Cyrus being now 70 years of age dyes, Year of the World 3475 having lived from the time that he was first made General of the Median and Persian armies, The Julian Period. 4189 full 30. years: and after the taking of Babylon, Year before Christ 529 9 years, and after his full Monarchie, 7 years, and one or two moneths over. Of the manner of his death, Authors much differ, Herod. [lib. 1. ca. 214.] Justin out of Trogus [lib. 1. c. 8.] and Valer. Max. [lib. 9. c. 10.] say that he was slain in a fight, a­gainst the Massagetae or Scythians: and that his head was severed from his shoulders by Tomyris their Queen, and by her thrown into a tub full of blood, and he bid there to sa­tiate himself with blood, which he had so much thirsted after in his life time. Diod. Sic. lib. 2. sayes, that when she had taken him prisoner, she crucified him, Ctesias [lib. 11.] saith, that in a battel against the Derbicans, a people bordering upon Hircania, being himself wounded in the thigh by a certain Indian, he slew Amorraeus their King, and his two sons; and 3 dayes after died himself. Johannes Malela of Antioch, out of a forged book, attributted to Pythagoras of Samos, sayes, that he was slain in a Sea-fight, against the Samiaens. But [Xeno. Instit. lib. 8.] reports that he died his own death quietly, in his own country of Persia; adding among many other things, that he gave order to his sons, that they should wrap his body neither in gold nor silver, but in plain moulds, and bury him out of the way: yet that they should call all his friends, Persians and others to his Monument; and having there presented them with what ever was fit to be given them at the Funeral of a fortunate man, should so dismisse them: but that his tombe was made him at Pasarges, is delivered by those who wrote the noble Acts of Alexander the great, as Curtius, Plutarch, Arrianus, and by Aristobulu [...], whom Alexander sent ex­pressely to see it cited to this very purpose by Strabo [lib. 5.] of his Cosmographie, where he recites also this inscription found upon his tombe; O man, I am Cyrus, who founded the Persian Monarchie, and was King of Asia; and therefore every me not that I have a Monu­ment. As for that Greek Epitaph, upon him written, if any man will believe it, in Per­sian characters, reported also by the same Strabo, out of Onesicritus,

̄ [...],
Here Cyrus I do lie, who King of Kings was high.

It is of the same stamp with that other cited by Lucian, out of the same Onesicritus in his discourse, De Long [...]vis, or of long-lived men, that Cyrus missing at last those friends of [Page 104] his, which his son Cambyses had made away, when he had lived an hundred years, died for grief.

Cyrus left his kingdom to his eldest son Cambyses, and to his younger son, Tanaoxa­ras, al. Tanyoxarcas, whom Herodotus calls Smerdis, Justin out of Trogus calls Mer­gis; he left, as Ctesias saies, the seignories or Commanderies, of Bactria, Choromnea, Par­thia and Caramania, but as Xenophon, [Instit. lib. 8.] of the Medes, Armenians, and Ca­dusians.

In the entrance of the kingdom of Ahasuerus (for by that name is Cambyses known in the language of the Scriptures) the Samaritans, who had hitherto sought secretly to un­dermine the Israelites, now openly framed a direct information in writing to the king a­gainst the inhabitants of Juda and Jerusalem, [Ez. 4. 6.] for they knew very well, what difference there was between the father and the sons nature and disposition; for that Cy­rus was naturally kind and loving to those that were under him, and the other furious by nature, and suddain in his resolutions, as Diod. Sic. rightly observeth of him, in his Excerpta, publish­ed by Hen. Valesius, [p. 238, 249.] with Herodotus: [l. 3. c. 89.] Year of the World 3477. a.

This was the 2 Sabbatical year held by the Jewes after their returne from Babylon. The Julian Period. 4186 Year before Christ 528

Cambapheus an Eunuch, Year of the World 3478 who could do all in all with the king of Egypt, The Julian Period. 4188 by the means of his cousin germane, Year before Christ 526 Isabat an Eunuch likewise, who could do also as much with Cam­byses king of Persia, betrayed the bridges, passages and other things to the Persian, upon promise made him, that he for his pains, should have the Government of Egypt, confer­red upon him, [Ctes. lib. 3. Persicorum.]

In pursuance whereof, Cambyses gathered an army: whereof his land companies con­sisted, as of sundry other Nations, so among them, of Grecians, out of Ionia and Eolia in Asia; but his sea forces principally of Sidonians and Cyprians, who had freely sub­mitted to him; Polycrates also, the king or tyrant of Samos, furnished him with 40 sail of ships, all men of war, and into them he put all such as he suspected for enemies at home, desiring Cambyses that he would spend them there, and never send them home again, [Herod. lib. 3. c. 1. 19. 44.]

Phanes of Halicarnassus, a chief man among the aides of Egypt; and well versed in their affaires, but one that bare a hate to Amasis, seeing Cambyses preparing war against Egypt, fled over to him: and disclosed to him many secrets of the land of Egypt, and finding Cambyses much troubled how he should passe through the desarts that lay in his way, for want of water, advised him to send to the king of Arabia, to obtain leave to pass through his country; [Id. ib. cap. 4. & 7.] for against his will, there was no passing for him, to the borders of Egypt, [Ib. c. 88.]

The king of Arabia, Year of the World 3479. b. making a league with Cambyses, The Julian Period. 4189 by the messengers that were sent unto him, Year before Christ 525 sent all his camels loden with borachoes or lethren baggs full of water to the places by which Cambyses with his army was to passe, and there attended his coming, [Id. ib. c. 9.]

Cambyses coming with his army into Egypt, found Amasis newly dead, when he had [...]eigned 44 years, [Id. ib. c. 9. & 10.] Diod. Sic. lib. 1. Biblioth. tells us, that he died, when Cambyses began his war in Egypt, in the later end of the 3 year of the 63 Olympiade; af­ter whom, his son Psammenitus, (whom Ctesias calleth Amyrteus) reigned 6 months, [ [...]erod. l. 3. c. 14.] in whose reign it rained at Thebes, which in the upper parts of Egypt [...] taken for a great prodigie, [Id. c. 10.]

The Persians, having passed those sandie dry desarts of Arabia, sate down upon the edge of Egypt, [Ib. c. 11.]

But Cambyses coming at last to besiege Pelusium, caused cats and dogs, and sheep, and [...]rds called Ibides, and all kinds of living creatures, which the Egyptians worship for [...]ods, to be placed in the front of his army; whereat the Egyptiants being troubled, for f [...]r of hurting their own gods, forbare shooting at the enemy, and so Cambyses taking [...]lusium, got an entrance into, and a footing in Egypt, [Polyenus in the 7 book of Stratag.]

They that came to assist the Egyptians, as the Grecians and Carians, in hatred of Pha [...]es who had been a chief instrument in conducting this forreign army into Egypt, slew his so [...]s, whom he had there left, before his eyes, and drinking up their bloud, fell a skirmish­ing with him, [Her. l. 3. c. 11.]

After a sharpe encounter, where in many were slain on either side, the Egyptians fled; [Id. ib.]

Cambyses, sent a Persian Herald up the river in a ship of Mitylene, to Memphis, whither the Egyptians in great disorder and confusion were fled, to exhort them to render them­selves; but the men of the city sallied out upon the ship, took hir, brake or burnt hir, and having cut all the men in her, into gobbits, brought them into the city; and afterward en­dured the siege for some short time, [Id. lib. 3. c. 13.]

Arcesilaus, son of Battus the Lame, and of Pheretima his wife; yeelded up Cyrene to Cambyses, and submitted to pay him tribute, [Id. l. 4. c. 165.] for they of Cyrene, and the Barcei, and the Lybians, bordering upon Egypt, terrified with his successe against their [Page 105] neighbours the Egyptians, rendred themselves unto him, and sent their presents to Cam­byses and Cambyses took what came from the Lybians gratiously, and in good part, but those of the Cyrenians, not so, because they were so small, for they sent him onely five hundred pounds, which he took, and threw among the Souldiers, [Id. lib. 3. cap. 13. and cap. 91.]

Ten dayes after he had taken the walls of Memphis, he had thought to try the pati­ence of Psammenites, whom in contempt of him, he had with other Egyptians, com­mitted to prison, in the suburbs of the city, sending his daughter with other maidens of the prime nobility of Egypt, with pitchers on their arms to the river, to fetch him water, and sending his young son, with two thousand more of the same age, and all principall noble mens sons with ropes about their necks, and bridles in their mouths, to be shameful­put to death: all which was done, in revenge of those Mitylenians, whom being sent in a ship to Memphis, they had murdered the kings Judges, having so ordered, that for every Mitylenian then slain, ten of the chief of the Egyptians should be put to death, and a­mong them, in the first place, Psammenites his own son, whom Cambyses would have saved, but, when it was too late. But the father himself lived afterward with Cambyses, without violence, or other wrong done too his person: till at last, being convicted of stir­ring up the people to a new rebellion, he drank bulls blood, and died, [Herod. lib. 3. cap. 14, 15.] though Ctesias saies, that he was sent away prisoner, to live in Susa.

Cambyses marching from Memphis, came with his army before the city Sais; where coming into the palace of Amasis; against whom he undertook this war, he caused his body to be haled out of his vault, and to be brought before him, and causing his carcase to be whipt with scourges, and all kind of reproach, and coutumely to be used upon it, then caused it to be consumed with fire, [Herod. lib. 3. cap. 16. and Diod. Sic, in his Excerpta; publish­ed by Hen. Valesius, pag. 249,]

Cambyses having thus conquered Egypt, in the 5 year of his monarchy; he reigned in it 3 years, [Jul. African. and Euseb. in Chronic. Graec. pag. 17.] having slain fifty thousand of the Egyptians in fight, and sent a way seven thousand of them prisoners to Susa, [Ctes.]

Iamblicus reporteth, that Pythagorus was among the rest then also taken and sent away to Babylon, where he conversed with the Chaldeans, [Iambli. in his Life,] and ano­ther writer of his life, namely Malchus, al. Paphyrius, saith, that at Babylon, he not one­ly conversed with the other Chaldeans, but applyed himself also to Zabratus, and that he was by him purified and cleansed from the sins of his former life. This Zabratus is thought by some, to have been that Nazaratus of Assyria, whom Alexander, (Poly­histor I think) in his book of Pythagoricall opinions, makes to have been Pythagoras his master, and some others mistaking the matter, judge to have been the prophet Ezekiel, as Clement of Alexandria, [lib. 1. Strom.] relateth. But this sheweth, that he did con­verse with the wise-men of the Jews in Babylon, for that he made use of many of their opinions afterwards, in the course of his Philosophy, as Hermippus, in his first book of Pythagoras, quoted by Josephus (lib. 1. cont Apion.) and in his first book of Law-makers, cited by Origen, (lib. 1. cont. Celsum.) reporteth, And no lesse doth Aristobulus the Jew, a Pe­ripatetic Phylosopher, in his first book to Phylometor, as we find in Clemens of Alex. lib. 1. Strom.) and as Euseb. (lib. 13. Praepar. Evangel.) affirms; and upon the same ground believes, that the books of Moses were translated into Greek, before the Persian Mo­narchy began: whereas it is far more likely, that he gat that part of his learning and knowledge, by conversing with the Jews in Babylon; for that Pythagorus had familia­rity and discourse with them also, appeareth by Pyrphier in his Life, out of Diogenes, [...] (i. e.) of the incredible relation made of Thule.

Cambyses also was about to prepare a navy, Year of the World 3480 to go against the Carthaginians: The Julian Period. 4190 but gave it off, Year before Christ 524 for that the Sidonians, upon whom he was most to rely, for that kinde of ser­vice, refused to go against their own Colony and kindred: mean while, he sent for some of the Itchthyophagites, from the city Elephantina; who of all others in those parts, were most versed in the Ethypian language; and sent them for so many spies, to the Ethyo­pians called Macrobi [...]; because they are generally very long lived, and inhabit, the lower parts of Africa, bordering upon the southern sea; yet under colour of carrying presents to their king, and to see The Table of the Sun. The king of Ethiopia in the presence of those, whether Embassadors or spies, took his bow, and bent it; and then unbent it a­gain, and so gave it them, to carry it to Cambyses, and bad them tell him, that when his Persians should be able so easily to bend such bows as those, he should then, and not be­fore begin to get him an excessive great army, and come fight with the long lived Ethi­opians, [Herod. lib. 3. from chap. 17. to chap. 25.]

Smerdis, al. Tanyoxarces, Cambyses his full Brother, assaying to bend this bow, came within two fingers bredth of the noch, which none other of all the Persians could do, for very envy whereof, Cambyses presently dismissed, and sent him away into Persia. [Herod. lib. 3. cap. 30.]

[Page 106] Cambyses in a rage, gave order out of hand for a voyage into Ethiopia; without pro­vision made of corn, or other victual: nor re-counting with himself, that he was to go to the furthest end, as it were of the world, but like a bedlam-man, so soon as he had heard what his [...]chthyophagites had said, marched away instantly with all his own foot, commanding the Grecians to stay behind, [Id. ib. cap. 24.]

When he was come as far as Thebes in Egypt, he there culled out about 50 thousand men of his army, and sent them to rob first, and then to burn the Temple of Jupiter Ammon, and to make slaves of all the inhabitants of the place: but himself marched forward towards Ethiopia, [Id. ib. Diodor. Sic. in his Excerpta, published by Hen. Vales. pag. 249.]

In that voyage, Cambyses subdued the Ethiopians, which bordered upon the lower parts of Egypt, which inhabit the city Nisa, and keep holy-dayes to Bacchus, [Herod. lib. 3. c. 97.] and there, unto Saba the chief house or palace, of the king of the Ethiopians, and the Island wherein it stood, he gave the name of Meroes, in memory of Meroe, who was both wife and sister to him. [Strabo. lib. 17. of his Geogr. Josephus. l. 2. Antiq. [...]. al. cap. 10.] for she accompanied him into Egypt, and there died, and her he had married, a thing strange, and never heard of before in Persia, and not long after, he married his elder sister also, [Herod. lib. 3. cap. 31.] called Atossa; who after his death was married also, to Magus, and after him to Darius Hystasphis, [Ib. cap. 68. and 88.]

The army which went from Thebes against the Ammonians, having travelled seven dayes journey over the sands, came at length to the city, Oasis, (which city was inhabit­ed by those Samians, which were of the Escrionian tribe) and from thence, to a countrey called B [...]atorum insula, (i. e.) the Islle of the happy ones, and as they marched from thence, over the sandy plains, and were at dinner, in the mid-way between Oasis, and Ammo­nia, it is said, that there arose, a mighty strong winde out of the South, which brought those moveable sands upon them, and overwhelmed them all. [Herod. lib. 3. cap. 26. Just. lib. 1. cap. 9.] Plutarch in the life of Alexander, saith, that there were 50 thousand men lost in the land, that time, (i. e.) that the whole army that went, every man of them were drowned in that deludge of quick-sands.

As for the Army which went forward with him against the Ethiopians, they had not gone five dayes march, but all provisions fa [...]l'd them: and a little after they had no hor­ses left them to eat, and when still they went on, and came to the sands, they were then fain to cast lots, and to eat up one another, which when cambyses saw, he returned, and came back to Thebes, having spent a multitude of his army, [Herod. lib. 3. cap. 25. Seneca, lib. 2. cap. 30.] of his natural questions, of whom Lucan also speaking, saith,

And mad Cambyses, marching toward the East,
Came to the long-liv'd Ethipians:
And wanting food, his own men up did eat;
And yet the Head of Nilus never found.

Cambyses returning to Memphis, discharged his Grecians; and shipt them there to be gone, [Herod. lib. 3. cap. 25.] But when he there saw the Egyptians keeping holy-day, because their god Apis had appeared to them, he conceiving they had done it for joy of his disastarous voyage, sent for Apis to be brought unto him, and ran his own sword into him, commanding all his priests to be scourged with whips, and the rest of the Egyptians, which were found keeping holy-day, to be slain by his souldiers. Apis being so wound­ed by him, pined away in the Temple, and died, and the priests took the body of the beast, and secretly buried it, [Herod. lib. 3. cap. 27, 28, 29.]

For this cause, the Egyptians say, that Cambyses, being not otherwise over­well in his wits, fell stark mad; which appeared first in causing his own brother to be kill'd: for having sent him away, formerly into Persia, (as was said before) he now dreampt, that a messenger came to him from thence, who told him, that Smerdis; fitting in the regal throne, touched the Heavens with his head: wherefore being astonished with this dream, he forthwith dispatched away Prexaspes, who was most intimate with him of all the Persians, to kill his brother Smerdis, and he accord­ingly coming to Susa, caused him to be murdered, having drawn him forth, as some say, upon a hunting match: but as others report, that having toaled him along, as far as the Red-sea; he there threw him in, and drowned him, [Ib. cap. 30. and 36.] But Justin out of Trogus, lib. 1. cap. 9. saith, that this charge was committed to Cometes, one of the Magi, and that he murdered not this Merges, for by that name Smerdes goes in him (until after Cambyses was dead; Ctesias, purposely (as his manner was) dis­senting from Herodotus tells us a quite other tale; That Spendahates, one of the Magi, having been scourged by Tanyaxares, that is, by this Smerdis his command, accused him to Cambyses, of seeking to make himself king; And that by the advise of this Spendahates, [Page 107] he was sent for out of Bactria into Egypt, and was there made to drink Bulls blood, and thereof died; and that he him self was sent back into Bactria, and there, because he was in all lineaments of face and body, very like unto him, ruled all, as if he had been very Tan [...]oxarces, or Smerdis himself.

After Harpagus, Year of the World 3481 Oroetes a Persian born, The Julian Period. 4191 being made Governour of Sardes, Year before Christ 523 and of all the Provinces of Lydia, Ionia, and Phrygia, by Cyrus, is said to have sent a messenger to Polycrates of Samos, to ask him about a certain matter; and that Polycrates then happening to be lying upon his bed in his chamber (Anacreon the Teian, that excel­lent Lyric. Poet of Ionia, and who, as Clem. Alexand. sayes, was the first inventor of Love-Songs, sitting by) vouchsafed the messenger not so much as a look, much lesse an answer. And Oroetes resolving to be revenged of him for this affront, sent one Myrtus a Lydian born, the son of Gyges, in an other message; to tell him, that himself for fear of Cambyses, would faine flee over to him, with all his treasure. Polycrates giving over­hasty credit hereto, to hasten the matter, went himself unto him, carrying one Democedes, a Physitian of Crotona in Italy, along with him; and when he came as far as Magne­sia toward him; there Oroetes took and crucified him: letting the Samians who came with him go: the rest, and among them this Democedes, he took and made his bond­servants, [Herod. lib. 3. from ca. 126. to 127.] But Valer. Max. [lib. 6. cap. ult.] relates, that he was crucified by Orontes (for so he calls him, with Tully, lib. 3. de Finibus) Go­vernour under King Darius, upon the top of the mount Mycale; to wit, in that fore-land of Ionia, which looks toward Samos: where as yet Darius at that time, was but one of the guard to Cambyses, and of no such high place or authority among the Persians: as ap­pears out of, [Herodot. lib. 3. cap. 139. and cap. 140.] where he saith, that in Cambyses his expedition into Egypt, Syloson the brother of Polycrates, presented him with a most rich robe publickly at Mempsis, whence came the proverb; Sylosons robe: and he also sayes, that Polycrates came to that foul end, at what time Cambyses was scarce his own man in Egypt, [ibi. ca. 120.] and with him agrees [Pliny lib. 33. ca. 1.] where he saith, that this fell out in the 230. year after the building of Rome, which according to Varro his account; and which for the most part he followes, falls upon the 64 Olym­piade.

Cambyses seeing his wife Meroe take on, as she did, for the death of her brother Smer­dis, disparched her out of the way, too, [Herod. lib. 3. ca. 31. 32.]

In the 7 year of Cambyses, the 225. year of Nabonassers callender, upon the 17 day of the moneth Phamenoth, with the Egyptians, (16 day of our July) one hour before mid­night, the Moon was seen eclipsed at Babylon, [Ptol. in his, Mag. Syntax. lib. 5. c. 14.]

Cambyses shot Prexaspes his son, who was his cup-bearer thorough with an arrow: and the day following, caused 12 principal men more of the Persians who had done no hurt at all, to be buried alive, with their heads downward. He gave order also, that Coesus, who had sometime been King of Lydia, onely because he had in a fair and friendly manner admonished him not to do such things, to be put to death. But repent­ing him soon after, he was glad that execution was not done upon him; neverthelesse he put them to death who were appointed to do, and had not done it. Many like mad prankes played he, both upon Persians, and also upon other friends of his, while he re­mained at Memphis: he opened many of their Sepulchres to see the bodies of those who lay buried in them; going upon a time into the Temple of Vulcan, he laughed exceed­ingly, and jeered at his image there; and another time going into the temple of the Ca­birie, whether it was not lawfull for any to have acxesse, but for the Priests onely; and having spent many a jest upon the images which he saw there, he caused them all to be consumed with fire, [Herod. lib. 3. from ca. 34. to ca. 38.] The rest of their temples, part­ly he burnt down, partly he pull'd down, and partly he defaced, and mangled; as also he did their Obelisis, [Strabo lib. 17.]

Patizithes one of the Magi, Year of the World 3482 whom he had left Overseer of his private estate at home,The Julian Period 4992 having gotten knowledge of Smerdis his death, Year before Christ 522 which was kept very close, and k [...]wn to very few of the Persians, set his own brother, whose name was also Smerdes, and very like him both in stature and feature, upon the Kingly throne: and forthwith posted a­way messengers into all parts, and among the rest, to the army in Egypt; that from thence forward they should obey none, but Smerdes, Cyrus his son, and not Cambyses: so Herodotus, [lib. 3. ca. 61. for Justin out of Trogus, lib. 1. ca. 9.] sayes, that Cometes one of the Magi, having killed Merges. al. Smerdes, (to whom the kingdom indeed be­longed after Cambyses) set up his own Brother Oropastes, who was very like him in the lineaments of his face and body, as was said before; But Ctesias writes, that Bagabates the Eunuch, and Artasyras an Hyrcanian borne, (both which were with Cambyses in Egypt, and of great authority about him) took counsel, while Cambyses was yet living, how to set up Spendadates, one of the Magi also, who was very like unto Smerdes whiles he lived; and after Cambyses death, did proclaim him King.

Cambyses was answered by the Oracle of Butis, whither he had sent, that he should die at Ecbatane; which he understood of Ecbatane in Media, where all his treasure lay. [Page 108] But as he lay at Ecbatane in Syria, the messenger brought him word, what the command­ment of Patizithes was: who hearing of the conspiracie that was against him, presently leapt to horse, purposing in all haste to march with his army to Susa, against the conspi­rators; but as he was leaping, his sword fell out of his scabbard: and ran into his thigh. Upon the twentieth day after which accident, he sent for the Nobles of Persia to come unto him, unto whom he made known both the slaughter of his brother, and the treason of the Magi, against himself: requiring them by no means to suffer the kingdom to re­turn to the Medes, (for the Magus was a Median born as may be gathered out of Hero­dotus, lib. 3. cap. 73. and cap. 126.) and soon after, his wound festering, he died, when he had reigned only 7 years and 5 months, [Herodotus, lib. 3. from cap. 62. to 66.] Josephus tells us that in his return out of Egypt, he dyed at Damascus, [lib. 11. Antiq. cap. 3.] put­ting Damascus instead of Herodotus his Ecbatane in Syria. Ctesias will have it, that he came as far as Babylon; and that there he took his wound, and died of it; writing of his death, and the foregoing signes and presages thereof in this manner.

When Cambyses was offering sacrifices, and the beasts throats were cut, there came no blood out, at which he was much amazed, and Roxane bare him a boy without a head, and that amazed him much more, and the Magi told him, that this portended, that he should leave no successor of his own behind him. His mother also appearing to him in a dream, seemed to threaten him destruction, for his brothers death, which troubled him yet more than all the rest, and that when he was come to Babylon, and there sate whitling a litle stick with a knife, to spend the time, he by chance hurt there­with a muscle in his thigh, whereof he dyed the 11 day after: [Ctesias.] But at his departure out of Egypt, he left Aryander to govern it, in his stead.

When Cambyses was now dead, little thought the Persians that they had got a Ma­gus to be their king: but that his brother indeed, had succeeded him in the kingdom, espe­cially, when Prexaspes stood to it, that he never kill'd him, nor was it in truth safe for him now to confesse that he had killed a son of Cyrus with his own hand, [Herod. l. 3. c. 66.] and the matter it self was therefore the more easie to be concealed, because among the Persi­ans, it was ever held for a point of state, to have the person of the king seldom seen abroad [Justin. l. 1. c. 9.] and so it came to passe, that this Magus, bearing himself for Smerdes, Cy­rus his son, as being of the same name, and very like him, held the kingdom seven whole months quietly, which served to make up the 8 year of Cambyses his reign. But during that time he spared for no cost, to shew all kind of bounty and munificence to the subjects in all parts, insomuch, that when news came afterward of his death, all Asia, and all na­tions save the Persians, much lamented for it, for the dispatching away courriers into all parts, he proclaimed three years freedome from paying of tribute, and service in the wars and this de did, so soon as ever he took the title upon him, [Herod. lib. 3. cap. 67.] and he took moreover Atossa Cyrus his daughter, and all the rest of Cambyses his wives to him­self, [Ib. c. 68. 88.]

Ammianus Marcellinus, [lib. 23.] out of ancient books reporteth, that after Cambyses his death, 7 Magi took the management of the kingdome of Persia into their hands: which number, Valer. Max. also in his [9 book, c. 2.] reteineth. But of them there were two chief, named by Herodotus, [lib. 3. c. 61. 78.] Patizithes, whom Trogus calls Come­tes, and his brother, who only bare the name of king, as in the person of Cyrus his son: and is called by Herodotus, Smerdis, by Eschylus, Mardus, by Ctesias, Spendahates, by Trogus, Oropastes, and in the Scripture, Artachshashta.

To this Artachshashta it was that letters were brought from the Samaritans, to forbid the further building of Jerusalem, as of a city, which they blazoned for a rebellious and wick­ed place, and which if it went on to be built, would never pay tribute to the kings of Persia [Ez. 4. 7, 16.]

Artachshashta, Year of the World 3483. a. by his letter, forbade the building of Jerusalem, until he should give further order▪ by vertue of which inhibition, the Samaritans taking courage, came fly­ing to Jerus [...]lem▪ by strong hand, made the Jewes give off their building, not of the City only, but [...] of the Temple, for which neverthelesse, they had Cyrus his expresse order. to finish it: But as they had been hitherto often interrupted in that work, so now they wholly gave it off, till the second year of the reign of Darius, [Ez. 4. 17. 24.]

Whiles this Artachshashta held the kingdom, Oroetes the Persian continuing at Sardes first reproached Mitrobates, Governor, of Dascylium in the continent of Asia, for not having gotten the Isle of Samos, into his hands, and annexed it to his government, in Po­lycrates his life time, and afterward took both him and his son Cranapes, both men of good esteeme among the Persians, and slew them: committing sundry other outrages, and a­mong the rest, caused a messenger, which came to him from Darius, because he told him something that pleased him not, to be murthered, [Herod. l. 3. c. 126.]

Ctesias tells us, that Isabates the Eunuch, who had the charge of carrying the Corps of Cambyses into Persia, disclosed all the plot, and fraud of the Magi to the army, & that being therefore pursued by them, he fled for safegard to a Temple, and there they took off his head: but Herod. saies, that 8 months after Cambyses his death, the matter was brought first to light by the cunning of Otanes the son of Pharnaspes, and afterward, [Page 109] more fully manifested by Prexaspes; who being himself in a certain Tower, called the people to him, and from thence declared to them, and acknowledged that he himself, being forced thereto by Cambyses his command, had murdered his Brother Smerdes the son of Cyrus, and that they were the Magi which then ruled all; and having so said, he threw himself thence down headlong among them, [Herod. lib. 3. ca. 68. and 75.] As for the discovery made by Otanes, and destruction of the Magi, Justin out of Herodotus, and Trogus Pompeius, sets it down in this wise.

Ostanes (which is that Otanes) saith he, by a messenger enquired of his daughter (which was one of the concubines, or harlots of the King) whether it were indeed Cy­rus his son that was King: she answered, that she her self knew not, nor could possibly tell how to learn it out of any of her fellows, because they were all kept apart in several lodgings one from the other. Then he advised her when her turn came to lie with him, to feel his head, as he lay a sleep; for Cambyses, or (as Herodotus hath it) Cyrus had caused the Magus his eares to be cut off. And being afterward assured by his daughter, that the King had no ears, he made the Princes of Persia acquainted therewith: and having drawn them into a conspiracy against the mock-king, bound them all with an oath unto it. There were seven of them onely in this conjuration: who instantly, least by delay repentance might befal any, and so the thing come to be disclosed; carrying every man a dagger under his coat, went directly to the place where the King was, and killing such as stood in their way, at last came where the Magi were assembled: nor were they wanting to their own defence; for they slew down right two of the conspirators, (or rather wounded them onely, as Herodotus hath it) but they were all laid hold on by the more in number: among which, Gobryas having one of them about the middle, when his fellows could not come at the Magus to kill him, for fear of hurting Gobryas himself; he bade them kill the Magus thorough his body. But yet as good luck would, they killed the Magus, and did him no hurt, [Justin lib. 1. ca. 9.]

The names of these 7 Persians (whom Jerome upon Daniel 11. verse 2. would needs call the Magi) were these. Onophas, Idernes, Naradobates, Mardonius, Barises, Artapher­nes, and Darius, the son of Hystaspes: as Ctesias hath it: But in Herodotus, these. O­tanes, Hydarves, Megabyzus, Gobryas, Aspathines, Intaphernes, and Darius: which Darius was then newly arrived there from Susa, where his father Hystaspes was Governour. But both Ctesias and Herodotus tell us, that the Persians ever after kept a yearly Festival upon the day wherein the Magi were thus destroyed.

Six dayes after the Magi were made away, those 7 Persians met in counsel, and advi­sed together, what form of government they should now set up in Persia. Otanes advised for an Aristocracy; Megabyzus, for an Oligarchie; but Darius, perswaded by all means for a Monarchie; and when this last opinion, for the supream power to be settled in one person, had carried it by the major part of voices; Otanes resigned all his right to the o­ther six, upon condition that neither himself, nor any of his should ever be subject to any of them or theirs: whence it was that his family onely among the Persians were left free, and not subject to the Kings command further than themselves listed: provided that they brake no [...]aw of the Persians: and because he was the first that set this wheele a going, and drew the rest into the action; therefore they thought fit, to heap all kinds of magnificence and honour upon him and his posterity. And among the rest, to have him every year presented with a Median Robe. But for the Election of a new King, they came to this agreement among themselves, that every of them should get on horse-back a little before sun-rising, and whose horse happened first to neigh after the sun was up, he should be King in Cambyses room: which when the horse of Darius the son of Hystas­pes, by the craft and subtilty of Oebaris his Quiry happened to do presently: all the rest leapt off their horses, and adored Darius, crying, God save the King, [Herod. lib. 3 from ca. 80. to ca. 88.]

Nor yet were they lesse mindful of their own priviledges and immunities, than Otanes had been; for this they had common to them all: First that both Otanes and the rest, should come to Court when they pleased; and have free accesse to the Kings person, without sending in word that he was there to speak with him, unlesse he were in bed with the Queen, [Id. ib. ca. 84. and ca. 118.] And secondly, that they might weare every man his turbant, in a different fashion from all other men. For whereas the King onely and his heir apparent, might wear their turbants upright: (as Seneca hath it, lib. 6. De Beneficiis ca. 31. and so hath Plutarch in the lives of Theistocles and Artaxerxes) and the rest of the Nobility wear them hanging backward; it was now granted to them and their posterity, that they should wear them pointing forward; because when they went about the slaughter of the Magi, they used this fashion as a token or sign between themselves, [Plutarch in his Pracepts of government.] For Darius had given this as a sign for each to know another by in the dark: that they should turn the buckle that fastned their tur­bants behind, and wear them in their fore-heads, [Polyae. lib. Stratag. 7.]

But this, as it seemeth, was the grand priviledge to them granted; that although the King had, as it were, a perpetual Dictatorship in himself over them, yet they every man [Page 110] in his turn, should have a kind of a tribunitian power with him; to which opinion or imagination of mine own, there are three considerations moving me. First, for that these conspirators foreseeing that they should prove burdensome (and wherein I pray more than in this way?) to Darius, they bound him with an oath (which is most religiously observed among the Persians) that he should never do any of them to death, either by poison, or sword, or by any violent way, or by starving them; as Valer. Max. [lib. 9. ca. 2.] affirm­eth. Secondly, for that Eschylus, who was in the fight against the Persians at Mara­thon names two Kings, successively between the slaughter of the Magi, and Darius his reign; to wit, Maraphis and Artaphrenes. Of whom the first seemeth to be him whom Ctesias calleth Mardonius, and the other Artaphernes. And lastly, for that in Ezra, in the edict of Darius, in the second year of his reign, for the rebuilding of the Temple, we find Artacshasta, also called by the name of King of Persia, [Ezra 6. 14.] to have given his consent thereto, in his 2 year of his reign; for the rebuilding of the Temple; we find Artachshashta also called sometime King of Persia, [Ezra 6. c. 14.] to have given his con­sent thereto: by whom it is hard to understand any other than Artaphernes.

In the beginning of his reign, Darius took Atossa the daughter of Cyrus, who had formerly been married to his own Brother Cambyses, and afterward to the Magus, and made her his wife, purposing to establish his kingdom the better, by matching into the Royal Stock: that so the kingdom might not seem translated to another family, but ra­ther returned into Cyrus his house, [Herod. lib. 3. ca. 88. and lib. 7. ca. 2. and Justin out of Trogus lib. 1. ca. 10.] And as himself was first called Ochus, as appears by [Valer. Max. lib. 9. ca. 2.] (i. e.) [...] yet afterward taking the Regal [...] addition upon him, with the kingdom of Cambyses, took also his surname to him; so I conceive, that both he was that Achash-verosh, al. Assuerus, which in the Story of Esther, is said to have reigned from India to Ethiopia, over one hundred twenty and seven Provinces; and that this his chief wife Atossa, was none other than Vashti, of whom there is so much mention made in the same book.

O [...]oetes continued still Governour at Sardes, and kept a thousand Persians for his guard about him. But Darius sending his royal letters by Bagaeus the son of Arton to the soul­diers there, caused him to be dispatched out of the way; whose goods being all brought as confiscate to Susa; there came also a long with them Democedes, whom he had made his slave, a Physitian of Crotona, [Herod. lib. 3. c. 127, 128, 129.] as was said before.

It fell out af [...]erward that Darius, as he was a hunting fell from his horse, and with the fall, wrencht his foot, and strained it very sorely; which whiles the Egyptian Chirur­geous sought to bring right again, and used much violence in the cure, they made him that he could not sleep for seven dayes. Upon the 8 day this Democedes was brought un­to him, all poor and ragged, and shackled, as he was; he with such Greek [...]omentations as he used, quickly brought the King to sleep again: and in short time recovered him. Whereupon he was rewarded with rich gifts by the King and his Wives; and dwelt in a goodly house in Susa: and sat at Table with the King, abounding with all things that his heart could wish: save onely that he could not return into Greece again; and more­over when Darius would have hung up his Egyptian Physitians, because a Grecian could do more in his cure than they all, he obtained their pardon of the King: And whereas there was a certain Fortune-teller of Elis, which came in company with him, and had followed Polycrates to Magnesia, and was brought to Susa, among the rest of Oroetes his slaves; he got him also to be set at liberty, [Herod. ib. ca. 129, 130, 132.]

It fell out afterward that Atossa, daughter to Cyrus, and Darius his chief wife, had a Cancer in her breast: and being lanced, it spread further and further; and when De­mocedes had cured her of that sore, he prevailed so far with her, as to move the King to make war upon Greece. Upon whose perswasion, Darius presently called to him fif­teen choice men, all Persians; and commanded them to follow Democedes, and by his di­rections to view all the Maritine places of Greece, and bring him back again with them to him. These when they were come into Phoenicia, and from thence to Sidon; fitted themselves there of shipping, and other provisions, and sailed into Greece, and viewed all the Sea-coasts of Greece, and drew it into Maps: and were the first Persian spyes that ever came into Greece. And then having taken a view of the most celebrious cities and places in the heart of Greece, they passed from thence to Tarentum in Italy, from whence Democedes stole away to Crotona where his own home was, and there marri­ing the daughter of Milo Crotoniates, that famous Wrestler: would not return any more to Darius, [Herod. lib. 3. from ca. 133. to ca. 138. with Athanaeus, lib. 12. Deipnosoph. and Aelian. Var. Histor. lib. 8. ca. 17.

This was the third Sabbatical year held by the Jewes, Year of the World 3484. a. c. after their return from Ba­bylon.

Mardocai the Jew, The Julian Period. 4194 is said to have had a dream in the Greek additions of [Esth. ca. 11.] upon the 1 day of the month Nisan, Year before Christ 520 in the 2 year of the reign of Artaxerxes the great (for so Assuerus al. Darius the son of Hystaspes, is there called) concerning a River signify­ing Esther, and two Dragons portending himself and Haman, [cap. 10.]

[Page 111] In the second year of king Darius, which was in the 65 Olympiade, Haggai the prophet reproved the idlenesse of the Jews, in setting forward the building of the temple, declaring to them, that that long steri [...]itie of the ground; and other plagues which con­tinually fell upon them, between the first and third Sabbaticall years, were all for their great neglect in that work, and earnestly perswaded them to mend that fault, whereupon Zerobabel, the governour of the Jews, and Joshua the High priest, and all the people took the work in hand afresh, and provided materials necessary for the building, upon the 24 day of the same moneth, [Hag. 1. 1, 15.]

Upon the 21 day of the 7 moneth; Year of the World 3485. a. the same year Haggai animated the Jews, to go on with the work, with a promise of Gods presence, and blessing upon them in it, and al­though the beginnings of this present structure seemed base and despicable in the eyes of such, as had seen the glory of the former 169 years before; yet he told them, that if they considered that blessed, and so much desired Messias, which after a time, to wit 516 years from thence, should there first be manifested, and the peace which should thence be propagated to all nations, they must acknowledge the glory of this Temple, far to excell the beauty of the former, [Hag. 2. 1. 9.]

In the 8 moneth of the same 2 years of Darius, Zacharias the son of Barachias exhort­ed the people to repentance, [Zach. 1. 1, 6,]

On the 24 day of the 9 moneth of the same second year, about the middest of the space between seed time, (which immediately followed the end of the sabbatical year,) and the harvest, the Temple began to be reared, by Zerobabel, and Joshua the high priest, with the assistance of Haggai and Zachary the prophets, upon the foundation, which had been formerly laid, [Ezra 5. 1, 2. Hag. 2. 10, 18, 19.]

Upon the same 24 day, the two last prophecies of Haggai, were revealed to him, the one of the cessation of those plagues which hitherto had followed them: the other of the subversion of sundry kingdoms; and the exaltation of Zerobabel, [Haggai 2. 10. 23.]

Tatnei, Year of the World b. governour of the countries of this side the river, The Julian Period. 4195 and Setharboznaius, Year before Christ 519 and the Apharsakites, their associates coming to Jerusalem, endeavour to hinder them in the work of the Temple; asking the chief of the Jews, by whose command they dit it: and they answering that they did it by virtue of Cyrus his edict, went on stoutly with their work, [Ez. 5. 3, 4, 5. 13, 16.] For whereas by the Laws of Medes and Persians, the com­mands and grants of their kings ought to be perpetual, and unalterable, [Dan, 6. 8, 12. Esth. 1. 19. &c. 8. 8.] it was therefore lawfull for the Jews to proceed in the work; with­out expecting any new order thereupon.

Their enemies, by a letter certifie this answer to Darius, desiring that search might be made in the records at Babylon, whether there were any such grant made by Cyrus or noe, and desire to know the kings further pleasure therein, [Ezra 5. 5, 17.]

The work being thus interrupted, and the scarcity concontinuing in Judea, because the corne was not yet ripe, upon the 24 day of the 11 moneth Sebat, in the second year of Darius, the prophet Zachary had a vision, of horsemen galloping up and down over the face of the whole earth, being now all at rest and quiet, whereupon, in the hearing of the prophet, God made a good and gracious answer, with many comfortable words to the Angel, which entreated God to cease his anger and fury, which had been so hot against the people of the Jews, and Jerusalem, and cities of Juda, now these 70 years, [Zach. 1. 7. chap. 12. 13.] the beginning of which 70 years is to be reckoned, from the coming of the Assyrians, to the last siege laid unto Jerusalem, (of which more above in the 3415. year of the world) [Jer. 34. 1. with Ezek. 5. 12, 13.] whiter also is referred, all that which is spoken, [Zach. 1.] and in the three chapters following, as also, all that exhortation which is read, [chap. 2. 6, 7.] sent to the Jews remaining still in Babylon, that they should go out of her with all speed, pointing to that calamity, which a while after Darius brought upon Babylon when he took it.

Ehe edict of Cyrus, for the re-building of the Temple, which was found at Acmethae, al. Ecbatan, in the province of the Medes; together with a second command, in favour of the Jews from Darius himself, was sent to Tatneis and his fellows; wherein it was gi­ven them in charge, that they should not onely not hinder the work of the Lords house, but also should, set it forward, by furnishing the expense thereof, out of the kings tribute; and moreover, to supply the necessary charge of the daily sacrifices, to be offered by the priests at Jerusalem, which command of the king, being forthwith put in excution, the Jews encouraged by the prophesies of Haggai and Zachary went on roundly to the finish­ing of the work, [Ez. 6. 1, 14.]

But I conceive that at this time, Artachshashta, whom Ezra 6. 14. joyneth with Darius in this edict, as partaker with him in the power of the kingdom, was one of the 7 princes of Persia, which slew the Magus: to wit, he whom Eschilus, (in Persis) calls Artaphrenes. Hellanicus, (as his Scholiast terms him, Daphernes, Ctesias Artaphernes, and Herod. Intaphernes. He therefore, according to the priviledge granted by Darius, coming upon a [Page 112] time to speak with Darius, without sending in, to tell him that he was there, was kept out by the door keeper, and groom of the bedchamber, who told him that the King was asleep with the Qu [...]en: But he, supposing that they lied unto him, drew his Cimitre, and cut off both their ears and noses; and tying the reigns of a horse about both their necks turn'd them going: But when they presently ran in to the king, shewing him what they had suffered, and upon what occasion: the king eftsoons, sent for the rest of the Princes, severally, fearing that this might happily have been done by the common consent of them all: but finding it was not, he caused both Intaphernes and all his sons, save only the eldest, whom he spared at his mothers petition, to be put to death: Herodotus relateth this matter [lib. 3. cap. 118, 119.] as a thing acted presently upon the execution done upon the Magi; but Valer. Max; following other Authors, [lib. 9. cap. 2.] tells us, that finding himself curbed by these Princes, put them all to death by a new devised kind of punish­ment: For saith he, making a lower room, and filling it with cinders, and bearing up the room over it, with one post, and having feasted and filled them with meat and drink, he put them all into that upper roome; and when they were all fast a sleep, taking away the post that bare it up, they all fell into the cinders, in the under roome, and there pe­rished.

Now though it be not very likely that they perished in this manner, yet is it very credible, that putting them from the government of the kingdom, he eased himself of that yoak, which hitherto lay so heavy on his neck.

And from that time forward, Darius was a free and absolute Monarch; and he it is, that we, in the Scripture, find called by the name of Assuerus. This Assuerus therefore, in the 3 year, reckoned from the beginning of his reign, as he sate in his throne, in his pal­lace at Susa; to shew the glory of his kingdom, and magnificence of his state, made a feast for all the Governors, and great men of his dominions, which lasted 180 dayes long, [Est. 1. 2, 3, 4.] now this city of Susa, as Pliny, [lib. 6. c. 27.] saies, was built by this Darius; or rather as Elian, [lib. 13. de animal. c. 59.] was embellisht with goodly and magnificent pal­laces by him, and Herod. [lib. 5. c. 49.] tells us, that he made that the place of his residing and there kept all his treasure.

After this half years banquet was ended, Year of the World 3486 there followed an other of seven dayes long; whereunto were invited all the dwellers, and whoever else was then present at Susa, from the greatest to the least. The men sitting with the King, in the court of the garden of the kings house, and the women within the pallace it self, with Vashti the Queen, (which to us, is Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus,) [Esth. 1. 5. 9.]

Upon the last day of this feast; the king, being somewhat high flowen with drink, would needs shew the beauty of the Queen to the men, and sent for hir to come unto him: but she refused; and thereupon, by the advise of Memucan, one of the seven wise men, of the Medes and Persians, which knew the lawes and statutes of those countries (for these were the kings Judges, which judged in all causes arising among the Persians, and resol­ved all cases in point of law; of whom, Herod. [lib. 3. c. 14. 31.] and Plutarch in the life of Artaxerxes maketh mention,) divorced and put her away, making moreover a law, that every man thereafter, should be Master in his own house, [Esth. 1. 10, 22.]

Hereupon, there was enquiry made after all the faire damsels that were to be found in Assuerus his dominions, to find out a fit consort for the king, to reign in the stead of Vash­ti, which was divorced, and among others, Hadassa, a damsel of the Jewes, which was also called Esther; the daughter of Abichajile, a woman of Benjamin, was taken into con­sideration, [Esth. 2. 1, 8.]

In the fourth year of Darius, Year of the World 3487. a. the fourth day of the ninth month, called Chisslu, when the Jewes, by Sharezer, and Regem-melech, consulted with the Priests and Prophets, concerning the fast appointed to be held upon the day of the destruction of the City and Temple of Jerusalem, God answered them, that those fasts of the fifth and seventh months which they had observed for seventie years space, were no wayes pleasing to him, and put them in mind of their obstinacie, and perseverance in their sins, which had brought that terrible desolation upon them, [Zach. 7. 1, 14.] now from the said destruction, and the death of Gedalia (which gave occasion of that fast, held in the 7 month,) following two months after, to the very instant of this prophecie, we in our Chronologie, gather, that there were 70 years.

And in the eighth chapter of the same Zacharie, God tells them, that he would restore Jerusalem, and put an end to all their former miseries, and that he would change their fasts; as well that of the fourth moneth, on the ninth day whereof, the City was taken, as that of the fifth month, upon the tenth whereof, the Temple was burnt, and of the seventh month, wherein the remnant of the people, upon the murther of Gedalia, was scattered among the Nations, and of the 10 month, upon the 10 day whereof, the City, un­der Sedechia, began to besieged by Nebuchadnesar, into mirth; and would send joy and gladnesse, and liberty unto his people.

[Page 113] In the 6 year of Darius, Year of the World 3489 toward the later end thereof, on the 3 day of the 12 moneth, called Adar, was the structure of the Temple finished. The dedication whereof, the Is­raelites which returned out of the captivity, celebrated with great joy, and abundance of sacrifices, the Priests and Levites, every one in his place and office attending in the mi­nistery of the Temple, [Ezra 6. 15, 18.]

And they also upon the 14 day of the first moneth, celebrated the first Passeover in the second Temple; keeping also the feast of sweet-bread seven dayes, with great joy, for that God had turned the heart of the king of Assyria toward them, [Ezra 6. 19. 22.] to wit of Darius, who having recovered Babylon, after 20 moneths liege, by the means of Zopy­rus, was in full right, stiled now king of the Assyrians, no lesse than of the Persians, [Herod. lib. 3. in fin.] and Justin in the end of his first book.

When Esthers turn came to be brought to the king Assuerus, Year of the World 3490. b. she was attended on, from the Seraiglia, to the kings chamber, by Hegaius the Eunuch, [Esther 2. 12, 15.] [...], saith Herod. lib. 3. cap. 69. (i. e.) the women in Persia, come round in their turns, to their husbands beds.

But in the 7 year of Assuerus his reign, in the 10 moneth, called Tebeth; when Esther came unto the king, she found grace and favour in his eyes, above all the other damsels; insomuch, that he put the crown of the kingdom upon her head, and made her Queen in the stead of Vashty, [Esth. 2. 16, 17.] whence I gather, that as Vashty was Atossa, so Esther was she, whom Herodotus, calls the Virgin Artystona, and whom he sayes, that Darius loved above all his wives, and whose statue, he caused to be made of solid gold, [lib. 3. cap. 88. with cap. 69. lib. 7.] though I am not ignorant, that Hadassa, which was another name given to Esther, comes a great deal nearer to Atossa, and that Herodotus makes Artistona, to have been Cyrus his daugher, and Atossaes sister, whether we should say, that Herodotus was not so wel skilled in the Persian genealogies, or that the Persians themselves, for very envy, concealed the name of Esther.

Assuerus in honour of his new spousals, made a most sumptuous feast for all his Princes and servants, and called it Esthers feast, wherein he eased the provinces of many taxes and tallages, and gave gifts answerable to the state and magnificence of so great a king, [Esther. 2. 18.]

Jubile 19.

Hippias, Year of the World 3491. a. the Tyrant of Athens, in the fourth year before his banishment from thence, fearing what might fall, began to look about for some forrein support, and to that end, gave his daughter Archedice to Aeantides the son of Hippocles the Tyrant, of Lampsa­cus, the rather for that he perceived, that they were both gracious and in great esteem with Darius, [Thucid. lib. 6.]

Haman, Year of the World 3494. a. the son of Amadetha, The Julian Period. 4204 an Aggagite, of the race of the Amalekites, Year before Christ 510 malicing Mordecaie a Jew, because he would not fall down and adore him as others did, resol­ved for his sake to be revenged of all his nation (which was ever indeed adverse to his, Deut. 25. 19.) and to root it out, for the executing of which purpose, that he might find out a successeful time, on the first moneth Nisan, in the 12 year of king Assuerus, he caused pur, that is, lots to be cast before him; for the knowing of the day and the moneth, wherein the Jews should be destroyed: and the lot fell upon the 12 moneth Adar, the last of the whole year, [Esther 3. 1, 7.]

Then pretending some specious reasons to Assuerus, with the offer of ten thousand talents of silver, (which yet the king would not accept) obtained a grant from him to root out all the generation of the Jews, [Esther. 3. 7, 11.]

Upon the 13 day of the first moneth, the kings edict was published in Susa, and copies thereof were dispatcht away by carryers into all the provinces of the kings dominions, that all Jews, without respect to sexorage; upon the 13 day of the 12 moneth Adar, should dye the death, [Esth. 3. 12, 15.] Hereupon Mordecai, Esther, and all the Jews, humbled themselves before the Lord, by fasting and prayer, [ib. chap. 4.] and in memo­rie thereof, their posterity to this day observe a solemn fast, upon the 13 day of the moneth Adar, which they terme, Esthers fast.

Esther goes to the king, in gorgeous apparrel, is graciously received by him; she invites the king once and again to a banquet, and Haman mean while is busie, in giving order for a gallows to be made, to hang Mordecai on, [chap. 5. ib.]

Assuerus, one night, when he could not sleep, would needs have some records red unto him, and among other things, it was there red unto him, how two of his servants, Big­than and Teresh his door-keepers, had conspired his death, and that one Mordecai had revealed this conspiracy unto him, and thereupon gave order, that the author of this dis­covery should be highly honoured, and this to be done publiquely, and by whom? but by Haman himself his deadly enemy, [Esth. 6.]

[Page 114] And presently after this, Haman was himself hanged up, at the gibbet which he had provided for Mordecaie, [chap. 7.] Hamans house was given to the Queen; and Mor­decaie her cousin-germaine, and who had brought her up, had daily honours bestowed upon him, [ca. 8. 1, 2, 15. ib.]

Upon the 23 day of the moneth Sivan, there was an edict published at Susa, and co­pies thereof sent away speedily by carriers, into the 127. Provinces, that the Jews upon the 13 day of the moneth Adar, which was the day appointed for their massacre, should have leave to stand upon their own guard, and to defend themselves every where, and to kill all such as should offer to assault them, and should moreover, have the spoile of such mens goods: whereupon both in Susa, and in all the Provinces there was great rejoycing among them, and divers of the people in several countries joyning themselves to their side, turned Jews, [ib. cap. 8. 9, 17.]

Hippias (twenty years before the fight at Marathon, Year of the World d. in which he served on the Me­dian party) being now grown an old man; was thrust out of Athens by the Lacedae­monians, and the faction of the Alcmaeonidae there: and taking a passe from the Athe­nians, went first to Sigaeum, and from thence sailed to Lampsacus, to his son in law Aean­tides, and from thence got him away to Darius, [Thucid. lib. 6.] Now Pisistratus, Hip­pias his father, had committed S [...]geum in Troas, to Hegesistratus his base son: and that was a receptacle now for Hippias, and afterward for others of the race of Pisistratus, in case of extremity to retire unto, [Herod. lib. 5. ca. 65. 91, 94.]

Upon the 13 day of the 12 moneth Adar, Year of the World 3495. b. the Jews in all parts slew all those who were provided to slay them upon the same day, The Julian Period. 4105 according to Hamans decree: Year before Christ 509 In Susa it self, and the very Palace there, they slew 500. men, together with Hamans ten sons: and in the rest of the Provinces to the number of 75000. men: but medled not with one peny of their goods, [Esth. 9. 1, 16.]

Upon the 14 of the same moneth, the Jewes in the Provinces ceased from killing, and made merry among themselves: But they which dwelt in Susa, having another day given them by the King, slew therein 300. men more of their enemies; and hung the carcasses of Hamans ten sons, upon the gibbet, [ib. cap. 9. 13, 19.]

Upon the 15 day the Jewes that dwelt in Susa made merry and feasted themselves, [D. c. 9. 18.]

Mordecaie began the custom of keeping Holiday in remembrance of Purim, or Lots yearly, upon the 14 and 15 dayes of the moneth Adar: and this was established by Esther, [ib. ca. 9. 23, 30.] And this is the Jews Shrovetide, wherein they read over the History of Esther: and so often as the name of Haman comes to be read, they rap and make a noise with their hands or mallets, upon the deskes or settles in their Syna­gogues.

In the Isle of Naxos, Year of the World 3500 some of the richer sort were turn'd out by the meaner people; and they repaired to Aristagoras son of Molpagoras, and son in law, and cousin-germain by the mothers side, to Histiaeus, Tyrant of M [...]letus; and whom Histiaeus had left Governour there in his room, when Darius under a shew of Honour, had taken himself along with him unto Susa: and Aristagoras imparting the matter to Artaphernes, son of Hysta­spes, and brother to Darius, Governour of Ionia, residing at Sardes, perswaded him to possesse himself of Naxos, and Paros, and Andros, and the rest of the Cyclades, all de­pending of Naxos, to the Kings use: which being well liked of by Darius at Susa; he furnished out the next Spring, 200. Ships for that service, [Herod. lib. 5. cap. 30. 31, 32.]

Artaphernes, Year of the World 3501. c. making Megabates a Persian borne, The Julian Period. 4211 Darius his, and his own, Year before Christ 503 near kins­man, Commander in Chief of the Persian Army; gave him order with his Fleet of 200. sailes, to go to Miletus, and there to take in Aristagoras and the Ionian Army, which he did; and sailed from thence to Chios: where a jar falling between Aristagoras and Ar­taphernes, when they had spent four moneths in the siege of Naxos to no purpose: each returned home, nothing done, [Herod. ib. ca. 32. 33, 34.]

Here end the 70 years from the taking of Tyre, Year of the World 3502. b. by Nebuchadnesar, The Julian Period. 4212 which is the just number of years of the bondage of that city, Year before Christ 502 expressely foretold by the Prophet, [Esay 33. 15, 17.] from which time, it seems they lived in freedom from any forreign subjecti­on, till the time it was again taken afterward by Alex. the Great.

Aristagoras fearing what might befall him, because he had not been able to perform what he had undertaken to Artaphernes for the taking of Naxos, and had not where­withal to pay his army; began to think of revolting from the Persians. And it fell out in the very nick, that there came a messenger from Histiaeus in Babylon, having his errand written in letters made with hot irons upon the flesh of his head, and now grown over with hair, by which Aristagoras was advised both himself to fall off from Darius, and also to put all Ionia in armes against him, if he could, [Herod. lib. 5. c. 35. Polyae. Stratag. lib. 1.]

Aristagoras hereupon, having imparted this to his friends, perswaded them to side with him, though Hecataeus the Historian disswaded them by all means from rising in armes against the King of Persia: but all in vain; for the conspirators dispatched away [Page 115] Iatrogaras to Myus to the army, which upon their return from Naxos, remained there, and by a stratagem, took all the principal Commanders of their Fleet. And Aristago­ras, now openly revolting from Darius, made a fair shew of a kind of liberty to the Mi­lesians, and took away the tyrants that were in some cities of Ionia; and then went to the Lacedaemonians to pray an aide of them; but received a flat denial at their hands, [Herod. lib. 3. ca. 36, 37, 38, 49, 50, 51.]

In the 20 year of the reign of Darius, Year of the World 3503. a. 246. of Nabonassars aera, upon the 28 day of the moneth Epiphus, according to the Egyptian Calender, (upon the 29. of our Novem­ber) ending about midnight, there was an Eclipse of the Moon observed at Babylon, [Ptol. Mag. Syntax. lib. 4. ca. 9.]

Hippias the son of Pisistratus being sent for from Sigeum upon a vain hope given him of being restored to his Principality in Athens, by the Lacedaemonians, returned from thence into Asia, and accusing the Athenians of many things to Artaphernes, did what in him lay to bring Athens under the subjection of Darius, [Herod. lib. 5. chap. 91. 96.]

The Athenians understanding that Hippias had defamed them to Artaphernes, sent their messengers to Sardes, to perswade the Persians there, not to give credit, nor to lend any ear, to those out-laws of the Athenians: But Artaphernes advised them, if they loved themselves, and their own safety, to call home, and receive Hippias again; But whiles they stood out, and refused to hearken to any such conditions, it fell out that Ari­stagoras the Milesian returning from Sparta, where he gat nothing but a denial, came to Athens, and there obtained of them 20 saile of Ships to aid the Ionians in their war a­gainst the Persians: whereof they made Melantho an eminent man in Athens Com­mander. [Herod. lib. 3. ca. 96. 97.] Which Fleet, as [Herod. ca. 98. ib.] hath well no­ted, was the beginning of all mischeif, both to the Grecians and Persians: for this was the beginning of all the wars which grew between the Grecians and the Persians, and which ended in the ruine of the Persian Empire.

Aristagoras, returning to Miletus, perswaded the Paeones, whom Megabazus the Go­vernour of Thracia, had carried away from their own habitation upon the banks of the River Strymon into Phrygia, and by the command of Darius planted them there, to re­turn into their own country; wherefore they taking with them their wives and children, gat away to the sea side, where some for fear, abode still: the rest putting over to Chios, from thence gat shipping, and came to Lesbos, and from thence to Doriscus: and from thence again, by land went away into their own country, [Herod. lib. 5. ca. 98.]

The Athenian Fleet arrived at Miletus, Year of the World 3504 and with them came also five tall Ships of the Eretrians, The Julian Period. 4214 for the Athenians sake. Year before Christ 500 There Aristagoras staied himself, but sent his own brother Charopinus Commander over the Milesians, and Helmophantus Commander over the rest of the Ionians, against Sardes. The Ionians, in company with the Atheni­ans and Eretrians, coming with their Fleet to Ephesus, left their Ships at Goresus, a Port of the Ephesians, and marched themselves in a body over-land to Sardes: and took and burnt it all, save the Castle which Artaphernes himself kept, not sparing the very temple of Cybele. But when the Lydians and Persians joyning together, made good the Mar­ket-place, thorough the middest whereof ran the River Pactolus, and there defended themselves against them; the Ionians for very fear left the place, and retired to the Hill T [...]molus, thereto adjoyning, and from thence by night fled away to their ships: where­upon the Persians dwelling on that side the River Halys, gathering into a body, pursued them, and overtaking them about Ephesus: fought with them, and routed them; kil­ling many, and among them Enalcidas Captain of the Eretrians; a man who had borne away the garland in many of their games, and highly commended by Simonides the Poet in his verses. They which escaped out of the battel, dispersed themselves into their several cities: and the Athenians abandoning from thence forth the Ionian cause, though earnestly entreated thereto by Aristagoras, would no more appear in it, [Herod. from ca. 99. to ca. 103.]

Onesilus, turning out his own elder brother Gorgus, King of the Salaminians, and forcing him to flee over to the Medes for succour, prevailed with the whole Isle of Cyprus to fall off from them; save onely those of Amathusa: But while he was besieging that city, tydings came of the firing of Sardes by the Athenians, to Darius: who thereupon growing wrath with the Athenians, gave order to one of his attendants, that as often as ever he sate at meat, he should three times remember him of it, and say, Sir, Remember the Athenians: and then, very improvidently sent away Histiaeus, the brother of that Aristagoras, from Susa to Miletus as if of purpose to be afterward the ring-leader of the Ionian Rebels against himself, [Herod. lib. 5. ca. 104. 105, 106.]

The Ionians entring into the Hellespont, took Byzantium, and other cities in those parts; and sailing from thence, drew over many of the cities of Caria to joyn with them in this war against the Persians; for the city Caunus, which hitherto stood off, and would not side with them, hearing now of the firing of Sardes, fell also to them, [ib. ca. 103.]

At Clazomenae (which was of it self sometimes an Island, but now joyned to the con­tinent of Ionia, by a neck of land, as [Strabo lib. 1.] sheweth) was borne Anaxagoras [Page 116] the Philosopher, son of Hegesibulus, [Olym. 70.] as Diogenes Laertius sheweth in his life, out of Apollodorus his Chronicle.

Whiles Onesilus, lay with his army before Amathusa, news came to him, that Arty­bius, a Captain of the Persians was making toward Cyprus, with a very numerous ar­my, whereupon he sent to crave aide of the Ionians, and they out of hand advanced to­ward Cyprus, with a great fleet. But the Persians putting over out of Cilicia, into Cy­prus, landed there, their men, and marched by land to the city of Salamis, sending about the Phaenians with the ships, to double the point of a Promontory in that Island, called, Claves Cyprus, (i. e.) the keys of Cyprus, and anon after, there followed a fight between the parties, both at land, and sea. And at sea, the Ionians, behaved themselves all very bravely that day, especially the Samians, and had the better of the Phaenicians. But at land, while the rest were busie in fight, first Stesenor, Tyrant of the Curii, betrayed his fellows: and then presently the men of Salamis, who fought in chariots, did the like; whereupon the whole army of the Cypriots being routed, many of them were put to the sword; and among them Onesilus, the author of this war, and with him, Aristocy­prus, king of the Solians, son of that Philocyphrus, whom Solon, at his being in Cyprus, so much extolled above all other Tyrants, in his verses. The Ionians hearing that One­silus was slain, and the rest of the cities of that Isle besieged, and that Salamis it self had opened her gates to Gorgus, their old king, returned into Ionia, with all the haste they could make. But among all the cities of Cyprus, that of Solos stood it out longest, yet at seven moneths end, the Persians having undermined the wall round about, took it; and so the Cypriots paid dearly for their one years liberty, and were reduced to their former estate of slavery, [Herod. lib. 5. from cap. 108. to 116.]

The Persian Lords at Sardes, Year of the World 3505 who had married Darius his daughters, The Julian Period. 4215 as Daurises, Year before Christ 499 Hymees, and Otanes, pursuing the Ionians, who had been in the service against Sardes, af­ter they had routed them near unto Ephesus, and driven them aboard their ships, parted the rest of the work among themselves, and took each of them, in hand what cities of theirs, they would subdue, [Herod. ib. 116.] Daurises for his part, undertook the parts joyning upon the Hellespont; and there took Dardanus, Abydus, Percotes, Lampsacus, and Paeson, every day a city: but as he was on his way from thence, to the city Parios, he understood that all Caria had revolted from the king, and joyned with the Ionians, wherefore he gave off that purpose, and marched away with all his army into Caria, [c. 117.] Hymees undertook the parts about Propontis, and coming thither, was Cios in Mysia. But then hearing that Daurises was marched out of Hellespont into Caria, he left Propontis, and marched into Hellespont, [ib. cap. 122.] But Artaphernes, the Gover­nour of Sardes, and Otanes the third of those undertakers, went against Ionia it self, and the countrey of Aeolia, adjoyning thereunto. In Ionia they took Clazomenae, and in Aeolia, the city Cuma, [Ib. cap. 123.] which being so taken, Anaxagoras with his com­panions, consulted together, whither they might flie, in which counsaile, Hecatous the Historian advised, first to transport into the Isle of Leros, and there to fortify for the pre­sent; and dwell till occasion were offered to return to Miletus. But Aristagoras his opini­on was, to saile rather to a place called Myrcinus, a city among the Edons, (who dwelt upon the bank of the river Strimon) which his own Brother Histiaeus had formerly built: wherefore committing the charge of Miletus to Pythagoras himself, with such Volun­teers, as he could get, sailed from thence into Thrace, and possessed himself of the place, which he intended, [Ib, c. 124, 125, 126.]

Histiaeus, the Tyrant of Miletus, dismissed from Susa by Darius, came to Sardes: where being upon his very first arrival, hotly charged by Artaphernes, as the author of all the rebellion in Ionia; he got away the night following to the sea side, and there finding a sh [...]p ready, sailed over into Chios; where the people supposing that he had been sent thither by Darius, of purpose to sollicite them against the Grecians, laid him in irons; but understanding shortly after, that he came in a contrary errand, they quickly set him at liberty: and he forthwith dispatched away letters to Sardes, by Hermippus, of Atarne, to perswade some Persians there, to a revolt. But Artaphernes having gotten knowledge of th [...] practise, by the discovery of the messenger, put those Persians to death, wherefore Histiaens, failing of this purpose, obtained of them of Chios, to grant him a convoy back to Miletus. But the Milesians, as they were glad to be rid of Aristagoras, so they would by no means hear of taking another Tyrant in his room; insomuch, that when Histiaeus, assaied to get privilie into the city by night, he received a wound in the thigh, given him by a Milesian; and so being cast out thence, he returned again to Chios, [Herod. lib. 6. in the beginning of it.

Daurises the Persian, Year of the World 3506 leading his army against the Carians, The Julian Period. 4216 they met together, Year before Christ 498 and made a body, at a place called Columnae Albae, (i. e.) the white Pillars, near the river Marsyas, where Pixodorus the son of Mausolus, a man of Cyndya, who had married the daughter of Siencses the king of Cilicia, gave them advice to passe over the river Maean­der; and that having that river at the back of them, they should there abide the coming of the enemy, and fight with him, upon that advantage: but the contrary opinion carri­ed [Page 117] it, that they should put the Persians to have the river at their backs, and force them to figh at that disadvantage, to the end, said they, that if they fled, having that river at their back, they should not be able to get away. At last therefore, the Carians and Persi­ans came to a battail, near the river Marsyas, which was a very sharp one, and lasted long, and in which the Persians lost two thousand men, and the Carians ten thousand. But when the Carians fled at last to a place called Labranda to the Temple, of Jupiter the warlike, and were there in consultation what to do, whether to submit to the Persian, or to abandon Asia, the Milesians with their partakers, came to aide them: whereupon they took fresh courage, and fought again with the Persians which invaded them, and after a fight longer than the former, they fled again; in which they lost very many men, espe­cially of the Milesians: after which great losses; yet the Carians, upon a new supplie, fought with them a third time; for hearing that the Persians, went about now to sack and ransack their cities, they lay in ambush for them upon their way, as they were marching to Mylassa, following therein the advice, of Heraclides Inabolius, a man of Mylassa, into which ambushment, the Persians falling by night, were all cut off, with their commanders, Daurisces, and Amorges, and Sismaces, and with the rest Myr­ses also the son of Gyges, was there slain, [Herodotus, lib. 5. from cap. 118. to 121.]

Hymees the Persian which led his army into the countrey of Hellespont, took in all the Aeoles, which inhabited near the cost of old Troy, and the Gergithes, the remain­der of those ancient Teucrians, and having done all, deceased himself, of a sicknesse at Troas, [Ib. cap. 122.]

Histiaeus the Milesian, when he could not prevaile with the men of Chios, to let him have away their shipping, put over to Mitilene; where the Lesbyans by his perswasion, let him have eight tall men of war, well and fully furnished, in which they [...]ailed with him to Byzantium, and staying there, they intercepted certain ships of loading, of the Ionians, which came out of Pontus, all, except such as professed themselves willing and ready to serve Histiaeus, [Herod. lib. 6. cap. 5. and 26.]

Aristagoras, Histiaeus his brother, lying with his army at the siege of Mircinus, a city of the Edones, was there slain with all his men by the Thracians, after they had taken his word, for their own safe passage, and leaving of the place, as Herodotus, in the very end of his fifth book delivers. But Thucidides, [lib. 4.] reckons from hence, 61 years, to the carrying of a colony of the Athenians, by Agnon the son of Nicias, and planting it in Amphiposis, which Diod. Sic. in his 12 book, saies, was done in the 85 Olympiade, to which period of times, we have here conformed our relation of the six years (ending the year following) of the rebellion of the Ionians against the Persians.

There was now a huge preparation making against the city of Miletus, Year of the World 3507 by land and sea, The Julian Period. 4217 for the Persian Commanders, Year before Christ 497 of all those parts, uniting their forces, set up their rest, to carry that place, what ever became of the rest. Among the Seamen their Phenicians, were the forwardest of all others, and with them were joyned the Cypriots, lately sub­dued by the Persians, and the Cilicians, and Egyptians, [Herod. lib. 6. cap. 6,] of which danger thus hanging over their heads, mention seems to be made in those letters, which are attributed to Anaximines the Milesian, written to Pythagoras living then in Crotona, by Diogenes Laertius in his life: where, when he had spent 20 year, he went to Metapon­tus, and there ended his dayes, as Justin reports out of Trogus, [lib. 20. cap. 4.] to wit in the fourth year of the 78 Olympiade, [as Euseb. hath it in his Chron.] which takes up part of this, and part of the year following.

The Ionian fleet consisted of 363 ships; the Persian of 600. Aeaces the son of Solyson, the Tyrant of Samos and other Tyrants of Ionia, which having been thrust out by Ari­stagoras, were now in the Persian army, laboured what they could to draw over every man his countrey-men, and acquaintance from the Ionian to the Persian side. In a sea fight at Lada, which is a little Island lying over against Miletus, between the Phaenici­ans, and the Ionians, of 60 ships that came from the Isle of Samos, and fifty slunk out of the fight, and returned home, so did 70 more of the Lesbian ships; and sundry other of the Ionians in like manner, onely there were 100 saile of the Isle of Chios, which fought it out very manfully, till at length having taken many of the enemies ships, and lost many of their own with what they had left, they returned home, some of which yet being hardly pursued by the enemie, ran themselves on ground, at the promontory of Mycale, and there gat to land, and travelling all night on foot, came safe to Ephesus, whiles the women there were celebrating their feast and sacrifices called Thesmophoria, to wit, in honour of their goddesse Ceres: whereupon the men of the city, supposing the Chians to have been theevs, come to spoil them at that time, fell suddenly upon them, and slew them. But Dionysius, captaine of three ships of the Phocaeans, ha­ving taken three ships of the enemies, carried them, not into Phocaea, which he knew well enough was ere this seized on, and possessed by the enemies, with the rest of the Io­nian territories, but furnished as he was, sailed directly into Phaenicia; where lighting up­on some ships of loading, and having taken out of them a great booty of monies, and other things, he set sail, and came away for Sicilie, [Herodotus lib. 6. from cap. 7. to 17.]

[Page 118] The Persians having thus mastered the Ionians at sea, fell presently to beleaguer Mi­letus, both by sea and land: and undermining the walls thereof with all kind of engins, they utterly overthrew and razed it to the ground in the sixth year after Aristagoras be­gan his rebellion against the King of Persia, [Herod. lib. 6. ca. 18.] Some of the Mile­sians which escaped the fury of the sword with certain of the Samians, carried a colony of them that were left into Sicilie, [ib. ca. 22.] the rest were carried away to Susa: upon whom Darius inflicted no punishment more, than that he placed them in the City of Am­pa, seated upon the Sea called the Red-Sea, where the River Tigris running under the walls thereof, falleth into the Ocean. The champion and low grounds lying near the city of Miletus, the Persians took to themselves, but the mountainous parts, they gave to the Carians of Pedasus to possesse, [ca. 20. ib.]

Upon the taking of Miletus, the Carians all were quickly taken in; some readily yeilding themselves, others upon compulsion, [ib. ca. 25.] Histiaeus the Milesian, hear­ing what was become of his city Miletus, sailed presently with those Lesbians which were with him to Chios; which he easily subdued, being sorely weakened with that great loss which they had lately suffered at Lada: from thence with a strong party of Ionians and Eolians, he went to Thasus: but whiles he was besieging of Thasus, news was brought him, that the Persians were fallen upon the rest of Ionia; wherefore raising his siege from before Thasus, he sailed forthwith to Lesbos, with all his forces. And from thence, because he saw his men a little doubtful, he set saile again and came into the Province of of Atarnis: as if he meant onely to forrage as well there, as in the country lying upon the River Caicus, in the Province of Mysia. Harpagus the Persian then lay in those parts with a very considerable army: who setting upon Histiaeus, as he came out of his ships, at a place called Malena, took him alive, and destroyed the greater part of his men. When Histiaeus was brought prisoner to Sardes, Artaphernes, took and crucified him, and sent his head to Darius at Susa. Darius blamed them for their labour, in that they had not brought him alive unto him: and gave order that his head should be enterred, as a man well deserving of him and the Persian nation, [Herod. ib. ca. 27. 28, 29.]

The Persian Sea-forces, Year of the World 3508 wintering about Miletus, The Julian Period 3218 went to take in the Islands border­ing upon the continent, Year before Christ 496 and in lesse than two years, took in and subdued Chios, Lesbos, Tenedus, and the rest, [Herod. lib. 6. ca. 31.]

After the Islands, the Persian Captains took in also, the Cities of the Continent of Ionia; and having them in their power, they chose out of them the most beautiful boyes and maids among them, and sent them to Darius; but set fire on the Cities with the Temples in them: And so the Ionians were thrice brought into bondage; once by the Lydians, and now twice by the Persians, [ib. ca. 31. 32.]

Those of Byzantium, as also of Chalcedon, which lies over against it, before the Phoe­nician Fleet came near them, left every man his habitation, and fled up into the remoter parts of the the Euxin Sea, and there built them a city, which they named, Mesembria, [ib. ca. 33.]

The Phoenician Fleet sailing from Ionia, Year of the World 3509 subdued all that lay on the left hand of them as you go into the Hellespont: The Julian Period. 4219 for what lay on the right hand in Asia side, Year before Christ 405 was already subdued by the Persians in the Continent. Then went the Fleet and took in Chersone­sus, and the cities thereof, all save the city Cardia: where till then, Miltiades the son of Cimon, had been tyrant, [ib. ca. 33. 34.] But when Miltiades sailed from Cardia with five tall men of War for Athens, the Phoenicians pursued him, and took one of his ships, wherein was his son Metiochus: who being sent prisoner to Darius, was by him honour­ably received; Darius also bestowed on him, both house and lands, and gave him a Per­sian woman to wife, by whom he had also many children, [ib. ca. 41.]

Artaphernes Governour of Sardes, finding the Ionians at wars one with another; sent for some of each party to come before him, and made them friends upon certain co­venants and conditions, and willed them upon failer thereof to go to law, and try out the right that way rather, than to spoile and butcher one another as they did, [ib. ca. 42.]

When Artaphernes had brought them to this, then laied he out all their country by Parasanges: for so the Persians call every division, containing 30 furlongs: and laid a certain tribute upon every such division, which they were to pay yearly to the King, much after the rate of what formerly was paied, saith [Herodotus lib. 6. cap. 42.] meaning that rate, which (as he had formerly written) Darius, when he came first to the crown, had imposed thoroughout all his Dominions, [lib. 3. cap. 89. 90.] and before▪ he was Master of the Islands, [cap. 96.] In the narration whereof we may observe, that however, for the more easie levying of tributes, the 127. Provinces mentioned in Esther, were now by Da­rius reduced to 20 Governments, yet the bounds of that Empire were still the same; name­ly, India, and Ethiopia, whereof the one was of Cambyses his acquest, and the other of Darius himself: of whose revenue out of India, Herodotus speaking, saith in this wise. The Indians as they are a most populous nation, above all other men living that we know, so they pay tribute far more than any other nation doth, to wit, 360. talents of gold dust; and this is the [Page 119] twentieth part, or a Satrapie. But for as much, as we find that Darius at his first coming to the crown, was not possessed of the country of India, as may appear even by Herodotus himself, [lib. 4. c. 44.] it is therefore most likely, that at what time this book of rates upon lands was made by Artaphernes in Ionia, the like was done all over the kingdom, by the Governours of the several provinces.

It would be considered then, whether that which is said in [Esther 10.] After this the king Assuerus imposed a tribute upon the firme land, and Isles of the sea; or, as it is in the vulgar latine edition, Rex vero Assuerus omnem terram, & omnes maris Insulas fecit tributarias, (i. e.) But king Assuerus made all the earth, and all the Islands of the sea tributary; hath not re­ference to this very time. For as Thucidides, [lib. 1.] tells us, (and Plato in his Menexenus confirmes as much) that Darius, by the meanes of his Phaenician fleet, subdued all the Islands lying in the Egean sea, so doth Diodorus Siculus, [lib. 12.] teach us, that they were all lost again by his son Xerxes, immediately upon his overthrow in Greece; and be­fore the 12 year of his reign, after which it was, that the Scripture tells us, that Assuerus imposed this Tribute upon the Isles. For that in Xerxes his war against Greece, all the Islands which lay between the Cyanean Isles, and the two fore-lands, that of Triopium in Cnidia, and that other of Sumium in Attica, did send him in shipping; the same Diodo­tus Siculus in his said 12 book, testifieth; And that his successors, held none of them all, save Clazomene, (which was at that time, but a poore litle Isle, as Thucididides, [lib. 8.] teacheth us) and Cyprus, is manifest by the tenor of Antalcidas his peace, recorded by Xeno­phon, [lib. 5. Hellenic.] Which to me seemeth a great argument, that Assuerus mentioned in Esther, can be none other than this Darius, whom for this, and other such like impo­sitions laid upon the people, the Persians used to call [...] (i. e.) a crafty Merchant or Huckster, as Herodotus observeth of him: Because that under Cyrus and Cambyses, his two Predecessors there was no talk of any tribute charged upon the subject: only they brought the king presents, [Herod. lib. 3. cap. 89.] To which purpose it is also, that we read in the 15 book of the Epitome of Strabo: The first, saith he, that ever brought up paying of tribute, was Darius Longimanus: (mistaking the sirname of Artaxerxes the grandchild, and giving it to the grandfather) for before him, men paied their kings, out of that which every country yeilded, as corne, horses, &c. And Polyenus, Stratagem. lib. 7.] Darius, saith he, was the first that ever imposed a tribute upon the people; neverthelesse, to make it the better to digest with them; he put his officers to rate it: which when they had laid on very heavily, he took off one half thereof; which they willingly paied, and took it for a great favour too, at the kings hand, which story is toucht upon also, by Plutarch in his Apothegmes of kings and Empe­rors.

In the beginning of this spring, Year of the World 3510 the king taking off all other commanders, The Julian Period. 4220 sent Mardo­nius, Year before Christ 494 the son of Gobryas, a young gentleman, and newly married to the kings daughter Artozostra: who coming to the sea side, in Cilicia, with a vast army, and provision ac­cordingly, both by sea and land, sent away the rest of his forces, over land to Hellespont, but he with the navie, came into the parts of Ionia; and putting down the Tyrants, in the several Cities, restored to them every where their popular governments: He shortly after subdued the Thasy by his fleet, and the Macedonians, by his land army. His navie sail­ing from Thasus to Acanthus, and loosing from thence, whiles they sought to double the cape of the mount Athos, was afflicted by a mighty tempest; wherein he lost 300 of his ships, and upward of 20000 men: But whiles Mardonius with his land army kept in Ma­cedonia, the Thracians, called the Brygi, fell upon his camp by night; in which on-set, they slew many of his men, and withal wounded Mardonius himself: but having subdued Macedonia, he left it, and returned into Asia.

In the year following, Year of the World 3511 Darius commanded the inhabitants of Thasus, Year before Christ 422 who had been accused to him, Year before Christ 493 for intending a rebellion against him, to demolish the walls of their City, and to send away all their shipping to Abdera: and then, to try whether the Grecians, would indeed stand it out, or come in and submit to him, he sent Embassadors into Greece, with order to demand Earth and Water of them, giving order neverthelesse to his tributary towns upon the sea cost, to prepare and furnish our fighting ships, and others, to transport horses in: many therefore, as well of the continent of Greece, as of the Isles thereunto adjoyning, gave him Earth and Water, and among them the inhabitants of the Island of Egina, and that with the first, [Herod. ib. c. 46. 46, 49.]

The Eginetae therefore, Year of the World 3512 as Traytors to Greece, The Julian Period. 4222 were presently set upon, Year before Christ 492 by Cleomenes, king of the Spartans; between whom and Demaratus his collegue in the kingdom, a strife arising, put Demaratus out of his place; who thereupon fled into Asia; and betook him­self to Darius: by whom he was magnificently entertained, and had Cities, and territories bestowed on him, [Herod. lib. 6. cap. 49, 50. 61, 67, 70.]

In the 31 year of Darius, Year of the World 3513 257 of Nabonasar, The Julian Period. 4223 the 3 day of the month Tybi (25 day of our April) half an houre before midnight, Year before Christ 491 there was an eclipse of the moone, observed at Ba­bylon, [Ptol. mag. Syntax. lib. 4. cap. 9.] Darius removed Mardonius from his charge, as a man that had not ordered matters well at sea, and sent others to take charge of the war against the Eretrians and Athenians, to wit, Datys, a Median born, and Artaphernes, [Page 120] whom the Scholiast of Aristophanes calls Artabazus) Commander of the horse, the son of his brother Artaphernes. To these, as they lay encamped in a plain of Cilicia, near the sea, repaired all the sea forces, with their ships, as well for fight, as for transportation of horses; which the tributary Cities had provided and furnished according to order gi­ven: into which having put their foot and horse, they set sail, and went for Ionia, [Her. l. 6. c. 94, 95.] with a fleet of 600 ships. Yet Plato in his Menexenus, counteth only 300 ships, and 500 thousand land soldiers: which number Lysias also holds to, in the Epitaph which he made, upon the Corinthian Auxiliaries; but Emilius Probus, in the life of Milti­ades, sayes, there were in that fleet, 500 ships; 200000 foot, and 10000 horse.

The Persians, Year of the World 3514 c. setting saile from Samos, The Julian Period. 4224 came to Naxos, and set fire on all their houses, Year before Christ 490 and Temples: But sparing Delos, they went to other Islands, from whence they took a­way both men to serve them, and also their children for hostages; which when the Ca­rystii refused to deliver; they endured a siege, till at last they also were fain to surrender their City, and give up themselves to their enemies discretion, [Herod. lib. 6. cap. 95, 96, 99.]

The Persians, having taken Eretria, after seven daies siege, and spent some few dayes in settling things there, sailed thence to the land of Attica, and wasted a great part there­of: and came at last, by the guidance of Hippias the son of Pisistratus into the field of Marathon; where they were all defeated by the men of Athens, and of Platea, under the conduct of Miltiades, who had gotten the sovereignty, or command of the Chersonesus, in Thracia: of their part were slain, 192 men: of the Persians, 6400. [Herod. l. 6. c. 101, 102. 112. 117.]

The Persians, Year of the World d. being routed, fled to their ships, of which many were sunk, and many taken: in both the fights, the Persians lost 200000 men, Hippias also, sometimes the ty­rant of Athens, died there, who had been the author and procurer of this war, [Justin out of Trogus, lib. 2. c. 9.] The whole army of the Persians at this battle consisted of 300000. as Valer. Max. [lib. 5. c. 3.] saith, and Plutarch intimates no lesse in the beginning of his Parallels: Justin, and Orosius following him say, they were in all 600000 men: Emil. Probus in his Miltiades, sayes there were 100000 foot, and 10 thousand horse: of the Athe­nians there were 10000, and of their auxileries out of Platea; 1000, saith Justin with O­rosius. Probus assures us, that the Athenians, with the men of Platea, and all, made but 10000. This insignious victory, was gotten by them, upon the 6 day of Boedromion, the 3 month in the Attic Calendar, after the somer solstice, as Plutarch in the life of Camillus, sayes; when Phanippus was Praetor or L. Chancelor of Athens: as the same Plutarch hath it in the life of Aristides: to wit, in the 3 year of the 72 Olympiade, 4 years before the death of Darius, as Severus Sulpitius, in 2 book of his Sacra Historia telleth us: and in the 10 year before Xerxes his passing over into Greece, (as Thucidides in his 1 book of his hi­story, witnesseth; and Lysias in his Epitaph of the Corinthian Auxiliaries, hath it) and be­fore the sea fight at Salamis, in the same month of Boedromion, 10 years compleat, as we find in Plato [3 de Legibus.]

Daris and Artiphernes returning into Asia, carried with them their captives of Eretria to Susa, [Herod. lib. 6. cap. 119.] though Cresias would have it, that Datis was slain in the fight at Marathon: and that, when the Persians desired to have his corps, the Athenians refused to give it.

Darius, Year of the World 3515 when the Eretrian captives were brought unto his presence, The Julian Period. 4225 gave order to have them placed in a part of the Cissian country, Year before Christ 489 which is called Anderica, 210 furlongs from Susa, [Herod. lib. 6. c. 119.] of whom a man may see more in Philostratus, in the life of Apollonius, [lib. 1. c. 17.]

When Darius had spent now 3 years, Year of the World 3517 in making greater preparations against Greece than before; The Julian Period. 4227 in the fourth year the Egyptians revolted from him, Year before Christ 487 [Herodotus, lib. 7. cap. 1.]

When Darius was now ready to begin his war against the Egyptians, Year of the World 3519 and Athenians both, The Julian Period. 4229 he was, Year before Christ 485 by the Lawes of the Persians, to declare his successor in the king­dome.

Artobazanes, whom others call Artemenes, or Ariamenes, his son by Gobryas his daughter, born to him before he came to be king, claimed the succession, by right of pri­mogeniture, or as first born: But Xerxes, who was begotten and born, after Darius came to be king, and that of Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus, the founder of the Persian Monar­chie, was declared to be king, in succession. [Herod. lib. 7. cap. 2, 3.] of which friendly con­tention between the two brothers, more is to be seen in Justin, out of Trogus, [l. 2. c. 10.] and in Plutarch, in the life of Artaxerxes, and in his Apoth [...]gmes; and in his treatise [...], (i.e.) of Brotherly love.

Darius, having declared Xerxes to be king in succession, when he was now ready to take his journey, nay rather when he was now putting over into Greece, as Diod, Sic: [lib. 11.] reporteth, in the year after the revolt of the Egyptians, at the later end thereof, de­parted this life, when he had reigned fell 36 years, [Herod. lib. 7. c. 4.]

[Page 121] Next him came Xerxes, the 4 king of Persia after Cyrus: who trusting in his riches, (as they were indeed exceeding great) stirred up his own subjects, together with all his allies and friends, to make war upon the Grecians kingdom; according to the prophecy of [Daniel 11. 2.] though not moved hereunto at the first so much by any desire of his own, as set on, by the perswasions and instigations of Mardonius, his Cousin Germain, of the Alevadae, the kings of Thessaly, of the kindred of Pisistratus, and of one Onomacritus, a Sorcerer of Athens, [Herod. lib. 7. cap. 5; 6.]

Xerxes, Year of the World 3520 in the very beginning of the second year, The Julian Period. 4230 after the death of Darius, Year before Christ 484 took a journey against his rebel Egyptians; whom when he had subdued, and brought into a harder state of bondage, than they had ever felt under his predecessors, he set his brother Achaemenes, the son of Darius to be ruler over them, [Herodotus lib. 7. cap. 7.]

This year was Herodotus the Historian, the son of Lyxus, and Eryone born at Hali­carnassus, in the province of Caria: for that he was 53 year old, when the Peloponesian war began. [A. Gellius lib, 15. cap. 23.] affirmeth out of Pamphyla. Now at that very time, Artemesia, the daughter of Lygdamis of Halycarnassus, upon the decease of her husband, obtained, (during the pupillage of her young son, whose name was Psindelis, as may be gathered out of Suidas, in the word [...]: (i. e.) Herodotus) the Tyranny which her husband held, and ruled over the Halicarnassians, the Coi [...], the Nisirians, and Calydonians: and she, a while after, came into Greece with five good fighting ships, to the aid of Xerxes in his war there, [Herod. lib. 7. cap. 99.]

Xerxes, Year of the World 3523 when he had gathered together out of all his dominions, The Julian Period. 4233 Egypt, Year before Christ 481 Phaenicia, Cyprus, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Lycia, Caria, Mysia, Troas, Hellespo [...]t, Bythinia, and Pontus, to the number of 1200 ships, making his Rendezvous at Cuma, and Phocaea in Ionia, himself with all the foot and horse, that he could make out of all his provinces, set out at length from Susa, in the beginning of the 4 year of the 74 Olympiade, though [Diod. Sic▪ in the beginning of his 11 book,] hudling together the gests of 2 years into one, relates this as done, in the first year of the Olympiade following Herodotus, [lib. 7. cap. 21.] affirms, that this provision was in making the 3 whole years before this year; but with a note premised in the chapter preceding, which cannot consist with the exact course of the times: For (saith he) from the subduing of Egypt, he was full 4 years in gathering an army, and in making his preparations; and in the beginning of the fifth year; he began to march with a huge army: for indeed, he set out from Susa, in the beignning of the fifth year, not from his subduing of Egypt, but from his coming to the crown: so that both Justin out of Trogus, [lib. 2. cap. 10.] and Orosius following him, do unadvisedly attri­bute five years, but most absurdly doth Julianus in his first Oration of the praises of Con­stantius, say, that he was ten years in making this preparation. But more ingenuous then all these, (though he not over exquisite in his account neither) is Labianus, [...], where he saith, that between Darius and Xerxes, there was ten years time spent in making this preparation against Greece; since we have formerly shewed out of Plato, that from the fight at Marathon, to the fight at Salamis, which was fought in the first year of the 75 Olympiade, (almost a full year after Xerxes his setting out from Susa,) there were onely ten years ran out.

At Critalis in Cappadocia, all Xerxes his forces came into one body; and from thence he passed the river Halys, and came to Celaena, a city in Phrygia: where Pythius, a Ly­dian born, (whom yet Pliny [lib. 33. cap. 10.] makes to be a Bithynian) the son of Atyis entertained him, and his whole army, in a most magnificent and sumptuous manner: from hence passing by Anava, a city of Phrygia, and a Lough, out of which salt is made, he came to Colossae, a city likewise of Phrygia, where the river Lycus running under ground, loseth it self, and from thence again, to a town called Cyndra, seated in the con­fines of Phrygia, and Lydia, and then passing the river Maeander, and passing by the ci­ty called Callatebus, he at length arrived at Sardes, from whence he dispatcht away his messengers into Greece, to demand of them earth and water, (i.e.) to require them to give themselves up into his power, [Herodotus, lib. 7. from the 26. chapter, to the 32.]

The Navy in this mean while, was at Eleus, in Chersonesus, from whence a part of the army went to dig thorough the neck of the mount Athos, which was twelve fur­longs over; and were forced to this work, with Bastinadoes. The inhabitants also of the places adjoyning, were drawen into the work, and Bubares the son of Megabysus, and Artachaeus the son of Artaeus, both Persians, were appointed, to overlook the work­men, by whose industry at last that neck of land was cut through, and the sea let in, so broad, that two great ships with their oares out, might therein meet, and passe without falling fowl each of other, [Id. ib. cap. 22, 23, 24.] And another part of the army was oc­cupied in making a bridge of ships over the Hellespont, where the sea from Abydus to the shoare, on the other side, is seven furlongs over: and when the bridge was all made, came a mighty tempest, and brake it all down again: at which Xerxes growing mad for anger, caused 300 stripes to be given to the Hellespont, and a paire of shakles to be thrown [Page 122] into the sea, to bind and fetter it withall: as for those, who were imployed in making of the bridge; he caused their heads to be smitten off: and then set others on work, to make the bridge stronger, [Id, ib. from chap. 33. to 36.]

In the beginning of the spring, Year of the World 3524. b. Xerxes with his whole army, moved from Sardes, where he had quartered all that winter, marching toward Abydus; and as he was setting forth, the sun withdrew his light; there being no clouds to cover it, but a most clear air, and the day was turned into night, at which stupendious prodigy, Pythius the Lydian be­ing amazed, (for that it was no natural Eclipse, the Astronomical tables easily declare) besought the King, that of his five sons, who were then in his army, he would leave his eldest out, to be a comfort to him in his old age: Whereat growing into a rage, he caused that eldest son of his to be cut in two, and his whole army to march between the parts of his body, [Id. ib. ca. 37. 38, 39.]

Hermotimus, who was an Halicarnassaean borne, and could do most of all the other Eunuchs with Xerxes, coming into the country of Atarne, in the province of Mysia, sent for Panionius, of the Isle of Chios (who was by his trade, a dealer in buying and selling of slaves, and by whom himself had formerly been gelt, and made an Eunuch) with his wife and children to come unto him: and making the father to cut out his childrens stones, and then them to do as much to their father; he thought himself in some sort re­venged for the wrong which had been done him in his eviration, [Ib. lib. 8. chap 105. 106.]

Xerxes his army going from Lydia to the River Caiicus, and the country of Mysia, from thence came into the country, where old Ilium, or Troy, stood; and as he lay that night at the foot of the Hill Ida, there fell a terrible tempest of lightening and thunder, which destroyed many of his army: after which they came to the River Scamander, which they quite drank up; nor was it able to satisfie the men and cattel of the army with water for their thirst; when Xerxes was there, he went up to see and view the old habitation of King Priame; and there he sacrificed to Minerva of Troy, 1000. Oxen: and the Magi that attended him offered cakes to the Worthies, sometimes; of that place. This done, a panick or sudden fright fell and seized upon his army by night: and he re­moving from thence in the morning so soon as it was light, came to Abydus, [id. lib. 7. cap. 42, 43.]

Here a toy took Xerxes in the head, to see all his army together; wherefore sitting in a Hall, which he had caused for that purpose to be there prepared, very sumptuous, and all of fair white stone; he there looking toward the sea, beheld all his Navy, and to the land-ward, all his land Forces at once, which whiles he beheld; he would needs also see a sea-fight: and when that fight was done, wherein the Phoenicians gat the prize, the King took great pleasure, both in the fight it self, and also in the number of his men. And when he beheld all the sea of Hellespout covered with his ships, and all the shoares and plains about Abydus with his souldiers; and withall considering the shortnesse of mans life, and that none of all those men should be alive at one hundred years end, he wept, [Id. ib. cap. 44. 45. and Valer. Max. lib. 9. cap. 13.]

Xerxes, sending away his Uncle Artabanus to be Vice-roy at Susa, and there look to his house and kingdom; prepared himself now, to passe over into Europe: so soon there­fore as the sun was up, himself holding a golden vial in his hand over the sea, made his prayer to the sun, that nothing might hinder him in the conquest of Europe, till he had gone to the utmost bounds thereof: And having thus said, he flung both the vial, and a golden gobler, and a Persian cimitre, into the sea. These things thus done, he sent his horse and foot to passe over the bridge on the right hand, which was toward Pontus; but over that on the left hand, which was toward the Egean-sea, he made all the bag and baggage, servants, and carriages to passe: spending seven whole dayes, and as ma­ny nights in the transportation. When all was over, the Navy fell down out of the Hel­lespont westward, to a place called Sarpedons Foreland. His land army passing tho­rough Chersonesus to Agora, turned aside to a place called the Black Bay: where a ri­ver of the same name, or Black water, was not able to make all his army drink. Having passed this River, the army held on their march westward, till they came to Doriscus, which is the name both of a sea-coast or shoar, and also of a spacious field in the country, of Thracia, which the great River Hebrus runneth thorough: and there they camped, [Ib. from the end of chap. 52. to the beginning of 59.]

The Navy coming to this place, and being haled a shoar, Xerxes would needs again take a muster, first of his land Forces, and then of his sea. Of his Foot, Herodotus reck­ons 170 myriads, or 1700000. men, [chap. 60.] and of his Horse, besides Camels, and Chariots, 8 myriads, or 800000. Horse, [chap, 87.] Among the Commanders of his Foot, he mentions two sons of his, begotten of his Queen Aristona, (whom I conceive to have been Esther) and of them he makes, the one called Arsames, Commander of the Ethiopians, to the southward of Egypt, [chap. 69.] and the other, named Gobryas, Leader of the Maryandeni, and Ligyes, and Syrians, [chap. 72.] Diodorus Siculus reck­oneth of his foot Forces 80 myriads, or eight hundred thousand men; not coming to [Page 123] Herodotus his number of them by one half: and yet the number which Diodorus attri­butes to the Foot, that doth [...]esias allow onely to the whole Army of all sorts. viz. 80 myriads, besides the Chariots. Isocrates in his Paenathenaica, saith, that in his army of Foot, there were 70 myriads, (i.e.) seven hundred thousand souldiers; which self same number, Elian, [lib. 13. c [...]. 3.] of his Various History alloweth, and no more, to the whole Army. Pliny counts them 788000. men, [lib. 33. cap. 10.] where yet for Xerxes, Darius his army is named. Justin, out of Trogus, and Orosius, following him, [lib. 1. ca. 10.] sayes, that Xerxes had of his own subjects, seven hundred thousand, and three hun­dred thousand Auxiliares from his friends. Emilius Probus, in the life of Themistocles, saith, that his Foot were seven hundred thousand men, and his Horse four hundred thousand.

His Ship [...] for fight, were 1207. of which the Phoenicians furnished him, with 300. rec­koning with them the Syrians dwelling in Palaestina: as Herodotus saith, [lib. 7. ca. 89.] ad­ding that by the name of Palaestina, he meaneth all the sea coast of Syria, as far as the borders of Egypt, [lib. 3. ca. 91.] which also in another place he affirmeth to have been anciently called Syria Palaestina, [lib. 3. ca. 91.] and that the inhabitants thereof are all circumcised, [lib. 2. ca. 104.] for among other nations subject to the Persian Empire, the Jews also were one. And that he had of his country-men in this army against the Gre­cians, Josephus would faine prove out of those Verses of the Poet, [Choerilus, lib. 1. cont. Apion.]

His camp a nation strang to see, did follow,
Who spake the language of Phoenicia;
And did the Hills of Solymi inhabit,
Near to a broad Lake which on them doth border:
Whose heads were rounded, and on their bald crownes,
Of a horse head the dried skin did wear.

by which the learned Salmasius also conceives the Jews were meant; in linguae Helleni­sticae Ossilegio; though Scaliger, [In notis suis ad fragmenta] and Cunaeus, [lib. 2. De Rep. He­bra. ca. 18.] and that most learned Bochartus [in Geogra. Sacrae Par. 2. lib. 1. ca. 6.] takes them us understood of Solymi in Pisidia.

But besides these men of War, Herodotus tells us, that he had 1207. Ships of burden, some of 30, some of 50 oares a piece, besides lesser vessels, and ships to carry horses in, to the number of 3000. [lib. 7. ca. 97.] Diodor. Sic. saith, there were above 1207. ships of of War: for carriage of horses, 850. and 3000. ships of burden of 30 oares a piece: and the Poet Eschylus, in Persis brings in messenger reporting the number of those ships in this manner.

I know that Xerxes ships a thousand were;
But full two hundred and seven ships he had,
Exceeding swift ones. So the fame doth go.

Now whether he means that the total sum of them was a thousand; and so the 207. swift ones a part of them; or whether both summes put together, make up the number of 1207. which agreeth best with the particular catalogue of the ships, which every nation contributed to this voyage, mentioned by Herodotus, and with the totals of them by him cast up, doth not very clearly appear out of the Verses themselves. Cresias seems to favour the former opinion, and so doth Tully in the first of his Orations against Verres. Iscocrates in his Panegyric, and Panathenaic Orations, agreeth with the later; and Lysius in his Epitaph, sets them down in a round summe, 1200. ships: adding, that there were over and above them, 3000. ships of burden: For to say with Justin, that there were ten hundred thousand ships of them, no doubt, cannot be right.

That in those 1207. ships which came out of Asia, there were 241400. men stowed, Herodotus collecteth, by placing 200. men in every bottom: besides 30 passengers in every one of them, of Persians, Medes and Sacaeans, which make in all 36210. men. But to those other 3000. ships of burden, he allows 240000. men, by placing in each of them, 80 persons, one with another; those which had more bearing out those that had fewer in them. So that the whole Navy consisted of, 517610. men; to which if you adde the number of the land souilders, 1700000. Foot, and 800000, Horse, and the Arabians which had charge of the Camels, and the Lybians who intended the Waggons, amount­ing to about 20000. then will the whole number of them which followed Xerxes out of Asia into Greece, in all kinds, rise to the number of 2317610 thousand men, besides horse-boyes and other servants, hangers-on, and besides those which were imployed in furnishing the camp with corn and other victuals, [Herod. lib. 7. ca. 184.]

Xerxes marching now from Doriscus into Greece, as he came to any country, took all that were fit, and made them serve him in the War, [Id. ib. ca. 118.] whereby his Navy grew greater by 120. ships; into every of which, putting as before 200. heads, his Sea-Forces were encreased 24000. men: and Herodotus thinketh that his Army by land, was likewise encreased 30 myriads, that is, 300 thousand men: though, Diod. Sic. [Page 124] be of opinion, that they came to somewhat lesse than 200 thousand: and so the total of Xerxes his Army in Europaean and Asiatic souldiers amounteth to 2641610 men. Now the number of horse-boyes, and foot-boyes, and of hangers-on, and the tarpailians in the corn-ships, and others, he thinks to be greater rather than lesse, than that of the soul­diers came unto. So that if that former summe should be but doubled, the number of those which Xerxes carried by sea to Sepias, and by land to Thermopylae, would come to 5283220 men; for as for the women which baked, and whores, and eunuchs, no man can tell the true number of them: no more can he of the horses and other beasts, of drought or burden, and Indian dogs with their keepers that followed the Gentlemen in the camp for their pleasure, so that it is no wonder, if so many rivers failed some bellies of so many as were there of all kinds to fill, [Id. ib. c. 185, 186, 187.] as Juneval saith, Statyr. 10.

We now beleeve that many rivers deep,
Did faile the Persian army, at a dinner.

and therefore the lesse wonder, if both Isocrates in his Panathenaic oration, and Plu­tarch in his Parallels, report, that Xerxes drew with him into Greece, 5000000. of men.

And yet in all this great number, was there not a man found comparable to Xerxes himself, for the beauty and goodlinesse of his person; or one that might seem more wor­thy of that great Empire than himself, if we beleeve Herodotus, [lib. 7. cap. 187.] that, as Saul among the children of Israel, [1 Sam. 10. 23, 24.] so here, Xerxes might well seem to have had, [...], (i.e.) a feature fit for, and worthy of a crown. And yet if you speak of him as for a king, saith Justin out of Trogus, you will find cause to commend his wealth, (fore-spoken of by Daniel 11. 2.) rather than his wits, of which, saith he, there was such infinite abundance in his kingdom, that when whole rivers failed the multitude of his army, yet his wealth could never be exhausted: as for himself, he was ever seen last in the fight, and first in the flight, fearful when any danger was, but puft up with pride, when there was none.

Leonidus king of Sparta, with an army of 4000 Grecians, opposed himself a­gainst him and his whole army, consisting of three hundred thousand men, at the straits of Thermopylae in Thessaly, so called from the hot springs of water, which there do rise, as appears by the Epitaph which was made upon them, recorded by Herod. [lib. 7. cap. 228.]

[...]. (i.e.)
Here gainst three hundred thousand Persians,
Fower thousand Spartans fought it out and died. For

Thirty Myriads make three hundred thousand; which are as many as Theodoret, [l. 10.] [...] giveth to that whole army, [Diodor. Sic. lib. 11.] in this very Epitaph, p. 26. in the Greek and Latin edition, for, [...], (i.e.) for the 30 Myriades hath [...], (i.e.) 20 Myriades, which make 20 hundred thousand; whereas yet, (p. 5.) he saith, that the whole army consisted of little lesse, than 100 Myriades, which is, of 1000000. (i.e.) of one hundred hundred thousand men, and speaking particularly of this fight at Thermopylae, (p. 9.) he says, that 500 men there set upon 100 Myriades, (i.e.) one hundred hundred thousand men. And yet Justin relating the same story out of Trogus, [lib. 2. c. 11.] saith, that 600 men, brake into the camp of five hundred, or as in Orosius, of six hundred thousand men. And Isocrates in his Archidamus saith, that one thousand of them, went against seven hundred thousand of the Persians: But those whom Isocrates calls a thousand, Justin and Orosius, six hundred, and Diodoru, five hundred; are to be understood of those, who when the rest of the Grecians were sent away, stood it out to the last brunt, in which they all, together with their king Leonidas died; of which number, 300 were Spartans, the rest, thespians and Thebans, [Herod. lib. 7. cap. 222, 224.] for whom amends was fully made by 20000 of the enemies then slain upon the place, [Id. li. 8. c. 24.]

While these things thus passed at Thermopylae by land, sundry encounters and fights at sea happened also about Artemisium, a sore-land of Eubaea, [Id. ib. cap. 15.] Eurybia­des, a Lacedomonian, was chief Commander or Ammiral of the fleet, which consisted of 271 ship, besides 9 others, of 50 oares a piece, of which 127 were set out by the A­thenians, and Plataeans, as Herod. saith, [ib. cap. 1.] whereas yet, Isocrates, in his Areo­pagitical oration, saith, that the Athenians furnished onely sixty of them: but Emelius Probus delivers, that the whole Grecian fleet consisted of 300 saile, and that 200 of them were of the Athenians, in this Themistocles, Herodotus, Diodorus, and Probus, all say, that this was a drawn battle on either side, though Isocrates in his Panegyrical oration, and Elian, [lib. 2. cap. 25. Varia Histor.] talk as of a great blow, which the Persians received in it; yet the day when this battel was fought, is said by Elian, to have been upon [Page 125] the sixth of Thargelion, which was the second moneth, of the spring time, with the A­thenians, agreeth not well with the relation of Herodotus, who [lib. 8. cap. 12.] saith, that this was done in the midst of Summer, to wit, near after the end of the spring, at what time the Olympic games, in the midst of all these troubles, were kept in Greece, [ib. c. 26.] to wit, in the 75 Olympiade; wherein, besides others, Dionysius, Halicarnassaeus, in his Roman Antiquities, [l. 9.] saith it was, that Xerxes made war upon the Grecians.

Four moneths after his passing the Hellelpont with his army, Xerxes coming to Athens, found it abandoned by all the inhabitants thereof; what time Callias was Praetor, or Lord Chancelor there, [Herod. lib. 8. c. 51.] In which year also, Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, a scholar of Anaximenes the Milesian, being but 20 years of age, was made publique reader of Phylosophy in Athens, as Laertius, out of Demetrius Phalereus in his Cata­logue of the 50 Praetors, or Lord Chancellors of Athens, in his life reporteth, Phylosophy being then first brought out of Ionia, and planted in the city of Athens, as Clemens A­lexan. [lib. 1. strom.] saith, to wit, at what time, Xerxes, when he had taken Athens, took also a multitude of books, which Pisistratus, and the Athenians had there stored up, and setting all the rest of the city, (save the Castle) on fire, sent them away into Persia, as A. Gellius [lib. 17. Noct. Attica.] ralateth. In which exception yet of the Castle, I cannot easily assent unto him; since Herodotus saith plainly, that all that Acropolis or Citadel was burnt down, [lib. 8. cap. 53.] and so doth Ctesias; and Diodorus Sic. further affirmeth, that the Temple of Mi­nerva, which was undoubtedly in the Castle, was then also ruined.

The further Xerxes marched into Greece, the more nations still joyned with him; the Melienses, the Dorienses, the Locri, the Baeothians, Caristians, Andrians, Teniaus, and sundry other: whereby it came to passe, that his forces, by land and sea, were no less, at Salamis and Athens, than when he first landed at Sepias, and came to Thermo­pylae, [Herod. lib. 8. cap. 66.] which those verses of Eschilus before mentioned, seem also to imply, where he tells us, that at the fight at Salamis, there were 1000. or 1207 ships of his, and that Cresias sayes, that in that fight, the Persians had a thousand ships not to speak of Plutarch in his discourse, De glor. Athen. (i.e.) of the glory of the Athenians, where he saith, that that victory of Themistocles at Salamis, was gotten with the losse of a thousand ships of the enemies. At which sea fight before Salamis, the Grecians fleet was far greater than when they fought at Artemisium, to wit, 380 talls ships of war; whereof there were in all but 16. from Sparta; but the Athenians had there 180. [Id. ib. cap. 42; 43, 44, 48, 62.] And with him, for the number of the Athenian ships, a­greeth Plutarch, in the Life of Themistocles. not to trouble the reader here, with that place of Herod, [lib. 8. cap. 61.] nor of Diod. Sic. [lib. 15.] where, speaking of the Athenians, they say, that they had in it, 200 ships, [...], (i.e.) fully manned and furnished, Eschylus sayes, that the whole number of the Grecian ships in the fight before Salamis, was but 300. besides ten other of an extraordinary bignesse: though Cresias writes, that there were 700 of the Grecian fleet. There were lost in this fight of the Grecian ships, to the number of 40; of the Persian, 200; besides those which were taken with the men in them, as Diodor. Sic. [lib. 11.] hath it, whereas Cresias reports, that the Persians in that fight, lost 500 ships. But Artemisia, the Queen of Halicarnassus, who came to aid Xerxes in this war, behaved her self most manfully in this fight; so that as in Xerxes, a man might see a womanly timourousnesse, so in her he might perceive, a most heroick cou­rage, [Justin. lib. 2. cap. 12.] insomuch, that Xerxes himself upon this occasion was heard to say, That his men had plaid the women, and the women the men, in that service. [Her. l. 8. c. 88.]

And so it came to passe, that by the leading indeed of Eurybiades, the Lacedemonian, but the sage and prudent counsel, and great prowesse of Themistocles the Athenian; a victory was gotten at Salamis every way equal to that at Marathan: but in setting down the time when this battle was fought, Plutarch is found very divers and differing from himself. For in the life of Lysander, and in his discourse, of the glory of the Athenians, he placeth it as done in the 16 day of the moneth Munichou, (which is the first of the vernal months, with the Athenians; but in the Life of Camylus; as on the the 20 day of Boedro­mian, which was their third moneth in Summer. Tis true, in the Bay of Saron, which is otherwise called, the Bay of Salamis, as [Strabo in his eighth book] witnesseth, between the two Islands of Salamis an Egina, there was a nights fight at sea, between 10 Lace­demonian ships, commanded by Gorgopas, and 13 Athenian ships, commanded by Eu­nomus, near unto Zoster, a fore-land of the Isthmus of Attica, in the dayes of Artarxerxes memor, king of Persia, of which Xenophon, in his fifth book of his History of the Greeks, ma­keth mention in this wise. In a sea fight made by moon-light, Gorgopas took 4 tall ships of war, and drawing them after him, carryed them away to Egina: and the rest of the Athenian fleet fled home to their port of Piraeum, but because as upon the 16 day of that Lunary moneth among the Athenians, upon which Gorgopas set upon that smal fleet of the Athenians, it happen­ed to be the full of the moon, by the benefit whereof, the Athenian fleet saved it self, with the loss only of 4 ships, therefore did the Athenians as it seemeth consecrate that day ever after, to Diana, and kept it holy-day to her honour; whereupon it was, that Plutarch con­founding this later sea fight, fought at Salamis, with that other, fought in the same place a­gainst [Page 126] Xerxes, in that discourse of his, of the glory of the Athenians, thorough error wrote of it in this manner: They consecrated, saith he, the 16 day of the moneth Munichion to Diana, because upon that day, after the victory gotten by the Grecians, the Goddess appeared full that night: for that the victory of the Greeks against Xerxes was gotten about the 20 day of Boedromion, both Plutarch in a Treatise of his, Of dayes, quoted by himself in the life of Camillus declareth; and it plainly appeareth in Herodotus: for that at that time, the Eleusinian Mysteries were celebrated by the Athenians, Herodotus plainly sheweth, [lib. 8. ca. 65.] the chief day of which solemnity, was upon the twentieth of the moneth Boedromion, on which the mysterious Pomp of Iacchus was openly shewed to the people, as appeareth out of the same Pl [...]tarch, in the life of Camillus above mentioned: whence also it was, that when The mistocles would stay his country-men from pursuing the enemies, after their defeate at Salamis, when they fled, used this speech unto them: Now, saith he, let us stay [...] Greece, and take care of our selves and families, and look to the till age and sowing of our land, seeing the enemy is quite ejected out of it; and when the Spring comes on, then will we take a time to saile into Hellespont and Ionia. Argument sufficient, that the Persians were vanquished at Salamis, not in the beginning of the spring, but in the later end of summer.

After the fight Xerxes put to death certain of the Phenicians, which were the first that fled, and threatned the rest of them with punishments answerable to their deservings; for fear whereof, the Phenicians returned that day to Africa; but the night after, they put o­ver all into Asia, [Diod. Sic. l. 11. in the 1 year of the 75 Olympiade.] Many other ships also, fearing more the rage of the King, than the fury of the enemy, slunk away, every one to his own home, [Justin lib. 2. c. 12.]

Xerxes, terrified with this disaster at sea, committed his sons to Ar [...]emesia the Queen, by her to be transported to Ephesus, with Hermotimus their Governour, [Herod. lib. 8. ca. 103. 107.]

Cleombrotus of Sparta, brother to Leonidas, which died at Thermopylae, to stop the passage against Xerxes his coming by land into Peloponesus, caused a wall to be drawn athwart the neck of land which is called, Isthmus Corinthiacus, [Id. ib. ca. 71.] but whiles he was offering of a sacrifice against the Persians, the sun in the firmament lost his light, and grew dark: whereupon he withdrew his army which was imployed in that fortifi­cation, and shortly after died: unto whom succeeded his son Pausanias, as cousin-ger­main and Tutor of Plistarchus, a child, the son of Leonidas deceased, [Id. lib. 9. ca. 10.] But the Prutenian account gives us an Eclipse of the Sun of 8 digits and 32 minutes, upon the 2 day of October, after the Julian Calender, at one of the clock 39 minutes in the af­ter-noon, in this year.

Themistocles, to send Xerxes packing the more speedily out of Greece, sent a seigned message to him from Salamis, that the Grecians had a purpose to send a Fleet of Ships to Hellespont, there to burn or break his bridge; which he no sooner heard, but he provid­ed with all speed to get him gone out of Europ: into Asia, [Herod. lib. 8. ca. 110. Diod. Sic. lib. 11. in 1 year of 75. Olympiade: and Plut. in the life of Themistocles.]

Resolving therefore to be gone, he sent away his Fleet from Phalerus to Hellespont, to keep the bridge there, for his passage: and himself with Mardomus, and his land army accompanying him, marched speedily towards Thessalie, [Herod. lib. 8. cap. 107. 113, 115.]

Mardonius coming with Xerxes into Thessalie, chose out of all his army, three hundred thousand men, which he kept with him to go on with the conquest of Greece; and with them, because the time of the year for keeping the field was past, he wintered in Thessalia, [Ib. ca. 113. 114.] and herein with him agrees Justin out of Trogus, [lib. 2. ca. 13.] and Plutarch in the life of Aristides, though Diod. Sic. saith, that there stayed with him no lesse than four hundred thousand men.

In this meane while, the Lacedaemonians by the command of the Oracle at Del­phos, sent a Herald to Xerxes, to require reparation of him for the death of their King Leonidas: unto whom he returned this answer; that Mardonius should pay them their due. After which, leaving Mardonius in Thessalie, he hasted away to the Hel­lespont; taking along with him a very inconsiderable part of his army for his guard: but left the rest to be brought after him, by Hydarnes, [Herod. lib. 8. cap. 114. 115, 118.]

As for those land Forces which he left behind him with Mardonius: first a famine, then a pestilence, fell upon them; and so foule was the mortality among them, that the high-wayes lay strawed with the dead carcases of them, and both birds and beasts of prey, followed the army by the sent, where ever they went, [Ib. ca. 115. Justin lib. 2. cap. 13.]

In Asia, they that were called Archaeanactidae, held the kingdom of Bosphorus Cim­merius 40 years long, [Diod. Sic. lib. 12.] in 3 year of 85 Olympiade. These had their beginning from Archaeanactes of Mitylene; who is said to have built Sigaeum, with the stones digged out of the ruines of Troy, [Strabo. lib. 13.]

Xerxes at 45 dayes end, Year of the World 3525. a. came to the passage at Hellespont, as saith Herod. [lib. 8. ca. 115.] Emil. Probus bates a third part of that time in the life of Themistocles: where he [Page 127] saith, that upon the way wherein he spent six moneths, in going into Europe, upon the same he spent lesse than thirty dayes, in his return from thence into Asia.

Xerxes finding his bridge broken down with the rage of Winter-stormes; for very fear, put over in a poor fisher-boat: And truly it was a thing worth the fight, and a rare ex­ample of humane frailty and change of things in this world, to see him lie skulking in a little wher­ry, whom a little before, the whole Sea seemed too little to contain; and him distitute of a page to waite upon him under whose army, the very earth earstwhiles, seemed to groane for the burden of it, [Justin lib. 2. cap. 13.]

The land Forces also, which followed him under the conduct of Hydarves, coming thither, and finding the bridge broken down, passed over in boats to Abydus: and there finding more plenty of victuals than they had upon their way, what with gorging them­selves with meat, what with change of water, they dyed by heaps; the rest accompanied Xerxes to Sardes, [Herod. lib. 8. c. 117.]

Xerxes, whiles he was upon the way to Sardes, sent Megabyzus to spoile the Temple of Delphos, but when he desired to be excused, Mattacus an Eunuch undertook it, and ha­ving done the errand he was sent in, returned to him; [Ctesias.]

News being brought to Sufa, by the Courriers which were sent, that Xerxes had taken Athens, put the Persians into such a fit of mirth, that they strewed all the streets with mirtle boughs, and burnt frankincense in them: and set themselves wholy to sacrificing; and feasting: But when the second tidings came of his overthrow at Salamis; that put them into such a consternation of mind, that every man rent his garments, and filled all places with howlings and lamentations, [Herod. l. 8. c. 99.] which mourning of theirs, Eschylus hath described, and set out to the life, in Persis.

The fleet which remained, and the sea-men which were therein left, having wasted o­ver the land forces, out of Chersonesus to Abydus, wintered at Cuma in Eolia, [Herod. lib. 8. c. 130.]

Artabazus the son of Pharnabazus, having accompanied Xerxes with 60 thousand souldiers to Hellespont, seeing him safely landed in Asia side; took his journey back again and staid about Pallene: seeing that Mardonius himself had taken up his winter quarter in Macedonia and Thessalia, and looked not after the rest of the army: and during his a­bode there, finding that the City of Potidea, with Pallene, had already revolted from the Persian, and Olynthus in termes to do the like, he clapt down before Potidea and O­lynthus, and besieged them both at once, and having taken Olynthus, and put all the Bottiean inhabitants thereof to the sword, he committed the place to the keeping of Cri­tobulus of Torona, a Chalcedonian born, [Id. lib. 8. c. 126, 127.]

When the Persians had now lain 3 months before Potidea, a huge tide of the sea, brake in upon them, in their trenches, which made them raise their siege; yet many of them pe­rished with that inundation; and when others sought to save themselves by swimming, the Potideans went in boats, and knockt them in the head; those that escaped, Artaba­zus took, and carried with him into Thessalie to Mardonius, [Ib. c. 129.]

In the first of the spring, Year of the World b. the remainder of the Persian fleet, which had wintered at Cu­ma, put over to the Isle of Samos, where some other of their fellowes had taken up their winter quarter. The greatest part in this Navie, were Persian and Median souldiers: and to them came shortly after certain Commanders, as, Mardoutes Fitz Bargeus, and Artanites Fitz Artacheus, who staying there, kept all Ionia from revolting, having a fleet of 300 sail, (reckoning in the Ionians that were with them) at their command, [Ib. c. 130.] But Diodorus saith, that they were no lesse than 400 sail, which lay then at Samos, wait­ing the motion of the Ionians: in this 2 year of the 75 Olympiade.

The Grecian fleet consisting of one hundred and ten ships, under two Commanders, Leotychides king of the Spartans, and Xanthippus an Athenian, went to Egina, where certain messengers came to them out of Ionia; to beseech them, all delay set apart, to come and relieve them in Ionia; and with much adoe, drew them as far as to Delos, thi­therward, [Herod. lib. 8. c. 131. 132.] and yet Diodorus tells us, that having staid some cer­tain dayes at Egina, they then, of themselves, failed to Delos, with 250 tall ships of war.

Xerxes is said to have built both a Palace, Year of the World c. and a Castle at Celene in Phrygia, Xen. in his Expedition of Cyrus, [lib. 1.]

Mardonius with his army came to Athens, not yet reinhabited, ten months after it was first taken by Xerxes: and there ruined and burnt down, what ever Xerxes had left standing, and thence marched into the countrey of Megare, which was the fathest place that the Persians were at westward, in all Greece, [Herodotus, lib. 9. cap. 3. 13. 14.]

Whiles the Grecian fleet lay at Delos, Year of the World d. messengers came to them from Samos, praying them to succour both themselves, and the rest of the Greek nation, which dwelt in Asia, against the Persians. Leotychides the king of Sparta, at a Council of war resolved to set all the Greek Cities at liberty from the Persians: and they entering a league with the Samians, came with their whole fleet to Samos, and lay close under the Temple of Juno, [Page 128] providing there for a sea fight, against the Persians, [Id. ib. cap. 89. 91. 95. with Diod. Sic. lib. 11.]

The Commanders of the Persian navy, continuing still at Samos, and hearing that the Grecians were coming against them, and finding themselves not able to match them at sea; suffered the Phenician ships all to be gone; but with the rest sailed to Micale, which is a fore-land, or promontory in Ionia: where the land army lay, left there on purpose by Xerxes, to keep Ionia in order; consisting of 60000 men, under the command of Ti­granes, who was the tallest and goodliest man to look to, of all the Persians: There, near to the Temple of Ceres, of Eleusis, they drew up their ships, and enclosed them with a rampart, which they fortified with stones and stakes, and such materials as the place afforded, [Herodotus, lib. 9. cap. 95. 96.] and withal, sent to Sardes, and other places adjoyning: for more land forces: so that they made up a body of an hundred thousand men: making provision also, of all other things necessary for the war, [Diodorus, lib. 11.]

In an encounter of the horse, near a place called Erythrae in Beotia, between the Gre­cians and Persians, a commander of the Persians called Masistius, but by the Greeks, Macisias, happened to be slain; for whom, great lamentation was made by the Persians, [Herodotus, lib. 9. cap. 20. 22. 24. and Plutarch, in the Life of Ari­stide.]

The Grecians, under the conduct of Pausanias the son of Cleombrotus, routed the Persian army at Platea: which, as Ctesias saith, consisted of one hundred and twenty thousand fighting men. Emil. Probus, in his Pausanias, saith there were of them, two hundred thousand foot, and twenty thousand horse; and Plutarch in the life of Aristides affirms, that there were no fewer, than three hundred thousand: to which three hun­dred thousand, Herodotus addeth also, all the Grecian auxiliaries, which Mardonius had then with him in pay, which he guesseth to have amounted to fifty thousand, [lib. 9. cap. 311.] and Diodorus Siculus, to the 75 Olympiade, saith, that Mardonius, besides those which Xerxes left him, had out of Thracia and Macedonia, and other confederate places, above two hundred thousand souldiers, and that he had in all, an army consisting of five hun­dred thousand men: In the Grecian army, Ctesias reckons not above seven thousand and three hundred men: whereas Herodotus and Plutarch affirme, that of the Athenian party alone, there were no lesse than eight thousand men: and that the whole Grecian army consisted either of one hundred thousand fighting men: as Diodorus Siculus, Trogus, Pompe [...]us, and Orosius, or of one hundred and ten thousand, as Herodotus, [lib. 9. cap. 29.] saies: of whom there fell in this battle, not above one thousand three hundred and sixty, as Plutarch in the Life of Aristides reports; though Diod, Sic. saith, there were slain of them in that fight, above 10000.

Mardonius the son in law, (not of Xerxes, as Emil. Probus, in the life of Pausanias hath it, but) of Darius, who was father to Xerxes, as I shewed before, in the year of the world 3510. General of all this army, was slain in this fight, by a stone flung at him, by Aim­nestus, or Arimnestus, a man of Sparta, [Herodotus, lib. 1. cap. 63.] Plutarch in the Life of Aristides, and Pausanias, [lib. 1.] for we may not belive Ctesias, who saies, that he was only hurt, and so got away for that time, and that being commanded afterward, to spoile the Temple of Apollo, he was there killed, with a storme of haile that fell upon him: though Justin out of Trogus, and out of Justin Orosius reports, that Mar­donius, accompanyed with a very small number, escaped away thence, as out of a ship­wrack.

The Persian army, having lost their General, fled to a fortresse of theirs, made up of wood, and the Grecians, having forced it, slew therein above one hundred thousand of them, [Diodorus Siculus,] so that of three hundred thousand of them, there were not left full three thousand men; besides 40000 only, which fled away with Artabazus, [Her. l. 9. c. 69.]

Leotychides, who commanded at sea, coming to Mycale, dealt with the Ionians to fall off from the Persians, whom they served: and what with his own army, what with their help, he obtained there a most memorable victory; wherein he slew above 30 thousand Persians; besides Mardontes, who commanded them by sea, and Tigranes, who was General by land: but two other great Commanders of their fleete, Artayntes, and Ithramitres fled; the rest that escaped, betook themselves to the tops of the promonto­ry of Mycale, [Id. ib. from c. 97. to 104. with Diod. Sic. l. 11.]

Both these fights fell out near to two Temples of Ceres of Elensis, and upon the same day of the same month: that at Platea in Europe, early in the morning; that other at My­cale in Asia, later in the afternoone; and so swilt winged was fame in spreading the news hereof, that at so far a distance, and in so few houres space, the report of the victory at Platea, came to them at Mycale; the same day, before they began to fight there, [Id. ib. cap. 99. 130. with Justin lib. 2. c. 14.] though Diod. Sic. thinks (and that more probably) that Leotychides heard nothing at all of what was done at Platea, but cunningly [Page 129] cast abroad such a rumor among his souldiers, to put the more courage thereby into their heares, by way of a stratagem. Now the day of these two battels [Elian. Var. Hist. lib. 2. ca. 25.] saith, was the sixth of the moneth Thargeleon, the 2 moneth in the Spring, with the Athenians; which Plutarch with more judgement saith, was in the moneth Boedro­mion, which was the 3 moneth in Summer; and that either upon the 3 day thereof; as [in the life of Camillus, and in his discourse of the glory of the Athenians,] or upon the fourth, as in [the life of Aristides:] and so this fight at Micale, was in the second year after Xerxes his first passage over into Greece, [Herod. lib. 7. ca. 80.]

Hereupon all Ionia revolted from the Persian, [Herod. lib. 9. ca. 103.] together with the Eolians and Islands bordering upon both, [Diod. Sic. lib. 11.]

The Greeks having set fire upon, and consumed the Persian ships and camps; return­ed to the Isle of Samos, and there entered into a consultation how to transplant all the Ionian nation (yea and the Eolian too, as Diod. hath it) out of Asia, (where they seem­ed to be too openly exposed to the danger of the Persian cruelty) into Greece: But the Athenians fearing least the Ionians, which were now a Colony of their own, would by this means become common to the rest of Greece; opposed it, and told them, that them­selves, as tied to them in blood, would never be wanting to their defence; and therefore desired that they might continue still where they were in Asia, [Herod. ib. ca. 105. Diod. ib. in 2 years of 75 Olympiade.]

They of the continent of Greece, entered into a firm association and league with them of Samos, Chios, Lesbos, and other Islanders, who had joyned in this War against the Per­sian; and having plighted their faith each to other with a solemn oath, to continue firm in this association, and never to break the bond now made between them: sailed in a body towards Hellespont, and in their way thitherward, came to an anchor first at a Foreland called Lectium; being there taken short by a contrary winde: but the winde coming faire again, they passed on, and came to Abydus; and when they found the bridges there already broken down, which was the principal cause of their going thither, Leotychides with his men of Peloponesus returned home; but the Athenians with their Captain Xanthippus, and (as Thucidides saith,) with their associates out of Ionia and Hellespont, which had revolted from the Persians, passed over from Abydus into Cher­sonesus, and there besieged Sestos: now Artayctes, a Persian born, and a wicked man, was Governour of that province, appointed by Xerxes: and because that Town was fenced with a very strong Wall, therefore as well others of the neighbouring places; as O [...]basus himself, a Persian born, who had laid up all the Flags and Stremers, and other furniture of the bridges at Cardya, left that place, and put himself into Sestos also, [Herod. ib. ca. 105. 113, 114, 115.]

Artabazus the son of Pharnaces, who with 40000 men fled out of the battel at Plataea, hastened away thorough the countries of Phocis, Thessalie, and Macedonia, into Thra­cia; and cutting the nearest way over-land, came unto Byzantium: having left many of his men behind him in his march; which were either knockt in head by the Thra­cians, or died with hunger, and travel on the way: and from Byzantium he got shipping, and passed over into Asia, [Id. ib. ca. 65. 69, 76, 88.]

But those few which had saved themselves in the top of the rocks, in the Foreland or Promontory of Micale, repaired to Sardes, from whence Xerxes was not yet gone. In that journey, when Masystes, one of the sons of Darius Hystaspes, had charged Artayn­tes, one of the chief Commanders of the Fleet at Mycale, among other reproachful words, that he had carried himself basely in that service, and more like a woman than a man; and was therefore assaulted by Artayntes with his naked sword: Xenagoras of Halicar­nassus stept in, bare off the blow, and saved Masystes from that present danger: and Xerxes, for so saving his brothers life, made him Governour of all Cilicia, [ib. cap. 106.]

But whiles Xerxes spent his time at Sardes, he there sell desperately in love with his brother Masystes wife; whom when he had often sollicited to adultery, and could not prevaile that way, he thereupon married Artaynta, hers and his brother Masystes his daughter, to his own son: Darius hoping to get his will of her the more easily by this oc­casion. Which done, and the wedding ended, he returned toward Susa, [Ib. cap. 107.] leaving part of his army at Sardes, to continue the War against the Grecians, [Diod. Sic. an. 2, of 75. Olympiade.

Xerxes in his flight burnt the Oracle of Apollo Didymeus in Branchis, Year of the World 3526 as he did all the other Temples in Asia, save that at Ephesus; those of Branchis having, without re­sistance, delivered up the treasury of their god, went altogether along with him, fearing least, if they stayed behind, they should have been punished for sacrilege and treason both. [Strabo. lib. 14. with Solinus cap. 40.] Herodotus saith that Xerxes, going from Sardes, went to Susa: Diodorus, that he went to Ecbatane. Ctesias writeth, that he went from Babylon to Persia: Arrianus in his book of Alexanders Acts, affirmeth that com­ing to Babylon, he there demolished the Temple of Belus, and all other consecrated places; and with them, the Sepulchre of Belus; as Strabo, [lib. 16.] saith, who also [Page 130] there tells us, that he took away the statue of Belus, made all of massie gold, of twelve cubits high; and when the Priests opposed it, and would not suffer it to be removed, he slew him also, as we read in Herod. [lib. 1. cap. 183.]

While the Athenians lay at the siege of Sestos, and, the Autumn coming on, could not take it, they fell into a consultation to leave it; but the people within, were so near driven with famine, that they were faine to boile their very bedcords and eat them; so that Artayctes and Oebasus, with many of the Persians, gat down the walls by night, and fled; which the inhabitants perceiving early the next morning, signified the same to the Athenians, and opened their gates unto them, [Herodotus, lib. 9. cap. 116, 117.]

When there was now a great number of prisoners taken, what at Sestos, what at By­zantium by the Athenians, and their confederates in the army; the confederates, of their own accord, offered to refer the division and sharing of that prey, to Cimon, a young Gentleman of the Athenians, to be made as he should think good; and they would stand to it, who falling presently to work, set all the persons on the one hand, and all the cloaths and ornaments which they ware, on the other, and then bad them take their choice; saying, that the Athenians would content themselves, with that part which they left: their Associates, by the perswasion, of Herophytus of Samos, chose the cloaths and or­naments, as of far greater value, than the bare bodies of the prisoners, and left the bodies, as not made for labour, to the Athenians. But soon after, the friends and kinsmen of the prisoners, coming out of Phrygia and Lydia; redeemed those prisoners at a great rate, wherewith Cimon maintained the fleet four whole moneths after, and brought more­over a very considerable stock of silver and gold into the treasury at Athens. This act first gave a reputation of wit and wisdom unto Cimon among the Athenians; and they having gotten so much money by the bargain, laughed at their fellows, by whom they had formerly been laughed at, [Plutarch, in the life of Cimon, and Polyaenus, lib. 1. Stratag.]

When Oebasus had gotten away into Thracia, the Thracians, called Absynthii, took him, and sacrified him to their god Plestorus; and put his followers, some to one kind of death, some to another. Artayntes and his followers, they seized on at Egos potamus, and carryed him prisoner to Sestos: and by the sea side, where Xerxes had made his bridge, or as others say, upon a hill near the city Madytus, set up gibets, and there hung them up, stoning his own son first to death before his eyes. These things thus done, the Athenians returned into Greece, carrying with them besides moneys, the flags and strea­mers, ornaments of the bridges, which had been made over the Hellespont, purposing to hang them up as trophies in their Temples. And this was all that was done this year, [Herod. lib. 9. cap. 118, 119, 120.] Xanthippus leaving a garrison in Sestos, dismissed all strangers, and he with his own companies returned to Athens; and so the war of the Medes, as they call it, came to an end, after it had lasted full two years, [Diod. Sic. lib. 11.] in the 75. Olympiade.

Bagapates the Eunuch, The Julian Period. 4236 when he had continued sitting by the tomb of Darius 7 years, Year before Christ 478 died. [Ctes.]

Megabysus accused his wife Amyris, Xerxes his daughter, of adultery; who blamed his daughter for it, very sharply, [Ctesias] whiles he himself lay wallowing all the while in adultery and incest both; for turning his lewd affection [...] now from his Brother Masy­stes his wife, to their daughter Artaynta, whom he had now made his own daughter in law; he lay with her continually at Susa. [Herod. lib. 9. cap. 107, 108.]

Pausanias the son of Cleombrotus, Year of the World 3527 who was sent Gene [...]ral of the Grecians from Lace­demonia, The Julian Period. 4237 to free such Greek cities, Year before Christ 477 as were yet held by the garrisons of the Persians, with 20 ships out of Peloponesus, and 30 more from Athens, (Diodor. saith 50.) command­ed by Aristides made a voyage into Cyprus, and there restored many cities, which were hitherto held by Persian garrisons to their native liberty, [Thucid. lib. 1. Diodor. Sic. in the 4 year of the 75 Olympiade.]

Xerxes celebrating his coronation day, gave to his Queen Amestris, who asked it of him for a boon, Masystes his brothers wife; whose paps, nostrils, ears, lips, and tongue she presently caused to be cut off, and so sent her home again; whereupon Masystes, conspiring with his own children, purposed to get him privily away with them into the province of Bactria, whereof himself was then Governour, and to raise both them and the Sacae to a rebellion against the king, but was intercepted by the way, by Xerxes his Soul­diers; and both he and his children, and all that were in his company put to the sword, [Herod. lib. 9. from chap. 108. to 112.] And that government of Bactria, Xerxes bestowed upon his own son Hystaspes, [Diod. Sic. in the 4 year of the 78 Olympiade.]

Pausanias, Year of the World 3528 after his return out of Cyprus, The Julian Period. 4238 went and took Byzantium: Year before Christ 476 and then, with­out the privity of his associates in the war, sent the Persians whom he had there taken (some of them being Xerxes his neer friends and kinsmen; giving it out that they were fled) home to Xerxes, safe and sound, and all this businesse he negotiated, by one Gongylus an Eretrian born, whom also he imployed with letters unto Xerxes, wherein [Page 131] he desired his daughter in marriage: and in lieu thereof he undertook and promised, to bring Sparta, and all Greece, into his subjection. Glad was Xerxes at this newes, and presently wrote back unto him by Artabazus the son of Pharnaces, whom for this purpose he dispatched away to the sea side; that at a shorter distance he might the more easily communicate his counsels with Pausanias: and therefore gave him the Government of the province of Dascylis, calling home Magabates, who was Governour there before. And when Pausanias upon these hopes grew more insolent than before, and began to live after the Persian garbe, and carryed himself more ruggedly and imperiously towards those who were in league with that State, the greater part of them, and especially the Ionians, and others who had been lately freed from their slavery under the Persians, fell all to the Athenians, and desired rather to serve under them, [Thucid. lib. 1.]

Pausanias being hereof accused by the friends and associates of the Spartans, Year of the World 3529 was pre­sently sent for, The Julian Period. 4239 to return home from Byzantium; Year before Christ 475 where being found guilty and condem­ned for some private misdemeanors; yet was wholly acquitted from all suspition of trea­son against the State: Neverthelesse he was put from the Government of Hellespont; yet thither he went again without leave asking, in a ship of his own providing; to the end that under colour of prosecuting the war on the behalf of the Grecians in those parts, he might the better negotiate and drive on his own designes with Xerxes: and there­fore when the Athenians would not suffer him to nestle in Byzantium, he returned not to Sparta, but staied at Colonae in Troas: whereupon he was again accused at Sparta, that he held intelligence with the Persians, and that it was for no good, that he stayed hovering so long in those parts. Wherefore, being sent for again by the Ephori, so soon as he came, they threw him into prison: but upon a hearing he was again acquitted, [Id. ib.]

But when the Principality of Greece, Year of the World 3530 in hatred to Pausanias was taken from the La­cedaemonians, The Julian Period. 4240 and settled upon the Athenians: Year before Christ 474 they under a colour of revenging the wrong done to the several countries by the common enemy, made a tax of what monies, and what ships, the particular cities should contribute against the Persians: whereunto the cities both of Greece, and of the Grecians in Asia, readily agreed for the common safeties sake. The first tax made, amounted to 460. (not as Diodorus hath it, 560.) talents: to be laid up in the Isle of Delos, as in the common treasury of all Greece, [Thucid, lib. 1 Diod. lib. 11. Justin lib. 16. cap. 3. Plutarch and Emil. Probus, in the life of Aristides.]

Pausanias, being discovered by Argilius, his love-boy, to whom he committed his last letters sent to Aartabazus, was by the Ephori starved to death, [Thucid. lib. 1. Diod. lib. 11. Emil. Prob. in the Life of Pausanias.]

Artabazus, Year of the World 3531 an Hyrcanian borne, Captain of the Guard, and one who was above all others of greatest credit and authority with King Xerxes, as his father Artasyras was before with Darius; conspiring with Mithridates an Eunuch, Chamberlaine to the King, (Cresias calls him Spamitres or Aspamitres) who was his intimate friend and near­kinsman, being let into the bed-chamber with his seven sons, all robustious young men, by night, slew Xerxes as he lay in his bed: and in the deep of the night, went speedily to Artaxerxes, told him that Darius, (who was the eldest of the three sons of Xerxes) had killed his father, that he might the sooner come to the Crown, (which Elian. lib. 13. cap. 3. delivers, as if it had been so indeed:) but by this false tale, he perswaded Artax­erxes, to set the Kings Guard upon his brother Darius: and they slew him, [Ctesias, Diod. Justin lib. 3. cap. 1.]

Thus by Artabanus his means, Artaxerxes came to the Crown. Ctesias, who was a man of a milde disposition, and full of magnanimity withal: surnamed Longimanus, be­cause his right hand, was longer than his left. [Plutarch in the beginning of the life of Ar­taxerxes.] But the 7 first moneths of his reign, are by Euseb. in his Chron. attributed to Artabanus: because that for so long, he ruled all things, as it should seem, in Artaxerxes his name; for though Diodorus intimates, that Artabanus himself was presently done to death, after his murders committed upon Xerxes and Darius; yet that there was some time passed between, appears by the more full narrations of the matter, both by Cresias, and also by Justin.

Themistocles of Athens, being suspected of the conspiracy with Pausanias for the be­traying of Greece into the hands of the Persians, was searched for, and had be been ta­ken, had out of all doubt died for it: and therefore he fled out of Greece, and came to Pydna (a Town lying in the Thermaic bay of Macedonia) & there finding a Merchant's ship going into Ionia, put himself aboard her. But by tempest, she was carried into the middest of the Athenian army, which lay at the siege of Naxos. But the Master of the Barque being well fee'd by Themistocles, lay a whole night and a day at an anchor with­out the Athenian Fleet; and so when the tempest was over, came safe to Ephesus, [Thucid. lib. 1. Emil. Prob. in the life of themistocles. Polyaen. lib. 1. stratag.] Plutarch re­ports that he came to Cuma, and there found that many Sea Captains laid waite to take him, especially Ergoteles and Theodorus, for that Xerxes had promised 200. talents to [Page 132] whosoever should bring in his head: and therefore, he conveyed himself privi­ly from thence, and came to a little town called Egas in Eolia: and there lay close for a few dayes, in the house of one Nicogenes, a very wealthy man in those parts, and one who was very well acquainted, and familiar, with divers of the kings nearest atten­dants: Diodorus calls him Lysitheis, and sayes further, that he was a man of so very great wealth, that when Xerxes passed that way, he feasted both him and all his army, in a very bountiful manner. By this good Host's means, was put into a close waggon, such as the kings, and other great mens harlots used, among the Persians, to be carryed in: and that he came safe into Persia, both Plutarch and Thucidides agree; though Thucidides onely saith, that he went also the way from the sea side into Persia, in the company of a certain Persian: now Herodotus tells us, that from Ephesus to Sardes, it is 3 dayes journey, and from thence to Susa 3 moneths, [lib. 5. c. 50, 53, 54.]

Artabanus purposing now to destroy Artaxerxes, as he had formerly done his father and brother; disclosed his intention unto Megabyzus, whom he knew to be malcontent, for the jealousie he had conceived of his wives disloialty, Amytis, sister unto Artaxerxes him­self: and they sware secrecy each to other: but Megabysus, presently went and disclosed the matter to the king; who thereupon put Artabanus to death, and then also came to light, his practises concerning the death both of Xerxes, and also of Darius. And then Aspamitres, or Spamitres the eunuch, who was of counsel with him in both, was put to a most bitter death, by certain racks, and other engines in a boat (described more at large by Plutarch, in the life of Artaxerxes) [Ctesias.] For Megabysus, Justin puts Beca­basus, as consort with Artabanus in this plot; and sets out the manner of Artabanus his death in this wise. Artaxerxes, saith he, fearing the number of Artabanus his children, commanded all the army to be ready in the field the next day, for that he would take a view of them, both how many they were, and also how every man could stand to his armes, wherefore, when Artabanus was there present in armor, Artaxerxes said, that his own corselet was a little with the shortest for him, and that he would change with Artabanus: and when Artabanus at his com­mand, had put off his corselet, Artaxerxes ran his naked body thorough with his sword, out of which measure of his corselet, we may well learn, by the way, that Artaxerxes, was not at this time so very a boy or child, as Justin makes him, but that he was at mans estate; and so old, as that the Scripture tells us, that in the seventh year of his kingdom, he was grown a father, [Ezra 7. 23.]

After Artabanus his death, there was a battail fought between his friends, and the other Persians, wherein three of his sons were slain; and Megabysus, on the other side, sorely wounded, whereat both Artaxerxes himself and his sisters, Amytis, Megabysus his wife, and Rhodogyne, and his mother Amestris, much grieved; and hardly at length was Megabyzus recovered by the great skill and industry of one Apollonis, a Phy­sitian, or Chirurgion, of the Isle of Coos: But hereupon all Bactria revolted from Artax­erxes, and another Artabanus was there made Governour, between whom and them, a field was sought, where they parted upon eaven terms, so saith Ctesias: where yet those words, [...], are ambiguously spoken; for either it may be meant, as I have here expressed it, according to the construction thereof made by Hen. Stephanus; that there was another Artabanus made Governour of Bactria, in stead of the former, or that there was at this time another Artabanus, formerly Gover­nour of that province, differing from him that was lately put to death; if we take the later sense, then this revolt of the Bactrians must be referred to a later time; but if the first, then to the present. For that at this present, Hystaspes, Xerxes his son, was Gover­nour of Bactria, we learn out of Diodor. Sic. and that he was the middle brother be­tween Darius, and Artaxerxes, we find in Ctesias: and every man may think, that it stood with a great deal of reason, that Hystaspes seeing his younger brother Artax­erxes preferred before him in the kingdom, would stir up, not onely the Bactrians, whose governour he then was, but also all his other friends, for the recovery of his right.

Eusebius in his Chron. noteth, that in the fourth year of this 76 Olympiade, (upon which we now are) it was, that Themistocles fled to the Persians, which sureth well enough with that which is delivered by Thucidides; who placeth the coming of The­mistocles to Artaxerxes, between the siege of Naxos, and that famous victory gotten o­ver the Persians, at the mouth of the river Eurymedon by Cimon the Athenian; and withall, maketh the beginning of the reign of Artaxerxes, to fall in with the same time, for he saith, That Themistocles sent letters to Artaxerxes, [...], (i.e.) when he was come newly to the crown, wherein he both craved his favour, and offered him his ser­vice against the Greeks: from whence we may fully discerne the true beginning of Artax­erxes his reign, which was almost full nine years sooner, than it is commonly said to have been.

Plutarch out of Phanias reports, that Themistocles was brought to Artaxerxes his presence, by Artabanus, a Colonel; and out of Eratosthenes that he obtained this favour at that Colonels hand, by the means of his Lie-by; which was a wench of Eretria: but [Page 133] doth not explain, what Artabanus this was: whether he, who affecting the kingdom, was slain by Artaxerxes; or that Arabanus to whom Xerxes, seven years before, when he went into Greece, committed the Government of his kingdome. For if he mean the first, then Themistocles his coming to Artaxerxes, must needs be within the first seven months after his coming to the crown; according to Euseb. his account: but if any o­ther, than his coming to the king, might also have fallen upon any other month of the same first year, which will very well also suit with that place of Thucidides above menti­oned; where he said, that he was brought to Artaxerxes, when he was newly come to the crown. Now that it was the office of the Colonel, or Chiliarch, being the second officer in the king­dom, to bring such as were to be admitted to the presence of the king, appeareth plainly by Emilius Probus, in the Life of Conon; and by Elian, [lib. 1.] Varius Histor. [cap. 21.]

When Themistocles, was thus graciously received, and welcomed by the king, a new danger grew upon him by the means of Mandane a daughter of Darius Hystaspes: for she having lost all her children in the sea-sight before Salamis, and not being able to pre­vaile with the king, tried and sollicited all her friends and great men about the Court, and at last stirred up the common people it self, to be revenged of this Themistocles, for the hurt he had done them in that battle. And when they all in a hurry came flocking into the Court, Artaxerxes told them fairely, that he would refer the whole matter to the judgment of his Lords: and so, by appointing a long time, for the preparing and hearing, and determining of this great cause, he found the means to deliver Themistocles, out of the peoples hands, for the present, [Diod. Sic. lib. 11.]

In the second battel, Year of the World 3532 between the Persians and the Bactrians, The Julian Period. 4242 by reason of a strong tem­pestuous wind, Year before Christ 472 sitting in their faces, Artaxerxes got the victory of them, and reduced them wholy to his subjection, [Ctesias.]

Themistocles, when he had spent a whole year in learning, as well as possibly he could the Persian tongue, and withal, was grown perfect in the lawes and customes of the country, and then coming to his trial, did not only quit himself from all objections made against him, but grew moreover into such favour with the King, as no Grecian was ever in before: for he not only used to carry him abroad with him a hunting, but also to call him to his private delights and recreations at home, insomuch, that he was admitted to the presence of Amestris the kings mother, and conversed familiarly with her. He be­stowed on him also, a Persian wife, of noble parentage, excellent for beauty, and good­nesse of disposition; besides servants to attend upon him, cupboards of pla [...]e of all sorts, and all othe things, not only for his necessary use, but even for delight and pleasure, [Thucidides, lib. 1. Diodorus Siculus, lib. 11. Plutarch in the Life of Themi­stocles.]

When Demaratus the Lacedemonian, who returned out of Greece with Xerxes, was fallen into the kings high displeasure, for that he came riding into Sardes in his Chariot, wearing his turbant upright, upon his head, in a kingly fashion; upon the mediation, and entreaty of Themistocles, he assuaged his anger, and grew friends with him again: [Plut. in Them. with Sen. lib. 6. de Benefic. 31.]

Themistocles being made Governor of the province of Magnesia, returned into Asia; [Thucid. lib. 1.]

In his return, he escaped a great danger, intended toward him, by the lying in wait of Epyxius, a Persian, Governor of the Vpper Phrigia, and the Pisidians, and he escaped it by the forewarning of Dindymena, the mother of the gods, in a dream which he had, as he lay sleeping at noone: in memory whereof, he built her a Temple at Mag­nesia: and made his own daughter Muesiptolema to be consecrated Priestesse to her, Plutarch in Themistocles: or, as some will have it, his wife; as in Strabo, [lib. 14.]

But that Themistocles might appear in Asia, with the greater lustre, the king gave him, besides the government of the province of Magnesia, the very city of Magnesia, up­on Meander, which paid the king yearly, fifty talents, to find him bread for his Table; and Lampsacus in Hellespont, to buy him wine to his meat; and Myus, at the mouth of Meander, for his second course. Neanthes Cyzicenus, and Phanias and Atheneus, [lib. 1. c. 27.] adde two Cities more, in the country of Troas, to wit, Percotes and Palescep­sis, to furnish him with cloaths, and carpets, [Thucid. 1. Diod. lib. 11. Plut. and Emil. Prob. in the Life of Themistocles.

Cimon the son of Miltiades, Year of the World 3532 who was General in the field at Marathon, The Julian Period 3243 being now himself made General by the Athenians against the Persians, Year before Christ 471 set out of the Pyreum at Athens, with 200. fighting ships: which afterward, what out of Ionia, what out of o­ther parts, he encreased to the number of 300. and with this Fleet he set saile for the coast of Caria: where all the sea towns, which had been at any time heretofore planted by Grecians, presently revolted to him from the Persians. The rest which were possessed by the natives of the country, & held by the Persian garrisons, he set upon, and took them all by pure force of war. Having thus dispatched the errand he came on, in Caria, he passed [Page 134] into Lycia: and in like manner took in all there too; and when as upon their submission to the Athenian government, he demanded shipping of them, his Navy was forthwith exceedingly much encreased, [Diod. lib. 11.]

The Persians listed what men they could out of other the Kings Dominions, for land service; but for shipping, they sent to the Phoenicians, Cyprians, and Cilicians. The chief Commander of all the Persian Fleet, when it came together, was Tithraustes, a bastard son of Xerxes, [Id. ib.] Ephorus saith, that he was Admiral of the Fleet, and Pherendates Commander by land: But Callisthenes saith, that Ariomandes the son of Gobryas, commanded the army, [Plut. in Cimone.]

After the Athenians had subdued Naxos, Year of the World 3534 as Thucidides, The Julian Period. 4244 in his first book teacheth us. Year before Christ 470 They and their confederates under the conduct of their General Cimon, in one and the same day, put to flight the Persians, both in a sea-fight, not far from the Isle of Cyprus, and also in a fight at land, at the mouth of the river Eurymedon in Pamphylia, the 3 year of the 77 Olympiade: as [Diod. Sic. lib. 11.] reporteth; who was of opinion, (and so was Justin, lib. 2. in fine,) that Xerxes was yet living: contrary to what Thucidides af­firmeth, who yet of all other, lived nearest to that time. And therefore Eusebius is in the righter, who placeth this great victory in the 4 year of Artaxerxes; with this further note upon it: Cimon obtained this victory by sea and land against the Persians, near the River Eurymedon; and so the war with the Medes ended. For from the beginning of Artaxerxes reign (as we have put it according to Thucidides his account) his fourth year fell in with the third year of the 77 Olympiade, here mentioned by Diodorus, though Eusebius mis­sorting the first year of his reign, with the first year of the 79 Olympiade, must of neces­sity in consequence thereof, have placed his 4 year, with the 4 year of the same Olym­piade. But the best way will be, to set down this whole matter in order as we find it in Diodor. and Plutarch, thus.

When Cimon had heard, that the Kings Captains had taken up their Station with a great army by land, and a fleet by sea, in the coast of Pamphylia; he to keep the sea, that they might not come within the Chelidonian Islands, went with 200. saile from Cnidus and Triopium, and came to the city of the Phaselites, who were Grecians: and because they would not receive his Navy into their Port, nor fall off from the Persian, he fired their country, and assaulted their city. Neverthelesse, at the intercession of those of Chios, who were in the Fleet, a peace was made, upon condition that they should pay down ten talents ready money, follow Cimon, and partake in the war against the Persians, [Plut. in the life of Cimon.]

Then Cimon, understanding that the Persian Fleet hovered about the coast of Cy­prus; set presently sail towards them, with 250. ships against 340. of theirs: Diod. Though Ephorus saith that the Persians were 350. and Phanodemus 600. strong: yet these did nothing worthy of so great a Navy; but they that were next the land, aban­doned their ships, and fled to land, to the army that there was ready ranged in battel a­ray: the rest were set upon by Cimon, taken, and put to the sword, [Plutarch.] Thu­cidides saith, that they took all the Phoenician ships, to the number of 200. and sunk them every one, [Emil. Probus in the life of Cimon] saith that, he overcame and took all the Fleet of the Cyprians and Phoenicians, to the number of 200. saile. Diodorus, that the Athenians having sunk many of their ships, took 100. with the men in them prisoners, and that the rest when the souldiers were fled out of them into Cyprus, came all empty into their hands: which yet to have been taken full of souldiers appears by those Verses, which the Athenians made and offered to their god; found both in Diodorus, and also in Aristi­des his 2 Platonic Oration.

For these when souldiers all were kill'd at land,
An hundred Ships of the Phoenicians took,
All full of men.

Plutarch also in his little discourse of the Athenian glory, saith that Cimon brought from Eurymedon about 100. ships of war of the Phoenicians. But Diodorus affirms, that he took not onely more than 100. but also full 340. ships, that is, the whole Persian Navy, and 20000. men in them.

Nor was Cimon satisfied with this victory at sea; but presently put over with his Fleet, and set upon the land army of the Persians in Asia which he saw ranged upon the shoar, near the mouth of the river Eurymedon; which the better to effect, he put all his own souldiers, into the enemies bottoms, which he had taken, and clad them all in Persian attire; whereupon they conceiving them to have been their own ships, hailed them as friends. Cimon therefore, so soon as the night came on, (and it was very dark without moon-shine,) landed his men, who breaking suddainly into the enemies Camp, slew all they met with, and killed one of the two chief Commanders, Pherendates, the kings bro­thers son, as he lay in his pavilion; and after a while made them (all amazed as they were with this sodain onslat,) to betake them to their heeles, [Diodorus.] And of this Stratagem, [Page 135] Polyaenus, [lib. 1.] maketh mention, saving that by a mistake, he saith, that Cimon so landed his men in Cyprus, and not in Pamphilia; and so doth Julius Frontinus, in the end of his 4 book: where Conon is found written instead of Cimon.

Cimon moreover took 80 of the Phaenicians ships, riding near Hydrus, and were not in the fight, nor had heard any incling of it, [Plutarch.]

This year Cimon setting saile from Athens, Year of the World 3535 with four tall men of war, The Julian Period. 4245 took 13 ships of the Persians, Year before Christ 469 in the Chersonese of Thracia, and driving out thence, both Persians and Thracians, possessed the place for the Athenians; and so wrought the matter, that in all Asia from Ionia to Pamphylia, there was not any body of a Persian army to be seen, [Plut. in the Life of Cimon.] And thence it came to passe, that Pericles, who this year began to have the principality at Athens, with 50 ships, and Ephialtes with 30 more, sailing beyond the Chelidonian Islands, in the sea of Pamphylia, saw never a sail of any Persian fleet all the way, as Plutarch out of Calisthenes reporteth: and Isocrates, in his Panathenaic, sayes, that neither a Persian man of war, durst appear nearer Greece, than the port Phaselis, nor any company of them by land, over the river Halys: yet Diod. writes, that the Persians seeing the encrease of the Athenian power fell to building of ships faster than ever.

Ezra the Priest, Year of the World 3537 a Scribe (or a Lawyer) skill'd in the Law of Moses, The Julian Period. 4247 obtained a large patent, Year before Christ 467 and was therewith sent by Artaxerxes the king and his seven counsellours to settle the Jewish Common-wealth, and to reform the Church at Jerusalem; by which patent, it was again made lawfull, for all Jews that would, not onely to go themselves, but also to send or carry with them what gold or silver, either the king and his nobles, or the Jews themselves would offer to their God: there were also thereby given all sorts of fur­niture for the Lords house, and order given to the Tresurers beyond the river, to supply them with all other necessaries, out of the kings exchequer; and that all that attended any way upon the service of the Temple, should be free from tribute; and all the peo­ple was suffered, to live according to their own laws, [Ezra 7. 11, 26.]

In the seventh year of Artaxerxes, the first day of the first moneth, Ezra, with a great multitude of the Jews, set out from Babylon, [Ezra 7. 6, 7, 9. chap. 8. 1, 14.]

Ezra and his company spent 3 dayes at their Tents at Ahava; till the Levites, which were wanting, came unto them: when all were come together, Ezra commanded a solemn fast to be kept, and prayer to be made unto God, to prosper them in their jour­ney, and consigned all the gold and silver, which was consecrated to God, into the hands of 12 choyse men of the Priests, and to as many of the Levites, [Ezra 8. 13, 30.]

Upon the 12 day of the the first moneth, Year of the World b. they removed from the river Ahava, and upon the 10 day of the 5 moneth, in the seventh year of Artaxerxes his reign, they arrived at Jerusalem: and there rested themselves three dayes, [Ezra 7. 8, 9. chap. 8. 30, 32.]

Upon the 4 day of the 5 moneth, the gold and silver which they had brought, was weighed out, and with the other furniture was laid up, in the house of the Lord: and they which returned offered also their sacrifices unto God: which done, the kings edicts were presented to the Governours and rulers beyond the river; who, thereupon, shewed all favour to the people, and house of the Lord, [Ezra 8. 33, 36.]

Ezra,3 [...]38. understanding that the Israelites had entred into affinity with the heathen; mournes, fasts, and openly made intercession to God, to avert his wrathfull indig­nation from them, [Ezra 9.] And when many of the people also made great la­mention for the same, Shecanias advised Ezra to move the people, that they would binde themselves by a vow to God, to put away their heathenish wives, and the children which they had by them: which was done accordingly, [chap, 10. 1.]

Warning was given to all such, as were returned out of the captivity, that they should appear at Jerusalem within three dayes, upon a great penalty to those, which should then be found absent. Wherefore all the men of Juda and Benjamin, coming together in the court of the Temple, the 20 day of the 9 moneth, and there quaking, what with the horror of the thing they came about, what with the bitternesse of the weather; Ezra commanded them every male to separate himself from his heathenish wife, who readily consenting thereunto; and desiring further, that Judges might be appointed to see that order put in execution: there were forthwith appointed two out of the or­der of the Priests, and two adjuncts more out of the Levites to assist them, in taking the cognisance of cases of this nature, [chap. 10. 7. 15.]

This examination held from the first day of the 10 moneth, Year of the World b. to the first of the first moneth, The Julian Period. 4248 and so in two moneths space, Year before Christ 466 was all this businesse of the strange wives dispatch­ed, [c. 10. 16, 17.]

Themistocles died of a naturall death at Magnesia, Year of the World d. or as others will have it, of poyson voluntarily taken, when he saw, that he could not perform what he had underta­ken to the King, for the subduing of Greece, [Thuc. lib. 1.] Cicero saith in his Laelius, that he killed himself, 20 years after the death of Coriolan; which according to Dionysius Ha­licarnassaeus his reckoning, falls in just with the 3 year of the 78 Olymp. upon which year [Page 136] there is this note put by Eusebius in his Chron. Themistocles, saith he, whom his own worth had made the conqueror, his countries injuriousnesse made the General, of the Persians: Neverthe­lesse, that he might keep himself from going in hostile manner against it; he appointed to offer a sa­crifice, at which, taking a bowle full of the bulls bloud, he drank it off, and so fell down, as a no­ble sacrifice of piety, dead before the Altar; which so memorable a departure of his out of this life wrought this effect, that Greece should never need another Themistocles after him. Against which manner of his death, yet Tully in his Brutus, makes Pompo Atticus to argue in this wise: For as you now, saith he, tell us a tale of Coriolan, so Clitarchus and Stratocles do the like of [...]hemistocles; for of whom Thucidides, who was an Athenian himself, and nobly born, and an excellent man, and who lived not long after him, saith only that he dyed, and that he was privily buried in some place in Attica, and that there was some suspition, that he made away him­self by poison; of him these men write, that when he had sacrificed a bull, he took of the blood of him in a basin, and quaffing it off, fell down dead in the place: Though indeed before the writing of this History by Thucidides, the Athenians themselves had heard it from Aristopha­nes, in Equitibus; which Comedy he wrote and taught in Athens, the 7 year of the Pelo­ponesian war, when Stratocles was Pretor, or L. Chancelor of Athens, that he died with drinking of bulls bloud. Year of the World 3540

Jubily, The Julian Period. 4249 20. Year before Christ 465

Inaros the son of Psammeticus king of Lybia (not a Lydian as Ctesias hath it) going from Marea, Year of the World 3544 a City bordering upon Pharus, The Julian Period. 4254 turned away the greater part of Egypt, Year before Christ 460 from the obedience of Artaxerxes; and being made and proclaimed king by them, sent for the Athenians, from Cyprus, who by chance were there at that time, imploied in a war, with two hundred fail of ships, partly of their own, partly of their allies and friends, [Thu­cid. lib. 1.]

Artaxerxes hearing of the Egyptians revolt, presently gathered an army out of all his dominions, and rigg'd up a Navie, sparing for no pains nor cost therein, Diodorus Siculus, 2 year, 79 Olympiade. forerunning here in Thucidides his more exact accompt, by two ful years.

Artaxerxes purposed to go himself in the head of this army into Egypt: but upon his friends dissuasion, he gave that off, and sent his Brother Achemenes in that voiage with 400 thousand foote, and 80 sail of ships, [Ctesias.] and Diodorus agreeth with him for the sending of Achemenes General in this Egyptian war: but saith that he was Darius his son, and Artaxerxes his own great Uncle; and he gave him 300 thousand horse and foot, wherewith to go upon that service; meaning hereby Achemenes the son of Darius Hystaspis, and Atossa, unto whom Xerxes had formerly committed the kingdom of E­gypt, which himself had subdued, to be governed, [Herodotus, lib. 7. cap. 7. & 97.]

Achamenes, Year of the World 3545 al. Achamenides, coming into Egypt, sate down with his army upon the bank of the river Nile; and having refreshed his army a while, after their long march, prepared to give them battle: They on the other side, having gotten together what for­ces they could make out of Egypt and Liba, lay still, waiting for the coming of the Athe­nians, [Diod. Sic.]

The Athenians, coming from sea; and entering the mouth of the Nile, quickly made themselves masters of the river, [Thucid.] Inaros, together with Charam [...]tis, who was Ammiral of a fleet of 40 ships, sent from Athens, got a victory at sea; wherein of 50 Persian ships, they took 20. with all the men in them; and sunk the other thirty, [Cte­sias.] But Diodorns Siculus tells us, that the whole Athenian fleet which lay before Cyprus, and consisted of 200 saile, came at this time into Egypt; not forty ships only, as Ctesias said.

Inaros, with his own Egyptians, and this supply of the Athenians, fought also a battel with the Persians by land: wherein for a while the Persians, by reason of their over­powring multitude, had the better; but when the Athenians came and made a strong impression on them, and made the wing which they encountered with, to retire, many of them died in the place; and the rest of the Persian army betook themselves to their heeles: in which flight, there was a huge slaughter made of them, [Diodor.] for of 400 thousand men, which Achemenides brought into the field, there fell that day, together with himself, 100 thousand: for he died of a wound which he received from Inaros his own hand, and his body was sent to Artaxerxes, [Ctesias.] Herodotus also makes mention [lib. 3. c. 12. and lib. 7. c. 7.] of one Achamenes a son of Darius, and of other Persians, slain by Inaros a Lybian, son of Psammitichus, in a place called Papremes.

The Athenians following the chace upon the Persians, took two parts of Memphis, and assaulted the third part also, called the white Wall, whereinto the Persians and Medes were fled: [Thucid. and Diod.]

Artaxerxes, Year of the World 3546 hearing of this great overthrow, The Julian Period. 4256 dispatched away presently, Year before Christ 458 Megabasus a Persian, to Sparta, with a masse of money, to stir up the [Page 137] Peloponesians to a war against the Athenians, thinking that this would draw home the Athenians out of Egypt, But the Lacedaemonians would none of his money, nor yeild to any of his demands: which the King perceiving, he called Megabazu [...] home again with the monies which were left; and commanded Megabyzus the son of Zop­pyrus to provide himself for a journey into Egypt. [Id. ib.] to wit, that Megabysus, who was formerly General in Xerxes his army; as [Herod. lib. 7. cap. 82.] and married Xerxes his daughter, Amytis: as Ctesias, the son of that Zopyrus, who recovered Ba­bylon to Darius the son of Hystaspes: as Herod. in the very end of his third book saith.

Artabazus and Megabyzus designed Commanders for the war in Egypt, Year of the World 3547 carryed with them out of their own country, The Julian Period. 4257 horse and foot 300. thousand men, Year before Christ 457 [Diod.] but Cte­sias saith onely 200. thousand.

When they were come into the part of Cilicia and Phoenicia, the Commanders thought fit there to rest a while, and to refresh the army after so long a march: meane while they command the Cilicians, Cyprians, and Phoenicians to rig up and provide the Navy: and they in a trice provided 300. sail of tall ships, which were forthwith furnished with sea-men and souldiers, with store of ammunition, and all things fit and necessary for a sea-fight. Diod. Admiral of which Fleet was appointed Oriscus, [Ctesias.]

In making of which preparations, and in training and exercising their men in arms, and making them apt and serviceable for the war, they spent almost a whole year; mean while the Athenians presse the siege of the Fort of White-wall in Memphis: But when the Persians within manfully defended it, and the Athenians saw no possibility of taking it by assault; yet they lay before it all this year, [Diod.]

The Persian Commanders in Asia having all things fitted, Year of the World 3548 march from thence tho­rough Syria, The Julian Period. 4258 and Phoenicia, Year before Christ 456 with their land Army; their Navy of 300. saile coasting them still as they went: Until at last, they came to Memphis, [Diod.] where to those two hundred thousand which they brought with them, there joyned three hundred thou­sand more of those which Achaemenides had left in Egypt. Between these and the Egyptians there was a stout battel fought, and many fell on either side; but most of the Egyptians. At length Megabyzus with his own hand wounded Inaros in the thigh: whereupon he fled, and put himself into a most strong hold, called Byblus, in the Isle of Prosopitis in the river of Nile; and with him the Grecians which were left, and not slain with Charamites their General; and all Egypt besides save onely that Fort of Byblus, followed the part of Megabysus. [Ctesias.]

Megabysus having driven all, both Egyptians and Grecians out of the field, and out of Memphis, and shut them up all in the little Isle of Prosopitis; continued the siege of them there, one yeare and six moneths. [Thucid lib. 1.]

In the 20 year of the reign of Artaxerxes, Year of the World 3550. a. in the 9 moneth called Cisleu, Nehemias being then at Susa, where the Kings of Persia used to keep their Winter-quarter: as Athenaeus [Deipnosoph. 12.] teacheth us, having received news how ill matters went with the Jewes at Jerusalem, namely, that the wall thereof was broken down, and the gates consumed with fire; fell to mourning, and fasted and prayed to God, that he would remit the sins of his people, and give to himself grace and favour in the sight of the King, [Nehem. 1. 1, 11.]

In the same 20 year of the King, Year of the World c. in the moneth Nisan, when the time came that Nehemiah in his turn was to attend upon the King; (for he was one of the Cup-bear­ers to him) and both King and Queen, (whom I suppose to be her whom Ctesias calls Damaspia) took notice of his sorrowful and dejected looks; he opened the cause there­of unto them, and obtained from the King a grant, not onely to be Governour of all Judea; but also to rebuild Jerusalem, [Neh. 11. 1, 6.] and from this time, begins the account of Daniels 70 weeks, [Dan. 9. 24, 25.]

Nehemiah furnished now with a Commission, and equipage from the King, in spight of Sanballat the Horonite of Moab, and of Tobia the Ammonite, the Governour of some place thereabouts; comes to Jerusalem, begins the work, and answereth them who laughed at him for undertaking so idle a businesse as that was, [Nehem. 11. 7, 20.]

The Persian Commanders in Egypt, laied the channel of the river which compassed the Isle of Prosopitis dry, turning the water another way by ditches, which they cut; and so lest the Athenian ships aground: and now was Prosopitis no longer an Island, but joyned to, and made a part of the Continent. As soon therefore as the Egyptians saw the Athenian ships, in what case they were, they took a fright, and presently, not care­ing what became of them, made their own peace with the Persians: and the Atheni­ans for their parts, seeing themselves thus deserted by the Egyptians, and their ships made uselesse, set them all on fire, that the enemy might not gain them. The Persians therefore now passing the channel on dry foot, entered the Island, and by a fight at [Page 138] land took it neverthelesse, seeing the excesse of valour in the Athenians, and remem­bring what losses they had formerly received by them, were content to come to a fair agreement and composition with them, that they should all, (and there were six thou­sand of them) depart out of Egypt, with bag and baggage; and return home when they would, [Thucid. Diod. Ctesias.]

And thus the fortunes of the Athenians in Egypt, where they had spun out the war six years, came to nothing: and Egypt returned into Artaxerxes his power and obedi­ence again, all save Amyrtaeus, who was king of those which dwelt in the fen countries of Egypt; for him they could not take in, both because of the vastnesse of the fen it self, and also for that the inhabitants thereof were a most warlike nation, [Thucid. lib. 1.]

Eliashib, Year of the World d. the son of Joiakim, the son of Jehu (or Jehoshua) the High Priest, and the rest of the Jews, every one in his place, fel in hand very stoutly with the building of the wal of Jerusalem, [Nehem. 3.] beginning on the fourth day of the fifth moneth Ab. as is gathered out of chap. 6. 15. ib.

Sanballat and Tobias, with the Samaritans, and other enemies of the Jews, first fell a laughing and scoffing at this new work: but when they saw the wall half up, they left their mocking, and laid their heads together, and consulted how to destroy the builders, which when Nehemias understood, he first praied to God, and then began to order his men, all in a military way; and so put by the purpose and practise of their enemies, [chap. 4. ib.]

Nehemias, vpon the complaints and outcries of the people, taketh an order to have them all freed, the slaves of their bondage, the debtor of their debts; and those that had pawn'd or mortgaged their lands or goods, of their forfeitures; and himself to give an example in so good and charitable a work, released his own debts, and all engage­ments of lands or goods made unto him, and [...]ased the poorer sort of publique taxes, and contribution, and gave liberally of his own unto them that wanted, [chap. 4. ib.]

But Nehemias was not onely in danger from Sanballat, and other enemies abroad, but also from false prophets and false brethren at home, which sought to hinder the work no lesse than the other did. All which difficulties well overcome, the wall in fifty two dayes was finished, to wit, upon the 25 day of the sixth moneth called E [...]ul, do their enemies at home and abroad, what they could to the contrary, [chap. 6. ib.]

The dedication of the wall was performed with much celebrity, and great joy, [Neh. 12. 27, 43.]

Then did Nehemiah take into consideration the several offices belonging to the house of the Lord, appoints Governours over the city, and orders the guards thereof; and calling their congregation together, takes a note, of all that had returned out of the captivity, that ont of them a number might be selected, to people and store the city now it was built, with inhabitants: all which, every one according to his ability, made their several offerings unto God, [Neh. c. 7.]

When 50 saile of Grecian ships were sent into Egypt, to serve in their room, who had been there so long already, it [...]ell out, that they knowing nothing of what had hap­pened to their countrey men there, came to anchor at Mendesium, which is one of the mouths of Nilus. There as they lay, the Persian sat upon them from the land, and the Phenicians by sea, and destroyed the greatest part of them; few escaped to carry news into Greece. And even of that great army which was there before, few returned into Greece again, but were lost as they passed thorough the deserts of Lybia, to get un­to Cyrene. And this was the end, which that great voyage of the Athenians into E­gypt came unto, [Thucid. lib. 1.]

In the feast of Trompets, Year of the World 3551 the first day of the seventh moneth, when all the Jews came together at Jerusalem, the Law of God was by Ezra red and expounded to them, at the hearing whereof, when they were all sorely grieved, and fell a weeping, they were heartned up by Nehemiah, Ezra, and the Levites, and by them perswaded to keep that feast, with meriment and joy of minde, [Nehem. 8. 1, 2, 12.]

Upon the second day of the same moneth, Ezra, was consulted withall, by the Elders of the families, and by the Priests and levites, concerning certain doubts arising upon the reading of the Law, and it was enjoyned them to keep the feast of Tabernacles, [Nehem. 8. 13, 14, 15,] abroad in the fields, and in booths made of boughs, according to the Law, [Lev. 23. 40.]

Upon the 15 day, and the six dayes following, the feast of Tabernacles was cele­brated with great care and devotion, and for seven dayes together, the law of God was read in their ears, and the eight day also was kept very solemnly, according as was pre­scribed,[Levit. 23. 36.] Neither was there the like feast of Tabernacles kept from the dayes of Josua the son of Nun, unto that time, and there was great joy made at it, [Ib. 17. 18.] [Page 139] Of which the Jews in their greater Chronicle, [cap. 30.] speak in this manner; It may be said that he compareth the return of the children of Israel into the land, in the dayes of Ezra, with that of their first entring into it in the dayes of Joshua: and as in the dayes of Joshua they were bound to tithes, to the years of Shemitae, or Remission, and to Jubilies, and to the hallowing of their walled towns: so now in their return in the time of Ezra, they were in like manner obliged to the law of Tithes, of the years of Shemitae or releaseings, of Jubilies, and to the hallowing of their walled Cities; and they rejoyced greately before the Lord.

Upon the 24 of this moneth, the Israelites which returned, separating themselves from all strangers, made publick profession of their repentance, [Nehem. 9.] and renew­ing their covenant with God, bound themselves to the observation of the Law of God and of his Worship, [chap. 10.] and in special of that Law, [Levit. 25. 4. Deut. 15. 1, 2.] concering the tillage of their land, and exaction of debts: and of letting their land rest every seventh year, [Nehem. 10. 31.]

The chief Heads of the people seated themselves all at Hierusalem; the rest cast lots, according to which every tenth man, should inhabit and have his dwelling in the holy City. [Nehem. 11. with 1 Chron. ca. 9.]

Megabyzus, Year of the World c. leaving Sartamah Governour of Egypt, returned to Artaxerxes with Inarus, and certain of the Grecians in his company; having given them his word, that they should have no hurt done unto them; which Artaxerxes himself carefully obser­ved and performed toward them, though grievously incensed against Inaros for having slain his brother Achaemenides, Insomuch, that when his mother Amestris (instead of which, the name of Amytis is here crept into Cresias) desired vengeance to be taken of Inaros, and the Grecians, and even of Megabyzus himself; her son in law the King, denyed her request, [Ctesias.]

The Athenians send Cimon their General with a Fleet of 200. sail of their own, Year of the World 3554 and their confederates into Cyprus: The Julian Period. 4264 of which sixty went away into Egypt to Amyrtaeus, Year before Christ 450 who continued still in the fenny country of Egypt: the rest besieged Citium a City in Cyprus, [Thucid. lib. 1.] At this time Artabazus and Megabyzus commanded the Persian Army; the first of which Artabazus lay with the Fleet consisting of 300. sail, about Cyprus: the other with his land Forces, which amounted to the number of 300. thousand men, remained in Cilicia, [Diod. Sic. lib. 12. in the 3 year of 82 Olympiade]

Cimon sent certain messengers to the Temple of Ammon, to consult the Oracle there, about some secret matter, [Plutarch in the life of Cimon.]

In the siege of Citium in Cyprus, Year of the World 3555 (as Thucidides saith) Cimon died; The Julian Period. 4265 either of a na­tural disease, Year before Christ 449 (as Emil. Probus hath it) or, as others, of a wound which he received in a fight against the enemy. Being ready to depart this life, he advised those that were about him to conceale his death, and to get them gone with all the speed they could. And it fell out, that neither friends nor foes knowing any thing of his death, all the Greek army returned home safe, under the conduct, (as Phanedemus speaketh) of Cimon when he had been a whole moneth dead; But they who were sent to consult the Oracle, having received no other answer, but that Cimon was already with him: re­turned to their fellows in Egypt, and understood by them that Cimon died, at that ve­ry time, when that answer was made unto them, [Plut. in the life of Cimon.]

When the Grecian army returned out of Egypt, they which lay before Citium in Cyprus, being sorely pressed with famine, raised their siege from thence, and sailed to Salamis in the same Isle: where they fought with the Phoenicians, Cyprians, and Ci­licians, both by sea and land. In the sea-fight, they sunk many ships of the enemies Navy, and took a hundred bottomes, with all the souldier; and Marriners in them: and the rest they pursued as far as unto Phoenicia it self: But the Persians with such of the ships as were left, fled into Cilicia, where Megabyzus with the army lay. And the Athenians making thither ward with all possible speed, landed their men upon the open shoar, and set upon the enemy. In which fight, Anaxicrates who commanded the Fleet, behaving himself in most manful wise, died a most noble and heroick death. The rest having gotten the victory, and made a great slaughter of their foes, returned to their ships; and came home all in company with those, which were upon their way re­turning out of Egypt, [Diod. Sic. in the 3 and 4 year of the 82 Olympiade,] as he stands corrected out of Thucidides. But Elian writeth, that the Athenians lost in Egypt 200. tall men of War, and in Cyprus, 150. with all their tackle, ammunition, and fur­niture, in them, [Elian. Variar. Histor. lib. 5. cap. 10.]

Artaxerxes, hearing of the loss of his men in Cyprus, advised with his Council concern­ing this war; and in the end it was resolved, that it was for the good of that kingdom, that peace should be made with the Grecians. Therefore the King wrote his letters to the Captains and Commanders in Cyprus that they should at any hand, and upon any terms come to a treaty, and conclude a peace with the Grecians. Hereupon Artabazus and Megabyzus dispatched away messengers to Athens, there to treat of a peace; and when the Athenians had consented to the conditions by them proposed, they also [Page 140] sent commissioners on their part with full power and authority, the chief of which was Callias, the son of Hipponicus, [Diod, in the 4. year of the 82. Olympiade.] At which time also the men of Argos, sent their messengers to Susa, to know of Artaxerxes, whether he thought the league and friendship which they had heretofore made with his father Xerxes, did continue still; or whether they were held by him as enemies. To whom Artaxerxes returned this answer, that the league continued by all means, and that he held no City more friend to him than that of Argos was, [Herodotus, lib. 7. cap. 151.]

The peace between the Athenians and their confederates on the one side, and the Persians on the other, was concluded on, upon these conditions, That the Grecian cities, in all Asia, should enjoy their own liberty, and rights. That no Persian Governour, should at a­ny time come within three dayes journey of the Sea: that there should no ship of war, of either side be found riding out, between Phaselis, and the Cyanean Iles: or as Plutarch expresseth it, That the king should not have any beakedship, or man of war surging in all the sea, between the Cyanean, and the Chel [...]donian Islands.

Now when the King and his Council of war had subscribed to these articles, then the Athenians also, took their oath, that they would not in hostile manner invade any of the kings Provinces, [Diod, ut sup.]

It is said also, that they built an altar in memory of this peace, and that they heaped many honours upon Callias, who had been the contriver and procurer of it, [Plut, in the life of Cimon.]

Artaxerxes tired out with the importune sollicitation of his mother, Year of the World 3556 which for five years space she continually used unto him, The Julian Period. 4266 at length gave up Inaros the Egyptian, Year before Christ 448 king, and the Greeks that came with him into hit hand; whereupon the Queen caused the body of Inarus to be so rackt, and stretched out, and wreathed several wayes, that he hung upon three several crosses at one time: as for the Grecians she caused fifty of them (for she could catch no more) to have their heads smitten off. [Ctesias.] Thuci­dides saith that Inarus king of Lybia, was taken by trechery and crucified; yet Hero­dotus telleth us, that his son Thammyras, by the favour of the Persians, held the Prin­cipality in Egypt; which his father had held before him, [lib. 3. c. 15.]

Megabyzus, being sorely grieved for the death of Inaros and those Grecians, asked leave that he might go to his own government in Syria: and had under hand sent a­way thither, the rest of the Grecians which had escaped; and he following after, so soon as he came thither revolted from the king: and gathered an army of 150000 men, Ctesias.]

Against Megabyzus was sent Osiris, Year of the World 3557 with an army of 200 thousand men: The Julian Period. 4267 they fought and in the fight, Year before Christ 447 Osiris wounded Megabyzus with a dart in the thigh, two inches deep: and he likewise wounded Osiris with a dart, first in the thigh, and then in the shoul­der; with which Osiris fell from his horse; but Megabyzus took him about by the middle, and saved him, many of the Persians fell: and the two sons of Megabyzus, Z [...]yrus and Artipsyus, fought valiantly that day: so that Megabyzus had the better of it, and having gotten in the end a full victory, had great care of Osiris and sent him to Artaxerxes, who demanded him at his hands, [Ctesias.]

Against Megabyzus was sent another army, Year of the World 3558 whereof was general Menostanes, The Julian Period. 4268 or Menostates, Year before Christ 446 son to Artarius, Governor of Babylon, and brother to king Artaxerxes; who met and fought, and Megabyzus wounded Menostanes in the shoulder: and also in the head; yet was neither of those wounds mortal: but upon those wounds recei­ved, he and all his whole army left the field and fled, and Megabyzus obtained a most glorious victory, [Ctesias.]

Artarius, first by messengers, then Artoxares the Eunuch, a Paphlagonian born, and Amestris, the Queen mother, perswaded Megabyzus, to come to an agreement with the king: and with much a do could Artarius himself, and Amytis his wife, and Artoxa­res, who was now 20 years of age, and Petisas, Osiris his son, prevaile with him to come unto the king: and when he was come, the king sent him word, that he freely pardo­ned him all his by-past offences. But when a while after, the king went a hunting, and there a lyon set upon him, and Megabyzus, seeing the lyon raised upon his hinder feet, slew him with his spear; the king growing wroth with him, because he had done it, be­fore he himself had given the lyon any blow, commanded his head to be taken off: yet upon the intercession of Amestris, & Amytis & others, his life was spared, and he sent a­way and confined to a certain Island, called Cirta, in the read sea: Artoxares also, the Eunuch, for having oft-times spoken liberally to the king, on the behalf of Magabyzus was bannished into Armenia, [Ctesias.]

Herodotus, Year of the World 3559 when he had read his books at Athens, The Julian Period. 4269 before the Council there; Year before Christ 445 was much honoured for them, as saith Euseb. in his Chron. where Scaliger noteth, that He­rodotus wrote his books, before his going into great Greece; not in great Greece it self, as some imagine, following herein Pliny, and we shall see more in the year subsequent. [Page 141] But I observe, that in these his books, mention is often made of the Peloponesian War, both in [the 7 book cap. 137. and in the 9 book cap. 72.] In the former of which is rela­ted a thing done in the 2 year of that War; and in the later, a thing acted in the 19 year thereof at Decelaea: full 33 years after the time consigned by Euseb. to the reading of his books at Athens. See more after in the year 3596. and 3597.

In the first year of the 84 Olympiade, Year of the World 3560 when Praxiteles was Praetor or L. Chancelor of Athens, The Julian Period. 4270 12 years before the Peloponesian war began: the Athenians sent a Plantation or Colony of theirs into Great Greece, Year before Christ 444 to rebuild a certain decayed City there, called Thuri [...]: which Colony was carried thither by Lysias, a youth, at that time, of 15 years of age, and no more, [Plutarch and Dionysius Halicarnassaeus in the life of Lysias the Ora­tor] And Herodotus being then 41 years old, who though he were born at Halicarnas­sus in Caria; yet obtained he the surname of Thurius afterward [...], (i.e.) because he was one who had his part in carrying that Colony or Plan­tation to Thurii: as strabo saith in his 14 book: Now this 84 Olympiade fell in with the 310. year of the nativity of Rome, according to Varroes account. In which year Pliny saith, that Herodotus compiled his History at Thurii in Italy, [lib. 12. cap. 4.] as we touch­ed in the precedent year.

In this year all wars were laied asleep throughout Asia, Year of the World 3562 Greece, The Julian Period. 4272 Sicily, Year before Christ 442 Italy, Gaule, Spain, and almost all the World over, [Diod. Sic. 3. year of the 84 Olympiade.]

Nehemias, when he had governed Judea 12 years, (i.e.) from the 20 year of the reign of Artaxerxes, to the 32 of the same, returned to the King, [Nehem. 5. 14. and chap. 13. 6.]

In his absence Eliashib the Priest, which was over the Chamber of the House of God, having contracted affinity with Tobia: had prepared him a fair chamber in the court of the temple: in which chamber, were formerly wont to be laid up and kept the hal­lowed Gifts and Tithes. And the son of Joiada the son of Eliashib the High Priest, (who was a different man from Eliashib, of whom I spake before) became son in law, and had married the daughter of Sanballat the Horonite; which disorders, with sun­dry others which had crept in, in his absence, Nehemias upon his return to Jerusalem with a new Commission, quickly redressed, and severely punished, [Nehem. 13.]

Megabyzus when he had lived now full five years in banishment; Year of the World 3563 fled out of the Island where he was confined, The Julian Period. 4273 and faining himself to be a Pisagas, Year before Christ 441 (1. a Leper in the Persian language, and one to whom no man might approach) came home to his own wife Amytis: and what by her, what by Amestris the Kings mother, was in the end re­conciled to the King: who thereupon made him sit at table with him, as he had done in former times: and when he had lived 76 years he died; for which the King grieved very sorely. [Ctesias.]

In this year began a war between the Samians and Milesians, Year of the World 3564 about the city of Prie­ne, The Julian Period. 4274 (i.) the sixth year in the beginning thereof, Year before Christ 441 (Thucidides hath it) after the 30 years peace and league made between the Athenians and Lacedaemonians: and in the 4 year about the middest thereof, of the 84 Olympiade as Diodorus noteth. Now Priene was a City in Caria, which the Samians and Milesians, each laid claim to as their own: the Milesians finding themselves too weak at blowes, drew unto their party some of the Sa­mians, who desired an alteration of things in their own State: and with them repair­ed to Athens, and there complained of the injurious carriage of the Citizens of Samos: whereupon the Athenians sent unto them, requiring them to surcease their armes, and to come and debate the matter in difference, before them at Athens. Which when the Samians refused to do, Pericles prevailed to have open War proclaimed a­gainst them: and all this in favour of his wench Aspasia, that famous Courtisan, and one whom he doted on, not so much for her beauty, as for her wit; and because she was the daughter of one Axiochus, who was a Milesian borne. The Athenians there­fore sending a Fleet of 40 sail, under the command of Pericles, easily took the City of Samos, and changed the Aristocraty thereof into a democratical kind of Govern­ment.

But presently after, Pericles was returned from Samos, there arose among them a terrible sedition: some striving to maintain the new establisht popular Government, and others holding that the old Aristocratical was the better. They therefore who disliked the Democratical, conspiring with the chief men of the city, sent into Asia, to Pissuthnes the son of Hystaspes Governour of Sardes; and having made a confede­racy with him, obtained of him a company of 700. souldiers; with which putting over in the still of the night into the Isle of Samos: they there joyned with other of their con­sorts, who attended their coming, and so altogether surprized and took the Town, and professing themselves open enemies to the Athenians, took the whole Garrison of them that there was, with the Captain and Officers, and sent them all for a present to Pissu­thnes: which done, they forthwith march against Miletus, having drawn the inhabi­tants of Byzantium also into their confederacy against the Athenians.

[Page 142] The Athenians hearing of the revolt of Samos, dispatch away thither sixty saile of ships, well furnished; wherof sixteen went partly towards Caria, to encounter the Phoenician fleet in those parts, and partly into Chios and Lesbos, to take in aides from thence, the other 44 vessels continued with Pericles the Ammiral and his 9 collegues. The Samians hereupon recall their 20 saile of ships, which they had sent all full of souldiers to assault Miletus, and joyning to them 50 saile more, fought with the 44 ships of the Athenians, near an Island called Tragia, and had there the worst of it. From whence the Athenians, having a supply of 40 saile more from home, and 25 more by way of aid from Chios and Lesbos, went and landed with their forces, in the Isle of Samos, and getting the better of it there also, they possessed themselves of the Haven, and having drawn a treble ditch about the city by land, they barred up the Haven with their ships.

A few dayes after, Pericles understanding by letters out of Caria, and Caunus, that the Phaenician fleet, was coming towards him, to the relief of Samos, he, leaving a part of his army to maintain the siege, took with him 60 saile out of the Navy; and went to encounter them, with all the speed he could possibly make, and with him went Stesagoras with five ships of Samos, and others, to meet with the Phaenician Navy.

The Samians taking advantage of the absence of Pericles, by the perswasion and leading of Melissus, the son of Ithogenes; a singular Philosopher, suddenly sal­lied out upon the Athenian camp, which was neither fenced not manned, as it ought to have been; and having sunk the ships which kept the Haven, fought with the land forces in the open field, and routed them; and hereby, having an open sea, for 14 dayes space, they freely imported and exported, what they would, without impeach­ment.

Pericles, hearing what had befallen his men at Samos, made back thitherward, as fast as conveniently he could, encreased his fleet; and when Thucidides; Agnon—and Phormio, were come to him with 40 saile, and Tlepolemus and Anticles, with 20 ships more from Athens; and those of Chios and Mitylene had sent him 30 saile, with these great forces, he set upon Melissus, and overthrew him in the field, and then fell to besiege the town it self by land and sea, as afore, and harassed them with frequent assaults on every side: insomuch, that some say, those engines of Battrie, as Rams, and Vines, and Galleries, were there first invented, by one Artemon, of Clazomena: which Ar­temon the Engineer, Ephorus the Historian doth unskilly confound with Artemon Peri­phresus, of whom Anacreon the Poet, in his verses (recited by Athenaeus lib. 12.) maketh mention, [Thucid. lib. 1, Diod. Sic. in the 4 year of 84 Olympiade, and Plut. in the life of Pericles.]

After 9 moneths siege, Year of the World 3565 the Samians gave up the town, The Julian Period. 4275 which was forthwith dis­mantled, Year before Christ 439 they gave hostages also for their fidelity in time to come, they gave up all their shipping, and paid for the expense of the war, according to an enstalment then made. Those of Byzantium also came in, and submitted to the Athenian government as before, [Thucid. lib. 1.]

Spartacus succeded Archaeanactides, Year of the World 3566 in the kingdom of Bosphorus Cimmerius, [Diod. the third year of the 85 Olympiade.]

Spartacus died, Year of the World 3571 whom Diodorus Siculus, The Julian Period. 4281 in the 4 year of the 86 Olympiade, Year before Christ 432 affirm­eth then to have reigned 17 years; and in the 3 year of the 85 Olympiade, he affirm­eth him to have reigned 17 years, when as yet the interval between these two Olimpic years assigned by him, the one to the beginning, the other to the end of his reign, make up but five, or at most (both parts being included) but six years of his reign; after him succeded Seleucus.

At Athens, The Julian Period. 4572 in the year when Apseudes was Archon or President, and in the last year, almost compleat of the 86 Olympiade, Meton observed the summer solstice, to be up­on the 21 day of the Egyptian moneth, Phamenoth (or the 27 day of June, accord­ing to the Julian Calendar) in the morning, [Ptolomy, in his Mag. Syntax lib. 3. cap. 2.] and thereupon framed the Cyclus Punaris, or the circle of the moon, which we call the Golden number, of 19 years, [Diod. Sic. the fourth year, of the 85 Olympiade, deducing the beginning of this Cycle, from the new moon next following that Solstice, or the 15 day of July, according to the Julian account.

Arcesilaus was kill'd by the Cyrenians his own subjects; Year of the World 3573 and was the 8 king in that state. The Julian Period. 4283 And the man which in the 3 year of the 73 Olympiade, Year before Christ 431 wan the 31 Pythian race with his chariot; and which is so much renowned for it by Pindarus, in his 4 and and 5 Ode. whom when his son would have succeded, he was put by, by the Syrenians; whereupon he sailed into the Hesperides, or western Islands, and there died: and so that kingdom of Cyrenia, which had stood 200 years, four of the name of Battus, and four of the name of Archelaus, enterchangeably succeding each the other therein, according to the oracle at Delphos, reported by Herod, [lib. 4. cap. 163.] came to an end, [Scholiast. Pind. in Od. 4. Pythion.]

[Page 143] The 1 year of 87 Olympiade drawing to an end, when there were but two months left of the Praetorship of Pythodorus of Athens, in the beginning of the spring, began the war which is called the Peloponesian war, between the Lacedemonians and the A­thenians: wherein the Nations inhabiting all along the coast of Asia, sided with the A­thenians; as the Carians, the Dores, the Ionians, those of Hellespont, and all the Islan­ders adjoyning, except those only, which inhabited the two Islands of Melos, and Thera: But both parties sent their Embassies to Artaxerxes, to crave his aide, [Thucid. lib. 2.]

In the beginning of this war, there flourished 3 noble Historiographers, Hellanicus, of the age of 65. Herodotus 53. and Thucidides 40 years old; as A. Gellius, in his 15 book. cap. 23. reporteth out of Pamphilia, [lib. 11.] of which Thucidides wrote the full history of this war, to the 21 year thereof; diligently setting down all things done there­in, by winters and summers: beginning every summer from the first of the spring; and every winter from the first of Autumne.

In the first summer of this war, there fell so great an enclipse of the sun, that the stars appeared in the firmament, [Thucid. lib. 2.] which bred a great terror in all mens minds as a sad and great prodigie in the world, But Pericles, seeing the Master of the ship wherein he was, overtroubled thereat, cast his cloak over his eyes, and asked him whe­ther he were afraid at that? or whether he thought it portended any great matter of no; and when he said, no: why, replyed Pericles, what difference is between this cove­ring of the sun, and that, save only, that, that which causeth this darknesse, is greater than my cloak? [Plutarch in the life of Pericles:] and thereupon entered into a discourse concerning the eclipses of the sun and moon, and their motions, by which they come, according as he had heard and learned from his Master Anaxagoras; and perswaded his fellow citizens, not to trouble themselves, with a vain and needlesse fear, [Valer. Max. lib. 8. cap. 11.] And that this year also, upon the 3 day of August, at 5 a clock in the after-noone, the son was eclipsed at Athens, to about the quantity of 10 digits, the Astronomical account plainly demonstrates.

A fearful plague, Year of the World 3574 beginning first in Ethiopia, The Julian Period. 4284 and thence spreading it self into the parts of Lybia and Egypt, Year before Christ 430 and especially into the regions of the Persian dominion, came at last, and lay very sore upon the City of Athens in the 2 year of this war; [Thucid. l. 2.] where he setteth down historically, the kind and manner of this plague; as he might well do, having himself been taken with it, and oft in company with those who were sick thereof: and what he doth historically; that doth Hippocrates as a Physitian, as living then in Athens, and was imployed in the curing of sundry persons, afflicted there­with, [lib. 3. Epidem. Sect. 3.] but poetically, Lucretius, who lived many ages after, hath set it forth, and painted it to the life.

In a town of the Colophonians, called Notium, upon a sedition raised among them­selves, Itamenes and his Median solidiers, being called in by one of the sides, came and possessed himself, of the strongest part of the town, [Thucid. lib. 3.]

In the later end of this summer, Aristeas, the son of Adimantus a Corinthian, and the Embassadors of the Lacedemonians, Aneristus, and Nicolaus, and Patrodemus, and Timagoras of Tegrea, and Polis of Argos, in his own name, taking their journey into Asia towards Artaxerxes, to entreat of him aide of men and mony for the war, took Thrace in their way, and came to Sitalces the king thereof, the son of Tereas: But when they thought to passe the Hellespont, and to go to Pharnaces the son of Pharnatacus, hoping by him to be convoyed and brought to Artaxerxes, they were betrayed by Sa­docus, the son of Sitalces the king, and Nymphodorus of Abdera, the son of Pytheus, and were all taken and carried to Athens: and the Athenians without judgment, or hea­ring them so much as speak, when they would have said something for themselves, the self same day they came, caused them all to be kill'd, and throwne into a ditch, [Thucid. l. 2. with Herod. l. 7. c. 137.]

The winter following, Year of the World 3575 the Athenians, sent six ships, into Caria: under the command of Melesandrus, both to gather what mony they could in those parts, and to scoure the seas from pirates and robbers, who out of Peloponesus, were wont to take up poor Mer­chants ships with their loadings, which traded along the coast of Phaselis, Phenice, and other ports of the continent. But Melesandrus, with his Athenians, and other confe­derates, not keeping the sea, but going a land in Licia, was there met, and fought withall, and slain, with a great part of his army, [Thucid. lib. 2.]

Seleucus, The Julian Period. 4285 the king of Bosphorus Cimmerius, Year before Christ 428 having held that principality 4 years [Diod. 4 year of the 86 Olympiade.] after whom, as it seemeth, Spartacus the 2. reigned, and he continued 22 years.

Pericles died, Year of the World 3576 the 4 year of 87 Olympiade, The Julian Period. 4286 [Diod. l. 12.] 2 years and 6 months after the beginning of the Peloponesian war, Year before Christ 428 whereof himself had been the chief occasion, [Thucid. lib. 2.] and when he had continued Prince of the Athenian state, 40 years, [Cic. lib. 3. de oratore. and Plutarch in the life of Pericles.]

[Page 144] In the same year died Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, Pericles his master, who was born in the 70 Olympiade, and died in the first year of the 88 Olympiade, as Laerti­us in his life reporteth, out of Apollodorus his Chron. though it be there miswritten, Olympiade 78. Where he also addeth, that the men of Lampsacus, bestowed on him, an honourable burial, with this Epitaph, recorded also by Elian, [lib. 8. Var. Histor. cap. ult.] upon his tomb.

Great Anaxagoras lies hear in mold,
Who did all secrets of the Heavens unfold.

In the winter season of the fourth year of the Peloponesian war, Year of the World 3577 the Athenians sent 12 ships, commanded by Lysicles, and four commissioners with him, to collect their tribute from their consederate cities. Lysicles, as he went from place to place to ga­ther moneys, at last going from Myus, thorough Caria, the Carians, and Anaeitae rose suddenly upon him out of an Ambuscado, and slew both him, and the greatest part of his army, [Thucid. lib. 3.]

Alcides commander of the Lacedemonian fleet, coming to the foreland of Myone­sus, in the countrey of the Teii, put to death there the greatest part of the Greeks, whom he had taken prisoners out of Asia: but when he was come to Ephesus, some messengers sent unto him, by the Samians, which were of the Anaeitae, told him that he took a wrong way to deliver the Greek nation out of servitude and thraldom, if he purposed to destroy such, as neither ever bare arms against him, nor were his enemies; but onely were forced to pay contribution, to the Athenians: whereupon he spared the rest, and let them go.

A new broile rising between the old citizens, which dwelt in the base town of No­tium, and those which had newly fled thither, these confideing in the power of such Ar­cadians, and other barbarians as Pissuthnes, the Governor of Lydia had sent them, drew a wall round about the upper town, for a fortification against the base town, and confederating with those Colophonians, who dwelling in the upper town, took part with the Medes, made one Common-wealth with them. But the other side sent for Pachetes, a captain of the Athenians to come and help them; who when he came, desired Hippias, whom Pissuthnes, had made captain of the Arcadians in the fort to come forth to a parlee, covenanting with him, that if they could not agree, he should return safe and sound into the fort again, whereupon he came forth: but so soon as he came, Pachetes took, and committed him to safe custody, yet without manacles or fetters; and setting presently upon the fort took it, and put all whom they found therein to the sword, as well Arcadians as Barbarians; and last of all, to keep his word with Hippias he let him come safe and sound into the fort; but so soon as he was come, laid hold on him again, and shot him to death with arrows, so he restored Notium to the Colophonians, save to those, who had taken part with the Medes. Afterward the Athenians sent a plantation thither of their own, and governed the place, according to their own laws, gathering together as many of the Colophonians out of all parts, as they could find to inhabit it, [Thucid. lib. 3. Polyae. Stratag. lib. 3.]

Artaxerxes sent Artaphernes, Year of the World 3578 a Persian Ambassador, The Julian Period. 4289 with a letter written in the Assyrian language, Year before Christ 425 to Lacedemon: wherein, among other things signified to them, that he knew not what they would have, nor what their meaning or intention was; for that they had sent unto him a multitude of Ambassadors: but no one of them a­greed with another; werefore if they would have him to understand their minds, they should send some men of their own unto him, with the bearer thereof, [Thucid lib. 4.]

Artaxerxes, Year of the World d. in the interim died, and his son Xerxes succeeded him, onely for one year, [Diod. Sic. the 4 year of the 88 Olympiade.] whose mother Damaspia, died the same day, that Xerxes, or rather, that her husband Artaxerxes (as the sequele sheweth) did; and Bagorazus the Eunuch carried the corps, both of father and mother into Per­sia, [Ctesias.]

In the winter of the seventh year of the Peloponesian water, Year of the World 3580. a. Aristides, the son of Archippus, one of the captains which were sent from Athens, to gather the tribute of their confederetes, lighted upon Artaphernes the Persian Ambassador, as he was going to Lacedemon, at a place called Eione, upon the river strimon, and brought him priso­ner to Athens, whom the Athenians presently shipt away, and sent him back to Ephe­sus, and an Ambassador of their own with him; but coming thither, and hearing there, that Artaxerxes was lately dead, they returned home again, [Thucid. lib. 4.]

In the beginning of the next summer; Year of the World b. Thucidides sayes, The Julian Period. 4269 there was a little Eclips of the Sun, Year before Christ 445 beginning, as his manner is the Summer, from the first of the spring, for that upon the 21 day of March, according to the Julian Calendar, toward the end of the [Page 145] fourth year of the 88 Olympiade, in the forenoon, the Sun was more than half over eclipsed, the Prutenian account sheweth.

The Banditoes of Mitylene, after their city was taken by the Athenians, joyning with the Banditoes of Lesbos, and hiring some others out of Peloponesus, went in a great body and took Rhaetium; and having received of them a round summe of money, spared the City: and from thence went to Antandrus and took that by intelligence within: for their purpose from the beginning was to set at liberty, as sundry other Ci­ties of the country called Actaea, (which formerly was held by the Mitylenians, but was then possessed by the Athenians,) so especially Antandrus; to the end that having fortified it, they might there build them shipping enough, as having the hill Ida, and store of timber from thence at hand: and hoped with that and other provision, to get Lesbos, and other Cities of Eolia, in the Continent, into their possession, [Thucid. lib. b. 4.]

At the same time, Year of the World c. Aristides and Demodocus, whom Diodorus calleth Symmachus, Captains of the Athenian Navy, lay in Hellespout, gathering of their tribute; whiles Lamachus, their third Captain, was gone with ten ships into Pontus. They therefore hearing that the Mitylenians purposed to fortifie Antandrus; gathered an army of their confederates, and set sail thitherward; and when the enemy sallied out from thence, foiled them in the field, and gat the Town again. But Lamachus who was gone into Poatus, coming into the mouth of the river Caleces, (which Diodorus calls Cachetes) in Heracleotis, leaving their ships at an anchor, there went and spoiled all the country about Heraclea, which in favour of the Persian, had refused to pay contri­bution to the Athenians. But when upon the falling of a great raine the river swol, and ran with a mighty current, and drave their ships upon the rocky shoar, he there wholy lost his Fleet, and a great part of his army besides. Wherefore when by sea he could not, having lost his ships, and by land durst not with so small a company return home, thorough so many fierce & warlick Nations as lay in his way; they of Heraclea, taking this occasion to gratifie them rather than to be revenged of them, and thinking the spoil of their country well bestowed, if they might thereby purchase them for friends, which were before their foes, sent them away fairly, with all manner of provision for their journey homeward. So Lamachus, with the company which he had left, went over land thorough the country of the Thracians, which dwelt in Asia side, and came safely to Chalcedon, [Thucid. lib. 4. Diodor. lib. 12. Justin lib. 16. cap. 3.]

When Xerxes, Year of the World d. upon a Festival day had drunk himself stark drunk, and was laid a­sleep in his chamber, his brother Secundianus, begotten upon Aloguna, a Babylonish woman, and Pharnacyas an Eunuch, came in upon him, and murdered him. [Ctesias.]

Secundianus, who had a long time born a grudge to Bagoras the Eunuch, picking a quarrel with him for burying his fathers body without his advise taken therein, com­manded him to be stoned to death: which act of his the army took very ill; and al­though he bestowed large mouies among them, yet what for this, what for the murder of his brother, they ever hated him. [Ctesias.]

Ochus, Year of the World 3581. d. whom his father Artaxerxes had made Governour of Hyrcania, being sent for by his Brother Secundianus to come unto him, sent word he would, but came not; and this he often did: but at length, gathered a mighty army, and intended for the kingdom. Arbarius who was General of the Horse to Secundianus, fell over unto Ochus: and Arxanes the Governour of Egypt did the like. Artoxares also, out of Armenia came unto him in person, and whether he would or no, set the Cidaris, (i.) the Crown upon his head. [Ctesias.]

Thus Ochus was made King, Year of the World b. and called himself from thence forward Darius: and by the advice of Parysatis, his wise and sister, tried first what he could do with his bro­ther Secundianus by fair words and oaths: But Menosthanes, who was the greatest man with him among all his Eunuchs, was earnest with him not to believe his oaths, nor have any treaty with faithlesse men: yet Secundianus, came to a treaty, and was there laid hold on; and being thrown into a heap of ashes, there died, [Ctesias] of which kind of punishment, see more before, in the year of the World, 3485. b. and in 2 Maccabees, [cap. 13. 5, 6.]

When Scundianus, al. Sogdianus, was now dead, then reigned Ochus alone, known by the name of Darius Nothus toward the later end of the first year of 89 Olimpiade; as appears by [Thucidides, lib. 8. and Diodor. 3 year of 89 Olympiade.]

When the men of Delos were driven out of their country by the Athenians, Year of the World 3582 Phar­naces gave them Adramyttium in Asia for a dwelling place, The Julian Period. 4292 [Thucid. lib. 5. Diod. 3 year 89 Olympiade.] Year before Christ 422

The Athenians, Year of the World 3583 by command of the Oracle at Delphos, The Julian Period. 4293 restored those of Delos to their Island again, Year before Christ 421 [Thucid. lib. 5.]

Those of Byzantium and Chalcedon, Year of the World 3588 joyning with the Thracians, The Julian Period. 4298 passe with a great. Year before Christ 416 [Page 146] army into Bithynia, and having wasted the country, and forced many of the lesser towns, used there unmeasurable cruelties: for having gotten together an huge multi­tude of men women and children, they butchered them every one, [Diod. 1 year of 91 Olympiade.]

Jubilie 21. which was the last that ever the Prophets of the Old Testament saw: Year of the World 3589 for that place in [Nehem. 12. 22.] is not to be understood of Darius the last, but of this Darius Nothus, in whose time [Nehemiah cap. 12. 22.] signifieth, that Johananes, cal­led also Johannes and Jonathan, obtained the High Priesthood after his father Joiada, (whom Josephus calleth Judas) and that Jadduas his son, who succeeded his father in the Priesthood, was then also born; but these things Nehemiah mentions onely by the way: his full History ending with the time of Artaxerxes Longimanus, the father of this Darius, of whom Josephus [lib. 1. cont. Ap [...]on [...]] speaketh in this wise: From the death of Moses, to Artaxerxes, King of Persia, who succeeded Xerxes; the Prophets com­prised what passed is their times in 13 books; but from Artaxerxes to our time, all things indeed have been likewise committed to writing, but not held to be of like credit with the former: be­cause the succession of the Prophets one after another, hath been uncertain; and Euseb. in Chron. in the 32 of this Artaxerxes, with whom the continued History of Nehemia ended; Hitherto, saith he, the Divine Scriptures of the Hebrews contain the Annals, or year books of the times: but those things which were done among them after this time, we must deliver out of the books of the Maccabees, and out of the writings of Josephus and Africa­nus; who have delivered a general History of things done among them down to the Roman times.

But that Malachie the last of the Prophets, was contemporary with Nehemia, they gather from hence; to wit, for that he no where exhorts the people to the building of the Temple, as Haggai and Zachary did: but the Temple being now built, he re­proves those disorders which Nehemiah at his second return with a new Commission from Babylon, in the last Chapter of his book saith he found to have in his absence crept in among the Jews: as marriage with strange women, [cap. 11. 11.] withholding of tithes, [cap. 3. 8.] and abuses in the worship of God, [cap. 1. 13. cap. 2. 8.] And be­cause they were no longer now to expect a perpetual succession of Prophets, as before; Ma­lachie therefore in the last words of his Prophecy exhorreth them, that they should hold them fast to the law of Moses, until Christ that Great Prophet of the Church should ap­pear, whose forerunner John the Baptist, should first come, in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to their children, and the rebells to the wisdom of the just, [Mal. 4. 4.] compared with [Luke 1. 17. Math. 11. 14. and cap. 17. 12.] to which hath reference that of Jerom [lib. 13. of his Comment. upon Esay cap. 49.] After Haggai, and Zachary and Malachie, saith he, I see no other Prophets till John the Baptist. See [1 Mac­cab. 4. 46. and cap. 9. 17. and August. de Civit. Dei lib. 17. cap. 24.]

We read indeed in the book of Pirke Abbeth, that The men of the great Synagogue succeeded the Prophets: though the Jews of later times reckon, even Haggai, Zacha­ry, and Malachie, among them, and make Ezra the President and Head of this Sane­drin, or great Syagogu [...], or Council.

Pissuthnes the Governour of Lydia, Year of the World 3590 revolted from Darius; The Julian Period. 4300 and therefore Tissapher­nes, Year before Christ 414 Spitradates, and Pharmises, were sent against him. And Pissuthnes went to meet them, having with him Lycon an Athenian, with such Grecians as he had under his command: But the Kings Commanders bribed Lycon and his Greeks, and drew them off from Pissuthnes, and then drew in Pissuthnes himself, upon promise to bring him safe to the King, which they did. But he presently bad, Away with him to the Ash-heap: and bestowed his Government upon Tissaphernes: and Lycon, for a reward of his treachery, had whole Cities and Countries bestowed upon him. [Cteslas.]

Eusebius in his Chron. noteth that Egypt fell off from the Persian, and that Amyrtaeus Saites reigned there 6 years: which seemeth to be the same Amirtaeus, which Hero­dotus writeth of, [lib. 2. cap. 140. and lib. 3. cap. 15.] where he sheweth that he did the Persians a thousand mischiefs.

In the 19 Summer of the Peloponesian war, Year of the World 3591 when Nicias would have drawn off his army in a night from before the w [...]lls of Syracusae in Sicily, The Julian Period. 4301 there suddenly appeared an Eclipse of the Moon, Year before Christ 413 about ten of the clock at night, in the moneth Metageiton; upon the 27 of August, according to the Julia [...] Calender; at the sight whereof he was so affrighted, that he forbare drawing off, for that time, and by a little more delay used thereupon, he lost himself and his whole army, [Thncid. lib. 7. Polyh. lib. 9. Diod. Sic. an. 4. 91. Olympiade, Plin. lib. 2. cap. 12. Plutarch in the life of Nicias, and in his book, De Superstitione.]

The winter following, two Governours of Darius, upon the sea coast in the lesser Asia, Tissaphernes of Lydia, and Pharnabazus of Hellespont, seeking to recover the old tribute from the Grecian Cities lying within their severall [Page 147] Governments, which the Athenians had of late forbidden them to pay unto the King, dealt with them under hand, to fall off from the Athenians: and withal solliciting the Peloponesians in general to make a fresh war upon the Athenians, mo­ved the Lacedemonians in special to consederate and joyn in armes with the king against them: when the Athenians power was thus weakned in Asia; upon whom Pissuthnes had founded all his hopes, Tissaphernes sought by all means how to get A­morges, a bastard son of Pissuthnes, who had taken up arms in Caria, into his hands; and, as he was commanded, to send him alive or dead to the king. But finding at this present, that the Citizens of Chios and Erythrae, were ready to revolt from the Athe­nians, he sent his messenger with theirs to Lacedemon, there to negotiate the matter, by the joynt advice of both, [Thucid. lib. 9.]

At the same time Calligetus and Timagoras the one of Megara, the other of Cyzi­cum, each banished out of his own countrey, came to Lacedemon, sent indeed by Phar­nabazus, who had enterteined them, during the time of their exilement, but in the name of the inhabitants of Cyzicum, to get shipping of them, to carry into Hellespont. And when the messagers of Pharnabazus and Tissaphernes, made each of them his suit a part from the other, the Lacedemonians were thereupon extremely divided a­mong themselves: some advising that Ionia and Chios should first be holpen; other that Hellespont: but in the end, the Petition of Tissaphernes and the Chii carried it; and the rather, by the help of Alcibiades, who standing at that time a condemned man at Athens, lived at Sparta, in house with Endius, one of the Ephori, his fathers old acquaint­ance, wherefore having made a confederacy with the Chii and Erythraeans, they pre­sently ordered 40 saile of ships to be sent away to their succor. But Calligetus and Ti­magoras, who were there in the behalf of Pharnabazus, and the men of Cyzicum, would contribute nothing toward the setting out of this fleet to Chios; nor would lay out the 25 talents which they had brought with them to hire ships for themselves that way; because they had a purpose shortly to prepare a fleet of their own, [Id. Ib.]

In the 20 summer of the Peloponesian war, Year of the World 3592 Alcibiades an Athenian, The Julian Period. 4302 and Chalci­deus a Lacedemonian, Year before Christ 412 were sent by Endius, and the rest of the Ephori, with five ships into Ionia, to draw the Greek cities there off from the Athenian party: and coming speedily to Corycum, by such perswasions as they used, they prevailed first with the Chii, then with the Erythreans openly to revolt from the Athenians: and then going with three ships to Clazomenae, draw them also over from the Athenian party: and those of Clazomenae, putting over presently into the continent adjoyning, there built a strong fort, that if need were, they might there have a place to retire unto out of their poor Island: and in like manner all that revolted from the Athenians, fell in hand presently, with sortifications, and other preparatives for the war, [Thucid. lib. 8.]

Strombichides, a Commander of the Athenians, coming with 8 ships to Samos, and taking with him one more from thence, sailed to Teus, and perswaded them, not to enter into any practise against the Athenians. Chalcideus also came thither with 23 saile of ships; and had with him some foot companies of the Clazomenians and Ery­threans. The Teians, though at first refused to receive those foot, yet when they saw the Athenians fled and gone, took them in: who having a while expected the return of Chalcideus from the chase of the Athenians, and he not returning they of their own heads, threw down the wall which the Athenians had made to the land-ward, with the assistance of certain others which came to help them, under the command of Tages Tissaphernes his Livetenant. Chalcideus and Alcibiades, having pursued Strombichides, as far as to Samos, taking with them 20 ships more from Chios, sailed to Miletus, and by the means of Alcibiades, who had great acquaintance with the chief men there, perswaded them also to fall off from the Athenians, and when the Athenians followed them thither, but were kept out by the Milesians, they retreated to an Island called Lada, lying over against Miletus. [Ib.]

After this revolt of the Milesians, the first association of the Lacedemonians and the Persians was concluded and made, by Tissaphernes and Chalcideus, upon this con­dition, that what ever cities the Persians did then hold, or heretofore had held, should continue still in their power. [Ibid.]

The Chii therefore presently to know how the squares went at Miletus, and with all to induce other cities to the like revolt, from the Athenians, bent their course with ten ships to Anaea, a city in Caria: but being called back by Chal­cideus, because Amorges Pissuthnes his sonne, was drawing down thither­ward, with his land forces, they came to a place called Dios-hieron, a small town, in Ionia; where, espying a fleet of 16 saile of the Athenians, sent from thence under the command of Diomedon to joyn with Thrasicles, they dispersed themselves, and one ship of them came to Ephesus, the rest to Teus, but four of them fell into the Atheni­ans hands: yet nothing but the bare hulls, for the men were got to land, the rest of the ships came safe to Teus. After this when the Athenians were gone to Samos, the Chii [Page 148] pursued their purpose, with the remainder of their Fleet and Forces, and drew over to their party Lebedus and Eras, cities of Ionia, [Ib.]

After the Foot companies of the Chii, were departed from Teus, Tissaphernes, com­ing thither with his army, pulled down what was left of the walls of Teus, and depart­ed: and no sooner was he gone, but Diomedon, with ten sail of Athenians came thi­ther; and agreed with the Teians to receive him too: and going from thence to Eras, when he had tried, and could not force it, went his way, [Ib.]

The Athenians, having taken the Fott, which the Clazomenians had built in the Continent, made them go back again into their own Island, all save the heads of that revolt, who went to Daphnus: and so the Clazomenians returned into the obedience of the Athenians, [ib.]

In the same Summer, Year of the World c. the Athenians with 20 sail which lay at Lada against Miletus, landing at Panormus, and lighting there upon Chalcideus, the Lacedemonian slender­ly accompanied, slew him, and all that were with him; and returning thence the third day after, erected a Trophie in memory of what they had there done: which the Mi­lesians, as set up by those who had not mastered the country, demolished, [ib.]

In the end of that Summer, the Athenians with 1500. Corselets, and 1000. men out of Argos, and as many of their other confederates, with 48 ships, commanded by Phry­nichus, and Onomacles, and Saronidas, sailed into Samos first, and from thence set sail for Miletus; and landing there, sate down before it with their army. Against them went out 800. of the Milesians themselves, all Corselets; and Alcibiades, with those companies which Chalcideus had brought out of Peloponesus, and certain companies of forreign nation which followed Tissaphernes, and Tissaphernes himself with his Horse. The Argivi which led the Van in the wing where they were, trusting over much to their valour, were wholy routed by the Milesians, whom they vilified and contemned as being but Ionians, and lost 300. upon the place: yet the Athenians had the better of the day: and therefore setting up a Trophie in the field, set themselves to besiege the city, seated as it was, in a peninsula or neck of land: but when news was brought that a Fleet out of Sicily and Peloponesus was upon the sea thitherward, by the advice of Phrynicus, they drew off, and returned to Samos, [Ibid.]

The Fleet when it came, with the ships of Chios which had formerly been beaten with Chalcideus by the enemy, at the entreaty of Tissaphernes, set upon Jasos: where Amorges the base son of Pissuthnes, (who had revolted from the King) then kept himself. The Peloponesians under the command of Astyochus the Ammiral, to whom Theramenes a Lacedemonian had brought that Fleet, and the Syracusans (who made principal proof of their valour in this service under their General Hermocrates) set­ting suddenly upon the Jasians, who thought they had been friends, surprised them, and took the city. The Peloponesians having therein taken Amorges alive, delivered him up to Tissaphernes, to send him to Darius, if he pleased. The city Jasos it self, which long peace had made to abound with all plenty, they sacked, and made a vast booty of it: The companies which Amorges had there in pay, they saved, and be­cause most of them were Peloponesians borne, they listed them among themselves: but the Town it self they gave over to Tissaphernes, with all the persons thereof, bound and free, taking for every head of them half a crown; and returning from thence to Miletus, they convoyed Paedaritus, who was sent by the Lacedemonians as Governour to Chios, overland, with the companies belonging to Amorges, as far as Erythrae, and left Philippus, Governour of Miletus, [Ibid.]

The Winter following Tissaphernes, Year of the World d. having put a Garrison into Jassos, came to Mi­letus, and there according to promise made at Lacedemon; paid them and their fel­lows, the monies which were due, which was a drachma of Athens, upon every head; and agreed with them for a standing pay, in time to come, [Ib.]

Astyochus the Ammiral of the Lacedemonian Fleet with ten ships of Lacedemon, and as many of Chios, having in vain for a while besieged the city Pteleum, put over to Clazomenae, and there commanded such as favoured the Athenian party to leave the place, and go and dwell in Daphnus: which was the command also upon them laid by Tamos Lieutenant of Ionia; which when they refused to do, he set upon the Town; being but an open burgade: yet not being able to carry it by assault, he left it and went his way: But meeting with a strong wind at sea, he himself came safe to Phocaea and Cuma, but the rest of his ships. were driven ashoar upon the Isles lying before Clazo­menae, Marathusa, Pela, and Drymissa: where they lay 8 dayes for the violence of the tempest, and there spent and spoiled what they pleased of such goods as the Clazome­nians had transported thither for fear of the war; and the rest they put aboard their ships, and carried away, and came to Astyochus at Phocaea and Cuma, [Ibid.]

The same Winter, Hippocrates of Lacedemon, setting sail from Peloponesus with ten ships of the Thurians, commanded by Dorieus and two others in comission with him, and one of Laconica, and another of Syracusae, came to Cnidus, which had now [Page 149] revolted from Tissaphernes, whereof so soon as the Milesians heard, they presently sent unto Hippocrates, by all means to leave one half of his ships in garrison at Cuidus, and to go with the rest, and surprize certain ships laden with Marchandise from Egypt, lying at Triopium, which is a foreland of Cnidia; and the Athenians hearing there­of, went from Samos, and surprized the six ships which lay at Triopium, as a garrison to the places, but the Marriners were got out of them, and so left them nothing but the hulls: and then coming to Cnidus, missed but little of surprizing it, at the first onset, being but an open bourgade without walls; but being put off for that time, their pur­pose was, to try again the next day: but the Cnidians having cast up some works about the place that night, and they which were forced a shoare at Triopium, coming thi­ther also, the thing grew harder to do now, than it was before, wherefore having wast­ed the countrey, they returned to Samos, [Ibid.]

When the league concluded between Chalcideus, Year of the World 5593 and Tissaphernes, was judged at Sparta, not to be right, and pinch a little on the Lacedemonians side, another form was drawn up, between the Lacedemouians and their confederates on the one side, and Darius and his sons, and Tissaphernes on the other, in clearer terms than the former was, and subscribed,) in the presence of Theramenes of Lacedemon, after which The­ramenes, having given up the charge of the Navy to Astyochus, put himself aboard a little Skiff, and went his way, [Ibid.]

The business, which Pharnabasus, (who was Governour for the king in Hellespont) had sent Calligetus of Megara, and Timagoras of Cyzicum about to Sparta, was there granted, according as he desired, and 27 saile of ships were sent under the command of Antisthenes a Lacedemonian, in the depth of winter from Peloponesus into Io­nia, The Lacedemonians also sent 11 Commissioners of theirs (whereof one was Lycas, the son of Arcesilaus) to be of councel with Astyochus, in the management of this war, one of their instructions was, that when they came to Miletus, they should send of these 27 ships, all or some, more or lesse, as they should see cause into Hellespont, to Pharnabazus, and make Clearchus Commander of those they thought fit to send, and further, that, if they saw cause, they should remove Astyochus (who was drawn in­to some suspition upon Pedaritus his information by letters against him,) from the charge of the Navy, and put Antisthenes in his room. Now these Commissioners loosing from Malea, a port in Peloponesus, came first to the Island of Melus; and from thence fetcht a further compasse about, that they might go in the lesse danger of the enemie, and landed at Caunus in Asia, [Ibid.]

Astyochus coming to Cnidus, hasted from thence to meet with the Athenian fleet, which waited for the Peloponesian ships coming from Caunus, where they were safe­ly arrived: and meeting with them, they fought, where the Athenians gave at first the enemy a blow, but receiving a far greater one in the second fight from them, they re­tired, and came to Halicarnassus: and the Peloponesians as conquerers, returned to Cnidus. The Athenians after this, came to an Island called Sima, where they had re­ceived their overthrow; with all their fleet, and yet dust not attempt any thing upon the Lacedemonian navy, which lay at Cuidus, but taking in onely some tackle and fur­niture from Sima, and having done something against Lorymae, in the continent, they returned again to Samos, [Ibid.]

When all the Peloponesian Navy was come together at Cnidus, consisting in all of 94 ships; the 11 Commissioners debated with Tissaphernes of matters aleady trans­acted, if they found fault with any thing therein, and how the war for the future might be carryed on, for the best advantage on both sides, but especially Lichas, considering what had passed, said, that neither of the two leagues, no, not that which was made with Theramenes, was as it should be, for that it was a thing not to be endured, that the king should hold all those countreys which be or his ancestors had held; for by this rea­son, said he, all the Islands, and all Thessaly, and Locri, and consequently, all Baeothia, must all fall again into the kings power, and the Lacedemonians, instead of freeing the Greek cities, must help to enslave them to the power of the Persian more than ever; and therefore, that they must fall to a new draught & form of a league between them, or vacate this, and never ask nor receive Stipend more of the king of Persia, by vertue of this that was already made; whereupon Tissaphernes growing into cholor, brake up the treaty, and went his way, [Ibid.]

Now when letters came from the Peloponesians to Astiochus, that he should make away Alcibiades, for that they had him in suspition, and he was a professed enemy to Agis the king of Lacedemon, Alcibiades getting an incling thereof, withdrew himself secretly, and fled over to Tissaphernes, and perswaded with him, not to make such large allowance of Stipend to the peloponesian Navy; but rather hold matters in such a ballance, that neither they might subvert the state of the Athenians, nor the Athe­nians theirs; and so when they had wearied and worn out each other with a war, both in the end might easily be brought into the kings subjection. Hereupon Pisander and [Page 150] ten other Ambassadors with him, sent by the people of Athens, to treat with Tissapher­nes and Alcibiades, upon such terms, as to them should seem meetest for the Common­wealth, and benefit of both, of whom Alcibiades in Tissaphernes his name made such vast demands, as though they yielded to many of them, yet were they fain at last to break off without doing any thing, for he demanded that they should surrender into the kings hands, all Ionia, with the Islands adjacent thereunto: and when they had yeilded thereunto, then he demanded, that the king might make what ships he would, and where he would, and that he might passe and repasse by their coast as often, and with as many ships in a fleet as he pleased. But then the Athenians conceiving these de­mands to be intolerable, and themselves abused by Alcibiades, brake up in a rage, and returned to Samos, [Ibid.]

After this; Year of the World b. toward the end of this winter season, Tissaph ernes went to Caunus, pur­posing to recall the Lacedemonian Commissioners back to Miletus, and to make them take their pay again, upon any conditions, least they should turn flat enemies against him: when they came, he paid them down all their arrears: and made a third league with them: which began thus,

In the 13 year of the reign of Darius, when Alexipidas was Ephorus, (i. e.) agree­ments were made, in the field of Maeander, between the Lacedemonians, and their con­federates on the one side, and Tissaphernes and Hieramenes, and the sonnes of Phar­nacus on the other, concerning the affairs of the king, and of the Lacedemonians and their confederates, to wit, That what countrey soever in Asia is, the kings, that let him hold still, and of his own countreys, let him dispose as he will, &c. But concerning the paiment of their yearly stipend it was thus agreed, That Tissaphernes should pay the fleet that then was there, till the kings own sh [...]ps came, and after they were come, then the Lacedemo­nians and their confederates, should maintain their own navy if they would, but if they would rather have a stipend for it, then Tissaphernes should furnish it; but with condition, that upon the end of the war, they should refund all the money, which they had received, [Ibid.] from whence we may gather the full meaning of what Justin, [lib. 5. 1.] more concisely hath delivered, Darius the king of Persians, saith he, making a league with the Lacedemo­nians by Tissaphernes his Governour of Lydia, promised to bear all the charge of the war.

In the very beginning of the summer following, which began the 21 year of the P [...]loponesian war, Dercylidas, a Lacedemonian, is sent from Miletus over-land, with a small company into Hellespont, to stir up the city of Abydus, which was a colony or plantation of the Milesians to rebel against the Athenians: whereupon that city first, and two dayes after Lampsacus, fell off from them to Dercylides, and Pharnabazus.

Upon the first news whereof, Strombychides set saile out of Chios, with a fleet of 24 Athenian vessels, and came to Lesbos; and when the Lesbians, made a sally to encoun­ter him, he routed them, and took the town at the first assault, being but an open bour­gade, and having setled matters there, went to Abydus, but being there manfully repul­sed, he put over to Sestos, and there placed a strong garrison for the defence of all the Hellespont, [Thucid. lib. 8.]

The whole Navy of the Athenians comming together at Samos, they there enter­ed a covenant with the Samians, to joyn in the restoring of the Popular estate in A­thens, and to abolish the Junto or Government of 400, newly there erect, and bound themselves with solemn oath for performance hereof; and appointed Thrasibulus and Thrasyllus for captaines in this action; they consulted also of calling home Alcibiades, hoping by his means, to draw away Tissaphernes from the Lacedemonian party, and to gain the kings favour and assistance to themselves, [Id. ibid.]

Among the sea-men of the Peloponesians, which were at Miletus, there grew a grudge and murmuring against Tissaphernes, and Astyachus both; against Astyochus; for that he, when as heretofore they were strong in shipping, and the Athenians weak, would never fight with them at sea, nor to this day would, though it were known well enough unto him, what division there was among the Athenians: no, nor would ever so much as draw the Lacedemonian Navy into a body; and against Tissaphernes, for that he cared not to send for the Navy of the Phaenicians, according to his promise, nor payed them their stipends, but when pleased himself: and then but by halfs neither: when therefore they cried out to put the matter to a battaile; Astyochus and his con­federates, commanded the M [...]lesians to march over-land, to the fore-land of Micale, whiles they went about by sea, with their whole fleet, consisting of 112 ships, to the same place. But when the Athenians, which lay at Glauca, under Mycale, with eighty two ships, saw their fleet coming, they presently weighed ancor, and high­ed them away as fast as they could to Samos: yet when Strombichides with his fleet, hearing thereof, hasted him to come to their help out of Hellespont, the Pelopo­nesians withdrew and returned to Miletus. And the Athenians, having now 108 ships together, all strong and well provided, followed them home to Miletus, and there going on land, ranged their army in the open field; but seeing that the Peloponesians would [Page 151] not come forth, they took sea again, and returned to Samos without stroke striking. After which, the Peloponesians, seeing they were not able to deale with the Athenians, with all the force they could make by sea, and not being able of themselves to pay so many seamen, especially when Tissaphernes, was so sparing and backward, in sending in their stipend, according to agreement; they sent away Clearchus with 40 of their ships into Hellespont, to Pharnabasus, who both desired their coming very earnestly and promised them pay very liberally, and many good offices besides, if they pleased to come. [Ib.]

Thrasybulus, going to Tissaphernes, brought over Alcibiades with him to Samos, where the army made him one of their chief commanders; and indeed committed the whole charge of things to his ordering: who being thus made, in a sort, General to the Athenian army, sailed back presently to Tistaphernes; that he might seem to com­municate in all counsels with him; and handled matters so cunningly to his own ad­vantage, that he could make the Athenians afraid of Tissaphernes, and Tissaphernes of them, at his pleasure; [Ibid.]

And moreover wrought this effect in the Peloponesians which lay at Miletus, that he set them further out with Tissaphernes, than they were before, so that they began now to mutiny again, not only against him, but also against Astyochus: whom they charged of collusion with Tissaphernes for his own gain and advantage sake. And in this mangling it fell out that the Mariners of the Syracusian and Thurian companies cried, gelt, and demanded pay of Astyochus in a very sawcie and mutinous manner; and when he again answered them somewhat roughly, and with some menacing termes withal, and offered to bastinado Doricus, who commanded the Thurian squadron (though the Greek scholiast of Thucidides, understands hereby, Hermocrates, com­mander of the Syracusian squadron) for upholding his marriners, they, crying, One and All, ran in upon him; and had, no doubt, there made an end of him, had he not ran and saved himself at an altar there by. The Milesians also, making a head, got se­cretly into the fort or citadell, which Tissaphernes had built, and turning out the soldi­ers that were there in garrison, took it into their own hands: which was very well li­ked of by the rest, save only by Lychas the Lacedemonian, who said that the Milesians, and the rest under the kings dominion ought in duty to obey Tissaphernes so long as he governed so moderately as he did; and untill the war should receive a happy end. [Ibid.]

Whiles they were busie in this alteration, Pindarus arrived, sent from Lacedemon, to succeed Astyochus in the Ammiralty or command of the Navie: and he took it upon him, upon the surrender of Astyochus. When Astyochus took shipping to returne home to Lacedemon, Tissaphernes sent a messenger of his own along with him, one Ga